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Department of Agriculture FIFTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 1957 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1958

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FIFTY-SECOND
ANNUAL REPORT
1957
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1958  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1957.
NEWTON P. STEACY,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 23rd, 1958.  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF, 1957
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Newton P. Steacy.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss M. Jewell.
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray.
Administrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Markets and Statistics:
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
G. H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
J. B. Moen, Economist, Victoria, B.C.
Horticulture:
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster, B.C.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
. R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Seed Production), 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver 1, B.C.
W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crops), Abbotsford, B.C.
E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna, B.C.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, R.R. 6, New Westminster, B.C.
Plant Pathology:
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. Moisey, M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, 501 West Twelfth Avenue, Vancouver 9, B.C.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, M.Sc, Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
Live Stock:
A. Kidd, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Assistant to the Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
E. V. Langford, D.V.M., V.S., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector and Assistant Animal Pathologist,
Vancouver, B.C.
F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C. JJ 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria, B.C.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola, B.C.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
R. M. Baker, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, B.C.
P. G. Lawrence, Beef Grading Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
S. Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton, B.C.
J. J. Carney, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
R. L. Lancaster, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
W. R. LeGrow, D.V.M., V.S., M.S., Ph.D., Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
J. Mustard, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
W. C. Newby, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nanaimo, B.C.
K. H. Thompson, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
H. Johnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Agassiz, B.C.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Chilliwack, B.C.
Miss Joyce Flood, Laboratory Technician, Vancouver, B.C.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Burr, Dairy Farm Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
W. A. Cleaver, Dairy Farm Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
K. G. Fletcher, Dairy Farm Inspector, Abbotsford, B.C.
A. L. Kirkby, Dairy Farm Inspector, Nanaimo, B.C.
B. R. Stewart, Dairy Farm Inspector, Chilliwack, B.C.
Dairy:
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
R. N. Hitchman, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Prince George, B.C.
N. H. Ingledew, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
P. Regehr, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Poultry:
W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford, B.C.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., P.Ag., Poultry Inspector, Nanaimo, B.C.
R. C. Bentley, Resident Supervisor, Random Sample Poultry Test Station, Abbotsford, B.C.
Field Crops:
N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster, B.C.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria, B.C.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Soil Survey:
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
W. D. Holland, B.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
C. H. Brownlee, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
A. L. van Ryswyk, M.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
A. B. Dawson, B.A., B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
E. F. Maas, M.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
J. Baker, Ph.D., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 7
Agricultural Development and Extension:
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.
G. L. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson, B.C.
J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon, B.C.
R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission, B.C.
R. C. Fry, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
J. E. Hall, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, B.C.
Miss E. L. R. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria, B.C.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale, B.C.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
J. E. Piercy, B.S.A./Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
A. R. Tarves, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
A. M. Johnson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
H. Barber, Accountant, Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Service, 501 West Twelfth Avenue,
Vancouver 9, B.C.
W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent, Land Clearing Division, 501 West Twelfth Avenue,
Vancouver 9, B.C.
Land Settlement Board:
Chairman: Wm. MacGillivray, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Director: G. L. Landon, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria, B.C.
Director: L. W. Johnson, Superintendent, Farmers' Institutes.
Secretary: Miss C. Stephenson, Victoria, B.C.
Inspector: I. Spielmans, Nelson, B.C.
Dyking Commissioner:
J. L. MacDonald, New Westminster, B.C.
W. R. Meighen, Deputy Dyking Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
Southern Okanagan Lands Project:
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager, Oliver, B.C.
J  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Report of Deputy Minister '.  11
Report of Markets and Statistics Branch  14
Report of Horticultural Branch  17
Report of Plant Pathology Branch  29
Report of Entomology Branch .  30
Report of Apiary Branch  32
Report of Live Stock Branch  34
Report of Dairy Branch  45
Report of Poultry Branch  48
Report of Field Crops Branch  51
Report of Farmers' Institutes  56
Report of Women's Institutes  58
Report of Soil Survey Branch  59
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  62
Report of Southern Okanagan Lands Project  86
Report of Land Settlement Board  89
Report of Dyking and Drainage  90
Appendices—
No. 1. Dairy-farm Inspections under "Milk Industry Act"  93
No. 2. Miscellaneous Specimens Examined in Laboratory  94
No. 3. Breed Averages for 1956  98
No. 4. Dairy Herd Improvement Associations—Location, Secretary, Supervisor 98
No. 5. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1957  99
No. 6. British Columbia Egg Production (through Registered Stations)  99
No. 7. British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers  100
No. 8. Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia  100
No. 9. 1957 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver)___ 100
No. 10. Poultry-flock Approval  101
- No. 11. Poultry-flock Approval by Breed  101
No. 12. Turkey-flock Approval 1  101
No. 13. Turkey-flock Approval by Breed  101
No. 14. Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed  102
No. 15. Bees—
Table No. 1.—Diseases in Bees  102
Table No. 2.—1957 Summary of Cucumber Pollination (Greenhouse), Greater Victoria  102
Table No. 3.—Honey-crop Report, 1957  103
No.  16. Summary of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Merchants,
January 1st to November 30th, 1957  103
No. 17. Summary of Movement of Screenings from British Columbia Elevators, January 1st to November 30th, 1957  104
9  Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable Newton P. Steacy,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the Fifty-second Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1957.
The report is in lesser detail than those of previous years and has been designed to
present briefly but comprehensively an outline of the work of each branch and division
during the period reviewed. There are on file in the Department, and providing valuable
continuing records, very full reports from administrative personnel and members of the
field staffs.
Early estimates indicate total farm income will not be much changed from 1956.
This reflects a comparative degree of stability in a very important segment of the Provincial economy at a time when other industries have been adversely affected.
This Departmental report indicates the position during the year in relation to production and marketing of the wide range of agricultural commodities produced in the
Province.
Weather conditions during the year were free from extremes of drought or killing
frosts.   Average temperatures were somewhat lower.
Tree-fruit yields were substantially higher, with a trend to large sizes in apples,
which further added to selling problems in a year when heavy production elsewhere in
Canada and in the United States resulted in very keen competition—sometimes at very
low prices—for the markets available.
There was some increase in small-fruit tonnage in the Lower Mainland, though that
phase of our agriculture is still suffering seriously from the frost damage of 1955. Good
yields of strawberries and of loganberries were harvested on Vancouver Island. The
low strawberry prices which resulted from heavy production and carry-over of stocks in
California were offset to some extent by the Federal action in increasing duties. Returns
were, however, barely high enough to provide a margin over cost of production.
Heavy hay-crops in many parts of the Province were secured with great difficulty
as a result of poor haying weather.    Much of the crop was harvested when too mature.
Root-crops, including potatoes, yielded well. Federal action on potato tariffs was
welcomed by producers, though generally considered to be less effective than warranted
by the adverse influence of heavy imports at low prices.
Peace River farmers experienced very heavy losses when weather delayed seeding
and again hampered harvesting of cereal and seed crops.
Egg production was higher, but prices were substantially lower than in 1956. Production of poultry-meat was also high and showed little price change from the preceding
year.
Milk production was fractionally higher, with a larger percentage sold on the more
remunerative fluid market.   Butter output dropped to a new post-war low.
Beef cattle from the Cariboo and other range areas reached market in less desirable
condition than usual. This was a further adverse influence on the price of grass cattle,
particularly those at heavier weights. Later, as the American export market opened,
there was a very satisfactory outlet for both feeder and stocker cattle, over 17,000 crossing the border at firmer prices. The lack of interest by Coast retailers in grass fat cattle
has caused a reassessment of management practices which may alter completely hitherto
accepted methods of beef production on extensive lines.
11 JJ  12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Reviewing briefly the activities of the Soil Survey Branch, work was completed in
the Columbia River basin and some progress made in a new assignment in the Fraser
Valley, the latter in relation to assessing farm lands on a productivity basis. The Federal
group working with our staff could not finish the limited work still necessary to complete
the survey of the Peace River and McBride areas owing to unfavourable weather conditions. A start was made, however, on a soil survey of the Interior Plateau, commencing
at the International Boundary south of Princeton and which will extend in successive
years to the Chilcotin.
Substantial progress was again made in the forage-crop improvement programme,
with special emphasis on the use of good pastures, quality silage, and high-protein hays
to reduce costs of milk and beef production. Tillage demonstrations were continued in
co-operation with the Agricultural Engineering Division. The wet season seriously reduced effective spraying for weed-control, however.
Satisfactory progress was made by the Horticultural Branch in demonstration work,
in variety selection, particularly in strawberries, in greenhouse and nursery management
practices and in tomato production, also in the control of pests and diseases, the latter in
conjunction with pathologists and entomologists. Further advances were made in the
development of satisfactory onion-harvesting equipment. Some work was done on vegetable production and storage.
The Federal Department of Agriculture accepted the Vancouver Island, Pemberton-
Sechelt, McBride, and West Kootenay Provincial brucellosis-control areas as Federal
brucellosis-control areas. It is anticipated Vancouver Island will be a brucellosis certified
area in the near future. Our own staffs have continued the brucellosis-eradication programme effectively, and with the gazetting of the Fraser Valley area the last step has
been taken leading to complete eradication in the foreseeable future. While there has
been a disappointing lack of interest in calfhood vaccination in the Lower Mainland,
range-cattle areas have shown an increased interest. United States Department of
Agriculture revised regulations may induce some of the beef areas that have practised
vaccination for some time to ask for a test and slaughter programme.
Dairy-farm inspections were completed in all Milk Board production areas, including that newly established for Kamloops-North Okanagan, as well as in Central British
Columbia, the Peace River, and in the East and West Kootenays.
Mastitis in dairy cattle was a continuing source of grave economic loss, but there
are indications that better management practices are reducing incidence.
The Dairy Branch has maintained a constant vigilance to ensure that distributing
and processing plants provide high-quality products to consumers.
Dairy herd improvement associations have been increased, reflecting a continuing
interest in this policy. The Dairy Sire Evaluation Policy is also gaining wide support,
being participated in by the British Columbia Artificial Insemination Association and
the Chilliwack Artificial Insemination Club. Arrangements were made for supervising
the freezing of bull semen at Milner, and reports on dairy-sire analyses have been released.
Satisfactory progress is reported on beef-cattle performance testing. Meetings were
held in relation to beef, lamb, and wool grading.
Studies to obtain more detailed information on cost of milk, poultry, and small-fruit
production were undertaken by the University of British Columbia, and progress reports
are expected shortly.    The first and the last of these studies will continue into 1958.
A conference of all extension personnel and other Departmental officials was held
in April. Speakers from the United States provided information and discussions on
group leadership. Four extension workers attended a workshop at Washington State
College which dealt largely with communications. Arrangements have been made that
these officials will convey to other extension personnel the information obtained which
can be adapted advantageously to our conditions here.    It has become evident that DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 13
fewer men must keep more farmers informed and that new methods of communication
must be used for that purpose.
4-H Clubs continue to be a most important though time-consuming part of extension.
Additional temporary assistance during the summer was provided in most areas to
relieve the burden on district men.
In the Peace River, emphasis was maintained on reducing grain acreages and
stressing forage-crops and live-stock production. This policy, determined some years
ago, is showing good results. The basic objective is still sound, though changing conditions and the advent of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway may require a reassessment
of policy to determine the advisability of a stepped-up live-stock feeding programme.
The cost of clearing land by Departmental and contractor equipment reached an
all-time high of $425,000.
The construction and opening of the Random Sample Testing Station at Abbotsford was of particular significance to the poultry industry.
Farmers' and Women's Institutes and agricultural societies had an active year.
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, was appointed a director of the
Land Settlement Board. The survey and subdivision of Doukhobor lands was completed,
and these were offered for sale to Doukhobors in the first instance. Sufficient time has
not elapsed to determine the extent to which applications will be made for the various
properties.
The staffs of the Dyking Commission and of the Southern Okanagan Lands
Project had full schedules of employment and the usual variety of problems throughout
the season.
I regret extremely to record the death in office on April 3rd of the Honourable
W. R. T. Chetwynd, Minister of Agriculture, who assumed the portfolio in September,
1956. Through his kindness, consideration, and innate courtesy he had gained the
warm affection of his entire staff.
The Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, Premier, succeeded the late Mr. Chetwynd
as Minister, holding office until your own appointment on September 13th.
I also regret to report the death of Dr. W. R. Gunn, who had retired from the
position of Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Officer in 1956.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, retired on superannuation after serving the Department for forty-three years.
LEGISLATION
New legislation dealing with agriculture as passed at the First Session of the
Twenty-fifth Parliament of British Columbia consisted of an Act to amend the " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act," an Act to amend the " Distress Area Assistance Act,"
and an Act to amend the " Soldiers' Land Act" and the " Feed-grain Assistance Act".
STAFF CHANGES
Appointments
J. C. Arrand, Assistant Entomologist, March 1st, 1957.
J. W. Mcintosh, Milk Board Inspector, April 1st, 1957.
J. E. Hall, District Agriculturist, May 27th 1957.
E. F. Maas, Assistant Soil Surveyor, June 17th, 1957.
D. M. Hamilton, Poultry Inspector, September 1st, 1957.
Dr. J. Baker, Assistant Soil Surveyor, September 11th, 1957.
R. C. Bentley, Supervisor, Poultry Testing Station, October 24th, 1957.
Superannuation
W. G. Reed, March 31st, 1957.
G. H. Stewart, December 31st, 1957. J J  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PUBLICATIONS
The following is a list of new publications printed in 1957:—
Holly Culture in British Columbia H.C. 79
Handbook of British Columbia Women's Institutes.
Package Bees in British Columbia A.C. 12
Women's Work in Fair Exhibits C. 43
W. MacGILLIVRAY,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
REPORT OF MARKETS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
SYNOPSIS
The general stability that has characterized the agricultural economy during recent
years in British Columbia continued throughout 1957. As in previous years, there were
declines in some lines, which were offset to a degree by upswings in others, leaving the
over-all balance little changed from the preceding five-year average.
Preliminary estimates place the farm cash income for the year at $108,000,000,
well within the range established in recent years. Similarly, the farm prices index
(1935-39=100) for the year recorded only minor fluctuations, ranging between 259.5
and 271.1. To the extent that this indicates returns to farmers, it may be taken as a
reflection of the general economic situation, which was maintained at levels above
those recorded in the preceding year, when the index averaged 256.7.
Those factors exerting adverse influences on agriculture in this Province, including
relatively high operating costs and sharp competition from neighbouring production
areas, continued to loom large in the economic sphere and displayed every indication
of remaining so in the foreseeable future.
FEED-GRAIN MOVEMENTS
Imports of feed-grains under provisions of the Federal Freight Assistance Policy
during the 1956/57 crop-year recorded a decrease of some 11,000 tons, or about
5 per cent, from the total of 213,500 tons shipped in the preceding year. This represents a new low in shipments during the post-war period.
Since this policy was first introduced as a war-time measure, the Federal Treasury
has expended a total of over $26,500,000 in freight assistance on shipments totalling
close to 4,000,000 tons of feed-grains from Prairie points into this Province. The
average rate of assistance now stands at just over $7 per ton for the entire period the
policy has been in effect.
The policy underwent a major change this year, in which assistance was altered
to $5.50 per ton less than the car-lot short line rail freight tariff from Edmonton or the
point of origin in Alberta, whichever is the lowest, to destinations in British Columbia.
The rate from Edmonton now stands at $13.40 per ton, which means that assistance
on shipments from that point amounts to $7.90.
FEEDS
Freight-subsidy adjustments were reflected in lowered feed prices during the year,
as the supply position remained buoyant. No. 5 feed wheat declined from a high of
$65 per ton at Vancouver in the first quarter to $56 by late autumn. Oats declined
$10 and barley $8 per ton in the same period. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 15
Prepared feeds registered similar price reductions, laying mash dropping $8 and
dairy mash $4 per ton during the year.
In grains, acreage and production of spring wheat were down 17 and 12 per cent
respectively, while barley also showed a decline in both categories. An increase in yield
per acre in oats was sufficient to more than offset a slight reduction in acreage. Harvesting of both wheat and oats was seriously hampered in the Peace River District by
unfavourable weather.
FRUIT
All major tree and small fruits, with the exception of prunes, recorded sharp
production gains from the winter-damaged 1956 totals. These increases parially offset
the lower prices generally realized in most markets during the year.
Movement of the apple-crop was somewhat hampered by heavy surplus production
in competing areas, but in spite of this and the consequent decrease in prices, total
marketings held up well. Of particular significance was the movement this year of
over 1,200,000 " handi-pak " containers of Mcintosh apples. Consumer acceptance
of this economical pack has been most encouraging to British Columbia shippers thus far.
Once again the cell-pack was used extensively for export shipments, including all
consignments to the United Kingdom.
Returns from this year's strawberry-crop were cut by the sharp reduction in prices
quoted for imported stocks. Action by the Federal Government in imposing additional
tariff protection pegged the price of berries for processing at 13Vi cents per pound.
Raspberry-growers fared slightly better, when prices for processing berries remained
steady at 13 cents per pound.
VEGETABLES
Declines in production and prices featured the commercial vegetable picture in 1957.
Among the major items, only lettuce registered increases in both respects. Beans,
cucumbers, onions, and turnips brought generally higher returns, but production was
slightly below the preceding year's figures. In spite of these conditions, the movement to
market was one of the more successful of recent years. This was particularly true of
tomatoes. Interior shipment of field tomatoes moved well, with some 3,000 tons sold
on the fresh market and over 11,000 tons to canneries, where No. I's brought $37 per
ton, up $1 from 1956.
While production of canning-peas was down slightly, the 1957 pack was of superior
quality and found ready acceptance at prices close to 1956 levels.
Table potatoes moved steadily during the year, but at considerably lower prices,
due primarily to depressed prices of imported stocks. This year's early crop, one of the
best on record, opened at $72 per ton at Vancouver, but dropped sharply to $60 and
later to $52 at the end of the deal. Late-crop potatoes opened at $55, dipped to $48
in October, and recovered to $56-$62 by December.
Carrots enjoyed a firm market throughout, with first-grade long varieties priced
at $100 per ton. A relatively higher proportion of these were pre-packaged this year,
to fill a firm and growing demand.    Over 300 tons were exported to Prairie markets.
LIVE STOCK
Slight declines in marketing of British Columbia cattle and hogs for slaughter
were recorded during the year as compared to 1956 totals, while a moderate increase
occurred in shipments of sheep and lambs. A huge increase in exports of cattle and
calves, live and dressed, to United States markets, coupled with a decrease in cattle
population, accounted for the bulk of the drop in domestic marketings. Exports of
feeder cattle to the United States during the August-November period totalled 17,407
head, as compared to only 201 head in the same period in 1956.    This upswing in J J  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
exports tended to firm prices, bringing the average up slightly over 1956 levels for the
comparable period.
Hog prices were sharply up from the preceding year, averaging $5 higher by the
year-end.    Hog numbers declined during the year.
Sheep and lambs retained a steady market tone throughout the year, moderately
above 1956 averages.
POULTRY AND EGGS
Sharply lowered prices featured the egg market throughout 1957, when supplies
outstripped demand, resulting from a sharp increase in pullet numbers early in the year.
The weighted average price for the year was 20 per cent below the 1956 average of
42.7 cents. Marketings through grading-stations for the year were up 32 per cent.
Some poultry-meats also underwent reductions in price, reflecting heavier movement of
all types to market. Receipts at registered stations showed an increase of over 16 per
cent above the 17,000,000 pounds recorded in 1956.
By contrast, the broilers and turkeys maintained price levels little changed from
the preceding year, the former in spite of an increase in numbers produced. Turkeys
for the Christmas trade averaged 33 cents to the producer at Vancouver, up 3 cents
from the 1956 average.
DAIRY PRODUCTS
Despite a slight drop in dairy-cattle numbers for the second successive year, favourable pasture and feed conditions produced a moderate increase in milk production during
1957. Preliminary estimates place this gain at close to 10,000,000 pounds over the
1956 total of 748,000,000 pounds.
Two-thirds of this production entered the lucrative fluid trade, the bulk of the
remainder being diverted to concentrated milk, ice-cream, and butter manufacture.
Ice-cream production continued its steady annual increase, but butter output was below
3,000,000 pounds for the second successive year. This latter figure represents less than
15 per cent of the Province's butter requirements.
MISCELLANEOUS
The wool-clip for 1957 showed a moderate decrease from 350,000 to 328,000
pounds, resulting from a decline of 10 per cent in the number of shearings.
Production of hops was down 20 percent, reflecting a somewhat lower yield per
acre from the 1956 figure.
Early estimates point to a slight rise in honey production for the year. This was
a direct result of generally favourable weather and an increase in the number of producing colonies to 1,400 from the 1956 total of 1,200.
LEGISLATION
Following the decision on agricultural marketing legislation handed down by the
Supreme Court of Canada early in the year and the passing of new legislation by the
House of Commons, it became evident that certain changes in the " Natural Products
Marketing (British Columbia) Act" were necessary. The three commodity marketing
boards currently operating in this Province prepared and recommended amendments
to the 1958 session of the Legislature, with a request that these be submitted.
Early in the year the report of the economic study conducted by the University of
British Columbia on the vegetable industry of the Interior was released. With assistance
from the Branch, this study confirmed earlier concepts of conditions in this industry,
and the required corrective measures.   By mid-year, most of the latter had been achieved. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ  17
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The winter of 1956/57 was about normal in so far as temperatures and precipitation were concerned. Fruit-trees, small fruits, and nursery stock went into the winter
well matured and came through in good condition.
The spring, though not unusually early, was on the whole quite dry. May was
much warmner than usual, enabling growers to get ahead with seeding and planting.
All crops got away to a good start, and with few exceptions were not set back by the
cool showery weather that followed. September was unseasonably hot and dry. The
balance of the season was generally favourable for harvesting apples and vegetable-
crops. An estimated 10,000 boxes of apples were lost in the Creston district from an
early frost.
Some 275 acres of fruits and vegetables suffered from hail damage in the Okanagan
Valley, the areas affected being Oyama, Lavington, and Salmon Arm.
The apple-crop was the largest since 1950. The fruit ran two to three sizes larger
than usual, and late estimates have placed the crop at 6,667,000 boxes for the Okanagan
and Kootenays. Mcintosh were of particularly good quality, well coloured and firm,
as were Winesaps and Rome Beauty, but Delicious were rather badly sun-scalded by
the September heat.    Newtown produced a crop of good size and quality.
The following table sets out the fruit production for the years 1956 and 1957:—
British Columbia Production by Kinds of Fruit
Estimated
Crop 1956 Production 1957 Production
Apples  boxes 4,130,859 6,783,360
Crab-apples     „ 97,791 102,800
Pears     „ 638,526 778,200
Plums  crates 73,253 70,000
Prunes      „ 719,350 646,700
Cherries   .                                         „ 145,958 250,279
Peaches
Apricots
Cantaloupes
Strawberries
Raspberries
Loganberries _.
Blackberries   ._
Black Currants
Red Currants .
750,092     1,356,000
211,207      901,565
2,583 563
136,456 326,520
291,230 736,625
15,474 70,475
4,176 39,000
3,252 3,700
2,901 3,350
Gooseberries      „ 3,642 4,050
Blueberries       „ 60,553 60,080
Cranberries  lb. 19,225 35,000
Grapes    „ 459,528 1,954,000
Filberts  „ 100,000 100,000
Because of tree-fruit losses due to low-temperature injury, a heavy replacement
programme is facing the fruit-growers. It is of some interest to note the trends toward
fewer varieties. To-day the swing is toward apples, with more attention being paid to
hardy frameworks, hardy and clonal root-stocks. Red strains of Delicious, Spartan,
and Mcintosh are the three popular varieties at present.
Where plums or prunes are removed, there is very little replacement being made.
Rather than replant with these, growers are more inclined to plant apples or sweet JJ  18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
cherries. The favoured cherry varieties are Lambert, Sam, and, to some extent, Star;
Bing, because of splitting and tenderness, is no longer popular, while Van is being planted
largely for pollination.
Pear plantings are about holding their own, with only Bartlett and Anjou being
planted.
Peaches and apricots are being planted in the warmer parts of the Okanagan, with
little change in variety. The industry is still looking for an apricot with the hardiness
and productivity of a Moorpark and the canning quality of a Blenheim.
Of the small fruits, British Sovereign still leads in strawberries, with no variey in
sight to replace it, although several are under observation. Northwest plantings have
shown some increase, largely due to the scarcity of British Sovereign plants for the
planting season of 1956. Some interest is being shown toward Agassiz, Siletz, and
Puget Beauty, but these varieties have not been grown long enough under our conditions
to be properly evaluated.
With the introduction of the raspberry Creston, growers in the Fraser Valley are
showing considerable interest. The Horticultural Branch was responsible for its introduction.   However, Washington, Willamette, and Newburgh are still the leading varieties.
