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Department of Agriculture FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 1958 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1959

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 I
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FIFTY-THIRD
ANNUAL REPORT
1958
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1958.
NEWTON P. STEACY,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 22nd, 1959.  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF, 1958
:
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Newton P. Steacy.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss M. Jewell.
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray.
Administrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria.
Markets and Statistics:
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria.
J. A. Dinnes, M.A., Research Assistant, Victoria.
Horticulture:
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna.
D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon.
I. C Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria.
W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland.
R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm.
M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Seed Production), 501 West Twelfth Avenue, Vancouver 9.
W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crops), Abbotsford.
E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon.
V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, New Westminster.
Plant Pathology:
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria.
J. A. Moisey, M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, 501 West Twelfth Avenue, Vancouver 9.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, M.Sc, Provincial Entomologist, Vernon.
Live Stock:
A. Kidd, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector,
Victoria.
J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver.
E. V. Langford, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector and Assistant Animal Pathologist,
Vancouver.
F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster.
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria. CC 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops.
R. M. Baker, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake.
P. G. Lawrence, Beef Grading Inspector, Vancouver.
S. Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton.
J. J. Carney, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Abbotsford.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton.
R. L. Lancaster, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster.
J. Mustard, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver.
W. C. Newby, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nanaimo.
K. H. Thompson, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria.
H. Johnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Agassiz.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Chilliwack.
Miss Joyce Flood, Laboratory Technician, Vancouver.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria.
W. H. Burr, Dairy Farm Inspector, New Westminster.
R. J. McDonald, Dairy Farm Inspector, New Westminster.
K. G. Fletcher, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford.
A. L. Kirkby, Dairy Farm Inspector, Nanaimo.
B. R. Stewart, Dairy Farm Inspector, Chilliwack.
Dairy:
G. Patchett, Dairy Commissioner, Victoria.
R. N. Hitchman, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Prince George.
N. H. Ingledew, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson.
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna.
P. Regehr, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver.
Poultry:
W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Kelowna.
D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Nanaimo.
R. C. Bentley, Resident Supervisor, Random Sample Poultry Test Station, Abbotsford.
Field Crops:
N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria.
E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, New Westminster.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria.
Soil Survey:
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
W. D. Holland, B.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
C. H. Brownlee, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
A. L. van Ryswyk, M.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
A. B. Dawson, B.A., B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna.
Agricultural Development and Extension:
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 7
Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued
G. L. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops.
S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George.
A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson.
J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale.
P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission City.
J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Abbotsford.
G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack.
J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks.
J. C Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon.
J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops.
R. C. Fry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers.
R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof.
J. E. Hall, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek.
J. E. Piercy, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Fort St. John.
Miss E. L. R. Lidster, M.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria.
G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
T. A. Windt, B.A.Sc, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria.
H. Barber, Accountant, Land Clearing Division, Victoria.
Land Settlement Board:
Chairman: Wm. MacGillivray, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria.
Director: G. L. Landon, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria.
Director: L. W. Johnson, Superintendent, Farmers' Institutes.
Secretary: Miss C. Stephenson, Victoria.
Inspector: I. Spielmans, Nelson.
Dyking Commissioner:
J. L. MacDonald, New Westminster.
W. R. Meighen, Deputy Dyking Commissioner, New Westminster.
Southern Okanagan Lands Project:
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager, Oliver.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Report of Deputy Minister  11
Report of Markets and Statistics Branch  15
Report of Horticultural Branch  18
Report of Plant Pathology Branch  26
Report of Entomology Branch  28
Report of Apiary Branch  30
Report of Live Stock Branch  32
Report of Dairy Branch  43
Report of Poultry Branch  46
Report of Field Crops Branch  49
Report of Farmers' Institutes  53
Report of Women's Institutes  55
Report of Soil Survey Branch  56
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  61
Report of Southern Okanagan Lands Project  80
Report of Land Settlement Board  82
Report of Dyking and Drainage  83
Appendices—
No. 1. Dairy-farm Inspections under " Milk Industry Act "  88
No. 2. Breed Averages for 1957  88
No. 3. Dairy Herd Improvement Associations—Location, Secretary, Supervisor 88
No. 4. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1958  89
No. 5. Miscellaneous Specimens Examined in Laboratory  90
No. 6. British Columbia Egg Production (through Registered Stations)  95
No. 7. British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers  95
No. 8. Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia  95
No. 9. 1958 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver)____ 96
No. 10. Poultry-flock Approval  96
No. 11. Poultry-flock Approval by Breed  96
No. 12. Turkey-flock Approval  96
No. 13. Turkey-flock Approval by Breed  97
No. 14. Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed  97
No. 15. Bees—
Table No. 1.—Diseases in Bees, 1958  97
Table No. 2.—Honey-crop Report, 1958  97
No. 16. Summary of Movement of Screenings from British Columbia Elevators, January 1st to October 31st, 1958  98
No. 17. Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings from British Columbia
Merchants, January 1st to October 31st, 1958  99
9  Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable Newton P. Steacy,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the Fifty-third Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1958.
The Report contains a brief and comprehensive outline of the major activities of
each branch and division during the year. As on previous occasions, there are available
in the Department detailed reports from administrative personnel and members of the
field staffs providing valuable records which are too voluminous to include here.
While most crops experienced satisfactory growing conditions, an unusually dry, hot
summer materially reduced yields in some instances. Pastures and hay lands were most
severely affected, although lower yields were evident, and in some cases quality was
affected, in certain tree fruits, small fruits, and vegetables, including potatoes.
In Central British Columbia and in the Peace River, any reduction in yields of
cereals, forage-crops, or seed-crops was more than offset by improved quality and higher
grades resulting from excellent harvesting conditions.
The Soil Survey Branch was engaged mostly in the continuing study of Fraser Valley
soils to determine a basis on which these may be assessed for taxation purposes on a
productivity basis. The Federal group associated with our staff completed work in the
Peace River and in the Prince George-Dunster areas which had been delayed by adverse
weather conditions. This group also made substantial progress in the soil survey of the
Interior Plateau, commenced south of Princeton in 1957 and designed to extend in time
to the Chilcotin.
Land use and soil management were continuing responsibilities of the Field Crops
Branch, which again provided leadership programmes at district, regional, and provincial
levels for improved practices in tillages, in the production of pastures, forage-crops,
cereals, and in weed-control. Seed-potato trials were again carried out at Oceanside,
Calif.
Better co-operation in weed-control has been achieved with the Department of Highways, with local authorities, and with the railways.
The Horticultural Branch has maintained a full schedule of activities, planned to
provide practical timely information to tree-fruit, small-fruit, and vegetable growers.
The completion of the report of the Royal Commission on the Tree-fruit Industry
in British Columbia and its presentation to the Government in October was the culmination of nearly two years of exacting study by Dean Earle D. MacPhee and those associated
with him.
A staff member from Kelowna provided specialist assistance to District Agriculturists
and vegetable-producers in Central British Columbia, which has a good market available
in Kitimat, Prince Rupert, and intervening points of settlement through to the Peace River
and the Alaska Highway for all the commodities whose production can be recommended
in that area.
There appears to be an encouraging revival of strawberry and raspberry growing in
the Fraser Valley, and an indication of producer acceptance that larger units, better
management, and high quality will be dominating influences on returns.
11 CC 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Plant pathologists and entomologists of the Department collaborated with field staffs
and with Federal personnel in dealing with diseases and pests. The advent of codling-
moth showing a strong resistance to DDT sprays presents a very serious problem. The
very mild winter of 1957/58 contributed to a larger than normal series of problems,
although the dry summer reduced apple-scab.
There is an increased interest in beekeeping and a keen demand for the services of
the Apiary Branch staff.
Satisfactory progress can be reported on brucellosis control and eradication. There
has been a very substantial increase in the number of calfhood vaccinations contributed
to by the practitioners in the four veterinary service districts now established. It appears
that 65,000 calves could be vaccinated in the year July 1st, 1958, to June 30th, 1959—
more than 100 per cent increase in two years. The Fraser Valley programme has suffered
from lack of veterinary and clerical personnel, but an aggressive approach is planned for
1959, when the Canada Health of Animals Division assumes responsibility for three more
Interior control areas, releasing our veterinarians there to assist in the Fraser Valley.
New regulations by the United States Department of Agriculture governing the
importation of Canadian cattle to that country are much more stringent in respect to
brucellosis and will encourage greater co-operation in hastening eradication of that disease.
Dairy-farm Inspectors have been maintained at the level necessary to meet responsibilities and the " Milk Industry Act " of 1956. It is most gratifying to report a substantial
improvement in dairy-farm premises.
Vibriosis in both beef and dairy cattle and mastitis in the latter are continuing serious
problems, referred to in greater detail elsewhere. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics
for the treatment of mastitis is a cause of major concern.
Domestic fur production continues to increase. Outbreaks of enteritis in mink in the
late fall are most unfortunate.
There is an increased interest in sheep production, particularly farm flocks, in all
areas, including Central British Columbia.
Lower prices for hogs have prevented any substantially increased swine production,
although there is definite interest in an enlarged output throughout the Peace River, where
assistance was given in distributing better breeding stock.
The Dairy Branch has striven to ensure that all regulations governing milk-processing
in distributing plants are scrupulously observed to protect producer interests and to ensure
high-quality products to consumers. Excellent co-operation has been received from
officials of health units and from administrative officials of the Health Department.
Dairy-herd improvement continues to be a most valuable and effective policy, contributing as it has to the substantially higher production of milk and butter-fat per cow
in British Columbia as compared with that of Canada and our sister Provinces and having
a definite influence on the income of dairy producers.
The use of artificial insemination is increasing steadily.
Dairy sire evaluation policy has made less progress than hoped. Your Advisory
Committee on these matters has continued to do valuable work.
Further progress is reported in performance testing of beef cattle in registered and
in commercial herds. The Advisory Committee you established in the late fall will meet
early in 1959 to assess the position of the programme and make recommendations that
appear desirable.
Sales of live stock and live-stock products showed substantial increased values in
1958. A strong United States demand for feeder cattle boosted prices as much as $5 to $7
per hundredweight over those of 1957. While steer calves and yearling steers were most
eagerly sought, buyers were keenly interested in all classes offered. A total of 36,139
head crossed the border—an increase of 13,290 over 1957. Similarly, 15,579 cattle
moved to the Prairies, or 2,915 more than in the previous year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 13
Brand inspections at 107,516 were more than 7,300 over those of the previous year.
It is estimated beef-cattle sales returned more than $18,300,000 to British Columbia producers.
In spite of a hot, dry summer, poorer pastures, and in some cases a shortage of water
for domestic and stock purposes, milk production was significantly higher, to over
800,000,000 pounds. A substantially greater demand for fluid milk and a higher base
price in areas of production under Milk Board jurisdiction resulted in a higher farm cash
income.
In poultry, egg production was maintained at almost the level of 1957, with somewhat improved prices, but still far below those of 1956. There was a very large increase
in broiler production, to the point that this phase of the industry can now practically meet
Provincial requirements. Prices were significantly lower though, and those for fowl very
much less.
The Random Sample Test at Abbotsford has completed one broiler test, and a
laying test is now in progress.
During the year the farm-management programme started with seven pilot farms
in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island, with the District Agriculturists of the
Development and Extension Branch participating. Dr. Richter, of the Agricultural Economics staff of the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of British Columbia, supervised the work as well as arranging a valuable short course in October, attended by
Agriculturists, Horticulturists, Poultry Inspectors, and other Departmental personnel.
Four officials took a one-month course on extension and farm management at Washington State College in Pulman last July.
Arrangements have been made to have the management programme extended in
1959 to include assistance on almost thirty farms and covering beef, dairy, mixed-farming,
tree-fruit, small-fruit, and poultry enterprises. The interest in this programme confirms
the decision of the Department in considering it as one of the most important yet initiated
and likely to have a significant effect on our extension activities as well as on agriculture
generally.
There has been a continuing demand for agricultural engineering services over a
very wide field. Farm safety was stressed. The Division made a very valuable contribution to successful mechanization of onion-harvesting.
Land-clearing, while less extensive than in 1957, reached a cost of nearly $400,000.
4-H Clubs continued to increase in numbers and in activities. The programme is
gradually being recognized in its true perspective as a character-building movement
designed to develop initiative, self-respect, and the respect for and confidence in the concepts from which our democratic processes arise, from the community through to the
national and international levels.
Farmers' Institutes and Women's Institutes, agricultural societies, and other farm
organizations continued to be valuable contacts in the broad field of agriculture and
sources of sound information indicative of grass-roots thinking.
The responsibilities arising in the administrative work of the Dyking Commission
and of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project kept the staff of those agencies extremely
busy throughout the year.
The Land Settlement Board had an immediate objective—the sale of Doukhobor
lands to Doukhobors. The number of parcels disposed of was very small relatively, and
the progress to date would be disheartening if those concerned had no previous acquaintance, even of a limited nature, with those people.
The extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to Dawson Creek and Fort St.
John is of great value to the agriculture of that area, whose production has now a direct
short haul to the consumer demand of the more than 60 per cent of the Provincial population west of Hope to the Pacific, including Vancouver Island.   The railway, already a CC 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
significant influence, will be of increasing importance to the agricultural economy of the
area. Car-lots of grain, of beef, and of hogs have already been shipped from Fort St.
John to North Vancouver. Two car-lots of hogs were delivered to a Vancouver packing
plant thirty-five and one-half hours from the time they left the Peace River point and
returned $250 per car, or approximately $3 per hog more to the producers than they
would have realized by shipping to Edmonton before the advent of the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway. Your Department is gratified that the policy adopted these past fifteen
years of stressing the importance of a live-stock balanced farm economy in the Peace
rather than one based on grain alone has been justified by the course of events and warrants continuation.
In November the Wheat Board granted permission for farmer-to-farmer transactions in feed-grains by rail between the Peace River and the rest of British Columbia.
Grains sold in this manner will not be assessed against the selling quota of the farmer
and may qualify for Federal freight assistance. It is not possible to assess yet the value
of this concession either to producers in the Peace or to users of feed-grains in other areas
along the Pacific Great Eastern Railway or in the Fraser Valley, but it is generally felt
that it should be of real assistance.
These comments on various phases of this Report form a brief summary of the
greater detail it contains.
Financially it appears that farm cash income for British Columbia farmers in 1958
may have been as high as $125,000,000, or perhaps nearly $10,000,000 over that of
1957. The steadily increasing cost of goods and services the farmer has to provide in
the operation of his enterprise is likely to offset the additional revenue and result in little,
if any, greater net income.
It has become increasingly evident and has been more generally recognized in 1958
in agriculture itself that if farmers and their families want the amenities and standards
of living enjoyed by comparable sectors of our non-farm population, they must, it is
generally accepted, undertake certain changes. These include economic holdings, efficient management, maximum effective use of land, labour, and capital, a recognition that
attainment of that objective requires acceptance that farming is a business to be operated
as such.
Certain forms of Governmental assistance will be necessary, and an effective source
of farm credit adapted to the particular needs of agriculture is essential.
The National Government must be prepared to assist Provinces in developing
projects for the conservation of natural resources, for land reclamation, irrigation, dyking, drainage, for stream and river erosion, and for rehabilitation and maintenance where
that is beyond the financial competence of the Province and the farmers concerned.
I regret extremely to report the death of Mrs. Violet MacLachlan, for many years
Superintendent of Women's Institutes, who had been superannuated in 1946, and of Mr.
Ernest MacGinnis, who was superannuated in 1950 from the position of Markets Commissioner, which he had held for several years. More recently he had been a member
of the British Columbia Marketing Board and secretary to the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes, in which capacity he had become very well known to farm people throughout the Province.
LEGISLATION
New legislation dealing with agriculture as passed at the Second Session of the
Twenty-fifth Parliament of British Columbia consisted of an Act to amend the " Dykes
Maintenance Act," an Act to amend the " Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey Grades Act,"
and an Act to amend the " Soldiers' Land Act." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 15
STAFF CHANGES
Appointments
■
G. Crothers, Milk Board Inspector, March 27th, 1958.
J. A. Dinnes, Research Assistant—Grade 2, May 5th, 1958.
T. A. Windt, Agriculturist—Grade 1, May 12th, 1958.
R. E. D'Easum, Milk Board Inspector, August 1st, 1958.
Superannuation
R. P. Murray, Provincial Horticulturist, February 28th, 1958.
F. C. Wasson, Dairy Commissioner, August 31st, 1958.
W. MacGILLIVRAY,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
REPORT OF MARKETS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
In spite of declines in the general economy of the Province during the year, agriculture again displayed its basically sound position. While price fluctuations occurred, as
always, the farm prices index (1935-39=100) reflected a firm tone throughout, reaching a high of 265.7 in May. This was the highest point reached since 1953. Lower
returns for field crops produced a decline during the ensuing months, but offsetting this
was a strengthening in live-stock prices. This latter factor was chiefly responsible for
keeping the index above 1957 levels.
Thus on balance the farm economy escaped the full impact of the slackening-off in
the rapid expansion of industry during the past few years. This seeming anomaly resulted
from the fact that while capital expenditure declined, consumer spending increased under
the influence of a continued high level of personal income.
Preliminary estimates indicate that farm cash income for the year was 5 per cent
above the $113,500,000 figure achieved in 1957. The net income figure was adversely
affected by further increases in the cost of goods and services used by farmers.
FEED-GRAIN MOVEMENTS
Feed-grains imported under the Federal Freight Assistance Policy during the
1957/58 crop-year amounted to 195,660 tons, a decline of some 7,000 tons from the
preceding twelve-month period.
Total imports under this policy since its inception in the early years of World War II
now stand at slightly more than 4,000,000 tons, at a total cost of some $28,000,000 to
the Federal Treasury.
A further change in the policy was brought into effect late this year with the announcement that assistance payments would be $5.40 per ton less than the car-lot short-
line rail freight charges from Calgary to destinations in British Columbia. The domestic
rate from Calgary is now 70 cents per 100 pounds, or $14 per ton. This arrangement
requires the importer to pay the difference between that rate and the subsidy, or $8.60
per ton.
FEEDS
Prices on basic feedstuffs showed very little change during the year, reflecting a
stable supply position. No. 5 feed-wheat rose to $60 per ton at Vancouver in the latter
part of the year, after having remained at $58 for the first eight months.   Oats rose $1 CC 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to $56 per ton in midsummer, then returned to $55 by November.   Barley stayed at $52
for the first half of the year, rising to $54 for the second half.
Laying-mash reached a high of $81 in September, dropping to $79 by the year's
end. Dairy-mash followed a similar pattern, ranging from a low of $65 early in the year
to $68 by October, then dropping $2 in November.
FRUIT
Generally lower yields marked the fruit industry's performance this year. All major
crops, with the exception of cherries, strawberries, and raspberries, recorded yields below
1957 levels.
Production of apples, the most important crop, was down 6 per cent, but generally
improved colour resulted in a relatively higher percentage of sales on the fresh market,
with a corresponding decrease in diversions to processors. Most of the apples were marketed in Western Canada and the western American States. These outlets will take
approximately 75 per cent of the total fresh-market sales. The United Kingdom will
absorb some 700,000 boxes, while slightly over 500,000 will move into Eastern Canada.
Steadily increasing freight rates and sharper competition have combined to lower
the sales volume in the eastern half of the continent, but this development has been offset
by increasing sales in markets closer at hand.
The use of " handi-pak " containers in Western Canada and " cell pack " for United
Kingdom sales has proved most effective in holding these markets against increasingly
stiff competition.
Other tree fruits were successfully marketed on the fresh market, with sales to processors reduced accordingly. From a total Okanagan cherry-crop of 246,000 crates,
228,000, or 90 per cent, were sold on the fresh market. Close to 70 per cent of the
peach-crop was also sold on this market.
Unusually warm, dry weather tended to shorten the small-fruits harvest season this
year, but yields of strawberries and raspberries were still greater than in 1957, the former
by over 25 per cent.
Sales of strawberries were good, but the raspberry market continued sluggish in the
face of heavy carry-overs in the hands of processors.
VEGETABLES
The vegetable industry experienced a mixed market reaction during the year, but
for the most part at levels below those achieved in 1957. Prices for early-crop potatoes
were below those of the previous year, dropping to $52 per ton at Vancouver. While
movement of late-crop tubers was generally good, prices reacted slowly, No. 1 Gems
being quoted at $60 per ton by December.
Sharp reductions in tomato and canning-pea acreages reflected the sluggish demand
for these important crops. This condition in turn reflected a reduced cannery pack in
all major canning crops. This occurred in spite of a support price of $5.70 per case of
24/28-ounce tins of choice tomatoes.
Other vegetable-crops showed little price change from 1957. Beets, cabbage, and
parsnips showed firmer prices by late autumn, but turnips and short carrots were below
comparable levels of the previous year.
LIVE STOCK
Highlighting the live-stock picture during 1958 was the strong market tone for beef
cattle. Contributing to this situation was the cyclic down-turn in United States production
coupled with unusually high stocks of feed in that country.   These factors resulted in a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 17
heavy demand for Canadian cattle, exerting a strong pressure on domestic prices for all
classes.
Both slaughter and feeder steers showed a steady price increase during the year,
ranging upward to over $22 by late fall, an increase of nearly $6 over comparable 1957
quotations.
Producers in the Interior of British Columbia introduced weekly auctions for the
first time this year, with gratifying results. The provision of a steady flow of offerings
each week has proved more profitable than the previous practice of only one or two large
sales each year.
Hog marketings showed a moderate increase over the 1957 total, but prices declined
by about $2 per hundredweight on the average.
Sheep and lamb marketings were down slightly, but average returns showed moderate
increases throughout the year, lambs reaching a high of $23.22 in June at Vancouver.
POULTRY AND EGGS
A decline in numbers of laying birds brought supply and demand into closer balance
during the latter half of the year. This was reflected in average weighted prices to producers, which rose in October to nearly 39 cents per dozen, 8 cents above the October,
1957, average. Total receipts at registered grading-stations were down 4 per cent from
1957.
Production of poultry-meat, on the other hand, showed a steady increase throughout
the year. By the year's end, marketings through registered grading-stations exceeded
20,000,000 pounds as compared to slightly less than 18,000,000 pounds in the previous
year.
DAIRY PRODUCTS
A moderate increase of 3,500 head in dairy-cattle numbers resulted in an estimated
increase of 4 per cent in milk production over the 1957 total of 773,000,000 pounds.
Fluid sales kept pace, reflecting the population increase and sustained consumer
purchasing power. Prices received by farmers showed little change during the year,
remaining close to levels established during the past two years.
Creamery butter production was, as usual in recent years, barely enough to supply
15 per cent of the Province's annual consumption of 25,000,000 pounds.
Ice-cream consumption reached a new high of over 4,000,000 pounds, as a result
of warm summer weather and the increasing popularity of dairy foods in this form.
MISCELLANEOUS
A continued firm demand for quality ranch-bred mink provided another year of
encouraging returns in the Province's fur industry. Late-fall and early-winter sales indicated a gross return of well over $3,500,000 for all peJts produced during 1958.
The annual wool-clip, estimated at 350,000 pounds, was up 7 per cent from the
1957 total, with prices relatively unchanged.
Excellent weather enabled British Columbia's 1,700 beekeepers to take off a record
honey-crop of over 2,150,000 pounds.   Prices remained at 1957 levels in all classes.
LEGISLATION
Under the regulation pursuant to the " Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey Grades Act,"
a charge was laid for the first time against a leading retail organization for a violation of
this regulation in respect of an advertisement in the press improperly advertising imported
potatoes.
The case was heard in Vancouver City Police Court, and the defendant was convicted
and fined. It is hoped this action may result in an improvement in the general tone of
advertising of produce in this Province. CC 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
MARKETING BOARDS
Following action of the British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board in
removing controls on sales of late potatoes, effective January 1st, interest was revived in
the reimposition of at least partial controls by midsummer. Accordingly, a newly formed
selling agency, Interior Potato Growers and Shippers Company Limited, was designated
by the Board as its agency for the selling of late potatoes at Coast markets.
The Interior Vegetable Marketing Agency Limited remains as the Board's designated
selling agency for early potatoes and other vegetables.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., P.Ag., Provincial Horticulturist
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The outstanding feature that affected horticultural crops in British Columbia in 1958
was the extremely mild winter and the unusually hot summer. The past winter was
reported to be the mildest in thirty-one years at Kelowna. By the end of February many
crops were starting to grow and trees were close to bloom in the Okanagan, but March
and April turned cool and showery and brought crop progress closer to normal for the
time of year. The following table showing blossoming dates, submitted by M. P. D.
Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, will give a picture of conditions as compared to the last four years; that is, early but late enough to be fairly safe from spring
frosts.
Fruit
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Apricots
Cherries-
Peaches-
Pears	
Prunes....
Apples—
Apr. 20
May 5
May 4
May 9
May 8
May 12
May 4
May 9
May 13-15
May 19
May 17
May 24
Apr. 21
Apr. 25
Apr. 28-30
May 5
May 7
May 11
Apr. 22
Apr. 29
Apr. 30
May 2
May 4
May 8
Apr. 12
Apr. 23
Apr. 24
Apr. 29
May 1
May 5
May was reported to be one of the warmest on record; June was warm and, as usual,
rainy. Consequently, the berry-crop was early and the season short. July and August
were hot months and very dry. Crops grew quickly but burned in mid-July, especially in
areas where there was no irrigation-water available. Insects and mites thrived in the
heat, but fungus diseases were not serious.
Hail-storms occurred in a number of areas in the Okanagan and Kootenays. Losses
were high on some individual lots at Osoyoos, Oliver, Cawston, Keremeos, and Summer-
land, but the over-all losses were not considered excessive.
Apple colour in the Okanagan was excellent, but up to August 29th general concern
was felt by growers and industry officials because of the lack of colour. Fortunately the
weather broke suddenly, the nights cooled off, there was a general rain, and within forty-
eight hours an excellent red colour developed. Mcintosh were mature and picking began
at once, and the grades were good. The Creston area was not as fortunate, and the lack
of colour has caused a considerable loss of income in this area.
The fall was astisfactory for harvesting various crops. Soil moisture was adequate
for the winter, and all crops went into the winter normally. Over-vigorous orchards may
have some damage in the Okanagan as a result of cold weather during the last week of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 19
November. There was an unusually early snow-storm in mid-October which broke limbs
on the stone-fruit trees and on some apple-trees in the area between Kelowna and
Peachland.
The estimated production of certain horticultural crops for 1958 is as follows: Tree
fruits, 361,374,000 pounds; small fruits, 26,915,000 pounds; and vegetables, 297,716,-
000 pounds.
TREE FRUITS
Apples.—The apple-crop looked like another big one in the spring—the set was
heavy and sizing was very good early in the season—but the hot weather had an adverse
effect, and many Mcintosh were small at harvest-time while Delicious were heavy to
medium. The picking dates for apples and pears were again established by the Horticultural Branch according to the standards available. For the first time, apple-growers
in the Okanagan were faced with codling-moth which were resistant to DDT. Some
orchards had heavy losses before resistance was confirmed by the Entomology Laboratory
at Summerland, especially in Kelowna and Oliver. New sprays have been recommended
for use in 1959.
Pears.—The Bartlett pear crop was lighter than 1957, but the quality was excellent.
The Anjou crop looked good early in the season, but as the fruit approached maturity
considerable damage from the disease Anjou pit was apparent. In some orchards, losses
up to 50 per cent were recorded. This disease does not show every year, and the conditions that cause an outbreak are not known. Assistance has been requested on this
problem from the Plant Pathology Laboratory at Summerland.
Peaches.—The 1958 peach-crop was down from last year because of the lack of
size development during the hot weather as well as the light crop on the Valiant variety.
