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REPORT OF THE Department of Recreation and Conservation containing the reports of the FISH AND GAME BRANCH,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1960

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Hon. E. C. Westwood, Minister D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister
REPORT OF THE
Department of Recreation
and Conservation
containing the reports of the
FISH AND GAME BRANCH, PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH,
B.C. TRAVEL BUREAU, PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH,
AND COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
Year Ended December 31st
1959
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1960  Victoria, B.C., January 28th, 1960.
To the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31st, 1959.
E. C. WESTWOOD,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation. Victoria, B.C., January 28th, 1960.
The Honourable E. C. Westwood,
Minister of Recreation and Conservation.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Department of
Recreation and Conservation for the year ended December 31st, 1959.
D. B. TURNER,
Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation. CONTENTS
Page
Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Recreation and Conservation  7
Fish and Game Branch  11
Provincial Parks Branch  27
British Columbia Travel Bureau  39
Photographic Branch  51
Commercial Fisheries Branch  57 1
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Vancouver Island Region-C.  M.   Darkis
Mt.  Seymour Park-O. H. Johansen
Garibaldi Park-C. A.  Fenner
Peace Arch Park-S.   J.  Kristjansen
Manning Region-R.  H.   Boyd
Cultua  Lake Region-F.   J.  McFarland
Okanagan Region-J.   W.   Moore
Shuswap Region-P. V.   Rathbone
Wasa Region-D.   M.  Carruthers
Mt.   Robaon Park-J.   W.   Willgreas
Wells Gray Park-C.   W. Shook
Cariboo Region
Bear Lake Region
Lakelse Lake Region
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HON      E.   C.    WESTWOOD
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Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fishene
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etachments at Duncan.  Nanaimo,   Alberni,   Courtenay,
ampbell River,  Victoria.
etachments at Princeton,  Penticton,  Grand Forks, Castlegar, Creston,
"ernie, Cranbrook,  Kimberley. Invermere, Golden, Nelson, Canal Flats,
etachments at Kelowna,  Vernon.   Revelstoke, Merritt, Salmon Arm,
lir\ton,   100 Mile House,   Williams Lake,  Alexia Creek,   Lillooet,
amloops,  Clearwater,   Bella Cool a.
Jetachments at Vanderhoof,  Smithera,   Burns  Lake,  Terrace,
'rince George,   Prince Rupert.  McBride,   Pouce Coupe,   fort
t.   John,   Fort Nelson, Quesnel.
etachments at Port Coquitlam,  Mission,  Chiinwack,
-adner,   Vancouver,  Powell River,  Alert Bay.
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ORGANIZATION
DEPARTMENT of RECREATION and CONSERVATION
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£ Report of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation, 1959
D. B. Turner, Deputy Minister and Commissioner of Fisheries
INTRODUCTION
The release of five motion pictures, the rehabilitation of more than 100,000
acre-feet of Provincial lakes to improve fishing, a splendid game-harvest, a vigorous
tourist-promotion programme, a strong programme of land and sea acquisitions for
the use and enjoyment of the public, an extension of our parks system (both camp,
picnic, and marine), and an active liaison between the fishing industry and Government indicate the breadth of scope of the activities of the Department of Recreation
and Conservation during 1959.
Perhaps the most important long-term benefit to come to the Department has
been the welding together of the five branches of the Department into a more unified
recreation and conservation whole with each obtaining a better understanding of the
responsibilities of the others. The first Departmental conference held early in the
year did much to accomplish this, and its beneficial results have been apparent
throughout the year.
Production of the magazine " Beautiful British Columbia " became the responsibility of this Department, and its immediate acceptance by the public both at home
and abroad has been testimony to the quality of content and design of this beautiful
promotional publication.  HIGHLIGHTS   OF   1959
Although the work of each branch is fully described and reported upon in
separate submissions, here are some of the highlights of 1959.
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
REVENUE
Revenues accrued by the Fish and Game Branch amounted to an estimated
$1,550,000, an estimated increase of $100,000 over the 1958/59 returns.
HUNTING ACCIDENTS
In spite of increases in hunting and fishing pressure, hunting accidents did not
increase proportionately.
GAME POPULATION
An overpopulation of moose suffered from scarcity of forage; deer populations
remained steady in most areas of the Province, though Vancouver Island showed
increases; caribou increased in numbers; and less heavily hunted species of game
showed up in increasing numbers through checking-stations.
HATCHERY PRODUCTION
Reduction of 30 per cent in cost per pound production of trout was noted, and
total poundage was increased by 60 per cent over 1958.
LAKE REHABILITATION
Eighteen lakes totalling 100,000 acre-feet were rehabilitated to increase sport-
fishing potential.
PROVINCIAL PARKS  BRANCH
GIFTS TO THE CROWN
Three valuable parcels of property for recreational use totalling 360 acres were
presented to the Crown by public-spirited citizens and organizations.
NATURE INTERPRETATION
More than 30,000 people visited nature-interpretation houses at Manning Park
and Miracle Beach.
MARINE PARKS
Marine parks grew from one to three in number and saw heavy use by the
boating public.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL AGREEMENT FOR ALLEVIATION OF
UNEMPLOYMENT
This plan was continued through 1959 and financed an effective works programme in Provincial parks totalling $338,000.
9 Y  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
BRITISH COLUMBIA TRAVEL BUREAU
1. Tourist revenue of an estimated $106,000,000, at par with Centennial
Year.
2. Tourist Council established continuing committees to aid British Columbia
travel industry.
3. Travel Bureau announced national travel writing award of trip to British
Columbia for two plus $250 to newspaperman writing best published story on travel
in Canada.
4. Great expansion and up-grading of tourist accommodation, with forty-five
tourist establishments added to Provincial total.
5. Institute counsellor appointed to tourist-service industries.
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
ROYAL VISIT RECORD
The visit of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth was photographed in part in motion
pictures and stills.
COAST-TO-COAST COVERAGE
Our sports-fishing film " Tight Lines " was televised coast to coast over the
C.B.C., and was also accepted by the Vancouver International Film Festival.
NEW FILMS
Five new motion pictures were released and a trip was made to the Spatsizi
area of the Cassiar District, where motion pictures and stills of caribou, stone sheep,
and mountain goat were obtained for use in new film.
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES  BRANCH
INTENSIVE TAGGING
The pink-salmon tagging programme conducted in 1959 by the International
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission was the largest ever attempted for Pacific
salmon which pass through " convention waters " on their way to spawning-grounds
in Southern British Columbia and Puget Sound.
HERRING BONANZA
Pre-Christmas herring-catches in District Three (lower, middle, upper east
coast and west coast of Vancouver Island) were heaviest in many years. Quality
of catches was also exceptionally high, with the greatest oil content in at least
ten years.
TUNA-CATCHES
Tuna-fish landings in British Columbia during the months of August,
September, and October, 1959, amounted to 164,000 pounds. This was the largest
amount of tuna-fish landed in this Province since the 1953 catch of 11,300 pounds. FISH and
GAME
BRANCH
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\      CONSERVATION      /^M :'.'.'*■■    ,:\ ■■■■■+
Midsummer on the Spatsizi Plateau in North Central British Columbia, a veritable
wilderness treasure-trove of wild geese.
Fishing is not neglected on the Spatsizi Plateau.   Here a successful nimrod finishes
a fight with a trout from Coldfish Lake. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 13
FISH AND GAME BRANCH
Frank R. Butler, Director
GAME MANAGEMENT DIVISION
General
The basic function of the Game Management Division is to provide the technical
services necessary for the conservation of the wildlife resources of the Province.
In the past three years, in particular, there has been a marked acceleration in
hunting interest, with the result that problems of game management are also increasing. More and more people are becoming aware that great adventure and rewards
are to be found in the forests, marshes, and on the range lands of our Province.
The steady growth of hunting and shooting enthusiasm is demonstrated by the
increasing sale of hunting licences. Resident licence sales, which stood at 105,575
in 1957, increased to 115,578 in 1959. Non-resident licence sales increased from
3,116 in 1958 to 3,486 in 1959.
Game Regulations
There has been a noticeable response on the part of hunters in the past few
years to the liberal game seasons effected by the Game Management Division.
This is demonstrated by the interest shown in areas where such liberal seasons
occur, and where hunter success has been increased as a result. Antlerless big-
game seasons appear to have a significant effect upon enthusiasm for hunting. The
harvest of 16,000 antlerless deer over and above the take of 43,000 bucks in 1958,
to give an average success of 59 per cent, was no doubt largely responsible for
unprecedented enthusiasm in deer-huntine in 1959.
Unfortunately, in 1959, some curtailment of antlerless seasons was necessary
due to the fact that in 1958 evaluation to determine the effect of harvest on many
local big-game populations could not be undertaken in detail. A management
programme which cannot be based upon facts is susceptible to error and is not
in keeping with the principle of wise conservation.
The principal change in the game regulations in 1959 was the advancement
of the either-sex deer season to early November in most Interior districts. This
change was made in order to lower the congestion of hunters on deer winter ranges,
where, in a few localities in 1958, a heavy local deer kill resulted.
No major change in antlerless deer seasons was made in the Western District
or in the East Kootenay. The buck season was longer and ended on December 6th
instead of November 30th as in previous years.
Game-harvest
As stated in past reports, it is not possible at the time of writing to state the
annual game-harvest.    Any significant trend can, however, usually be determined
from the records of the Cache Creek Checking-station.    Figures for the past five
years for this station appear in the table below.
Cache Creek Checking-station Totals
Year
Deer
Moose
Caribou
Elk
Mountain
Goat
Mountain
Sheep
Waterfowl
Grouse
Hunters
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1,890
2,296
2,397
2,245
2,344
2,732
1,718
2.301
2,649
2.799
3,064
2,645
128
26
1
82
20
....
1  141
27
2
!  179
48
4
|  113
45
3
|  225
60
5
53
63
56
91
82
65
19
8
26
24
43
23
| 7,430
5,850 |
| 6,568
4,371  I
1 7,349
7.032 |
| 8,193
11,027 !
| 8,985
19,351 I
| 7,563
7,853 1
10,747
10,966
14,517
14,146
14,763
14,938 Y 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Total harvest data for the past five years appear in the following table.   It will
be noted that there has been a steady increase in the annual take of most species.
Kill of Major Game Species from Hunter Sample, 1954—58
Species
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Ducks  	
428,400
242,500
48,300
4,900
305,400
186,600
36,800
6,200
1,700
50,900
319,800
188,000
39,400
6,500
2,200
43,000
346,600
304,800
44,600
9,900
1,800
47,400
432,100
554,800
Pheasants   -	
70,000
11,500
Elk                            -                         	
3,100
36,000
59,700
Status of Game Populations
Big Game
Moose.—Winter and early-spring mortality was evident in moose populations
of the Cariboo, Chilcotin, and northern districts. Losses resulted from the apparent
combination of winter tick infestations and malnutrition. The incidence of tick
infestation appears to be increasing. In many localities, moose numbers are still
in excess of range-carrying capacity. Under such conditions it is to be expected
that there will be increased incidence of tick infestation and above average annual
mortality. The extent to which winter losses will continue to lower the population
status of moose will depend largely on weather conditions. Up to the present,
mortality cannot be considered serious, and consequently the hunting season set for
1959 was not shortened.
Deer.—Deer wintered well in most sections of the Province. Aerial surveys
early in the year in the heavily hunted Similkameen and adjacent areas indicated
little or no change in the deer population.
On all key hunting areas on Vancouver Island, population counts revealed
deer populations as high or higher than 1958. The harvest is expected to equal the
record take of 17,000 deer for Vancouver Island last year.
Hunting success has been good in many parts of the Interior. Lower early
success is believed to have been due to mild weather and abundant food following
the wet summer.   As a result, the deer remained high and did not concentrate.
Other Big Game.—Kill statistics from the Cache Creek Checking-station show
a slowly-increasing take of the less heavily hunted species of big game. It will be
noted that the number of caribou reported is up significantly from last year. Considerably more black bear were also taken in 1959. Mountain goat and sheep,
however, were taken in lesser numbers. It must be remembered, however, that
these figures are incomplete and indicate trends only.
Deviation in the harvest from year to year does not necessarily mean a corresponding change in population status of the particular species. Due to light hunting
pressure on the so-called rare species and the small harvest, kill statistics are not
always indicators of population trend. The harvest of sheep, goat, caribou, and
grizzly bear is too low to be measured by the annual hunter sample. Yearly comparisons for these species are made from trophy payments and checking-stations'
returns.
The trophy species of big game make an important contribution to total moneys
expended for hunting in our Province. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 15
Game Birds
The population status of most upland game birds was a disappointment in
1959. After the good year in 1958 and the expected population expansion up to
1961, the results of the past season were most disappointing. All species of native
grouse were down in numbers, and this decline was repeated in the pheasant population and possibly also in Hungarian partridges. Chukar partridges and quail were
exceptions.
The decline may represent an early population crash, or it could prove to be a
temporary situation only. Over most of the Province, cold weather prevailed into
the nesting season, and the advance of green vegetation was retarded. Although
survival of the young was affected by these conditions, field observations late in the
fall indicated adult birds in numbers believed to be adequate to provide a strong
breeding population in the spring.
Unfavourable weather also appeared to have its effect upon various species of
waterfowl. Production of early-nesting ducks such as mallard, pintail, and green-
wing teal was poor.
Chukar partridges in the Thompson Valley and South Okanagan have reached
an all-time high since their introduction in 1951. It is believed the population may
increase still further before peaks are reached.
