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Annual Report of the Director of Correction for the YEAR ENDED MARCH 31ST 1958 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1959

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Annual Report
of the
Director of Correction
for the
YEAR ENDED MARCH 3 1st
1958
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Director of
Correction for the year ended March 31st, 1958.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., December, 1958.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pace
Introduction     9
Oakalla Prison Farm  11
Haney Correctional Institution  28
Medical Report  57
Report of Psychologist  70
Report of Senior Protestant Chaplain  72
Report of Roman Catholic Chaplain  76
Nelson Gaol  80
Kamloops Gaol and Clearwater Forest Camp  81
Prince George Gaol  85
New Haven  88
Probation Branch  91
Appendix—Statistics of Institutions  94  Main Building, Haney Correctional Institution.
Gold Creek Camp.  Report of the Director of Correction, 1957 / 58
Honourable Robert Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I take pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Director of Correction
covering the Provincial Gaols and Probation Branch for the year ended March 31st, 1958.
Once again there have been some notable developments made in our correctional
services during the year, and these I would like to comment upon briefly.
The new Haney Correctional Institution was opened in August, and the brief report
which was given by Warden E. K. Nelson on the organization of that institution, which
was included in last year's Annual Report, has been considerably extended this year to
include statements from the various divisional heads and a very intensive account of the
programme. It is a matter of satisfaction to all of us to have this up-to-date institution
finally activated, and we are looking forward with a great deal of anticipation to an exciting programme, which I believe will be carried out by a staff which has been carefully
selected and which, I am confident, is second to none in the correctional field in Canada.
As in the past years, the report given by Warden Christie shows continuing progress
at Oakalla Prison Farm, the Women's Gaol, Young Offenders' Unit, and the other progressive programmes which are being carried out within the Oakalla compound.
Dr. R. G. E. Richmond, our senior medical officer, has provided us with a lengthy
detailed report on gaol medical problems. As in the past, he makes valuable suggestions
for the development of our medical facilities, and while the situation in this respect is
but slowly improving, I trust that it will not be long before we will have an adequate
hospital on the grounds of one or another of our larger institutions, and that in this way
many of the handicaps under which the medical staff are now operating will be eliminated.
Mr. R. V. McAllister, our psychologist, and the two senior chaplains, Rev. W. D. G.
Hollingworth and Rev. Thomas F. M. Corcoran, S.P.M., have presented us with very
interesting statements. We are grateful to know that, these particular phases of our
programme, which are the responsibilities of these three conscientious members of headquarters staff, have operated again, as in the past, very successfully.
Three very significant developments are reported from Prince George, Kamloops,
and Nelson Gaols. In the interests of eliminating a fire-hazard, and also providing a much
more constructive programme for female inmates from the northern part of our Province,
it was decided to close the Prince George Women's Gaol at the end of the fiscal year.
It has been pointed out in previous Annual Reports the Prince George Women's Gaol
was entirely inadequate for programme purposes, and, being a wooden structure, constantly presented us with a fire-hazard which was a source of worry, not only to the
administration at Prince George, but also to this office and, I know, to all concerned in
Victoria. At the same time, the long-term female inmates had been transferred to
Oakalla, the result being the local population at the Prince George Women's Gaol dropped
to the point where it became uneconomical to operate that institution. The consequence
was the remaining inmates were transferred to Oakalla, and arrangements were made to
absorb those members of staff who wished to transfer resulting in the permanent closure
of the Prince George institution shortly before the end of the fiscal year.
A similar story can be told concerning the gaol at Nelson, and this institution was
formally closed at about the same time. While there has been some question concerning
the advisability of closing these two smaller institutions, I am of the opinion that no
logical justification existed for their maintenance in the present locations, and that the
establishment of any future smaller institutions will call for newer facilities and better
locations.
9 DD  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A further development in our camp programme took place with the establishment
of the Clearwater Camp, situated just within the boundaries of the Wells Gray Park.
This camp is under the administration of Warden W. T. Teal, of Kamloops Gaol, and
provides us with additional facilities for persons sentenced in that area of the Province.
One of the most gratifying developments during the past year has been the promotion of Mr. S. Rocksborough Smith, formerly Director of New Haven, to the position of
Deputy Director of Correction. Mr. Smith is functioning in this capacity on a part-time
basis, and will continue to do so until such time as we recruit his successor to direct
the New Haven programme. I am hopeful it will not be too long before we can locate
such a person, releasing Mr. Smith for full-time duties in his new position. This will
enable us to strengthen our organization, and will be of great assistance in carrying out
a number of the plans that we have for the immediate future, in addition to increasing
supervision and providing a better consultative service to the administrators of our various
programmes.
The activities of the Probation Branch are outlined in the report submitted by Mr.
C. D. Davidson, Chief Assistant Probation Officer. Here again, as in past years, the
volume of work shows a steady increase. There seems to be growing interest in probation
and its importance as a means of treatment. The staff continue their loyal and conscientious application to the job, and I trust that we will be able to eventually reduce case
loads to the point where even more successful rehabilitation might be attained, and,
through the provision of adequate salaries, may be able to recruit additional staff.
In closing, I would express my thanks to all who have been so helpful to us during
the past year. Amongst these, I would particularly like to mention other branches of
the Government service, clergy of the various denominations, social workers of the many
agencies, staff of the John Howard Society, the Salvation Army, and all those members
of the general public who have, by their interest in the development of modern correctional service in this Province, given us outstanding encouragement.
Let me commend the Wardens and staff members of our institutions, the staff of
the Corrections Branch, and Probation Officers and clerical assistants for their loyalty
and faithful approach to the task at hand.
I submit the following recommendations for your consideration:—
(1) One of our most pressing problems is the need for adequate gaol hospital
facilities. If we are not to proceed very soon with the construction of a
new Women's Gaol, thus releasing the present building for conversion to
a hospital, we should not delay in providing some relief to the already
overcrowded and inadequate quarters now available at Oakalla for this
purpose.
(2) Early attention should be given to the provision of better facilities for
admission, observation, and classification of prisoners at Oakalla Prison
Farm. If our various rehabilitation programmes are to be successful, they
depend on good classification and adequate follow-up services. Present
quarters for the former process are not satisfactory and must be improved.
(3) By the same token, we must strengthen our field staff to provide adequate
after-care for those who are receiving the benefit of training programmes
in the institutions. There is every indication that some of the additional
staff to be provided the Probation Branch can be assigned to this work
next year, but there is still great need if we are to reap the full benefit of
the institutional effort, and I would recommend considerable strengthening
of the Probation staff as rapidly as possible.
(4) Despite the fact that some temporary relief is in sight for the overcrowding
in the Women's Gaol through the construction of an additional temporary
building adjacent to the present building, I am still of the opinion that we REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
DD 11
should bend every effort toward the construction of a new cottage-type
structure on the site recently purchased at Ruskin.
(5) Present accommodation at Oakalla Prison Farm for the gravely disturbed
inmates for any other purpose than expediency is entirely unsuitable. For
this reason, there have been an increasing number of prisoners committed
to the Provincial Mental Hospital by Order in Council. It is felt that if
we had adequate quarters for treatment of these persons, they could be
retained in the Gaol. I would recommend that early attention be given
to providing some such facilities, together with specially trained personnel
so that our staff can cope with this problem without the handicaps with
which they are presently confronted.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. G. B. STEVENS,
Director of Correction.
OAKALLA PRISON FARM
MEN'S SECTION
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Oakalla Prison Farm for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1958.
The individual unit reports which follow describe a satisfactory year's work, but little
relief from overpopulation in spite of the substantial assistance provided by the opening
of the new Haney Correctional Institution. Total admissions increased to 12,000, an
increase of 2,000 over the previous year, and it is interesting to note that this increase
took place in spite of a decrease of 6.78 per cent in the number of repeaters. This fact,
together with the knowledge that there has not been a proportionate increase in the general
population in the Province, suggests that supportive and preventive services in the community require greater emphasis. The general effect on the Oakalla programme of the
new and very desirable Haney and camp programme, which draws 500 of the more
generously endowed inmates for special programmes, is to increase the percentage of
inmates requiring special attention left in the Oakalla setting. It has been necessary to
make greater use of dormitories and mass activity programmes than before, and the
resultant loss in control and therapy is gradually being felt. There are periods when the
argument that supports this spending of less of our resources on these less hopeful people
is popular. However, the growing conviction that we should be increasing our services
to match the greater needs of this group suggests that if humanity does not support this
latter approach, our ultimate protection and economic interests do. I therefore have no
hesitation in recommending that consideration be given to the re-establishment and further
development of retraining facilities within the institution.
Per diem costs for male prisoners, which are somewhat inflated by the inclusion of
all capital costs and our central hospital and classification units which serve other
institutions, have decreased by 9 cents per day to $6.52 per prisoner. This figure still
represents one of the strongest arguments for a more extensive investment in preventive
and probation services to avoid the initial necessity of incarceration, and more adequate
treatment services when imprisonment is necessary, to be sure that the process does not DD  12 BRITISH COLUM3IA
have to be repeated.    Although the detail of the operation of the various units is contained in the individual reports which follow, a few general points deserve comment.
The East Wing, which houses the most difficult prisoners in the Provincial service,
has this year achieved its highest level of performance. Although a large percentage of
this group will return to prison, their stay in the institution can be a wholesome and
humanizing influence or one which embitters and tends to make them more vicious
criminals on their release. The work programme in this unit, which had every inmate
working to his full capacity throughout the year, has contributed much to the unit's
improvement. Every man also took part three evenings per week in a programme which
included a period of compulsory physical training and a further period which required
a choice of a selection of recreational activities, ranging from library and correspondence
courses to sports and hobbies. This programme resulted in an atmosphere and standard
of performance of which Mr. J. Scott, the senior officer in charge of the wing, his staff,
and inmates can be justly proud.
The West Wing, which houses all people waiting trial, waiting appeal, and waiting
transfer to the Penitentiary, still mixes the innocent with the guilty and the most debased
with the first offender in a way which cannot be justified in spite of the fact that it will
require a substantial capital outlay to remedy the situation. The locking system is still
inadequate in the main building, but, thanks to excellent personal control by staff helped
by the good weather and an active outside programme, this has not been a major problem
this year.
The personnel of the Classification Unit, who decided the unit in which 10,000 of
the 12,000 admissions this year should be placed, have done a creditable job, not only
with regard to the high degree of accuracy of their decisions, but also with regard to the
patience and understanding with which they have explained to the widely varying interests
involved the logic underlying each decision.
The Young Offenders' and Women's Units are still our most intensive programmes,
and they, together with the drug research work being carried out in the Pan Abode units,
deserve praise for their consistently high standard of performance. The Women's Gaol
particularly deserves credit for the effort it has put forth in maintaining the same high
standard of programme in the face of the increase in population, which, with the closing
of the Prince George Women's Gaol, increased by about 20 per cent the count it normally
anticipates. Although it has had many extra problems to face during the year, the
Women's Unit, through careful selection and training, maintained a high quality of personnel at all levels. Present quarters are still very cramped for the number of inmates
housed, but the very adequate staff allotment and the temporary cottages built during the
year have contributed to a standard of work which has gained wide recognition. The
female drug research programme, with the help of the Women's Unit, has shown noteworthy success in the improvement and the rehabilitation of a significant number of its
charges.  The male drug research project has not been as successful to date.
The Chilliwack forestry camps have done a very impressive job, thanks to the support
and co-operation of the Forest Service, which works as our associates in this project.
The forestry engineers estimate of $90,000 saved the taxpayer as a result of inmate work
on this project this year is an indication of the effective co-operation between departments and the enthusiasm with which inmates have tackled this road-building assignment.
I wish to take this opportunity of expressing our appreciation of the assistance given
us by the many private agencies and Government departments who have assisted our
people throughout the year. We look forward to the provision of a more complete
rehabilitation service in spite of the difficulties caused by the increases in prison population.
Respectfully submitted. Hugh G. Christie,
Warden. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD  13
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Young Offenders'
Unit for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1958.
Administration
The most significant factor in the operation of this unit, having a bearing on
administration, is the drop in the age-group of inmates who are being sent to the unit.
In former years, the average age has been 17.5, whereas the age-group now being
received is 16.5. For example, on February 1st, 1958, out of a total population of
seventy-four inmates, forty-seven were 16 and under, with a considerable proportion of
that number being in the 14- and 15-year-old age-group when received at the unit. This
younger immature group have needed a great deal of individual help, and this has resulted
in changes in programme in an attempt to meet their needs more fully. The reports by
the two department heads, which follows, will give more details of this.
During the year the Young Offenders' Unit received 160 inmates. One hundred and
one inmates were released on parole licence issued by the British Columbia Parole Board.
Using this group as the measure of successful effort at rehabilitation, sixty-six, or 54 per
cent, of their number completed their time on parole, an average of one year, without
getting into further difficulty.
The excellent security record of the unit, without undue repressive techniques, has
been maintained with no inmate absent without leave during the year. A large part of
this success, no doubt, is due to the secure relationships that are being established between
staff and inmates. The unit continues to attract and hold a good type of staff person,
with a very low turnover in staff. As in former years, with the encouragement of Oakalla
administration, several staff members furthered their education by attending courses at
the University of British Columbia or were enrolled in night courses or correspondence
courses.
Socialization Programme
The socialization programme has continued to place its main emphasis on group
work methods, by virtue of which the inmates were helped to learn to get along with
others, with increased facility in the give and take of living and in ways approved by
people generally.
During this past year there has been an intensification of the effectiveness of the
development of interpersonal relationships by the device of keeping the inmates engaged
in activities as much as possible within their unit groupings. In short, an inmate that
runs into problems in group living has little alternative but to face up to the difficulties
he may experience under the constructive guidance of his group supervisor. With very
careful supervision of the inmates who require help under the pressure of normally robust
youthful group involvement, this practice of increasing the manifold social influences
which are brought to bear on the inmate has so far proven to be beneficial in evoking
positive attitudes and behaviour.
The major emphasis in this area of programme has been the tailoring of techniques
to fit the needs of the more disturbed youngsters now being admitted, since the better
adjusted lads are now transferred to the Haney Correctional Institution.
Vocational Programme
During the twelve-month period prior to April 1st, 1958, there were several major
changes in the vocational training programme.   A more efficient and expanded school DD  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
programme was implemented. A system correlating school training with technical training was put into effect. Much emphasis was placed on sorting out the inmates' areas of
interest, stimulating realistic plans for achieving a vocational goal, with a great deal of
emphasis on standards of good basic work habits and of acceptable attitudes toward
authority.
An analysis carried out during the month of March showed that, at the time of
induction, 63 per cent of the inmates claimed that they had a Grade VII education or
less, but when tested to determine the demonstrated grade level, 77 per cent graded from
one to two below the claimed grade level. The psychological tests carried out during the
same month indicated that about 50 per cent of the unit's population tested at an I.Q.
rating ranging from below average down to border line, 9 per cent at an I.Q. rating of
slightly below average, and of the remaining 41 per cent, inmates who psychologically
tested in the range of average to above average, and 23 per cent of this number were
either not interested in taking educational courses or were very poor in their application
to studies.
A study of the inmates presently being classified to the unit indicated that the greatest
need was to teach them how to acquire good basic work habits and how to take direction.
They had little concept of what represented an honest and an acceptable day's work.
They were outstandingly resentful of authority; they were not receptive to instruction;
and many were firmly of the conviction that the supervisor's main task was that of
inflicting punishment. Their employment history usually ranged from a few days at odd
jobs to from two to three years at many jobs, accompanied by frequent periods of
unemployment.
Using as a criterion the expectations of the average employer in industry, it was
considered that over 60 per cent of the inmates would experience some degree of difficulty
in holding a job. They were not trained or psychologically ready to compete for even the
most menial type of labour work.
On arrival at the unit, most inmates were unable to make a rational choice of a
vocation. They had left school in the lower grades and consequently missed most of the
customary industrial arts training. The limited work experience which followed contributed little to their knowledge of what was involved in the semi-skilled and skilled
trades. They were, indeed, not ready to make a rational choice of a vocation. The
emphasis was thereby placed on orientation and prevocational training rather than
vocational training. When possible, inmates were oriented to from three to five training
areas, depending on the length of sentence, but at regular intervals, while undergoing the
technical orientation, they were given ordinary labour work to more completely prepare
them for whatever employment industry had to offer.
It was estimated that with corrective treatment and sufficient time for mental growth,
over 55 per cent of the population had the potential to become either skilled or semiskilled tradesmen.
It was further observed that approximately 40 per cent of the inmate population
required a special therapeutic technique—a technique to break through the so-called
" armour plating of character," a defensive barrier and a product of an unfavourable
environment in the formative years.
It is a pleasure to report that much improvement was made in this area, and considerable thought was given to shop placements. The inmates were placed in the areas of
work which appeared most likely to encourage a positive transference with the supervisors.
It was very gratifying to see boys who were obstreperous, uncommunicative, and possessed with a low standard of social values in the broadest sense undergo a marked change
in personality over a period of several months. The technical work provided a medium
through which a positive transference could be established, and the instructors, in their REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58
DD 15
own unique and natural way, managed to motivate a desire in most of the boys to follow,
and to absorb their attitudes and to reflect their convictions.
The boys were made to feel that they had an important job—an adult's job—and
a job which was by no means lacking in a definite purpose. The shop work provided an
area in which the boys could act out, in their own individual and immature way, the
occupational role of the adult.
School
It is indeed a pleasure to report that of the many changes which were made in the
school programme, most have proven to be very successful. This is of particular interest
when consideration is given to the personality types now being treated at the unit. The
records show that for one reason or another most of the inmates were not able to function
in the public schools outside the institution; they had been either expelled or were in the
process of being expelled just prior to institutional commitment. It is of interest to note
that most inmates showed indications of having deep personality problems, and that
several inmates were sufficiently disturbed to justify a transfer to the Crease Clinic.
The short length of the average inmate's sentence greatly restricted academic accomplishment. It was estimated that in the month of March 43 per cent would be at the unit
for periods of less than eight months. At least part of this time would normally be spent
in the different vocational shops, which left too little time for school training. The school
curriculum, therefore, had to be stream-lined to teach only the essentials of arithmetic,
English, science, and social studies. Inmates who were at the Grade VIII level were
helped to attain High School Entrance in the essential material required for understanding
the fundamentals of vocational training and for everyday living. Many improvements
were introduced to further the progress of the students who were taking high-school
correspondence instruction. The evidence of success was substantiated by the large
volume of correspondence papers now being completed; compared with the production
of about one year ago, the increase in volume was about fivefold.
The number of inmates taking school training has greatly increased. By March of
this year, approximately 50 per cent of the unit's population were taking either part-time
or full-time school training, and over half this number were attending school full time.
There is much educational material still to be sorted out, and there are many presentation techniques yet to be tried. Looking to the future, it is expected that the over-all
accomplishment in this area will be very gratifying.
Motor Mechanics Shop
The training carried out in this area proved to be most successful. For most inmates
it provided a work area for the sorting-out of interests and for the activating of dormant
talents. But for the others—the inmates who had good aptitude for a particular trade
and the inmates who were from the beginning more certain of a vocational choice—the
technical training was more vocational than pre-vocational. Apart from the demonstrated
ability for the trade and the degree of certainty in the vocational choice, the motor
mechanics shop proved to be an area of training which encouraged the establishment of
good basic work habits and normal and satisfying relationships with authority.
The shop work was extremely varied and involved the working on cars of many
types and ages. Mechanical repairs were undertaken which included everything from
the reboring of engine blocks to simple brake repairs. For the inmates who were more
interested in the welding trade, numerous welding projects were available.
Woodwork Shop
Many inmates who had no pre-vocational training in the public schools and limited
experience in the use of tradesmen's tools were placed in the woodwork shop for voca- DD  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
tional orientation. If sufficient interest and aptitude were shown for this type of work,
the inmates were allowed to remain in the shop for an indefinite period. As with all
technical shops, the inmates were moved at regular intervals from the primary work
area—the woodwork shop—to a secondary work area. When working at outside maintenance, they were conditioned to labour work, and were made aware of the expectations
of the average employer in industry. When attending school, they were taught the essentials of mathematics and English, but the more advanced students were usually taught the
theory of frame-house construction.
It is intended to institute further improvements in the woodwork training curriculum;
where needed, step-by-step project work and the essentials of education for the building
trades are to be emphasized.
Upholstery and Chair-frame Construction
This area of training proved to be of considerable value to inmates who were either
extremely barren in technical experience or who were too disturbed to make normal
progress in other work areas. It provided a work area in which the quality of workmanship was less demanding and the machinery was less dangerous to use. The work
was of particular value to the inmates who were so void of education and technical experience and who psychologically tested so low that any initial evaluation of technical
potential was of uncertain value. Many inmates in this group managed to progress over
a period of several months to reach the level at which a more advanced pre-vocational
training could be given. With time and much post-discharge guidance, it was considered that, at least, several in this group had a fair chance of eventually qualifying for a
semi-skilled trade. The more hostile inmates—the ones who found it impossible to
" bridge the gap " and objectively accept authority while engaged in full-time labour
work—were rendered more receptive to counsel after being exposed to the therapeutic
environment of the upholstery shop.
Looking to the future, it is intended to improve generally the instructional presentation and to provide more periods for guidance lectures.
Kitchen
The kitchen proved itself to be a most worth-while area of work. It essentially
provided a training area for boys who were below average in intelligence, low in
mechanical ability, and physically unsuited for heavy labour work.
On arrival at the Young Offenders' Unit, most inmates—the boys who had no idea
as to what type of work they would like to do—began their vocational orientation in this
area. The period of orientation was generally about three weeks in length, but if there
was evidence that further benefit could be obtained, they were allowed to stay with the
work for an additional period.
It is with regret I report that in March of this year it became necessary to have
the kitchen of the main gaol prepare part of the food; the poor kitchen facilities and
lack of centralization in the unit's kitchen would not permit a high standard of cleanliness.
This difficulty was greatly increased by the youthful age of the inmate workers and their
consequent lack of experience.
It is likely that this routine will continue until the new kitchen, now partly completed, is ready for operation, possibly some time in August of this year.
Outside Maintenance and Construction Work
The outside maintenance and building-construction areas of training proved to be
most vital to the over-all training programme. It provides a secondary work area for
inmates who were primarily engaged in shop training.   Here they were conditioned to REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD  17
heavy labour work and taught what constituted an acceptable day's work. It provided
an area of work for inmates who were not ready to apply themselves to the more skilled
type of training, and who were not ready to respond to the therapeutic environment of
the more technical shop. Finally, it provided the only work placement for certain inmates
who were handicapped with a pronounced mental disorder which was not compatible with
a technical shop placement.
Maintenance of Buildings and Grounds
Two additions to the unit were begun during the year—a metal-shop and a kitchen.
Both of these buildings, which are now nearing completion, have been built entirely by
inmate labour, thus effecting substantial savings to the Department. Many man-hours
were spent in constructing, landscaping, and ground improvement. The entire institution,
inside and out, was repainted.
Summary
More intensive counselling of inmates remains an important but neglected area,
and much thought and planning has been given to the necessity of improving this and
other areas of treatment. It seems obvious that a more intensive approach will be necessary if our rehabilitation rate is to be maintained with the more severely maladjusted
youngsters now being admitted, making the unit into a more intensive treatment unit.
We would like to thank you, Sir, and your administrative staff for the support and encouragement that have been given to us throughout the year.
Respectfully submitted.
A. L. Montpellier,
Director.
CLASSIFICATION UNIT
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We have the honour to submit the annual report of the Classification Unit
for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1958.
Classification and Treatment
In the correctional field, the change in focus from punishment to treatment is not
particularly new. It is only in recent years, however, that an attempt has been made to
individualize correctional treatment, in recognition of the fact that the alleviation of
crime and the rehabilitation of offenders require an approach that is as complex as the
factors which contribute to the growth of crime and delinquency in each individual case.
Early attempts at institutional treatment were based on the concept that because education and vocational training are worth while per se, everyone should therefore be placed
in these programmes. Little thought was given to the individual's interests in or aptitudes for such training, with the result that equipment was misused and destroyed,
material wasted, and the efforts of staff expended inappropriately.
To-day there is an increasing number of areas in the world in which this haphazard
waste of resources is being replaced by a diagnostic and treatment-planning process
known as " classification." Minimum-custody institutions and honour camps could not
exist if inmates were not segregated according to the degree of custody which they require.
Resources for vocational, educational, and social training would prove ineffectual if they
failed to meet the specific needs of the men to whom they are made available.   Training DD  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
or re-education in any field of therapy must be geared to the specific needs of the individual and his capacities for accepting and utilizing the treatment offered. Diagnosis and
treatment planning are the prerequisites to effective treatment, and it is to this end that
the efforts of the Classification Unit are directed.
The Classification Unit
Since early 1955, when the functions of the West and South Wings were reversed,
the Classification Unit has been located in the South Wing, in two rooms and the adjoining cells under the Condemned Tier. Excluding the eight cells on the Condemned Tier,
there is accommodation for eighty-five inmates, sixty-six of whom would be found in
double cells. The necessity of housing inmates awaiting the weekly transfer to the Haney
Correctional Institution, inmates under protective custody, and the forestry camp returnees awaiting discharge or reclassification has greatly reduced the potential capacity
of the wing. These factors, in addition to a daily intake of over thirty inmates, have
necessitated a daily turnover of the majority of the inmates admitted to the wing. Also,
the South Wing is entirely without work, training, or recreational facilities. Despite the
restrictions thus imposed by the physical plant, there has been a constant improvement
in the quantity and quality of the work performed by all staff, through constant refining
of procedures, experimentation, and training. The new Classification offices now under
construction will undoubtedly afford increased effectiveness through providing Classification staff with more healthy and congenial surroundings in which to perform their
duties.
Personnel
Excluding the officers who perform routine custodial duties on the wing, the Classification Committee consists of five members, including the two Senior Custodial Officers,
the Classification Officer and his assistant, the doctor and the psychologist. The Senior
Custodial Officers are responsible for the movement of population in the wing, in addition to their duties on the Classification Committee. The Assistant Classification Officer
must similarly perform a dual function, relieving both the Classification Officer and the
psychologist. The administration of the wing is the joint responsibility of the Senior
Classification Officer and the Senior Custodial Officer. There are no clerical or stenographic personnel attached to the unit.
The Classification Process
Operating both as the Institutional Classification Committee for Oakalla Prison
Farm and as the Central Classification Committee for the Department, the five-member
committee has classified some 10,000 inmates during the fiscal year and has handled
the many administrative details involved, including preparation of classification summaries, arrangements for inmate transfers and applications for warrants of transfer, and
referrals to other services and social agencies; also, a number of reclassifications and
case reviews have been performed.
Owing to the large numbers of intake and small staff complement, it has been usually
necessary to limit psychometric testing and interviewing to youthful offenders, and interviewing only to others who were serving sentences of over two months' duration. Inmates
serving less than two months were allocated generally on the basis of medical category
and file material. In the case of inmates interviewed by the Classification Committee,
criteria for selection, previous file material, test results, medical category, pre-sentence
reports, and other sources of information were used, in addition to the diagnostic interview, in arriving at a diagnosis and treatment plan. The interviews were conducted by
a two-member panel consisting of the Senior Correctional Officer and the Classification REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD  19
Officer, or their reliefs. When a decision regarding allocation was reached in each case,
basic orientation was given the inmate in order that his adjustment to the programme
recommended would be facilitated.
Classification Meetings
During the year a series of monthly meetings on classification was developed, with
the intention of promoting increased efficiency and co-ordination of classification services within the Department. The Central Classification Committee and headquarters
representatives visited the various institutions and forestry camps on the Lower Mainland, and much opportunity was afforded to examine the facilities and programmes, to
share experience, and to discuss mutual problems.
Expansion of Services
It has become apparent that, in the near future, Classification will require a separate building or institution of its own if we are to keep abreast of current developments
in the correctional field. Failing this, the present facilities should be augmented by an
area for vocational testing and by facilities which will enable staff to observe inmates in
group and recreational activities. Stenographic services are urgently required in order
that adequate classification summaries may be forwarded to the institutions and aftercare authorities responsible for carrying out the treatment programme. Finally, the
numbers of Classification personnel should be increased to allow for more intensive
investigation of each case. Since its inception in 1954, the membership of the Classification Committee has remained the same in number, despite an increase in intake of
some 3,000 inmates per year and the added responsibilities created through the development of new facilities such as the Haney Correctional Institution.
In concluding our report, we wish to record our sincere thanks for the leadership
and support which you and your administration have provided us. Also, we would like
to express our appreciation to the headquarters staff and to the personnel of the various
units and institutions for their generous support and co-operation throughout the year.
Finally, we wish to pay tribute to the staff of the South Wing, whose untiring efforts
have facilitated the striving for a professional level of classification under less than ideal
conditions.
A. L. Beighton,
Senior Treatment Officer.
J. Cooke,
Senior Correctional Officer.
WOMEN'S BUILDING
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Women's Gaol for
the year ended March 31st, 1958.
Administration
Much of our effort has been spent during the year in absorbing the increased population, staff, and facilities into the established programme. At the same time, we have
attempted to organize and expand the programme to provide more adequate treatment
for the inmates in many areas, through the media of custody, medical care, work, guided
group living, vocational and academic training, social education, recreation, and religious
activities.