Some growers panicked to get their peaches picked, and the result was mixed maturity
of fruit early in the season. Later in the summer picking became more uniform, although
maturity standards were still a problem for many growers and packing-houses.
Apricots.—Fresh-market apricots were of good size and quality in 1958, and the
crop was similar to 1957 in volume. The cannery varieties had a light crop. Picking
started about two weeks earlier than average.
Cherries.—The cherry-crop was of mixed maturity because of an extended blossom
period. The warm spring brought early maturity and smaller than usual size. Rain
splitting occurred in Oliver, Osoyoos, and the Kootenays area.
Prunes.—Many prune-trees are being removed in the Interior because of poor
returns and unknown physiological troubles. The 1958 crop was less than 1957, although
the size of the fruit was large.
Production.—The following figures give the estimated production for the 1958 tree-
fruit crop for British Columbia: Apples, 276,177,000 pounds; crab-apples, 3,301,000
pounds; pears, 28,850,000 pounds; plums, 882,000 pounds; prunes, 8,210,000 pounds;
cherries, 6,009,000 pounds; peaches, 25,999,000 pounds; and apricots, 11,946,000
pounds.
SMALL FRUITS
Strawberries.—The strawberry-crop was increased this year because of new acreage
coming into production after the 1955 freeze. Yields averaged about 2.7 tons per acre,
but the price was only 13.6 cents at the farm. The hot weather brought about a breakdown in the fruit as well as sun-scald in the field. Moulds resulting from rain at picking-
time added to the growers' problems in all areas.
Raspberries.—The quality of raspberries was good, volume of production per acre
average, and the price lower than in 1957. Raspberries in the Creston area softened as
rainfall occurred periodically during the harvest season. CC 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Loganberries.—The crop was smaller than 1957 but the price was improved over
the previous year.   Here again the hot weather reduced yields, although quality was good.
Blueberries.—Blueberry production is exhibiting a trend as a growing industry in
British Columbia. This season saw a record yield of 2,000,000 pounds, a stable price,
and a demand greater than the supply. It has been estimated by G. R. Thorpe, District
Horticulturist at New Westminster, that the blueberry acreage will increase from 553
acres in 1957 to 1,000 acres in 1961, the bulk of which will be situated in the Fraser
Valley.
Cranberries.—The cranberry industry will have doubled in acreage to 200 acres
next spring. Spring frosts damaged some of the bloom in 1958 on one of the larger
plantings, but even so the production was double that of 1957. Frost at blossom-time
is one of the greatest hazards in the cranberry industry. Some growers are installing
sprinkler systems to provide frost protection in the late spring.
Production.—The estimated small-fruit production for 1958 is as follows: Strawberries, 10,698,000 pounds; raspberries, 10,054,000 pounds; loganberries, 907,000
pounds; blackberries, 604,000 pounds; black currants, 50,000 pounds; red currants,
53,000 pounds; gooseberries, 61,000 pounds; blueberries, 2,002,000 pounds; cranberries, 70,000 pounds; grapes, 2,324,000 pounds; and filberts, 90,000 pounds.
VEGETABLE-CROPS
Coast Region
J. L. Webster, vegetable specialist, has reported that 90 per cent of all fresh vegetables grown on the Lower Mainland are produced within a 25-mile radius of Vancouver.
Exclusive of potatoes, the total production of vegetable-crops in the area amounts to an
estimated $4,000,000.
Pole Beans.—Pole bean acreage was 1,100 acres, with a production average of
6,730 pounds per acre. This is a reduction over last year, and it is anticipated that bean
acreage will continue to decrease until research provides a satisfactory control programme
for bean rust.
Canning-corn.—The acreage of canning-corn in the Fraser Valley dropped from
3,200 to 2,600 acres because of the unfavourable market outlook in the spring of 1958.
Tonnage was reduced on many plantings because of the hot, dry summer.
Canning-peas.—The canning-pea crop acreage which is grown on the Lower Mainland has decreased in the past three years. Many fields did not produce an economic
crop because of drought conditions.
General on Vegetables.—In the coastal area the heat-loving crops, such as corn,
tomatoes, cucurbits, etc., gave a fine crop provided that moisture was available. Lettuce
did poorly, however, because of the development of slime moulds and tip-burn.
Interior Region
E. M. King, vegetable specialist, has reported a continued upward trend in acreage
from 1957.
Prior to 1957, acreage had shown a continuous decline for five consecutive years.
Five thousand two hundred and thirty-three acres were devoted to vegetable production
in 1958, compared with 5,055 in 1957. Of the twenty major vegetables grown, fourteen
showed an increase and six a decrease in acreage from 1957.
Those crops registering an increase in acreage were early potatoes, late potatoes,
onions, silverskins, cucumbers, cabbage, corn, squash, asparagus, turnips, green beans,
green peas, peppers, and cantaloupes. Acreage decrease was recorded for tomatoes,
lettuce, celery, carrots, beets, and parsnips. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 21
Late potatoes and green beans accounted for the major portion of the total increase
in acreage. Together they showed a 660-acre increase. This increase was almost nullified by a drop of 630 acres in tomatoes.
Field Tomatoes.—The 1958 tomato acreage was down from 1,886 acres in 1957
to 1,224 acres in 1958. The failure of several large canneries to operate was no doubt
responsible for part of the reduction in plantings.
The young plants, of excellent quality, were planted out between April 25th and
May 12th, one the earliest plantings on record. First pickings were made in late June,
and heavy crops were taken in the first two weeks of July for the fresh market. After
the middle of July and throughout August the summer heat had wilted the plants, the
sun scalded the fruit and reduced the blossom set. Consequently, by September there
were few tomatoes of satisfactory quality for the fresh market.
The two main varieties, Fireball and Gem, were particularly hard hit by the summer
weather. An outstanding contrast occurred in the Osoyoos area, where, on the recommendation of the Horticultural Branch, the Summerland Gem was planted. It is a
medium-vigour plant which produced high-quality fruits and reasonably good yields.
This area normally has market claims, but this year where Summerland Gem was grown
there were no claims at all.
Onions.—The Interior onion acreage has increased slightly over 1957 to 331 acres,
partly fall-planted and the rest spring-sown onions. The main problems under consideration at present are variety recommendations and onion-maggot resistance to dieldrin
and heptachlor.
Asparagus.—Asparagus yield for the Okanagan was about 1 ton per acre because
of the hot, dry weather at cutting-time together with a sharp frost on April 24th. Prices
offered by canners were much lower than in past years, and a subsidy was paid to growers.
The cause of the price drop was a low United States price on asparagus, and the effect
in British Columbia is expected to be a reduction in planting unless growers are assured
of cost of production.
Beans.—Green and wax bean acreage increased sharply in 1958, but yields were
low because of the hot summer. There is an expected trend away from pole beans to
bush beans now that a mechanical bean-harvester has been introduced and proved to
be satisfactory.
Turnips.—E. M. King has made three trips into Central British Columbia as a
horticultural specialist to assist the District Agriculturists in the area and to encourage
the production of suitable vegetable-crops, and particularly to study and assist in developing a Swede turnip industry. Turnip production in 1958 will be at least 300 tons,
double the 1957 tonnage. The quality of the crop is excellent in spite of the severe
drought this season. The yield will average between 15 and 20 tons per acre, with a
high percentage of No. 1 grade. Central British Columbia appears to have an ideal climate to produce high-quality turnips, and it is hoped that a sizeable industry will develop
in the area.
Dried Peas.—The Armstrong area had 2,382 acres of peas, with a yield of over
1,000 pounds per acre. Creston Flats had 600 acres, with a yield of 800 pounds per
acre. An additional 120 acres were planted at Lister, near Creston, but the crop was a
total loss because of drought conditions.
Watermelons.—Messrs. Baverstock and Oswell, of the Vernon office of the Horticultural Branch, report that watermelon production in the Grandview Flats area near
Armstrong is a growing industry.   The production was as follows:—
Year Production in Lb. Year Production in Lb.
1953   362,000      1956 425,000
1954 700,000      1957 511,450
1955 400,000      1958  648,000 CC 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
An Estimate of the Acreage and Production of Selected Vegetable-crops
in British Columbia for 1958
Acreage Production in Lb.
Asparagus       590 1,064,000
Beans   1,549 10,733,000
Beets      289 4,315,000
Broccoli       175 1,355,000
Brussels sprouts        402,000
Cabbage      551 9,308,000
Carrots      678 14,166,000
Cauliflower      421 5,328,000
Celery      379 5,233,000
Corn  2,744 21,026,000
Cucumbers      371 6,421,000
Cucumbers, hothouse        1,081,000
Lettuce, field      574 9,677,000
Mushrooms        1,431,000
Onions      402 7,223,000
Peas  4,588 13,255,000
Potatoes, early  3,369 33,656,000
Potatoes, late  7,259 103,932,000
Spinach       181 1,048,000
Tomatoes, field  1,256 23,148,000
Tomatoes, hothouse        2,530,000
Turnips       430 7,237,000
NURSERY STOCK
Apple Root-stocks.—W. D. Christie, specialist in nursery crops, has reported that
in 1957 a large proportion of the apples grown are on E.M. II root-stocks. The other
East Mailing stocks are of lesser importance, although considerable numbers are grown
mainly for the backyard-garden market and for export. Although M.M. stocks have not
been adequately tested, they appear to have some promise, and this year, for the first time,
there has been a fairly substantial number of trees produced on four stocks. As shown in
the following table, nurserymen have been quick to recognize the fact that the imported
French Crab seedlings are actually domestic apple seedlings. These seedlings are of
unknown parentage and many are from tender varieties. This type of seedling was
damaged very badly in the 1955 freeze. As shown below, 80,000 apple-trees on seedling
roots are on Mcintosh seedlings, as compared with 40,000 on the so-called French Crab.
This is a great improvement over the situation in 1957, when only 25 per cent of the
seedling roots were Mcintosh. There is a good supply of locally grown Mcintosh seedlings now available, and it is expected that in the future when seedling roots are required,
these Mcintosh seedlings will be used almost exclusively.
Apple Root-stocks
Type
E.M. II 	
E.M. IV __
E.M. VII _
E.M. IX __
E.M. XVI _
E.M. XXV
Number
Percentage
136,400
38.0
10,680
3.0
46,105
13.0
21,730
6.0
7,120
2.0
1,130
0.3 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 23
Apple Root-stocks—Continued
Type
M.M. 104	
M.M. 106 	
M.M. 109 	
M.M. Ill        2,815
French Crab1	
Mcintosh seedling	
Antonovka  	
Malus Robusta No. 5	
ned
Approximate
Number
Percentage
2,740
0.8
3,320
0.9
3,100
0.8
2,815
0.8
40,280
11.0
80,780
22.6
1,860
0.5
1,000
0.3
1 Stocks designated as French Crab are, in most cases, of unknown parentage, probably from domestic apple seed,
including varieties such as Delicious and Winesap.
The following table shows the type of fruit-tree nursery stock which is being grown
in British Columbia, as well as the number of trees:—
Tree-fruit Nursery-stock Production in British Columbia
1957 1958
Apples   382,000 357,100
Pears      30,000 59,965
Cherries      31,000 46,875
Plums         9,000 4,700
Peaches      34,000 12,630
Apricots       3,410
Totals  486,000 484,680
There have also been very significant changes in the number of apple varieties propagated. In 1957 approximately 70 per cent of the apple nursery stock was Red Delicious,
but this year's production shows the effect of the recommendations regarding hardy
frameworks. The next table shows the most important of the apple varieties grown and
the numbers of each produced this season:—
Apple Varieties
Variety Number
Mcintosh1    90,277
Delicious   72,520
Golden Delicious   37,120
Spartan   29,010
Winesap   14,445
Rome Beauty      5,480
Antonovka2   13,250
Canada Baldwin2  10,730
Haralson2      3,990
1 Partly for hardy frameworks.
2 All for hardy frameworks.
SEED PRODUCTION
The total production of vegetable seed for 1958 was below that of 1957 but above
1956, with an estimated value of $400,000. The estimated value of flower seed is
$12,300. Peas are by far the largest crop, followed by Swede turnips, onion sets and
multipliers, beans, onions, and corn. CC 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
SURVEYS
The greenhouse survey for British Columbia has been completed, and the breakdown
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M DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 25
EXTENSION
Most of the extension work carried out by the District Horticulturists requires a call
at the farm to observe the problems that need attention. In some cases telephone calls
are sufficient or the grower will bring his problem to the office.
With a problem year, such as 1958, for insect-control, the Horticulturists were kept
extremely busy. For example, the resistant codling moth orchards were first observed
by the Horticultural Branch staff; the Federal Entomology Laboratory at Summerland
was advised of the grower's difficulty in getting satisfactory control with DDT. They,
in turn, ran a check and found a high degree of resistance to DDT in the worms from
the problem orchards. Resistance to DDT by codling-moth was confirmed in August.
In the meantime special spray recommendations were issued to orchardists so that control of this problem insect could be assured.
Meetings have been part of the extension programme for many years. In the Fraser
Valley and Vancouver Island the Horticulturists have regularly attended meetings of the
berry-growers' associations in the various areas, either as speakers or observers. Similarly, in the Okanagan the fruit-grower meetings and the vegetable-grower meetings were
attended.
A series of twenty meetings for tree-fruit growers was held through the Okanagan
from Osoyoos to Vernon, with a total attendance of 1,611, an increase of 469 over last
year. The following topics were covered by members of the Horticultural staff: " The
Present Status of Bulk Handling of British Columbia Tree-fruits," by W. F. Morton,
District Horticulturist, Kelowna; " Tree-fruit Maturity," by D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist, Oliver; and " Orchard Insect Control in 1958," by A. W. Watt, District Horticulturist, Summerland.
Assistance was also given in the Chautauqua programme by Dr. M. F. Welsh and
Dr. D. V. Fisher, of the Research Centre at Summerland.
Pruning, budding, and grafting schools were held at all points where they were
requested. Summer tours for orchardists were held at Keremeos, Oliver, Summerland,
Kelowna, and Winfield, with a total attendance of 250 growers. This was the second
year for orchard tours, and interest is increasing.
A large number of newspaper articles have been prepared for district newspapers
and farm papers to assist growers to produce better crops. J. A. Smith has had a monthly
column in " Country Life " in British Columbia directed to fruit-growers. The Horticultural news-letter was issued every two weeks from May to September. Crop estimates
and production figures have been prepared for various horticultural crops.
All of the staff of the Horticultural Branch have given talks or prepared material
for use on radio. The co-operation of the C.B.C. Farm Broadcast—CHWK (Chilliwack), CKOK (Penticton), CKOV (Kelowna), and CJIB (Vernon)—has been particularly appreciated. These stations have given time for broadcasts which were prepared to assist growers of horticultural crops; the time is given free and often on a
regular basis.
The Horticultural Branch has been carrying out extension by means of television
in the Okanagan through the co-operation of station CHBC-TV. The main transmitter
for CHBC-TV is at Kelowna, and there are satellite transmitters in Vernon and Penticton.
In this manner it is possible to direct material to farmers from Oliver to Salmon Arm
and Revelstoke.
The programmes commenced on April 4th, 1958, and they have been continued
weekly since that time. The first four programmes were of fifteen minutes' duration,
but it was found that a thirty-minute programme was easier to prepare and deliver, and
so the time was extended to half an hour on May 2nd. CC 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
M. G. Oswell, Assistant Horticulturist at Vernon, has done an excellent job of
organizing this programme. He has also acted as master of ceremonies for all but three
of the programmes. J. A. Smith, Supervising Horticulturist at Kelowna, has assisted
and filled in for Mr. Oswell when required.
The plan of the programme is to give the first ten minutes to current information,
and an interview with a guest for the remaining twenty minutes. Guests to date have
consisted mainly of British Columbia and Canada Department of Agriculture officials,
although growers and industry officials have also taken part.
The reaction of the public has been very favourable. The reaction of the farm
population is that television has a greater impact than any other form of mass media
as a means of putting over agricultural advice to a large number of people.
In addition to the weekly CHBC-TV shows, several of the staff took part in short
features on horticultural topics that were filmed and shown on " Country Calendar " on
the C.B.C. television network.
In 1958 G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at New Westminster, and I. C. Carne,
District Horticulturist at Abbotsford, spent several days visiting the major strawberry
areas in Washington and Oregon State at harvest-time. Varieties and cultural practices
were observed and much useful information was obtained, particularly from each of the
State extension services.
Two staff-training programmes of the Department of Agriculture were participated
in by most of the Horticultural Branch staff. They were the Communications Workshop
at Victoria and Kelowna and the Farm Management Course at the University of British
Columbia.
The report of the Royal Commission on the Tree-fruit Industry of British Columbia
has been completed, and Commissioner E. D. MacPhee turned his report over to the
Provincial Secretary on October 27th, 1958.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Your Horticulturist wishes to acknowledge the co-operation he has received from
the Horticultural Branch staff. This has been a particularly difficult year because the
Provincial Horticulturist continued to act as secretary of the Royal Commission on the
Tree-fruit Industry of British Columbia. The assistance of A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist at Victoria, has been particularly appreciated in handling much of the administrative work of the Horticultural Branch from March to October. The co-operation
of the various branches of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, the Canada
Department of Agriculture, the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of British Columbia, and the various grower organizations throughout the Province has been appreciated.
Finally, this Branch would like to acknowledge the thirty-seven years of service
which have been given to the betterment of horticulture by Bob Murray, Provincial
Horticulturist who retired on February 28th, 1958. Mr. Murray energetically pursued
his work with this Branch, and his contribution to horticulture has been outstanding.
We hope he will enjoy his retirement.
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc.
The dry, high-temperature weather prevailing during most of the growing season
was not favourable for the development of many of the important bacterial and fungous
diseases. It was favourable, however, for the development of physiological disorders
and the spread of virus diseases by aphids and leaf-hoppers. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 27
DISEASES
Field Crops and Vegetables
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.—Ring-rot has been found in trace amounts on four
farms in the Fraser Valley and one at Prince George, and on one farm at Kamloops.
Club-root of Cabbage.—There was severe damage in many fields at the Coast.
A new variety, 1922-L, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was tested here for
the first time. This variety proved to be resistant and horticulturally suitable in some
locations at the Coast but not in others.   Further trials are warranted.
Dwarf-bunt of Winter Wheat.—There has been a considerable increase in dwarf-
bunt in the Creston area and a slight increase in the Northern Okanagan. The Kharkow
variety appears to be very susceptible, and the Ridit variety is increasingly susceptible.
The Wasatch variety continues to be resistant but is subject to lodging. Attempts are
being made to find better resistant varieties.
Leaf-mould of Tomatoes.—The Waltham variety of greenhouse tomatoes was
resistant.
Leaf-roll of Potatoes.—A serious outbreak of leaf-roll occurred in certified and
commercial potatoes in the Fraser Valley. The mild winter favoured the aphid population
responsible for spreading the disease. Considerable improvement occurred in the reduction of primary leaf-roll net necrosis in commercial potatoes in the Northern Okanagan.
This resulted mainly from the use of larger quantities of foundation seed throughout the
industry.
Tree Fruits
Anjou Pit of Pears.—This was probably the most serious orchard disease in 1958.
Losses up to 60 per cent occurred in some orchards in the .Anjou variety. Previously it
was severe in 1947 and 1950.
Apple-scab.—The mild winter brought the ascospores to maturity several weeks
earlier than usual. Heavy primary infection occurred in some districts. Fortunately the
hot, dry weather during spring and summer was unfavourable for the development of
scab. An apple-scab warning service telling growers when the ascospores are discharging
will be inaugurated in the Okanagan in the spring.
Brown-rot of Stone Fruits.—Brown-rot of apricots (Sclerotinia laxa) was found in
several orchards in the Southern Okanagan for the first time. It did not cause any
economic loss. The recommended Phygon and Captan spray programme for brown-rot
of cherries in the Kootenays was effective. The dry weather during most of the growing
season was not favourable for the development of brown-rot.
Little Cherry.—There were serious losses in the Lambert variety in the Creston
Valley. Regulations were passed to stop the transportation of cherry nursery stock from
the affected areas in the Kootenays.
Mineral Deficiencies of Tree Fruits.—The use of iron chelates for the correction of
iron deficiency has been increasingly accepted. Zinc sulphate for correcting zinc
deficiency is also being widely used.
Small Fruits
Root-rots of Strawberry.—The Rhizoctonia root-rot was severe on a number of
farms in the Fraser Valley. Red-stele continues to be a problem at the Coast, particularly in poorly drained soils.
There is a need for a cheap soil fumigant. Many of the holdings are not large
enough to carry out a suitable crop rotation. CC 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGY BRANCH
C. L. Neilson, M.S., and J. C. Arrand, M.Sc.
The year 1958 was a busy one as far as insects were concerned, and several species
were unusually abundant.
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Grasshopper infestations were considerably higher than last year in areas south of
Williams Lake, and much more money was spent on control measures by the grasshopper-
control zones. Red-backed cutworms in the Okanagan-Mainline and Peace River areas
and variegated cutworms in coastal British Columbia caused considerable damage to
cereal, vegetable, and other crops. Potatoes and sugar-beet seed-crop suffered, particularly in the Ladner area. Demonstration plots to show the effect of various insecticides
when used on land to be seeded to watermelons were grown near Armstrong. Green
peach-aphids were particularly numerous on potatoes in the Delta districts and caused
an increase in the leaf-roll disease. Damage from tuber flea-beetle occurred at several
points on Vancouver Island on fields claimed to have been treated properly. Cabbage-
aphid caused severe damage to cabbage and cauliflower on Southern Vancouver Island,
and infestations were also heavy in the Fraser Valley. Damage from onion-maggot in the
Okanagan-Mainline reached serious proportions when control measures, previously effective, failed to give control. Turnip-maggots in Central British Columbia were again
numerous, but many of the growers were advised of control measures at field-days and
lectures. Wheat-midge caused severe damage near Kersley. Liocoris spp. was again
present in economic numbers throughout the Peace River area, and it appears evident
that control measures are necessary where alfalfa is to be grown for seed. The thistle
butterfly was widespread in the North and South Okanagan, Fraser Valley, Vancouver
Island, and West Kootenay, but there was little evidence of any damage to cultivated
crops. Miscellaneous inquiries throughout British Columbia covered the usual wide
range of other insects normally present in varying degrees on vegetables and field crops.
ORCHARD INSECTS
Orchard pests caused considerable concern in 1958. Codling-moth developed
resistance to DDT in scattered orchards from Kelowna to Osoyoos. Heavier infestations
also occurred in coastal British Columbia orchards. Considerable difficulty was experienced in controlling pear-psylla. Discussions were held with orchardists throughout the
Okanagan during the " Orchard Tour " field-days. Trapping studies for Oriental fruit-
moth in the Okanagan Valley by the Canada Department of Agriculture showed no
moths, hence indicated success of our 1957 project of suppression by fumigation.
The following pests were present in the degrees noted:—
(a) More than in 1957: Apple-aphid on young apple-trees, black cherry-
aphid, fruit-tree leaf-roller, McDaniel mite, two-spotted mite, blister-mite
at Creston, peach tree-borer on nursery stock; pear-psylla was also more
difficult to control; codling-moth DDT-resistant moths appeared in
several orchards from Kelowna to Osoyoos; leaf-hoppers on non-sprayed
trees in the early season; pear-slug on pear and cherry on Vancouver
Island and Fraser Valley; stink-bugs on soft fruit; grasshoppers in young
orchards at Creston.
(b) Less than in 1957: Eye-spotted bud-moth, lecanium scale on soft fruit
due to increased control, woolly apple-aphid, thrips causing " pansy spot."
(c) Same as in 1957: Apple-aphid on mature trees, buffalo tree-hopper,
cherry fruit-worm, European red mite, Liocoris (=lygus), peach tree- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 29
borer, grasshoppers in Okanagan, apple-sawfly, San Jose scale, thistle-
aphid, mealy plum-aphid, yellow-necked caterpillar, cherry fruit-fly
cicadas in Creston area.
(d) Minor economic importance (low-level populations): Brown mite, California pear-slug, cicadas in Okanagan, cutworms, European earwig,
European fruit-scale, oyster-shell scale, thrips on apples, rosy apple-aphid,
yellow spider-mite, peach twig-borer.
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
The strawberry and black vine weevil continues to be well controlled in treated small
fruits. The root-weevils Sciopithes obscurus and Nemocestes are not controlled by these
insecticides and caused increased damage in 1958. The clay-coloured weevil damaged
raspberries in the Yarrow district for the first time. Cyclamen mite at Creston on strawberries required three endrin treatments to effect control. The omnivorous leaf-tier was
present again in a wider area in strawberries, centring on Abbotsford. The shallot-aphid
caused moderate to severe damage to strawberries on both Vancouver Island and the
Fraser Valley on non-treated acreages. Two-spotted mites were prevalent on both raspberries and strawberries at Creston and in the Fraser Valley. A high incidence of red
berry-mite was reported by the Canada Department of Agriculture entomologists at
Victoria. Bramble leaf-hoppers and rose leaf-hoppers were numerous to warrant control
in coastal areas. The Macropsis leaf-hopper on loganberries on Lulu Island increased
markedly over 1957. The raspberry root-borer continues as a serious pest throughout
the Province. Spittle-bug control on strawberries and fruit-worm control on raspberries
was needed at Creston.
FLOWERS AND SHRUBS
Inquiries concerning the pests of flowers and shrubs covered a wide range of insects.
No serious outbreaks occurred, but of interest was an attack by the alfalfa looper to
greenhouse chrysanthemums and damage to daffodils by the variegated cutworm in the
Fraser Valley.   Satin-moth caused damage to poplar-trees from Penticton to Savona.
LIVE-STOCK PESTS
There was no outbreak of tick paralysis on cattle as in 1957. Ranchers no doubt
took the necessary precautionary or control measures. The winter tick was abundant on
cattle at Empire Valley and in the Cariboo. The Coast tick was numerous and attacked
several people, at least in the Nanaimo, Alberni, and immediate districts. The ear-tick
was present in several cattle herds in the Adams Lake district. Cattle warbles were more
abundant in 1958. Increased activity on research and demonstration control was carried
on with systemic insecticides. The demonstration of warble-fly control at Empire Valley
with 800 head of cattle proved effective and will continue during 1958-59 by the Canada
and Provincial Departments of Agriculture. Feed-additive demonstrations were conducted at these ranches, and spraying tests at two others for warble and louse control.
Horn-flies were more numerous than usual in the Interior. Cattle lice continue to be
a major pest, and ranchers find it difficult to spray cattle late in the season due to low
temperatures which often prevail after the cattle come down to winter pasture or feeding
areas.   Blackflies were troublesome, as usual, to cattle in several areas.
HOUSEHOLD AND STORED-PRODUCT PESTS
Ticks, bedbugs, wasps, box elder bugs, silverfish weevils, carpenter-ants, termites,
fleas, black widow spiders, earwigs, and carpet-beetles were the most common pests
reported.   Stored-product insects were reported, in part, by the Canada Department of CC 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Agriculture as follows: The brown house-moth and the white-shouldered house-moth
were the commonest insects in elevators; yellow meal-worm, Indian meal-moth, granary-
weevil, spider-beetles, tobacco-moths, mites, psocids, and black carpet-beetles were
present in lesser numbers. In cereal-warehouses and feed plants the insects normally
associated with such places were present in varying numbers in different areas of the
Province.
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
1. Handbook of the Main Economic Insects of B.C.: Part 5, " Forage," and Part 6,
" Stored Product Insects."   Neilson and Arrand.
2. Mimeograph circulars were prepared on Spruce Gall Aphid; Turnip Pests and
Their Control; Pear-psylla; San Jose Scale; Back Rubbers, an Aid in Controlling Horn-
flies and Lice.
3. Press releases were made on warble-fly control, turnip-maggot, black widow
spider.