Waterfowl Banding
A total of 2,586 ducks were banded in the Kamloops and Williams Lake areas.
Data covering the returns from the 1957 and 1958 seasons were incorporated into
an interim report entitled "Analysis of Recoveries of Local Ducks Banded in South-
Central British Columbia during the Summers of 1957 and 1958," by P. W. Martin
and L.G. Sugden.
Access and Public Shooting-grounds
Portions of the Ladner marsh were placed under a reserve for public shooting
and game management. A similar reserve was created at the junction of the
Chehalis and Harrison Rivers. Lands such as these, which are dedicated to the use
and enjoyment of the public, are long overdue on the Lower Mainland. The closure
of lands to public shooting becomes an increasing problem in this area.
Work was begun on an access road leading from the Tofino-Ucluelet Highway
to the mud-flats and hunting area near by. When this road is completed, hunters
will have unimpeded access.
Habitat Improvement
Experimental work in habitat development on the Vancouver wireless station at
Ladner was continued in 1959. Approximately 5,000 multiflora rose-bushes were
planted during March, bringing the total planted since May, 1957, to 9,800. Corn
was again sown as a fast-growing short-term food and cover source.
Research
Deer research on Vancouver Island was expanded in 1959.    It includes the
following projects:—
(1) Analysis of dressed weight of deer to determine nutritional differences in
various ranges.
(2) Preliminary investigations on range productivity and deer nutrition.
(3) A fawn-tagging programme at Northwest Bay.
(4) Experimental use of anaesthetic equipment to capture deer. y 16 british columbia
Special Projects
During the year considerable effort and time were expended by the Division
in the preparation of a sixty-page report dealing with land requirements of big game
in the East Kootenay District. This report should provide a basis for more intensive
big-game management in the region.
A questionnaire survey of most States and Provinces was directed toward determining local experience in respect to shooting hours, bag-limits, and season length
for ring-neck pheasants.
Appointments
Two vacancies arose in the Game Management Division during the year. Mr:
L. G. Sugden, regional biologist at Williams Lake, joined the Canadian Wildlife Service in August. Mr. R. A. Baynes also resigned from his position as regional biologist for the northern districts. The vacancy at Williams Lake was filled by Mr.
H. B. Mitchell, formerly biologist with the Saskatchewan Government.
Public Relations
In excess of 125 meetings of rod and gun clubs and various other organizations
were attended during the year. Several lectures were also delivered to other groups
interested in wildlife.
Requests for information concerning wildlife in the Province have increased
during the year.   This reflects a healthy interest on the part of the public.
FISHERIES MANAGEMENT DIVISION
Management and Protection
Lake Rehabilitation
Lake rehabilitation continued to be one of the major fisheries-management
activities in 1959, although the eighteen lakes treated, with a total volume of
98,644 acre-feet, represented a considerable decrease from the fifty-seven lakes
treated in 1958, with a total volume of 211,000 acre-feet. This decrease is due
in part to the fact that many of the earlier treated lakes were part of the experimental
programme with toxaphene, which is now largely completed. Also, most of the
lakes which presented few complications to rehabilitate have now been treated.
Other lakes in need of rehabilitation have public access problems, the need of costly
barriers to prevent the re-entry of coarse fish, or the treatment conflicts with other
interests. As a result, it can be expected that the number of lakes treated in the
future will be lower than that carried out in 1958.
The following table lists the lakes treated in 1959. The majority were treated
with toxaphene.
T. tii Volume in
Vancouver Island— Acre-feet
Glen Lake   936
Coal Island ponds   4
Lower Mainland—
Lake of the Woods  2,475
Deer Lake  1,060
Okanagan-Kamloops District—
Tugulnuit Lake  500
Kentucky Lake   4,724
Garnet Lake   1,520
Northern District—
Vivian Lake  2,640
Verdant Lake   865 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 17
Kootenay District-
Premier Lake
Volume in
Acre-feet
28,531
Alee (Moose) Lake     1,700
Whiteswan Lake  48,500
Hahas Lake     1,575
Rosen (McBains) Lake     2,544
Hart Lake --       13 8
Bear Paw Lake  20
North Yankee Lake        274
South Yankee Lake        403
The experimental toxaphene programme has proven the use of this inexpensive
insecticide. As predicted in the last Annual Report, concentrations used should
be between 0.005 and 0.0075 p.p.m., depending on the lake and the species
involved.   Lakes with turbid water require higher concentrations.
Experimental work has begun with a new insecticide, which, although more
expensive than toxaphene (18 cents an acre-foot as compared with 2 cents an
acre-foot), has the advantage of de-toxifying rapidly, reportedly in a matter of
weeks. This material, if proven practical, would replace rotenone, which, although
highly satisfactory as a fish toxicant, costs about $1 an acre-foot in lake treatment.
Lake Surveys
Long-range fisheries-management planning dictates a thorough knowledge of
Provincial waters. A highly efficient lake survey crew equipped with an echo
sounder and complete limnological survey equipment surveyed a total of sixty-
eight lakes in all regions of the Province. This information is needed for the
planning of rehabilitation work, hatchery plantings, evaluation of the sports fishery,
and other management needs. A list of all lakes surveyed to date, with notes as
to information available, has been mimeographed and is available for distribution.
Steelhead Studies
Every effort is being made to maintain good fishing conditions in the heavily
populated Lower Mainland. Since the winter steelhead fishery is an important part
of outdoor recreation in that area, a programme has been under way for several
years to determine the feasibility of maintaining depleted runs through hatchery
plantings. Young marked steelhead have been released in several rivers, and the
public have been asked to report catches of these fish, as adult steelhead, in later
years. Except for the Vedder River, where Department personnel carry out checks,
and the Capilano River, where a fish-trap makes checking possible, reports from
the public have been disappointing. From the two rivers mentioned, it appears that
between 15 and 25 per cent of the angler catch comes from hatchery-stocked fish.
It is apparent that a better means of evaluating must eventually be evolved.
Further studies carried out on the Coquihalla River indicate that the obstruction
removed in 1958 has greatly aided the steelhead fishery. Many adult steelhead
have been observed on the spawning-grounds above the obstruction, and it is
expected that this will bring about a continued improvement in that fishery.
" Put and Take " Stocking
On an experimental basis, in an attempt to provide summer stream fishing
in a heavily populated area, the Nicomekl River was stocked with marked 10-inch
rainbow trout.    Although the planting was well advertised and large numbers Y 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of anglers turned out, only eight fish have been reported caught to date out of the
500 planted. These results, in general, indicate the futility of stream plantings to
maintain a resident trout fishery under the conditions encountered.
Upper Chilliwack River Experimental Opening
The Chilliwack (Vedder) River is the Lower Mainland's most important steelhead stream, in terms of its fishing pressure and location. To protect this fishery,
the upper river has been closed to all fishing for several years in order to protect
the principal steelhead spawning and nursery areas. It was maintained by some
groups that this closure needlessly prevents the exploitation of a good resident trout
fishery. To determine the truth of this allegation, the Upper Chilliwack River
was opened for the months of August and a careful creel census was carried out.
It soon became apparent that the resident trout fishery was negligible and that most
of the fish taken were young steelhead, and, as a result, the area was closed to fishing
on August 10th. Closures to protect vulnerable and important spawning and
nursery areas of steelhead rivers are a good management practice, and will probably
become more widespread.
Kootenay Lake Study
The Kootenay Lake study was continued on a more limited basis than in
1958. A creel-census programme was followed on the lake and observations on
the Lardeau River were continued. The size of the spawning run showed an
encouraging increase, and fishing was the best it has been in years in the main lake.
Special closures to protect the spawning run have undoubtedly helped the fishery,
and it is expected that the present good fishing will continue.
Bass Transfers
To answer a public demand for bass plantings in certain lakes, several transfers
were carried out during the year. Bass are difficult fish to handle in a hatchery,
and the most economical way to provide the public with these fish is to trap them
where they occur in the Province and transport them by tank-truck. Bass are
popular because they offer variety and are easily caught, especially in the summer
months when trout-fishing is often poor.
Swimmers' Itch Control
Wasa Lake, near Kimberley, was treated for the second year with copper
sulphate in an attempt to free the public swimming area from this annoying
parasite. Only one case was reported during the summer, and this was from outside
the treated area.
Creel-census Programme
The gathering and compilation of catch statistics is one of the most difficult
and yet necessary aspects of fisheries work. Over the past several years we have
experimented with many ways of obtaining this needed information; that is, resort
operators have been asked to keep records, private individuals have been given
individual catch-record books, Game Wardens keep records on their daily rounds,
road checks are set up at key points, and summer assistants are hired for this
purpose. During the past year all of this material has been examined critically,
and new techniques are being worked out. It is anticipated procedures will be
developed which will allow the processing of this material by computers. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION      Y 19
Alga; Control
This Branch has been faced with an increasing number of requests for advice
and assistance in ridding lakes of algae and various aquatic weeds. In some areas
these occur in such numbers as to greatly detract from recreational pursuits. To
assist the public and other Government agencies, a thorough investigation has been
conducted into the best method of controlling these nuisance plants, and a complete
report has been prepared and will be made available to the public.
Public Access
The problem of obtaining public access to recreational areas continued to
occupy a great deal of the time of both headquarters and field staffs. Several
reserves were placed on lakes at our request by the Department of Lands and
Forests; in addition, staff members were active in advising various groups as to
appropriate action to take in local problems. The entire problem of public access
is being studied by an interdepartmental committee, in which the Fish and Game
Branch is taking a major role.
Public Relations
The fisheries staff have been most active in public relations work to acquaint
the public with work of the Department, and to educate them in new fish- and game-
management techniques. Apart from attendance at rod and gun club meetings,
numerous school, radio, and television appearances have been made, and many service clubs have been addressed.
Protection
The rapid rate of industrial development in British Columbia has led to an
increase in pollution-control work and surveys. Through contacts made in early
stages of new developments, usually through the investigation of water licence applications, it has been possible to prevent trouble before it starts through incorporation
of facilities in the new plant which will protect sport-fishing interests. The policy
of rigid control of already existing pollutions was followed during the year with
notable success.   Some of the protection work included:—
(1) The Fish and Game Branch was notified of a proposal to dispose of chro-
mate wastes in Dawson Creek near Pouce Coupe by a petroleum company. After some study, approval was given to a waste-disposal system
which provides adequate protection for the fishery.
(2) After lengthy negotiations, approval has been given to waste-disposal
plans for a large pulp-mill being built at Castlegar. The proposed facilities are of an advanced design and represent an important step forward
in pulp-mill waste disposal.
(3) Gravel and flood-control operations have caused serious damage to the
Coquitlam River fishery. These have been the subject of lengthy investigations, and reports have been prepared outlining the problem. Negotiations in an attempt to resolve the complicated problem are proceeding
satisfactorily.
(4) Two new iron mines on Vancouver Island have installed pollution-control
facilities following discussions with the Fish and Game Branch and the
Federal Department of Fisheries. It was apparent that one company has
solved its problem, while pollution of the Benson River occurred as a
result of operations of the other. Additional facilities are being designed
for the second plant. Y 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(5) A pollution of Cowichan Lake was threatened as a result of operations
of a copper mine. Some control facilities have been installed, and a more
efficient system of waste-control is now under study.
(6) A drive to curb the sawdust pollution problem at Prince George was commenced this year. Some 750 letters were sent to mill operators advising
them of their responsibilities in pollution abatement. Eleven sawmills
have been successfully prosecuted after failure to take remedial measures
when instructed to do so. The situation here, although much improved,
is by no means under complete control.
(7) Insect sprays are a cause of considerable alarm to fisheries interests because of their lethal effect on fish. One spray programme on Lakelse
Lake was stopped by this Branch when it was apparent that harm might
be done to trout and salmon populations. Preliminary steps are being
taken to introduce a system of control over spraying operations where
fish are concerned.
(8) An unfortunate pollution of the Coquitlam River was caused by the inadvertent release of chlorine used to sterilize domestic-water mains.
Through co-operation with the Greater Vancouver Water District, steps
have been taken to carry out pipe sterilization without harm to the fishery.
(9) Briefs were presented to hearings held by the Department of Lands and
Forests requesting the inclusion of clauses in the Nimpkish tree-farm
licence and the Powell River tree-farm licence for the protection of recreational interests.
(10) During August a fish-sampling and general survey was undertaken of the
Upper Peace River and its tributaries, in view of a proposal by the
Wenner-Gren B.C. Development Company Limited to develop this watershed for hydro-electric purpose. The data gathered during this survey
have been analysed. A report has been prepared outlining the anticipated effects to fisheries interests of this development, and specific recommendations are included for the protection of fish species and recreational
interests.
(11) Upon receipt of a report that Lizard Lake, near Port Alberni, had been
dammed without prior approval by the Water Rights Branch, negotiations
were undertaken between our Branch, the Water Rights Branch, and the
City of Port Alberni for clearing of the reservoir area.
(12) During the summer and fall months, water-flow past the Cheakamus Dam
has periodically been abruptly halted. This resulted in stranding and
mortality of considerable numbers of stream-resident fish immediately
below the dam. After an investigation of the matter, negotiations were
initiated to obtain a guaranteed minimum water-flow to by-pass the dam
at all times.
(13) Studies of diversions and hydro-electric developments on several streams
on Vancouver Island continued during 1959; principally these included
the Ash, Stamp, Salmon, Heber, and Puntledge Rivers and Elsie Lake.