3 DD 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This year more responsibility was given each individual matron for the operation
and integration of her particular area of programme. With this aim in view, each staff
member was helped to recognize and apply consciously principles of treatment through
her position and duties. This necessitated enlisting the support and interest of each
matron and channelling it toward objectives she was able at that point to understand.
This attempt at individual staff training and supervision has been very successful, not
only for the benefit to the individual matron and her group, but also for the improvement
it required in our administrative methods. Proper job descriptions were completed and
an organizational structure flexible enough to take in and maintain the gradual changes
made toward instituting treatment and training, and to parallel current practices in the
handling of many different types of inmates was developed.
Staff
Although a pause in training routine was required to familiarize the staff group
transferred from Prince George with different procedures, advance training was carried
on as a continuous process. Good controls were maintained even with the introduction
of the new vocational training schemes. Staff are realizing the aims of a treatment programme and the true meaning and place of group work, custody, and training, and recognition is being given to the level of work performance and development of understanding
they have shown. In the past the role of the matron was largely a custodial one. The
inmates were provided with the four rights—food, clothing, shelter, and emergency medical attention. The time has arrived when the functions of matrons are more purposeful
and creative. They are now therapeutic agents, and because of their efforts and initiative
in setting up programmes, it has been possible to raise standards of practice to an almost
professional level.
Population
There were 899 women admitted during the year, an increase of more than 200
over the previous year. The average daily count was 92, whereas last year it was 79.
Of the 899 women admitted, 488 were charged under the "Government Liquor Act."
Over 72 per cent received sentences of under two months.
The marked increase in population is due in part to the closing of other Provincial
gaols. As a consequence, women are transferred to Oakalla from places as far north as
Dawson Creek to serve sentences as short as ten days. We see little to suggest that the
procedure has a deterrent or rehabilitative effect on the women. It seems possible that
the expenditure involved would be better applied to probation-type services within the
local area.
There is still the high incidence of women receiving short sentences for misuse of
alcohol. The constant admitting and discharging of the same persons for periods of time
insufficient to meet even medical requirements seems a waste of facilities and staff time.
We have had during the year a larger number of teen-age offenders who have already
had lengthy contacts with drug addicts and habitual delinquents. This is a group that
causes concern as each one usually requires much individual attention, and frequently
presents a behaviour problem within the institution. Segregation from older inmates is
a necessary element of treatment for these girls in order that they may identify with the
more positive elements in their society. An attempt has been made through use of the
temporary cottage units to meet this need.
Facilities
With the addition of the new wing in October, 1957, it was momentarily possible to
provide a degree of segregation and variation in programme within the setting of a single
building.   However, the growth of population is ahead of our acquisition of facilities, with REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58 DD 21
the result that once again we are overcrowded and, for lack of area, hampered in the full
utilization of the equipment, programme, and staff. The construction of a new women's
institution on larger grounds is required.
Group Work Programme
The group work programme has been expanded to provide for increased population.
New groups have been formed, not only to cope with the larger numbers of people, but
also to meet in more satisfactory ways the needs of various types of inmates. The winter
evening programme got nearly every woman involved in some exercise and sports activity.
Calisthenic classes were a regular part of the recreational programme. Group competitions were held, and the badminton tournament brought close to 100 per cent participation. Gardening and carpentry, handcrafts and square dancing, concert productions and
visual education films were part of a busy programme that left little time for mischief.
Vocational Training and Work Programme
Not only has the standard of instruction in our work departments become more
specialized, but the vocational training programme is now well under way in the three
areas of business training, cosmetology, and power-sewing.
Cosmetology.—A course in hairdressing and cosmetology was put into operation
on a part-time basis in May, 1957, and in August, 1957, became a full-time class. The
instructor holds a licence from the British Columbia Hairdressing Association and is
approved as an instructor under the Provincial Department of Labour. The course meets
the standards set by the British Columbia Hairdressing Association, and students must
pass written examinations given by the association in order to become licensed operators.
Such licences are recognized as equivalent to those earned in a non-institutional setting.
In the event that a student's sentence expires before the completion of her course, she is
transferred to an outside school where she may arrange to finish her own training. No
difficulty has been encountered in finding placements for students who have completed
their courses and for those who have not fulfilled the requirements of practical work.
Power-sewing.—In this course, emphasis is placed on straight vocational rather
than production training. A course outline has been drawn up which is similar to that
of the Vancouver Vocational Institute and which includes practical Home Economics.
The instructor has her Bachelor of Home Economics as well as a course in power-sewing
given by the Vancouver Vocational Institute.
As the course has only been in operation since December, 1957, there are no certificates or diplomas to date. Plans are being made, however, to submit this course to the
Provincial Department of Education following the broadening of its scope and necessary
revision.
A proper evaluation of employment possibilities is not available at present as no
student has completed the required six months for apprenticeship. A large percentage
of employment in power-sewing is not anticipated, as the course is primarily a practical
one which will be of value in a domestic setting.
Business and Academic Training.—Commercial subjects have proved to be the
most popular of correspondence courses available to the women. A woman may commence at a Grade V or VI level and, by obtaining special classes in spelling and English
grammar, complete a course in typewriting to be eligible for employment in a junior
capacity. Upon completion of a subject the Department of Education forwards to the
student a certificate of credits for that subject. Upon accumulating a specified number
of credits, she may then be awarded a certificate for a particular grade. A total of
twenty-three certificates were received during the year.
Our school continues to receive the fullest co-operation from the Correspondence
Branch. The enrolment has been greatly increased, although the classroom area remains DD 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the same. Some increase has been arranged by the placement of women with lengthy
sentences on a half-day basis in school. We have received many reports of women who
are using the schooling to good advantage after they leave prison.
Work Programme.—Although there are no formal courses for the work teams, a
high standard of work is required. Training takes place in all areas of the programme.
In the kitchen and dining-room the women have instruction in quantity cooking and
serving, and general maintenance of equipment. A well-equipped laundry is now being
installed, which will enable the women to learn laundry operation. Sewing and mending
for other institutions employs approximately twenty-four women, many of whom learn
to operate electric household machines. Two maintenance teams handle all the housekeeping, janitor work, upkeep of grounds, and painting. The Occupational Therapy
Department is frequently used for orientation purposes, for employment of those waiting
trial or convalescing from chronic illnesses, and for observation of the mentally disturbed
inmates.
The carpentry team was organized with a male instructor during the past year and
takes care of much of the repair and maintenance at the Women's Building. All new
minor construction and fixtures and furniture for our own use are handled by this team.
The women learn to use power-tools as part of a full work-day in carpentry projects.
Religious Instruction
This area of programme has attracted a growing number of the girls. Although this
is partly due to the changing atmosphere of programme, the imaginative use of films and
interest-compelling techniques in presenting religious instruction deserve the major credit.
The religious play produced by the girls at Christmas was the highlight of this area of
programme.
After-care
The facilities available to assist women leaving the institution are still inadequate, and
a sizeable institutional investment is often lost for lack of help during the first few days
in the community. In the absence of provision for this assistance, many private agencies
have contributed. In this regard, however, I wish to express the appreciation we all feel
for the help we have received from the Elizabeth Fry Society, the John Howard Society,
and the many agencies, interested lay groups, and individual citizens who have assisted
with our work throughout the year.
. In closing, I would like to express my appreciation to you and to your senior officers
for the co-operation and assistance you have given me as Matron in Charge of the
Women's Building.
B. E. Maybee,
Matron in Charge.
NARCOTIC ADDICTION REHABILITATION UNITS
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Narcotic Addiction Rehabilitation Units for the year ended March 31st, 1958.
During the past year the inmates who have been selected as suitable candidates for
the narcotic addiction rehabilitation programme have continued to be housed in the two
Pan Abode huts provided for the purpose—that for female inmates adjacent to the
Women's Gaol and that for male inmates adjacent to the Young Offenders' Unit. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58 DD 23
The total number of inmates who have passed through the Rehabilitation Units in
the year are: Male, 38; female, 26; a total of 64.
The rehabilitation programme has undergone considerable modification during the
year since the undersigned assumed responsibility for its direction. The modifications
developed through several immediate causes related to the special circumstances of the
units as they are presently constituted, but always with one general motivation—to
increase the effectiveness of the programme in the part it is expected to play in the
rehabilitation of its member inmates.
During the early part of the year, the programme was divided into partly mandatory
and partly voluntary activities, with considerable emphasis laid on group discussion, group
therapy, and individual psychotherapeutic approach by the Director. This was partly a
continuation of the policy which existed prior to the present Director's assumption of
duty, and partly as an experiment to determine to what degree these small groups,
allegedly interested in accepting help and in helping themselves, could assume some
measure of responsibility and initiative within the framework of the necessary discipline
of the prison.
This programme did poorly for several apparent reasons:—
(1) Adequate individual psychotherapy proved impractical in the time available to the Director; also, the usual difficulties in maintaining a working relationship with persons with a severe character disorder were
experienced.
(2) Group discussions were profitable within certain narrow limits; i.e., where
group members were not obliged to reveal themselves to other group
members. But group therapy as such proved almost a total failure due to
refusal of group members to involve themselves in any communication
which would reveal them with their guard down.
A similar difficulty was experienced in those portions of the programme which
allowed inmates some latitude in use of free time. Occupational recreational facilities
were available, as well as study courses, but inmates proved singularly impractical in
their choice of activity and study, usually choosing courses or programmes of study which
they could scarcely hope to complete.
When left to their own devices, they failed to make adequate use of the facilities
provided, while also developing increasing resistance to participation in planned and
group activities. Attempts to firm up the programme met resistance, which finally made
it necessary to disband the male group.
The female group, under a similar regime, was allowed to dwindle to three inmates,
partly due to lack of suitable candidates over a period of two month or so and partly to
take stock of the situation.
A somewhat different plan of management was then formed, which bears some
resemblance to the "total push" programme used in appropriate cases in the Mental
Health Services. Selection of candidates now depends almost entirely on staff assessment
of the individual's capacity to benefit from the programme, and does not necessarily
include the inmate's expressed wish to be transferred to the Pan Abode. A mandatory
programme of constructive work, crafts, study, and physical and recreational activity has
been devised, designed to give the inmate a full day and to leave only sufficient free time
to enable inmates to do necessary personal tasks such as laundry, mending, letter-
writing, etc., but without allowing time for idleness.
The inmate, in his orientation to the programme, is put on his mettle to measure up
to the programme rather than gearing the programme down to his voluntary pace.
The rationale behind this approach is to try to give the inmate an experience in
achievement, in meeting a challenge, which is at variance with his customary indifference
to sustained effort, and in this way to strengthen his sense of purpose and responsibility. DD 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
It is hoped that in this way he will attain personal strengths to assist him in avoiding the
drift back to narcotics and delinquency upon discharge.
Accurate follow-up is difficult due to lack of facilities for maintaining contact with
treated inmates following discharge. Our best information to to the effect that 30.8 per
cent of women passed through the female Pan Abode and 5.3 per cent of men passed
through the male Pan Abode had not returned to narcotics at the end of the fiscal year.
The Director and staff have also continued to accumulate data to be used at a later
date as a research contribution. These data are of two general kinds—(1) that having
to do with the addict as an individual, and (2) that having to do with addict group
dynamics.
Under (1) are included: Machover Draw-a-person Test, Henmon-Nelson Test of
Mental Capacity, Kuder-Preference Record, and O.P.F. Guidance Record (a personality-
profile check-off evaluation).
Under (2) are included running records of group reactions to various work and
treatment situations, and interaction of inmates between themselves and between inmates
and staff.
High staff-inmate ratio has made it possible to implement some degree of individual
interaction between staff and inmates.
Staff conferences were held at which treatment policy and technique were outlined,
and an attempt made to orient staff to the " therapeutic attitude " while still retaining the
required degree of direction and control.
The greatest immediate need in effectively reinforcing the intramural programme is
a continuity of contact with the addict when he is discharged from Oakalla. The Narcotic
Addiction Foundation provides this on a voluntary basis, but the voluntary as part of the
contact largely nullifies its effectiveness, since few addicts avail themselves of it. It is
felt that the matter of placing discharged addicts on probation and providing for mandatory reporting, with the inclusion of brief-stay shelter and effective employment aids,
deserves further study.
We acknowledge with sincere thanks the whole-hearted co-operation of the Warden
and his staff in this programme. We are also indebted to the Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia for Mr. George Trasov's contribution to the women's programme.
Dr. G. Stevenson,
Psychiatrist.
CHILLIWACK FORESTRY CAMPS
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the Chilliwack Forestry
Camp projects for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1958. The report concerns the
two sixty-man camps operated in the Chilliwack Valley, east of Vedder Crossing.
Camp Construction
Prior to the fiscal period commencing April 1st, 1957, the erection of Camp No. 1
had been half completed and a beginning had been made on the construction of the
buildings in Camp No. 2. The additions to Camp No. 1 during the period were seven
bunk-houses, one large ablutions building, the completion of the kitchen and dining-
room, an administration building, a barn, a pump-house, a building for the lighting plant,
a large garage, a toolroom, and a building for stores. In Camp No. 2, construction
included the erection of ten bunk-houses, an ablutions building, a kitchen, a dining-room, REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 25
an administration office, a barn, a pump-house, a large-size office for the British Columbia
Forest Service, and a building for forestry stores. A large motor-transport building,
72 by 40 feet, was constructed for the maintenance of vehicles and road-construction
equipment. Because of its central position in the valley, Camp No. 2 has been designed
to include most of the facilities for the maintenance of the machinery and equipment
used by the crews from both camps. It is, in effect, considered to be the headquarters
camp for both ourselves and the Forest Service in this area. In the erection of the
buildings, we have taken pains to conform with the standards laid down by the Health
and Sanitation Departments, who have made several periodic inspections of the facilities,
and who have reported favourably on our progress. Each camp includes a first-aid
room with a full supply of first-aid equipment to conform with the standards of the
Workmen's Compensation Board. Smaller first-aid kits have been prepared to accompany each work group when employed away from the camp areas. We have been able
to treat minor injuries and illnesses in the camp. Inmates requiring more extensive
treatment are transferred to the Oakalla unit, and in emergency situations we have made
use of the facilities of the Chilliwack Hospital. During August of 1957 a tragic drowning
took place at Camp No. 2. The Chilliwack River was in flood at the time, and one man
slipped from a rock at the edge of the water and was swept away. The drowning was
purely accidental, and there were no normal precautions which could have been taken
to prevent the incident.
Inmate Population
The average daily population of each camp has been maintained at sixty men.
Each week there are a number of discharges arising from expiration of sentences, and
we have followed the practice of bringing in replacements each Sunday. The total
number of inmates released from camp during the period was 1,122. This number
includes those who were returned to the main gaol for regular discharge, parole, medical
reasons, or for disciplinary action. Apart from occasional infractions of camp rules
and regulations, discipline on the whole has been very good. During May, 1957, two
men escaped custody, but were recaptured after a short time. Because of the very interesting and constructive work programme, we have found that inmates generally have a
greater incentive to conform with the demands made upon them in terms of work and
discipline in comparison to attitudes that tend to prevail in the main prison. The programme has continued to operate on the basis of an eight-hour day, and we have made
every effort to approximate the employment conditions that the inmate eventually will
meet on his return to the community. There has been a continuation of the practice of
selecting candidates for the camp from the Oakalla population, the greatest number of
whom have spent the major portion of sentence in the main prison. Thus the camps
are essentially pre-release institutions, designed for the purpose of preparing people to
take jobs in the community. Inmates have been selected from all of the main gaol units,
including the Young Offenders' Unit, East Wing, Annex " A," Westgate, and the Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit. The placement of drug addicts in the camp programme
has been one of the most interesting developments during the year. The inmates have,
of course, been carefully selected from the total addict population, although the greatest
number have had fairly extensive criminal histories. Generally, we have found them
to be above average in their work and behaviour while in the camp. Seventy-eight
addicts completed their respective sentences successfully in camp during the period, and
none of these were at any time involved in misdemeanours or failed to perform work
duties adequately. On the recommendation of the British Columbia Board of Parole,
a good many youthful inmates with sentences of definite-indefinite duration were transferred to the camp programme a few weeks prior to the completion of the definite portion of sentence. It was felt that a period of forestry training and the opportunity to
earn an amount of money would be an advantage to the prospective parolees.   Although DD 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the custodial risk is greater, we believe that quite a number of these youths benefited
from their camp placement and have become better prepared to return to the community
on parole.
Work Programme
The staff and inmates of both camps are engaged in the main work project, which
includes the construction of a road from Vedder Crossing to Chilliwack Lake, a distance
of approximately 28 miles. The project is being carried out in close co-operation with
the personnel of the British Columbia Forest Service. Most of the heavy machinery is
owned and operated by the Forest Service, with our gangs performing the labour work.
Our officers act as foremen over the inmate crews and provide direct supervision. The
Forest Service project engineer, Mr. Miles-Pickup, is in charge of the Forest Service
personnel in the area and acts in an advisory capacity to our officers. The following
is a summary of the number of man-hours expended during the period on the various
projects:—
Job Description Officers Inmates
Clearing (including burning)   6,387 54,123
Grubbing (including blasting)   6,170 41,461
Bridge   construction   (excavating  for   abutments, ditching, etc.)   168 2,082
Camp clearing  320 1,320
Camp duties   9,081 28,535
Shops (maintenance and repairing vehicles) 2,528 26,226
Office (including forestry)   4,816 1,986
Building construction   2,721 24,144
Assisting surveyors   1,152 1,728
Cutting stakes        216
Cutting posts   256 714
Miscellaneous duties  (i.e., repairing bridges
and culverts)   602 13,476
Sawmill   253 862
Totals   34,454 196,863
These statistics are based on the work performed by a total inmate population
employed for eight hours each day. As mentioned before, our camps are designed to
provide working and living conditions similar to those of the various forestry and mining
camps throughout the Province. We are very satisfied with the co-operation and guidance that we have received from all Forest Service personnel. A good deal of the time
their employees are working in close proximity with inmate crews, and they have willingly abided by the rules, regulations, and necessary restrictions that we must impose
upon our charges. We have found it to be a healthy experience for the inmates to associate with outsiders in this manner, and it has served the purpose of providing a healthy
contact with the community, which is somewhat different than the contact provided by
uniformed guards. Perhaps the best feature of the total programme is the work emphasis.
Good work habits are developed in so far as inmates learn the self-discipline required
to perform a full day's work and to gain satisfactions from doing so. Having a large
number of vehicles to maintain, such as trucks, jeeps, caterpillar tractors, graders, etc.,
enables us to provide informal training in elementary mechanics. Some have been taught
to use and to service heavy machinery and vehicles, as well as the techniques of cutting
timber, logs, etc. Through employment on the sawmill crew, a number of sawyers have
been trained, and others have been introduced to trades such as cooking, carpentry, surveying, etc.    Although we have no training courses leading toward certification, this REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 27
basic training has proven to be of value in re-establishing inmates in community living.
It is to be hoped that in the future we shall exploit the resources of the camp to the
extent of providing a number of vocational training courses that meet the standards of
the Provincial Apprenticeship Board. During the after-work hours a number of inmates
have been working on educational courses provided by the Elementary School or High
School Correspondence Branch. In most instances the courses have been begun while
the inmate was held in Oakalla and have been continued after his transfer to camp.
Programme
To date the main emphasis of the camp programme has been the construction and
finishing of the housing accommodation, the completion of camp facilities, and the road-
building project. The development of recreational facilities has been, for the most part,
performed on a voluntary basis in the inmates' after-duty hours; i.e., the preparation
of the ball-fields, the construction of a swimming-pool in each camp, the manufacture
of ping-pong tables, etc. Recreational equipment is financed from two sources—contributions by the inmate population and from the prisoners' welfare fund in Oakalla.
There has been active participation in such games as soccer, softball, swimming, table-
tennis, and horseshoes. Favourite indoor games seem to be checkers, chess, and bridge.
Religious services, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, are conducted on a regular
basis, with the voluntary participation of religious denominations in the Chilliwack area.
The local Roman Catholic chaplain and the local United Church minister have begun
the practice of holding weekly services in addition to the providing of religious counselling to all inmates who request interviews. Each camp has been provided with a television set from welfare funds, and although reception is rather inferior in this area, it
has provided a welcome diversion during leisure hours. Television is limited to the
evening hours between 6 and 10 p.m. It is recommended that the camp programme be
provided with a qualified recreational director with skills in social group-work techniques.
Because the inmate group presents a great many individual problems of adjustment, it
would also be well advised to appoint a social case worker for each camp. The general
atmosphere of the camp programme, with its constructive and interesting work programme and healthful outdoor activities, presents an environment very conducive toward
rehabilitation. The prospects of the inmates' successful re-establishment in the community would be greatly enhanced by the addition of professionally trained social-work
personnel to the staff.
Conclusions
In addition to advantages mentioned previously in this report, the camp programme
has proved to be an economically sound project. It is estimated that during this fiscal
period the savings to the Government in terms of work done by the inmates has been
approximately $90,000. This figure represents the savings to the Department of Lands
and Forests on the road project only, and does not include the work accomplished by
the inmates on jobs such as providing assistance to survey crews, repairing transport
equipment, installing of culverts, bridge-building, drainage work, labour expended on
building construction, and labour in the drilling and clearing of hard rock on the road-
site. In comparison with the cost of holding inmates in Oakalla, the supervision of camp
inmates is relatively economical. Fewer staff members are required in proportion to
the number of inmates, and the depreciation on buildings and facilities is considerably
less. Without interfering with the interests of private industry or the British Columbia
labour force, we are performing work that is of benefit to the entire Lower Mainland
population in the building of the road to Chilliwack Lake and the eventual establishment
of picnic-grounds, camp-sites, trails, bridle-paths, etc. In terms of human values, prison
inmates are enabled to make a contribution to the general economy rather than being a DD 28 ER1TISH COLUMBIA
drain upon it. In doing so, they are gaining satisfactions valuable in the building-up of
a sense of personal worth and self-esteem, so necessary in the rehabilitation process.
We recommend that the forestry camp programme be extended to include not only a
greater number of pre-release camps, but other camps designed for juveniles and first
offenders in which they might serve their entire sentence. Other programmes of minimum security, perhaps along the lines of a farm programme, should be developed for
chronic alcoholic offenders who are incapable of performing the strenuous work required
of inmates in the present camps.
In conclusion, I wish to thank you for the guidance and co-operation you have
provided throughout the year, and again I would draw your attention to the loyal support
I have received from the staff of both camps.
T. H. Tobiasson,
Senior Correctional Officer.
HANEY CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Haney Correctional
Institution for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1958.
The reports following of the staff in charge of the various divisions and sections of
this Institution give a clear indication that this, our first seven months of operations with
inmates within our programme, has been a most rewarding and productive period. We
have, in this relatively short span of time, developed the foundations of a programme
whose full potential has yet to be realized. What is even more significant is that this
development to date has created a sense of teamwork and co-operation amongst our
various staff members that is most satisfying.
Of our total staff, 58 per cent have worked in the Corrections Branch for less than
one year. An additional 32 per cent have worked in the field of corrections for a period
of not less than one year and not more than four years. Considering the relative inexperience of our general staff, it is my opinion that they have done an extremely competent
job.   What progress we have made is greatly to their credit.
At the time of writing this report, although not during the period which this report
covers, Mr. E. K. Nelson, the first Warden of this Institution, has left to assume new
responsibilities at the University of Southern California. The programme that he was
so instrumental in developing is a manifestation of his industry, intelligence, and integrity.
Both the staff and inmates of this Institution will miss his qualities of leadership, but we
appreciate the heritage he has left us and will continue to build on the strong foundation
which he fashioned.
As in all new ventures, there is much progress to report during the first phase of
operations. In general, the details of development are left to the individual reports of
the division heads. I would, however, like to express our sincere appreciation for all the
assistance and co-operation which we have received from various Government and private
organizations. We are grateful to our own Department for its continued interest and
co-operation in the development of our programme. We are indebted to the Public Works
Department for providing us with fine facilities for our programme. We would like to
thank all the various groups who have helped us with consultation and advice in establishing our various programmes, particularly our classification and counselling programme
and our educational programme. The Department of Education, in particular, has been
extremely understanding and helpful. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58 DD 29
It is also appropriate at this time to extend our thanks to the general public for their
assistance and support of our new programme. In particular, I would like to express our
appreciation of the manner in which the Maple Ridge District has not only participated in
and helped with our programme, but has also welcomed members of our staff to this
community.
The past few months have proven that our particular type of administrative organization, which is somewhat unique in Canada, has been extremely successful. The functional division of our programme into four main divisions—Training, Custody, Camps,
and Business—has provided us with clear lines of communication and with specialists
to do a specialized job.
Within the next fiscal year it is our objective to build upon our present programme
and to overcome some of the problems which have arisen during the past few months.
One of the problems which has manifested itself is that of the large dormitories. Each of
these dormitories accommodates forty-eight men and is supervised by one Correctional
Officer. In order to increase the effectiveness of our correctional staff, not only in terms
of their responsibility for custodial matters, but also in terms of counselling and relationship therapy, we would hope that in the near future these dormitories may be subdivided
and staff coverage within them doubled.
Within the Training Division, one of the most pressing needs is for more counsellors.
Additional counsellors are required to increase the individualization of our programme
through their own efforts and also through the supervision of other staff members in a lay
counselling programme. It is also felt that the religious programme within the Institution
would be greatly enhanced by the construction of a suitable chapel on the grounds.
Within the Business Division, the greatest needs at the present time would seem to
be more adequate refrigeration facilities for the proper storage of foodstuffs and for the
increase of our on-the-job training programme for inmates assigned to the kitchen, laundry, boiler-house, and other service areas. The construction of adequate maintenance-
shops is a matter of some urgency in order to ensure the continued efficient functioning of
costly equipment, machinery, and vehicles within our programme. At the present time,
maintenance staff are using part of the vocational shops, which is not entirely satisfactory
to either the maintenance or the vocational programme.
At the present time our camps programme is to a great extent in a formative stage.
However, it is already apparent from our experience at Gold Creek Camp that in order
to develop the ultimate in a minimum-security camp programme, additional staff are
required to carry out specialized functions. As far as possible, we have extended
resources to meet the needs of men in the camps. Nevertheless, certain additional counselling positions and at least one or two part-time teachers are required. At present the
camp has developed an extremely good work programme and general atmosphere. What
is required are more specialized services in the area of recreation, counselling, and
education.
Our Personnel Officer has done an extremely effective job in initial recruiting and
staff training. Within the next fiscal year we hope to increase our emphasis on staff
training of a more advanced nature and in the area of research. Research is required
particularly in terms of follow-up studies and in terms of determining effective techniques
for working with inmates. Steps are already being taken to initiate an employee attitude
and opinion survey based on similar surveys which have been conducted in the California
Department of Corrections. In the future we hope to devote more efforts toward evaluating the success of our present and future programmes.
The past months have been most rewarding, and it is with confidence and anticipation
that we face the future.
Respectfully submitted. r „T '
J. W. Braithwait^,
Warden. DD 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
TRAINING DIVISION
Introduction
/. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—There is a time to work, time to play, time to seek counsel, and a time to seek
spiritual help no matter where one lives. The Training Division attempts, by the use of
specialized skills and resources, to provide inmates the opportunity to use the resources
of the Institutional community in the same manner they may later use resources of the
outer community. The objective is to return the offender to society as a socially responsible and productive citizen. Staff for the programme were carefully selected. The
present staff are the equivalent of their counterparts in the community. A large orientation programme and in-service training courses introduced staff to the Institutional setting
and added to their skills and knowledge.
The success of the training programme to date has been due primarily to the efforts
of the personnel of the Division. Each staff member has approached his separate tasks
with imagination and initiative. Staff members have given freely of their time beyond
their ordinary working-day, and their co-operation is much appreciated.
The classification process best exemplifies the Training Division's philosophy of considering each inmate as a unique individual. Since September 9th, 1957, when the first
group of twelve inmates was transferred from Oakalla Prison Farm to Haney Correctional
Institution, all new inmates experience a regular classification programme of two weeks'
duration. Each inmate is interviewed by a counsellor in order to obtain basic social-
history data. The new inmate then receives a series of orientation lectures from various
staff members of the Institution designed to acquaint the inmate with the resources and
philosophy of the Institution. These lectures are followed by interviews conducted by
staff members, drawn from various divisions and sections. Individual reports are written
by each staff member on each inmate. These reports include recommendations for programme from the point of view of the staff member concerned. Counsellor then prepares
a comprehensive summary report for the Classification Committee. The new inmate
discusses with the Committee his own plans and desires. In so far as possible, programme
is specifically designed to meet his own needs and to best use his own strengths. Regular
reclassification and reconsideration of his programme at his own request ensures the
individual of not becoming another number but remaining an individual for whom there
is hope.
Giving the offender the opportunity to prepare himself as an individual for the
responsibilities of citizenship is the raison d'etre of the Training Division. The Training
Division has taken some strong and vigorous steps in its first few months, and it has made
a start which is indicative of further success in the future.
