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REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1958 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1959]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. G. WILLISTON, Minister R. G. McKEE, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1958
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959  Victoria, B.C., February, 1959.
To Group Captain the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of
the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1958.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests. The Honourable R. G. Willis ton,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1958.
R. G. McKEE,
Deputy Minister of Forests. CONTENTS
Item Page
1. Introductory  11
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  18
Introduction  18
Operations  18
Continuous Inventory—Progress  18
Forest Mapping   19
Forest Sampling  19
Standard Sampling  19
Photo Mensuration ,  20
Growth  20
Loss Factors and Forest Depletion  22
Surveys in Crown Forest Units  22
Forest Resources Report  22
Computations of Statistics  23
Liaison Work  23
3. Forest Research  24
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station  24
Aleza Lake Experiment Station  24
Field Programme  24
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1958  25
Research Publications, 1958  26
4. Reforestation  28
Forest Nurseries 1  28
Seed Collections  28
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  29
Planting  29
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance  29
Preparation of Planting-sites  30
Permanent Improvements  30
5. Working Plans   31
Introduction  31
Sustained-yield Units  31
Tree-farm Licences  32
Tree-farm Lands  32
Farm Wood-lot Licences  32
6. Public Information and Education  33
Introduction  33
Photography and Motion Pictures  33
Film Library :  34
Publications and Printing  34
Radio and Television  3 5
Commercial Theatres  36
News Media Liaison  36
Roadway and Roadside Signs  36
School Lectures  37
5 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item pAGE
6. Public Information and Education—Continued
Exhibits  37
Library  37
Co-operation _-_  38
7. Forest Management  39
General  39
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  40
Lumber Prices  40
Log Prices  40
Stumpage Prices  40
Sliding-scale Adjustments  41
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies  41
Administration of Managed Units  41
Silviculture  42
8. Grazing .  43
Introduction  43
Administration  43
Grazing and Hay Permits  43
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  44
Live-stock Counts  44
Violations and Prosecutions  44
Range Management  44
Range Surveys  44
Range Improvements  45
Range Research  46
Co-operation  46
General Conditions  47
Markets and Prices  47
Live-stock Losses  47
Diseases of Live Stock  47
9. Engineering Services  48
Engineering Section  48
General Engineering  48
Road Reconnaissance  49
Road Location  49
Road Construction and Maintenance  50
Mechanical Section  5 2
Equipment Selection  52
General Supervision  54
Building Construction and Marine Design  54
Forest Service Marine Station  56
Marine Work  56
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop  56
Machine-shop  56
General Plant Maintenance  57
Radio Station  57
L REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 7
Item Page
10. Forest Protection  60
Weather  60
Fires , .  61
Occurrence and Causes  61
Cost of Fire-fighting  61
Damage  61
Fire-control Planning and Research  61
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  61
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  61
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles and Sustained-yield
Units  62
Air-photo Mosaics  62
Fire-weather Records and Investigation  62
Fire-suppression Crews  62
Aircraft  63
Roads and Trails  64
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  64
Fire-law Enforcement  64
Forest Closures  64
11. Forest Biology Division  66
Accommodation and Facilities  66
Forest-insect Investigations  66
Forest-insect Survey  67
Research Projects  67
Forest-disease Investigations  68
Forest-disease Survey  69
Diseases of Immature Forests  70
Diseases of Mature Forests  70
12. Forest Ranger School  71
Curriculum  71
Extra Courses  71
Acknowledgments  72
13. Forest Accounts  73
14. Personnel  75
Organization  75
Services ,  75
Communications and Training  75
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turn-over  76
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  77
15. Personnel Directory, 1959  78
16. Appendix — Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  8 3  The 1958 fire season was the most severe in the history of the Province. All protection
facilities of the Service were taxed to the limit as every practical means of fire suppression
was employed.  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE, 1958
Introduction and Legislation
Effective January 1st, 1958, the Honourable Gordon McG. Sloan, former Chief Justice of British Columbia and twice-appointed Royal Commissioner on Forestry, assumed
the duties of " Forest Adviser to the Government," with the continuing powers of a Royal
Commissioner. A series of special hearings was held by the Forest Adviser on specific
problems confronting the industry, and recommendations were made to the Government
on two of these problems. Towards the end of the year, the Honourable Mr. Sloan was
engaged in the third and fourth series of hearings when he was stricken with a severe illness which later proved fatal, to the great and permanent loss of British Columbia.
During 1958 important changes were made in forest legislation to implement certain
recommendations contained in the 1956 report of the Honourable Mr. Sloan under the
" Public Inquiries Act." The principal of these amendments were those changing the
name of " forest management licences " to " tree-farm licences " and the reduction of the
term of these licences from perpetuity to a period of twenty-one years with renewal on
application and subject to renegotiation of the terms and conditions of the contract.
In addition, the procedure for applying for a tree-farm licence was changed and a
new section was added to the " Forest Act" to reduce the possibility of irregular bidding
practices at auction sales of Crown timber. Provision was made to enable the Minister
to enter into agreements for sharing the cost of control measures necessary to abate insect
and disease attacks on timber. A new section was added making provision for the setting-
up of advisory forest committees or councils.
There were other incidental amendments to the right-of-way sections and requirements re manufacture within the Province. Certain sections dealing with log salvage were
clarified, and provision was made authorizing temporary closures of part of a log salvage
district.   Provision was made for the selling of timber on experimental areas.
In September, Dr. C. D. Orchard, Deputy Minister and Chief Forester since 1945,
retired on superannuation and was succeeded by Mr. R. G. McKee.
Through the courtesy of the Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, this Report again contains submissions from the Victoria units
of that organization in forest-insect and forest-disease conditions in this Province.
Forest Surveys and Inventory
The Division completed the first year of the new maintenance inventory programme
with financial assistance continuing from the Government of Canada under the Agreement
for Inventory provisions of the Canada Forest Act.
The results of the first seven years' work under the Canada Forest Act were compiled
and made available during the year in the form of a comprehensive report entitled " Continuous Forest Inventory of British Columbia—Initial Phase, 1957," which is enjoying
world-wide distribution.
On the basis of the present inventory figures for volume of trees and distribution of
age-classes of immature timber, it is estimated that the annual allowable cut for the Province at the present time is 967 million cubic feet. This is based on current accessibility
limits and utilization to a minimum diameter of 12 inches d.b.h. This indicates that currently the annual harvest from the forests is just about in balance with the annual allowable cut.
The annual allowable cut could be increased to 3,028 billion cubic feet if, by reason
of technological and economic changes, all merchantable forests became accessible and
11 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
utilization improved to a pulp standard. Of this 3,028 billion cubic feet, 995 million
cubic feet would come from the Coast and 2,033 billion cubic feet from the Interior,
which emphasizes the great pulp potential of the Interior forests.
Forest Research
Fourteen field parties were employed during the summer season, with work being
undertaken in all forest districts.
Ecological studies involving climatic influence were continued on Vancouver Island,
and a study was initiated on the effects of scarification in the preparation of seed-beds for
natural regeneration of spruce-alpine fir types.
A preliminary investigation of regeneration problems on parts of Vancouver Island
was completed.
There was considerable activity in the field of genetics during the year, with the
work being concentrated again on the production of selected strains of Douglas fir to be
planted in " seed orchards." Also, a series of studies was initiated which will lead to the
standardization of methods for the handling and storage of cones and the extraction of
coniferous seed.
Both research stations at Cowichan Lake and Aleza Lake were fully utilized during
the year. At Cowichan Lake the major activity was with the problems of commercial
thinning of Douglas fir, and at Aleza Lake with the study of cutting methods in mature
spruce-balsam stands.
Reforestation
During 1958, Forest Service crews planted 3,254,600 seedlings on 3,796 acres and
industry added 5,342,000 trees on 11,524 acres. All planting stock was provided free of
charge by Forest Service nurseries. Most of the operations were in the spring and 95 per
cent of the planting was on the Coast.
The Division took advantage of a good cone-crop of ponderosa pine in the Interior
and collected 973 bushels. The Douglas fir cone-crop on the Coast, however, was again
a failure, as it has been for the past eight years, which creates major problems in the
management of Douglas fir types.
The programme of preparation of planting-sites proceeded satisfactorily, with more
than 56,000 snags being felled on 2,035 acres to protect potential plantation areas.
The dominant factor in the 1958 nursery-year was the prolonged drought. For
the first time in the history of the three Coastal nurseries, 2-year-old seedlings had to be
irrigated. In one nursery the watering caused some seedlings to break dormancy and
start further growth late in the season. As a result, some lots have suffered considerable
frost damage.
Regeneration surveys were hampered by extended forest closures which precluded
field work during much of the summer. The open spring and fall permitted detailed surveys to be completed on six projects totalling 13,874 acres, of which 8,770 acres were
found to be not satisfactorily restocked and in need of planting.
A limited number of experimental nursery beds were established at two Ranger
stations in the Prince George Forest District and one in the Prince Rupert District to provide an opportunity of observing the problems of nursery operation in these areas.
Working Plans
As a result of legislation enacted during the 1958 session of the Legislature, it was
possible to award the first new tree-farm licence, which brings the total number of these
units to twenty-seven, covering 5,349,773 acres of productive forest land with an annual
allowable cut of 215,997,000 cubic feet. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 13
Four new sustained-yield units were approved during the year, bringing the total to
sixty-one, such units covering 32,389,900 acres with an annual allowable cut of 379,650,-
000 cubic feet.
Ten new tree-farms were certified during 1958 under the " Taxation Act," and eight
farm wood-lot licences were also awarded during the year.
In addition to the Division's regular activities, a considerable amount of time was
spent in preparing essential data for the Forest Adviser in connection with hearings conducted in the Chilliwack and Squamish areas.
Public Information and Education
Due to the severity of the 1958 fire season, the demands on certain Divisional facilities reached a new high, particularly in the supplying of information to press, radio, and
television news media. These requirements, plus heavy demands for information from
the general public, clearly indicated the need for the establishing of Divisional personnel
in the forest districts.
Location shooting for a new 16-mm. educational motion picture was completed
during the summer in the Prince George Forest District. The two major films edited the
previous year were sounded early in 1958 and put into circulation. The entry into the
educational filmstrip field was a new undertaking by the Division during the year.
The normal printing and publication commitments of the Division were maintained
but with increasing difficulties. The funds now available for this work are such that they
are utilized to a great extent simply in maintaining stocks of existing publications in
sufficient quantity.
The school lecture tour completed its eighth consecutive year of operation, with 250
individual lectures being given in 174 different schools to more than 29,000 students.
Twenty new sites were added to the roadway sign programme during the summer,
resulting in a total of 205 signs, " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray," now appearing
throughout the southern half of the Province.
Forest Management
The value of production of all forest products during 1958 amounted to $542,787,427,
a decrease of approximately 5 per cent from the previous year. The greatest drop in
major products value was in lumber production, which was down 18 per cent from 1957.
Value of plywood was, in contrast, up 25 per cent, and pulp and paper products values
rose 7 and 6 per cent respectively.
The total Provincial cut was off 5 per cent from 1957 at 908,484,634 cubic feet.
All this reduction was on the Coast, with Vancouver and Prince Rupert Coast Districts
being down 15 per cent in cut. The scale in the Interior, however, increased 10 per cent
over the previous year and now represents 44 per cent of the total Province-wide harvest.
Lumber shipments were up 235,443 M f.b.m. to 1,314,361 M f.b.m. Shipments
to the United States increased substantially, while those to the United Kingdom and the
Continent were down.
Douglas fir continued, with a 349,994,472-cubic-foot cut, to be the leading species
harvested, accounting for 38 per cent of the total. It was followed by hemlock
(170,732,898 cubic feet or 18 per cent), spruce (144,181,983 cubic feet or 15 per cent),
and cedar (116,651,426 cubic feet or 12 per cent).
A total of 1,922 timber sales were cruised during the year, covering an area of
609,563 acres and containing 890,285,000 cubic feet of saw-timber. This reduction
from recent years was due partly to a lower demand and partly to the regulation of cut
in sustained-yield units. The number of sales awarded declined to 2,145 from the 1957
total of 2,544.    However, the volume of timber under sales increased 15 per cent to 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
682,221,469 cubic feet. At the end of the year there were 7,584 timber sales in existence
covering 3,326,737 acres.
With the exception of Douglas fir, average log prices on the Lower Coast remained
at a low level throughout the year. As a result of the depressed market prices, stumpage
rates were kept at a very low level, and minimum stumpage rates were designated in most
instances.
Of the total Provincial cut, 144,000,000 cubic feet came from tree-farm licences
and 255,000,000 cubic feet from public working circles or sustained-yield units.
Silvicultural treatments of various kinds were carried out during the year on 465
timber sales, covering an area of 141,577 acres.
Grazing
Use of the Crown ranges is carefully regulated to ensure sustained production of
forage and the proper integration of grazing with the other forest-land uses involved.
The extremely dry conditions of 1958 had a profound effect on the range. Forage production was generally reduced, and on some ranges water shortages developed.
Although the range-improvement programme was somewhat curtailed by the
demands of the fire situation, a considerable number of projects were undertaken and
the programme of range seeding continued.
During the year, 1,571 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing of
122,489 cattle, 4,069 horses, and 20,927 sheep on Crown range.
The growing recreational use of lakes in the range country has necessitated special
planning to ensure continued access by stock to vital water-supplies. A considerable
number of stock-watering reserves were established on the basis of water-front use
surveys carried out in 1958.
A heavy demand for feeder calves and yearlings developed in 1958, and prices
rose markedly. A large part of the cattle industry has taken advantage of this situation
and is now directing its efforts to the production of young stock in demand for finishing
in surplus grain areas. This rapid move toward the marketing of younger cattle has
resulted in a temporary reduction of the number of stock on Crown ranges. However,
when the transition is completed, it is anticipated the requirements for range forage will
be higher than before.
Engineering Services
The activities of the Division during 1958 were highlighted by two special programmes undertaken under Federal-Provincial agreements. These programmes have a
dual purpose: firstly, to further the conservation and management of the forest resource
by the construction of selected forest-development roads, and, secondly, to provide useful
winter employment for seasonal workers. Costs were to be shared on a 50-50 basis,
with the final programme covering the period January 2nd to June 30th, 1958, and the
second agreement covering operations between November 1st, 1958, and June 30th, 1959.
During 1958, 54 miles of new road was constructed, general maintenance carried
out on 153 miles of previously constructed road, 157 miles of road was located, and 350
miles of possible development-road routes were subjected to reconnaissance survey. This
brings the total of forest-development road constructed since 1950 to 207 miles.
The 1958 fire season was a severe test of all mechanical equipment controlled by the
Mechanical Section, but it was gratifying to note that mechanical failures were generally
attributable to unskilled operations by transient help rather than to lack of maintenance.
Vehicle purchases during the year were light, consisting largely of four-wheel-drive
and commercial units. In all, eighty-three vehicles were purchased, as against 188 purchases in 1957. Ninety-one vehicles were transferred to the Parks Branch of the
Department of Recreation and Conservation and eighty-one units were removed from REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 15
service, leaving a total Forest Service vehicle fleet of 801 units at the end of the year,
a net reduction of eighty-nine units from the previous year.
The building programme of the Structural Section was not as heavy as for the
previous year. Also, carry-over projects from 1957 were not heavy, which made it
possible to give closer supervision to projects carried out by Forest Service crews. The
programme of Porta-building construction was continued to meet the demand for
emergency accommodation.
In the field of marine design, designing of a suitable craft for personnel and equipment transportation on Ootsa Lake was completed and, by the end of the year, construction was under way at the Marine Station. Also, a special barge, capable of carrying 12
tons, was designed for use by silviculture crews working in the isolated reaches of Babine
Lake. This barge obtains flotation from five pairs of Styrofoam-filled pontoons attached
to a framework featuring two glulam longitudinal guides as a twin keel.
The severe fire season delayed summer radio installations in the Kootenay region
and created a great deal of radio-propogation survey work which had not been anticipated.
One hundred and fifty-six new transmitting units of all types were added to the Forest
Service radio network during the year, to bring the total number of sets to 1,216, a net
increase of 126 over the previous year.
Forest Protection
The 1958 fire season was the most disastrous ever recorded in British Columbia.
A mild 1957/58 winter, with little or no snow at the lower elevations, followed by a
record dry spring and summer, with far-above normal temperatures prevailing, were the
weather features of the season that set its pattern.
A total of 4,120 forest fires burned over 2,065,423 acres, of which 1,307,853 acres
were in the Prince George District. Forest Service costs for fire-fighting amounted to
$4,528,137, and it is estimated private industry and other agencies spent $954,857 of
their own, for a direct fire-fighting cost of almost $5,500,000.
The principal causes of fires were operating railways (1,224 fires), lightning (1,150
fires), campers, travellers, and smokers (774 fires).
The heaviest costs of suppression were attributable to lightning fires, which cost 75
per cent of the total, although they accounted for only 28 per cent of the total number.
The severity of the season made it necessary to impose numerous forest closures.
Twice during the season a general forest closure was imposed on the Vancouver Forest
District—one for twenty-two days, commencing July 16th, and one for thirteen days,
commencing August 20th. Numerous recreational closures were imposed in various
parts of the Province. It was even necessary to place a general closure on the Coastal
area of the Prince Rupert District for seventeen days.
Every available type of fire-fighting aid was used during the season. Fixed-wing
aircraft and helicopters were used extensively to carry fire crews and equipment, and
both types were used in the bombing of fires with water and sodium calcium borate.
Fire-law enforcement resulted in 104 prosecutions for infraction of Part XI of the
" Forest Act."
Two hundred and forty-one miles of protection roads were constructed and 849
miles were maintained. Forty-nine miles of protection trails were constructed and 684
miles were maintained.
To improve the fire lookout network, forty-nine possible new sites were examined
and five new lookouts constructed and manned.
Assistant Ranger recruitment examinations, held annually for the purpose of obtaining a suitable supplementary protection staff, were held as usual. Of 289 candidates
who sat for the examinations, sixty-four were successful, of whom twenty-eight accepted
positions. 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest-insect Investigations
Early in the year an interdepartmental committee, composed of representatives from
four Federal agencies, was formed to study the possibilities of reducing toxicity to fish
and fish food organisms caused by sprays used for control of forest insects.
The balsam woolly aphid, a serious, introduced pest of true firs, was discovered for
the first time in British Columbia during 1958. It is now known to occur in North and
West Vancouver, on the east side of Howe Sound, and in the New Westminster area.
Indications are that the insect has been present for at least eight years and, although it
has killed some true fir, thus far only small acreages have been affected.
The total area of a one-year-cycle spruce budworm outbreak in the Lillooet River
and Lake region reached 653 square miles, an increase of 155 miles over 1957. The
two-year-cycle budworm outbreak in the Babine Lake area is calculated at 1,286 square
miles, with an increase in population expected in the coming year.
Forest-disease Investigations
A co-operative study to establish an ecological classification of white pine forests
in the Interior was initiated during the year. This classification is designed to establish
a basis for uniform stand descriptions and population sampling within diseased forest
units. To date, approximately 200 sample-plot areas have been located between Nelson
and Mabel Lakes.
Collections of forest disease submitted during 1958 by co-operators, Forest Biology
Rangers, and other laboratory personnel totalled 2,443. Among this number were 133
fungi listed for the first time in the forest-disease herbarium.
Fifty-three additional plantations of exotic forest trees were brought to the attention
of the laboratory during the year, bringing the total number registered to 118.
Forest Ranger School
The tenth class commenced its studies in January, 1958, and is scheduled to graduate
in April, 1959.
The enrolment of this class was limited to twenty-one, a reduction of nine from the
previous class.
While there were no major changes on the curriculum, the work of revising the
subject-matter of various courses was continued in order to keep pace with changes in
policy and technical developments in the Forest Service. The experience of the heavy
fire season provided a great deal of valuable material for the revision of the Forest
Protection Manual.
Additional emphasis was placed on safety training in several courses, and first-aid
training was made compulsory for all students, whether or not they had had previous
training.
Forest Accounts
Total revenue collected, while still well above the decennial average, declined sharply
to $24,886,723, some 16 per cent below 1957 revenue. The most striking drop was in
stumpage, which comprises the bulk of the revenue, and which was down 18.8 per cent,
primarily due to the downward revisions in stumpage rates.
Increases of 10.5 and 1 per cent respectively occurred in collections of timber-sale
rental and forest-protection tax over the previous year.
Royalty revenue from timber cut on lands held under Crown grant or pre-emption
declined by 6.4 per cent, being down $118,204 from 1957 to $1,719,957.61. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
17
Personnel
The normal functions of the Division to do with recruitment selection, placement,
promotional reviews, employee ratings, establishment, and organization were maintained
throughout the year.
Seven matters of grievance were presented by the Government Employees' Association, of which five were dropped after initial inquiry, one was satisfactorily settled, and
one settled in part.
The Personnel Officer served on an interdepartmental committee set up to review
the merit rating system, and the committee's recommendations were accepted by the
Government.
Eighteen per cent of the Personnel Officer's time was spent away from headquarters
in each of the five forest districts, and in attending Ranger meetings at Nelson and Kamloops and the District Silviculturists' meeting at Cowichan Lake.
The total Forest Service permanent establishment dropped 5 per cent during the
year to 817. Continuously employed personnel increased by sixty-seven over 1957.
Permanent staff turn-over during 1958 averaged 10 per cent, but professional staff turnover was triple that for the previous year, amounting to 13.2 per cent.
Changes were made in the Civil Service classifications of eight groups of employees.
New specifications and titles were written for graduate foresters, setting up seven grades
for registered foresters, and eliminating the former Assistant Forester classification.
Early in the year the Legislative Assembly approved funds to effect a 7.5-per-cent
average wage increase retroactive to July 1st, 1957. By the year's end, most grades had
again fallen behind the standard comparative positions outside the Civil Service. 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY DIVISION
INTRODUCTION
The Division completed the first year of the new maintenance inventory programme
under which the Province is being completely re-examined on a ten-year cycle. Financial
assistance was continued by the Government of Canada according to the Agreement for
Inventory implemented under the " Canada Forestry Act." Under this Agreement, and
subject to renewal under terms and conditions to be determined at the time of renewal,
current Federal assistance following seven years of initial inventory remains limited to
surveys at the Provincial inventory level until 1961. Additional assistance for the completion of surveys of a higher order within Crown forest units is much needed. Survey
reports of these units continue to be dependent largely on the application of broad Provincial inventory data. Alleviation of this situation will mark the commencement of an
adequate survey programme on a unit basis, essential for the practice of sustained-yield
forestry.
OPERATIONS
Crews operated from field headquarters in each of the forest districts. The latest
available aids in transportation and communication were used to increase the efficiency
and margin of safety in all phases of woods work.
As in the previous year, the helicopter proved to be one of the outstanding aids in
forest survey work. A total of 957 hours were flown in four contracted machines, 94 per
cent of this time being utilized in forest classification and 6 per cent in sampling. Foresters in the machines recorded observed forest-type data on tape recorders for the first
time. Each helicopter base camp was equipped with a 50-watt radio transmitter to
maintain contact with each aircraft at all times.
These helicopters and attached field crews flew an additional 429 hours in a joint
effort with forest district personnel to suppress the worst series of fires in the history of
the Service.
Only thirty-three hours were flown in fixed-wing aircraft, largely for the transportation of field crews on operational surveys.
Two 60-watt marine radio transmitters of the latest design were secured for installation in launches, and a set of 50-foot towers was installed at the forest survey headquarters in the Nelson Forest District.
New half-ton motor-vehicles, equipped with positraction differentials, proved valuable in field operations. Two mobile mechanical repair units were in operation and
proved to be of great assistance in avoiding costly major repairs and time-loss. A total
of 195 repair jobs were carried out by two travelling mechanics during the field season.
The Air Survey Division of the Lands Service continued to function as the sole
source of air photographs and base maps for the maintenance inventory programme,
covering 19,630 square miles during the season, in accordance with the requirements of
the Division.
CONTINUOUS INVENTORY—PROGRESS
In 1958, field surveys involving forest classification and sampling were carried out
over an area of 15,582,430 acres in six different sub-zones, as detailed below:—
Forest District Sub-zone No. Acres
Vancouver   916 3,707,604
Prince George  933 1,879,661
Prince George  935 2,719,229
Prince Rupert  950 1,848,952
Kamloops  965 2,160,738
Nelson  973 3,266,246
Total   15,582,430 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 19
These surveys represent coverage of a little less than the specified one-tenth of the
Province which is re-examined each year under the continuous inventory programme.
Parks and forest units under private management are not included in the programme. The
limited availability of 20-chain-to-l-inch air photography also reduced the coverage obtained in the first year of the cycle. The applicability of suitable alternative and existing
photography was studied during the year, particularly as it related to the less accessible
lower sites in the back areas and northern portions of the Province. As a result, it is
expected that the rate of progress in the future will conform satisfactorily with the ten-year
cycle as planned.
FOREST MAPPING
For the first time, complete forest index-map coverage of the Province was provided
on lithographed coloured sheets at a scale of 1 inch to 2 miles. The 149 maps which
comprised the Provincial total and the related statistical summaries were distributed as
a Forest Inventory Summary series. Further copies are available on request. Of interest
is the fact that a gigantic forest-cover map consisting of the entire 149 sheets in the series
was displayed at the 1958 Pacific National Exhibition in Vancouver.
Forest classification carried out during the field season provided information for the
production of revised forest-cover maps at a scale of 1 inch to 1 mile. This new series
of maps, being produced under the continuous inventory programme, shows details of
forest-cover rather than the general cover classes depicted on the l-inch-to-2-mile series
recently completed. In principle, the 1-inch-to-1-mile forest-cover map shows species
predominance by ten colours and broad age-groups by four symbols. To expedite production of the series, maps are being published in units of one-quarter of the area of a
map number of the National Topographic series. These map units are approximately 9
inches by 12 inches in size and are produced in black and white. Full map-sheets in
colour will be published according to the accumulation of the smaller units.
Forest-cover map manuscripts showing details of the forest-cover were also produced at scales of linch to one-quarter mile, 1 inch to one-half mile, and 1 inch to 1
mile, depending on the scale of available air photographs and map bases. Prints of these
maps and related statistics are now available or obtainable from files for all areas of the
Province. They present the detailed data assembled for the report " Continuous Forest
Inventory of B.C.—Initial Phase 1957."
During the year, 12,500 maps were distributed to various public and private agencies.   This was an increase of 50 per cent over the previous year.
FOREST SAMPLING
Standard Sampling
In 1958, 5,812 sample plots were established. This total includes fifty-four samples
formerly remeasured by the Research Division. As in the previous year, the helicopter
was of great value in transporting sampling crews to and from forest areas of difficult
access, thereby improving the over-all efficiency of sampling and ensuring better coverage
of all forest types.
In the Vancouver and Nelson Forest Districts, 6,956 chains of examination strip
were run in regeneration surveys.
Outstanding co-operation with private industry was indicated by the fact that two
concerns who adopted the basic sampling methods employed by this Division made
available 2,300 samples for incorporation into the continuous inventory programme.
On the other hand, timber-volume statistics relating to forest types throughout the Province were made available by the Division to numerous private concerns on request.
Tables were constructed showing cubic-foot volume in 32-foot logs for the following
species:  Coast Douglas fir, red cedar, hemlock, balsam, and Sitka spruce.   In construct- 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ing these tables, the sum of log volumes in a tree of any given height and diameter was
balanced to the tree volume at a close standard of utilization as shown in the appropriate
tree-volume table. Basically, these tables are intended to be an aid to the timber cruiser
