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REPORT of the LANDS SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1958 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1959

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
REPORT
of the
LANDS SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1958
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959 Victoria, B.C., lanuary 31st, 1959.
To the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December
31st, 1958.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., lanuary 31st, 1959.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended December
31st, 1958.
E. W. BASSETT,
Deputy Minister of Lands. Section of Rocky Mountain Trench looking north-west from Tete Jaune Cache.    B.C. Government
oblique air photo; altitude, 17,200 feet above sea-level.  CONTENTS
Page
1. Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands     7
2. Lands Branch—
Superintendent of Lands  11
Accounting Division  20
Land Inspection Division  23
3. Surveys and Mapping Branch—
Surveyor-General  31
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Survey  35
Legal Surveys Division  37
Topographic Division  42
Geographic Division  49
Air Division  55
4. Water Rights Branch—
Comptroller of Water Rights  63
Operations Division  68
Hydraulic Investigations Division  75
5. University Endowment Lands  87
6. Personnel Office  91
7. Mail and File Room  95 a:
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uh>_i-aQiaQeua;<>.QSua REPORT OF THE
BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDS SERVICE
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
It is fitting that the year 1958, which marked the close of the first century of progress
in British Columbia, should also witness new summits of achievement by the British
Columbia Lands Service on behalf of the people of this Province. The volume of activity
recorded by the Lands, Surveys and Mapping, and Water Rights Branches of the Service
reflect a steadily rising public interest in the land and water resources of British Columbia. While detailed reports of each branch may be found in the following pages, a review
of some of their accomplishments will serve as an appropriate introduction.
The Lands Branch recorded a 31-per-cent increase over 1957 in revenue derived
through the sale and lease of Crown lands. Supporting this upward trend was completion
of a record number of land inspections. Interest in unalienated lands has become so keen
that in order to ensure fair competition it has been advisable, in certain cases, to invite
bids by public auction.
It is the object of the Lands Branch to keep abreast of the trend of public interest in
lands and, if possible, to anticipate it. Toward this end, a major change of policy was
instituted in 1958. It was announced that henceforth all Coast and Interior water-front
lands having present or future public recreational value will be considered for disposition
by leasehold only. An existing recreational reserve on all unalienated and unencumbered
Crown islands in coastal waters was extended to cover all islands south of the 51st parallel
of latitude rather than the 50th parallel as existed previously. The Branch also cooperated actively with other branches of government by selecting and recommending
reserves for recreational use in all sections of the Province.
It is a special pleasure to record the contribution of the Lands Branch toward the
Centenary of British Columbia. Crown lands were made available to various Centennial
Committees for the purpose of the construction of community halls, playgrounds, and
other such commemorative projects.
Where conditions indicate the benefit of such a measure, it has become policy to
provide planned subdivision of Crown lots in unorganized areas in order to facilitate
orderly urban development. Public auction of lands in this category disposed of fifty-five
subdivision lots at Fort Nelson and eighty-eight lots at Little Prairie (Chetwynd).
Among the administrative accomplishments in the Lands Branch during 1958 were
extension of the Kardex recording system into the Lease, Purchase, and Pre-emption
Sections and the introduction of a training course in appraisal sponsored by the Civil
Service Commission and the Canadian Vocational Training Branch. The Superintendent
of Lands, Assistant Superintendent of Lands, and fourteen members of the Land Inspection Division participated in the course which ultimately leads to accreditation as Accredited Appraiser, Canadian Institute.
The four divisions of the Surveys and Mapping Branch experienced a very active
year in 1958.
In the Legal Surveys Division, instructions to land surveyors rose nearly 25 per cent
over 1957 and were 141 per cent higher than in 1955. The Blue-print and Photostat
Section consumed the staggering total of 63 Vi miles of paper and linen in the production
of more than 200,000 prints for use by Government departments and the general public.
The Tellurometer acquired by the Topographic Division in 1957 was employed on
survey assignments for the first time last year. This complex, yet durable and portable
electronic distance-measuring device produced results comparable to first-order triangula-
tion. Its success indicates the possibility of achieving still greater perfection in topographic control. The Tellurometer is not only highly accurate, but also gives rapid results
and is adaptable to all types of terrain. S 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Geographic Division continued to emphasize production of the l-inch-to-2-miles
National Topographic Series, four maps of this series being published during the year.
In addition, the revision and publication of one Land Series and three Pre-emptor Series
maps was effected. A new two-section wall map of British Columbia at a scale of
1:1,000,000, which replaced a considerably outdated base map, has proven very popular,
particularly with teachers and administrators. Map distribution continues to climb,
reaching 62,544 sheets last year. Two new Land Series bulletins were published, bringing to six the number of areas of the Province thus covered.
A record total of 612 flying-hours was achieved when the Air Division hastened to
take advantage of an unusually prolonged season of operational weather. A new wide-
angle lens camera acquired early in 1958 proved very effective, and a total of 26,000
aerial photos were taken. While the major effort of the Air Division was directed to the
forest inventory programme, a number of special projects were also undertaken, including
photo work for forest-fire damage assessment and experimental research in connection
with cadastral survey. Some 30,000 square miles of interim mapping was completed,
increasing to 224,000 square miles the total area of British Columbia with interim-map
coverage.
Worthy of special note was the completion, during 1958, of the British Columbia-
Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary Commission survey. Monument 187 was established near the edge of a huge glacier which blankets the extreme north-western corner
of the Province. Only field inspection, a minor amount of residual checking, and completion of official plans and final report remain to be done.
At the request of the Colombo Plan administration in Canada, the Surveyor-General,
Mr. G. S. Andrews, was honoured to undertake a three-month mission to South-east Asia
for the purpose of assessing survey and mapping requirements for the Lower Mekong
River development scheme.
Reorganization of the Water Rights Branch along lines of responsibility through
sections and divisions was essentially completed during 1958. It is the responsibility of
the Operations Division to perform the administrative duties arising from the " Water
Act" and the regulations issued under that Act, while the Hydraulic Investigations Division is charged with maintaining an adequate inventory of existing and potential water
use in British Columbia.
Notable events during 1958 included completion of a two-year study of the engineering and economic aspects of the hydro-electric power potential of the Columbia River
in Canada. This project, for which a report has been completed and submitted to the
Comptroller of Water Rights, was undertaken for the purpose of investigating the development of the Columbia River in the best interests of the Province. The past year also saw
the culmination of a ten-year study by the Federal-Provincial Fraser River Board and its
predecessor, the Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, in the form of the Preliminary Report on Flood Control and Hydro-Electric Power in the Fraser River Basin.
Applications for water licences in 1958 were the highest number received in a
single year since the formation of the Water Rights Branch. As the result of an increasing
interest in water, a new District Engineer's office was opened in Prince George. In
addition to processing 977 water-licence applications, the Branch enlarged its services to
the 235 improvement districts in British Columbia through the establishment of an audit
accountant.
Tasks undertaken by the staff of the Water Rights Branch carried them to many
parts of the Province. In the far north-west, for example, a survey of potential dam-sites
was carried out along the Dease and Stikine Rivers, while in the south a reconnaissance
report of erosion along a section of the Similkameen River was completed at the request
of the groups concerned. Several large-scale domestic and irrigation water-supply problems, such as in North Okanagan, Prince George area, and Courtenay-Comox area, were
also investigated.
Detailed reports of each branch of the British Columbia Lands Service follow. LANDS BRANCH Note 1
THE LANDS BRANCH
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years 254
pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer of real
estate and provide for the registration of titles, the "Land Registry Act" was passed in 1860.
The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-estate business in
a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that constitutes British
Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for land
quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants passed, cities came
into being, and companies became established.   Land was at the core of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation of
a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of
Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests exercises control of more than 90 per
cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia Lands
Service of to-day? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is charged with so
administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare, preEent and future, of
the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is
directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs
the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural, industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the " Land Act," the " Mineral Act,"
and the " Taxation Act."
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe lines,
etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use  and
enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites, cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as  wharf-sites, booming-
grounds,  canneries,  oyster  and  other  mollusc  fisheries,   and  for  boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft bases.
To  perform  these  and  other  functions  efficiently,  the  Lands   Branch  works   in  close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations,
town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Branches of Water Rights
and Surveys and Mapping within the British Columbia Lands Service, and all the departments
in the Government of the Province, notably Public Works, Education, Attorney-General, and
now Agriculture.
Outside the Provincial departments there is much business transacted with Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement Act
administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department
of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch and
this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this prime
duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many cases are the
only ones in British Columbia showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province..—
Reprinted from 1952 Report. LANDS BRANCH S 11
LANDS BRANCH
C. T. W. Hyslop, B.S.A., P.Ac, Superintendent of Lands
The development of British Columbia's basic natural resources is well reflected in
the work of the Lands Branch. During the year 1958, Crown lands to the value of
$676,627.48 were alienated by purchase; this represents an increase of 32 per cent over
the previous year. Revenue from annual lease rentals was $431,509.28, an increase of
18 per cent over 1957. Total revenue collected from all sources, as authorized by the
" Land Act," was $1,282,265.88, an increase of 30 per cent over the previous year.
Because of increased demands for Crown land, and the resulting conflicts, many
applications require lengthy investigation, both in the field examination and adjudication
processes. This increased demand has also resulted in the establishment of a trend
toward offering lands for sale or lease by public competition. Fifty parcels were sold by
tender, for which 143 bids were received.
The outstanding feature of the year 1958 in so far as this Branch is concerned was
the announcement of a change in Government policy regarding the disposition of waterfront lands. To ensure that all water-front lands, having present or future public recreational values, are controlled by the Crown, such lands are considered for disposition
by leasehold only. Water-frontage is restricted to 3 chains frontage for private use and
10 chains frontage for commercial use. This change in policy has greatly increased the
work load of our Lease Section. This policy has also resulted in additional work for the
Land Inspectors, who are required to make reconnaissances of water-front lands adjacent
to individual applications. This particular phase of the inspectional programme is somewhat handicapped because of a lack of boats and outboard motors.
The past year has been a particularly active one for our Reserve Section. Many
old reserves have been reviewed and cancelled, as they were no longer necessary; for
example, several old reserves placed on Crown lands in connection with the proposed
development in Prince Rupert prior to World War I have been completely reviewed and
have been cancelled. The reserve of all unalienated and unencumbered Crown islands
in coastal waters lying south of the 50th parallel, north latitude, has been extended to
include all islands lying south of the 51st parallel, north latitude. This reserve is for the
use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public.
Our Land Inspection Division has been particularly active in selecting reserves for
the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public. Approximately one-third of these
reserves are recommended by the Land Inspectors, and the balance by the Parks Branch,
District Forester's office, or other interested agencies.
This Branch is currently negotiating with the Indian Affairs Branch of the Canada
Department of Citizenship and Immigration regarding the selection of certain proposed
Indian reserves for the use of the Slave Band of Indians, resident in North-eastern British
Columbia.   The establishment of these Indian reserves is in furtherance of Treaty No. 8.
It is the Branch's policy to provide planned Crown subdivision lots in unorganized
areas when conditions indicate a trend toward urban development. Two successful public
auction sales of lands in this category were held during 1958. Fifty-five subdivision lots
were sold at Fort Nelson, Mile 300 on the Alaska Highway, and eighty-eight subdivision
lots were sold at Little Prairie (Chetwynd), being the divisional point of the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway where the main line divides and branches to Dawson Creek and
Fort St. John.
During the past year the Branch has made Crown lands available to a private company to facilitate the development of the recreational potential of Garibaldi Park. These
lands lie outside the actual park boundary, and will be used for construction of a hotel,
dormitories, parking-lot, and golf-course.    Separate easements have also been issued to S  12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
facilitate the construction of an aerial tramway and ski lift. This project, when completed, will provide a much-needed recreational outlet for the citizens of the Greater
Vancouver area.
This Branch has contributed to the Centennial Year celebrations by placing a reserve
on all Crown lands at Barkerville in connection with the proposed establishment of a
" historic pioneer mining town." In addition, the Branch also made available Crown
lands to various Centennial Committees, mainly in unorganized areas of the Province, to
facilitate the construction of community halls, playgrounds, etc.
In February, 1958, the Superintendent of Lands, together with the Assistant Superintendent of Lands and members of the Inspection Division, attended and successfully
completed the first part of a course in the appraisal of real estate, held at Parksville, B.C.,
under the auspices of the Civil Service Commission and the Canadian Vocational Training Branch. It is hoped that the same personnel will complete the second part of this
course in February, 1959. These courses, together with project work, partially fulfil
the requirements leading to accreditation as an Accredited Appraiser, Canadian Institute.
Mr. F. C. Cunningham, Land Inspector, Vancouver, B.C., completed the requirements
of the institute and became an Accredited Appraiser in the summer of 1958.
Two new Land Series bulletins were made available during 1958—Bulletin No. 6
(Kamloops) and Bulletin No. 2 (Okanagan). Bulletin No. 10 (Purchase and Lease of
Crown Lands) was revised. It is hoped during the coming year that this bulletin will be
completely rewritten, together with Bulletin No. 1 (Pre-emption of Crown Lands), to
form a new bulletin entitled " Acquisition of Crown Lands."
The Superintendent of Lands, together with the Chief, Legal Surveys Division,
visited the following agencies during the month of September, 1958: Vancouver, New
Westminster, Clinton, Williams Lake, Quesnel, Prince George, Burns Lake, Smithers,
Terrace, and Prince Rupert. Many problems were discussed with the individual Land
Commissioners, and in a number of instances short field-trips were made with these
officials to investigate various problems on the ground. It has been found from experience
that personal discussion of policy matters is much preferable to lengthy correspondence,
and provides an opportunity for discussion to establish a clear understanding of complicated issues.
During the past year the Kardex recording system in the Lands Branch general office
has been completed, and the Lease, Purchase, and Pre-emption Sections have reorganized
their recording system on this basis.
Due to the increased volume of work in connection with the disposition of Crown
lands, and the increasing degree of complexity in their administration, it is considered
that research personnel should be made available to the Administration Division. There
is an urgent need for these personnel to do basic research in land and foreshore valuations and to study various aspects of improved land-use planning.
Most sections of the Administrative Division of the Lands Branch have shown a
general increase in work performed during the past year. A brief outline of the highlights
of the work performed in each section follows:-—■
Lease Section.—A total of 1,091 applications to lease Crown lands were processed during the year, an increase of 72 per cent over 1957. The number
of applications to lease received in the Department increased from 707 in
1957 to 773 in 1958. The change in policy restricting water-front lands
to leasehold tenure reflects the increase in work in this Section.
Purchase Section.—There were 2,390 applications to purchase Crown lands
processed during the year. This represents a slight decrease from the
previous year, when 2,465 applications were processed. The value of
Crown lands sold during the year was $676,627, a marked increase of 32
per cent. Eighteen public auction sales of Crown lands involving 458
lots were held at various centres in the Province. LANDS BRANCH S 13
Crown Grant Section.—A total of 1,043 Crown grants were issued during the
year.    This is a decrease of 27 per cent over the previous year, and
resulted from a marked decrease in the number of Crown grants issued
for mineral claims caused by an amendment to the " Mineral Act."  The
number of certificates of purchase issued increased from 1,012 in 1957
to 1,151 in 1958.
Pre-emption and Reserve Section.—Four hundred and forty reserves were
placed on Crown lands during the year, an increase of 18 per cent over
the previous year.   One hundred and forty-seven applications to pre-empt
were processed in 1958, being an increase of 54 per cent over 1957.
Over 90 per cent of applications to pre-empt are for lands in the Peace
River District.
Status Section.—There was an 8-per-cent increase in land statuses during the
past year, and a corresponding increase in the number of register entries
made.   This Section is not able to keep pace with the demands made on
it as a result of the large number of special lake statuses required to
implement the new policy laid down with respect to the disposition of
Crown water-front lands.
Public interest in Crown lands has increased very greatly during the past year.  This
is reflected in the number of inquiries which require a special status of specific land; these
totalled 3,343 during 1958, an increase of 100 per cent over the previous year.   General
correspondence has increased from 17,077 letters in 1957 to 18,800 letters in 1958.
A total of 2,250 persons were personally interviewed in the head office at Victoria, as
compared with 1,603 the previous year.
The present staff is hardly adequate in numbers to satisfy the demands made on it
by increased work. This, together with cramped office quarters, has created a situation
that is most undesirable, both from the point of view of rendering efficient public service
and staff morale.
The tables following indicate, in some detail, the work carried out by the Administrative Division of this Branch. The report of the Inspection Division is presented
separately by the Chief Land Inspector.
Table 1.—Country Land Sales, 1958
Acres
Surveyed  48,776.96
Unsurveyed     9,434.69
Total  58,211.65
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1958
Land Recording District Total
Alberni  16
Atlin	
Cranbrook  15
Fernie  14
Fort Fraser_  43
Fort George  106
Golden  23
Kamloops  46
Kaslo  4
Lillooet  96
Nanaimo  21 S 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 2.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1958—Continued
Land Recording District
Nelson	
New Westminster	
Osoyoos	
Peace River	
Prince Rupert	
Quesnel	
Revelstoke	
Similkameen	
Smithers	
Telegraph Creek..
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Williams Lake	
Total
11
29
7
241
36
68
9
89
83
54
40
100
Total
1,151
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1958
Town
Alberni. —   _ „ 	
Lots
          2
Athalmer.
                1
Beaton    __                      -
                1
Blue River_           __ _    _ _   	
               2
Clinton.   .
9
Coalmont__-         _     	
          5
Courtenay
41
Cowichan Lake
             31
Cranbrook
6
Cumberland
               2
Extension--           	
          2
Fernie
               2
Finmore                         _   _
          5
Fort Fraser
             14
Fort Nelson    —   	
        55
Fort Steele,                           	
    _.       29
Fraser Lake
          7
Grand Forks     	
Granthams Landing	
Greenwood                 _    „     .   .
        74
        13
          1
Hall                        	
          1
Hazelton                    	
      186
Hedley
          4
Hope
          4
Hosmer                           	
          1
Houston
        42
Kelowna
          1
Le Jeune Lake
          1
Little Prairie             -   	
        47
Lone Butte            _   .   	
          3
T nwer Post                           _   _
          1
Merritt        10
Value
$300.00
100.00
35.00
850.00
2,455.00
375.00
1,500.00
23,187.00
1,490.00
550.00
150.00
135.00
125.00
845.00
22,795.00
750.00
175.00
1,160.00
3,150.00
35.00
40.00
2,800.00
195.00
1,550.00
'     10.00
1,890.00
100.00
50.00
18,065.00
135.00
25.00
1,660.00 LANDS BRANCH
S 15
Table 3.—Town Lots Sold, 1958—Continued
Town
Midway	
Montrose	
Nakusp	
Port Clements_
Lots
1
3
5
2
Port Coquitlam      113
Port Edward-
Princeton	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Qualicum Beach...
Queen Charlotte-.
Quesnel	
Revelstoke	
Rutland	
Shawnigan Lake._.
Smithers	
South Wellington..
Stewart	
Topley	
Tulameen	
Vananda	
Vanderhoof	
Wardner.	
Wells	
Windermere	
Willow River	
Wilmer	
Winter Harbour-
Yale 	
3
1
33
10
2
2
1
4
171
4
20
3
60
3
8
2
7
3
2
9
4
1
Totals  l',096
Value
$50.00
10.00
105.00
105.00
2,485.04
665.00
50.00
11,796.01
3,290.00
300.00
240.00
400.00
150.00
250.00
725.00
13,395.00
465.00
5,980.00
75.00
5,785.00
200.00
575.00
50.00
553.75
395.00
100.00
305.00
400.00
110.00
$135,691.80
Table 4.—New Leases Issued, 1958
Number Acreage
Hay and grazing  218 70,229.38
Agriculture     11 2,298.84
Quarrying, sand, gravel, etc     21 1,016.29
Home-site     15 218.80
Booming and log storage     78 1,420.88
Oyster, clam, and shell-fish     14 423.03
Cannery        4 23.26
Foreshore—miscellaneous      50 123.97
Land—miscellaneous     68 2,157.56
Totals  479 77,912.01
Table 5.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1958
Number  66
Acreage  4,067.19 S  16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 6.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1958
Number
Acreage
9
42.42
Table 7.—Licences of Occupation Issued, 1958
Number
Acreage
4
3,017.50
Table 8.—Assignments Approved, 1958
Leases, land-use permits, licences of occupation	
167
Table 9.—Easements Granted, 1958
Number
Miles
Acres
Fees
Consideration
Annual
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
Electric-power line    	
Foreshore
Sewer outfall	
Natural-gas line...
Temporary road
Bridge..
Access road	
Logging-road  	
Sewage and plant waste-pipe-
Water pipe-line— 	
Totals	
Land
Conveyer-belt and access road-
Oil pipe-lines.-
Natural-gas pipe-lines _
Water pipe-lines..
Access road and logging-road.
Electric-power lines..
V.H.F. radio repeater site	
Cable crossing tower and anchor-
Licences to occupy	
Totals 	
Consents pursuant to
Tailings pipe-line. 	
Aerial tramway	
Totals	
' Mines Rights-of-way Act'
Grand totals..
12
2.970
1.043
0.137
1.400
0.265
0.191
0.361
0.322
0.472
34.150
1.100
1.220
5.540
4.785
2.300
4.500
0.765
3.220
|        4.191    |
23.430
1
0.770
6
36.965
11
89.200
1
0.256
1
3.577
3
0.317
1
1
0.710
2
30.356
18.290
268.677
642.106
0.616
17.340
6.321
1.030
0.113
120.500
27
|    162.151    |
1,074.993
$22,189.82
$277.60
1
1
1                      1
1                      1
0.916
0.250    |
3.330
0.600
$25.00
25.00
2
I        1.166    |
3.930
$50.00
	