Reports by section heads responsible for the specific programmes of the Training
Division follow.
H. Watson,
Deputy Warden (Training).
Classification and Counselling
/. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—It is an accepted fact that a correction programme will be effective only if it
is based upon a sound and realistic classification system. The resources of the Institution
cannot be fully utilized unless every inmate is assigned to a work or vocational placement REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
DD 31
and a group-living experience suited to his personality. This has been the basis of the
classification process at the Haney Correctional Institution. In order to ensure that the
classification procedure would be an effective one, the position of Supervisor of Classification and Counselling was created, and full responsibility for the operation of the
classification system was vested in this position.
A host of projects had to be completed before the first inmates arrived at the Institution. Basic criteria for the selection of inmates for the Institution had to be developed
in co-operation with Classification staff from headquarters and from Central Classification
at Oakalla Prison Farm.
A classification and counselling programme for the Institution had to be outlined
and developed in detail; also, a filing and records system had to be developed for Institutional use.
Job descriptions for positions in the Classification and Counselling Section were
required, and. recruiting procedures initiated across the country to obtain the desired staff.
Lack of space limits mentioning all the projects which required completion prior to
inaugurating a programme in the Institution. Suffice it to say that this writer worked
many productive hours with the Deputy Warden (Training) and others in the completion
of these projects to our mutual satisfaction.
The writer and the Deputy Warden (Training) spent a good deal of time at Oakalla
Prison Farm working with the Classification staff there making the first selections of
inmates for transfer from Oakalla Prison Farm to Haney Correctional Institution.
On September 9th, 1957, the first group of twelve inmates was transferred from
Oakalla Prison Farm to Haney Correctional Institution. They had been specially selected
for key maintenance functions at Haney Correctional Institution to pave the way for
further inmate intake. A compressed classification routine lasting one week was utilized
to screen this group and succeeding groups for several months. This procedure was later
expanded to a two-week period, which exists at present.
Sixty-five men were transferred to Haney Correctional Institution in the month of
September, put through an orientation and classification programme, and placed into
individual programmes within the Institution. These programmes were grouped under
the following categories: (1) Vocational, (2) Academic, (3) On-the-job Training
(Maintenance), (4) General Labour, and (5) Camp. The following table gives the
monthly breakdown of placements in these categories:—
Month
On-the-job
Training
Vocational-
academic
General
Labour
Camp
Unsuitable
Total
49
22
30
35
28
21
22
9
37
20
16
22
15
21
2
12
1
14
7
32
20
7
19
2
10
9
5
6
1
7
8
6
3
2
......
68
97
November	
December	
61
81
69
February _   __
75
67
Totals	
207
140
88
58
27
518
The first counsellor came on staff late in August, and the second joined in September.
Three other counsellors were added to the staff in October, January, and March. Of
these five people, two had Master of Social Welfare degrees, one a Bachelor of Social
Welfare, and the other two were untrained people who had experience in the social welfare field and were planning to take university training. The responsibilities of the Classification and Counselling Section were discharged in a consistently capable manner by
these five men.
It might be informative to outline briefly the procedures followed in Classification
in order to obtain a broader perspective of the function of the section. DD 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Each inmate receives an initial interview with a counsellor in order to obtain basic
social-history data. The inmate then receives a series of orientation lectures from various
staff members of the Institution, designed to acquaint the inmate with the resources and
philosophy of the Institution.
The inmates are then individually interviewed by these staff members, drawn from
the various divisions and sections. Individual reports are written by each staff member
on each inmate. These reports include recommendations for programme from the point
of view of the Institutional area the staff member represents.
Counsellors then write an admission summary for each inmate, which includes case
history, previous commitment record, diagnostic material, and a clear statement of recommendations for programme for the inmate.
Copies of this summary are made available to the members of the Institutional
Classification Committee. This Committee consists of the Warden (chairman), Deputy
Warden (Training) (vice-chairman), Deputy Warden (Custody), Business Manager,
Director of Education, Supervisor of Social Training, Camps Director, and Supervisor
of Classification and Counselling (secretary). The function of the Committee is to
establish an inmate's custody rating and to develop with him a programme based on
recommendations in the admission summary. The inmate is seen individually and the
proposed programme discussed with him.
After the initial classification period, the Classification and Counselling Section is
responsible for co-ordinating the total programme of the inmate while he remains in the
Institution. All cases are reviewed, and where mediocre work or behaviour is noted,
the counsellors initiate inquiries to determine the reason and make proposals for remedying the matter. Every inmate is given all possible assistance to help him operate at
his maximum capacity.
If a change in work assignment is indicated, the counsellors prepare reports for the
Reclassification Committee. Requests for reclassification are sometimes asked for by
inmates, and often are proposed by work supervisors, who recommend further opportunities for training. If an inmate does not work in a satisfactory manner, he can be
reclassified to some other area after attempts have been made to assist him in his present
assignment.
The counsellors have a major responsibility in relation to the inmates' discharge
and return to the community. The Classification and Counselling Section has participated in the planning of an extensive pre-release programme, which is as yet not finally
completed. The counsellors work closely with parole officers, community agencies, and
the National Employment Service so that the inmates can formulate realistic plans for
their release. All men who meet the necessary criteria spend a maximum of sixty days
in the Pre-release Unit, where they earn $1 per day for each day worked and where
preparation for community living is intensified. Some men journey into the community
with their counsellors to purchase clothes and participate in employment interviews,
visit schools where they will be enrolled, and engage in other activities related to their
eventual release.
For inmates having definite-indefinite type sentences, parole summaries are prepared for the Parole Board, which has jurisdiction over the indefinite portion of the
sentences. These reports are lengthy ones covering in detail the man's record, behaviour,
and his participation in recreation activities while in the Institution. Any changes in
the man's attitude toward his past are recorded in detail, and an evaluation is made of
the man's ability to adjust to community in the future.
To help the inmate and his family understand the functions of parole and to help
prepare his return to the community, we have initiated monthly meetings where inmates,
their families, counsellors, members of the Parole Board, Probation Officers, and a representative of the National Employment Service meet together about one month prior REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
DD 33
to the inmate's discharge. The meetings are under the chairmanship of the Deputy
Warden (Training) or the Supervisor of Classification and Counselling and usually take
the form of panel discussions, where the role of each agency represented is discussed.
Group discussion is followed by individual discussion with the inmate and his family.
In this feeling of common purpose and interest, transition from the Institutional community to the outer community becomes easier. It is felt that the inmate and perhaps,
more particularly, his family will, as a result of these meetings, be better able to accept
parole supervision as the-final step of rehabilitation.
At the time of writing, two vacancies exist for social workers, and the position of
psychologist has been filled on a half-time basis. Because of the staff shortages, it has
been necessary to assign approximately seventy inmates to each counsellor. It is my
considered opinion that to give the services needed, the case load should number no
more than thirty-five.
In the near future it is my hope that the Institution will be able to provide a field-
work placement for students from the School of Social Work at the University of British
Columbia. In this way we will offer valuable training experience to those interested in
working in the correctional field.
A great deal more could be said about the specific duties of staff in the Classification and Counselling Section and about the function of the Section itself. A good-sized
volume could be written on the subject. Time and space not permitting, perhaps at least
this should be said: In the growing field of corrections there is no final word on procedures and methods. It is anticipated that there will be changes from time to time, and
it is our sincere hope that we will continue to be able to evaluate our procedures as we
develop and to build on our present sound foundation.
We would like to express our appreciation for the co-operation and interest shown
in our counselling programme by the John Howard Society, the Children's Aid Society,
the Catholic Children's Aid Society, the Salvation Army, the Marriage Counselling Service of the Canadian Mental Health Association, and many others whose contributions
have contributed to the success of our programme.
I. Smith,
Supervisor of Classification and Counselling.
Educational Section
/. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—From April 1st, 1957, to July 1st, 1957, while operating out of our temporary
quarters in Vancouver, much time was devoted to interviewing and selecting applicants
for positions as instructors, teachers, and supervisors; in checking quotations and answering queries on equipment orders; and with frequent visits to the Haney site, where equipment was beginning to arrive and final installations in the vocational shops were being
completed.
On July 1st, 1957, the first eight vocational instructors were appointed. Although
the building had not been turned over, the vocational shops were almost completed and
equipment was checked and placed. In-service training began with the first group of
instructors. This was given by myself; Mr. Fisk, the Vocational Supervisor, with the
co-operation of Mr. White, Director of Technical Education, Department of Education;
Mr. Roy Evans, Industrial Training Consultant; and Mr. Dean Goard and his staff at the
Vancouver Vocational Institute, who also participated. DD 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
By October 1st, 1957, most of our major equipment had been received and placed.
Although we were handicapped by incomplete wiring, vocational training commenced on
a limited scale in the following shops: Machine Shop, Automotive Shop, Sheet Metal
Shop, Woodwork Construction Shop, Exploratory Shop, Barber Shop, Landscaping Shop,
and Draughting.
Mr. H. Watson, Academic Supervisor, through the co-operation of Dr. E. E. Lucas
and the Correspondence Branch of the Department of Education, planned the academic
aspects of our educational programme. Mr. Watson was handicapped to some considerable extent by the fact that we had only been able to recruit one academic teacher.
However, we were successful in relieving some of this heavy strain later, when we were
able to recruit two half-time teachers who are residents in the immediate district. We
also recruited one part-time teacher to cover correspondence courses at Gold Creek Camp
on a one-night-a-week basis.
It is generally accepted that educational programmes can be one of the best methods
of getting the inmate to enter the rehabilitation programme. As a result, when on October
4th, 1957, we received our first inmates into the Educational Section, we were all very
keen and anxious to see this phase of the programme at Haney Correctional Institution
launched. It can be said that every member of the Educational staff felt that he had been
given every opportunity and was prepared and ready for his part in this programme. This
has also been the feeling of subsequent classes and shops that have been opened and
placed in operation up to March 31st, 1958.
During the first six months of our educational programme, we were limited as to
the number of trainees in most of our shops by two factors:—
(1) The number that the instructors could handle due to the fact that major
equipment had not been powered.
(2) The fact that a great number of our first inmates had insufficient time to
be placed in a vocational training programme that would be of any advantage to them.
In this respect I would like to register my appreciation for the excellent co-operation and
understanding that have always been shown by the Classification and Counselling Section.
In fact, this co-operation and understanding have been most appreciated by all members
of the classification panels and are a most gratifying indication of teamwork for the common purpose in this Institution. The result has been a very high interest level of those in
the vocational and academic section, with a very small number of failures.
By March 31st, 1958, all shops were operating with the exception of the Electrical
Shop. The newer shops included the Diesel Shop, Plumbing Shop, Welding Shop, Auto-
body Shop and Metal Repair, and Cabinet Carpentry. Our Exploratory Shop, which has
proven to be of inestimable value in testing and sorting out the natural aptitude and vocational interests of the more confused type of inmate, has been an extremely helpful adjunct
to both the educational and classification programmes.
I am pleased to report that the co-operation of the academic teachers, draughting
instructor, and Exploratory Shop instructor has been very gratifying and fruitful.
In this, the first, report of the Haney Correctional Institution, there are naturally
certain aspects that must be stressed in connection with the over-all educational programme. This is true, especially with the vocational shops. To my knowledge, this is
the first time such a programme has been attempted in a building of this design, where the
shops are not completely isolated, one from the other. It has presented problems, but
none that have not been successfully met by the mutual and complete co-operation of
the staff as a whole. This has also been the case of the unique layout of our tool and
supply control method, which has certainly proven its value in an institution of this kind.
In fact, I feel there is little to be desired in our physical set-up for a maximum of attain- REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58 DD 35
ment of a first-class educational programme. Every shop has proven to be efficient and
adequate to a full programme of training equal to the best standards within the community.
The versatility of the vocational shops can be exemplified by the prefabrication of
our new pre-release camp. All units for the camp were prefabricated in the vocational
shops, where practically every shop, including the draughting class, worked together to
produce these camps at a minimum of cost. The vocational shops have completed other
projects for the Institution, where these projects have been of training value.
It would, of course, be immodest to claim the success we have attained to date
without special mention of the co-operation and assistance we have so willingly received
from Government and community sources. I would like especially to mention the following: Deputy Minister of Education, Director of High School Correspondence, Provincial
Director of Technical and Vocational Education, Director of Apprenticeship Branch of
Department of Labour, Rehabilitation Branch, National Selective Service, Inspector of
Schools for Maple Ridge School District, Principal of the Vancouver Vocational Institute
and his staff, Industrial Training Consultant, Principal of Federal-Provincial Trades and
Technical Institute, the Department of Public Works, the Forest Service, the Extension
Department of the University of British Columbia, and many others that have so freely
given us their co-operation and help. We hope that the results will be as gratifying to
them as they are to us.
I believe it is safe to say that the Educational Section of the Haney Correctional
Institution is well on its way to making a very full and commendable contribution to the
rehabilitation of the inmates that are classified to the Haney Correctional Institution.
W. Holland,
Educational Director.
Social Training Section
/. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—The primary purpose of the Social Training Section is to provide a meaningful
programme of recreational and group activities. Due to the fact that most crimes are
committed in the leisure-time hours of inmates, the purpose of this Section carries a high
challenge. To accomplish this purpose, an attempt has been made to use the specific
skills of social work in the general programmes of physical education, arts and crafts, and
special group activities to provide a social group experience of positive value.
An attempt has been made from the beginning of this programme to institute outside
help in establishing our recreational programme. The Community Programmes Branch
was consulted early in the planning stage of this programme and the Y.M.C.A.s of both
New Westminster and Vancouver have also been used as consultants.
Inmate participation is on a voluntary basis. The inmate is allowed to choose his
activities and groups as he desires. The concept of voluntary participation has been
chosen as the most realistic approach to inmate participation due to the fact that our
society is a democratic one, and it is to this type of society that the inmate returns. The
inmate's responsibility to select his activities is the same responsibilty he must develop
and use wisely in his future social life in the community. Social training on this basis is
not an attempt to develop rigid social conformity, but is a realistic lesson in learning the
give and take necessary in all social contacts. Each inmate, through having his choice
of programme, assumes the responsibility for making an appropriate choice and following
it through.
The Social Training Section is staffed by fifteen personnel, as follows: Supervisor
of Social Training, whose qualifications call for a master's degree in social work; an arts
and crafts instructor, whose qualifications call for a minimum of high-school graduation DD 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and specific training in arts and crafts; a physical education instructor, whose qualifications call for a Bachelor of Physical Education degree; and twelve programme officers,
whose minimum qualifications call for high-school graduation and related experience in
recreation. The staff is on duty on a permanent shift from 3 to 11 p.m., Monday through
Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Saturdays, and 1 to 9 p.m. on Sundays. These times are
generally accepted as being leisure times in our society. Staff have accepted these somewhat unorthodox hours in order to be available when most needed.
There is a programme officer assigned to each living unit of forty-eight men, and it
is his responsibility to facilitate inmate participation in activities on a group and individual
basis. A weekly programme schedule is published every Saturday, describing in exact
detail all forthcoming programmes for the week beginning the following Monday. Every
six weeks, registration for programme takes place wherein each inmate is responsible to
select his programme for the forthcoming six weeks. Not all programme activities are
ones which require registration. This provides the inmates with beginning participation
in a group activity; e.g., units are scheduled for unit use of gymnasium three times weekly
where an inmate begins to " settle " himself into programme and its functions. The more
specialized activities—e.g., projection group—use an interest-directed means to attract
inmates and thereby provide small interest groups which are learning experiences in social
contact as well as activity skills. The variety of programme ranges from badminton to
woodwork, with thirty-two specialized activities available during the last registration, and
approximately sixteen activities requiring no formal registration. A total of forty-eight
separate interests were available in order to reach as many needs and interests as possible.
The Institution has been represented in the community by inmate participation in
various activities. We value this privilege because it provides us with a means of slowly
reorienting the inmate to community contacts. The Institution has been represented in
the community by inmate participation in many activities.
A basketball team played in the Senior B Fraser Valley League. Spectators from the
Pre-release Unit accompanied our team to games in the community, and the annual
banquet for this league was held at the Haney Correctional Institution.
At present we contemplate having softball teams entered in the Senior C North Fraser
Valley League and the Junior Vancouver and District League.
In boxing we had four entries in the Buckskin Gloves and one entry in the Golden
Gloves. These men captured a total of one championship and three special awards.
Our Drama Club has given readings of " Hamlet" and " Captain Roberts " to the
Langley Prairie Drama Club and the Burnaby Drama Club. In addition, they were
invited to the Vancouver and District One-act Festival.
We had one entry in the Vancouver and District Track Meet who captured the top
Canadian award in the 100-yard-dash event.
Each week, members of the Pre-release Unit visit the New Westminster Y.M.C.A.
to participate in a swimming programme. Members of this unit also participate in a
pre-release supper in Haney. This is a weekly event in which inmates who will be released
within the next two weeks are provided an opportunity to go to the local community for
supper at a local restaurant in their own clothing.
We believe that this total programme has unique features for an adult correctional
institution. We have the opportunity of using a large number of food facilities that were
present in the building at the time of its construction. However, we look forward to
future development in many areas. The programme has functioned from September 9th,
1957, to the present with most encouraging results. Inmates have been able to assume
a great deal of self-responsibility, and it is hoped that within the next year we will be
able to expand the social training programme to include development of specialized
groups of inmates meeting regularly for group therapy purposes. To accomplish this end,
the Socal Training staff of programme officers will undergo a course in lay counselling REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 37
jointly sponsored by the Institution and the U.B.C. School of Social Work. Further
future developments will include the expansion of this programme to the existing camp
and future camps under the administration of the Haney Correctional Institution. The
camps will, of course, have their own individual recreational programmes and will use
the Institution's facilities as well.
All in all, it is felt that the social training programme has provided something new
and beneficial to inmates' leisure-time hours, and the positiveness of this programme, we
feel, definitely will contribute to some good development of each inmate's personal life
in the leisure-time area after his release from this Institution. To this end, staff of this
Section make recommendations and contacts designed to help the discharged continue
leisure-time interests developed within the Institution. For example, honorary memberships in the Vancouver and New Westminster Y.M.C.A.s are available to our dischargees.
Finally, we would like to express our appreciation to all the various agencies and
groups in the community who have contributed so much in the development of our
programme.
D. Barrett,
Supervisor Social Training.
The Library
J. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—The library, within the specialized community of a correctional institution, is
designed to play a similar role to that of a public library in any city or town. It is seen
as a centre in which many of the educational, inspirational, vocational, and recreational
needs of its community are met. For this reason, the librarian is available during the
afternoon and evening in order to assist readers and supervise the library programme.
Inmate Lending Library
The lending library, with its open-access system permitting the inmate reader to
select books directly from the shelves, under the supervision of a trained librarian, is the
first of its kind in a penal institution in British Columbia. It was opened for the first
intake of inmates on September 10th, 1957, when twelve men selected books from a stock
of 200 volumes. On March 31st the inmate population had risen to 315 and the book-
stock to 970 volumes.
A varied selection of good non-fiction and fiction books is available for loan to
readers. This selection is backed by a reference section containing encyclopaedias, dictionaries, atlases, and other standard volumes. The library subscribes to a selection of
monthly and weekly periodicals and magazines, which may be consulted within the
library room.
Academic and Vocational Training Library (Staff and Inmate)
The service to the Educational Section has grown as shops and classrooms have
come into operation. Books are loaned from the central academic and vocational training library to shops and classrooms as well as to individual staff members and inmates.
Over 100 books are on permanent loan to the vocational shops. New orders are placed
to ensure that the training in these areas keeps abreast of developments in the community.
Staff Training Library
The librarian, after consultation with the Personnel Officer and division heads, is
responsible for the development and maintenance of a staff training library in which is DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
found pamphlets, books, and periodicals relating to corrections, probation and parole,
social work, pastoral psychology, business methods, adult education, administration,
leadership, supervision, and other subjects allied to our operations.
Special A ctivities
On-the-job Training.—Books, magazines, and pamphlets are supplied to the various
areas, such as the kitchen, boiler-room, laundry, and others in which on-the-job training
is carried out. This material is used by staff members for instructional purposes and by
inmates studying different aspects of their job during their leisure hours.
Gold Creek Camp.—Inmates at Gold Creek Camp receive an allotment of books
once each month. As all inmates visit the library at Haney before transfer to the camp,
they are aware of the services in the central library and can make application for particular books on an individual basis.   Magazines are sent to the camp on a regular basis.
Hospital.—Ambulatory patients are permitted to visit the library and select books
to take back with them to the hospital. The librarian visits patients who are unable to
leave the hospital and personally selects books for them. Magazines are delivered to
the hospital regularly.
Orientation.—Inmates received into Classification on Monday have their first meeting with the librarian during the following evening, when they are introduced to the
services available and are permitted to select and borrow books from the shelves. In this
way they are familiarized with the operation of our library and, at the same time, the
library in their community.
Programmes.—The following programmes have taken place in the library under
the supervision of the librarian from time to time during the period under report.
Book Discussion Group.—Poetry Reading Group: Groups of from six to twelve
inmates come together to discuss and read passages from books available in the library.
From these discussions, the inmates gain valuable experience in sharing their views with,
and reading aloud to, the other members of the group, and the librarian gains an insight
into the reading needs of the group.
Writers' Group: This group came together to discuss the art and mechanics of
writing articles, short stories, and poetry with an eye to publishing their work in the
inmate magazine.
Classical Music, Popular and Folk Music.—Programmes of recorded music are
played in the library each week. Inmates may choose which classical recordings will be
played, and these are supplied if available. The librarian introduces the recordings, giving information as to composer, conductor, and orchestra and type of music. Informal
discussions are held following the playing of the music.
Drama.—The librarian co-operates with the programme officer in charge of the
drama programme and assists him in the supervision of play reading, both classical and
popular, and acting.
Displays.—Displays of paintings, photographs, and illustrations are held from time
to time in the library rooms.
Inmate Magazine. — The librarian acts as staff adviser to the inmate magazine
" H.C. Eye." An edition which includes articles and stories by inmates, columns by
the Warden, the chaplains, and other staff members, book reviews, sports stories, and
matters of general interest is published monthly. A bulletin of sports and news events
is published once each week.
The librarian meets weekly with the inmate editorial group to discuss problems,
read contributions, and plan the coming editions. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
Inmate Assistance
DD 39
Valuable work is done by inmate assistants, both in the lending library and in the
academic and vocational training library. Routine tasks, such as checking, processing,
stamping, labelling, charging, shelving, general library housekeeping, and the typing of
lists, cards, and book pockets, are carried out by inmates under the direction of the
librarian.
This enables some men to receive on-the-job training in these operations and frees
the librarian to spend more time with readers and interest groups which he sponsors.
Contact with Outside Agencies
During the period under report the librarian visited the Fraser Valley Regional
Library, the Vancouver Public Library, the library of the Extension Department of the
University of British Columbia, the record library of the University of British Columbia,
the Oakalla Prison Farm library, the New Westminster Public Library, and several of
the branch libraries in Vancouver.
The Chairman and Secretary of the Public Library Commission visited the Institution for discussion with the Warden, Deputy Warden (Training), and the librarian.
All of these resources have greatly contributed to the present standard of our
programme.
Library Statistics
No monthly circulation figures were kept until February, 1958. During the period
from September 10th, 1957, to January 31st, 1958, the count rose from 12 to 260 within
the main building and 2,580 books were borrowed from the inmate lending library.
Month
Lending Library
Academic
and
Vocational
Staff
Library
Total
Count on
Last Day
of Month
Fiction
Non-
fiction
Total
February   	
1,370
1,203
187
337
1,557
1,540
83
107
24
25
1,664
1.672
279
315
Totals. -	
2,573
524
3,097
190
49
3,336    |
1
Total books borrowed from lending library, 5,677.
Percentage of inmate population borrowing books, 96 per cent.
In estimating how much reading is actually done within the Institution, it is necessary to consider the fact that inmates living in units holding forty men have ample opportunity to interchange books among themselves, do in fact do this, and read many more
books than the statistics show.
A. Woodland,
Librarian.
Protestant Chaplain's Report
7. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—The major part of the Protestant religious programme at Haney Correctional
Institution will be found in the report submitted by the Senior Chaplain of Gaols, the
Rev. Grant Hollingworth.  Therefore, only a short summary will be submitted here.
This report covers the period July, 1957, to March, 1958. It was on July 1st, 1957,
that I was appointed full-time Protestant chaplain of the Haney Correctional Institution.
Through the efforts of Warden Nelson, an orientation tour of several of the California DD 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
institutions was arranged. This tour was of two weeks' duration and was of great help.
I am most grateful to Warden Nelson, who arranged it, and to the Parish of St. James
Anglican Church, Vancouver, which financed it. The next six weeks were spent in further
preparation for my work by gaining experience in actually working with inmates in
Oakalla Prison Farm by undertaking summer relief duties under the careful guidance of
the Senior Chaplain and by attending a training course provided at the Institution.
Since September, 1957, when the first inmates arrived, the following rather simple
religious programme has been in effect.
Regular Sunday services have been conducted by the chaplain. The Salvation Army
has conducted services on the fifth Sunday of those months having five Sundays, and on
other special occasions Brigadier Nyrerod comes to the Institution on the first and third
Wednesday of each month, at which time he conducts a course called " Lessons for Life "
and is available for interviews. I am most grateful for the help of the Salvation Army
and also for the visits of such groups as the Gideon Society, which presented 300 Bibles
to the Institution, the Maple Ridge Baptist Church choir and the Christian Reformed
Church choir, who participated in church services.
As part of the religious programme, the chaplain has conducted a Bible discussion
group and a weekly " Padre's Hour." At the " Padre's Hour " a film is shown which is
followed by voluntary group discussion.
Apart from the specifically religious programme, I have had the privilege of sponsoring Alcoholics Anonymous within the Institution.
I have also participated in the orientation and classification programme of the Institution, which has enabled me to personally meet all of the Protestant inmates.
Since last September the chaplain has had, at a conservative estimate, 400 interviews,
including the classification interviews.
Services are conducted each Sunday at Gold Creek Camp, and a programme consisting of a film and discussion plus private interviews as required is provided on alternate weeks.
Finally, it has been the pleasure of the chaplain to speak on four occasions to groups
in the community on the subject of the Institution, and to participate in a panel discussion
on the subject of delinquency.
E. J. HULFORD,
Protestant Chaplain.
Roman Catholic Chaplain's Report
7. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—With great pleasure I submit the report of the part-time Roman Catholic
chaplain of the Haney Institution from August, 1957, to March 31st, 1958.
The Roman Catholic chaplain at that time, Rev. Father Lachlan Steele, administered to all the spiritual needs of the Catholic inmates of the Haney Institution.
The chaplain was well aware that although some Catholic inmates had some knowledge of religious instruction, others had grown up in families, only nominally Catholic, in
which the religious environment was very poor and in many cases hostile. To help overcome this problem, Father L. Steele very wisely, besides inaugurating Sunday mass,
promoted a scheme for receiving the sacraments frequently and introduced a special
programme—the "Padre's Hour"—which has proven to be very effective in reaching
the Catholic inmates in their spiritual needs. Most of the Catholic inmates take advantage of this opportunity to increase the knowledge of their faith. They participate in the
" Padre's Hour " regularly, and in a large number. They receive special religious instruction according to their capacity.  This programme is bringing forth satisfactory results. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
DD 41
Special Catholic services have been conducted on the two most important feast days
of the year—Christmas and Easter.   Both services were well attended.
The Roman Catholic chaplain conducts a weekly service at Gold Creek Camp by
offering the holy sacrifice of the mass on Sunday at the Institution. Immediately after
mass a short sermon and a discussion on various subjects is held, with great interest to
all.   It is amazing to see the response to this Catholic activity.
The Holy Name Society has recently been established in the Institution. This new
programme interested many of our Catholic inmates to the extent that our mass attendance increased 60 per cent, and the frequency of our holy communion is now over 100
per cent. We give credit to the entire staff of the Institution for their full co-operation in
making this programme a success.
I take the opportunity in presenting this brief report to gratefully acknowledge the
encouragement and support and sincere co-operation of the Warden and staff given to
me during the last two months, making my work in this new field very pleasant.
Lawrence Dal Bon, P.S.S.C,
Roman Catholic Chaplain.
Medical Section
7. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—The principal objective of the Medical Section of this Institution is to give
inmates two of the most important basic needs for rehabilitation—sound minds and
healthy bodies. This necessitated the employment of professional people and laymen with
nursing experience and a knowledge of institutional procedures. In this we have been
most successful as all of our hospital officer staff are psychiatric male nurses.
Staff
The medical officer, Dr. Trudell, is a local practitioner in the Haney area and is on
call at all times. It was through his efforts that arrangements have been made with the
Maple Ridge Hospital for some surgery cases to be handled there.
The dentist, Dr. Bokstrom, is also a local practitioner, who, besides his regular
twice-weekly visits, answers any call of an emergency nature.
Dr. N. Schmidt, the optometrist, who has his offices in New Westminster, visits the
Institution whenever his services are required.
Dr. Mason-Browne, visiting psychiatrist from Vancouver, assists the staff in planning
programmes for individual inmates. Besides his regular visits, he is available for consultative advice at any time.