The vegetable industry in the Interior shows an increased acreage for the first time
since 1952—5,055 acres this season as compared to 4,696 in 1956. Five commodities
were increased this year—namely, early and late potatoes, asparagus, tomatoes, and
turnips—while lettuce, carrots, beets, parsnips, peppers, cucumbers, green beans, bulb
onions, and silverskins showed a decrease. On the Lower Mainland and Vancouver
Island, vegetable acreage showed an over-all increase of 125 acres over last year, with
a total of 23,446 acres.   The vegetable acreage is given in the following table:—
British Columbia Vegetable Production and Acreages, 1956, and Estimated for 1957
Crop
1956
Production
(Lb.)
Acreages
Estimated, 1957
Production
(Lb.)
Acreages
Asparagus	
Beans (green).—
Beans (dried) ....
Beets	
Broccoli 	
Brussels sprouts .
Cabbage...	
Carrots	
Cauliflower	
Celery	
Com.
Cucumbers (field) __
Cucumbers (hothouse).
Lettuce (field)	
Lettuce (hothouse)	
Mushrooms	
Onions.
Parsnips	
Peas (green).
Peas (dried).
Potatoes	
Rhubarb	
Spinach.
Squash, pumpkin, marrow..
Tomatoes (field)	
Tomatoes (hothouse)	
Turnips.  	
Zucca melon __ 	
Other vegetables __ 	
Totals 	
618,500
12,147,211
74,000
5,093,351
839,361
167,743
8,542,652
15,607,156
3,722,140
3,175,870
20,962,357
4,572,194
921,105
6,906,690
90,000
1,502,019
8,984,300
807,812
21,655,556
8,476,240
120,626,837
1,060,773
1,386,379
2,851,750
32,056,198
2,780,360
5,594,510
799,411
2,613,501
471.0
1,721.0
30.0
345.5
150.0
25.0
544.5
789.7
462.0
479.0
3,126.0
424.7
648.0
468.7
77.0
6,846.0
7,025.0
8,680.5
105.0
117.0
203.5
1,958.5
440.0
89.0
1,436.0
765,226
10,310,397
25,680
4,530,119
900,000
70,000
9,454,180
15,236,400
4,352,330
3,699,750
19,843,550
4,961,354
1,009,550
9,714,150
60,000
1,283,875
7,411,459
652,500
18,709,664
8,065,006
167,222,585
1,113,668
1,075,155
2,770,141
33,550,330
2,520,904
7,758,550
500,000
4,553,155
503.6
1,876.0
30.0
372.2
175.0
10.0
533.1
729.0
362.0
425.1
3,335.1
361.6
570.0
392.6
79.5
6,092.0
6,120.0
9,729.0
105.0
113.0
207.3
1,943.7
479.2
47.0
1,279.7
294,635,976
36,662.6
342,119,678
35,870.7 	
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ  19
Canning-peas were down some 650 acres, but potatoes showed an increase of
600 acres and canning-corn 200 acres.   Other crops remained at about the same level.
The first major change in packing-house and fruit-handling methods since the introduction of mechanical graders was the introduction this year of bulk bins for handling
apples. This change followed the visit to New Zealand last winter of a party made up
of growers, packing-house personnel, and a representative from the Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture. Mr. W. F. Morton represented the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture and has submitted a comprehensive report on bulk handling
in that country.
Although bins were used to a limited extent this year, those growers who have used
them are quite enthusiastic, and it is expected greater use will be made next season.
The bin method seems to be easier on the fruit, permits faster handling in the orchards
and packing-houses, and requires less storage space for loose fruit than do bushel boxes.
Two sizes of bins have been recommended—25- and 50-bushel capacity, with the smaller
bin more generally used.
Anticipating the demand for tree-fruit nursery stock, nurserymen this year grew
the largest crop on record. There will be some 480,000 1-year-old trees available, of
which 382,000 are apples. It is expected that quite a large number of trees, particularly
those on clonal stock, will be exported to the United States.
The following table shows the number and kind of apple root-stocks being used
in British Columbia nurseries:—
Root-stock
E.M. II __        	
Number of Trees
                   145,404
E.M. IV .   	
     12,091
E.M. VII.   	
       64,115
E.M. IX .
     26,465
E.M. XVI
1,503
E.M. XXV	
          116
M.M. 104 	
103
M.M. 106 	
M.M. 109 	
          253
167
Seedling	
131,448
M.M. Ill 	
         .         212
Total
381,877
Although the nurserymen supplying tree-fruit stocks have taken steps to fill all local
needs, the growers of ornamental stocks have not; consequently, a lot of stock that
could be grown in British Columbia is being imported.
With the many new homes being built, park developments, new schools, etc., there
appears to be an excellent opportunity for a much greater production of ornamental
stocks by British Columbia nurserymen.
The area devoted to greenhouse crops in 1957 is about equal to that of 1955, when
the last survey was made, namely 4,803,642 square feet. At present there is a trend
away from tomatoes and cucumbers to the higher-priced flower-crops, especially chrysanthemums, some growers producing this crop on the twelve-month basis.
It is of some satisfaction to report the over-all improvement in the quality of the
greenhouse crops produced on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island because of
demonstration work carried out by this Branch. This work has consisted mainly in the
setting-up of fertilizer levels, soil-sterilizing methods, disease and insect control. This
has called for a great many soil analyses, quite often on short notice. This part of the
work has been very capably done by J. H. Neufeld, soil analyst. JJ 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The vegetable-seed situation showed little change from last year. There was a slight
increase this year due to the larger acreage of seed-peas, and a slight increase in beet,
onion, turnip, and broad beans.
Flower-seed acreage was lower this year, due partly to one large grower on Vancouver Island going out of business.
Since most of the flower-seed acreage is confined to quite small units, mechanization
is out of the question and most of the work is by hand-labour, making for a labour cost
that cannot compete with the large seed-farms of the United States.
The following table is set forth to show the trend in production during the past two
years.   (Note.—Final compilation of 1957 yields not completed until February.)
Vegetable Seed
Kind 1956 (Lb.) 19571 (Lb.)
Asparagus   125 200
Beans (broad)  4,500 20,000
Beans   59,721 65,000
Beets   3,283 6,300
Cabbage        12
Carrots   6,929 11,724
Cauliflower        	
Corn  32,590 30,000
Cucumber        500
Leek        800
Lettuce   14,163 500
Onion  13,234 15,680
Onion sets and multipliers  180,000 65,000
Parsley        7
Parsnip       755
Peas   3,861,286 4,073,600
Pepper   25               	
Pumpkin   435               	
Radish    9,109                	
Spinach        	
Tomato   238   - 100
Turnip (swede)   55 8,800
Vegetable marrow  239 250
Totals  4,185,932 4,299,228
1 Estimated, November, 1957.
A holly-crop of between 45 and 50 tons was shipped this year, most of it being
produced on Vancouver Island. While the general quality was good, there is a decided
lack of a uniform type of holly at this time. However, growers are aware of this situation, and new plantings are being set out to strains or varieties of the better types.
Blueberry production was about the same as last season, amounting to some 60,000
crates. The crop was harvested under favourable weather conditions, and the general
quality was very good. At present it is felt there are too many varieties being grown.
Until very recently no one knew what varieties were best suited to Brtish Columbia
conditions; consequently, a great many were set out to find the most desirable. Individual preferences, regardless of climatic suitability and market demands, have had
a part in making up the number of varieties now being grown.
Filberts are still showing the effects of the 1955 freeze, especially in the better-cared-
for plantings.    Neglected and dried-out plantings have come through in fair shape.   The DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ  21
crop totalled 100,000 pounds, about equal to last year's crop. The Barcelona and
Du Chilly varieties show the most injury, while Nooksack and the pollinator Alpha
produced most of the crop.
The only commercial tobacco acreage is grown in the Sumas area. Usually this
amounts to some 80 or 90 acres, but this year only 48 acres were grown. Yields are
estimated at 1,150 pounds per acre. The crop is shipped to Eastern Canada for
processing.
The Kelowna area produces practically all the commercial grapes in this Province.
This year's crop is estimated at 1,573,000 pounds or four times last year's production.
About 60 per cent of the crop was shipped to wineries and the balance sold as fresh
grapes.
DEMONSTRATION
Cherries
Additional work was undertaken for the control of brown-rot of cherries, a serious
disease in the Kootenay area. A 2-acre block of sweet cherries at Boswell was used, and
recommendations as set out in the Spray Calendar followed, while at Renata two new
materials, Cyprex and Thioneb, were tested for effectiveness and phytotoxicity. These
materials are apparently quite effective and safe to use under Kootenay conditions. It is
expected this work will be carried out on an extended basis in 1958.
Botrytis-control on Strawberries
(Reported by I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist, Abbotsford)
Three plots of one-half acre each were divided into three equal parts. There were
two plots of British Sovereign and one plot of Northwest. Each plot was sprayed three
times, starting at pre-bloom stage and repeated at ten-day intervals, using Captan 50 per
cent at 3 pounds per 100 gallons and Thiram 4 pounds per 100 gallons. Detailed
recordings of yield are only available for one plot and are given below:—
British Sovereign Variety
Material Yield (Lb. per Acre)
Thiram   7,165
Captan   5,750
No spray  5,262
Observations on the other two plots would indicate there was little difference between
spray treatments, but there was almost twice as much fruit produced on the sprayed
plots as compared to the non-sprayed plot. On one plot there was no marketable fruit
on the unsprayed portion for the last few pickings.
This season was generally considered to be a season with only light losses from
fruit-rot. Results in all three demonstrations indicate that considerable losses can be
prevented by following the above spray schedule.
Much of the losses from the Botrytis organism occur as a " blossom blast," which
quite often passes unnoticed, and the grower calculates his loss only from the decayed
fruit he sees in the planting. This demonstration shows the need for a preventive programme, regardless of weather conditions, from the pre-bloom stage until harvest-time.
A joint demonstration on mould and Botrytis control was undertaken by W. D.
Christie and A. E. Littler in greenhouses on Lulu Island and Vancouver Island. Tix
sulphur generators were set up about 30 feet apart. The generators were of the canister
type, in which a tablespoonful of flowers of sulphur was placed each night. A 100-watt
light-bulb supplied the heat to vaporize the sulphur.
Results have been very encouraging. In the areas where the generators were used,
the crop was free of both Botrytis and leaf-mould and no injury to the plants. JJ 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Greenhouse chrysanthemum spray trials at Haney and Victoria were carried out
jointly by A. E. Littler and W. D. Christie. Since the effectiveness and phytotoxicity
of some of the newer insecticides and fungicides are unknown, these demonstrations were
set up to find out these properties and at the same time to find out if they could be used
on a definite pre-determined time schedule to control all the common insect and fungous
trouble.
Four 50-foot beds were planted out, and in order to include as many varieties as
possible only a few rows of each could be used; in all, some sixteen varieties were used.
Materials used were Aramite wettable powder, Dieldrin emulsion, and Karathane wettable
powder on one-half the plants and Kelthane emulsion, Diazinon, and Karathane wettable
powder on the other. All materials were used at the rate of 2 tablespoons per 6 gallons
of water, except Karathane, which was used at 1 tablespoon per 5 gallons of water.
•    Sprays were applied on August 29th, September 17th, October 2nd, October 23rd,
and November 20th.
No leaf or flower damage was noted from either of the spray treatments. Control
of both insect pests and diseases was very satisfactory. Some aphids were noted at the
time of the last application, November 20th, but since it had been almost a month
between sprays, it would indicate this is too long an interval. The aphids were not
plentiful enough to be serious.
A recently introduced material for nematode-control called " Nemagon," reported
to be an efficient nematicide with low phytotoxic properties, was tried out on three plots
of growing strawberries, using Nemagon granular at 70 pounds per acre, Nemagon 170
emulsifiable concentrate at 1 gallon per acre in 9 gallons of water, and Nemagon 10 per
cent at 120 pounds per acre.
These materials were applied July 30th. From samples taken September 6th and
October 22nd a very considerable reduction of the Pratylenchus species was noted.
However, before any definite conclusions can be arrived at, further samplings in the
spring of 1958 will be necessary and also the effect on the strawberry plants determined.
Nematode determinations were made through the courtesy of J. Bosher, plant pathologist, Saanichton.
Since mulches for strawberries, such as shavings and straw, are expensive, subject
to wind-drift in exposed areas and to matting, surface mulches in the Fraser Valley have
not been too practical. As an alternative, an oat cover-crop drilled in on the windward
side of each row is being tried with considerable success. The oats are seeded in August
and make sufficient growth, stand well above the strawberry plants, and not only help
to break the wind, but also hold the snow. These trials have been under way for two
winters.
In 1954 five varieties of grapes were obtained from the Experimental Station,
Geneva, New York, and set out at Kelowna, in an effort to find a variety or varieties of
better quality than those presently grown and hardy under Okanagan conditions. All
varieties have survived, and from present indications two—namely, Himrod, a pale-green
seedless vinifera type, and Alden, a dark blue berry having seeds—show considerable
promise. The other varieties set out in 1954, either because of flavour, berry size, or
lateness of maturity, will likely be discarded after another year's trial.
In 1957 six plants of Interlaken Seedless on its own roots as well as on two known
root-stocks have been set out, and plants of Kendaia will be set out in 1958.
Of the eight V^-acre strawberry-plots set out in 1955, only five remain. However,
these are serving a very useful purpose as test-plots for fungicides, insecticides, and
weedicides.
The plot on Vancouver Island was partly infested by a new weevil in 1956 (Scio-
pithes obscurus), and before a satisfactory control was found had done considerable DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 23
damage to about one-third of the plot. The crop this year was about 4 tons per acre,
which can be considered a satisfactory yield under the circumstances.
Of the three plots in the Fraser Valley, the Mirus plot, at Abbotsford, planted to
Northwest, has been very well looked after, following closely the programme set out by
the Department. The yield this year was almost 7 tons per acre. The Giesbrecht plot
at Langley—British Sovereign—has not done well. Some crown damage from cold
winds that removed the mulch could be partly responsible. The yield was not quite
3 tons per acre. The Jacobs plot at Mission has from the outset been poor, and this
year did not exceed 2 tons per acre.    However, it has served a very useful purpose.
This site was chosen to try to find the reason why strawberries would not thrive
now in what had been some years ago a successful strawberry-growing area. Apparently
a high population of root-knot nematode (Pratylenchus species) has been responsible.
Further investigations will be carried out to try to determine if there may be other limiting
factors besides nematodes.
The original plan for the Creston plot has been changed slightly to try to find out
the value of the narrow matted row both from a winter protection standpoint and yield.
The plot arrangement with yields is shown in the following table:—
Average Yield
Row No. Treatment per Row (Lb.)
1,   2—Matted row only  390
3,   4—Matted row, mulched  352
5—Matted row, mulched, topped  338
6,   7—Hill system, mulched, topped  265
8,   9—Hill system, topped  266
10, 11—-Hill system only  256
The work of trying to improve the vigour and yields of the British Sovereign variety
of strawberry continues. The Horticultural Branch, in co-operation with the University,
is attempting to establish by selection from producing fields high-yielding desirable-type
plants that have been exposed to the diseases responsible for the decline in this variety.
Plants from desirable-type clones are being grown at the University and also at the Agricultural Centre at Abbotsford.
In co-operation with Plant Pathology Section of Science Service and the Experimental Farm at Agassiz, virus-free plants of British Sovereign are being developed. The
plants, after being released as virus-free by the pathologists, are grown for one season at
Agassiz. This stock is then turned over to the Horticultural Branch for increase, under
isolation. This certified stock will be released to selected commercial growers who
have the ability and facilities to properly grow and care for it. To avoid contamination,
disease-free stock will have to be supplied each year to these growers. Some progress is
being made, and it is expected some 25,000 disease-free plants will be available for
propagation this coming season.
Tomatoes and Onions
The tomato demonstration plot at Kelowna has been in operation since 1952, has
now served the purpose as originally set out, and will be discontinued.
This 3-acre plot has been outstanding in demonstrating to vegetable-growers the
use of cover-crops in a rotation, coupled with adequate fertilizer applications.
It is significant to note that in six short years these 3 acres have been restored from
an exhausted waste to a rich and highly productive piece of land by nothing more than
good farming methods.
The following production record for tomatoes and onions are of considerable
interest:— JJ 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Tomato Production
Crop
Tons per Acre
1952
1953
19541
19551
1956
1957
5.22
1.50
8.43
6.00
5.87
7.20
8.86
12.00
12.93
7.40
15.44
6 19
6.72
14.43
13.07
20.86
20.33
21 63
1 1954 and 1955 were very poor tomato seasons.   Weather was cool and wet and growing season shorter than usual.
Onion Production
Crop
Tons per Acre
1954
1955        I
1956
1957
Harvested from cover-cropped land.	
Harvested from adjacent land in continuous crop.
22.8
15.3
20.91 23.27
12.82 15.0
22.03
11.68
In co-operation with the Agricultural Engineering Division, further work has been
done in an attempt to develop a low-cost efficient onion-digger suitable for the generally
small acreages found in the Okanagan Valley. Good progress is being made, and from
the experience gained over the last two years, it is hoped that a satisfactory machine will
be developed that will properly dig and windrow onions.
An eight-roll onion-topper with a capacity of 80 to 100 pounds per minute was also
extensively tested this season.   It is a small machine and suited to local conditions.
No apparent bruising or tearing was noted, but samples have been placed in storage
for later observation to determine these points.
Asparagus
The asparagus acreage in the Province is gradually on the increase. In 1950 there
were 290.75 acres, as compared to 503.6 acres in 1957. The greatest increase has been
in the Okanagan, where it has risen from 186 acres in 1950 to 435.6 in 1957.
Since no fertilizer trials prior to 1953 had been made with this crop, W. T. Baver-
stock set up plots in 1953 on irrigated and non-irrigated lands to try to find out what
fertilizer and in what amounts were needed to sustain yield.
The following tables give a summary of the results for the five years the trials have
been under way:—
Irrigated
Material
Rate
(Pounds
per Acre)
Yield
n Pounds per Acre
5-year
Plot
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
Yield
1
2
33-0-0   	
33-0-0               	
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
3,225
3,455
2,450
3,755
3,780
3,480
3,010
4,570
4,370
4,200
4,525
4,080
4,425
3,375
4,165
4,225
4,045
4,470
4.150
4,485
4,725
4,625
5,010
5.065
5,375
5,235
5,300
5,455
5,590
5,675
5,215
4,364
4,402
3
4
5
16-20-0	
16-20-0	
6-10-10   	
4,125
4,643
4,533
6
6 10-10   	
4.455             5.225
4,652
7
Check..... 	
3,920
4,530
4,010 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 25
Non-irrigated
Plot
Material
Rate
(Pounds
per Acre)
Yield in Pounds per Acre
5-year
Average
Yield
1
1953              1954
1
1955
1956
1957
1
2
3
4
33-0-0	
33-0-0     	
16-20-0 -	
16-20-0 - -	
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
4,095
3,660
3,615
3,475
3,600
3,240
3,615
4,770
3,795
3,880
3,630
4,095
3,540
3,795
4,560
4,185
4,275
4,080
4,425
4,230
4,380
5,070
3,720
4,050
3,720
3,630
3,765
3,945
4,710
3,675
3,405
3,270
3,450
3,210
3,555
4,641
3,807
3,845
3,635
5
6
7
6-10-10	
6-10-10. 	
Check	
3,840
3,597
3,858
In addition to the above trials, plots on a new planting at Salmon Arm were set out
under the direction of R. M. Wilson. This planting under trial was set out in 1954, and
this was the first season any cutting was done.
Plot No.
Fertilizer
Total Yield
1
80 lb. 33-0-0               —-            -
Lb.
144
2
3
80 lb. 33-0-0 plus 150 lb. 0-19-0 ..._ _ 	
80 lb. 33 0-0 plus 50 lb. 0-0-60
185
206
4
Check                                                                         '     	
160
5
80 lb. 33-0-0 plus 150 lb. of 0-19-0 plus 50 lb. 0-0-60	
234
Tree-fruits
The tree-fruit fertilizer plots set up in 1928 and 1934 are, as far as can be learned,
the oldest trial plots in the Pacific Northwest. The fertilizer treatments and yields for the
past six crops are tabulated below.
Fertilizer Trials
Butler Orchard, Lower Bench, East Kelowna, Set Up 1928.—Object:  To determine
the optimum amount of nitgrogen required for bearing apple-trees.
Procedure:   The fertilizer is applied in the fall as follows:—
Plot
Materials
Average Yield in Loose Boxes per Tree
Average
No.
1
1952             1953
1
1954
1955
1956            1957
1
1
19.6
21.0
18.6
13.8
15.0
22.8
21.2
17.4
17.4
24.3
28.5
29.4
20.6
16.0
18.7
18.6
17.8
18.0
18.2
24.3
21.25
22.25
14.5
13.4
19.3
24.0
30.0
21.2
21.6
33.3
22.46
2
23.61
3
4
6 lb. ammonium nitrate	
18.38
16.73
5
5 lb. ammonium nitrate (old
check-plot)—	
22.48
It is rather significant that Plot No. 2, receiving only 2 pounds of fertilizer since
1948, continues to produce crops as large as any of the plots receiving more fertilizer.
It would appear that nitrogen is not the limiting factor in production on these plots.
Block No. 2, Butler Orchard, Lower Bench, East Kelowna.—Object: To determine
the effect of each of the major elements on tree growth, yield, and fruit quality for the
Mcintosh variety of apple. JJ 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Procedure:  Fertilizer is applied in the fall as follows:-
Plot
No.
Materials
Average Yield in Loose Boxes per Tree
1953 1954 1955
I I
1956 1957
I
Average
4 lb. ammonium sulphate .
5 lb. 16-20-0	
5 lb. 16-20-0, 3 lb. sulphate of potash..
5 lb. sulphate of ammonia _	
19.3 21.8
26.3 I      24.2
23.2 27.6
24.3 18.7
18.3
25.2
15.2
24.3
22.67
25.6
27.2
19.3
28.25
32.8
28.2
33.3
22.06
26.82
24.28
23.98
Observations: The test was commenced in 1934. Plot No. 4 prior to 1946 served
as a check, receiving no fertilizer.   Since 1946, sulphate of ammonia has been applied.
Yield figures again favour Plots Nos. 2 and 3—that is, the N.P. and N.P.K. plots.
In addition, plots were set up in 1956 for pears in the Kelowna district and for
apples at Creston, but this work has not been going along enough to be in any way
informative.
Weed-control
Chemical weed-control in horticultural crops is being given considerable study.
The work with onions, carrots, and beans is proceeding satisfactorily, and safe recommendations can now be made. During the past season seven materials were tried, of
which liquid Cyanamid at 10 gallons per acre applied as a pre-emergence spray gave
excellent control with no reduction in yield, while vegadex at 3 pounds per acre gave
fair control and no damage. The other five materials either did not control the weeds
or controlled weeds and seriously reduced the crop at the same time.
With perennial crops such as tree-fruits and cane-fruits, the problem becomes more
difficult because of the residual effects of the chemicals being used. Although there are
chemicals that will control such weeds as quack-grass, Russian knapweed, hoary cress,
and other deep-rooted weeds, the residual effects render them unsafe, according to the
information now available. This work is being continued, but since it may be two or
three years before the full effect of the chemical on the growing crop may show, progress
is naturally slow.
A co-operative weed-control project will be carried out in the Okanagan with the
Horticultural Branch and the Public Works Department participating. A survey of the
noxious weeds along the highways between Vernon and Summerland has been made,
and control plans drawn up. Such a programme should eliminate claims arising from
crop losses and at the same time obtain better weed-control.
Deer Repellents
Following the quite successful results obtained with seal-oil as a deer repellent in
the Kootenays by J. E. Swales, further trials with this material were carried out by
M. P. D. Trumpour at Penticton and Okanagan Falls. During February, burlap strips,
6 by 2 inches, were dipped in seal-oil and suspended by a wire from the branches of
young trees.
Up to the end of August, although deer tracks were plentiful, the damage to treated
trees was almost negligible compared to damage on adjacent untreated trees. Since
a great many materials have been tried without much success, the seal-oil repellent is not
only inexpensive and easy to use, but apparently gives protection over quite a long period.
In some cases the same material used in Salmon Arm was not effective.
Budding-schools
Because of the number of hardy apple stocks being planted that will have to be
top-worked in the near future to the wanted varieties, it was felt advisable to instruct DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 27
the growers now on how to properly do this work themselves. Seventeen schools were
held, with an attendance of 150.
Orchard field tours were carried out at Osoyoos, Keremeos, Penticton, Kelowna,
Vernon, and Salmon Arm. The growers attending expressed their satisfaction with this
form of extension, and the B.C.F.G.A. executive has requested that orchard tours be
placed on an annual basis.
The tours were arranged by J. A. Smith, assisted by the District Horticulturist and
a representative of each local district visited. The District Horiculturist was responsible
for the programme in his district. In addition to the local officials, W. R. Foster, Provincial Plant Pathologist, and C. F. Brownlee, specialist in drainage and irrigation, of the
Provincial Soil Survey Branch, took an active part in the discussions.