and to the compiler of log-volume estimates. For a tree of known height and diameter
class, the tables show the number and grade of 32-foot logs that it is mathematically
possible to obtain from the average tree of these dimensions. The tables also show the
gross cubic-foot volume of each log in the tree. Obviously, the allocation of grades to logs
in a standing tree is not solely dependent on tree size and taper, and it is essential that the
cruiser be thoroughly familiar with los-grade requirements as specified in the " Forest
Act."
A sample page of the log-volume table for Douglas fir, in the 170-foot height class,
is shown on page 21.
Photo Mensuration
Estimation of forest volumes by photo-mensuration techniques was continued, and
4,493 photo plots were measured during the year. Work was completed in fifty-five
compartments of Sub-zone 935 (Prince George-Barkerville) and in thirty compartments
of Sub-zone 933 (Quesnel River). For the above, photo volume estimates were read
from a Zone 4 (North Central Interior) aerial photo stand volume table, and a local
correction applied, based on double sampling.
A provisional aerial photo volume table was developed for Zone 2 (South Coast)
and used, with a local correction, to provide photo volume estimates for 130 compartments in Sub-zone 916 (Vancouver-Pemberton).   The Zone 2 table was constructed by
least-squares solution of a linear regression of the form—
V11=fo0 + ^1H + fe2D
where—
Vtl is gross cubic-foot volume per acre, close utilization standard, living trees
11.1 inches d.b.h. and over.   Determined by ground sampling.
H is average height of dominants, measured with a parallax bar on aerial
photographs.
D is crown density, expressed as a percentage of ground covered by tree
crowns, as determined from the aerial photographs in comparison with
a crown density " scale."
b0, bi, and bo  are coefficients derived from the data by the least-squares
method.
Values of the regression coefficients and other pertinent statistics concerning this
work are shown in the table following:—
Mature ■        Immature
Zone 2 (South Coast) Coniferous Coniferous
Regression constant, b0 .  +814.0 —4,599.3
Coefficient of height, br         50.9 64.3
Coefficient of density, b2         42.4 56.4
Multiple correlation coefficient, RVHD  .48 .58
Number of double samples         46 41
Work was carried out in Zone 5 (South Central Interior), and an aerial photo
volume table will be available for this zone by late 1959.
Growth
In addition to the usual complement of remeasurable standard sample plots established, a further fifty-four plots, originally established by the Research Division, were
remeasured by the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division. These plots were remeasured
as part of a new programme to incorporate in the continuous inventory all suitable permanent plots established by the Forest Service.   The data so obtained were utilized along REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
21
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with those from standard plots to provide increasingly reliable estimates of forest growth
in the inventory.
Loss Factors and Forest Depletion
Logging utilization and breakage were studied on twenty Coast and Interior operations. During the year, this work involved making detailed measurements on 3,061
trees. The over-all objective in this work is the provision of reliable and realistic reduction factors applicable to estimates of sound-wood volume, to account for losses due to
logging and utilization practices during the maintenance inventory cycle.
In connection with the derivation of annual forest depletion due to various causes,
10,609 timber-sale, fire, and inspection reports were processed in 1958. Seventeen
requests were received from public and private agencies concerning the application of
loss factors and volume tables in various localities. Compilations were made to meet
the specifications of each request and to supply the necessary statistics.
SURVEYS IN CROWN FOREST UNITS
The work of bringing surveys of all Crown forest units up to an acceptable standard
continued. Limitations of funds restricted progress, and only one unit—Cape Scott
Public Working Circle—was intensively surveyed during the year. Forest types in this
working circle were reclassified, fuel-type hazard ratings were recorded, and the number
of sample plots was increased significantly. Forest-cover maps and the related statistics
for this unit will be available early in 1959.
A number of previously published Forest Resources Bulletins concerning public
working circles and sustained-yield units were amended. The amendments were necessary to account for boundary changes, improved sampling, and changing concepts of
utilization and accessibility.
Amendments were printed and distributed for:—
Bulletin No. 23:  Spallumcheen Forest Unit Survey Report.
Bulletin No. 25:  Niskonlith Forest Unit Survey Report.
Bulletin No. 35:  Kettle Forest Unit Survey Report.
Bulletin No. 36:  Arrowhead Forest Unit Survey Report.
Bulletin No. 37:  Edgewood Forest Unit Survey Report.
Bulletin No. 39:  Nakusp Forest Unit Survey Report.
Bulletin No. 40:  Slocan Forest Unit Survey Report.
Bulletin No. 41: Creston Forest Unit Survey Report.
As it becomes possible to improve or commence surveys in Crown forest units, this
type of work will grow in scope.   Its objective is to provide reliable maps and statistics
describing the forest growing stock, so that essential management planning and control
may be implemented in each unit.
FOREST RESOURCES REPORT
During the year a comprehensive resources report, " Continuous Forest Inventory
of British Columbia—Initial Phase 1957," was completed and preliminary distribution
commenced. This report, eighteen months in the making, contains 160 detailed tables
and lists statistics which have not been previously presented in any form. Among the
striking facts presented in this publication are:—
Currently in Interior British Columbia, more annual depletion of forest resources results from disease than from logging.
All commercial forests in the Province under full development and
utilization can ultimately support a continuous annual harvest
of more than 3 billion cubic feet. ©®&§^P     »®IHSSff
Total  Area  of   Coastal   British  Columbia  40,526,130  Acres
as^uiMOia   soiassff
Total  Area  of  Interior  British Columbia   193,589,201   Acres
Diagrams illustrating conditions found by Forest  Surveys and Inventory Division-1951-1957.
Total  Area-234,115,331  Acres, or 365,805  Square  Miles.
^Including   selectively   logged   forests
Figure   1 SOUND WOOD VOLUME IN COMMERCIAL FORESTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
VOLUME   BY SPECIES
( percentages )
rr
Total   376,918   million   cu. ft. in   trees   4  d.b.h.+
 ™>&m
Species^
VOLUME   BY   VARIOUS   D.B.H.   LIMITS
( millions   cu. ft.)
rr
4-9"d.b.h.'
70,561
rr
Total   376,918   million   cu. ft. in   trees   4   d.b.h.+
d.b.h. class-
J41.38
'"{""^imttftM
VOLUME   BY   OWNERSHIP
( millions    cu. ft.)
i rr
~i^3^__^       _    _    _       . Provincial    Crown"!  '
Total   376,918   million   cu. ft. in   trees'4   d.b.h.+
rown ^zrT^Licences
Granted uaMl&  Leases
38£
Federal
2,610
COAST
S^^Sfe1"
VOLUME BY AGE GROUPS
i
i
Commercial   Forest^ 14,775   million   acres.
Total  Volume    89,496   million   cu. ft. in   trees   10 d.b.h.+
Predominating Species*
Mature   Forests
Old Immature  Forests
Young  Immature  Forests
§
Hemlock
Red Cedar
i
1
i
Douglas   Fir
Hemlock
1
i
Douglas   Fir
Hemlock
I
1
INTERIOR
Commercial   Forest* 103,151  million   acres.
Total  Volume   216,861   million   cu. ft. in   trees   10"d.b.h.+
Jlk & Jk> Predominating   Species*
Mature   Forests
66 %
Old  Immature  Forests
10 %
Young Immature Forests
24 %
Spruce
Hemlock
Spruce
Douglas   Fir
Spruce
Douglas   Fir
*
Excluding    presently   non    merchantable   Lodgepole   Pine   and    Deciduous   Species
Excluding   selectively   logged   forests.
Figure    2 AVERAGE   ANNUAL   GROWTH   AND  DEPLETION   IN   FORESTS   OF BRITISH IcOLUMBIA
.Wit
m
■ V.i
mmi
'.' • •
ANNUAL    GROWTH BMMflBi
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mm\m
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i
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r .."I
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li HI
m
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feUl
Pre:
.'Jtt
'V,  i.'.'ii
•:li  '
'm'.M
Pre:
isent Exploitable 1,127 million cu.ft
sent Total 2,310 million cu.ft
Potential 3,525 million cu.ft
r'',l','i I i'i /   .i i'i'iL'}!
i/i ..i ".i •' i '  i'i.:1
!   'il'l'iM'ill l.'.'ll"," .■;!•■
UliiiiimliJIHIi'iliiiiiiiiiil
".. •.'.; '•.'.''n..i. " '• 'i/iVi J v. V iii.\V.:[', '/'/.i i
KHp :.M; n;'. PhoB Sk MM I;' 1' 1 li
»!««
H
,i■■.!,'■',■ ,■ j■,-»   ■n|i,.l',.i»'i|i|i.,«'-
;^^
K
MKULi.
I'M
ii'.'i >
• mm
m
rf
*" '.'" iihi
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LOVi
Ll'M'Ilt
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:-/i
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I
llu
■rii ii'
lllM\l
l'
tUiisQiiiii
mam
i..|.,itr.i.',v.,.'.'!,»(i
I
II'.!!
TOTAL
ANNUAL   DEPLETION
2,222   million  cu. ft.
zW!\
in ii
H .-=-^fl UuW-IJ
iihi
m
*m.
m
HS&
i
iiji'
S
■*►
^
Si
^
m
Decay
681 million cu. ft.
s^7
Ssllilill^
Harvesting   and   Residues
"I   1,487   million   cu. ft.
^r<^-
^
*/A
m
m*,
•ft
m.
W
Bark  Beetles
10 million  cu.ft.
m^r^
wmM
s\d
%.
m
A
yj
K
\%
m
v\
M
\K
a
\7,
7r-\
u
I
Fire
44 million   cu. ft.
-^ s
'^^ /^^
'ss j^./'StTy'.^.
nan
JIV^.
1«^
jr
SSMB
^V»i
^.
6'
^^.
»
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J^
^=^
Note:   Average   annual  depletion   losses  are  based   on  the  period   1952-56,   Growth  and   depletion   estimates   are  for trees   4"d.b.h. and  over.
Figure   3 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 23
Spruce is the predominant species in British Columbia, contributing
113 billion cubic feet to the total of 377 billion cubic feet of
sound wood in trees 4 inches and over in diameter at breast
height, in commercial forests.
An area classification by ownership for the Province is presented in Table 67 in
the Appendix, and a corresponding volume summary in Table 68.
Diagrammatic representations of the area, volume, growth, and depletion in forests
of British Columbia (see Figs. 1, 2, and 3) have been made from tables in the forest
resources report.
COMPUTATIONS OF STATISTICS
Progress in computation of field data continued with the objectives of providing
quick and accurate statistical forest reports for sub-zones in the continuous inventory
programme and for Crown forest units.
Computation of volumes on forest-inventory samples by means of electronic punch-
card and machine systems was the major operation. Diameter-class loss factors were
applied to all inventory samples established between 1953 and 1958. Integrated with the
results of these computations was the planimetry of forest types on new forest-cover maps.
A programme for deriving forest and non-forest areas from dot-counts on aerial
photographs was developed. Its purpose was to provide area statistics in regions which
were classified but for which maps were not yet completed.
Investigations were made into the possible use of a digital computer for the solution
of presently time-consuming, complex, and expensive analyses of survey data and research problems. The need for high-speed data-processing equipment became increasingly evident during the computation phase of the recently completed forest resources
report.
Thirty-five requests for statistical summaries were received and acted upon. These
summaries included a total productive area of over 21 million acres and almost 30 billion
cubic feet of mature timber.
LIAISON WORK
Through the Forest Service Work Committee, a close liaison was maintained between this Division and other public agencies. On request, several projects were undertaken.   These are listed below:—
(1) Fire-hazard maps were prepared for twelve Crown forest units.
(2) Priority of cutting estimates was presented at the request of various Forest
Service offices for all, or part, of seven Crown forest units.
(3) Key maps showing the 8-inch focal length air photography programme by
priority of area were assembled for an area of 49,000 square miles.
(4) Operational maps showing the location and nature of 1958 projects, being
carried out by five different Government agencies, were prepared and
sent to each District Forester in the Province.
(5) Statistics concerning the history of past fires in dry-belt Douglas fir types
were prepared at the request of the Kamloops Forest District.
Responsibility for processing all Forest Service air photograph requirements was
assigned to the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division. DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RESEARCH
As in the past two years, technical details of research projects will be published in
the Forest Research Review. This is a very brief statement of the programme for 1958
as undertaken by the experiment stations and field parties throughout the Province.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
The annual programme of maintenance and improvement in the forest and buildings
was shared with the Reforestation Division.
By timber sale, 20 acres have been clear-felled to provide additional out-planting
areas for genetic research and 30 acres are being thinned on a commercial basis. An
interesting feature of this thinning will be the first use in British Columbia of the " tree
farmer," a rubber-tired yarding-machine designed especially for working in second-
growth stands.
Site preparation of 5 acres has been completed for the establishment of a trial of
mixed species planted alongside pure crops of the same species at three levels of wide
spacing.   The species to be planted are Douglas fir, western hemlock, and grand fir.
The Vancouver Island Section of the Canadian Institute of Forestry held a field and
dinner meeting at the station, where a programme invited members to participate in
guided activities such as cruising, marking, pruning, and plant identification.
Students of the Forest Service Ranger School spent four days of field instruction on
research and reforestation activities in the Cowichan area. During the same week a conference of all District Silviculturists from other regions of British Columbia afforded an
opportunity to discuss and demonstrate projects during part of their programme.
ALEZA LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
The Aleza Lake Station was open from early June to mid-December and was occupied by a small crew engaged in maintenance and development work, as well as by
research personnel. During this period, 1 lA miles of the West Branch Road was constructed, and preliminary ditching and right-of-way clearing undertaken on an additional
half-mile. The East Branch Loop Road was located, and a start made in felling 7>Vi
miles of right-of-way.   A 10-acre tract was cleared for a permanent nursery-site.
The research on cutting methods was continued, two sales in the clear-cut working
circle being completed, while in the long-term selection-cutting working circle one sale
is active and a second is being cruised and marked.
Twenty-three permanent growth-and-yield plots were remeasured. In co-operation
with the Experimental Farms Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, a study was
made of soil and drainage conditions in relation to site quality and the vegetative cover.
The Experiment Station was used as a training-school for district silvicultural crews
for one week in October.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Fourteen field parties were employed during the summer season, with work being
undertaken in all forest districts.
Ecological studies involving climatic influence were continued in the Elk Valley,
on Vancouver Island. Two additional climatic stations were established, and the measurement of evaporation and wind were added to precipitation and temperature records.
Phenological observations on pollen-dispersal, radial growth, and date of flushing have
now been started. Studies on microclimate and soil conditions were continued on a slash-
burned site and in a thinned second-growth stand.
In view of the present interest in scarification as a means of preparing seed-beds
for natural regeneration in spruce-alpine fir forest types, a study has been initiated to REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
25
determine the length of time such seed-beds remain effective. This is rather important
as the occurrence of seed-crops is sporadic and the seed-bed deteriorates progressively
as the competitive vegetative cover invades the soil surface.
The ecological classification of lodgepole pine sites of the Southern Interior (reported
last year) has been completed. The investigation has now been extended to the Central
Interior, where it is apparent that new or modified site-types occur.
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1958
Experimental
Project No.
Title
Region
226
274
368
371
374
382
383
384
385
387
428
436
438
458
459
460
463
465
466
467
468
469
472
474
477
478
479
480
482
483
485
487
489
494
495
496
497
498
502
506
510
511
512
513
515
516
517
518
520
521
522
523
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
Cone production, immature Douglas fir, Vancouver Island	
Cone production, mature stands Douglas fir, Vancouver Island..
The adaptability of tree species to forest sites.—	
Cutting methods in overmature spruce-alpine fir type.—	
Group seed tree study...	
Field nursery experiments, Cranbrook 	
Fertility studies, Green Timbers Nursery	
Lodgepole pine thinning	
Lodgepole pine thinning-
Factors affecting the reproduction of conifers in the spruce-alpine fir type-
Survival of spruce transplants	
Douglas fir cone stimulation study. _ -	
Effects of slash burning on soil productivity-
Seed production and dispersal under various stand conditions in the spruce-alpine fir type
Seed production of spruce in relation to its morphological characteristics in the
spruce-alpine fir type   	
Seed production of conifers in relation to climate...	
Natural regeneration in a western red cedar-hemlock forest  	
Plantation of exotic species -  	
Exploratory direct seeding study  	
Regeneration studies in the spruce-alpine fir type.   	
Annual record of cone crops  . 	
Douglas fir thinning, Campbell River	
Exploratory direct seeding study	
Inbreeding experiments with Douglas fir   	
A study of phenotypes in Douglas fir..
Phenotypic selection in open grown Douglas fir	
Plus tree selection for Douglas fir seed orchards  	
Co-operative seed provenance study of Douglas fir -	
Climate and the altitudinal distribution of conifers  	
Record of plantations of exotic species throughout British Columbia..
Preliminary ecological classification of lodgepole pine sites—- 	
Studies on seed dispersal of Douglas fir—   	
Stand condition classification of spruce-alpine fir types _ _	
Tr'al of four poison treatments of Douglas fir seed—   	
Seed spotting of Douglas fir     	
Co-operative aerial seeding project   	
Crop tree thinning in Engelmann spruce.-
A tentative prediction of thinning yields in Douglas fir
Planting trials.- —
A study of microclimate and soil conditions in a thinned and unthinned stand of
Douglas fir     	
Planting trials  _ _	
Crop tree thinning of western larch...	
Seeding and planting trials, Wa^sa burn-
Planting of exotic conifers for future hybridization with related coastal species .
The pattern of Douglas fir seedfall from a helicopter    _	
Direct seeding of Douglas fir in conjunction with the Elk River Timber Co	
Crop tree thinning and pruning in ponderosa pine..
An investigation of some of the problems affecting regeneration on the west coast of
Vancouver Island	
Direct seeding of spruce-
Direct seeding of spruce-
Direct seeding of spruce _
Seed-bed soil amendment trials, Cranbrook Nursery-
Swamp regeneration, Interior wet belt type.—	
Fertilizing a 1952 Douglas fir plantation-
Fertilizing a Douglas fir plantation on a recent slash burn area..
Infiuence of time on effectiveness of scarified seedbeds..
Regeneration problems in decadent red cedar-hemlock stands	
Morphological characteristics of selected trees and their progeny-
Anatomical characteristics of selected trees 	
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Interior.
Southern Coast.
Kootenay.
Southern Coast.
Kootenay.
Kootenay.
Central Interior.
Southern Interior.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Central Interior.
Central Interior.
Central Interior.
Kootenay.
Southern Interior.
Southern Interior.
Southern Interior.
Southern Interior.
Southern Coast.
Kootenay.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Interior.
Southern Interior.
Central Interior.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Interior.
Southern Coast.
Northern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Kootenay.
Kootenay.
Kootenay.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Southern Interior.
Southern Coast.
Central Interior.
Southern Interior.
Kootenay.
Kootenay.
Kootenay.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast.
Central Interior.
Southern Interior.
Southern Coast.
Southern Coast. 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A preliminary investigation of regeneration problems on the west and north-east
coasts of Vancouver Island was completed. Recommendations for future forest practice
have been made and a research programme formulated for this region.
Experiments in scarification of spruce-alpine fir types were continued, with three
trials in the Kamloops region using conventional tractors and blades.
The plantation of exotic species near Clinton was enlarged by planting a number of
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. rigensis L.), Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb &
Zucc), Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii Pari.), and European larch (Larix decidua
Mill.). Due to the severe drought conditions, survival was poor. An interesting study
involves the planting of white spruce throughout the growing season at Prince George.
In spite of the exceptionally dry summer, survival of spruce planted in July was 42 per
cent, while survival in August and September was 90 and 100 per cent respectively.
There was considerable activity in the field of genetics during the year, and again
work was concentrated on Douglas fir. In early spring, scions were shot down from all
"plus " trees selected in 1957, and these were successfully grafted on to root stock for
testing. A further ten " plus " trees were selected during the summer, completing the
initial selections for a high-elevation seed orchard. A joint project with the Forest
Products Laboratory, in Vancouver, has been initiated to check on wood characteristics
such as specific gravity, fibre length, and the severity of spiral grain as genetic factors
in these selections.
In view of the new and enlarged facilities for cone extraction and seed storage
established by the Reforestation Division at Duncan, a series of studies has been started
which will lead to standardized methods for the handling and storage of cones and the
extraction of coniferous seed. The seed will be tested for storage characteristics and for
viability by germination tests.   This year's work dealt with ponderosa pine.
In co-operation with the Soils Laboratory, University of British Columbia, a comprehensive study of soil fertility at the Green Timbers Nursery was continued. Important
information on nitrogen and phosphorus levels with respect to 1- and 2-year-old seedlings
was obtained. At the Cranbrook Nursery, a study was initiated dealing with various
amendments to correct adverse physical and chemical soil conditions.
Studies of direct seeding with treatment of the seed for rodent-control were continued. The seeding of Douglas fir in co-operation with the Elk River Timber Company,
referred to in the 1957 Report, was examined and the results were very promising in
spite of a most unfavourable hot, dry, spring period. The area was found to be 68 per
cent stocked with seedlings from treated seed. Other trials with spring sowing of treated
Engehnann spruce in Prince George and Kamloops were not successful, due to exceptionally dry spring months.
A comprehensive analysis of a large number of Douglas fir thinning plots, both in
Europe and this country, resulted in the formulation of a tentative method of forecasting
yields according to any thinning regime. This report is in process of publication. Thinning studies of Engehnann spruce and ponderosa pine in the Kamloops region were
completed, as well as a larch-thinning in the East Kootenay.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS, 1958
Forest Research Review for year ending March, 1958.
Dick,* James; Finnis, J. M.; Hunt,f Lee O.; and Kverno,t Nelson B.:   Treatment of
Douglas fir seed to reduce loss to rodents.    Journal of Forestry, Vol. 56, No. 9,
1958.
Knight, H.: Test to determine acceptability of sawdust as a seedbed cover.   Tree Planters
Notes No. 31, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1958.
* Research Forester, Weyerhaeuser Timber Company.
t Forester, U.S. Bureau Land Management.
± Biologist, Denver Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 27
Molnar,* A. C, and Garman, E. H.:   Introduction of exotic trees to British Columbia,
British Columbia Lumberman, March, 1958.
Stettler, R. F.:  Development of a residual stand of Interior spruce-alpine fir during the
first twenty-eight years following cutting to a 12-inch-diameter limit.    Research
Note No. 34, 1958.
* Forest Biology Laboratory, Victoria. 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
The dominant factor in the 1958 nursery-year was the prolonged drought. For the
first time in the history of the three Coast nurseries, 2-year-old seedlings had to be
irrigated. Even so, there was some loss due to drought. In one nursery, the watering
apparently caused some seedlings to break dormancy and start further growth late in the
season.   As a result, some lots have suffered considerable frost damage.
The three Coast nurseries shipped a total of 2,730,000 two-year, 20,000 two-one,
and 1,432,000 one-year seedlings during the spring. In the fall, a further 3,781,400
two-year, 8,000 two-one, and 59,000 one-year seedlings were sent out. Total production
on the Coast was 8,030,400.
The East Kootenay shipped 566,100 seedlings, mainly two-year ponderosa pine.
During the spring 1,045 seed-beds were sown on the Coast and 199 in the East
Kootenay, for a scheduled 9,200,000 seedlings. Drought damage reduced seedling yields
somewhat at two Coast nurseries, as did an epidemic of the variegated cutworm (Peri-
droma margaritosa How.). The cutworms, which operate mainly at night, did considerable damage before they were discovered and controlled with bait. The yield was also
poor in the beds at the East Kootenay nursery.
A limited number of nursery beds were established at two Ranger stations in the
Prince George Forest District and one in the Prince Rupert District. These beds were
set up by nursery personnel from the Coast, and maintenance was provided or supervised
by the local Ranger staff or silviculture crew personnel. The purpose of these beds is to
learn some of the problems of nursery operation in these districts as well as to provide
a limited amount of spruce planting stock.
Spruce planting stock is also being produced for the northern districts at the Green
Timbers Nursery. An estimated 134,000 two-year spruce seedlings will be available for
planting in the spring of 1959, and 400,000 the following year. Spruce is notorious for
uneven growth in the first few years, but the longer growing season in the southern
Coastal district permits the production of a high percentage of plantable seedlings in two
years. The balance, which are too small for field planting, will be transplanted either
at Green Timbers or in the northern districts. Spruce starts growing very early at Green
Timbers, but it is hoped that this can be prevented by early lifting and cold storage until
the most favourable planting season in the North.
Several new procedures were tested at Coast nurseries to try to improve production
of balsam and hemlock. At the East Kootenay nursery, twenty-four beds were set up by
the Research Division in an effort to improve the technique for growing spruce.
In the four nurseries, a total of some fifty seed-lots were sown.
SEED COLLECTIONS
The Douglas fir cone-crop on the Coast was a complete failure. In the Interior,
however, ponderosa pine produced a bumper cone-crop. A total of 973 bushels of
ponderosa pine cones was collected under strict supervision of reforestation personnel
in the East Kootenay and Granby areas. Minor quantities of Interior Douglas fir and
larch were also collected.
The two seed-production areas already established were pruned and fertilized and
all competing brush and herbaceous vegetation sprayed to kill or prevent resprouting.
Two new seed-production areas totalling 12 acres were located and laid out in the
Chilliwack Public Working Circle.
The seed-extraction plant at Duncan is being modified to increase the capacity.
Germination tests were carried out during the early spring on seed to be sown in the
nurseries.    Over 100 tests were involved. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958
29
Some thirty-five different lots of seed are being stored for the industry at 0° F. in the
Duncan seed-store. Each of these lots was subjected to a purity analysis, germination test,
and moisture determination before being registered and stored at 8 per cent moisture
content.
Numerous reproductive buds on twigs taken from various locations indicate a
possible bumper Douglas fir cone-crop on the Coast next spring.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Regeneration surveys were hampered by extended forest closures, which precluded
field work during much of the summer. The open spring and fall, however, permitted
detailed surveys to be completed on six projects totalling 13,874 acres. Of this total,
8,770 acres were found to be not satisfactorily restocked and in need of planting.
A reforestation crew, under the supervision of the Forest Surveys and Inventory
Division, carried out regeneration surveys over 21,675 acres in the Chilliwack Public
Working Circle and Fraser Canyon (Yale Sustained-yield Unit), where 10,009 acres,
or 46 per cent, were found to be in need of reforesting. A similar survey in the Creston
and Grand Forks areas, covering 29,816 acres, revealed 14,145 acres, or 47 per cent,
to be in need of reforesting.    In all, 65,355 acres were examined.
In the East Kootenay, some fifty-four major N.S.R. ponderosa pine types were
examined and classified as to site index and suitability for planting.
PLANTING
The open spring and scarcity of snow even at higher elevations permitted an early
start on the spring planting programme. On the Coast, one Reforestation Division
project was completed by February 28th and two others on March 28th. In all, Reforestation planted 360 acres of Crown land and 1,346 acres of private land under contract.
The industry continued planting later in the season and completed 5,145 acres.
The sustained summer drought depleted soil moisture so much that it was too dry
to commence fall planting until mid-October. The Reforestation Division planted 711
acres of Crown land and an additional 782 acres of private land under contract. Industry
planted 6,037 acres.
In the Interior, the Reforestation Division planted 597 acres in the spring while
industry planted 111 acres. In the fall, the soil generally remained too dry for planting
until freeze-up time. Thirty acres were planted at a high elevation by a Nelson District
silviculture crew.
Total planting in the Province for the year, by all agencies, amounted to 8,596,500
trees on 15,320 acres (see Table 2 of Appendix for statistics of planting over the past
ten years).
Planting stock was distributed to some fifty individuals and agencies as well as to
twelve Forest Service projects.
Under the guidance of the Research Division, studies were continued to improve
the effectiveness of planting techniques. Limited cold-storage facilities at the Duncan
Nursery permitted the holding of some stock. This was planted out periodically
throughout the late spring, with excellent results. Indications are that, cold storage being
available, the spring planting season can be lengthened considerably on the Coast. This
test is to be repeated on a more comprehensive scale.
Plantation Improvement and Maintenance
At the Green Timbers Forestry Station, a 10-acre red pine plantation was cleaned
of competing deciduous brush and pruned to 6 feet. Additional work was done in some
of the younger plantations to remove competing brush and weeds.
L 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
On Vancouver Island, approximately 64 miles of existing road was maintained and
one-quarter mile of new road constructed to by-pass an old bridge. Plantation roads
left for as little as five years without maintenance have been found so choked with alder
that they are impassable. Often, roads are completely washed out when drainage becomes plugged during heavy rains. Such roads must be kept open for fire protection and
general forestry access.
Preparation of Planting-sites
This phase of the reforestation programme, like most others, was affected by the
abnormally dry summer and resultant forest closures.
Snag-falling projects were carried on at Vedder Mountain, Cowichan Valley, Ash
River, and in the Campbell River area, where reforestation crews felled a total of 56,032
snags over an area of 2,035 acres.
In the Robertson River Valley, 45 acres of vine maple were sprayed to prevent the
spread of this troublesome weed species and make the area ready for planting next year.
A basal spray using 2,4,5-T in stove-oil was applied from back-pack pumps and a roadside spray unit during March. An additional 28 acres were bulldozed clear of deciduous
brush, mainly vine maple, to prepare for Research Division outplantings on which the
Reforestation Division is co-operating.
In the Chilliwack Public Working Circle workers from the Attorney-General's Department, under Reforestation Division supervision, prepared 10 acres for planting by
felling and burning all deciduous brush.
PERMANENT IMPROVEMENTS
At the Duncan Nursery, a 24- by 70-foot cone-drying shed was constructed in connection with the extraction plant. Preparatory work commenced on the enlargement of
the plant by the installation of a batch-type dry-kiln for cone-drying. A 16- by 16-foot
lath house was constructed for use in the tree-breeding and seed-orchard programmes.
A small building was moved from Cowichan Lake and set up for use as a nursery office.
At the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, a permanent thirty-two-man dormitory
was completed and the surrounding grounds landscaped.
At the Green Timbers Nursery, a root-cellar was modified and refrigeration equipment installed to permit cold storage of 1,000,000 seedlings. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
31
WORKING PLANS
INTRODUCTION
In addition to the Division's regular activities of sustained-yield planning, a considerable amount of time was spent in collecting and compiling essential information for the