The Senior Hospital Officer was drawn from the staff at the Oakalla Prison Farm,
where he worked under the direction of Dr. Richmond, Director of Medical Services for
the Gaol Service. The hospital officers were drawn from the Provincial Mental Hospital
at Essondale and are all, apart from other qualifications, registered psychiatric nurses.
Although the hospital officers are able to use all the facilities available in the medical
area, such as X-ray, laboratory tests, and filling prescriptions, each one is especially
skilled in a particular field. The Senior Hospital Officer specializes in X-ray and dental
technique, one hospital officer was formerly in charge of an operating theatre, another
specializes in laboratory technique, and another in first-aid instruction. They are constantly concerned with the task of providing care and technique of as high a standard as
possible and to keep pace with other areas in the Institution and the community in the
search for progress. DD 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In setting up and operating the Medical Section, we have received every consideration and help from local agencies and public health units in the area.
The camp at Gold Creek is covered by the same over-all medical services as the
Institution proper; medications and supplies are supplied by the Institution. A regular
weekly visit by one of the hospital officers is made, and inmates for dental and other
related treatments are brought to the Institution.
Health and Safety Standards
Inspection of the kitchen and all aspects of food-handling by Dr. Trudell is a regular
part of the medical programme. Safety standards were set by the Workmen's Compensation Board, and this organization gives freely of advice, time, literature, and visits by
its inspectors and officials. General hygiene articles are contributed to the inmate magazine by the hospital officers.
Goals for the Future
In looking to the future, the Medical Section hopes to provide training in the fields
of first aid and safety to both inmates and staff. One hospital officer recently attended
a safety training course at the University of British Columbia, and another attended the
instructors' first-aid school sponsored by the St. John Ambulance Association, the Workmen's Compensation Board, and the Industrial First Aid Attendants' Association. By
providing training of this type to all staff and inmates, it is hoped to reduce the possibility
of accidents and the cost to the Institution and community. At the same time, inmates
can return to the community and contribute valuable skills and knowledge to general
public safety.
Statistical Report
Medical.—Dr. Trudell examined 682 inmates upon admission. Of the staff, approximately 220 were given physical examinations. One hundred and seventy-five
inmates were admitted to hospital for a total of 600 patient-days.
Sick parades involved 4,221 treatments at the Minor Surgery. Generally speaking,
the majority of these cases fell into the category of colds, skin conditions, and sprains
involving joints and muscles.
Surgery.—The medical officer performed surgery of a minor nature on eighteen
inmates within the Institution. One inmate was given general surgery at the Royal
Columbian Hospital by Dr. Trudell and one other at Oakalla Prison Farm by a visiting
physician. In most cases involving surgery in an outside hospital, the inmate is returned
to the Institution for convelescing and thereby is able to continue on his rehabilitation
programme if on a limited basis.
Dental.—Dr. Bokstrom has given treatment to 437 patients. This has covered
extractions, temporary fillings, partial and full dentures. Due, no doubt, to the turnover
in the inmate population, there is a constant waiting-list for treatment in this area. Extractions, being of an emergency nature, tend to reduce the time available for preventive
treatment.
X-ray.—Within the Institution, fifty X-rays were taken and processed; this included
dental X-rays. The mobile X-ray unit visited the Institution, and 288 staff and inmates
were X-rayed.   No positive tuberculosis cases were found.
A blood donors' clinic was held, and 255 pints of blood were voluntarily donated
by staff and inmates to the Red Cross. This clinic will probably be repeated this fall.
At the time, this represented a 90-per-cent participation of the inmate population.
The optometrist, Dr. Schmidt, commenced visiting the Institution at the end of
February, and thirty-six prescriptions have been filled.
During the period involved, forty-four laboratory tests were conducted, and as equipment becomes available this number will increase.   These tests require that specimens be REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 43
analysed within certain time-limits to ensure accurate results so as much of this work as
possible is and should be done within the Institution.
L. Boechler,
Senior Hospital Officer.
CUSTODY DIVISION
7. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Preamble
Sir,—On July 17th, 1957, the buildings of the Haney Correctional Institution were
received from the Public Works Department. Prior to this time the senior executive staff
of the Division were planning in detail the operation of the Institution, selecting Correctional Officers, and training the supervisory staff.
Organization
The Division was organized on a three-shift basis under the Assistant Deputy
Warden, with an Administrative Unit reporting directly to the Deputy Warden (Custody).
The shifts were arranged to rotate every two months so that staff would become familiar
and trained in all aspects of the custodial programme.
Each shift was broken into three sections—Internal Security, External Security, and
the Control Centre—with each section being in charge of a Senior Guard. The basic
division of internal and external was decided upon to avoid any conflict of command and
ensure responsibilities being clearly assigned. Basically, external security involves everything outside of the building—towers, work crews, and perimeter patrol; internal security
includes everything inside the building—living units, shops, corridors, mess hall, and
other areas.
The Control Centre was established as the communications centre of the Institution.
The Senior Guard in charge directs all radio units, handles communications to the towers,
switchboard, and gatehouse. This area is used by all staff as a centre for information
on inmates and the location of other staff. It also handles issuing of all keys and controls
the entrance into the security area by remotely controlled electric gates. In the event of
an emergency, the senior officer in charge is able to effectively direct all necessary actions
from this location, and it has proven to be a most effective and appreciated device for this
purpose. The Administrative Unit was organized to relieve the senior executive staff of
the heavy load of routine administrative detail. The Deputy Warden (Custody) and
Assistant Deputy Warden (Custody) are freed to supervise personally various aspects
of the programme. As the organization developed, it became apparent certain specialists
were required to increase our efficiency. Therefore, a training sergeant was appointed to
this unit. He is responsible for the organization of all staff training within the Division.
An administrative sergeant was appointed to this unit to handle all custodial matters
related to the classification of inmates.
Training
The first basic training course for new staff commenced in August, 1957, with fifty-
seven Correctional Officers attending. There have been three additional basic training
courses for the new staff recruited since our opening. This initial course is of one month's
duration and gives the recruit an introduction to security, discipline, weapons, emergency
procedures, law, human behaviour, and lay counselling, as well as our standard operating
procedures. All divisions of the organization participate in lecture preparation and
presentation, and new staff members of these divisions attend selected lectures as students. DD 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Upon the successful completion of the basic course, the officer commences his field
training. This training is of six months' duration, with two months on each shift. During
this time he receives on-the-job training from his sergeant. After this period of training
is successfully completed, the officer qualifies for the two weeks' advanced training course.
Our first advanced training course will be held in the immediate future.
A twenty-hour course and assigned reading programme was conducted for supervising officers, Senior Correctional Officers, and Senior Guards. This course covered the
fundamentals of supervision. A continuous programme of assigned readings in criminology, supervision, and administration is carried on by all Senior Correctional Officers.
Staff
As the year progressed, we advanced to our maximum strength of Deputy Warden
(Custody), Assistant Deputy Warden (Custody), six Senior Correctional Officers, fourteen Senior Prison Guards, and 132 guards. We have been most fortunate in obtaining
an excellent group of officers who are able to handle a variety of duties ranging from
custodial supervision to counselling.
The morale of the officers is good. This is perhaps best evidenced by their performance of tower duty last winter in open towers without complaining. The staff who
have voluntarily turned in their resignations have been few, amounting to six this year.
This is a very small loss of staff when one considers the fairly rigorous in-service training
programme and the high performance standard required.
Security
There have been no escapes or serious disciplinary infractions of a major nature.
It is felt the main reason for this is the careful and continuous attention paid to the classification of inmates. Any inmate placed on a minimum-security assignment is fully investigated by the Administrative Senior Guard. Continuous attention is directed to all
minimum-security cases in order to detect any factor which may affect his security, such
as refusal of parole, family problems, or a deportation order.
The main emphasis is on perimeter security, which includes a wire fence, rifle towers,
and a patrol car circling the area to check suspicious persons and vehicles who might
attempt to assist in an escape. Within this ring of security, relative freedom exists.
Inmates moving on their own initiative to work, recreation, interviews, and their living
units is a characteristic of our programme.
Contraband has been kept to a minimum by efficient unscheduled searches.
The major persistent problem area is the large living units. With forty-eight inmates
to supervise in an open dormitory, it is very difficult to maintain adequate supervision,
handle telephone calls, complete reports, supervise the recreation yard, and supervise the
cleaning of the unit and clothes change. After lights out, some inmates may become
obstreperous, but a policy of immediate removal from the unit has helped to control this
problem.
Discipline
The discipline of the majority of inmates is good, with only the occasional offence
from this group. However, there is a minority group of fifteen to twenty inmates of the
more immature and hostile type who are constant offenders and account for the majority
of offences.
All inmates who are charged are taken to captain's court by 8 o'clock each morning.
Here the minor cases are dealt with by the captain, the rest being remanded to the Disciplinary Panel. By the use of this device, discipline is swift and certain, which adds greatly
to the effectiveness of the disciplinary programme. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 45
The Disciplinary Panel, composed of the Deputy Warden (Training) and Deputy
Warden (Custody), meets as the need arises and considers the more serious cases referred
to the panel by the captain. The aim of this panel is to examine the individual and his
environment and gear the disposition to meet the inmate's needs as effectively as possible,
as well as to maintain control. All cases from both captain's court and the Disciplinary
Panel are reviewed by the Warden.
One tier of the cell block has been set aside as an Adjustment Unit to house those
inmates who present consistent disciplinary problems. Here a more intensive programme
of counselling and supervision is available. This group is kept apart from the remainder
of the population so as to minimize their disruptive influence. These men return to the
general programme when it is felt by the Classification Committee that they are capable
of functioning in a less restricted setting. Privileges are returned to them as these privileges are earned. It has been found that this system permits intensive work to be done
with these men without impeding the progress of others within our general population.
Goals of Custodial Division for the Coming Fiscal Year
To bridge the gulf between the Correctional Officer and the inmate, it is hoped that
by splitting the present living unit of forty-eight men into two smaller units, each with
a supervisor, that closer relationships will develop between unit officers and inmates.
This would be accomplished by reducing the number of officers on internal control and
assign them directly to a group.
A second objective is to develop advanced training courses and on-the-job training
to a higher degree. The advanced training would include lay counselling as well as custody
courses.
The on-the-job training would include development of a Recruit Field Training
Manual. This manual would list the duties assigned to the various posts. Besides these
duties, space would be provided for the supervisor to note when duties were explained,
demonstrated, and were performed satisfactorily by the officer.
Presentation of leadership courses for all supervisory levels and attendance of
selected staff members at university classes is another objective. A recent survey indicated that supervisory training is one of the urgent needs of our Custodial Division.
In addition, we would hope to establish a set of criteria for constant evaluation and
inspection of the custodial programme and methods. These criteria would be developed
by use of the " critical incident technique " to assess what methods and procedures bring
the most desired results.
The custodial programme has developed to the point where discipline and security
aspects have reached a very high standard. Future developments will be geared to increasing the effectiveness of the Correctional Officer as a member of the total rehabilitation
team. We have every confidence in the ability and eagerness of our staff to achieve this,
their most challenging objective.
M. Matheson,
Deputy Warden (Custody).
CAMPS DIVISION
Gold Creek Camp
7. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—The administration of Gold Creek Camp was transferred to Warden E. K.
Nelson of the Haney Correctional Institution on September 4th, 1957. Following the
transferred administrative responsibility, the camp continued to follow the basic original DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
policies and also had the added benefits of the many resources available at the new
Institution. The proximity and calibre of these resources were the main factor in the
decision to transfer the administration.
The camp is intended for prisoners who have been committed for the first time and
others not considered to be inured to prison routine. It is an open-type unit and provides
an alternative to prison for adult male offenders.
In order that the men may derive the greatest benefit from the programme, prisoners
with less than three months to serve are not transferred. Men with indeterminate
sentences have not as yet been considered due to security factors. Although the chronological age is not considered to be of great importance, those men who are transferred
fall within the age-grouping of 20 to 55 years. Prisoners considered for transfer must
also be physically fit for active outdoor work and should be temperamentally suited for
such an environment. It has been found that disturbed individuals on the whole do not
settle well into such an environment; therefore, it is generally felt that prisoners considered to be reasonably well-adjusted reformable types, who are first offenders, physically
fit, and are good custodial risks, are apt to benefit most from the forest-camp setting.
The camp programme is closely related to the development of Garibaldi Park by
the Department of Recreation and Conservation. The camp represents a labour force
which is assisting in the development of the southern end of Garibaldi Park as a recreational resource for the Province. The work programme is a healthy one, and not only
contributes to the prisoners' well-being, but also contributes to the public good.
The men are paid $1 per day for every day worked. It is hoped that this money
will assist them upon their release. The responsibility of the staff is primarily one of
seeking to influence those men in their charge to such an extent that prisoners will have
a will to live a more useful life within accepted social boundaries.
The accommodation at the camp is suitable for fifty men. There are five bunk-
houses, a mess hall, an ablution hut, and an administration building. There is also a
lighting-plant building, a recreation hut, and a maintenance garage. These latter three
buildings were built at a minimal cost using salvaged materials such as logs for lumber
from the right-of-way project, some hardware from the old New Haven gymnasium, and
nails, cement, and building-paper provided through budget.
The staff complement calls for twelve men. In August of 1957 the writer was
appointed Director of Camps and two staff members were promoted to the rank of
sergeant. This move provided three sergeants for the camp, as one other was already
at the sergeant level. There can be no doubt that twelve men can give adequate supervisory and administrative coverage to a camp of this type. However, they are not able
to meet the counselling, teaching, religious, and after-care needs without outside help.
These services have been met in part by the resources of the Haney Correctional Institution sections and outside agencies.
During the course of the year the Gold Creek trainees have contributed to the
Department of Recreation and Conservation approximately 10,700 man-days of work.
The particular work projects involved were as follows:—
The Right-of-way Project.—This priority project involved the slashing and
burning of underbrush, the pulling and burning of blasted stumps, and in
most cases a complete clean-up in preparation for grading. This project
will continue into succeeding years as each mile of development is completed.
Parking-lots and Picnic-sites.—Two large parking-lots and a large picnic area
were slashed, and the resulting slash piles burned. In addition, picnic
areas were cleared on the shores of Alouette Lake. This area was also
prepared for the planting of grass in the future. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 47
Mike Lake Service Area.—A 5-acre area was cleared, to be used eventually
as a service area by the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
Camp-sites.—A large project of land-clearing was started to provide numerous
camp-sites in the area.    The project was started late in the year, and
involves the clearing of a network of roads to service some 300 individual
camp-sites for public use.
Culverts.—As in the past, the men assisted in putting in all sizes of drainage
culverts, ranging from 18-inch wood-stave types to 8-foot Armco steel
types.
Miscellaneous Work.—There are always a variety of miscellaneous tasks which
we can and have taken part in, such as assisting power-saw operators and
in some instances actual power-saw operation, road maintenance and
ditching, cable spicing, truck swamping, assisting survey crews as chain-
men and bulldozer operators as chokermen.
One area of pride at this camp has been the operation of two donkey-engines as
land-clearing pieces.    These machines have been employed in areas where bulldozers
encounter extreme difficulty, such as steep side-hills and swamps.   The project engineer
recognizes the important role these machines can play, and has assisted us greatly with
the necessary accessories required to continue to operate them.   Because the stumps are
blasted before yarding, the danger aspect is reduced, and, therefore, the stress on lines
and drums is less damaging in terms of wear and tear.   The donkey crews are all trainees
from the camp and are selected carefully.    Usually the key men are skilled loggers;
however, we have trained men to do a variety of key jobs when skilled men are not
available.
In any camp setting the cooking and housekeeping operations are most important.
These duties are performed by ten trainees who look after their own particular area of
endeavour. Again these men are carefully selected, and are either employed because of
past skills or trained to do the job in question. All trainees must be in camp at least six
weeks before they are considered for specialized jobs.
The recreation programme at Gold Creek Camp is entirely voluntary and is closely
supervised by the staff. The majority of men take part in some form of recreation during
the evening. Considering the age-group from 20 to 55 years, it is generally felt that there
is some activity for each and every one to take an interest in. Recreation has never
presented any real problems. The programmes are usually developed by the camp committee, which is comprised of four to six trainees who discuss the various needs with
assistance and guidance from staff. There are chess and checker sets, playing-cards,
books, magazines, and the necessary requirements for light leisure-time activity. The
trainees have contributed voluntarily $1 per month out of their earnings to the creation
of a sports fund, from which they have bought, repaired, and maintained a television set
and various pieces of recreational equipment, such as baseball bats, baseballs, gloves and
mitts, and other items. This has been found to be a particularly realistic procedure as the
men seldom, if ever, misuse equipment which has been purchased from their own welfare
fund. Inventories of hobby equipment, sports equipment, and other items purchased
from the inmates' sports fund are conducted regularly.
Medical attention is available from the Medical Section of the Haney Correctional
Institution. The Institution has come as a blessing, as it afforded greater medical care
and an accessible hospital.
The John Howard Society has had a representative visit the camp every second week
in order to carry out the good work of this organization.
Rev. Hulford, the Protestant chaplain at Haney Correctional Institution, has cared
for the spiritual needs of the Protestants in the camp. He is a most capable and understanding man, admired and respected by staff and trainees alike.   He conducts Sunday DD 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
services, and on every second Tuesday visits the camp with religious films for discussion
groups. Father Steele, of St. Patrick's Church, Haney, cares for those of the Roman
Catholic faith. This is in addition to his responsibilities at St. Patrick's and the Haney
Correctional Institution.
The camp has been most fortunate in having the services of Mr. H. Tyson, part-time
school-teacher in the Educational Section. Mr. Tyson visits the camp once a week to
assist anyone who requires help in correspondence courses and also holds formal classes.
In addition, he conducts a voluntary group counselling session.
The following statistics are of interest: Trainees released from April 1st, 1957, to
March 31st, 1958, numbered 104, of whom 88 were released at expiration of sentence,
8 were released on ticket-of-leave licence, 2 were transferred for misconduct, 3 were
transferred for medical reasons, and 1 transferred for reclassification. The average count
per day for the year was 48.
In conclusion, it is interesting to note that up to the time of this report, no man has
seen fit to abscond from this camp. The morale is almost always at a high level, and the
staff members have been most energetic in the performance of their duties. There has
also been a definite pioneering spirit prevalent among the staff and trainees alike. Problems that arise are more than offset by the healthy, positive day and evening programmes
and the lower per capita cost of inmates in the forest-camp setting as opposed to the high
per capita costs of the prison setting.
Haney Pre-release Camp (Twenty-first Avenue)
The Haney Pre-release Camp administration was transferred to Warden Nelson at
the Haney Correctional Institution on September 15th, 1957. This transfer included
most of the physical assets of the camp, which, wherever possible, were to be used in the
relocation of this camp to a more desirable setting. This camp continued to operate as
a pre-release camp until its closure on November 22nd, 1957. This move was necessitated by the deterioration of the buildings. The men in the camp at the time of closing
were transferred to Unit 8 in the Haney Correctional Institution, which then became the
pre-release unit. These men continued to work at logging and millwork. However, those
who were employed at camp maintenance were absorbed in that capacity in the Institution. The camp staff were also absorbed and went immediately into in-service training
within the Institution.
The greatest physical asset of this camp has been the mill, and the lumber which
it produced. It was therefore decided that the mill would remain operational and produce
lumber for the new pre-release camp, and also for areas within the Institution where the
lumber could be profitably used. The lumber needs for the new pre-release camp were
then determined, and the lumber cut and stored to await construction plans.
An inventory was taken of the camp, and those items which obviously could not be
used in the camp were deployed elsewhere. The beds were returned to Oakalla Prison
Farm, and the tools and equipment were set aside for the new camp construction. In
the meantime, planning for the new pre-release camp continued. The new site was
initially selected by the Camps Director on or about October 29th, 1957. Warden E. K.
Nelson and the Director of Correction approved the intended location. Financial estimates were then worked out by the Camps Director to cover the building and erection of
the camp. The new camp will consist of some thirteen buildings, including six bunk-
houses, a kitchen and dining-room, ablution building, administration building, recreation
building, garage and tool-shed.   The camp will house a maximum of sixty men.
Two difficult physical problems were worked out in order to obtain a suitable water-
supply and electrical power. On December 2nd, 1957, work commenced with a small
party of inmates clearing the site.   On February 11th, 1958, the vocational shops at the
J REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 49
Haney Correctional Institution produced fifteen moulds for forms, and work on the
concrete blocks on which the buildings were to be placed commenced. Approximately
320 foundation blocks were made for building supports and about sixty blocks were made
for porch supports. On February 28th the first load of 2-by-4 rough lumber was taken
to the vocational shops in order to permit construction of the 4-by-8 panels for the new
huts. The job of the vocational shops was then to prefabricate the panels for the buildings, which would be prototypes of those at the Gold Creek Forest Camp. The construction of this new camp has progressed favourably. So far, problems in construction that
have arisen have been handled in an efficient manner by a committee concerned with the
construction of the camp. Representatives of the Camps and Training Divisions on the
committee work together to co-ordinate the necessary resources to complete the construction.   Optimism is high and the results to date are very encouraging.
The opening of this camp is eagerly anticipated by all staff of the Haney Correctional
Institution as it will represent a departure in programme for pre-release camps in British
Columbia. In the past, pre-release camps have not been sufficiently close to an institution
to provide all the training, counselling, and other resources so desirable and essential in
this period of preparation for release. In this new camp, men may learn to live in
minimum security with maximum self-responsibility and yet not be divorced from the
numerous resources of the institution and the community. This is looked upon as an
exciting new development.
Norman Baker,
Camps Director.
BUSINESS DIVISION
7. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—The following represents the reports of all sections of the Business Division
involved in the operation of the Institution for the period under consideration.
It is emphasized that on-the-job training is given to every inmate employed regardless of his assignment, and this training is designed to communicate to the individual the
essentials of the trades or vocations involved. Considerable time and effort have been
expended in gearing instruction in even the most humble task to the practices followed
commercially in order that he may be better equipped to obtain suitable employment upon
discharge.
Records
On September 4th, 1957, we received our first group of inmates, by the transfer of
Gold Creek Forest Camp Gaol to the Haney Correctional Institution. This unit was
previously under the control of New Haven.
We received 712 inmates from headquarters classification (Oakalla Prison Farm)
in the period from September 4th, 1957, to March 31st, 1958. However, 7 of these were
inmates who were returned to us from Oakalla after obtaining medical treatment. The
discharges amounted to 337—268 released by expiry of sentence, 5 by ticket of leave,
2 by pardon, 2 by payment of fine, 1 by bail and was never returned, and 40 were returned
to Oakalla Prison Farm. This left us with a count of 375 at the end of March, 1958.
The daily average inmate count (including camps) for the period from September 4th,
1957, to March 31st, 1958, was 264.053.
Of the 705 new inmates admitted, the following information was obtained:— DD 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
DURATION   OF   SENTENCE
260
240
220
200
trt  160
ai
Z  100
INMATE   EMPLOYMENT REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
DD 51
AGES
-
___-U
200
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180
160
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£    140
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St    120
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21 TO
25 TO
30 TO
40 TO
50 TO
OVER
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EDUCATION
/inn
380
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360
'
340
320
300
280
260
-
1   1
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2    180
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ILLITERATE
ELEMENTARY
HIGH SCHOOL
COLLEGE OR
UNIVERSITY DD 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Visits.—An inmate is permitted to have six visitors; a mother and father constitute
one visitor, or a wife and children, brother and sister-in-law, etc., each constitute one
visitor. Three visitors are allowed to visit the inmate twice per month and the other three
may visit only once per month. The inmate submits a list of persons he would like to
have visit him, and we then forward questionnaires to these people. When they have been
approved, the inmate indicates who he wishes to see twice a month and who he wishes to
see once a month. The Records Office keeps a complete record of all visits; persons on
the approved lists; times, dates, and number of visits each inmate has; and they also make
and register all appointments, whether business or personal visits.
Identification Office.—The Identification Office, which comes under the direction of
the Records Officer, photographs and obtains statistical information on each inmate as
he is received. The inmate is issued an identification card, and these cards are set in
fibreglass, which cannot be defaced or changed in any way. Plans have now been
approved to construct a permanent Identification Office, which up to now has been temporarily located in the Isolation Unit, which is far from an ideal location.
Mail Censor.—The censoring of inmate mail, incoming and outgoing, is processed
by the Mail Censor, thereby maintaining some continuity between the inmate and his
correspondents. Each inmate is permitted to correspond with ten approved correspondents. The inmate is allowed to write two letters per week, postage on the first letter
being paid by the Institution and the cost of the second letter being borne by the inmate.
We are pleased to report that placing the control of all inmate mail in one person (Mail
Censor) is working to the complete satisfaction of the Institution and the inmate population. It has speeded up delivery of outgoing mail and hastened the distribution of the
incoming mail within the Institution. The inmate posts his letter in one of two mail-boxes,
and this mail is picked up by the Mail Censor daily. This system also gives the inmate
a sense of privacy by not having anybody and everybody reading his personal mail.
Mechanical Services
From April, 1957, until activation of the Institution in September, 1957, the preparation of the Institution for occupancy was the prime concern of this section.
Heating and ventilation were supplied to dry out the building. Testing and adjusting
of water and electrical services were carried out.
As all meters in recording instruments were not in operation during April or May,
only an approximate figure of 75 cents per 1,000 pounds of steam can be estimated for
fuel consumption.
The Mechanical Service Section, which is responsible for considerable new construction and installation as well as supplying and maintaining services for the Institution, has
had an extremely busy year.
Maintenance and trouble calls within the buildings have averaged between forty and
seventy per month for each trade, and the maintenance of vehicles has been much greater
than expected with twenty mobile and ten pieces of stationary gas- or diesel-powered
equipment under supervision.
Under the heading " Installation and New Construction," the following major projects have been completed:—
(1) The wiring of vocational shops.
(2) Construction of temporary maintenance shops within the vocational area.
(3) The construction of cupboards and shelving within the Institution (kitchen,
stores, offices, etc.).
(4) The construction of pallets for stores.
(5) Outside walks, stairs, and fences.
(6) Signs for the Institution outside the grounds.
(7) Installation of gymnasium and auditorium equipment. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
DD 53
Over sixty-five major projects of a similar nature were carried out by tradesmen
here, some taking up to a few months of the tradesmen's time, as in the case of the electrician's wiring of the vocational shops.
The major defects yet to be corrected or finished are as under:—
(1) Cell units are difficult to heat in the cold weather.
(2) The ventilation and air-supply to the control centre and visiting area are
totally inadequate.
(3) For a complete control of heating in the living unit, more zoning is
required with additional Johnston controls.
Culinary Department
The kitchen, besides being a completely new operation, also faced a new concept in
institutional feeding in British Columbia; that is, all the inmates being fed at one time
and sitting down together in one dining-room. Initial problems were many and varied.
Most have been surmounted, and the operation now runs smoothly despite the fact that
assignment to the kitchen is not a popular duty with most inmates.
Since September, 1957, until the latest date covered by this report, we have served
140,912 meals to both inmates and staff at a total cost of some $65,291 for food and
equipment.
The production of meals has increased proportionately with the inmate population,
and we now produce some 1,200 meals daily. Some 2,000 loaves of bread are made
weekly by the bakery, and the meat handled has increased in volume until we are presently
handling some 4,000 pounds per week. These figures include the amounts used at Gold
Creek Camp.
Apart from the lack of a power meat-saw, the butcher-shop is fairly well equipped
to handle the amount of meat passing through it. A deep-freezing unit would be of
great advantage for holding items which could be bought and placed into stock when
prices are low.   It is hoped that this will be obtained during the coming fiscal year.
Stores and Supply
The procurement of stores commenced very early in our planning. In March, 1957,
while the Institution building was still in the hands of the contractor, a living unit was
utilized as temporary storage for the many varied types of tools, equipment, furniture,
and other numerous items, all of which were checked against specifications, catalogued,
and marked for distribution.
A change-room was activated to cope with the initial receipt of inmates, working
in close co-operation with the laundry and stores. This section is responsible for receiving new inmates, outfitting them with institutional clothing, and storage of their personal
clothing. It is of interest to note that each inmate has two sets of each type of clothing.
Under this system the inmate bundles his soiled linen, which is then tagged with his name,
number, and also details of the items enclosed. The articles are then laundered and
returned, thus allowing each inmate to keep his own issue, avoiding misfits, and adding
to the smartness of appearance. Further duties of this section are the distribution of
clean linen and the collection of soiled linen, supplying replacements, and outfitting
generally. An additional service provided is to launder the linen and press the personal
clothing of all inmates immediately prior to their being discharged, thus assisting their
mental outlook upon release.
The well-equipped laundry presently employs eleven inmates, practically all of whom
were without any previous knowledge of this type of work. They have been trained individually in all phases of laundry operation by the manager. The success of this may be
seen from the production for the period September, 1957, to March, 1958, which
amounted to 103,890 pieces (some 96,862 pounds). DD 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In order to create as much interest as possible in this department, and in common
with all other operations of this nature at the Institution, data have been obtained on
laundry procedures and methods to give a sound theoretical as well as a practical knowledge of the trade. This department is operated as closely as possible on the lines of
a commercial laundry, enabling the inmates assigned to become familiar with the routines
used, and thus assisting their future prospects of employment.