SURVEYS AND INSPECTIONS
Because of the heavy losses to small fruits in the Fraser Valley following the 1955
freeze, the small-fruit survey that would have been normally made in 1956 was made in
that area in 1957 when a more accurate record of plantings could be obtained. As will
be seen from the comparisons of acreages in the following table, all crops show a loss
(except cranberries, where there is a decided increase) due to frost damage. Although
planting stock is available for all berry-crops, growers are reluctant to fully replant until
the marketing situation clears.
1957 Small-fruit Survey, Fraser Valley
Kind of Small Fruit
Raspberries 	
Strawberries 	
Blueberries 	
Cranberries 	
Loganberries (including boysenberries)
Blackberries 	
Rhubarb	
Asparagus 	
Nuts 	
Grapes 	
Holly	
1954 Acreages
1,942.21
1,971.82
584.00
25.50
153.33
40.21
96.75
19.00
449.77
46.49
63.00
1957 Acreages
1,747.90
1,544.18
552.93
98.00
40.38
29.17
65.74
19.00
281.49
10.00
36.45
All nurseries were inspected during the season by W. D. Christie. Where tree-fruit
stocks were being produced, they were inspected for trueness to name and any wrongly
named were labelled and pointed out to the manager.
Nursery Inspection Report, 1957
Trees
Number
Inspected
Number
Passed
Number
Condemned
Apples and  crab-apples  	
391,655
28,529
3,319
27,287
30,224
4,930
384,227
23,376
3,286
26,777
27,735
4,752
7,428
5,153
33
510
2,489
178
Plums and prunes  —.- 	
Percentage of trees condemned, 3.87 (1956, 5.80).
Number of nursery licences issued in 1957, 193 (1956,
Number of inspections made in 1957, 25 (1956, 16).
187). JJ 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fire-blight inspection was undertaken as usual in all districts except Kelowna. This
was not a serious problem, and only a very small percentage of the total trees examined
were condemned.
Total acreage inspected, 1,302.10;  passed, 1,301.98.
A total of thirteen pruning-schools were held during the season, with an attendance
of 303.
The usual biennial bulb survey was carried out this season, and the following table
shows a slight acreage decline from the 1955 survey:—
British Columbia Bulb Survey, 1957, with Estimated Values of Marketable Production
Kind of Bulb
1955
Total Acreage
1957
Total Acreage
Approximate
Quantity
Estimated
Values of
Marketable
Production
Narcissus	
Tulips-—	
Gladioli	
Iris (bulbous)..
Iris (others).__.
Hyacinths	
Lilies —-	
Dahlias	
Peonies _.
Other bulbs1....
278.33
86.47
78.57
19.25
8.08
4.92
5.60
28.00
11.28
2.23
308.12
66.82
44.04
13.66
0.27
5.21
2.09
17.31
6.75
3.52
18,487,200
6,682,000
4,404,000
2,049,000
2,000
208,000
52,300
69,250
40,475
702,500
Totals -
522.73
467.79
$124,788.60
41,762.50
26,424.00
18,441.00
270.00
5,210.00
2,090.00
17,310.00
6,750.00
3,520.00
$246,566.10
1 Would include such bulbs as crocus, chinodoxa, grape hyacinths, etc.
BULLETINS, NEWS-LETTERS, CROP REPORTS, MEETINGS
Two bulletins were revised and reissued during the year, one on " Holly Growing "
and one on " Bulb Growing." At present under revision are horticultural bulletins on
raspberries, strawberries, currants, gooseberries, and rhubarb.
As usual the Horticultural Newsletter covering crop conditions for the Province
was issued bi-monthly from May through September, all the horticultural offices cooperating. The Newsletter is compiled and mailed from the Kelowna office under the
direction of the Supervising Horticulturist.
The annual growers' meetings were held in the Okanagan during February. Twenty
meetings with a total attendance of 1,142 growers were reported, with two members of
the Horticultural Branch staff participating. J. A. Smith spoke on " Hardy Stocks " and
" Winter Injury Protection," while M. G. Oswell talked on " Insect and Disease Control."
Through the co-operation of the British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association, B.C.
Tree Fruits Limited, and Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, members of the staff
have been able to get timely information on such problems as spraying, irrigation, crop
maturity, and picking dates to the growers. Broadcasts are made over the three Okanagan stations and the regular farm broadcasts of the C.B.C.
The Royal Commission investigating the tree-fruit industry has called on several
members of the staff for information pertinent to the inquiry. Your Horticulturist made
a submission dealing with the history and development of the tree-fruit industry of the
Province, with special reference to marketing and the developments that led up to the
present system of marketing.
A. C. Carter, Assistant District Horticulturist at Penticton, is serving as secretary
to the Commission.
Your Horticulturist wishes to acknowledge with sincere appreciation the co-operation of the Horticultural Branch staff and members of other branches of the Department,
the Canada Department of Agriculture, the University of British Columbia, and the
various growers' organizations throughout the Province. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 29
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc.
Most of the important plant diseases were checked by the dry weather during the
spring and fall. There was no major outbreak of any plant disease in any crop. A few
diseases, like late blight of potatoes, were favoured by the wet weather of the summer, but
control measures taken by most growers to combat the disease prevented severe losses.
DISEASES
Field Crops
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.—British Columbia continues to be virtually free of
bacterial ring-rot of potatoes. Ring-rot has been found in trace amounts on three farms
in the Fraser Valley. We appear to have less ring-rot than any other potato-producing
area on the North American Continent.
Dwarf Bunt of Winter Wheat.—The first economic outbreak of dwarf bunt of
winter wheat in the Kootenays occurred on one farm in the Creston area. Dwarf bunt
has been present in the Northern Okanagan for many years. It can be prevented either
by growing a resistant variety or by treatment with hexachlorobenzene.
Late Blight of Potatoes.—Two press releases were issued at the Coast (June 27th
and July 16th) warning growers that weather conditions were favourable for an attack
of late blight. Nearly all growers who sprayed or dusted obtained a practical control.
A few small growers on Vancouver Island (north from Duncan) who did not spray or
dust had severe losses.
Leaf-roll of Potatoes.—Potato-growers in the Northern Okanagan have been producing potatoes with primary leaf-roll net necrosis in the Netted Gem variety. These
growers do not appear to be equipped or prepared to spray to prevent the spread of
leaf-roll virus by aphids. Some growers are turning to the variety Pontiac, which produces higher yields, is free from primary leaf-roll net necrosis, and commands nearly
as high a price per ton as Netted Gem.
Rust of Wheat.—Stem, leaf, and stripe rust of wheat were widely distributed in
the Creston area and caused severe damage. Losses from these rust diseases can be
reduced by the use of resistant varieties.
Ornamentals
Root-rot of Lawson's Cypress.—Root-rots caused by Phytophthora lateralis and
cinnamomi are causing considerable damage to nursery plants. The Lawson's cypress
group is the most severely affected. Information on how to recognize the root-rots and
how to combat them was distributed to the nursery industry.
Small Fruits
Certified Strawberry Plants.—A Certified Strawberry Scheme was outlined for the
first time. Plant propagators will receive planting stock in 1958 which should be free
of virous diseases. In 1955 British Sovereign plants of selected foundation stock were
subjected to a heat treatment by the Canada Plant Pathology Laboratory, Vancouver.
Propagation of these virous-free plants was made by the Canada Experimental Farm,
Agassiz, in 1956, and on farms at Choate and Seabird Island in 1957 under the supervision of the Provincial Horticultural Branch. The Approved Strawberry Scheme will be
continued until there is a sufficient number of certified plants available to supply the
demand. JJ 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Low-temperature Injury of Strawberries.—Low-temperature injury continues to
be one of the major hazards of growing strawberries. The damage is greater in areas
exposed to wind. Drilling in an oat cover-crop on the windward side of the row reduced
low temperature and wind damage.
Tree-fruits
Apple-scab.—Apple-scab threatened in the early season, but the average loss to
the mature crop was slight. In the Kootenays, Dichlone appeared to give slightly better
control than lime-sulphur. The new fungicide Cyprex (5223) is the most effective fungicide ever tested, but it can cause russeting.
Brown-rot.—In the Kootenays and Arrow Lakes district, brown-rot continues to
be a problem. The recommended spray programme gave much better control of the
disease on the fruit but did not afford sufficient protection in the blossoming stage. An
extra application of spray in the early bloom stage is recommended for next year.
Fire-blight.—Fire-blight caused moderate to severe damage in a few orchards at
Osoyoos and Naramata. It was found for the first time in several Keremeos bench
orchards.
Little-cherry.—Little-cherry symptoms were more severe in 1957 in the Creston
Valley than in the previous year.
Physiological Disorders.—The most common deficiency observed in the Okanagan
orchards was zinc. Orchards deficient in boron, magnesium, manganese, and iron were
also observed. The use of iron chelate sprays, particularly Sequestrine 330, appear to
show promise in overcoming iron deficiency, the most difficult to control.
Vegetables
Bean-rust.—Effective bean-rust control was obtained with Zineb, Ziram, and a
new fungicide, Cyprex (5223).
Club-root.—Club-root disease of cabbage and cauliflower is widely distributed at
the Coast and caused severe damage in many fields.
REPORT OF ENTOMOLOGY BRANCH
C. L. Neilson, M.S., and J. C. Arrand, M.Sc.
The year 1957 had no major insect outbreak on agricultural crops, and most of
our normal pests continued to be present in varying degrees throughout the Province.
Highlights in entomology in British Columbia during the year were as follows:—
(1) Inauguration, and completion with apparent success, of a joint programme
by the Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture to eradicate
Oriental fruit-moth in the Okanagan Valley.
(2) Inauguration by the Federal and Provincial Departments of Agriculture
Entomology Branches of a large-scale research-demonstration experiment
to control warble-flies with the systemic Dow Chemical Company formulation Trolene.
(3) A large-scale outbreak of tick paralysis in cattle in the Merritt district,
with at least forty animals being killed.
(4) Continuation of a mosquito-control programme in the Fraser Valley by
the joint efforts of several cities and municipalities.
(5) Grasshopper infestations continued generally at a low ebb, with slight
increases in the Okanagan Valley. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 31
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Grasshopper infestations continued to be low, with the Nicola and Princeton control zones being the only areas needing control measures. Red-backed cutworms were
numerous in the Okanagan-Mainline districts and infestations of the bertha armyworm
occurred at Grand Forks on potatoes. Wireworms continued to cause some damage to
potatoes in the Fraser Valley on non-treated acreages. A survey in the Peace River
District in June indicated only scattered light damage to grain-fields. Aphid populations
on cole-crops were severe during the late summer in the Fraser Valley. Tuber flea-beetle
and carrot rust-fly damage was greatly reduced this year. Onion-maggot infestations
were very high in Vancouver along the Marine Drive vegetable acreages. Turnips in
Central British Columbia were severely damaged by root-maggots. Wheat-midge caused
50 per cent damage to a field of Garnet wheat at Quesnel. Liocoris species were present
in economic numbers in most alfalfa-seed fields in the Peace River area. Pea leaf-weevil
damaged seeding peas in the Fraser Valley, and most of the commercial peas were treated
for pea aphid. Garden slugs were again numerous, but spinach leaf-miner damage was
reduced from 1956 in the North Okanagan. The bean lycaenid occurred for the first
time and damaged beans in the Kelowna area. Numerous miscellaneous inquiries were
made to this and other entomological offices.
ORCHARD INSECTS
The eradication programme for Oriental fruit-moth was completed with apparent
success, but further check will be continued during 1958. This involved cannery fumigation, orchard removal, orchard soil fumigation, orchard spraying, spray residue analysis, fruit estimate and compensation for loss to growers concerned, and revision of import
regulations of host fruits.
The following pests were present in the degree noted:—
(a) The same level as in 1956: Rosy apple-aphid, peach twig-borer, peach
tree-borer, California pear-slug, lygus, woolly aphid, pear leaf-worm,
buffalo tree-hopper, black cherry-aphid, clover-mite, European red-mite,
two-spotted mite, yellow spider-mite, oyster-shell scale, and mealy plum-
aphid.
(b) Less than in 1956: Cicadas, pear-leaf blister-mite, apple rust-mite, cutworms.
(c) More than in 1956: Codling-moth, eye-spotted bud-moth, fruit-tree leaf-
roller, Pulvinaria scale, cherry fruit-worm, grasshoppers, apple sawfly
(Vancouver Island).
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
The season was marked by (a) discovery of cyclamen mite in Northwest strawberries at Creston, (b) damage to fruit stems and fruit of strawberries in the Fraser Valley
by an unidentified lepidopterous larva;, and (c) continued increase in numbers of the
weevils Sciopithes obscurus and Nemocestes species on Southern Vancouver Island.
In addition to the above, the strawberry aphid was abundant in Coastal British Columbia, and both the strawberry root-weevil and the black vine-weevil continued to cause
damage throughout the Province in untreated plantings. Damage from raspberry cane-
maggot to both loganberries and raspberries in Coastal areas was unusually high. Bramble leaf-hoppers were numerous and caused some damage, and the leaf-hopper Macropsis
fuscula also increased in numbers. Mite populations were low. Raspberry root-borer,
currant aphid, currant fruit-fly, and oblique-banded leaf-roller were present, but similar
in infestations to 1956. Control measures were necessary for raspberry fruit-worm in
the Wyndell area. Spittle-bugs were more numerous in the Creston and Coastal areas
than in 1956. JJ 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FLOWERS AND SHRUBS
Inquiries concerning the various pests of flowers and shrubs were normal. There
were no serious outbreaks or no new pests reported.
LIVE-STOCK PESTS
The worst outbreak on record in British Columbia of tick paralysis occurred during April. The centre of the outbreak was in the Nicola Lake area, but other cases were
reported from Mamit Lake, Valleyview, Heffley, Stump Lake, and Ewings Landing.
At least forty cattle are known to have died as a result of the paralysis. Spinose ear-tick
was again present in cattle near Adams Lake. Cattle lice were common, as were warble-
grubs. A large-scale joint research-demonstration project was instigated in the Canoe
Creek and Kamloops areas on warble-fly control, using the systemic insecticide Trolene.
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
Publications were as follows:—
(1) Handbook of the Main Economic Insects of B.C., Tree Fruit Insects.
(2) Insect Pest Control for the Home Garden.
(3) Fruit-tree Leaf Roller.
(4) The Eye-spotted Bud Moth.
(5) Carpet Beetles.
(6) Carpenter Ant and Clothes Moth.
(7) Forage Crop Insects in B.C.—article for B.C. Agronomy Report.
Illustrated lectures were given at fifteen centres, two television releases were made,
radio and press releases prepared, and tree-fruit field-days attended in the Okanagan.
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon
With few exceptions, honeybees are the most important pollinators of agricultural
crops. Until a few years ago, crops were pollinated almost entirely by various kinds of
wild bees existing in the area before honeybees were introduced. Now, however, wild
bees are becoming scarce in most agricultural areas, and honeybees introduced and
maintained for honey production have, to a large extent, replaced them as pollinators of
agricultural crops.
Weather conditions throughout the Province were similar in each district. The cold
backward spring resulted in a slow build-up of colonies. Summerlike weather during
the month of May resulted in rapid blooming of many nectar-secreting plants. Generally, colonies were not strong enough to take advantage of the bloom and therefore did
not benefit as much as they might have. Unseasonably cold weather prevailed during
June and most of July. Poor nectar secretion resulted and reduced honey production
from an estimated 2,000,000 to 1,500,000 pounds.
Beekeepers were disappointed with their final crop returns. Producers on Vancouver Island were most unfortunate, where the estimated crop was 50 per cent of normal.
However, in the Peace River and the Similkameen areas, honey production was above
average.
MARKETING
Generally, honey-marketing conditions are satisfactory. Better than average crops
of honey in most Provinces have created a small surplus of domestic honey. The Canadian Beekeepers Council has requested a temporary embargo be placed on importation DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 33
of honey from the United States. Imports of honey are checked at points of entry.
Most of the honey produced in this Province is packed and sold by small producers.
Others sell their entire crop at the apiary or through roadside stands. Most of the honey
produced in the Peace River District is handled by the Alberta Co-operative or the packing plant of Bee Cee Honey in New Westminster. A few tons of section honey and
chunk honey are produced.
The Retail Inspection Unit of the Canada Department of Agriculture has been doing
some excellent work in enforcing our Honey Grading Regulations.
DISEASE-CONTROL AND INSPECTION
The inspection staff during 1957 consisted of V. E. Thorgeirson, J. Stann, G. V.
Wilkinson, H. Boone, J. Drinkwater, and J. Mclnnis.
Seventy-four live colonies infected with American foul-brood and valued at $1,480
were burned, in accordance with the "Apiaries Act."
Inspectors in five districts are carrying out supervised treatment of eighty-three
diseased colonies in selected apiaries.    Results have been most encouraging.
Twenty-seven samples of brood comb and smears were received for analysis. These
were examined microscopically, and all but four showed infection—twenty American
foul-brood (Bacillus larvce), two Nosema (Apis), and one European foul-brood (Bacillus
Alvei, Bacillus Pluton).
Eleven queens were mailed to Ottawa for study. Nine were suffering from what is
believed to be a pathological condition which prevented their eggs from developing into
larva;. Sampling of worker bees is being carried out throughout the summer as a precautionary measure against Acarine disease.
Insecticide poisoning was no problem during 1957.
POLLINATION
The pollination of agricultural crops by honeybees is at last being fully appreciated
by growers and agricultural officials alike.
In British Columbia the following crops are now being provided with an organized
pollinating service employing the beekeeper and his honeybees:—
(1) Orchard crops.
(2) Legumes:
(a) Alsike clover.
(b) Red clover.
(c) Alfalfa.
(3) Small fruits.
(4) Cucumbers (greenhouse).
(5) Tomatoes (greenhouse).
(6) Bitter melons.
(7) Holly-trees.
(8) Cranberries (low bush).
(9) Nut-trees.
At least two commercial beekeepers are offering pollination services on an organized basis.
Greenhouse pollination is developing very rapidly on Vancouver Island, and we
look for further expansion.
Over-wintered colonies generally do a more satisfactory job of pollination. Ninety-
nine per cent of the colonies kept are over-wintered; consequently, nearly all the colonies
used for pollination are over-wintered colonies. JJ 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The average charge per colony has increased from $4.36 to $5.66. A total of 626
colonies were actually employed specifically for pollination services, 284 of these in the
Okanagan.
BULLETINS AND PUBLICATIONS
The demand for publications dealing with beekeeping has been extremely heavy.
As a, result, many of our publications are at present in short supply. Mimeographed
circulars were most helpful, and additional supplies have been reprinted. Guelph Agricultural College and the Brandon Experimental Station have been most generous in providing quantities of their excellent publications.
Three issues of Bee Wise were published and distributed—a very useful adjunct in
our beekeeping extension programme.
A new bulletin of Package Bees in British Columbia is now ready for distribution.
EXTENSION
Short courses on beekeeping were held in Summerland and Oliver.
Another continuous-flow extracting unit has been installed in the honey-house of
G. Reed, Glenmore.
A booth was set up at the Armstrong Interior Exhibition in co-operation with Horticulture, Agricultural Extension, and Entomology. Hundreds of interested people viewed
our exhibits and received advice on agricultural problems.
4-H Honeybee Clubs in Vernon and Penticton are still active. L. Fuhr is the leader
of the Vernon club and L. Hansen the leader of the Penticton club. There is every
indication that another club will be organized in Armstrong this coming season.
MEETINGS
Members of the Apiary Branch attended and demonstrated apiary techniques at
twenty-three field-days and forty-two meetings. Our staff also judged honey shows at
the Pacific National Exhibition, Interior Provincial Exhibition, as well as seven other
small fairs throughout the Province.
I attended the Provincial Apiarists' meeting at Edmonton, Canadian Beekeepers'
Council meeting, Department of Agriculture Extension Conference at the University of
British Columbia, and annual meeting of British Columbia Honey Producers' Association.
Correspondence consisted of 860 letters in and 1,019 out. Fourteen tape recordings
on beekeeping were made for rebroadcast on CKWX, CKOV, and Chilliwack radio station.   Two appearances were made on television CBUT.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH
A. Kidd, V.S., D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Assistant Live Stock Commissioner
and Assistant Chief Veterinary Inspector
This submission includes reports on the Live Stock and Veterinary Division, the
Animal Pathology Division, the Dairy Herd Improvement Services, and the Brands
Division.
LIVE STOCK AND VETERINARY DIVISION
(Dr. A. Kidd)
In view of the fact that most of our duties are of a regulatory nature, this section
will be submitted showing the activities carried out under the various Acts that we are
actively enforcing, the various policies that we administer, and the miscellaneous duties
that we fulfil. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 35
Acts
"Animals Act"
There are nine gazetted bull-control areas and fifteen gazetted bull districts within
the Province.
" Beef Grading Act "
This Act applies in the Cities of New Westminster, North Vancouver, and Vancouver, the Municipalities of Burnaby and West Vancouver, and the District of North
Vancouver.
The Beef Grading Inspector reports 938 inspections were made to retail outlets in
the Greater Vancouver area. A number of infractions were discovered, all of which
have been corrected, with the exception of one still under investigation.
" Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1956 "
By Order in Council No. 870, approved April 10th, 1957, regulations under the
"Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1956," came into force. The Act and the regulations have been combined in booklet form.
Great progress has been made during the year in the programme of brucellosis
eradication. Complete eradication of this cattle disease, which is infective for humans,
is now a definite goal in the foreseeable future.
Problems with reference to a few diseases are outlined.
1. Specific Diseases.—Caseous Lymphadenitis: There has been no indication of
the presence of this disease in our sheep flocks since 1954. As a result, when the new
regulations under the "Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1956," came into effect,
all flocks that were under quarantine previous to that time because of suspected caseous
lymphadenitis were not reissued with quarantines. We, therefore, have no flocks under
quarantine for this disease.
Equine Encephalomyelitis: Four isolated cases of this infection were clinically
diagnosed in Kelowna, Penticton, and Oliver districts. The horses affected at Kelowna
and Penticton were destroyed as a result of progressive paralysis. The horse at Oliver
recovered, and blood samples were taken from this horse and forwarded to Ottawa for
laboratory diagnosis. The report on the samples taken proved negative, although the
animal exhibited typical symptoms of the disease as judged by several veterinarians.
All four premises were placed under temporary quarantine.
Foot-rot in Sheep: Routine inspections of range flocks by our Veterinary Inspectors
before grazing permits are issued allowing sheep on Crown land helps greatly to keep
this condition under control.
Tick Paralysis in Cattle: There were several deaths in cattle during April in the
Nicola area due to the tick Dermacentor andersoni. On one ranch 300 cattle were
affected, and fourteen died from progressive paralysis and pneumonia. Most of the
cattle affected were young stock. The prognosis is good if the ticks are removed from the
cattle within twelve to twenty-four hours. All recovered where the ticks were scraped off
the cattle and a spray containing benzine hexachloride was used.
Tuberculosis of Cattle: The Health of Animals Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture has the responsibility with reference to this disease throughout the
entire Province, and all testing comes under its supervision. During November three
of our Veterinary Inspectors were loaned to the Health of Animals Division in order
to assist with the testing of cattle for export to the United States. This was an emergency
in which we were glad to play a small part for the benefit of the beef industry. Some
idea of the scope of this emergency can be understood in the revelation that between
August and November 17,407 head of range stock were tested for export to United
States feed-lots, whereas last year, during the same period, just 201 head were tested. JJ 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This unexpected rise of brisk exporting of range cattle proved an unforeseen boon to the
beef-ranchers of this Province. For the entire year 23,103 range cattle and 799 dairy
cattle were shipped to the United States from British Columbia for purposes other than
immediate slaughter.
Vibriosis: This disease of cattle continues to be quite widespread throughout the
Province. Because of artificial insemination, this disease should present no great problem
to the dairy industry. It does, however, pose as a challenge to the beef industry, and
our Veterinary Inspectors have been working to help check this disease in the South
Okanagan and East Kootenay Districts. Both Inspectors have carried out some tampon
testing and have helped and advised the cattle-owners where possible.
In the East Kootenay the cattle-owners at Fort Steele have carried on the programme of last year, using pasture breeding, and are apparently not encountering problems, whereas the cattle-owners in the Grasmere district have largely reverted to range
breeding as pastures are not available. From contacts and judging from the complete
absence of complaints, it would appear that breeding has gone much more smoothly
this year in the Grasmere district than in the past three years.
2. Non-specific Diseases.—Iodine Deficiency: Diagnosed as cause of death in three
calves at Allen Grove.
Nutritional Abortion: Reported by Inspectors as cause of abortions in 6 cows at
Bankier, 14 abortions in sheep at Grand Forks, and 500 stillborn lambs from 375 ewes
in one flock in the Kettle Valley. In the latter case, a ration containing beef pellets fed
to a flock of 440 ewes was diagnosed as the cause of abortions in the 375 ewes. It was
felt that the pellets contained stilbestrol.