Honourable Gordon McG. Sloan, Forest Adviser, in connection with hearings conducted
in the Chilliwack and Squamish areas.
During the year, the first of the new tree-farm licences, formerly referred to as
forest management licences, was awarded, as a result of new legislation enacted during
the 1958 Session. It is expected that others, which were recommended for approval in
the Royal Commission report of 1956, will be awarded in the coming year.
There was a somewhat lessened interest in farm wood-lot licences. This was fortunate, as the more pressing nature of other phases of the Division's work made it necessary to redirect the efforts of farm wood-lot personnel. They conducted special field
studies on a number of sustained-yield units.
With the greater part of the Province's more accessible forests already committed to
sustained-yield management, the need for more intensive forestry practices to be undertaken in the existing units becomes increasingly urgent. During the coming year, this
Division, with the co-operation of others, will endeavour to direct a part of its activities
toward this objective. Special attention will be given to working-plan preparation for
sustained-yield units where the need is greatest.
SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS*
Four new sustained-yield units were approved during the year, bringing the total to
sixty-one. Actually, the 1957 total was increased by three, as the new Yale Sustained-
vield Unit includes the area formerly referred to as the Fraser Canyon Public Working
Circle.
Sustained-yield Units Approved in 1958.
Name of Sustained-yield Unit
Yale	
Hecate	
Kitwanga..
Robson	
Totals..
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert -
Prince Rupert..
Prince George.
Productive Area
(Acres)
Annual
Allowable
Cut(MC.F.)
402,726
1,069,259
529,416
486,617
2,488,018
20,000
15,500
3,000
7,000
45,500
There are now 32,389,900 acres under this form of management with a combined
annual allowable cut of 379,650 M cubic feet.
As information from improved forest-inventory surveys was received, allowable
annual cuts for twelve existing management units were recalculated. This resulted in
allowable cuts being revised for the following areas:—
Name of Sustained-yield Unit
Forest District
Revised Annual
Allowable Cut
(MC.F.)
Graham	
Carp	
Cottonwood .
Stuart.	
Prince Rupert._
Prince George-
Prince George-
Prince George..
8,600
6,600
5,350
7,500
* Forests, including public working circles, which are managed by the Forest Service. 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TREE-FARM LICENCES*
Four tree-farm licences were awarded during the year.   There are now twenty-seven
such licences in good standing, as listed below:—
T.F.L.
No.
Forest District
Name of Licence
Licensee
Productive
Forest
Area
(Acres)
Annual
Allowable Cut
(Mc.f.)
1     j Prince Rupert— _	
795,208
280,558
100,085
3,881
81,410
296,210
118,056
89,530
170,633
49,287
64,787
15.487
26,921
71,715
90,997
122,169
46,479
161,047
190,910
377,496
552.028
276,645
889.360
133,937
298,821
16 113
30,003
22,000
15,000
2,000
208
Elk Falls Co. Ltd 	
Little Slocan	
Blind Channel ....
McKenzie-Cariboo...
Quatsino ... —	
Salmon River	
Boundary Creek.
Okanagan (West)....
Toba	
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
I. W. McDonagh                    	
Western Plywood (Cariboo) Co. Ltd	
2,500
| Vancouver	
18,000
Salmon River Logging Co. Ltd 	
10,800
1 260
| Kamloops	
j Vancouver _	
Timberland Development Co. Ltd.-	
dinger Lumber Co. Ltd   	
Bendickson Logging Co. (1939) Ltd.
1.680
1,900
12       Vancouver	
Hardwicke	
Bull River	
1,330
888
14
15
Spillimacheen	
Inkaneep 	
1,500
538
1 000
Knight Inlet	
Evans Products Co. Ltd	
1,500
2,500
10,000
20,548
Clearwater	
Tahsis	
Torino ....  	
19
20
21
22
23
Vancouver	
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd..	
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd.
37,220
16,100
22,000
7 500
Vancouver	
Maquinna	
B.C. Forest Products Ltd 	
24     ! Prince Rupert —	
Moresby.—	
Naka._	
Mission Municipal-
25     ! Vancouver-Prince Rupert...
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd  	
14 400
26     1 Vancouver  	
Corporation of the District of Mission
425
2400
Totals	
5,349,773
215,997
TREE-FARM LANDS
Ten tree-farms under the " Taxation Act " were certified during the year, including
two which will be managed primarily for the production of Christmas trees.
There are now thirty-six certified tree-farms with a total productive area of 738,561
acres and a combined allowable cut of 32,000 M cubic feet plus 387,000 Christmas
trees. Ten of these tree-farms, with a productive area of 239,000 acres, are managed
under the tree-farm licence legislation and are included in the table shown under that
heading.
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
Of the fifty-six farm wood-lot licences awarded since the passing of legislation in
1948, fifty were in good standing at the year's end. Eight licences were awarded during
1958.
A critical review of the procedures followed in processing wood-lot licences resulted
in a substantial reduction in man-hours expended per licence awarded.
* Formerly referred to as forest management licences.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 33
PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION
INTRODUCTION
Effective April 1st, 1958, the title of the Division was changed from Public Relations and Education to Public Information and Education as being more compatible with
the concept of public service and more correctly descriptive of the principal functions
of the Division.
Primarily due to the severity of the 1958 fire season, the demands on certain Divisional facilities reached a new high. This was particularly so in the supplying of information to press, radio, and television news media, whose urgent and continuous requirements for the facts on the Province's worst fire season resulted in two members of the
staff being completely occupied on press liaison work for some six consecutive weeks.
In addition to the requirements of the news media, the heavy demands for information by the general public throughout the Province, during the five months of the
fire season, accented as never before the serious need for the establishing of public information personnel at the forest district headquarters.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
Using over 4,000 feet of 16-mm. colour film, field-shooting and editing was completed on a new educational motion picture dealing with the matter of stand treatment,
to be entitled " Mark of Progress." All this footage was taken in the Prince George
Forest District, using district personnel as the cast. A shooting script, prepared by the
Division, was used throughout the production and proved to be most worth-while from
the standpoint of savings in time and funds. Sounding of the film should be completed
early in the new year.
The two major films partially completed during 1957—" Food for Thought" and
" Silva Survey "—were sounded early in the year and have been enjoying considerable
circulation through the library. In addition, " Silva Survey " was entered in the International Film Festival in Vancouver and, with two other subjects previously produced
by the Division, was included in the special Centennial film circuit for showing throughout the Province.
Two motion-picture projects on which the Division served as a co-operating agency
reached fruition during the year. All location footage in the film " Counter Attack,"
released by the Government-Industry Joint Pest-control Committee, had been produced
two years previously by the Divisional camera crew. Also, the Division served as a
liaison and advisory agency on the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Television Division's production " Dry Season," which was nationally televised during August, at the
height of the fire season.
A thirty-second animated sequence, featuring the Centennial theme with a fire-
prevention message, was produced for use in a one-minute 35-mm. trailer shown in
commercial theatres throughout the Province.
The volume of photographic laboratory work continued at a normal level, with 170
rolls of film being developed, printed, indexed, and filed for other divisions of the Forest
Service. Production of black and white negatives by the Photographic Section photographers reached a total of 620, the highest since 1955. Over 1,000 black and white
negatives and 100 35-mm. colour slides were added to the files by the Section photographers. During July and August, Section photographers covered certain fire-line operations with considerable success, with several prints so produced being carried as feature
front-page illustrations in metropolitan daily newspapers. Throughout the year over
800 photographic prints were supplied to the press and periodicals for use with news
or feature articles.
3 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A special sixty-three-slide set of colour 35-mm. transparencies was made up to
illustrate a lecture on log-scaling, and each of the forest districts has been supplied with
one of these sets for its use. Another special slide project was the production of eighty-
two transparencies of tables and diagrams that appear in " Continuous Forest Inventory
of British Columbia," recently completed by the Surveys and Inventory Division.
The Section embarked on a new project in the field of visual education with the
completion of three 35-mm. filmstrips designed for use in the schools of the Province.
These strips deal with " The Lookout," " The Forest Ranger," and " The Principal Commercial Trees of B.C."
Art work required for the illustrating and animating of motion-picture films and
filmstrips required a total of 311 separate drawings by the Section staff.
Film Library
The total viewing audience for Divisional motion-picture film subjects showed a
decrease of some 23,000 from the 1957 total of 148,124. The total of 126,216 reached
in 1958 also fell short of the 1956 figure, indicating a decrease for the second consecutive year. This was almost entirely due to the fact that for the greater part of 1958 a
shortage of staff in headquarters dictated that only one school lecturer was available
for work in the field. What appears to be another contributing factor underlying the
drop in attendance is the lack of new film material available to the general public. The
majority of subjects in the library at the present time have been in stock for several years.
The above totals do not include circulation given five subjects lodged in British
Columbia House, London, England.
The film library started the year with eighty individual subjects available for use.
Two new special-use films were purchased, and two new subjects produced by this Division were also added to the library, to make a total of eighty-four films available during
the year. One film was withdrawn in September, leaving eighty-three subjects in the
library as of December 31st, 1958. All eighty-four motion-picture films received circulation during the year.
Films from the Forest Service library were utilized by two television stations during the year, the most distant of which was CKOSA TV., at Yorkton, Sask. The other
was CBUT, Vancouver, B.C.   Both subjects used were produced by this Division.
During Centennial activities the Division entered three motion-picture film subjects,
all productions of the Division, in the Centennial Summer Cinema, a group organized
to tell the story of British Columbia through the lens of the 16-mm. motion-picture
camera. The three films " Silva Survey," " Timber-r-r," and " Flying Surveyors " were
viewed by an audience of some 8,173 individuals in many centres throughout the Province. " Silva Survey " was entered in the Vancouver International Film Festival and
received very favourable comment.
Again films were used by organizations in Eastern Canada and many parts of the
United States.
Motion-picture films and projection equipment were again utilized to a great extent
by members of the headquarters and district Forest Service staff. The officer in charge
of the film library gave forty-eight evening showings of a total of sixty-two special programmes given by Division staff during the year. See Table 62 in the Appendix for
details of film-stock and circulation records.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The 1957 Annual Report of the Service was edited, synopsized, its printing supervised, and distributed by late May, the earliest distribution date for this Report for many
years. The Annual Report printing run was reduced to 1,200 copies from the previous
runs of 1,300 copies, and the number of pages was also reduced for purposes of economy. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 35
In order to meet the rising demand, 30,000 Forest Service calendars for 1959 were
run, for a new record for this popular media. Featuring general forestry and protection
information, this calendar is distributed widely throughout British Columbia, including
one calendar being placed in every public-school room in the Province. The calendar
continues to be the most appreciated public information medium produced by the Service.
As usual, editorial and publication services were provided to other divisions of the
Service as funds allowed. During the year, editing, supervision of printing, and distribution were completed for one technical publication, one research note, three protection
bulletins, two lay bulletins, one annual research review, one personnel directory, one
silvicultural manual, and one special information " flyer " on the new Surveys and Inventory report " Continuous Forest Inventory of B.C." In addition, nine publications of
various categories were reprinted, with or without revision, as were sixteen display-
poster designs, to which one new design was added. One publication had to be reprinted
twice during the year in an attempt to keep up to public demand.
Public interest in printed forestry information media rose sharply in 1957 and
continued at the new high level throughout 1958. One of the results of this development is that an increasing percentage of the funds allotted for printing purposes is being
devoted to reprinting existing media with a necessary drop in funds available for the
production of new publications of various types which are sorely needed. In addition,
the quantities of each publication produced are held down to such a meagre level that
they have no realistic relationship to demand.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
The twenty-two radio stations operating throughout the Province were again utilized
to the limit that existing funds would permit. The regular fire season broadcasts consisted of thirty-two fifteen-second flash announcements and sixteen one-minute spot announcements. The seventeen radio stations in the Vancouver, Nelson, and Kamloops
Forest Districts carried this series for an eight-week period, between July 7th and August
30th. Stations in Prince George, Dawson Creek, and Quesnel carried special hazard
flashes between May 5th and May 17th to coincide with the hazard that exists in thess
areas during the early spring. These same stations also carried sixteen fifteen-second
flash announcements and eight one-minute spot announcements during the period between July 7th and August 11th.
In a successful attempt to gain greater coverage for Forest Service broadcasts, the
Division scheduled twenty-four forty-five-second spot announcements on radio station
CBU, Vancouver; CFPR, Prince Rupert; and thirty-one repeater stations spread
throughout the greater part of the Province. These announcements were made as part
sponsorship of twenty-four weekly major-league baseball broadcasts carried on these
stations every Saturday during the period of April 19th to September 27th, 1958.
All stations were supplied with eleven special hazard announcements which were
to be broadcast during periods of extreme hazard. These announcements are made as
replacements or can be added to the regular radio series upon orders from the District
Forester or the local Forest Ranger.
All copy for the above broadcasts was written and scheduled by members of this
Division.
The Division assisted in preparing detailed radio interviews for CJVI, Victoria,
with senior officers of the Research and Reforestation Divisions.
On several occasions, Divisional personnel assisted local stations in on-the-spot
broadcasts from fires within the district.
It is worthy of mention here that without the whole-hearted co-operation, understanding, and assistance of the radio industry, a complete, efficient up-to-the-minute 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
report of British Columbia's most violent fire season would never have reached the
public.   It is to this industry that the Forest Service owes a vote of appreciation.
The utilization of the television media was restricted for lack of sufficient funds
available. The Division, however, did supply television stations at Victoria, Vancouver,
and Kamloops with still photographs of timely activities for use on news broadcasts.
During the height of the fire season it was thought advisable to approach television
stations in Victoria and Kamloops in an attempt to have two sixty-second forest-
protection trailers run as a community service. The co-operation from the management
of these two stations was excellent; both trailers were used extensively for more than
five weeks.
It is indeed unfortunate that a media with a viewing audience of thousands cannot
be used to a greater extent.
COMMERCIAL THEATRES
For the fourth consecutive year, a 35-mm. forest-protection trailer, produced by
the Division, was circulated through the commercial theatres in the Province. This
trailer, featuring a Centennial theme, was shown for one week in each of seventy-three
theatres of the Odeon and Famous Players chains during July and August to a total
estimated audience of 870,000.
NEWS MEDIA LIAISON
Activity in news and informational press releases and the supplying of background
material for daily and weekly press, radio, television, and the trade journals far exceeded
in volume and variety anything previously undertaken by the Division.
In addition to the weekly forest-fire situation reports initiated the previous year, a
new series of twice-daily releases to all major media received major attention throughout
the Province, nationally, and internationally to such an extent that the 1958 forest-fire
story in British Columbia was one of the outstanding news stories of the year.
A member of the Division staff worked out of the Prince George Forest District
headquarters at the height of the fire season in that area, servicing local media, large
metropolitan outlets, and the wire services to good effect.
During the height of the fire season, arrangements were made for several Forest
Service officers to appear on various radio and television programmes throughout the
Province.
Also, the Division co-operated with the National Film Board (Newsreel Division)
in the production of 35-mm. commercial film newsreels featured throughout Canada.
The need for district public information personnel, particularly during the fire season, was emphasized as never before by the severity of the 1958 season, with its resultant
demands for specific and accurate information by all news media as well as from the
general public in connection with closures and other necessary restrictive measures.
ROADWAY AND ROADSIDE SIGNS
The " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray " roadway sign project was continued
during the months of July and August for the fifth consecutive year. Twenty new sites
were added to the previous coverage, bringing to 205 the total number of signs placed
on the 3,600 miles of paved highway in this Province. The crew, as in the past, was
made up of five high-school students and one supervisor from this Division. Added
experience and further improvement of paint-spraying equipment enabled the crew to'
operate with increased efficiency. Again, co-operation received from the Department
of Highways, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and the general public was excellent.
During the year, as funds and staff at the Marine Station became available, standardization of forest district boundary signs was completed.
J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 37
A constant demand for more " Prevent Forest Fires " Scotchlite signs has resulted
in an additional twenty-five such signs being placed throughout the Province, bringing
to more than 100 the total number now being displayed through the fire season. During
the year there were requests for fifty-nine additional signs, which requests could not be
filled due to lack of funds.
It seems to be the feeling throughout the Province that these Scotchlite signs are
most effective in acting as a constant reminder to the motoring public to be careful with
fire.
SCHOOL LECTURES
The school forest-conservation lecture tour programme was continued for the eighth
consecutive year. In all, 250 individual lectures were given in 174 separate schools, to'
more than 29,000 students, a decrease of 21,000 from the yearly average of 50,000.
This drop was attributed to only one lecturer being available for tour, primarily because
of lack of sufficient staff in the Victoria office. Because of the economic situation, the
tour was concentrated on the northern end of Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley,
where travel and general operational costs are lower than in the Interior.
EXHIBITS
Some financial assistance was given to district displays in various parts of the Province, and a small portable exhibit specially designed for Parent-Teacher Association and
Teachers' Federation conventions was completed and circulated. Much more should be
done in these directions, however, in order to support the Ranger staffs in their local
public relations work.
The permanent Service exhibit in the British Columbia Building, Pacific National
Exhibition, Vancouver, underwent a major redesigning in order to permit the accommodation of the new display from the Department of Recreation and Conservation. Due
to the pressure of other duties and a shortage of staff, the reorganization was not completed in time for the Exhibition, nor was the Division able to assign attendants to the
display, as had been the policy in the past.
LIBRARY
The work of cataloguing the Kamloops District library was finished by the librarian
early in the year, and the publications arranged on the new shelves. Basic texts were
ordered to complete the coverage of essential forestry subjects.
In May the librarian was replaced for six months by a lady graduate forester, whose
specialized knowledge was put to good use in the concluding phases of overhauling the
main catalogue. This two-year project was finished by the end of the year, and should
result in increased ease of reference work in the library as much out-of-date material
was removed.
The librarian spent two weeks at Oxford, England, studying the Oxford System of
Decimal Classification for Forestry, under the direction of staff members of the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau and the University Forestry Library. The experience gained
and the personal contacts made were invaluable in clarifying the many uses of the Centralized Title Service cards produced by the Bureau. These cards are received in the
Forest Service library at the rate of approximately 4,500 a year, and cover the classified
abstracts of over 550 periodicals, 700 serials, and innumerable miscellaneous bulletins
and books in forty-nine languages.
The volume of accessions received in the library continued at a high level. Monthly
accession lists are produced by the library staff and distributed to an ever-increasing
number of Forest Service personnel and others interested in forestry literature. The
practice of including in accession lists indexed journal references and occasional com- 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ments on outstanding publications has had a noticeable effect in increasing demand for
such material.
A small collection of books and other publications in the Victoria management
office was classified and arranged according to the Oxford system.
Shortage of space, both on library shelves and in the area available for library furniture, is becoming acute and hampers the orderly functioning of the library. Increased
price of all classes of publications received resulted in several journal subscriptions being
cancelled during the year.
CO-OPERATION
The commercial radio and television stations, and their agencies, and the daily and
weekly press offered a degree of co-operation and assistance far exceeding the normal
high standards experienced in the past. Their vigorous and imaginative support of the
fire-prevention programme and policies of the Service is gratefully acknowledged.
The Division continued its school lecture programme throughout the Province for
the seventh consecutive year, with the fullest co-operation of the Department of Education. The Canadian Forestry Association, which had been a co-operating agency in the
programme, withdrew from active participation in 1958.
The Division acted as a liaison and advisory agency for the production unit of the
National Film Board's Newsreel Division in the completing of footage on British Columbia's fire situation and subsequently released nationally through commercial film
houses across Canada.
As in the past, the Division co-operated with the Canadian Forestry Association
(British Columbia Branch) in the organizing of the annual Forest Protection Week.
A senior member of the Division was seconded to the Royal Tour Co-ordinating
Committee to act as a public relations co-ordinating officer during the visit to Victoria of
Her Royal Highness the Princess Margaret. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
39
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
The low prices and relatively weak demand for forest products in general which
faced the industry throughout 1957 continued on into most of 1958, with the demand
and prices showing only a slight improvement during the last six months of the year.
Production was also hindered by a long, severe fire season, resulting in numerous closures.
There were, however, no major labour troubles. The net result was that during 1958
both the total volume and value of production showed decreases.
The value of production of all forest products amounted to $542,787,427, a decrease
of approximately 5 per cent over 1957. The decrease in the value of lumber production
amounted to 18 per cent due to a drop in both the volume produced and the price
received. In contrast, the value of plywood production increased 25 per cent, reflecting
the high level of residential construction across the Nation. The value of pulp and paper
products and shingles produced increased by 7 and 6 per cent respectively. Conversely,
with the peak production of poles and piling during 1957, the industry suffered from
overproduction during 1958, resulting in a drop of 56 per cent in the value of production.
The total cut for the Province amounted to 908,484,634 cubic feet, being a reduction of 5 per cent from 1957. It is interesting to note that the reduction in scale took
place entirely in the Vancouver and the Prince Rupert Coast Districts and amounted to
approximately 15 per cent, while the scale in the Interior increased 10 per cent. The
scale in the Interior amounted to 44 per cent of the total for the Province, a record from
a percentage standpoint.
Water-borne lumber shipments for 1958 amounted to 1,314,361 M f.b.m., an
increase of 235,443 M f.b.m. Shipments to the United States increased by 326,975 M
f.b.m., while those to the United Kingdom and the Continent decreased 57,278 M f.b.m.
The statistical tables in the Appendix of this Report furnish other details of the
Forest Management Division activities. In commenting on these tables, the following
highlights are considered worthy of special attention.
Of the total cut of 908,484,634 cubic feet, Douglas fir continued to maintain its
leading position, with 349,994,472 cubic feet, or 38 per cent. Other major species, in
order of output, were 170,732,898 cubic feet, or 18 per cent, hemlock; 144,181,983
cubic feet, or 15 per cent, spruce; 116,651,426 cubic feet, or 12 per cent, cedar. The
remaining 17 per cent was spread over balsam, lodgepole pine, larch, white pine, yellow
pine, cypress, cottonwood, and hardwoods, in that order.
On the basis of land tenures, 707,818,382 cubic feet, or 78 per cent, originated
from Crown lands and, of this total, 476,235,771 cubic feet, or 67 per cent, originated
from timber sales, in comparison with 75 and 64 per cent respectively in 1957. Old
Crown grants accounted for 126,087,630 cubic feet, a decrease of 30,000,000 cubic feet.
Timber sales to the number of 1,922 were cruised, covering a total area of 609,563
acres and containing 890,285,000 cubic feet of saw-timber. This is a reduction from
recent years, due partly to a lower demand as a result of unfavourable market conditions
and also due to the regulation of cut in sustained-yield units.
The number of timber sales awarded declined from 2,544 to 2,145. On the other
hand, the volume increased 15 per cent to a total of 682,221,469 cubic feet. However,
stumpage rates reached a new low, with the result that the total estimated value of timber
sold declined also and amounted to $20,517,300.
At the year's end there were 7,584 timber-sale contracts in existence, as compared
with 8,396 at the same period in 1957. Total acreage included in timber sales is
3,326,737 acres. The amount of funds held as security deposits under timber-sale contracts amounted to $14,710,518. 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
Dressed-lumber shippers in the Interior maintained their same excellent co-operation
with the Forest Service in supplying their net total lumber-sales figures. The average
net prices f.o.b. car for sales in the preceding three months are compiled each month by
the Forest Service for each of the six lumber-price zones. Seasonal corrections are
applied to the fir and spruce averages to eliminate the effect of normal seasonal price
variations. The resulting averages are used in appraising the stumpage value of timber
sold and form the basis for sliding-scale stumpage adjustments.
The seasonally corrected average prices for fir and spruce remained at a low level
through the first half of the year but strengthened in the third quarter and, by the close
of the year, had increased about $6 per M f.b.m. above their lowest points. Uncorrected
quarterly average prices for the Interior of the Province are given in the table below.
1958 Uncorrected Quarterly A
verage Dressed-lumber Prices (Interior)
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Species
Basis
M B.M.
Average
Price
Basis        Average
M B.M.        Price
Basis
M B.M.
Average
Price
Basis
M B.M.
Average
Price
131,471    | $48.82
132,693    |    53.98
3,216    |    55.81
3,937    j    99.17
1.684     1    59.23
170,949
179,009
5,056
7,549
3,288
$52.91
57.77
54.29
98.98
60.00
212,817
237,272
5.037
$57.39
59.04
56.78
163,536
168,966
5.580
$54.67
Spruce  	
57.98
57.87
7,692    | 100.99    |        4,961
3.634     1     62.63     1         2.786
98.20
61.95
1
Log Prices
With the exception of Douglas fir, average log prices on the Lower Coast remained
at a low level throughout the year. Prices for fir logs reached their low point at the
beginning of the year, then gradually increased through the year. Quarterly average
prices for log sales reported to the British Columbia Loggers' Association are given in
the table below.
1958 Quarterly Average Log Prices per M B.M. (Lower Coast)
Species
Jan.-Mar.
Apr.-June
July-Sept.
Oct.-Dec.
Fir - 	
$52.39               $55.56
$55.03
$58.45
40.44                 41.61
41.23                  40.34
38.18                  36.78
38.35                  40.09
55.40        1        54.11
41.82
39.86
38.01
39.21
53.98
45.75
39.39
36.52
40.81
53.31
Stumpage Prices
Stumpage rates for timber to be cut from unalienated Crown land are appraised by
the Forest Service. In the case of tree-farm licences, the stumpage rates for timber to
be cut from lands not held under other tenure are appraised and designated each year in
the cutting permits. For timber sales, the stumpage rates are appraised before the
timber is advertised for sale and bids are not accepted below the upset stumpage rates.
A brief description of the general appraisal method is contained in the 1957 Report of
the Forest Service. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
41
As a result of the depressed market prices to the producer which were experienced
throughout the year, appraised stumpage rates remained at a very low level. The majority
of the stumpage appraisals indicated very little prospect of a reasonable profit margin
and, consequently, minimum stumpage rates were designated in most instances.
An effort was made to expedite sales of timber which had been killed or heavily-
damaged by the many forest fires in the year. Substantial quantities of this timber were
sold at 75 cents per hundred cubic feet.
These features all contributed to a further decline in the average stumpage prices
bid for timber sales. Detailed figures are contained in Tables 21 and 22 of the Appendix
to this Report. The average price bid for all species in timber-sale contracts in the Province was $2.98 per hundred cubic feet. Comparable figures for 1956 and 1957 were
$6.92 and $3.88 respectively.
Sliding-scale Adjustments
During the past seven years, timber-sale holders have been given the option of
having stumpage rates subject to adjustment, up or down, according to the sliding-scale
formula, or of having the stumpage rates reappraised every two years. Under the latter
option, stumpage rates would not be reduced. In spite of this disadvantage, many chose
the reappraisal method, presumably to preclude the possibility of an increase during the
first two years. As a result, the stumpage rates on many timber sales were pegged at the
high 1956 level and could not be reduced by the reappraisal method.
The reappraisal stumpage-adjustment method was therefore eliminated in respect
to sawlog timber on July 1st, 1958. Henceforth, the sliding-scale stumpage adjustment
is compulsory on new timber sales. It was also decided to apply the sliding-scale system
to all tree-farm licence cutting permits issued after the end of 1958.
At the same time, holders of existing contracts on a reappraisal basis were given the
opportunity to have the contracts changed to sliding scale. Many licensees took advantage of this offer and, as a result, 1,132 downward-rate adjustments were made on these
contracts. Three hundred and thirty-nine of these were based on Coast log prices, and
the remaining 793 were on the basis of Interior lumber prices. A total of 3,877 rate
adjustments were made in the Province during the year. About 3,600 of these were
reductions in stumpage, but there were a few increases at the close of the year in harmony
with the more favourable market prices.
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies
Field time and cost studies were continued in order to obtain information relating
to the effect of variable factors on production rates and operating costs so that these