42
170.478    |
1,136.503
$22,566.02
$386.60
I
I
(i) I      $42,692
$50.00
276.20
$15.00
10.00
69.00
5.00
5.00
5.00
$326.20    |    $109.00
$5,915.00
16,226.47
48.35
$22.85
5.00
28.60
16.00
25.75
10.00
169.40
1 Fee payable to Minister of Agriculture.
2 Not added to grand total.
Total moneys received, $22,952.62.
Partial cancellation of easements, 3. LANDS BRANCH
S 17
Table 10.—Crown Grants Issued, 1958
Purchases (country lands)
Purchases (town lots) 	
Pre-emptions
Mineral claims (other than reverted)
Mineral claims (reverted)	
Surf ace rights ("Mineral Act") 	
" Public Schools Act "	
" Veterans'. Land Settlement Act" ____.
Home-site leases	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Supplementary timber grants	
Miscellaneous 	
Total-
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 7.
Table 11.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Total.
540
291
58
30
53
11
10
7
15
1
2
25
1,043
1,602
1,580
1,740
1,872
1,829
1,276
1,498
1,518
1,426
1,043
15,384
Ten-year average, 1,538.
Table 12.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1958
Acres
Purchases (country lands)   44,372.47
Pre-emptions     8,820.80
Mineral claims (other than reverted)      1,343.40
Mineral claims (reverted)	
Surface rights ("Mineral Act")
" Public Schools Act" 	
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act;
Home-site leases	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Supplementary timber grants	
Miscellaneous 	
2,066.67
255.64
17.32
692.30
172.35
12.70
142.70
902.12
Total  58,798.47 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 13.—Pre-emption Records, 1958
Land Recording District
Pre-emptions
C. of I.
Issued
Allowed
Cancelled
3
1
1
1
8
1
4
2
1
55
2
4
1
2
3
Atlin       -   .                     .   -                 	
4
1
2
-
4
1
93
1
1
43
2
5
1
1
2
1
99                  85
67
Table 14.—General Summary of Pre-emption Records, 1949-58
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Total
145
109
141
133
85
92
87
69
53
77
97
71
48
41
35
52
66
46
99
67
856
Certificates of Improvements
Issued 	
757
Table 15.—Reserves, 1958
Applications     Reserves
Received      Completed
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  147 154
British Columbia Department of Highways (rights-
of-way, gravel-pits, etc.)      93 95
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites,
etc.)      40 35
British Columbia Forest Service  (Ranger stations,
grazing, radio-sites, reforestation, etc.)      96 8.0
Miscellaneous (Game Commission, water-power projects, garbage-dumps, school-sites, cemeteries,
etc.)      78 76
Totals.
454
440 LANDS BRANCH
S 19
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ClhUUUHZ          J<CH.-.rt     UP*     2 S 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ACCOUNTING DIVISION
S. G. Wilson, Chief Accountant
The following statements and graphic displays indicate the record of revenue collections for the past ten years. The noticeable increase in land leases, rentals, and fees can
be attributed primarily to two factors: (1) 281 more leases were approved in 1958 than
in the previous year, and (2) the upward revision in rental of those leases in which the
revision period fell due in 1958. The increase in land sales revenue is mainly a result
of (1) an increase in the number of certificates of purchase issued, (2) an upward revision
of new sale land values, and (3) smaller monthly payments replacing the larger annual
payments for those cases where delinquency occurred.
Table 1.—Summary of Revenue Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1958
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc.  $605,229.73
Land sales  677,036.15
Sale of maps and air photos  57,779.88
Water rentals and recording fees  1,256,004.37
Total  $2,596,050.13
Table 2.—Comparison of Revenue Collections for Ten-year
Period 1949-58, Inclusive
1949 am $1,045,969.03
1950 i hum  1,159,988.86
1951 iFX_B__M_u_______________n 1,692,737.85
1952 i imiii iiiiiiiniiiiMMWiiiM __■__■ 2,761,152.78
1953      mi mi  i    mi     3,705,480.02
1954     urn ■urn uni  2,065,181.52
1955  ■■■■ miii  2,248,293.16
1956 *—*-»,„,„.„.„*, ii 2,518,722.51
1957 iB-_-_---n-ra-______(__B---_____.__B________-__n 2,454,435.40
1958 wimmiim mil i ■■■mi  2,596,050.13
Total  $22,248,011.26
Ten-year average, $2,224,801.13.
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for Year Ended
December 31st, 1958
Land sales—
Country lands  $562,839.00
Town lots  110,308.32
Surface rights, mineral claims  1,227.90
Indian reserve cut-off  2,660.93
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc—foreshore leases—
Booming and log storage  $160,695.62
Commercial (marinas, etc.)     182,422.60
Oyster         7,637.69
Miscellaneous   (foreshore  protection,
etc.)   714.00
  $351,469.91
$677,036.15
Carried forward  $351,469.91      $677,036.15 LANDS BRANCH S 21
Table 3.—Classification of Revenue Collections for Year Ended
December 31st, 1958—Continued
Brought forward  $351,469.91     $677,036.15
Land leases—
Grazing and (or) agriculture     $32,654.90
Quarrying (limestone, sand and gravel)       17,497.06
Camp-site (lodge, fishing)          2,238.10
Home-site   .     2,320.94
Miscellaneous (residential, etc.)        25,328.37
       80,039.37
Land-use permits   686.00
Licences of occupation         2,280.06
Royalty collections       33,757.42
Easement collections—
Annual rentals       $2,687.33
Outright consideration payments       31,723.02
       34,410.35
Fees—
Crown grant     $ 13,945.00
Assignment          1,135.00
Miscellaneous (lease, search, etc.)         3,114.50
       18,194.50
Sundry collections   (occupational rental,   survey
charges, etc.)        84,392.12
Sale of maps and air photos—
Legal Division  $23,810.55
Geographic Division  17,437.86
Air Division  16,531.47
605,229.73
51,1191
Water rentals and recording fees     1,256,004.37
Gross revenue for year  $2,596,050.13
Table 4.—Comparison of Land Leases, Rentals, Fees, etc., Revenue for Ten-year
Period 1949-58, Inclusive
1949 n__o_-_______ $322,683.92
1950 k__________eb_______. 387,435.19
1951 ■iLM-j-miM.miii.i 916,338.98
1952 ___________________h_________-_---------________________________I-____________i 1,694,073.93
1953 —■_.->__          ■■■ an muni i iiiiiMiii 1,608,773.65
1954     _■  330,397.09
1955 s_____________________E__i 425,595.79
1956 __nm___K___n 576,331.17
1957 Km_____B___S-_-__i 472,415.55
1958     him hi ■!   mm  605,229.73
Total   $7,339,275.00
Ten-year average, $733,927.50.
Note.—The years  1951,  1952,  1953 include coal, petroleum and natural-gas
revenue. S 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 5.—Comparison of Land Sales Revenue for Ten-year Period 1949—58, Inclusive
1949 muDmrnmai $375,254.88
1950 anMMiS-HHEEi 366,458.62
1951 Bm_Kw____KH___H________K__i 382,256.61
1952 nrnwiriwiii ■ii_.iiii_noi«-n«i«r 619,263.14
1953 mmmmmi^m^Bmtmi^m^mammm 594,004.08
1954 ___________MH-______n-________H-__9______B. 488,303.49
1955 _____________________________■________________________■______■ 605,469.42
1956 ■HV_Bns_UHHi-nn__n 573,976.49
1957 — uni ii ■!■!■■ in 11 i 522,825.65
1958 m^^M^mamams^K^aMmman^mummi     677,036.15
Total   $5,204,848.53
Ten-year average, $520,484.85.
Table 6.—Comparison of Water Rentals and Recording Fees Revenue
for Six-year Period 1953—58, Inclusive1
1953 ____■(_■■■_____■_______■-. $700,289.17
1954 _________________BH«_H___________i 813,413.61
1955 i^^mm—^m^m^ 849,980.00
1956 ^HKBrnnnm-i 1,081,592.07
1957 _i_______________Hn«!H____!_____B_sBBii_nEaM« 1,152,370.05
1958 i^M_n-HB_i_-Ma(__i 1,256,004.37
Total   $5,853,649.27
Six-year average, $975,608.21.
a Revenue for years previous to 1953 available on fiscal basis only. LANDS BRANCH
S 23
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P.Ag., Chief Land Inspector
The 1958 field season proved to be one of the most successful years that the Land
Inspection Division has yet experienced. The long dry field season enabled the Land
Inspectors to commence work in the latter part of March and continue through to the
end of November. More field examinations were completed this year than ever before
in the history of the Division. The field staff completed 485 more land inspections in
1958 than in 1957 and 155 more than the number completed in 1956. It should also be
kept in mind that an even better showing could have been made if the new Land Inspectors
hired could have been appointed earlier in the year.
In addition to the 2,984 land examinations completed in the various land inspection districts, it should also be noted that the Forest Service completed forty-two examinations and the Department of Finance ten examinations in the remote coastal areas
of the Province where no Land Inspector is located. The combined total of field inspections completed for the year is therefore 3,036.
A review of the number and type of inspections completed last year compared to
the previous year showed some startling increases in certain categories. Grazing-lease
applications and renewals increased by 52 per cent. Booming and log-storage lease
applications and renewals increased by 27 per cent. Inspections made under section 53
of the " Land Act " increased by 65 per cent.
The following table is a comparison of the accomplishments in each district for
the last two years:—
Land Inspection District
Number of Inspections
Made in—
Outstanding Inspections
at End of—
1957
1958
1957           :           1958
196
158
279
90
214
143
129
226
305
111
185
174
96
193
173
168
409
189
175
177
149
250
342
123
202
184
116
327
48
19
14
90
43
26
37
16
64
23
29
24
14
76
49
31
33
23
34
Nelson..  	
22
6
11
Prince George   	
34
14
57
3
24
Totals	
2,499
2,984
523
348
The following is a brief explanation of the figures shown in the above table:—
Clinton.—Summer assistance provided in 1957 for two months.   No assistance
in 1958.
Courtenay.—One-man district.   No assistance provided in either year.
Fort St. John.—Two-man district.    The 1958 achievement is a result of the
long dry field season which enabled travel on all back roads.
Kamloops.—District office vacant early part of 1957 as a result of the death
of Mr. Minion.   Two men employed in 1958 but a change in staff made
in middle of field season.
Kelowna.—Summer assistant provided in 1957.    No assistance provided in
1958.
Nelson.—One-man district.   No assistance. S 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
New Westminster.—One-man district.    No assistance provided.
Pouce Coupe.—One-man district.   No assistance.
Prince George.—One-man district in 1957 but considerable part-time assistance provided.   Two-man district in 1958.
Quesnel.—One-man district.   No assistance provided.
Smithers.—One-man district. Assistance provided in fall of 1957. No assistance provided in 1958.
Vancouver.—One-man district.    No assistance provided.
Victoria.—Head office district. Assistance provided by Inspectors from Vancouver and Courtenay.
Williams Lake.—Two-man district. No assistance provided in either 1957 or
1958.   Dry season made back roads accessible.
STAFF
The large backlog of unexamined applications remaining at the end of each year
for the past several years was a clear indication that the Division was unable, with the
existing staff, to keep up with the public demand for Crown lands. As a result of this
backlog and the Division's earnest desire to expedite the handling of outstanding applications, an effort was made to increase the number of permanent Land Inspectors in the
field. In the past the Division had employed two or three university undergraduates to
work on a temporary basis during the summer months. Although such assistance was
valuable, it was felt that the time spent training summer assistants each year was a less
efficient method than it would be to increase the permanent staff. Furthermore, the
outstanding backlog of inspections was sufficient to keep at least two permanent men
working on a full-time basis. As a result of this thinking, it was decided to dispense
with temporary field help and acquire two permanent fieldmen.
In January, 1958, Mr. R. N. Mackenzie, Land Inspector at Fort St. John, resigned
to accept a position with Pacific Petroleum Limited. Mr.. W. V. Lowry, B.S.F., B.C.R.F.,
joined the staff on May 1st to fill the vacancy at Fort St. John. The heavy work load in
the Prince George and Kamloops Districts predicated the need for placing additional
help in these two areas. Mr. J. M. Bakewell, B.S.F., B.C.R.F., was appointed to Kamloops on May 1st, 1958, and Mr. H. D. Kent, B.S.F., B.C.R.F., was appointed to Prince
George on April 23rd, 1958. Mr. Bakewell resigned, July 25th, 1958, to accept a position with the Fort St. John Lumber Company. The vacancy created by Mr. BakewelFs
resignation was filled by Mr. D. M. Thorn, B.S.F., B.C.R.F., on September 29th, 1958.
Training
In the spring of 1958 all the Land Inspectors were given an opportunity to attend
a two-week appraisal course sponsored by the Civil Service Commission and held at
Parksville, B.C. Thirteen Inspectors attended and successfully passed the Appraisal I
examinations held at the conclusion of the course. An Appraisal II course is scheduled
for the spring of 1959, and arrangements have again been made for the Land Inspectors
to participate. After the Inspectors have successfully completed the appraisal courses,
it is hoped they will submit demonstration appraisals to the Appraisal Institute of Canada
in order that each will become an Accredited Appraiser. The benefit of the training
received at the first course is already showing up in the improved quality of report being
turned in. The valuing of industrial and commercial lands for this Department is becoming standardized, and the Inspectors are now setting prices based on established market
values in the area.
In recent years the Land Inspector has been called upon to suggest suitable subdivision plans in various areas throughout the Province.   This work involves close liaison LANDS BRANCH S 25
with District Highway Engineers and various town planning authorities in order that the
proposed plan of subdivision does not conflict with existing municipal ordinances and
highway restrictions. There is a growing need for elementary instruction in town planning, and some thought is presently being given to this matter.
DISTRICT PROBLEMS
With more emphasis being placed on the recreational attributes of lakes, rivers, and
coastal waters throughout the Province, the Lands Service instituted a policy whereby
water-front properties would, in general, be leased rather than sold. The amount of
frontage allowed each applicant was also restricted to 3 chains (198 feet) for private
purposes and 10 chains (660 feet) for commercial purposes. Working in close cooperation with the Parks Division of the Department of Recreation and Conservation,
it was decided that before any further water-front lands were disposed of, even by lease,
a reconnaissance of remaining Crown water-front lands in the immediate vicinity of the
application would be carried out by the Land Inspector to ascertain if the present and
future needs of the public were adequately provided for. This policy has placed an
added burden on the Land Inspector, since each lake on which an application is received
must now be reconnoitred before further alienation by lease or purchase is entertained.
Where possible, joint examinations by the Park Officer and Land Inspector are carried
out.
In the Central Interior part of the Province, particularly in the Williams Lake, Kelowna, Kamloops, and Clinton areas, the right of the public to use roads and trails crossing both private and Crown lands and leading to recreational areas is becoming a real
problem. Various Land Inspectors have requested detailed information on the public's
right to use specific roads in their districts. This problem is not only one in which the
Lands Service is interested, but also the Forest Service, the Department of Highways,
the Department of Recreation and Conservation, and the Department of Mines. It is
hoped that a co-ordinating committee composed of personnel from all the departments
concerned can be set up this coming year to investigate and study the problem and make
certain recommendations regarding rectification of same.
HEAD OFFICE PROBLEMS
Because of the increasing volume of work being forwarded to the field from head
office, less time is available for administration and much-needed research projects. If
the volume of work continues to increase, it is felt a part-time clerk should be employed
to assist in processing the land applications in order that the Chief and Assistant Chief
Land Inspector can spend more time offering guidance to the field staff and doing research
work on various land-inspection problems.
SUMMARY
During the past year there has been a sizeable reduction in the number of outstanding inspections remaining at the end of the field season. It is hoped that by next fall
this backlog will be further reduced, thus enabling more prompt handling of new applications as they are received.
Some assistance will be required in the Clinton and Smithers Districts as the volume
of work in each of these two areas is more than can be handled by one man. It is
planned to revise the district boundaries so that a part of each district is allocated to
neighbouring Inspectors. S 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LAND INSPECTION
Land inspections carried out during the year 1958 are tabulated as follows:
Purchases—
Agricultural (other than grazing)  329
Access (roads, etc.)   5
Commercial  (resorts, service-stations, hotels,  airfields,
etc.)   80
Community (cemeteries, church-sites, parking areas, etc.) 14
Grazing (pasture, range)   165
Home-sites (permanent)  407
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants,
etc.)   47
Summer home or camp-site  277
Wood-lots or tree-farms  14
Leases—
Land—
Agriculture (other than grazing)  49
Commercial  (resorts,  service-stations, hotels, airfields, etc.)   13
Community (parks, cemeteries, dump-sites, etc.) ___ 9
Fur-farming     	
Grazing (pasture, range, hay-cutting, etc.)  254
Home-sites (section 83 of the " Land Act")  14
Home-sites (permanent, other than section 83 of
"Land Act")   32
Industrial   (mill-sites,   power-sites,   manufacturing
plants, etc.)  31
Summer home or camp-site  11
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, diatomaceous
earth, etc.)   26
Foreshore-—•
Booming and log storage or log dumping  156
Commercial (boat rentals, marine service-station,
wharves, etc.)   77
Industrial    (mill - sites,   canneries,   factory - sites,
wharves, etc.)   18
Quarrying (sand and gravel from river-beds)  6
Oyster and shell-fish  18
Private (wharfage and boat-houses)  4
Land-use permits   29
Licence of occupation  4
Easements   12
Pre-emptions—
Applications    9 5
Annual inspections  (including applications for Crown
grant)    210
Subdivisions—
Valuations  19
Survey inspection  5
Plans cancellation  2
Proposals (lake-shore, residential, etc.)  12 LANDS BRANCH S 27
Reserves—-
Grazing   5
Gravel-pits  j  8
Recreational  27
Other (state purpose)   20
" Veterans' Land Act"  11
Land Settlement Board—
Classification  2
Valuations    6
Doukhobor lands     	
Miscellaneous inspections—
Delinquent accounts  7
Land-use surveys  23
Land values (current market values)  24
Protests   28
Trespass (land and foreshore)  46
Lease rental reviews (not recorded above)—
Land   4
Foreshore   23
Pre-Crown grants—
Section 53 of the " Land Act"  278
Section 83 of the " Land Act"  6
Section 66 (1) of the " Land Act"  1
Property transferred to Crown valuations—
Department of Health and Welfare  10
Repurchase (Section 135 of the "Land Act")  1
Applications under other Acts (Escheats, Quieting Titles,
etc.)   10
Total   2,984i
1 Included in this figure are 37 examinations completed by the Forest Service.   Note 2
THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Because the activities of man are kept orderly through a well-defined system of land
surveys, the Surveys and Mapping Branch is called upon to act as the connecting-link that binds
together many primary operations within departments of government and between government
and the general public.
Specifically, through land surveys, Crown and other lands, including water, are located and
identified accurately on the surface of the Province, and so made ready for alienation in any of
a variety of different ways. Further, a background of suitable maps and survey data is provided
to assist in the intelligent development of lands so acquired, and in the wise administration of
the natural resources associated with them.
In post-war years a great upsurge in the economic development of British Columbia's
natural resources has taken place. Each year shows increased activity in the disposition of
Crown lands for various purposes, ranging from the smallest individual application for a home-
site to industrial requirements involving many square miles of land.
In any of these transactions the Surveys and Mapping Branch plays an important part,
because it has the responsibility of clearing, as to status, all such applications for Crown lands,
whether small or large. This function involves complete record-keeping of all official survey
data by all sources, including a graphic record of all Crown-land alienations, whether surveyed
or unsurveyed.
Equally important, on the other hand, is the responsibility for the establishment, extension,
and recording of mapping control. These basic duties prescribe, among other things, the preparation of basic triangulation networks and aerial photography at suitable scales, the making of
control traverses, the delineation and maintenance of interprovincial boundaries, and the production of standard photo-topographic mapping, interim base-mapping, and cadastral surveys of
Crown lands.   The data are then condensed and presented in lithograph map form.
The main objectives, then, of the Surveys and Mapping Branch are first to provide
complete, accurate, and readily available maps on adequate scales with allied data, for
administrative control of resources and Crown-land transactions, and, secondly, to maintain this information up to date by keeping abreast of continuous cultural development.
A survey inventory of such a standard is obviously of primary advantage in encouraging
the present development of our natural resources, and further developments which seem "just
around the corner."
A brief summary of the functions of the Branch follows, and the breakdown is provided
by Divisions:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four Divisions of the Branch, being
Legal, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of boundaries under
the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British Columbia Boundary and
(b) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary.
//. Legal Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial Acts, such as
Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to British Columbia
land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check of field-notes and plan
returns of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation and maintenance of
Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and composite (cadastral) maps; clearance by status of all applications concerning Crown lands; field surveys and inspections of
Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions as required; operation of blue-print and photostat sections.
III. Geographic Division.-—Map compilation, drawing and negative engraving, editing, and
reproduction; map checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of British Columbia;
field and culture surveys for preparation of lands bulletins and map areas; preparation of legal
descriptions for and delineating administrative boundaries; editing and distribution of annual
Lands Report; trigonometric computation and recording of same; general liaison between this
Department and Federal and other mapping agencies on exchange of survey and mapping data.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field control—namely, triangulation, traverses,
photo-topographic control; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts for standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and multiplex mapping and other special
projects.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of
three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial air-photo library;
compilation of interim aerial base maps, primarily for British Columbia forest inventory; tri-
camera control propagation; multiplex aerial mapping of precise large-scale detail projects;
instrument-shop for repairs, maintenance, and development of technical equipment. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH S 31
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S., Director,
Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
Following the established pattern of recent years, budgetary limitations allowed the
Surveys and Mapping Branch practically no expansion of staff or plant during 1958.
Nevertheless, due to certain favourable influences outweighing those of unfavourable
effect, a year of somewhat increased over-all accomplishment may be reported. A complete summary of Branch activities is offered in the four divisional sections which follow.
A few general features of the year's operations have been selected for consideration here.
Abnormally fine weather dominated the whole field season. This resulted in one
of the busiest years on record for the Air Division's photo flying operations. Due to
practically the whole effort being absorbed by large-scale narrow-angle photography for
the new forest inventory programme, the total area covered in square miles was not at
all comparable to totals of past years when specifications were for wide-angle " basic
cover " photography at the. smaller 1:31,680 scale. The dry weather had a divided influence on the Topographic Division's field work, establishing mapping control. Clear
skies and dry ground were a welcome change from the unusually wet and stormy season
of 1957, but increasing smoke haze from forest fires became sufficiently bad as the season developed to interfere with visibility to distant stations. Access was denied to areas
under fire-hazard closure in a few instances. One small party, near Bella Coola, was
temporarily diverted to forest-fire suppression activities. Field parties of the Legal Surveys Division, working generally closer to the Provincial highway network and in some
cases along it, and concerned with measurement of shorter lengths, escaped the worst
penalties of smoke and forest-fire closures. But even in short-range work the intense
heat of the long dry summer aggravated difficulties of sighting due to refractive turbulence of the air, and of lineal measurements due to extreme thermal effects on steel
measuring-tapes. The remarkably fine weather, a welcome change from that of previous