4. Illustrated lectures were given at fifteen locations and grower field-days attended
in the Peace River, Okanagan, and Central British Columbia. Radio talks were given
over Quesnel, Kelowna, and Vernon radio, and two television appearances made on
CHBC (Kelowna).   Grasshopper zone meetings were attended.
5. Fall fairs were attended and displays shown at Creston, Dawson Creek, Smithers,
Port Alberni, Nanaimo, and Armstrong.
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon
Beekeeping in British Columbia had one of its better years during 1958. A mild
open winter during 1957/58 resulted in above average wintering of colonies. A very
early spring coupled with a hot, dry summer provided ideal conditions for colony welfare.
In certain areas, such as the Similkameen and North Okanagan, the long period of hot,
dry weather resulted in reduced nectar yields. However, in areas of usually heavy
precipitation, this dry weather resulted in above average yields of honey. All factors
considered, the Provincial honey yield of 1,913,717 pounds can be considered as above
average.
MARKETING
Marketing of honey and honey products continues to be satisfactory. The price of
beeswax has been somewhat depressed, with a top price of 45 cents being offered, as
compared to 55 cents during 1957.
Two beekeepers are experimenting with methods of manufacturing beeswax candles.
The bulk of our production of honey is still being sold through the retail trade, and there
has been a vast improvement in the quality and attractiveness of packs.
DISEASE CONTROL AND INSPECTION
The inspection staff during 1958 consisted of V. E. Thorgeirson, J. Stann, H. Boone,
G. V. Wilkinson, and L. Truscott.   A total of 9,278 colonies were inspected.
One hundred and four live colonies infected with American foul-brood and valued
at $2,080 were burned in accordance with terms of the "Apiaries Act." Fifteen colonies
were treated under supervision of the Inspectors. Nineteen samples of brood comb and
smears were received for analysis. All showed infection—twelve American foul-brood,
five European foul-brood, and two nosema. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 31
Samples of five adult bees were sent to Guelph Agricultural College and also to the
Bee Division at Ottawa for diagnosis of septicemia, a disease of the blood. Samples will
be collected this coming year so that this work may be continued.
POLLINATION
Pollination service of honeybees has been continued. There were 841 colonies used
for the pollination of fruits and vegetables. The number of colonies rented was 211, at
an average charge of $5.33.
There is an opportunity for an improvement in extension techniques to inform
growers of the effectiveness of honeybees as pollinators and to overcome the reluctance
of beekeepers to move their colonies where pollination services are needed.
BULLETINS AND PUBLICATIONS
A bulletin on General Beekeeping in British Columbia is nearing completion, and
Circulars No. 13 (The Use of Antibiotics and Drugs in Controlling Bee Diseases) and
No. 10 (Beehive Construction for Beginners) are under revision. The following bulletins
were printed: Honey and Pollen Plants of British Columbia, Pollination, Bee Stings, and
Beekeepers Calendar.
EXTENSION
Short courses on beekeeping were held in Fort St. John and Victoria. Another
beemaster's short course was held at the University of British Columbia, where seventeen
of the twenty-six candidates wrote examinations and were successful in obtaining the
beemaster's certificates. Three 4-H Honeybee Clubs are organized in Armstrong,
Vernon, and Penticton. The extension work involved in beekeeping is unlimited, and the
services of our staff are in constant demand for inspection, lectures, field-days, as well as
production and marketing information. Once again a booth was set up at the Armstrong
Interior Exhibition in co-operation with Horticulture, Entomology, and Agricultural
Extension.
Our new refractometer is a very useful instrument to have available. Thirty-one
samples of honey were tested and acknowledged. Five series of 35-mm. slides were
completed for showing at beekeepers' meetings. The subjects covered were: 1, Disease;
2, Wintering; 3, Spring Management; 4, New Equipment;  and 5, General Beekeeping.
Correspondence consisted of 1,729 letters in and 2,140 letters out. Twelve tape-
recorded programmes were made for rebroadcast on CKWX, CKOV, and the C.B.C.
Two appearances were made on Okanagan Farm and Garden television programmes.
MEETINGS
Members of this Branch attended seventeen field-days, fifty-two meetings, and
thirteen fairs and exhibitions.
Honey was judged at ten local fairs and exhibitions. The Canadian Beekeepers'
Council meeting and the Provincial Apiarists' meeting in Vancouver, an agricultural
extension meeting in Kelowna, Inspectors' meeting, and a field-day at Beaverlodge were
attended, also the annual meeting of the British Columbia Honey Producers' Association.
A visit was paid to the Agriculture Section at Guelph Agricultural College, as well as the
Bee Division Experimental Farm, Ottawa. CC 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH
A. Kidd, V.S., D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinary Inspector
This submission includes reports on the Live Stock and Veterinary Division, the
Dairy Herd Improvement Services, the Brands Division, and the Animal Pathology
Laboratory.
LIVE STOCK AND VETERINARY DIVISION
(Dr. A. Kidd)
As most of our duties are of a regulatory nature, this section will show the activities
carried out under the various Acts that we are actively enforcing, the various policies that
we administer, and the miscellaneous duties that we fulfil.
Acts
"Animals Act"
During July the Fort Fraser and the Westwold Bull-control Areas were established.
There are eleven gazetted bull-control areas and fifteen gazetted bull districts within the
Province.
" Beef Grading Act "
This Act applies to the Cities of New Westminster, North Vancouver, and Vancouver, the Municipalities of Burnaby and West Vancouver, and the District of North
Vancouver.
The Beef Grading Inspector reports 639 inspections to retail outlets in the Greater
Vancouver area.
During the year the Canada Department of Agriculture promulgated revised beef
grading regulations and a new schedule of grades. The regulations pursuant to the British
Columbia " Beef Grading Act " are being revised to conform and will be established by
Order in Council during 1959.
" Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1956 "
The main objective of this Act continues to be the eradication of brucellosis from
the cattle population of the Province. Progress toward complete eradication is being
carried out relentlessly through a thoroughly planned programme. In a few years British
Columbia will be certified free of brucellosis. This will rid all cattle-owners of the burden
of this costly disease, and from a public health aspect eliminate the source of undulant
fever in humans.
Problems with reference to a few diseases are outlined.
1. Specific Diseases.—Foot-rot in Sheep: Veterinary Inspectors carried out routine
inspections of some 10,000 sheep before grazing permits were issued allowing sheep on
certain Crown lands. This is a joint effort with the Grazing Commission of the Department of Lands and Forests and helps greatly to keep this condition under control.
Tuberculosis of Cattle: The Health of Animals Division of the Canada Department
of Agriculture has the responsibility of this disease throughout the entire Province. The
tremendous export of beef cattle to the United States again created an emergency this
year, and one Veterinary Inspector was loaned to the Health of Animals Division during
September and October to assist in the tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of cattle. For
the entire year 36,139 range cattle were shipped to the United States from British Columbia for purposes other than immediate slaughter. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 33
Vibriosis of Cattle: Now that brucellosis is being eradicated from the cattle of the
Province, vibriosis is emerging as the No. 1 disease of concern in beef and dairy cattle.
It is becoming increasingly widespread and more firmly established in all areas. This is
primarily a sterility disease spread through the use of an infected bull. The use of artificial
insemination makes this disease a lesser problem in our dairying areas. We regret to
report that dairymen in general are making no progress in controlling this disease, and
the situation is worsening each year. Similarly, in our beef-raising herds, vibriosis is
showing up on more ranges. Individual ranchers or groups of ranchers can eliminate
vibriosis from their herds by a good programme of artificial insemination or through
a sound controlled programme of pasture and corral breeding. With few exceptions this
is not being done. The problem of vibriosis herds on common ranges is a matter of great
concern. The very nature of vibriosis prevents control or eradication in those herds.
Present-day knowledge indicates vibriosis can be eliminated from infected herds—beef
or dairy—only through a sound breeding programme. Cattle-owners concerned are
failing in their efforts, and it is evident that more effective action must be taken. This
disease is sufficiently serious to both the beef and dairy industries to warrant earnest
consideration of the following:—
(a) Regulations under the appropriate legislation.
(b) Increased publicity and advice to cattlemen.
(c) Increased research to provide more effective measures for control and
eradication.
2. Non-specific Diseases.—Cyanide Poisoning: The cause of death of two cattle in
the Southern Interior and caused from eating the fruit-laden branches of the choke-cherry
trees.
Malnutrition: Reported by almost all of our Veterinary Inspectors as the cause of
deaths of animals or nutritional abortions, particularly evident in the early spring when
cattle-owners have not put up sufficient winter feed.
3. Brucellosis Eradication in Cattle.—Of the four areas taken over by the Canada
Department of Agriculture on November 19th, 1957, three—Pemberton-Sechelt, West
Kootenay, and McBride—have been declared certified brucellosis-free areas by the Health
of Animals Division. It is expected that the Vancouver Island Brucellosis-control area
will be certified also during 1959.
This Department discontinues payments to veterinary practitioners for vaccination
of calves against brucellosis when a brucellosis-control area is taken over by the Canada
Department of Agriculture.
It is intended in the near future to request the Canada Department of Agriculture
to take over four more of our brucellosis-control areas, which will permit the Health of
Animals Division to effect the gradual certification of British Columbia. The more
stringent regulations governing the importation of cattle to the United States, which went
into effect on November 15th, emphasize the urgent need for brucellosis certification.
These permit the importation of cattle meeting the following qualifications with respect to
brucellosis:—
(a) Cattle originating in fully listed herds and tested with negative results
within thirty days preceding entry.
(b) Cattle from negative herds in brucellosis certified areas and tested with
negative results within thirty days preceding entry.
(c) Cattle from herds which have passed a negative brucellosis test not more
than three months preceding the date of offer for entry and tested again
with negative results within thirty days preceding entry.
(d) Official vaccinates under 30 months of age from herds not known to contain any animals affected with brucellosis. CC 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(e) Cattle of beef breeds raised under range conditions in Western Canada
will be allowed the range test privilege of negative blood test within thirty
days preceding their offer for entry or official calfhood vaccination certificate.
These regulations do not apply to cattle under 6 months of age, steers, or cattle for
immediate slaughter.
In the report of the Live Stock Branch of 1957, it was reported that progress in the
Fraser Valley Brucellosis-control Area programme was lagging. This situation still pertains. It will continue until the Department has sufficient veterinary and office personnel
in the area to implement in full the several phases of the programme that has been planned
and which has made certain definite progress.
During the calfhood-vaccination year ended June 30th, 1957, a total of 39,230
calves were vaccinated, mostly by veterinary practitioners, at a cost to the Department
of $40,680. During the calfhood-vaccination year ended June 30th, 1958, a total of
47,087 calves were vaccinated, again mainly by veterinary practitioners, at a cost of
$49,790. Present indications are that nearly 60,000 calves will be vaccinated during the
calfhood-vaccination year ending June 30th, 1959. The continued increase is due to
greater publicity by this Department and more coverage by veterinary practitioners,
including those locating in the more remote areas of the Province through our Veterinary
Service District Policy.
Current statistics indicate that there will be another increase of approximately 3,000
calves vaccinated in the Fraser Valley Brucellosis-control Area to nearly 18,000 head.
This compares well with the approximate 11,000 head in 1956/57. We estimate 26,000
calves in the Fraser Valley eligible, and in the next year steps will be taken to ensure these
are vaccinated against brucellosis.
During April, Live Stock Branch and Dairy Branch Inspectors forwarded samples
of the milk from each shipper in the North and South Okanagan to the Animal Pathology
Laboratory for the purpose of the milk ring test for brucellosis. Three hundred and fifty-
nine samples were taken, 248 showing negative, 39 positive, 17 suspicious, and 15 trace
results.    Follow-up herd tests were carried out.
During June, at the request of the Federal authorities, the Live Stock Branch and
Dairy Branch Inspectors took samples from the milk of 298 shippers on Vancouver Island
and forwarded these to the Federal Animal Pathology Laboratory for the brucellosis ring
test. Two hundred and sixty-six samples showed negative results, 16 positive results, and
sixteen suspicious results. In the follow-up herd tests on thirty-one premises, 973 cattle
were negative, 19 suspicious, and 5 positive. The one herd not tested was a Federal
listed herd. It was further concluded that the calfhood-vaccination titre does affect the
brucellosis ring test of milk.
Routine work in relation to live-stock transportation permits involves much effort
by both office and field staffs.
One successful prosecution was carried out where cattle were transported into a
brucellosis-control area without the necessary live-stock transportation permit.
A Veterinary Inspector has been present at all bull sales, fat stock sales, breeding
stock sales, and feeder sales of beef cattle in order to test for brucellosis, where required,
and to issue live-stock transportation permits where necessary. Live-stock sales were
held weekly at Williams Lake and Kamloops from early September through to December,
which required almost the full time of our Kamloops Veterinary Inspector for that period.
Veterinary Inspectors vaccinated a total of 2,594 calves on 283 premises.
Veterinary Inspectors blood-tested 8,006 cattle on 544 premises. Brucellosis agglutination blood test results showed 7,729 head were negative, 149 head over 36 months
of age were positive, and 95 head over 36 months of age were suspicious. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958
CC 35
Calfhood Vaccinations in Brucellosis-control Areas,
July 1st, 1957, to June 30th, 1958
Area Number and Area
1. West Kootenay (Federal certified) 	
2. Nicola 	
Cherryville 	
Cariboo  	
3.
4.
5.
6.
Vancouver Island (Federal certified) _.
Pemberton-Sechelt (Federal certified)
7. McBride (Federal certified) 	
8. South Okanagan 	
9. East Kootenay	
10. Kamloops-North Okanagan	
11. Fraser Valley	
Total.
1957/58
195
4,891
18
9,216
1,621
46
73
2,767
2,018
8,789
14,794
44,428
Calfhood Vaccinations under Joint Policy of Federal-Provincial
Brucellosis-control
Brucellosis-
control Area
Period Vaccinations
July 15th, 1950, to June 30th, 1951  8,798
July 1st, 1951, to June 30th, 1952  11,324
July 1st, 1952, to June 30th, 1953  14,820
July 1st, 1953, to June 30th, 1954  19,321
July 1st, 1954, to June 30th, 1955  22,977
July 1st, 1955, to June 30th, 1956  20,487
July 1st, 1956, to June 30th, 1957  26,051
July 1st, 1957, to June 30th, 1958  44,428
Totals.
168,206
Total
Vaccinations
18,929
24,178
29,605
34,152
36,815
36,412
39,230
47,087
266,408
Total calves vaccinated under the Provincial policy during the period from July 31st,
1941, to July 14th, 1950, was 83,730 head.
" Fur-farm Act"
For the licence-year of 1958 a total of 609 fur-farm licences were issued and the
amount of $6,535 collected. Inspectors made a total of 277 fur-farm visits on various
matters.
The Victoria office issued 197 fur-farm transportation permits to cover export and
import of fur-bearing animals. A total of 122 permits to vaccinate for distemper were
issued to cover inoculations of 50,834 mink.
During the year twelve fur-farms were quarantined because of distemper and seven
quarantines were lifted. At the year's end eight distemper quarantines remain within the
Province.
For the first time virus enteritis in mink was recognized during October on two
fur-farms located in the Municipality of Surrey. Due to the nature of the disease, no
quarantines are being instituted by this Department. A total of seven permits were issued
to cover the vaccination of 2,195 mink for virus enteritis.
" Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act "
No applications for enrolment were mailed out and no stallions were enrolled during
the year. CC 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Meat Inspection Act "
There are two abattoirs continuing under the Meat Inspection Service as provided
by this Department—namely, Clappison Packers at Haney and Seed & Pitts Packers at
Pitt Meadows. Both plants also come under the meat grading service of the Federal
Marketing Service as carried out by the Livestock and Livestock Products Division.
During the year many representations are received from various persons interested
in establishing abattoirs under the Provincial Meat Inspection Service. It is evident,
however, that no matter how interested the persons may be in having supervised meat
inspection and grading, few, so far, will spend sufficient money to build establishments
to the requirements of the Meat Inspection Act and regulations. Almost everyone wants
meat inspection, but no one has the money to spend in order to get it. There are at least
two abattoirs, however, in the Fraser Valley that will likely soon qualify for inspection as
their premises are gradually being brought into fine with requirements.
" Milk Industry Act," 1956
Fine work is being carried out under this Act in the inspection of dairy-farms that
are selling raw milk as approved raw-milk dairy-farms and shipping milk as approved
fluid-milk dairy-farms. The cost-price squeeze is forcing many producers into bigger
operations with increased mechanization and greater efficiency to cut production costs.
This is particularly evident in the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island areas. The trend
is indicated by the considerably increased installation of farm holding-tanks for milk.
The substantial number of these in use in the Fraser Valley is being increased steadily
each month. A few have been installed on Vancouver Island and one in the East
Kootenay District.
Parts I and II of the regulations under the " Milk Industry Act" were amended
during the year to require, among other things, that tanks can be installed only by permit
to ensure that milk-houses and the tanks meet approval.
Three separate successful prosecutions were carried out by Inspectors under section
5 of the " Milk Industry Act" where persons were selling milk for human consumption
without a certificate of approval.
The co-operation received from the dairy-farmers and the dairy operators continues
to be very gratifying. Excellent integration continues with the Dairy Branch and its
Inspectors and the Milk Board and its Inspectors.
Mastitis Examinations by Veterinary Inspectors
Number of premises	
Number of cows examined	
Number clinical 	
Number to treat	
Number to eliminate
99
1,453
336
273
63
Appendix No. 1 contains the totals of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by districts, by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy-farm Inspectors under the " Milk Industry Act."
" Sheep Protection Act "
Compensation paid from Dog Tax Fund for the years 1956, 1957, and 1958:—
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Year
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1956                       -       	
1
$30.00
141
121
96
$3,531.50   '
2,303.50
2,305.00
462
543
746
$1,180.50
1957 _	
595.00
1958    _      	
741.89 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 37
Policies
Artificial Insemination Assistance Policy
On March 5th a policy statement regarding artificial insemination of cattle and
related problems was approved by the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture. The funds
are made available through the " artificial-insemination assistance " section of the Live
Stock Branch vote.   The policy is listed as follows:—
(1) An Advisory Committee on Artificial Insemination and related matters was
established by the Minister of Agriculture, and held its first meeting on
January 12th, 1956. Government policy has been, and will continue to
be, based upon the recommendations of this committee.
(2) The primary objective of the programme evolved by the Advisory Committee is to ensure that the major service load shall be carried by sires
proven, under artificial-insemination conditions, to be superior.
(3) Artificial-insemination service is to be extended, as and when considered
practical, to the various areas of the Province.
(4) A permanent frozen-semen laboratory is to be established at the British
Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre.
(5) It is intended that the continuing implementation of the British Columbia
artificial-insemination programme shall be, as at present, a co-operative
and cost-sharing effort between the Provincial Government and the Federal Government, and the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre,
and the various sub-units throughout the Province.
(6) Provincial Government support of this programme shall be as follows:—
(a) Sharing with the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Centre, on approximately a 50-50 basis, the extra costs which the implementation of the programme entails. This has resulted in the young sire
evaluation programme.
(b) Contributing to the establishment of a permanent frozen-semen
laboratory.
(c) Special grants, as deemed necessary, to facilitate the establishment of artificial-insemination service throughout the Province.
Under " Special Grants " two Artificial Insemination Clubs (semen purchasing organizations) newly constituted during the year will receive assistance at the rate of $1 per
head per first service and be reimbursed the costs for the transportation of the semen.
The grant and reimbursement is approved by the Minister on a calendar-year basis and
is available only to a newly formed club requiring aid, and may be forthcoming to that
club until such time as it becomes self-sufficient.
Dairy-cattle Placement Policy
During the nine-year period from 1950 through to 1958, a total of 671 head of dairy
cattle have been selected and placed from the Fraser Valley. A total of 631 head of
females were shipped, including 392 Holsteins, 124 Guernseys, 78 Jerseys, and 37 Ayr-
shires. In the same period an additional 40 registered dairy bulls were selected and
shipped, including 19 Holsteins, 13 Guernseys, 4 Jerseys, and 4 Ayrshires. Production
background has been the prime requisite under this policy, and almost all selections have
been from D.H.I.A. herds.
While most of the females selected have been graded, due to the difficulty experienced
in obtaining suitable registered animals at a figure Interior dairymen could pay, all have
had registered sires—many artificially. This policy is integrated with the brucellosis-
control programme, the use of registered sire, and D.H.I, services. CC 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA .
In the last two years, two yearling Hereford bulls have been selected in the Fraser
Valley and shipped to up-coast points under the Pure-bred Sires for Farmers' Institutes
Policy.
Live-stock Improvement Policy
During the year, 4 Yorkshire boars were purchased for $375 and 1 Suffolk ram for
$50. Freight charges amounted to $66.59. The Department also paid the freight on 16
hogs from Edmonton to Dawson Creek, amounting to $143.26. This makes a total of
$472.63 in freight charges since the inception of the policy in 1955. All animals were
shipped into the Peace River District.
Pure-bred Sires for Farmers' Institutes Policy
Sire purchases for the year 1958 were as follows (1957 figures in parentheses):
12 (12) pure-bred sires were purchased during the year at a cost of $5,575 ($4,395),
which included 10 Herefords, 1 Shorthorn, and 1 Aberdeen-Angus; transportation charges
paid by this Department amounted to $493.40 ($381.80). The Farmers' Institutes
receiving these sires were as follows: Grand Forks, Newgate, Westbridge, Pemberton,
Jaffray, Tatalrose, and Bella Coola. Total payments received from farmers under this
policy during the year amounted to $4,119.85 ($3,402.62). Final payments were received
on 9 bulls, including 5 Herefords, 1 Shorthorn, and 3 Holsteins, and also on 1 Hampshire
ram.
Veterinary Service District Policy
The purpose of this policy is to provide veterinary services in those areas of British
Columbia where the scattered nature of farm settlements and (or) the long distances
between stock farms or ranches have discouraged qualified veterinarians from establishing
residence and practice, and where present and immediate potential live-stock population
warrants such action. Two veterinary service districts were established last year with
veterinarians located at Dawson Creek and at Prince George.
Two additional veterinary service districts were established by signed agreement
commencing September 1st. Dr. J. A. Roberts, resident at Williams Lake, is providing
veterinary service in the Williams Lake Veterinary Service District, and Dr. K. E.
Marling, resident at Creston, is providing veterinary service in the Creston Veterinary
Service District.
Short Courses
Four Veterinary Inspectors attended the Veterinary Short Course at Washington
State College at Pullman held for three days during April.
All of the Live Stock Branch staff and D.H.I, supervisors attended a two-day
Communications Short Course held at Acadia Camp on the University of British Columbia campus during May.
Two Veterinary Inspectors attended the Veterinary Indoctrination Course held at
the Civil Defence College at Arnprior in Ontario. The course took place from September
8th to 12th, with all expenses paid by the Department of National Health and Welfare.
Publications
Bulletin No. 64, on goat-raising in British Columbia, received its tenth revision and
has been printed for distribution.
Live Stock Circular No. 58, on the fur-farm industry in British Columbia, received
its second revision and has been printed for distribution. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 39
DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT SERVICES
(J. A. Mace)
Operation
With the establishment of a third route in the Okanagan Valley, there are now
twenty-four D.H.I.A. routes in operation. As of June 30th, 1958, these routes reported
15,558 cows on test in 550 herds. This is an increase of 39 herds and 1,286 cows from
the same period in 1957 (9 per cent). Average size of herds shows a further increase,
from 27.9 to 28.2; the average number of cows per route has also increased, from 620
to 648.
The highest average production ever recorded by D.H.I, members in British Columbia was achieved in 1957, this being 12,014 completed milking periods averaging 9,759
pounds of milk, 404 pounds of butter-fat, with an average test of 4.14 per cent—an
increase of 261 pounds of milk and 10 pounds of butter-fat over 1956 from 96 more
milking periods. Since 1952, completed milking periods have jumped from 8,086 to
12,014, or 48.4 per cent. A summarized report showing production by breeds is shown
in Appendix No. 2.
Calf-tagging
A total of 4,100 calf tags have been issued to supervisors. This will represent
a 1,000-tag increase since the introduction of compulsory tagging and will prove of great
assistance in securing authentic parental information for sire lists and proving bulls in
artificial-insemination units.
Departmental Subsidy
Grants to twenty-four D.H.I.A. routes amounted to $51,821, an increase of $2,831.
Increase can be largely accounted for by the new Okanagan route.
R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. Combined Service
Twenty-eight herds are now using this service. The decrease is largely due to R.O.P.
insisting that no entirely pure-bred herd is eligible for this service irrespective of size,
and our insistence that the service will not apply to mixed pure-bred and grade herds
which contain over 20 pure-bred animals.
Field Work
The Superintendent and two Inspectors carried out the total field work, as follows:—
Supervisor contacts  174
D.H.I, officials' contacts     30
Member visits   173
C.O.P.s brought up to date1  172
Other calls      50
Meetings      37
Talks       22
Herds check-tested  212
1 Certificates of production.
Both Inspectors worked in the Victoria office for considerable periods during the
year in order to help keep the work up to date.
Office Routine
The preparation of I.B.M. punch-cards for all of our records has now been completed.   Punching will continue on a current record basis for both D.H.I, and R.O.P. CC 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
records. Sire lists and A.I. reports are being returned very much more slowly than
anticipated, owing apparently to insufficient staff to handle the increasing volume of work
being done by mechanical tabulation. This situation will have to be corrected before
punch-cards can play the part in our work, which was anticipated when the procedure
started.
Dairy Sire Lists
The twenty-fourth list of Jersey Sires was prepared and issued.
Artificial Insemination Clubs
Reports have been prepared as time permitted showing the performance of sires in
the four main dairy breeds in the two semen-producing units. Meetings of the Young
Sire Selection and Evaluation Committee were attended throughout the year. It must be
reported that progress in the young sire programme is lamentably slow, and little, if any,
production gain will be shown until this programme is speeded up considerably.
Publications
H.I.C. No. 79B—Twenty-fourth List of Jersey Sires.
H.I.C. No. 80—Index of Jersey sires listed in the twentieth to twenty-fourth lists
(inclusive).
H.I.C. No. 81—Nineteenth Annual List of Long Production Records (1,621 living
cows which have produced over 1 ton of fat—increase, 173 over 1957).
Miscellaneous
Automatic milk weighing and sampling devices are being installed on some dairy-
farms. In order to check the accuracy of milk weights and samples obtained from these,
D.H.I. Inspectors visited one farm which was on D.H.I, and had installed a "Milk-O-
Meter " and compared weights and samples obtained from the meter with those secured
in the ordinary manner. Three hundred and ninety-two single milking samples and 193
composite samples were obtained.
In the composite group, 96.9 per cent of the meter samples were within plus or
minus 5 per cent of actual for weight and 95.5 per cent within the same range for butter-
fat test. Since there is an admitted difference of plus or minus 5 per cent in milk and fat
records estimated on a once-a-month basis compared with daily weights and tests, and
since over 95 per cent of the meter samples fell within this error range, it was decided
that weights and samples obtained from such meters would be accepted for D.H.I.
production records providing they were properly operated and that the average error did
not increase in subsequent checks.
More staff is necessary if continually increasing record work is to be kept up to date
and if information which can reasonably be expected is to be published as required.
A list of secretaries and supervisors of all dairy herd improvement associations is
shown in Appendix No. 3.
BRANDS DIVISION
(Thomas Moore)
Shipments and Inspections
Inspections of cattle in British Columbia were 107,516 head, compared to 100,201
head in 1957. This shows an increase of 7,315 head. Cattle shipped from the Interior
of British Columbia to the United States in 1958 were 36,139, compared to 20,849 in
1957, an increase of 15,290 head. Inspections of cattle from the Cariboo were 23,777
head, a decrease of 4,371 head;  from Kamloops-Nicola, 39,966 head, an increase of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 41
4,516 head. Shipments of hides were 14,851, a decrease of 4,311. Horses inspected in
1958 were 6,370 head, an increase of 805 head. Shipments of cattle to the Prairies were
15,579 head in 1958, an increase of 2,915 head. A complete table of annual inspections
of cattle, horses, and hides is attached (see Appendix No. 4).