factors can be equitably reflected in the appraisals of stumpage values. A second field
party was established at Vernon to supplement the work done in the Prince George
District but, at the close of the year, the crew in Prince George was temporarily disbanded.
ADMINISTRATION OF MANAGED UNITS
Four new tree-farm licences were granted, in line with the Honourable Gordon
McG. Sloan's recommendations in his 1956 report. One of the licences granted was a
municipal tree-farm licence to the Corporation of the District of Mission and was the
first of its kind.
Three tree-farm licences started on their second five years and had complied with
their first five-year conditions satisfactorily. During 1958, a total of 184 cutting permits
were in force, of which fifty-two were extensions, and the recorded cut from the permits
was about 144,000 M c.f.
In publicly managed areas, the Forest Adviser held public hearings on the Fraser
Canyon area, with the result that the Fraser Canyon Public Working Circle was cancelled 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
and a new enlarged area was set up as the Yale Sustained-yield Unit. A further public
hearing was held to determine if the area round Hope should become a closed " marketing
area," but the Forest Adviser rejected this suggestion in favour of continuing with the
present procedure. Considerable work has been done in drawing up a policy for the
operating of a quota system in overcut areas, such as the Williams Lake Public Working
Circle, but a final policy has not been established as yet.
By cancelling the Fraser Canyon Public Working Circle there are only thirty-two
public working circles, but four new sustained-yilde units were set up, including the Yale,
to make a total of twenty-nine sustained-yield units. In 1958 the cut from the sixty-one
units was about 255,000 M c.f., with about 50 per cent of the units being fully committed
and about 14 per cent fully or over cut.
Of the total cut for the Province of a little over 900,000 M c.f., 400,000 M c.f. came
from managed units.
SILVICULTURE
The programme implemented during 1958, through moneys from the Silviculture
Vote, included stand treatment, silvicultural studies, working-circle planning, slash-
disposal projects, and road location in public working circles and sustained-yield units.
The main effort during the year centred on stand treatment. The Interior districts
were again active in this field and some 465 timber sales were treated involving 141,577
acres. Among the noteworthy events in this field was the production of a 16-mm. film,
" The Mark of Progress," designed to afford both the industry and the public a better
appreciation of the importance of stand treatment. Two publications for in-service
instruction were also produced during the year—one for the guidance of stand-treatment
crews and featuring the use of cartoons, and the other for the field staff as a general guide
to the treatment of stands both on the Coast and in the Interior.
This was the first year in which the stand-treatment crews engaged in planting on
any scale, and plans are now being formulated for up to 500,000 spruce to be planted
annually throughout the Interior by 1961. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 43
GRAZING DIVISION
INTRODUCTION
Administration and management of the Crown range, over 80 per cent of which is
forested, has now been the responsibility of the Forest Service for forty years. Conditions encountered during this period have brought about vast changes in the ranching
industry, but range remains its foundation.
Most ranches depend in large measure on the Crown range for summer grazing.
This range must be managed to ensure sustained forage production and to accommodate,
as far as possible, the taxing requirements of other necessary live-stock production
practices. Grazing use must also be correlated with the various other uses of which the
same land is capable. The activities of the Forest Service in this field during 1958 are
briefly outlined herein.
ADMINISTRATION
Owing to a lack of suitable personnel, two positions in the grazing establishment
remained vacant throughout most of 1958. This shortage of experienced professional
staff resulted in the postponement of much necessary work of a technical nature. This
undesirable situation was further accentuated by the drastic fire season, which made it
impossible for the Ranger staff to give much attention to grazing matters. Many routine
inspections, normally carried out by Rangers, were done by district office grazing staff,
but much necessary field work could not be completed. Effort had to be concentrated on
the more pressing items.
A grazing officer was again assigned, part time, to the Prince George District in
1958. It was therefore possible to continue the more intensive grazing administration
commenced in the most important range areas of that district in 1956. No new areas
were brought under grazing administration, but some boundary adjustments were made
in the two stock ranges in the Peace River region.
The growing demand for both private and public camp-sites on water-front lands
in range areas has necessitated special provision being made for access by live stock to
water. This matter was given considerable attention during 1958 by both Land Inspectors and Forest Service staff, and a number of land reserves were established for this
purpose. It was also necessary during the year to secure water licences for stock-
watering purposes on a number of essential springs where there was danger of the water
being alienated for other purposes. In collaboration with the Lands Service, studies
were made to find ways to minimize the impact of residential, private camp-site, and
commercial development on grazing interests. Some progress was made, but correlation
of these conflicting land uses with grazing remains a difficult problem.
As a result of growing understanding between logging and grazing interests and
the experience gained by the Forest Service in recent years, conflicts between these
interests were reduced to a minimum in 1958. As might be expected, the main difficulties experienced were in those more remote range areas where logging has only recently
commenced.
Further attention was also given to the effect of the yellow pine planting programme
on grazing interests in the East Kootenay area. Studies were instituted in an effort
to find ways to improve forage production concurrent with the yellow pine planting
programme.
During the year, the Grazing Regulations were revised to bring them in line with
the requirements of the "Regulations Act."
Grazing and Hay Permits
During 1958, 1,571 grazing permits were issued authorizing the depasturing of
122,489 cattle, 4,169 horses, and 20,927 sheep on Crown range.  The number of per- 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
mits issued represents a drop of 69 from the previous year. Cattle numbers were down
6,489 head, or approximately 5 per cent from 1957. This was due to heavy marketings
late in 1957 resulting from bOfth hay shortages and a rise in prices which occurred at that
time. The number of horses and sheep under permit were both up slightly over 1957
figures.
Table 65 in the Appendix shows a breakdown of the above figures by forest
districts and a comparison with figures for the past ten years.
A total of 163 hay-cutting permits were issued, authorizing the cutting of 1,651
tons of hay and 38 tons of rushes. The number of permits issued was twenty less than in
1957, but the tonnage of hay cut was down only slightly. Owing to the dry weather,
haying conditions were generally good, and only one permit had to be cancelled because
the meadow concerned remained flooded.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
In accordance with the Grazing Regulations, grazing fees fluctuate with the price of
live stock to the extent that fees for the current year are in the same ratio to 1939 fees
that the weighted average price received by stockmen in the previous years are to the
corresponding 1939 prices. In 1958 grazing fees per head per month were 12 cents for
cattle, 15 cents for horses, and 3 cents for sheep. This represents a slight increase from
1957 fees, reflecting the improved prices received for stock in the latter part of 1957.
Hay-cutting fees, which are not on a sliding scale, remained at $1 per ton for wild hay
and 70 cents per ton for rushes.
Total billings for grazing and hay-cutting fees were up from the 1957 level, the
increase in grazing fees more than compensating for the reduced number of stock on the
range. Collections again exceeded billings, resulting in a further reduction in outstanding
fees at the end of the year.
A summary of the fees billed and collected for the past ten years is to be found in
Table 67 in the Appendix.
Live-stock Counts
Cattle-counts, involving a consideraDle number of permittees, were carried out in
four areas during the year to ensure actual grazing use was in line with the permitted use.
This time-consuming work is necessary as a check, particularly on fully stocked ranges.
Violations and Prosecutions
A number of cases of trespass occurred during the year, but in all instances the
situation was corrected without the necessity of resorting to Court action. In one case,
it was necessary to seize a trespassing bull of unknown ownership under the provisions
of section 17 of the "Grazing Act."
RANGE MANAGEMENT
Although management of live stock on the Crown range is the responsibility of the
individual grazing permittees, it is the duty of the Forest Service to determine the management practices required and to specify these practices as conditions in grazing permits.
Determination of permissible rates of stocking and correct seasons of use are the sole
responsibility of the Service, as is also the necessary field supervision to ensure required
practices are carried out. Unfortunately, the personnel and fire situations referred to
earlier curtailed both the planning and supervisory aspects in 1958.
Range Surveys
An up-to-date range inventory is a prerequisite of good range management.   During
1958, 819,900 acres were covered by grazing surveys as follows:— REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 45
Acres
Darfield-Mount Olie Stock Range  246,500
Riske Creek and Meldrum Creek Stock Ranges (part)   573,400
Total   819,900
This brings the total covered by range surveys and resurveys, from 1945 to 1958,
inclusive, to 8,979,885 acres.
Maps and reports for the Okanagan Falls, Big and Beaver Lakes, and Brisco Stock
Ranges were finalized during the year.
Range Improvements
To make full use of the Crown range, and to facilitate proper management thereof,
a wide variety of improvements are required. During 1958, $52,988.29 was spent from
the Range Improvement Fund as follows:—
Three stock-bridges  $150.00
Sixteen cattle-guards   5,858.40
Thirty-four drift-fences   12,242.37
Three experimental plots  517.92
One hazard-removal   72.00
Five holding-grounds  2,152.57
Two meadow improvements  275.00
One mud-hole fence  240.00
One hundred and eighteen range seedings   7,812.86
Twenty stock-trails  5,363.01
Eleven water developments  1,171.00
One weed-control  2.61
Wild-horse disposal  318.20
Machinery and equipment (purchase)  .  2,386.84
Maintenance and operation of equipment  1,069.65
Materials purchased but not assigned to projects  1,428.72
Range-management film (part cost)  700.00
Supervision, surveys, and technical studies  11,227.14
In addition, material on hand at the end of 1957, valued at $1,255.03, was assigned
to and used on projects during 1958.
Authority was also extended to permittees to construct, at their own expense, four
corrals, twelve drift-fences, two grazing enclosures, and one stock-trail.
Range seeding continued to be a major feature of the range-improvement programme. In all, 21,615 pounds of seed, almost exactly the same amount as in 1957, was
used. Recently logged areas, pipe-line rights-of-way, burns, and other areas where soil
had been disturbed received attention. Fixed-wing aircraft were used to seed two large
burns. For the first time, a helicopter was used to seed a third burn. There are still some
problems to be overcome in the use of the helicopter for this purpose, but preliminary
results indicate that a superior job of seed distribution can be done and costs would appear to be in line with those for fixed-wing aircraft. The costs for seeding, reported
above, include the cost of seed, aircraft hire, and only a minor amount of the total labour
required. The bulk of the labour was supplied by co-operating stockmen, except for
experimental seedings, which were carried out by Forest Service personnel. Canada
Range Experimental Farm personnel provided valuable assistance in the aerial seeding
programme.
In an effort to reduce cattle-guard maintenance costs, a new type of steel rail deck
was designed and installed in three guards. These appeared to be highly satisfactory, and 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
further use of this design is proposed. A new type of electric cattle-guard was also
extensively tested and shows considerable promise, particularly for temporary installations. A new light-weight high-strength barbed wire was installed on two drift-fences on
a trial basis. This material costs less than the wire now in general use, and if it proves
satisfactory, its lighter weight will greatly facilitate fence construction in remote areas.
All of the Kamloops Grazing District and all of the Nelson Grazing District, with the
exception of some areas where horses can be grazed during the winter without damage to
Crown range, were closed to horses during the winter of 1957/58. Sixty horse-disposal
licences were issued, and 102 horses were cleared for shipment. Bounties remained at
$5 on mares and geldings and $7.50 on stallions. This programme of horse-disposal was
reduced from previous years because there is a good market for useless horses, and horse-
owners sold them rather than abandon them on the range. Also, the open winter reduced
the effectiveness of control where horses were at large on Crown range, as these animals
were not forced to concentrate on low-elevation ranges.
During the year, the decision was reached to virtually abandon the effort to control
goatweed (Hypericum perforatum) by use of chemicals, which has proven both costly
and relatively ineffective. Efforts were concentrated on studies on the biological control
of this weed. The two species of beetles introduced a number of years ago, Chrysolina
gemellata and C. hyperici, have not yet multiplied to the point where they are controlling
goatweed, except on very limited areas. However, some 5,500 of these beetles were transplanted to new goatweed infestations. In August, 5,000 beetles of a new species,
Chrysolina varians, were supplied by the Division of Entomology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. These beetles, which originated in Sweden, were released under the direction of the Division of Entomology, and observations on their
progress are being made.
Range Research
The Canada Range Experimental Farm, which is responsible for basic range research,
continued studies on a number of problems of interest in the management of Crown range.
Valuable assistance was obtained from the Farm during the year on a variety of subjects,
including range seeding, effect of fire on range, and range-improvement trials in the
East Kootenay Valley. A bulletin prepared by personnel of the Farm on stock-poisoning plants was also published. This bulletin will be valuable to both the Forest Service
and live-stock operators.
CO-OPERATION
Close co-operation between the Forest Service and grazing permittees is essential for
the proper use and management of the Crown range. Such co-operation is achieved
through the medium of local range-livestock associations. There are fifty-two such
associations approved under the " Grazing Act." No new associations were officially
recognized during the year. The British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and
the British Columbia Sheep Breeders' Association remained active and were consulted
on a number of matters affecting the whole industry. These organizations were very
helpful in dealing with a variety of problems. A total of 130 association meetings were
reported, of which 114 meetings were attended by Forest Officers. In addition, sixteen
other meetings were held with groups of stockmen to deal with special local problems.
Close contact was maintained with a number of agencies dealing with matters affecting range use. In addition to consultations, twenty-one joint field examinations were
made in company with representatives of such agencies.
The annual field meeting of the Pacific Northwest Section of the American Society
of Range Management was held in the vicinity of Kamloops in July. Grazing personnel
assisted in organizing and participated in this international meeting, which was well
attended by range technicians and ranchers from both sides of the border. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 47
The range-management film " Food for Thought" became available early in April
and was shown at various live-stock association meetings. The film was highly appreciated by these stockmen-audiences and should do much to promote improved range-
management practices.
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The winter of 1957/58 was one of the mildest ever recorded in the range area.
Hay-supplies proved adequate under these circumstances and stock came through the
winter in good condition. Forage growth commenced earlier than normal on low-elevation
ranges and there was no abnormal pressure for premature turnout of stock on to the
spring ranges.
Extremely dry weather was experienced throughout the spring and summer of 1958.
This situation, combined with the light snowfall of the previous winter, resulted in a
severe shortage of soil-moisture. Range forage production was greatly reduced, particularly on low-elevation ranges. Regrowth, for fall use, did not occur following spring
grazing. Some ranges became short of watering-places as springs, creeks, and pot-holes
dried up. However, ranges in good condition were notably less adversely affected than
were depleted ranges, where forage production was drastically curtailed. The unavoidable over-utilization which occurred did no permanent damage to ranges in good
condition.    On the other hand, deteriorated ranges received a severe set-back.
Stock came off the ranges in surprisingly good condition except, again, where the
range was suffering from past mismanagement. On some badly depleted ranges, stock
did very poorly. The experiences of this year emphasize the vital necessity of maintaining ranges in top condition, not only for higher forage production at all times, but also
for greater resilience in meeting abnormal drought conditions.
Haying conditions were good, and where water was sufficient, bumper crops of
high-quality hay were put up. However, in some regions irrigation-water was inadequate
and only light crops were harvested. For the first time in several years, it was possible
to harvest hay from many of the wetter natural meadows. In general, hay-supplies
should be adequate to meet the demands of a normal winter in 1958/59.
Markets and Prices
Cattle prices rose markedly during the year and there was a strong demand, particularly for yearling feeders and calves. This situation, and the continuing discrimination
against grass-finished beef, has resulted in a growing number of cattlemen selling their
stock at a lower age, for finishing in surplus-grain areas. Cattle marketings were heavy,
but it is not anticipated that there will be a substantial reduction in the demand for
Crown range next year.
Lamb prices rose slightly during the year but did not keep pace with the large
advances in cattle prices.
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock on the range appeared to be about normal during 1958. Reports
of losses to bears were received from several areas, but other predators caused little
trouble. Some stock was lost to poisonous weeds and mud-holes. Highway and railway
traffic took their usual toll. Reports of animals shot by careless hunters were also
received. Cattle-rustling was reported from several areas, and there were several
convictions for this offence.
Diseases of Live Stock
There were no outbreaks of disease necessitating extensive adjustments in range
allocation or management plans during the year. A number of herds continue to be
grazed under isolation conditions to facilitate complete clean-up of disease problems.
Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture disease-control programmes continue
with a minimum of disruption in range practices. 48                                           DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ENGINEERING SERVICES
ENGINEERING SECTION
Engineering projects included 350 miles of route reconnaissance, 157 miles of road
location, 54 miles of new road constructed, and general maintenance work on 153 miles
of roads previously constructed.    In co-operation with the Government of Canada,
operations were expanded during winter months.    The following table shows the work
accomplished since inception of the forest road programme:—
Forest-development Road Programme, 1950-58
Public Working Circle or
Sustained-yield Unit
Forest District
Reconnaissance
Location
Survey
Constructed
Cape Scott  	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver 	
Vancouver.... 	
Vancouver -	
Vancouver	
Vancouver.	
Vancouver 	
25
46
47
7
28
10
16
27
12
44
64
16
21
86
11
6
14
58
92
9
35
9
61
67
37
14
8
57
23
31
22
38
51
8
48
24
57
116
7
3
63
15
22
12
72
24.6
21.5
3.5
5.0
78.3
81.9
7.8
30.8
47.4
25.2
21.2
24.9
20.9
10.2
4.0
5.0
4.0
2.0
55.8
5.0
52.0
37.0
13.0
23.1
3.0
13.6
19.1
16.0
25.5
Yale	
Redonda —_ -	
Morice  	
Big Valley                                     	
Stuart	
Prince George	
Prince George 	
Kamloops 	
Kamloops  - 	
Willow                                 	
Eagle River  _„-	
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Kamloops  - —.-	
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
Salmon Arm	
Niskonlith _	
North Thompson	
Quesnel Lake	
Kettle
Nelson   -	
Elk River	
Nelson	
Nelson  	
Nelson	
Arrowhead	
Nelson	
Edgewood   	
Upper Kootenay 	
Totals	
1,539                474.0
207.3
General Engineering
Design work was finished for a single 90-foot span in the Upper Kootenay Public
Working Circle.   This bridge was planned with laminated girders for a canyon crossing
of the White River at Mile 20 of the White Forest Development Road.    Design was
completed on a three-span 170-foot bridge having laminated girders set on steel H-pile
piers for a crossing of the Kootenay River north of the confluence with the Cross River.
This bridge would provide access for fire protection and to timber sales adjacent to the
National park. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 49
In the Chilliwack Public Working Circle, design for a 180-foot bridge crossing of the
Chilliwack River was completed. Some bridge design and preliminary estimates were
made for the Quatse and Glenlion River crossings in the Cape Scott Public Working
Circle.   Work continued on two bridges in the Cottonwood Public Working Circle.
Other work included final plans and specifications for a log A-frame type bridge
set on log cribs for the Lawless Forest Development Road and design of a wharf and
derrick installation for the Forest Service Marine Station in Vancouver. Studies were
made for irrigation-water sources for the Quinsam and Cranbrook Forest Nurseries.
Design of an F.M. radio antenna tower, suitable for mountain-top locations where extreme
icing and wind conditions exist, was accepted for installation.
Road Reconnaissance
Feasible routes for forest-development roads were established in fourteen stands
of timber covering 1,186,000 acres of productive forest land with a current merchantable
volume of 1.7 billion cubic feet. In the Vancouver Forest District, reconnaissance was
completed for further development of the Cape Scott Public Working Circle, from Port
Hardy along the Tsulquate River to Kains Lake. A route was investigated in the
Wakeman River drainage. In the Yale Sustained-yield Unit, feasible road access was
examined from Boston Bar and Alexandra Bridge into the Anderson Valley. In the
Orford River drainage, a short route was reconnoitred utilizing 9 miles of old railroad
grade. In the Prince George Forest District, preliminary development studies were made
of routes in the Slim Creek, Kenneth Creek, and Goat River areas. A route from Fraser
Lake along the Dog Creek Road and up into the Upper Sutherland was examined. The
Chuckwalla and Kilbella drainages, both in the Prince Rupert Forest District, were
studied for feasible road access. A route running along the north side of Kleanza River
was examined and a preliminary development study completed from Smithers to Sandstone Creek and from Doughty Station to Taltzen Lake in the McDonnell Lake area.
Access along Shovel Creek and over the divide into Henrietta Creek was investigated.
In the Nelson Forest District, two routes in the Flathead Sustained-yield Unit were
studied from McGillivary Station and Fernie on the Canadian Pacific Railway up into
the Upper Flathead drainage. In the Kamloops Forest District, two routes were examined
for access to the Upper McKusky—one was an extension of the proposed Hendrix Creek
Forest Road from Bosk Lake, and one route from the proposed Horsefly River Forest
Road following McKusky Creek.
Road Location
During the year, roads were located and designed for the following public working
circles and sustained-yield units: —
1. Cottonwood Public Working Circle.—On the Swift River Forest Development
Road, 3.5 miles of main line and 8.6 miles of branch road were located. To date, 21.2
miles of main road have been located to the crossing of the Swift River.
2. Morice Sustained-yield Unit.—Primary location on the Morice Forest Development Road was terminated at Morice Lake (Mile 51.1). A further 18.4 miles were
added to the secondary road system.
3. Cape Scott Public Working Circle.—Road location continued for 17.1 miles
from Port Hardy into the headwaters of the Nahwitti drainage and Georgie Lake area.
4. Lac la Hache Sustained-yield Unit.—The primary survey for the Hendrix Forest
Development Road was completed to Mile 19.6 (approximately 2 miles south of Hendrix
Lake).   A secondary road location was commenced into the Boss Creek drainage.
5. Naver Public Working Circle-Big Valley Sustained-yield Unit.—Initiated from
a junction at Mile 12 of the Naver Road in the Naver Public Working Circle, the Ahbau
Forest Development Road was located across the Willow River to Mile 22.6. Secondary
roads were extended into the Rebman Creek area. 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
6. Upper Kootenay Public Working Circle.—A further 21.8 miles of main and
secondary road location extended the White Forest Development Road system into the
White River and the Coyote and Lussier Creek drainages.
7. Experimental Reserve.—Two branch roads were located for 3.2 miles on the
Aleza Lake Experiment Station area.
8. Creston Sustained-yield Unit.—In the Goat River area, 5 miles of primary road
were located.
9. Quesnel Public Working Circle.—Four miles of main-road survey was completed
along the Horsefly River.
10. Windermere Public Working Circle.—A road along Horsethief Creek was
located for 2 miles.
11. Flathead Sustained-yield Unit.—The initial 4 miles of primary-road survey were
completed on the Lodgepole road.
12. Broughton Public Working Circle.—A winter survey was commenced in the
Kingcome River Forest with 3.5 miles of main road located.
Road Construction and Maintenance
Favourable weather and ground conditions contributed to a successful construction
season in the following areas:—
1. Morice Sustained-yield Unit.—Construction on the Morice Forest Development
Road main line continued from Mile 38 to Mile 51.2 and from junction (Mile 27.6) to
Mile 28.9 on the Morice West secondary road. This work involved the clearing of 83
acres of right-of-way, excavating approximately 92,700 cubic yards of common material
and 1,700 cubic yards of solid rock, placing 21,400 tons of surfacing, and installing 1,700
lineal feet of culvert pipe. On completion of the above works at the end of October, the
project was demobilized and the equipment transferred to other projects.
2. Cottonwood Public Working Circle.—The Service's forces continued the construction of the Swift Forest Development Road from Mile 7.5 to Mile 11.5 and from
Mile 8.2 to Mile 9.2 on the Swift-Atis secondary road. This work involved the clearing
of 32 acres of right-of-way, 62 acres of grubbing, excavation of 171,000 cubic yards of
common material and 5,200 cubic yards of solid rock, and the placing of 37,400 tons of
1-inch crushed surfacing and installing 1,300 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
3. Similkameen Public Working Circle.—Construction operations extended the
Lawless Creek Forest Development Road by 6 miles of main and 3 miles of secondary
road. Seventy-two acres of right-of-way were cleared. Work also included 65.9 acres
grubbed, excavation of approximately 145,000 cubic yards of common material and
2,400 cubic yards of solid rock, placing 13,000 tons of surfacing, and installing 1,500
lineal feet of culverts.
4. Chilliwack Public Working Circle.—The Service's forces continued construction
of the Chilliwack Forest Development Road from Mile 2.5 to Mile 7.5. In co-operation
with the Department of the Attorney-General, and as part of a scheme for the rehabilitation of prisoners from the Provincial Gaol, 20 acres of right-of-way were cleared, 53
acres were grubbed, and 2,300 lineal feet of culverts were installed. Forest Service crews
also excavated 133,000 cubic yards of common material and 4,000 cubic yards of solid
rock.
5. Upper Kootenay Public Working Circle.—(a) The contractor building the first
20.5-mile section of the White Forest Development Road completed the work started two
years ago. Clearing of right-of-way for extension of the main line and for a number of
secondary roads was commenced early in the year. This programme of winter hand-
clearing under small contracts resulted in 89 acres of right-of-way cleared.
(b) A single-lane permanent-type timber bridge with a 90-foot span was constructed
across the White River by October. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
51
A permanent timber bridge featuring 94-foot glu-laminated, creosoted timber girders,  under
construction across White River Canyon on the White River Forest Development Road.
(c) Operations by the Service's forces extended main and branch roads 4 miles.
This work involved 40 acres of grubbing, excavating 50,000 cubic yards of earth, and
installing 300 lineal feet of culverting.
6. Lac la Hache Sustained-yield Unit.—(a) The winter programme included clearing contracts on 60.7 acres of right-of-way.
. 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(b) Construction operations were commenced by Forest Service crews during
November. To date they have grubbed 40 acres and excavated 41,000 cubic yards of
material for construction of the Hendrix Forest Development Road.
7. Naver Public Working Circle.—The Naver Forest Development Road was completed with clean-up and grading from Mile 0 to Mile 22.4.
8. Naver Public Working Circle-Big Valley Sustained-yield Unit.—Forty acres
of right-of-way on the Naver-Ahbau Forest Development Road were hand-cleared during
the winter operations. A small Department crew commenced construction of the sub-
grade.
9. Experimental Reserve (Prince George Forest District).—Construction commenced on 1.5 miles of secondary road in the Aleza Lake Experimental Forest.
10. Willow River Public Working Circle.—(a) Road construction by contractor
was completed from Mile 17.5 to Mile 20.2 on the Willow South and from Mile 20.2 to
Mile 22.5 on the Willow-George roads. This work involved clearing and grubbing of
26 acres of right-of-way, excavating 40,000 cubic yards of material, placing 16,000 tons
of surfacing, and installing 500 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
(b) On the Willow-Pitoney Forest Development Road, 85 acres of right-of-way
were cleared.
(c) A single-lane creosoted-wood three-span bridge, with over-all length of 242
feet, was erected at Mile 18.2 across the Willow River.
11. Salmon Arm Public Working Circle.—Road surfacing .was completed from
Mile 10.1 to Mile 13.6 of the Fly Hills Road.
12. Niskonlith Public Working Circle.—Road construction by contractor continued
from Mile 12 to Mile 19.1 of the McGillivary Road. This work involved excavation of
approximately 27,000 cubic yards of material and 8,000 cubic yards of rock, placing
approximately 21,000 tons of surfacing, and installing 200 lineal feet of culvert.
13. Additional Works.—With inception of another winter programme, progress
began on the following:—
(a) The Lodgepole Forest Development Road, near Fernie.
(b) The Horsethief Forest Development Road, near Wilmer.
(c) The Goat River Forest Development Road, near Creston.
(d) The Kingcome Forest Development Road in the Broughton Public Working Circle.
14. Maintenance.—Maintenance work, including spring snow-ploughing, freeing
frozen culverts, clearing ditches, repairing road surfaces and improving drainages, continued on 153 miles of completed forest-development road.
MECHANICAL SECTION
Equipment Selection
Vehicle purchases in 1958 were light, consisting largely of four-wheel-drive and
commercial units as shown in the above table. The long, low styling of the modern passenger-car has definitely reduced the suitability of such vehicles for use by field s*aff.
To date, experience with the various types of " limited slip " differentials now on the
market has been encouraging. There is every indication that this type of rear-axle assembly will become standard equipment on most Forest Service vehicles and thereby reduce
the need for four-wheel-drive units.
With the exception of one high-deck 20-ton trailer, built by a Vancouver trailer-
construction company, other purchases of equipment were routine. It may be noted that
chain-saws are not being replaced when they reach the end of their useful life. This
marks a change from previous policy and follows the trend toward either renting such
equipment or, alternatively, contracting the clearing work. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
53
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1958
Units
Transferred
to Parks1
New
Total,
April 1,
1958
Removed
from
Service
New
Purchases
Total
Units,
Dec. 31,
1958
Sedans, coaches, and coupes  -	
Suburbans, station wagons, and sedan deliveries
82
86
28
41
58
223
23
178
82
53
23
11
2
5
5
5
5
1
6
45
2
14
1
2
77
81
28
41
53
218
22
172
37
51
9
10
15
9
5
1
5
12
1
24
3
5
1
......
11
2
9
17
27
1
7
4
5
62
83
25
49
65
233
22
155
38
14,000-24,000 G.V.W. trucks (2, 3, and 4 tons)..
25,000-40,000 G.V.W. trucks (H.D.)	
51
8
10
Snow-ploughs—Sicard (848 and 1844) _.
___
890
91
799
81
83
801
Tractors 	
47
22
4
4
3
347
697
403
97
38
1
17
10
115
127
10
5
4
1
1
22
14
7
3
9
6
2
2
14
21
21
16
4
1
7
6
6
2
38
16
4
2
1
333
"     676
382
81
34
1
17
9
108
127
4
5
4
1
1
22
8
5
1          3
1
17
13
36
2
1
1
32
96
2
1
9
19
1
......
......
	