years, was thus not entirely an unmixed blessing.
One favourable influence on field operations of the Topographic Division was the
full season's use of the new Tellurometer equipment for electronic measurement of distances, ranging from about one-half mile to 20 miles under normal conditions, and
greater distances in certain favourable circumstances. This method, capable of precision
far exceeding that of orthodox chaining procedures, requires only that the two extremities
of the line be occupied simultaneously by an observer, each with a " master " or a
" remote " Tellurometer instrument respectively, and that the two stations be electronically " intervisible " for short-wave radio transmission. A full set of readings may be
completed and checked for a particular line in a few minutes by a trained crew, which
is then ready to move to a new fine. The equipment, while intricate, is sufficiently robust,
compact, and light in weight for normal field movement. Thus an unprecedented facility
for control surveys over extensive tracts of country has suddenly become available. It
may well have revolutionary effects in methods, speed, accuracy, and economy of control surveys. Precise route traverses will not be an alternative to triangulation, which,
since the advent of modern optical-reading theodolites four decades ago, has occupied
an exclusive role in control surveys in British Columbia. The precise measurement of
long lines with the Tellurometer will not, however, depose the precise measurement of
angles as in triangulation. Both methods will be used in a complementary fashion to
attain a measure of accuracy and efficiency heretofore unprecedented. It is a challenge
to the specialists in the Topographic Division to work out new procedures to combine
the complementary advantages of precise measurements of distance with those of angles,
according to variables of terrain, weather, and field transport.   During the 1958 season S 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the Tellurometer equipment was used mainly for precise control traverse in bush country fairly well served with roads.
The basic air-photo cover programme at Vi-mile-per-inch scale (1:31,680) was
inoperative due to lack of authorized funds to adapt the available Government-owned
Anson aircraft CF-BCA for air-camera installation, and to man and operate it. For
this reason the northern part of the Province between 57 and 60 degrees north latitudes
still awaits this first prerequisite for effective mapping and development planning. An
expenditure of less than $25,000 per year would cover allocation of one photo aircraft
to complete the Northern British Columbia programme in about eight years. The new
RC8 Wild air camera obtained early in 1958 is available for that work and would produce photo cover of unsurpassed quality and precision. Such photography could be
used not only for the interim and standard topographic mapping at 1:31,680 scale, but
also for detailed engineering mapping at large scales with close contours, as well as for
cadastral surveys of isolated parcels, if processed in a first-order plotter such as the
Wild A7.
Much thought and a modicum of field experiment has been devoted to certain
cadastral surveys with aerial photogrammetry. Results of these trials indicate that photo-
grammetry of so-called third-order precision, which has been adequate for interim and
topographic mapping at 1:31,680 scale, may not be quite rigorous enough for legal
surveys of property. However, first-order photogrammetric procedures, now well established elsewhere, do offer definite scope for cadastral surveys. With such plotting equipment, a much more economical procedure of locating corners of sizeable parcels of
Crown land for alienation by various tenures and patterns under the " Land Act," the
" Petroleum and Natural Gas Act," and the " Mineral Act " would be possible, especially
isolated parcels so costly to tie in by conventional methods.
Another application of first-order aerial photogrammetry which would speed up
production and effect financial economy is that of bridging control across difficult country by aerial triangulation. True, the helicopter has been spectacular in gaining access
to difficult areas for field survey crews, but at a high price. A lot of yet unmapped country in British Columbia is so high and rugged that even the helicopter can offer only
marginal, costly, and even dangerous access to it. First-order aerial photogrammetry
would carry both control and detailed mapping over these areas without the heavy
expense of covering them completely with ground survey control.
An increasing demand for large-scale detailed topographic mapping has been experienced, and there is every indication that this trend will gather even greater momentum.
Horizontal scales vary from 200 feet per inch (1:2,400) to 1,000 feet per inch (1:12,000)
with contour intervals from 5 to 20 feet. Such mapping is required for pondage in hydro
projects, drainage, irrigation, sewage design, road construction, and urban planning.
Due to methods based on air photogrammetry and other improvements, a proportion of
these demands has been dealt with by present staff and plant. However, without first-
order plotting instruments or, alternatively, an increase in trained staff and accommodation, it will be impossible to cope with increasing urgent demands of this kind. With
proper equipment, not only could the present staff and accommodation handle this type
of work, but it could even speed up the standard topographic mapping, which has been
the primary function of the Topographic Division since its inception some forty years ago.
Map compilation, reproduction, and distribution, by the Geographic Division, featuring the new wall map of the Province (Map 1a in two sheets), four new sheets of the
popular 2-miles-per-inch series, reprintings of the south-east and south-west regional
maps at 10 miles per inch, among others, have answered a demand from government
and the public which quite surpassed anticipated volumes. Distribution of maps to all
sources was up by 13 per cent over 1957. Budget restrictions have left insufficient funds
to effect map printing at a rate to cope with these demands, such that some sheets originally programmed for publication in 1958 had to be put back for action in the next fiscal SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH S 33
year. Such economies are puzzling when it is realized that proceeds from the sale of
maps adequately cover printing costs.
Surveys to establish the line of the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary along the
60th parallel of north latitude, west of the Tatshenshini River, were carried out by Mr.
A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S. The new segment extended the boundary westward 25^
miles to a terminal monument, No. 187, just beyond the Alsek River. West of this point
to the Alaska Boundary, the 60th parallel is occupied by an enormous ice-field, offering
no fixed ground for marking the line. Mr. Swannell, in establishing Monument 187,
may claim then to have set the westernmost survey mark in British Columbia, a distinction which he may enjoy without challenge until such a time as the last remnants of the
ice age in the Cordillera may have disappeared. It seems fitting that in British Columbia's Centennial Year, 1958, this final operation to mark her boundaries was completed.
Only an over-all inspection of the whole north boundary and possibly some residual
checking remain to be carried out in the field. Preparation of official boundary plans
is in progress, and should approach finality by the end of the next calendar year, or soon
after. Independent checking of the 1958 field returns will be done concurrently. The
final report of the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary Commission
and drafting of the necessary legislation for confirming the boundary, as surveyed and
marked, may well project into the year 1960.
A favourable aspect of operations in this Branch, which applies to all divisions,
both in and out of doors, is one which has come about so quietly and gradually that it
escapes notice unless a retrospective view is taken. I refer to the over-all high level of
training, experience, and skill now characterizing the main body of the staff. A decade
has passed since the post-war rehabilitation period. All recruits of that period who have
remained with the organization are now highly trained, with a good background of experience. A number of these have achieved professional status, mostly as British Columbia
land surveyors, and are to be congratulated on their sustained application to duties and
to self-improvement. In the same period, most of the old-timers have retired from the
picture, and, with due tribute to their valuable service to the Province, over long years,
a by-gone era has passed with them. Time marches on. Among the senior echelon of
the present staff, only three members will reach statutory retirement age in the next ten
years. The post-war organization of the Branch, while always capable of improvement
and change by way of new procedures, or demands, has now had time to become smooth
running in operation.
A wide variety of personalities making up the staff has had time to develop working
compatibility, expressing itself in mutual tolerance and respect. This makes for a degree
of harmony and good fellowship, which in turn contributes to high standards of service
and work output. There is no doubt that the ability of the Branch as a whole to cope
with a steady increase in the volume of work without increase of staff, on a fixed budget,
is due to this increased efficiency of the personnel. There is a limit, of course, to what
a strong and willing horse can do. The time may soon be at hand when, to cope with
still increasing demands, a policy of modest carefully selected staff increase, with training, must be contemplated and authorized.
Extra-provincial travel during the year included three representatives at the fifty-
first annual meeting of the Canadian Institute of Surveying at Ottawa in January—Mr.
A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., Assistant Director of the Branch; Mr. W. A. Taylor,
B.C.L.S., Supervising Surveyor of the Legal Surveys Division; and Mr. A. C. Kinnear,
B.C.R.F., Assistant Chief of the Air Division. Advantage was taken of Mr. Kinnear's
presence in Ottawa in connection with a meeting of the Canadian Military Intelligence
Association, which provided his travel expenses, to allow him to attend the survey meeting. He also looked after arrangements for a special display featuring British Columbia
surveys and mapping, with the Centennial Year as a theme. Messrs. A. M. Barber,
B.C.L.S., and A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S., attended a Tellurometer course in Ottawa, arranged
3
. S 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
by the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys. This was an example of fine
Federal-Provincial co-operation in surveys and mapping, and, as the course was held
prior to the 1958 field season, the benefits of it were given full exercise.
Granted three months' leave of absence, June to August, inclusive, by Order in
Council, the writer undertook a mission to South-east Asia for the Colombo Plan administration in Canada to assess surveys and mapping requirements of the Lower Mekong
River development scheme, affecting four countries—Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and
Vietnam. The mission entailed two months' observational work in South-east "Asia,
with headquarters at the United Nations' Economic Commission for Asia and the Far
East, in Bangkok. Consultations were also held in Ottawa, Washington, D.C., New
York, Paris, and Tokyo. Salary and all travel expenses during the three-month period
were paid by the Colombo Plan administration. It is appreciated that this tour of duty
in the field of international co-operation was a compliment not only to the writer, but
also to the Province, whose Surveys and Mapping Branch does enjoy an eminent reputation in extra-provincial and international fields. The writer is grateful to his Minister
and the Executive Council for permission to undertake this stimulating assignment. He
is also grateful to his Assistant Director, Mr. A. H. Ralfs, and staff in the Surveys and
Mapping Branch for carrying on so ably during his absence. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH S 35
BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY
By A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
This year's work on British Columbia's northern boundary, the 60th parallel of
north latitude, was not a restoration and retracement survey as it was for the preceding
two years, but was primarily an extension from the Tatshenshini River to just west of the
Alsek River, the last major waterway which crosses the 60th parallel.
My instructions called for this westerly extension of the British Columbia boundary
to be run as a series of 486 chain chords, properly monumented, commencing at Monument 166, the most western monument on the boundary, as previously established in
1907. I was to assume this position to be on the 60th parallel. I was also to continue
westward with the previous year's triangulation, which terminated in the vicinity of the
Hendon River, for the full extent of the season's survey. From the triangulation net, I
was to tie in Monument 166 and, if practical, any other of the accepted boundary positions west of Monument 120; also, a tie was to be made to the pipe-line survey which
follows along the Haines Cut-off Road, and to obtain a basis for elevations (and a check
on the elevations carried from Bennett Lake in 1957) a tie was to be made to any Geodetic Survey of Canada bench-mark situated along this road.
The crew, besides myself and assistant, was comprised of the cook, an instrument
man, and five survey hands, and also the helicopter pilot and mechanic, the helicopter
being used as transport on the job.
As it had been planned, work commenced on the season's project on June 8th with
camp established by the Takhanne River at Mile 103 on the Haines Road, at the military
camp known locally as Million Dollar Camp. This camp is abandoned and is in disrepair,
with most buildings either having fallen down or having been torn down.
This initial camp position was chosen in compromise because, in spite of the distance from the line work, the triangulation had to be brought ahead from the Hendon
River. On June 22nd we moved camp to a small lake approximately 1 mile south of the
boundary and 5 miles west of the Tatshenshini River. Here we were handier to the line
work and the triangulation was sufficiently advanced to the Haines Road that it was
within working distance. This proved to be our last camp, as it is at the most westerly
lake to where supplies may be flown along the boundary.
Line work progressed more slowly than was anticipated. This, in part, was because
the crew were mostly novices at this type of survey and were prone to making errors,
necessitating considerable remeasuring of chainage bays, and also the timber being much
bigger and more dense than advance information had led us to believe.
After much difficulty we obtained our initial observation for azimuth at Monument
166. On checking into the next controlling observation a 40-second error necessitated
rerunning and rechecking the line.
By the third week in July the line was completed as far as Monument 180, approximately 5 miles along the second chord, beyond which it was impossible to run line because we now had reached a knife-ridged, precipitous glaciated mountain which attained
an elevation of 8,000 feet above sea-level where the boundary traversed it. Consequently, as no further line-clearing or chainage was contemplated, two men were released.
Because of the barrier, it was necessary to establish a triangulation point on the
western side of this mountain mass as near to the presumed 60th parallel as we could
estimate ourselves. This was done, and by calculation we established on the ground the
third deflection point from which the fourth chord was projected. The final westerly
monument (No. 187) was also established on the fifth chord length by calculating its
position from a previously placed triangulation station.
It might be noted here that the low clouds which continuously blanked the sky,
making stellar observations a near impossibility all season, also retarded the triangulation S 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
work considerably, extending the time by 25 per cent for this work, or, in terms of
boundary-miles run, our daily average dropped to two-fifths of a mile per day as compared to the two-thirds of a mile per day average of the previous two seasons.
The season concluded with the completion of the assigned task on August 30th,
when the party disbanded at Whitehorse.
During the summer we had established seventeen monuments and witnessed two
other positions along 25]/i miles of new boundary. Some thirty-six triangulation stations
were set and occupied along the approximate 66 miles of triangulation completed. In
conjunction with the triangulation, ties were made to three original boundary monuments
set by Wallace—namely, Monument 141, approximately in the middle of his work, and
Monuments 165 and 166, his two most westerly monuments. With the tie made to his
two most easterly monuments, Nos. 119 and 120, in 1957, it may be noted that his
over-all distance, Monument 119 to Monument 141, is very good, but that portion of his
work west of Monument 141 to Monument 166 is of the order of less than 1 in 1,000 in
accuracy. By our triangulation a gross error of some 28 chains was discovered in the
distance from Monument 166 to Monument 165, and along this same course an agreement of 15 seconds in azimuth was found, comparing ours (by observation at Monument
166) to the azimuth quoted on the original survey plan.
As called for in the instructions, a tie was made to the pipe-line survey and also to
Geodetic Bench-mark No. 485f, from which the elevation of Monument 120 compared
to within 1 foot of that which was obtained the previous year.
A link was also made to the Army Survey Establishment triangulation net, this
giving a closure to the triangulation carried along the boundary from Bennett Lake to as
far west as the Haines Road. This 105 miles of triangulation shows a preliminary error
13 feet in latitude and 33 feet in longitude, having an error in azimuth on the closing line
of 27 seconds. Final values of this portion of the triangulation may now be obtained,
but unfortunately the 38 miles west of the Haines Road is still on non-closure values.
In concluding this report I wish to say that the chief difficulty of the work on the
boundary is endeavouring to carry a bearing from one controlling azimuth observation
to another within the prescribed limits, which, in my opinion, are too exacting. This
season, this situation was aggravated by what appears to be attributable to the deviation
of the plumb-line, which would affect the answer to our controlling observations. This,
I feel, must be responsible for the anomalies in bearings that we experienced. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH S 37
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails the issuing of
instructions to the land surveyors engaged to make each survey and supplying them with
copies of the field-notes and plans of adjoining or adjacent surveys. After the completion
of the survey, the returns are forwarded to this office for checking and plotting. Included
in the above returns are all right-of-way surveys, such as for highways, railways,
transmission-lines, etc. During the year, 608 sets of instructions were issued. This is an
increase of 120 over last year and amounts to an increase of 24Vi per cent.
A synopsis of this work for the past four years is as follows: —
Instructions Instructions
Year Prepared Year Prepared
1955  252 1957  488
1956  401 1958  608
In 1958, 469 sets of field-notes covering the survey of 641 lots were received in this
office and duly indexed, checked, plotted, and official plans prepared therefrom. Of the
above-mentioned surveys, 501 were made under the "Land Act" and 140 under the
" Mineral Act." At the present time there are approximately 94,529 sets of field-notes
on record in the Division's vaults.
There were 340 plans received from surveyors covering surveys made under the
" Land Registry Act." These were duly checked and indexed and certified copies deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands, a set of reference maps, 210 in number, must be maintained,
covering the whole of the Province. These show all cadastral surveys which are on file
in the Department and are kept up to date by adding new information as it accrues from
day to day. Prints of these maps are available to the public. (See Indexes 1 and 2,
contained in envelope inside back cover of this Report.)
Over the past few years, owing to the large volume of work being processed by this
Division, it had been found impossible to recompile and retrace, by hand, enough of the
reference maps each year to keep them in clean and printable condition. This Division
has been striving to find a mechanical process to reproduce a creased and dirty tracing
and come up with a clean and sharp linen transparency. After a great deal of research
and experimentation, the method was devised, making it possible to obtain a good-quality
linen with a fine emulsion, and thus this year the Division has been able to reproduce
fifty-two reference maps and is now in the happy position of having its 210 reference
maps in good condition.
This Division has also been working toward the goal of renumbering the reference
maps in accordance with the National Topographic Series. To accomplish this, certain
reference maps in the south-east corner of the Province had to be recompiled and made
to conform to the main meridional grid. This was completed this year, and as of January
1st, 1959, the reference maps will appear with the National Topographic Series numbers.
This is a somewhat historic step. The old numbering of the reference maps was something of a hodge-podge, as it had just grown over the years. It is gratifying that this
orderly and conformable numbering of these maps was finalized in British Columbia's
Centennial Year.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are received
by the Lands Branch and all applications to purchase Crown timber received by the
Forest Service are channelled through this Division for clearance. The orderly processing
of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be made from the reference maps, S 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
official plans, and Land Registry Office plans. From the reference maps, together with
other information and facilities maintained by this Division, it is possible to give an
up-to-the-minute status on any parcel of Crown land in the Province.
It has been necessary during the year, for status and compilation purposes, to obtain
534 plans from the various Land Registry Offices; copies of these have been made,
indexed, and filed as part of the Division's records.
This Division co-operates with the other departments of Government by preparing
and checking legal descriptions which they require. Those assisted in this way were the
Attorney-General's Department (descriptions of Small Debts Courts), the Agriculture
Department (descriptions of disease-free areas and pound districts), the Department of
Municipal Affairs (descriptions for the incorporation or amendment of municipal areas),
the Forest Service (descriptions of tree-farm licences and working circles), and the Lands
Branch (descriptions for gazetted reserves, etc.). This year it has taken 307 man-hours
to prepare the descriptions referred to above.
BLUE-PRINT AND PHOTOSTAT SECTION
The Legal Surveys Division, through this Section, continues to supply a service to
all departments of Government, as well as supplying all the prints and photostats required
by the Surveys and Mapping Branch. The total number of prints made during the year
was 200,251, in the preparation of which 111,700 yards, or 63Vi miles, of paper and
linen were used. The increase in the number of prints made this year as against 1957
was 33,917, which is an increase of approximately 20 per cent. The number of photostats
made during 1958 was 44,548.
As an example of the service supplied by this Division, it is interesting to note that
of the 200,251 prints made during the year, 92,795 were for the Lands Service, 95,300
for other departments of Government, and 12,156 for the public. Likewise, of the
44,548 photostats made, 17,721 were for the Lands Service, 20,922 for other departments of Government, and 5,905 for the public.
COMPOSITE MAP SECTION
This Section is responsible for the compilation and tracing of composite maps, at
a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch, of the more thickly subdivided areas of the Province and
especially in unorganized territory.    (See Index 3.)
Due to the urgency of compiling and retracing the Division's reference maps, it was
necessary, two years ago, to suspend the compilation of the composite maps. This crisis
has now passed, and it can be reported with much satisfaction that this Section, as from
October 1st of this year, is once again working on composite maps, revising at present
all completed composite maps by adding thereto the new subdivisions which have occurred during the last three and a half years. The fifteen Davenport maps covering the
east coast of Vancouver Island have been revised as of the end of this year. On completion of the revision programmes, a start will be made on the composite mapping project
covering the Columbia and Kootenay River valleys between Trail and Nelson.
LAND EXAMINATION PLAN SECTION
This Section is responsible for the preparation of plans for the use of the Land
Inspectors in their inspection of applications for Crown lands. These plans are a consolidation of all the information available in this Department and pertinent to the application requiring inspection. This includes field-notes, Land Registry plans, triangulation
information, etc. The increase of the work accomplished by this Section since its inception is shown as follows:— SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
S 39
Plans
Year Prepared
1953  1,192
1954  1,552
1955  2,030
Plans
Year Prepared
1956  2,340
1957  2,290
1958  2,192
GENERAL
Again this year this Division has assisted the Victoria Land Registry Office by
preparing linen transparencies of certain registered plans which, through the passage of
time and continual usage, have become tattered and torn. The number of plans renewed
this year was 128. It is regretted that for financial reasons this programme cannot be