Inspection Service
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at sixty-
nine shipping-points and by Brand Inspectors and Deputy Brand Inspectors at twenty-nine
shipping-points.
Cattle Exports to the United States
Cattle exports from British Columbia from January 1st, 1958, to December 31st,
1958, were as follows: Bulls, 751; cows, 5,022; steers, 22,595; heifers, 2,545; and
calves, 3,356; combined total, 34,269 head.
We are able to furnish these figures through the co-operation of the Health of
Animals Division, Canada Department of Agriculture, Vancouver.
Flood Check-point
The Department of Highways, which is operating this post and staff of same who
are Deputy Brand Inspectors, co-operated with this Department in inspection work in the
checking of stock, hides, and dressed beef passing through this check-point and in the
enforcement of the "Stock-brands Act."
The following figures are shown for the years 1957 and 1958 in the checking of all
live stock, hides, and dressed beef through the check-point:—
1957 1958
Number of cattle  7,111 4,889
Number of horses  1,293 1,612
Number of hides  2,556 3,075
Dressed beef (quarters)      280 448
Number of trucks checked  1,122 1,283
" Stock-brands Act "
A number of proposed amendments to the Act and regulations have been prepared.
They are mainly required to meet the various changes that are taking place in the methods
of moving stock from place to place.
The annual supplement, No. 2, to the brand-book, showing all brands issued in
1958, will be available in early 1959.
There were 325 applications for new brands, 1,057 applications for brand renewals
sent out from this office, 1,295 brands renewed, 120 brands transferred, and 90 brands
reissued.
Marketing of Cattle
This year has seen a definite change in the marketing of cattle in the Interior and
now follows more of the pattern in the Lower Mainland by having smaller sales more
frequently rather than the large cattle sales in the past. This would seem to tend to
more orderly marketing and would appear to keep prices more even.
Kamloops has been operating a cattle sale weekly, with contributors sending cattle
to this sale from many other districts. Williams Lake has been holding a cattle sale
every two weeks, which appears to be quite satisfactory. Other centres have held their
usual cattle sales at Okanagan Falls, Quesnel, and Fort St. John. CC 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Licences Issued
1957 1958
Stock-dealers  133 169
Slaughter-house operators  73 76
Hide-dealers  62 63
Beef-pedlars  13 16
Horse-slaughterers   15 15
Horse-meat dealers (animal-food)  9 7
Horse-meat dealers (human consumption)  1 2
Permit to transport horses for working purposes  65 90
Permit to transport horses for breeding purposes  1 3
Convictions
There were thirteen prosecutions and convictions under the " Stock-brands Act," of
which three were for dealing in stock without a licence, five for failing to get brand
inspection, one for failing to report at Flood check-point, one for carrying beef without
Form 4, one for failing to give twenty-four hours' notice of required brand inspection,
one for failing to send Form 4 to an Inspector, and one for using unregistered brand on
stock.
There were fifteen convictions under the Criminal Code of Canada, as follows:
Theft of cattle, nine; sale of stolen beef, two; receiving stolen beef, two; cruelty to
animals, one; and fraudulent possession of cattle, one.
Miscellaneous
A meeting was held with the Brand Commissioners. Their assistance and co-operation are appreciated.
Lectures were given to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Brand Inspectors, and
Deputy Brand Inspectors on the " Stock-brands Act," " Horned Cattle Purchases Act,"
and the "Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act." The co-operation of the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police is appreciated in the enforcement of these Acts and the
Criminal Code in the stealing of cattle.
A number of meetings and annual cattle sales were attended, also a Communications
Short Course at the University of British Columbia and the National Livestock Brand
Conference held at Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A.
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORY
(Dr. J. C. Bankier)
Introduction
The work of this laboratory has shown a steady increase during the year, which
reflects the public demand for laboratory diagnosis of disease conditions which occur in
their herds and flocks.
Grateful acknowledgment is made for the assistance received from the Ontario
Veterinary College, Guelph; Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, Toronto;
Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull; and the Federal Animal Pathology Laboratory
on the University of British Columbia campus.
Laboratory Services
Exclusive of brucellosis testing, the number of live-stock and poultry owners receiving service from the laboratory during the year totalled 647.
Visitors to the laboratory in connection with pathological problems totalled 566. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 43
In the brucellosis-control programme in the North Okanagan area, the milk ring test
was used as a primary screening procedure. This test is definitely useful for rapidly
detecting many of the dairy herds infected with brucellosis. Further research on the ring
test will, no doubt, yield techniques which may reduce the margin of error between it
and the blood test.
A breakdown of the specimens examined in the laboratory is shown in Appendix
No. 5.
Miscellaneous
Due to resignations of two of the laboratory staff and a long illness of a third staff
member, prompt and efficient service to the public was hard to maintain during the latter
part of the year. It was only through working overtime that the remaining staff managed
to keep the work moving reasonably well.
During the year, animal pathologists addressed ten meetings on subjects relating to
poultry, mink, and artificial insemination; three conferences were attended, as were four
meetings of the British Columbia Poultry Industries Council, three meetings of the Live
Stock Advisory Committee, and three meetings of the Advisory Committee to the British
Columbia Poultry Random Sample Test. Health problems and vaccination procedures
associated with birds at the poultry random sample test station at Abbotsford were
attended to. An additional 115 visits were made to fanners in connection with pathological problems.
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH
George Patchett, Dairy Commissioner
PRODUCTION
Total milk production for 1958 will be about 4 per cent more than the 773,260,000
pounds produced in 1957, or approximately 804,000,000 pounds.
The increase is largely in the Fraser Valley, where production of qualifying milk
has in some months exceeded last year's supply by nearly 10 per cent.
Creamery butter production is running about 48 per cent above the same period
last year and will be in the neighbourhood of 4,250,000 pounds, which is about 23 per
cent of the requirement for the Province. Imports will amount to around 14,200,000
pounds.
Cheddar-cheese production will be just about three-quarter of a million pounds, an
increase of IY2 per cent over last year. About 9,450,000 pounds will be imported, as
we manufacture only about 7 per cent of our consumption.
Ice-cream production has increased by 10 per cent, bringing the total to 4,250,000
gallons.
Concentrated milk products are not much changed from last year.
UTILIZATION, 1957
Canada British Columbia
(Per Cent) (Per Cent)
Creamery butter  26.00 8.85
Cheese (factory)   7.00 2.00
Concentrated milk and ice-cream  9.00 25.00
Fluid sales (milk and cream)  31.00 56.00
Dairy butter  17.00 1.15
Used on farms  10.00 7.00
100.00 100.00 CC 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MARKETING
While much of the production of milk for fluid trade is under the control of the
Milk Board, consumer marketing is not controlled, except that no one may sell for less
than cost. This has resulted in a free movement of milk throughout the Province and
has tended to keep the retail price within bounds. This in turn has increased the consumption of milk.   More and more milk is being sold through store outlets.
FARM INCOME FROM MILK
Gross farm income from all dairy products this year can be estimated at $32,500,000,
based on the increased production and an average value of $4 per hundred pounds for
all milk.
DAIRY PLANTS
There were ninety processing and manufacturing plants in operation during most of
the year. Butter is made in eleven plants, Cheddar cheese in three, ice-cream in twenty-
eight, cottage cheese in six, and milk is pasteurized for fluid consumption in seventy-four.
There is one condensory and one powdered-milk plant.
Some excellent blue mould cheese is made at Creston, an Italian type at Nanaimo,
and Gouda cheese at Yarrow.
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
The following licences, certificates, and permits have been issued in 1958:—
Licences
Creameries or dairies  90
Milk-testers  102
Milk-graders   75
Cream-graders   17
Special tank-milk graders  29
Oleomargarine manufacturers  4
Oleomargarine wholesalers  16
Certificates of Proficiency
Pasteurizer operator (second class)  12
Pasteurizer operator (temporary)  3
Cheese-maker (second class)  1
Ice-cream maker (first class)  1
Permits
Reconstituted milk       4
MILK GRADING (TWELVE-MONTH SUMMARY)
Average number of shippers  3,614
Number of completed samples  83,660
Number failing to qualify  4,720
Percentage failing to qualify  5.64
INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES
There were seven Inspectors in the Branch until the end of August, when this number
was reduced to six by the promotion to Dairy Commissioner of George Patchett at the
retirement of F. C. Wasson. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 45
These Inspectors have had a busy year keeping up with the rapid changes taking
place in all phases of the industry. All H.T.S.T. pasteurizers in the Province have now
been inspected, checked for accuracy, timed and sealed for the first time. All farm
holding-tanks will have been checked for accuracy of measurement of contents and otherwise inspected and permits issued for their use before the end of the year.
Much improvement in the quality of the milk and higher butter-fat tests from these
tanks are reported by the Inspectors. Checking of tests and grades done by licensed
graders has continued, and many new graders and testers have been instructed, examined,
and licensed.
Summary of Inspections and Services
Dairy-plant inspections  603
Farm visits  444
Whiteside tests  327
Butter-fat check tests (composite), producers' milk and cream 1,987
Butter-fat check tests (fresh milk), from producers' cans  434
Cream grades checked  437
Milk grades checked (Resazurin)  2,443
Sediment tests  386
Ring test samples taken  1,793
Lactometer and cryoscope tests  298
Reports and test-cards to shippers  547
Milk-cans condemned   9
Examinations for licences and certificates  89
Meetings attended  59
Margarine samples tested  11
SHORT COURSES IN DAIRY WORK
The annual pasteurizer operator's course and Babcock tester's course was conducted
by Dairy Inspectors and University Dairy Department instructors in late October and
early November. Seventeen students attended the pasteurizer course and eleven the
tester's course.   Instruction was also given in testing to six candidates for D.I.H.A. work.
Periodic courses have been given for tank-truck graders and milk-graders for
licences.
OLEOMARGARINE
Total imports of margarine in 1957 amounted to 8,354,387 pounds, and total
manufactured, 12,244,112 pounds, making a grand total of 20,598,499 pounds.
Imports as of September 30th, 1958, are down by 9 per cent. The amount manufactured in British Columbia is up by 20.4 per cent.
Lb.
Estimated imports for 1958     7,602,492
Estimated manufactured, 1958  13,745,910
Total  21,348,402
SUMMARY
The dairy industry is in a healthy condition. Competition is intense in the retail
milk market, which results in more stream-lining of methods which are progressing more
and more toward automation. This is naturally making it harder for the small operators
to stay in business. The consumer is reaping the benefit as retail prices have not advanced,
except in isolated cases. CC 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Appreciation is extended to the staff of the Dairy Branch, the health departments
(Provincial and civic), and to personnel in the Federal grading division, who have
co-operated with this office throughout the year.
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
The utilization of the findings of research by the poultry industry has made possible
increased production at lower prices, to the ultimate benefit of the consumer. Improved
control and quality, wider use of refrigeration, and rapid transportation have brought
about increased competitive pressures on all production areas. In order to maintain their
operations, producers are constantly being forced to search out and apply improved production techniques to offset the increased cost of production factors and lower product
prices. The following table indicates the long-range downward trend of poultry prices
in spite of the increased production costs:—
Producer Pri
:e
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Average
Eggs 	
Chickens.  ( 	
Fowl -	
t
49.6
30.8
30.6
45.0
t
38.6
29.6
24.1
t
46.7
31.6
28.0
39.8
t
37.5
26.2
20.6
35.2
t
42.1
27.0
20.6
31.2
t
42.7
25.7
21.7
34.1
t
32.6
25.3
17.6
32.6
t
33.9
24.4
17.6
27.7
t
40.4
27.6
22.6
35.1
COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION
Faced with the prospect of low egg prices for an indefinite period, producers have
improved production efficiency. Producer-vendors and producer-marketing groups have
increased in number during 1958. These marketing groups are not large, but the basic
idea is being closely watched. Commercial egg production in 1958 is approximately
5 per cent below 1957 levels. It is estimated that about 50 per cent of all eggs produced
are processed through registered grading-stations. (For production and prices see
Appendices Nos. 6 and 7.)
POULTRY-MEAT PRODUCTION
Broilers.—The production of broilers (chicken 3 to 4 pounds) continues to increase
in volume and must be recognized as the most important source of poultry-meat. With
potentially high feed and labour efficiency of broiler production, this food item is likely
to continue to take a larger share of the consumer's meat purchases. Production of
broilers through registered grading-stations increased approximately 35 per cent over
1957. Even with this increase there was an acute shortage during the early summer
months.
Turkeys.—The movement of turkeys through registered plants for the period January
to December showed an increase of 18 per cent over 1957. This evidence of confidence
is probably due to Federal import restrictions. Prices followed the general downward
trend of poultry products. One of the interesting developments in turkey production is
the shift of production areas. Within the last two years production in the Ashcroft-
Kamloops area increased from practically nothing to 25 per cent of the Provincial total.
This year Inspector C. W. Wood reports there were over 100,000 turkeys grown on the
alfalfa meadows of former beef-cattle ranches.   Shipping charges and shrinkage of live DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 47
birds from this area to Coast processing plants indicate the need of processing facilities
in that area if this growth is to continue.
Fowl.—The importance of fowl continues to decrease. It is being replaced by
chickens as the gap between birds bred and raised especially for the meat trade and birds
bred for egg production continues to widen. Leghorn fowl in many instances return to
the producer little more than enough to pay handling and shipping charges. (For production and producer prices see Appendices Nos. 8 and 9.)
FLOCK APPROVAL
The Provincial Flock Approval Programme was under the direction of Inspector
H. Gasperdone, of New Westminster. During the past few years this work has changed
from a seasonal to a continuous operation. While most of the field work is handled by
temporary staff, the assistance of permanent members is required from time to time
during peak periods. Inspector C. W. Wood, of Kelowna, made all necessary inspections
in the Okanagan and Interior points. The year-round demand for chicks is responsible
for the substantial decrease in the number of birds approved for the production of hatching eggs by lengthening the season and allowing a greater production per bird. A newly
introduced recording system has allowed differentiation between meat- and egg-type birds
maintained for hatching-egg production. A detailed report of British Columbia's Flock
Approval Programme is available from the office of the Poultry Commissioner. (See
Appendices Nos. 10, 11, 12, and 13 for breeds, comparative numbers, and Pullorum
reaction.)
POULTRY-FARM ECONOMIC STUDY
With the co-operation of the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of
British Columbia, and the Economics Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture,
a study of management and cost of production of commercial eggs was undertaken.
Detailed records were secured from twenty commercial producers from July, 1957, to
July, 1958, by Joan Macintosh. These quarterly reports and a year-end statement were
issued to the co-operating producers. An analysis of the data has been completed and
the material is being compiled for publication.
RANDOM SAMPLE POULTRY TEST
The British Columbia random sample poultry test has attracted the attention of
poultry-breeders in Canada and the United States. The facilities that have been provided
are second to none. Nineteen entries were selected out of the many that were received,
with consideration being first given to those entries having significance to the British
Columbia breeders and commercial producer, and secondly to Canadian poultry-breeders.
Foreign entries were accepted only where substantial numbers of that particular entry
were being used by our producers. This test is now in its tenth month and will be completed in August, 1959.
The first British Columbia random sample broiler test of 5,000 birds has been
completed, and the second and final test for this season is presently being carried out.
Separate reports of the results of the tests are available for general distribution.
The demands of this testing programme on our clerical and technical staff have been
heavy, and its success to date is a tribute to the willingness and co-operation of all concerned. Grateful appreciation is extended to officials of the Production Service, Canada
Department of Agriculture, and to Art Hill, A. J. Darbey, J. J. Andrews, G. R. Wilson,
J. Biely, J. M. Pearce, Elgin Wolfe, and Dr. J. C. Bankier as members of the Advisory
Committee for guidance and assistance received throughout the year. CC 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
GENERAL
Extension.—The long-term trend of a downward price curve for all poultry products
is bringing with it an increased demand for the services of highly qualified field personnel.
Marginal operations cannot look forward with confidence to peak price years to bring up
their average income. In an effort to reach as many producers as possible, staff members
have taken advantage of every opportunity to speak at producer short courses, arrange
meetings, and use all available radio, television, and farm publication space.
Conference.—The Third Annual Poultry Conference, held in Langley in July, was
sponsored by the Departments of Agricultural Extension and Poultry Science of the
University of British Columbia and this Department. The theme of the sessions was
" Commercial Production Management." Recognized authorities on subject-matter were
drawn from Ontario, Alberta, New Jersey, Indiana, California, and Washington. A substantially increased attendance showed approval of the change of locale from the University to the Fraser Valley. All technical-staff members participated in and contributed to
the programme.   Civic and municipal officials of Langley freely gave valuable assistance.
Study.—A research study of incubator sanitation by Dr. John Lancaster, Department of Poultry Science, University of British Columbia, was supported by this Department. Poultry Branch staff members and officials of the Production Service of the Canada
Department of Agriculture collected the required specimens and co-operated with Dr.
Lancaster in an effort to determine the " Effectiveness of Incubator Fumigation as
Practised in Commercial Hatcheries in British Columbia." The field and bacteriological
phases of this study have been completed. A separate report of the results will be made
available for general distribution.
Disease.—While there can be no accurate measurement of the monetary loss, the
various respiratory diseases, singly or in combination, are taking a heavy toll of the poultry
in this Province and add materially to production costs. The three most commonly
encountered are Newcastle, infectious bronchitis, and chronic respiratory disease. It is
not uncommon to find two of these diseases in co-existence. There is serious question in
the minds of field staff and producers as to degree of immunity being produced by recommended vaccination procedures. This dissatisfaction of the results of vaccination is in
many cases causing producers to abandon the only effective method of control. Newcastle
continues to be a serious threat to the welfare of the industry. (See Appendix No. 14
for comparative distribution of vaccine.)
Poultry Population.—A census of poultry population on Vancouver and Gulf Islands
by Inspector D. M. Hamilton indicates that this area contains approximately 25 per cent
of the Provincial total. This is a considerably greater proportion than was previously
considered to exist on the islands. The poultry population in Vancouver Island District
is as follows: Layers, 343,750; broilers, 814,000; and turkeys, 86,750. More than
two-thirds of the layers and practically all of the broilers are in the area south of Duncan,
while the bulk of the turkeys are in the Nanaimo-Ladysmith area.
Central British Columbia.—A study of the market and production potential of the
Bulkley and Skeena Valleys was made in May of this year. This area contains a stable
market for substantial quantities of poultry produce, all of which could be satisfactorily
produced in the district. This market is presently being supplied by Alberta firms.
A complete report on this study has been submitted and is on file.
Conclusion.—The number of new or extended projects undertaken during 1958 with
no increase in staff has made it necessary from time to time to seek assistance from other
branches of this Department, from other departments, from the Canada Department of
Agriculture and the University of British Columbia. To all concerned, I extend my
thanks and grateful appreciation, but especially to the Department of Public Works, for
the unfailing assistance and spirit of co-operation received. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 49
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
The prolonged dry spring and summer affected field-crop production throughout
all areas of the Province. Spring-seeded cereals suffered more than fall-seeded wheat
in the Okanagan and Creston areas, where average yields of spring grains were down,
although fall crops did not suffer. In the Peace River the acreage in spring grain was
again reduced this year and offset by an increase of oats, barley, and forage-crop seed.
Although yields were only slightly below average, crops were very spotty, ranging from
good to poor. Excellent fall weather prevailed in all areas, and grain of high quality
was harvested under ideal conditions.
Hay and Pasture
The dry spring and summer was particularly severe on pastures. First-cut hay-
crops were reasonably good in all areas, but any second crop was fight or used for pasture. All hay was put up under ideal conditions. In the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver
Island, pastures dried up in mid-July. Farmers had to pasture hay-fields, and most
started feeding their normal winter supply of hay and silage at that time. As a result,
they had to purchase above average requirements for the winter feeding period.
The long, open fall permitted good haying weather on the Interior ranches, and
there was a good supply of hay in that area for winter needs.
Hay Yield Data, Fraser Valley.—In co-operation with the Soil Survey Division,
this Branch initiated a study on hay yields as related to soil type in Fraser Valley soils.
A total of 105 plots of three samples each were collected, dry weights taken, and average
yields determined. The co-operation of the Plant Science Department of the University
of British Columbia is also acknowledged and appreciated.
Production of Registered and Certified Seed
Some areas of the Province specialize in the production of registered and certified
seed of cereal and forage crops. The major areas of production are the Peace River
and Kootenays. The following table lists the acreage and estimated production of varieties inspected by the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of Agriculture:—
Estimated Production
Variety Acres (Bu.)
Barley—
Gateway  55.0 3,050
Parkland  10.0 490
Vantage  20.0 1,000
Oats—
Abegweit     69.0 2,900
Eagle  129.5 11,295
Garry  _•__     24.0 2,715
Larain      15.0 680
Rodney   238.0 25,150
Victory  116.0 2,170 CC 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Estimated Production
Variety Acres (Bu.)
Wheat-
Garnet   6.0 300
Saunders   45.0 2,450
Selkirk  740.0 34,450
Thatcher  3.0 150
Flax—
Marine   2.5 70
Raja  131.0 2,020
Redwing  125.0 1,750
Alfalfa-
Grimm   107.0                   	
Ladak   33.0                   	
Rambler  46.5                   	
Rhizoma   554.0                   	
Vernal  23.0                   	
Manchar brome-grass  12.0                   	
Duraturf creeping red fescue  25.0                   	
Olds creeping red fescue  82.0                   	
Summit crested wheat-grass  72.0                   	
Merion Kentucky blue-grass  626.0                   	
Climax timothy  498.0                   	
Commercial Forage-crop Seed
The Peace River District continues to be the major forage-seed area in the Province. Grass-seed crops were good this year. Creeping red fescue is estimated at a record
2,000,000 pounds. Good harvesting conditions have resulted in good yields and quality
of seed-crops. Double-cut red clover production in the Fraser Valley will be below the
1957 production.
Estimated yields of forage-crop seeds are as follows:—
Alfalfa	
Red clover, single _
Red clover, double
Alsike clover	
Sweet clover	
White Dutch clover	
Timothy   51,000
Timothy-alsike 	
Alsike-Altaswede 	
Brome 	
Blue-grass, Merion strain
Blue-grass, Kentucky	
Crested wheat	
Creeping red fescue
Meadow fescue	
Reed canary-grass _
Orchard-grass	
Russian wild rye	
Red-top	
Annual rye-grass	
Production (Final)
1957 (Lb.)
Estimated Production
1958 (Lb.)
55,000
175,000
80,000
792,000
284,000
265,000
110,000
2,000,000
100,000
521,000
4,000
51,000
194,000
40,000
50,000
40,000
120,000
82,000
90,000
60,000
40,000
2,000
21,000
1,000,000
2,000,000
25,000
25,000
4,000
5,000
2,500
3,600
14,000
3,000
10,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 51
Seed Improvement
Foundation-stock seeds produced by the Agronomy Department of the University
of British Columbia and distributed to growers through this Branch include: Vantage
barley, 850 pounds; Eagle oats, 2,700 pounds; Victory oats, 2,800 pounds; Storm rye,
2,650 pounds; Ridit wheat, 1,650 pounds.
Potatoes
Potato acreage was well up this year, with approximately 11,500 acres planted.
Because of lighter average yield, total production will be about equal to 1957.
Acreage in seed-potatoes increased again in 1958. The following list of varieties
and inspected acreage is supplied through the Federal seed-potato inspection service:—
Variety Acreage Variety Acreage
Canus  2.62 Netted Gem  1,691.02
Columbia Russet  5.72 Red Pontiac  68.25
Early Epicure  36.83 RedWarba  0.75
Early Rose  8.75 Sebago  3.50
Gold Coin  20.25 Warba   89.86
Green Mountain  31.75 Waseca  18.08
Katahdin   7.50 Wee McGregor .___ 2.00
Kennebec   164.75 White Rose  104.78
Keswick  3.50                                                	
Manota        0.5 Total   2,260.41
The main areas of production are also given, with approximate acres inspected in
1958 (1957 acreages in parentheses): Vancouver Island, 206 (166); Lower Mainland,
395 (694); Pemberton, 269 (214); Okanagan, 311 (249); Cariboo, 185 (116);
Central British Columbia, 50 (75); Boundary District, 532 (461); East and West
Kootenays, 294 (131).
Oceanside Test-plots
Seed-potato samples were assembled by this Branch, treated and planted at Ocean-
side, Calif., on November 26th. Seventy-six samples were sent in by growers. Disease
readings will be taken in February.
Field Peas
Acreage in field peas was down this year, particularly in the Creston area, and yields
were below average because of the dry season.
Crop Improvement Association
This year sixty-four tests were distributed through the British Columbia Crop Improvement Association. Through these tests the following varieties were distributed
for trial: Rambler alfalfa, 160 pounds; Vernal alfalfa, 50 pounds; Dupuits alfalfa, 72
pounds; silage corn, 75 pounds; Altaswede clover, 10 pounds; reed canary-grass, 120
pounds; Lasalle red clover, 60 pounds; Manchar brome, 60 pounds; Climax timothy,
50 pounds; Summit crested wheat-grass, 25 pounds. In addition we distributed the following pedigreed seed of forage-crops to the members at cost: Manchar brome-grass,
95 pounds; Hercules orchard-grass, 23 pounds; Summit crested wheat-grass, 100
pounds; Viking birdsfoot trefoil, 20 pounds; Cascade birdsfoot trefoil, 10 pounds.
Demonstrations and Trials
Demonstration trial plots, including fertilizers, herbicides, and forage-crops, were
put down in co-operation with District Agriculturists in most areas of the Province.   The CC 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
potato quality-study trials were continued this year on various soil types. The majority
of the trials and demonstrations are carried on for several years to assess the results
more accurately.   Reports of completed trials are on file in this office.
Forage-crop Programme
The forage programme commenced in 1957 was continued this year. Displays
were changed three times in the dealers' stores throughout the Province. A number of
easel-type posters and leaflet publications were also distributed. This year monthly news
items were sent to all newspapers and publications in the Province.
Farm Management
This Branch assisted in the farm-management programme commenced by the Department in 1957. Land-capability surveys were made of the three farms on Vancouver
Island and maps were prepared. Assistance was also given the District Agriculturists
in making field-crop recommendations.
Soil and Forage Analyses
The Soil Analyst reports as follows:—
" This year 2,500 soil samples were given the routine test for pH, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. Of these, some 200 received the additional conductivity test and twenty were analysed for organic matter. At present there are about 200
samples that have not been done.   These should be completed before next spring.
" The forage analysis programme was again continued, and 205 samples of forage
were submitted for analysis for crude protein and moisture. Due to lack of time, only
185 of these were completed.   If time permits, the rest will be done this winter."
Agricultural Lime
Due to a long open fall, tonnage of agricultural lime used for soil-amendment purposes was up this year. For the eleven-month period in 1958, 65,160.50 tons were distributed under the Federal-Provincial Lime Subsidy Policy.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and subvention paid:—
Fiscal Year
Total Number
of Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total Tonnage
Used
1953/54-
1954/55._
1955/56-
1956/57-
1957/58-
1,590
1,450
1.130
1,052
1,461
52,458.01
48,503.42
44,070.96
52,784.88
100,588.24
28,239.24
24,702.45
22,712.92
21,528.45
34,404.75
Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board
One meeting of the Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board was held with the
trade. The following mixes were approved: 0-15-15, 2-15-15, 4-10-10, 6-8-6
(organic), 6-30-15, 8-10-5, 10-20-10, and 10-30-10.