(14) Agreement was reached with the British Columbia Power Commission,
the Water Rights Branch, and the Fish and Game Branch in the matter of
minimum flows to by-pass the Quinsam River diversion supplying the
John Hart power installation near Campbell River.
Many other protection problems of a comparatively minor nature were investigated, and routine checks of existing facilities were made to ensure a high standard
of operation. Approximately 400 water licence applications were investigated by
Fish and Game Branch personnel during 1959. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 21
Hatcheries
Operation of Fish and Game Branch hatcheries in 1959 was characterised
by continued modernization and consolidation of facilities. Trout production
increased sharply, with a subsequent lowering of cost per pound. This increased
and more economical trout production has been accomplished through (1) closure
of small, expensive hatchery operations and expansion of the larger stations;
(2) changing feeding procedures from fresh ground meat and salmon viscera to
commercially prepared dry pellets; (3) use of fall- and spring-spawned trout—
double cropping of rearing facilities; and (4) loading ponds with maximum densities
of fish. The following table shows how spectacular decreases in cost per pound
have accompanied production increases since 1956:—
Year
Number of
Hatcheries
Total Pounds
Production
Total
Cost
Cost per
Pound
1955/56  	
9
8
8
7
5
13,770
13,879
14,815
31,200
50,0001
$76,608
71,830
76,634
81,092
86,674
$5.57
1956/57	
1957/58-	
5.16
5.02
1958/59-                   	
1959/60 	
2.59
1.73
i Estimated from first six months' production in 1959 of 26,000 pounds.
The handling of this increased production has necessitated the construction
of the latest trout transport equipment. Although heavier densities of trout in
the rearing facilities tend to increase the incidence of disease outbreaks, losses have
decreased as a proportion of the total poundage produced. Regular prophylaxis
treatment and the use of modern drugs have kept disease losses to a minimum.
During the annual fisheries staff meeting in Penticton, a fish pathologist was retained
to present six hours of lectures on fish diseases and their diagnosis and treatment.
The production figure for the present fiscal year (1959/60) is probably low,
since production to date this year has averaged considerably higher than anticipated.
Production for the fiscal year 1960/61 likely will exceed 60,000 pounds, with a
cost of approximately $1.25 per pound of trout produced.
Significant increases in angler licence sales since 1955 have been more than
met by increased stockings of public fishing waters. Stockings worthy of special
mention include the children's ponds at Vernon and Grand Forks. Surplus stocks
of brood fish were used to stock these ponds, and they have provided excellent
recreation for children, who fish under the supervision of local rod and gun
club members. The stocking of Como lake (District of Coquitlam) and Durrance
Lake (Victoria) with catchable trout was highly successful.
Use of new facilities (four raceways) at Loon Creek hatchery near Clinton
resulted in a fivefold increase in production of trout for the important fishing areas
of the South Cariboo. New brood-stock ponds were constructed at Summerland
hatchery to provide much-needed additional space.
An important evaluation of trout stocking is being carried out in six lakes—
four in the Okanagan area and two on Vancouver Island. In these small lakes,
trout have been stocked at various sizes in order to determine the most economical
size at which hatchery fish should be planted. Intensive nettings early in 1960
will provide important information on this aspect of hatchery operations.
Investigations have been initiated concerning the use of oxygen equipment
in fish-liberating tanks. Promising results are expected, and the possibility exists
that travel costs for planting fish may be substantially reduced by carrying much
larger loads of trout in oxygenated water.    In addition, exploratory plantings of Y 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
trout by air in small lakes, inaccessible by road, on Vancouver Island, were carried
out with encouraging results; this programme of air drops is to be expanded
in 1960.
Considerable time was spent in co-operation with the Department of Public
Works in the establishment of general requirements and design criteria for a new
hatchery to supply the East and West Kootenay areas. Proposed site for the new
hatchery is located near Wardner, about 30 miles east of Cranbrook. Preliminary
engineering and architectural work is now being carried out. When completed,
this hatchery will have a production capacity sufficient to supply trout to all southeastern lakes of British Columbia for many years.
Together with the primary function of a hatchery programme to produce fish
for release in public waters is the allied responsibility of co-operating with other
fisheries agencies. In this regard about 1,600 trout and steelhead were supplied
to the Fisheries Technological Station, the Department of Zoology (University of
British Columbia), Department of Fisheries, and the Vancouver Public Aquarium.
These fish were utilized in various research projects by the above-mentioned
agencies.
Research
In 1956 a study was initiated on spawning runs of coarse fish, including two
species of suckers, to an inlet stream of Baker Lake near Quesnel. All suckers
entering this inlet stream to spawn were marked by injecting small spots of coloured
liquid latex beneath their scales. Spawning runs of coarse fish were subsequently
examined in the springs of 1957 and 1958. It was found that between 45 and 55
per cent of all the suckers spawning in the stream had also spawned there in 1956.
The spring spawning run of suckers to the inlet stream of Baker Lake was checked
again in 1959. Approximately 50 per cent of one species of sucker in the run had
been marked as spawners in 1956, and a considerable number of these had also
spawned on all four years between 1956 and 1959. The amazing return of these
coarse fish, year after year, to spawn is a new fact of oustanding importance to
their possible control or eradication in streams and lakes of the Province.
Investigation of the life-history of kokanee (land-locked sockeye salmon)
continued at Nicola Lake throughout 1959. Studies on their winter distribution
and feeding habits were conducted by netting beneath the ice. Distribution and
movement of maturing adults were followed during the spring, summer, and early
fall by several new techniques, using deep monofilament nylon gill-nets. A marked
restriction of this size group of kokanee to the upper 25 feet depths of the lake
was noted in May and June, whereas in later months these fish were frequently
taken at depths greater than 50 feet. Kokanee tend to inhabit water near the lake
surface during the day and early evening but move into deeper water in late
evening.
An experimental programme designed to test the effectiveness of submerged
dynamite blasts for scientific collection of kokanee and other fish of all size
ranges proved most successful. Collections of immature kokanee which could
not be captured for examination by any other means were readily obtained from
depths of over 130 feet.
Further evidence on the importance of the kokanee's sense of smell in location
and entrance to spawning-streams was obtained.
In addition to studies on kokanee, much new information was obtained on the
life-history, distribution, and movements of the peamouth chub, an important
competitor of sport fish, in Nicola Lake. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 23
A programme designed to investigate life-histories and production of sport
fish in coastal streams was started in 1959. Several streams tributary to the Fraser
River were chosen for intensive study; the investigation may be extended to other
areas in the future. Underwater-diving gear has been used to obtain information
on numbers and distribution of young steelhead and other fishes in streams. This
gear has enabled the Research Division to make direct counts of young steelhead
trout, cut-throat trout, and other sport fish and their competitors and predators in
sections of streams which otherwise could not even be examined. Direct observation
of the habits of these fish promises to reveal many new facets in their life-history
and behaviour which will add substantially to the management of sport fish in
streams.
Engineering
The Engineering Division has worked on a variety of projects this year, of
which the Summerland brood-stock ponds and the proposed Bull River hatchery
are the most significant.
The brood-stock ponds at the Summerland hatchery consist of two 10- by 85-
by 3-foot raceway-type rearing-ponds, with a total capacity of approximately 10,000
pounds of fish. The ponds were completed in September of this year at a total cost
of approximately $12,000.
Planning and design of the proposed Bull River hatchery near Wardner commenced this year with the preparation of a report on the requirements of a hatchery,
prepared jointly by the Engineering and Hatchery Sections for designers in the Public
Works Department. The Engineering Division has also been responsible for the
preparation of drawings, the investigation and surveying of the site, and reporting on
engineering aspects of the design in connection with this project.
The following is a summary of other projects carried out by this Section:—
Loon Creek hatchery:
Alterations to the intake dam (designed and constructed).
Alterations to the water-supply system   (designed and partially constructed).
Cultus Lake hatchery:
Survey of hatchery grounds and buildings (complete).
Automation of water-supply controls (designed).
Fish-barrier dams:
Kawkawa Lake (surveyed and designed).
Dragon Lake (surveyed).
Sheridan Lake (surveyed and designed).
Stump Lake:
Survey of public access site (complete).
Miscellaneous:
Preparation of lake survey maps.
Preparation of graphs and charts, etc.
Preparation of " Know Your Fish " pamphlet.
PREDATOR CONTROL DIVISION
Complaints because of predation and other reasons were numerous, although
actual damage was relatively low in most areas of the Province. Prompt and effective action on the complaints accounted for these low losses. The following table
is a breakdown of the origin and the handling of complaints received during the
year:— Y 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Species Complaint
Bear
Cougar
Coyote
Wolf
Sundry1
Totals
177
77
52
35
77
19
15
2
163
63
484
Game Wardens   	
196
Totals    	
254
87
96
17
226
680
1 Sundry includes bobcats, dogs, racoons, skunks, and foxes.
As Table I indicates, bears accounted for a large percentage (37.3) of the
total numbers of complaints received, followed closely by sundry complaints. The
numbers of bear complaints are clearly reflected in the numbers of bears taken
during the year, as shown in Table II.
An increasing cougar population accounts for the relatively large number of
complaints received. However, it must be pointed out that a number of complaints
of this species were cases of mistaken identity on the part of the complainant. Four
families of cougars, each with three kittens, were taken by personnel, and several
other groups with the same number of young were reported. This type of group
make-up has not occurred so consistently for several years, and it indicates that
cougars are on the increase over most of their ranges. For the number of cougars
taken, please refer to Table II.
Coyotes were responsible for a comparatively large number of complaints, but
damage was low except in the East Kootenay area. A deficiency of baiting was
largely responsible for the increased numbers in this region. In addition, there is
always an overflow from the National parks that must be dealt with. Complaints
from the remainder of the Province were well scattered and reflected normal
population numbers.
Wolf complaints were very few in number and involved no known damage.
Two complaints were attended to because, in each case, the wolves concerned
showed extraordinary signs of boldness toward human beings. The remainder
of the complaints originated from ranchers who had wolves on their stock ranges
and did not wish to chance incurring losses.
Table II shows a comparison between 1958 and 1959 in terms of the major
predators taken by all contributing personnel of the Fish and Game Branch.
Table II
Species
Bear	
Cougar	
Coyote      625
Wolf	
Bobcat	
Fox	
Dog	
Racoon.
Skunk„.
1958
1959
299
449
46
71
625
599
32
46
62
79
276
140
248
276
91
124
91
140
Totals.
1,770
1,924
As previously mentioned, bears have shown a large increase over 1958. Reports from the field show that natural foodstuffs were in short supply over large
portions of the Province during the spring, summer, and fall months. Consequently,
they invaded farming and other settled areas, resulting in large numbers of them
being destroyed.   (The figures obtained at Cache Creek Checking-station also show DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 25
a large increase in the numbers of bears taken by sportsmen.) The majority of bears
destroyed on complaint work during the fall were in poor condition. It is possible
that natural mortality will be very high during the present term of hibernation.
Foxes were not taken in large numbers during the year.
The increase in the numbers of racoons taken was due to the increased
numbers taken on Vancouver Island during the year. This species, as far as can
be ascertained, is remaining stable in numbers and, in fact, may be decreasing.
The populations of skunks have increased in the Okanagan and South Caribou
regions during the past two years. This tendency has caused a corresponding increase in the numbers of complaints. The population of skunks on the Lower
Mainland appears to have stabilized and is more of a nuisance than a serious
predator problem.
A total of 1,179 poisoned baits were distributed during January, February, and
March for the control of coyotes and wolves. Of this total, 901 baits were dropped
from aircraft and the remaining 278 were placed by ground crews. The success of
this operation was high, with the exception of the East Kootenay, which has already
been mentioned. Much of the aerial baiting was done on Indian hunting territories, where native Indians depend upon game animals for a major part of their
existence. In some areas the Indians have been reliably estimated to utilize as
high as twenty moose per family per year. In such cases, it has been the policy of
this Division to bait for wolves on a large scale so that the moose will be able to
withstand the heavy pressure of hunting.
Another large part of the aerial work was expended to protect the property
of trappers against wolf depredation. Losses were quite heavy on numbers of
trap-lines in the northern section before baiting was instituted. Baiting was also
carried out on all bighorn sheep ranges that are accessible to the hunting public,
and some thinhorn sheep ranges in the Peace River District were also baited. In
addition, several of the most heavily hunted deer winter ranges received attention
to reduce the losses to predators.
Four coyote carcasses have been found in the Golden area, which exhibited
symptoms of canine distemper. All of the remains belonged to young of the year,
from one-half to three-quarters grown. During last winter and spring approximately
one-half of the young dogs in the Village of Golden died of this disease. As none
of the reports indicate any coyote mortality prior to the time the disease was active
in the dog population, it must be assumed that this disease spread from the domestic
dogs to the coyotes. It is probable that the mortality rate in the coyote population
was very high during the course of the infection.
Rodent-control progressed at a very satisfactory rate throughout the control
season in both the East Kootenay and South Okanagan areas. A total of 110
pounds of treated oats was placed in the South Okanagan, mainly for the control
of pocket-gophers. This poison was spread over a farming area of some 2,027
acres. Although the major portion of the control work was expended on pocket-
gophers, some experimental work was done on orchard mice. Requests were received for several weeks following the close of the control period. There is
sufficient work to justify one man in this area for a full nine months of the year as
rodent populations are widespread and in quantity to cause severe damage to crops,
orchards, and pastures.