|      ......
1
1
	
1
38
16
4
Shovels—power. ',. . - 	
2
1
348
759
354
83
34
1
17
10
Trailers—dwelling, bunk-house, etc.— .	
115
145
Air-compressors _	
4
6
Muskeg-tractors (personnel carriers) 	
4
1
1
Mechanical wheelbarrows.	
22
9
6
Augers—power, planting 	
3
1
1 A result of establishing new Department of Recreation and Conservation and transfer of Parks Division of the
British Columbia Forest Service to that Department.
The increased efficiency of the one-man chain-saw has resulted in two-man saws
becoming obsolete. Because of this, nineteen two-man saws were called in early in the
year and converted into high-pressure fire-pumps by the substitution of a centrifugal
pump for the transmission, bar, and chain assembly. The pumps so obtained were a
welcome addition to stock during the unusually severe fire season which followed.
Sixty-four new fire-pumps were requisitioned, which is about double the normal
requirement. The small " hi-pressure "' fire-pump field was augmented this year by a
new light-weight centrifugal pump of considerable promise. Ten were obtained toward
the end of the season, and reports so far received indicate a ready acceptance of this new
unit.
The early advent of fires in the northern districts delayed the completion of a scheme
to produce a new light-weight slip-on tank unit of simple, yet flexible design. The assembly consists of a 100-imperial-gallon aluminum or fibreglass tank with a standard production, 185 p.s.i. small pump, plus a hose reel or rack carrying 250 feet of 7/16-inch
hose. A special pistol-grip triggered discharge gun was designed and produced by the
Forest Service Marine Station, which expects to have ten complete units ready for delivery in time for the forthcoming year.
Two serious trailer towing accidents pointed up the need to inquire closelv info
towing-hitches and their effects on the swaying action of a trailer when travelling at speeds 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
over 20 miles per hour. The conclusions reached were embodied in a cirular of instruction which should materially reduce the possibility of further accidents of this kind.
In the trailer field, a change has been made from vacuum to electric brakes due to a
shift in that direction by the trade itself. Present-style electric brakes seem to be very
satisfactory, showing much improvement over earlier designs.
The fire season was a severe test of all mechanical equipment. It is gratifying to
note that reports of failure were relatively few and generally attributable to unskilled
operation by transient help—a feature which is unavoidable in abnormal fire periods.
General Supervision
A review of the mechanical-inspection reports submitted during the year indicates
that equipment maintenance was adequate despite the pressure of a bad fire year. A
better-than-average record was established by the Surveys and Inventory Division as a
result of the employment of a mobile crew of two mechanics. These men made numerous trips to areas where the Division's vehicles were concentrated. Close inspection and
on-the-spot maintenance largely prevented major mechanical breakdowns with consequent reduction in productive work.
As in the previous year, a series of short instructional courses on the care and operation of four-wheel-drive vehicles were given at Langford by the Victoria headquarters
staff. These were primarily organized to improve the proficiency of the field personnel of
headquarters divisions of the Forest Service but have also been popular with both the
Lands and Finance Departments. A short course on the maintenance and use of chain-
saws was added this year and was also well attended.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION AND MARINE DESIGN
New building design and construction during 1958 was limited, as shown in the table
on page 55. Also, the carry-over of projects started in 1957 was not heavy. As a consequence, staff had the time to give closer supervision to projects carried out by Forest
Service crews and handle numerous small renovation and maintenance jobs. Except for
one painting contract and a lone list of minor maintenance jobs under $1,000 in value, no
new contracts were awarded. However, tenders were called for the erection of a vehicle-
and equipment-storage shed in Vancouver at the end of the year, and work on the project
will probably get under way in January.
A further programme of Porta-building construction was undertaken to meet the
demand for emergency accommodation. This type of building has been favourably
received, although various modifications have been suggested. As a result, some of the
new models were altered to accommodate a new type of lighting system. To enable use
at sites not supplied with electrical power, liquid propane will be used in these units for
lighting as well as for cooking and heating.
In the field of marine design, considerable work was done in regard to two major
problems in particular. One problem was to design a suitable craft for personnel and
equipment transportation on Ootsa Lake, where travel is relatively hazardous due to the
flooding of t'mbered lands. A 45-foot vessel containing special provision for buoyancy
units of Styrofoam, and powered by a hydrojet unit in place of the usual power-driven
propeller, was finally designed and is under construction at the Marine Station. The
hydrojet should enable the vessel to manoeuvre in debris-strewn water without danger of
entanglement. There is sufficient buoyancy provided to make the vessel unsinkable, even
if badly holed on a submerged snag.
The second problem was a suitable means of providing adequate camp facilities for
silviculture crews working in the upper and isolated reaches of Babine Lake. It was
finally concluded that maximum flexibility would be obtained if housing consisted of REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
55
Scale model of proposed lake barge for the transportation of trailers, vehicles, or bulldozers
weighing up to   12 tons.
standard trailers or Porta-buildings and that the problem could be narrowed down to
a feasible means of transporting such units. In line with this reasoning, a 16- by 40-foot
barge, capable of carrying 12 tons, has been designed. The unit will have flotation from
five pairs of Styrofoam-filled pontoons attached to a framework featuring two glulam
longitudinal girders as a twin keel. Besides providing for safe and reasonably fast
movement of trailers up and down the lake, the barge should be useful in the event of
fires, as medium-sized tractors, properly lashed down, can be hauled without danger.
Building construction at various points throughout the Province is detailed in the
following table: —
Building and Construction Undertaken during 1958
Project
Construction Agency
Stage of
Construction
Carry-over from 1957/58
Barriere. —	
Chase	
Chetwynd	
Duncan	
Duncan	
Duncan	
Fishermans Cove	
Fort St. James	
Golden 	
Lumby     	
Mesachie Lake	
100 Mile House	
Pemberton 	
Summit Lake-—  -
Telkwa	
Vancouver  	
Addition to office	
Assistant Ranger residence	
Assistant Ranger residence	
Electrical work for below 	
Greenhouse, lath house, and potting-shed
Heating „— ___	
Float — _  	
Water system  	
Assistant Ranger residence	
Four-car garage - —
Cook-house extension __ _	
Office conversion ___ ___
Office and stores building —	
Four-car garage   -	
Four-car garage  	
Addition, Forest Service Marine Station._
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service
Contract .___	
Forest Service
Contract	
Contract „_
Forest Service
Contract	
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service
Contract,-	
Forest Service
Forest Service.
Forest Service
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed. 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Building and Construction Undertaken during 1958—Continued
Location
Project
Construction Agency
Stage of
Construction
Programme for 1958/59
Forest Service	
Contract	
Forest Service	
Forest Service  _„..
Vehicle- and equipment-storage shed 	
Six Porta-buildings (residences) 	
Painting   ..
Various points.  _	
Contract.	
Completed.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
Marine Work
Thirty-six major overhauls and twenty-two annual routine maintenance jobs on
launches of the Forest Service fleet kept a major part of the staff busy throughout the
year. In addition, ninety-six small craft, including fifty belonging to the Surveys Division,
were repaired and reconditioned. The M.V. " Syrene " was re-engined with twin diesels
of 100 horse-power each. The newly purchased 38-foot scaling launch "Conifer" was
receiving some modifications to cabin work and fittings, together with the installation of
twin 200-horsepower gasoline-engines, as the year ended.
Due to the extensive maintenance programme indicated in the preceding paragraph,
new construction was limited. Nevertheless, the 40-foot Ranger launch " Western Hemlock," which was commenced in 1957, was finally launched and delivered to Prince
Rupert. A special design of lake craft for Ootsa Lake, mentioned previously in this
report, was started and three-quarters complete by the end of the year. Two 23-foot
and three 18-foot outboard cruisers plus three 9-foot plywood dinghies comprised the
remaining production of complete craft, but five " Dreemboat" hulls, purchased in the
unfinished state, were also completed.
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop
Production by the woodworking-shop was, as usual, varied, ranging from simple
crates to special items for the Pacific National Exhibition. Thirteen lookout buildings,
complete with sets of furniture, were prefabricated. The programme of Porta-building
construction, started late in 1957, was continued. Six of these buildings have been
completed and three were in production at the year's end. Miscellaneous minor items
included over 300 special tool, pump, and outboard-motor boxes, sixty-six signs of
various types, thirty two-piece level rods, and a number of pieces of special office
furniture.
Machine-shop
The severe 1958 fire season put a heavy load on the machine-shop during the
summer months and assured capacity operation throughout the remainder of the year.
Over 400 overhauls on pumps, outboard motors, chain-saws, and lighting plants were
completed. One hundred and seventy new units were tested prior to shipment to the
field. Over 2,000 pieces of hose and pump accessories were machined. In addition, the
machining of hundreds of specialty items for marine use, Porta-buildings, and lookout
buildings (including twenty sets of lightning-arresters) amount to a significant percentage
of the work performed. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 57
A special feature of the shop's performance was the development of a new hose
nozzle. This nozzle has a pistol-grip, is trigger-operated, and provides either a solid
stream of water or fog. Improvements have also been made in the design of the epidiascopes produced by the shop, and forty units are now in process of manufacture.
General Plant Maintenance
A long-range improvement development was started this year by excavating and
riprapping 300 feet of the river-bank and erecting a new section of wharf. A new derrick
is also in the process of erection. Dry-rot in the foundation timbers of No. 1 and No. 2
buildings created a major repair problem. General maintenance and repair was carried
out throughout the Station.
RADIO SECTION
The severe fire season of 1958 delayed summer installation in the Kootenay region
and created a great deal of radio-propagation survey work which had not been anticipated
in the 1958 plans. The unusual heat and dryness caused the disappearance of previously
tested circuits and cancellation of part of the plan for installation of V.H.F., F.M. in the
Nelson area. Based upon the probable repetition of similar conditions in the future, our
standards of acceptance of any surveyed V.H.F. circuit were revised upwards.
New transmitting units of all types purchased in 1958 total 146, as shown in the
table below:—
New Radio Units, 1958
Portable, F.M. : :        79
Ranger Station, 60-watt, F.M        19
Ranger Station, 25-watt, F.M.  1
Mobile, F.M.   3
Portable, A.M.        37
Marine, 85-watt, A.M.  3
Fixed Station, 85-watt, A.M.  4
Mobile, A.M.	
Purchased, 1958, F.M  102
Purchased, 1958, A.M  44
Add 1957 total  1,090
Less obsolete units written off, 1958  20
Net total, all districts   1,216
In keeping with the policy of gradually reducing A.M. equipment, purchases of A.M.
units would have been negligible during 1958 but for the emergent needs of the unusually
severe fire season. Of the sets purchased, F.M. equipment comprised 70 per cent of the
total, as against 58 per cent in 1957 and 17 per cent in 1956.
The Department of Transport regulation in the form of Specification 116, affecting
fixed land stations, was implemented during the year without the setting of a firm date for
expiry of the amortization date. This specification included terms which had the effect
of classing lookout portables in the category of fixed stations and, as these units cannot
possibly conform with the terms of Specification 116, which deals with power-operated
units, the Service was faced with the possibility of a large proportion of its lookouts being
made inelegible for licensing in the comparatively near future. Immediate representation
was made to the Western Canada Telecommunications Council and, through them, to
Ottawa, and the assurance was received that exceptions would be made in cases where
hardship could be shown. 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Nelson excluded, new installation of V.H.F., F.M. equipment in the form of Ranger
stations and repeaters was not materially increased during 1958. Seventy-nine lookout
and fire portables were purchased, to be divided essentially among four districts. This
permitted, to a small extent, the use of F.M. on fires, but it was evident that these will not
become really useful on large or remote fires until they can be supplied to each fire in
greater concentration.
In the Kamloops area, the reliability of Silver Star repeater, always a problem in the
past, was improved by the addition of an automatic change-over, stand-by propane motor
and extra gas-storage tank. Campbell Mountain repeater was abandoned when it was
found that a signal could be beamed into Penticton from Silver Star with greatlv improved signal strength. Equipment from Campbell Mountain was used to convert Greenstone Mountain into a full repeater, paving the way, through the proposed Timothy
repeater, to Williams Lake and intermediate points. Thirteen lookouts were F.M.-
equipped, and excellent results were obtained, with unlimited time on the air for each,
without jamming the A.M. network. Results from the A.M. net during the summer were
intermittently poor, depending on weather conditions.
In the Prince George area, a repeater was added at Fort Fraser Lookout, which gave
solid V.H.F. communication to Fort St. James, Vanderhoof, and Fort Fraser. This unit
is still powered with a gasoline generator and is not regarded as a final installation for
that reason. In the autumn, after suitable tests, Pilot Mountain repeater was abandoned
in favour of Tabor Mountain, giving equal coverage in the west and south and increasing
V.H.F. range to Fort St. John and other northern points and to Penny in the east. Over
the entire summer, regardless of the unfavourable weather conditions, the V.H.F. network
performed extremely well.
In the Vancouver District, which is now largely V.H.F.-equipped, reliability was
excellent. Alberni and associated lookouts were equipped with F.M. for the first time,
and tests were carried out in September to determine the feasibility of transferring Mount
Newton repeater to Mount Bruce, thus increasing the coverage to Elk Falls repeater
direct, and eliminating Cottle Hill repeater at Nanaimo. Preliminary steps for this transfer have been taken and will be completed early in 1959.
The A.M. system in the Prince Rupert District gave satisfactory results within the
usual limits of this method of communication. A new remote receiver installation at
Smithers and increased power througout the Raneer districts offset, to some extent, the
drawbacks of adjacent channel and other forms of interference. Some F.M. tests were
made with the object of supplying, in the near future, F.M. communication between
Ranger stations and lookouts, point-to-point F.M. transmission not being practical until
commercial interests establish power-equipped repeater sites as in other areas. One F.M.
circuit between Prince Rupert and Queen Charlotte City proved partially successful and
may later be made permanent by the use of beam antennas.
At Nelson, which was equipped with A.M. only until the summer of 1958, installation of V.H.F., F.M. equipment started in July. Ranger stations from Invermere south to
Cranbrook and from Cranbrook west to Beaverdell were F.M.-equipped, these being fed
by repeaters at Moyie, Thompson, and Phoenix Mountains. The original plan to use Red
Mountain as the connecting-link between these repeaters and Nelson headquarters had
to be abandoned, as signals which were satisfactory over this route the previous year were
non-existent during the intensely hot weather.
While Ranger stations used the new system among themselves and in conjunction
with a number of F.M.-equipped lookouts, a survey was carried out with the object of
finding some means of connecting Nelson headquarters to the rest of the system by means
of alternate or additional repeaters. Sites were finally chosen at Beasley, 9 miles from
Nelson, and on Santa Rosa Mountain in the Cascades. Though the system could not
be completed during the summer, Beasley repeater has been constructed and will be ready
for use in the spring of 1959. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 59
The F.M. system gave relief to the crowded A.M. channel, which provided most of
the communication under adverse conditions of lightning and man-made interference.
Although communication was maintained, the never-ending battle against electrical noise
made all contacts extremely difficult and the need for the replacement of many A.M.
stations by V.H.F. was even more evident than in the past.
Following their work in the Kootenay region, Victoria crews completed repeater
changes in the Kamloops District and an extensive repeater-coverage survey from Mount
Bruce on Saltspring Island to Williams Lake, and from Tabor Mountain near Prince
George to Little Prairie Mountain, Fort St. John, and other points in that area. Particular importance is attached to the results of the long-distance tests, which show that an
F.M. circuit can be established between Victoria, Kamloops, and Prince George with the
addition of one repeater at Manning Park, and that Nelson also can be connected when
district repeaters are completed. 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
A mild winter, with little or no snow at the lower levels, preceded the 1958
fire season. In the north, the usual early spring hazard was either normal or missing
altogether, in spite of much below-average rainfall over those districts.
The fire season began in earnest in May, as an area of high pressure dominated first
the southern districts and, later, the northern half of the Province. New record high
mean temperatures for May were set at a number of points in the southern part of the
Province, while sunshine was generally 20 to 40 per cent more than normal. As the
high-pressure area shifted northward in the last week of May, widespread lightning
activity occurred on the 28th of that month in the three southern districts. Earlier, on
the 21st, a lightning-storm centred in the Prince George District set off a number of
serious fires.
The usual June rains were absent this year as abnormally high pressure persisted in
the Gulf of Alaska until the last week of the month, when it broke down sufficiently to
permit one weather system to reach British Columbia from the west. This system brought
severe lightning activity to almost all of the Province and, in only 36 hours, gave the
Prince George area close to its normal June rainfall. Record rainfall deficiencies were
reported over the Northern and Central Coast and exceptionally high mean temperatures
were reported over the whole Province, setting new records at almost all first-order
weather stations. Hours of sunshine ranged from near normal in the south to 50 per cent
above normal in the north.
July was a month of record drought, caused by the persistent blocking effect of
a ridge of high pressure extending well to the north of its usual position along the British
Columbia coast. At Victoria it was necessary to go back to 1889 to find another rainless
July. Much-above-normal temperatures were accompanied by sunshine ranging from
near normal over the Southern Interior to 60 per cent above normal on the Northern
Coast, and 40 per cent above normal over the Northern Interior and Southern Coast.
Widespread lightning activity July 4th to 8th set fires over the whole Province with a
reversal of the normal pattern—Nelson District relatively untouched and the Prince
Rupert District reporting more than 160 fires. On July 10th and 11th another storm
hit the Prince George, Kamloops, and Nelson Districts, leaving some 120 fires in the
Nelson District alone. A third serious blow was delivered on July 28th and 29th when
Vancouver, Kamloops, Prince George, and Nelson reported widespread lightning activity.
Above-normal temperatures continued into August, although the rainfall pattern
was quite variable, with deficiencies general throughout the Southern Interior. Sunshine-
amounts remained 10 to 20 per cent above normal, except over the North Coast, where
they were 10 to 20 per cent below normal August values. Pressure remained high along
the Coast, but the ridge broke down at intervals to permit the approach of the occasional
weather system. These systems brought lightning activity to the Nelson and Kamloops
Districts on August 10th to 12th, 18th and 19th, and on the 25th.
In the first week of September, the persistent weather pattern of the summer broke
down, permitting Pacific storms to reach the Northern Coast. A week or so later these
storms were able to reach the Southern Coast. Late in the month, the blocking high-
pressure area redeveloped along the Coast, and this pattern continued into the first week
in October, when the fall rains brought the season effectively to an end.
There were three principal features of the weather that contributed to the record
fire season. First, there was the length of the several extended dry spells coupled with
the frequency of strong inversions and resulting lack of overnight recovery of fuel
moisture. This permitted the heavier fuels and the green timber to dry out to a state
seldom reached previously in many sections of the Province.    A second factor was the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 61
number of widespread lightning-storms which found readily inflammable fuel even in
areas where lightning-strikes normally have little effect. A third factor was the occurrence of strong winds which, combined with the dry state of the heavy fuels and green
timber, produced fires of major proportions often within a matter of hours.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
The number of fires was slightly more than twice the ten-year average. The occurrence by months again deviated somewhat from normal (see Table 50 of the Appendix).
Shown below for comparative purposes are figures of fire occurrence by districts for the
past decade:  Fire Occurrence
during Ten-vear Percentage
Forest District Period, 1949-58 of All B.C.
Vancouver   6,679 34.9
Prince Rupert  995 5.2
Prince George  2,035 10.6
Kamloops   5,679 29.6
Nelson  3,782 19.7
Totals   19,170 100.0
The principal cause of fires in 1958 was railways operating, which accounted for
29.7 per cent, followed by lightning with 27.9 per cent. It should be noted that of the
total of 1,224 railway fires, 1,086 were on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
Cost of Fire-fighting
The cost of fire-fighting to date amounted to $4,528,137 or $3,755,064 more than
the ten-year average. For detailed tabulations of costs, see Tables 41, 56, and 58 in the
Appendix.
The heaviest costs of suppression were attributable to fires caused by lightning,
being 75 per cent of the total cost, although that cause only represented 27.9 per cent
of the total number of fires.
Damage
The total area burned was estimated to be 2,065,423 acres (see Table 55 in the
Appendix). This is about five times more than the ten-year average. The damage is
estimated to be $7,917,235, or about seven times the ten-year average. Seventy-five per
cent of the area burned carried non-commercial cover or were non-productive sites.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The Provincial Fire Atlas has been brought up to date. The fire-statistics ledgers
and fire-classification atlas are currently being brought up to date.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
Visibility-mapping crews spent a large portion of their time in the north-east part of
the Province. The areas adjacent to the Alaska Highway were examined from Fort
St. John to Lower Post with the purpose of eventual development of a network of primary
and secondary lookouts to cover this region. The Rocky Mountain Trench was also
examined as far as Fort Ware. A breakdown of points examined, by forest districts, is
as follows:   Prince George, 34;  Kamloops, 8;  and Nelson, 7. 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Lookout photography was carried out in conjunction with visibility mapping,
fourteen lookouts being photographed.
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles and Sustained-yield Units
Preliminary field work, preparatory to drawing up protection plans, was carried out
in the Chilliwack, Babine, and Naver Public Working Circles, and the Nicola Lake and
Creston Sustained-yield Units.
In the fire-protection access road programme, work was centred in the Yahk River
area in the Nelson Forest District. Some 27.5 miles of road was constructed, with several
good connections to adjacent road systems.
Air-photo Mosaics
Coverage was increased in the Prince George area, and additionally complete coverage was made of the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Prints of these mosaics are available to the general public through the Air Photo
Library, Department of Lands and Forests.
FIRE-WEATHER RECORDS AND INVESTIGATIONS
Two field parties from the Federal Forestry Branch, Research Section, continued
to obtain the basic data necessary for the development of a fire-danger rating system for
British Columbia.
Following representations by industry and the Forest Service, the fire-weather forecasting service provided by the Vancouver public weather office was expanded this season
to include a forecast of the percent-chance of rain at a number of selected points. This
service was evaluated and found to give a definite increase of information over and above
a categorical forecast of "rain" or "no rain."
A paper on the subject of fire-danger build-up was presented to the Western Fire
Weather Conference in Portland in April.
Preparation and distribution of fuel-moisture indicator sticks continued to be a
function of the Protection Division. Demand for these appears to have levelled off, with
a total of 637 sets distributed, 428 of which went to industrial operators.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Sixteen suppression crews, averaging ten men each, were again employed during the
summer for approximately 100 days each. They attended 268 fires, of which 82 per cent
were held to a size of 5 acres or less.
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities
Size of Fire When Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
V* Acre
or Less
Over Vi
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to 14 acre) 	
Over 54 acre and up to 1 acre—
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres..
Over 50 acres	
Totals	
165
23
29
45
6
268
151
6
21
6
2
14
13
39
22
54
14 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958
63
AIRCRAFT
Protection flying was continued under contract with Pacific Western Airlines
Limited, who supplied six float-planes. A total of 2,300 flying-hours were logged
throughout the Province during the period April 15th to November 15th under the
contract, as follows:—
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver	
Vancouver    .
Beaver 	
Beaver	
Beaver_. 	
Beaver (2)       - -	
300
375
Prince George -	
405
660
Beaver  	
560
Total	
2,300
One helicopter, under a two months' contract, was used in the Nelson District for
a total of 206 flying-hours, occupied in cargo-hauling, reconnaissance, ferrying, and fire
patrol. '   '
In addition to these machines under contract, extensive use was made of both fixed-
wing aircraft and helicopters on all types of fire-suppression work. Approximately 3,224
hours were logged on fixed wing and 1,184 hours on helicopters.
For the first time in British Columbia, free dropping of water was used extensively
in combating forest fires. Previously, water bombing using water in bags had been tried
on lightning-strikes with little success. Free drops were successful in holding some
lightning-strikes until fire-fighting crews could be brought in. On some larger fires,
fire-fighters were assisted by free-water dropping attacks on hot spots, but the idea of
stopping a forest fire by water-dropping alone proved fallacious. The consensus of
opinion is that the best use of this method of attack is to gain time on lightning-strikes or
spot fires which are difficult of access until a fire crew can get to them. The following
tables give some statistics on this type of aircraft use: —
Use of Fixed-wing Aircraft in Fire-fighting, 1958
Forest District
Reconnaissance
Transport of Men
and Supplies
Water Bombing
Total
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Hours
Cost
Vancouver	
103.53
103.02
224.59
68.40
67.40
$7,876.40
7,369.03
16,580.19
5,435.47
2,996.10
192.39
938.53
443.05
133.15
54.20
$14,959.57
68,436.32
33,809.35
10,343.55
4,050.75
681.44
18.15
9.20
$87,544.14
1,443.75
812.00
978.16
1,060.10
677.24
201.55
306.40
$110,380.11
77,249.10
51,201.54
15,779.02
Nelson	
184.40
893.59
19,901.89
$109,701.78
26,948.74
Totals	
568.14
$40,257.19
1,762.12  | $131,599.54
1
3,224.25
$281,558.51
Use of Helicopters in Fire-fighting, 1958
Vancouver 	
15.15
$4,159.85
112.12
405.14
364.05
70.35
9.05
$28,584.43
39,860.13
45,400.22
7,293.05
908.32
8.05
4.30
1
|      $3,233.32
429.75
|
135.32
409.44
429.08
121.05
89.00
$35,977.60
40,289 88
65.03
36.30
59.00
5,646.83
3,747.75
5,974.68
51,047.05
Kamloops 	
14.00
20.55
1,450.85
2,091.67
12,491.65
8,974.67
175.48
$19,529.11
961.11    I   *1?9 046 15
47.30
$7,205.59
1,184.29
$148,780.85
-
Various types of helicopters, such as the Sikorsky S58 and S55, Bell Gl and G2,
were used on fires for moving in personnel, equipment, and water bombing. Water-filled
paper bags were used from helicopters on several occasions with success on lightning-
strikes. 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Eighteen tons of sodium calcium borate (known as Firebrake) was used experimentally this fire season. It was applied in free drops from aircraft, in bags from aircraft,
and from the ground. The reports of its use are not conclusive. It does have fire-
retardant properties. Small fires can be held in check by use of Firebrake until a crew
gets in. On a large, hot fire front, results were not good because the fire was burning in
reproduction and the Firebrake, although used in quantity, did not reach the ground in
sufficient volume to coat the fuel and stop the fire. It is an aid to other supression
activities, and further experiments will be carried out.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The Service continued to maintain and add to the network of roads and trails
throughout the Province, as shown in the table below.
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
58.5
529.6
Miles
132.2
244.6
Miles
50.5
75.4
Miles
241.2
849.6
588.1
376.8
125.9
1,090.8
23.1
429.2
8.5
183.4
17.7
71.6
49.3
684.2
452.3
191.9
89.3
733.5
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
The mild winter of 1957/58 allowed a very early start of full-scale logging in 1958.
The hazardous summer weather conditions, however, resulted in lengthy interruptions
due to fires and closures. As logging was quickly resumed in early September, the net
result was that the total area logged in the Vancouver District was only 18 per cent less
than in 1957.
Being preoccupied with fire suppression, Rangers and district staff could not devote
the usual amount of time to inspecting and reporting on logged areas and issuing instructions to burn, with a result a larger acreage of slash will be carried over to 1959.
Compliance with snag-falling regulations has been satisfactory, and it is anticipated
that the acreage assessed for non-compliance in 1958 will be considerably less than in
1957.
Three snag-falling contracts, totalling $20,595 and comprising a total area of 4,152
acres, were awarded in 1958. All three areas were located on the Sechelt Peninsula, in
the Vancouver District. Reforestation Division crews felled snags on 2,035 acres in the
Lower Coastal area.
For statistical data on slash-disposal and snag-falling in the Vancouver Forest District, see Tables 43 to 49, inclusive, in the Appendix.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
The 124 prosecutions of 1958 were double the ten-year average. The prosecutions
are further analysed in Table 59 of the Appendix.
FOREST CLOSURES
Thirty-two regional closures were imposed in the Nelson Forest District, nine in the
Vancouver Forest District, and one in the Coastal area of the Prince Rupert Forest District.   Because of the severe fire season, a record number of forest closures was necessary. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
65
In addition to the restricted industrial and recreational closures, it was necessary to impose
two general closures in the Vancouver Forest District. Every effort was made to lift the
closures as soon as practical because of the hardships and inconveniences caused by these
protective measures.
The summary of closures is shown in the following table:—
Forest Closures, 1958
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Effective
Date
Termination Date
Entire Vancouver District..
Blackwater Creek	
Entire Vancouver District-
Entire Vancouver District..
Woodbury Creek-
Entire Vancouver District-
Entire Vancouver District-
Entire Vancouver District-
Little Slocan River	
Prince Rupert District west of Cascade   Mountains,   including   Queen
Charlotte Islands
Tiger, Cambridge, Gorge, Ryan, McAI-
ister, and Casino Creeks
Blueberry,   Poupore,   Sullivan,   Johnson, Murphy, McNally, Hanna, and
Topping Creeks
Big Sheep Creek....  	
Woodbury Creek  _	
Crawford Creek	
Hawkins Creek    	
Goat River   —
Sullivan Creek 	
Sheep Creek-
Hidden Creek-
Porcupine Creek-
South Fork of Salmo River-
Wilson Creek. _	
Arrowpark Creek _	
Slewisken Creek. _.
Big Sand Creek	
St. Mary River-
Ladybird and Norns (Pass) CreekS-
Whatshan River. 	
Lamb Creek   	
Sanca Creek    	
Spillimacheen River and Bobbie Burns
Creek
Alexander Creek 	
Hartley Creek—  	
Elk and Fording Rivers 	
Part of Vancouver District	
Part of Vancouver District 	
Kuskanax Creek 	
Nakusp,   Fitzstubbs,   and   Bremner
Creeks
Cariboo and Burton Creeks .	
Kettle and Westkettle Rivers	
Lardeau and Duncan Rivers 	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Vancouver	
Vancouver—.
Vancouver.	
Nelson	
Prince Rupert
Nelson „_	
Nelson-	
Nelson.
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Restricted Industrial-
Recreational	
Restricted Industrial-
Travel  	
Recreational	
Restricted Industrial-
Travel - 	
General	
Recreational 	
General 	
Recreational..
Recreational-
Recreational..
Recreational-
Recreational..
Recreational-
Recreational-
Recreational-
RecreationaL.
Recreational-
Recreational-
Recreational-
RecreationaL.
Recreational-
Recreational..
Recreational..
Recreational-
Recreational-
Recreational-
Recreational..
Recreational-
Recreational..
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Vancouver
Vancouver
Nelson	
Nelson _
Nelson _
Nelson	
Nelson	
Recreational-
Recreational..
RecreationaL.
Restricted industrial and travel-
General _ 	
Recreational 	
Recreational _ 	
Recreational 	
Recreational  	
Recreational 	
May 26
May 27
June 18
June 19
June 26
July 7
July 15
July 16
July 16
July  18
July  18
July  18
July 18
July 22
July 23
July 23
July 23
July 23
July 24
July 24
July 24
July 24
July 24
July 25
July 25
July 31
1
1
1
4
4
12
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug. 15
Aug. 15
Aug. 15
Aug. 15
Aug. 20
Aug. 21
Aug. 21
Aug. 21
Aug. 22
Aug. 22
May 29
June 6
June 30
June 27
July 7
Aug. 7
Aug. 7
Aug. 7
Aug. 29
Aug. 4
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Sept. 2
Sept. 2
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29
Aug. 29 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST BIOLOGY DIVISION*
ACCOMMODATION AND FACILITIES
Construction of a header-house and greenhouse at the site on Burnside Road in
Victoria was completed in June. Two fully equipped trailers were purchased to provide
portable field-station facilities for Douglas fir beetle research at Lac la Hache.
New header-house and greenhouse located on Burnside Road, Victoria, and completed in June,
for the use of both pathology and zoology staffs.
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS!
Although several outbreaks of defoliators persisted throughout the Province, only
one, in Stanley Park, Vancouver, was considered serious enough to require remedial
action. The Pest Control Committee of the British Columbia Loggers' Association did
not undertake any control projects, but several meetings were held to explore ways and
means of supporting research and surveys, particularly on ambrosia-beetles, being carried
out by the Forest Biology Division.
Early in 1958 an interdepartmental committee, composed of representatives from
four Federal agencies, was formed to study the possibility of reducing toxicity to fish and
fish-food organisms caused by sprays used for control of forest insects. The agencies
represented are Fisheries Research Board, Department of Northern Affairs and National
Resources, Department of Fisheries, and Science Service, Department of Agriculture.
Grateful acknowledgment is made of the co-operation and support received from the
British Columbia Forest Service and the forest industries.
* Science Service. Canada Department of Agriculture.
t Prepared by R. R. Lejeune, Forest Zoology Unit, Victor'a and Vernon, B.C. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
67
FOREST-INSECT SURVEY
The balsam woolly aphid (Adelges picem (Ratz.)), a serious introduced pest of true
firs, was discovered in British Columbia during 1958. It is now known to occur in North
and West Vancouver, the east side of Howe Sound, and New Westminster. The principal host is amabilis fir, but it has also been found on grand fir. Indications are that the
insect has been present in these areas at least eight years and it has killed some amabilis
fir.   Thus far, relatively small acreages are affected.
The total area of the one-year-cycle spruce budworm outbreak in the Lillooet River
and Lake region was 653 square miles, an increase of 155 square miles over 1957. The
outlook for 1959 is for generally fight defoliation with heavy feeding'in localized areas.
The two-year-cycle budworm infestation in the Babine Lake area was calculated at
1,286 square miles. Defoliation of white spruce and alpine fir was heavy, with loss of
current foliage averaging 95 per cent. On the basis of egg-counts, an increase in population is expected in 1959.
No outbreaks of the black-headed budworm were discovered in British Columbia
during 1958, although increased egg populations were found on the Queen Charlotte
Islands.
The occurrence of red-topped trees killed by the Douglas fir beetle increased in 1958
in many areas of the Cariboo and Okanagan regions. In the Nelson District, infestations
were discovered at White Swan Lake and Wigwam River. There was a general increase
of the beetle throughout the Slocan and Upper Arrow Lake valleys.
The mountain pine beetle outbreak in lodgepole pine along the east shore of Babine
Lake in the Prince Rupert District decreased in intensity. On three main areas of heavy
infestation covering 23 square miles, tree mortality was calculated to be about 28,000,000
cubic feet. There was a general increase in the number of infested white pine in the
Nelson District.
Englemann spruce beetle attacks continued in the Nelson District, but at a declining
rate. The population was relatively high in the upper valley of Bighorn Creek. Active
beetle populations persisted at Watson, Russel, and Grove creeks and subsided in the
Cabin, Storm, and Sage Creek valleys.
Although no serious defoliation was observed, populations of the western hemlock
looper rose appreciably throughout the Province. In Stanley Park, Vancouver, the green-
striped forest looper, in conjunction with the western hemlock looper and other insects,
caused noticeable defoliation to overstory mature trees. The park was sprayed with DDT
on July 26th to prevent further damage.
It was thought that widespread problems with wood-borers might develop in the
extensive areas of forest land burned during 1958. The only serious situation that has
arisen to date concerns the salvage of fire-killed spruce in the Prince George District.
Examination of several areas indicated that substantial wood-borer damage occurred in
spring and early summer fires, while damage was light to negligible in later fires.
Research Projects
Preliminary tests were made of several new insecticides to determine their potential
effectiveness in protecting logs from attack by the ambrosia-beetle (Trypodendron line-
aium). It was concluded that lindane is still the most effective, although one other, hep-
tachlor, showed enough promise to warrant further investigation. An experiment was
completed to study the effect of tree-girdling, at various intervals before felling, on susceptibility to attack by ambrosia-beetles. Under conditions of the experiment, susceptibility did not differ significantly between girdled and ungirdled trees. Some evidence has
been obtained that low starch content of sapwood may indicate changes in sapwood
constituents leading to susceptibility to beetles.   The amount of starch apparently de- 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
creases progressively after felling, and the amount present in living trees shows seasonal
variations. Progress was made in developing a rapid method for sorting over-wintering
ambrosia beetles from duff. This will permit more extensive sampling of beetle populations for both reconnaisance surveys and research purposes.
Studies were continued to determine how abundance of the Douglas fir beetle is
governed by various physical and biological factors. The emphasis during the past year
remained on measuring the effect of attack density on beetle productivity and survival.
The initial phase of this work should be completed in 1959. It has been demonstrated
fairly conclusively in the Cariboo region that where beetle populations are heavy, the
presence of attractive material, such as freshly felled logs, in a stand can induce killing
attacks on surrounding living trees. This phenomenon is being used in a pilot control
project north of Quesnel, being organized as a co-operative undertaking between the
British Columbia Forest Service, Western Plywoods Limited, and the Forest Biology
Division. The object will be to draw Douglas fir beetle populations into pre-selected
areas with attractive logs and subsequently remove both the logs and green-infested trees
in an attempt to reduce the number of beetles.
The Douglas fir cone-crop on Vancouver Island was light and damage by insects
generally severe. In order of importance, the insects responsible for most of the damage
were the Douglas fir cone-midge (Contarinia oregonensis), the Douglas fir cone-moth
(Barbara colfaxiana), and the Douglas fir seed-chalcid (Megastigmus spermatrophus).
Observations showed that adult activity and egg-laying took place during the following
periods: Cone-midge, April and early May; cone-moth, late April to late May; seed-
chalcid, middle of May to late June.