National Soil Fertility Committee
The National Soil Fertility Committee (Western Section) held its annual meeting in
Edmonton, Alta., on December 11th and 12th. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958
CC 53
Weed-control
During the past season two Weed Inspectors were appointed in the Peace River
District to enforce the " Noxious Weeds Act" in those areas. The Department of
Highways continued its programme of roadside spraying of weeds, and the number of
miles increased again this year. We received a number of complaints of weeds on waste
areas and along roadsides, and these were referred to the proper authorities for action.
We have continued to test weed chemicals coming out on the various crops and
weeds to assess their value in the weed control programme on farms.
GRAIN SCREENINGS
In the period January 1st to November 30th, fourteen permits for removal of screenings were issued. During the same period, sixty feeders' permits were issued. At present
three companies are processing refuse screenings pellets. The new regulations under the
Federal " Feeding Stuffs Act," allowing up to 15 per cent refuse screenings in a registered
feed, are expected to increase the movement of refuse screenings locally and to complicate control of refuse screenings.    (See Apendix No. 16.)
Appendix No. 17 gives in summary the movement of screenings from British Columbia elevators for the period January 1st to October 31st.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
Two new Farmers' Institutes were incorporated (Lister in the Creston district on
July 16th and Willet in the Argenta district on September 22nd) while two institutes
(Tupper Creek Farmers' Institute and Tate Creek Farmers' Institute) were amalgamated
on June 13th under the name of " Tomslake Farmers' Institute."
One hundred and forty-eight institutes are on the active list at the present time and
forty-four are on the inactive list. Annual returns filed during the year again show a slight
decrease in membership, but with the volume of business remaining well over the million-
dollar mark.
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
All ten district institutes held annual meetings during the year,
dates of these meetings were as follows:—
The places and
District
Place
Date
'A"-
. B ■•-
«C"-
<D"-
•E"-
..p"-
•G"-
•H"-
' I "-
'J "-
-Vancouver Island..
-Skeena-Bulkley	
-Nechako 	
-Kamloops-North Thompson._
-Lower Fraser Valley	
-West Kootenay — 	
-Okanagan-Shuswap	
-Cariboo  	
-East Kootenay-
-Peace River	
Nanaimo	
Telkwa -	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
New Westminster-
Nelson. 	
Revelstoke	
Forest Grove	
Cranbrook	
Fort St. John.	
Sept. 20
June 23, 24
June 19, 20
Nov. 15
Jan. 24
Oct. 25
Nov. 14
June 17
May 29
June 26
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The fortieth annual meeting of the Advisory Board was held in Victoria on February
3rd, 4th, and 5th, at which time ninety-two resolutions submitted by the ten district
institutes were considered, fifty-one being endorsed, thirty-one withdrawn by Board
members, and ten were lost. CC 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
On February 5th the Board met with the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture
and presented seven resolutions, as follows:—
(1) Report of resolutions presented by the Advisory Board:
(2) Rural electrification:
(3) Educational tax on farm land:
(4) Peace River District as a distress area:
( 5)  " Milk Act" administration:
(6) Appropriation for agriculture:
(7) Reservation of public picnic and camp grounds.
The report of the Chairman of the Select Standing Committee to the Legislature is
as follows:—
Legislative Committee Room, February 12th, 1958.
Mr. Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
Your Committee heard submissions from the Advisory Board of the Farmers' Institutes in
the form of resolutions and your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture recommends:—
(1) That the Minister of Agriculture make a full report to the Advisory Board of the
Farmers' Institutes each year on the action taken and the final disposition by the
respective Departments of Government on the resolutions presented to the Select
Standing Committee on Agriculture and that copies of this report be sent to all
members of the Legislature:
(2) That the Province's own public utility, the British Columbia Power Commission,
develop some of the large-scale electric projects and associated transmission
systems in the interests of the people of the Province:
(3) That a review be made of the present methods of taxation for school purposes
with a view to finding a more equitable method than that now in practice:
(4) That consideration be given by the Government to amending the " Distress Areas
Assistance Act" to permit the Minister of Agriculture to enter into agreements
with credit unions in British Columbia on the same conditions that are now set
out in the " Distress Areas Assistance Act" in respect to the chartered banks of
Canada and that the Peace River area be declared a "distress area under the
'British Columbia Distress Area Assistance Act'":
(5) That the Minister of Agriculture take action to rectify any maladministration of
the " Milk Act" if and where such practices exist; should maladministration be
proven, it is then further recommended that the Chairman of the Milk Board be
replaced:
(6) That, as concern is shown by the Committee in respect to the appropriations of
the Department of Agriculture, the appropriation be increased to meet the requirements of the Department's responsibility to the agricultural industry:
(7) That, in view of Government policy in setting aside areas to be used for public
recreation and enjoyment, the Minister of Recreation and Conservation be advised
by the Farmers' Institutes of specific areas that they consider would be in the best
interests of the public to have reserved for such purposes.
Respectfully submitted.
Frank Richter, Chairman.
It is with regret that we report the sudden passing on August 19th of Ernest Mac-
Ginnis, secretary of the Advisory Board since January, 1949.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
One Class A exhibition, four Class B exhibitions, and sixty fall fairs were held in
the Province this year, being a decrease of one Class B exhibition. It was unfortunate that
one of the oldest exhibitions in British Columbia, the Cowichan Exhibition at Duncan,
through circumstances beyond control, was unable to stage an annual exhibition this year.
POUND DISTRICTS
New pound districts constituted in unorganized territory of the Province during the
year were as follows: Revelstoke, January 16th; Salmon Valley, April 14th; Saltspring DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 55
Island (North), April 22nd; Vanderhoof North, April 22nd; Hagensborg, April 30th;
Edgewater, June 30th; and Hornby Island, August 11th.
The boundaries of three pound districts were extended—Hart, February 3rd; Rose
Prairie, April 30th; and Vanderhoof North, August 11th—and pound-keepers were
appointed for fifteen districts.
GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL AREAS
Seven Grasshopper-control Committees applied for and received advances for the
purpose of paying expenses during the year in exterminating grasshoppers or controlling
and abating the pest within control areas, as follows:—
Grasshopper- Amount of
control Area Advance
Clinton  $8,000.00
Nicola   20,000.00
Osoyoos-Oliver   1,000.00
Princeton   1,000.00
South Riske Creek  2,000.00
Thompson Valleys  4,000.00
Westbank  300.00
Total  $36,000.00
MISCELLANEOUS
Fence-viewers were appointed for Saltspring Island, and 125 licences for the sale of
poisons used exclusively in agriculture were issued. Six fall fairs were officially opened,
and fifteen meetings of the Interdepartmental Safety Committee were attended.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent
Two new institutes have been organized during the year—Newcastle, near Nanaimo
in the North Vancouver Island District, and Peardonville, in the Hopeline District in the
Fraser Valley. One new district was formed, to make seventeen, with the Salmon Arm
and North Okanagan District being divided to make the eastern section into the Kamloops
District, made up of nine institutes.
Silverton, Wells, Appledale, Keremeos, and Pine View have disbanded and will be
struck off the rolls. This leaves a total of 238 institutes.
District meetings were held in each of the sixteen districts, as follows: April 1st,
Hopeline at Abbotsford; April 2nd, Douglas at Fort Langley; April 3rd, North Fraser at
Port Moody; April 15th, North Vancouver Island at Gabriola Island; April 26th, North
Thompson at Vinsulla; May 3rd, North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Kamloops; May
6th, South Okanagan and Similkameen at Oliver; May 8th, Kettle River at Main River;
May 10th, Arrow Lakes at Nakusp; May 14th, West Kootenay at Crawford Bay; May
15th, East Kootenay at Lister; June 17th, Cariboo at Forest Grove; June 19th, Central
Interior at Prince George; June 24th, Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Telkwa; June 26th, Peace
River at Bessborough; and September 23rd, South Vancouver Island at Sooke.
PROVINCIAL CONVENTION
A successful Provincial convention was held the last week in May at the University
of British Columbia, and this was well attended and full of interest.  A feature was a panel CC 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
on the " Integration of Indian Women," with some of the native women taking part. The
Leadership Course which preceded the convention was also of value. The sum of $4,200
was handed over to furnish the W.I. ward in the new Solarium. The new Solarium was
opened October 25th, and the Provincial Board members, who met earlier in the same
week, were able to attend.
The Women's Institute Centennial project, the combined history and cook book
"Adventures in Cooking," was presented at the time of the convention, and this has been
widely acclaimed as a valuable contribution to the Province of British Columbia's Centennial Year achievements.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Mrs. A. A. Shaw was in charge of the Women's Institute section of the Pacific
National Exhibition again this year, and a very attractive display of articles was of interest
in the Home Arts Building. A display of Centennial dolls, a project of the Douglas District, represented the early historical characters in British Columbia, Sir James Douglas,
Judge Matthew Begbie, and so on. Each doll was dressed by one institute and made
from the local Langley clay.
Twenty-seven institutes competed in the Home Arts section, with 211 exhibits and
326 articles shown. Summerland won the Challenge Cup with 44 points; Kaslo a close
second with 42 points; and Penticton third.
The demonstration booth was as busy with ceramics, painting for pleasure, quilt-
making, pillow lace, and weaving, creating a constant source of interest. The cook book
was also on display and sold at this booth.
SPECIAL MEETINGS
Four Border picnics were held this year. These were at the Peace Arch at Blaine,
Oroville, Colville, and Victoria, and were well attended and are proving a very fine
meeting ground for American and Canadian women.
APPRECIATION
As I am now on the point of severing my relations with the Department of Agriculture and the Women's Institutes, I wish to express my appreciation and heart-felt thanks
for the support and co-operation received from the Minister, Deputy Minister, and staff
of the Department of Agriculture during the twelve years I have worked with this Department. To the Provincial Boards and the Women's Institutes also goes this same appreciation, and I know that my successor will receive similar support. I extend my best wishes
for continued success in the years to come to the Department and the Women's Institutes.
REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
The soil-survey field operations in 1958 were confined to the Delta and Surrey
Municipalities, and to soil classification of four farms in connection with farm-management studies. A member of the staff was engaged at extension work in the Okanagan and
Similkameen Valleys. The decrease in the amount of field work was due chiefly to four
staff resignations in the spring and only two replacements. This reduced field operations
to one survey party, in place of two parties working on different projects.
The manuscript for " Soil Survey of the Upper Columbia River Valley " was completed and sent to the editors for publication. Copies of the report were supplied to
co-operating agencies to serve until the material is in print.  Preparation of the " Soil DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 57
Survey of the Kettle River Valley " report is under way.   One meeting of the Reclamation
Committee was held.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY
The detailed soil survey of the Lower Fraser Valley was continued. About 18,600
acres were classified on a scale of 400 feet to an inch. Approximately 3,000 acres of this
amount are in the Municipality of Delta, and the balance is in Surrey Municipality. The
classification work was confined chiefly to the dyked lowland, the most important land-
form for agriculture. In 1959 the adjacent Surrey uplands that are not in the process of
subdivision will be mapped on a somewhat smaller scale owing to the dense forest-cover
in uncleared sections.
In the Delta Municipality all of the major soil types were described in detail, and
soil profile samples were collected. The soil samples are being processed by our laboratory
technician, who is working under the direction of the Professor of Soils, University of
British Columbia. The results of these analyses will be used as part of the procedure
involved in the organization of classified soil types into agronomic groups.
The soils of the lowland in Surrey Municipality are complex. Their technical-group
categories are Dark Gray Gleysolic, Gleysol, and Organic soils. These distinctions are
due to different drainage conditions, each one of which is a different limitation in regard
to the growth of crops.
In general, the soils of the Surrey upland do not differ from the soils examined last
year in the upland section of Delta Municipality. They are derived chiefly from marine
beaches that overlie impervious glacial till or equally impervious glacio-marine sediments.
The exception is a section of coarse-textured outwash that penetrates the south-east part
of Surrey. This is part of an extensive outwash deposit located in Langley Municipality.
The soils derived from the sandy and gravelly outwash are droughty in summer. In this
outwash there is a water-supply, in places no more than 8 feet from the surface, that has
possibilities as a source of irrigation-water.
The purpose of the detailed soil survey is to rate the productivity of different soils
for use in equalization of rural land assessment. As part of the procedure, hay-yield
information was obtained in the early part of the season. With the co-operation of the
Field Crops Branch, 318 hay samples from 106 fields were collected from the more
important soils in the Pitt Meadows and Delta Municipalities. The samples were processed by the Department of Plant Science, University of British Columbia. The results
are encouraging enough to warrant further sampling of crops in 1959. With completion
of soil-survey work in each municipality, reports and maps will be prepared for the
Assessment Commission.
FARM-MANAGEMENT SOIL SURVEYS
Detailed soil surveys of several selected farms were undertaken in 1958. The purpose is to use farm-soil maps as a basis of farm-management studies. The studies will be
made by other branches of the Department of Agriculture and by co-operating departments of the University of British Columbia. Four farms, having a total of 306 acres,
were mapped. No less than twenty-four soil distinctions were found, twelve of these
being types not yet encountered by the general soil survey.
The soil types mapped were found to belong to the Dark Gray Gleysolic, Gleysol,
Organic, and Regosol soil groups. The Dark Gray Gleysolic, Gleysol, and Organic soils
represent different degrees of poor drainage and soil development. In the case of the
Organic soils, the water-table is at or above the surface for a part or all of the growing
season. The Regosol is new soil material, having little or no soil profile development.
The lack of soil development may be due in part to newness of material and partly to a
high water-table.  The farm soils are derived from Fraser River flood-plain sediments. CC 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Three of the farms are better than average for the valley, and one is below average, due
to poor drainage and low lime status.  The soil pattern on all of the farms is complex.
The farms were mapped on a scale of 200 feet to an inch. The horizons of each
soil-type profile were bulk and core sampled, and a number of composite soil samples
were taken. The soil samples were delivered to our laboratory technician, who is working
under the direction of the Department of Soil Science, University of British Columbia,
for chemical and physical analyses.
During the farm surveys an attempt was made to acquaint the farm-owners with the
significance of soils as part of the farm-management programme. The local District
Agriculturist and others dealing with this research project were also acquainted with the
findings as field work progressed. Soil maps and reports containing an interpretation of
the soil conditions on each farm are in the course of preparation.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Testing of soil samples sent to this office by farmers and district officials was continued in 1958. A total of 375 samples were examined for alkali, of which about 16 per
cent contained black alkali in harmful quantity and another 16 per cent had white alkali
in concentrations too great for normal plant growth. Fourteen samples of water intended
for irrigation were tested, three of which were too alkaline for the purpose.
Over 100 visits to farms were made in the area between Keremeos and Salmon Arm
in connection with land drainage problems. Investigations were completed and plans
prepared for 3,200 feet of drainage-works, installed by November 1st. Plans for a further
3,633 feet of drains are complete, and the projects should be under construction by the
end of the year. Preliminary investigations for some 4,600 feet of drains covering six
schemes are in progress. While a smaller than average footage of drains was installed
in 1958, the demand for advisory assistance increased.
There was an increase in the demand for advisory assistance during the year in regard
to irrigation problems. Over fifty farm visits were made to check the engineering of farm
sprinkler systems, application rates, and amounts and water requirements of soil types.
Advice was given to irrigation districts in regard to control, measurement, and conservation of water.
Miscellaneous duties included talks on soil and water conservation at the Kelowna
Junior High School, participation in the Okanagan Farm and Garden television programme, Okanagan orchard field tour, Agricultural Extension Short Course, and the
Kootenay and Columbia Valleys Short Course. Advisory assistance was provided to the
Water Rights Branch in connection with soil materials for construction and water duties
of soil types as related to applications for water rights.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE KETTLE RIVER VALLEY
The Kettle River valley survey includes the Boundary District from Bridesville to
Greenwood, and from Carson to Grand Forks and Cascade. It also includes the main
Kettle River valley from Rock Creek to Damfino Creek, the Westkettle from Westbridge
to Carmi, and the North Fork or Granby River valley a distance 30 miles up-stream from
Grand Forks.   In this area an outline of the agriculture is as follows:—
The first settler to take up land was James McConnel. There is a water right in his
name as of March 7th, 1875, to apply in the neighbourhood of Rock Creek, but the record
does not disclose on what land the water was to have been used. He was followed in 1885
by W. H. Covert.
Covert brought his wife and child by saddle-horse over the trail from a comparatively
near-by trading-post in Washington. This was Fort Colville, founded in 1825. He also
brought in and planted the first fruit-trees.   He established a water right on October 18th, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 59
1887, for irrigation in Lot 497, from Fourth of July Creek. The Hardy Brothers, who
operated the first nursery, obtained water rights on Hardy Creek for irrigation in Lots 333
and 334 on November 9th, 1889, and December 1st, 1896. Both the Covert and Hardy
properties were in the vicinity of Grand Forks. The dry climate placed early value on
the establishment of rights to take water from streams. By the turn of the century over
100 of these rights were recorded in the area between Cascade and Rock Creek.
After 1900 the Doukhobors entered the country in large numbers, to become the
chief holders of farm land in the Grand Forks locality. The greater part of their undertaking began on a communal basis. The unit of settlement was a village composed of
two large community houses for each 100 acres. These were surrounded by additional
dwellings and farm buildings. The community houses accommodated from thirty-five
to fifty persons. Tree fruits were planted in the development stage, and thereafter the
orchards and cultivated land were worked mostly by the women and children. Roads,
bridges, sawmills, brick plants, reservoirs, and irrigation-works were built and tended by
general effort. This procedure flourished during the lifetime of Peter Verigin, who died
in 1924, and disintegrated thereafter.
The Doukhobors set themselves off from their neighbours by distinctions of religion,
dress, food, and social life. They sought land and freedom on their own terms, so their
agriculture was patterned to their special needs, and the requirements of the market were
secondary. Hence the breakdown of communal existence was destructive to their agriculture. Off-the-farm employment took precedence over farming. To-day there are few
full-time farmers, but many derive benefit from their fields and gardens. The orchards
are abandoned, and the irrigation systems have deteriorated. Most of the community
houses have survived, but arrangements for living are carried out separately by individual
families.   The present Doukhobor population in the Boundary District is about 3,500.
In 1955 the amount of land under irrigation in the mapped area was as follows:—
Area Irrigated Acres
North of Rock Creek   273.50
Rock Creek  69.00
Kettle Valley Station  163.50
Midway   460.50
Greenwood   350.00
Granby River  197.75
Grand Forks  78.00
Cascade  38.25
Grand Forks Irrigation District  2,386.00
Covert Irrigation District  288.00
Total  4,304.50
About 1,630 acres are irrigated from small individual systems that divert water from
creeks here and there in the valleys and small pumping plants along the Kettle River.
The two irrigation districts are corporate bodies under the " Water Act."
The Grand Forks Irrigation District was incorporated in 1921. About 10 per cent
of the water is supplied by gravity from Morrissey Creek when the creek is in the freshet
stage. The balance is pumped 30 feet from the Kettle River. The water is not supplied
under pressure, hence pressure for sprinkler irrigation is obtained by pumping from the
main system. The 1951 tax and toll amounted to $6.57 per acre, and there was an
additional charge annually of $2 for domestic water. Delivery amounts to 30 acre-inches
per acre during the irrigation season.
The Covert Irrigation District, incorporated in 1946, was originally the Covert Estate
irrigation system, which had operated nearly fifty years. This is a gravity system diverted
from July Creek and piped for distribution.   There is no storage.   In 1951 the combined CC 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
taxes and tolls were $4.50 per acre. Delivery amounts to 1 acre-foot per acre for the
irrigation season, which is regarded as inadequate.
In acreages that vary from year to year, the crops grown under irrigation consist of
potatoes, vegetables, vegetable seed, tree fruits, small fruits, alfalfa, legumes for seed,
flowers for seed, mixed hay and pasture. Potatoes are the chief commercial crop, comprising from 500 to 600 acres each year. About two-thirds of this amount is registered
and inspected for certification as seed-potatoes. Market vegetables include asparagus,
beets, carrots, and onions to the extent of about 38 acres. In 1955 the vegetable-seed
crops were onion, carrot, parsnip, beet, lettuce, broad bean, bush bean, pea, and tomato.
Vegetable-seed growing showed promise in 1939, when the world war cut off Dutch
competition. In 1940 about 87 acres of seed vegetables were planted. Seed acreage
increased annually to a peak of 997 acres in 1945. Competition was effective thereafter,
and seed acreage declined to about 115 acres in 1955.
The original tree-fruit plantations were extensive until disintegration of the Doukhobor communal system led to abandonment of many orchards. The neglected orchards
were left standing, to become a source of infestation to orchards still producing. Other
production difficulties causing decline of production were frost damage to trees and inadequate irrigation. In 1930 about 49,000 boxes of apples were produced for sale. This
declined to 32,000 boxes from 350 acres in 1955. The yield, about 125 boxes per acre,
is low compared to the Okanagan average of 400 boxes or more per acre. The present
trend is toward abandonment of commercial tree fruits.
There is considerable dry farming in the highland areas to the west of Grand Forks,
the trend being away from grain in favour of alfalfa and other hay. This has the advantage of better erosion-control. The 1951 Census listed 3,781 acres of grain, consisting
of 1,854 acres of wheat, 664 acres of barley, 789 acres of oats, 354 acres of rye, and
120 acres of mixed grain. Cultivated hay and other forage crops amounted to 7,738
acres, the total area in grain and hay being 11,519 acres.
Most of the dry farming is for winter feed in connection with beef-cattle ranching,
which takes advantage of the local range. Since there is evidence that the range is not
completely used, the number of cattle are limited by the amount of winter feed produced.
The cattle shipped and consumed locally indicate the amount of beef the mapped area is
yielding under these conditions. Over thirteen years the average number per year of
cattle produced for sale was 2,150 head; 1945, 1946, 1948, 1949, and 1956 exceeded
2,500 head, with lows of 1,470 in 1952 and 1,689 in 1957.
Dairying is confined to irrigated land and low river-bottoms, the number of cows
being 1,207 in 1951. Sheep are on the increase, the number of ewes being about 600,
and lambs sent to market amounted to approximately 700 in 1955. In the same year
there were 125 sows and 800 pigs sent to market. The poultry population varies from
year to year. In 1955 there were 6,000 hens and 3,000 birds marketed. Horses are
used on farms and for other work, 901 being included in the 1951 Census.
In 1951 the farm population was 2,507, of which 336 were owners of land and
177 were tenants and part owners. Occupied farm land in the mapped area, according
to the 1951 Census, amounted to 87,306 acres, of which 79,461 acres were owned by
the occupants and 7,845 acres were rented. The total improved acreage amounted to
29,767, and unimproved land in private ownership was 57,539 acres.
REPORT OF SOIL-SURVEY ACTIVITIES, CANADA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The following is a report received from L. Farstad, Senior Pedologist, Experimental
Farms Service:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 61
" Soil Survey of the Tete Jaune, McBride, and Giscome Areas
" The detailed soil survey of the Aleza Lake Forestry Station was completed in early
July, as was the checking of several areas in the vicinity of Giscome. The report and
map are being readied for publication.
" Soil Survey of the Peace River Area
" Following the completion of the reconnaissance soil survey of the Peace River
Area, field-trips and meetings were held at the Experimental Farm, Beaverlodge, during
July 17th to 25th in order to draw up family groupings of the mapped soils. Present for
the meetings were members of the British Columbia Soil Survey and Alberta Soil Survey
and members of the Soil Science Departments of the Universities of British Columbia
and Alberta.   Dr. A. Leahey, Principal Pedologist, Ottawa, acted as chairman.
" The moisture regime of a soil is a very important soil characteristic and has an
important bearing on plant growth and crop production. Moisture relationships, therefore, were used as the most logical criteria for grouping the soil series into families. Soil
characteristics which influence the amount of available moisture held in the soil in the
Peace River include texture (three classes) and permeability (three classes).
" These family groupings are the first such groupings attempted in British Columbia,
and if interpretations of the soil characteristics are correct, it may be assumed that plants
will behave about the same on all the soils of a family.
" The members of the various soil survey units met also with the staff of the Beaverlodge Experimental Station to arrange the families into agronomic groups. Criteria used
in the agronomic groupings include those soil characteristics which affect moisture relationships, fertility, and tillage. Some seventy series were grouped into families, and these
in turn were grouped into fourteen agronomic groups. Only six or seven of the latter
are important agriculturally.
" Soil Survey of the Princeton and Tulameen Sheets
" A map and report covering a detailed reconnaissance soil survey of the Tulameen
and Similkameen Valleys within the Princeton sheet was completed.
"Approximately 80,000 acres in the Princeton and Tulameen sheet have been covered by a reconnaissance soil survey."
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
AND EXTENSION BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ac, Director
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
The emphasis placed on planned programmes in each district in recent years was
continued during 1958 and definite progress has been made. Particular mention should
be made to the programmes in Central British Columbia, where projects involving
increased poultry, vegetable, and live-stock production and marketing were undertaken.
Increased production of turnips is under way to supply Kitimat and other markets as well
as Vancouver, etc.
Specialists on soils, poultry, live stock, vegetable production, etc., have worked with
the District Agriculturists in developing these programmes.
FARM AND HOME PLANNING
During the year a definite programme on farm management was undertaken in
co-operation with the Agricultural Economics Department, University of British Columbia, and farm-management specialist of the Department, J. Dinnes. CC 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Seven farms were selected in consultation with District Agriculturists S. B. Peterson,
Courtenay; K. R. Jameson, Duncan; George Muirhead, Cloverdale; J. V. Zacharias,
Abbotsford; P. E. Ewert, Mission; and George Cruickshank, Chilliwack. Mr. Peterson
has two farms and the others one each under study.
The programme is being supervised by Dr. J. Richter, University of British Columbia, in co-operation with British Columbia Department of Agriculture staff.
In connection with this programme, a short course was held at the University of
British Columbia during the week of October 20th to 24th which was attended by fourteen members of the Agricultural Development and Extension Branch, eleven from the
Horticultural Branch, four from the Poultry Branch, and five from other branches.
This was an excellent short course on farm management and was a preliminary phase
of staff training on this project.
STAFF TRAINING
During January and February practically the entire staff of the Department attended
short courses on " Communications " in Victoria and Kelowna. Instructors were J. S.
Allin and George Muirhead, of the Extension Branch, and John A. Smith and Ian Carne,
of the Horticultural Branch. They had attended a short course at Washington State
College in 1957.
The Communications Course proved very acceptable and instructive.
Supervising Agriculturists J. S. Allin and S. G. Preston attended the Summer School
at Washington State College, June 23rd to July 18th, in connection with " Farm and
Home Planning and Agricultural Economics." This course will be of real value to them
in our farm-management studies.
Several meetings were held at the University of British Columbia during the year
dealing with extension courses for agricultural staff. Those attending included Professors
J. K. Friesen, B. A. Eagles, A. J. Renney, J. C. Berry, W. J. Anderson, and Mr. Graham
Drew, of the University of British Columbia staff, and J. S. Allin, G. L. Landon, and
George Muirhead of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture.
Progress is being made in establishing courses in agricultural extension at the
University of British Columbia.
Regional meetings were held during the year at Abbotsford and Prince George, and
a conference was held with the staff at Agassiz Experimental Farm.
The 4-H Club work continues to expand, and four University of British Columbia
students were employed during the summer to assist with this very important programme.
STAFF CHANGES
J. C. Ryder was transferred from Victoria to Vernon. Mr. Piercy was moved from
Kamloops to Fort St. John, and R. W. Brown moved from Fort St. John to Vanderhoof.
CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, NORTH CARIBOO, AND PEACE RIVER
(S. G. Preston, M.S.A., P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
Quality of crops was good even in those areas of low yield; most hay was put up in
good condition and grain was harvested and threshed before the wet fall weather. Fescue
and alsike clover yields in the Peace were exceptionally good. Grain yields were somewhat reduced, but improved grades compensated through higher prices. Alfalfa-seed
production and seed quality was the highest in a number of years in the Peace.