Control measures in the East Kootenay area resulted in 655 pounds of
poisoned bait being distributed over 6,000 acres of farm land for the control of Y 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ground-squirrels and an additional 95 pounds placed on a further 2,068 acres for
control of pocket-gophers. The estimated kill on treated land is almost 100 per cent
for ground-squirrels and 45 to 55 per cent for pocket-gophers. As the rodent season
usually ends during late October, the fieldman concerned is placed on predator-
control work on agricultural lands during the winter months. This is in addition
to rodent-control survey work that is done during the off season.
Appreciation is expressed for the help so freely given by members of all other
divisions of the Fish and Game Branch toward the control of predators. PROVINCIAL
PARKS
BRANCH V
Stop of interest near Yale.
^P
Sidney Spit Marine Park.
■    m'i ;■:■■    :-;:::: '.' '■: :   :": ■: ■;   ■■■■■.. ■: .-.
L DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 29
PROVINCIAL PARKS BRANCH
H. G. McWilliams, Director
The year 1959 brought continued growth and marked another successful
year in the operation of the Provincial park system. The parks increased in
number, in area, development, and use. A comparison shows that in 1958 there
were 132 parks, covering 8,418,880 acres, and in 1959 there were 149 parks, covering 8,421,354 acres.
Park visit figures showed no deviation from the trend of the last decade and
rose from the 1958 figures of 2,350,000 to a total of 2,700,000 visits.
In an attempt to keep up with this demand, 437 camp units were developed,
bringing the total number of sites to 2,255, a 24-per-cent increase over 1958.
Picnic facilities were enlarged with the addition of 330 tables, an increase of 32
per cent over the previous number of units. This brings the total of tables for
all areas to 3,623.
Of prime importance were the gifts to the Crown of valuable park land. These
include three parcels for the enlargement of John Dean Park, totalling 258 acres.
These most generous donations were from Mrs. W. C. Woodward, through Elms-
wood Ltd., and Mr. Barret Montfort and Mr. Sidney Pickles. Three of British
Columbia's major industrial concerns also made splendid gifts. The British
Columbia Cement Company gave its well-known " Sandy Beach " property of
68.21 acres, located at Mill Bay. Renamed Bamberton Park, it was placed under
immediate development. The MacMillan & Bloedel Company presented its equally
well-known Smiths Landing property, located at Sproat Lake, adding another 43
acres to the system. The Powell River Company Limited gave 32 acres on Salt-
spring Island, which affords a wonderful view point of the surrounding Gulf Islands.
In addition to these most welcome and generous gifts, the Branch acquired
three additional areas by purchase. These will all be developed as marine parks.
They include a portion of Keats Island, Rebecca Spit on Quadra Island, and
Harwood Point on Texada Island.
The 1-year-old marine-park system actually tripled its developed sites by
adding two new parks to the original locality, Sidney Spit. These new parks are
Tent Island, east of Chemainus, and Montague Harbour on Galiano Island.
Other important purchases include the acquisition of 20 acres at Alice Lake
near Squamish and 146 acres at the north end of Movie Lake, near Cranbrook.
Wasa Lake was increased in area by 160 acres.
The youth crews were again placed under the direction of the Parks Branch,
and this year 122 boys were located in four parks—Manning, Champion Lakes,
Kokanee Glacier, and Mount Robson.
The Branch continued to work with the interdepartmental committee investigating the problem of access in its recreational aspects. The committee hopes to
make recommendations which will alleviate this complex situation.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL PROGRAMME
The Branch continued to receive funds for park development under the
terms of the Federal-Provincial Agreement for the alleviation of unemployment.
As in 1958, and by sharing funds on a dollar-for-dollar basis, the Branch received
$338,000 for work projects. Y 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PLANNING DIVISION
Land Acquisition and Park Inventory
The acquisition of four areas for addition to the Provincial park system marked
one of the principal achievements of the Inventory Section during 1959. These
acquisitions totalled 876 acres and involved lands that have now been established as
Provincial parks. They are Mount Fernie Park, Moyie Lake Park, Shelter Point
Park, Rebecca Spit Park, and Koksilah River Park. The appropriation of funds
for the purchase of necessary park lands has greatly increased the effectiveness of
this unit. Through negotiation and co-operation with other Government departments, an additional 400 acres were constituted parks of Class "A." They are
Green Point, Brilliant Terrace, and Loss Creek.
Seven parcels of land, totalling 820 acres, formerly held under reserve for the
use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public were released by the Department of
Lands and Forests, and have now received park status. Four of these are being
developed by local agencies and are of Class "C" The remainder, being Class
" A," are held for development by the Parks Branch.
The addition of small key areas to six of our major parks amounted to 50 acres.
The total area of Class "A" parks increased by 1,892.87 acres and now stands at
1,953,731.76 acres. The total area of Class " B " parks increased by 200.5 acres,
and now stands at 6,441,406.5 acres. The total of Class " C " parks increased by
682.29 acres, and now stands at 26,678.74 acres.
As a part of the continuing inventory of existing parks, certain of the more
remote regions of Strathcona Park were examined in some detail. This work was
undertaken with a view to preparation of a gross development plan and an eventual
boundary modification. Reconnaissance of the Gulf Islands, the inland waters of
Johnstone Strait and the Sechelt area continued, and included selection of suitable
marine parks.
Detailed reconnaissance was undertaken in the following regions: Nimpkish
Valley, Coquihalla River, west coast of Vancouver Island, and the Okanagan and
Shuswap Valleys. Proposed additions to Green Point and Cultus Lake Parks were
also examined. Co-operation with other Government departments resulted in 164
acres being reserved for public recreational use. These reserves encompass 12,505
acres of land and an additional 193 acres of foreshore or lands covered by water.
Park-development Plans
As in the past, the development plans evolved were directed to the formulation
of a park system comprising medium-size, multi-use regional-type parks, integrated
with a camp-site network which is expanding yearly.
A significant movement northward was made this year with the planning and
development of Bear Lake Park on the John Hart Highway and Lakelse Lake Park
near Terrace. Bear Lake Park will provide a recreational outlet for residents of the
Prince George district and also become a stepping-stone northward in the camp-site
system. Lakelse Lake Park will serve the residents of the Kitimat-Terrace-Prince
Rupert district, and in addition provide a home base for out-of-district campers
viewing the attractions of this region.
It is anticipated that northern development will continue steadily in the coming
years, and with this objective in view planning surveys have been undertaken, ranging from Williams Lake to Prince Rupert and Dawson Creek.
The responsibility of planning studies aimed at evolving master plans for large
B.C. parks of Provincial and even National significance has not been overlooked.
The many studies and field-trips connected with such a plan for Garibaldi Park have DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 31
culminated in a broad master-plan report on the entire park and a more detailed
development plan for the Diamond Head region. Also, plans have been laid to
commence compilation of material and make field-studies in Wells Gray and Mount
Robson Parks, aimed at a detailed master plan for their orderly development.
In addition to the preceding work, two planning survey crews were in the field.
One worked in the north, and the other in the Kamloops, Okanagan, and Kootenay
districts. One senior planner supervised this work and also evolved development
plans on the ground, as opposed to office planning, which has been the custom in
the past.
Plans for the following parks were completed in 1959, and also the field layouts
carried out preparatory to construction: Lakelse Lake Park, Bear Lake Park, Alice
Lake Park, Bamberton Park, Skihist Camp-site, Yard Creek Camp-site, Clearwater
Camp-site, Green Point Park, Ivy Green Camp-site extension, Emory Creek Campsite extension, Tent Island Marine Park, Montague Harbour Marine Park, and Portland Island Marine Park.
The following areas have been planned in detail and the plans are available
for development use: Goldpan Camp-site, Savona Picnic-site, Ryan Camp-site,
Christina Lake Park, Boundary Creek Camp-site, Johnstone Creek Camp-site, and
Moberley Lake Park site.
Landscaping
Landscaping projects, undertaken during the year and supervised by the Planning Division, included hydroseeding and mulching of 53 acres of roadsides within
developed parks as an erosion-control and beautification programme. The hydro-
seeding of the roadsides was accomplished in Goldstream, Garibaldi (Alouette
Lake), Cultus Lake, and Manning Parks.
Plans and specifications were drawn up for the seeding of an additional 185
acres of roadsides during 1960, together with a fertilization programme for the projects completed during 1959.
Pasture refertilization was undertaken in Manning Park.
Plans were drawn up for the landscaping of the picnic shelter and also the
toilet building at Englishman River Falls Park and the change-house at Miracle
Beach Park.
Screen planting was accomplished at Goldstream Park and Ivy Green Park,
where a total of 5,000 young native trees were planted.
Additional landscaping was undertaken in Manning Park.
Entrance portals were designed and built at Goldstream Park, Ivy Green
Park, Petroglyph Park, and Wasa Lake Park. An additional nine entrance portals
are now designed for erection next year.
A start was made on the clean-up of Mount Seymour ski slopes and ski runs
in preparation for a large-scale hydroseeding programme for next year.
Park Interpretation
Efforts were concentrated on two parks during the summer season of 1959.
These were E. C. Manning and Miracle Beach, where nature houses have been
established, housing a total of twenty-six exhibits. Most of the exhibits were
constructed at Langford Workshop during the winter of 1958/59.
Three nature trails were also operated, two being at Manning and one at
Miracle Beach. This was an entirely new venture, and was considered highly
successful.
Two series of outdoor programmes were conducted at Miracle Beach Park.
Weekly " telescope " tours for birds and sea-shore searches for marine life were Y 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
undertaken. They were enthusiastically attended by campers. The problem discovered here was that people joined in numbers too large for the maintenance of
contact with the interpretation officer in charge.
A total of about 30,000 people visited the nature houses in the season July
1st to September 7th, with about equal numbers visiting each house. At Miracle
Beach a successful unit was a tent featuring the sea, and in which a large salt-water
aquarium was especially popular. The Manning Park nature house, for the third
year, concentrated upon encouraging more use of the alpine country, a portion of
which is now easily accessible by the new public road.
In summation, the interpretation programme continued to be an unqualified
success. Public enthusiasm was demonstrated in many ways. Most of this success
is due to the keen interest of field staffs and their willing acceptance of long hours.
Wildlife
The remarkable wildlife resources of Wells Gray Park continued to be subjects
for research and management. In 1958 over 1,200 hunters harvested more than
57 tons of high-quality meat from the park, mainly from the moose herd, which
has a resource value of over $3,000,000.
Research on moose continued, with emphasis on behaviour, illustrated with
sketches, on age-class calculation of the herd, rejuvenation of range using Correctional Institution help, and preparation of studies on two captive moose. Technical
papers were completed on caribou foods, grizzly bear counts, and the ecology of
lichens important to caribou.
Historic Sites
The " stop of interest" programme was continued with the erection of five
plaques. Arrangements were made to provide a number of suitable view points
on highways under construction.
The acquisition of property in Barkerville was given priority, and a number
of sales concluded. All private property was assessed and offers made to the
owners.
A temporary museum with completely new displays was opened in late June
and attracted over 10,000 visitors during the summer and fall season. Eight
authentic manikins were placed in various exhibit buildings and proved attractive.
Several historic buildings were given a thorough renovation and many others
received needed repairs. The water system supplying the park residence and
museum was replaced.
Historic materials for Barkerville were collected as far away as Germansen
Landing.   The general progress of the project was recorded on movie film.
The prospects of establishing a historic site at Fort Steele were investigated
and a report prepared.
Public Recreation Surveys
Four major projects were undertaken in 1959: (a) A survey of recreational
use of Provincial parks in the West Kootenay, (b) a survey of summer visitors to
Wells Gray Park, (c) a survey of visitors to motels, hotels, and camp-grounds
in the Okanagan Valley for the Travel Bureau, and (d) a survey of winter use at
Mount Seymour Park.
In addition to these major surveys, several other projects were undertaken:
(a) Compilation and analysis of attendance at Provincial parks, (b) co-operation
in preparation of proposed aquatic regulations, (c) compilation and preparation for
publication of Departmental regulations, and (d) commenced consultative assistance to the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board in preparation of the park
portion of its land-use plan for the Lower Mainland region. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 33
Public Information
The Public Information Office has continued its function of keeping the public
informed concerning park activities. A variety of media were used to achieve this
purpose. Public information officers undertook the usual series of lecture engagements, reaching a wide cross-section of the public. They ranged from talks at the
University to parent-teacher organizations, professional societies, service clubs,
outdoor groups, and young people.
As in past years, the Section provided quantities of background material for the
production of books, articles, radio and television periods, and personal interviews.
The Section answered many hundreds of inquiries received through the mail.
The pamphlet and map projects are continuing. There is a constant need for
new park maps as fresh areas are developed or old parks refurbished. The series of
single-sheet pamphlets continues to grow.
The Section was involved in the opening of two new developed areas—Alouette
Lake, near Haney, and Goldstream, near Victoria.
ENGINEERING DIVISION
Operation and Maintenance
Inclement weather forced a slow start to the 1959 season. Improved conditions
in July permitted an improvement and a major test of the maintenance organization,
since virtually a full season's use took place in five weeks, with many sites reporting
continuously full conditions.
In general, the smaller parks displayed the greatest over-crowding because
of the difficulties met in maintaining full-time control. The same pattern was noted
in some of the larger areas, however, because of incomplete facilities or minimum
staffs.
The year was also notable for the reorganization of the Cariboo and Wasa
regions. The latter was staffed on a year-round basis for the first time. Green
Point Park was placed under Cultus Lake to form another new region, and first
steps were taken to organize Mount Seymour as a maintenance centre for Port
Moody to Lund. Prince Rupert and Prince George were stabilized by using Lakelse
Lake and Bear Lake as maintenance centres for their respective park groupings.