Malnutrition: Reported by almost all of our Veterinary Inspectors. Deficiencies
of vitamins and minerals together with straight deficiency of food continue to cause
losses during the winter and spring. Some ranchers continue to attempt to winter more
cattle than they have feed for, with resulting deaths, particularly in the spring at calving
time.
3. Brucellosis Eradication in Cattle.—The eradication of this disease from our
cattle continues, and much progress has been made during the year. Under the 1954
regulations pursuant to the " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act," twenty-one disease-
free areas had been established. On May 10th of this year these twenty-one disease-
free areas were replaced through Order in Council by ten brucellosis-control areas—
namely, West Kootenay, Nicola, Cherryville, Cariboo, Gulf Islands, Vancouver Island,
Pemberton-Sechelt, McBride, South Okanagan, and East Kootenay. On May 10th the
Kamloops-North Okanagan Brucellosis-control Area was approved and the Fraser Valley
Brucellosis-control Area later on October 3rd. By Order in Council on December
11th the Gulf Islands Brucellosis-control Area was absorbed into the Vancouver Island
Brucellosis-control Area. All the cattle-raising parts of the Province are now under active
brucellosis-eradication measures, except for the Central British Columbia-Peace River
Districts.
The work of final eradication in the Vancouver Island Brucellosis-control Area was
greatly accelerated by the assistance of one veterinarian, temporarily employed, and by
two veterinary students.
Application was made by this Department to the Canada Department of Agriculture
to take over four of our brucellosis-control areas. Under Regulation 156 of the " Animal
Contagious Diseases Act," by Order in Council dated November 19th, the Federal
Government took over our West Kootenay, Vancouver Island, Pemberton-Sechelt, and
McBride Brucellosis-control Areas as Federal brucellosis-control areas. No doubt, in
the coming year, all of these brucellosis-control areas will reach the status of certified
areas, which will allow free movement of cattle from within those areas to export under
permit.    Indications are that the United States will soon institute much stricter import DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 37
requirements with reference to brucellosis as nine States are now certified brucellosis-free.
This will result in more of our areas demanding Canada Department of Agriculture status
in order that the export market will remain open for their cattle.
The Fraser Valley Brucellosis-control Area is lagging behind very much. However,
the programme there has been outlined and, with the co-operation of the cattle-owners,
great strides toward eradication will be made during the next year. An increase in the
number of staff members over what is contemplated now will be required in order for
this Department to uphold its end.
Through the joint efforts of the Live Stock Branch and the Dairy Branch Inspectors
and our Animal Pathology Laboratory, samples from all approved raw-milk and approved
fluid-milk dairy-farms were taken on Vancouver Island for the milk ring test. A total
of 381 samples were tested as part of the brucellosis-eradication programme. Some
follow-up sampling was required in order to check on suspicious reactions.
Considerable time is required in each Departmental office for the issuance of livestock transportation permits for cattle being transported into the prescribed area or into
a brucellosis-control area. Live-stock transportation permits for slaughter take considerable time, too, and the follow-up work required on the matter of actual slaughter
involves much effort by both the office and field staffs.
Two successful prosecutions were carried out on the matter of cattle entering
brucellosis-control areas without the necessary live-stock transportation permit. In the
Vancouver Island Brucellosis-control Area, a cattle-owner was successfully prosecuted
for refusing to admit an Inspector.
A Veterinary Inspector has been present at all annual beef-cattle auction sales in
order to test cattle for brucellosis, where required, and to issue live-stock transportation
permits where necessary. These cattle sales include bull sales, fat-stock sales, and
feeder sales.
Veterinary Inspectors vaccinated a total of 2,785 calves on 382 premises.
Veterinary Inspectors blood-tested 6,187 cattle on 525 premises. Brucellosis agglutination blood-test results showed 6,070 head were negative, 31 head over 30 months
were positive, and 86 head over 30 months of age were suspicious.
Calfhood Vaccinations in Brucellosis-control Areas
Area No. and Area 1956/57
1. West Kootenay   99
2. Nicola   4,719
3. Cherryville       	
4. Cariboo   8,130
5. Gulf Islands  54
6. Vancouver Island   1,360
7. Pemberton-Sechelt   59
8. McBride  108
9. South Okanagan  2,271
10. East Kootenay     1,732
11. Kamloops-North Okanagan     7,519
Total   26,051
Includes calves vaccinated for year July 1st, 1956, to June 30th, 1957. itrucellosis-control
Area
Total
Vaccinations
Vaccinations
8,798
18,929
11,324
24,178
14,820
29,605
19,321
34,152
22,977
36,815
20,487
36,412
26,051
39,230
JJ 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Calfhood Vaccination under Joint Policy of Federal-Provincial Brucellosis-control
Period
July 15th, 1950, to June 30th, 1951_.
July 1st, 1951, to June 30th, 1952	
July 1st, 1952, to June 30th, 1953	
July 1st, 1953, to June 30th, 1954	
July 1st, 1954, to June 30th, 1955	
July 1st, 1955, to June 30th, 1956	
July 1st, 1956, to June 30th, 1957 ._.__
Totals  123,778 219,321
Total calves vaccinated under the Provincial policy during the period from July 31st,
1941, to July 14th, 1950, was 83,730 head.
"Fur-farm Act"
For the licence-year of 1957, a total of 607 fur-farm licences were issued and the
amount of $6,530 collected.   Inspectors made a total of 227 fur-farm visits.
The Victoria office issued 227 fur-farm transportation permits to cover export and
import of fur-bearing animals. A total of 60 permits to vaccinate for distemper were
issued to cover inoculations of 26,927 mink.
During the year five fur-farms were quarantined because of distemper and nine distemper quarantines were lifted. At the year-end six distemper quarantines remain within
the Province.
" Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act "
Stallion enrolments for the year 1957, compared with 1955 and 1956, were as
follows:—
1955
1956
1957
A, 4; B, 1; C, 1; D, 2; E, 19; F. 14; total 41.
A, 2; B, 1; C, 1; D, 2; E, 27; F, 6; total 39.
A, 1; B, 1; C, 0; D, 1; E, 23; F, 2; total 28.
" Meat Inspection Act "
Provincial meat inspection services commenced on August 1st in the new plant of
Seed & Pitts Packers, located in Pitt Meadows Municipality. This, along with Clappison
Packers at Haney, brings to two as the number of abattoirs under Departmental supervision. Both plants also come under the meat grading service of the Federal Marketing
Service as carried out by the Livestock and Livestock Products Division.
Some revision is required in the enforcement of our " Meat Inspection Act." In
particular, consideration should be given to the appointment of a Departmental Inspector to continuously check abattoirs under our supervision for plant sanitation and plant
operations. As more abattoirs will likely come under our supervision, it is necessary that
our service at least be equal to the meat inspection service as carried out by the Canada
Department of Agriculture.
" Milk Industry Act," 1956
A tremendous amount of work has been carried out under this Act in the inspection
of all dairy-farms that are selling raw milk as approved raw-milk dairy-farms and shipping milk as approved fluid-milk dairy-farms. The job of dairy-farm inspections has
been well done by our Inspectors. The recommendations of the Report of the British
Columbia Royal Commission on Milk, 1954/55, have all been carried out as per Part I
of the resulting " Milk Industry Act" and regulations.   The period of construction and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 39
reconstruction requirements of dairy-farm premises has pretty well been taken care of,
and our Inspectors now are concentrating more on improving sanitation and milk production methods.
During February three new Dairy-farm Inspectors were hired on a full-time temporary basis. We now have nine Dairy-farm Inspectors, of which five are on establishment and four on a temporary full-time basis. The work of these nine men cannot be
too highly commended. They have carried out dairy-farm inspections in all parts of the
Province under the supervision of the various Veterinary Inspectors. The Appendix
will show a startling number of dairy-farm inspections for the year, most of which were
carried out by Dairy-farm Inspectors.
One producer-vendor on Vancouver Island was issued a prohibition notice but continued to sell raw milk. He was subsequently charged under section 5 of the " Milk
Industry Act " and was assessed a fine of $10 and costs after pleading guilty to the charge.
The co-operation received from the dairy-farmers themselves and the dairy plants
continues to be very gratifying. Excellent integration also continues with the Dairy
Branch and its Inspectors and the Milk Board and its Inspectors.
Mastitis Examinations by Veterinary Inspectors
Number of premises	
Number of cows examined
Number of clinical cases 	
Number to treat	
Number to eliminate 	
205
3,189
919
317
102
Appendix No. 1 contains the totals of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by districts, by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy-farm Inspectors under the " Milk Industry
Act," 1956.
" Sheep Protection Act "
Compensation paid from Dog Tax Fund for the years 1955, 1956, and 1957:—
Year
Sheep
Poultry
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1955                                                              -	
103
$1,850.00
208
462
543
$871 26
1956                                                             '	
141      |        3,531.50
121       1         2.303.50
1,180.50
1957    i  	
595.00
Policies
Dairy-cattle Placement Policy
During the eight-year period 1950 through 1957, a total of 657 head of dairy cattle
have been selected and placed from the Fraser Valley. A total of 619 head of females
were shipped, including 380 Holsteins, 124 Guernseys, 78 Jerseys, and 37 Ayrshires.
During this period, 38 registered bulls were shipped, including 18 Holsteins, 13 Guernseys, 4 Ayrshires, and 3 Jerseys.
Considerable publicity was given this programme in the Okanagan in the September
issues of the Cream Collector, published by S.O.D.I.C.A., Vernon, under the banner
head-line " Coast Heifers Pay Off," regarding a particularly outstanding group of 11
grade Holstein heifers selected and shipped under this policy in July, 1951, to E. W.
Stewart & Sons, of Salmon Arm. These heifers are all under Mr. Stewart's excellent
care and management; 9 of these heifers as 2-year-olds produced an average of 11,719
pounds of milk, 449 pounds of butter-fat, with an average test of 3.83 per cent. The
twenty-five records so far completed on D.H.I.A. by these nine cows average 12,441 JJ 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
pounds of milk and 449 pounds of butter-fat. Eight of these cows have produced more
than 400 pounds of butter-fat in one lactation, 5 of them have produced more than 500
pounds of butter-fat in one lactation, and 1 more than 600 pounds of butter-fat.
Live-stock Improvement Policy
This policy assists farmers in areas where freight charges might dissuade the producers from bringing in such animals to secure top-quality boars and rams.
During the year 2 Yorkshire boars were purchased for $220 and 3 Hampshire rams
for $135; freight charges amounted to $47.03. This makes a total of $262.78 in freight
charges since the inception of the policy in 1955. All animals were shipped into the
Peace River District.
Pure-bred Sires for Farmers' Institutes Policy
Sire purchases for the year 1957 were as follows (1956 figures in parentheses):
12 (8) pure-bred sires were purchased during the year at a cost of $4,395 ($2,375),
including 1 Hampshire ram at $60, 10 Herefords, and 1 Shorthorn. Transportation
charges paid by the Department amounted to $381.80 ($280.32). The institutes receiving these sires were as follows: Grasmere-Roosville, Westbridge, Graham Island
East Coast, Bella Coola, and Cranbrook. Total payments received from farmers under
this policy during the year amounted to $3,402.62 ($3,145.67). Final payments were
received on 8 bulls, including 1 Galloway, 6 Herefords, and 1 Aberdeen Angus.
Veterinary Service District Policy
This policy, governing the establishment of veterinary service districts, was approved
on July 26th by the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture. Its purpose is to provide
veterinary services in those areas of British Columbia where the scattered nature of farm
settlements and (or) the long distances between stock farms or ranches have discouraged
qualified veterinarians from establishing residence and practice, and where present and
immediate potential live-stock population warrants such action. Two veterinary service
districts have been established by signed agreement and both veterinarians are receiving
the maximum grant according to the policy. Dr. N. Jaksitz, resident at Dawson Creek,
is providing veterinary service in the Peace River Veterinary Service District, and Dr.
P. L. Builder, resident at Prince George, is providing veterinary service in the Prince
George Veterinary Service District.
Miscellaneous
There are many other sundry duties carried out by all Inspecors, and it would be
of value to list all here as a record of total work accomplished. However, the annual
reports of each Inspector, along with the monthly reports of this Branch, give such detail
and, as a result, only the highlights are included in this report.
Parentage Tests
It is of interest that two Holstein bulls were bled for parentage tests by two of our
Veterinary Inspectors. The bloods were forwarded to the Ontario Veterinary College
for analysis.
Short Course
Four Veterinary Inspectors attended the Veterinary Short Course at Washington
State College at Pullman held for three days during April. It is hoped that this policy
will be perpetuated so that four other staff veterinarians will attend. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 41
Live Stock Inspector
The extent of other live-stock improvement programmes is quite diversified.
Three series of 35-mm. slides and a flannel board with lecture material was completed on " Dairy Farm Management " and presented at ten meetings in various parts of
the Province.
For many years, selection of our Provincial 4-H Dairy Calf Club delegates to the
Royal Winter Fair in Toronto has been made in late August, using facilities provided
at and during the Pacific National Exhibition. This year, at the request of the Supervisor of 4-H Clubs, the Live Stock Inspector organized competitions for the above
selection to take place July 9th at the University of British Columbia.
The Live Stock Inspector is secretary of the committee appointed for the evaluation
of dairy sires in service in Fraser Valley artificial-insemination units. He has also been
appointed to act as Departmental representative on the Sire Selection Committee and has
been designated to maintain a check on frozen semen stocks at the British Columbia
Artificial Insemination Centre at Milner, as required by the Joint Dairy Breeds Committee, Brantford, Ont.
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORY
(Dr. J. C. Bankier)
Introduction
Disease problems continue to impose quite a burden on our live-stock and poultry
industries, and to many farmers the economic loss therefrom is serious. Progress in
animal- and poultry-disease research continues to add to the complexity of pathological
problems. This in turn places greater responsibility on those engaged in laboratory diagnostic work.
The public demand for service from our laboratory has increased during the year.
Departmental policy respecting the eradication of brucellosis from cattle and the need
for special diagnostic procedures in the laboratory to elucidate the complex nature of
respiratory diseases in poultry have added greatly to the work.
Splendid co-operation has been received from the Ontario Veterinary College,
Guelph; Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, Toronto; Animal Diseases Research
Institute, Hull; and the Federal Animal Pathology Laboratory on the University of
British Columbia campus in respect to certain diagnostic procedures for which we do
not have facilities, all of which is gratefully acknowledged.
Laboratory Services
The total number of specimens received for diagnosis increased 38.5 per cent
(25,867 to 35,823) over the previous year. Of the total specimens received this year,
15,535 were cattle blood samples submitted for serological tests for brucellosis, of which
2,878 were submitted by veterinary practitioners and 12,657 by Veterinary Inspectors.
The majority of samples for the milk ring tests for brucellosis were submitted in conjunction with the brucellosis-eradication programme on Vancouver Island. Of 924
samples tested, 788 were negative, 73 were suspicious, and 63 positive.
In poultry the pullorum testing of turkeys was performed in order to comply with
the requirements of the United States respecting sale of hatching-eggs thereto from
certain British Columbia flocks. JJ 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Serological Tests for Pullorum Disease
Positive
Suspicious
Negative
Total
7
21
7
4
8,104
22
8,118
Chickens _     _   	
47
A survey is in progress to determine the incidence of P.P.L.O. infection in chicken
and turkey breeding flocks.
Harr
agglutination-inhibition Tests for P.P.L.O
Infection
Number of
Flocks
Number of
Samples
Number of
Flocks Positive
Number of
Flocks Negative
1
147                          7,648
16                             673
137
5
10
Turkeys _   	
11
Appendix No. 2 contains a list of miscellaneous specimens examined in the
laboratory.
DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT SERVICES
(J. A. Mace)
Operation
There are twenty-four routes operating in fifteen dairy herd improvement associations, with a total of 14,765 cows on test in 535 herds. A new route commenced operation on December 1st in the Okanagan District, which has contributed partially to the
increase.   The average size of herds on test has increased from 27.1 to 27.9.
Continuing difficulties have persisted in keeping supervisors and in securing sufficient suitable men to carry out continuous testing on all routes. As a result, it was necessary to give four short courses to keep our staff up to requirements.
Production details for 1957 are not compiled, but the 1956 production report discloses that there were 11,918 milking periods completed which averaged 9.498 pounds
of milk and 394 pounds of fat with a 4.15-per-cent test. This is an increase of 640
completed milking periods (5.6 per cent) over the previous year. Fat production
dropped 1 pound, largely due to the number of new herds on test.
Appendix No. 3 shows breed averages for 1956.
Calf-tagging
Three thousand two hundred and fifty ear-tags were issued to supervisors to identify
heifer calves during the year, an increase of 400. It is now compulsory to tag all eligible
heifer calves.
Departmental Subsidy
Grants to twenty-three D.H.I.A. routes amounted to $48,990, an increase of $5,640.
This is caused by the increase in subsidy granted to dairy herd improvement associations.
R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. Combined Service
Thirty-six herds are now using this service. They have 468 pure-bred cows in mixed
grade and pure-bred herds, compiling R.O.P. records with the testing and reporting
being done by D.H.I, supervisors. One or two R.O.P. check tests are generally made
each year.   This service is operating very smoothly to the mutual benefit of all concerned.
Appendix No. 4 contains the list of dairy herd improvement associations. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 43
Field Work
The Superintendent and two Inspectors carried out the total field work, as follows:-
Supervisor contacts   125
D.H.I, officials' contacts   45
Member visits   181
Certificates of production brought up to date  175
Other calls  74
Meetings   45
Talks   13
Herds check-tested  175
Office Routine
I.B.M. punch-cards continued to be prepared throughout the year. Guernseys and
Holsteins have now been completed and Jerseys nearly so. Two sire lists have been
prepared this year through these cards. Troubles are gradually being ironed out, and
it is hoped that this operation will be completed and operating smoothly in another year.
A tremendous amount of checking has been necessary in these sire lists before they were
distributed.
As noted, a further increase of 640 completed periods took place. This means that
part-time help will continue to be necessary as long as this trend continues.
Both Inspectors have been brought into the office periodically to help out with the
work and to thoroughly familiarize them with procedure.
Dairy Sire Lists
The Twenty-fourth List of Guernsey Sires and the Twenty-fourth List of Holstein
Sires were prepared and issued.
Artificial Insemination Clubs
Reports have been prepared showing the performance of sires used in the units in
addition to the regular sire lists. Files were set up with the intention of issuing monthly
reports on these sires; however, it will be impossible to carry on with this part of the work
until extra help is made available. The committee set up to make recommendations
regarding the selection and evaluation of A.I. sires continued to meet, but owing to some
lack of co-operation has not been effective as hoped. The Milner Unit has started the
proposed plan on a limited basis, and it is hoped that both units will see their way clear
to carry out this programme.
Publications
H.I.C. No. 79—Twenty-fourth List of Guernsey Sires.
H.I.C. No. 79a—Twenty-fourth List of Holstein Sires.
H.I.C. No. 80—Eighteenth List of Lifetime Production Records (1,448 cows over
1 ton of fat, an increase of 69 over last year).
Miscellaneous
A study was made with reference to the effect which the month of freshening had on
the level of a cow's production for a milking period. It was found that cows freshening
in July, August, and September were lowest, on the average, and the cause primarily
attributed to underfeeding due to poorer pasture. Recommendations were widely circularized advocating increased grain feeding during the months of poor pasture in order to
maintain production. JJ 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
BRANDS DIVISION
(Thomas Moore)
Shipments and Inspections
Inspections of cattle in British Columbia were 100,201 head, compared to 101,739
head in 1956. This shows a decrease of 1,538 head. Cattle shipped from the Interior
of British Columbia to the United States in 1957 were 20,849, compared to 1,470 in
1956, an increase of 19,379 head. Inspections of cattle from the Cariboo were 28,148
head, an increase of 4,463 head; from Kamloops-Nicola, 35,450 head, a decrease of
2,585 head. Shipments of hides were 19,162, a decrease of 311. Horses inspected in
1957 were 5,565 head, a decrease of 716 head. Shipments of cattle to the Prairies were
12,664 head in 1957, a decrease of 9,946 head. A complete table of annual inspections
of cattle, horses, and hides is attached (see Appendix No. 5).
It will be noted that exports of cattle to the United States increased this year.
Shipments to the Prairies remained about the same.
Inspection Service
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at sixty-
nine shipping points and by Brand Inspectors and Deputy Brand Inspectors at seventeen
shipping points.
Flood Check-point
The Flood check-point was taken over by the Department of Highways, absorbing
the staff which had been under Royal Canadian Mounted Police jurisdiction. The Department of Highways staff have been appointed as Deputy Brand Inspectors and are giving
the same fine co-operation as previously given.
The following figures shown are for the years 1956 and 1957 in the checking of all
live stock, hides, and dressed beef through the check-point:-—
1956 1957
Number of cattle  8,483 7,111
Number of horses  1,305 1,293
Number of hides  3,986 2,556
Dressed beef (quarters)      276 280
Number of trucks checked  1,273 1,122
" Stock-brands Act "
A number of proposed amendments have been prepared to the Act and regulations.
These are mainly required to meet the various changes that are taking place in the methods
of moving stock from place to place.
The 1956 brand-book, showing all brands in good standing, was published and
distributed. The annual supplement, No. 1, to the brand-book, showing all brands
issued in 1957, will be available in early 1958.
There were 227 applications for new brands, 900 applications for brand renewals
sent out from this office, 886 brands renewed, 73 brands transferred, and 37 brands
reissued.
Licences Issued, 1957
Stock-dealers  133
Slaughter-house operators  73
Hide-dealers    62
Beef-pedlars   13
Horse-slaughterers   15
Horse-meat dealers (animal-food)  9 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 45
Horse-meat dealers (human consumption)       1
Permit to transport horses for working purposes     65
Permit to transport stallions for breeding purposes       1
There were six prosecutions and convictions under the " Stock-brands Act," of
which four were for failure to secure brand inspection and two for carrier accepting cattle
without the required brand inspection certificate.
There were two convictions under the Criminal Code of Canada—one for theft of
cattle and one for theft of a horse.
Miscellaneous
Two meetings were held with the Brand Commissioners. Their assistance and
co-operation is very much appreciated.
Lectures were given to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on the " Stock-brands
Act." The co-operation of this force is also greatly appreciated in the enforcement of
the Act.
A number of meetings and annual cattle sales were attended.
Appendix No. 5 contains cattle and hide shipments and inspections for 1957.
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner
Milk production in 1957 will about equal the 747,866,000 pounds produced in
1956. Production decreased during the first half of the year but increased considerably
during a very favourable fall. Creamery butter make is the lowest since 1951, being
just over 2,800,000 pounds. Cheddar cheese production shows an increase of 17 per
cent, but the total is less than 1,000,000 pounds. Ice-cream production increased slightly,
totalling approximately 4,000,000 gallons. The output of evaporated milk and milk
powder shows an increase.
UTILIZATION OF MILK IN PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MILK
PRODUCTION (1956 STATISTICS)
Creamery butter
Cheese (factory)
Concentrated milk and ice-cream	
Fluid sales of milk and cream     32.30
Dairy butter 	
Used on farms	
Canada
British Columbia
(Per Cent)
(PerCent)
41.01
8.92
5.98
1.35
8.72
25.30
32.30
54.87
2.51
1.97
9.48
7.59
100.00 100.00
VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCTION
Statistics for 1956 give the farm value of milk production as $30,964,000 and the
value of dairy products at factories or milk plants as $43,001,000. These values will be
much the same for 1957, with a slight increase in the value of fluid milk, due, chiefly, to
greater consumption in keeping with the growth of population.
DAIRY PLANTS
Ninety-seven processing and manufacturing plants operated in the Province during
the year.    Of these, twelve made butter, two made Cheddar cheese, one made blue-vein JJ 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
cheese, one made farm cheese, and thirty-five made ice-cream (only five being strictly
ice-cream plants). Over 300 counter freezers were reported in operation; two plants
made powdered milk; one made evaporated milk; and five dairies in outlying areas were
granted permits to make reconstituted milk.
CREAMERIES
Thirty years ago there were thirty creameries making butter in the Province; to-day
there are only twelve. Creamery butter production is the lowest it has been for the last
thirty-five years (with the exception of 1951). This is due chiefly to a greater demand
for fluid milk and evaporated milk. The Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association
creamery at Sardis and the Shuswap-Okanagan creamery at Salmon Arm make the
largest percentage of butter produced in the Province.
Car-lot price of butter in Vancouver rose to 62% cents in September and remained
at that figure for the balance of the year. Jobbing price was quoted at 68 cents, and
price to consumer ranged from 69 to 73 cents per pound.
CHEESE-FACTORIES
Two Cheddar cheese factories—one at Armstrong and one at Salmon Arm—have
been in operation during the year, making less than 1,000,000 pounds of cheese. A few
thousand pounds of Danish blue-vein cheese were made in the Egeskov Cheese Factory
at Creston. The operators of this factory are now preparing to make Cheddar cheese
in addition to the blue-vein type. A factory near Nanaimo made some farm cheese.