Recent investigations have disclosed that two and possibly three species of Douglas
fir needle-miners are responsible for periodic serious damage to Christmas trees, particularly in the Interior. It was thought at one time that only one species was responsible.
Damage symptoms caused by the different species have been described and information
secured on life-histories, seasonal activity, parasites, and distribution.
Continuing studies on bioclimatology, insect behaviour, taxonomy, and methods of
insect sampling and surveying have progressed, but there are no results to report at this
time pertaining specifically to current forestry problems.
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
Publications distributed during the year included the following:—
Foster, R. E.; Browne, J. E., and Foster, A. T.:   Studies in forest pathology.
XIX.   Decay of western hemlock and amabilis fir in the Kitimat region
of British Columbia.   Can. Dept. Agr. Pub. 1029.   Ottawa, 1958.
Molnar, A. C, and Garman, E. H.:   Introduction of exotic trees to British
Columbia.   B.C. Lumberman 42(3):  36-37.   1958.
Thomas, G. P.:   Studies in forest pathology.    XVIII, The occurrence of the
Indian paint fungus, Echinodontium tinctorium E. & E., in British Columbia.   Can. Dept. Agr. Pub. 1041.   Ottawa, 1958.
In addition, four multigraphed reports were prepared for regional distribution.
These reports referred to the collection of plants and forest fungi in the Victoria herbarium, to proposed standards of measurement and procedure in decay investigations,
to the deterioration of killed Douglas fir in the South Central Interior region, and to the
importance of decay in scar-damaged residual stands of spruce and balsam in the Prince
George Forest District.    Contributions to the Bi-monthly Progress Report dealt with
decay in western larch and pole blight of western white pine in British Columbia.
A co-operative study to establish an ecological classification of white pine forests in
the Interior region was initiated during the year.   This study, sponsored by the Forest
* Prepared by R. E. Foster, Forest Pathology Unit, Victoria, B.C. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
69
Biology Division, is being carried out under the direction of Dr. V. J. Krajina, Department of Biology and Botany, University of British Columbia. The project is designed
to describe the forest associations in which western white pine occurs and to evaluate
the successional status of pine and associated tree species. An ecological classification
of this nature would establish a basis for uniform stand descriptions and population
sampling within discrete forest units. To date, approximately 200 sample-plot areas
have been located between Nelson and Mabel Lake.
FOREST-DISEASE SURVEY
Collections of forest disease submitted during 1958 by co-operators, Forest Biology
Rangers, and other laboratory personnel totalled 2,443. Among this number were 133
fungi listed for the first time in the forest-disease herbarium and twenty-seven fungi
determined to have a more extensive host range than previously recognized. These
collections also showed that the geographical distribution of mistletoe and canker disease
was greater than previously recorded.
Needle-blight, caused by Elytroderma deformans (Weir) Darker, was recorded
throughout the range of yellow pine and was particularly severe in the Kamloops, Merritt,
and Clinton areas. All severely infected areas contained a high percentage of foliage
brooms, indicating that the disease had been active for several years prior to 1958.
Lodgepole pine was affected by needle-blight over part of its range, but damage was not
as severe as in the case of yellow pine.
A condition of decline with attendant mortality was reported in Douglas fir in several
areas in the Nelson Forest District. Preliminary study demonstrated that the decline had
been in progress for several years. Although a high incidence of root-rot caused by
Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Quel, was present, it was considered that this fungus
was more likely associated with the intensification than with the initiation of decline.
The cause of the condition is as yet undetermined. A more extensive survey and
examination of damaged areas is contemplated.
Rhabdocline needle-blight of Douglas fir reached outbreak proportions in the East
Kootenay region during the year, maintaining its role as one of the more important
problems confronting the Christmas tree industry in the Interior region. Damage was
found to be particularly severe near Invermere. Within this region, local areas were also
reported to be severely damaged by die-back. This disease was characterized by the
dying-back of branches and the presence of extensive cankers which often girdled the
main stem.   Sample plots were established to follow the progress of the disease.
Fifty-three additional plantations of exotic forest trees were brought to the attention
of the laboratory during the year, bringing the total number registered to 118. A tentative
examination schedule was devised to ensure that all plantations would receive at least
periodic appraisal in respect to the occurrence and extent of damage resulting from
diseases, insects, and other factors. Annual examinations of certain plantations are
contemplated; these will be selected on the basis of species composition, site, and
geographical location. Examinations carried out in 1958 demonstrated that severe
climatic injury and mortality had occurred in several areas. Animal browsing also
appeared as a factor of some importance. Yellow leaf-blister, caused by the fungus
Taphrina populina Fr., was noted on Lombardy poplar, but infection was not widespread
or severe.   No important pathological damage has been apparent to date.
Drought damage was recorded in forest plantations on Vancouver Island and the
Lower Coast region. Mortality occurred over a range of conditions but was largely
evident on marginal sites. Douglas fir and western hemlock were severely damaged in
some areas. 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Diseases of Immature Forests
Damping-off losses remained at endemic levels during the year but were somewhat
higher than normal in the Coast nurseries. The major losses resulted from the prolonged
summer drought with attendant high temperatures. Losses of 50 per cent were reported
in some beds at the Duncan Nursery.
Studies of the occurrence and nature of the distribution of disease within Douglas
fir plantations were continued on Vancouver Island with the total enumeration of a
17-year-old population of 6,300 trees on 7.2 acres near Campbell River. Frost lesions,
sun-scald, die-back, terminal bud injury, and root-rot were among the more important
disorders encountered. Analysis of data derived from examination of a 13-year-old fir
plantation in the Robertson River area in 1957 was continued. Preliminary results have
demonstrated that sample frequencies may follow both random and non-random distributions and have indicated that high sampling intensities may be required to attain
moderate precisions in the estimation of population parameters. Sequential, unrestricted
random, stratified random, systematic, and multi-stage sampling schemes have been
appraised.
Investigations of a condition of severe die-back, attributed to the severe winter
temperatures of 1955, were continued near Sooke (Vancouver Forest District). An
examination of permanent plots demonstrated continuing mortality resulting from
subsequent fungus invasion.
Studies of Poria root-rot of Douglas fir were postponed pending the return from
educational leave of the research officer responsible for this phase of the laboratory
programme.
Investigations of pole blight of western white pine were continued. Permanent plots
in the Silverton and Mackinson Flat areas (Nelson Forest District) were remeasured and
further evidence gained of partial recovery from this disorder. The improvement noted
appears to have followed a return to apparently normal moisture and temperature regimes
and may be considered to add support to the hypothesis that pole blight was iniated during
and as a result of the prolonged period of generally above-average temperature and below-
average rainfall recorded from 1930 to 1946. Root sampling and ecological investigations
were continued, and a survey of the incidence of pole blight in relation to stand composition and site was initiated.
Diseases of Mature Forests
Field studies of the pathological deterioration of wind-damaged spruce and balsam
in the Crescent Spur area (Prince George Forest District) were carried out, bringing the
total sample in this area to approximately 460 trees. By 1958, ten years after the blow-
down, most of the dead trees had deteriorated beyond the limit of economical salvage.
Important differences in the rate of deterioration of spruce and balsam were recorded.
Studies of the deterioration of killed Douglas fir in the South Central Interior region
(Kamloops Forest District) were completed during the year. Tree size, the degree of
subsequent bark-beetle attack, and the length of time that trees had been dead were factors correlated with the rate of deterioration. Important losses were recorded after five
years. Field studies of the decay associated with logging injury to spruce and balsam
in the Prince George region, completed during 1957, were analysed. A high proportion
of the logging scars examined were found to be infected, and substantial volumetric losses
were recorded after thirty-one years. Scar size, depth, and position on the tree were determined to influence the degree of infection, and important differences were recorded in
spruce and balsam. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 71
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
CURRICULUM
The tenth class commenced the course in January, 1958, and is due to graduate in
April, 1959.
For fiscal reasons, the enrolment of the tenth class was reduced to twenty-one, which
was the level of enrolment of classes prior to the ninth class.
While there were no major changes in the curriculum, the work of revising the subject-matter of various courses was continued in order to keep pace with changes in policy
and technical developments in the Forest Service.
In particular, the experience of the heavy fire season provided a great deal of valuable material for the revision of the Fire Protection courses. Much of this material was
incorporated in the second-term courses of the tenth class.
In addition to increased emphasis placed on safety practice in several courses, first-
aid training, previously provided for students with no previous training, was this year
made compulsory to all students as an evening class.
The typewriting course, which proved successful with the ninth class, was continued
with the tenth class for those not proficient in this skill.
Subjects given during the year were as follows:—
First Term, Tenth Class, Spring Term, 1958
Subject Days Allotted
Mathematics review and Survey  18
Fire Law and Protection Procedures  16
Preliminary Fire Organization   10
Scaling  14
Construction, Buildings     4
Forest Inventory Mapping     3
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips     6
Total days  71
Second Term, Tenth Class, Fall Term, 1958
Subject Days Allotted
Survey, Mensuration, and Photogrammetry  20
Fire Suppression  16
Public Speaking   4
Business English  4
Botany and Dendrology   9
Stumpage Appraisal   6
Vancouver Island field-trip  4
Fire Marshal  2
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips  6
Total days  71
EXTRA COURSES
The course for lookoutmen for the Vancouver District was not required this year,
but the instructional staff assisted in lookout courses in the Nelson District. The instructional staff also participated in the Forest Protection Committee course sponsored by the
Canadian Forestry Association and in lectures to the University of British Columbia and
other groups. 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are due to speakers and lecturers provided by the following agencies: Game
Commission, Air Division of the Department of Lands and Forests, Office of the Fire
Marshal, R.C.M.P. Cloverdale Detachment, Magistrate of Cloverdale, McMillan & Bloedel Limited, National Film Board, as well as lecturers from other Divisions and Districts
of the Forest Service. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
73
FOREST ACCOUNTS
During 1958 this Division continued to deal with a large volume of business in all
phases of its activity. It is worthy of note that, in view of the extremely heavy demands
of the worst fire season in the history of the Service and the continued frequency of turnover of clerical staff, the flow of accounting material and reports from the district offices
to headquarters was maintained at a remarkably current level.
Detailed accounting tables prepared by headquarters accounts office appear in the
Appendix (Tables 30 to 40, inclusive). It will be noted that, as a result of the weakened
market conditions existing at the close of 1957 persisting through 1958, marked declines
were recorded in the dollar value of the items affecting revenue. Although the total scale
of forest products decreased by only approximately 5 per cent in spite of prolonged
forest-fire closures, the total value of the amounts charged against logging operations
declined by 20.2 per cent. The major part of this decline was attributable to downward
adjustments of stumpage charges due to the sliding-scale formula and the large increase
in the number of sales at minimum stumpage.
Total revenue collected, while still well above the average of the last ten years, also
declined sharply by 16.8 per cent from the 1957 total. The most striking drop was in
the stumpage category, which comprises the bulk of the revenue and which decreased by
18.8 per cent (see Table 33 in Appendix).
By contrast, increases occurred in collections of timber-sale rental and forest-
protection tax amounting to 10.5 and 10 per cent respectively, and this was reflected in
increased activity in billing, recording, and checking of accounts in the Timber Sale
Records Section. This Section was similarly affected by the increase in the issuance of
cutting permits under tree-farm licences and the extension, effective July 1st, of the
sliding-scale formula to cover stumpage prices on all new timber sales issued. Under the
market conditions existing during the year, sliding-scale stumpage adjustments became
a very active phase of the work.
Another considerable, but entirely unforeseen, increase developed in the work of
both the Timber Sale Records and Cashier's Sections as an indirect result of the Federal
Government's bond refinancing programme. Licensees took advantage of this plan to
substitute the new bonds for those previously furnished as timber-sale deposits. This
necessitated submission of new receipt and agreement forms in every case, and entailed
a great deal of extra recording and correspondence with banks and licensees.
Royalty revenue from timber cut on lands held under Crown grant or pre-emption
entry and record declined by 6.4 per cent, while revenue collected in other categories
remained fairly static, with the exception of the general miscellaneous category, which
showed a decrease of approximately 16 per cent (see Table 33 in Appendix).
The volume of normal expenditure accounting remained large, although responsibility of accounting for the Parks and Recreation Division spending was transferred to
the Department of Recreation and Conservation on April 1st. The effect of the record
fire season caused a corresponding increase in the work of the Expenditure Section in
accounting for fire-suppression costs, including pay records of fire-fighters. The latter
phase developed into a major project which, it appeared, would not be completed until
well into the new year.
Activities in the headquarters accounts office as a whole were handicapped to a
considerable extent by staff shortages over long periods resulting from transfers, promotions, resignations, and replacement problems. The Chief Accountant transferred to
the Department of Highways in April to become Departmental Comptroller and was
eventually replaced by the Assistant Accountant, the resultant vacancy touching off a
" chain reaction " which left the office short staffed in senior clerical positions until late
in the year.    Some turnover also took place in stenographic and typing staff, but all 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
vacancies were filled by the close of the year. Due to the staff shortages, little progress
was made in completing the Accounting Manual, but it was hoped this could be proceeded with early in the new year.
In the Comptroller's office during 1958, an increased amount of senior officers'
time was consumed in the administration of collection of troublesome accounts. These
cases became more numerous as an outgrowth of the difficult conditions facing the industry in regard to depressed market prices and tighter financing policies. In order to
achieve settlement in several of the larger and more complex cases, it was necessary to
spend considerable time in co-operation with Forest Counsel in negotiations with trustees, solicitors, bankers, and representatives of firms involved.
In the light of changing conditions and the apparent need for closer surveillance of
outstanding accounts, a review of collection methods generally was undertaken. Subsequently, investigators from the Comptroller's office co-operated with district officials in
planning and instituting innovations in field collection routine. A review of year-end
reports indicated that the changes had contributed to an improvement in the financial
picture and better control of accounts receivable. Normal duties of the investigators
were carried out in the checking of mill records and collection of lumber prices, and they
also undertook several special projects on behalf of Management Division. The latter
included such projects as gathering and analysing operators' costs and selling-prices data
for use in relation to timber-sale appraisal work.
Activity in log salvage was affected by the less favourable conditions in the industry
generally, and a decrease was noted in renewal of log salvage permits, there being 274
active permits as at December 31st.
Other normal activities of the Comptroller's office were carried on with an increased
percentage of the Comptroller's time occupied in giving attention to matters affecting
Departmental finances, such as compilation of annual estimates, preparation of periodical memoranda and reports, and liaison with the Department of Finance and the Comptroller-General's office. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 75
PERSONNEL
ORGANIZATION
Upon the retirement, in September, of Dr. C. D. Orchard, Deputy Minister of Forests and Chief Forester for the past seventeen years, the Government announced its
intention to divide the responsibilities of Deputy Minister and Chief Forester. Provision
for this had been made in the 1958/59 Estimates but, for the current year, Mr. R. G.
McKee, the newly appointed Deputy Minister, was named Acting Chief Forester.
One Ranger District was temporarily deleted with the combining of the two former
Burns Lake districts into one district. In the Prince Rupert Forest District, a member of
the research staff was established with permanent headquarters rather than on the former
seasonal basis. The transfer of staff and responsibilities for parks, which were taken over
last year by the new Department of Recreation and Conservation, was completed by the
transfer of the five remaining parks field personnel and vouchering procedures from the
Forest Service. The maintenance of the Forest Service district office buildings at Prince
Rupert and Nelson was turned over to the Public Works Department with the transfer of
three building service workers.
SERVICES
The typical functions of personnel administration carried out by the Personnel Office
remained substantially the same as in the previous year. These involved recruitment,
selection, placement, and promotional reviews; employee rating, establishment and work
organization; classification and salary reviews; sick- and holiday-leave control; counselling; liaison with the Civil Service and Superannuation Commissions, British Columbia
Government Employees' Association and Medical Society. Through reclassification, the
Civil Service Commission approved a Personnel Assistant position for the Forest Service
to handle administration of the records, recruitment, and the increasing detailed work
needed for obtaining Government approval for hiring staff replacements.
During the year, seven matters of grievance were presented by the Government
Employees' Association, of which five were dropped after initial inquiry, one was satisfactorily settled, and one settled in part.
The Personnel Officer served on a five-man interdepartmental Deputy Ministers'
committee set up to review the merit rating system. The committee's report and recommendations for revision of the rating forms and separation of merit rating from the granting of increases were accepted by the Government.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
Eighteen per cent of the Personnel Officer's time was spent away from headquarters,
representing a slight increase over the previous year. An average time of one week was
spent in each district, with additional time in Prince Rupert, which has been faced with
particular problems of office staff recruitment and organization. Ranger meetings were
held at Nelson and Kamloops in the spring. The Personnel Officer attended both meetings and took part in a discussion of training and promotional policies at the District
Silviculturists' meeting held at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station. A District Foresters' meeting was not held but, instead, the District Forester and his assistant were
called from each district for individual consultations with Victoria divisions. The Civil
Service Commission called the first of a proposed series of interdepartmental meetings of
Personnel Officers. The meetings are intended primarily for instruction and discussion
of new or amended policies.
For the first time in many years, there were no editions of the " Forest Service Newsletter." This popular publication had been restricted to an annual Christmas edition for
the past two years but was dropped in view of shortage of funds in the Public Information 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
and Education Division. During 1958, the Civil Service Commission issued four more
bulletins in their " Supervision " series. Subscriptions were continued for the publications
"Daily Memos for Supervisors," which are distributed to Ranger and Scaling Supervisors, and "Just between Office Girls."
In the field of training, three members of the Forest Service, representing professional, technical, and administrative clerical staff, were selected for the third class of the
Executive Development Training Plan, sponsored by the Government through the University of British Columbia. Arrangements were made for two foresters to take part in
a two-day Camp Management Training Conference, sponsored by the British Columbia
Loggers' Association, and for the Forest Service representative on the Provincial Government Safety Committee to attend and report on the British Columbia Safety Council's
Third Annual Provincial Conference. Various in-service training programmes were
continued, such as Lookout and Assistant Ranger Schools, first-aid courses, and field
training courses organized by the districts and Divisions concerned. Protection meetings
were held in most districts in the fall to review and profit from the experience of British
Columbia's worst fire year on record.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by the
Legislative Assembly for the fiscal year commencing April 1st, 1958, was 817, a decrease
from the previous year of forty-three (5 per cent), including eight transferred to Public
Works and Recreation and Conservation. Despite this cut in permanent Civil Servants,
it was nevertheless necessary to increase the number of continuously employed staff (see
Table I in Appendix) by sixty-seven over 1957, in view of the increasing work load in
sustained-yield management and protection of the forests. During 1958, seventy-seven
persons received Civil Service appointments and seventy-nine left the permanent service.
Three 25-year service badges were earned. There were seven retirements during the year.
Sixty-seven transfers of permanent staff took place, many resulting from the seven retirements. Permanent-staff turnover for the year averaged 10 per cent, down somewhat from
the previous year. Vancouver had 50 per cent above the average turnover, followed by
Kamloops and Nelson. There was a 3.3-per-cent turnover of permanent technical staff,
which was less than last year, but professional-staff turnover was 13.2 per cent, triple the
previous year. The reason for leaving most frequently given by both groups was for better
salary, while amongst the office staff, personal reasons, including marriage and family
responsibilities, accounted for over 60 per cent of separations. Clerical-, stenographic-,
and draughting-staff turnover dropped one-third to 19.3 per cent, with Vancouver and
Prince George hardest hit. Because of the substantial proportion of full-time casual staff
not included in these Civil Service statistics, however, the actual turnover in office staff
was much higher. For example, Prince George had a 183-per-cent turnover in its six
non-Civil Service but continuous office positions, which brought its office turnover up
from 25.9 per cent for Civil Servants to 54.5 per cent for total office staff. Thirteen
graduate foresters and five engineers left the Service and twelve foresters and six
engineers were hired, including eight forestry graduates from the University of British
Columbia.
Some 569 applications for employment—up 41 per cent over last year—were
handled by correspondence in the personnel office alone, apart from many others handled
through divisional and district offices. Written examinations were held for fifty-eight
promotional positions, and oral examinations at panel interviews were employed in filling
seven other positions. The Personnel Officer and Assistant also participated in making
selections for 108 other Civil Service positions. Special efforts were made to recruit
young male clerks for the Prince Rupert and Prince George Districts where 90 to 95 per
cent of the clerical staff was female.   During the year, one individual was released during REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 77
his probationary period and two statutory merit increases were withheld. Disciplinary
suspensions were made in three cases.
At the annual spring examination for Assistant Rangers, 214 candidates sat, of
whom sixty-four passed. As there were only twenty-eight vacancies for Assistant
Rangers, these were all filled by qualified men without the necessity of " acting " appointments, as had been the case for the previous several years.
There were three fatal accidents, each involving emergency fire-fighting crewmen
hired by the Forest Service. Other fatal accidents resulted from the extremely high fire
occurrence, involving fire-fighters and labourers in industry.
Early in the year, the Forester in Charge of the Public Relations and Education
Division since its inception in 1945 succumbed to a fatal illness.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Changes were made in the Civil Service classification system affecting eight groups
of employees. Professional forester requirements were deleted from the position in
charge of Public Relations and Education, and a Director of Public Information position
was created to head the renamed Public Information and Education Division. The Forest
Agrologist positions specifications were rewritten, naming a Director of Grazing in
charge, with District Forest Agrologists and Forest Agrologists at Kamloops and Nelson.
New specifications and titles were written for graduate foresters, setting up seven grades
of registered forester and deleting the former Assistant Forester grades. Qualifications
required for radio operators and technicians were brought up to date and the photographic grades were likewise revised. A Chief Accountant classification was created
under the Departmental Comptroller, and Investigators, Forest Products Accounting,
were regraded to the Audit Accountant grades. Specifications for the temporary field
staff in research were adapted to (Forest) Survey Assistant grades and the grading policy
of Forest Assistants in stand treatment and cruising work was revised.
Numerous individual position classification reviews were carried out. Of the
seventy-four which were submitted to the Civil Service Commission for approval, sixty-
seven were approved, six rejected, and one undecided at the end of the year.
Early in the year, the Legislative Assembly approved funds to effect the 7 Vi-percent average wage increase retroactive to July 1st, 1957, as agreed upon last year. When
the wage scales were released by the Civil Service Commission, a few internal anomalies
became apparent affecting Grade 2 Foresters and Engineers, Forest Protection Officers—
Grade 1, Forest Assistants—Grades 2 and 3, Rangers—Grade 1, Marine Station Superintendent, Personnel Officer, Forest Agrologist, and some individual Foresters-in-Training
and Foresters—Grades 1 and 2. These were all successfully adjusted later, with the
exception of the Forest Assistants—Grade 2 and Personnel Officer. By the year-end,
most grades had again fallen noticeably behind the standard comparative positions outside the Civil Service, and reviews and recommendations were being carried out for
inclusion in the next fiscal year's estimates. Following the near strike of 1957, the
professional engineers within the Civil Service formed an association separate from the
British Columbia Government Employees' Association, and this group presented its own
salary brief to the Cabinet in the fall.
No major changes took place in the general conditions of employment in the Service.
The system of rating employees and granting statutory merit increases was revised in
order to simplify the procedure of granting or withholding increases and to encourage
careful rating and development of staff. Good use was made by Forest Service employees
of the facilities provided through the Employees' Health Service office in Victoria for
receiving inoculations and vaccinations against the common diseases likely to be contracted in field work. The employment or re-employment of persons over 65 years of age
was restricted to a few cases individually approved by Order in Council, where circumstances warranted. 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1959
VICTORIA HEADQUARTERS
R. G. McKee -       -   Deputy Minister of Forests.
F. S. McKinnon       -----------        Chief Forester.
L. F. Swannell Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations Branch.
J. S. Stokes   ------        -      Assistant Chief Forester i/c Planning Branch.
Staff Division Heads:
Cooper, C. Forest Counsel.
Hicks, W. V.     -        - Department Comptroller.
Monk, D. R.     -        -        -        -        -        - Director, Public Information.
Williams, W. J. -       -       Personnel Officer.
Operations Branch Division Heads:
Forse, H. B.      - - Forester i/c Protection Division.
Greggor, R. D. ------    Forester i/c Engineering Services Divisicn.
Marling, S. E.  Forester i/c Management Division.
Pendray, W.  C. Director, Grazing Division.
Robinson, E. W. - Forester i/c Forest Ranger Schod.
Planning Branch Division Heads:
Hughes, W. G.  -        - Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
Pogue, H. M.     -        -        -        -        -        -        Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Divisicn.
Silburn, G. --------     Forester i/c Reforestation Divisicn.
Spilsbury, R. H. --------    Forester i/c Research Divisicn.
FOREST DISTRICTS
Vancouver District
I. T. Cameron District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B. Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Carr, W. S. (Chilliwack); McDaniel, R. W. (Hope); Wilson, R. (Harrison Lake); Webster, J. B.
(Mission); Mudge, M. H. (Port Moody); Henderson, J. E. (Squamish); Chamberlin, L. C.
(Sechelt); McKinnon, C. G. (Madeira Park); Hollinshead, S. B. (Powell River); Winslow, J. R.
(Lund); Gill, D. E. (Thurston Bay East); McArthur, E. J. (Thurston Bay West); Bertram, G. D.
(Chatham Channel); Thomas, R. W. (Echo Bay); Howard, W. (Alert Bay); Sykes, S. J. (Port
Hardy); Ormond, L. D. (Campbell River); Antonelli, M. W. (Courtenay); Glassford, R. J.
(Parksville); Haley, K. (Nanaimo); Bell, P. A. (Duncan); Lorentsen, L. H. (Ganges); Jones,
R. W. (Langford); Morley, K. A. (Lake Cowichan); Brooks, F. T. (Alberni); Norbirg, H.
(Toflno);  Carradice, J. H. (Pemberton).
Prince Rupert District
J. R. Johnston District Forester.
Bennett, C. E. Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Berard, R. K. (Ocean Falls); Crosby, D. K. (Queen Charlotte City); Brooks, R.L. (Prince
Rupert); Lindstrom,'W. C. (Terrace); Antonenko, J. (Kitwanga); Petty, A. P. (Hazelton);
Mould, J. (Smithers); Clay, W. D. (Telkwa); Keefe, J. J. (Houston); Kullander, M. O. (Pendleton Bay); Mastin, T. (Burns Lake); Pement, A. R. (Southbank); Hawkins, R. M. (Atlin).
Prince George District
A. H. Dixon - District Forester.
Young, W. E. L.      -       -       -       -       -        -       7       -       -       - Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
French, C. L. (McBride); Rohn, K. (Penny); Meents, G. E. (Prince George); Pearce, F. (Prince
George); Northrup, K. A. (Fort St. James); Kuly, A. (Quesnel (S.)); Barbour, H. T. (Pouce
Coupe); Hamblin, R. A. (Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vanderhoof); Cosens, A. S. (Fort St.
John); Baker, F. M. (Fort Fraser); Waller, T. (Summit Lake); Thornton, S. H. (Quesnel);
Flynn, D. (Prince George); Anderson, O. J. (Hixon); Mitchell, B. A. (Quesnel (E.)); Angly,
R. B. (Quesnel (N.)); McQueen, L. (Chetwynd). REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 79
Kamloops District
W. C. Phillips    --- District Forester.
McRae, N. A. Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Specht, G. H. (Lumby); McKenna, L. J. (Birch Island); Bailey, J. D. (Barriere); Hill, A. F.
(Kamloops (S.)); Paquette, O. (Chase); Gibson, C. L. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G. (Sicamous);
Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet); Johnson, M. A. (Vernon); Scott, E. L. (Penticton); Dearing, J. H.
(Princeton); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Cawston, J. B. (Williams Lake); Bodman, G. F. (Alexis
Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Noble, J. O. (Ashcroft); Williams, R. V. (Merritt); Mon-
teith, M. E. (Blue River); Collins, B. G. (Enderby); DeWitt, D. O. (100 Mile (N.)); Weinard,
J. P. (Kamloops (N.)); Wittner, D. J. (Horsefly); Hamilton, T. J. (100 Mile (S.)).
Nelson District
P. Young -._.   District Forester.
Bruce, J. B. Assistant District Forester.
Forest Rangers:
Hopkins, H. V. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L. (Fernie); Connolly, J. L. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook (E.)); Ross, A. I. (Creston); Stilwell, L. E. (Kaslo); Benwell, W. G. (Lardeau);
Robinson, R. E. (Nelson); Jupp, C. C. (New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Nakusp); Wood, H. R.
(Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright, G. M. (Canal
Flats); Old, F. G. (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D. (Edgewood); Hesketh, F. G. (Elko); Reaney,
R. J. (Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook (W.)); Ivens, J. H. (Beaverdell); Webster, G. R.
(Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke).    REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958 83
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
General
Table No. Page
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1958  85
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1949 to 1958  86
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the Prov
ince, 1949-58  87
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1949-58     87
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1949-58  88
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1957
and 1958:   (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  89
7. Species Cut, All Products, 1958, (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  90
8. Total Scale of All Products, 1958  (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts), (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  91
9. Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1958 (by Months and Forest Districts).- 92
10. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and Stumpage,
1949-58, in M Cubic Feet  93
11. Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working Plans,
1949-58 -       93
12. Total Scale of All Products from Managed Lands, 1949-58  93
13. Logging Inspections, 1958  94
14. Trespasses, 1958 ..  94
15. Pre-emption Inspections, 1958  95
16. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the "Land
Act," 1958  95
17. Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1958  95
18. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1958 r  95
19. Timber-sale Record, 1958  96
20. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts,1958  97
21. Average Stumtmge Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-timber
Sold on Timber Sales in 1958, per C C.F. Log-scale ...      98
22. Average Appraised Stumpage Prices, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
timber on Tree-farm Licence Cutting Permits Issued in 1958  99
23. Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1958  100
24. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1958  101
25. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1958  101
26. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1958  102
27. Summary of Exports, Minor Products, 1958  102
28. Timber Marks Issued, 1949-58  103
29. Forest Management Draughting Office, 1958  103
30. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest-protection Tax as Compiled from
Taxation Records  104 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Finance
Table No. pA0E
31. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  104
32. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest-protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records  104
33. Forest Revenue  105
34. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1958  106
35. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1957/58  107
36. Forest Revenue,  (A) Fiscal Year 1957/58, (B) Fiscal Years 1937/38 to
1957/58  108,109
37. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1957/58  109
38. Scaling Fund  110
39. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  110
40. Forest Development Fund  110
Forest Protection
41. Forest-protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1958,
by the Forest Service  111
42. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by Other Agencies,
1958  112
43. Summary of Snag-falling, 1958, Vancouver Forest District  112
44. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1958, Vancouver Forest District  112
45. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1958, Vancouver Forest District. 112
46. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1958, Vancouver Forest District  113
47. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1958, Vancouver Forest District 113
48. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1935-58  114
49. Recapitulation of Snag-falling, 1940-58  114
50. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1958 .  115
51. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1958  115
52. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  115
53. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1958  116
54. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1958  116
55. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1958—Parts I and II._    116, 117
56. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1958  117
57. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  118
58. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1958  118
59. Prosecutions, 1958  119
60. Burning Permits, 1958   119
Ranger School
61. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1958  120
Public Information
62. Motion-picture Library, 1949-58  121
63. Summary of Programmes by School Lecturers, 1958  121
64. Forest Service Library, 1949-58  122
Grazing
65. Grazing Permits Issued  122
66. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  122
Forest Surveys and Inventory
67. Area Classification by Ownership  123
68. Sound-wood Volume in Commercial Forests of All Ages  124
68. Sound-wood Volume in Commercial Forests of All Ages by Ownership and
Species   124 (J)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
DISTRIBUTION OF PERSONNEL, 1958
85
Personnel
Van
Prince
Prince
couver
Rupert
George
2
2
2
11
10
12
1
3
1
1
3
2
3
28
17
21
11
2
3
72
1
37
4
3
4
6
7
5
1
6
4
5
91
31
31
3
15
6
37
27
29
17
6
7
22
36
62
1
4
1
1
1
4
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Deputy Minister, Chief Forester, and Assistant Chief
Foresters _ 	
Division Foresters 	
Directors of Grazing and Public Information	
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officer.	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters	
Foresters and Foresters-in-Training _	
Agrologists and Assistants	
Engineers and Assistants	
Forest Protection Officers   	
Supervisor of Rangers.—  	
Rangers   —	
Supervisor of Scalers and Assistants 	
Scalers, Official 	
Scalers, Official, temporary 	
Comptroller, Accountant, and Audit Assistants	
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio  	
Technical Forest and Public Information Assistants	
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants	
Nursery Superintendents 	
Draughtsmen  	
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers	
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
Station  •  	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians	
Launch Crewmen   _	
Assistant and Acting Rangers...	
Dispatchers   —	
Cruisers, Compassmen, and Marking Crewmen	
Truck and Tractor Operators    	
Foremen   	
Miscellaneous  — 	
Totals, continuous personnel	
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers 	
Patrolmen _..   —	
Lookoutmen   	
Dispatchers and Radio Operators	
Fire-suppression Crewmen 	
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc	
Cruisers and Compassmen  	
Truck and Tractor Operators _	
Student and Survey Assistants	
Silvicultural Crewmen 	
Foremen    	
Miscellaneous 	
Totals, seasonal personnel —  	
Totals, all personnel	
366
19
3
36
8
58
142
508
157
2
12
5
1
3
29
3
2
3
24
2
4
12
5
32
3
22
43
16
51
46
22
3
199 |  219
160
1
9
5
5
21
21
1
3
2
4
1
10
10
3
33
6
54
14
40
12
32
6
10
45 |   48 |
123
126
65
3
26
3
7
109
9
99
4
28
105
5
39
4
10
12
31
253
25
128
74
480
2
3
10
119
10
26
11
14
119
21
73
38
7
128
46
100
4
51
312
5
42
25
182
54
193
18
13
39
575 | 1,676
37
30
151
30
144
253
8
41
130
20
120
964
202
247
342
286
1,055 | 2,640
 I	 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA DURING
YEARS 1957 AND  1958 IN F.B.M.
(6A) (All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
Vancouver.. 	
Prince Rupert (C.)	
Totals, Coast-
Prince Rupert (I.)	
Prince George.	
Kamloops—	
Nelson. 	
Totals, Interior-
Grand totals	
1957
3,216,651,623
331,497,495
1958
2,745
271
,804,238
,497,350
3,548,149,118 |3,017,301,588
197,499,3.34
645,733,022
839,983,005
430,416,274
206.
661
972
491
677,534
169,290
550,354
808,784
2,113,631,635  |2,332,205,962
5,661,780,753  |5,349,507,550
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Loss
470,847,385
60,000,145
Gain
Net Loss
530,847,530 |
9,178,200 I
' 15,436,268
132,567,349 |
61,392,510 |
218,574,327 |
|   312,273,203
TOTAL AMOUNT OF TIMBER SCALED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA DURING
YEARS  1957 AND 1958 IN CUBIC FEET
(Conversion factor:  Coast—6 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.;  Interior—5.75 f.b.m.---l cu. ft.)
(6B) (All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
1957
1958
Loss
Gain
Net Loss
536,108,604
55,249,582
457,634,040
45,249,558
78,474,564
10,000,024
Prince Rupert (C.)      	
591,358,186
502,883,598
88,474,588
	