A major step in the policy of balancing summer and winter emplovment may
be seen in the extension programme of park-furniture renovation. This is being
conducted in six all-weather centres; they are Miracle Beach, Little Qualicum
Falls, Cultus Lake, E. C. Manning, Okanagan Lake, and Shuswap Lake. The vital
relationship of service facilities to these programmes has resulted in improved
standards throughout the Province. A fine example is the service area and workshop constructed at Little Qualicum Falls to provide service to all Vancouver
Island.
A drive was maintained to provide the maximum service for expenditures
made, and without lowering standards. New techniques and methods were
employed.
The inventory of park facilities for 1959 shows that the peak staff of 140 men
cared for a total of 3,635 tables, 25 domestic water systems, 755 pit toilets, 200
flush toilets, 2,405 fireplaces, 2,693 garbage units, 1,586 carved signs, and 70
buildings.
An experimental or exploratory attempt to alleviate critical sanitation conditions has seen the placing of fourteen flush-toilet units within existing Pan Abode
pit-toilet houses. Y 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Seven domestic-water systems were constructed to serve 605 table units. They
are located at Entrance Bay in Cultus Lake, and at Goldstream, Ivy Green, Hampton, Skagit, Muledeer, Yard Creek, and Shuswap Lake sites. Additional auxiliary
works were installed at Little Qualicum, Langford Workshop, Petroglyph, and
Miracle Beach nature house-
The following structures were completed during the year 1959: Champion
Lakes Park, toilet-changehouse; Englishman River Falls Park, toilet building and
picnic shelter; Little Qualicum Falls Park, workshop; Mount Seymour Park, sewerage system.
At this time a number of structures are under construction but not complete,
as follows: Cultus Lake Park, two toilet-changehouses, one picnic shelter, and two
swimming-piers; Mount Seymour Park, concrete dam with related works.
In addition, twenty-two structures in fifteen parks are in the process of being
designed or have been designed, and nineteen mapping and survey projects have
been completed.
List of Construction Projects Undertaken in 1959
(by Regions)
Manning region:
Continuation of road construction—Blackwall Road.
Muledeer Camp-site—thirty-four units and water system.
Emory Creek Camp-site—thirty-two units.
One ski tow.
Hampton Camp-site—water system.
Mount Seymour Park:
Construction of dam and completion of sewerage system.
Improvements to ski slopes.
Vancouver Island region:
Englishman River Falls Park—toilet building and picnic shelter.
Little Qualicum Falls Park—garage workshop.
Goldstream  Park—153   camp-sites,  forty-six  picnic-sites,   and  water
system.
Ivy Green Park—expansion by forty camp-sites.
Two marine parks—Montague Harbour,  six units,  and Tent Island,
four units.
Cultus Lake region:
Green Point Park—sixty-unit picnic-site.
Cultus Lake—two toilet buildings, one picnic shelter, two swimming-piers,
Entrance Bay water system.
Garibaldi Park region:
Completion of Alouette Lake picnic-site—seventy-six units.
Improvement to Diamond Head Road.
Kokanee region:
Kokanee Creek—reconversion of picnic-site.
Champion Lakes—picnic-site improvements.
King George VI—thirty-seven picnic-sites, twelve camp-sites.
Shuswap region:
Shuswap Lake Park—camp-site expansion.
Yard Creek Park—eighty-eight camp-sites, ten picnic-sites, and water
system. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 35
Wasa region:
Jimsmith Lake—thirteen picnic-sites, twenty-eight camp-sites.
Mount Fernie Park—road, forty-two camp-sites, ten picnic-sites.
Wasa Park—seventy-four picnic-sites, 105 camp-sites.
Okanagan region:
Okanagan Falls Camp-site—twenty-one camp-sites.
Minor improvements to Okanagan Lake Park.
Bear Lake:  Start on major camp- and picnic-site.
Lakelse Lake:  Start on major camp- and picnic-site.
Increase in camp-site facilities in 1959, 437 or 24.03 per cent. Increase in
picnic-sites in 1959 over 1958, 330 or 31.78 per cent.
Langford production: 850 tables, 15 incinerators, 641 directional signs, 220
toilet urinals.
District Park Officers
The district Park Officers at Kamloops and Nelson continued in their functions
as Parks Branch representatives within their particular localities. In general, they
co-ordinated the diversified functions of the Branch and represented it to the general
public, to other Governmental bureaux, and outside organizations.
Kamloops District
The Park Officer moved his office from the Forest Service building into the
offices of the Fish and Game Branch. This move made for better Departmental coordination, especially in the matter of access.
Liaison was maintained with park regions at Okanagan, Shuswap, Wells Gray,
and Cariboo.
Co-operation continued with Land Inspectors and Forest Officers, and consideration was given to many recommendations for public reserves.
Nelson District
Four youth crews worked in the Nelson District this year and were supervised
by the district officer.   Other duties corresponded to those of the Kamloops officer. DISTRIBUTION OF CAMP AND
PICNIC SITES BY AREA
1959
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
DEPT.  RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
PARKS  BRANCH
I960 4,200 i
4,000
3,800
3,600J
3,400
3,200
3000
2,800
2,600
g     2,400
<n<   2-200
— g     2,000
to i
C F      1,800
+* z
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
/
/
/
194
B    49 50 51    52  53   54 55 56   57   58  59  60   61    6
ANNUAL ATTENDANCE
PROVINCIAL PARKS
2 2,700 ■
2,100 -
1,200
(/)
Q
Z
<
<n
D
O
I
h
<n
h
>
PARK  VISITS
DAY   USE
CAMPING
1956
1957
1958 1959
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
DEPT. RECREATION & CONSERVATION
PARKS  BRANCH
I960. BRITISH  COLUMBIA
TRAVEL
BUREAU Interior of new visitor reception trailer, stationed on Highway No. 1 at Abbotsford.
w,\
British Columbia Tourist Council in session at Penticton, October 1st and 2nd, 1959. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 41
BRITISH COLUMBIA TRAVEL BUREAU
Ernest Evans, Director
The value of the tourist industry to the Province in 1959 is expected to equal
or slightly exceed the $106,000,000 estimate for 1958. Foreign entries by common
carrier, which increased in 1959, and the heavier influx of visitors from other
Canadian Provinces compensated for a 2.4-per-cent drop from Centennial Year in
traveller's vehicle permits issued at British Columbia ports of entry during the first
nine months of the year.
It is also noted that Dominion Bureau of Statistics figures for this period in
1959 show an improvement of 3.7 per cent over 1957, which is a more comparable
year.
The visit to Canada of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip not
only stimulated visitor entries to British Columbia at the time, but also generated
interest which was undoubtedly reflected through the season.
For the first nine months, entries on permit into Canada showed a slight
increase, but were comparable with 1958, in which year Canada's balance on
travel account showed a deficit of $192,000,000, or, proportionately, a deficit of
over $20,000,000 for British Columbia.
British Columbia receives approximately 15 per cent of United States travel
expenditures in Canada, and 11.5 per cent (1958) of entries to Canada on customs
permits were made through British Columbia. The significant fact, however, is
that while ten to fifteen years ago Canada benefited from 40 to 45 per cent of the
total United States spending on foreign travel, to-day this country only receives
20 per cent, and at the same time Canadians in greater numbers are vacationing
and spending their travel funds in the United States and lands across the sea.
Never in history has competition for the tourist dollar been so keen. Every
State in the Union, every Province in Canada, and practically every country in the
world are actively promoting their glamour, historic sites, romantic associations,
recreational opportunities, amenities and facilities. Ease of travel, low fares, pay-
later plans, package tours, all have individually affected British Columbia's major
market—the seven Western States, which accounted for over 20 per cent of the
United States passports issued in 1959. It is true that 87 per cent of our tourist
traffic is by automobile, but the development and promotion of other recreational
areas on the continent and the development of the interstate highways, coupled
with Canada's dollar premium, have seriously affected our tourist trade.
In view of the foregoing, the British Columbia Travel Bureau, as will be seen
from this report, is extending itself to the full limits of its capacity, not only in the
advertising and promotions of British Columbia in the United States, domestic, and
other markets, but also in the encouragement of special events of tourist interest,
the provision of facilities and amenities, the maintenance of acceptable standards
in accommodation, food, and other service industries, and the fostering of public
awareness of the value of tourism to the community and the individual.
ATTRACTIONS
More than 250 attractions of tourist interest were listed in the Travel Bureau
Calendar of Events in 1959. Many were new, some of historic origin, and others
of international import have become established over the years. The Kelowna
Regatta, Penticton Peach Festival, Pacific National Exhibition, and Vancouver
Festival of Arts are typical. Y 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ACCOMMODATION
The year 1959 witnessed up-grading in all types of accommodation, due in
large measure to the voluntary star rating system of the British Columbia Travel
Bureau. The work of the tourist service clinics sponsored by the Travel Bureau in
co-operation with the industry associations and Chambers of Commerce has had
good results.
This year thirty-eight tourist operations closed down for various reasons, but
eighty-three new auto courts or lodges were registered, thirty-nine camp and trailer
parks were established, eight new hotels opened their doors, and six new fishing and
hunting camps and ranches were ready for business. In addition, there is in the
neighbourhood of $13,000,000 of new construction under way or on the planning
board at the present time, largely in the urban areas.
Present registrations of tourist accommodation total 2,032, with a replacement
value estimated at over $220,000,000.   This figure does not include restaurants.
INDUSTRY EDUCATION
The ownership turnover in 1959 was high as usual (over 12 per cent in
accommodations registered), emphasizing the need for augmented counselling
service to educate new operators. Accordingly, the Director assembled representatives of the British Columbia Restaurant Association, Hotel Association, Hotel
and Innkeepers Society, Auto Courts and Resorts Association, Hotel and
Restaurant Employees' Union, Vancouver Vocational Institute, and the Technical
Education Branch to discuss the situation.
Arrangements were made with the Department of Education, under a joint
Federal-Provincial agreement, for the appointment on January 1st of an " Institute
Counsellor," whose responsibility it is to co-ordinate the various educational
facilities in the restaurant-motel-hotel field, arrange clinics and instructional
classes, and give such individual help as he is able, under the guidance of an Advisory
Committee.
In 1959 the Travel Bureau conducted tourist clinics in Fort St. John, Dawson
Creek, and Prince George, with the voluntary services of F. Seal, director, American
Motor Hotel Association; J. Di Marzo, Montebello Motor Court, Hope; H. Sewell,
interior decorator, The Robert Simpson Company; P. Edgecumbe, executive secretary, B.C. Branch, Canadian Restaurant Association; and J. Osenton, Tacoma
Vocational-Technical School, Tacoma, as lecturers and demonstrators. Their
services were much appreciated and are gratefully acknowledged.
TRANSPORTATION
Developments in the transportation field, while reflected more spectacularly
in the air lines' development of new and faster service in and out of the west
coast terminals, were also noteworthy in the rail service, where group and all-expense
plans were introduced. In many instances the Bureau supports all-expense and
convention solicitation with literature upon request of the transportation companies.
All transportation companies have likewise been furnished lists of inquiries
received by the Bureau for follow-up purposes, and since they request continuance
of this service, there is every reason to believe that this measure of co-operation
is profitable to the Province.
TOURIST COUNCIL
The annual meeting of the British Columbia Tourist Council at Penticton,
October 1st and 2nd, sponsored by the Bureau, was attended by ranking officials of
all transportation companies, oil companies, hotel, motel, and restaurant associa- DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 43
tions, Chambers of Commerce, regional tourist development groups, and others
directly concerned with the tourist industry.
Under the chairmanship of Mr. G. Conway Parrott, panel and open discussions
were held, resulting in a number of recommendations for the consideration and
guidance of the British Columbia Travel Bureau and in the formation of continuing
committees on co-ordination of tourist promotion. The Director is a member of
all committees.
PROMOTION
The Travel Bureau advertising programme followed the merchandising pattern
developed over the past few years. British Columbia shared a joint programme
with Washington and Oregon in Holiday magazine. The national field was also
covered jointly by space in the National Geographic and other leading magazines.
The Western United States and Canadian markets were also covered. To the end
of September, traceable returns gave an average inquiry cost of slightly less than
$1, compared with $1.30 in 1957. Emergent promotions also utilized a spot radio
campaign in Seattle in August and an April-June newspaper programme in Spokane,
Calgary, and Edmonton.
In order to test the relative effectiveness of various mass media used, the Travel
Bureau sent 2,000 questionnaires to people who had requested information. From
a return of over 30 per cent, 313 respondents said they had visited British Columbia
in 1959 and 340 said they planned to do so within the next two years. While the
sampling was small, the results were considered indicative of a good return on the
advertising investment.
Highway bulletins in Portland, Ore., and through Washington were effectively
used to encourage local business, but particularly to keep the British Columbia
destination before those who were subject to delaying attractions en route.
Included under the heading of promotions should be the permanent exhibit in
the Avenue of Provinces at Casa Loma, Toronto, opened for the first time on May
24th, 1959. The estimated attendance at Casa Loma was somewhere between
75,000 and 80,000.
SPECIAL PROMOTION
Under the joint sponsorship of " Canadian Journalist and Press Photographer "
magazine and the Bureau, a national travel writing contest was announced. Purpose of the award—an all-expense ten-day trip for two to British Columbia via
Trans-Canada Air Lines plus $250—is to stimulate an interest in and improve the
quality of travel writing in Canada. The contest is open to all newspapermen in
Canada who have had travel articles published during the fiscal year. The contest
is the first of its kind undertaken by any Provincial Government.