Cottage cheese production, the greater volume being made in the Lower Fraser Valley,
increases annually and will amount to well over 4,000,000 pounds this year.
ICE-CREAM
The thirty-five ice-cream plants produced (in round figures) 4,000,000 gallons,
roughly an increase of 1 per cent over the 1956 production. The per capita consumption
of ice-cream is on the increase, amounting to approximately 22 pints.
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS
Dairy products imported in 1956 were valued at $18,560,261. Butter imports
amounted to 21,545,492 pounds, valued at $12,891,382; cheese, 7,594,006 pounds,
valued at $3,420,046; condensed milk, 4,088 cases, valued at $47,123; evaporated milk,
145,989 cases, valued at $978,387; powdered milk, 6,074,281 pounds, valued at
$1,223,323.    Exports, chiefly evaporated milk, were valued at $1,346,272.
SHORT COURSE IN DAIRYING
The annual short course in dairying, which comprised two courses—one for pasteurizer operators and one giving instruction in the operation of the Babcock test, was
held at the University of British Columbia, October 21st to November 8th. Eighteen
students attended the pasteurizer operators' course and eleven took instruction in the
operation of the Babcock test.
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
The following licences and certificates of proficiency were issued during 1957:
Creamery or dairy licences, 98; milk-testers' licences, 114; milk-graders' licences, 69;
cream-graders' licences, 24; special tank-milk graders' licences, 20; certificates of proficiency, 4; making a total of 329.    For list of licensed dairy plants, see Appendix No. 1. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 J J 47
MILK BOARD
The British Columbia Milk Board has been functioning in the Lower Fraser Valley
and Vancouver Island areas since October, 1946. Control of retail prices was discontinued in October, 1953. Formula pricing and equalization of returns to the producer
were introduced in September, 1956. The Kamloops-Okanagan area of production was
defined by Order in Council No. 1628 on July 8th, 1957.
MARGARINE LICENCES
Four firms were issued licences to manufacture margarine and eighteen licences were
issued to wholesalers. During the years 1954, 1955, and 1956 the production and
imports of margarine have totalled between 17,000,000 and 18,000,000 pounds annually,
with production figures ranging between 9,000,000 and 10,000,000 pounds each year.
Production and imports during 1957 have increased around 10 per cent and will total
close to 20,000,000 pounds.
INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES
The seven Dairy Inspectors, located at Victoria (two), Vancouver (two), Kelowna
(one), Nelson (one), and Prince George (one), have laboured consistently and conscientiously to encourage and assist the development of the dairy industry in the Province.
They report an improvement in the quality of the milk produced and in the maintenance
of the processing plants in their respective areas.
SUMMARY OF PLANT INSPECTIONS, TESTS MADE,
AND MEETINGS ATTENDED
Dairy-plant inspections   640
Farm visits  490
Samples collected for ring test  400
Butter-fat check tests  3,885
Cream grades checked  635
Resazurin, sediment, and temperature check tests  2,195
Whiteside tests  1,795
Lactometer and cryoscope tests  875
Reports and test-cards sent to milk and cream producers  708
Milk-cans condemned  256
Examinations for milk-testers' and milk-graders' licences  40
Meetings attended  150
SUMMARY
The dairy industry continues to expand in keeping with the increase in population.
More milk is being used on the fluid market, in evaporated milk, ice-cream, and in cottage
cheese. Cheddar cheese production is low and remains much the same from year to
year. The creamery butter make is the lowest in thirty-five years, with the exception
of 1951.
APPRECIATION
Appreciation is tendered to all those who have contributed to the expansion of this
very worth-while industry in the Province, and especially to the members of this Branch
who, by their honest endeavours and application, have assisted in the development of
the dairy industry throughout the year. JJ 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
During 1957 the trend toward specialization and increased efficiency of production
by poultry-producers has been accelerated by the sharply reduced income per unit. The
number of poultry maintained elsewhere than on farms has decreased from 900,000 in
1921 to 300,000 in 1956. In this same period, British Columbia's poultry population
has increased from 1,900,000 to 4,200,000. Turkeys show the greatest increase in this
thirty-year span, rising from 12,200 to 353,500. Fourteen thousand eight hundred farms
in British Columbia reported hens and chickens in the 1956 census and 803 reported
turkeys.
COMMERCIAL EGG PRODUCTION
Commercial egg production in British Columbia in the eleven-month period January
to December showed a 31-per-cent increase over 1956 compared to a national increase
of 11 per cent. Domestic supplies have been sufficient during most of the year to meet
the Provincial demand. During certain periods accrued surplus required the use of
British Columbia markets traditionally serviced by Alberta. (For comparative monthly
egg production and producer prices see Appendices Nos. 6 and 7.)
POULTRY-MEAT PRODUCTION
Broiler production is becoming more stable as production units become larger in
size and fewer in number. Prices have been generally favourable for the efficient
producer. Minimum efficiency targets are 20,000 birds per man, feed conversion of
3:1, and 3.5 pounds live weight average at 9 weeks.
Fowl is rapidly becoming a salvage product from egg production. Prices have been
low in spite of the announced support price. Eighty to eighty-five per cent of all birds on
commercial egg-farms are Leghorns. Higher processing margins in British Columbia
are partially responsible for the low returns to the producer. (For monthly poultry production and producer prices see Appendices Nos. 8 and 9.)
While the Provincial total has remained reasonably constant, the number of individual turkey-producers has been decreasing steadily. Units are becoming larger and
fewer. Prices for the Christmas marketing season are expected to remain at about the
1956 level.   (For monthly production and producer prices see Appendices Nos. 8 and 9.)
EGGS
Support Programmes.—Present support levels are sufficiently high to encourage
commercial egg production in those areas in which there is low-price feed-grain. While
the announced programme of cash advances on farm-stored grain is expected to reduce
farmer-to-farmer movement, it is improbable that this programme will cause a downward
trend in Prairie egg production levels. The Agricultural Prices Support Board took
delivery of offerings, and at the peak of the storage season had a record holding of
approximately 500,000 cases in shell and melange.
FOWL
The announced intention of supporting fowl prices as of July 1st resulted in delays
in marketing hen flocks and contributed to the surplus of Grade B eggs now in storage in
the form of melange. Approximately 250,000 pounds of fowl were offered to the Board
in British Columbia out of a total of 4,380,000 pounds marketed to November 23rd.
This programme did substantially reduce the supply of fowl from foreign points. Imports
of fowl into Canada to November 23rd, 1957, are 3,000,000 pounds, as compared with
7,880,000 pounds for the same period in 1956. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 J J 49
TURKEYS
Turkeys were placed under price support for the first time in Canada on July 17th.
Just prior to the implementation of support and import controls, the Canadian produce
trade imported 3,200,000 pounds of turkey from the United States in the face of an
indicated record Canadian crop and substantial storage holdings.
MANUFACTURED POULTRY-FEEDS
During the first eight months of 1957, British Columbia's poultry industry utilized
over 180,000 tons of manufactured poultry-feeds at a cost of approximately $14,000,000.
FLOCK APPROVAL
A total of 286,446 poultry in 164 flocks were tested for Pullorum disease. There
were 131 reactors in thirteen separate flocks on first test and another 87 on retest for
a total of 218 or 0.76 per cent reaction. Three flocks were rejected because of over
5 per cent reaction. One breeding flock which accounted for 123 of the reactors (over
half) was retested five times before a zero reaction was obtained (Appendix No. 10).
A total of 22,736 turkeys in thirty-two flocks were tested. There were no reactors
to the R.W.B. field test. In two of the seven flocks in which blood samples were drawn,
sent to the Pathology Laboratory and subjected to the rapid serum agglutination test,
seven reactors were detected. Bacteriological examination of these reactors failed to
reveal the presence of Salmonella pullorum.
POULTRY APPROVAL
Appendices Nos. 10 and 11 present a summary of poultry approval. A total of 161
poultry flocks were approved as breeding flocks. This is a decrease of seventy flocks
from the previous year.
From Appendix No. 11 it may be noted that half of the birds approved were Leghorns. This is in keeping with the widespread use of the Leghorn breed for commercial
egg production. The majority of the birds from the other breeds approved were for the
production of broiler chicks.
TURKEY APPROVAL
Appendices Nos. 12 and 13 present a summary of turkey-flock approval. A total
of 22,736 turkeys were approved. This is a decrease of 905 from the preceding year.
For the current breeding season (1956/57), 14,993 turkeys were approved. This is a
decrease of 3,343 from the previous year.
POULTRY-FARM ECONOMIC STUDY
In co-operation with the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of
British Columbia, a study of twenty commercial poultry-farms in the Fraser Valley was
commenced in July, and is expected to be completed by September, 1958. Plans are
being laid for the establishment of regional studies conducted by staff members in subsequent years.
RANDOM SAMPLE POULTRY TEST
The necessary buildings have been completed at Abbotsford to house the British
Columbia Random Sample Poultry Test. The design of the buildings is such that they
may be adapted for a wide variety of purposes if at any future date changes are made in
the design of the testing technique. It is anticipated that the first unit of test birds will
be housed on April 1st, 1958. Tests will be conducted on twenty entries of laying stock,
ten entries of turkeys, and twenty entries of broilers.   The following Advisory Committee JJ 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
was appointed to assist the Poultry Commissioner with the administration of the testing
programme: H. Gasperdone, British Columbia Department of Agriculture, secretary;
Dr. A. F. Hicks, Jr., University of British Columbia, Chairman of Genetics Sub-committee; A. J. Darbey, representing Canada Department of Agriculture; J. J. Andrews,
representing British Columbia R.O.P. Breeders' Association; G. R. Wilson, Ottawa,
Canada Department of Agriculture, ex officio; Professor Jacob Biely, University of
British Columbia, Chairman of Nutrition Sub-committee; Dr. J. C. Bankier, British
Columbia Department of Agriculture, Chairman of Disease Sub-committee; J. M. Pearce,
representing British Columbia Baby Chick Co-operative Association; and Elgin Wolfe,
representing British Columbia Turkey Association.
SECOND BRITISH COLUMBIA SUMMER POULTRY CONFERENCE
The Second Summer Poultry Conference was held in the Westbrook Building, University of British Columbia, July 24th to 26th. Speakers from California, Utah, Ontario,
Alberta, and British Columbia discussed various phases of the poultry industry with 148
producers, hatching operators, Provincial and Federal staff members, and feed company
representatives.
ADMINISTRATION OF REGULATIONS
The District Poultry Products Inspector, Canada Department of Agriculture, submits
the following report on the activities of his staff in this Province:—
"(British Columbia) Poultry Products Division and Consolidated
Retail Inspection Unit, Staff Activities during 1957
Registration of egg-grading stations  64
Registration of poultry processing, grading, and evisceration stations and producer-graders  83
Registered egg-grading station check inspections and producer-vendors   535
Registered poultry-station check inspections and producer-
vendors   318
Retail-store check inspection—
Eggs-
Con. Retail Inptn. Unit  2,311
Poultry Product Division  824
Poultry—
Con. Retail Inptn. Unit  768
Poultry Product Division  173
Egg inspections  106
Poultry inspections  26
Grade A 1 producer checks  31
Live poultry crate checks  51
Frozen-egg inspections   176
Total pounds of eggs broken  587,264
Samples drilled  582
Samples analysed  208
Registration of frozen-egg plants  4
Inspection of imported eggs and poultry—
Eggs   Nil
Poultry  lb.  1,514,756
Inspection of exported eggs and poultry—
Eggs  cases 1,303
Poultry  J lb. 323 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 51
" Sixty hatcheries were registered for the production of baby chicks and eighteen for
the production of turkey poults during the year. In addtion, two of the hatcheries listed
as chicken-producers also produced turkey poults. This is a reduction in both chicken
and turkey hatcheries of some 25 per cent compared to the year 1956.
" Some 220 inspections were made during the year, and additional visits were paid
in some cases in connection with chick complaints, advertising, etc., although these visits
are not listed as inspections.
"About twenty hatcheries operated for eleven or twelve months in the year, and,
of course, a very few hatcheries account for perhaps 70 per cent of the total production,
with the balance producing a very small number of chicks per hatchery."
GENERAL
On the basis of returns to the producer in 1956, it is likely that the poultry-farm
cash income for 1957 will exceed $30,000,000, or approximately 25 per cent of the total
agricultural income of the Province. Of the 24,750 farms reporting in the 1956 census,
15,600 reported that poultry production was the basis for all or part of their livelihood.
Recurring cycles of prices at or below production costs threaten the welfare of this large
group of British Columbia residents. The rapidity with which the poultry population
of the Province can be expanded makes it vulnerable to the problems accompanying overproduction. Price supports, while of some assistance on a national level, have not been
of material assistance to British Columbia poultry-producers. While there appears to be
no single solution to the problems besetting the industry, there is definitely need of well-
supported studies of:—
(1) Production methods (this study should include commercial egg, broiler,
and turkey production):
(2) Consumer preference:
(3) Production levels and producer price forecasts:
(4) Processing and distribution methods and costs:
(5) Financing methods and costs.
The Inspectors of the Poultry Branch made in excess of 2,000 field calls during the
first eleven months of 1957. It can be seen by referring to the above paragraph of this
report that this represents a small percentage of the farms maintaining poultry as a part
of their farming operations.
REPORT  OF FIELD  CROPS  BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
Grain production in the Peace River area looked very favourable earlier this year
with ample moisture to provide good growth. However, continued rain and early fall
snow and frosts seriously hampered the harvesting operations so that only a little over
half the grain could be threshed and the quality was much reduced. Nearly all the barley
and most of the oats were harvested, but most of the wheat and flax acreage remains
under the snow and will have to wait until next spring to be salvaged. The wheat acreage
in the area was reduced again this year with a slight increase in coarse grains and forage-
crop seeds, particularly creeping red fescue. In the other major grain areas, notably the
North Okanagan and Creston districts, crops were about normal, with good harvesting
weather prevailing. Poor weather prevailed throughout the Central Interior, hindering
harvesting operations in that district. The oat-crop in the Fraser Valley was very good,
with excellent yield and quality. JJ 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Hay and Pasture
In contrast to the poor 1956 season, this past summer has produced above average
forage-crops in all areas of the Province. Pastures came on well, and timely summer
rains, particularly in the coastal areas, maintained production levels above normal
throughout the season. The long open fall in the Southern Interior and at the Coast also
helped to prolong the grazing season. Hay and grass silage crops were also above
average. However, wet weather in June and July hampered haying operations and a
good deal of the hay put up suffered in quality. The lowered quality resulted either from
being rained on in curing or the crop left too late and matured waiting for improved
weather before cutting. There was continued interest in preserving grass forage as silage,
and again this year inclement weather during the haying season demonstrated the need
for a much wider use of grass silage as a method of storing the winter forage needs when
hay-making is precarious.
Production of Registered and Certified Seed
Production of registered and certified seed of cereal and forage crops is of specialized
interest in some areas of the Province, with the Peace River being the major area involved.
The following table lists the acreage and estimated production of varieties inspected by
the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of Agriculture:—
Hstimat'.d
Production
Variety
Acres
(Bu.)
Barley—
Gateway	
      14.0
490
Olli            _   __ _   	
     84.5
4,200
Warrior.	
        2.5
46
Oats—
Abegweit    .   .   _   .. 	
     75.0
6,075
Eagle	
Garry
. 407.6
41,360
__ .        30.0
3,600
Larain
      11.0
350
Rodney	
     15.0
1,575
Victory	
       6.0
320
Wheat—
Ridit            	
       1.5
50
Saunders
     24.25
580
Selkirk                         	
  577.0
24,800
Flax—
Marine                        _   _
     42.5
730
Raja
 :___      31.0
320
Redwing	
     61.0
500
Alfalfa-
Grimm 	
    255.0
Ladak  35.0
Rhizoma  654.0
Vernal  34.0
Duraturf creeping red fescue  100.0
Olds creeping red fescue  20.0
Creeping red fescue  838.0
Merion Kentucky blue-grass  434.0
Summit crested wheat-grass  10.0
Lasalle red clover  20.0
Climax timothy  134.0
Brome-grass  26.0
Meadow fescue  110.0 department of agriculture, 1957 jj 53
Commercial Forage-crop Seed
The Peace River District continues as the major forage-seed producing area in the
Province, and the acreage in forage seeds is increasing as the acreage in wheat has
declined. Grass-seed crops were above average this year, with a good harvest, particularly creeping red fescue. Legumes, on the other hand, and notably alsike and single-cut
red clover, gave indications of good crops, but poor weather interfered with harvest so
that only a small portion of the crop has been salvaged. Double-cut red clover production
in the Fraser Valley, on the other hand, is above early estimates and is only slightly below
the long-term average.
Estimated yields of forage-crop seeds are as follows:—
Production Estimated
(Final), 1956 Production, 1957
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Alfalfa  95,000 80,000
Red clover (single)  351,500 400,000
Red clover (double)  78,560 274,000
Alsike clover  550,000 500,000
Sweet clover  300,000 275,000
Timothy  38,000 90,000
Timothy-alsike  65,000 30,000
Brome  160,000 120,000
Blue-grass  11,000 60,000
Crested wheat  2,000
Creeping red fescue  800,000 1,000,000
Meadow fescue  50,000 25,000
Reed canary-grass    4,000
Orchard-grass  5,000
Russian wild rye  3,000 2,500
Red-top  21,500 15,000
Intermediate wheat-grass  3,300              	
Vetch, spring  8,500              	
Sainfoin  100              	
Seed Improvement
Foundation-stock seeds produced by the Agronomy Department of the University of
British Columbia and distributed to growers through this Branch include Eagle oats,
2,650 pounds; Victory oats, 3,300 pounds; Dawson's Golden Chaff wheat, 650 pounds;
Ridit wheat, 60 pounds; Vantage barley, 2,050 pounds; Storm rye, 240 pounds.
Potatoes
Commercial potato acreage is up slightly this year, with approximately 10,000 acres
planted.
Acreage in seed-potatoes increased slightly in 1957. The following list of varieties
and inspected acreage is supplied through the Federal seed-potato inspection service:—
Variety Acreage Variety Acreage
Canus  1.50                Pontiac       49.75
Columbia Russet___. 5.67                Red Warba         0.25
Early Epicure  32.50                Sebago          2.75
Early Rose  9.25                Warba      107.35
Gold Coin  37.00                Waseca         5.10
Green Mountain... 29.80                Wee McGregor          1.00
Katahdin  12.00                White Rose      134.05
Kennebec  94.65                                                	
Keswick  3.00 Total _____ 2,106.12
Netted Gem  1,580.50 JJ 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The main areas of production are also given, with approximate acres inspected in
1957 (1956 acreages in parentheses): Vancouver Island, 166 (179); Lower Mainland,
694 (845); Pemberton, 214 (215); Okanagan, 249 (241); Cariboo, 116 (116);
Central British Columbia, 75 (67); Boundary District, 461 (245); East and West
Kootenays, 131 (119).
Oceanside Test-plots
Seed-potato samples were assembled by this Branch, treated and planted in test-
plots at Oceanside, Calif., on November 30th. Fifty samples of 200 seed-pieces each
were sent in by growers.   Disease readings will be taken in February.
Field Peas
Acreage in field peas remained about the same as in 1956, but average yield per
acre was down, particularly in the Creston area.
Crop Improvement Association
This year twenty-seven tests were distributed through the British Columbia Crop
Improvement Association, which seeded 290 acres, principally to recommended forage
mixtures. In addition, we distributed the following forage-crop seeds to the members at
cost: Summit crested wheat-grass, 543 pounds; Manchar brome-grass, 200 pounds;
Vernal alfalfa, 50 pounds.
Demonstrations and Trials
Demonstration trial-plots, including fertilizers, herbicides, and forage-crops, were
put down in co-operation with District Agriculturists in most areas of the Province. In
addition, Mr. Crockard carried on potato quality study trials this year to study the effects
of fertilizer level on quality of potatoes on various soil types.
The tillage trials and strip-cropping demonstrations were continued in co-operation
with the Agricultural Engineering Division, with the final year's operation being completed in the Duncan area this year. Most of our plots and demonstrations are continued
over several years to assess results more accurately.
Forage-crop Programme
During the past season we launched a stepped-up campaign to improve forage-
crops. We distributed ninety-two display-cases to dealers and stores throughout the
Province, and the display was changed four times during the season, each featuring a
phase of forage production. In addition, we sent out 150 easel-type posters to seed
houses, stores, etc., on four different occasions featuring timely advertising. We also
sent out approximately 15,000 letters in the spring to encourage farmers to improve
forage-crop production, and during the season distributed fliers and circulars on aspects
of forage production.
Soil and Forage Analyses
The Soil Analyst reports as follows:—
"Early this spring the laboratory work was seriously interrupted by a fire which
destroyed the Old Parliament Buildings, in which the laboratory facilities were housed.
Temporary facilities were immediately set up in Building No. 3 and soil analysing was
resumed at a much reduced scale. In spite of this setback, 155 forage samples were
analysed for crude protein and moisture, and 1,700 soil samples were tested for major
nutrient elements and pH. In addition, fifteen forage samples were tested for ash and
sixty-five greenhouse soils were tested for total salts." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 55
Agricultural Lime
Due to a long open fall, tonnage of agricultural lime used for soil-amendment
purposes was up this year. For the eleven-month period in 1957, 28,632.25 tons were
distributed under the Federal-Provincial Lime Subsidy Policy.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and subvention paid:-—
Fiscal Year
Total Number
of Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total Tonnage
Used
1952/53  	
2,243
1,590
1,450
1,130
1,052
69,974.18
52,458.01
48,503.42
44,070.96
52,784.88
38,917.55
1953/54                             .               	
28,239.24
1954/55       - -	
24,702.45
1955/56-.- -       - - -	
22,712.92
1956/57... - 	
21,528.45
Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board
Two meetings of the Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board were held with the
trade to approve the mixes for the year. The first meeting was the regular annual meeting, at which the following mixes were recommended: 0-15-15, 2-15-15, 4-10-10,
6-8-6 (organic), 6-30-15, 8-10-5, 10-20-10, and 10-30-10. The second meeting
was called to meet with G. W. Michael and C. Stevenson, of the Plant Products Division
at Ottawa, to discuss with members of the Fertilizer Board and the trade the recently
revised Fertilizer Bill and proposed regulations thereunder.
National Soil Fertility Committee
A National Soil Fertility Committee was formed this year under the chairmanship
of Dr. P. O. Ripley, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. Your Commissioner was
appointed to the Committee and attended the inaugural meeting on June 19th, 20th, and
21st at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.
Weed-control
During the past season two Weed Inspectors were appointed in the Peace River
District and one for a short period in the Pemberton District.
The Department of Highways continued roadside spraying of weeds. In some
instances they could not get spraying done on schedule due to a wet summer. Excellent
results on roadside spraying was reported in the Peace River District and Pemberton
Valley, where the Weed Inspectors supervised the operations.
Chemical weed-control is now becoming an accepted practice by most farmers in
assisting the fight against weeds. In this connection we put out several demonstration
trials in the Fraser Valley and Okanagan this past year to demonstrate the use of
chemicals for weed-control in crops. We also continue to screen and test new herbicides
as they become available.
The National Weed Committee (Western Section) and the Western Canadian Weed
Control Conference held their meetings in Victoria this year on November 25th, 26th,
and 27th.
GRAIN SCREENINGS
In the period January 1st to November 30th, ten permits for removal of screenings
were issued. During the same period sixty-seven feeders' permits were issued. The use
of screenings for devitalization remains fairly steady.    (See Appendix No. 16.)
Appendix No. 17 gives in summary the movement of screenings from British
Columbia elevators for the period January 1st to November 30th. JJ 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
During the year 1957 two new institutes were incorporated (Alces in the Peace
River District on February 13th and Woodcock-Cedarvale in the Skeena District on
October 7th) and two institutes were restored (Dome Creek and Forest Grove), bringing
the total number of institutes in the Province to 190. However, of this total some forty-
two institutes are on the inactive list.
Annual returns filed during the year from 136 institutes again showed a decrease
in membership but with a marked increase in their operations. Assets continue to
increase, while purchase of commodities for members was again well over $1,000,000.
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
All ten district institutes held annual meetings during the year. The places and
dates of same were as follows:—
District Place Date
" A " Nanaimo September 21
" B " Palling June 12
" C " Fort Fraser June 13 and 14
" D " Kamloops October 29
" E " New Westminster January 25
" F " Nelson October 26
" G " Grindrod October 24
"H" Kersley June 19
" I " Cranbrook May 31
" J " Rolla June 17
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The Board met at the call of the Minister of Agriculture on November 19th, 20th,
21st, and 22nd, 1956, at which time some forty-three resolutions were considered, with
eight being selected for presentation to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture
during the 1957 session of the Legislature.
In addition to the consideration of resolutions, the Board held discussions with the
Minister, Deputy Minister, and Branch heads regarding agricultural policy and the future
of agriculture in the Province.