Inmate Canteen.—This canteen is operated solely for the benefit of the inmates
within the Institution and camps. Men go to the canteen just as they would to a store in
the community. The canteen sales from September, 1957, to March, 1958, amounted
to $8,913, which is an indication of the popularity enjoyed by this facility, and all profits
derived from sales are placed in a fund and an inmate committee recommends to the
administration its wishes on the expenditure of this money, usually on items not provided
for in our budget but which are required for the individual or collective benefit of our
population.
Development and Maintenance of Grounds
The development and maintenance of grounds were placed under the responsibility
of a Grounds Officer, and very many long-term plans have been drawn up for the beautifi-
cation and development of the property.
Much work has been done in producing a parking-lot for staff cars; drainage-
channels to cope with the very heavy rainfall peculiar to this particular area; the levelling,
clearing, and cleaning of sports fields; the laying-out and construction of certain necessary
roads; the clearing of brush and timber stands on the approach road to the Institution;
the responsibility for the collection and disposal of garbage; etc.
The development of all the projects in mind, especially in view of the difficult terrain,
has been excellent to date, and projects under the control of the Grounds Officer account
for an inmate labour force of some sixty to seventy-five persons daily.
Certain work is held in abeyance pending the supply of drainage-tile. This tile is
planned to be manufactured on the premises, but owing to maintenance commitments we
have been unable to allocate a staff member responsible for the production of this commodity.   It is hoped that this will be done in the near future.
Accounts
To undertake the processing of accounts for the construction of the Institution and
the requisitioning of supplies and to proceed with the planning of accounting procedures,
the accountant and one assistant were taken on strength while in our temporary offices in
Vancouver. When the Institution became activated and the Gold Creek and Haney
Pre-release Camps were transferred to our administration, the Accounts staff was augmented to handle the increased volume of payroll work, requisitioning, and vouchering,
and to establish the Prisoners' Trust Fund and Inmate Welfare Fund ledgers.
Inmate Welfare Fund.—In our original thinking, it was planned that the initial
financing for the Inmate Welfare Fund would be done by means of a loan from the Inmate
Welfare Fund at Oakalla, but after further consideration it was decided we would attempt
to carry on by ourselves. In this endeavour we were successful, but because we were
building up canteen stocks our other spending was limited. However, we were able to
cover league and referees' fees out of this Fund so that our basketball team could enter
an official league, and also to make purchases of uniforms for the team.
The introduction of a loan policy was made during the year to make available
limited funds for canteen purchases to inmates having no personal funds. The loans,
which are made out of the Welfare Fund, are, as a general rule, recovered at the time of
release, but, under special circumstances, repayment may be deferred until the inmate is
in a position to pay out of earnings made in the community. Any inmate without funds
may borrow $3 per month up to a total of $15, but if he takes advantage of this, his REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58 DD 55
spending is restricted to 75 cents per week. It is emphasized to the inmates that the
loans do not come out of Government funds, but from their own Welfare Fund, and any
violation of trust is against themselves.
The Business Division serves the other divisions of the Institution as a " service "
division. It is safe to say, therefore, that in some small manner the Business Division
has made an effective contribution to the over-all success of our total programme and to
the specific programmes of the other divisions.
Summary of Annual Statistics
Officers and Employees of Haney Correctional Institution, as at
March 31st, 1958
Warden       1
Deputy Wardens       2
Business Manager       1
Personnel Officer ,       1
Custody—
Assistant Deputy Warden       1
Senior Correctional Officers       5
Senior Guards  10
Guards  93
Training—
Classification and Counselling Officer       1
Counsellors       5
Social Training Officers  13
Education and Vocational Officers  19
Physician, Dentist, Psychiatrist,  and Psychologist  (part
time)       4
Hospital Officers       7
Chaplains (one part time)       2
Librarian       1
Business—
Chief Engineer         1
Assistant Engineers  12
Building maintenance and mechanical trades        6
Chief Steward       1
Culinary staff       6
Office staff—male  12
Office staff—female  12
-Stores and change-room staff—-       8
Laundry Manager       1
Grounds Officer       1
Total  226
Officers and Employees of Camps Administration and Gold Creek
Camp, as at March 31st, 1958
Camps Director       1
Camps clerk         1
Guards '.     11
Total     13
J. W. Lane,
Business Manager.
y DD 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PERSONNEL SECTION
Recruitment
7. W. Braithwaite, Esq.,
Warden, Haney Correctional Institution.
Sir,—In originally assessing staff needs for the Haney Correctional Institution,
provision was made for the engagement of a Personnel Officer. The incumbent of this
post acts as a staff assistant to the Warden in order to organize efficiently the recruitment,
selection, training, and evaluation of personnel. He is also required to rotate a normal
tour of duty as Officer of the Day, and in this capacity serves as Administrative Assistant
to the Warden, thus learning to view the organization as a whole rather than becoming
overly concerned with one of its parts.
A survey of our organizational plan was undertaken by officials of the Civil Service
Commission, who consulted with us concerning the classification and salaries of positions
authorized. Tentative arrangements were worked out under which we were able to use
the services of the Commission in recruiting staff, and upon appointment of the Personnel
and Staff Training Officer many personnel policies were determined with their assistance
and co-operation.
An intensive Canada-wide recruiting drive was instituted, and this resulted in a flood
of applications. We set our standards at a high level, and as a result of over 1,400 interviews, 223 permanent employees were appointed by March 31st, 1958.
Considerable assistance was given by Mr. S. Rocksborough Smith, who interviewed
the majority of those applicants residing in Provinces other than British Columbia and
gave his assessment of their potential, which obviated the need for the applicant to make
a costly speculative journey to British Columbia personally.
Training
A nucleus of experienced staff who had applied for transfer to this Institution from
Oakalla Prison Farm were taken on strength in August, and from the outset a vigorous
programme of in-service and on-the-job training was instituted. Every officer employed,
experienced or otherwise, automatically went through a Basic Custody Course of four
weeks' duration. Besides this training facility, we have fostered many other courses with
the assistance of personnel outside the Gaol Service—Grading and Lumber Tallying,
The Use of a 16-mm. Projector and Discussion Techniques, Job Safety Training Courses,
Job Instruction Training Courses, Vancouver Police Courses, a Lay Counselling and
Human Behaviour Course, a Training Course for Counsellors and Programme Officers,
Vocational Instructor Training Courses, etc., to name but a few. All these courses are
designed to assist our staff in gaining further experience, and we have been successful in
that certain of the courses attended by the vocational instructors are being recognized
by the Department of Education for the grant of credits necessary to obtain their vocational " C " teaching certificate. Resignations and other incidents involving separation
from the service indicate a turnover rate of some 9 per cent.
Public Relations
It was rapidly realized that the programme evolved for this Institution would arouse
comment in the press and that correct interpretation would be essential to good public
relations. The Staff Training and Personnel Officer was charged with maintaining contact
with the usual public relations media on the Warden's behalf. Tours were arranged for
various service clubs and societies connected with the corrections programme—that is,
John Howard Society, British Columbia Borstal Association, British Columbia Corrections Association, etc.   The families of staff members and staffs of headquarters and other REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 57
institutions also toured the buildings prior to the receipt of inmates. An " open house "
was widely publicized, which proved extremely popular and successful in that some 2,900
persons toured the Institution over a six-hour period in one day. The total number of
tours represents well over 4,000 visitors, and the staff on duty were asked to work
additional hours to cope with the flow and acquitted themselves remarkably well. Soon
after the receipt of inmates we invited representatives from the press and also from radio
and television stations to a luncheon designed to assist in establishing our policy of an
understanding relationship with all concerned. A tour of the Institution was arranged
immediately after the lunch, and as a result of this activity we had several reports in
various publications, and Warden Nelson was asked and did, in fact, take part in several
television and radio interviews. From time to time we act as host to members of the
Legislature, both individually and in parties, also administrators of correctional establishments in other Provinces, and have found that a popular feature after these visits is the
informal panel of staff members which is always set up to answer visitors' questions.
In response to many requests we now have a nucleus of senior staff personnel who
address gatherings and meetings in the community when called upon and inform them
of the aims and objects of this Institution. This is a popular feature and has done much
to rectify the erroneous impression of the Institutional programme shared by so many
not intimately connected with the field of corrections.
During the next fiscal year it will be possible to place greater emphasis on staff
training and research as the recruitment responsibilities of the Personnel Officer will be
diminished. In this endeavour we shall be able to develop the potential and sharpen the
existing skills of our staff in order that an increasingly effective performance can be
attained.
R. A. Cook,
Personnel Officer.
MEDICAL REPORT
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual medical report for Oakalla Prison
Farm and New Haven Borstal Institution, the prison camps at Chilliwack, together with
additional observations on Haney Correctional Institution and Gold Creek Camp relative
to my duties as Medical Officer of the Provincial Gaol Service.
OAKALLA PRISON FARM
The year under review has passed without any significant alteration or improvement
in the medical services and installations, other than the appointment of two part-time
physicians in the place of one full-time assistant physician. Drs. O. Kringhaug and E.
Chan have alternated in the carrying-out of the more routine medical duties, such as sick
parades, hospital rounds, and examination of admissions, to an extent which has freed
me for more administrative work and allows more time to spend with Classification at
Oakalla, the Parole Boards at Oakalla, and for visits to the head office, the camps, and
Haney Correctional Institution.
The demands on medical services have been as great as during the previous year,
as we have not yet experienced a noticeable decrease of population at Oakalla. In fact,
the turnover has been greater and more requirements otherwise have to be met;  that DD 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
is, attention to the physical state of an increasing number of alcoholics, an increasing
number of drug addicts admitted to the gaol, additional medical examinations of inmates
awaiting classification, and also of those for transfer to other units, and an increasing
amount of surgery which is being made possible by an arrangement whereby, with the
very ready co-operation of the administration of the Burnaby General Hospital, certain
suitable cases are operated upon there and returned to the prison hospital on the same
day. This has proved an economy in the way of the saving of escorts and maintenance,
and until limitations were set on elective surgery by Departmental policy, we were enabled
to have operations performed which were not possible before. Cases which required
hospitalization in an outside hospital and emergency surgical cases have continued to be
sent to the Vancouver General Hospital. Further, we have welcomed the interest of
Dr. Amyot and his staff in a project to assess the medical requirements of Oakalla, and
their advice in regard to requisitioning of drugs. We were pleased to participate at a
conference with yourself and other representatives of your Department, Dr. Whitbread,
of the Health Department, and with the Comptroller of the Attorney-General's Department. Dr. Whitbread's report was submitted to you. Following this we were privileged
to have the instruction and advice of the pharmacist of the Provincial Mental Hospital
concerning the resources of the prison pharmacy. From his observations it is clear that
we require a full-time pharmacist, or at least a pharmacist who has sufficient time to give
adequate supervision. As you are aware, there has been a great deal of discussion and,
in some instances, arbitrary action in dealing with our gaol requisitions. Oakalla and
any penal institutions of its size have to cater for a wide range of ailments, both physical
and psychiatric, and also doctors have their own opinions as to what drugs are most
desirable for certain conditions. Inmates attending the Out-patient Department of the
Vancouver General Hospital have been returned with prescriptions which we are not
able to fill unless we order specially.
We have very many inmates admitted to Oakalla Prison Farm who are seriously
malnourished from either narcotics or alcohol, and some pregnant women require vitamins of various types. Epilepsy is a common occurrence, and we sometimes have as
many as twenty epileptics on treatment three times a day. We endeavour to discover the
most effective form of tranquillizing drugs. Septic conditions and virus conditions all
call for a wide range of antibiotics. These are only a few of the varieties of medical
problems which have to be met.
The pharmacy itself and the storage space are inadequate in size, and with the
amount of prescription work carried out, some grave miscalculation or other error could
arise at any time.
We have continued to be encouraged by the hopes of a new or adapted hospital.
You will observe from the statistics the large number of cases passing through the hospital
and the many categories of illnesses. We have also taken cases from New Haven and
Haney. It is felt that we are approaching a limit to the waiting period for extensive
improvements. We are constantly in danger of an epidemic of staphylococcus infections.
We have grown cultures of Staphylococcus aureus in heavy concentration from every
part of the hospital, including the operating-room, but fortunately, so far we have had
no significant amount of sepsis arising from the minor surgical procedures carried out.
Serious infection might have arisen from the use of only two toilets by a population in
the tower of the hospital which sometimes is as high as seventy with no shower or tub
bath. There is no sink or basin in the treatment room for treatment staff to wash their
hands or instruments after dressings. Plans for such elementary improvements were
approved, but owing to priorities elsewhere these did not materialize. There is no facility
for isolation for any patient suffering from contagious diseases and no protective resources
for isolation of violent and insane prisoners. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 59
An increasing amount of surgery has been carried out in the prison hospital
operating-room. Improvements and additions to this section of the hospital were
approved, but were not carried out. The main improvements were to be a floor protective against static electricity, a surgeon's scrub-up room, and a recovery-room. In the
absence of these facilities, local anaesthetics can only be used. Until we are adequately
supplied with surgical equipment, with medical resources and trained operating staff,
activities of this nature must be extremely limited. The present hospital staff is, on the
whole, unable to offer skilled nursing service; however, it performs most conscientious
and loyal service. Both a period of relatively extensive training for the hospital staff and
also the supervision of a registered nurse or nurses are urgently required.
Dr. Lewison has given us a further year of his eminent services in plastic surgery.
His contribution is entirely voluntary, and this is the fifth year of his remarkable addition
to the treatment programme. It is hoped that Dr. Lewison will be able to form some
statistical estimation of the part which his skill has played in the rehabilitation of many
of his inmate patients. A nasal deformity can be a source of embarrassment, and in
many cases may be a partial factor in feelings of inadequacy with consequent delinquency.
A great deal more rehabilitative surgery is required, as is also a more liberal supply of
dentures for indigent inmates.
The members of staff employed in a correctional institution and the money spent
may be useless in many instances if we are to continue to send people out of prison with
deformities and disfigurements and physical disabilities which provoke emotional frustrations, and which may physically hinder wage-earning.
It is gratifying to have sufficient laboratory and X-ray facilities to be able to supply
our consultants with the essential clinical information which they may require. Our
X-ray and laboratory technicians have been trained in the prison hospital. We are
grateful to Mrs. Mulholland, who is a qualified laboratory technician, and has worked
in our prison laboratory for one-half day a week, and it has been inspiring to observe
how much work she has been able to pack into these few hours, and how infectious has
been her enthusiasm.
We have found the electrocardiograph most helpful, and we believe by early
diagnoses of pathological heart conditions it has been instrumental in the saving of life.
Dr. J. C. Thomas has continued to act as visiting psychiatrist. He has carried out
some 113 examinations for the Courts. We are also obliged to him for his assistance
with some psychiatric cases under sentence.
It will be seen from the statistics that an increasing number of psychotics have been
committed by Order in Council from the gaol. This apparently is due to the increase of
those committed through the Courts, partly owing to an increasing awareness of the
needs for psychiatric treatment, and partly because it would seem that increasing pressures
of an active programme more readily reveal those of a psychotic or grossly psychopathic
state of mind. The need for a psychiatric treatment unit is described in a later section
of this report. Thirty-two inmates—twenty-nine male, three female— received electro-
encephalographic examination at the Crease Clinic.
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
Medically there has been little to add to reports of previous years. The inmates of
this unit show a younger average age than previously, with a consequently high proportion
of seriously maladjusted boys, so, therefore, this unit receives more attention from the
medical officers than others. The numbers attending sick parades are high relatively.
Many of these complaints are mainly neurotic attention-seeking techniques. It is greatly
to the credit of the staff that so many are controlled with comparatively little resort to DD 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
severe penal methods. Some excessively hostile, withdrawn, homosexual, mentally
deficient or pre-psychotic inmates are skilfully contained within the programme.
This unit contains a great deal of psychological material, which not only deserves
and requires abundant therapeutic resources, but it is also a unique opportunity for
teaching both postgraduate physicians taking up psychiatry and also psychiatric social
workers. It should be able to be included in the curriculum for the training of those who
are studying for certification in psychiatry.
The hygiene of this unit has had its ups and downs, the main source of anxiety has,
as usual, been the kitchen, which is too small and inevitably has poorly domesticated
inmates working therein. Owing to an outbreak of enteritis, the kitchen was closed,
except for dishing up and serving of snack meals. The main meals are now cooked in the
main gaol kitchen. This has proved very satisfactory, but it is anticipated that when the
new kitchen for this unit has been completed the food will be again cooked locally. The
training in cooking is a valuable asset to the programme. It would seem to be hopeful
that a female cook may at some time be appointed, who would not only give her skilled
attention to the general standard of housekeeping, but would, in the presence of an
appropriate woman, contribute to the rehabilitation of those with whom she came in
contact. The cleanliness of the entire unit has been below standard on many occasions,
but it receives the constant vigilance of the staff.
The vocational training carried out in this unit has called for little medical comment,
except the lack of ventilation in the auto mechanic shop has been, it is thought, detrimental to the health of the staff and inmates employed there. However, this is being
improved by the addition of outlets and fans.
EAST WING
This wing has experienced a major revision in its policy, and so far it has met with
success as regards almost wholesale employment of the inmates accommodated there.
More intensive work and recreational programmes, with greater demands on the inmates,
have considerably lessened the medical problems of a physical nature. Whereas in
previous years, each sick parade from the wing included some thirty inmates, they now
average from four to six. This, of course, throws a heavy responsibility on the staff of
the wing, as limiting the attendances to this degree requires skilful screening. Provided
this is available, there should be no negligence of a physical complaint requiring the
doctor's attention. This, of course, requires a high calibre of senior staff, and so far we
have been fortunate in this respect. The amount of morbid behaviour as applying to
narcotic drugs on withdrawal has been minimal.
In the male section of the gaol we have not diverted from the routine method of
withdrawal, which was established five years ago, because we have not yet been able to
institute a special unit for those undergoing withdrawal, specially staffed by officers with
nursing training. At this point possibly a variety of withdrawal techniques could have
been utilized, with accompanying research. However, failing this, we have found that
the previous routine, with the exercise of firm controls, has been more comfortable for
the drug addict than otherwise.
This wing includes the majority of the less rehabilitable offenders and the more
gravely disturbed. There is a nucleus of seriously psychopathic inmates who are unable,
by virtue of gross instability, inadequacy, hostility, or other personality disorders, to
remain in any organized activity for any length of time. Attempts are made to deter
them from hostility and rebellion by isolation and restrictive measures, but, as is the
experience generally of correctional procedure as a whole, such means serve as an
expediency to maintain prison discipline rather than treatment of the individual concerned. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 61
NARCOTIC DRUG TREATMENT UNITS
These have been under the psychiatric supervision of Dr. Gordon Stephenson, who
is submitting his reports.
From their medical aspects we have observed a situation of good physical health
of both women and men inmates, and the amount of medication of any sort prescribed
has been extremely slight. The hygiene has been adequate, the cooking satisfactory, and
the work programme healthy.
ELEMENTARY TRAINING UNIT
This unit has been regularly visited by one of the medical officers. The hygiene of
the hut has been greatly improved following the leakage of farm drainage into the unit;
the opening, lighting, and ventilation have transformed the area into liveable accommodation. The aim of the administration to utilize punishments constructively has been
appreciated, and medical suggestions concerning individual offenders have been given
every consideration. The major problems in a penal unit of this nature are the varying
natures and degrees of personality disturbances which are grouped together and the lack
of skilled and qualified staff serving therein. Very broadly speaking, the inmates sent
down to the unit come under the following categories:—
(a) The habitual offender who knows how to behave in the " hole," having
been in one " hole " or another on and off for many years. He will probably conform all his time in isolation and conform again for quite a time
back in his parent unit.
(b) The less disturbed individual who has,erred in the prison more or less
fortuitously, and the jolt of punishment is expedient and may be helpful.
(c) The mentally disturbed pre-psychotic or pathologically hostile individual
who deteriorates under conditions at Elementary Training Unit.
(d) The psychotic inmate awaiting transfer to the Provincial Mental Hospital,
whose behaviour is too disruptive for accommodation in the prison hospital with its limited resources.   He may possibly be suicidal.
It would seem, therefore, that a psychiatrically oriented unit for those in classes
(c) and (d) should be established, in order that they may be retained within the correctional institution rather than overload the strained accommodation of the mental hospital.
This psychiatric unit, it is considered, for the total Provincial gaol population of 2,000,
should provide accommodation for thirty patients. This approximately amounts to the
2 per cent of prison population which is usually regarded as requiring this type of
accommodation. The staff would, of course, consist of a psychiatrist, intern, psychologist,
psychiatric social workers and an occupational therapist, a laboratory technician, and
graduate psychiatric nurses. This unit would offer ready opportunities in relation to the
clinical training of psychiatrists and the satellite disciplines.
Concerning the present organization of the Elementary Training Unit, it is our
opinion that it should be supervised permanently and constantly by a senior officer with
much experience, who can counsel the staff there and assist them to use deterrent
procedures as constructively as possible. It is also considered that no punishments should
be awarded by any of the staff employed there, but that offences should always be
referred to the Warden or Deputy Warden acting for him. As in the hospital, there is
lack of accommodation for inmates who are liable to injure themselves, and there is no
insulation from noise. In some of the cells with steel shutters, there is a lack of adequate
vision of the inmate for the purposes of observation. DD 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
WOMEN'S GAOL
The outstanding problem medically has been the expanding population which is to
some extent relieved by the opening of the annex, and will be lessened by the additional
building now under construction. It is greatly to the credit of Miss Maybee and her staff
that so many inmates have been accommodated without disruption of the programme,
and with retention of the high standard of health in the unit. These numbers render the
kitchen inadequate in size and also storage-places and dining accommodation, which
latter necessitates the overflow of inmates to other areas for dining, such as recreation
auditorium, laundry, and two separate units, plus isolation facilities. These isolation
rooms are relatively comfortable. A serious lack is the absence of communication by
bell or otherwise from these rooms to the main building, although a matron visits
frequently.
There is much need for a new admission area, and it is hoped that the old laundry
will be converted for this purpose. The present admission area is sadly limited in space,
and all business has to be carried on midst activity and people, thereby adding to the
wear and tear of the staff concerned.
Tuberculosis cases are unduly restricted owing to lack of a medical isolation area.
Medical facilities are increasingly utilized in the inadequate space which is available.
The Pan Abode offers no problem in hygiene, and a high standard of health and
counselling is maintained.
The huts call for no addition to the medical comment of previous years.
CLASSIFICATION WING
Medical services to this unit have expanded, and we hope that in time fuller medical
examinations can be carried out on each inmate. Each inmate is seen on admission and
a medical examination carried out, but detailed thoroughness is not possible as some
forty to fifty admissions have to be examined medically each evening. The medical category is assessed then. Those who are to serve two months or longer and special cases are
re-examined the next day and any additional recommendations made. This is a marked
improvement on the state of affairs two years ago, when admissions were not seen medically at all, but we still have a long way to go.
The Central Classification Unit, which this wing houses, has the heavy responsibility
of classifying inmates not only for units within the Oakalla setting, but also for Haney
Correctional Institution and New Haven. It is felt that the Oakalla Classification should
be enabled to be as thorough and expert as is required for such standards as set out in
the American Manual of Corrections. The unit at Oakalla has done a great deal in spite
of its poor environment and lack of sufficient professional assistance. It is encouraging
to see an addition to the classification area in process of construction. The wealth of
material which passes through this department would be an invaluable contribution to
research, and we would very much like to see the opening of a research foundation here,
centred in Classification.
WESTGATE
This unit has continued to supply an active programme of attempted rehabilitation
in spite of many difficulties and changes. Haney has inevitably drawn away many of its
actual and potential" hopefuls." Quite old men and alcoholics have added to the problem
there, and also young inmates who would normally have been in Young Offenders' Unit,
but for whom there has been no accommodation owing to overcrowding.
Medically, Westgate remains a source of infection, mostly of the upper respiratory
nature, owing to dust from the floors, poor ventilation, and unequal heating, though
increasing circulation of air has been made more possible by additional vents. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 63
An officer from the medical department visits daily and sees from twenty to thirty
inmates, screening those who require to see the doctor at the sick parade which is held
once weekly. Emergencies, of course, are seen at any time. This is inadequate attention
compared with that given to other units medically, as there should be a medically trained
orderly on duty in the unit throughout the waking hours, and especially during the
evening when there is a need for the distribution of night medication and dressings.
However, with our present nursing resources such procedure is not feasible, and we are
fortunate that, owing to the conscientious attitude of all the staff, so far there has been
no unduly serious incident arising from lack of medical care.
WEST WING
Medically there is little to comment upon concerning this wing, except the lack of
segregation of age-groups and degrees of delinquency causes a mingling which, it is
feared, promotes contagion in the way of delinquent behaviour. The wing has had an
increasing number of seriously disturbed inmates awaiting trial and requiring committal
to the Mental Hospital. Narcotic addicts awaiting trial and withdrawing fom narcotics
need a separate section with medical and nursing care. At present withdrawal treatment
is mostly carried out in the ordinary cells of the wing, and nursing attention is only
possible in a somewhat infrequent and remote degree.
OLD GAOL
Owing to pressure of accommodation this unit had to be reopened with approximately 100 alcoholics of an older age-group and a younger group with a marked degree
of physical disability, which prevents them from joining a more active programme elsewhere. The physical condition of these inmates has, on the whole, deteriorated, as
observed on admission to the gaol. There are, of course, a larger number of senile
alcoholics, but also there are quite a number of medical problems which have to be met
in many of the middle-aged alcoholics. These congregated in one group render the unit
vulnerable to crisis of a medical nature, and it does not seem to be humanly possible to
avoid the risk of sudden death among such inmates.
We would like to see more medical care available for this group, although it is
visited by a hospital officer once a day.
The unit is overcrowded and has insufficient sanitation and ablution facilities, but
with the present population of the gaol there is no other accommodation possible. These,
together with alcoholics in Westgate and in the hospital, would form the type of community to which a camp, farm, or other colony-patterned institution would be most
appropriate. Such inmates are no custodial problem. They settle quite contentedly in
an organization which provides them with food, a bed, and a roof, but most of them are
capable of productive work. The present system, if it can be called such, is a waste in
many ways and provides nothing as regards treatment of alcoholism, except for the
valuable help which is given from time to time by the Alcoholic Foundation and the
Alcoholics Anonymous, which naturally can only be a token of what is really necessary.
KITCHEN
This has continued to maintain a most satisfactory standard of diet. The number of
complaints concerning food has been negligible. The floor drainage has caused some
concern, but an adjustment has been made. There has been a plague of cockroaches,
and with the help of the municipal sanitarians this has been largely eliminated. Their
main breeding-place is behind the insulation tiles in the ceiling. It would be as well to
remove these tiles, as in our opinion they do not serve an essential requirement.   A larger- DD 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sized dish-washing machine is still wanted.    Increased ventilation is necessary, as in the
hot weather the temperature rises to 100 degrees in the afternoon.
There has been a source of infection of athlete's foot in the showers, but the necessary disinfection of the feet has been commenced.
DAIRY
Certain improvements have been made during the year. Some structural adjustment
is necessary in the way of an entrance to the office which prevents the dairy being used
as a thoroughfare for those wishing to enter the office. A partition wall between the
receiving-tank and the pasteurizer, also a new skylight, has improved ventilation, but an
additional wall fan is required. It is hoped that during the ensuing year stainless-steel
tanks will be provided for washing the utensils.
The bacterial content of the milk has been acceptably low.
FARM
The only medical comment concerning this has been the removal of the old dumps
which were breeding-places for rats. The rat-control requires constant supervision, as
there have been too many rats around, but the matter receives the close attention of the
sanitarians.
SEWERAGE
An addition to the sewerage system was completed last August, and the results have
been satisfactory. A chlorinating plant has been added, and there have been no indications of contamination of Deer Lake by effluent as yet. It is understood that the Health
Department takes frequent samples of the water there.
THE BATHROOM AND CLOTHING STORAGE
This remains very inadequate to the point of being condemnable. Ventilation has
been improved. The new apparatus for fumigating bedding and clothing has arrived
and is awaiting installation, and should be of high efficiency. It is good to know that
there are plans to add a small area to the bathroom accommodation, though it really
needs a new building.   Clothing-storage space is extremely limited.
WORKSHOPS
The new licence-plate shop has presented a few medical problems, except of need
for protection against paint fumes. Milk has been issued daily to those most closely
exposed.   There is no medical comment to make concerning the other shops.
THE BOARDS OF INQUIRY IN CASES OF ACCIDENTS
OCCURRING TO INMATES
A board of inquiry is held in the case of each inmate who is injured to a degree
which might incapacitate him, partially or wholly, from work on release, either temporarily
or permanently. The board is composed of the Deputy Warden, the senior hospital
officer, the officer in charge of the inmate at the time of the accident, the chaplain of
his faith, and the doctor. A report of proceedings is sent to the Director of Correction.