PUBLICITY
The advertising programme was supported by a large amount of promotional
material furnished the newspapers, radio stations, and magazine editors, as well
as free-lance writers, by the public relations officer.
Articles and descriptive material appeared in fifteen different major magazines,
thirteen large-circulation newspapers, and several syndicates. In addition, material was supplied to some twenty free-lance writers and to the Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation, while a special " Salute to British Columbia " day was arranged through
the co-operation of Cockfield-Brown, the Bureau's advertising agency, and radio
station KOMO, Seattle. Y 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Much free publicity space was gained in mid-season from the Bureau's participation in the Pacific Northwest Travel Association editors' tour, and material assistance was also given to other special visitors, including the editors of " Town and
Country " and " Modern Bride " magazines and Dr. Willy Meyer, noted Swiss art-
historian, for whom a tour of the Province was arranged.
INQUIRIES
Resulting from the foregoing was a flood of over 45,000 inquiries, which were
handled expeditiously, and which, for the first time, were referred to thirty-eight
transportation company tourist bureaux and Chamber of Commerce offices in British
Columbia and the United States for follow-up service.
Responses to the joint British Columbia-Washington-Oregon promotions
totalled 8,348 to November 30th, and were processed in Olympia by arrangement
with the Washington State authorities.
LITERATURE
The Departmental policy of confining promotions to the over-all British Columbia picture resulted in the elimination of all regional brochures published by the
Travel Bureau and the concentration of folders and folder distribution in the basic
maps, a new rack-size publication which embraces all regions and attractions, a small
folder on ski-ing in British Columbia, and the Accommodation Directory. A calendar of events was lithographed and a road report mimeographed for distribution as
required.
Information previously contained in a sport-fishing folder was printed on the
reverse side of the Travel Bureau highway map. This reduced the number of pieces
required to answer specific fishing inquiries and permits a split run when maps
are printed.
Altogether, the British Columbia Travel Bureau distributed over a million and
a half pieces of literature in a total of 733 express and 3,252 mail shipments to
effective outlets in Canada, the United States, United Kingdom, and other overseas
destinations.    Distribution is carefully controlled to avoid any wastage.
TOURIST INFORMATION CENTRES
The Bureau's permanent tourist information centre at White Rock and mobile
centre at Cranbrook were augmented by an additional mobile centre located experimentally at Huntingdon.
Supervised staffs of tourist clerks serviced the travelling public in providing
accurate and up-to-date information concerning routes, road conditions, accommodation, and transportation facilities.
Traffic recorded at White Rock and Cranbrook increased between 3 and 4 per
cent over the previous year. Comments in the visitors' registers reflected appreciation of the information and welcome provided by the service.
FIELD WORK
The British Columbia Travel Bureau continued its arrangement with the Alberta
Travel Bureau for joint representation in the western United States. Mr. Arthur
Peers, who makes his headquarters in San Francisco, reports as follows:—
" The major travel offices in the western United States report that inquiries for
information on travel to British Columbia and Alberta were of higher volume than
in 1958. While this increase was not very large, it showed up favourably over the
pattern set for automobile travel to other parts of the continent where declines were
indicated in many instances. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 45
" The field work of the tourist trade representative extended beyond the west
coast States in 1959 to include some of the larger centres in the mid-west and
southern States. This larger territory was very receptive to our promotions, and
it is felt that it would be to our advantage to continue these contacts throughout the
wider area in which the population is showing an encouraging interest in travel to
Western Canada.
" Continuing liaison is kept up with a number of American travel promotion
groups, particularly those associated with highway travel and whose interests coincide with those of Alberta and British Columbia. It has been a privilege to work
closely with the American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA) by lecturing on travel
in Canada at their school for travel agents.
" Editorial assistance in the preparation of travel articles was given to newspapers and magazines and displays were placed in sports shows at San Francisco,
Minneapolis, and San Diego.
" Two tours in British Columbia and Alberta were arranged for U.S. travel
counsellors, and the high success of these tours points to the distinct advantage of
continuing this practice on a frequent basis.
"Throughout 1959 special attention was given to the many offices routing
automobile traffic into Alberta and British Columbia. Automobile clubs, with 137
offices in California alone, and oil companies were prime contacts. The Canadian
Consulates, of which there are two in California, perform a very important travel
service and close touch is maintained with them in order that they may be well
informed on the B.C. and Alberta travel picture. Travel agents and a number of
Chambers of Commerce are called upon regularly.
" In San Francisco, Mr. Christopher C. Eberts, Canadian Consulate General,
continued to make his office available to our use. His staff is extremely helpful in
many phases of this work.    This assistance is gratefully acknowledged.
" Frequent checks were made at film outlets where we have our moving pictures on deposit. These films are in constant demand and the outlets are continually requesting additional prints."
The value of hosting travel counsellors to which Mr. Peers refers cannot be
overestimated. During 1958, for instance, the Automobile Club of California alone
made 13,500 routines to British Columbia, and the close liaison between the various
automobile clubs and consular offices is an appreciable factor in British Columbia's
tourist industry. Recognition must also be given to the Canadian Government
Travel Bureau and its offices in New York and Chicago for excellent co-operation.
The British Columbia Travel Bureau also actively supported the Pacific Northwest Travel Association through the B.C. branch, and supplied literature for snort
and travel shows at Kansas City, Chicago, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Minneapolis,
Los Angeles, and Oakland. British Columbia representation at these booths was
arranged by other B.C. member organizations with excellent results.
Field work in British Columbia was supplemented by the Senior Travel Counsellor, who called on all regional and community travel bureaux on the Mainland,
with a view to bringing local counsellors up to date on source material, securing
knowledee of the various patterns of visitor inquiries, and stimulating interest in
other sections of the Province.
SURVEYS
During the year the British Columbia Travel Bureau co-operated with Washington State authorities on a questionnaire survey of travel between the State and
British Columbia, the results of which will be made available later. A questionnaire
survey was also conducted by the Parks Branch, with Travel Bureau co-operation, Y 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in the Okanagan Valley. Statistics drawn from these surveys will be of use in
planning future programmes. However, no depth studies or motivational research
studies have yet been made in markets favourable to development by British
Columbia.
LIAISON
The British Columbia Travel Bureau was represented at the meeting of the
Federal-Provincial Tourist Conference at Ottawa and at the Canadian Tourist
Association annual meeting, where the need for exhaustive surveys was stressed.
The Bureau has also supported the Pacific Northwest Travel Association, Okanagan-
Cariboo Trail Association, and encouraged the development of the Okanagan Valley
Tourist Association. Close liaison was maintained between the Bureau and the
Auto Courts and Resorts Association of British Columbia, British Columbia Hotel
Association, and Hotel Operators and Innkeepers Society. The Director attended
and spoke at many regional and district Board of Trade meetings and attended meetings of the Victoria and Island Publicity Bureau and Greater Vancouver Tourist
Association.
Acknowledgment should be made here of the splendid work and co-operation
received from Chambers of Commerce and travel bureaux throughout the Province.
Without exception, their promotional activities have been of a high standard, and
were co-ordinated with those of the British Columbia Travel Bureau.
The Travel Bureau also acknowledges the co-operation of the Director and
staff of the Alberta Travel Bureau, officers and staff of the Canadian Government
Travel Bureau, who provided invaluable assistance and exchanges throughout the
year. The officers of the Canadian Tourist Association also contributed their interest and service generously.
To their mutual advantage, representatives of the travel departments of the
four Western Provinces met in Vancouver in January to discuss star rating, general
western promotions, and a continuance of an association designed to promote tourist
traffic to and maintain high standards of service in Western Canada generally.
SETTLEMENT
Settlement inquiries were higher than in previous years. The majority of the
350 inquiries were from the United States and were concerned with land settlement.
The assistance of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration and the National
Employment Service is hereby acknowledged, as is the help rendered by the Departments of Lands and Agriculture.
The Bureau does not solicit immigration, but all inquiries are attended to
promptly, and the necessary information and reference are forwarded without delay. GROWTH   OF COMMERCIAL
ESTIMATED  TOTAL CAPITAL  IN
NUMBER OF ES
IN   OPERATION AT DEC.3
200                       150                       100
TOURIST ACCOMMODATION*
VESTMENT OVER $220,000,000.
TABL1SHMENTS
1958                              NEW IN 1959
50                                10       30       50
AUTO  COURTS AN[
) RESORTS
1
11 ll I i.ixn
2                                                                  -.  .       ..
11
3
■a
83
5
6
7              L                 _i_
I          	
1,389
HOTELS
38
Closed Down
1 1  1  II  1  1  1  II  1  1  1  1  M  II  1  j  1
I I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I     i       H
I I I I I 11|I I I| I || |
307
FISHING AND HUNTI
DUDE RANCr
NG LODGES
1ES
II I il
I I I I I I I | |  || | I I |"l     II             K
102
CAMP AND TRAIL
L
ER PARKS
I I II I 1 I I I I I I 1 I       iiiiiiii
84                                                          39
UNREGISTERED    39
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
DEPT. RECREATION & CONSERVATION
AS REGISTERED WITH   THE  B.C. TRAVEL BUREAU TO OCT. 31 St. 1959.
1960 w
Ul
a 2
2   D
U  O
I
-I  >"
TOURIST ENQUIRIES RECEIVED BY MAIL
AT B.C. TRAVEL BUREAU
1957
1958
1959
77-
JAN        FEB      MAR      APR      MAY      JUNE    JULY     AUG      SEPT      OCT      NOV       DEC
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
DEPT. RECREATION \ CONSERVATION
TRAVEL BUREAU
1960 U.S. EXPENDITURE ON FOREIGN  TRAVEL
1948
1958
EXPENDITURE  IN   CANADA
H ii   OTHER COUNTRIES
"DOMINION  BUREAU OF STATISTICS
U.S. EXPENDITURE IN AND VISITORS TO  CANADA
1958
EXPENDITURE
VISITORS (U.S. ENTRIES ON CUSTOM
PERMITS).
i
o
u
Id
a
s
10    £0
E   i
*8
UJ     111
O
z
I
a.
BRITISH  COLUMBIA
DEPT. RECREATION S. CONSERVATION
TRAVEL BUREAU
1960  PHOTOGRAPHIC
BRANCH An important step in the transportation story of British Columbia is taken with
the launching of the M.V. " Sidney " at Victoria Machinery Depot, Victoria, B.C.
The new vessel will share a Government ferry route with M.V. " Tsawwassen"
between Swartz Bay on Vancouver Island and Tsawwassen, south of Vancouver.
History is recorded in this Photographic Branch picture of the official opening of
Government House, May 19th, 1959. Left to right: The Honourable W. N. Chant,
Minister of Public Works; the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, Lieutenant-
Governor; and the Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, Premier. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 53
PHOTOGRAPHIC BRANCH
R. L. Colby, Chief
STILL PHOTOGRAPHY
The year began with complete coverage of the Legislature opening in January.
A colour photograph of His Honour Lieutenant-Governor Frank Mackenzie Ross
was taken prior to this assignment. CBUT-TV made use of a large selection of
Branch photographs to illustrate a Parks Branch programme. A record of the
Departmental conference in Victoria was made.
In February, coverage of shipping activity was taken for Canada Year Book.
Photographs were taken of Chief Mungo Martin carving totem-poles for a B.C.
display in Toronto. Work progress at Goldstream Park was recorded. Assignments were completed for several departments during February.
A series of 11" x 14" colour transparencies went to the B.C. display in Toronto
on behalf of the Travel Bureau in March, together with a selection of black-and-
white enlargements. Record was made of the keel-laying ceremony for the new
Government ferry being built at Victoria for the British Columbia Toll Highways
and Bridges Authority.
The opening ceremony of the Girls Correctional School, Haney, was photographed.   Photographs of the building itself were obtained.
Assignments were completed for the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Public Works, and the Parks Branch in April. Unveiling of the Elizabeth
McKenzie plaque by Dr. Clifford Carl of the Provincial Museum was photographed.
Ceremonies, and details of the buildings concerned, were photographed when
the Department of Health and Welfare opened Burnaby and Lillooet hospitals, and
the Home for the Aged at Coquitlam in May. A conference sponsored by the
Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce was photographed
in Vancouver. Opening of the new Government House and accompanying plaque-
unveiling were recorded for Public Works. Photographs of the building were taken.
Assistance was given to Mr. Eliot Elisofon in photographing local Indian dances
for Life magazine.
June hospital openings at Chilliwack and Centennial Buildings of Vancouver
General were photographed. Dedication of Rebecca Spit Park, Quadra Island, was
covered for the Parks Branch in black-and-white and colour. Restocking of Dur-
rance Lake was recorded for the Fish and Game Branch. Aerials of Deas Island
Tunnel and associated freeways were taken.
In addition to assignments for numerous intergovernmental departments
during July, Branch photographers covered the official opening of Goldstream Park.
Record was made of the visit of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth to Deas Island
Tunnel, Nanaimo, and Victoria. Photographs of this occasion were submitted to
Canadian Geographic Magazine.
In August, photographs of various Government workers at their jobs were
taken for a Civil Service Commission display at the Pacific National Exhibition.
Colour transparencies were produced for the Provincial botanist in connection with
an address to an international conference at Montreal. Photographs to be used by
an advertising agency engaged by the Travel Bureau were taken. Part of the
Barkerville restoration programme was recorded.