Higher prices for beef during the past year have renewed interest in cattle-raising,
and is apparently one of the major reasons for improved morale among farmers.
Further lots of breeding ewes were brought into Central British Columbia, as well as
a considerable number of rams. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 63
Dairying is expanding in all parts of Central British Columbia and the Peace, but at
a rate that barely supplies the fluid market. Expansion would be more rapid if good
stock could be obtained more readily, and if farm credit was adapted to the needs of the
dairyman.
Settlement continues active and, for the most part, is progressing as fast as social
services and construction of schools, roads, supplementary employment, etc., warrant.
There is a reasonably active demand for Crown land for agricultural purposes in all areas.
A good many United States farmers are finding it impossible to secure land at home to
expand their operations effectively and are looking to the Peace and Central British
Columbia for new holdings.
During the past season the Pacific Great Eastern Railway has been extended to
Dawson Creek and Fort St. John, thus realizing the long-sought outlet to the West Coast.
The gas pipe-lines from the Peace to the Coast have been completed, and gas is being
provided to all towns en route. The British Columbia Power Commission has extended
lines between Quesnel and 100 Mile House. In all areas served by the Commission
various rural extensions have been made.
Extension (General)
Following plans worked out at regional meetings, certain defined programmes were
followed in addition to routine extension work, as follows:—
Beef Cattle Promotion:  Peace River and Cariboo.
Feeding of Beef Cattle:  Peace River.
Swine Improvement: Peace River.
Dairy Promotion:  All areas (considerable assistance in regulations and marketing was provided in the Bulkley).
Sheep Promotion:  Prince George and Vanderhoof.
Vegetable Production (Swede Turnips): Bulkley, Prince George, and Cariboo.
Fertilizer Use:  Peace River and Cariboo.
Poultry: All areas.
In all phases of this work appointed specialists Messrs. King, Wood, Nelson, and
Luyat lent invaluable assistance that District Agriculturists would have had neither the
time nor specific training to provide by themselves. The resident Dairy Inspector,
Mr. Hitchman, gave much valuable help to dairymen, well beyond his regulatory responsibilities. Appreciation is also acknowledged for information and assistance provided by
Live Stock Inspector Frank Clark and Agricultural Engineers George Calver and Tom
Windt.
It is the sincere wish of the Extension Service in Central British Columbia and the
Peace River that the policy for designated-area specialists be continued until there is
scope for full-time specialists in this region. It is further recommended that ample
provision be made for these specialists to carry out their projected number of visits for
specified periods of the season.
Regional meetings are held in the fall and spring. At the spring meetings, programmes are finalized and requests made for specialist services for the season. The fall
meeting becomes an evaluation period, as well as making up programmes for the winter
and coming growing season. These meetings are only completely successful when
attended by all resident Department of Agriculture officials, the specialists attached to the
region, the Director of Extension, and, if at all possible, the Deputy Minister of
Agriculture.
Field Crops
Temperatures were higher than normal, resulting in rapid growth and early maturity.
However, the same conditions created near-drought conditions in some sections. This
was particularly noticeable on fine-textured clay soils, where moisture reserves are
normally low and wilting point quickly reached.   As a consequence, yields on heavy clay CC 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
and sandy soils were low. On loams and the better silt soils, yields were fair to good
and quality of crops excellent. Friable soils of good depth carried good reserves of moisture from the previous year.
It is noted that yields of cereals are down somewhat but to some extent are compensated through improved grades. Very high yields of first-class fescue were obtained,
alsike clover seed was good, and alfalfa seed was good in some areas. Red clover seed
set on the other hand, was very low.
Increased use of commercial fertilizer is noted, particularly in the Peace. Very
encouraging results, too, were obtained in that district on forage-seed crops as well as
cereals.
Crop production for Central British Columbia is reported as follows:—
Area
Wheat
Oats
Barley
Forage Seed
Bulkley Valley           ....           	
Bu.
3,000
7,500
9,000
Bu.
33,000
210,000
85,000
Bu.
5,000
60,000
23,000
Bu.
57,000
30,000
Prices on alsike clover and timothy seed have strengthened. Creeping red fescue
remains about the same as 1957.
Hay yields were fair to good in the Peace, Bulkley, and Nechako Valleys and poor
in the North Cariboo and Prince George district. With the introduction of some hay
from adjacent districts and use of more grain or cereal hay, it is expected, however, that
there will be no shortage of winter feed for live stock.
Weeds
Weed Inspectors were again appointed on a seasonal basis in the Peace River. Some
patches of toad-flax are still present in the North Peace. An outbreak of tartary buckwheat was identified in the South Peace, and appropriate control measures taken.
Mr. Mertens, Weed Inspector, is enthusiastic toward growing of creeping red fescue
in the Peace but feels that this crop will continue to occupy an important place in the
economy only if couch-grass can be kept under control.
No new outbreaks of weeds were reported in Central British Columbia. Toad-flax
in the Vanderhoof district and leafy spurge in the Cariboo are continuing to spread and
may eventually create considerable problems.
Horticulture
Vegetable-growing has received the serious attention of farmers and extension
workers during the past year. Special emphasis was given to growing and marketing of
turnips. Horticultural Specialist M. King made three trips through Central British
Columbia during the spring and summer to give assistance to growers and District Agriculturists. Through use of approved seed, cultural methods, insecticides, etc., the quality
of roots grown is far better than ever previously observed. No problems in marketing
are anticipated for this season. The writer is of the opinion that the services of a vegetable specialist should be continued and extended to the Peace River as well.
The following is a summary of vegetable production as reported by the District
Agriculturists for the Prince George, Vanderhoof, and Bulkley districts:—
Tons
Potatoes, commercial  1,440
Potatoes, seed  300
Cabbage  143
Turnips   421
Carrots   34 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 65
Figures are not available for the Cariboo, which produces chiefly potatoes, a good
part of which are seed. There appears to be room for a considerable production of
potatoes, turnips, and possibly other root vegetables in the Peace.
Fruit-growing is of little importance. Mr. Pelter reports close to 2,000 baskets of
strawberries marketed at Terrace. The area certainly has the climate and location to
take advantage of small-fruit growing for the local market.
Honey
All significant honey production is carried on in the Peace; most of this is south
of the river. Production was as follows: North Peace (103 colonies), 18,000 pounds;
South Peace (2,800 colonies), 490,000 pounds.
The average price to the producer was close to 15 cents a pound, which would give
a value of $76,000.   The Peace is reasonably well adapted to honey production.   Large
areas of sweet clover and alsike, which are preferred by bees, could carry a great many
more colonies. T        „
Live Stock
Extension work in live stock consisted of dairy promotion in all areas, with particular emphasis in the Bulkley; sheep in Central British Columbia; initial promotion
of performance testing of beef cattle in the Cariboo; swine improvement in the Peace;
and beef improvement and feeding in the Peace. Progress in all phases may be considered reasonably successful. „   ,
Beef
Outlets for cattle in the Cariboo were increased, with Baird & Company operating
sales at Quesnel and Williams Lake in addition to sales sponsored by the British Columbia Beef Growers' Association. Export sales remain strong, and consequently prices are
high. Records of marketing for all areas are not complete, but the following is a summary of available data:—
North Peace—
Shipped  3,345
Local slaughter      458
     3,803
South Peace—
Shipped  1,452
Auction      200
Local slaughter  2.100
     3,752
Total for Peace     7,555
Cariboo (Quesnel and Williams Lake)—Sales  13,723
Prince George—
Shipped      242
Local slaughter  1,305
Vanderhoof—
Shipped (truck)       470
Thirty-four cars (estimated number of cattle)      958
Local slaughter        25
Lakes District—
Twenty cars (estimated number of cattle)      440
Truck      400
Bulkley      700
    4,540
Total, all districts  25,818 CC 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Taking the average Quesnel and Williams Lake sales price per head of $140, the
beef industry in Central British Columbia and the Peace realized approximately $3,600,-
000 in 1958. R. C. Fry, District Agriculturist at Quesnel, reports 6,296 head going to
the United States. It is estimated a similar proportion of cattle shipped out of other
districts went for export as well.
Increased prices for beef cattle have already improved the economic status of cattlemen, as well as farmers with only a few head.
Dairying
The production figures which follow are compiled from information provided by
District Agriculturists and Dairy Inspector R. N. Hitchman:—
Bulkley-Skeena—
Bulkley-Skeena fluid _   _ _   _
1958 (Lb.)
3,617,000
400,000
1957 (Lb.)
Terrace fluid      	
milk)1.-
Add creamery purchases (as
4,017,000
1,267,000
3,458,000
Total	
5,267,000
Nechako Valley     	
1,600,000
1,000,000
Prince George-McBride—
Prince George fluid	
2,900,000
330,000
Prince George other __
McBride  	
3,230,000
1,075,000
Total 	
4,305,000
4,201,000
Cariboo—
Quesnel, all sources	
Williams Lake1    	
2,200,000
350,000
380,000
2,000,000
122 and 100 Mile Houses1
	
Total 	
2,730,000
North Peace—
Fluid 	
Other	
1,600,000
75,000
Total	
1,675,000
1,560,000
South Peace—Fluid	
3,656,000
3,534,000
Totals	
19,233,000
15,753,000
weight
Total value at $4.50 per hundred
$865,485
1 Not included in 1957 Report. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 67
There has been little significant change in-milk prices to either the producer or consumer during the past year.
The Dairy Branch reports that 2,040,000 pounds of milk were reconstituted at
Kitimat in 1958, 75,000 pounds at Fort St. John, and, in addition, 40,000 pounds of
butter were brought into Prince George for use in manufacture of ice-cream. There is
thus plenty of scope for expansion of the dairy industry to take care of these deficiencies
in production as well as the needs of the rapidly increasing population.
Sheep
Considerable interest is being shown in sheep-raising in Central British Columbia
and the Peace. Sheep could fit well into the farm economy in these areas and are adapted
to handling in relatively small numbers. Breeding stock, however, is relatively difficult
to secure, so progress is slow. We can look for more rapid increase when local ewe
lambs become available. Shipped from Lakes District, Vanderhoof, Prince George, and
McBride, to November 1st, were 1,257 head. A considerable number of ewe lambs are
evidently being retained to increase flock size.
Hogs
Hog-raising continues to be of major importance in the Peace despite depressed
prices.   Local slaughter-houses at Prince George and Quesnel take considerable numbers of hogs.   This condition has influenced a moderate increase in hog-raising in these
districts.   Hog production for the Peace is as follows:—
North Peace—
Shipped     7,528
Local slaughter        321
     7,849
South Peace—
Shipped     5,660
Local slaughter  10,500
  16,160
Total  24,009
Estimated value at $35 per head $840,000
The number produced for slaughter is estimated to be approximately 18 per cent
over 1957. A shipment of higher-quality-bred gilts was brought into the South Peace in
1957. The South Peace Stockmen's Association sponsored a swine club, using the
progeny from these sows. In this way it is hoped to keep a maximum number of the
female stock in the district and promote higher-quality hogs.
Poultry
Poultry-raising is increasing in popularity in all areas. C. W. Wood, Poultry Field-
man, and W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, made trips to the area during the year,
made studies of the business, met with poultrymen, and conferred with the District Agriculturists.
The following are estimates of baby-chick imports to various districts:—
Chicks Poults
Quesnel and Williams Lake  58,000 1,400
Prince George  40,000                	
Vanderhoof  8,000                 	
Bulkley  14,000                 	
Peace  70,000                 	
Totals  190,000 1,400 CC 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
There is obviously a considerable increase in poultry over the previous year. Production still lags far behind consumption for the area as a whole. In the Peace a number
of flocks have been increased to furnish a cash return on grain on hand. In Central
British Columbia the good demand and relatively uniform price of eggs has encouraged a
few more producers and expansion of existing units.
4-H Clubs
All areas report good interest in 4-H Clubs, with considerable increase in enrolment.
Efforts are being made to keep the type of club adapted to the general social and
economic status of the district. A Club Leaders' Conference was held in Victoria in
February. Leaders attending from Central British Columbia and the Peace were Mrs. E.
Holder, of Montney; Charles Schobert, of Doe River; and Mrs. Charles Carpenter, of
Vanderhoof. Departmental representatives at the conference from this region were J.
Hall and the writer.
John McFaul, summer assistant on 4-H Club work, made a brief trip through the
area. The writer and J. Arrand (entomologist) assisted in the Peace. There is a very
definite need for an assistant on 4-H Club work for the summer months in the Peace and
Central British Columbia.
The following is a summary of clubs and enrolment (in parentheses) by district:—
Bulkley
Vanderhoof
Prince
George
Cariboo
North
Peace
South
Peace
Totals
Clubs
Members
Beef   	
Garden —	
Other  	
Home craft   -	
Community-—   - -
1 (10)
2 (30)
( -)
1 (18)
..(...)
3 (35)
2 (20)
1 (ID1
2(17)
1(17)
.. (....)
- ( _)
3 (56)
3 (56)
1 (11)
1(10)
1 ( 8)
- (--)
- (-)
5(45)
- (-)
1(12)
- (-)
- ( ..)
2(31)
2 (29)
3 (44)
1 (11) =
1 (15)
2(24)
7
9
2
6
11
(84)
(104)
(22)
(88)
(128)
1 Lamb.
2 Grain.
Projects were shown at local farms on achievement-days. Beef Clubs auctioned
their stock at the time of showing, and prices realized effectively impressed the members
on the need for quality and finish. There appears to be room for such sales for lambs and
packaged garden produce, as instituted by Mr. Pelter at Vanderhoof.
Land-clearing
An exceptionally fine season prevailed for land-clearing operations. Practically all
clearing and dugout excavation was done under the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance
Act" through private contractors. This work resulted in many acres of land being brought
under cultivation. Brush-breaking in the Peace is done with conventional breaking-
ploughs, while the disk-type breakers are in general use in Central British Columbia.
There are six wells to be drilled at Vanderhoof under the provisions of the Act, but it
appears that only two will be completed this year. Several water-holes were dug in
addition to the regular dugouts shown.
Settlement
Application for Crown land for agricultural purposes remains strong in the Peace
River, Prince George, and Vanderhoof districts, but there seems to be some levelling off.
The advent of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway into the Peace has created a demand for
land around Little Prairie. Several United States farmers have bought land around
Vanderhoof.   An accelerated demand for farm land in all areas is anticipated in 1959. department of agriculture, 1958 cc 69
Official Visitors—Specialist Services
Regular visits were made by specialists already mentioned, as well as J. Corner,
Apiarist. Provincial Veterinarians Newby and Thompson made several regulatory visits,
while Dr. A. Kidd, Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector, travelled
to Prince George twice during the season to investigate the establishment of beef grading
and inspection there. Dr. J. C. Berry, of the Animal Husbandry Department, University
of British Columbia, travelled through Central British Columbia and the Peace with
Graham Drew (University Extension) and Frank Clark. They met with dairymen, discussed live-stock problems with the District Agriculturists, and classified several dairy
herds.   Mr. Drew was publicizing the University Youth Training School.
The Honourable N. P. Steacy, Minister of Agriculture, made a number of trips to
the North. He met with farmers, farm organizations, and groups handling farm produce
in Central British Columbia and the Peace. He was especially interested in providing an
outlet for the commodities which can be grown in this region.
A group of nine farm writers toured Central British Columbia from Terrace and
Kitimat to Quesnel at the end of May. District Agriculturists, Experimental Station
Superintendents, and H. Milne, of the Canadian National Railways Agriculture and
Colonization Department, assisted in making arrangements. Boards of Trade and
Farmers' Institutes at Terrace, Smithers, Vanderhoof, and Prince George collaborated.
Fairs
Fairs were held in the North Peace, Dawson Creek, Kiskatinaw, Prince George,
Fort Fraser, Burns Lake, Smithers, Quesnel, and Bella Coola, and a flower show at Williams Lake. At least one Departmental official acted as judge for each of these fairs.
Heavy rains seriously reduced attendance at the Prince George Fair, but weather was
excellent at all others. A seed fair was held at Fort St. John on March 7th, at which the
writer acted as one of the judges. The fair creates considerable favourable publicity, but
could well include greater participation by exhibitors.
Farmers' and Women's Institutes
Both Farmers' and Women's Institute meetings were held in June in the Cariboo,
East Central British Columbia, the Bulkley, and Peace River. Officials attending the
meetings were the Honourable N. P. Steacy, Minister of Agriculture; L. W. Johnson,
Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes; and Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of
Women's Institutes. Resignation of Mrs. Gummow as Superintendent of Women's Institutes is regretted by all who looked forward to her annual visit to the Peace and Central
British Columbia.
Conferences and Short Courses
Communications Short Courses were held at Victoria and Kelowna during the past
winter. District Agriculturists from this region attended the Kelowna meeting. These
courses tend to create closer unity among Department of Agriculture officials. This was
particularly evident through a resolution, unanimously adopted at the Kelowna meeting,
in which it was recommended that the Minister take steps to so organize the Department
of Agriculture for more efficient and co-ordinated service.
With the introduction of the initial stages of the farm-management programme,
several meetings have been held. A short course, at which Messrs. Pelter, Hall, and the
writer attended, was held at the University of British Columbia in October.
Three members of the Department—Supervising Agriculturists Allin and Preston
and Farm Management Specialist Jim Dinnes—attended a four-week postgraduate short
course in farm management and farm and home planning at the Washington State College CC 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in July. Special mention should be made of the useful and practical material presented
in the courses and the very efficient teaching methods used by the Extension Service
instructors in the Farm and Home Planning Course.
Regional conferences have been held regularly in the spring and fall for Central
British Columbia and the Peace. As far as practical, we have in attendance our Director,
Mr. Landon; specialists who have been most active during the season, or required for
planning for next season; and all District Agriculturists and resident officials. These
conferences have been most successful in the opinion of all attending.
A report on prospects and plans for 1959 will be made following the regional meeting
in December.
LIVE-STOCK PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
(G. A. Luyat, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist, Acting as a Beef Cattle
and Sheep Specialist)
Trends in Beef-cattle Production
The final two months of 1957, following a draggy market on all cattle but cows, saw
the demand and prices for feeder cattle increase with heavy export to the United States.
Two-year-old grass-finished steers continued to find only a local market under stress.
The year 1957 was one of transition in the beef industry when producers were hurriedly
converting to a feeder basis. The move gained momentum in 1958 with a strong market
developing for light feeder cattle, especially steer calves. At the close of the year the
industry in British Columbia found itself almost 100 per cent on a feeder economy, leaning
heavily to a cow and calf basis. For the moment, at least, the problem of high costs of
grain on the western side of the Rockies has been solved.
Marketing
The auction method of marketing cattle was fully used this year to handle the bulk
of the cattle at Kamloops, Williams Lake, and Quesnel. Up till late November a total
of 17,556 head had been handled under the system at the three points. The change from
selling by private treaty under sealed bids has proved out quite successful for both the
buyer and the seller. The producer with a small number and lacking bargaining power
is not put at a disadvantage. All buyers have equal opportunities to purchases and can
reduce expenses in securing requirements. The service has been particularly outstanding
to feeder buyers, including Americans who are not always acquainted with the country
or the markets. Buyers were encouraged by the selection and the volume offered.
A sound market was developed. Perhaps no other form of extension has been as effective
in improving cattle quality as the auction sale, where poor and good types sell side by side
with a wide differential for quality and uniformity.
One sale was held at Okanagan Falls in late October. The annual feeder sale was
again held at Fort St. John, but volume was lacking because of previous private sales.
It is not likely that any progress in the feeding of cattle in the Peace River area will take
place this coming winter as all available feeder cattle moved out at attractive prices. The
regulations permitting shipments of grain from the Peace River area by rail on a farmer-
to-farmer basis with freight assistance will alter feeding economies, but little in such areas
as the Cariboo. Grain is already available from Edmonton at a cost of $5.50 per ton
for freight.
Three feed-lots using refuse screenings under permit as the basic ingredient of the
ration are in operation in the vicinity of Kamloops. Screenings which were available at
the low price of $3 per ton f.o.b. Vancouver later moved during the summer to $7 to $9.
The uncertainty is reducing operations this year of the margin of profit. A number of
ranchers located on the railroads are using refuse screenings with marked success as a
hay replacer. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958
Performance Testing of Beef Cattle
CC 71
A total of 231 pure-bred calves by December 1st have completed the weaning weight
test under the joint Federal-Provincial programme, and two further herds are awaiting
a weaning date to go on test. A breakdown showing the breeders participating, the
breeds, and the numbers of each sex is as follows:—
Pure-bred Herds
Calves Tested
Total
Bulls
Heifers
Steers
Angus
7
9
16
4
16
3
6
9
15
19
6
26
13
10
14
8
1
13
9
8
12
4
3
25
Herefords
35
D. P. Boltz, Midway     -               	
29
F. Bricker, Box 296, Fernie        _ _  	
18
30
Whitefroct Ranch, Heffley Creek _     . 	
14
H. N. Boultbee, Hillcroft Ranch, R.R. 7, Langley                        	
13
L. W. Wood, R.R. 3, Armstrong                                                         .   -
22
Kalwood Farms Ltd., Oyama -	
24
27
Oliver From, Westbridge1  _ _  	
1 Weaning data for 1958 not completed by this date.
Total Hereford calves, 212;  total pure-bred calves to date, 237.
It will be noted from the foregoing table that the herds entered in the test cover every
part of the southern portion of the Province from Vancouver Island to Fernie. Considerable interest is also being taken in the programme by many who are not already participating, judging from the inquiries received.
The writer was privileged to attend a meeting of the Co-ordinating Committee on
R.O.P. for Beef Cattle held at Saskatoon in June at the time of the annual C.S.A.P.
(Western Section) meeting, and also a meeting of this Committee with the research
personnel from Western Canada.
A total of 612 grade calves were being tested this year from eight commercial herds.
Three of the herds are now going into their third year of testing and are beginning to build
up valuable and meaningful individual cow records of performance wherein each cow in
the herd is being progeny tested or rated by the performance of her offspring. The repeatability of heavy weaning weights and good-type scores of calves by the same cows is
sufficiently high to justify culling cows with unsatisfactory calves. Perhaps the most
outstanding feature witnessed in a testing programme on commercial herds and, for that
matter, pure-bred herds is the rapid progress made through improvement of feeding and
management practices.
Sheep Production
The sheep population is holding its own in most areas of the Interior, with perhaps
a slight increase showing up in Central British Columbia. A few small farm flocks
changed hands. Four hundred cross-bred range ewe lambs by Suffolk rams were shipped
to Ontario for distribution as farm flocks. These ewe lambs sold for $19.50 each f.o.b.
shipping-point. Three single decks of replacement breeding ewes were imported from
Alberta by range sheepmen.
British Columbia lambs did not move on to the market until mid-September because
of poor demand and low prices. Finally an agreement was reached to sell at $18 f.o.b.
shipping-point or $20.55 off cars in Vancouver. Later, prices advanced to $19-$19.50
at shipping-point.   Shipments from New Zealand made marketing of local lamb unpre- CC 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
dictable and hazardous.   It was reported that some 25,000 lambs had entered Vancouver
in the late spring for consumption there.
At the beginning of September the National Sheep Committee appointed by the
Honourable Douglas Harkness, Minister of Agriculture, Ottawa, to investigate the sheep
industry in Canada visited the Fraser Valley and Island sheepmen during the Pacific
National Exhibition, and following this the Interior sheepmen at Kamloops. Several
sheepmen agreed that there was considerable room for expansion on the Coast, and that
the rough logged-off lands were not being utilized to their maximum because of the lack
of sheep numbers for the purpose. The writer suggested that the cross-bred ewe lambs
of Suffolk breeding being disposed of from the range bands as market lambs would make
ideal sheep for the Coast by virtue of having plenty of hybrid vigour, size, and being good
mothers with good-quality wool. Mr. Tisdale, of the Sheep Committee, agreed and
wondered why all these good ewe lambs were going to slaugter instead of making the
nucleus to farm flocks. A. A. McNeil, of the Committee, a commercial breeder of Brant
County, gave his experiences in the use of these cross-bred range ewe lambs on his own
farm, which he said were highly satisfactory in performance.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND LOWER FRASER VALLEY REGION
(J. S. Allin, B.S.A., P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
The principal source of farm income in the region is dairying. In the Lower Fraser
Valley, the general picture for dairy production was somewhat improved. Milk prices
were up; feed-supplies good; prices for dairy cattle, beef, and calves remained firm; and
generally 1958 was one of the best years for dairy-farmers in a long time.
On Vancouver Island, dairy-farmers did not experience the same stable conditions
as the Lower Fraser Valley. The combined effect of a reduced price for their product
and increased costs of production through poor pastures and decreased forage yields
resulted in lower returns than had been anticipated.
For both Vancouver Island and Lower Fraser Valley the number of producers has
declined but with no decrease in production. Cattle numbers per farm have increased
and production per man has likewise risen.
The demand for dairy-farms and the increasing utilization of land for industrial and
residential development has caused land prices to rise to an unprecedented level, especially
in the Lower Fraser Valley.
Extension Activities
In addition to the more usual agricultural extension work on which we have reported
in previous years, three new phases of activity were engaged in during the year, namely:
(1) Communications Workshop; (2) Farm and Home Planning Course; and (3) Farm
Management Programme.
(1) Films, flannelgraphs, buzz groups, and other methods were all employed
in two staff meetings—one in Victoria and one in Kelowna—in an attempt
to convey to all agricultural extension workers who attended an understanding of the basic factors of " Communications."
Portions of the " Communication " material were repeated several
times during the year to smaller groups, including farmers, 4-H Club
Advisory Council, Veterinary Inspectors, and D.H.I.A. Supervisors.
(2) Appreciation is given for the opportunity of being able to attend the Washington State Summer School course on " Extension Methods—Farm and
Home Planning " for the purpose of gaining a better understanding of this
extension approach, which is considered to be one of the best methods of
adult education through which an agricultural extension service may perform its function.    Farm and home planning is a method of conducting DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 73
an agricultural extension programme, the core of which is management.
It is an educational process rather than a management service.
The course of action which we are developing in British Columbia
follows the same general procedure which has been effective in other areas
of North America. The pilot-farm aspect of the farm-management programme which we have already adopted is a necessary prerequisite to any
broader full-scale extension programme which has farm management as
its base.
(3) There is a greater awareness that the economic aspects of farm production
and its problems are increasing in importance. Thus we have developed
a programme of farm management which should definitely contribute
much toward meeting the challenge of present-day economic pressures.
Such a programme should result in better solutions with more assurance
of their practical application.
To initiate action in this regard, therefore, in May, 1958, seven pilot
farms were selected for study.   The joint effort by farmer and District
Agriculturist included the keeping of accurate records (financial, field,
labour, etc.), budgeting, and financial statements.   An analysis of these
records by District Agriculturist, farmer, and farm-management specialist
should reveal opportunities for improving efficiency to increase net returns.
Each District Agriculturist in this region will have an additional farm
with which to work during the full calendar year of 1959.
Grassland Clubs were continued as an effective means of communication.   Circular
letters and displays were arranged for and other extension activities were undertaken to
promote the adoption of sound forage-crop production practices.
Agricultural planning committees continued to review the farm situation in their
respective districts and to present recommendations and plans of action in an attempt to
overcome a few of the major production problems. These planning committees are
operating effectively in Delta, Surrey, and Pitt Meadows districts.
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(Miss Echo Lidster, Supervisor)
From September, 1957, to July, 1958, Miss Lidster was on leave of absence from
the Department of Agriculture for the purpose of doing graduate work at Cornell University in New York State. She obtained the degree of Master of Science in September,
1958.