On February 28th a committee of three members from the Board met with the Select
Standing Committee on Agriculture, and some eight resolutions dealing with the following were presented: Assessment of Farm Lands, Milk Prices, Rural Electrification,
Insurance for Farm Tractors, Surface Rights, Land-clearing, Location of Logging-roads,
and Prices to Producers.
Following this meeting the Select Standing Committee submitted their report to
the Legislative Assembly:—
Mr. Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
Your Committee met representatives from the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes and
heard the presentation of a list of resolutions as submitted by it.    Careful consideration was
given to these resolutions and—
(1) Recommends that, due to the steady encroachment of urban dwellings and industry into the better farm lands of this Province, the Government make a further
study into the scale of values for assessment of farm lands on the basis of productivity or rental value of the land rather than on the basis of real-estate value
with the view in mind that farm lands be preserved for farming purposes: DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 57
(2) Due to the fact that the " Milk Act" is now before the Court and that the Federation of Agriculture has retained an economist to study the whole question of
milk prices, this Resolution be tabled until the Court's decision has been reached:
(3) Your Committee recommends that the Provincial Government be urged to make
it possible for the British Columbia Power Commission to undertake such power
projects as will enable them to provide adequate rural electrification throughout
the Province at reasonable cost to the consumer:
(4) This Committee is of the opinion that adequate low-rate insurance is already
available for all farm tractors in British Columbia through regular licensed
insurance companies:
(5) Your Committee feels that the matters as stated in this Resolution are not entirely
factual and, therefore, recommends that it be tabled:
(6) Your Committee recommends that the Provincial Government pursue further
the possibility of clearing the land for agricultural purposes to induce more settlement of our agricultural areas:
(7) Your Committee recommends that the Department of Forests and the Department
of Mines be asked to give consideration to the location of private logging and
mining roads so that these roads may, where practical, be located to the best
advantage for future development of the area:
(8) Due to the steady deterioration of conditions in the field of Agriculture, this
Committee commends the Provincial Government for its action in contesting the
increase in freight rates, the economic inquiry into the Interior vegetable industry,
and the Royal Commission examination of the tree-fruit industry. The beneficial
findings of the Royal Commission on the dairy industry were noted and it was
recommended that these actions be continued and broadened with further representations to the Federal Government in those fields that are primarily under
Federal jurisdiction.
Respectfully submitted.
L. H. Shantz, Chairman.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
During the year one Class A exhibition, five Class B exhibitions, and sixty recognized
fall fairs were held, being an increase of one Class B exhibition (North and South
Saanich Agricultural Association, Saanichton) and a decrease of four fall fairs.
POUND DISTRICTS
Ten new pound districts were constituted in unorganized territory of the Province
during the year, namely: Sproat Lake, January 25th; Red Bluff, January 25th; South
Malaspina, June 25th; Beaverdell, July 17th; Cedar Creek, September 23rd; Salloomt
Valley, September 23rd; Tabor Lake, October 7th; Barlow Creek, November 6th;
Midway, December 13th;   and Salmo-Nelway, December 13th.
The boundaries of five pound districts were extended—Giscome, Upper Stoddart
Creek, Cranberry (South Wellington), Balmoral-Carlin-Notch Hill, and Hart—and
pound-keepers for twenty pound districts were appointed.
GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL AREAS
Advances for the purpose of carrying out control measures were made to the
following Grasshopper-control Committees in the amounts shown: Nicola, $20,000;
Oliver-Osoyoos, $1,000; Princeton, $1,000; South Riske Creek, $2,000; Thompson
Valleys, $4,000; and Westbank, $150—a total of $28,150.
However, due to light infestations again this year a considerable amount of these
advances will be returned as unexpended.
MISCELLANEOUS
During the year, fence-viewers were appointed for the Chilliwack Electoral District,
Comox Electoral District, and Esquimalt Electoral District.
Also during the year, 112 licences for the sale of drugs and poisonous substances
used exclusively in agriculture were issued. JJ 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent
Three new institutes were organized during the year, two in the North Okanagan
and Salmon Arm District (Monte Lake and Lower Nicola Valley) and Bessborough in
the Peace River. Several institutes have combined: Perow has joined Topley and Doe
River has joined Shearer Dale. North-east Burnaby has disbanded and Burns Lake has
been struck off the rolls. This makes our total of active institutes 238, with a membership
of 5,212. Annual reports received from 225 institutes for 1956 show total receipts as
$135,413.19 and total expenditures as $108,445.51. Grant cheques of $10 each were
sent to each of these institutes.
ASSOCIATED COUNTRY WOMEN OF THE WORLD
The Associated Country Women of the World meeting at Colombo, July 2nd to
13th, was attended by Mrs. A. A. Shaw, Mrs. J. H. Blackey, Miss Ethel Bruce, and your
Superintendent from this Province. This all-Canadian tour of twenty-five arranged by
your Superintendent took delegates to New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon, Lebanon, Syria,
Jordan, Rome, Geneva, Paris, and London.
NATIONAL CONVENTION
The first national convention of the Federated Women's Institute of Canada was
held at Ottawa the last week of October, with twenty-three attending from British
Columbia, including your Superintendent. At this meeting Mrs. Roylance, Provincial
president of British Columbia, was elected first vice-president of the Federated and Mrs.
J. O. Decker to the executive committee.
A highlight of the meeting was the presentation of the Tweedsmuir silver cups, and
British Columbia was honoured in having Summerland win the cup for the handicraft
competition, the contents of a bride's hope chest, and Summerland also came second for
their village history and won honourable mention for their painting.
The Tweedsmuir Competition entries for this Province were judged from this office,
with Miss Bertha Rogers judging the handicrafts, John Kyle the paintings, and Willard
Ireland the histories.   The winners were:—
Bride's hope chest—first, Summerland; second, Penticton.
Village history—first, Summerland;  second, Houston.
Painting—first, Crawford Bay;   second, Summerland;   honourable mention,
North Pine.
PROVINCIAL BOARD
The Provincial Board met at the office of the Superintendent on October 17th, 18th,
and 19th. Plans for the Centennial Cook Book were finalized at this meeting, and plans
made for the Provincial Convention to be held at the University of British Columbia on
May 29th, 30th, and 31st. A one-day Leadership Course will be held prior to the
Convention on May 28th.
A ward in the new solarium is to be furnished by the Women's Institutes, and Mrs.
Doe reported that $1,286.15 was already on hand for this purpose, with the objective
$2 709
INDIAN AFFAIRS
Mrs. J. O. Decker, of Pemberton, vice-president of the British Columbia Women's
Institutes, was chosen as a member of the Advisory Committee on Indian Affairs.
Authentic Indian designs have been distributed during the year, prepared by Miss
Betty Newton. Eighteen of these were sent out in a regular series and have been in good
demand. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 59
Many institutes are doing nice work in bringing the Indian women into their local
group, and in one instance the president of the Women's Institute is an Indian woman.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Mrs. R. Doe, secretary, was in charge of the W.I. booth at the Pacific National
Exhibition, and twenty-three Women's Institutes entered, with Summerland winning the
Challenge Cup, Kaslo coming second, and Point Grey third. The demonstration booth
was manned by different members from adjoining institutes, and demonstrations of
ceramics, painting for pleasure, quilting, etc., were daily attractions.
DISTRICT MEETINGS
District meetings were held in all sixteen districts, as follows: North Vancouver
Island at Sayward, Hopeline at Chilliwack, Douglas at Aldergrove, North Fraser at
Gibsons Landing, North Thompson at Barriere, South Okanagan and Similkameen at
Oyama, North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Armstrong, Kettle River at Greenwood,
West Kootenay at South Slocan, Arrow Lakes, at Fauquier, East Kootenay at Cranbrook,
Cariboo at Kersley, Peace River at Kilkerran, Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Quick, Central
Interior at Fort Fraser, and South Vancouver Island at Victoria.
SPECIAL MEETINGS
Meetings of the Federation of Agriculture at Victoria, the Home Arts Committee
of the Pacific National Exhibition, and the Community Activities Centennial Committee
were attended. Group meetings at Parksville, Saltspring, and Colwood were held, and
other meetings were at Gabriola Island, Brentwood, South Saanich, Esquimalt, North-east
Burnaby, Lazo, Cobble Hill, and Craigflower. A Leadership Workshop was held at
Brentwood, Lake Hill, and Colwood, which was attended by institutes in the area.
BULLETINS
The Handbook has been revised and reprinted, and 2,000 copies printed. Circular
No. 45, Women's Work in Fair Exhibits, was rewritten, and 2,000 copies printed for use
of judges and those planning to put on fall fairs and flower shows.
BORDER PICNICS
Border picnics with women of the United States were held again this year at the
Peace Arch, Port Angeles, Osoyoos, and Balfour in the Kootenay.
CO-OPERATION APPRECIATED
The co-operation and assistance of the members of the Department of Agriculture
has been of great value in making this Women's Institute programme a success, and is
much appreciated.
REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Six soil surveys were undertaken in 1957. The main field work consisted of progress
with a detailed soil survey of the Lower Fraser Valley and completion of a reconnaissance
survey of the Kettle River valley. A broad reconnaissance was made of the Fraser River
basin. Detailed surveys of small acreages were made in the Ellison Irrigation District,
the Department of Agriculture property at Abbotsford, and the Tranquille Sanatorium
farm. JJ 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A technical assistant was engaged at extension work in the Okanagan and Similka-
meen Valleys. The report " Soil Survey of the Upper Kootenay and Elk River Valleys "
was published. Progress was made with the manuscript " Soil Survey of the Columbia
River Valley." Three Reclamation Committee meetings were held. Physical and
chemical analyses of newly classified soils were undertaken.
SOIL SURVEY OF DELTA MUNICIPALITY
This was continuation of work undertaken at the request of the Assessment Commissioner. The present survey was confined to parts of Delta Municipality that were not
classified in 1954. In 1957, 11,235 acres were classified on a scale of 400 feet to 1 inch.
This acreage is divided into 4,275 acres of lowland and 6,960 acres of the East Delta
and Point Roberts uplands.
On the East Delta upland the main soil type is derived from gravelly marine beach
deposits, underlaid by impervious till. This soil type and adjacent soils are being subdivided. Subdivision is not systematic, and there is much evidence of suburban sprawl.
The same conditions occur on the Point Roberts upland, but development is slower, owing
to lack of public utilities.
The surviving agriculture in the upland consists of small cow pastures; chicken,
duck, and turkey farming on a small scale; small-scale fur-farming; small-fruit growing;
and mushroom culture.   These operations can persist for a time during urbanization.
The survey was undertaken to rate the productivity of different soils for use in
equalization of rural land assessment. Such information is required even in areas having
a trend toward subdivision, inasmuch as parts of such areas remain as agricultural land.
A soil map and report, and a productivity index for each soil type, will be supplied to
the Assessment Commissioner.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE KETTLE RIVER VALLEY
The soil- and land-class survey of the Kettle River valley began in September, 1954,
and was completed in October, 1957. During the past field season about 23,000 acres
were classified in valley-bottoms to the east and north of Grand Forks. The total classified area amounts to about 160,000 acres.
In late August two weeks were devoted to international soil correlation. One week
was spent on each side of the border in the vicinity of the Kettle River valley. The correlation party was made up from the United States Soil Survey, the Federal Soil Survey,
and personnel from the Soil Survey Branch. The purpose was to obtain uniformity of
classification on both sides of the border and deal with unsolved problems of classification.
The main agriculture of the area consists of ranching. Wheat, coarse grains, and
alfalfa are produced by dry farming on the plateau around Bridesville. Hay, alfalfa,
and some grain are grown in the valley-bottoms where irrigation is available, or advantage
can be taken of subsoil moisture on low river-bottoms. Specialized crops, chiefly potatoes, are grown in the vicinity of Midway and Grand Forks.
A Reclamation Committee meeting was held in October, the purpose being to assign
irrigation-water requirements to the classified soils and estimate the total water requirement for the mapped area. This information is required for the Engineering Board,
Columbia River Basin. The report was issued in January, 1958, as Brief 35 of the
Reclamation Committee.
THE RELATION OF AGRICULTURE TO FRASER RIVER CONTROL
To supply information to the Fraser River Board, as to the effect on agriculture
of water storage and power development, sections of the watershed not previously seen
were visited.    It was found that if the agriculture interest is given due consideration in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 61
the planning of storage and power developments, great benefit to agriculture would
accrue from Fraser River control.
Participation of the agriculture interest is made necessary by the summer-dry climate
of the Fraser basin. Power and irrigation water are both necessary for maximum agricultural production. Potentially arable land in the vicinity of power projects should be
classified and water assigned to it and held in reserve until the land is irrigated. This
approach would take care of a gap of perhaps fifty years or more that lies between the
need of power and a more distant need of a more extensive agriculture.
Flood-control would benefit the Lower Fraser Valley, where upkeep and improvement of an extensive system of dykes is expensive and danger of flood disaster exists.
In the Interior the benefits of river-control and power development would be water more
easily available for irrigation by pumping and gravity flow.
SOIL CONSERVATION
The testing of farm soil samples sent to the office by farmers and district officials
was continued in 1957. A total of 250 samples of soil were examined for alkali. About
14 per cent contained harmful quantities of black alkali, and 16 per cent had concentrations of white alkali too great for normal plant growth. Eight samples of water intended
for irrigation were tested, and half of them were found to be too alkaline for the purpose.
One hundred farm visits were made in the area between Keremeos and Salmon Arm
in connection with land-drainage problems. Investigations were completed and plans
prepared for 7,690 feet of drainage-works, all of which was installed by December 1st.
A further 9,050 feet of drains are in the final planning stage, and should be under construction by the end of the year. Preliminary investigations were carried out on four
additional schemes to be completed in 1958. The demand for advisory assistance on land
drainage continues to increase.
Miscellaneous duties included advisory assistance in regard to irrigation problems,
soil-erosion control, investigations of soil materials for construction, preparation and
presentation of papers at the annual conference of the British Columbia Association of
Agronomists and the British Columbia Irrigation Association, participation in the Okanagan Orchard Field Tour and the Agricultural Extension Short Course. Proposed
amendments to the " Soil Conservation Act" were submitted.
REPORT OF SOIL-SURVEY ACTIVITIES, CANADA DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE
The following is a report received from H. J. Hortie, Pedologist, Experimental
Farms Service:—
" Soil Survey of the Tete Jaune, McBride, and Giscome Areas
"Field work in the Tete Jaune, McBride, and Giscome areas was completed in
1956. In 1957 the classified soils were inspected by Dr. A. Leahey, Chief Pedologist,
and the survey was approved for publication. On request of the Forest Service, a
detailed soil survey of the Aleza Lake Forestry Station was started and abandoned for
the year, owing to the wet season.
" Soil Survey of the Peace River District
" Soil-survey work in the Peace River District will be published in two separate
reports. In 1957 the soil types along the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary were correlated with those of Alberta. Further checking of the soil classification in areas formerly
examined by pack-horse was made possible by recent expansion of road and railway JJ 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
construction.    However, this work was restricted by the wet season, and some areas
still require examination.
" Soil Survey of the Princeton Sheet
" On the Princeton Sheet the requirements consist of a detailed reconnaissance soil
survey of lands suitable for cultivated agriculture and irrigation in the Tulameen and
Similkameen River valleys. The plateau region will receive a less detailed survey of
the soil and land resources. The detailed reconnaissance survey was completed in 1957
with classification of about 3,000 acres. Most of this area lies between Princeton and
Hedley.   Eleven soil types were differentiated.
" In addition, a preliminary investigation of the plateau region was undertaken.
Information required from this area will consist of data of use for forestry, range
management, wildlife management, assessment, and inventory of the soil resources."
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND
EXTENSION BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ag., Director
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Once again extension activities were linked with planned programmes in each district
designed to emphasize the problems of production and marketing in each community.
Organized groups of farmers worked with the District Agriculturists and others interested
in rural community improvement.
J. S. Allin, Supervising Agriculturist at Victoria, has given special attention to
programme planning and visited several districts during the year to work with local
District Agriculturists on their programmes.
The response has been gratifying in many districts and has resulted in definite
improvement in production and marketing of agricultural products in some districts.
Special mention must be made of extension short courses attended by staff members
during the year.
The first was the biennial conference at Washington State College of the Extension
staff, Experimental Station staff, and the State College staff held at Pullman, Wash.,
January 14th to 18th.
The British Columbia Department of Agriculture was represented by J. S. Allin,
George Muirhead, R. C. Bailey, and J. A. Pelter. The theme of this conference was
how extension was meeting to-day's challenge.
Outstanding speakers included Dr. Paul Miller, Director of Extension for Michigan
State; Drs. Joe Beal and George Bohlen, of Iowa State College; and E. L. Peterson,
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture for the United States Department of Agriculture.
The second was the Extension Conference held at the University of British Columbia,
April 8th to 12th. This was attended by the entire staff of District Agriculturists, Horticulturists, Poultry, Field Crops, and other specialists. In fact, this was the first conference
held for many years where all staff members engaged in extension activities were called
together.
The Director of the Agricultural Development and Extension Branch was chairman
of the sessions, and special speakers were Dr. Ernest Nesius, of Kentucky, who is the
Associate Director of Extension, and who spoke on the farm and home approach to
extension, and Charles W. Smith, Assistant Director of Extension for Oregon, who spoke
on techniques and methods in extension, philosophy of extension, etc. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 63
The programme included lectures and workshops on audio-visual aids, farm
appraisal, farm family situations, etc.
Reports from all those attending the conference indicated it was the best ever
held by the Department of Agriculture.
Following the conference in April, J. S. Allin and George Muirhead, of the Extension
staff, and John A. Smith and Ian Carne, of the Horticultural staff, attended the sessions
on communications held at Washington State College, June 17th to 21st.
The material presented had been developed by the National Project in Agricultural
Communications at Michigan State College.
The four staff members who attended the sessions at Pullman presented the material
to the Minister and headquarters staff in Victoria in October. It will be presented to all
staff members early in 1958.
Regional meetings were held during the year at Prince George, Victoria, and the
Fraser Valley, which were attended by the Extension staff and specialists on poultry,
field crops, vegetable production, economics, etc. Representatives of the feed, fertilizer,
and agricultural supply firms also attended some of these meetings, which proved most
valuable as an extension tool.
The 4-H Club programme continued to create great interest in every community
where clubs are organized.   It is one of the most valuable assets in extension.
Temporary help was provided during the summer months in the Fraser Valley,
Vancouver Island, and North Okanagan districts for the 4-H Club programmes. The
employment of students from the University of British Columbia on this programme
is very worth while and will be absolutely necessary for 1958.
CENTRAL BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  NORTH  CARIBOO,  AND   PEACE  RIVER
(S. G. Preston, M.S.A., P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
General
Weather conditions and low prices for most farm products combined to make 1957
generally an unsatisfactory year for farmers, particularly in the Peace River. The
picture as concerns dairy, poultry, and hog producers, however, was much brighter.
Cool spring weather in Central British Columbia and an early dry spell in the Peace
retarded spring growth of crops. Exceptionally high precipitation during the summer
months prohibited storing of forage except as silage. Throughout Central British
Columbia most threshing was finally completed, but in the Peace close to 50 per cent
of the grain-crops are still in the fields. Fescue, brome, and timothy were harvested
satisfactorily, but no alsike or red clover were threshed in the Peace and only very small
lots in Central Briitsh Columbia.
Beef prices for calves and cows were fair to good, but poor for steers and heifers.
The British Columbia Beef Growers' Association and our Extension Department are
making an effort to show the stockmen that changing economics and marketing conditions
have eliminated the place for grass-finished cattle, and as an alternative they will have to
market stock as calves or grain-finished cattle, or both.
Dairying continues the most remunerative farm enterprise in all areas despite the
fact that there has been no significant increase in milk prices. However, improved
quality of stock and larger dairy herds have improved the returns to the dairyman.
Egg production continues profitable to those producers who are operating on' a
reasonably large scale. This business has shown a healthy annual increase for a number
of years, and during the past year has extended as well to the Peace.
Hog-raising received a setback of over 30 per cent in the Peace, a good part generally being due to barren sows. This business, too, is sound, and promotion along this
line is recommended. JJ 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Extension Methods
During the Extension Conference held at the University of British Columbia in
April, District Agriculturists from the north discussed and recommended allotting certain
specialists to Central British Columbia and the Peace to co-operate with the District Agriculturists. The proposal met with the approval of the Minister and branches concerned,
and as a consequence the following fieldmen were designated as part-time area specialists:
E. M. King, horticulture (vegetables); C. H. Nelson, field crops; C. W. Wood, poultry;
and G. A. Luyat, live stock (beef and sheep).
These men made several trips to the area during the season and attended the regional
meeting at Prince George in November.
Fort St. John weather records show a total of over 20 inches of rain from May 1st
to October 31st. For the Dawson Creek area the amount was lower, but still exceptionally high with more than 16 inches precipitation. On October 1st 41 inches of snow
was recorded at Grande Prairie, 38.5 at Dawson Creek, and 28.4 at Fort St. John.
This snow melted, but the amount of moisture added to the already saturated soil made
it almost impossible to continue harvesting operations. Precipitation in Central British
Columbia for the same period varied from 12 to 15 inches, but with the bulk earlier
in the year.    However, harvesting operations were retarded by wet ground.
Field Crops
Cereal-crops in general were late in all areas due to backward or dry conditions
in the spring, and then followed by exceptionally heavy rainfall, which retarded maturity.
Coarse grains were harvested in September in all areas where the ground was solid
enough to carry machinery. Wheat in the Peace River was later, so that rain and snow
the first part of October practically cut out further operations.
Much of the hay cut earlier in the season was lost or of poor quality. In Central
British Columbia a considerable amount was put up as silage and some in the Peace,
where considerable interest is being shown.
Harvesting and threshing were carried out with difficulty in the Peace in 1956, but
a spell of fine weather in November allowed most of the operations to be completed, even
to threshing clover seed. This year, however, some 50 per cent of the wheat is still out
and all the flax, alsike, and red clover for seed. Some of this may be salvaged in the
spring, but the heavy snow and rain in the fall lodged much of it.
Yields in the Peace were reasonably good and compare favourably with 1956
where farmers managed to save their crops. Yields in the Prince George area were
equal to 1956, with the acreage up. Vanderhoof showed a 25-per-cent increase in cereal
yields over the previous year. Records will show little difference for the Bulkley as most
of the cereal-crops were cut for hay. Last year, however, was a near crop failure with
very little hay or grain. This year's growth was heavy, but so were losses at haying-time.
C. H. Nelson, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, recommends an active campaign to induce farmers to adopt silage-making as a part of the regular farm programme
rather than an emergency measure. The regional meeting of the District Agriculturists
approved this recommendation, and steps are being taken to work out the programme.
Live Stock
Beef
Low prices for grass-finished cattle continues as an important factor in poor returns
to beef-producers. During the year the British Columbia Beef Growers' Association has
attempted to show the producers that the day for grass-finished cattle is gone and that the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 J J 65
market demands grain-fed cattle. The producers are faced with increasing the basic herd
and selling calves. They may wish to go into grain finishing or into a feeder operation, but
2-year grass-finished stock are no longer profitable to produce. This was certainly borne
out at sales at Williams Lake, Quesnel, and Fort St. John.
G. A. Luyat, Extension live-stock fieldman, spent some time this fall in Central
British Columbia and the Peace and concurs with the recommendations of British
Columbia Beef Growers' Association.    Mr. Luyat's findings were as follows:—
(1) There is no longer a place for grass-finished cattle.
(2) The Peace River offers opportunity for grain-finishing cattle.
(3) It is more economical to move cattle to feeding areas such as the Peace
rather than move feed to the stock (even with a freight subsidy on feed).
(4) A system of credit must be established to enable stockmen or farmers
interested in feeding cattle to purchase stock and carry them until ready
for market.
Mr. Luyat's recommendations were accepted at the regional meeting in November,
and it was agreed that the problem would be discussed with stockmen and live-stock
associations with a view to promoting the over-all programme.
Dairy
The dairy industry in all districts has shown healthy increases. The following are
1956 production figures and close estimates for 1957:—
1956 1957
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Bulkley Valley and Terrace  3,031,000 3,458,000
Vanderhoof i      861,577 1,000,000
Prince George and McBride1  3,541,084 4,201,000
Quesnel2  1,699,811 1,732,000
Dawson Creek  3,240,000 3,533,925
Fort St. John  1,022,000 1,560,000
1 An estimated 500,000 pounds shipped to Northern Dairies, Prince George, credited to Vanderhoof.
2 Includes cream shipments estimated as whole milk.
District Agriculturists in all areas have done considerable work to promote increased
production, improved buildings and handling of milk, a better class of dairy stock, and
economic-size units. Mr. Jameson was particularly pleased with improvements in premises in the Bulkley, and considerable credit is due him for initiation and guidance in
construction or reconditioning the buildings. We find dairymen in all districts have considerable confidence and regard for Dairy Inspector R. N. Hitchman and Dairy Barn
Inspector Bruce Stewart. These men have contributed in no small way during the past
year toward improved health of stock, handling of milk, interest in feeding methods, and
many other factors concerned with dairy production.