carried on during the coming year.
The receiving and distribution of survey-posts, which are stored at the warehouse at
859 Devonshire Road, has operated smoothly and efficiently, and the following synopsis
shows the quantities of posts shipped during the past year and to whom:—
Standard
Pipe
Standard
Rock
B.C.L.S.
Bars
272
892
2,310
273
101
360
590
3,235
8,692
Totals  	
3,474
734
12,517
Summary of Office Work for the Years 1957 and 1958,
Legal Surveys Division
Number of field-books received
„        lots surveyed	
„        lots plotted	
„        lots gazetted	
lots cancelled	
mineral-claim field-books prepared ...
reference maps compiled or renewed
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared _
applications for lease cleared	
coal licences cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber sales cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared	
cancellations made	
inquiries cleared
placer-mining leases plotted on maps ___
letters received and dealt with	
land-examination plans	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made _
miscellaneous tracings made	
photostats made	
blue-prints made	
documents consulted and filed in vault
1957
508
660
656
566
63
194
11
2,473
156
1,200
2
49
6,330
1,258
5,582
1,806
Nil
5,316
2,299
1,660
242
48,290
166,334
125,607
1958
469
501
566
454
15
155
52
2,582
174
1,236
Nil
59
5,450
1,078
5,554
2,025
271
5,477
2,192
2,145
43
44,548
200,251
140,347 S 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FIELD WORK
Sixty field assignments were completed by this Division in 1958. The work entailed
in each assignment varied from two or three days to three or four months, and the location of the work was fairly well spread over the whole settled part of the Province.
The main classifications of the work show its varied nature and indicate at whose
request the survey was made.
Subdivisions of Crown Land
These surveys, instigated by the Lands Department, naturally account for the greater
number of surveys for home-site, agricultural, and commercial purposes. Home-site
surveys without water-frontage were performed in Pemberton; Kamloops; Elko; 70
and 93 Mile Houses on the Cariboo Road; Beaver Harbour, V.I.'; Clinton; Barriere;
Lytton; and Lac la Hache, totalling 219 sites. Lake-front home-site lease surveys were
made at Purden Lake, in the vicinity of Prince George; at Salmon Arm of Shuswap Lake
and Dominic Lake, in the Kamloops area; at Tie Lake, near Wardner; at Murphy and
Green Lakes, in the Cariboo country; and at Babine Lake, on the road in from Smithers,
grossing 159 home-sites. Surveys of agricultural land and for commercial purposes
occurred at Cherryville, east of Vernon; at Princeton; Invermere; Little Prairie; and
Prince George, creating twenty-five parcels.
In the Peace River District nineteen surveys were made under one assignment, in
an area from Hudson Hope east to the Beatton River road. These parcels were under
application to lease or purchase and totalled 4,170 acres. The work was carried out
by a land surveyor in private practice who was engaged for the season.
Public Recreational Reserves and Special Reserves
Areas for reserve under administration of the Lands Department were laid out at
Purden Lake; Lakelse Lake; Hornet Lake, which is north of Princeton; Evans Lake,
near Squamish; and on the Chilliwack River, the latter reserve being that for the Mount
Slesse Memorial, erected by Trans-Canada Air Lines to commemorate the total loss of
passengers and aircraft on the recent crash on that mountain.
Parks
Recreational areas controlled by the Parks Branch of the Department of Recreation and Conservation were surveyed in eight locations, made up of three marine park
sites at Sandy Beach, V.I.; Thetis and Keats Islands; two lake-front parks at Green
Lake and Evans Lake and three Interior parks with river-frontage at Rosebery, on Slocan
Lake; at Hosmer, on the Elk River; and in the Crowsnest Pass.
Forest Service Sites
Ranger stations were surveyed at Purden Lake and on the Big Bend Highway, and
a foreshore lot was laid out at Lund. A small right-of-way at Pemberton completed surveys for that department.
Highway Surveys
An important part of the work carried out by the staff of this Division are surveys
of highways in their final location. Final costs are shared equally with the Department
of Highways.
A great deal of the remonumentation of old survey corners that is possible each
year is accomplished in conjunction with these surveys. The areas selected this year
were in general through more densely subdivided land than has been normally experienced, resulting in slower progress, due to the more numerous ties required.   A total of SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH S 41
49.5 miles were completed and an extra 3 miles nearly so. Completed sections were on
the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway from Yahk to Kingsgate, 8.2 miles; the Okanagan Highway from West Summerland to Peachland, 9.2 miles; through a Federal
Government Indian reserve at Westbank, 1.2 miles; two sections of the Northern Trans-
Provincial Highway, 10 miles westerly from Burns Lake and 3 miles westerly from
Houston; the Princeton-Merritt Road from Allison Lake northwards for 10 miles; and
finally the John Hart Highway from Arras into Dawson Creek. This latest section was
over a relocated and newly constructed road and completes the survey of the John Hart
Highway.
Research
A comparison of methods of survey was participated in by this Division. Over a
5-mile section of completed highway survey in a fairly rugged and heavily treed part
of the country, twenty-six photo points were targeted on previously monumented corners or surveyed reference points. From air pictures of these points, precision photogrammetry will produce a list of co-ordinates of these photo points, which will be compared against those already obtained by ground methods.
Inspection Surveys
Four subdivisions for deposit in Land Registry Offices were inspected at the request
of three different Registrars of Title and reports prepared in each case. Locations of
these surveys were in the Okanagan, Fraser Valley, Vancouver Island, and the West
Kootenay country. One similar survey was inspected in the Esquimalt District, at the
request of the Land Surveyors' Board of Examiners, and one survey of Crown land,
submitted to this office, was examined at Pemberton.
Reposting
Old surveys, where the bulk of the land is still in the Crown, or where the absence
of old survey evidence practically precludes any private surveys being made, are reposted
every year on a very limited basis. The block outline of two areas of small town lots—
one at Fort Fraser and the other at Extension on Vancouver Island—was completed,
together with the remonumentation of eight sections in the vicinity of Cobble Hill, V.I.,
and seven district lots in the Willow River area, east of Prince George, and one district
lot at Buckhorn Lake in the same general area.
In carrying out the various surveys, every opportunity is taken to replace old section and district lot corners with a standard brass-capped monument. All too frequently
all that remains at present of some of the old corners is just a point of a post in the
ground (even that may be burned); sometimes a fallen bearing-tree or two; sometimes
just the stumps remain. Frequently nothing remains, and the point has to be established
again by survey.   During this year it was possible to remonument 251 such corners.
One particular corner which merited special treatment is situated on the summit
of Mount Newton on the Saanich Peninsula. This was the original No. 1 post set on
the boundary between North and South Saanich Land Districts and marking the initial
ranges east and west, and was set by John Trutch, Colonial Surveyor, in 1858. Part of
the original post and two of the original bearing-trees were still in evidence. As this
survey point was 100 years old, it was felt that this should be suitably recorded for posterity, and no better year could be found than the 100th anniversary of the setting of
the post which, by coincidence, was also British Columbia's Centennial Year. A standard concrete monument surrounded by a small rock cairn replaced the original post, and
an imposing bronze tablet was set in the cairn. This was suitably worded to commemorate the transition from the old wood post of 1858 to the bronze monument of 1958—
100 years of British Columbia's history. S 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
During the past year the Topographic Division completed field control for twenty
standard National Topographic map-sheets covering approximately 7,600 square miles.
In addition, control was established for 1,315 square miles by sixty-one multiplex extensions for 500-feet-to-l-inch mapping with 10-foot contours and forty-eight extensions
1,000 feet to 1 inch with 20-foot contours. Despite this fine showing, which was nearly
double the previous year, it still fell far short of our expectations. A bad fire year, resulting in smoke, haze, and forest closures, hampered us considerably in two areas. Three
helicopter mishaps within fourteen days stopped one crew during July, and earlier part
of their area had to be curtailed because it had proved unsuitable for helicopter transport.
Control of thirty map-sheets had been planned, using a system of Tellurometer traverse;
however, eight map-sheets were dropped when it was discovered that due to heavy timber
in part of the Clinton area it was uneconomical to use the helicopter there. Also dropped
were those sheets covering the Homathko snow-field, on the advice of Okanagan Helicopters Limited. High jagged peaks, bad down-draughts, and elevations too high for the
Bell Helicopter to operate safely were reasons enough. By use of a Wild A7 autograph,
we could, however, complete both of these sections, bridging between existing control
without having to revisit the areas.
Mr. A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S., was in charge of the Tellurometer party, transported by
helicopter, that commenced operations in the vicinity of Clinton and later moved to
Chilco Lake (see Fig. 1). He used the Tellurometer for control surveys, replacing the
intricate system of triangulation with comparatively simple traverses, which were used to
control both areas and proved to be an effective system of control surveying, adaptable to
all types of terrain. The instrument measured lines ranging in length from 1 mile to 28
miles and produced distances comparable to Provincial first-order triangulation. A Wild
T2 theodolite was used to measure a minimum of three pairs of angles between each traverse station for bearing. Although a second-reading instrument was used, the bearings
proved more troublesome than the distances, due to the poor visibility caused by haze and
heavy smoke.   Nine map-sheets were controlled in the two areas. .
Mr. Wight was replaced on this project by Mr. A. M. Barber, B.C.L.S., on August
1st following his selection to do the field work required for an experiment in posting
petroleum and natural-gas lease corners in co-operation with the Federal Department
of Mines and Technical Surveys. The area selected was approximately 40 miles east
of Mile 210, Alaska Highway, in Map-sheet 94-H/13. The objective was to determine
the accuracy to which a co-ordinated point could be established on the ground from
identification in air survey photographs. A helicopter was used for transportation, and
the triangulation towers constructed in 1953 were found to be still standing and in condition to be reoccupied. It is of interest to note that the helicopter landings cut out five
years ago had completely overgrown and had to be recleared.
The experiment was carried out with a photogrammetric plot at 1:16,000 scale compiled by multiplex. The sharpness of the 1950 R.C.A.F. photographs used was poor,
making detailed identifications difficult. The map compilation had not been undertaken
for this particular job but was part of the Federal Government's standard 1:50,000 mapping programme. The lease corner co-ordinates were plotted on the compilation sheets
and their relative positions transferred to the air photograph. To assist in the field identification of the corners, three co-ordinated reference points of strong topographic detail
in the immediate vicinity of each lease corner had also been plotted and photo-identified.
Of the eighteen lease corners with their corresponding reference points, four were finally
selected by us for ease of ties to the existing triangulation rather than choosing the corners
with the more prominent reference points.   While the results were encouraging, it was SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
S 43
obvious that the photogrammetric plot supplied to us was not accurate enough for the
purpose intended, so that the experiment had really developed into a map evaluation.
To achieve more satisfactory results, a compilation from a first-order plotter using new
first-order photography would be required and also, in most areas, some additional
ground control. In some circumstances, targets could replace reference points and be
co-ordinated from the photogrammetric plot, enabling the corners to be posted from the
targeted positions.
LIAMS  LAKE   t
Fig. 1.
Mr. A. M. Barber, in company with Mr. Wight, attended a one-week Tellurometer
course at Ottawa during the spring of 1958, organized by the Federal Government's
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys. The Tellurometer is a new electronic
instrument for measuring distances, and the course was designed for fieldmen in the use
of this equipment and to review the experience gained in its use during the previous field
season. Thus it was possible to formulate procedures to use in our first full field season
based on the longer experience gained by the Federal Government.
Mr. Barber had charge of the Tellurometer crew of three that measured the length
and bearing for a traverse of the British Columbia Power Commission transmission-line
from the vicinity of Fauquier-Arrow Lake to the Koch Creek valley. This party also
made trips to Duncan and Nanaimo to measure distances to assist Mr. F. O. Speed,
B.C.L.S., and spent approximately two weeks doing the same for Mr. K. M. Bridge,
B.C.L.S., in the Vernon area. From August 1st, Mr. Barber took over and continued
Mr. Wight's project and completed it from a camp at Mons Lake, in all a total of eight S 44                                     DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
map-sheets.    Following this he moved with his crew to Prince George and completed
field control there of approximately 315 square miles that the Water Rights Branch
requires for water-supply studies.   This project will be mapped at 1,000 feet to the inch
with 20-foot contours.
The transmission-line survey was the most interesting. This line runs south from
Fauquier parallel to Arrow Lake for about 5 miles until it crosses Faite Creek. It then
turns south-east to cross the mountains and rises 5,000 feet in about AV2 miles. From
the summit it drops nearly 4,000 feet in another 6 miles of rugged terrain to Koch Creek.
Land rovers were used for transport over the access road, which was actually a bulldozer-
road that had not been maintained the previous winter and had deteriorated in some
sections as to be almost impassable for even these hardy vehicles. The survey's progress
often was governed by the rate at which the route could be travelled. In order to close
the survey on two Provincial triangulation stations, distances totalling 63 miles were
measured with a lineal closure of 1 part in 50,000. The crew worked on the job seven
and a half days. An idea of the progress that such a traverse party can make may be
formed from the results of the first day when, with the work fairly close to base, approximately 7 miles were completed with slopes up to 16 degrees.
Mr. George New, B.C.L.S., was in charge of a party which obtained horizontal and
vertical control in the vicinity of Bella Coola (see Fig. 2). The terrain in this area is very
mountainous and rugged, with peaks up to 9,500 feet in height. These mountains, which
are in the main Coast Range, rise steeply from the valleys and hold many glaciers, particularly south of the Bella Coola River, which flows westerly through the centre of the
map-sheet. This party was hampered considerably by inclement weather; on fifty-seven
days the crew had to contend with rain, heavy clouds, and fog, along with ten days of
heavy smoke haze.   Finally, they fought fires for ten days during the forest closure.
126° 45'
SCALE
52° 15'
345
1      1 —1
MAIN    TRIANGULATION
SECONDARY TRIANGULATION    A
Fig. 2. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
S 45
119 30'
119 00'
118 30
119 30
LEGEND
1/6000 MAPPING
1/12000 MAPPING
1/51680     MAPPING
119 00
SCALE
10 5 ro
lnU     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     I
MAIN    TRIANGULATION ®
SECONDARY  TRIANGULATION    A
118 30
Fig. 3.
Mr. K. M. Bridge was in charge of a party operating in the Vernon district, obtaining control in the watersheds of Sugar and Mabel Lakes and the Shuswap River, up to the
2,000-foot contour (see Fig. 3). This request by the Water Rights Branch is to enable
it to study the possibility of diverting a percentage of the water from the above areas into
the Okanagan District for irrigation purposes. Additional control was obtained to control
two standard Topographic map-sheets. Mr. Bridge's main problem was heat and haze,
and to overcome this they had to commence work at first light and work through to
1 p.m. Transportation was made easy by the great number of jeep-roads provided by
the many small logging operations. They were assisted by a Tellurometer crew under
Mr. A. M. Barber, who came into the area when requested. The instrument worked to
good advantage in this section and cut down considerably on Mr. Bridge's required field
time.
Mr. F. O. Speed was in charge of the control surveys required for multiplex mapping
of the areas around the Nanaimo, Cowichan, and Chemainus Rivers, requested by the
Water Rights Branch. The RC8 camera was flown for special photographs of each
section.   Mr. Speed was hampered on several occasions by forest closures, and finally S 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
toward the end of August moved to Prince George, leaving the completion of the Island
projects until October. This move was required after a request from the Multiplex Section that additional vertical control would be required to complete the pondage area of
the Rocky Mountain Trench, ranging from Tudyah Lake to Finlay Forks. This control
was obtained by barometer, using a Bell G2 helicopter and the Department's Beaver
aircraft.
Mr. E. S. W. Andrews, B.C.L.S., in his report of the Multiplex Section, shows
eleven completed projects for the year, covering 3,042 square miles. A list is appended
following this report. The main need of this Section has been additional space, and at
the time of writing this need is well on its way to being fulfilled. All modifications to
our projectors commenced in 1957 have been completed.
Mr. S. L. Clarke, Chief Draughtsman, reports the completion of eight standard
National Topographic Series manuscripts at the scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, 105 large-
scale mapping plans at various scales, and the plotting of the cadastral surveys on forty-
four Federal Government 1:50,000 manuscripts.
The Federal Government now has fifty-eight 1:50,000 scale manuscripts on hand
for printing, which are in various stages of lithography.
Copies of the multiplex large-scale mapping and the completed manuscripts as
shown on the following indexes are available upon request.
Project
No.
Project
Authority
Scale
Vertical
Interval
Area
(Sq. Mi.)
M27
M41
M44
M56
M59
M62
M63
M66
M67
M68
M70
Peace River pondage	
Summit Lake diversion-
Prince George east	
Lac la Hache	
Eaglet Lake .
Alberni..
Parsnip River pondage._
Glen Lake _	
Chemainus 	
Hansard Lake 	
Courtenay-Comox—
Total area-
Water Rights Branch-
Water Rights Branch_
Land Settlement Board
Water Rights Branch	
Fraser River Board	
Veterans' Land Act	
Water Rights Branch...
Water Rights Branch....
Water Rights Branch-
Water Rights Branch-
Water Rights Branch ...
-1,000'
: 1,000'
: 200'
-   500'
1"= 1,320'
= 500'
= 1,000'
= 1,320'
= 400'
= 400'
= 1,320'
= 1,320'
20'
20'
5', 10'
20' and spot
heights
20' and spot
heights
10'
20'
10'
10'
20'
20'
184
52
40
91
12
2,189
20
9
79
365
3,042
List of British Columbia Topographic Manuscripts Showing Date Surveyed
(See Index 4.)
Sheet                             Date Sheet                             Date
82F/3     1951     92E/14       1948
82 F/4   .1944, 1947      92 E/16 _  1947
82 K/ll, W  1952     92 F/l  1942
82 K/12 _  1952     92 F/2    1938, 1940, 1942
82 L/7   -   1958     92 F/3    1938, 1940, 1941
82 L/10   -  1958     92 F/4 _ _ ... . 1942
92 B/5    1937, 1938, 1955     92 F/5   1937, 1938, 1943
92 B/6, W.     1955      92 F/6 _  1937, 1940, 1941, 1943
92 B/11, W.  1955     92 F/7 _   1942, 1943
92 B/12  :  1938,1955     92 F/8  1942, 1943, 1950
92 B/13  -   -1942, 1943, 1951     92 F/9   .1950
92 B/14     1951     92 F/10     1950, 1953
92 C/8      1937, 1938     92 F/ll  :   1934, 1935
92 C/9    1937, 1938     92 F/12  1936, 1937, 1938
92 C/10    1937, 1938     92 F/13    1935, 1936
92 C11   -   1938     92 F/14   _ ...1935
92C/13     1938     92 F/l5, part   1950
92 C/14      1938     92 F/16, part     1950
92 C/15    1937, 1938     92 G/4     1942, 1943
92 C/16      1937, 1938, 1942     92 G/5      1950, 1952
92 E/l     1942     92 G/7, part _ _.. 1940
92 E/7   1946     92 G/10, part  1940
92E/8      1943, 1946     92 G/ll     _ 1952
92 E/9     1938, 1946, 1947     92 G/12     1950, 1952
92 E/10 - _ 1947     92 G/13   1950, 1952 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
S 47
List of British Columbia Topographic Manuscripts Showing
Date Surveyed—Continued
Date
.......1952
.1920, 1923, 1949
1923, 1949
.1924, 1931, 1948, 1949
 1948, 1956
 1958
    __._1958
 .1948, 1949
 1948, 1949
Sheet
92 G/14   	
92 H/l    __
92 H/2    	
92 H/3  	
92 H/4    -	
92 1/12 	
92 1/13  	
92 J/15 	
92 J/16	
92 K/l, part    ...1950
92 K/3    .- 1949
92 K/4 — 1949
92 K/5  _._. _ _ 1949
92 K/6    1949
92 L/l     —    1932
92 L/2   1931, 1932
92 L/3 _ - -    1948
92L/4  _   1948
92 L/6     1931, 1934
92 L/7      .1931
92 L/8  1932
92 L/10       1931, 1940, 1956
92 L/ll           1940
92 L/12    1935, 1936
92 L/13      1936
92 M/3   1957
92 M/4   1957
92 M/5  1957
92 N/9 -.-  '- -1958
92 N/10 _   1958
92 N/15 _   1958
92 O/l 1950
92 0/2 1947
92 0/3  - 1958
92 0/4    .  1958
92 0/5    — 1958
92 0/6  _.   1958
92 0/7    —  1950, 1958
92 0/8     1950
92 0/9      _     1951
92 0/10      1958
92 O/l 1   1958
92 0/12     1958
92 0/16  _ -- 1951
92P/5   1958
92P/12      1958
92P/13    1958
93 A/2, part  _ 1936
93 A/5   -    1935
93 A/6  _ 1935
93 A/7, part ..    1936
93 A/10, part  _    1934
93 A/11  _ 1933, 1934
93 A/12    - 1931, 1933, 1934
93 A/13 _.   1934
93 A/14  _.... 1933, 1934
93 A/15, part    1934
93 B/l    ... :  1951
93 B/8   ..... 1952
93 B/9    1950
93 B/16     ...... _  ... 1950
93 D/7, E.   ..._ _  1958
93 D/8, W —   1958
93 G/l, part  _ 1933
93 G/2, part _. 1933
93 G/7, part   1933
93 G/8, part _ 1933
93 G/14   1948
93 H/3, part  1934
93 1/8    _ 1956
93 1/9     1956
93 1/10 1956
93 1/15   1956
93 1/16     1956
93 J/2  _  1949
93 J/3   1949
93 K/l  1946
Sheet
93 K/2           	
Date
1946
93 L/2
 1951
93 L/7
.   1951
93 L/8
 1951
93 L/9                      	
1951
93 L/10  	
     1950, 1951
93 L/ll    	
  1950
93 L/14        	
  1950
93 M/5	
 1949
93 M/14
_  1949
93 O/l   	
 -  1957
93 0/6	
1957
93 0/8	
 1957
93 O/ll	
  1957
93 O/l2 .. _	
               . 1957
93 0/13 ......	
 1957
93 0/14	
 1957
93 P/l	
 1956
93 P/2  	
 1956
93 P/3   	
 1957
93 P/4	
 _ 1957
93 P/5    	
  1957
93 P/6  	
                              1957
93 P/7	
. 1956
93 P/8	
                            . 1956
94 B/4	
 1939, 1957
94 C, part	
 1939
94 E, part	
  1939
94 F, part	
 1939
94 L, part	
 __ 1940, 1941
94 M, part	
1941
102 1/8	
  1935, 1937
102 1/9 	
       1935, 1936,1937
102 1/15   	
1937
1021/16         	
   1936, 1937
103 1/2   ..."	
 1949
103 1/7    	
 _1948
103 1/10	
  1947
103 P/9   	
 1949
103 P/10, E 	
  1950
103 P/14, E	
 1950
103 P/15  	
 1950
104 A/2, W	
..                 1950
104 A/3 	
1950
104 A/5, E	
  1950
104 A/6	
 1950
104 A/11, W	
          1951
104 A/12 	
         1951
104 A/13, W	
       1951
104 B/16  ...	
    1951
104 G/l	
       1951
104 G/8  	
 ;              1951
104 G/9	
           1951
104 G/14       .
1951
104 G/15 	
 1951
104 G/16 ...... 	
 1951
104H/12, W 	
 1951
104H/13, W	
     1951
•104 tn, W
195?
104 J/3 	
1952
104 J/4   	
          1952
104 J/5	
 1952
104 J/12  	
 „. 1952
104 J/13  	
 1952
104 K/16, E 	
                 1952, 1953
104 N/1   	
          _... . 1952, 1953
104 N/2 	
 1953
104 N/3, E	
 1953
104 N/5 	
          1952
104 N/6	
      1952, 1953
104 N/7, part	
      1953
104 N/11, W.	
 1952
104 N/12 	
         1952
104 N/13 	
               1952
104 P, part	
 1941
104 P/15   	
   1941
104 P/l6, part 	
 1941 S 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
List of Large-scale Mapping
(See Index 6.)
No.
Name
Scale
Contour
Interval
Number
of Sheets
Date
X 1
Goldfields  .
f    1"=   800'
J     1"=   900'
1      1"=1,000'
1"= 1,320'
j     1"=   200'
\     1"=   600'
1"= 1,000'
1"= 1,000'
1"=20 ch.
1"=   550'
l"=10ch.
l"=10ch.
l"=10ch.
1"= 1,300'
1"=13 ch.
1"=   100'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   100'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   200'
1"=   200'
1"=   400'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   400'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   500'
\"—   500'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"= 1,000'
V—   500'
1"=1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   500'
1"=   300'
1"=1,000'
]
100'
r
1        Mosaic
5'-50' then 50'
5-50' then 50'
20'
20'
100'
50'
50'
50'
500"
5'
50'
20'-40'
5'
50'
10'-20'
20'-40'
50'
5'
.Spot heights
5'-10'-20'
100'
20'-100'
20'-40'
20'-40'
50'
50'
20'-40'
20'^tO'
20'-40'
50'
20'
20'
50'
20'-40'
10'
10'
10'
20'
5'-10'-15'
20'-40'
10'
5'-10'-20'
20'
18
20
O)
13
1
1
38
8
6
13
28
73
'(-)
11
12
6
1
1
3
39
8
23
11
5
2
7
7
20
8
11
2
4
2
4
5
3
9
7
10
2
8
1
10
2
2
10
4
3
10
S P  1
S P 2
1957
SP 3
1958
1
2
Squamish.	
1952
1951/52
3
4
Tamihi Creek	
1950
1951/52
1951
6
Kemano 	
1952/53
1951
1951/52
9
10
Salmo   	
1952
1952
11
1952
13
1953
1951
1953
1953
1953/54
19
Doukhobor Lands (two areas)	
1953/54
1953/54
1954
1954/55
1955
1955
1955
1955
M7
1955/56
M8
M9
Upper McGregor River 	
Sinclair Mills  	
1956
1956
1955
1955
1954
1954
M15
M 16
Westbank— 	
Lower McGregor River	
1954
1956
1954
M21
Clearwater	
1955
1956
M27