The total 4-H Club enrolment for British Columbia is as follows: Clubs—1957,170;
1958, 190.    Members—1957, 1,991;   1958, 2,267.
Provincial 4-H Club Week
Delegates from 4-H Clubs throughout the Province were brought to the University
of British Columbia on July 2nd, 3rd, and 4th. A total of seventy-eight delegates were
billeted at the Youth Training Camp. The Provincial quota of fourteen delegates was
selected from these. The basis for selection involved judging ability and knowledge of
project subject-matter, achievement record covering all years in club work, personality,
character, and general knowledge.   The following delegates were selected:—
Beef:  Kathryn Bostock, Rock Creek; Grant Smith, Lumby.
Dairy:  Douglas Blair, Langley; Maxine Hanson, Ladner.
Garden:  James Rowse, Hope; Lynn Spraggs, Armstrong.
Homecraft:  Dorothy Johnston, Prince George; Lorraine Arcand, Chilliwack.
Poultry:   Harold Hill, Armstrong; John Skelton, Armstrong. CC 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sheep:  Kay Armstrong, Enderby; John Ross, Courtenay.
*Swine: David Ormrod, Langley; Eric Andrews, Chilliwack.
National 4-H Club Week
The above-named young people represented British Columbia at National 4-H Club
Week, which took place in Toronto and Ottawa, November 15th to 20th.
This was the third year in which no competitions took place at National 4-H Club
Week. As a result of this arrangement, delegates are being selected on a broader basis
in their Provincial competitions, resulting in a more mature group attending National
4-H Club Week. Delegates participated in the programme as chairmen of various
functions, by asking the blessing at meals, Grain Club model meeting, home decorating
discussion, and dress revue. Tours were made to the Royal Winter Fair, Royal Ontario
Museum, Casa Loma, Maple Leaf Gardens, Niagara Falls, Orenda Engines, House of
Commons, and Ottawa and Hull.
Canadian National Exhibition Scholarship
The Canadian National Exhibition offered each Province a scholarship of $600 to be
awarded to a boy or girl from each Province. British Columbia selected Thomas Wilson,
of Cloverdale, from the six candidates who applied. Mr. Wilson is enrolled at the University of British Columbia.
Eaton Watches
The T. Eaton Company again awarded gold watches to the highest-scoring individual
in each project in the Provincial elimination competition in British Columbia. In 1958
the winners were as follows: Beef—Katharyn Bostock, Rock Creek; Dairy—Douglas
Blair, Langley; Garden—Lynn Spraggs, Armstrong; Goat—Paul Howe, Saanichton;
Grain—Ann Bell, Armstrong; Honeybee—John Stann, Vernon; Homecraft—Lorraine
Arcand, Chilliwack; Potato—Philip Pincosy, Salmon Arm; Poultry—John Skelton,
Armstrong; Rural Electrification—Ed Curlyo, Chilliwack; Sheep—Kathleen Armstrong,
Enderby; Swine—Eric Andrews, Chilliwack.
Provincial Advisory Council of 4-H Club Leaders
This council met in Victoria on February 25th, 26th, and 27th, 1958. Delegates
attending were as follows: Peace River—Mrs. E. A. Holden, Montney, and Charles
Schobert, Doe River; Central British Columbia—Mrs. Ken Carpenter, Vanderhoof;
Vancouver Island—Alex. Hall, Victoria; Lower Fraser Valley—Mrs. Ada Attridge,
Mission; Kamloops—Harold Becker, Westwold; Armstrong—Robert Hornby, Armstrong; Kootenay—John Stevenson, Argenta; North Vancouver Island—Mrs. Doris
Stephens, Alberni, and Mrs. William Walker, Alberni. Supervising Agriculturists and
District Agriculturists: Jim Hall, Dawson Creek; S. G. Preston, Prince George; Fraser
Carmichael, Grand Forks; George Cruickshank, Chilliwack; and Ken Jameson, Duncan.
4-H Club Award Trips
In addition to National 4-H Club Week, several trips were made available to 4-H
Club members within the Province in 1958:—
(1) Pullman, Wash.—Four club members from the Interior of the Province
attended Washington State 4-H Club Congress, June 9th to 12th, accompanied by Jack Piercy, Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops—Arthur
Harfman, Bridesville; Patsy Steffens, Merritt; Barbara Mcintosh, Vanderhoof; and Allan Suchy, Doe River.
* Candidates in Goat, Grain, Potato, and Swine projects were grouped together. The individuals with two
highest scores come from the Swine project. ' DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 75
(2) Fairview, Alta.—Frances Marshall, Shearer Dale; Sheila Schobert, Doe
River; Sandra Cox, Landry; Kay Sutton, Progress; Leonard Peterat,
Central; and Gordon Framst, Cecil Lake, attended Fairview Farm Camp
in July. This trip is awarded to the proficiency winner in each club, based
on the previous year's achievement report.
(3) Montana 4-H Conservation Camp.—Anne Beynon and Fred Clark from
Wycliffe Beef Club attended this camp from July 14th to 18th, 1958, in
company with Joe Awmack, District Agriculturist. This trip occurs every
third year for British Columbia.
(4) Inter-district Exchange Visits.—These visits, of one week's duration, are
arranged between districts within the Province. Travelling expenses are
shared equally between the club members and the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture.
Exchange visits between Vancouver Island and Kamloops were arranged for Don
Kevis, Alberni; Allan Dale, Cedar; Lome Grieve, Courtenay; and Ernie Dolling, Cedar.
Kamloops exchanges were Wilma Davidson, Knutsford; Helen Salle, Barriere; and Bill
Freding, Princeton, during the last week of August.
Exchange visits between Fraser Valley and Quesnel were arranged for Ed Curlyo,
Chilliwack, and Arthur Jackson, Abbotsford.
Kamloops Fat Stock Show and Sale
The annual show and sale held in Kamloops is the final stage of achievement for
some 240 boys and girls who are members of Beef and Sheep Clubs. The champion calf
was shown by Jim Wilkinson, of Westwold, and sold for $1.85 a pound; the reserve
champion was sold by Arthur Harfman, of Bridesville, and sold for 85 cents a pound.
EXTENSION AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, B.S.A., P.Eng.)
Requests for assistance with engineering problems on the farm have increased, but
in fine with past policy the emphasis has been placed on the group approach rather than
individual problems. This approach has utilized the following methods: Equipment trials
and demonstrations, field-days, bulletins, short courses, and talks. The staff of the Division includes G. L. Calver, Senior Agricultural Engineer; K. E. May, Assistant Extension
Agricultural Engineer; T. A. Windt, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer; H.
Barber; Mrs. C. Smethurst; and Mrs. M. Marte.
Farm Machinery
The individual work with farmers' machinery problems has been limited to minor
visits regarding specific machines, replies to some thirty-five letters of inquiry, and assistance to other branches of the Department, including sprayer development for the Horticultural Branch and machinery checking for the Poultry Branch. Since farm machinery
covers such a broad field, the group approach appears to give the best coverage. Included
in this have been three farm machinery meetings dealing specifically with general machinery maintenance and operation and forage-harvesters. Farm machinery maintenance
is considered of vital importance, and the two-day short course has worked out as our
most satisfactory method of teaching. Short courses were held at Langley High School,
Chilliwack High School, Fort St. John, Dawson Creek, and Armstrong. The average
attendance was sixteen, which is approximately the maximum number of students that
can be handled in a practical course by two men. Flannelgraph and visual aids were
prepared for the courses and assisted materially with the subject-matter presentation.
Although field-days are time-consuming, they do show the machinery in operation and CC 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the adjustments and maintenance required under working conditions. Six field-days were
held, two of which were in conjunction with special projects, the others with tillage equipment, silage machinery, and orchard machinery. Bulletins prepared by this Division were
limited to the farm machinery field and were prepared for the use of the Field Crops
Branch in its forage-promotion programme. The titles of these bulletins are: (1) "Silage
Harvesting Machinery "; (2) "Silos"; (3) "Mechanical Feeding."
Projects
1. Turnip Production.—The first step in the mechanization of this crop is promotion of the use of up-to-date sprayers and seeding equipment. This was carried out in the
form of a field-day at which pre-spraying and planting was carried out in conjunction with
the Entomological Branch. Mechanical harvesting will no doubt require consideration as
production increases.
2. Onion-harvesting.—This third year of onion-harvesting development work saw
the completion of the initial programme as it was set out. The annual report of Mr. May
states: " Trials proved a Bruner disk lifter to be unsatisfactory and subsequent development of an experimental model by this Division, although not completely successful, did
indicate that equipment manufactured by Mr. Paul Rickard for growers in the Salem,
Ore., area should operate in the Interior. Trials of the equipment confirmed this, and a
successful field-day was held to demonstrate the machine. Mr. Rickard, who manufactures a complete line of onion equipment, has agreed to supply this area. It is now the
responsibility of the growers to decide whether they should purchase this equipment,
which will enable them to increase production, lower production costs, and obtain a
greater net return than is now possible using hand methods."
3. Potato-spraying.—This project was initiated at the request of potato-growers,
entomologists, and pathologists to evolve an efficient method of obtaining complete coverage of potato vines to control aphis and possibly late blight. Trial work was carried
out through the auspices of the Agricultural Engineering Department of the University
of British Columbia by a Provincially employed student assistant. The initial development involved construction of an experimental spray boom and the formulation of accurate coverage assessment procedures. The sprayer utilizes a trailing hinged boom with
vine lifters, and results would indicate that although this may give improvement in coverage over equipment in present use, further improvements are required.
4. Vertical Mulching.—This dealt with the development and adaptation of equipment to place organic material in the channels opened by a deep tillage tool and is being
used in conjunction with a drainage demonstration in the Ladner area. Present indications are that it is relatively successful.
5. Apple-tree Props.—This project is in the preliminary stages and has dealt so far
with the development of a planer-head to shape lodgepole pine props. Testing and
further work will be required.
Safety
The farm safety programme is placed under farm machinery in that the majority
of the work has dealt with machinery safety, though some emphasis has also been placed
on the use of hand extinguishers for farm fire-control. Safety work has been divided
into:—
(1) The compilation of accident data, based on reports from all district farm
organizations on local farm accidents, with a view to obtaining data not
only on deaths but also injuries causing time-loss.
(2) Talks on farm safety presented to three farm groups, to the annual meeting of the British Columbia Safety Council, and to the Western Farm
Safety Meeting held at Edmonton this spring. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 77
(3) Safety demonstrations at which special tractor safety equipment was shown
together with fire equipment. A total of ten demonstrations were held,
with an average of forty-five farmers attending.
(4) Work in conjunction with the British Columbia Safety Council to set up
a farm safety group under each of its community safety sections such that
farm safety becomes the responsibility of local groups, with this Division
merely supplying information on safe practices.
Farm Structures
Work in farm structures required a greater amount of individual assistance in that
in each structure planned there must be some modifications to meet local conditions;
hence some seventy-seven letters of inquiry have been answered giving this specific type
of information. Special visits dealt with an investigation of bulk bins for dairy-barns
and a review of one potato-storage structure being constructed under the " Canada-
British Columbia Potato-warehouse Construction Assistance Act." Some fifteen farm
visits dealt with either stanchion or loose housing of dairy cattle or with building layout
planning. The two new plans prepared were an Olympic laying-nest and a Mercury
shut-off switch for a self-feeding bunk. Plans distributed through our central plan service were as follows:—
Agricultural Engineering plans      891
Midwest plans  7
Canadian Farm Building Plan Service  5,075
Total   5,973
Meetings have been held regarding plans for the Canadian Farm Building Plan Service, a continuing organization, which will print revision sheets on any of the eight catalogue subjects as such information is required to keep these books of plans up to date.
For instance, a new bulk milk-house plan is being prepared in connection with the dairy-
house plans.
Soil and Water
Included in the soil and water programme have been forty-three letters of inquiry,
some of which indicate the need for a revised bulletin dealing with farm drainage. With
the emphasis being placed on farm-management studies, two maps have been completed
for dairy-farms on Vancouver Island. This work has been carried out to not only give
a plan of the farm, but to make available information for recommendations regarding the
handling of drainage problems, development of irrigation systems, and planning building
layouts.
Drainage
Drainage work has been limited to one field-day in the Ladner area and sixteen
individual farm drainage visits. Detailed drainage plans were prepared for portions of
three farms on the basis of these field visits.
Irrigation
Work in irrigation has dealt to a large extent with the development of suitable water-
supplies, and hence the development in several cases of water-storage facilities. These
included review of storage on Oregon Jack Creek, supervision of the start of construction of the Knife Creek dam, together with several small dugout-construction projects.
Irrigation systems were designed for three farms. In view of the need for clean water
for the effective operation of sprinkler irrigation systems, a plan for a horizontal screening device was prepared and distributed.   Four reports were prepared dealing with irri- CC 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
gation: (1) " Canal Linings and Concrete Canal Rehabilitation "; (2) " Canal Linings,"
supplementary report; (3) "Past History of Wilmer Bench Lands or Columbia Fruit
Lands Irrigation District ";   (4) " Water Reserve, Mclntyre Creek."
The only demonstration being carried out is continuing work in the Vanderhoof
area. The past year was the second full year of this trial. The control of the system was
carried out by the Experimental Farm Service at Prince George, and the staff of this
Service will make a complete report. The demonstration is providing valuable information on the possibilities of irrigation in the area.
Conservation
Conservation work has been limited to three farm visits on stream erosion and the
preparation of reports on erosion—Rumball Creek, Okanagan flood-control trial and
channel review, and Fortune Creek erosion control.
Miscellaneous
Once again rural electrification has received only very limited attention and has
dealt with answers to inquiries on hydro-electric and wind-electric development for individual farmers, with one or two inquiries dealing with specific electric equipment.
Meetings attended included the Pacific Northwest Section Conference of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, the meeting of the Western Safety Committee,
and two meetings of the Lower Fraser Valley Sub-committee on Agricultural Engineering.
Domestic Water
Assistance to farmers in the development of domestic water-supplies is provided
under the terms of the Farmers' Domestic Water Assistance under the supervision of this
Division. Eleven dugouts were constructed in the Peace River area and one in the
Smithers area. One of these dugouts was four times the minimum size recommended
by the Department. Total cost to the farmers was $5,772.13. Three dugouts were
recommended for discount following an inspection which indicated that they had filters,
wells, and were properly fenced. All of the work in the Peace River area was done by
one experienced contractor.
Land-clearing
All land-clearing carried out under the terms of the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act" has been done by private contractors working under agreement with the
Department of Agriculture. It is the responsibility of this Division to supervise the field
operation of these contractors. This supervision includes the review of equipment to be
operated by contractors or those who are to be considered for an agreement, checking on
the actual calibre of work carried out by the men working under agreement, and the
investigation of any claims regarding unsatisfactory work. New contractors were set up
in six areas.
T. Windt's report states: " In order to meet the requests for land-clearing in areas
not already served by contractors, tenders were called in several areas. The writer reviewed the equipment in the tendered areas of Vanderhoof, Williams Lake, and Salmo-
Fruitvale. Thirty-five tractors were inspected. In choosing a contractor, consideration
was given to the condition of tractors and amount of land-clearing experience."
Although time-consuming, a contract awarded on the basis of tender is considered
to be the most equitable method of choosing new operators for a given area. Past experience in land-clearing indicates that as a general principle a large tractor can give the most
economical job if all other factors, such as machine condition and operator, are equal.
Minor exceptions are extremely soft ground conditions or specialty jobs. The work of
all contractors hired to date has been of a fairly high calibre, as witnessed by the fact that DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958
CC 79
during the past year only five formal complaints have been lodged on the basis of over
540 jobs completed.
During the past season forty-three contractors were working under agreement with
the Department, thirty-eight contractors operated solely on land-clearing work, three were
hired for small ditching jobs, and two with well-drilling rigs. The thirty-eight calibre
contractors operated some fifty-two crawler tractors. Temporary field assistants included
F. Mertens and N. Reedman. District control of contracts and contractor liaison are
carried out by the District Agriculturists, who are responsible for the smooth operation
of much of the field work. The estimated total value of land-clearing for the year ended
November 30th, 1958, is $360,000, a slight decrease from 1957, though late billings will
increase the amount. Approximately 9,725 acres of land were developed for production
due to the 1958 operations. The following table gives a breakdown of the areas of
operation, acreages, and costs per acre:—
Summary of Land-clearing for 1958
District and Number of Contracts
Acreage
Cleared
Average Cost
per Acre
Total
Cost
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands (33 )_
Pemberton (8)_.
Fraser Valley (175) ._ _	
Shuswap and North Okanagan (42)  	
Similkameen, Kamloops, and Ashcroft (42)..
Boundary and Kootenays (16)	
Williams Lake (3)	
Quesnel (27) —
Clearing  —:	
Breaking-
Prince George (49)—
Clearing __ 	
Breaking	
McBride (17)—
Clearing	
Breaking	
Vanderhoof (8) —
Clearing 	
Breaking- __
Smithers (10) _..
Terrace (2)..
Peace River South (53)-
Clearing	
Breaking   	
Peace River North (74)-
Clearing	
Breaking	
164
130
838
301
296
220
135
208
102
852
254
251
92
336
88
138
1,145
340
2,551
1,278
$99.00
43.00
114.20
62.20
81.60
55.10
32.80
71.80
14.00
40.20
10.40
48.90
11.10
18.60
12.00
39.80
90.80
23.00
18.25
15.80
12.80
$16,216.55
5,607.25
95,995.83
8,701.75
24,154.50
12,105.70
4,430.97
16,365.75
35,939.76
12,334.25
7,325.00
5,511.00
711.25
32,517.21
58,047.12
BRITISH COLUMBIA FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL
FARM LABOUR SERVICE
For the second year the Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Service completed operations under comparatively easy conditions. A surplus of labour prevailed during most
of the year 1958 in areas where seasonal farm labour is required.
The programme was again supervised by B. G. White and G. L. Landon. Mr. White
has included placements in his report and details, so they will not be repeated in this
report.
National Employment Service officers handled the programme in Victoria, Vancouver, New Westminster, Mission, Chilliwack, Kamloops, Princeton, Vernon, Kelowna, and
Penticton.
Farm placement officers provided services at Sidney, Abbotsford, Salmon Arm,
Oyama, Winfield, Rutland, West Summerland, Keremeos, Oliver, Osoyoos, and Creston. CC 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The only area where some difficulty occurred in finding placements was in Victoria.
The small-fruit crop matured ten days to two weeks earlier than usual, with the result
that school-children were not available in the usual numbers. The Greater Victoria
School Board has indicated it is not willing to approve release of students in certain grades
as has been done in past years. A meeting will be held with Department of Education
officials, School Board officials, growers' organizations, etc., early in 1959 to discuss the
situation.
PUBLICITY PROGRAMME
The programme of publicity undertaken in recent years was continued during the
year, using newspaper advertisements, radio and television broadcasts, and news releases.
These are always very effective.
GENERAL
Once again I wish to express my appreciation to B. G. White and officials of the
National Employment Service for their co-operation in handling the programme in 1958.
AGRICULTURAL MEETINGS
Meetings were held during the year at Mission, Abbotsford, Saanich, and Courtenay,
which were addressed by the Honourable N. P. Steacy, Minister of Agriculture, and G. L.
Landon, Dr. A. Kidd, and W. H. Pope on the work and programmes of the British
Columbia Department of Agriculture.
The annual meeting of the Canadian Agricultural Extension Council was held in
Winnipeg, Man., in May, with representatives from all ten Provinces.
•
CANADIAN COUNCIL ON 4-H CLUBS
A very successful annual meeting of the Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs was held in
Winnipeg early in May, with the Director of Agricultural Development and Extension
representing this Province.
REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F. O. McDonald, Manager
The continuous hot weather throughout the season, May to September, presented
the Project with a number of problems, including a high demand factor for irrigation-
water, also alg_e and aquatic plant growth in both the domestic and irrigation systems.
Mclntyre (Vaseux) Creek.—In co-operation with the Department of Highways, an
extensive programme of dykes and protective work was instituted from plans prepared by
the Dyking Commissioner, J. C. MacDonald. This should afford protection from washouts for the main canal where it crosses the Mclntyre " fan " and the highway in the same
locality.
Cistern-filling.—A total of 149 cisterns were refilled from the main ditch during the
period January 16th to 19th, 1958.
Timber Work.—All flumes were carefully checked, timbers and planking replaced
where necessary, and date nailing used. All flumes were jacked up to grade and new
footings installed where necessary. Replacement of whole sections is of immediate concern and will have to be faced by 1960.
Ditch-bottom.—Replacement of ditch-bottom has been undertaken in four different
sections.
Cavitation.—Cavitation in the clay strata on Flume No. 23 was eliminated by
bulldozing the canyon to the depth of the cavity, which forced the subterranean stream
to the surface. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 81
Road Work.—Road work was continued. One-half mile of new roads were built
and several miles dressed with shale.
Pitching and Cleaning.-—A 2,500-foot stretch of canal was completely lined with
Fiberglass and hot asphalt. A winter's exposure is necessary to determine resistance to
frost and its adhesive qualities.
Timbers for 1959-60 work were floated into place September 24th, and replacement
in October and November has progressed ahead of other years because of an early start,
the water being turned out of the system on September 30th.
Okanagan Flood-control.—The Project co-operated in an experiment to determine
the effect of a high flow of water in the new river channel.
S.O.L.P. No. 2.—Approximately 3,000 feet of cement-asbestos pipe was laid, using
Class 50 p.s.i. material. The intake channel was deepened and a second 24-inch culvert
was installed by Okanagan flood-control authorities.
Aquatic Growth.—The main-canal flow was reduced by 10 per cent due to moss and
jelly-ball growth. High water temperature of 74° F. and a deposit of Shuttleworth Creek
mud contributed to the problem.
Garage Space.—Two thousand five hundred square feet of a local garage was rented,
whereby twenty vehicles can be properly stored and repair work carried out under good
conditions.
Staff.—During the year one ditch-rider was retired after twenty-one years of service.
I regret to report the death of another ditch-rider, C. E. Francis, who had served the
Project for twenty-two years.
Painting.—The main office building, the three domestic-water storage tanks, and the
domestic-water pump-house were all repainted during the year.
Testalinda Creek.—Two large settling-basins were installed immediately above the
ditch to catch the gravel during freshet.
Willow's Auto Court.—Six hundred feet of drain-pipe was installed, leading from
a glacial pot-hole south-west of the court to Osoyoos Lake, which eliminated a health
hazard in this area.
Peanut Lake.—Again the problem of seepage resulted in complaints. Fortunately,
no serious flooding of land or basements occurred. The water-level quickly subsided
after September 30th.   A solution to this problem is under advisement.
Covers on Boxes.—A start was made to provide locked covers in heavily populated
areas as the open boxes present a danger to pre-school-age children playing on Project
property.
Gas Furnace.—The hot-water furnace conversion to natural gas is proving a success,
cutting down on janitor service. The cleanliness of the office is noticeable since the
change-over.
Seeding Range Lands.—Seed supplied by the game and forestry departments was
used to reseed the areas stripped of topsoil.
Operation of Irrigation Districts.—The Osoyoos Irrigation District suffered a washout of its main diversion box on May 3rd. Replacement was effected by May 7th.
A wood box with coromat lining was constructed instead of concrete.
The East Osoyoos Irrigation District suffered a washout of its main 14-inch line on
August 31st.   No replacement has yet been made.
The Black Sage Irrigation District used its auxiliary 30-horsepower pump for the
first full year. Water supply and pressure were satisfactory and an improvement over
previous years.
Irrigation Season.—Water was turned in April 21st, reached the border May 3rd,
and all pumps were operating by May 5th, except the S.O.L.P. No. 2 150-horsepower,
which went into service on May 8th. The flow of irrigation-water was interrupted once
on the Osoyoos bench due to a serious leak in Flume No. 22. CC 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
There are 701 individual irrigation services to growers.
Weather.—A total of 11.15 inches of rain fell in 1958. The maximum temperature
recorded was on July 21st, 100° F.; other high temperatures recorded for the year were
May, 96° F.; June, 99° F.; August, 98° F.; and September, 91° F. Winds approximating 60 miles per hour were recorded on July 12th, doing some damage to crops.
Minimum temperature for the year was 8° F. on November 28th. The lowest temperature
recorded during the winter of 1957/58 was January 1st, 15° F.
The average maximum temperature for the year was 79° F. and the average minimum temperature was 33.2° F.   These temperatures indicate an unusually warm year.
DOMESTIC WATER
The new reservoir proved adequate in quantity for village needs, but the quality
declined throughout the year due to alga growth. The reservoir has been cleaned out and
gravelled, and the objectionable odour and taste have subsided. Future corrective
measures suggest themselves as follows: (a) Covering the reservoir; (b) construction
of an underground gallery; and (c) driving a well or wells.
In case of failure of the pond or other emergency, water from Okanagan River can
be admitted to the pumps.
Expansion of water services to the surrounding area total twenty-one new services
and the laying of a pipe-line on Crook Street in East Oliver. The demands on the service
will soon make it necessary to install more pump capacity. No sprinkling regulations
were imposed during the year, few leaks developed in the system, and service was
uninterrupted.
Mains installed in 1920 are now all replaced, except on Fourth Avenue, where three
blocks of original installation remain.
New Chlorinator.—The new chlorinator was installed in November. Operation is
satisfactory and flow of chlorine can be controlled within close limits.
Pump-house Fire.—On May 15th at 5 a.m., a fire caused by chlorine corrosion of
delicate switch parts was suffered. Prompt action of the Oliver Fire Department is
hereby acknowledged.
Cleaning Tanks.—The tanks were thoroughly cleaned.
Fencing Pond.—A 6-foot wire-mesh fence was constructed, complete with gates and
topped with barbed wire.
Services.—The following constitutes the services for the past year:—
Residential   520
Commercial      7 8
Industrial        5
Metered services  147
Hydrant pressure 100-120 p.s.i.
Water temperature 55°-64° F.
REPORT OF LAND  SETTLEMENT BOARD
The Land Settlement Board was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of
the " Land Settlement and Development Act," superseding the Agricultural Credit Commission. It was empowered to advance money by way of loans secured by mortgage to
purchase, develop, and colonize lands considered suitable for settlement, and to declare
settlement areas, having for its main purpose the promotion of increased agricultural
production.
Settlement areas were established in Central British Columbia—namely, in the Bulk-
ley Valley, Nechako Valley, Francois Lake district, and the Upper Fraser River valley. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 83
Development areas were established at Merville on Vancouver Island, Lister, Fernie,
and Kelowna.
The development area at Kelowna, commonly known as the Christian Ranch, was
sold this year to The Corporation of the City of Kelowna for airport purposes.
The Board has also under its jurisdiction the administration of the former Doukhobor lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the " Doukhobor
Lands Acquisition Act" of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on a
rental basis. A survey and subdivision of 18,000 acres (875 parcels) has been carried
out in accordance with the recommendations of the Honourable Mr. Justice Arthur E.
Lord, Commissioner under the " Doukhobor Lands Allotment Inquiry Act." A valuation
of these lands has also been made. They are now being offered for sale to Doukhobors.
The Board also holds over 4,600 acres scattered through the various parts of the
Province, representing properties on which it held mortgages and to which it obtained
title through tax-sale proceedings.   Several of these properties were sold this year.
The Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of the Province as in
the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's activities and collections for
1958:—
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $30,958. Thirty-two
purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and eight borrowers paid up in
full and received release of mortgage.
Collections were as follows:—
Loans     $4,522.10
Land sales     38,795.70
Dyking loan refunds, etc       7,513.75
Foreclosed properties and areas—stumpage, rentals, etc.      8,303.81
Total   $59,135.36
The above figures include collections from the sale and rental of Doukhobor lands
in the amount of $11,948.13.
REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE
J. L. MacDonald, B.Sc, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes
and Dyking Commissioner
The Dyking Commissioner is the appointed administrator of twelve dyking or drainage districts in the Fraser Valley with a combined area in excess of 70,000 acres. The
majority of these districts were originally constituted under the " Drainage, Dyking, and
Development Act " and administered by elected local commissioners or trustees. Some
of these districts—namely, Coquitlam Dyking (3,050 acres), Maple Ridge Dyking
(8,352 acres), Matsqui Dyking (10,039 acres), Pitt Meadows No. 2 Dyking (1,060
acres)—had an unfortunate early history of financial failure. The local commissioners
were unable to provide adequate works due, in part at least, to their inability to provide
or obtain the necessary financing. Periodic failure of these works therefore resulted,
thereby further adding to the financial difficulties of the districts. The end result was that
the Government was forced to assume a large part of the indebtedness of these districts
and to place the districts under the administrative control of this office. This was done
under the authority of the "Dyking Assessement Adjustment Act" of 1905. These
districts are still being administered under this Act and later amendments. The Maple
Ridge No. 2 Drainage District (5,460 acres) and the Matsqui No. 1 Drainage District
(4,100 acres) were subsequently incorporated under this "Dyking Assessment Adjustment Act," 1905, and are administered by this office by virtue of it. CC 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Districts of Dewdney (3,356 acres), South Westminster (1,401 acres), Sumas
(28,029 acres), and West Nicomen (4,138 acres), which were constituted at later dates
under the " Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act" or special Acts pertaining to the
" Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act " as the principal Act, also eventually found
themselves in financial difficulty, and administrative control of these districts was likewise removed from the orginal commissioners or trustees and vested in this office by
virtue of special Acts pertaining to each district.
This office also administers the affairs of two smaller districts—namely, East Nicomen (1,180 acres) and North Nicomen (250 acres), both of which were constituted
under the " Water Act " subsequent to the 1948 Fraser River flood disaster. These districts were unable to find in their area local land-owner residents who would assume the
responsibility of acting as trustee administrators of their districts and therefore petitioned
the Government that they be placed in voluntary receivership under the administration
of this office.
Each dyking and drainage district is an entity in itself, and in general the work carried out in each district is of interest only to that district. In all of the above districts
a programme of improving dykes and drainage facilities has been progressively carried
forward in the past several years within the limitations imposed by the district's ability to
finance such improvements. In several districts it has been necessary to increase taxes
in order to meet the general rise in cost that has taken place, as well as to carry out some
of this much-needed improvement work.
In such cases the district ratepayers were kept fully informed as to why the increase
was necessary by either the holding of public meetings in the districts or by form letter
to each individual taxpayer.
Using as criteria the lack of individual complaint to this office, the general absence
of any organized protest from ratepayers' groups, and also the generally poor attendance
at ratepayers' meetings called for the purpose of reporting on dyking and drainage matters in the districts, it appears fair to state that the people in most districts are reasonably
well satisfied with the condition of their district works and also the present type of
administration of their districts.
The following is a brief summation of the work carried out in each of the above
districts during the 1957 calendar year.
COQUITLAM DYKING DISTRICT
The work of improving a diversion-ditch known as the " Back Ditch " was completed
during the year. Successful negotiations were carried on with both the City of Port
Coquitlam and the Municipality of Coquitlam for assistance in the cleaning of this 4-mile
ditch, which cleaning was made more difficult and costly due to a municipal road belonging to these two municipalities being located on the ditch right-of-way.
Protest was also made with the City of Port Coquitlam with respect to the new Mary
Hill subdivision, drainage facilities for which would have deposited considerable new
water into the district ditches, overtaxing district drainage facilities and increasing district
costs for cleaning these ditches and for pumping this additional water. This protest
resulted in an agreement whereby the city would construct a diversion-ditch to keep this
water from entering the district.
Dykes were maintained adequately during the year, and no trouble was experienced
during the freshet period, which, except for coming earlier than usual, was of normal
proportions.
Pumps and pumping-stations operated with only normal maintenance requirements,
although it was necessary to carry out some needed renewal work on the district pole-line
serving these pumps. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958 CC 85
District costs had been showing a gradual rise for the past several years, due primarily to high pumping costs and also to the need for increasing maintenance expenditures on district ditches if they were to serve their purpose. Taxes, as a result, had to be
raised from $3.70 per acre to $5 per acre. It is planned that the additional revenue provided will allow progressive improvement to be made in all the district's internal waterways and ditches in the next two or three years.
MAPLE RIDGE DYKING DISTRICT AND MAPLE RIDGE DRAINAGE
DISTRICT
The Maple Ridge Drainage District is located within and embraces thereby a portion
of the lands which also form a part of the dyking district. In general the dyking district
is responsible for the maintenance of the dyke and the main natural waterways and the
operation of the pumps. The drainage area was formed to provide additional drainage
facilities in the form of ditches for a portion of the dyked area. During the past year
normal maintenance was carried out on the dykes in the form of brush removal and
spraying, minor gravelling, and patrol during the freshet.
Considerable study and manipulation with regard to pumping levels appears to have
met with general approval and success. Watercourses and ditches were pumped low in
advance of winter storms, thus providing the maximum of storage, and winter flooding
was therefore kept to a minimum from these storms. The new 30,000-i.g.p.m. pump
installed in the previous year proved of material assistance in holding water-levels down
to the point where little flooding occurred. As well, a low pumping level was established
in the early spring, thus having the effect of lowering the water-table in the area, thereby
drying out the land and permitting an earlier than normal seeding or other use of the land.
During the dry summer months, water-levels in the ditches were allowed to rise, thus
raising the water-table and providing sub-irrigation for hay and other crops.
The district purchased a new %-yard dragline during the year at a cost of $28,750,
financed in part from an accumulated renewal reserve fund and in part by an increase in
taxes from $3 to $4 per acre. A start was made on improving district watercourses and
ditches with this dragline, and it is planned to continue with this programme of improvement as fast as district finances permit.
MATSQUI DYKING DISTRICT AND MATSQUI DRAINAGE DISTRICT
Like Maple Ridge District, the Matsqui Drainage District is comprised of certain
lands within the dyking district which formed a second district in order to provide themselves with drainage facilities in the form of ditches over and above the drainage-ways for
which the dyking district was responsible. During the past year the works of both districts
were adequately maintained; dykes were kept free of brush; ditches and watercourses
are, for the most part, receiving adequate maintenance and are in generally good condition, as are the district's five pumps located in the two pumping-stations.
River-bank erosion, with its subsequent danger to dykes, is probably the most
serious problem in this district, and the district, for this reason, continued with what has
now become an annual programme of placement of quarried-rock protection along its
river-bank. This work, involving an average annual expenditure of $15,000, is initiated
by the district, and costs shared by the Provincial and Federal Governments. Each year
requires that existing protective work be repaired where necessary, and the funds remaining are then used for new work. During the year the Federal and Provincial Governments
consented to an increase in future years' percentage sharing of costs from the existing
33V6 per cent to 37V^ per cent by each, thus reducing the district's future contributory
share from 33V3 to 25 per cent. As the limiting feature of any one year's work has
always been the district's ability to finance its one-third share, it should be possible to
increase future years' expenditures somewhat and permit a fully protected river-bank in CC 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
a shorter period of time. Expenditures will always be required to maintain and reinforce
this existing and projected rock facing, but these should be in lesser amounts once the
need for new work is removed.
Taxes in this district were increased from $3 to $3.50 per acre in 1955, so that the
district is presently operating without a further immediate tax increase in prospect.
PITT MEADOWS No. 2 DYKING DISTRICT
This small district undertook a major rehabilitation of its interior watercourses in
1955 by means of a $25,000 Government loan, repayable in twenty annual instalments.
The district drainage-works are, as a result, in good condition and do not require as yet
a large amount of maintenance.
It can be foreseen, however, that as the years pass the need for greater maintenance
will increase and that taxes will probably have to be increased above the present $5.35
per acre to enable this increased maintenance to be carried out adequately. Present
maintenance on dykes and pumps is held to the minimum considered adequate due to the
present tax rate, which is one of the highest required from any district.
DEWDNEY DYKING DISTRICT AND SOUTH DEWDNEY
DYKING DISTRICT
These two districts are protected by one dyke and one pumping-station, although
their administration and financial set-ups differ.
The South Dewdney District was constituted under the " Water Act " following the
1948 Fraser River flood and is administered by local trustees. The trustees have appointed this office as their clerk and assessor.
Costs of maintenance and operation of the dykes and pumps are shared by the districts in a percentage proportional to the acreages of the two districts. A complete
brush-removal programme on the dyke was carried out during the year. Emergency
measures were taken during and after the freshet to close off by back-filling an underground flow of water from the river into the district in two locations—one near the pump-
house and the other a short distance east of the Dewdney School.
Portions of this district's dykes overlay a porous sand strata, which, when river-
levels rise and outside pressure increases, permits seepage of water into the district,
which, unchecked, could be dangerous to the district. The fear is that the sand strata
will wash itself out, creating a tunnel under the dyke which could cause the dyke to
collapse. A constant watch is kept along the base of this dyke at the points of known
weakness during the freshet period, and immediate back-fill action is taken whenever
there is a serious increase in natural seepage.
SOUTH WESTMINSTER DYKING DISTRICT
The works in this district required only normal maintenance during the year. The
two pumps installed in the previous year proved of material benefit in augmenting the
pumping capacity previously serving the district, and flooding from winter storms was
considerably less than in previous years.
SUMAS DYKING DISTRICT
Maintenance in this district was carried out as required. Flooding in the East
Prairie section during the winter storm period was almost negligible—certainly much
reduced from previous years as a result of the installation of two new 30,000-i.g.p.m.
pumps in the previous year. A new 100,000-i.g.p.m. pump was installed for the lake
area during the year at a cost of $75,000, financed from the District's renewal reserve DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1958 CC 87
fund. The full benefit of this new pump will manifest itself during the present winter,
as its primary purpose is to augment the district's pumping capacity during the winter
period of heavy precipitation.
EAST NICOMEN AND NORTH NICOMEN DYKING DISTRICTS
Work in these districts was limited to normal minor maintenance in the form of
brush-spraying, etc. East Nicomen made repairs to two culverts (flood-box) installations through the dyke, and also made some repairs to its river-bank rock protection
work. North Nicomen, in co-operation with the Department of Highways, constructed
a dam across a slough in the district and installed a culvert with flap gate through this
dam.
WEST NICOMEN DYKING DISTRICT
This district, in addition to normal maintenance, made repairs to existing river-bank
rock-protection work, and extended this protection work by approximately 500 feet.
It constructed several new drainage ditches in the area, and also cleared and gravelled
a considerable section of its interior dyke.
OTHER DISTRICTS AND AREAS
The Dyking Commissioner's office, as well as administering the above twelve districts, has been appointed by the trustees of the South Dewdney, Silverdale, Harrison
Mills, and Albion Dyking Districts as the assessor and collector for these districts.
A very minimum charge is made to the districts for this service, which is less than
they would pay to a locally appointed clerk. In addition, this tie permits close liaison
between the trustees and this office, which we consider valuable to the districts. Engineering and other advice is given by this office to the benefit of the district.
As well as the administrative duties outlined above, this office, by virtue of the
" Dykes Maintenance Act " of 1950, is required to assume some measure of control and
responsibility over all dyked areas in the Province. This requires inspections of dykes
and other works and consultations with the responsible authorities in these other areas.
During the year, inspections were made of the Sea Island dykes in conjunction with
Vancouver International Airport authorities, and a report forwarded to Richmond
Municipality, the controlling authority, and the Provincial Government; Tillbury Island
dykes and other dykes in Delta Municipality and a major flood-box repair job in Delta
along with the controlling Delta municipal authorities; Chilliwack District dykes and
river-bank protection works with the Chilliwack Municipal Dyking District Board; and
at some portions of the Agassiz District works with Kent municipal officials. District
works were inspected or local problems discussed in several other districts in the Lower
Mainland and Fraser Valley administered by local trustees.
As well, dykes in the Creston area of the Kootenays and the Pemberton Valley area
were visited and inspected, and advice and reports given to the local authority and the
Government as required.
The Dyking Commissioner was also requested to inspect and advise with respect
to stream or river control in various other areas in the Province during the year.
In general, we would report that almost all districts have been able to provide reasonably adequate maintenance and to maintain a solvent position during the year. Many
districts are, however, undergoing a considerable economic transition, with large-scale
subdivision of holdings and large increase in property values and population. This is
creating a demand, as well as a necessity, for greater protection in these areas, which is
adding to district costs of operation. There is a general feeling that the various Acts
under which districts operate require revision to aUow a broadening in the basis of taxation to meet the added costs imposed by changing conditions. cc
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No. 1
Dairy-farm Inspections under " Milk Industry Act '
District
Number
of Dairy-
farm
Inspections
Number of Dairy-
farms Issued
Prohibition Notices
Number of Approved
Dairy-farms
Raw
Fluid*
Raw
Fluid
East Kootenay       ..._
93
178
5,084
479
158
87
964
7
29
6
7
6
1
32
1
3
14
242
15
9
7
291
6
5
6
3
21
33
2
2
47
153
2,328
North Okanagan  _    . .       	
158
South Okanagan  _	
80
37
311
Pemberton-Sechelt...          _ _
3
Totals _ -_.  	
7.0792
533
5814
78
3,117
1 " Fluid " refers to approved fiuid-milk dairy-farms from which milk is shipped to pasteurization plants.
2 The 7,079 dairy-farm inspections is total of 368 inspections of approved raw-milk dairy-farms and 6,378 inspections of approved fluid-milk dairy-farms.
3 The 53 prohibition notices with regard to raw-milk sales are issued mostly to persons selling milk without a valid
certificate of approval.
4 The 581 prohibition notices with regard to fluid-milk shippers are issued to dairy-farmers who have voluntarily
ceased to ship milk and to persons who have had their certificates of approval cancelled for cause. Many shippers who
have had their certificates of approval cancelled do comply and are reinstated as fiuid-milk shippers.
APPENDIX No. 2
Breed Averages for 1957
Breed
Percentage
of Total
D.H.I.
Records
Milk, Lb.
Fat
Per Cent
Lb.
Ayrshire—
Guemsey..
Holstein	
Jersey-
Unclassified (cross-breds, etc.)_
3.9
16.2
51.6
18.7
9.6
8,700
8,291
11,165
7,647
9,214
4.11
4.79
3.72
5.14
4.36
358
397
415
393
402
I
APPENDIX No. 3
Dairy Herd Improvement Associations
Association
Secretary
Supervisor
Chilliwack—
Route 1            	
H. C. Clark, 215 Henderson Ave., Chilliwack
Ditto           -.           	
G. De Lair, c/o J. O. Grigg, R.R. 2, Chil
liwack.
F. Wiffen, 295 Maple Ave., Sardis.
Route 3 —	
A. O. Livingston, McNaught Road, R.R.
1, Chilliwack.
R. France, 39 Rowat Ave., Chilliwack.
W. W. MacLeod, Box 714, Courtenay	
W. R. Barker, Box 1017, Duncan	
Wm.   Robertson,  Trunk  Road,  R.R.   3,
Ladner
nit--!
E. J. Del Guidice, Box 1178, 780 England
Cowichan 	
Delta-
Route 1	
Ave., Courtenay.
J. Egan Jensen, General Delivery, Duncan.
L. Craig MacNair, 6138 Trunk Road, R.R.
3, Ladner.
G. H. Bailey, 5461 Grove Ave., Ladner.
Dewdney-Deroche—
T, S  Moore, PR   3, Mission City
A.  H.   Maddocks,   Grace  St.,  Box   141,
Ditto
Matsqui.
Langley Route 1	
H. L. Davis, Box 30, Milner ■-
E. H. Leader, Box 165, Langley.
J DEPARTMENT; OF; AGRICULTURE, 1958
CC 89
APPENDIX No. 3—Continued
Dairy Herd Improvement Associations—Continued
Association
Secretary
Supervisor
Matsqui—
Route 1	
Route 2	
Salmon Arm-North Okanagan—
Route 1 _ 	
Route 2	
Route 3 	
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge	
C. A. Sward, R.R. 1, Matsqui _   ..
Ditto	
P. Hibbert, R.R 2, Armstrong	
Ditto 	
G. Park, Pitt Meadows	
V. A. Gill, R.R. 1, Matsqui.
S. P. Harvey, Mount Lehman.
A. Colly, Box 271, Salmon Arm.
Henry Locwen, R.R. 1, Armstrong.
J. W. Stephenson, Box 644, Kelowna.
N. Daykin, 22031  Dewdney Trunk Road,
Richmond  —	
Sum as—
Route 1
Stephen May,  159 No. 6 Road, R.R. 2,
Vancouver
O. M. Dayton, R.R. 4, Abbotsford
R.R. 1, Haney.
D. S. Heelas, 1657 West Fifty-ninth Ave.,
Vancouver 14.
C. S. Lillies, Box 392, Abbotsford.
Route 2  „ -	
Surrey—
Route 1             	
Route 2   _   —	
Ditto	
R.  J.  Livingston,  7051  Pacific Highway,
R.R. 4, Cloverdale
H. Bylsma, No. 5 Road, R.R. 4, Abbotsford.
S. Baehr, 17172 Sixty-fourth Ave., R.R. 4,
Cloverdale.
) H. de Blieck, 19836 Trans-Canada High-
j     way, R.R. 4, Langley.
W. T.  Calbick, 516 Churchill Ave., Na
H. L. Davis	
Vancouver Island—
T. C. Tryon, R.R. 1, Parksville	
South 	
J. Pendray, 4160 Blenkinsop Road, R.R.
4, Victoria
naimo.
J.  Bell, John Dean Park Road,  R.R.   1,
Saanichton.
Superintendent—J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Services, Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
Inspectors—H. Johnson, Box 234, Agassiz, and J. R. Hannam, 236 Corbould Street, Chilliwack.
APPENDIX No. 4
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1958
District
Cariboo—
Quesnel
Cattle    Hides
Williams Lake, Alexis Creek-
796
15,605
Clinton, Lac la Hache, 100 Mile House,
Graham Siding, Bridge Lake, Lone
Butte   	
Lillooet, Pavilion, Bralorne	
Bella Coola	
4,742
2,634
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.—
Kamloops, Chase 	
Merritt  '.	
Ashcroft, Lytton, etc	
Salmon Arm .
23,777
21,905
10,789
4,856.
2,416
39,966
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby, Falkland _  4,426
Armstrong, Enderby, Sicamous—  3,781
Kelowna   — 2,044
Penticton, Summerland     1,291
Oliver, Osoyoos    3,781
514
330
114
966
644
264
32
1,092
2,032
1,423
370
1,788
51
614
District
Similkameen—
Princeton, Keremeos, etc...
Grand Forks, Greenwood.
Cattle    Hides
    4,793
    2,416
158
590
7,209        748
South-eastern British Columbia—
Rossland, Crescent Valley	
Nelson, Creston, etc 	
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc 	
Invermere, Golden  	
134
1,366
5,666
1,449
91
818
895
244
8,615      2,048
Central British Columbia—
Prince George, Vanderhoof—
Smithers, etc 	
Burns Lake — 	
2,100
660
893
1,149
65
Peace River—
Fort St. John __
Dawson Creek
3,653      1,214
3,015
5,958
15,323      4,246
Totals Compared
8,973      3,597
District
1958
1957
1956
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
23,777
39,966
22,532
8,615
12,626
966
2,032
4,994
2,048
4,811
28,148
35,450
21,038
6,364
9,201
1,141
3,135
6,241
2,547
6,098
23,685
38,034
21,854
7,525
10,641
1,577
2,736
Okanagan and Similkameen	
6,313
2,092
6,755
Central British Columbia and Peace River	
Totals	
107,516    |    14,851
100,201    |    19,162
101,739    |    19,473 CC 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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—' L_.
i DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958
CC 95
APPENDIX No. 6
British Columbia Egg Production (through Registered Stations)
_.-._.        Month
Grade
Estimated
Total,
1958
Total,
AEL
AL
AM
AS
APW
B
C
CRAX
1957
January
February,	
Cases
1,397
1,079
990
1,037
1,302
974
1,051
803
822
883
887
905
Cases
42,709
33,149
31,807
30,160
38,582
29,940
33,119
22,224
21,286
25,228
21,364
23,424
Cases
17,535
11,160
9,430
8,913
11,313
10,158
12,444
12,131
14,380
17,642
13,903
12,578
Cases
2,298
1,454
1,411
1,483
2,428
2,235
4,481
5,829
6,031
5,494
3,563
2,660
Cases
87
78
73
67
174
256
629
755
746
443
198
141
Cases
1,660
1,316
1,293
1,321
1,910
1,895
2,521
2,416
1,780
1,538
1,112
1,092
Cases
456
360
484
335
637
540
651
496
447
466
344
348
Cases
2,726
2,099
1,895
1,958
2,569
2,197
2,863
2,477
2,383
2,399
1,532
1,731
Cases
68,868
50,695
47,383
46,012
59,184
48,195
57,759
47,129
47,875
54,093
42,903
42,879
Cases
61,429
44,672
46,320
April   _	
May      __ _	
48,351
63,029
49,303
July    ....
58,988
August	
50,643
54,468
October      .
November 	
67,462
52,686
51,719
Totals	
12,130
352,992
151,587
39,367
3,647
19,854
5,564
26,829
612,975
649,070
APPENDIX No. 7
British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers
(Average paying price weighted by grade.)
Month
1958
1957
1956
Canada, 1958
January.—
February..
Marcli	
April	
May	
June	
July._
August .	
September-
October	
November-
December—
Cents
29.0
29.1
29.6
35.8
35.6
31.9
34.4
33.1
33.8
38.8
36.0
35.4
Cents
35.0
36.2
36.5
32.4
28.7
30.9
34.9
34.5
32.8
30.7
29.5
30.0
Yearly average-
33.8
32.6
Cents
38.7
41.6
46.5
46.3
45.6
49.0
48.0
44.2
44.2
39.7
34.3
34.4
42.7
Cents
28.1
30.4
36.4
30.7
29.9
34.8
32.8
37.2
34.1
36.6
31.4
31.3
32.7
APPENDIX No. 8
Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia
Month
Chicken
Fowl
Turkey
Duck
Goose
Monthly
Total,
1958
5-year
Average,
1953-1957
January.      . .   —
February ~
590,988
649,863
746,114
830,360
1,154,993
892,867
1,083,209
1,106,416
1,315,894
1,487,156
1,160,629
771,151
365,698
344,314
301,482
232,360
249,553
299,309
308,589
329,660
431,205
455,499
312,438
247,471
639,265
31,114
40,979
12,312
54,921
247,719
255,594
510,555
826,770
1,474,702
1,087,521
1,164,611
13,735
12,380
10,968
17,083
23,896
22,320
17,586
22,258
27,685
28,368
13,210
11,589
750
450
1,610,436
1,037,671
1,099,993
1,092,115
1,483,363
916,785
646,372
699,380
806,859
May  ~
1,092,207
1,462,215
1,664,978
1,968,954
2,601,604
3,446,438
2,573,942
2,195,597
948,747
July	
1,042,839
65
50
713
144
775
1,314,934
September  - —
October.	
November - -
1,434,243
1,733,074
1,506,025
2,481,189
Yearly totals	
11,789,640
3,877,578
6,346,063
221,078
2,947
22,237,306
14,622,654 CC 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 9
1958 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver)
Month
Chicken
Broilers
and
Fryers
4-5
Lb.
Over
5 Lb.
Fowl
Under
4 Lb.
4-5
Lb.
Over
5 Lb.
Young Turkey
Under
10 Lb.
10-20
Lb.
Over
20 Lb.
January—
February „.
March—
April	
May	
June	
July_,	
August	
September..
October	
November...
December—
26
26
30
27
27
30
26
27
30
25
27
32
25
27
32
25
27
32
25
27
32
24
27
32
22
26
29
22
24
27
22
22
25
22
22
25
15
14
14
17
16
14
15
14
14
12
14
14
18
17
17
21
21
17
17
17
17
15
16
16
22
22
22
26
26
22
20
19
19
17
18
18
36
36
36
36
36
36
35
35
35
35
34
34
33
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
28
28
28
28
32
32
34
34
30
28
27
27
APPENDIX No. 10
Poultry-flock Approval
 -              ---- -           *■  ..      -..-.
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1958	
130
323
233,909
303,633
1,799.3
1,150.6
0.012
0.1197
APPENDIX No. 11
Poultry-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
Total, 1958
Total, 1957
Barred Plymouth Rock-
Black Australorp-
Columbian Plymouth Rock_
Hampbar ..— ...
Light Sussex-
New Hampshire	
Rhode Island Red	
S.C. White Leghorn-
White Cornish	
White Plymouth Rock-
White Hampshires	
Cross-bred	
A.O.V.__	
Totals-
1,950
2,491
232
2,799
4,684
19,282
1,507
104,161
894
1,352
139,352
3,130
2,899
1,143
5,872
68,427
3,490
137,613
852
29,043
3,494
16,735
449
273,147
APPENDIX No. 12
Turkey-flock Approval
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1958  —	
Five-year average, 1953-57-
19
37
|   14,159
I   22,429
745
606 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958
CC 97
APPENDIX No.  13
Turkey-flock Approval by Breed
APPENDIX No. 14
Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed
Breed
Jan.-June
July-Dele.
Total, 1958
Total, 1957
Beltsville Small Whites   _        -            —   _   .              -   -
35
614
4,860
8,315
333    .,'
4,895
8,929
335
21,925
470
341
Totals   ..   	
649
13,510    ;
i .
14,159
22,736
,
:  j      ||
Type of Vaccine
1958
1957       !
1956
1955
1954
6,171,710
1,986,000
'5,149,350..
1,628,950
Ij    .'
4,385,050
1,683,050
2,152,600
600,500
2,282,450
300,800
Totals            _	
8,157,710
6,778,300
6,068,100
2,753,100
2,583,250
APPENDIX No. 15
Bees
Table No. 1.—Diseases in Bees, 1958
1 Slightly infected.
2 Always present.
2 More widespread this year.
Type of Disease
Gassed
Treated
Combs
Burned
District
A.F.B.
E.F.B.
Sac
Brood
Nosema
Wax
Moth
Vancouver Island	
Kootenays 	
South Okanagan... 	
North Okanagan..—   .„ 	
9
10
35
9
8
5
5
15
8
5
175
Wi
. (2)
(2)
(2)
C1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(s)
(2)
9
10
23
8
7
5
5
15
7
12
1
1
1
63
120
1,113
100
190
450
750
160
Totals. 	
104
180
1
89
15
2,946
Table No. 2.—Honey-crop Report, 1958
District
Beekeepers
Colonies
Crop
Average
1,295
426
882
98
4,546
1,936
8,097
2,556
Lb.
340,950
158,752
931,155
472,860
Lb.
75
85
115
185
Totals                               	
2,701
17,135
1,913,717
115
Value to producers of 1,903,717 pounds of honey at 23 cents per pound (wholesale), $437,854.91;   22,000 pounds
of beeswax at 45 cents per pound, $9,900. CC 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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§
o
a DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1958
CC 99
APPENDIX No.  17
Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Merchants,
Ianuary 1st to October 31st, 1958
Month
Consumed in British Columbia
Exports
Raw Refuse
Processed Refuse
(Processed Refuse)
Tons        Lb.
1
120
6           840
1         1,000
1
1
1
Tons Lb.
818 1,350
439 655
254 1,324
199 100
337        1,298
70 420
112           738
20 900
159 1,885
201        1,040
Tons        Lb.
943        1,735
February  -	
March  	
658          225
661           400
833           300
1,459        1,065
2,175        1,950
1,880        1,470
1,634        1,900
June 	
July    	
913        1,800
October  —  	
463        1,770
Totals 	
131         1,840
2,613        1,610
11,625           615
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959
760-559-8602 

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