Sheep
No greatly improved interest in sheep is observed, although some promotional work
along this line is being done. It is felt that farm flocks of sheep up to 100 ewes could be
well incorporated in many cases.   Full-time operators could handle 250 ewes or more.
Hogs
Hog production in the Peace suffered a considerable setback in 1957. This is partly
attributed to the large number of barren sows. General quality of stock is not too high.
The following are 1956 and 1957 production figures (both North and South Peace):— JJ 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
1956—
Rail shipments  16,786
Truck shipments  4,959
Local trade (estimated)  10,000
Custom slaughtering (estimated)  4,000
Total  35,745
1957—
Rail and truck shipments (estimated)     9,970
Local trade and custom slaughtering (estimated)  10,500
Total  20,470
Since the Peace is well adapted to hog production, this reduction is viewed with
concern. The problem will be studied at the earliest possible opportunity and recommendations made on promotion of this business.
Poultry
We are pleased to report satisfactory extension of poultry-raising in all areas. This
chiefly refers to egg production, but there are a few small broiler and fryer operations.
Mr. Hall reports two farms have set up 3,000-bird laying flocks in the South Peace. These
are the first of any size to operate in the Peace.
C. W. Wood, poultry fieldman for the area, has the following to report, which forms
the basis of our poultry programme:—
(1) Since imports of eggs to Central British Columbia and the Peace far outweigh production, then poultry-raising may be safely recommended.
(2) The cold winters should not be considered in any way a hindrance to egg
production.
(3) The Provincial Department of Agriculture's 40- by 40-foot laying-house
plan is sound and will accommodate 700 to 800 laying birds of the light
breeds.
(4) The minimum unit for a full-time poultry operation should be 3,000
laying birds.
(5) With the abundance of feed in the Peace and ordinarily moderately dry
climate, turkey-raising can operate at a profit.
(6) A large potential market for eggs and poultry-meats exists at Prince
Rupert and Kitimat. This market should be investigated and plans made
to take advantage of it.
Honey
Honey production is still confined to the Peace River, with most of production being
in the South Peace. There were 2,980 colonies, with an average yield of 140 pounds and
a total yield of approximately 417,200 pounds. The average price was 14% cents a
pound (down W2 cents from 1956).
To date, beekeepers have regularly had to make arrangements with farmers to set
up on their fields. The legume-seed growers are beginning to realize their value and are
beginning to make approaches toward having the bees on their places.
Horticulture
With the exception of the Terrace district, fruit production is confined largely to the
home garden.   Even in and around Terrace there is little interest at the present time and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 67
there will be no change from 1956. Maurice King examined strawberry and raspberry
stands along the Skeena and in the Bulkley. He found evidence of considerable mosaic
in raspberries and much poor or unadapted stock of both strawberries and raspberries.
There is only a small increase in production of vegetables and seed-potatoes. There
were three growers of seed-potatoes in the McBride area this year with a total of 29.25
acres. In the Bulkley and Skeena there was 47 acres and in the Cariboo 115 acres, making a total of 191.25 acres, the increase being chiefly the added three growers at McBride.
Following trips through the area and conferring with District Agriculturists and
Experimental Station Superintendents, Mr. King makes the following recommendations:—
(1) (a)  Production of Swede turnips in British Columbia amounts to 850
tons.
(b) Consumption amounts to 6,500 tons.
(c) Central British Columbia is admirably adapted to producing good
yields of high-quality turnips.
(d) A programme should be immediately initiated to get turnip-growing
under way.
(2) Vegetable storage on track and long season sale of vegetables must become
an accomplished fact for any vegetable business in the area.
(3) In view of the incidence of disease and poor varieties of strawberries and
raspberries raised in the Skeena District, a few growers should be encouraged to raise recommended varieties of healthy stock which will be
inspected and available for sale in the area.
Land-clearing
Private contractors, under the "Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act," again
operated in the Peace River, Terrace, Bulkley, Vanderhoof, Prince George, and North
Cariboo. A wet summer curtailed work to some extent and no doubt added to the cost
of the clearing and breaking. However, farmers were well satisfied and average costs are
not out of line.
In the Peace, assistance was provided in both districts for drawing up contracts and
directing dugout construction. For the North Peace, F. Mertens did an excellent job as
Weed Inspector and in taking care of the land-clearing contracts. For the South Peace,
Chris Dyble, a fourth-year agricultural engineering student, took care of the dugout planning and contracts for both water-supply and land-clearing.
In the Prince George, McBride, and North Cariboo Districts, experienced land-
clearing contractors L. Grinde, F. Greer, J. E. Long, and C. Nowatzek require a minimum
of supervision, and their dependability at all times is a great benefit to the agricultural
representatives concerned.
William Morris again operated at Smithers, but a new contractor took over at Terrace. For the first year of clearing under the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act"
in the Peace, several contractors were after work and in some cases they were not too
efficient. This year the clearing was confined to two very capable contractors—M. Ramey
in the South Peace and Hirtz Bros. Construction for the North Peace. The latter, using
an Allis-Chalmers HD 16, showed that the larger machine with equipment to fit is more
economical than smaller tractors.
Some clearing was again carried out in the Vanderhoof district, with L. French as
contractor, using a D 8 tractor.
Land-clearing under the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act " has become an
established programme in Central British Columbia and the Peace and meets with complete approval of the farmers. It is the feeling of farmers and officials concerned that
the policy is providing an essential service and should in no way be reduced. The following is a summary of land-clearing operations:— JJ 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
District
Clearing
Breaking
Dugouts
North Peace—
Acres
2,529
1,000
643
950
150
235
350
200
100
Acres
782
501
600
59
200
1
12
Prince George (estimated)—" Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act "__..
1
6,420
2,142
14
4-H Clubs
The following is a list of 4-H Clubs active in Central British Columbia and the
Peace in 1957:—
Name
Number of
Clubs
Membership
Kind
North Peace River-
South Peace	
Prince George.
Vanderhoof	
Quesnel.
Bulkley...
60
77
59
87
15
19
Grain and Garden.
3 Community.
1 Garden.
1 Sewing.
1 Community.
4 Homecraft.
1 Garden.
"2 Sheep.
2 Beef.
2 Homecraft.
1 Garden.
Community.
Community.
Totals .
317
The 4-H Club programme in the Peace River, Prince George, and Vanderhoof was
well handled with sponsoring organizations and leaders doing a good job. Community
clubs are the answer to 4-H work in many areas. It is recommended that the 4-H programme for each year be planned on a regional basis between District Agriculturists, the
Director of Extension, and 4-H Club supervisors.
Farmers' and Women's Institutes
Farmers' Institute conventions were held this year at Palling, Fort Fraser, Peace
River, and the Cariboo, with L. W. Johnson, Superintendent, and Dr. A. Kidd, Chief
Veterinary Inspector, in attendance.
Women's Institute conventions were split, with the Cariboo holding its in June, while
the Bulkley, Tweedsmuir, Prince George, and Peace River conventions were held after
Mrs. Gummow's return from Ceylon. It is obvious that Women's Institute work covers
only a small part of the needs of rural women. The regional meeting of District Agriculturists in November gave this problem some attention and would like to recommend
that a home economics service be added to our Extension Department.
Fall Fairs
It is difficult for the larger fairs to keep a reasonable balance between agriculture,
industry, and the horse show. Present directors of the two larger fairs at Dawson Creek
and Prince George are determined that this balance will be retained, and they are to be
commended for the past few years' performance. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 69
Conferences and Short Courses
An excellent and enlightening short course for Extension workers was conducted at
the University of British Columbia in April with instructors from Kentucky (Professor
Nesius) and Oregon (Professor Smith) attending.
Regional meetings of District Agriculturists were held at Prince George in May and
November with area specialists in attendance.
The Co-ordinating Committee on Agriculture for the Peace River met at a summer
field-trip at Beaverlodge in August and the Central British Columbia groups at a regular
meeting at Prince George in November. At the latter, plans were made for printing of
the recommendations as well as settling local problems of research and extension.
While the picture for farming in Central British Columbia and the Peace was far
from bright during the past year, yet prospects for the coming year are fair. Dairying
and poultry both offer good opportunities to those engaged in these enterprises.
The recommendations of the area specialists and District Agriculturists should form
the basis of extension for 1958 with a view to improving conditions in other fields:—
(1) Promote silage production in a positive manner.
(2) Study and encourage grain feeding of beef cattle and means of financing
feeder operations.
(3) Encourage extension of poultry-raising in all areas, as well as turkeys in
the Peace.
(4) Promote turnip-raising in Central British Columbia and possibly the Peace.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND LOWER FRASER VALLEY REGION
(J. S. Allin, B.S.A., P.Ag.)
Agricultural Conditions
Good weather during the latter part of the growing season provided excellent harvesting conditions. In general, good production was maintained throughout the year.
The curing of hay-crops was difficult because of inclement weather. Hay imported from
the State of Washington was of good quality and at low prices. Forage-crops yielded
well, pastures maintained their productivity throughout the year, and, as a result, dairy
production was above normal.
In practically all forms of farm production, however, there was a noticeable narrowing of the cost-price margin. Interest in sheep production was maintained, with a greater
number of small farm flocks being established, although the total number of sheep
remained approximately the same. Conditions prevailing over poultry production resulted in discouraging returns for the producer.
Extension Activities
By far the greatest amount of time and effort was spent by the District Agriculturists
on various phases of grassland production. Grassland clubs were continued as an effective means of communication. Circular letters and displays were arranged for and other
extension activities were undertaken to promote the adoption of sound forage-crop production practices. Demonstration trials were arranged in practically all districts with the
co-operation of the Field Crops Branch, forage meetings were addressed, field-days were
conducted, radio addresses given, and forage seed distributed.
Valuable assistance of a temporary nature in the field of 4-H and land-clearing
permitted District Agriculturists in some districts to devote more time to production
problems, planning procedures, and other organized extension activities. In certain cases,
however, the pressure of duties connected with the land-clearing programme was sufficient
to limit the time which the District Agriculturist was able to devote to the development
of a comprehensive extension programme. JJ 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Short courses for producers and agricultural dealers were arranged and presented.
Various means of publicity were used to supply information regarding many problems,
including forage production, weed-control, and live-stock production.
Agricultural planning committees continued to review the farm situation in their
respective districts and to present recommendations and plans of action in an attempt
to overcome a few of the major production problems. Assistance was given to District
Agriculturists in the North Okanagan with their programme-planning procedures connected with agricultural planning committees.
Four Extension officials representing this Department attended a Communications
Workshop at Pullman, Wash. This course was of outstanding value in that it provided
Extension workers with the basic background required in understanding how extension
methods must be related to the psychological process of human behaviour. The following
quotation from the special report on the Communications Workshop illustrates the course
content and the importance of the subject-matter to officials engaged in extension activities, representing 65 per cent of the Departmental staff:—
" The ' Workshop' proved the value with proper use of extension techniques over
and above the basic principles and methods of extension. Every extension worker should
realize the basic factors involved in the learning process, i.e., types of learning, laws of
learning, human motivation with emphasis on basic drives, blocks or frustrations, and
adjustments. All of these principles can be applied at both the individual and group
levels. In my opinion, arrangements should be made whereby the parts of the subject-
matter which are most applicable to our needs and conditions in British Columbia should
be presented to the greatest possible number of our Departmental extension workers."
The extension conference held in April and attended by two-thirds of the Department officials was of outstanding value. As a result of exposures to and participation in
basic courses of this nature and of the workshop referred to above, officials of the Department performing extension duties are becoming more conscious of the methods, tools,
and techniques which can be used to great advantage in improving the conduct of extension work.
As an indication of the time which District Agriculturists have spent performing
their duties and of the type of activities undertaken, it is worth while noting that the six
district offices made a total of 3,580 farm visits and had 3,639 office visits, attended 297
meetings, 62 field-days, distributed 5,240 bulletins, prepared 65 press releases, and participated in 52 radio broadcasts. In addition, other extension means have been employed,
such as television presentations and interviews for television, radio, and newspapers.
LIVE-STOCK PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
(G. A. Luyat, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
What Age to Sell Cattle
A climax in the economics of the beef industry of British Columbia was reached this
year when 2-year-old steers off the ranges could not find markets at remunerative prices.
This situation, which has been slowly building up over the past twenty years, was finally
brought to a head by grain surpluses in the Prairie Provinces, coupled with consumer
preference for the grain-finished beef and lighter cuts, and further aggravated by the
steady deterioration of much of our range lands which appear incapable of producing
brandable beef. Irrigated or high-producing pastures to complement the ranges have
not been generally accepted by the industry as a means of maintaining production and
finish. The high cost of concentrates on this side of the Rockies opposed to the comparatively low cost on the other side is rapidly forcing the industry into the production of
feeder cattle, calves, or yearlings.   This will require a few changes in management. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 71
Selling yearlings:—
(1) A calf-crop of between 75 and 85 per cent (cows exposed to bulls).
(2) Calves must have type and inherited ability to make fast gains.
(3) Calves must be fed  supplements to average an over-winter gain of
1.5 pounds per day.
(4) Heifer calves should be sold at weaning.
Selling calves:—
(1) A calf-crop of 85 per cent or better (cows exposed to bulls).
(2) Calves to have type and heavy weaning weight, 450 pounds or better.
(3) Uniformity of weight and age is highly desirable.
(4) Earlier calving a necessity for heavy weaning weights.
Indications of the trend in converting to selling at a younger age were apparent
during the year when one ranch sent its total output of short 2-year-olds in February to
Alberta to be finished on consignment and this fall sold outright its entire crop of yearling
steers to Montana and Ontario at a price of $17 per hundredweight f.o.b. the ranch.
Other ranches in the same area quickly followed suit. Many other operations are considering a similar change-over in 1958. Already a number of meetings have been
attended to discuss in conference the controversial aspects of what age to sell cattle.
Feeder Sales
The following eleven association sales marketing commercial cattle mainly of a
feeder type were held in the Province: Fort St. John (1), Quesnel (2), Williams Lake
(4), Kamloops (2), and Okanagan Falls (2).
This indicates an increase of three over last year and the trend to sales of cattle as
feeders. Despite the lack of competition from outside caused by the collapse of the
Peace River Bridge, the Fort St. John sale marketed most of its offering at good prices
to local grain-growers for finishing.
Cattle-finishing
An attempt was made to co-ordinate the lack of a market for grass-finished cattle
in the Cariboo with the largely unsaleable abundance of both grain and forage in the
Peace River area. For the past thirty years, Cariboo cattlemen have felt that, should
the Pacific Great Eastern Railway be extended to reach the Peace River, an unfailing
supply of cheap grain would be available for the finishing of their range cattle. It has
been conceded generally, however, that it is more economical to move cattle to the feed
rather than the feed to the cattle for finishing purposes, and the situation under review
is no exception. A small advantage may be gained on a farmer-to-farmer sale of grain
but not enough to offset the costs of transportation, particularly to those ranches located
away from the railway. Commercial feed-lots set up on the track in the Cariboo may
succeed but the odds are not favourable. When Federal freight subsidies on feed-grains,
coupled with a rising cattle market for a number of years to 1951, did not encourage
cattle-feeding in other parts of the Province, it is extremely unlikely under normal trading
practices that the completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to the Peace River
will reduce sufficiently the high cost of grain to the Cariboo. It is extremely likely,
however, that the Peace River will develop into a feeding area of adequate grain-supplies
to which young cattle may be moved.
An examination of the situation indicates the following advantages:—
(1) A market for Cariboo cattle can result from developing feed-lots in the
Peace River.
(2) All the essential ingredients of feeding and finishing are produced there in
abundance.
(3) Grain is available at the source before being subject to handling charges. JJ 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(4) These roughages, vital in lowering costs of finishing cattle, are in generous
supply and now wasted. Silage, creeping red fescue aftermath, and the
gleaning stubble—none of these nor other low-grade roughages, such as
the by-product from forage-seed crops, can be transported economically,
but are invaluable when used at the source of supply.
(5) Cattle finished in the Peace River have the option of two outlets—Vancouver or Edmonton. The latter is sometimes favourably affected by United
States or eastern competition.
(6) Despite possible higher grain prices in the future for markets other than
cattle-feeding, there will always be a residue of low grades and frozen
grain for that particular purpose.
(7) As the length of time in the feed-lot is determined by the class of cattle
and the degree of finish desired, the longer winters of the area have no
bearing on the enterprise.
(8) Cattle-feeding would provide a stability to Peace River agriculture which
it does not now enjoy.
(9) Winter employment is provided on a grain-farm.
Disadvantages: ■—■
(1) Many grain-producers are not livestock-minded.
(2) The financing of purchases of cattle presents a difficult problem.
(3) An adequate water-supply could be a serious problem in winters with low
temperatures where dugouts are not properly constructed.
The matter of transforming the grain-growers into winter feed-lot operators will be
a slow process and will require considerable extension work by the Department. So little
interest in cattle-finishing is shown by the grainmen at the present time that the cattle-
producers in the western region of the Peace still talk in terms of marketing grass-finished
cattle in the Edmonton market as an outlet for their cattle. Silage-making, using the
first crop of alfalfa in late June, is lagging. This crop was not even recovered, but
abandoned in the fields this year as a complete loss due to weather conditions. Many
fields of green oats damaged by frost could have been salvaged by the same process.
Aftermath fields of creeping red fescue, which is ideal for late fall grazing, are burned off
each spring.
It would seem that perhaps the financing of cattle purchases by feeders could be
aided by organizing feeder associations on a similar basis to that in the Province of
Alberta. Cattle-feeding by the small operator could not be undertaken without some
form of assistance because of his inability to sell his crops of grain and forage seeds at
remunerative prices.
With the recent development of land there are approximately 100,852 tons of wheat,
oats, and barley produced, of which it would be safe to estimate that only one-half would
be marketable material. The remainder could support, under normal economic conditions, an annual feed-lot industry of between 40,000 and 50,000 head of cattle. Under
present conditions of surplus the region could temporarily support a much larger operation. Ten thousand six hundred and forty cattle are marketed annually, but very few
of these are dry lot fed prior to disposal.
A cattle-feeding project was started at Williams Lake by the Cariboo Cattlemen's
Association in late 1956 wherein the unsaleable ends of cattle drives would be finished
in yards established there for the purpose to handle up to 500 head. By the conclusion
of the feeding period in the spring of this year the venture had proved disappointing
financially chiefly because of high-priced grain, labour, and hay. The cost per head over
the feeding period averaged 70 cents per day. Refuse screenings, costing $12 f.o.b.
Williams Lake, were used as the basic ingredient of the ration up to a month or so before
slaughter. Three private feed-lots using refuse screenings were started in the vicinity of
Kamloops with some degree of success.   Two were started up in the Fort Langley area, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 73
and again here the basic ingredient is refuse screenings because of their cheapness. Without this by-product it would be impossible for a feeder here to compete with the Prairie
feed-lots, where off-Board grain is available in quantities. A few ranchers have used the
screenings for maintenance purposes in wintering the breeding herd with marked success
as a partial hay replacer. In every case the herd has emerged into spring in a much
improved physical condition and with better performance.
Performance Testing of Beef Cattle
Two Hereford herds completed one year's performance test by the end of April on
calves from birth to the end of the feeding period of 347 days' duration approximately.
A total of 33 pure-bred Hereford calves, made up of 8 bulls, 13 heifers, and 11 steers,
completed the test, marking a small beginning of performance testing of beef cattle in
British Columbia. The entry for 1957 is comprised of seven herds made up of 5 of the
Hereford breed, 1 Angus, and 1 Shorthorn, and represents the Southern Interior and
Fraser Valley. Records on the 1957 weaning data by this date have not yet all been
received from the district offices, and the number of calves involved cannot be given.
The test has only proceeded far enough along with data to serve as index for the
culling of perhaps the lower end of the brood cows and to cast a suspicious eye on the
border-line individuals. It will still be difficult to evaluate untested herd sires through
the progeny, especially where only one is used, until more data are collected on the brood
cows and each individual indexed for production. J. D. Baird, Production Services,
Ottawa, in charge of this programme, subjected the data and information at hand from
one year's operation to a statistical analysis in order to evaluate some of the techniques
used in processing the data. Some quite enlightening deductions have been arrived at
for the moment, at least until further records are analysed. One of significance to performance testing of commercial herds is that unless calves are subjected to a higher plane
of feeding during the feeding period to give expression to their heritable growth factor,
the order and rank at the end of this period are the same as those at weaning. This information was revealed by pure-bred heifer calves in Western Canada in last year's test;
heifers are not usually pushed while bulls are, and the bulls gave a much different story.
In commercial testing the spring weighing of yearlings could therefore, under this assumption, be delayed until the fall following the summer's grass. Much of the difference
between fast- and slow-gaining calves is due largely to appetite and capacity for feed.
The following table, quoted from the work done by J. D. Baird, is made up from
the results obtained from six Hereford herds with sufficient calves reared under conditions
suitable to permit effective comparison within the herds:—
Average Daily Gains from Birth to Weaning
Number
of Herds
Number
of Calves
A.D.G. on
Top Third
of Calves
A.D.G. on
Bottom Third
of Calves
A.D.G. on
All Calves
Differences
in A.D.G. in
Top and
Bottom Third
Males -   -
Females - .—  	
i
i
6                      94
97
i
Lb.
2.17
2.05
Lb.
1.54
1.44
Lb.
1.85
1.69
Lb.
0.63
0.61
The variation in rate of gain between the average of the top third and the average
of the bottom third is the most valuable difference for the breeder to exploit. At prices
prevailing last fall when these calves were weaned, this would have meant $22.80 per
calf difference in value to a commercial breeder. It will be noted that the difference in
average daily gain to weaning between heifers and bulls was not too wide. JJ 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
This next table indicates the gains made in the feeding period following weaning of
the six same herds. It will be noted that the difference in A.D.G. in this period between
the bulls and the heifers is quite wide, indicating a lower level of feeding to the heifers.
Average Daily Gains Made during the 169-day Feeding Period
Number
of Herds
Number
of Calves
A.D.G. on
Top Third
of Calves
A.D.G. on
All Calves
A.D.G. on
Bottom Third
of Calves
Differences
in A.D.G. in
Top and
Bottom Third
Males    .    ..
Females  _	
4i
6
66
83
Lb.
2.41
1.59
Lb.
2.07
1.37
Lb.
1.72
1.13
Lb.
0.69
0.46
1 The number of herds was reduced because some of the male calves were not group-fed.
The number of commercial herds on performance testing remains at three because
of no quick and practical method of identification of cows in matching up newly born
calves. Yellow pendulant tabs with black numbers, when properly located and inserted
in the ear, offer about 90 per cent efficiency. However, if all females in the herd are
tattooed with the same number, the testing can be pursued 100 per cent by man-handling
those with lost numbers. S. Bledsoe, of Ellensburg, Wash., at the annual meeting of the
British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association, gave a very effective talk on a streamlined system of testing he has used on his operation of some 300 cows. The system used
in British Columbia has been simplified considerably over the past year in not using
correction factors or adjustments as to age of dam or age of calf or sex, but rather to
treat each category separately as a group and computing the daily rate of gain from birth
to the end of test of all within the group for a rating. The objective is simplicity with
effectiveness.
Feeding Trials
At the range Experimental Station in Kamloops the lodgepole pine needle project
was continued for its effect on pregnancy during the over-winter period of cows. Some
cows reached a daily intake of 20 pounds of pine needles without supplementation from
other feeds with no apparent ill effects. No abortions were produced in any of the cows
on the project.
Forty-eight 2-year-old steers were used to find the efficiency of maintenance rations
using hay, silage, and grain in combinations and simply with hay and silage. This test
is being repeated this winter. These 48 steers, after the winter test, were used for a study
of zero or mechanical grazing. The steers made an average daily gain of 2 pounds and
graded 25 Red Brand, 18 Blue, and 5 Commercial. From the evidence apparent in the
group, it was concluded that poorer breeding and conformation were responsible largely
for the lower grades and not the feed. Molasses was fed to half the group during the
grass-fed period with no significant difference in the grade but some in the weight. The
Riverland Irrigated Farms at Lillooet practised zero grazing on 50 yearlings during the
1957 growing season with a daily supplementation of ground-up recleaned screenings.
These cattle were sold in August and were given top grade on the rail.
Production Sales
Two successful production sales of breeding stock were held during the fall of this
year—namely, the Earlscourt Farms at Lytton and Elwood Herefords at Armstrong.