Still photographs of Fraser Canyon and Rogers Pass construction were part of
September-October work of the Branch, and the launching of the new Government
ferry " Sidney" at Victoria. Aspects of Cache Creek Checking-station were
photographed for the Fish and Game Branch. An assignment for the Department of
Industrial Development,  Trade, and Commerce was completed  in Vancouver. Y 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Photographs of Victoria College and of a local display were taken for the Department of Public Works and the Department of Education, respectively.
November work included coverage of a civil defence orientation course for
hospital administrators for the Hospital Insurance Service, launching the new
Government ferry "Tsawwassen" at North Vancouver, and photographing a new
earth-testing drill built by the Department of Highways.
In December, construction start of Victoria's new Court-house was photographed, as was the model of the new building. Acceptance by the Honourable
L. R. Peterson of Chief Mungo Martin's Indian masks and other items, a gift
to British Columbia, was photographed.
Extensive use was made of the Branch's file of colour photographs in the
production of the first two issues of the new Departmental magazine " Beautiful
British Columbia," and much photographic work in this connection is anticipated in
the future.
MOTION PICTURES
This was another busy and productive year in the motion-picture field, and
again five new films were released, as follows:—
(1) "B.C. International Trade Fair" was produced for the Department of
Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce. It reflects the industrial
growth of the Province as represented by our first international trade fair
held in 1958. A French language version, for European distribution,
constituted the first non-English sound track produced by this Branch.
(2) " Deas Island Tunnel" was produced for the Department of Highways,
and is the final version of the interim film released last year. It shows
the problems of design and construction that were presented by the
project, and ends with the official opening by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth.
(3) " The New Island Highway," produced for the Department of Highways,
compares the Island Highway before the First World War with the newly
completed one of to-day, together with scenic and recreational spots along
the way. Twenty prints have been ordered by the Canadian Government
Travel Bureau for distribution in the United States.
(4) " Our Home Town," produced for this Department, shows how Mission
City has become the location of the Western Canadian finals of the Soap
Box Derby through the facilities provided for these youthful drivers.
The Canadian Government Travel Bureau has ordered twenty prints of
this production also.
(5) " Land of the Red Goat," produced for this Department, is a film showing a trip made by a Government biologist into the remote Spatsizi area of
the Cassiar District. It was released late in December and should prove
to be a very popular film.
The following films are in various stages of production for possible release in
I960:—
(a) A historic film on the Fraser Canyon section of the Trans-Canada Highway.
(b) A film showing the construction of the two new Government ferries
" Sidney " and " Tsawwassen."
(c) A film showing many of the big-game animals of the Province.
(d) A film showing the removal of totem-poles from Anthony Island in the
Queen Charlottes is ready for sounding and release as soon as the necessary funds are made available. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 55
DARKROOM PRODUCTION
The demand for still photographic work has held high. The darkroom processed 11,476 negatives and produced 20,944 prints, of which 2,854 were supplied
to writers, newspapers, and magazines. Processing of colour negatives and prints
has been started in an experimental way.
GENERAL
A total of 1,320 letters were received and 1,136 sent out. The number of
motion-picture showings increased sharply, reflecting the addition of new titles and
additional prints to our library and that of the Canadian Government Travel
Bureau. A larger number of prints are still required to obtain the greatest possible
circulation of some of the popular film titles; for instance, the film " Tight Lines "
had thirty-seven showings during the first three months of 1959 in the United
States. During the next three months, with the addition of twenty-five prints, the
showings jumped to 178.
Private showings in Canada totalled 1,704, with audiences of 140,793. This
includes the British Columbia Summer Cinema, organized by the National Film
Board and again supported by this Branch, and is nearly three times larger than
the 1958 figure. In the United States there were 2,437 direct screenings during the
year, with audiences totalling 197,384. There were thirty-six television showings
in Canada during the year and 101 in the United States. The film " Tight Lines "
was televised coast to coast on a C.B.C. network during November. During the
year seventy shows were put on in the Branch theatre, and twenty-two shows were
given to service clubs and other groups.  COMMERCIAL
FISHERIES
BRANCH British Columbia's herring fleet enjoyed record pre-Christmas catches of exceptionally
high-quality fish.   Here the brailers load the catch from net to hold. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 59
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BRANCH
A. A. Bagattin, Supervisor
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1959
SHOWS DECREASE
Preliminary figures now indicate that the canned-salmon pack for 1959 will
show a large decrease in comparison to the high cycle-year pack of sockeye in 1958.
The general strike, which was in effect for two weeks, also contributed to the
decline in the pack of salmon.
The estimated canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1959 amounted to
1,089,799 cases, and according to the preliminary figures as of December 5th,
1959, comprised the following species (48-pound cases): Sockeyes, 256,420;
springs, 15,760; steelheads, 1,254; cohoes, 224,163; pinks, 458,229; chums,
133,973.
BRITISH COLUMBIA CANNING INDUSTRY,  1959
Twenty-four salmon-canneries were licensed to operate in this Province in
1959, an increase of four over 1958. Operating canneries were located as follows:
Queen Charlotte Island, 1; Skeena River, 6; Central Area, 2; Vancouver Island, 2;
Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 13.
Probably the most severe drawback to the 1959 fishing season was the fishermen's strike, which included the shore workers and tendermen. Thus the entire
fishing industry was tied up for a period between July 25th and August 9th.
In northern areas the runs were later than normal and, being off schedule,
extended over a longer period. For several weeks after the commencement of the
salmon-fishing season, catches were disappointing to both the fishermen and operators.
Sockeye Salmon
Had it not been for the interruption caused by the strike when the individual
runs appeared, the sockeye-pack, particularly in the Nass and Skeena areas, would
have exceeded the cycle-year. The escapement to the Chilko spawning area was
excessive and runs to the other areas in the Fraser River system were satisfactory.
Pink Salmon
The pack for this species in 1959 was estimated at 458,285 cases, compared
with the previous cycle-year's pack of 742,454 cases in 1957 and 832,136 cases in
1958.
The runs to the east coast of Vancouver Island and the Fraser River were
below the cycle-year, 1957. Here again the strike was responsible for the decline
in the catch of this species in the northern area.
A co-operative pink-salmon tagging programme, from July 15th to September
30th, 1959, was the largest ever attempted for Pacific salmon. This programme
was jointly conducted by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, the International
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, the Federal Department of Fisheries, and
the State of Washington Department of Fisheries, to determine the migratory movements of pink-salmon stocks which pass through conventional waters on their way
to the spawning rivers and streams in Southern British Columbia and Puget Sound.
The Fraser River sockeye and pink-salmon fishery regulations are formulated
by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission and are enforced by the
Federal Department of Fisheries. The Commission regulates the sockeye- and
pink-salmon fishery in " convention " waters in such a way that the nationals of Y 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Canada and the United States share the catch equally. However, due to the interruption caused by the strike, the catch by American fishermen has exceeded the
Canadian catch in 1959.
Cohoe Salmon
The 1959 pack of cohoe will be larger than the cycle-year of 1956. During
that year 212,140 cases were packed.   Bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack.
Chum Salmon
According to preliminary figures as of December 5th, the chum-salmon pack
for 1959 has exceeded the cycle-year 1955, when 128,289 cases were packed.
Spring Salmon
The spring-salmon pack for 1959 shows a slight increase, and is the largest
pack of this species since 1955. The total pack during that year amounted to
17,929 cases.
Escapement
Escapement was substantially greater to all areas than in the brood-year of
1955, with the exception of the runs to the Pitt River and Weaver Creek in the
Lower Mainland. These were seriously affected by major flooding of these streams
during the brood-year of 1955.
Tuna-fish
Preliminary figures disclose that the landings of albacore tuna during the
months of August, September, and October, caught mainly off the coast of Washington and the northern part of Oregon, amounted to 164,000 pounds.
The tuna-fishery off the west coast of British Columbia has not been consistent,
with catches varying greatly from year to year.
DOGFISH-CONTROL
The Federal Government appropriated the sum of $250,000 to the Federal
Department of Fisheries in an attempt to induce fishermen to wage a concerted
attack on the harmful dogfish population, reported to be increasing steadily in the
Pacific coastal waters during the past ten years.
Since synthetic Vitamin A entered the market, the price of liver oil has dropped
sharply and the catching of dogfish is no longer profitable.
Dogfish interfere seriously with the commercial fishery and with tidal-water
sport fishing, a valuable tourist resource. Fishermen were subsidized at the rate
of 10 cents a pound for dogfish livers as a salmon and herring conservation measure,
and by November 25th had claimed $61,572.
Halibut
The International Pacific Halibut Commission was set up under treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut-
fishery. For the purpose of regulation, the Pacific Coast is divided into a number of
areas. The 1959 regulatory areas do not differ from those of 1958. They are as
follows:—•
Area 1a—South of Heceta Head, Ore., U.S.A.
Area 1b—Between Heceta Head and Willapa Bay, Wash., U.S.A.
Area 2 —Between Willapa Bay and Cape Spencer, Alaska.
Area 3a—Between Cape Spencer and Kupreanof Point, near Shumagin Islands.
Area 3b—All waters west of Area 3a, including the Bering Sea. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 61
The principal areas from a standpoint of production are Areas 2 and 3. The
catch-limits set by the Commission for the 1959 season were 26,500,000 pounds in
Area 2, and 30,000,000 pounds in Area 3.
The main halibut season for British Columbia fishermen opened May 1st, three
days earlier than in 1958. Halibut-landings for 1959 are not available for inclusion
in this report.
Herring
After considerable negotiations between the fishermen and operators, an agreement was reached, and the herring-fishermen commenced fishing on October 7th,
1959.
The forecast for the 1959/60 herring-fishing season indicates that the size of
herring in most areas will be larger than in 1958/59.
With the exception of the Lower West Coast Areas 23 and 24, herring-landings
have been heavy. To date the herring-catch for 1959 is equal to that reported in
1958.
Red Tide
In the public interest the present clam closure must remain until toxicity no
longer exists in Fishing Areas 13, 14, and 15 and the northerly portions of Areas 16
and 17.
During 1959, laboratory tests of clams revealed a varying degree of toxicity
still existed in these areas. These areas have been under quarantine since October
29th, 1957.
Oyster Breeding, 1959
In 1959 successful Pacific oyster breeding occurred only in Pendrell Sound.
The fairly extensive periods of fine weather were accompanied by strong westerly
winds. These winds had little or no effect on the temperature pattern in Pendrell
Sound, hence lengthy periods with quite high water temperatures occurred there,
at times reaching a daily mean of 76° F. In Ladysmith Harbour, however, the
westerly winds caused severe and rapid fluctuations in temperature. No extensive
broods of larvas were produced here and only a few spat were found.
In Pendrell Sound the first spawning occurred very early, about June 25th.
A commercial spatfall was forecast to begin July 12th—13th and to continue for
about a week. Shell strings exposed throughout the sound during the period July
11th to August 4th caught an average of 107 spat per shell from this set. Further
spawnings occurred on July 12th and 19th, and a commercial spatfall was forecast
to begin about August 1 st. This spatfall was quite heavy, and no attempt was made
to count it for it averaged well over 100 spat per shell.
Commercial cultching was carried on in Pendrell Sound.
The 1958 spatfall in British Columbia was very intensive and extensive. It is
now known that successful breeding occurred in all oystering areas, and most beaches
throughout Georgia Strait now hold considerable quantities of oyster spat. This
is a repetition, on a much larger scale, of a similar situation in 1942, when the
extensive spatfall carried the oyster industry through the war years when no seed
was available from Japan. Y 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LICENCES ISSUED AND REVENUE COLLECTED
The following table shows the number of licences issued and revenue collected
during the 1959 season:—
Number of
Licence                                                                                           Licences Revenue
Salmon-cannery     24 $4,800.00
Herring-cannery       	
Herring reduction      10 1,000.00
Tierced salmon       6 600.00
Fish cold storage     17 1,700.00
Fish-processing     18 18.00
Shell-fish cannery       9 9.00
Tuna-fish cannery       3 3.00
Fish-offal reduction       9 9.00
Fish-liver reduction       3 3.00
Whale reduction       1 100.00
Herring dry-saltery       2 200.00
Fish-buyers'    457 11,425.00
Non-tidal fishing  179 182.00
General receipts        4 61.00
$20,110.00
REVIEW OF THE FISHERIES PRODUCTION
OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1958
The Commercial Fisheries Branch licensed twenty salmon-canneries to operate
in 1958. However, a new cannery, constructed at Port Alberni, was not put into
operation as anticipated.
The location of these canneries was: Fraser River area, 10; Skeena River, 6;
Central area, 2;  and Queen Charlotte Islands, 1.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia, according to the annual
returns submitted to this Branch by those canners licensed to operate in 1958,
amounted to 1,900,174 cases, compared with 1,450,976 cases packed in 1957.
Sockeye Salmon
Due to the Adams River run, the pack for this species amounted to 1,074,303
cases. This was the largest pack of sockeye salmon since 1905, when 1,080,673
cases were packed.
Cohoe Salmon
The cohoe-pack in 1958 amounted to 131,528 cases. This was 79,367 cases
less than the year previous and 42,457 cases below the average annual pack for the
past five years. In the case of cohoe salmon, it should be remembered that large
quantities of cohoe caught each year enter the fresh and frozen market, and these,
of course, are in addition to the catch, as indicated by the canned-cohoe pack.