It is hoped this is a step toward some official recognition of the needs of some inmates
for compensation, the amount, of course, being assessed on his culpability and the culpability of those responsible for the work or recreation in which he was engaged at the
time of the injury. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 65
GENERAL HEALTH OF THE INMATES
This has been satisfactory on the whole. From September to December, 1957, there
was an epidemic of Asian influenza; there were some 300 cases in all, most of them from
Westgate.   One unit there had to be used as an improvised infirmary ward.
We are receiving an increasing number of epileptics, and an added number of
alcoholics in poor health. Some of the diabetics cause concern and difficulty in their
control because of lack of adequate dietetic resources and, in a few instances, lack of their
co-operation.
There were eight deaths (including two executions), and sixty-seven admitted to
Vancouver General Hospital.
Tuberculosis Control continues to perform an essential service. Routine examination of admissions and follow-up of those who have been suspected of or treated for
tuberculosis have brought to light sixty-eight as having active pulmonary tuberculosis.
There were 7,588 chest X-rays carried out. Eighty-four cases of active tuberculosis
were treated. In the tuberculosis unit of the prison hospital were collected many patients
who have not co-operated with the treatment in outside hospitals, and they present a
major health problem when committed. Some of this difficulty lies in the sparse application of the provision in the " Health Act " which allows these active cases of tuberculosis to be apprehended and retained in tuberculosis hospitals. It is understood that
part of the difficulty in their apprehension lies in their lack of domicile and the short
time they serve in Oakalla Prison Farm. It would be a great help if orders for apprehension could be carried into effect on the day of their release from Oakalla Prison Farm.
We are most grateful for the consultant advice given us by Dr. Hakstian, which has
been of invaluable assistance to us and to the patients, and for the constant and devoted
supervision of those inmates by Miss Winifred Neen, Supervisor of Tuberculosis Nursing,
City of Vancouver.
During the year we lost the regular service of visiting physicians from Venereal
Disease Control. This meant that our laboratory has been responsible for the diagnoses
of some of the smears on the men's side, and we have initiated the necessary treatment.
The weekly visits have continued to be paid by Venereal Disease Control physicians to
the Women's Gaol. On the men's side we have sent some cases down to Venereal Disease Control, and when necessary we have taken blood specimens for transmission to
the Provincial Laboratory, and also cerebral spinal fluid on occasions. This practice
ensures that no inmate who himself reports infection goes untreated, and those who are
observed to have symptoms during routine examination, but there must be a minimal
number who pass unnoticed owing to the cessation of routine serum investigations.
Dental treatment has continued on the same basis as the previous year. Owing to
the increasing numbers of those requiring dental treatment, much of the dentist's time
is spent in extractions. This is unavoidable as matters stand at present, but we would
like to see preventive dental therapy and hygiene rather than such a large proportion of
dental caries in the gaol setting. The dentists have continued to function on two days
a week in all.   The dental surgery is badly in need of new equipment.
PAROLE BOARD
The Medical Officer has continued to attend as many of the Parole Board sessions
as possible, and a medical report has been submitted on each candidate. Physically,
most of the essential requirements are met as regards examination for the Parole Board.
The long and frequent sessions of the Parole Board have been devotedly carried
out by the three members of the British Columbia Parole Board. These arduous and
very important duties must add considerably to the demands on their energy, and one DD 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
wonders whether, as the number of candidates for the Parole Board increases, there
should not be more members appointed.
CAMPS AT CHILLIWACK
Medically these have produced no problem. Hygiene has been adequately preserved, the water-supply, sanitary arrangements, cooking facilities, dietary, clothing, and
living accommodation have been satisfactory. A number of relatively serious accidents
have occurred, but no more than would be anticipated from a population of so many
carrying out heavy clearance and construction operations. The improvement in physique
and morale in the camp inmates has been most marked. An extension of these camps
would be well worth while. I have visited the camps as often as possible. Those inmates
requiring more than first-aid medical attention are returned to Oakalla Prison Farm, or
in an emergency are taken to the Chilliwack Hospital.
NEW HAVEN
This has been visited medically once a week. The number reporting sick has been
low; 155 inmates have been examined on sick parades; three were admitted to Vancouver General Hospital and two to Burnaby General Hospital; two had E.E.G. examinations at the Crease Clinic; seventeen were sent to the eye specialist, eight of whom
were issued with glasses. Dental treatment has been continued to be given by the dentist at Vancouver General Hospital. Eighteen inmates were supplied with dentures and
124 boys were seen by the dentist in all. The hygiene of this institution is satisfactory.
An inspection was made by the Burnaby Municipality sanitarians, and there was no adverse comment. However, the effluent from the septic tank continues to pass through
devious routes not wholly sanitary.   The milk is now being pasteurized.
Difficulty has again been experienced by the classification team in Oakalla in keeping the numbers at New Haven to the full quota, at the same time sending appropriate
inmates. Some of those who would previously have been sent to New Haven go to
Haney, with its fuller vocational facilities, but there remains a type of young offender
who is not seriously delinquent and has little or no previous record and who would
respond to an emphasis on character training. In spite of this, numbers have been maintained up to full, or nearly full, capacity without noticeable detriment to the programme.
It would be interesting to observe the statistics of successes in comparison to previous
years.
HANEY CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
The year under review saw the commencement of operation of this Institution.
Medically the hospital area and staffing is of exceptionally high standard. The qualifications of the nursing staff are such that for both mental and physical disorders there is
assurance that treatment will be consistent with the aims of those who planned the
Institution. The wards, rooms, laboratory, out-patient department and the operating-
room, the dental offices, and other clinical areas are beyond criticism. Much difficulty
was experienced in the slow arrival of the medical supplies and other basic requirements,
but at the time of writing these have almost all been obtained.
At present the more serious cases of physical and mental disorders are returned
to Oakalla Prison Farm, as in its present setting they present a disruption of the programme and inaccessibility of consultant advice and treatment. The medical duties have
been most ably carried out by Dr. A. Trudel, on a part-time basis. An institution such
as this, with its active vocational and treatment programme, requires the full-time service
of a physician, but Dr. Trudel, by generous contribution of his time, has gone a long
way to fill the needs. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 67
The inception of an institution invariably brings its problems which readily become
evident, and where possible are speedily solved.
The Institution has been fortunate in obtaining the services of a part-time psychiatrist, Dr. Mason Brown.
The dietary and food serving has been improved during recent months. Certain
structural inadequacies have been found in the kitchen, with lack of restroom and the
position of toilets and showers. Initially, clothing and footwear caused some medical
problems in the kitchen.
The dormitories have been found to be too large for adequate supervision and
individual attention. It has been interesting to observe the establishment of two specialized units—one for classification and one for the more disturbed inmates.
The sewerage installation gives some nuisance by its odour, but this has been greatly
improved recently.    Garbage-disposal is not yet adequate.
Tuberculosis control has been maintained by visits from the mobile unit. The
opening of the general hospital at Haney will prove of great assistance. Dental attention is adequate, and is rendered by Dr. Black, who has been accommodated with equipment as good or better than that of dental offices outside prisons.
I have visited the Institution at regular intervals, and have been available for consultation and advice regarding medical policy. I observed the programme in its many
facets and have been most impressed with the quality of staff, with the standard of vocational and educational training, and with the variety and vigour of recreational activities.
The classification procedure has shown admirable skill, and the religious ministry, with
true dedication, has ministered most effectively and has shown the value of the utmost
co-operation with the lay treatment staff.
GOLD CREEK CAMP
This camp has profited medically by its proximity to Haney Correctional Institution, as those reporting sick are taken into the Institution without delay, and dental
attention is also similarly provided. The hygiene of the camp is of high standard. There
is need for more refrigeration space. A root-storage room has been added. The construction of the recreation cum hobby room cum library has greatly added to the amenities. Water-supply and sewage-disposal have been satisfactory. Clothing has been
adequate.
SUMMARY
These, therefore, Sir, are necessarily brief observations as perceived by your Medical
Officer. Year after year we report certain medical inadequacies, some of which are of
a vital and basic nature, and we know that you bear them in mind and are in readiness
to remedy them at the earliest possible moment. We are grateful for the medical organization, equipment, and nursing staff of Haney Correctional Institution, which any prison
service would be gratified to possess. Medical facilities at Oakalla, both out-patient and
in-patient, are dangerously insufficient. There is need for a new hospital and a nursing
staff with general hospital training, or, failing that, a prison staff who qualify for their
medical duties after in-service training which should be approved by a specialist in nursing training. There is need for a unit especially equipped for the treatment of the mentally ill but non-psychotic offender. There is need of increased psychiatric service at
Oakalla, which can form a link with the training of psychiatrists at the Provincial Mental
Hospital and the University. There is also need for a unit such as a colony or farm for
the alcoholics.
I am indeed grateful to you for your awareness of our problems and your co-operation, especially in that of medicinal supplies, in the provision of outside hospital treatment, and the obtaining of a specialist's opinion whenever we have requested it, and we DD 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
are also most thankful to Warden Christie and his deputies for their primary consent in
these matters.
We much appreciate your counselling on policies of a medical nature. I am also
greatly indebted to Warden Christie and his staff at Oakalla, who have given all possible
assistance when at times their general resources have been strained to the utmost. Warden
Nelson has done everything possible to assist in the establishment of the medical department under his jurisdiction, and Mr. S. Rocksborough Smith has given his usual encouraging support at New Haven.
I would also like to thank the Medical Health Officer for Burnaby Municipality
for his assistance given to us by his staff in matters of hygiene, and Dr. E. Lewison for
his faithful contributions to plastic surgery.
Mr. John MacLeod has, as previously, given dedicated service in administrative
charge of the Medical Section of Oakalla Prison Farm.
The chaplains of all denominations have worked in close harmony with us. They
have greatly assisted in the care of some of the more disturbed inmates.
Mr. S. Rocksborough Smith and your Medical Officer attended the first Canadian
Congress of Corrections in Montreal in May, 1957.
STATISTICAL REPORT OF OAKALLA HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL
DEPARTMENTS, APRIL 1st, 1957, TO MARCH 31st, 1958
Breakdown of Admissions to Prison Hospital
Diagnosis
Number of
Patients
Days in
Hospital
Days per
Patient
Abscesses  -  - -	
6
5
12
6
2
16
68
3
34
14
21
7
1
14
31
1
11
3
18
1
9
32
126
183
10
2
1
6
3
21
38
1
8
26
6
84
53
522
58
11
264
4.029
23
939
465
227
147
28
49
192
3
138
37
112
22
144
742
2,163
1,162
42
28
13
27
30
273
561
59
73
80
30
14.00
10 60
Chest conditions—
43 50
9 66
5 50
16 50
59 25
7.66
Cripples and amputees  	
27.61
33.21
10.80
Epidermis—
21 00
28.00
3 50
6.19
3.00
Gastro-intestinal—
12.54
12.33
6.22
22.00
16.00
23.18
Influenza—
17.16
6.35
Infections—
Boils	
4,20
9.00
13 00
6.50
Injuries—-
10.00
13.00
14.76
Lumbar fractures   _	
Self inflicted   -      —             - -	
59,00
9.21
3.07
5.00
J REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58
Breakdown of Admissions to Prison Hospital—Continued
DD 69
Diagnosis
Number of
Patients
Days in
Hospital
Days per
Patient
Muscles and ligaments—
18
1
132
26
1
2
216
29
161
12
1
7
4
36
5
1
61
2
37
1
7
69
127
496
69
563
170
215
20
6,048
163
682
391
249
111
4
240
40
26
1,012
40
962
7
31
5031
4,418
27.55
69.00
4.26
6.53
215.00
10.00
28.00
5.61
4.23
12.61
249.00
Surgical—■
15.85
1.00
Rhino plasty and S.M.R  —-   —  	
S.M.R. only- -	
5.85
8.00
26.00
16.59
Stomach disorders—
20.00
40.08
7.00
4.42
12.26
34.78
1,674
29,280
17.49
1 This figure is for the days spent in gaol hospital, and does not include days at Essondale.    Nor does this figure
include those inmates sent from other units of the gaol.
Summary of the Various Departments under the Hospital
Optometrist: 83 inmates received glasses—62 from Government funds and 21 from
personal funds.
Dispensary: Patients to Vancouver General Hospital, 536; patients to other
clinics, 183.
Dental Department: Patients seen by Dr. Alexander, 1,019; patients seen by Dr.
Gilroy, 1,023; total number treated by dental clinic, 2,042.
X-ray Department: Total number of X-rays taken in year, 1,047; total number of
positives, 179.
Laboratory Department: Total number of examinations and tests conducted by
technician, 3,704.
TB. Clinic:  Total number of miniatures taken: —
Male Female
Applicants      194 32
Staff      288 17
Inmates  6,333 654
Totals  6,825 703
Grand total, 7,528.
Hanging (judicial):  2.
Died (natural causes): 6.
TB. patients admitted to gaol hospital:   84.
Admitted to Vancouver General Hospital: 67 for a total of 805 days at $17.25
per day.
R. G. E. Richmond, M.D.,
Medical Officer. DD 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF PSYCHOLOGIST
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The following is the report of the Provincial Gaol Service Psychologist for the
fiscal year of April 1st, 1957, to March 31st, 1958:—
STATISTICS FOR PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS
I. Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Male Inmates
Main Gaol and Westgate Units
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  1
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  15
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (Elementary) 24
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (Elementary) 28
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (High School) 26
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (High School) 17
Otis Employment Test, Form 1a  404
Otis Employment Test, Form A (French)   l
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  3
Non-language Multi-mental Test  16
Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test  369
Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test  1
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Intermediate)   335
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational CH)   3
Johnson Temperament Analysis   5
Young Offenders' Unit
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  2
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (Elementary) 9
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (Elementary) 13
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (High School) 7
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (High School) 10
S-H Vocabulary Scale  3
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational C)   1
Mental Health Analysis (Intermediate)   1
II. Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Female Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  4
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (Elementary) 6
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (Elementary) 8
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (High School) 3
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (High School) 2
S-H Retreat Scale  4
S-H Vocabulary Scale  13
Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board  1
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Intermediate)  1
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational CH)   1
Johnson Temperament Analysis    1 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58 DD 71
III. Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Staff or
Applicants for Staff Jobs
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (High School)   125
Otis Employment Test, Form 1a     15
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b       6
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale     16
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale       7
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational CH)   125
IV. Administered in New Haven to Inmates
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  10
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  7
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  26
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Intermediate)   15
Mental Health Analysis (Adult)  47
There were no major changes in the psychological testing programme during the
fiscal year. However, with the opening of the Haney Correctional Institution there came
an increased demand for test findings on inmates not covered by the existent system.
It is anticipated that when the Haney Correctional Institution obtains its own psychologist
that this deficiency will be alleviated.
As Supervisor of Classification for the Provincial Gaol Service, I would like to report
the following developments which have taken place during the fiscal year.
The Central Classification Committee has developed into an efficient team, fully
capable of carrying out the classification procedures as they are now understood; consequently, there is a good degree of stability in the Central Classification at this point of its
development.
The accommodation provided by Oakalla Prison Farm administration has steadily
bettered, and the Oakalla administration has plans for an addition to the South Wing of
the Main Gaol, which will improve even more the facilities available to the Central
Classification Committee.
The Central Classification Committee has had, during the year, the responsibility
for the selection of inmates for the Haney Correctional Institution, New Haven, and the
units within Oakalla Prison Farm known as Young Offenders' Unit, Westgate, East Wing,
and Annex " A."
Selection by the Central Classification Committee of inmates for the Haney Correctional Institution started in September of 1957. In this initial stage, certain key personnel
from the Haney Correctional Institution (Deputy Warden J. Braithwaite, Business Manager W. Lane, and Supervisor of Classification and Counselling I. Smith) were invited to
join the selection board (a) because of the large numbers to be screened, (b) because
of their special knowledge of the new institution, and (c) because these personnel had
themselves had experience in classification at Oakalla and, in a number of instances, were
more familiar than the relatively new Central Classification Committee with the inmates
being screened.
By October 1st, 1957, the Central Classification Committee was conducting the
selection of inmates for the Haney Correctional Institution almost entirely without the
assistance of the Haney personnel, and by December of 1957 the responsibility for selection was completely in the hands of the Central Classification Committee. Since then,
selection and transfer procedures have been on a fairly routine basis.
Since January of 1958, regular monthly meetings have taken place between representatives of the Central Classification Committee, of the institutional administrations,
and of the Director of Correction's department.   The prime purpose of these meetings has DD 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
been to try to resolve problems related to classification by the conference method.
Another important purpose has been to give members of the Classification Committee
an opportunity to visit the various institutions, and thus, through familiarization tours
and first-hand knowledge of the programmes, become better qualified to carry out their
work of selecting the most appropriate individuals to place in these institutions. In
addition, these meetings have proven to be very helpful by providing, as they do, a means
for direct communication between classification personnel and key institutional personnel.
Respectfully submitted.
R. V. McAllister,
Provincial Gaol Service Psychologist
and Supervisor of Classification.
REPORT OF SENIOR PROTESTANT CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Protestant chaplains in
the British Columbia Corrections Branch for the year ended March 31st, 1958.
The expansion of the work of the Corrections Branch during the year under review
has been reflected in the work of the chaplains in the various institutions.
Rev. E. J. Hulford, a minister of the Anglican Church and formerly assistant at
St. James Church, Vancouver, was appointed as full-time chaplain to the Haney Correctional Institution on July 1st, 1957.
Rev. F. Humphreys, a minister of the Baptist Church, continued to assist the Senior
Chaplain on a part-time basis at Oakalla Prison Farm.
The number of theological students acting as " chaplain interns " was increased from
two to four. Three of these worked in Oakalla Prison Farm, and one assisted at New
Haven. Two students were from the Anglican College, and two from Union College, of
the University of British Columbia.
The Chilliwack Ministerial Association assumed responsibility for religious services
at the Chilliwack camps.
The Senior Chaplain has assumed responsibility for all chaplain's duties at the
Women's Gaol and at New Haven, and has offered guidance and direction in matters of
policy and methods to the other chaplains of the Corrections Branch.
THE ROLE OF THE CHAPLAIN
To minimize frustration and discouragement, temptations which confront every
serious worker in corrections, the chaplain must visualize his role clearly and endeavour
to interpret it to both staff and inmates. The degree of interpretation which is achieved
will largely determine the effectiveness of his work.
Primarily he must be convinced that there is no solution to the problem of delinquency and crime that is not grounded in religious and ethical principles. His primary
task is to bring into the lives of inmates those positive values and motivations which will
make them want to live joyful and fruitful lives in peaceful and constructive relationships
with others in society.
When the dynamic of the Christian religion is combined with the new approaches to
individual counselling and group work, promising results in personality reconstruction
are possible. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 73
The role of the prison chaplain to-day is essentially that of an educator, who, through
worship and counselling, imparts knowledge of the Bible and of the Christian faith in
relation to daily living, teaches skills of worship and prayer, and seeks to create a new and
different sense of values and to instil new attitudes.
He must ever remember that he has been appointed as a chaplain because he is a
minister of religion, and his first and chief duty is as a minister of the church of Jesus
Christ. He must receive his place in institutional life, as God's will for him, as God's
high calling to him; his privilege to exercise his ministry in conditions of disappointment,
of small success, of general apathy and indifference, perhaps even hostility, toward that
which he represents. These are the conditions of his ministry under which he seeks to
work as an ambassador of Christ.
The chaplain's duties fall naturally into certain specific areas—(1) the services of
public worship, (2) religious education, and (3) public relations.
(1) Public Worship
One must recognize the fact that by far the majority of those who comprise the
congregation at the services of public worship are ignorant or uninstructed regarding the
Christian faith. This, of necessity, keeps down the devotional and intellectual level of
nearly all the services. These services and sermons must not fly far beyond the limits
of the vast majority. In spite of these limitations, however, a serious attempt is made in
all these services to bring the individual into a new awareness of God, to help him
reconsider the duties and possibilities of life, to indicate the spiritual resources available,
and to suggest how one may appropriate and apply them to daily living.
No prescribed form of service is laid down. Each chaplain conducts a service on the
basis of the liturgy in the Canadian Armed Services Hymnal, and seeks in his own way
to bring beauty, variety, and conviction into each service.
(a)  Oakalla Prison Farm
As in previous years, the services of worship were conducted each Sunday by representatives of the Anglican Church, the United Church, the Salvation Army, and the Union
Gospel Mission, in turn. Baptist, Lutheran, and Presbyterian Churches have also
assumed responsibility for services on occasions when requested.
An interesting experiment was undertaken on Easter Sunday, 1957. Inmates and
members of their families sat and worshipped together—a wholesome expression of one
phase of the philosophy of treatment in a correctional setting. The service was conducted
by the Commissioner for Canada of the Salvation Army, assisted by the Citadel Band.
Comments in the local press and in various religious periodicals across Canada indicated
considerable interest in the experiment.
Special services were also held on Remembrance Day and on Christmas Day. Holy
communion was administered at Christmas and Easter.
(b)  Young Offenders'Unit
Services of a similar nature to those held in the Oakalla chapel were held each Sunday
in this unit. Ministers and choirs were well received, with a satisfactory percentage of
inmates attending on a voluntary basis.
(c)   Women's Building
Services here were conducted each Sunday by the Senior Chaplain, with the exception
of one Sunday each month, when Major Pike of the Salvation Army was in charge. DD 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
One characteristic of these services is worthy of notice. Whereas previously attendance by inmates had been spasmodic, this year there appeared to be more regularity
and consistency of attendance.
On Friday, February 21st, the first Friday in Lent, the Women's World Day of
Prayer was observed by a special service conducted by a group of ladies from the South
Burnaby churches and members of the Elizabeth Fry Society. The service which followed
the identical programme used in similar world-wide services was voluntary in nature and
was attended by forty inmates and twelve members of the staff.
The sacrament of holy communion was dispensed at Christmas with twenty girls
partaking and at Easter with sixteen girls partaking.
(d)  Chilliwack Camps
Services were held each Sunday for several weeks this spring by ministers of the
Chilliwack Ministerial Association on a rotation basis. While attendance has varied, it
is felt that the length of time the services have been in operation is insufficient to assess
their adequacy.
(e)  Haney Correctional Institution
Rev. E. J. Hulford, the Institution chaplain, reports: "The services are low in
entertainment value and the men who attend come to worship. The average attendance
is about forty. The services are conducted by the chaplain entirely unassisted, and the
response from those present is excellent."
Chaplain Hulford continues: " Since last September the Salvation Army has conducted three services. The Gideon Society presented the Institution with 300 Bibles,
which were dedicated by the Bishop of New Westminster, Rt. Rev. G. P. Gower.
" Special services were held at Christmas and Easter. The Easter services were
highlighted by a service to which the inmates invited their relatives and friends."
The Haney chaplain also conducts a service each Sunday at Gold Creek Camp in
the evening.
(/) New Haven
Services are conducted by the Senior Chaplain each Sunday at 9 o'clock. These
services are compulsory and a more formal type of service is followed. The chapel here
is a very valuable aid in creating a worshipful atmosphere. The chaplain was assisted
throughout the year by the Rev. H. Berry, an Anglican clergyman who conducted the
service on the fourth Sunday of each month.
(2) Religious Education
The late Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Temple, once said: " Good spiritual work
is done on one person or a dozen people at a time. I suppose that no sermon preached
to a crowd ever did much good."
Chaplains realize this, and recognize that services of worship, important and valuable
as they may be, are in themselves utterly inadequate as a means of instruction in the truths
and duties of the Christian faith. Accordingly, he employs a variety of methods by which
he works with smaller groups and with individuals.
The group work of the chaplain is of two types:—
(a) The " Chaplain's Hour," when questions are answered and points of doctrine and ritual are explained and discussed. Frequently a religious film
is presented, which is then followed by discussion.
(b) Smaller study groups or Bible classes. The purpose of these smaller
groups is to present Christianity as an active and potent element in the
lives of men.   It does not portray Christianity as a ritual or a system, but REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 75
rather as a dynamic or compelling force. Realizing that the minds of most
of those present are virtually a blank on any question of Christian practice
or belief, some chaplains start patiently at the beginning with classes of
elementary instruction.
It is always most difficult to assess results, but it may well be right to believe that,
whatever a man's motives, his presence once a week in such groups may give him something of lasting value.
At Oakalla Prison Farm, Rev. F. Humphreys showed a series of eight films on
" Science and Religion." These were shown twice—to East Wing and to Westgate
inmates. The attendance was large, almost too large for effective discussion, but as a
result of the films there was a marked increase in the number of requests for interviews
on religious matters, and a study group of twelve inmates in East Wing was organized.
At the Women's Gaol, New Haven, and the Male Drug Research Unit, the Senior
Chaplain conducted two courses—one on the life of St. Paul, the other on the life of
Christ. Each course was based on a series of twelve films each, followed by a question-
and-answer period and general discussion of religious problems which arise. In every
session there is considerable participation by inmates, which is desired and encouraged
by the chaplain.
A similar weekly programme is followed by the chaplain at Haney and at Gold
Creek Camp.
In each institution under review, with the exception of the Women's Gaol, small
study groups have been in progress throughout the year. In these smaller groups the
" chaplain interns " have rendered their best service. At Westgate, the Young Offenders'
Unit, the Male Drug Research Unit, and at New Haven, these students held weekly study
groups. Two courses on the Parables of Jesus applied to daily living were given in West-
gate and the Young Offenders' Unit, and one on the Gospel of St. Mark at New Haven,
and one on " Religion and Life " at the Male Drug Research Unit.
Through the co-operation of the Vancouver Council of Churches, a certificate of
recognition was awarded to all who attended a minimum of twelve study-group meetings,
or who completed one complete course of Bible study by correspondence.
At both Haney and Oakalla the chaplain sponsors the Alcoholics Anonymous group,
ensuring that all arrangements are made and that inmates are encouraged to attend weekly
meetings conducted by visitors of this organization from the community.
A considerable amount of time of all chaplains is effectively spent in personal counselling; spiritual guidance and religious education are provided in this way, as well as
rendering assistance with personal or domestic problems.
Regular visits are made to all inmates in the prison hospital. The response of an
inmate to such a visit frequently results in the establishment of a relationship between
chaplain and inmate which leads to further confidences and frank discussions at a later
stage.
(3) Public Relations
Correctional workers have frequently commented upon the lack of interest on the
part of various sections of the community in the welfare of the prison inmate population.
For this reason, chaplains avail themselves of invitations to church groups and service
clubs to speak about what is being attempted in the various institutions. The chaplain
at Haney spoke to four community groups, and the Senior Chaplain to nineteen such
groups during the year. More than 1,700 people comprised the audiences who were
reached.
Public Relations.—The chaplain in this work seeks to make understandable to the
public what the doctor, the social worker, the teacher, and others in the institution are
trying to accomplish.   There are several challenges:— DD 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(1) To try to correct the erroneous but commonly held notion that the apprehension and incarceration of offenders is enough.
(2) To point out conditions which must be met not only to prevent social
deviation and crime, but to foster individual, family, and community
health.
(3) To indicate that delinquency and crime are symptoms of an illness and that
the law-breaker is in need of care and treatment rather than mere isolation
and punishment.
SUMMARY
The Senior Chaplain was granted permission to attend a seminar on human relations
at the University of British Columbia and a Protestant Prison Chaplains' Conference at
McNeil Island Penitentiary in the State of Washington. The chaplain from Haney also
was present at the latter conference. A chaplain who spends years in the highly specialized, difficult, and often discouraging work of a correctional institution often tends to
lose that spiritual zest and freshness of touch which is essential to his work. Such courses
and conferences as these are particularly helpful.
In conclusion, I would respectfully indicate that serious consideration be given in the
near future to the provision of adequate chapels in each institution. An appropriate
chapel provides an inspiring centre for the spiritual life of any institution. At present the
only institution with a chapel is New Haven, and the absence of chapels in the other prison
settings is a serious handicap to the development of a better atmosphere so fundamental
to all treatment programmes.
It is earnestly hoped that the system of " chaplain interns " be at least maintained,
if not expanded. The value both to the student and the inmates involved cannot be
overestimated.
Once again the assistance, co-operation, and support of the Salvation Army, the John
Howard Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, the Vancouver Council of Churches, women's
associations, the Probation Branch, and other similar groups are gratefully acknowledged.
The Vancouver branch of the British and Foreign Bible Society and the Gideon
Society merit special mention for generous donations of Bibles, New Testaments, and
other religious literature.
The co-operation of wardens, directors, and staff members of the various institutions
has been most generous and helpful. In no instance has a situation developed where this
co-operation has not been forthcoming.
In acknowledging our thanks to all who have enabled us to minister to the inmate
population, I would especially acknowledge the guidance and encouragement which you^
Sir, as Director of the Corrections Branch, have so generously, as always, given to me once
again during the year under review.
W. D. Grant Hollingworth,
Senior Chaplain.
REPORT OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Catholic Chaplain for
the year ended March 31st, 1958.
The Catholic Chaplain administered to all the spiritual needs of the Catholic inmates
of Oakalla Prison Farm, Young Offenders' Unit, Women's Gaol, and New Haven. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 77
Just one year ago I occupied the Chaplain's office as Supervisor of Catholic Chaplains in the Gaol Service. It has been a happy and rewarding year, and the pleasant
atmosphere of our office is due principally to your efforts, and I am most appreciative.