Peace River Pondage 	
1958
M29
Naramata   	
1"=   400'
1"=   200'
1"=   500'
1"=1,000'
1"= 1.000'
1"= 1,000'
1"=   500'
1"=   600'
1"=   600'
1"=1,370'
1"=   200'
1"=   200'
V'=   500'
1"=2,640'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   500'
1"= 1,320'
1"=   400'
1"=   400'
1"=1,320'
1"= 1,320'
1"=1,000'
1"=   200'
10'
Planimetric
10'-20'
20'-40'
20'-40'
20'-40'
20'
20'
20'
50'
5'
5'
50'
100'
20'
20'
10'
20'-2,600' then 50'
10'
10'
20'
25'
2V
10'
1956
1956
1957
1957
1956/57
M38
M 39
1956/57
1956/57
1956
M42
Peace River Dam-site.  —
Alert Bay -
1957
1956
1958
1958
M 52
M 54
Big Bar                 	
1957
M56
Lac la Hache	
1958
1958
M62
1958
1958
M 66
1958
M67
M 68
Chemainus River —	
1958
1958
M70
1958
M 73
M 74
1 One of Map 5e.
2 See No. 17. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH S 49
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., Chief, and Provincial Representative on
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
The publication (in lune) of the two-section wall map of British Columbia was the
culmination of this Division's efforts to recompile and produce the three base maps of the
Province, which had been seriously outdated by the great strides in post-war mapping.
This edition, together with smaller-scaled versions—for example, Maps 1J and lc (published in 1957)—replace editions originally issued in 1933 and 1937 respectively.
Emphasis was again placed on the l-inch-to-2-miles National Topographic Series
maps, with which we are replacing the early-vintage degree series along the more heavily
populated belt in the southern section of the Province. This 2-mile series shows land
status in that area for the first time and is proving very useful to the Government Agencies
concerned, as well as to the public.
A minimum of time was spent on the revision of four Pre-emptor and Land Series
maps, again showing land status.
It has been gratifying to note the public and departmental enthusiasm for the new
10-mile series, but the increasing demand required the channelling of funds and labour
into reissuing the maps of South-western and South-eastern British Columbia, which
went out of print during the year, and, as a result, the publication of the new map of East
Central British Columbia has been delayed; however, it is well advanced and will be
published as early as possible in 1959.
The demand for maps during the year has been the heaviest yet recorded, and it is
noted that an ever-increasing number of maps is being requested by recreational users.
With the slackening of the petroleum and natural-gas activity, the Trigonometric
Control Section's efforts during the year returned largely to the calculation of the control
initiated by the Branch's scattered and varied field parties.
Further details of the Division's activities follow.
ADMINISTRATION
Five resignations occurred during the year, notably the Division's geographer, who
left to join the teaching faculty of the University of British Columbia. His duties were
assumed by a research assistant.
Of the senior and two junior draughtsmen who resigned, the former was replaced
and one of the latter returned to the Service. A junior replacement was obtained to fill
the vacancy caused by the resignation of a member of the Trigonometric Control Section.
Two members of this Division followed with interest the activities of the Government
committee investigating electronic data-processing and computing machines, particularly
their application to processing our survey control data.
The volume of correspondence in 1958 once again reflects the large increase in the
number of maps distributed.
COMPUTATIONS
Standard mapping-control activities by the Topographic Division's field parties
accounted for the bulk of the work processed by the Trigonometric Control Section during
the year. Adjustments were completed for the Rocky Mountain Trench net and calculations completed on the triangulation control for the topographic mapping of the Peace
River pondage area. The extension of the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary control
to the Geodetic network at Bennett Lake permitted the adjustment of the main Provincial net from Atlin through Telegraph Creek to the Turnagain River. Petroleum
and natural-gas permit activities settled down to supplying control information to the S 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
various oil and survey companies active in this field.   Details are carried in the statistical
tables following this report.
GEOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
Until his separation from the Service, the geographer continued to serve on a Centennial Year committee charged with the preparation of descriptive texts for historic
sites throughout the Province.
The research assistant continued work on the new Land Series bulletins, of which
two were published during the year—namely, No. 2 (Okanagan) and No. 6 (Kamloops).
In addition, a field study was made in connection with the Kootenay Bulletin Area and
the text for Bulletin No. 8 (Prince Rupert-Smithers) was completed by the end of the
year. The popularity of the new land bulletins is indicated by the fact that during the year
minor revisions were made for the third reprinting of Bulletin No. 7 (Fort Fraser-Fort
George).
GEOGRAPHIC NAMING AND MAP-CHECKING
The total number of name-sheets checked for geographical names during the year
equalled the number of requests, even with the loss of one of the two-member staff, but
only because the number was well below previous years. If requests return to normal
in 1959, there will undoubtedly be delays. It is interesting to note that a total of 2,514
new name-cards have been added to the records since the Gazetteer of British Columbia
was published in 1953.
In co-operation with mapping agencies in the Departments of National Defence and
Mines and Technical Surveys at Ottawa, proofs of fifty-one new maps of parts of British
Columbia were checked and revised. In addition, culture revisions were carried out for
three Federal map-sheets, and six Topographic Division manuscripts were checked before
being shipped to Ottawa for reproduction.
A field culture check in connection with l-inch-to-2-miles National Topographic
Series mapping in the Kamloops-Shuswap area was also carried out, greatly assisted by
new air-photo coverage supplied by the Air Division. This will result in new six-colour
Provincial editions of Maps 82 L/NW and 92 I/NE. The present Federal editions of
these maps, compiled in 1934 and 1928 respectively, are being abandoned in favour of
the new 1:50,000 series in hand at Ottawa.
A culture survey for the revision of three Federal 1:50,000 sheets in the Vancouver
area was expanded into the Vancouver map area of 92 G/SW, which, when printed,
will provide complete coverage of the Lower Fraser Valley at l-inch-to-2-miles scale in
conjunction with existing sheets.
MAP COMPILATION AND REPRODUCTION
The highlight of the year's operations was the production of Map 1a, the new wall
map of British Columbia in four colours at 1:1,000,000 scale, approximately 1 inch to
16 miles. This, together with Maps 1j and lc published last year, was the result of
a continuing project lasting from August, 1954, to lune, 1958, utilizing information
obtained from twelve years of intensive post-war mapping. All three maps will be available as the bases for depicting administrative and resource data for years to come. An
orthographic (relief) map, using the 1J base, is already in hand.
The Cartographic Section completed a full year's programme with a total of thirteen
maps published while work progressed on fourteen others. During the year the negative
engraving method was further adapted to new maps in all series. The system of converting the interim and topographic 40-chain manuscripts into " patch-ups " for the preparation of scribe sheets at printing scale for the production of the l-inch-to-2-miles series
was also adopted for maps of the 1:250,000 scale series.   Compilations of the 1-inch-to- SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH S 51
10-miles map of North-eastern British Columbia and the new relief map of the Province
were also planned with scribing in mind.
With the time-saving techniques described above, the lack of modern and efficient
photographic equipment of a size capable of handling the new compilations locally has
been frustrating and time-consuming, to say the least. However, some hope is held
that the Photographic Branch of the Government Printing Bureau will be obtaining the
larger equipment soon.
Four sheets of the l-inch-to-2-miles National Topographic Series were published
during the year, leaving six sheets in various stages of production. Concentration on
this programme necessitated marking time on the l-inch-to-4-miles (1:250,000) series
(which is replacing the Pre-empt or Series); however, work progressed on two of these
sheets and we hope to publish them in 1959.
Maintaining present map coverage while converting to the National Topographic
system continued to consume time and effort. One Land and two Pre-emptor Series
maps were revised and published during the year, and a reprint of the popular Fort
George pre-emption sheet was also necessary. In addition, as stated earlier, two of the
10-mile series in their various editions were reprinted, together with two new land
bulletin maps.
Thirty-five Provincial topographic manuscripts were printed by the Army Survey
Establishment, Ottawa, during the year; of these, fourteen were new publications and
twenty-one were 1-inch-to-1-mile maps converted to 1:50,000 scale. We received
major stocks of all but one of these in return for our co-operation in preparing manuscripts, also checking the colour proofs of the finished maps.
Additional maps in British Columbia published by Ottawa agencies consisted of four
full colour at 1:250,000 scale and nineteen full colour at 1:50,000 scale, of which major
stocks were received for seven of the maps dealt with under the co-operative terms
mentioned above.
Seventy-four new Provincial topographic manuscripts remain in hand for publication
at Ottawa.
The Army Survey Establishment continued to make its manuscript mapping available to the public in " provisional" form and last year produced some four sheets at
1:250,000 scale and forty sheets at 1:50,000 scale.
The Index to Published Maps, contained in a pocket inside the back cover of this
Report, includes both Federal and Provincial mapping in the Province during 1958.
Miscellaneous map-draughting and work on the preparation of descriptions for
administrative district boundaries for other Government departments amounted to fifty-
five projects, consuming 658 man-hours for a work value of $1,447, in addition to
assembling, editing, and distributing the Annual Report of the Lands Service.
MAP DISTRIBUTION
A very large increase in the demand for maps was noted with the distribution of
62,544 sheets during the year, the total value being $21,910.75. The pattern remained
the same as for the last seven years, requests from the public reaching their peak from
May to August, whilst departmental demands were highest in March-April and again
in September-October, coinciding with field-work planning and reports on same. The
noticeable difference is the increase in public requests, particularly during the summer
months, whereas departmental requests have remained fairly constant over the years.
A map's usefulness is generally considered adequate for a five- to ten-year period,
depending on industrial development, demand for land, and new survey data in that area.
In a popular district, such as that covered by Quesnel Map 3g, records indicate that
5,000 copies of the map printed in 1946 were sufficient for a five-year period, whereas
a 10,000 run of the same map a year ago may fall short of a like span if demands continue S 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
to mount; for example, 2,500 copies have been distributed in one year. The total of
117,729 maps received into stock during 1958 reflects these increased runs of individual
maps.
Details regarding maps published and in hand are contained in the tables following
this report, and indexes to available published maps, together with information regarding
prices, scales, dates of publication, etc. (Nos. 8 to 14, inclusive), are contained in a
pocket inside the back cover of this Report.
STATISTICAL
Computations
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
Provincial
Provincial
Provincial
Provincial
Provincial
Provincial
Provincial
Provincial
Provincial
Main-
Main.
Main.
Main.
Main.
Main.
Main.
Main-
Ma'n
Rocky Mountain Trench (northern portion)..
Peace, Finlay, and Parsnip Rivers  —	
South-west of Peace River Block	
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary-
Prince George-British Columbia-Alberta Boundary (revision).
Southerly Vancouver Island  	
Telegraph Creek-Turnagain River	
Telegraph Creek-Atlin Lake	
Bella Coola Valley    	
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
33
36
47
288
24
22
47
49
16
The following tables give comparisons with the previous five-year period:
Computations
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
Triangles adjusted by least squares.	
Stations calculatedfrom rectangular co-ordinates
409
1,300
189
131
1,561
450
20,952
287
28
537
114
143
1,192
830
22,144
314
518
810
49
239
1,415
576
23,559
378
1
814    |
536     |
32    j
82    j
1,093    J
888    j
24,652    1
461     |
567
669
70
325
1,637
613
26,289
403
562
918
22
378
Index cards—
1,173
1,297
Total on file    	
27,462
397
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
Number of map-sheets or charts checked..
Number of names checked	
Number of new names recorded..
49
4,698
278
Map Stock and Distribution
Maps issued to departments and public-
Maps received into stock 	
Total value of maps issued	
40,733
92,456
$14,184
43,741    j      48,043
97,274    I      84,573
$17,382    I    $18,995
62,544
117,729
$21,911
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
Total number of items-
Total value of work.	
I
31 68
$4,400    |      $1,361
60
$1,990
I
84    | 86
$2,687    |      $2,654
55
$1,447
Letters
Letters received and attended to _
4,987
7,356
5,783
5.419
5,516
6,545 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Maps Published during 1958
Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Geographic Division, Victoria
S 53
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
1a
1e
IK
lKL
lKLS
2c
3a
3f
3h
82 E/NE
92 G/SE
92 I/NW
92 I/SW
British Columbia wail map (2 sheets). __	
South-eastern British Columbia, planimetric	
South-western British Columbia, planimetric —	
South-western British Columbia, landforms....	
South-western British Columbia, landforms in brown-
Northerly Vancouver Island  	
Fort George    —	
Chilcotin   	
Tete Jaune  	
Upper Kettle River (first edition)  	
Langley (first edition)    — 	
Ashcroft (first edition)   	
Lytton (first edition).  	
1:1,
lin.
lin.
lin.
lin.
lin
lin
1 in
1 in
lin,
lin
lin.
1 in.
000,000
to 10 mi.
to 10 mi.
to 10 mi.
to 10 mi.
. to 4 mi.
. to 3 mi.
. to 3 mi.
. to 3 mi.
. to 2 mi.
. to 2 mi.
to 2 mi.
. to 2 mi.
New edition.
Second edition.
Reprint, minor revisions.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, no revision.
New edition.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, status revision.
New edition.
Six colours, contoured.
Six colours, contoured.
Six colours, contoured.
Six colours, contoured.
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Reproduced and Printed
at 1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
92 C/9, E. & W.
San Juan (second edition).
92 L/13, E. & W.
Shushartie (secondedition).
92E/14, E. &W.
Port Eliza (second edition).
102 1/8, E.
Cape Parkins (second edition).
92 F/l, E. &W.
Nanaimo Lakes (second edition).
103 1/2, E. & W.
Kitimat (first ed.tion).
92F/13,E. &W.
Upper Campbell (second edition).
103 1/7, E.&W.
Lakelse (second edition).
92G/11.E. &W.
Squam'sh (first edition).
103, 1/10, E. &W.
Terrace (second edition).
92G/13, E. &W.
Jervis Inlet (first edition).
104 G/8, E.&W.
Refuge Lake (first edition).
92L/1.E. &W.
Schoen Lake (third edition).
104 G/15, E.&W.
Buckley Lake (first edition).
92 L/ll, E. &W.
Port McNeill (second edition).
104 J/4, E. & W.
Kennicott Lake (first edition).
92L/12.E. &W.
Quatsino (second edition).
104 N/5, E.&W.
Teresa Island (first edition). S 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Maps in Course of Reproduction
Maps Being Reproduced by the Geographic Division, Victoria
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
ljR
Id
Ig
lGL
lGLS
92K
920
93c
82 E/SE
82 F/SW
82 L/NW
92 B/NW, SW
92 G/SW
92 1/NE
British Columbia relief map  	
North-eastern British Columbia, planimetric-
East Central British Columbia, planimetric	
East Central British Columbia, landforms.	
East Central British Columbia, landforms in brown..
Bute Inlet (second status edition) 	
Taseko Lakes (first status edition)  	
Anahim Lake (first status edition)	
Grand Forks (first status edition) 	
Trail (first status edition)    	
Shuswap Lake (first status edition) 	
Victoria (first status edition)  	
Vancouver (first status edition) 	
Kamloops Lake (first status edition)	
1 in. to 30 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
In draughting.
Compilation complete.
In draughting.
Draughting complete.
Draughting complete.
In draughting.
In compilation.
In draughting.
In draughting.
In draughting.
Compilation complete.
In draughting.
Compilation complete.
Compilation complete.
Provincial Government Manuscripts Being Reproduced by the Canadian
Government, Ottawa, at 1:50,000 Scale
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
82K/11, W.
82K/12, E. &W.
92B/5E. &W.
92 B/6, W.
92B/11, W.
92B/12, E. &W.
92 G/7, E. & W.
92G/12, E. &W.
92 G/14, E. & W.
92H/1.E. &W.
92 H/2, E. & W.
92 J/15, E.&W.
92 J/16, E.&W.
92 L/2, E. &W.
92L/3.E. &W.
92 L/4, E. & W.
92 L/10, E. &W.
92 O/l, E. &W.
92 0/8, E. & W.
92 0/9, E. & W.
92 0/16, E. &W.
93B/1.E. &W.
Trout Lake (first edition).
Beaton (first edition).
Sooke (second edition).
Victoria (second edition).
Sidney (second edition).
Shawnigan (second edition).
Coquitlam (second edition).
Sechelt Inlet (first edition).
Cheakamus River (first edition).
Ashnola (first edition).
Manning Park (first edition).
Bralorne (first edition).
Bridge River (first edition).
Woss Lake (second edition).
Kyuquot (first edition).
Brooks Peninsula (first edition).
Alert Bay (first ed tion).
Yalakom River (first edition).
Empire Valley (first edition).
Dog Creek (first edition).
Springhouse (first edition).
Williams Lake (first edition).
93B/8, E. &W.
104 A/2, W.
104 A/5, E.
104 A/6. E. & W.
104 A/11, W.
104 A/12, E.&W.
104 A/13, W.
104 B/16, E. &W.
104 G/14, E.&W.
104 G/16, E.&W.
04H/12, W.
104H/13.W.
104 J/2, W.
104 J/3, E. & W.
104J/5.E. &W.
104 J/12, E. &W.
104 J/13, E.&W.
104K/16, E.
104 N/1, E. &W.
104 N/2, E. & W.
104 N/3, E.
Soda Creek (first edit:on).
Kwinageese River (first edition).
Bowser Lake (first edition).
Bell-Irving River (first edition).
Taft Creek (first edition).
Delta Peak (first edition).
Mount Alger (first edit on).
Bob Quinn Lake (first edition).
Telegraph Creek (first edition).
Klastline River (first edition).
Kluea River (first edition).
Ealue Lake (first edition).
Classy Creek (first edition).
Tahltan River (first edition).
Ketchum Lake (first edition).
Dudidontu River (first edition).
Pra'rie Lake (first edition).
Nahlin River (first edition).
Nakina Lake (first edition).
Nakina (first edition).
Sloko River (first edition). SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH S 55
AIR DIVISION
W. Hall, P.Eng., B.C.R.F.
AIR OPERATIONS
The weather during the 1958 photo season proved to be the most favourable that
has been experienced since the Air Division began functioning in 1946.
A total of 612 flying-hours were logged by the two Anson V aircraft, well above the
previous record total of 509 hours accomplished in 1955.
Because of the small area covered for the Forest Surveys Division during 1957, a
direct result of the exceptionally poor photographic weather, the major effort of both our
aircraft was given to the forest inventory programme during the 1958 season.
As a result, close to 20,000 square miles were covered by narrow-angle 20-chains-
to-1-inch scale vertical photography for the Forest Surveys Division. A further 2,500
lineal miles of various types of photography were obtained for other branches of the
Government. (See Indexes 15 to 18, contained in pocket inside back cover of this
Report.)
A total of 26,000 photos were taken.
A new Wild RC 8 camera, equipped with the 6-inch focal-length wide-angle Aviogon
lens, was acquired early in the year. This camera, which embodies the latest developments in air-camera optics and mechanisms, was used to photograph areas where detailed
topographic mapping was required for engineering studies, primarily by the Water Rights
Branch. The camera proved to be most satisfactory in all respects and the quality of the
photographs obtained was excellent.
Special projects completed during the season covered many varied requirements. On
March 24th tricamera photo cover was obtained of the Bear River Glacier area north of
Stewart. These were taken for the Department of Mines and were used to assess snow
conditions along the rout of the proposed Stewart-Dease Lake Highway to analyse probable slide conditions. Narrow-angle cover was obtained for twenty-eight separate forest
areas damaged by fire during the year. These photos were used by the Forest Service to
assess the extent of the damage and to study possible salvage operations for the fire-killed
timber. An experimental strip of twelve photos was flown along the highway north of
Princeton to be used for testing the accuracy of bridging with precision instruments in
connection with cadastral survey.
PROCESSING LABORATORY
The excellent photographic weather during the year resulted in a total of 263 full
and part rolls of air film and 183 rolls of topographic film to be processed. This was a
heavy load on our facilities, and the staff was under heavy pressure throughout the season.
The ventilation system of the laboratory proved to be quite inadequate to permit sustained
effort by the personnel and was completely revamped during November and December,
necessitating a three-week shut-down of the entire laboratory. At the time of writing,
production has started again, and preliminary tests indicate the new system is completely
satisfactory. A total of 139,700 prints of all types were produced despite unfavourable
conditions.
There is still a very large backlog of reprints required for the district offices, and
while there was a slackening of requests for loans and reprints through the Air Photo
Library, the Processing Laboratory is still being worked to capacity. S 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
COMPILATION AND MAPPING
During the year some 30,000 square miles of 40-chains-to-l-inch scale interim
maps were completed, bringing the total area of the Province covered by this series to
224,000 square miles (see Index 5, inside back cover of this Report).
This completes the present requirements for this particular series of maps for the
Forest Surveys Division, inasmuch as there is now complete coverage of all the economically important forest areas in the Province north to the 57th parallel of latitude.
The general usefulness of these maps is indicated by the fact that 15,000 ozalid
prints were supplied for general use during the year.
Compilation of the 20-chains-to-l-inch scale photos obtained during the year was
limited to preparing principal-point lay-downs. This work is well in hand, and with the
completion of the 40-chain series it is anticipated that detailed 20-chains-to-l-inch scale
mapping can be started early in 1959.
INSTRUMENT-SHOP
The Instrument-shop was busy throughout the year on routine maintenance and
repair of cameras and general equipment. Most field instruments had been brought to a
very good state of repair and little further work was required on them.
A prototype of the new fixed-focus enlarger, incorporating the LogEtron automatic
dodger, was completed at the end of the year and initial tests have been very encouraging.
It is expected to place this equipment in production early next year.
For details of the various operations, reference should be made to the accompanying
appendices.
Production Record, 1958, Air Photo Processing Laboratory
1946-55
1956
1957 1958
Orand
Total
Processing completed—
Air films (averaging 117 exposures)..
Air films (averaging 220 exposures)
Air films (obliques averaging 40 exposures)..
Air films (test rolls) .
Mountain station films (6 exposures each). 	
Printing completed—
Standard prints (5 by 5 inches enlarged to 9 by 9 inches)-
Contact prints (5 by 5 inches)..
Contact prints (9V_ by Wi inches)  	
Contact prints (large to 20 by 24 inches)	
Enlargements (various sizes to 30 by 30 inches)	
Mountain station enlargements (11 by 14 inches)-
Lantern-slides (2 by 2 inches)..
Autopositlve films (various sizes to 30 by 40 inches)	
Miscellaneous photographs, copies, and Kelsh plates	
Requisitions completed  	
1,855
33
2,510
942,098
42,829
1,271
11,107
13,627
346
4,123
1,102
11,914
111
10
387
137,190
731
384
1,524
2,926
Nil
980
538
2,526
148
6
278
152,556
1,172
463
2,018
1,561
22
593
338
2,270
238
5
11
9
183
135,326
423
823
453
1,190
908
4
340
248
1,934
2,352
5
60
9
3,358
1,367,170
45,155
823
2,571
15,839
19,025
372
6,036
2,226
18,644 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
S 57
Orders for Standard Prints (9 by 9 Inches) from
British Columbia Negatives, 1958
Reprints
Loans
Requisitions
Number
Requisitions
Number
Private—
476
125
86
29
29
8
50
168
13
3,435
1,862
5,614
13,915
835
246
1,141
4,862
203
324
68
23
1
15
3,278
1,201
506
59
356
40
98
13
771
2,436
39
Totals            	
984        |        32,131
582                  8,646
Federal Government agencies—
15
6
4
16
8
1,426
750
90
717
557
3
5
3
4
4
44
55
28
99
31
Totals  	
49
3,540
19                     257
Provincial Government—
153
40
46
2
6
31
62
77
48
29
30
3
18
21
3
10
4
9,345
4,674
2,026
4
65
1,174
65,191
20,162
2,639
892
1,138
8
1,014
276
8
107
63
457
12
144
8
9
103
389
17
85
78
30
1
39
76
33
167
42,435
Land Inspectors _	
Water Rights Branch	
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)	
103
2,156
32
65
1,341
2,645
223
1,508
1,269
297
9
1,247
1,612
224
1,248
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Totals	
583               108,786
1,648                  56,414
1.616         I       144.457
2,249
65,317 S 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1958 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects
H
3
3
O
Vi
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S 0-
f 2
•3-=
Accomplishment
o
U
C
E
a
a
t-H
00
O  o_
So
oi
u
Is
1_ .)
a. u
C3
32
.3
t/5
o
U
o
H
A. Basic vertical cover—
Hr.
1
Vlin.
15
5
$24.42
1
1
	