Pink Salmon
In 1958 the pink-salmon pack amounted to 451,528 cases, compared with
752,454 cases in 1957. The pack in 1958 was 95,433 cases below the average
pack for this species for the previous five years. The pink-salmon run to the Fraser
River coincides with the odd-numbered years, while the run to the Queen Charlotte
Islands area coincides with the even-numbered years. The principal producing
area for pink salmon in 1958 was the northern area. DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION Y 63
Chum Salmon
The chum-salmon pack in 1958 amounted to 230,631 cases. This is compared
with 245,273 cases packed in 1957. The pack of this species of salmon was 14,642
cases below the average annual pack for the previous five-year period.
In addition to the chum-salmon pack, due allowance must be made for the
large numbers which are exported to the United States.
Spring Salmon
The 1958 spring-salmon pack amounted to 10,705 cases. This was the smallest
pack since 1952, when the total pack was 9,277 cases. The pack of this species
is never indicative of the size of the catch or run, as a large amount are used in
the fresh and frozen market.
Steelhead
In 1958 the steelhead-pack amounted to 1,204 cases, principally those caught
by fishermen incidental to fishing for salmon.
See statement showing the salmon-pack of British Columbia, 1954 to 1958,
contained in this report.
Other Canneries
Herring-canneries.—In 1958 one herring-cannery operated in British Columbia
and produced a pack of 10,351 cases. The total pack in 1957 amounted to 18,349
cases.
Pilchard-canneries.—There has been no run of pilchards off the west coast of
Vancouver Island since 1949.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—During 1958 one tuna-fish cannery was licensed to
operate. This cannery produced 22,012 cases of 7-ounce cans, 7,816 cases of
6-ounce cans (flakes), and 34,478 cases of 4-ounce cans. The tuna-fishery off the
west coast of Vancouver Island is still in an experimental condition, consequently
the catch will vary from year to year. Practically all the tuna-fish canned in British
Columbia were imported from Japan in a frozen condition.
Shell-fish Canneries.—In 1958 eight shell-fish canneries were licensed to operate in British Columbia and produced a pack as follows:—
Crabs:  44,594 cases of 24/Vi's, 1,169 cases of 24/Ws.
Clams:, 5,811 cases of 24/Vi's, 10,773 cases of 24/1's, 1,988 cases of 48/]/2's,
and 1,125 cases of 6/10's (gallons).
Oysters: 474 cases of 24/10-ounce cans, 12,324 cases of 24/^'s, and 7,319
cases of 24/10-ounce cans of oyster stew.
Abalone:   100 cases of 48/1's.
Mild-cured Salmon
Seven plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1958, all of which operated
and produced a pack of 568 tierces of mild-cured salmon, containing 4,592 hundredweight. This operation is compared with the production of six plants licensed to
operate in 1957, which produced a pack of 550 tierces, containing 4,380 hundredweight.
Herring Dry-saltery
During 1958 no herring dry-salteries operated. In 1957 two herring drysalteries were licensed to operate and produced 2,645 boxes of salted herring. Y 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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Halibut-fishery
The 1958 catch quotas set by the International Pacific Halibut Commission for
the different areas were as follows: Area 2, 26,500,000 pounds, and Area 3,
30,000,000 pounds.
Halibut-landings in 1958 (1957 in parentheses) by the combined Canadian
and United States vessels amounted to 65,213,000 (62,327,000) pounds.
Average price paid for Canadian landings in Canadian ports was 20.7 cents per
pound.   This was up 4.36 cents from 1957.
The United States vessels landed 160,019 pounds of halibut-livers, valued at
$27,627, and also 103,622 pounds of halibut-viscera to an undeterminable but
negligible value.
Canadian vessels landed 154,000 pounds of halibut-livers and viscera combined, valued at $31,000.
The figures relating to the halibut-catch are to the nearest thousand pounds.
The statistical information was supplied by the International Halibut Commission
and is hereby acknowledged.
Fish Oil and Meal
Herring Reduction.—Twelve herring-reduction plants were licensed to operate
in 1958, and produced 42,357 tons of meal and 4,545,474 gallons of oil. This
production is compared with the previous year when nine plants produced 13,643
tons of meal and 1,746,227 gallons of oil.
Fish-liver Reduction.—Four plants were licensed in 1958 to reduce fish-livers
to oil. They processed 636,938 pounds and produced 1,821,994 U.S.P. units of
Vitamin A. Four plants processed 892,290 pounds of livers and produced
3,292,555 U.S.P. units of Vitamin A in 1957.
Miscellaneous Reduction—Fish-offal and Dogfish.-—During the 1958 season
nine plants were licensed to operate and produced 2,318 tons of meal and 272,223
gallons of oil, compared with the production of nine plants in the previous year,
which amounted to 1,570 tons of meal and 170,443 gallons of oil.
Whale Reduction.—In 1958 one whale-reduction plant operated. The operations show 774 whales killed, compared with 635 in 1957.
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters
Fishing with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is
permissible under licence from the Minister of Recreation and Conservation. With
the exception of two fur-farm fishing licences, this fishery is confined almost exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in question.
The table gives the principal catch figures for this fishery. Y 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Catch of Fish Taken from Non-tidal Waters, 1958/59
Kind of Licence
Number of
Fish Taken
Approximate
Fur-farjn
Ordinary
Sturgeon
Weight (Lb.)
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
2
3
1
1
1
4
13
9
183
1
1
2
9
1
1
2
285
315
2,650
6,250
	
723
1,373
171
310
8,238
746
Nil
1,098
1,612
6
119
4,357
5,221
5,421
387
281
4,158
14
54
122
98
130
284
Tezzeron Lake1	
	
12,584
31,839
1 No returns were submitted by licence-holders covering these lakes.
Three returns marked " Nil " were submitted for Christina Lake.
Catch by Species
Species                                                                                             Number of Fish Weight (Lb.)
Kokanee     5,007 4,359
Lake trout     1,732 10,174
Whitefish     2,200 7,473
Ling        374 1,663
Squawfish        865 872
Suckers      2,327 6,573
Sturgeon            6 387
Others          73 338
31,839
Totals
12,584
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the year 1958 is as follows:—
Kind of Fish Value
Salmon   $75,800,000
Herring   8,990,000
Halibut  6,690,000
Grey cod  752,000
Ling-cod   564,000
Black cod  181,000
Red cod  48,000
Clams  259,000
Crabs   801,000 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 67
Kind of Fish
Eulachon 	
Flounders	
Oysters 	
Perch 	
Smelts 	
Shrimps and prawns
Skate	
Soles	
Sturgeon 	
Livers and viscera _
Miscellaneous1 	
Total
Value
$40,000
10,000
321,000
80,000
9,000
463,000
7,000
780,000
15,000
151,000
2,263,000
$98,224,000
1 Includes whales, mink-feed, and fish products, meal and oil, for which no breakdown into species was
available.
Source:  Canadian Department of Fisheries at Vancouver, B.C.
Statement Showing the Quantity of Herring Products Produced
in British Columbia, 1954 to 1958, Inclusive
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Meal
Oil
1954/55.-
1955/56-.
1956/57-
1957/58..
1958/59-
Cases
25,508
11,728
18,349
10,351
Tons
2,397
249
290
2,645
Tons
28,782
47,097
32,772
13,643
43,527
Gal.
3,714,924
4,475,536
3,602,937
1,746,227
4,545,474
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually.
Statement Showing the Quantity of Meal, Oil, and Vitamin A Produced
from Sources Other than Herring, 1954 to 1958, Inclusive
Season
From Whales
Whalebone
and Meal
Oil
Oil from
Fish-livers
From Other Sources
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1954/55..
1955/56-
1956/57..
1957/58..
1958/59..
Tons
2,502
3,411
2,182
3,446
4,226
Gal.
872,060
759,785
526,584
952,702
908,482
Units*
4,310,057
4,760,668
2,355,410
3,292,552
1,821,994
Tons
2,361
1,993
1,925
1,570
2,318
Gal.
265,405
201,690
187,787
170,433
272,223
1 Million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A. Y 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statement Showing the Salmon-pack of British Columbia, 1954 to 1958,
Inclusive (Showing the Origin of Salmon Caught in Each District)
(48-pound cases.)
Sockeyes
Area
1958
1957
1956
1955
1954
606,6691/2
188,0981/2
98,6731/2
17,3631/2
51,8841/2
58,303
52,7981/2
512
121,965!/2
26,030
26,3341/2
5,952
10,5521/2
25,428
10,110
2,079i/2
88,1321/2
13,970
124,6341/2
36,898
17,967
14,663
22,505
1,323
103.678V4
13,19214
50.702V2
28,864
19,648
14,649
13,6541/i
433
497,023
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
12,051
50,639^2
18,937
Smith Inlet. . 	
30,858V2
60,817
10,285
Queen Charlotte Islands	
107V2
3
Cold storage	
671/2
Totals-	
1,074,303
228,452
320,093
244,821%
680,789
Springs
2,709i/2
3,564
674
63
1,421
1,526
735
13
1
3,1261/2  j
5,189      |
373      1
109
746V2  j
5141/2  |
274
148
2,104      j
2,8731/2
5,9411/2
419
166
1,3641/4
371
536
1
6,843i/2
5,534
813
326
1,864
1,430
1,028
16
5
8,298
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
Rivers Inlet	
Smith Inlet  	
l,649i/2
649
177!4
1,645
Skeena River •	
1,260!4
398V2
6V2
Cold storage	
272*4
Totals	
10,7051/2
12,5841/2   |
1
11,6721/4
17,8591/2
14,357
Steelheads
Fraser River	
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
I8II/2
1201/2
165
20
252
295
175
429%
74
431/2
I81/2
2431/2
38314
125
337%
25V2
55
331/2
273%
312
217
269
63
86
201/2
3181/2
976!/2
99
5
441/2
1,077
91V2
131
Smith Inlet.	
51
5951/2
1,5131/2
237
371/2
1631/2
Totals - -	
1,2041/2
1,317%
1,254
1,882
3,897%
Cohoes
Fraser River _  	
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
Rivers Inlet  	
Smith Inlet _	
Central Area _. _	
Skeena River -	
Nass River-
Queen Charlotte Islands-
Alaska	
Cold storage-	
Totals	
3,203
4,836
12,273%
81.038V2
113,6301/2
118,938
3,190i/2
4,191
6,601W
368
1,654
2,249
27,080
33,8341/2
40,299
7,555V2
6,026V2
8,265
4,834
10,5471/2
8,165i/2
4,259
18,339
7,314i/2
8,034i/2
17,83614
131,5281/2  I
210,8951/2  I      212,140!/2
I
15,910
101,349
5,3161/2
l,014!/2
24,846
14,192
9,356
11,666
2,030
5IP/2
11,948
54,783
4,6691/2
868
26,511
10,449
6,0241/2
11,289
1,536
1,546
129,624 DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION AND CONSERVATION
Y 69
Statement Showing the Salmon-pack of British Columbia, 1954 to 1958,
Inclusive—Continued
Pinks
Area
1958
1957
1956
1955
1954
612V4
87,127
12,5391/2
2,553
158,025
60,94114
44,037
85,9861/2
68,9681/2
423,2751/2
3,1041/2
1,005
58,957
148,0491/4
38,694
9,556
348
55,0521/2
12,0461/2
1,664
205,658
25,633
44,4021/2
18,809V4
160,1871/2
421,355!/2
8,658
2,275V4
122,3711/2
86,788
29,040
548
31
171/2
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
32,913
2,5811/2
Smith Inlet -	
523
118,538V4
39,3241/2
36,448
105,123
81
844
1,5121/2
Totals 	
451,802
752,454
363,614
831,255
337,062!/2
Chums
Fraser River	
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland
Rivers Inlet  	
9,468
88,4001/2
4,627
1,173
97,5031/2
7,806V4
19,1671/2
2,485
5,585
44,0801/2
2,553
3,000
136,370
6,8981/2
30,961
10,091
9,989
71,5951/2
2,926V4
1,642
58,6021/2
6,283
35,588
17,4431/2
7,3501/2
40,105
5,588
2,070
45,950
5,471%
8,904
9,420
45,444
248,0981/2
12,3521/2
2,992
149,672
Skeena River   -	
23,1351/2
15,9651/2
Queen Charlotte Islands	
83,8051/2
163
5,7341/2
3,430
496
Totals 	
230,631
245.273V4
204,070
128,289
582,124V4
Total Pack by Species, 1958
Sockeyes   1,074,303
Springs  10,705 V2
Steelheads   1,204 Vi
Cohoes  131,528 V2
Pinks  451,802
Chums  230,631
Total  1,900,174 V2
Note.—11,103 V2 cases of bluebacks included with cohoes and 150'/^  cases of smoked red spring included
with springs. CATCHES BY CANADIAN BOATS IN WATERS
NORTH OF DIXON ENTRANCE ARE CLASSIFIED
AS ALASKA
AREAS  PREVIOUSLY DESIGNATED AS "A AND¥
ARE  NOW   SHOWN UNDER  THIS HEADING.
AREA'C"-   ALL   FISH CAUGHT OFF THE  COAST
OF   THE   STATE OF WASHINGTON
SOUTH   OF CAPE FLATTERY
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FISHING    AREAS
NORTHERN   HALF
COMPILED FROM INFORMATION
SUPPLIED BY THE FEDERAL DEP.
OF FISHERIES.
STATISTICAL AREAS 	
SALMON FISHING WITH
NETS OF ANY KIND IS NOT
PERMITTED OUTSIDE OF,
THAT IS.SEAWARDOF THE
HEAVY BLACK LINE.
DIXON  ENTRANCE
i^-5>>-~W4AH
GRAHAM      ))     1/  Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1960
1,360-160-2516

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