Maintaining a regular office schedule every Wednesday enabled me to keep abreast
of my correspondence. I am very grateful to your able stenographic pool which you
have so graciously placed at my service. Also, having office space gave me an opportunity for a meeting-place where parents, relatives, and friends could come to discuss
the problems of an inmate, maybe it was a son or daughter. One can realize what a
wonderful occasion for mutual understanding this afforded the Chaplain.
WOMEN'S GAOL
Every Tuesday morning interviews were held at the Women's Section of Oakalla
Prison Farm for the Catholic inmates. During the interview the inmate's present status
was evaluated, and suggestions were offered how one could correct the present situation
and to follow through after release.
Every Tuesday evening at 7 o'clock a programme was held for the women, consisting of fifteen minutes of prayer, followed by a fifteen- to twenty-minute talk on some
religious subject and question-and-answer period. The Chaplain was assisted by a group
of women, members of the Legion of Mary. Occasionally another priest would be invited
to give a talk, followed by a question-and-answer period. There was usually an attendance of twenty-five to forty women present at these programmes, with the Legion of Mary
assisting in stimulating the discussion.
Every Saturday confessions for the inmates were heard and some interviews.
Every Sunday morning at 9.15 the holy sacrifice of the mass was offered with an
appropriate sermon. The rosary was recited by the inmates before mass. The count at
Sunday mass was between thirty and forty. An average of six inmates received holy
communion on Sunday. At Christmas and Easter, the good Sisters of Providence sang
at'a special mass. On World Prayer Day all inmates gathered with their respective
chaplains—the Catholics in the day room and the Protestants in the gymnasium—and,
united in spirit, spent an hour in prayer.
Many times Mr. Andy Paull, president of the Native Brotherhood, was invited to
interview the native girls for counsel, to look after children left on reserves or for a position upon release. Most of the girls who after release took up residence within the so-
called " skid row " area were contacted by an outside group of the Legion of Mary and
reminded of their duties. This outside group is entirely distinct from the one which
contacts the inmates on Tuesday night. This group is still working for a hostel for these
girls.    Individuals have donated money toward this project.
OAKALLA MAIN GAOL
Many thanks to the Classification Team for passing on to the Chaplain the names
of the Catholic inmates. This enables the Chaplain to contact all the Catholic inmates,
especially in the Trial Wing, which is visited several times during the week. Some are
pleasingly surprised that the priest would take time out of his busy schedule to interview
them. For security reasons, it is impossible to have a group programme in this wing,
with the result that many leave in the same state as they entered. Individual instructions
were given to some. An effort is made to maintain a strict schedule so that no one will
be neglected. As the days in the week are limited, so is the Chaplain. The provision
of an assistant would further this important work. DD 78        " BRITISH COLUMBIA
EAST WING
Interviews are held in the East Wing once a week. A religious programme is held
every Thursday evening at 8 o'clock. This programme begins with fifteen minutes of
prayer and afterwards, assisted by the members of the Legion of Mary, the group is
divided into smaller ones consisting of about four or five. Instructions are given to these
groups according to their needs.   All requests are fulfilled at the most opportune time.
SOUTH WING
This wing is visited once a week or more. Since the population of this wing is
transient, no programme is held. Many inmates have been interviewed and some have
received individual instructions. The occupant of the death cell received a visit every
other day for instructions.
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
This unit is visited once a week for interviews. Tuesday afternoon a special instruction class is held, in which six attended. Thursday evenings an instruction class is held.
Twelve have attended this class, which is open to all Catholics in this unit. Many of
the parents of these lads have visited the Chaplain at headquarters office.
MEN'S PAN ABODE
Instruction classes are held in this unit every Thursday afternoon. The Chaplain
partakes of a meal in this unit once a week, leading the boys with grace before and after
meals.
WESTGATE
Interviews are held in this unit once a week. All Catholic inmates are afforded an
opportunity to speak to the Chaplain. Those who take advantage of this are invited to
further their religious education by joining the Legion of Mary group, which meets every
Thursday evening at 7 o'clock.   Visits are made to this unit several times a week.
Easter and Christmas being special feast days, confessions are heard the day before.
An attempt is made to contact all Catholics in all the units.
HOSPITAL
This unit is visited every Friday morning. The Catholics are interviewed and all
others are greeted. Catholic periodicals and newspapers are left within easy reach of
the Catholic patients.
THE OLD GAOL
Early Friday afternoon this unit is visited and interviews are held. These older
men are urged to get back into the good graces of their God. Many heed this advice,
but upon their release fall back into their old ways. Toward the end of this year the
Archdiocese of Vancouver intends to open a hostel to do follow-up work with these
older inmates.
NEW HAVEN BORSTAL SCHOOL
Every Friday afternoon a class is conducted for the boys at this training-school,
which is for the entire Catholic population. Whenever possible the Chaplain attends
this school's sports meets. Confessions are heard on Saturdays, and the holy sacrifice
of the mass is held every Sunday. Every Wednesday evening an informal religious discussion is held.   Approximately five boys attend. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58 DD 79
OTHER ACTIVITIES
During the year the Chaplain has attended two inquests and performed four burial
services; two of these were ex-inmates. On the average, once a month the Chaplain
attended a staff meeting. The following priests were invited to interview their nationals:
Chinese, Italian, French, German, and Hungarian. A good deal of time has been spent
job, apartment, and house finding. Consultations have been held with the medical staff,
deputies, unit heads, and tier officers concerning individuals in their charge.
Inmates on release from prison were outfitted with the proper clothing for their
work by St. Vincent de Paul Society.
,      HANEY CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
Many hours of the Chaplain's time were spent with Mr. Braithwaite, Deputy Warden, to set up the chapel at Haney Correctional Institution. Rev. Father Steele, pastor
of St. Patrick's Church, Haney, was appointed part-time Catholic chaplain at the Institution on September 23rd, 1957. Some programme was instituted. Father Steele heard
confessions on Saturdays and offered the holy sacrifice of the mass every Sunday morning.   Occasional visits were made to the Gold Creek Camp.
FOREST CAMPS
Since October 1st last, Rev. Gordon McKinnon, of St. Mary's Church, Chilliwack,
has administered to the spiritual needs of the Catholic inmates at the Provincial Gaol
Forestry Camps No. 1 and No. 2. The holy sacrifice of the mass was offered every
Sunday morning at 9.30 a.m. A special programme was held on Christmas and New
Year's Day.   Interviews were held every Tuesday evening, followed by a programme.
RECOMMENDATIONS
1. It is highly recommended that an assistant should be appointed to the Chaplain
of Oakalla Prison Farm to assist him in his overloaded duties.
2. Separate chapels should be built in all correctional institutions. At Gold Creek,
being a basic camp, a chapel could be built with the materials at hand.
3. At the Chilliwack Camp a reading-room could be incorporated into a church
building, where religious literature would be available and meetings, such as the Legion
of Mary and Alcoholics Anonymous, might be held.
4. In most institutions inmates are required to attend an interview with their chaplains.   This should extend to all, including the camps.
5. The camp chaplain, when appointed, should receive some honorarium, for
example, mileage to and from the camps.
APPRECIATION
Many thanks are extended in appreciation to the heads and members of Oakalla
Prison Farm, Young Offenders' Unit, Women's Gaol, and New Haven for the willingness
to aid, by a helping hand or advice, the Chaplain in his many duties.
Respectfully submitted.
Thomas Francis M. Corcoran, S.P.M.,
Catholic Chaplain. DD 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
NELSON GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Nelson Provincial Gaol
for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1958.
ADMINISTRATION
The number of inmates handled in this gaol over the last fiscal year has exceeded the
number handled in the previous fiscal year. Janitor, laundry, and kitchen services were
carried out by selected inmates, under prison staff supervision.
STAFF CHANGES
The staff was made up as follows: A. Tulloch, Warden; D. Maddin, Deputy
Warden; D. J. Potosky, G. J. Verkert, J. H. McGinn, F. H. Doyle, W. H. Sharun, J. D.
Mitchell, S. B. Playdon, E. Heroux, G. H. Cathcart, and L. H. Olson, guards.
POPULATION
The population at the beginning of the year was twenty-seven inmates. There were
415 inmates received and 442 inmates discharged, leaving a total of eight inmates in gaol
at the end of February, when the institution closed. The peak of the inmate population
was forty-seven and the lowest was eight inmates. The daily average for the period was
42.0 per cent as against 35.6 per cent for the previous year, an increase of 6.4 per cent.
WELFARE AND RECREATION
As as in the past years, the inmates not working with the outside gangs were allowed
the freedom of the cell blocks during the day and, when weather permitted, one hour of
exercise outside in the morning and afternoon daily. The radio controlled in the office
provided reception from 6 till 9 p.m. each night, until lights go out.
A ping-pong table and a 600-volume library provided other recreation facilities
for inmates.
RELIGIOUS SERVICES
Religious services were held every Sunday morning and afternoon. About half the
population generally attend the services.
MEDICAL WELFARE
The general health of the prisoners in the past year has been very good, with no
hospital cases to report. We have been very fortunate with so few cases that required
segregation from other inmates. The provisions for all inmates to have chest X-rays for
TB. examination was still carried on. Though our facilities for handling the sick parade
each week are limited, Dr. Smythe, gaol surgeon, reported quite favourably on the
general health of inmates.
FARM WORK
The value of produce raised in the kitchen garden on the property amounted to an
estimated $470.
MAINTENANCE AND CONSTRUCTION
During the past year the offices, cell blocks, furnace-room, laundry, vegetable-room,
kitchen, shower-rooms, barber-shop, photo-room, and clothing-room were painted and REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
DD 81
cleaned up. We constructed tables on the cell doors for the inmates in the small cell
block. We received a small greenhouse last year to start small plants for the gaol garden
and for the Court-house grounds. We constructed a cement sidewalk from the gaol
kitchen door to the root-house.
DISCIPLINE
Throughout the period of the fiscal year there were twelve breaches of the gaol rules,
most of them of a minor nature, which called for disciplinary action, some by loss of
good time and pay and some by confinement to their cells. There was only one inmate
who had to be disciplined for repetition of his offence.
PROJECTS
Work by prison labour was carried on at the fish-hatchery until the gaol closed in
February.  The fish-hatchery officials were well satisfied with the work carried on there.
In closing, I wish to mention the fine co-operation which I received from the Deputy
Warden and guards.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Tulloch,
Warden.
KAMLOOPS GAOL AND CLEARWATER FOREST CAMP
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual reports of the Kamloops Provincial
Gaol and the Clearwater Forest Camp for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1958.
1956/57        1957/58
Received (male and female)  1,464 1,496
Transferred to Oakalla Prison Farm  268 280
Transferred to Clearwater Forest Camp      198
Total number of days' stay  16,784 22,738!
1 Kamloops Gaol, 16,564; Clearwater Forest Camp, 6,174.
The above excerpts from the summaries of annual statistics show an increase in all
columns over the fiscal year 1956/57. The opening of the Clearwater Forest Camp on
September 9th, 1957, enabled us to direct inmates from Oakalla Prison Farm to the
camp, thus relieving the Coast institution and utilizing the man-power to greater advantage in the local theatre.
MAINTENANCE, CONSTRUCTION, AND WORKS PROGRAMME
1. Public Works Project—Flumes, Peterson Creek.—This project for the Public
Works Department entailed the following: Cleaning creek-bed of debris, scaling, rip-
rapping banks, bedding in three 30-inch steel flumes 90 feet long, back-filling and rip-
rapping front and back. This is used as an access road from the Highways garage to the
main offices.
2. Public Works—Maintenance of Lawns and Grounds.—We again, as in the past,
have supplied all manual labour for all the grounds in this area, assisting the gardener in
the greenhouse flower-beds, lawns, rockeries, and roads. In the winter season all walks,
roads, porches, and fire-escapes were cleared of snow and ice. DD 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
3. Public Works Project—Poison-bait Depot.—The poison-bait depot built for the
Game Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation, was erected under the supervision of Guard H. H. Forsell and the writer during November, 1957, and completed on
December 3rd, 1957. Construction: Cement floor, walls of cement blocks, and a hip
roof, insulated, trussed, sheeted with plywood inside, for use as a cold warehouse to keep
poison meat in.
4. Public Works Project—Moving and Dismantling Buildings.—The warehouse of
the Department of Recreation and Conservation was moved and a new cement floor
poured; new rafters, trusses, and a new door were installed. The old barn and a shed
were dismantled, logs from the shed were taken away for a Centennial project, and all
debris burned.
5. Public Works—Maintenance of Graveyard.—We did considerable work on this
project from time to time during the year. There were twenty-two burials. A greater
portion of the new fence was constructed; the grass was watered during the summer;
but owing to the other projects we have been unable to keep the maintenance up to
the standard that is required.
6. Kamloops Gaol Farm and Garden—Maintenance.—The stockyards and exhibition grounds again gave us the manure for the hauling away. We hauled with our own
truck and also a truck from the Forest Service, the total hauled being approximately 860
yards, which was spread on the land and ploughed in in the fall.
FARM AND GARDEN
The crops from the gaol gardens were the best we have had to date; the apple-crop
produced 210 boxes; potatoes, carrots, beets, and parsnips lasted in our root-cellars until
the end of March. The Clearwater Camp was supplied with vegetables, and a shipment
of 10 tons was sent to Haney Correctional Institution.
MEDICAL CARE AND HOSPITALIZATION
The general health of our inmate population was good; doctors from the Burris
Clinic served as gaol surgeons during the year. We had an epidemic of Staphylococcus
aureous infection brought into the gaol by an inmate. It started in July and lasted into
September before all traces of the infection were removed.
WELFARE AND RECREATION
I again report that our library and radio are all we have in this field owing to facilities being inadequate to promote other activities.
ESCAPES AND RECAPTURES
I am pleased to report that we had no escapes from this gaol or the Clearwater
Forest Camp during the year.
DISCIPLINE
Discipline has been well maintained throughout the year, breaches of prison rules
and regulations amounting to five (Kamloops Gaol, four; Clearwater Forest Camp, one).
In all cases, charges were laid before me; all offenders were found guilty and sentenced
to a period of time in the confinement cell with loss of all privileges.
\
STAFF
I commend to you all members of my staff. The extended duties performed and
extra hours worked were far beyond the regular line of duty during the period required
to prefabricate, transport, and assemble the buildings at the Clearwater Forest Camp
J REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 83
site. One member of my staff resigned, Deputy Warden J. D. H. Stewart was retired
from the service, and sixteen new officers recruited to replace members promoted to
senior positions in the camp, also to staff the camp with custody guards.
SUMMARY, KAMLOOPS PROVINCIAL GAOL
Again, as in the past annual reports, I draw your attention to the inadequate accommodation, increase in population, and encroachment of the land by the building of
necessary buildings by other Government departments in this area. The building of the
Clearwater Forest Camp will only give us added accommodation for a short time. I therefore suggest that preparation be made in the near future to the planning and preparing the
site and other necessary preliminary work for a new gaol in the Southern Interior.
CLEARWATER FOREST CAMP
The above-mentioned camp was occupied on September 9th, 1957. The following
named personnel set up the camp: Senior Custodial Officer W. Scott, Senior Guards
R. W. Drinkwater and J. A. Proudfoot, and Probationary Guards G. A. Morton, A. W.
Irvine, R. G. Pearson, and G. C. McDonald, with eleven inmates. The full complement
of camp personnel is fourteen officers, and the camp accommodates sixty inmates.
Construction, Buildings and Grounds
The huts are a prefabricated type, insulated, bolted, through-trussed, and in sections—roof, 8 by 12 feet; floors, 8 by 12 feet; sides and ends, 8 by 8 feet; sleeping huts,
24 by 32 feet (accommodate twelve men); kitchen and dining-hut (composite), 24 by
64 feet; laundry hut, 24 by 32 feet; officers' hut, 24 by 32 feet. Total buildings as
follows: Five huts for living and sleeping accommodation for inmates, one for living
accommodation for officers, one administration hut, one laundry hut, composite (two)
kitchen and dining-hut, and one power-house hut. The kitchen and dining-hut (composite) basement was excavated and made into a combination ablution area, lavatories,
and central heating area. The rear portion was made into a clothing-room and change-
room. The basement under the administration hut was made into a workshop and garage.
The under-portion of the officers' hut is at present being made into a workshop for use in
inclement weather.
Power and Light
Electricity is supplied by two Armstrong-Siddeley three-cylinder diesel units with
an output of 10,000 watts each. These units have been very good and continue to give
maximum service under the care of Fourth-class Guard G. C. McDonald, who is a
mechanic. No. 1 unit has been dismantled and reassembled, with no major wear being
found, and should give maximum efficiency during the coming months. No. 2 is used as
a stand-by unit.
Water
Water is brought from Camp Creek by 960 feet of main line and piped to all huts.
Hot and cold water is supplied to kitchen and laundry. The officers' hut uses an immersion heater for hot water. Showers and toilets are serviced from this supply. There is
ample water all year, with storage dam holding approximately 200,000 gallons at
60-pound head.
Sanitation
The camp is built on sloping ground, and all debris and waste refuse are piped
underground, with laundry and kitchen water in separate system. Ablution water
(showers and wash-basins), together with toilet refuse, enters a large septic tank and DD 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
then into a disposal line that carries all water into a network of smaller lines, thus carrying all water away from the camp and ensuring good sanitation within the camp.
Kitchen and Dining Accommodation
This is a composite hut, each portion measuring 24 by 32 feet. Cooking-stove has
canopy, exhaust fan, and an additional aperture to dispose of excessive heat during the
summer months. Three Monel metal sinks and trays are used to wash dishes. All floors
are covered with linoleum. In the dining-hut all tables are covered with linoleum and
moulding for ease and cleanliness.  The hut is airy and well ventilated, with ample light.
Works Programme, Roads
On September 20th, 1957, on the completion of accommodation for thirty-six
inmates, we started working on the access road from Highway No. 5 at Clearwater to the
camp-site, a distance of 12 miles. This was in the nature of filling holes and removing
rock all along the right-of-way. The following week a crew started to clear an extra 30
feet from the camp to the lookout, approximately one-half mile from Bear Creek, a
distance of 3 miles. In November a crew was placed in the heavily wooded section at
Bear Creek, and from then until March 31st, 1958, they slashed and burned approximately 3 miles, widening the road 30 feet on each side from this operation.
Commencing October 12th, 1958, a crew was formed to work on the third canyon,
approaches to the bridge, and widening the road to the south, also raising the culvert on
a small incline approximately 100 yards from the bridge. Several small culverts were
built between the third canyon and the Bear Creek section. The section of road from the
third canyon to the south end of the first canyon bridge, approximately 2 miles, is very
narrow, with numerous curves, and in wet or freezing weather very treacherous. This
portion received the most work by the road gang during the winter months.
The fourth living-hut was erected in November; this gave us a total capacity for
forty-eight. We were unable to erect the fifth living-hut until late February, 1958, owing
to the weather and our need for maximum work on the road slashing.
Medical Care and Hospitalization
The health of the over-all camp inmate population was very good. Injuries to
inmates amounted to three, with major sickness to one (pneumonia). Custody Guard
T. Thompson, the holder of an industrial first-aid certificate, performed a wonderful job
in attending to the cuts, bruises, and minor ailments during the period the camp was
opened until March 31st, 1958.
Escapes and Recaptures
The camp had no escapes during the year.
Welfare and Recreation
The camp has a good library, radio in every hut, and a supply of cards, checkers,
daily papers, and magazines during the winter months. The inmates are in the process
of building a baseball field.
Discipline
The camp is well disciplined, with only one case of breach of prison regulations
brought before me during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. Teal,
Warden. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 85
PRINCE GEORGE GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I hereby have the honour to submit the annual report of the Prince George
Provincial Gaol for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1958.
POPULATION
The average daily population for the year was 94.31. An over-capacity count
during certain periods made necessary the transfer of seventy-three prisoners to Oakalla
Prison Farm and ten prisoners to the Kamloops correctional camp at Clearwater. Five
prisoners were transferred to the British Columbia Penitentiary and four to the Provincial Mental Hospital.
MAINTENANCE AND CONSTRUCTION
The maintenance of institutional heat, water, and power facilities was ably supervised and carried out by Chief Engineer Leslie and his staff during the year. A new
boiler feed water treatment, proposed by Hagan Corporation of Canada, was approved
and put into effect in the system at the Men's Gaol, with noticeable positive results in
the reduction of water hardness and corrosion.
Under the supervision of the Department of Public Works and with the use of prison
labour, a poison-bait depot of concrete construction was erected on the gaol property for
the Game Branch.
The perimeter security fence was checked and maintained regularly, and the posts
treated with a wood preservative. The entire exterior of the main gaol building was
also painted a coral-sand colour.
An easement was granted to the North-west Telephone Company, and a short
telephone-fine across the north-east corner of the gaol property was completed.
Fire-huts were constructed and fitted with fire-fighting equipment. The huts are
located at the east and west sides of the gaol building. A fire-fighting and emergency
movement control plan has been drawn up, and staff members are now being made
familiar with this plan and instructed in the proper use of the equipment.
A steam alarm-whistle was installed at the institution during the year, and general
orders have been issued governing the use of the whistle as an escape and general alarm.
Another attack by the saw-toothed beetle in the general provisions storeroom was
successfully repelled. It is now fairly well established that the larva? are brought into
the institution in dry cereals and grain foods. The humid heat in the provisions storeroom, which is situated directly over the boiler-room, soon incubates the larvae. Constant inspection and spraying and the storing of all grain foods in closed metal containers
has been necessary to successfully combat this insect.
General maintenance and woodwork repairs were carried out by the gaol carpenter
and an inmate crew. File, storage, and radio and record cabinets were also constructed.
■ Visits and advice from officers of the Department of Public Works—Mr. Clarkson
and Mr. Lloyd, of the Architects Branch; Mr. Robson and Mr. Walker, of the Electrical
Energy Branch; and Mr. Mills, Senior Mechanical Engineer—have been of great assistance in maintaining and improving institutional custodial, mechanical, and electrical
facilities during the year.
The gaol laundry and tailor-shop were operated most efficiently during the year.
The tailor-shop, as well as carrying out all clothing maintenance and repair work for the
institution, produced the following new articles of inmates' clothing, etc.:   371 pairs of DD 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
trousers, 324 underwear shirts, 328 work shirts, 252 drawers, 61 cook shirts, 225 tea
towels, 143 caps, 30 mitts, 86 aprons, and other miscellaneous items for kitchen and
general use.
ADMINISTRATION
The Warden continued to act as Bursar and Business Manager for both the Men's
and the Women's Gaols during the year. The Deputy Warden continued to supervise
staff, records, and assist the Warden generally. During the latter part of May the Warden was privileged to attend the Canadian Congress of Corrections in Montreal.
One permanent staff member at the Men's Gaol and two from the Women's Gaol
were separated from the service by Order in Council during the year.
Finger-printing identification of prisoners committed to the institution on indictable
offences was set up during the year through the Department and with the co-operation
of Royal Canadian Mounted Police Identification Branch at Ottawa. The identification
system is now operating smoothly and is of great assistance in classifying inmates for
transfer, allocation, work placement, and general programme.
SECURITY
Emergency lighting at the institution was checked regularly throughout the year.
Irregular searches and security checks of the institution were made, and a check of the
outside perimeter of the building was carried out every hour of the day and night.
All unbarred window ports in areas of the institution occupied by inmates were
barred during the year.    Insect and security screens are also being placed over these
ports.
DISCIPLINE
The thought that discipline is really training for better behaviour and acceptable
conduct rather than simply punishment has been accepted noticeably by many members
of the staff.   Consequently, discipline was well maintained.
Thirty-three inmates received punishment awards for infractions of gaol rules and
regulations. Sentences consisted of short terms in cells or dark cells and loss of remission.   Suspension of punishment and warning in a number of cases proved to be effective.
Inspections of cell block for cleanliness and neatness were carried out each morning
during the year. The Deputy Warden also made daily inspections during the week, and
Warden's rounds were conducted from time to time.
FARM AND GARDEN
Fifty-five cords of wood cut from land cleared for garden was sold to staff members at the institution through the British Columbia Purchasing Commission during the
year. A further forty-five cords of wood was cut from near the security-fence perimeter
and from an area cleared for a new rifle range.
It was again necessary to dismantle and renovate the root-house because of the
gathering of excess moisture in the insulation. A properly constructed permanent-type
root-house is required for the successful storage of the gaol root-crop, which is increasing
each year. The garden root-crop for the year was cultivated by inmate labour, and the
harvest was as follows: 1,023 sacks of potatoes, 127 sacks of carrots, 235 sacks of
turnips, 104 sacks of beets, 14 sacks of peas in pod, 4 sacks of beans in pod, 8 sacks
of Swiss chard, 12 sacks of onions, 6 sacks of small pumpkins, and approximately 300
pounds of cauliflower, 950 pounds of cabbage, and 175 pounds of radishes.
Seed-potatoes were exchanged with the Kamloops Provincial Gaol, the Pontiac
variety supplied by that institution reproducing very well in the different soil and climatic
conditions at Prince George. One hundred and fifty sacks of potatoes, surplus from the
previous year's harvest, were shipped to Oakalla Prison Farm. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 87
WELFARE AND RECREATION
Dr. P. J. Carson, of Prince George, acted as gaol physician during most of the year.
Dr. Carson's ready advice and services and his regular and special visits to the institution were much appreciated.
Church services were conducted on most of the Sundays of the year by different
members of the Prince George Ministerial Association.
Films, obtained, for the most part, through the Prisoners' Welfare Fund, were shown
monthly, with extra films at Easter, Christmas, and New Year.
At least three times weekly during the year, and more frequently during the good
weather, opportunities have been provided for exercise and games in the main exercise-
yard for those inmates not occupied in the regular work and shops programme. During
the week-ends, weather permitting, all inmates were provided with the opportunity to
use the exercise-yard.
An outside programme for all convicted inmates, featuring sports activities and
refreshments, was staged on three occasions during the year.
All inmate problems and requests were dealt with promptly by members of the
senior staff throughout the year.
Some difficulty was experienced in maintaining an adequate meat-supply for the
institution from time to time during the year. For the most part, purchase orders for
meat-supplies were placed with an out-of-town firm, shipments sometimes arriving at
irregular times, with variations of the weights ordered. Inadequacy of refrigeration
storage facilities at the gaol added to this problem. Arrangements are now being made,
however, for the installation of an adequate refrigeration storage which, we believe, will
solve the problem by providing storage for an advance supply of meat at all times.
Mr. Ward Cook, Regional Representative, Remission Service, Department of Justice, visited the institution in May, August, and November of 1957, and in February,
1958, and provided much appreciated advice and direction in regard to tickets of leave.
Four inmates were assisted with their applications.
Expansion and organization of occupational, recreational, and hobby programmes
have been instituted under the direction of Senior Guard Pink. The gaol carpenter-shop
has been expanded and revised, giving a larger group of inmates the opportunity to learn
and work at woodworking projects. The gaol library has been enlarged and moved to
the auditorium, where suitable space has been provided for its expansion. The gaol
canteen and recreational equipment and hobby supplies are also stored and issued from
this point.
Indoor recreational programmes, such as tier games and physical recreation in the
auditorium, have been organized and operated during the winter months.
Plans for the enlargement of the gaol laundry and tailor-shop have been approved.
The rate of production of inmate clothing in the tailor-shop has been increased, and the
manufacture of hooked rugs from condemned materials has provided constructive indoor
employment for additional inmates in this shop.
Special festive-season programmes were organized for the inmate population at
Easter, Christmas, and New Year.
STAFF TRAINING
Exchange of members of the guard staff between the Men's and Women's Gaols
provided an opportunity for a few staff members to gain further experience during the
year. Senior staff and general staff meetings were held irregularly. General staff have
been instructed in proper presentation and deportment of themselves as officers, as well
as on security control and the dealing with inmate problems. Valuable question and
discussion periods have developed at general staff meetings. DD 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Definite progress has been noted in senior staff teamwork. Progressive, policymaking senior staff meetings have accomplished much in increasing the efficiency of the
administration of the institution during the year. Senior and key personnel have been
assigned exchanges of duties whenever possible, and two second-class guard engineers
were given short on-the-job training courses in the general custodial administration of
the institution.
Newly appointed staff members have been carefully briefed and given as much
on-the-job instruction and training as circumstances and time have permitted.
Previous gaol service basic custodial staff training courses held at Oakalla Prison
Farm have been of much assistance in training new personnel. It is recommended by
the writer that every consideration be given to the continuation of such courses at the
earliest possible time.
Practice and instruction for staff in the use of firearms and gas equipment was again
held periodically at the Prince George Gaol rifle range throughout the year.
SUMMARY
We have completed another successful year in the development and expansion of
the Prince George Gaol as a correctional institution.
I wish to thank you, Sir, the members of the staff, and the officers of the Government and the Department who have assisted us and contributed to our successful
operation.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Mulligan,
Warden.