2. Improvement flying, E. & N. Land Grant.—
Average costs 	
10
$12.21
$113.74
$8.35
	
$122.09
17
21
18
8
24
9
28
13
14
13
17
22
45
23
31
43
50
35
10
05
20
10
00
15
10
40
40
20
50
30
50
05
	
	
770
1,215
837
80
1,990
596
1,571
538
401
1,233
1,140
1,162
2,660
1,073
2,109
2,875
D. Forest   inventory   cover   (approximately   20
chains to the inch) —
1. New cover—
850
$1,826.53
2,210.62
1,860.74
827.90
2,492.28
928.92
2,867.87
1,357.12
1,451.04
1,399.83
1,809.53
2,287.44
4,627.99
2,406.96
3,260.46
4,489.55
$1,452.22
2,291.49
1,578.58
150.88
3,753.14
1,124.06
2,962.91
1,014.67
756.29
2,325.44
2,150.04
2,191.53
5,016.76
2,023.68
3,977.57
5,418.71
$3,278.75
1,245
	
4,502.11
1,140
160
1,580
545
1,645
560
405
1,275
1,180
1,185
2,795
3,439.32
978.78
Prince George District, Sub-zone 934
Prince George District, Sub-zone 935	
Prince George District, Sub-zone 940    ...
Prince George District, Sub-zone 941	
Prince Rupert District, Sub-zone 949
Prince Rupert District, Sub-zone 950	
6,245.42
2,052.98
5,830.78
2,371.79
2,207.33
3,725.27
3,959.57
4,478.97
9,644.75
Kamloops District, Sub-zone 977- 	
8551	
1,800| 	
2,4151	
4,430.64
7,238.03
Nelson District, Sub-zone 973	
9,908.26
352
44
30
15
20,250
2,623
19,635|	
	
$36,104.78
14,026.30
$38,187.97| $74,292.75
14,380.41\	
2. Improvement flying, all districts, 1958	
396
45
22,873
$3.67
19,635
$3.78
$36,104.78
$38,187.97
$74,292.75
Average costs. 	
	
E. Forest engineering projects—
Horsethief Creek Road reconnaissance - -
1
2
2
6
1
7
1
50
00
00
50
50
40
45
15
71
10
8
138
56
305
7
19
50
8
5
76
	
$166.78
181.98
181.98
621.73
166.78
697.62
68.24
113.74
$118.57
16.70
13.36
230.46
93.52
509.35
11.'69
31.73
$285.35
198.68
Flyhills Road reconnaissance.-	
Ahbau-Willow Road and Bridge reconnais-
195 34
	
852.19
White  River  Road   and  Bridge  reconnais-
	
24
260.30
202
2
16
1,206.97
Forest Service Marine Station, Vancouver
79.93
145.47
24
10
614
$5.25
383
$2,198.85
$1,025.38
$3,224.23
Average costs	
$8.42
,
F. Forest protection—
Prince George District burns (6 areas)	
Nelson District burns (4 areas)-    -
Vancouver District burns (18 areas)	
Kamloops District reconnaissance .
3
8
8
3
55
30
05
05
120
31
202
86
$356.40
773.42
735.47
280.52
$200.40
51.77
337.34
$556.80
20
130
	
825.19
1,072.81
280.52
 	
Totals                                        	
23
35
353
$6.95
86
$6.47
150
$12.65
$2,145.81|     $589.51
 1  - 	
$2,735.32
..    ...    .
G. Multiplex mapping projects—
Cowichan River (RC8)        -                     	
4
3
10
9
35
35
50
55
319
217
270
103
1
300
1
$417.01|     $532.73
326.02|       362.39
985.701       450.90
902.35)        172.01
$949.74
Nanaimo Lakes (RC8)  - —   	
North Okanagan (RC8)	
210
355
130
688.41
1,436.60
Prince George (RC8)                   	
1,074.36
Totals            - —	
28
55
909
$4.56
995
$4.17
	
$2,631,081 $1,518.03
1
$4,149.11
1
	
Charged to all districts. surveys and mapping branch
1958 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continued
S 59
«
u
s\>
<
3
o
o g.
Zp.
Accomplishment
o
u
00
1
>,
K
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__ o
P.U
_)
C/.S
QJ   D
as
W_
a
.2
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H. Special projects—
1. Vertical cover—
Legal Surveys Division—
Hr.
1
2
1
12
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
Min.
00
55
45
35
30
35
15
15
45
25
25
00
00
55
15
15
50
72
149
110
4
3
3
312
19
47
14
30
49
30
41
23
20
5
2
1
40
60
48
1
495
30
80
2
34
13
16
22
$90.99
265.42
159.23
53.05
45.50
53.05
1,114.63
113.74
159.23
128.93
219.92
90.99
90.99
83.44
113.74
113.74
75.79
$120.24
248.83
183.70
6.68
5.01
5.01
521.04
31.73
78.49
23.38
50.10
81.83
50.10
68.47
38.41
33.40
8.35
$211.23
	
514.25
Castlegar-Christina Lake Highway	
342.93
59.73
50.51
58.06
Geographic Division—
Kamloops, map revision	
Arrow Lakes, map revision 	
1,635.67
145.47
	
	
237.72
Cascade-U.S. Border, map revision
Water Rights Branch—
Keremeos-U.S. Border, erosion	
Vedder River, erosion (RC8)	
Squamish River, erosion (RC8)	
Langford, map revision (R.C8)	
Reg'onal Planning Board—
152.31
270.02
172.82
141 09
11
7
1
151.91
152.15
University of British Columbia—
147.14
Centennial Committee—
Gorge Park   	
84.14
Totals
32
40
931
$4.86
22
$22.36
841
$4.80
$2,972.38
$1,554.77
$4,527.15
Average costs  _  	
2. Tricamera cover—
Department of Mines—
26
40
210
$13.22
60
$46.28
$2,426.43
$350.70
$2,777.13
Average costs -  —
I. Miscellaneous flying projects—
R.C.M.P.—
1
1
3
1
1
17
2
1
33
1
2
2
7
40
10
00
55
20
55
05
40
45
30
35
00
15
	
1
$140.01
106.19
272.97
174.43
121.29
1,630.18
189.53
151.59
'2,835.34
$140.01
Travel Bureau—
	
$10.02
140.28
106 19
6
84
272.97
Health Department—
184.45
Fisheries Research Board—
4
261.57
Internal—
—
1,630.18
20
22
33.40
36.74
	