34,347,711
112,301,395
146,084,000
74,855,004
35,943,919
114,985,963
169,139,192
85,531,962
1,596,208
2,684,568
23,055,192
10,676,958
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367,588,110
405,601,036
38,012,926
	
958,946,296
908,484,634
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X
Z REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
91
(SA)
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1958, IN F.B.M.  (SEGREGATED BY
LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences - _	
Timber berths - -	
Timber leases _	
Pulp leases 	
Pulp licences—	
Hand-loggers' licences 	
Farm wood-lots..  	
Timber sales  __  	
Pulp-timber sales. 	
No mark visible 	
Tree-farm licences  _	
Miscellaneous	
Sub-totals, Crown lands
Federal lands __	
Crown grants—
To 1887  	
1887-1906.. _	
1906-1914.  	
1914 to date  	
Totals   	
557,672,549
82,303,529
107,989,895
7,940,819
7,449,330
18,923
211,722|
836,457,720|119,965,031
  | 12,910,701
69,261,002|  	
172,962,8101 28,829,622
13,037,983|    1,643,903
24,748,316
47,874,428
37,548
4,655,363     3,165,584
8,294,311
-I— —
28,865,297
11,830,950
136,192,594
56,664,455
602,905
265,398| 161,9771 58,602
597,602,240|776,280,029|311,709,011
  1           1
I
10,578,908[ 27,636,518[ 69,258,830
8,962,3751    9,397,384)    3,595,297
1,855,306,282|236,009,549|193,459,954
12,943,975|    1,530,631|    1,787,822
I I
718,801,2371-.... _  	
82,521,001| 3,879,7861 144,404
10,488,6681 4,971,071| 2,207,849
65,743,0751 25,106,3131    9,077,505
622,064,284|824,935,803 425,317,987
  __| 17,695,110     1,063,933
157,127
519,152
4,983,360
33,445,367
2,745,804,238|271,497,350|206,677,534
661,169,290
33,231,586
15,645,358
23,217,408
57,825,089
2,763,981
37,877,716
7,197,345
17,587,822
594,358,793
102,428,790
107,989,895
32,689,135
55,323,758
56,471
697,699
2,778,206,625
12,910,701
69,261,002
365,931,143
37,239,847
4,157,093,859
35,021,471
754,953,931
140,587,417
53,065,701
208,785,171
972,550,354|491,808,784)5,349,507,550
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS,  1958, IN CUBIC FEET (SEGREGATED BY
LAND STATUS AND FOREST DISTRICTS)
(SB) (Conversion factor:  Coast—6 f.b.m.---l cu. ft.;  Interior—5.75 f.b.m. = 1 cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops     Nelson
Total
Timber licences..
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences.
Hand-loggers' licences._
Farm wood-lots	
Timber sales	
Pulp-timber sales	
No mark visible..
Tree-farm licences (Crown lands
only)  _ _
Miscellaneous.. _ 	
Sub-totals, Crown lands
Federal lands „ _ _
Crown grants—
To 1887  -.	
1887-1906 .......
1906-1914	
1914 to date—
Totals.-
92,945,4251
13,717,2551
17,998,3161
1,323,470|
1,241,5551
3,154|
35,287|
139,409,620|
— - I
11,543,500|-
28,827,135
2,172,997
4,124,719
7,979,071
6,258
19,994,172
2,151,784
23,685,669
4,804,937|
273,9841
9,854,687
104,853
309,217,714| 39,334,925| 33,645,209
2,157,329|       255,105        310,926
119,800,206|
13,753,500
1,748,112
10,957,179
646,631
828,512
4,184,385
25,114
383,973
1,578,697
457.634.0401 45.249.5581 35.943.919
809,628
550,536
1,442,489
5,020,0521
2,057,5551
46,156| 28,170 10,192
103,930,825|135,005,222   54,210,263
-- —  	
I
1,839,810
1,558,674|
4,806,351
1,634,328
108,185,093|143,467,096
 I 3,077,411
I
27,326| 5,779,406
90,2871 2,720,932
866,671| 4,037,810
5,816,586) 10,056,537
12,045,014
625,269
99,325,641
17,217,299
17,998,316
5,448,189
9,220,626
9,412
119,805
476,235,771
2,151,784
11,543,500
62,177,934
6,370,105
73,968,345
185,032
480,692
6,587,429
1,251,712
3,058,752
707,818,382
5,985,803
126,087,630
23,823,893
9,116,790
35,652,136
114.985.9631169.139,1921 85.531.962|   908,484,634 92
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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Z
H REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
93
VOLUME OF WOOD REMOVED UNDER RELOGGING AT REDUCED ROYALTY
(10) AND STUMPAGE,  1949-58, IN M CUBIC FEET
Year
1949     	
Salvage Wood
(M C.F.)
       549
Year
1954	
Salvage Wood
(MC.F.)
   1,888
1950	
      324
1955	
  1,209
1951
420
1956...... 	
  1,795
1952	
      732
1957 	
  3,663
1953	
  1,053
1958	
  1,427
Ten-year average, 1949-58, 1,306.
NUMBER OF ACRES MANAGED AND OPERATED UNDER APPROVED WORKING
Hi) PLANS,  1949-58
Year
Tree-farm
Licences
Christmas-tree
Permits
Farm
Wood-lots
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Units1
Total
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
1949
2
7
10
13 '
14
19
23
23
23
27
16
1,081,711
1,668,663
1,953,754
2,071,918
2,158,898
2,788,313
4,685,492
4,680,846
4,871,237
5,349,773
3,131,061
118
129
135
145
163
174
209
221
283
277
185
43,778
45,360
47,250
49,986
64,835
68,689
72,603
76,457
80,651
83,500
63,310
3
5
20
25
29
37
44
53
22
24
28
33
47
58
61
25
1,125,489
1950
1,714,023
1951	
1952
452
727
4,571
5,549
6,455
8,320
10,488
13,108
4,967
	
2,001,456
2,122,631
1953	
1954  	
1955 	
1956	
1957   	
1958	
5,649,162
7,019,759
9,328,447
21,667,410
28,820,776
32,389,893
10,487,545
7,877,466
9,882,310
14,092,997
26,433,033
33,783,152
37,836,274
Ten-year average,
1949-58	
13,686,883
1 Approved public working circles and sustained-yield units.
(12)
TOTAL SCALE OF ALL PRODUCTS FROM MANAGED LANDS,  1949-58
(In Table 8B, " tree-farm licences " includes only the cut from Crown lands within tree-farm licences. The cut from
" other tenures " is shown under appropriate headings. In this table, all the cut from managed lands under regulation
is combined.)
Year
Tree-farm
Licences
Christmas-tree
Permits
Farm
Wood-lots
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Units
Total
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
Number
of Trees
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
of Christmas Trees
Cubic
Feet
1949	
2
7
10
13
14
19
23
23
23
27
16
118
129
135
145
163
174
209
221
283
277
185
165,035
174,609
175,755
195,803
267,182
326,106
301,319
430,447
498,286
408,874
294,342
1
24
28
33
47
58
61
25
165,035
174,609
175,755
195,803
267,182
326,106
301,319
433.8501
500,786=
411,574*
295,202
1950   ...
27,440,866
33,532,810
40,442,745
47,631,411
69,715,422
121,869,721
125,622,175
144,260,543
61,051,569
3
5
20
25
29
37
44
53
22
1951
27,440,866
33,533,042
1952    	
232
17,497
26,939
64,482
92,124
70,116
139,396
41,079
1953	
1954	
89,731,000
100,166,664
115,091,229
188,455,411
207,892,534
254,809,622
95,614,646
130,191,242
147,825,014
1955
184,871,133
1956	
1957	
1958-	
Ten-year average,
1949-58
310,425,8262
333,584,825
399,276,1856
156,714,813
1 Includes 3,403 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences and farm wood-lots.
2 Includes 8,570 cubic feet cut from Christmas-tree permits.
3 Includes 2,500 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences.
* Includes 2,700 Christmas trees cut on tree-farm licences.
5 Includes 66,624 cubic feet cut from Christmas-tree permits.
. 94
(13)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LOGGING INSPECTIONS,  1958
Type of Tenure Operated
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
Total
Number of
Inspections
1,142
976
1,850
1,349
619
1
1
1,202
221
1,120
1,155
641
1
2,345
1,178
2,970
2,504
1,260
8,630
3,004
5,161
3,231
3,776
Totals, 1958 —
5,936
2
4,339
10,257
23,802
Totals  1Q57
7,503
3
5,937
13,443
25,253
Totals, 1956           -     -
7,492
3
5,838
13,333
22,038
Totals, 1955                -	
6,818
3
4,673
11,494
22 355
Totals, 1954	
5,855
3
4,874
10,732
21,011
Totals, 1953                   _
5,851
3
4,859
10,713
20,656
Totals, 1952	
5,822
6
5,710
11,538
20,264
Totals, 1951..	
5,448
6
4,766
10,220
17,754
Totals, 1950           _	
5,189
6
3,812
9,007
16,221
Totals, 1949      	
6,405
7
4,440
10,852
15,483
Ten-year average  1949-58—	
6,232
4
4,925
11,159
20,484
(14)
TRESPASSES, 1958
Vi
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Quantity Cut
Vi
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OJ
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82
66
159
146
60
284
498
1,112
3,984
557
807,566
1,671,635
577,518
700,696
343,556
5,465
32,845
43,148
34,935
9,734
10
68
497
33
650
21,620
250
9
4
$55,326.00
506
63,103.44
1,083
264
251
40,991.26
422
4,554
10,343
48,651.90
Nelson 	
304
13,858.51
Totals, 1958...	
513
6,435
4,100,971
126,127
608j 2,661|14,897| 21,924|     765
13  |$221,931.11
668
8,032
4,949,784
386,520
6,545| 2,071| 7,666|664,569|22,814
15 |$380,057.83
630
7,744
5,692,862
384,231
1,321] 1,367|14,794|177,559|28,573
5 |$489,065.90
Totals, 1955
499
6,098
4,218,705
458,426
1,607|     963|14,100] 66,975| 5,607
4  [$212,183.49
Totals, 1954
463
5,910
4,373,368
 	
266,856
270| 5,083|14,914|119,364| 9,750
7  11198,220.15
Totals, 1953	
446|10,188
4,072,874
466,401
230,636
2,917| 6,335[16,314|116,368|30,663
4 [$221,000.12
Totals, 1952	
419
5,768
372,788
24,247,327
272,770
1,147| 5,237|10,921|227,267| 3,991
13  |$312,774.33
Totals, 1951
454
5,999
24,545,775
159,064
1,779|20,976|28,121
13,325
41  |$237,588.00
Totals, 1950...	
276
3,072
12,753,405
360,190
1,475| 1,806| 6,312] 75,309| 7,550
16 | $87,589.23
Totals, 1949
418
4,132
20,419,563
244,655
1,298| 3,514| 9,022| 34,070| 8,785
28 | $81,923.27
Ten-year average,
1949-58
479
6,338
3,968,765!
16,486,4942
288,947
IIII
1,897) 5,001113,706|150,340[13,182
IIII
1
15   $244,233.34
1 Cubic feet—seven-year average.
2 Feet b.m.—five-year average. (15)
Vancouver  	
Prince Rupert
Kamloops 	
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
PRE-EMPTION INSPECTIONS, 1958
Total.
95
AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE FOR MISCELLANEOUS PURPOSES
(16) OF THE "LAND ACT," 1958
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Vancouver 	
20
	
8    |         110
16    1      1.280
18
13
3
479
1,094
701
26
29
2
589
2,374
4,374
2
1
84
80
84
Kamloops 	
24           5,155
Totals 	
20
4,374
	
27
1,554
34
2,274
81    I      8,202
1
(17)   CLASSIFICATION OF AREAS EXAMINED BY THE FOREST SERVICE,  1958
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-
agricultural
Land
Merchantable-
timber
Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable-
timber Land
Acres
589
2,374
84
5,155
Acres
17
1,270
27
206
Acres
572
1,104
57
4,949
Acres
53
125
10
M F.B.M.
359
1,588
Prince George— -	
12
Totals  	
8,202
1,520
6,682
188
1,959
(18)
AREAS CRUISED FOR TIMBER SALES,  1958
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes.
Posts,
Shakes.
etc.
(No.)
Saw-
timber
(M C.F.)
587
255
354
504
222
131,298
93,051
106,250
195,371
83,593
33,400
3,262,108
472,000
2,796,072
2,209,308
7,766
5,320
6,870
1,695
2,665
331,500
2,500
23,550
74,789
714,380
286,978
800
33,630
227,023
157,757
Kamloops - 	
158,826
59,701
Totals, 1958        	
1,922
609,563
8,772,888
24,316
34,430
1,146,719
890,285
Totals, 1957 	
2,582
781,748
16,099,489
39,254
95,209
1,149,133
1,171,283
Totals, 1956  	
3,089
1,095,150
13,981,856
44,287
128,432
1,916,510
1,273,970
Totals, 1955..	
3,354
1,077,986
	
9,885,451
16,819
145,525
501,820
1,131,521
Totals, 1954.	
3,085
781,665
10,532,164
76,859
76,310
1,127,346
697,421
Totals, 1953. -	
2,579
719,234
12,887,882
12,328
141,313
694,182
561,601
Totals, 1952..	
2,340
1,029,199
2,543,890
40,005,329
13,405
989,144
518,652
1,188,361
Totals, 1951  	
2,704
934,475
6,577,298
20,674,280
25,630
316,954
432,000
Totals, 1950    .  	
2,196
333,435
1,777,025
7,388,875
24,522
123,091
352,440
Totals, 1949. 	
1,638
269,576
1,355,342
9,599,176
57,002
170,475
738,510
—
Ten-year average, 1949-58-
2,549
763,203
3,060,889
14,982,739
33,442
222,088
857,731
987,777
M B.M.—four-year.average; M c.f.—seven-year average. 96
(19)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TIMBER-SALE RECORD,  1958
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest-protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver _
Prince Rupert	
Prince George.	
Kamloops. __
Nelson	
Totals	
Cash sales 	
Total sales
594
269
325
468
244
667
429
551
733
332
1,928
1,257
1,446
2,107
846
1,900
245
2,712
7,584
2,145
529,064
384,438
642,008
1,194,259
576,968
3,326,737
481,731
371,381
591,452
1,184,201
565,572
$5,959,526.17
1,346,779.71
2,088,488.72
3,565,220.95
1,750.502.49
3,194,337  | $14,710,518.04
-  ' I  — -	 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
97
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
SAW AND SHINGLE MILLS OF THE PROVINCE,  1958
101
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
227
273
669
554
287
8,806
1,746
7,368
6,272
3,502
50
2
4
1,090
75
119
167
111
114
632
702
1,178
692
803
5
4
21
Kamloops.. 	
5
46
16
Totals, 1958
2,010
27,694
56
1,141
586
4,007
9
37
Totals, 1957     	
2,255
26,752
58
1,390
514
3,124
10
121
Totals, 1956   	
2,435
29,080
66
1,381
390
2,013
8
15
Totals, 1955 _	
2,489
28,016
72
1,804
404
2,285
3
19
Totals, 1954... ,	
2,346
25,602
57
1,108
367
2,281
13
22
Totals, 1953      	
2,413
23,300
59
1,121
286
2,186
12
47
Totals, 1952  	
2,223
23,433
59
1,173
332
2,092
24
117
Totals, 1951.  	
2,100
21,748
60
1,169
294
1,474
16
78
Totals, 1950	
1,826
19,143
65
1,234
234
1,462
11
25
Totals, 1949 	
1,671
19,082
61
1,101
314
2,373
17
73
Ten-year average, 1949-58
2,177
24,385
61
1,262
372
2,330
12
55
(25)
EXPORT OF LOGS (IN F.B.M.), 1958
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir                                            	
288,446
106,130
1,319,693
877,166
19,982
1,025,720
1,580,865
2,929,889
253,994
10,318,360
3,750,295
6,939,299
3,913,185
Spruce  	
273,976
183,010
12,116
11,539,206
3,713,224
3,713,224
White pine
86
154,094
2,421
1,078,582
578
2,507
353,362
1,900
	
1,586,038
1,900
Cottonwood.— - 	
3,225
131,529
135,332
Totals,
1958 - 	
734,991
3,727,452
16,164,689
3,715,124
3,762,411
28,104,6671
Totals,
1957       	
524,180
3,987,443
22,016,291
5,625,910
3,421,354
35,575,178
1956
Totals,
183,859
2,933,129
27,433,037
12,929,722
3,530,479
47,010,226
Totals,
1955.
906,141
7,468,949
58,863,477
16,974,165
4,754,796
88,967,528
Totals,
1953    	
5,341,576
15,853,076
74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
120,145,571
1952.  „_	
Totals,
4,732,890
15,944,292
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660
124,996,218
1951 .   	
Totals,
5,901,140
12,229,159
51,699,605
10,202,844
2,224,693
82,257,441
Totals,
1950 _.
1949 	
8,659,552
21,625,295
88,031,088
19,210,615 |
137,526,550
Totals,
6,392,228
21,382,979
103,550,707
14,228,041
145,553,955
ar average, 1949-58	
Ten-ye
3,732,490
12,474,732
61,739,524
13,772,650
3,391,929
95,111,325
1 Of this total, 18,425,803 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;   9,678,864
f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas. 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SHIPMENTS OF POLES, PILING, MINE-PROPS, FENCE-POSTS,
(26) RAILWAY-TIES, ETC.,  1958
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value.
F.O.B.
Where Exported
Forest District and Product
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles     	
Piline     -   ..
lin. ft.
2,949,931
1,305,856
347,560
22,367
12,454,379
73,642
2,465,593
92,783
1,535,078
39,093
67,484
82,036
394
3,505,865
2.683
533,651
2,092,055
125,778
104,742
164.000
586
51
7,178
3,379
1,139,457
$940,260.48
325,239.30
31,230.00
5,591.75
754,780.00
73,642.00
1,074,396.08
143,813.65
216,016.80
10,946.04
113,373.12
20.509.00
5,705.75
657,930.50
93,905.00
160,095.30
828,947.00
1,509.00
7,332.00
2.132.00
9,201.00
560.00
276 379.00
6,625.00
546,939.48
2,310,810
44,875
347,560
2,650
12,438,353
73,642
1,479,356
443,879
224,311
195,242
1,036,670
pieces
19,717.
16,026
Prince Rupert-
Poles and piling 	
Ties
..lin. ft.
pieces
-lin. ft.
986,237
92,783
1,395,458
39,093
67,484
82,036
344
1,684,555
2,683
5,501
980,715
125,778
104,742
Prince George—
Poles        	
139,620
Piline       ..    ..
Ties               	
—cords
50
1,821,310
Kamloops—
.lin. ft.
528,150
1,111,340
Nelson—
..lin. ft.
...cords
164,000
586
17
6.318
3.379
159.802
34
860
Ties       	
- pieces
Christmas trees  .-	
...    „
979.655
Total value, 1958 - 	
$6,307,059.25
    !   	
Total value, 1957 -   '	
$11,274,727.22
1
1
(27)
SUMMARY OF EXPORTS OF MINOR PRODUCTS FOR PROVINCE, 1958
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles   lin. ft.
7,990,874
1,344,949
4,557,648
125,778
104,742
164,000
347,560
107,086
163,646
12,454,379
1,746,750
445
7,178
586
$1,814,207.78
336,185.34
1,903,343.08
1,509.00
7,332.00
2,132.00
31,230.00
120,005.75
263,811.77
754,780.00
780,676.78
6,265.75
276,379.00
9,201.00
28.7647
5.3303
30.1780
0.0239
0.1163
0.0338
0.4952
Fence-posts — - pieces
1.9027
Ties                                                            ,.
4.1828
Shakes           ,,
11.9762
12.3778
Cordwood _ — -.cords
0.0993
4.3821
0.1459
$6,307,059.25
100.00 00
. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
103
(28)
TIMBER
MARKS ISSUED
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Ten-year
Average,
1949-58
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
549
169
165
505
69
5
8
32
2,591
	
33
4
4
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
696
201
204
538
62
8
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
63
3
528
175
160
485
69
1
1
30
2,786
44
1
609
218
171
653
95
2
10
31
3,130
43
6
480
207
172
655
82
6
10
46
2,859
	
71
1
	
320
108
97
460
59
1
7
23
2,239
74
1
215
93
93
362
89
7
9
1,900
80
7
539
Crown grants, 1887-1906	
Crown grants, 1906-1914
Section 55, " Forest Act "	
Stumpage reservations	
Pre-emptions under sections 28
170
151
513
79
4
7
Indian reserves - -	
27
2,647
Special marks and rights-of-way
60
3
Totals	
3,763
4,134
5.458
4,428
4,139
4,280
4,968
4,589
3,389
2,855
4,200
Transfers and changes of marks
550
752
1,086
983
744
780
867
873
615
598
785
(29)
FOREST  MANAGEMENT  DRAUGHTING   OFFICE,   1958
Number of Drawings Prepared or
Tracings Made
Number of Blue-prints or
Ditto-prints Made from
Draughting Office Drawings
Timber
Marks
Timber
Sales
F.M.L.
C.P.1
Survey
Plans1
Miscellaneous
Total
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
Total
121
104
138
108
167
147
120
58
106
140
117
102
36
28
46
26
36
23
16
28
32
19
26
25
9
17
8
2
2
6
3
1
7
3
5
9
4
16
10
10
16
14
9
5
5
5
7
8
46
44
36
45
33
43
88
47
55
50
55
51
216
209
238
191
254
233
236
139
205
217
210
195
518
932
703
453
721
763
502
411
953
598
378
552
1,800
2,318
February -	
1,375
2,180
1,275
1,725
1,150
810
1,390
1,600
950
1,300
1,250
2,307
2,883
1,728
May	
2,446
1,913
July                          	
1,312
1,801
2,553
October	
November	
December-— 	
1,548
1,678
1,802
Totals, 1958 	
1,428
341
72'
1091
593
2,543
7,484
16,805
24,289
Totals, 1957-	
1,471
373
9U |    1471
594
2,686
8,440
18,150
26,590
Totals, 1956
1,963
444
     |    __
819
3,226
9,041
20,893
29,934
Totals, 1955 	
2,309
381
-...    |    ..
1,244
3,934
8,694
15,538
24,232
Totals, 1954-	
1,983
274
......    |        ..
574
2,831
6,275
9,920
16,195
Totals, 1953 	
1,823
270
3822
350
2,825
6,976
6,989
13,965
Totals, 1952	
2,827
491
1,387 =
1,068
5,773
18,924
10,320
29,244
Totals, 1951	
3,196
1,008
1.3362
1,891
7,431
17,540
19,360
36,900
Totals, 1950- -	
2,050
828
1,1082
805
4,791
13,759
16,599
30,358
Totals, 1949	
1,547
514
9882
353
3,402
10,184
10,344
20,528
Ten-year average, 1949-58
2,060
492
829
3,944
10,732
14,492
25,224
i Included under "Miscellaneous " prior to 1957.
2 This column previously under heading " Examination Sketches." 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(30)
CROWN-GRANTED TIMBER LANDS PAYING FOREST-PROTECTION TAX
AS COMPILED FROM TAXATION RECORDS
Acreage
Coast
Interior
Year
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
Acres
Acres
Acres
Acres
1958
698,470
133,100
271,717
194,640
99,013
1957 	
614,095
146,535
288,046
88,580
90,934   -
1956             _            . _     	
723,103
205,503
389,396
64,606
63,598    '
1955	
783,517
221,934
429,350
69,822
62,411   -
1954	
801,983
236,350
429,037
69,416
67,180   '
1953  	
757,516
201,264
444,014
27,692
84,546
1952	
718,284
203,249
433,496
29,418
52,121
1951 	
682,746
191,435
410,037
31,333
49,941
1950                                         	
631,967
'   207,308
378,985
8,635
37,039
1949...	
597,790
172,024
340,200
30,625
54,941
1948    .                                        	
571,439
158,120
326,738
25,485
61,096
1947	
596,900
153,072
354,207
26,591
63,030
1946.
601,148
146,331
364,556
23,125
67,136
1945	
591,082
142,504
357,037
21,536
70,005
1944	
571,308
134,194
345,378
20,816
70,920
1943   	
543,044
125,313
325,996
20,205
71,529
1942	
527,995
112,834
322,306
20,072
72,781
1941	
543,633
105,541
335,468
26,016
76,608
1940    .                                            	
549,250
103,486
338,419
24,852
82,493
1939	
719,111
89,209
338,794
153,032
138,075
1938	
756,328
106,833
344,858
157,508
147,129
1937
766,413
96,598
363,693
153,566
152,556
(31)
ACREAGE OF TIMBER LAND BY ASSESSMENT DISTRICTS
District Acres
Alberni   14,759
Comox     126,941
Cowichan   86,524
Cranbrook    3,232
Gulf Islands   1,120
Kamloops   285
Kettle River   8,129
Lillooet   4,196
Nanaimo   116,248
District
Nelson-Slocan   __.
Prince George ...
Prince Rupert	
Princeton   	
Quesnel Forks ...
Revelstoke   	
Vancouver   	
Vernon 	
Acres
  241,616
  800
     12,120
       1,527
  40
     33,189
       3,956
  639
Victoria        43,149
ACREAGE OF CROWN-GRANTED TIMBER LANDS PAYING FOREST-PROTECTION
(32) TAX AS COMPILED FROM TAXATION RECORDS
Year                                                Area (Acres)
1958    698,470
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940
614,095
. 723,103
. 783,517
. 801,983
. 757,516
. 718,284
682,746
631,967
1957
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949 597,790
 571,439
 596,900
 601,148
 591,082
 571,308
 543,044
 527,995
 543,63 2
 549,250
Year Area (Acres)
1939 719,112
1938 754,348
1937 743,109
1936 515,924
1935 535,918
1934 : 557,481
1933
1932
1931
1930
1929
1928
567,731
552,007
602,086
629,156
644,011
671,131
1927 690,438
1926 688,372
1925 654,016
1924 654,668
1923 883,344
1922 887,980
1921  845,111 (33)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
FOREST REVENUE
105
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees	
Timber-licence penalty fees	
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals. -	
Timber-lease penalty fees	
Timber-sale rentals 	
Timber-sale stumpage	
limber-sale cruising	
Timber-sale advertising ...-	
Timber royalty and tax 	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling
Fund)	
Exchange	
Seizure expenses—	
General miscellaneous .--	
Timber-berth rentals and bonus -  	
Interest on timber-berth rentals and bonus  —
Transfer fees on timber berths
Grazing fees and interest	
Forest-protection tax	
Totals  -
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1954
$372,401.39
1,970.00
4,112.38
72,117.02
48.56
235,597.98
14,702,704.22
151,679.94
28,224.58
2,260,406.43
9,190.37
51.77
1,501.64
79,248.71
19,851.56
10.92
102.74
81,589.75
$18,020,809.96
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1955
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1956
$361,975.14
2,120.16
1,204.89
72,165.65
73.18
313,865.18
19,538,202.71
221,334.48
39,249.17
2,368,344.78
10,532.29
51.99
740.22
102,231.43
19,592.47
13.05
89.99
75,250.32
$23,127,037.10
$365,257.80
3,121.00
1,442.27
72,021.27
15.48
379,821.98
26,335,715.53
213,058.29
42,858.60
2,069,424.19
10,381.64
34.68
768.72
130,293.84
20,139.94
20.19
85.00
79,247.61
364,388.20
$30,088,096.23
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1957
$363,632.93
430.00
1,130.33
70,395.42
60.05
380,963.43
26,327,150.06
208,516.78
37,025.62
1,838,162.25
11,745.99
25.79
3,020.62
141,267.64
19,380.72
21.52
84.50
69,041.15
459,312.26
$29,931,367.06
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1958
$360,682.80
140.00
1,369.91
70,757.38
23.00
425,867.87
21,355,873.18
193,671.32
32,119.10
1,719,957.61
10,683.83
33.04
4,396.66
117,804.19
19,248.04
39.94
47.50
73,093.16
500,914.85
$24,886,723.38
Ten-year
Average,
1949-58
$370,482.31
2,418.62
2,553.74
60,978.52
44.55
237,468.04
15,446,778.19
133,162.36
26,447.40
2,151,481.02
8,546.12
68.41
1,575.54
77,002.27
20,013.88
19.55
100.34
80,347.73
$18,619,488 59 106
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z 108 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(36A) FOREST REVENUE, FISCAL YEAR  1957/58
Ten-year
Average
Timber-licence rental fees   $360,860.48 $376,134.65
Timber-licence transfer fees   250.00 2,489.47
Timber-licence penalty fees  1,197.95 3,358.52
Timber-lease rentals   73,514.97 58,421.51
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest   74.80 47.55
Timber-sale rentals   406,112.97 203,577.72
Timber-sale stumpage   25,413,765.92 13,094,905.62
Timber-sale cruising    193,549.56 114,516.86
Timber-sale advertising   32,779.44 22,898.21
Timber royalty   1,842,438.51 2,306,400.16
Timber tax  3,942.03 20,726.30
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)   12,003.08 5,677.16
Exchange    33.02 74.75
Seizure expenses   3,966.94 1,155.69
General miscellaneous   144,836.92 67,844.94
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees  19,460.82 18,187.61
Interest on timber-berth rentals  23.82 17.08
Transfer fees on timber berths  71.50 34.24
Grazing fees and interest   69,777.87 67,208.18
Forest-protection tax     475,996.96 (!)
$29,054,657.56    $16,363,676.22
Taxation from Crown-granted timber lands  597,118.52           539,324.48
Taxation collected under authority of " Esquimalt
and Nanaimo Railway Belt Land Tax Act"      1,060,884.362   	
Taxation collected on forest land  (section 32a,
"Taxation Act")  __   722,380.923   	
Taxation collected on tree-farm land (section 33a,
"Taxation Act")    161,293.834   	
$31,596,335.19
1 Formerly credited to Forest Protection Fund.
2 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last eight fiscal years.
3 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last four fiscal years.
4 Collection of this tax has been authorized only during the last five fiscal years. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
109
(36B)
FOREST REVENUE BY FISCAL YEARS
Fiscal Year
Direct Forest
Revenue
Taxation from
Crown-granted
Lands
Taxation Collected under
Sees. 32a and
33a of "Taxation Act"
Taxation Collected under
Authority of
•' E. & N. Railway Belt Land
Tax Act"
Total
1957/58—
1956/57-
1955/56-
1954/55-
1953/54...
1952/53-.
1951/52-
1950/51-
1949/50..
1948/49...
1947/48...
1946/47-
1945/46-
1944/45...
1943/44...
1942/43...
1941/42...
1940/41..
1939/40..
1938/39..
1937/38-
1936/37-
$29,054/
31,240,
23,867,
19,130
17,578
18,016
13,703
10,089
8,331
7,977
7,010
4,;
4,352.
4,017
3,703
3,519
4,057
3,549
3,236
2,982
3,257
3,001
.657.56
260.37
,705.50
,835.31
:,625.58
,025.17
,715.41
,884.69
,497.19
,676.22
,038.77
,232.89
,179.14
,653.53
,703.13
892.44
,437.86
,931.53
1,731.36
,702.42
,525.05
,054.84
$597,118.52
675,079.21
681,503.26
621,527.16
612,865.29
588,821.78
484,475.51
440,213.07
445,632.68
453,980.08
253,345.02
237,506.83
244,980.89
213,912.46
203,457.36
206,146.21
211,410.13
224,652.87
267,290.48
241,109.96
269,285.54
299,992.41
I
$883,674.75
685,611.49
532,010.00
518,648.74
$1,060,884.36
1,147,535.38
940,632.27
879,822.00
863,116.21
418,395.59
972,156.13
345,220.16
$31,596,335.19
33,748,486.45
26,021,851.03
21,150,833.21
19,054,607.08
19,023,242.54
15,160,347.05
10,875,317.92
8,777,129.87
8,431,656.30
7,263,383.79
5,117,739.72
4,597,160.03
4,231,565.99
3,907,160.49
3,726,038.65
4,268,847.99
3,774,584.40
3,504,021.84
3,223,812.38
3,526,810.59
3,301,047.25
(37)
FOREST SERVICE EXPENDITURES, FISCAL YEAR 1957/581
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
$409,194.78
254,853.42
276,907.31
359,968.35
328,436.64
438,810.34
$178,183.90
103,212.71
103,594.52
132,237.52
105,327.18
291,900.75
$587,378.68
358,066.13
380,501.83
492,205.87
433,763.82
730,711.09
Totals      „   '  	
$2,068,170.84
$914,456.58
$2,982,627.42
372,189.57
419,832.55
173,937.49
103,872.02
112,099.37
6,000.00
44,769.76
1,283,744.63
64,985.80
410,526.82
2,685,302.35
1,122,773.30
Grazing Range Improvement Fund2	
50,168.34
1,689,591.38
172,901.42
123,445.51
Temporary assistance   —	
342,439.98
$12,161,207.71
1 All figures in this table are true gross expenditures.
2 Separate statements on these items are shown in this Report. 110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(38) SCALING FUND
Balance for April 1st, 1957 (debit)    $264,084.07
Collections, fiscal year 1957/58  1,081,249.93
$817,165.86
Expenditures, fiscal year 1957/58  $1,063,615.46
Less transfer to Vote 142h  36,956.81
  1,026,658.65
Deficit March 31st, 1958 (debit)    $209,492.79
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1958      783,787.67
$574,294.88
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1958      781,781.48
Balance, December 31st, 1958  (debit)    $207,486.60
(39) GRAZING RANGE IMPROVEMENT FUND
Balance April 1st, 1957 (credit) 1  $40,381.83
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")     38,452.61
$78,834.44
Expenditures, fiscal year 1957/58  $52,508.59
Less refunds       2,353.75
     50,154.84
Balance, March 31st, 1958 (credit)  $28,679.60
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")     34,888.93
$63,568.53
Expenditures, April 1st, 1958, to December 31st, 1958     45,520.64
Balance, December 31st, 1958 (credit)  $18,047.89
(40) FOREST DEVELOPMENT FUND
Credit balance at March 31st, 1957  $34,258.87
Less transferred to Vote 341   (Forest-development Roads),  and
Fund abolished March 31st, 1958     34,258.87
Balance at March 31st, 1958         Nil REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
111
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REPORTED APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE IN FOREST PROTECTION
(42) BY OTHER AGENCIES,  1958
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
$168,474.00
46,570.00
40,000.00
107,420.00
18,755.00
$217,100.00
28,350.00
16,000.00
60,920.00
37,165.00
$371,984.00
290,070.00
85,467.00
50,133.00
157,203.00
$39,850.00
9,710.00
77,000.00
3,000.00
21,800.00
$797,408.00
374,700.00
218,467.00
221,473.00
Nelson	
234,923.00
Totals  	
$381,219.00
$359,535.00
$954,857.00
$151,360.00
$1,846,971.00
Ten-year average, 1949-58	
$275,426.00
$348,924.00
$347,291.00
$112,313.00
$1,083,954.00
(43)       SUMMARY OF SNAG-FALLING,  1958, VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres
Total area logged,   1958  58,808
Logged in small exempted operations1  319
Assessed for non-compliance, less 419 acres subsequently felled  913
■—■    1,232
Balance logged acres snagged, 1958  57,576
Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, " Forest Act.'
SUMMARY OF LOGGING SLASH CREATED,  1958, VANCOUVER
(44) FOREST DISTRICT
Total area logged,   1958	
Area covered by full hazard reports..
Acres
57,576
22,383
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-disposal  22,310
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and snag
disposal)l           319
45,012
Slash created and not reported in 1958
12,564
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, " Forest Act.'
ACREAGE ANALYSIS OF SLASH-DISPOSAL REQUIRED, 1958,
(45) VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1958 19581 Total Acres
Broadcast  burning    2,628 4,158 6,786
Spot burning   6,322 9,275 15,597
Totals    8,950 13,433 22,383
1958 reports not recommending slash-disposal  22,310
1958 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination      319
Total area of slash dealt with, 1958  45,012
i Above table does not include the estimated 11,640 acres (see Table 44) created too late to be dealt with in 1958. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
113
(46) ANALYSIS OF PROGRESS IN SLASH-DISPOSAL,  1958,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total disposal required (see Table 45).
Acres of Slash
Type of Disposal Prior to 1958
Spring broadcast burning        Nil
Spring spot burning        625
Fall broadcast burning-     3,511
Fall spot burning     7,214
Total burning completed  11,350
Burned by accidental fires	
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc	
1958
187
Nil
3,149
6,186
9,522
Acres
22,383
Total Acres
187
625
6,660
13,400
20,872
3,812
Nil
Total i  24,684
Balance reported slash not yet abated          Nil
Slash created, 1958—acres assessed          Nil
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1958   12,564
Total area of slash carried over to 1959 for disposition2..
Nil
1 Difference accounted for by clean-up of older slash previously extended or assessed.
2 Does not show the acreage instructed in 1958 to be extended or assessed in 1959.
Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 33 acres.
Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 2,322 acres.
The above figures do not include 1957 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1957 Annual Report,
1,810 acres.
(47)
SUMMARY OF SLASH-BURN DAMAGE AND COSTS,  1958,
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1958 acres
Net damage to forest-cover.	
Net damage to cut products	
Net damage to equipment and property-
Total damage 	
370
$4,548.00
7,320.00
30,250.00
$42,118.00
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Total Cost Acres
(a) Spring broadcast burning      $500.00 187
(b) Spring spot burning     2,615.00 625
(c) Fall broadcast burning  55,147.26 6,660
(d) Fall spot burning  43,595.10 13,400
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M b.f. per acre.
(b) and (d) based on volume of 30 M b.f. per acre.
Cost per
M B.F.
$0.07
.14
.21
.11
Cost per
Acre
$2.67
4.18
8.28
3.25 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(48)
RECAPITULATION OF SLASH-DISPOSAL,  1935-58
1958 ...
1957 ..
1956 ...
1955 ...
1954 ...
1953 ...
1952 ...
1951 ...
1950 ...
1949 ...
1948 ...
1947 ...
1946 ...
1945 ...
1944 ...
1943 ...
1942 ...
1941 ...
1940 ...
1939 ...
1938 ...
1937 ...
1936 _i
Acres of Slash Burned
Accidentally Intentionally
1935    11,783
3,812
24,684
1,139
51,045
2,872
19,551
199
34,486
225
41,596
17
22,220
3,856
39,064
11,614
10,436
1,700
25,389
1,468
53,543
2,215
30,652
2,663
34,414
2,174
25,498
3,897
46,467
5,121
27,278
2,046
40,013
4,504
80,226
3,385
5,524
2,265
33,034
1,930
51,603
35,071
50,033
3,015
27,516
1,340
7,691
11,783
13,239
RECAPITULATION OF SNAG-FALLING,  1940-58, BY LOGGING
(49) OPERATIONS AND FOREST SERVICE
(Acres totally logged.)
Year
Logging
Operations,
Vancouver
District
(Sec. 113)
Forest
Service by
Protection
Division
Forest
Service by
Reforestation
Division1
Total
1958	
57.576                     4.152                     2.035         )         63.763
1957	
1956  	
1955..	
1954     	
68,510
82,688
78,430
74,332
73,556
67,214
66,120
72,205
47,770
56,778
74,567
57,424
55,508
51,440
49,130
58,097
58,247
40,000
4,464
4,069
3,717
1,947
884
541
980
1,500
5,084
4,731
7,711
10,387
7,820
9,517
6,583
11,440
12,500
16,843
13,000
16,775
4,181
2,620
21,409
20,960
15,000
5,500
78,058
91,488
89,878
86,666
1953     	
1952      	
82,260
77,272
1951   	
1950 _ 	
1949	
73,683
85,145
60,270
1948...  	
1947   . -  	
120
1,500
73,741
89,067
1946 -.  	
1945	
74,199
59,689
1944
54,060
1943                 	
70,539
194?
5,896
341
84,953
1941   ....
1940
73,588
45,500
1 Includes all areas snagged for planting (Coast and Interior), areas snagged in parks, and A.S.W. work during
war years. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
115
(50)
FIRE OCCURRENCES BY MONTHS,  1958
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
18
31
4
11
17
22
15
11
388
22
147
269
79
235
37
95
138
46
742
162
151
260
147
249
23
70
234
295
53
8
12
61
28
12
8
16
4
1,690
269
523
1,024
614
41.0
6.5
12.7
Kamloops 	
Nelson , 	
24.9
14.9
Totals	
53
76
905
551
1,462
871
162
40
4,120
100.0
1.3    |
1.8    |
22.0
13.4
35.5
21.1
3.9
1.0
100.00
Ten-year average, 1949-58
18
65
373
234
532
451
207
37
1,917
	