NEW HAVEN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Although 1957 could be termed a year of consolidation, with little outward
change in policy, there was a major administrative change which indirectly had its effect
upon the institution. In September, Gold Creek Camp, which had been organized and
developed from New Haven and since its commencement in the spring of 1956 had been
under New Haven administration, was handed over to the Correctional Institution at
Haney. At the same time I was appointed Deputy Director of Correction on a part-time
basis. This entailed my being away from New Haven on an average of two days a week,
which placed an extra load on the senior staff.
The intake during the first half of the year was well below average. Part of the
reason for this was the need to increase the flow going to the new Correctional Institution
at Haney, and part was due to the confusion that existed in the minds of the Classification
Committee regarding the criteria for selection for these two institutions. This was cleared
up to a great extent in October, when a conference was held and the Committee visited
New Haven. As a result, the monthly intake for the remainder of the year increased
appreciably. The question of setting criteria to assist the Central Classification Committee
at Oakalla in deciding whether to nominate a youth for New Haven or the Haney Correctional Institution was not an easy matter. There are undoubtedly areas where overlapping exists in the criteria for selection for these two institutions. However, it was felt that
New Haven has a peculiar role to play in that it offers a very close and intimate type
of personal training for a selected few who would be lost in a larger, more impersonal REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 89
setting. The effect of the informal country-house atmosphere, the relationship between
the staff and the lads, and the awareness of a strong community feeling have frequently
worked wonders with the homeless youth who has known no security or affection and is
inclined to be introverted and withdrawn. Then, too, the closely integrated system of
after-care provided by the lay sponsors of the British Columbia Borstal Association has
proved particularly effective with this type of youth.
RECEPTIONS AND DISCHARGES
There were fifty-seven received during the fiscal year and fifty-one released on
licence by authority of the Board of Parole to the care and supervision of the British
Columbia Borstal Association.
Five youths absconded, three returning to the institution of their own accord. All
were dealt with by the Courts and awarded an increase in sentence.
The discipline of the institution was exceptionally high, and a healthy spirit existed
amongst the lads. This was in no small part due to the attitude and enthusiasm of the
staff and the splendid way in which they worked together to create a strong feeling
of "togetherness." There is nothing that can supplant in importance a warm human
relationship between staff and lads. This is the very basis of all retraining and must be
considered of prime importance in any programme.
The average length of sentence of those committed to the institution was slightly
longer than in previous years. This may be an indication that the Courts are aware that
youths require longer training periods if they are to benefit and be ready for parole. The
practice of recommending release at the conclusion of the definite portion of the sentence,
whether they have benefited from the programme of training or not, has never been
indulged in at New Haven. It is most harmful and can only bring the whole concept of
parole into disrepute. The sentence, both definite and indeterminate portions, must be
considered as a whole, with release coming at that stage when it is felt that the trainee is
most ready to benefit from conditional release. It is important that at least some of the
burden of responsibility for proving this fitness should remain with the individual himself.
A progressive system of training with increasing stages of responsibility leading up to
release is therefore important and can be of great assistance in determining whether a
youth is likely to succeed on parole or not. All too often the decision to recommend
parole is made on the basis of the individual's conformity to institution rules and patterns,
which are frequently quite artificial and have little relationship to normal living.
TRAINING
The same system of progressive training, leading toward release on licence, was
maintained. As in former years, this took the form of a system of vocational training
during the daytime, educational and hobby classes in the evening, interspersed with
various group activities, ranging from sport to public speaking. The New Haven lad is
shepherded through this maze of activity by the Housemaster, assisted by the supervisors,
whose duty it is to advise and counsel him along the way. His progress from month to
month is recorded by the Housemaster, his vocational instructor, and the supervisors,
each of whom writes a report on him. The social worker discusses the substance of this
report with the youth in a monthly interview, so that he knows what progress he is
making. The worker uses the material in this report as a means of attempting to unearth
deeper problems and disturbances, where they exist, drawing the more disturbed cases to
the attention of the visiting psychiatrist on his weekly visits.
The chaplains have a very definite part to play in this training programme, counselling those who seek them out, holding periods of formal worship in the chapel, and
interpreting the teachings of Christianity as they apply to everyday life. DD 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
As the youth makes progress in his thinking and his outlook and attitude toward
life, so he is given additional responsibilities and more is expected of him. The time
comes when it is felt by the staff that he is ready to be considered for release on licence,
and he is brought before the Parole Board.
AFTER-CARE
Preparation for parole is, of course, something which must be started early in a
lad's training. However, when a definite time has been set for release by the Board of
Parole, usually two months ahead of the actual date, planning moves in emphasis from
the general to the particular. The Borstal Association, with its group of lay sponsors
under the direction of the association's executive director, Mr. J. D. Rickaby, plays a
large part in the New Haven training programme. This year for the first time a group of
young graduates, young men who were released from New Haven some five or six years
ago and have since settled down and done well in the outside world, contacted the
director of the Borstal Association and offered their services to the institution to assist
in preparing lads for release. This offer was readily accepted, with the feeling that these
men had something of value to offer, having all been through the experience and emerged
successfully on the other side. Commencing in the winter, a team of two graduates came
each month of the institution to discuss with the current graduating group some of the
problems lads have to face on release from a correctional institution. These meetings
have proved most worth while and have given confidence, particularly to those who faced
release with grave reservations as to their ability to make a success of it.
Employment opportunities during the year have been scarce. The difficulty of finding jobs for lads about to be released has placed an additional burden on the association.
The executive director has had to spend much of his time searching for job openings and
boarding homes. There appears to be a great need for a type of " half-way house "—a
house where certain lads can be placed on release pending their absorption into industry
and the community. There are many who are homeless, who have no one to whom they
can turn, and who have no friends other than those they met on the street prior to their
offence, or those they got to know in the institution. Provision of employment and a
room is not sufficient for these people, nor can a sponsor or after-care officer provide all
the support that such youths require for twenty-four hours out of each day. The temptation to return to the old haunts and to pick up again with the old friends they knew is too
great. A number of small hostels or " half-way " houses, with accommodation for from
six to eight youths, and run by experienced and understanding people, would help to solve
a problem which is becoming an increasing anxiety to those charged with the responsibility of supervising youths on release.
New Haven has been used in the past as a testing-ground for many new ideas which
have since been incorporated into other institutional programmes and are now taken for
granted—release on licence under supervision, a policy of improved public relations and
public education, establishment of group projects in the community (for example, group
camping, hobby shows, debates, public speaking, sporting events, etc.), an earning
scheme for inmates, lay visiting—to mention but a few. I see this as one of the valuable
roles the institution can play in the future. There is still much to be done, for we have
but touched the fringe.
In conclusion, I should like to express my deep appreciation to all those who have
had a part to play in this most important job of retraining. The results speak for themselves and are some indication of what can be achieved by the influence and example of
truly dedicated people working together with a common purpose in view.
Respectfully submitted.
S. Rocksborough Smith,
Director. REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58 DD 91
PROBATION BRANCH
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Director of Correction,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—It is with pleasure that I submit the annual report for the Provincial Probation Branch covering the year April 1st, 1957, to March 31st, 1958.
For the Vancouver office personnel the highlight of the year was moving into the
new office accommodation in the B.C. Estates Building. This move was effected on
May 3rd, 1957, and by the end of the month all staff were well settled. This new office
accommodation raised staff morale and has provided private offices and interviewing
facilities for almost all staff members.
Certain staff changes were made during the year under review. On August 19th
Miss Ena Goodacre joined the Branch, coming from England, where she was previously
employed for several years as a Probation Officer. Miss Goodacre took over Miss Mildred Wright's duties following Miss Wright's resignation on September 6th, 1957.
Mr. R. Richardson, in charge of the office at Nelson, resigned at the end of August,
and it was therefore necessary to leave the Nelson office without a Probation Officer for
a short time. Mr. Malcolm Brandon was appointed a Probation Officer on October 1st,
1957, coming to the Branch from the staff of Oakalla Prison Farm, where he was employed as the follow-up officer for the specialized narcotic addiction treatment unit.
Following a short period of orientation in the Vancouver office, Mr. Brandon was transferred to Nelson, an area he knew well, having grown up in the West Kootenay.
Mr. Leslie Penegar came to the Branch from England on September 9th, 1957,
as an experienced Probation Officer. Following his appointment to the staff he was
employed in the Vancouver office for a time, after which he was moved to Nanaimo,
where he took over the case load of the northern part of Vancouver Island, with the
plan that at a later date another branch office would be opened at Courtenay.
Another staff appointment made on October 1st, 1957, was that of Mr. Jack Selkirk.
After orientation in the Vancouver office, Mr. Selkirk was transferred to Kamloops to
fill the vacancy occasioned by Mr. Sabourin's resignation on October 22nd. Mr. Selkirk
was previously employed as a Probation Officer in England.
The last staff change of the year was the resignation of Mr. Howarth, of the Abbotsford office, who accepted employment of a similar nature with the Remissions Service
of the Federal Government at a substantially higher salary. It was not possible to recruit
another officer to fill the vacancy at Abbotsford by the end of the year, and, therefore,
services to the Courts in the eastern end of the Lower Fraser Valley had to be cut off.
As at March 31st, 1958, the staff of the Provincial Probation Branch was distributed as follows:—
Vancouver office:  E. G. B. Stevens, Chief Probation Officer; C. D. Davidson,
Assistant Chief Probation Officer;  R. J. Clark, Staff Supervisor;  H. W.
Jackson, J. M. Putnam, A. R. Billington, W. J. Haines, and Miss E.
Goodacre, Probation Officers.
North Vancouver office:   G. G. Woodhams, Probation Officer.
New Westminster office:   O. E. Hollands and K. A. Holt, Probation Officers.
Victoria office:  A. E. Jones and T. A. Blackwood, Probation Officers.
Nanaimo office:  E. H. B. McGougan, A. Byman, and L. Penegar, Probation
Officers.
Burnaby office:   O. J. Walling, Probation Officer.
Penticton office:  J. Wiebe, Probation Officer.
Vernon office:   D. Guest, Probation Officer.
Nelson office:   M. Brandon, Probation Officer. DD 92
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cranbrook office:   L. Dewalt, Probation Officer.
Kamloops office:   J. Selkirk, Probation Officer.
Prince George office:   R. G. McKellar, Probation Officer.
Prince Rupert office:   St. John Madeley, Probation Officer.
From the appended statistical report it will be noted well over 100 more offenders
were placed on probation under the supervision of the Branch than in the previous fiscal
year. A very marked increase in the number of pre-sentence reports prepared on offenders disposed of by the Courts in some manner other than by probation will also be noted.
The number of parole cases coming under the Branch's supervision during the year also
increased greatly—395, as compared to 313 in the previous fiscal year.
Attention must be drawn to the fact that the increased over-all activity of the Branch
—3,428 cases handled during the year as compared to 2,869 in the previous year—
was effected without an increase in Branch offices; therefore, case loads and job demands
on all officers increased. By the end of the year it became very apparent that additional
staff must be employed to maintain case loads within manageable limits and to provide
the Courts with the efficient pre-sentence report service the Branch has always provided.
The increase in parole supervision cases also demands that one officer be appointed
to give over-all liaison in respect to releases from Haney Correctional Institution and a
second officer to perform the same function in respect to the Young Offenders' Unit of
Oakalla Prison Farm. During the year more offenders with the definite-indefinite type
of sentence were transferred to Haney Correctional Institution, and this group, following
release by order of the British Columbia Board of Parole, came under the Probation
Branch for supervision.
In the coming fiscal year additional staff will have to be engaged in order to maintain the present good standard of service being given by the Branch. It must be pointed
out that recruitment of qualified personnel has become much more difficult owing to
higher salary scales now in effect in other correctional and social agencies, and, therefore, present Probation Branch salary scales will have to be revised upwards or we will
not be able to recruit new personnel.
On behalf of the staff of the Provincial Probation Branch, the help and co-operation
received from social agencies, institutions, Courts, and allied services is sincerely
acknowledged.
Provincial Probation Branch Statistics
New
Probation
Cases
New
Follow-up
Cases
Presentence
Reports
Total
Cases
Miscellaneous
1942/43          	
63
60
46
105
142
158
276
350
455
591
598
688
831
962
1,306
1,431
24
56
57
50
61
35
36
28
14
33
46
92
151
186
313
395
49
54
31
84
117
122
262
349
461
472
638
736
892
965
1,250
1,602
136
170
134
239
320
315
574
727
930
1,096
1,282
1,516
1,874
2,113
2,869
3,428
1943/44   -- --	
1944/45                      -	
	
1945/46                                  	
1946/47                     - -  	
1947/48
1948/49                   . _      	
1949/50 -	
1950/51                                	
1951/52                                                  - —	
74
1952/53                	
178
1953/54                       _          -      	
151
1954/55                -.
238
1955/56                                   -
263
1956/57                   	
206
1957/58                   -	
80
Total since inception 	
8,062
1,577
8,084
17,723
1,210 report of director of correction, 1957/58
New Probation Cases
DD 93
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over 25
Years
Probationers
Married
Single
Total
April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952  	
496
481
527
710
785
1,102
1,193
49
66
79
65
99
109
124
46
51
82
56
78
95
114
40
54
83
58
73
99
120
551
544
605
773
889
1,207
1,311
591
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953  -	
April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954 	
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955  -	
598
688
831
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956	
April 1st, 1956, to March 31st, 1957 -	
962
1,306
April 1st, 1957, to March 31st, 1958 	
1,431
Total since inception (1942)—.-   	
6,468
941
653
695
7,367
8,062
New Follow-up Cases
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over 25
Years
Follow-up Cases
Married
Parolees
Single
Parolees
Total
April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952  	
22
37
70
107
151
215
234
11
9
22
41
33
90
159
3
2
8
2
3
1
2
8
5
19
14
30
45
90
143
181
294
381
33
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953	
46
April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954	
92
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955  	
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956  	
April 1st, 1956, to March 31st, 1957	
151
186
313
April 1st, 1957, to March 31st, 1958..- _
395
1,101
447
29
70
1,507
1,577
Respectfully submitted.
C. D. Davidson,
Assistant Chief Probation Officer. DD 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX
ANNUAL REPORT OF GAOLS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 3 1st,  1958
Oakalla and
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Haney and
Gold Creek
Camp
1. Total number of county gaols in B.C -
2. Total expenditures for gaol maintenance in
B.C.—
Year ended March 31st, 1958 _.
Year ended March 31st, 1957 _	
3. Average total maintenance cost per day per
prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1958_  .
Year ended March 31st, 1957.
Average dietary cost per day per person-
Year ended March 31st, 1958	
Year ended March 31st, 1957 _
Number of prisoners committed—
Year ended March 31st, 1958- 	
Year ended March 31st, 1957- -
$3,099,483.07       $64,124.99
2,713,219.14 63,339.52
$6,927
6.563
$4.43
5.45
$0,975 $0,722
.782 .711
13,055
10,456
416
374
$51,657.90
51,444.40
$3.1-1
3.06
$0,646
.610
1,496
1,464
$200,302.66
275,122.35
$5.82
7.15
$0.94
1.00
1,292
1,816
$963,587.28
$1.19
705
I. Movement of Population, Year Ended March 31st, 1958
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
On register, April 1st, 1957	
Received—
From gaols and lockups..
By transfer  _.	
By recapture- __ _	
By revocation of licence	
By forfeiture of ticket of leave —
By internal movements	
From bail    	
From breach of recognizance—	
From Provincial Mental Hospital-
Totals _	
Discharged—
By internal movements..
By expiry of sentence	
By ticket of leave —	
By deportation	
By pardon - 	
By escape	
By death-
By payment of fines _  	
By release of Court order including bail-
By transfer-
By licence (B.C. Parole Board)..
Totals 	
On register, March 31st, 1958-
1,349
11,558
57
12
49
2
1,150
161
30
36
13,189
1,215
27
414
2
47
1,482
7
98
1,275
1
16
1,521
14,729
67
12
49
2
1,150
184
30
36
13,055
416
1,496
1,292
16,259
1,150
1,150
8,849
289
1,001
1,076
11,215
26
2
1
29
313
313
2
—
■
6
8
10
	
10
5
5
266
12
133
51
462
1,044
8
29
50
1,131
1,141
132
280
117
1,670
383
„..-.
	
383
1,443 1,301      |    16,376
100
89
1,404 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58
II. Commitments
DD 95
Murder 	
Manslaughter.	
Crimes—
Against person..
Against property „
Against public morals and decency-
Against public order and peace-
Other offences not enumerated below..
Insanity..
Number of prisoners sentenced..
Number of days' stay of prisoners-
Average number of prisoners per month-
Average number of prisoners per day	
Escapes _ 	
Escapes and recaptured _—.—	
Deaths in gaols  	
1956/57
21
19
389
2,377
241
9,430
349
37
12,042
488,262
39,799
1,341
28
26
5
1957/58
10
5
440
2,776
184
10,786
501
84
13,892
519,773
43,273
1,423
10
12
5
Decrease
11
14
Increase
51
399
57
	
1,356
152
47
1,850
31,511
3,474
82
18
	
14
	
III. Sex
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
10,659
899
342
22
1,362
134
1,275      j    13,638
              1,055
11.558      1         364
1,496
1.275      1    14.693
IV. Educational Status
447
6,908
3,977
226
18
132
213
1
203
975
302
16
89
882
300
4
757
8,897
4,792
247
11,558
364
1,496
1,275
14,693
V. Nationality (Place of Birth)
British-
9,166
518
472
313
12
2
1,424
20
3
1,085
53
	
11,988
603
477
10,156
327
1,447
1,138
13,068
Foreign—
416
917
39
30
8
25
.4
5
44
22
115
451
1,101
39
34
1,402
37
49
137
1,625
11,558
364
1,496
1,275
14,693
VI. Habits as to Use of Intoxicants
445
2,522
8,591
23
227
114
25
179
1,292
29
191
1,055
522
Temperate —	
Intemperate	
3,119
11,052
Totals   ...          	
11,558
364
1,496
1,275
14,693
VII. Habits as to Use of Drugs
11,007
551      1
363
1
1,490
6
1,273
2
14,133
560
Totals  _   _	
11,558      |
1
364
1,496
1,275
14 693 DD 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VIII. Occupations
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
288
389
1,009
6,187
381
563
1,462
256
241
198
584
12
1
20
202
81
5
38
	
3
2
208
366
75
448
15
5
360
12
7
7
4
3
1,169
35
18
39
515
760
1,107
8,006
512
573
1,860
274
256
246
584
Totals.	
11,558
364
1,496
1,275
14,693
IX. Racial
White	
9,733
101
1,640
63
21
289
1
73
1
880
1
604
1,060
1
214
1
1    11,962
104
2,531
63
1           33
Totals — -   -	
11,558
364
1,496
1,275
|    14,693
1
X. Civil State
Single 	
Married	
Widowed „
Separated .
Divorced...
Totals..
7.116
1,780
428
1,788
446
11,558
I
247
10
18
1
I
963
354
60
113
6
364
1,496
1,275
899
9,225
203
2,425
32
530
131
2,050
10
463
14,693
XI. Ages
Under 21 years _.
21-25 years	
25-30   „    	
30-40    „    	
40-50    „    —	
50-60    „    	
Over 60 years —
Totals _
1,312
1,139
1,459
2,666
2,535
1,797
650
11,558
52
67
59
66
61
41
18
104
180
197
410
291
224
90
94
138
159
324
304
193
63
1,496       |       1,275
1,562
1,524
1,874
3,466
3,191
2,255
821
14,693
XII. Creeds
5,052
1,775
1,324
300
1,346
312
719
93
53
16
10
16
184
8
350
147
80
14
13
29
4
20
2
13
26
6
2
8
983
135
72
12
110
36
71
9
57
2
2
7
797
82
70
117
18
119
62
10
6,979
2,072
1,480
325
1,602
Baptist    	
370
929
104
185
44
10
Buddhist - -	
16
192
27
358
Totals	
11,558
364
1,496
1,275
14,693 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION, 1957/58
DD 97
XIII. Duration of Sentence
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
7,423
1,077
498
480
368
187
78
280
167
72
279
79
259
19
3
93
29
47
93
7
20
178
41
21
24
1
1
76
22
1,029
198
53
69
54
33
17
12
12
6
13
892
152
31
71
50
13
13
17
16
6
11
3
9,522
1,468
2 months and under 3 months. , -	
603
644
473
233
18 months and under 24 months - -	
108
310
167
72
383
79
259
19
3
105
29
47
117
Indefinite  -  -	
29
23
11,558
364
1,496
1,275
14,693
XIV. Previous Convictions
3,135
1,281
968
683
518
441
382
333
269
258
233
191
175
171
155
141
115
123
99
183
80
138
70
156
281
508
137
334
218
44
21
17
13
6
10
6
6
7
2
4
4
1
2
	
3
532
185
114
73
70
47
58
36
38
30
34
16
16
17
19
8
14
10
15
19
17
5
7
2
40
41
33
523
184
110
54
52
45
32
24
27
19
25
27
25
18
16
8
10
7
8
13
5
6
4
3
2
28
4,408
1,694
2                 	
1,213
3                                                            	
827
4    -	
653
5	
539
6                                 	
482
7	
399
8                 	
340
9 — 	
314
10                                              	
294
11     	
238
12    .. -
220
13 	
206
14    	
191
15                                     .        ....          	
159
16    	
139
17   	
140
18	
122
20    —	
215
21	
102
23    	
149
24    -             _ _	
81
26                  	
161
27    ..            	
326
49    ..            	
577
60	
170
Over 60	
334
Totals - 	
11,558
364
1,496
1,275
14,693
72.875
26.1
64.4
58.9
- DD 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
XV. Offences for Which Persons Were Committed and Sentenced during Year
Persons Committed
Sentenced
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
(a) Crimes against the person—
4
199
165
7
5
3
5
5
8
28
5
6
1
2
4
204
171
7
5
4
5
7
8
28
1
5
217
164
4
2
1
2
6
2
5
28
8
6
1
1
Abortion   	
5
225
170
4
Cutting and wounding and attempting same
2
2
2
6
2
5
Rape with assault with intent to rape	
28
Totals        - -
429
14
443
437
15
452
(b) Crimes against property—
6
571
174
142
53
300
1,041
85
56
152
124
9
3
9
1
18
28
2
2
6
580
177
151
54
318
1,069
85
58
154
124
6
728
150
237
59
514
1,130
66
62
152
133
11
3
4
1
30
39
6
6
739
153
241
60
544
1,169
66
Taking auto without owner's consent	
Receiving stolen goods	
Trespass. - -
62
158
133
Totals	
2,704
72
2,776
3,237
94
3,331
(c) Crimes against public morals and decency—
10
36
15
6
1
2
95
11
7
3
1
1
1
1
11
36
15
7
1
3
96
11
7
3
10
52
10
6
3
2
104
12
3
1
3
2
1
2
7
12
52
10
6
Inmates and frequenters of houses of ill
3
3
106
12
3
8
Habitual criminal  	
3
Totals   	
186
4
190
206
12
218
(d) Crimes against public order and peace—
Breaches of " Government Liquor Act"
7,195
200
12
674
97
5
121
4
42
720
464
311
506
108
10
2
233
65
16
7,701
1
308
12
684
99
5
121
4
~~42
953
529
327
7,168
1
193
32
804
99
6
118
4
9
2
48
701
429
333
499
112
10
2
234
64
15
7,667
1
Breaches of " Narcotic and Drug Act"
305
32
814
101
6
118
Escaping from constable.—	
4
9
2
Obstructing an officer-— 	
48
935
493
Causing a disturbance _	
348
Totals  -	
9,846
940
10,786
9,947
936
10,883
(e) Other offences not enumerated above —
476
25
501
495
25
520
Grand totals of (a), (6), (c), (d),
13,641
1,055
14,696
14,322
1,082
15,404
1 REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF CORRECTION,  1957/58
DD 99
XVI. Employment of Prisoners
(Per cent of population.)
Oakalla and
Young Offenders' Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
22.789
3.039
16
46
38
14
2
23
45
2
14
28
Sick                                     	
2
8
6.587
18.115
11.932
4.371
31.929
1.238
12
8
42
XVII. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31st, 1958
Oakalla
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
1
1
1
4
8
1
1
1
1
40
12
1
1
1
1
5
1
231
58
5
2
1
1
52
1
1
1
27
1
1
—
10
2
1
1
1
2
19
1
1
Deputy Warden, Custody  —-   _	
1
1
1
5
Chaplain, temporary    - -
Assistant Engineers    - - —	
5
2
Guards, Disciplinary, etc  	
Guards, temporary— _     -
24
2
Clerk—Grade II     _   	
Chief Custodial Officer - _	
461
14
25
42
Haney Correctional Institution and Camps
Warden      	
Deputy Wardens   — 	
Business Manager  	
Personnel Officer   	
Custody—
Assistant Deputy Warden 	
Senior Correctional Officers 	
Senior Guards - - 	
Guards    	
Training—
Classification and Counselling Officer
Counsellors  - 	
Social Training Officers 	
Education and Vocational Officers 	
Physician, Dentist, Psychiatrist, and Psychologist
(part time)   _  	
Hospital Officers
Chaplains (one part time)
Librarian  -
1
2
Business—
1
1
12
1
1
Building maintenance and mechanical trades -
Chief Steward    -  	
-     6
1
6
5
12
10
12
93
8
1
1
1
5
13
Camps—
1
19
Clerk    - -	
1
11
4
7
Total         	
239
2
1
L DD  100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
XVIII. Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for Year Ended March 31st, 1958
Oakalla
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Haney and
Gold Creek
Camp
Total
Expenditure
Salaries    —
Office expense  	
Travelling expense	
Office furniture and equipment -
Heat, light, power, and water.—.
Medical services 	
Clothing and uniforms	
Provisions and catering —
Laundry and dry-goods— —
Good Conduct Fund	
Printing and publications	
Equipment and machinery—..	
Medical supplies —	
Library-
Si
Maintenance of buildings and grounds -
Transportation (prisoners) 	
School supplies— _ 	
Supplies for training-— ___	
Motor-vehicles and accessories 	
Incidentals and contingencies	
Farm operation-— _ - 	
Sheet-metal plant—  	
Group work programme-
Vocational shop	
Grant to Narcotic Fund-
Acquisition and construction of buildings-
Advertising-   —
Maintenance and operation of equipment _.
Totals--   	
Public Works expenditure—
Repairs and maintenance — 	
Other votes—   	
Gross expenditure .
Revenue
Miscellaneous refunds	
Sales maintenance	
Keep of prisoners  —
Total refunds-
Total cost	
,611,179.16
16,402.15
22,901.79
1,070.27
129,170.85
24,031.50
126,773.90
436,324.40
23,258.00
75,046.75
349.'85
73,239.32
16,569.03
1,664.02
26,805.34
18,386.58
1,206.40
7,117.99
10,483.58
5,590.71
33,962.77
149,289.24
2,424.18
6,049.48
45,000.00
8,762.80
$2,873,060.06
96,903.84
256,326.62
$3,226,290.52
$126,807.45
$126,807.45
$3,099,483.07
$45,135.47
550.98
346.94
550.98
4,592.43
$38,608.27
453.57
418.32
1,852.46
l,33O.90|      2,948.05
11,089.981    10,713.17
755.20|   835.40
.156,619.
1,213,
3,403
561
11,917.
2,368.
6,178,
32,781,
1,421,
1,942,
—- I
1,530.37|
753.20|
 1
295.60
1,402.47
50.00
1,285.36
102.96
1.058
153
3,426
1,413
270.691- 	
 |     3.42
160.00!    58.94
544
284
71
$547.
16,
11
49
1.
62,
90.
3.
20
39
6
3,
17
1
3
23
1
48|
,655.84
,648.17
,219.51
85.32
,230.43
167.45
,379.45
,503.25
,854.06
,700.38
6.30
,071.12
,550.44
,438.98
,173.30
,468.72
,900.13
,250.61
,569.05
810.88
-I 	
-|  8,330.30
-- -----
_| 23,716.97
-|  2,617.89
8,524.37
$67,067.14[ $59,027.99
$?.25,290.58l$960,872.92
!
960.91
4,538.081 11,258.40
$67,067,141 $59,988.90
$229,828.66|$972,131.32
$2,834.00|   $90.00
108.15J   243.03
    7,998.03
I
$540.00! $5,692.07
28,986.00| 	
 !  2,852.00
$2,942,151
1,331.03
$29,526,001
1,544.07
$64,124.99! $51,657.93
$200,302.66 [$963,587.28
$2,399
35
38
2
196
27
199
581
28
99
112.
27
5
49
21
5
31
29
6.
33.
149.
10.
6.
45.
32,
2
,197.92
,268.03
,290.16
,268.20
,763.86
,567.28
,611.06
,412.15
,533.66
,280.68
356.15
606.04
,111.19
,306.97
,443.72
371.98
,106.53
,184.00
,056.05
905.01
962.77
289.24
,754.48
,049.48
,000.00
,479.77
,617.89
,524.37
1,185,318.69
113,661.23
256,326.62
$4,555,306.54
{135,963.52
29,337.15
10,850.00
$176,150.67
$4,379,155.87
XIX. Average Cost of Each Prisoner and Miscellaneous
Dietary cost of each prisoner per diem	
Keep of prisoners  (including salaries  and
all expenses) per diem  	
61.19
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Oueen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959
360 659-8962  

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