222.93
Incidental obliques ._ _ _	
	
36
188.33
59
82
'126.02
-217.02
'175.02
'609.07
	
'97.94
'33.20
	
Camera test (RC8)..              	
Training aircrew	
Totals	
77
50
273
4|       37|	
$2,786.19
$220.44
$3,006.63
611
50
26,168
19.7471  7.4761
$51,379.26
$43,455.15
3$94,834.41
2 Charged to all other projects.
3 Includes $1,200.76 charged to Department of Mines, $127.22 paid by Forest Protection Division, and $2,199.19
paid by Forest Surveys Division.   Dees not include purchase of RC8 camera.   Note 3
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
As the title of the Water Rights Branch suggests, the people and industries of British
Columbia have a " right " to the " use " of water in this Province. At first reflection, the right
to use water might be considered as basic as the right to use air or to admire the scenery. And
so it is, but because it is a commodity which everyone must have, it becomes necessary for
government to control its use or the " haves " would be making a great deal of money selling
it to the " have nots." The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government
which administers the control of the use of water. The Branch administers the " Water Act,"
which has been developed by legislation into an excellent administrative vehicle, used as a model
in the initiation of other similar Acts in other countries.
The main principles of the " Water Act " are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all water at any time in any
stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in the right of
the Province. The common-law principle of riparian water right has been
abolished.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the licence.
(3) A licence-holder's priority of right is generally based upon the date his application
was recorded by a Water Recorder. Earlier licences have priority over licences
issued later.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the rentals, and observance of the regulations of the " Water Act."
No one can adopt a " dog in the manger " attitude to this Province's water.
(5) Every licence and permit that is made appurtenant to any land, mine, or undertaking shall pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof. Ownerships
of licences are therefore automatically transferred with their appurtenant land,
mine, or undertaking.
The second dominant function of the Water Rights Branch is to supervise and assist the
administration of the improvement districts which have been incorporated under the " Water
Act" for irrigation, waterworks, drainage, street-lighting, providing financial aid to hospitals,
and several other purposes. An improvement district is a self-governing public corporate body
administered by elected trustees. The undertakings of the improvement districts can be financed
by Provincially guaranteed debenture issues.
The administration of the " Water Act " is carried out by the Comptroller of Water Rights,
and his staff are located at a headquarters office in Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, Nelson, and
Prince George.
There is much correspondence, field investigation, and record-keeping of an exacting nature
associated with this administration. The filing and recording of all the mass of data associated
with the use of British Columbia water and the improvement districts is, in itself, an assignment
of no small magnitude.
Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this Province is associated
with the use of British Columbia water. A large number of settlements have been incorporated
into improvement districts to operate community projects and provide essential amenities. The
Government and its Civil Service are therefore called upon to assist and direct this expansion
in the public interest.
The Water Rights Branch, therefore, has a technical function as well as an administrative
one and is called upon to carry out many and varied investigations and studies. The members of
the Branch take an active part on a number of important committees and boards dealing with
the disposition of the Province's water resources. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 63
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., Comptroller
The general period of recession that has beset so much of this Province's productivity
has seemed to have had a reverse effect upon the activities of this Branch. By any yardstick that can be employed, an increased activity is demonstrated. As examples, the gross
revenue increased 11V-. per cent to another new high of $1,273,599.58, and the number
of statutory procedures under the " Water Act " increased by about 10 per cent to a total
of 4,057. This last matter has become of great significance as the magnitude of the present work is slowly passing the ability of the general office to deal promptly and efficiently
with each item as it comes to hand.
As has been noted in the past, much work has been necessary in dealing with the
improvement districts constituted under the " Water Act." The routine matters of
administration of the district remain under the direction of Mr. A. K. Sutherland, solicitor, with an engineering section, headed by Mr. A. S. Goodyear, Senior Hydraulic Engineer, inquiring into matters of a technical nature and reporting on feasibility of projects
and adequateness of planning.
Very satisfactory results were obtained once again from the snow-survey programme
under the direction of Mr. H. I. Hunter, meteorologist, and some modest expansions were
undertaken in line with the growing need within the Province for basic information of this
nature.
A total of twenty-four reports were prepared within the several engineering sections,
and work was continued on several large projects, such as the North Okanagan water-
supply, the Greater Prince George water-supply, flooding on the Cowichan and Vedder
Rivers, and power investigations, such as the assessment of the power potential of the
Stikine River.
A major report upon which much Branch engineering has been done was the recently
completed " Preliminary Report of the Fraser River Board on Flood Control and Hydroelectric Power in the Fraser River Basin." Another group of Branch engineers has been
actively engaged on Columbia River development studies in order to keep the senior
Departmental officials advised on these matters and to assist in the preparation of the
consulting engineer's report   This report is rapidly being completed.
The Comptroller served on several boards and committees of both formal and
informal nature. Two of the more important groups were the Fraser River Board and
the Pollution-control Board. During the month of February the Comptroller was loaned
to the Government of the Yukon to report upon a flooding problem in the town of Mayo.
Reorganization of the Branch along lines of responsibility through sections and divisions has been substantially completed with the addition of an audit accountant who
is specifically dealing with the financial affairs of the improvement districts, especially
those matters in which Government guarantees have been granted relative to debenture
issues. The effects of these steps has been to significantly improve the working arrangements within the Branch and to train a cadre of personnel in the experience of administration.
Excellent co-operation has been extended by the several branches and departments
of the Provincial Government to the efforts of this organization, and especially the assistance of the geologists of the Department of Mines must be acknowledged.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
There are 235 improvement districts under the supervision of the Water Rights
Branch. These districts are incorporated for various purposes, among which are: To
extend financial aid to hospitals; irrigation; waterworks; fire protection; street-lighting;
sewage-disposal;  garbage collection and disposal;  land protection;  dyking;   drainage; S 64
department of lands and forests
WATER   RIGHTS BRANCH - REVENUE   AND EXPENSES
Fiscal   Years     1935 - 1956
DISTRIBUTION      DIAGRAM      For    Fiscal.   Year    1357-53
(0
Q_
<
J
J
0
Q
1_.
O
<n
Q
Z
<
_3
O
x
h
F1SCAL    YEARS        (Ending  March 31st)
Plate 1. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 65
the operation and maintenance of cemeteries; the provision and maintenance of parks
and playgrounds; and the operation and maintenance of airports. Seventeen improvement districts were incorporated this year, as follows: Pine Tree Place Improvement
District, Similkameen Improvement District, Koksilah Valley Hospital Improvement
District No. 19, South Hazelton Waterworks District, North Wellington Waterworks District, Eagle Cliff (Bowen Island) Improvement District, South Central Vancouver Island
Hospital Improvement District No. 20, Fort Nelson Hospital Improvement District No.
21, Savona Waterworks District, Highland Waterworks District, 100 Mile House Sewage
District, North Canyon Improvement District, Waby Lake Drainage District, Hillcrest
Waterworks District, Rutland Fire Protection District, Central Cariboo Hospital Improvement District No. 22, and Cumberland Street Lighting District.
Pursuant to section 58 of the " Water Act," $181,636.95 was advanced to improvement districts by the Province of British Columbia in 1958 to provide fire protection,
financial aid to hospitals, and street-lighting, and will be collected by the Province by way
of taxes over a period of time from one to twenty years, depending on the capability of the
area to repay. The tax levy for 1958 to take care of previous advances and the aforementioned advances was $492,020.40.
Pursuant to the " Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act," chapter 38 of the
Statutes of British Columbia, 1945, and amendments thereto, the Province of British
Columbia guaranteed debentures and temporary borrowings with respect to both principal
and interest in the amount of $2,939,000 after this Branch recommended the feasibility
of the projects and, further, that the areas could liquidate the debentures as they become
due. Of this amount, $804,000 was used for the purpose of installing waterworks systems
in certain improvement districts within the Province, and the balance of $2,135,000 was
used for hospital purposes.
WATER-USERS' COMMUNITIES
There are fifty-one water-users' communities in the Province at the present time.
They are incorporated by certificate of incorporation issued by the Comptroller of Water
Rights and are usually small corporate bodies of six or more persons holding water
licences. Their powers are more restricted than those of an improvement district, and
the administration is carried out by a manager under the supervision of the Comptroller
of Water Rights.   Four water-users' communities were dissolved this year.
INTERNATIONAL WATERS
For background information and descriptions concerning rivers in British Columbia
falling within the category of international streams, the reader is referred to the previous
issues of the Lands Service Annual Report.
GENERAL
Early in 1957, as a result of agreement between the Governments of Canada and the
United States, a move was made toward discussion at the diplomatic level of the problems
associated with international rivers. Preliminary exploratory talks between the representatives of the two countries were actually carried out but were discontinued during
1958, awaiting the completion of various engineering and economic studies which were
being effected by agencies in both countries.
The Province continues to strive to maintain a close contact with officials of the
Canadian Government on these matters to provide every possible assistance and to ensure
that the Provincial view-point receives adequate consideration.
PLANNING ACTIVITIES, COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN
There are many agencies and organizations involved in the planning activities associated with the potential development of the Columbia River.    Individual organizations S 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
are carrying out studies and preparing reports. Engineering committees and study
groups, some of which are international, have been formed to investigate various aspects.
The progress during the year of those of particular significance are summarized briefly
in the following paragraphs.
Provincial Government Studies
During the past two years an engineering and economic review of the hydro-electric
power potential of the Columbia River in Canada was carried out mainly through the
services of a firm of consulting engineers under the direction of the Comptroller of Water
Rights. These studies were completed during 1958 and the report submitted to the
Provincial Government.
The report covers the potentialities of the various methods of developing the Columbia River in Canada, taking Provincial power requirements into consideration and the
integration of Columbia projects with existing power systems and other resources within
the Province. Important aspects were studied, such as stages of development, transmission requirements, load forecasts, operation, and the economics of individual projects as
they fit into the over-all development schemes.
Preliminary designs and cost estimates were worked out for all sites, together
with power studies, to allow comparisons between the various alternative methods of
development.
The considerable assistance from other departments of the Provincial Government
in carrying out certain phases of these studies is gratefully acknowledged. The Mineral-
ogical Branch of the Department of Mines has carried out studies and provided advice on
geological aspects, and the Bureau of Economics and Statistics has obtained data and
assisted in the load forecast and power-market studies.
International Columbia River Engineering Committee
Under the joint reference of 1944 from the Governments of Canada and the United
States, the International Joint Commission was directed to conduct studies and investigations to determine from an international point of view what might be ultimate plans of
development of the water resources of the Columbia River. The International Columbia
River Engineering Board, composed of senior officials from the Federal Government
departments of both countries, was formed to co-ordinate these studies. A committee
was then formed to carry out the necessary studies and investigations and prepare reports
for submission to the International Joint Commission. The committee is composed of
field representatives from the Federal Government departments of both countries together
with the Deputy Minister of Lands representing the Province of British Columbia.
Until two years ago the efforts of the committee were directed primarily toward
collecting the necessary basic data required for planning purposes. Since that time the
committee has been carrying out engineering and economic studies and preparing a
comprehensive report covering the water resources of the Columbia Basin. The comprehensive report will set forth alternative ultimate plans of development based on the
assumption that all elements of each plan will be part of an international system with
fully integrated operation. Preliminary designs and costing of each project, together with
detailed system power studies, have been carried out. Power and flood-control benefits
have been determined on a system basis. The report was mainly completed during 1958
and will be presented to the International Joint Commission early in 1959.
During the summer of 1958 the members of the International Joint Commission,
accompanied by advisers and some members of the Board and committee, made an
inspection tour of the Columbia Basin for purposes of familiarizing themselves with the
physical features of the basin in preparation for receiving the comprehensive report. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 67
The Pacific Northwest Governors Power Policy Committee
This group was formed in 1954 to study the problems associated with the development of adequate amounts of power to meet the estimated future loads of the Pacific
Northwest region, and to recommend procedures and methods to expedite such development. The Minister of Lands and Forests for British Columbia sat with the Governors
of the several north-western States at the policy level. The principal United States agencies concerned and public- and investor-owned utilities both in the north-west States and
British Columbia were represented. An engineering committee and technical-staff
nucleus was established.
Although the committee carried out useful studies, during the past few years it
became evident that it duplicated, to some extent, the work of other organizations. This,
together with differences in opinion at the policy level in the United States on subjects to
be studied, resulted in the disbanding of the organization during 1958.
SKAGIT RIVER
At the October, 1958, meeting of the International Joint Commission, the City of
Seattle submitted an application to the Commission for an order to supplement the order
of the Commission dated January, 1942, covering flooding across the International
Boundary as a result of development on the Skagit River in the United States. British
Columbia was represented at the hearing by the Attorney-General and Deputy Attorney-
General, with the Comptroller of Water Rights as technical adviser. Further action on
this matter awaits additional written presentation on the subject by the principals involved.
FRASER RIVER BASIN
In October of this year the Fraser River Board presented to the Governments of
Canada and British Columbia its preliminary report on "Flood Control and Hydroelectric Power in the Fraser River Basin." The report was compiled on direction from
the two Governments and was the second and last of two completed by the Board under
the same reference. The earlier report, submitted in 1956, made reference only to the
aspects of flood-control, whereas this report, as suggested by the title, dealt with the
control of flooding and the hydro-electric potential of the Fraser River system.
This work represents the culmination of investigations and studies made over a
ten-year period by the Fraser River Board, and its predecessor, the Dominion-Provincial
Board, Fraser River Basin. During that period the Comptroller of Water Rights was a
continuing member of the Boards, and the Water Rights Branch, being one of the agencies
concerned, was actively engaged in many of the investigations, both field and office.
Latterly it was also in part responsible for a staff which completed preliminary plans for
over forty storage and hydro-electric power projects.
The studies upon which the report was compiled covered the hydro-electric resource
development of the basin under several alternatives. For those studies in which the
whole basin was under consideration for power development it was found that the
capacity of the necessary power reservoirs, if manipulated for spring freshet regulation,
would be capable of providing flood-control without losing their ability to meet a firm
demand for power. However, such development, particularly in respect to dams on the
main stem, would conflict with the salmon runs of the Fraser River system. Lacking a
solution to this problem, a partial development of the basin was studied whereby dams
and control-works would operate on the more remote streams where fish runs were
negligible or where adequate facilities for the passage of fish could probably be provided.
The partial regulation or control of the river under this method, couplied with an adequate
dyking system, particularly in the Lower Fraser Valley, would provide the necessary
flood-control, and at the same time could be self-supporting by virtue of the power marketed from the hydro-electric plants. S 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(4)
(5)
OPERATIONS DIVISION
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Chief, Operations Division
The Operations Division performs the administrative duties arising from the " Water
Act" and the regulations issued under that Act. This Division also provides limited
engineering assistance and accounting assistance and control to the improvement districts,
water-users' communities, and individual water licensees. The organization of the Operations Division is as follows:—
(1) General office, supervised by Chief Clerk.
(2) Administrative draughting office, under supervision of Chief Draughtsman.
(3) Five district offices, each under supervision of a District Engineer, located
at Nelson, Kelowna, Kamloops, Victoria, and Prince George. The latter
commenced operation in June, 1958.
Improvement Districts Engineering Section, under a Senior Hydraulic
Engineer.
An audit accountant, which position was added to the establishment in
June, 1958.'
The volume of work required to be handled by the Operations Division has continued to increase. The 977 applications for water licences received in 1958 is the highest
number received in any single year since the formation of the Water Rights Branch and
represents an increase of 42 per cent over the average of the preceding five years. This
increase has resulted in a considerable backlog of work accumulating in some sections,
especially in the district offices, where almost all applications must be investigated individually. There are now 15,762 active water licences on our records.
The Improvement Districts Engineering Section has continued its work of investigating new water-supply projects and has also given considerable engineering advice or
assistance to older districts where the replacement of works has become an urgent matter.
To cope with the expanding interest in water occurring in the northerly part of the
Province, a new district office was opened this year at Prince George. We have also
added to the staff an Audit Accountant, whose chief function is to assist and supervise
the improvement districts and water-users' communities in their accounting.
The following tables and reports outline the volume and types of work handled by
the Operations Division.
General Office
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
584
17
16
33
490
965
327
137
635
48
30
27
544
618
205
108
747
25
11
17
632
794
111
93
687
32
16
45
590
1,902
211
125
977
Applications for apportionments	
Applications for change of appurtenancy	
16
25
54
298
2,299
257
131
Totals             .
2,569
2,215
2,430
3,608
4,057
556
485
528
347
508
324
570
364
562
275
1,041
875
832
934
837
Draughting Office
Water applications cleared and plotted on rnaps.
Conditional-licence plats compiled and traced—
Final-licence plats compiled and traced	
New water-rights maps compiled and traced	
977
562
275
29 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 69
Draughting Office—Continued
Water-rights maps revised        30
Reference maps renewed        23
Water clearances (cancellations, change of ownership, etc.)— 2,556
Land clearances  (purchases, Crown grants, leases, timber
sales, etc.)   4,759
New improvement district plans compiled and traced        15
Improvement districts (amended)        17
Land cancellations  2,450
During the year many inquiries by the public and other departments were taken
care of. The usual requests for maps and other information by our District Engineers
were also attended to.
Considerable time was spent during the year checking petitions and drawing up
legal descriptions for improvement districts.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS AUDIT ACCOUNTANT
To assist in the work concerned with the supervision of the administration of
improvement districts, an audit accountant was added to the staff of the Water Rights
Branch this year.
A complete review of all financial returns rendered by improvement districts was
made, and action was taken to obtain the financial statements of prior years required to
bring all files up to date. Many small districts, whose annual financial returns were not
adequate to disclose a true financial position, were contacted and advice given to assist in
the preparation of standard returns. To this end and to help the small districts in maintaining adequate records, a pamphlet was prepared and distributed to the secretaries of
many small districts.
A system of notification of principal repayments and interest payments becoming
due from districts under obligation to the Province of British Columbia through loans
made or debenture issues guaranteed under the " Improvement Districts Assistance Loan
Act" was instituted.
A number of districts were visited during the period, and assistance given in financial
and administrative matters after investigation had been made into their current position.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS ENGINEERING SECTION
During 1958 the Section carried out a number of investigations on water-supply and
irrigation problems connected with the existing and proposed improvement districts. In
some cases this involved the preparation of reports containing preliminary designs and
cost estimates to determine the economic feasibility of the projects. Some of these
investigations are described below.
Another important phase of the work has been the checking of the plans and specifications submitted by districts desiring Government guarantee of their debenture issues to
finance their projects. The plans are normally prepared by consulting engineers engaged
by the districts. In many instances these projects had been the subject of feasibility
reports prepared by this Section.
Early in the year a considerable amount of information was compiled for submission
to the Royal Commission appointed to study the tree-fruits industry. The findings of the
Commission have not yet been released.
Major reports prepared during the year follow.
Arden Improvement District
An investigation was made and a report completed on a water-supply for Arden
Improvement District, near Courtenay. The scheme was found not economically feasible S 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
for the forty-three potential consumers then available. Since the report was written, the
number of consumers has increased to fifty-six, making it possible for the district to proceed with construction.   Picket Spring is the source of supply.
North Pemberton Water-supply
A field investigation was made and a report prepared for a community water-supply
for an area immediately north of the Village of Pemberton in the Lillooet River valley.
There are about fifteen homes and a four-room school in the vicinity. At present water
is obtained from wells, but it is of very poor quality.
Our report indicates that it would be feasible to have a community water-supply if
all the residents participated. The proposed source of supply is a small creek at the side
of the valley about a mile from the settled area. The report has been delivered to the
community, but it is not yet known if the project will proceed.
East Osoyoos Irrigation District
In late August the pumping main of East Osoyoos Irrigation District failed. The
district was faced with the alternatives of repair or complete rehabilitation of its system.
A report was prepared in which the cost of complete rehabilitation was estimated to cost
$29,000. Financing complete rehabilitation would require the irrigation charges to be
increased from $25 to $32 per acre.
The Trustees have decided to replace only the damaged portion of the system. The
remainder of the system is in poor condition, and its eventual replacement must be faced.
Ellison Irrigation District
The Ellison Irrigation District requested the assistance of the Branch in planning the
replacement of the system serving the 270 acres of orchard land at the south end of the
district. The system was originally designed for furrow irrigation and is in poor condition.
A field investigation was made, and a preliminary design for a proposed pressure system
has been completed.
Tofino Water-supply
The water-supply for the Village of Tofino from a small creek failed due to an
extended drought this summer. The village anticipated that it would be necessary to
convey water from other more distant streams. It was found that the existing system
could be improved.
Hagensborg Water-supply
A request was received for assistance in planning a community water-supply for the
Hagensborg area of the Bella Coola Valley. An office study was made and a report
prepared. About seventy homes would be served by a distribution system, with the
intake being located on Snootshlee Creek.   It is not yet known if the scheme will proceed.
Naramata Irrigation District Rehabilitation
The system rehabilitation scheme for the Naramata Irrigation District, which was
the subject of a preliminary report in 1957, has now been completed. The installation
closely followed the design proposed by the Water Rights Branch.
A screening and settling unit, designed for the district by this Section, was installed
at the south intake. Its successful performance during this irrigation season has decided
the growers to construct a similar installation at the north intake.
Fairview Heights Irrigation District
A report covering the operation and administration of the Fairview Heights Irrigation District was prepared at the request of the Trustees. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 71
The district, located 4 miles from Keremeos, was formed in 1951 under the auspices
of the V.L.A. and P.F.R.A. Operational problems had led to some dissatisfaction among
the growers. The Water Rights Branch report investigated the complaints and suggested
remedial measures to be taken.
B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District
The plans and specifications, prepared by the P.F.R.A. and covering the complete
rehabilitation of the system serving the B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District, were studied.
This scheme has been the subject of several reports by Federal and Provincial agencies, and its implementation was finally made possible by grants from Federal and Provincial Governments. The works are presently under construction and are scheduled for
completion before the beginning of the 1959 irrigation season.
Fulford Harbour Waterworks District
A report covering the feasibility of rehabilitating the domestic water-supply system
serving the Fulford Harbour Waterworks District, Saltspring Island, was submitted to
the Trustees.
The existing system, installed in 1946, is not winterized, and the water-supply is
frequently interrupted by frozen pipe-lines.
The district's Trustees have accepted the recommendation contained in the Water
Rights report and are proceeding with plans for system replacement.
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria district office administers the " Water Act" in an area of approximately
50,000 square miles, which includes the relatively thickly populated and rapidly developing Lower Fraser Valley, the Sechelt Peninsula, Vancouver Island, and all the Gulf
Islands, and extends from Vancouver up the coast for some 350 miles.
In 1958 an extremely dry season was experienced, so that minimum flows have
occurred in most of the streams in the area. Many small streams have become fully
recorded, and applications for irrigation-water from these have had to be declined.
Some irrigation licences have been issued on a restricted basis—that is, April 1st to June
30th, when there is sufficient water available that can be of limited use for some types of
agriculture.
Work Carried Out during the Year
During the period from November 1st, 1957, to October 31st, 1958, some thirty-six
special studies, investigations, and reports were made—many of a controversial nature.
Most of these were amicably settled.
There were 384 water-licence applications received, of which 274 were reported on,
fifteen applications being recommended to be refused. The office is now entering the
winter season with a greater backlog of unfinished work than ever before. Seventy-six
final-licence surveys and reports were completed, and many more await plotting. One
hundred and fifty-six extensions of time for completion of works were recommended, and
102 abandonments and cancellations of water licences were received. There are now
4,421 water licences in existence in the Victoria District. During the period of review,
239 conditional and ninety-seven final water licences were added to our register. S 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna District office, administering an area of approximately 15,000 square
miles, comprises the Kettle, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage-basins, the Shuswap
River drainage-basin from Sicamous to its source, and that part of the Columbia River
drainage-basin from Boat Encampment, the northerly limit of the Columbia River, to a
point about 15 miles south of Arrowhead on the Upper Arrow Lake.
General
Above normal temperatures and below normal rainfall during the latter part of the
season resulted in general water shortage throughout the area, several irrigation districts
having insufficient water-supply. At least two districts are now proposing to increase
their storage facilities. Numerous complaints caused by water shortage were received.
Heavy irrigation in some areas resulted in several seepage problems.
Routine administrative work was curtailed to some extent by staff changes. Water-
supply of many of the streams is now becoming limited, and new water applications on
such sources require considerable time before recommendations are made. Demand for
the services provided to the public is increasing.
Summary of Year's Routine Work
The following is a summary of routine work carried out by the Kelowna District
office for the period November 1st, 1957, to October 31st, 1958:—
Applications received  131
Applications investigated   116
Final water-licence reports  40
Amendments to water licences  65
Dam inspections  50
Proposed dam-sites inspected   8
Miscellaneous investigations and surveys, water-supply, erosion,
dams, etc. jl  62
Meetings with improvement districts and others  70
Major Engineering Investigations
Proposed East Princeton Waterworks District
In response to a request of the residents at a meeting in April, 1958, a preliminary
survey and report was made on a waterworks system using water from Allison Creek.
Later the community decided to drill a well. The project appears to be feasible and
formation of a waterworks district is anticipated.
Albert Canyon Water-supply
Investigation of water-supply and the possibility of forming an improvement district
was carried out. The completion of the Trans-Canada Highway is expected to increase
the importance of a community water-supply scheme in this area, near Revelstoke.
Christina Waterworks District
This district, about 15 miles east of Grand Forks, is rehabilitating its existing system
and preparing to serve additional areas, based on designs prepared by Kelowna District
office. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 73
Smithson-Alphonse Dam on Mission Creek
This dam diverts water into a ditch which serves four water-users' communities near
Kelowna. The dam was originally constructed by the Provincial Government in connection with Mission Creek flood-control project. Because of heavy sediment movement,
the dam had seriously deteriorated. Plans for a new structure were prepared by Kelowna
District office and the dam was replaced in August, 1958. The Provincial Government
contributed 50 per cent of the cost of repairs.
Illecillewaet River Erosion
During the freshet of 1958 an investigation was made of stream-bank erosion on the
river at East Revelstoke. The erosion has been progressing over several years, and at
present is confined to unimproved land.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops District office covers the middle section of the Fraser River drainage-
basin from Spuzzum to a point 20 miles north of Quesnel.
The past summer has been the hottest and driest for many years, and this resulted
in a severe water shortage in the small streams used for irrigation, especially in the Dry
Belt area south and west of Kamloops. This condition produced many conflicts among
water-users who had not experienced such conditions before and did not know what
their rights entitled them to. A great deal of staff time during the irrigation season was
spent in resolving such conflicts.
The water shortage during the past summer resulted in an increased interest in the
construction of storage dams. Four new dams were built and five were reconstructed or
received major repairs. Plans for these dams were approved and inspections were made
during construction to ensure that safe practices were followed in their construction.
The year's most important dam-construction project involved improvements to the
Badger Lake system of the Vinsulla Irrigation District by the raising of the Badger Lake
dams and the construction of a new earth dam and a concrete control dam. The new
works triple the storage capacity available to the district and increase the safety factor
on the system, which had been causing concern.
Summary of Year's Work
The following is a summary of work carried out by the staff of the Kamloops office
for the period from November 1st, 1957, to October 31st, 1958:—
New applications investigated and reported on  135
Conditional licences inspected  112
Final-licence surveys made     55
Dam inspections     82
Proposed dam-sites inspected       9
Miscellaneous investigations and surveys     88
Well logs collected     17
Meetings attended     15
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
J. P. Riley, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson District office administers Water Rights Branch matters over some
25,000 square miles in the south-eastern part of British Columbia, comprising all of the
Kootenay Land District, excepting the Revelstoke area. S 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The below normal precipitation during the past summer and the subsequent low
stream-flows resulted in a considerable increase in the number of applications received
by this office. This condition also caused an upsurge in the number of other problems
that required investigation and settlement by this office.
Summary of Year's Work
New applications received  206
New applications investigated and reported  71
Final-licence survey reports  60
Investigations, flooding, pollution  25
Meetings with improvement districts  and water-users' communities   19
Miscellaneous meetings and investigations  54
Routine calls and problems  913
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT OFFICE
E. G. Harrison, P.Eng., District Engineer
The increasing demands for water use in North Central British Columbia necessitated the opening of the Prince George District office in 1958. This office administers
the " Water Act" in five water districts—namely, the Prince George Water District,
which was previously under the Kamloops District office, and the Peace River, Fort
Fraser, Hazelton, and Prince Rupert Water Districts, which were formerly administered
by the Victoria office.
The principal industries using water are mining and logging. Regarding agriculture, which is of major importance in the Peace River area, there is little irrigation practised thus far. It is estimated that only 3 per cent of the cultivated area of approximately
300,000 acres is presently under irrigation.
Besides organizing and preparing the office for its future role in the Water Rights
Branch affairs, several community water-supply projects were investigated, existing
hydraulic structures inspected, and land-drainage problems examined. Twelve water-
licence applications have been inspected. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 75
HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATION DIVISION
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Chief, Hydraulic Investigation Division
A sound water-resource programme requires that an adequate inventory of existing
and possible future water use in British Columbia be continuously maintained.
The Hydraulic Investigation Division of the Water Rights Branch has, through the
years, carried out such a programme. In the more settled areas of the Province the
problems under study have been those connected with the beneficial use of water or the
protection of built-up areas from the ravages of flooding and erosion.
Thus during the past year the availability of water for domestic purposes has been
reported upon for the Courtenay-Comox region of Vancouver Island, the Greater Prince
George area, and the Lower Fraser Valley.
The destructive force of flood-waters becomes increasingly apparent as population
centres invade the lower valley areas formerly considered as flood-plains for the rivers.
In this field hydraulic engineers of the Branch have investigated flooding and erosion in
such widely scattered areas as Chemainus River and Bilston Creek on Vancouver Island,
the Vedder and Squamish Rivers on the Lower Mainland, and the Similkameen River
within the Okanagan watershed.
An example of a completed multiple water-use project in British Columbia is the
Okanagan flood-control works, a joint undertaking of the Federal and Provincial Governments. It was through the co-operation of these two agencies that the works were tested
last spring prior to the 1958 freshet.
Irrigation has always played a prominent roll in the development of the Province,
and to-day Water Rights engineers have under way an investigation of the North
Okanagan. This will include both irrigation and domestic water for many thousands of
acres. Closely related to this work has been a general study and survey of inflow to the
Okanagan watershed.
Through some twenty-three years of study and experience the Snow Hydrology
Section of the Division has built up a series of snow courses throughout the Province.
These are sampled during the winter months, and the results are analysed in the snow-
survey bulletins, which are supplied to the public on request. It is from these measurements that the total run-off to be expected during the period of April to July or April to
August, inclusive, for the various watersheds are made.
While the foregoing has dealt with existing water uses, the undeveloped regions of
the Province have, since early days, received careful attention, particularly with respect
to hydro-electric power potential. Mention can be made of such developments as Campbell River, reported upon by Water Rights Btanch engineers some thirty years ago, the
Alcan project, investigated originally in the early thirties, and also the Whatshan power
diversion.
In the last year, survey parties have been engaged on hydro-power investigations on
the Dease-Stikine watersheds and also the Fraser. The early evaluation of the potential
of major power-sites is basic to sound water administration. The resulting reports, available at a nominal assembly cost, are of value not only to the administrator, but. also to
industry seeking large blocks of hydro-electric power in particular areas.
WATER-RESOURCES COMPILATION
Composed of hydraulic engineers, technicians, and draughtsmen, the Hydraulic
Surveys and Mapping Branch is charged with carrying out field investigations and preparing reports on hydro-power, irrigation, domestic water-supply, flooding, drainage, and
allied subjects. In the Water Rights Branch library, there is now a total of 725 engineering reports.   Further engineering advice, other than in report form, was given to S 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the public and other Government departments on many questions of a hydrologic or
hydraulic nature.
This year fifty new reports were prepared and sent to interested parties. In addition
to new reports, 225 reprints of older reports were assembled and distributed, also ninety-
five requests for copies of " Water Powers of British Columbia " were answered.
The smoke pall that hung over the Province this past summer interfered with several
of the survey projects and prevented completion of the Dease-Stikine dam-site mapping.
One section of this survey party had to make an emergency exodus around one end of a
mountain range when their normal route became cut off by a large forest fire. However,
the survey equipment and all supplies were salvaged.
The investigations carried out under the direction of this section in 1958 are briefly
described in the following pages.
Reconnaissance of Skeena River Hydro-power
In the light of more recent data it was felt that the potential hydro-power as envisaged twenty-five years ago justified further investigations on the Skeena River. Accordingly, an air-photo study followed by a field inspection trip was made.
Indications are that a further field study and survey is justified, since over 1,500,000
horse-power of potential hydro-power seem possible.
A report was written on the findings of the reconnaissance and filed in the library.
Reconnaissance of Erosion along Similkameen River
Following a request for information, an inspection trip was made to the Cawston-
U.S. Border region of the Similkameen River. This trip, together with meetings with
interested parties, produced suggestions on controlling the erosion as well as a rough
estimate of costs.
A report was written and sent to the interested groups as well as being filed in the
Water Rights Branch library.
Comox Valley Water-supply
Field work and the ground control for planimetric mapping of the Comox Valley
was carried out in the summer of 1957, and, subsequent to the completion of the maps,
an office study was instituted and a report on the feasibility of forming a greater water
board for the valley was completed. Results of the study showed that adequate water is
available to supply a greater water district within the valley encompassing the City of
Courtenay, the Villages of Cumberland and Comox, and the Improvement Districts of
Royston and Arden from either the Browns River or a pombination of the Puntledge
River and Allen Lake supplies, the latter being the more economical source.
Flooding in the Westholme Area
A report dealing with the flooding of low-lying areas in the vicinity of Westholme
from flood-waters of the Chemainus River was completed, using information obtained
from the surveys and field work carried out during the previous summer.
The cost of a dyking and drainage scheme to protect the area from flooding was
found to be high, and it would not appear economically feasible to construct the works at
the present time.
Greater Prince George Area Water-supply
Augmentation to the existing waterworks for the City of Prince George will shortly
be necessary, and in order to determine the most suitable source for an additional supply,
and in particular examine the feasibility of supplying water to the city by gravity flow, WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 77
field investigations were carried out in June, and a report subsequently compiled in the
office.
The Willow River proved to be the only suitable source for a gravity supply in the
area, but the cost of water from this source would prove excessively high, and it was
recommended that either the existing pumping scheme on the Nechako River be expanded
or that water be pumped from shallow wells in the gravel flats on the banks of the
Nechako River a short distance up-stream of the present intake.
Flooding in the Squamish River Valley
A preliminary appraisal of the flooding and erosion problem in the Squamish Valley
was made in the late fall of this year, and the relevant hydrographical and other data are
now being collected and studied.
Okanagan Reservoir Investigation
The 1958 field season was spent investigating reservoirs located on tributary streams
in the Okanagan watershed.
Twenty-six major sites were visited, these being located east and west of Okanagan
Lake and range from Vernon in the north to Penticton in the south.
The primary purpose of the programme was to assist in a study of run-off conditions
in the valley, and sites were selected to give representative study of the entire watershed area.
Run-off information reported from the sites could not be utilized until reservoir
contour plans were made, gauges were installed, and spillway and outlet elevations
were known.
Field work consisted of securing this information and making the necessary
installations.
Visits to the sites presented an opportunity of obtaining complete measurements of
in situ structures for comparison with existing plans, some of which have been almost
entirely superseded by subsequent modification or reconstruction.
Two monuments, to serve as horizontal and vertical reference marks, were set at
each of the dams, to be used as a base for measurement of future alterations.
In summation, the programme of field work should serve the following purposes:—
(1) Be the basis of a study of run-off conditions in the Okanagan watershed.
(2) Simplify and modernize existing reservoir plans.
(3) Establish permanent reference marks for future dam inspections.
Erosion by Kicking Horse River
On the north bank of the Kicking Horse River between its confluence with the Columbia River and the town of Golden, erosion has been occurring for the last forty years.
Limited efforts have been made in the past to prevent this erosion from becoming
more widespread.   These efforts have not been completely successful.
In October an engineer visited the site, and an office investigation is in progress
using the information obtained, air photographs, and maps of the area dating back to
1920.   From this investigation it is hoped a preventive plan may be formulated.
Investigation of North Okanagan Water Requirements
Early in 1957 representatives from the Municipalities of Vernon, Armstrong,
Enderby, Lumby, Spallumcheen, and Coldstream petitioned the Provincial Government,
through the Water Rights Branch, to ascertain the feasibility of the formation of a metropolitan water district that would ensure the future supply of domestic and irrigation
water to the area. S 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
At present, water-supply is generally from local sources, supplied to a population
of 17,000 by municipalities, irrigation districts, waterworks districts, and water-users'
communities. In addition, many individuals use water from adjacent streams or wells.
The annual rainfall in the settled areas varies from 11 to 20 inches, and during a dry
year many creeks and wells dry up completely. Agricultural development has been
limited by this low precipitation to precarious dry farming, except in the areas which
have assured irrigation supply, or which are adjacent to a river and thus enjoy a high
water-table. It is estimated that the irrigated and marginal lands comprise 25 per cent
of the possible 140,000 acres of arable soils in the area. Municipal services have been
subject to frequent restrictions, and one city has been unable to guarantee water-supplies
to potential users. These facts have engendered the belief among the petitioners that
the future development of the area depends on an assured water-supply additional to
that presently available.
The investigation commenced by the request to the Surveys and Mapping Branch
to have the area photographed and supply topographic sheets at 1,000 feet to 1 inch.
This work is well in hand and expected to be completed by next August.
Preliminary engineering investigations were started in the fall to assess the present
state of the water-supplies and to study possible sources for future supplies. Inspections
were made of reservoirs, canals, distribution systems, and possible dam-sites for storage
and diversion.    Existing irrigation methods were also studied.
Office studies have commenced on the hydrology, precipitation, and population of
the area.
In 1959 it is hoped to make detailed surveys and studies of reservoirs and dam-
sites, conduit location, ground-water potential, and to relate the agricultural and industrial economic possibilities of the area with the economics of proposed schemes.
Bilston Creek Flooding
Flooding within the Bilston Creek-Langford area on Southern Vancouver Island
has been a perennial problem. In an effort to solve this, an improvement district has
been formed within the watershed, and in turn an engineering report of the drainage-
works required is under preparation by the Water Rights Branch.
Mapping of the area, of 400 feet to 1 inch, which shows 10-foot contour lines, was
completed during the summer, and in the meantime hydrometric studies were started.
At the same time two internal drainage problems within the improvement district
were given immediate attention so that the Department of Highways could carry out
certain ditching.
The first project had to do with the drainage of the Hoffman and Atkins Road
areas, which are poorly drained at present, due primarily to undersized pipe and poor
maintenance, while the second project included the reconstruction of the lower reaches
of the Centennial Park ditch.
Chilliwack-Vedder River and Vedder Canal Erosion
The Chilliwack River, which becomes the Vedder in its lower reaches and eventually the Vedder Canal, is typical of the Lower Fraser Valley tributaries. Such streams
experience two peak floods throughout the year—one primarily due to heavy rainfalls
which occur in the early winter months, with a second peak occurring in the spring as
the results of snow melt. At such times a heavy debris and sediment load is carried by
the water, and severe erosion takes place within a widely fluctuating channel.
It is thought that the Vedder may be an aggrading stream, at least in part, and
because of its unpredictable behaviour a programme of investigation has been planned. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 79
The river has been photographed and permanent cross-sections have been established, from which the future conditions of the river can be based. Considerable more
study will be required before any tentative conclusions can be drawn.
Dease-Stikine Hydro-power Investigation
The Hydraulic Investigation Division continued the survey of possible dam-sites
along the Dease and Stikine Rivers during the 1958 summer season.
This year's work for this power project progressed on two fronts, as follows:
(a) Mapping for a possible dam-site on Dease River above and below its tributary
French River, and (b) reservoir and dam-site mapping of the Stikine River from the
Klappan River down-stream to Telegraph Creek. In both cases the party was instructed
to obtain sufficient control to produce maps by multiplex at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch.
A convoy of three vehicles and four members of the Branch left Victoria on May
20th for the base at Watson Lake, Y.T., to meet the packer, wrangler, and two local
axemen. The party had excellent equipment, and their work was laid out beforehand
on existing aerial photos. At the time of arrival, Dease Lake was still partly frozen, and
it was decided to control the area of the Dease River first.
Shortly after arrival the area to be controlled was closed in by smoke from large
forest fires near Lower Post and east of Dease Lake. These fires hampered the completion of the first part of the summer's project, and twenty days later the party prepared
to move toward the Stikine River.
A few days were spent at the south end of Dease Lake, where the party established
a new base for the rest of the season, installed an 85-watt radio set for communications
and checked the two portable radios.
Due to the inaccessibility of the region in which the two sub-parties had to carry
out the control, horses were the only means of transportation. On July 5th each group,
equipped with nine horses and supplies for approximately fifteen days, started with the
survey control near the Stikine Crossing, and proceeded to establish the horizontal control stations for a single flight line toward the confluence of Stikine and Tanzilla Rivers.
During the first week a small fire north-west of the Gate of the Canyon developed into
a conflagration. In addition, several other large forest fires were reported in the vicinity,
located north of Telegraph Creek, south of Tuva Lake, Eagle River, and Kinishkan Lake.
Under these conditions the party decided to leave the dangerous area and moved toward
Telegraph Creek, where the survey could be continued.
By using the B.C. stations "Mankilled" and "Bear" as base line at Telegraph
Creek, a network of thirty triangulation stations (four of them permanent) was set and
observed. At the end of this section, the B.C. stations " Birch" and "Acme" will assure
the closure of the final adjustment. "Old-timer" and "Tan" were re-established, permanently marked, and included in this network. The vertical control is based on geodetic datum, which was brought into this area during the 1957 field season. Although the
work was badly hampered by smoke and continual strong wind from the coastal range,
the section was completed by the end of August.
With a little time left for this field season, the parties returned to the Upper Stikine
as the valley between the Klappan River and the Gate of the Canyon was untouched by
fire. The lateness of the season, combined with an early fall, low clouds, fresh snow, and
smoke blown in from the fire still burning along the canyon, made it very difficult for
observations. With the help of a helicopter during the last week of the field season, the
party was able to complete most of the project. A gap of approximately 25 miles was
left to be completed in the future.
The elevation of the Stikine River at the proposed highway crossing, approximately
10 miles above the canyon, as determined by this year's survey, is 2,183 feet (September) and that of the confluence of Stikine and Tanzilla Rivers, 35 miles down-stream, is
I S 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
976 feet. The total fall of the river through the canyon according to these figures is 1,206
feet, giving an average gradient of 34.4 feet per mile.
In spite of all its hardships during the field season, the party controlled a total of
132 photos, a ground coverage of approximately 146 square miles.
SNOW SURVEYS
A total of ninety-two snow courses will be in active operation on British Columbia
watersheds in the coming 1959 snow-sampling season. Of these, half will be measured
by co-operating agencies interested in snow-melt water-supply and the other half by paid
volunteer snow surveyors.
The year 1958 has been a busy one for the two members of the Snow Survey
Section. Briefly, the more important duties performed were: Publication of six snow
bulletin issues, reactivation of one snow course and establishment of nine new ones,
inspection and repair of fifty-three existing Mainland snow courses, instruction in proper
snow-surveying technique at sixteen courses under actual field conditions during the 1958
sampling season, office studies pertaining to snow-course location and derivation of additional stream-flow forecasting procedures, and, of course, the many duties associated with
the gathering, checking, and filing of the basic data.
One snow course (Gerrard) was reactivated, and seven new ones were established
on the Columbia drainage-basin. High-elevation courses were located at Abbot Mountain in Glacier National Park, Koch Creek near Fauquier, Silver Star Mountain near
Vernon, and Blackwall Mountain in Manning Park. The Whatshan Lake course, originally laid out in two sections at two different elevations, was changed to the two separate
courses Upper and Lower Whatshan Lake. New Clacier and New Copper Mountain
were established to replace the present Glacier and Copper Mountain courses, which are
to be abandoned at some future date. On the Cowichan Lake watershed on Vancouver
Island, two courses were surveyed at the request of British Columbia Forest Products
Limited. These were Lyfer and Heather Mountains.
One important responsibility of the Snow Survey Section is to make sure all snow
courses are measured according to the proper procedures of snow sampling. The reliability and the resultant application of the basic data depend to a large extent on the
care and thoroughness with which the snow surveyor makes his measurements. By
accompanying snow surveyors to their respective sampling sites at regular sampling dates,
our field representative can, by verbal instruction and actual demonstration, keep observer
error to a minimum. Four such snow-survey trips were made in 1958, which included
visits to sixteen snow courses.
Another important responsibility is to make sure that existing courses are kept in
excellent condition. This involves summer trips to the measurement sites, and on such
visits the necessary maintenance work is completed. This past summer fifty-three Mainland snow courses were inspected.
In January the engineering assistant attached to the programme spent a week at the
United States Department of Agriculture snow-survey training-school in Jackson, Wyo.
In April the meteorologist in charge of the Section attended the Columbia River forecast
meeting in Portland and the Western Snow Conference at Bozeman, Mont.
INVESTIGATION OF EXISTING HYDRO-POWER DEVELOPMENTS
The investigation of the hydro-power developments operating in the Province has
been continued during the past year, with the objects of increasing the accuracy and
serviceability of the statistical records maintained by the Water Rights Branch and of
developing an improved rental structure. A report dealing with this study will shortly
be completed. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
S 81
DEVELOPMENT OF HYDRO-POWER IN B.C.
KWH.GENERATED  BY MAJOR PRODUCERS
1320-5T
3500
li.
0
(/.   6.000
Z
0
J
J
4000
2000
1920
INDIVIDUAL   POWER   PRODUCTION
BRITISH
TOTAL    P>OW£.R.   PRODUCED
SO00
4000
2000
35 40 45 50
GAL.E.NDAR.     '-.'E.A.a.S
55
iseo
Plate 2. S 82
r
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
DEVELOPMENT OF HYDRO-POWER. IN B.C.
Q.
i
U.
0
tn
o
z
<
ID
J
0
I
h
1NSTALLED TURBINE CAPACITY 1920-57
800
700
0.
i
LL
0
in
0
z
<
in
__
0
I
1-
400
30O
100
3000
2000
1500
1000
500
90O
700
300
1920
3000
2500
1920
35 40 45
CALENDAR.   YEARS
Plate 3. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH S 83
Up-to-date and accurate information has now been obtained on all the larger hydro
developments in British Columbia, although the verification of this information by ground
inspections has had to be curtailed.
Hydro-electric plants completed and now operating during 1958 include the British
Columbia Power Commission's Strathcona development of 41,000 horse-power on Campbell River, while the installation of the seventh 150,000-horsepower unit at the Aluminum
Company of Canada's Kemano plant in March, 1958, brings the total capacity of that
plant to 1,050,000 horse-power. Work is continuing on the second Bridge River plant
of the British Columbia Electric Company and on the British Columbia Power Commission's Ash River development on Vancouver Island.
Plates 2 and 3 illustrate the development of hydro-electric power from 1920 to 1957
in terms of annual generation in kilowatt-hours and of installed turbine capacity in
horse-power.
Further and more recent commentary on new hydro developments during the year
may be found in the nineteenth edition of the Department of Finance publication "A
Review of Resources, Production and Governmental Finances," which should be released
late in July, 1959, and is therefore normally available prior to publication of this Annual
Report.    UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
S 87
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
General operations for the year 1958 were rather normal, with very little of an
exceptional nature occurring. This was only to be expected since, for reasons beyond
our control, no decision was reached relative to future expansion or development.
During the past year an expanded maintenance programme was started. Since
most of the services, such as roads, sewers, water-mains, etc., have been in operation
for more than thirty years, it is only reasonable to expect them to present maintenance
problems. It was felt that if a more extensive work schedule could be followed, we
would eliminate future major repairs by more frequent minor servicing charges. Naturally it is too soon to determine how successful this new scheme will be, but there is little
doubt a substantial saving in future maintenance will be effected.
Despite rapidly rising costs in wages and material, we were able to carry on, without reducing services, with only a 1.19-mill increase in the general taxes. Coupled with
the increase of 1.60 mills for school tax, the total increase for 1958 general taxes over
1957 amounted to only 2.79 mills, the total general tax being still below 33 mills, which.
is quite good compared to surrounding municipalities.
Sharing the tremendous Centennial celebrations during the year was enjoyed by
many of the residents. Numerous special functions were held at the University, and
many of our residents participated in these functions, while others enjoyed the benefits
of close proximity to such events.
As a memorial event to commemorate the Centennial events of 1958, we were able
to returf the 3.5-acre playfield at the elementary school at a cost of just over $9,000.
Such arrangements were made possible by the co-operation of the Centennial Committee, Ratepayers' Committee, School Board, and the University. At the time of writing
the work has been completed, and only the dedication and unveiling of the Centennial
plaque is left to finalize this project.
From the following tables it is quite obvious we enjoyed a normal average year of
operation, considering there are no lots left to build on to create activity associated with
building and expansion.
Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the Years Ended
December 31st, 1956, 1957, and 1958
1956
1957
1958
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
1
3
3
12
....
9
$149,681.00
23,500.00
115,000.00
1
3
1
14
10
1
8
13
Swimming-pools 	
$6,500.00
67,000.00
$4,500.00
42,000.00
31,100.00
58,100.00
	