0.9
3.4
19.5
12.2
27.8
23.5
10.8
1.9
100.0
(51)
NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES,  1958
i    e
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Forest District
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Vancouver 	
184
34
1,087
132
37
2
39
110
65
1.690
41.0
120
34
3
52
13
1
18
4
16
8
269
6.5
174
75
47
58
40
4
54
8
51
12
523
12.7
Kamloops— - _
307
127
57
172
21
97
13
224
6
1,024
24.9
Nelson -	
365
26
30
64
9
11
38
28
40
3
614
14.9
Totals.	
1,150
296
1,224
478
120
18
246
53
441
94
4,120
100.0
27.9
7.2
29.7
11.6
2.9
0.4
6.0
1.3
10.7
2.3
100.0
Ten-year average, 1949-58_
492
220
427
271
86
26
120
22
206
47
1,917
__.
25.7
11.5
22.3
14.1
4.5
1.4
6.3
1.1
10.7
2.4
100.0
(52)     NUMBER AND CAUSES OF FOREST FIRES FOR THE LAST TEN YEARS
Causes
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956 1
1957 1
1
1958 I
Total
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
597
174
184
171
47
10
83
10
116
28
116
157
118
120
63
11
64
12
82
21
418
195
206
206
47
24
89
15
134
50
497
214
1,090
281
112
73
183
27
260
73
307
170
455
182
65
46
107
22
220
45
1,150
296
1,224
478
120
18
246
53
441
94
4,919
2 198
4,265
2,713
859
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)
Road and power- and telephone-line
1,200
224
2,060
468
Unknown causes      .
Totals	
1,701
1,515
1,923
1,914
1,420
764
1,384
2,810
1,619
4,120
19,170 116
(53)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FIRES CLASSIFIED BY SIZE AND DAMAGE,  1958
Total Fires
under 14 Acre
■4 to 10 Acres
Over 10 to 500
Acres
Over 500 Acres
in Extent
Damage
Forest District
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1,690|    41.011,448   85.71    53.9
269|      6.51   119| 44.2|      4.4
523|    12.71   223| 42.6|      8.3
1,024     24.9|   5011 48.9|    18.6
614|    14.9|   398| 64.8|    14.8
163|    9.6
661 24.5
150| 28.7
341| 33.3
162| 26.4
18.5
7.5
17.0
38.7
18.3
52
37
87
155
43
3.1
13.8
16.6
15.1
7.0
13.9
9.9
23.3
41.4
11.5
27
47
63
27
11
1.6
17.5
12.1
1.6
1.8
15.4
26.9
36.0
15.4
6.3
1,621
194
398
863
561
20
26
48
94
26
49
Prince Rupert	
49
77
Kamloops  —
Nelson.
67
27
Totals	
4,120| 100.0|2,689| | 100.0
882|	
100.0
3741	
100.0
175| 	
100.0|3,637|214|269
Per cent	
100.0|	
65.3|         |        ...
21-41	
9-11 -|	
4-2|	
	
88.3| 5.2| 6.5
Ten-year average, 1949-58
1
1,917|	
1,210
1
485|..	
174
1
481-	
1       1
1,754|   89|   74
100.01	
63.1
 1
25.3
ml       1    '   .
2.51
	
91.51  4.61  3.9
(54)
DAMAGE TO PROPERTY OTHER THAN FORESTS,  19581
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Vancouver     -
$94,950.00
30,115.00
14,970.00
4,862.00
4,066.00
$2,740.00
400.00
20,011.00
8,075.00
5,600.00
$45,903.00
43,500.00
31,580.00
20,500.00
3,000.00
$11,865.00
20,993.00
31,441.00
9,262.00
4,350.00
$155,458.00
95,008.00
98,002.00
42,699.00
17,016.00
38.1
23.3
24.0
10.4
4.2
Totals  	
$148,963.00
$36,826.00
$144,483.00
$77,911.00
$408,183.00
100.0
36.5
9.0
35.40
19.10
100.0
Ten-year average, 1949-58 -
$155,363.00
$24,627.00
$188,257.00
$30,663.00
$398,910.00
39.0
6.1
47.2
7.7
100.0
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.   (For this item see page 113.)
(55)
DAMAGE TO FOREST-COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,  1958—PART Ii
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
V
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Acres
13,843
62,446
26,430
12,213
3,977
MB.F.
233,140
821,898
318,564
74.429
MB.F.
141,940
273,259
147,634
19.520
$
516,856
1,257,377
775,681
941,442
93,911
Acres
2,606
135,161
9,262
1,980
346
MB.F.
19,410
601,622
51,075
2,031
1,654
$
647
33,780
5,225
640
115
Acres
11,891
42,924
44,701
33,446
12,795
$
990,202
734,396
910,192
604,725
Nelson 	
25,073 |      8,750
279,049
Totals	
118,909
1,473,104 | 591,103
3,585,267
149,355
675,792
40,407
145,757
3,518,564
5.8
68.5 |        40.1
1
45.3
7.2
31.5
0.5
7.1
44.5
Ten-year average,
1949-58     	
18,546
213,010 |    95,400
486,535
18,435
70,415
13,502
39,737
523,184
4.4
75.3 1        44.8
41.6
4.3
24.8
1.1
9.3
44.8
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 113.) (55)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958 117
DAMAGE TO FOREST-COVER CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES,  1958—PART IP
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
Noncommercial
Cover
Grazing or
Pasture
Land
Nonproductive
Sites
Grand Totals
Forest District
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Vancouver	
Prince Rupert.
Acres
3,805
1,877
4,092
2,101
196
Acres
2,304
6
998
132
77
Acres
1,983
1,816
74,161
2,993
662
$
67,672
3,231
267,127
40,385
9,483
Acres
17,710
153,163
987,834
14,169
4,892
$
4,425
38,293
246,577
4,181
662
Acres
148
584
4,342
6,424
1,002
$
17
30
250
564
4
Acres       $
19,266   4,509
169,638 42,313
156,033|37,878
Acres
73,556
567,615
1,307,853
90,917
25,482
MB.F.
252,550
1,423,520
369,639
76,460
26,727
$
1,584,328
2,109,420
2,242,930
Kamloops	
Nelson	
17,459| 5,022
1,535|     374
1,596,959
383,598
Totals	
12,0711 3,517
81,615|387,898
l,177,768|294,138|12,50O
865|363,931|90,096
2,065,423|2,148,896|7,917,235
Per cent	
0.61     0.21      3.91        4.9
57.0|        3.7|      0.6
0.0
17.6|      1.1
100.0|       lOO.oj       100.0
Ten-year average, 1949-58
6,670
2,835
1
27,366| 77,275
1             1
190,374| 48,639|45,380
2,456
1
77,117|17,170
426,460
283,425 1,168,761
1.61     0.7
6.4
6.6
4461         4.71     10.6
0.2
18.1
1.5
100.0
100.0
100.0
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.   (For this item see page 113.)
(56)
FIRE CAUSES, AREA BURNED, FOREST SERVICE COST,
AND TOTAL DAMAGE,  1958
Causes
Fire Causes
Area Burned
Forest Service Cost
Total Damage
Number
Per Cent
Acres
Per Cent
Cost
Per Cent
Damage
Per Cent
Lightning- 	
Campers	
1,150
296
1,224
478
120
18
246
53
441
94
27.9
7.2
29.7
11.6
2.9
0.4
6.0
1.3
10.7
2.3
888,673
931,226
5,235
19,896
17,992
43,847
25,706
15,180
105,545
12,123
43.0
45.1
0.3
1.0
0.9
2.1
1.2
0.7
5.1
0.6
$3,416,135
110,098
78,959
323,426
8,996
21,943
155,808
216,585
185,336
10,851
75.4
2.4
1.8
7.1
0.2
0.5
3.4
4.8
4.1
0.3
$6,424,084
481,135
56,166
197,881
43,803
39,013
498,513
178,009
386,967
19,847
77.2
5.8
07
2.4
Brush-burning (not railway-
clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line construction.
0.5
0.5
6 0
Incendiarism	
Miscellaneous (known causes)
Unknown causes	
2.1
4.6
0.2
Totals	
4,120
100.0
2,065,423
100.0
$4,528,137
100.0
$8,325,418
100.0 118
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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119
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(61)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ENROLMENT AT RANGER SCHOOL, 1958
Forest District
Forest
Assistants
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
Vancouver  	
....
—
5
2
4
6
4
--
5
2
4
6
4
Kamloops
Nelson
Attendance, 1958	
—
21
21
4
—
__
26
—
30
30
Attendance, 1956
4
—
—
26
....
30
_..
Attendance, 1956	
3
—
—
18
21
21
Attendance, 1955   	
3
—
—
18
—
21
—
Attendance, 1954...	
—
—
20
20
20
Attendance, 1953	
....
—
21
21
—
—
20
20
20
Attendance, 1952	
—
—
20
20
.._
Attendance, 1951 	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1950 	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949.	
3
2
16
—
21
..:.
Attendance, 1948 _	
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947	
8
—
12
.._
20
20
Attendance, 1946.
2
9
9
20
20
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1958
121
(62)
MOTION-PICTURE LIBRARY, 1949-58
Stock Records
Year
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Films in library at January 1st—
Films withdrawn during year.—
New films added during year
Films in library at December 31:
77
3
1
75
74
75
9
9
75
76
75
8
7
74
71
74
3
6
77
72
77
80
24
8
64
64
64
2
9
71
70
71
3
10
78
80
78
80
1
3
80
79
2
80
79
4
83
84
Circulation Records
Number of loans made during
year 	
Number of film loans during
year   (one film  loaned one
time) 	
Number   of   showings   during
397
1,075
1,505
14,568
24,031
87,506
416
1,046
1,880
26,988
95,102!
43,282
461
1,057
2,943
13,542
264.2451
26,706
492
1,218
2,764
13,655
157.0852
59,182
490
1,158
2,288
12,640
118.6222
422
1,474
2,664
12,333
102.0131
429
1,280
1,998
14,353
131,8441
41,340
413
1,743
1,909
14,537
157,0861
42,587
455
1,758
1,956
18,983
86,829i
38,143
604
1,253
1,775
Number of audiences—
Adults	
10,330
69,3161
43,099 | 54,069
42,938
Totals      	
126,105
165,372"
304,4931
234,3962
174.3672ll68.415i
187,5371
218,2751
148,1241
126,2161
i Including attendances of lecture tour of two school lecturers.
2 Including attendances of lecture tour of three school lecturers.
Leased Films, 1958
Title
Number of
Showings
Number in Audience
Adult
Children
Mixed
Total
" Olympic Elk " 	
70
22
18
110                7,033
j      11,720
|      13,894
7,143
11,720
13,894
no
110        1      31.647      1
31,757
I
(63)
SUMMARY OF PROGRAMMES BY SCHOOL LECTURERS, 1958
Period
Schools
Non-school
Grand Total
Forest District
Number of
Schools
Number
of Programmes
Total
Attendance
Number
Attendance
Number
of Programmes
Total
Attendance
February to March
January to December	
50
124
71
179
8,659
19,947
5
9
305
352
76
188
8,964
20,299
Vancouver (Vancouver Island)—
174
250
28,606
14      I       M7
264
29,263 122
(64)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SERVICE LIBRARY, 1949-58
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
Ten-year
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1949-58
36
100
153
80
2,074
27
62
140
102
{J960
23
109
152
110
2,650
9
122
337
115
2,203
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
62
246
92
124
127
932
55
190
94
136
141
1,090
37
179
170
151
177
1,321
45
266
109
155
214
1,417
48
177
159
133
230
1,139
38
Government reports and bulletins
194
150
122
1,659
1 Previous to 1953, included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
(65)
GRAZING PERMITS ISSUED
District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,086
400
85
104,097
14,730
3,662
2,792
1,097
280
19,494
1,421
Prince
George-   -	
Totals, 1958 -	
Totals, 1957   	
12
1,571
122,489
4,169
20,927
1,640
128,978
3,886
20,693
Totals, 1956    ...
Totals, 1955  _ 	
Totals, 1954 -	
Totals, 1953    	
Totals, 1952  	
Totals, 1Q51
1,776
127,182
3,667
22,310
1,705
121,284
3,575
22,560
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
1,730
108,894
4,133
23,172
s
1,621
104,610
4,040
23,565
1,561
100,082
4,350
22,282
Totals, 1950                                    	
1,562
98,484
4,650
23,100
Totals, 1949    -	
1,496
101,349
5,029
25,842
N.B.—Some of the figures in this table for the years 1949 to 1951, inclusive, have been revised and differ from those
shown in previous Reports. Past tables have shown net figures for some years and gross figures for others. This table
shows the total number of permits issued and the net number of live stock covered for each of the years listed.
(66)
GRAZING FEES BILLED AND COLLECTED
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collectedi
Outstanding
195g                                                                  	
$69,986.23
67,593.88
76,155.51
76,061.32
80,191.97
95,088.64
125,495.09
108,400.14
80,178.43
27,819.65
$71,726.71
68,131.94
79,247.61
75,250.32
85,043.96
102,460.00
110,731.32
106,161.36
74,305.08
28,299.94
$11,376.53
1957                                    	
13,117.01
1956      —	
13,655.07
1955                              _ _
16,577.24
1954
15,766.24
1953            . ..     	
20,618.23
1952   .
27,989.59
1951	
13,225.82
1950                                     _        ...         	
10,986.74
IO40                                                                                               	
5,113.39
1 Includes statutory penalties. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
123
(67)
AREA CLASSIFICATION BY OWNERSHIP
Coast
Area Classification
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Acres
8,507,862
378,222
1,970,913
Acres
905,948
74,129
1,014,220
Acres
1,508,601
40,942
262,340
Acres
61,347
5,731
44,600
Acres
10,983,758
499,024
Young immature  	
3,292,073
10,856,997
1,272
306,637
1,319,643
1,994,297
384
280,245
170,409
1,811,883
1,169
228,778
56,939
111,678
124
8,416
32,566
14,774,855
2,949
824,076
Non-commercial forest.	
1,579,557
Total, all forest land. 	
12,484,549
2,445,335
2,098,769
152,784
17,181,437
Non-forest land—
11,960,510
	
	
172,587
576,540
14,915
Non-productive tree-cover. 	
9,597,448
1
22,322,000
1,022,693
40,526,130
Interior
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Acres
43,498,844
11,170,663
44,227,859
Acres
857,761
292,896
2,059,509
Acres
224,267
32,105
65,661
Acres
284,720
84,843
351,789
Acres
44,865,592
11,580,507
46,704,818
98,897,366
207,930
5,372,339
9,582,190
3,210,166
75,649
195,977
667,957
322,033
8,733
11,178
13,375
721,352
4,675
30,720
179,245
103,150,917
Selectively logged forest   	
Not satisfactorily restocked forest _	
296,987
5,610,214
10,442,767
114,059,825
4,149,749
355,319
935,992
119,500,885
Non-forest land—
38,052,164
2,643,724
862,890
2,420,394
	
25,008,464
..    .       |     	
68,987,636
.      .       |         	
5,100,680
	
	
193,589,201
Province
Forest land—
Commercial forest—
Mature .	
i
Acres
i
52,006,706
11,548,885    |
46,198,772    j
Acres
1,763,709
367,025
3,073,729
Acres
1,732,868
73,047
328,001
Acres
346,067
90,574
396,389
Acres
55,849,350
12,079,531
49,996,891
109,754,363    1
209,202    |
5,678,976    |
10,901,833    |
5,204,463
76,033
476,222
838,366
2,133,916
9,902
239,956
70,314
833,030
4,799
39,136
211,811
117,925,772
299,936
Not satisfactorily restocked forest-  .'
6,434,290
12,022,324
126,544,374    |
6,595,084
2,454,088
1,088,776
136,682,322
Non-forest land—
Barren __ -. 	
1
 ■     |
	
50,012,674
.        |
2,816,311
1,439 430
-   -     |
	
..      1
2,435,309
Non-productive tree-cover 	
■      1    	
34,605,912
Total, all non-forest land _
1
91,309,636
|
—	
6,123,373
       |     	
234,115,331 124
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SOUND-WOOD VOLUME IN COMMERCIAL FORESTS OF ALL AGES,
(68) BY OWNERSHIP AND SPECIES
(Gross volumes reduced for decay, at a close utilization standard, in thousands of cubic feet.)
Coast
Species and D.B.H. Limits
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
Douglas fir„
Red cedar...
Hemlock	
Balsam (true firs)..
Spruces	
Yellow cedar-
White pine _
Lodgepole pine .
Yellow pine-
Larch	
Cottonwood..
Alder	
Maple (broadleaf)..
Birch  	
Aspen .
Totals, all species..
...4-9"
...10"+
..4-9"
...10"+
_4-9"
..10"+
...4-9"
„10"+
..4-9"
-10"+
-4-9"
-10"+
..4-9"
-10"+
„4-9"
.10"+
..4-9"
-10"+
..4-9"
-10"+
..4-9"
..10"+
.4-9"
„10"+
.4-9"
-10"+
.4-9"
-10"+
.4-9"
_.10"+
..4-9"
.10"+
337,026
6,523,744
559,264
15,895,966
2,442,074
26,634,596
587,180
10,586,052
67,376
5,114,733
180,004
1,996,120
18,177
257,810
145,123
306,290
709
3,922
1,784
265,833
99,653
384,028
3,999
64,955
20,574
59,528
169
12,054
4,463,112
68,105,631
203,814
3,175,979
93,364
1,289,288
297,883
2,684,164
46,175
950,480
7,515
392,445
11,283
116,136
16,839
185,872
34,998
48,760
26
277
1,126
36,184
65,799
161,103
1,408
23,017
11,016
24,007
11
459
31,406
1,330,799
102,759
2,743,230
330,147
4,457,746
85,479
1,903,786
7,770
766,778
35,607
345,770
2,735
38,110
19,080
39,378
13
105
380
37,169
14,221
50,084
677
18,283
7,270
11,200
11
3,162
791,257
9,088,171
637,555
11,745,600
7,356
80,289
8,783
124,787
24,779
194,259
3,817
51,015
2,683
63,660
1,920
12,739
365
2,993
3,321
6,208
18
150
128
7,726
4,214
10,922
104
1,190
363
672
2
434
579,602
11,110,811
764,170
20,053,271
3,094,883
33,970,765
722,651
13,491,333
85,344
6,337,616
228,814
2,470,765
38,116
484,785
202,522
400,636
766
4,454
3,418
346,912
183,887
606,137
6,188
107,445
39,223
95,407
193
16,109
57,853    |      5,949,777
557,044    I    89,496,446
I	
Interior
.   4-9"
2,111,469
17,327,364
681,824
7,087,162
2,254,727
20,941,594
7,559,358
21,293,082
20,029,289
84,692,856
242,135
1,584,286
50,593
388,380
56,429
452,045
220,557
270,393
195,957
1,157,236
15,225
142,762
16,299
274,344
22,465
324,449
22,483
94,803
14,882
263,932
50,000
398,372
13,028
122,952
19,932
197,431
53,060
131,098
50,801
373,276
2,418,829
 10"+
19,452,784
 .4-9"
761,744
._    10" 4-
7,872,838
 4-9"
2,353,553
Balsam (true firs) 	
 10"+
 4-9"
 10"+
21,915,519
7,855,458
21,789,376
 4-9"
20,290,929
  _10"4-
86,487,300
4-9"
 10"4-
4,186
30,222
21,288
42,288
227
14,733
2,429
26,479
185
2,573
1
10
4,340
22,034
124,174
188,189
9,398
137,410
5,686
36,282
789
7,469
23
588
White pine	
 4-9"
 .10"+
216,321
1,007,249
24,220,742
39,682,833
51,787
1,724,266
369,987
1,655,205
462,210
3,104,304
7,030
44,844
25,152
91,940
598,570
768,357
17,346
592,565
42,805
157,824
19,987
78,941
29
604
249,999
1,151,445
 4-9"
24,964,774
 10"+
 4-9"
40,681,667
78,758
  .10" 4-
2,468,974
 .4-9"
420,907
       10"4-
1,875,790
 4-9"
483,171
Alder -   	
Maple (broadleaf) _	
-.10"+
. .4-9"
 10"+
 4-9"
-- 10"+
..  4-9"
 10"+
3,193,287
7,083
46,046
1,886,236
2,531,612
2,674,012
6,997,262
52,724
114,459
94,780
229,394
Birch 	
4,836
12,119
1,118
4,379
6,608
14,267
6,663
21,968
1,950,404
2,672,457
     4-9"
2,776,573
 10"+
7,253,003
Totals, all species	
 .4-9"
 10"+
62,524,992
208,089,633
1,617,064
5,886,424
125,624
1,233,093
344,502
1,651,336
64,612,182
216,860,486 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1958
125
(68)
SOUND-WOOD VOLUME IN COMMERCIAL FORESTS OF ALL AGES,
BY OWNERSHIP AND SPECIES—Continued
(Gross volumes reduced for decay, at a close utilization standard, in thousands of cubic feet.)
Province
Species and D.B.H. Limits
Crown
Crown
Granted
Licences and
Leases
Canada
Control
Total
4-9"
2,448,495
23,851,108
1,241,088
22,983,128
4,696,801
47,576,190
8,146,538
31,879,134
20,096,665
89,807,589
180,000
1,996,120
234,496
1,265,059
24,365,871
39,989,123
52,496
1,728,188
369,987
1,655,205
463,991
3,370,137
106,686
428,872
3,998
64,955
1,906,811
2,591,140
2,674,181
7,009,316
445,949
4,760,265
143,957
1,677,668
354,312
3,136,209
266,732
1,220,873
203,472
1,549,681
11,283
116,136
41,991
277,812
633,568
817,117
17,372
592,842
42,805
157,824
21,113
115,125
65,828
161,707
1,408
23,017
63,740
138,466
94,791
229,853
46,631
1,473,561
119,058
3,017,574
352,612
4,782,195
107,962
1,998,589
22,652
1,030,710
35,611
345,770
6,923
68,332
40,362
81,666
240
14,838
2,429
26,479
568
39,742
14,219
50,094
678
18.283
12,105
23,319
1,129
7,541
57,356
478,661
21,811
247,739
44,711
391,690
56,877
182,113
53,484
436,936
1,920
12,739
4,705
25,027
127,495
194,397
9,416
137,560
5,686
36,282
917
15,195
4,237
11,510
104
1,190
6,971
14,939
6,665
22,402
2,998,431
—10"+
30,563,595
4-9"
1,525,914
     ___10"+
27,926,109
4-9"
5,448,436
—10"+
55,886,284
Balsam (true firs)         ,
4-9"
— 10"+
8,578,109
35,280,709
Spruces     , ....	
4-9"
.10"+
4-9"
20,376,273
92,824,916
228,814
— 10"+
2,470,765
4 9"
288,115
      _10"-l-
1,636,230
.  4-9"
25,167,296
— 10"+
41,082,303
—4-9"
79,524
   10" 4-
2,473,428
4-9"
420,907
-10"+
4-9"
1,875,790
486,589
.            -    - .10" 4-
3,540,199
Alrfer         ... .    -          	
4-9"
190,970
  —    10"+
652,183
Maple (broadleaf)— 	
4-9"
-10"+
4-9"
6,188
107,445
Birch
1,989,627
- 10"+
2,767,864
4-9"
2,776,766
10"+
4-9"
-10"+
7,269,112
Totals, all species 	
66,988,104
276,195,264
2,408,321
14,974,595
763,179
12,978,693
402,355
2,208,380
70,561,959
306,356,932
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959
1,260-159-7313   

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