16,350.00
6,880.00
6,850.00
8,650.00
Totals	
28
$353,161.00
29
$153,450.00
22
$29,500.00 S 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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ON PERSONNEL OFFICE  PERSONNEL OFFICE
S 91
PERSONNEL OFFICE
The estimates for the fiscal year beginning April 1st, 1958, showed a net decrease
of two positions in Departmental establishment from the previous year. Although the
strength of some units of the Department was reduced substantially as an economy move,
this was counterbalanced to some extent by the addition of two Land Inspectors and two
stenographers to the Land Inspection Division in an effort to keep up with the increased
work resulting from a larger volume of applications for land. A further reduction,
although it was not effected in time to reduce the estimates, was the appointment of our
Director of Conservation, Dr. D. B. Turner, to head the new Department of Recreation
and Conservation.
Separations from the permanent Civil Service staff of the Department showed a
marked reduction—from sixty-nine in 1957 to forty for this year—thus reflecting the
impact of recent economic conditions. The bulk of these consisted of employees resigning to accept other positions. Two were compulsory retirements, but, unfortunately, as
the employees concerned had served for only relatively short periods, neither was entitled
to receive a superannuation allowance. It is with regret that the death of three valued
employees is recorded. Mrs. R. M. Pettman had over five years' service in the Water
Rights Branch and Mr. R. M. M. Watson had served for almost three years in the
University Endowment Lands. Also in the latter organization, the passing of Capt. G.
Horridge was regretted. Captain Horridge had over twenty-nine years' service, was
president of the Employees' Association, and was well respected throughout the Service.
A summary of personnel changes is given in the following table:—
Description
Permanent
Staff
U.EL.
Casual Staff,
Excluding
Field Staff
and F.R.B.
Total
Resignations.	
Retirements _	
Deaths  	
33
2
1
4
39
3
6
31
2
21
2
2
2
1
5
2
13
1
40
2
3
6
54
3
Competitive promotions, excluding original appointments
8
32
Demotions (involuntary) _	
1
Demotions (voluntary) 	
2
Totals                          	
121
9
21
151
1 Includes one position deleted.
Lengthy negotiations were carried out with the Employees' Association, which represented the outside workers at the University Endowment Lands. These resulted in satisfactory settlement of wages for the employees concerned in amounts which were very
close to the Department's original proposals. The question of salaries for the members
of the Fire Department was settled more expeditiously. In both cases, amicable relations
were maintained throughout, and substantial salary increases were granted. In addition,
Government approval was obtained to the principle of allowing the application of the
Civil Service practice of paying three months' salary gratuity to the widow or dependents
of personnel dying in service in the University Endowment Lands in cases where
employees had more than two years' service.
During the year numerous representations were made to the Civil Service Commission following various classification and organizational studies, etc. Many of these were
accepted and some are still pending. The Personnel Officer participated on various committees organized by the Civil Service Commission. The office maintained routine personnel services, including the necessary activities connected with the staff changes, as
listed above, and also as required in regard to temporary continuous and seasonal survey
staff not included therein.    MAIL AND FILE ROOM S 95
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
John A. Grant
Use of microfilmed files increased to such an extent during 1958 that it was necessary to install an extra reader in the Mail Room for use of the staff.
Filming of the Crown grants is nearing completion. The processed volumes, which
are now stored in the basement vaults, are being referred to by film, a reader having been
acquired for use in the upper vault.
Old year files dating from 1872 to 1905, stored in the Topaz Avenue vaults and the
sub-basement of the Parliament Buildings, totalling 168,000, were microfilmed during
the year.
Incoming letters to the Department of Lands and Forests totalled 215,618 during
1958, as compared to 197,137 in 1957.
The Department was saddened by the untimely death of Mr. J. A. Underwood,
former supervisor of this office, in December of 1957. " Jim," as he was popularly
known, was a veteran of thirty-seven years' service and left a host of friends to mourn
his loss. S 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Letters Inward
Branch                    " ■-
1957
1958
10-year Average,
1949-58
37,335
132,889
12,518
14,395
38,299
134,483
26,578
16,258
33,798
85,625
15,183
13,855
Totals                                 ..   _.	
197,137
215,618
148,461
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch
1957
1958
10-year Average,
1949-58
9,609
2,138
1,898
11,000
1,460
1,973
15,787
9,510
3,564
Totals            _     -	
13,645
14,433
28,861
Miscellaneous Reports Received
Designation
1957
1958
10-year Average,
1949-58
3,238
540
16,002
2,490
6,554
8,240
384
13,814
2,984
2,950
3,324
577
15,340
2,255
Totals         _ 	
28,824
28,372
21,496
New Files Created
Designation
1957
1958
10-year Average,
1949-58
" 0 " Pies
4,482
1,158
3,115
4,696
955
2,917
4,758
1,527
3,430
Totals                                  -	
8,755
8,568
9,715
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1959
1,060-159-7200

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