The Earlscourt sale averaged $526 on 45 head, with the top price of $2,500 for a bull,
Court Marquis 37k, sold to McKim Brothers. Thirteen head from this sale went for
export to the United States. At the Elwood sale the bulls sold well, with a number going
for export. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 75
Sheep Production
The sheep population is holding its own in most areas of the Interior and is building
up somewhat in the Fraser Valley. From a survey made in the latter area it appeared
that the sheep industry could be greatly expanded without much overhead, except perhaps
for fencing. Since the advent of more rigorous milk production regulations, there are
many instances where buildings are not suitable for milk production but yet ideal for
sheep-housing against adverse weather conditions. The writer observed that earlier
lambing could be practised to get in on the early market, but in order to achieve this with
good grades more creep feeding should be done. The economics of early lambing dictate
that this should be done. Many of the producers in the Fraser Valley seemed to be in
doubt about a market if the local butcher did not absorb them, but this feeling existed
only because the lambs were not developing with any uniformity of finish in sufficient
numbers to attract the outside trade. This condition could be improved with creep
feeding.
On October 26th, 1957, 73 head of cross-bred Suffolk-Rambouillet ewe lambs
selected from the band of Hayward & Sons, Kamloops, were moved to Vanderhoof and
Fort Fraser for breeding purposes. These were selected for growth, vigour, and type
from 1,200 lambs. It was impossible to purchase more mature yet young ewes in any
quantity. It was felt by all connected with the shipment that ewe lambs offered many
advantages over those of an older age—namely, in better selection, more years of usefulness, less trucking costs per head, and smaller purchase price. In getting them acclimatized
to the long feeding period with the heavy snowfall of Central British Columbia, ewe lambs
offered a much better prospect, especially for those breeders handling sheep for the first
time. As these lambs will go into small flocks where considerable and individual attention can be given them, the operators are planning to expose them to rams later this fall
with the hope of getting a few lambs out of them the first year.
An excellent group of 8 Suffolk-Hampshire cross-bred lambs of pure breeding on
both sides, bred by W. Charleton, of Duck Range, were included in the shipment. Mr.
Charleton has been cross-breeding his flock of pure-bred Hampshire ewes on contract
for the rams to an American buyer and had these ewe lambs of remarkable quality as
surplus stock. This group will form the nucleus of a grand flock for one breeder in the
area.
This movement of breeding sheep was made possible through the co-operation of
H. Milne, C.N.R. Colonization and Agriculture, and A. E. Donald, District Agriculturist,
both of Prince George, and the writer.
Orchard grazing and irrigated pastures in the Kamloops and Okanagan areas where
undertaken has given only partial satisfaction, mainly because the operators have not
adjusted their management properly to the venture. One operation, the Western Farms
Limited, of Penticton, has surmounted the problems as they occurred and appears to be
successful.   They are creep-feeding the lambs up to market weight.
General
The writer had an opportunity to look over the whitetail deer depredations on
aftermath in the Elko and Grasmere country in early October. This survey was made
in the evening after dark. Judging from the countless numbers on these pastures, the
futility of the hunter's gun against such an invasion was exposed. Passing through during
the daylight hours one would never suspect such a situation existed, as the average hunter
is required to use every skill to get his limit for the season. The problem can only be
approached nutritionally and biologically for a solution and not by hunters' firearms or
an extended season. JJ 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Three co-ordinating meetings were attended during the year—Prince George, East
Kootenay, and Kamloops. At the Prince George meeting, held in November, the specialists working over the area were asked for their reports and recommended approaches to
the problems of production and markets. By this procedure the meeting drew out the
programmes most suitable to put the areas to their best agricultural use. At Kamloops,
at the early January meeting, the trade, comprised of the seed, feed, and fertilizer industry,
sat down with the agricultural services to make out the recommendations for Zone 3.
In that way the sales end would not be working at cross-purposes with the agricultural
services, when perhaps a recommendation may be made for an improved variety, the
seed of which might not be available to the trade channels.
Many requests for information on ranch property in British Columbia were handed
on by headquarters to this office for reply. The majority of these came from the United
States, where the impression seems to prevail that this is a new ranching country just now
being developed, whereas ranching followed in the wake of the gold-rush in 1858.
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., P.Ag., Acting Supervisor)
Following is a table indicating the 4-H Clubs enrolment of 1957 as compared with
that of 1956:—
Enrolment
Project
Clubs
Members
1956
1957
1956
1957
23
6
47
15
1
6
23
1
1
15
1
7
6
1
30
26
14
39
15
1
2
23
2
2
9
2
14
5
1
278
62
515
192
8
81
286
18
9
167
6
91
56
8
345
159
468
Garden     — 	
188
25
20
315
29
Potato    .__     	
26
124
21
166
42
14
15
21-1
177
Totals      - —       _	
183
170    1    1991
2,119
Provincial Elimination Competitions
Provincial eliminations were held at the University of British Columbia on July 8 th,
9th, and 10th. The sixty-one candidates were billeted at the Youth Training Camp. In
selecting the fourteen national 4-H Club delebates, judging ability, project knowledge,
general knowledge and character, and achievement record were considered. The following delegates were selected:—
Beef (twelve members competing): Kathleen Nichol, Monte Creek, and Arthur
Harfman, Bridesville.
Dairy (sixteen members competing):  Joseph Taylor, Saanichton, and Norman
Anderson, Deroche.
Garden (eight members competing):   Janet Spraggs, Armstrong, and Anne
Chapman, Courtenay.
Homecraft (four members competing):   Brenda Harrison and Sylvia Feigel,
Armstrong. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 77
Poultry (six members competing):   Mary Andrews, Chilliwack, and David
Nordstrom, Armstrong.
Sheep (three members competing):   Robert Jones and Keith Hill, Westwold.
* Swine (five members competing):   Joan McKechnie, Armstrong, and Carl
Dorflinger, Aldergrove.
National 4-H Club Week
A full quota of fourteen club members represented this Province at National 4-H
Club Week, which was held in Toronto on November 16th to 20th and in Ottawa on
November 21st.
This was the second year in which no competitions were held during National 4-H
Club Week. A well-rounded programme of educational tours and entertainment comprised the programme. Delegates participated in the programme as chairmen of various
functions and a number participated in a model meeting and a dress review. Tours were
made to the Royal Winter Fair, Ontario Museum, Ontario Legislature, Casa Loma,
Maple Leaf Gardens, Niagara Falls, General Motors, Rideau Hall, and the House of
Commons and Senate at Ottawa. The calibre of the delegates and the excellent programme were a tribute to both the 4-H Club movement and to the Canadian Council on
4-H Clubs.
Canadian National Exhibition Scholarship
The Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto offered a scholarship of $600 to be
awarded to a boy or girl from each Province. British Columbia selected Miss Joanna
Ross, of Courtenay, from the four candidates who applied. Miss Ross enrolled in the
University of British Columbia in September.
T. Eaton Agricultural Scholarship
This was the seventh year in which the T. Eaton Company awarded the scholarship
which provides for all college fees, lodging, and board for a four-year agricultural course
at any college in Canada selected by the winner. This year the winning candidate was
Harold Garth Coffin, of Cherry Hill, P.E.I.
One application was received from British Columbia. This applicant was declared
ineligible, however, due to the fact that he enrolled in the University in September.
Eaton Watches
The T. Eaton Company again awarded gold watches to the highest-scoring individuals in each project in the Provincial elimination competition in British Columbia.
The 1957 winners were as follows: Beef—Kathleen Nichol, Monte Creek; Dairy—
Joseph Taylor, Saanichton; Garden—Janet Spraggs, Armstrong; Goat—John Howe,
Saanichton; Grain—Larry Wynn, Armstrong; Homecraft—Brenda Harrison, Armstrong; Potato—Philip Wright, Salmon Arm; Poultry—Mary Andrews, Chilliwack;
Sheep—Robert Jones, Westwold;  Swine—Joan McKechnie, Armstrong.
Provincial Advisory Council of 4-H Club Leaders
This council met in Victoria on January 9th and 10th, 1957. Delegates attending
were as follows: Sam Hetrick, Montney; Charles Parker, Prince George; Lloyd Hammond, Nanaimo; Mrs. Ada Attridge, Mission; Harold Becker, Westwold; and Mrs.
Gladys Caldwell, Salmon Arm. The Kootenay representative was not present. District
Agriculturists R. L. Wilkinson, Kamloops, and John Zacharias, Abbotsford, also were
present. »,
* The following candidates were grouped together and the individuals with the two highest scores were selected as
delegates:   Swine, five candidates;   Potato, one candidate;   Grain, four candidates;   Goat, two candidates. JJ 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
National 4-H Club Week Delegates, 1957
Joseph Taylor, 18, Saanichton, and Norman Anderson, 19, R.R. 1, Deroche.
Arthur Harfman, 17, Bridesville; Keith Hill, 17, Westwold; Robert Jones, 16,
Westwold; and Carl Dorflinger, 20, Aldergrove. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
National 4-H Club Week Delegates, 1957
JJ 79
Anne Chapman, 17, Courtenay; Sylvia Feigel, 16, Armstrong; Brenda Harrison  16
Armstrong; and Joan McKechnie, 17, Armstrong.
Mary Andrews, 18, Chilliwack; Janet Spraggs, 17, Armstrong; Kathleen Nichol 17
Monte Creek; and David Nordstrom, 16, Armstrong. JJ 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The council discussed various phases of 4-H Club work in the Province and
recommended certain changes in policy and procedure.
The University of British Columbia
The 4-H and F.F.C. Alumni, formed in 1956, was continued in 1957. President
was John Pankratz.   Miss Echo Lidster was named as honorary president.
4-H Club Awards
The policy of awarding trips to outstanding club members was continued during
1957. It is felt that club members spending a week or two in other areas of the Province
or in the State of Washington will increase their knowledge of the diversity of agriculture
substantially. Experiences gained in travelling and in meeting contemporaries and older
people from other areas cannot be other than helpful in developing outlook and character.
The following award trips were made during 1957:—
Fairview, Alta.—Five club members from the Peace River area attended the 4-H
Club Week Camp at Fairview during the period July 22nd to 26th: Francis Marshall and
Edward Knapp, Doe River; Harold Bell and Margaret Rankin, Montney; and Ronnie
Waldie of Dawson Creek.
Pullman, Wash.—Four Fraser Valley 4-H Club members attended the Washington
State 4-H Camp at Pullman on July 10th to 15th: Nedra Donatelli, Silverdale; Colleen
Smith, Chilliwack; Kenneth Pfister, Matsqui; and Tom Wilson, Surrey.
k'.   Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale
This annual show and sale, held in Kamloops, is the final achievement programme
for over 200 Beef Club and Lamb Club members in the Southern Interior. For the
second consecutive year, Patsy Abel, of Westwold, showed the grand champion calf.
Her sister, Beverley, exhibited the grand champion lamb. The top calf sold for 85 cents
per pound and the lamb for 80 cents per pound.
4-H Club Convention
An exceedingly well-organized 4-H Club conference was held in Armstrong on
April 27th, 1957. This event was arranged by the Armstrong Junior 4-H Council
(Carole Smith, president) and was attended by 4-H delegates from the Fraser Valley
and Southern Interior areas. ■'
EXTENSION AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, P.Eng.)
Once again this Division has concentrated on the group approach in the hope of
supplying the greatest possible service to the largest number of farmers in the Province.
Although this is followed out in principle, in practise it is necessary to carry out a fairly
large number of individual visits in order that the actual problems involved may be
determined and an assessment made of the suitability of present practices.
Farm Machinery
A limited number of farm visits were made in relation to farm machinery, the
emphasis being placed on silage-harvesting equipment and labour-saving equipment
around farm buildings. Information obtained on some of these visits and through the
investigation required in solving some of these problems has been used in presentations
to two farm groups and to the members of the British Columbia Agronomists' Association
at its annual meeting.   In view of the large amount of equipment required in present-day DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 81
farming operations, programmes in machinery maintenance have been requested in certain
areas. These requests have been answered by two-day short courses on equipment
maintenance at which practical as well as theoretical information is given. Actual maintenance work is done by the persons attending the course, using machinery which they
bring. Courses of this type were given at Courtenay, Mission, and Armstrong. Attendance was good at each of these meetings. Other general work in farm machinery dealt
with assistance to two tractor-driving competitions, supervision of tillage and seeding at
the Departmental property in Abbotsford, and general observation of the tillage trials at
Duncan on which the mechanical work was completed last year.
Progress has been followed and discussions entered into regarding bulk handling
equipment for apples. Mr. May assisted with the presentation of a television programme
on "Spring Preparation of Motors and Farm Machinery."
Projects
Two basic projects were carried out in farm machinery. The first was continuing
work on onion-harvesting machinery. A new lifter was planned and constructed but
must undergo some modification for successful operation. The generosity of the Bruner
Manufacturing Company made it possible to demonstrate a topping-machine which could
be used in the harvesting operations. This work is being carried out in conjunction with
the Horticultural Branch and a farmer in the Kelowna area, in order that labour costs in
harvesting this crop may be reduced to the point where onions will once more be an
economic crop. The second project dealt with farm safety. Demonstrations were carried
out by K. E. May, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, and Tom Windt, temporary
assistant. These demonstrations were given at six fairs in the Fraser Valley, and although
they dealt primarily with farm-machinery safety, they did include some demonstrations
of fire-fighting equipment. Audience appeal was given high priority, and the crowds
viewing the demonstrations indicated relative success.
Farm Structures
Although work in farm structures has been limited largely to the distribution of
plans, it has been possible to draw up a detailed plan and instruction sheet for the construction of a bunker silo and to supply added detail on various structures in answer to
forty-three letters of inquiry. Individual farm visits have been made in eight cases, and
advisory assistance has been given to the Poultry Branch in its building planning. After
reviewing preliminary plans for track-side potato and other vegetable storage buildings
as submitted by the Wynndel Co-operative and the Grand Forks Co-operative, suggestions
were offered on the alterations necessary and further planning required to make these
structures as useful as possible. In order that this type of review could provide the
greatest possible service to the farm groups carrying out such construction programmes,
the Department approved a trip to Oregon and Washington to observe the most recent
potato storage buildings and handling practices being used in those areas. The information gathered should prove of assistance in advising on future structures.
Group presentations included a talk on storage of forage-crops to the Agronomists'
Association and a radio broadcast dealing with paving materials for barnyards. A summary of the farm structure plans which have been distributed is given below. The dairy
plans are a new addition this year, and a pre-production run indicates that hog housing
and poultry housing plans will be available in 1958. JJ 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Plans Distributed
Agricultural Engineering  883
Midwest plans  8 2
Canadian Farm Plan Service plans—
Beef  96
Sheep  133
Fruit and vegetable storage  70
Dairy  1,857
Total for 1957 _-_  3,121
Soil and Water
Many of the problems on soil and water can only be answered through farm visits,
forty-seven of which were made, and over fifty special queries answered by letter.
A breakdown of this work follows under more specific headings.
Drainage
Detailed drainage plans were drawn up for four farms, with a preliminary contour
plan being completed for another farm and a ditch survey and plan completed for three
other men. Land affected amounts to slightly in excess of 800 acres. Assistance was
also given with a television programme on farm drainage.
Irrigation
Individual planning assistance has been offered to eight farmers. A set of detailed
plans and a report were prepared on the construction of a storage dam to impound
irrigation-water prepared for a group of four ranchers in the Cariboo. The irrigation
demonstration work being carried out on the farm of J. Andros, Vanderhoof, B.C., was
continued under the supervision of J. A. Pelter, District Agriculturist. His preliminary
reports indicate that irrigation has some merit in the area as a means to increase crop
production. Each proposed installation will require careful economic analysis to determine practical value. Some phases of this programme will be continued during 1958
in co-operation with the Experimental Farm Service of the Canada Department of
Agriculture.
Soil Conservation
The majority of the work in soil conservation has dealt with preliminary investigations of stream erosion and flooding problems brought to our attention in the hope that
some assistance may be obtained under the provisions of the " Soil Conservation Act."
Detailed reports have been presented on problems occurring on the Koksilah, Kettle, and
Otter Rivers. Brief reports have been presented on problems on Sutherland Creek and
the Nicola River, and some preliminary investigation has been carried out on Bessette
Creek, portions of the North Thompson River, and the Eagle River. As a member of
the committee to study a flooding problem on the Vedder River, meetings have been
attended and a review made of all information presented to date.
A summary of conservation work carried out by the Division in the past has been
drawn up and submitted to the Deputy Minister. Advisory assistance has been presented
to two farmers on field erosion problems. Control of field erosion would appear to be
a farm expense on which there is no apparent early return; hence the promotion of a
programme for the preservation of this type of resource presents a difficult problem.
A talk on irrigation extension summarizing extension work being carried out by the
Department was presented to the British Columbia Irrigation Conference. Information
on irrigation in British Columbia and the design of irrigation systems has been given to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 J J 83
members of the British Columbia Power Commission and the British Columbia Department of Trade and Industry.
General
Meetings and short courses attended included the American Society of Agricultural
Engineers' Pacific Northwest Section Meeting, a short course on extension meetings
related to the costs of farm production, and a meeting of the Agricultural Engineering
Sub-committee to the Lower Mainland Technical Agricultural Advisory Committee.
Included also are talks to agricultural engineering students on two occasions on engineering subjects.
One of the tools being used to carry out our programme and provide meeting
material is the development of a library of coloured slides depicting the proper uses and
combinations of various equipment, machines, and structures in the farm business.
Domestic Water
Assistance in dugout construction under the Farmers' Domestic Water Assistance
was supervised by this Division, with the field work carried out by C. L. Dyble, temporary
assistant. A total of thirteen dugouts were constructed, at a cost to the farmers of
$5,722.75. Four dugouts were inspected and discounts authorized following the installation of a suitable filter and well and the recommended fencing of the dugout. It is
interesting to note that the cost of construction of these dugouts has not exceeded 25 cents
per cubic yard of storage capacity developed. This programme has proven of benefit
to the farmers utilizing the assistance offered and is vital to the live-stock industry in the
Peace River area of the Province.
Land-clearing
The field operations of the Land-clearing Division, and especially of the one Government outfit still in operation, have been supervised largely by W. G. Reed, Mechanical
Superintendent. Setting-up of contracts and a review of constractors' work from time
to time, especially in the case of any complaint, have been the responsibility of this
Division. Temporary field assistants included T. Windt, C. L. Dyble, and F. Mertens.
As noted, one Government outfit, consisting of three Caterpillar D 7's, has carried out
clearing in the North Thompson River area. The operations were of exceptional quality
and have received high commendation from farmers for whom the outfit worked. The
remainder of the clearing throughout the Province has been carried out by thirty-nine
contractors, operating approximately forty-nine machines. Not all of these machines
were operating full time. It was necessary to cancel the agreements of two contractors
whose work did not meet our standards. In addition, one or two contractors carried
out only a very limited number of jobs. The programme carried out under the terms
of the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act" deals primarily with brush and tree
removal but has included land-breaking or primary tillage, minor drainage jobs, and
some well-drilling.
The estimated total value of all clearing done at the end of 1957 is $420,000, an
increase of $164,000 from 1956. Much of this increase was in the Fraser Valley,
where over $130,000 worth of work was done, compared to $22,000 last year. Approximately 6,000 acres of new land was brought into production as a result of the 1957
operations. JJ 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Land-clearing for 1957
District
Number of
Contracts
Acreage
Cleared
Average
Cost
per Acre
Arrangements
71
206
22
10
30
62
22
43
920
103
148%
257
235%
2,592
2,357
$93.00
112.50
98.36
35.30
Fraser Valley—■
Kamloops and Similkameen _ _ 	
41.50
35.44
11.50
7.47
11.71
Government equipment.
Peace River North—Cutting and piling 	
Peace River South—
Clearing         	
Breaking           	
Contractor.
Contractor.
Contractor.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FARM LABOUR SERVICE
FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Service completed operations for 1957 under
comparatively easy conditions in so far as labour-supply was concerned. For the first
time in several years a surplus of farm labour occurred throughout the Province and took
off the pressure for seasonal help in harvesting the small-fruit and tree-fruit crops.
In my report for 1956 I stated " the farm-labour situation is becoming progressively
worse in British Columbia." The situation has been reversed for 1957 owing to increased
immigration and available labour-supply from other industries.
The programme was again supervised by G. L. Landon and B. G. White.
National Employment servicers handled the programme in Victoria, Vancouver,
New Westminster, Mission, Chilliwack, Kamloops, Princeton, Vernon, Kelowna, and
Penticton.
Farm placement officers provided service at Sidney, Abbotsford, Merritt, Salmon
Arm, Oyama, Winfield, Rutland, West Summerland, Keremeos, Oliver, Osoyoos, and
Creston.
CO-OPERATIVE EFFORT
Excellent co-operation was received again this season from the British Columbia
Fruit Growers' Association, British Columbia Cannery Association, Saanich Fruit
Growers' Association, growers' organizations in the Fraser Valley, School Boards,
Department of Education, Boards of Trade, etc. Representatives of all organizations
attended most of the meetings held in the Fraser Valley and the Okanagan Valley during
the season.
STUDENT LABOUR
Excellent results were secured again in recruiting student labour for harvesting the
small-fruit crop on Vancouver Island.
Fortunately, the labour-supply was adequate this year to harvest the Okanagan
tree-fruit crop without using high-school and grade-school pupils during September and
October.
PUBLICITY CAMPAIGN
The programme of publicity undertaken in 1956 was continued in 1957 with the
issuance of two news-letters to newspapers, radio and television stations, Boards of
Trade, etc.   These were in addition to the usual paid advertising.
MEXICAN LABOUR
As a result of requests from several growers' organizations in the Province to import
Mexican labour, a survey was made in April and May and a report prepared on the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 JJ 85
conditions under which Mexican labour was available to United States farmers. The
Farm Labour Committee decided that the general outlook did not warrant any action
to secure help from that source.
In view of the adequate farm-labour supply which subsequently developed in the
Province, it was fortunate that no labour was imported from Mexico or other countries.
GENERAL
B. G. White has included placements in his report and details of the programme so
they will not be repeated in this report.
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING SURVEY
A very comprehensive survey was undertaken during July and August by Denis
Stubbs, vocational agriculture instructor at Armstrong High School, in co-operation with
R. C. Bailey, District Agriculturist at Vernon, and the Armstrong Advisory Council.
The survey included eggs, cream and milk, butter, cheese and cottage cheese, fryers
and broilers, roasting chickens and capons, fowl, turkeys, honey, grain, meat, veal, and
bacon.
The survey was supervised by Dr. W. Anderson, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of British Columbia, and consisted of detailed studies with retailers
in Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, etc., and Boards of Trade, fruit growers'
organizations, co-operative marketing organizations, etc.
Some very interesting preliminary information was secured with reference to production and marketing of agricultural products in the Okanagan.
REFRESHER JUDGING COURSES
Dr. J. C. Berry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, conducted
one-day dairy-cattle judging courses for the District Agriculturists. These were held at
the University of British Columbia, Armstrong, Prince George, and Giscome and proved
most satisfactory.
Similar courses in 1958 will include beef cattle, sheep, and hogs.
CANADIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION COUNCIL
The Director of Agricultural Development and Extension attended the annual
meeting of the Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs held at Amherst, N.S., in March and
was elected director for British Columbia for 1957.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Continued improvements were made in the Department of Agriculture exhibits in
the British Columbia Building at the Pacific National Exhibition, and further changes
are contemplated for the Centennial Year, 1958.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
A considerable amount of time was spent on Land Settlement Board matters, with
particular reference to Doukhobor lands and easements for gas pipe-lines, etc.
The surveys of the Doukhobor lands were practically completed, and maps and
detailed plans made available for prospective purchasers. Arrangements were completed
for handling the sale of these lands at Nelson and Grand Forks with the Government
Agents. JJ 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
GOODWILL TOUR BY ONTARIO FARMERS
Approximately 115 Ontario farmers and their wives visited the Province during
July on a tour arranged by the Department of Agriculture, and Canadian National Railways, Toronto.
They visited the Okanagan Valley, Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island and were
greatly impressed with the Province.
REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F.  O. McDonald, Project Manager
MAIN CANAL
The following is an outline of the work accomplished or under construction from
the intake on Okanagan River proceeding southward to the border.
Intake.—The control-gates in the Okanagan flood-control channel worked perfectly
all season.
Mclntyre Creek, Station 8020 to Station 8250 (Concrete Inverted Siphon).—Extensive work is being carried out here by the Land-clearing Division to prevent freshet damage to the canal and Highway No. 97.
Black-top, Station 10000.—An experiment using asphalt concrete in 200 feet of
canal-bottom stood up for two winters.
No. 1 Flume, Station 11010 to Station 11370.—This flume was restored to grade
where it had subsided and so permitted a larger flow with more freeboard.
Mud Lake Spillway, Station 17465.—This important spillway, completely deteriorated in the lower wooden section, was renewed in concrete.
Inland Natural Gas Crossings, Stations 5200, 18000, and 37320.—All these crossings were put in under Departmental specifications.
Inland Natural Gas Company was given permission to use the Project bridge to carry
its line to the Village of Oliver.
Ritchie Farms Ltd., Station 31500 to Station 34000.—This 60-acre tract of Indian
land was abandoned this season, tomatoes having been produced for the two previous
years.
Indian Land, Station 35779 to Station 37287.—This 12 acres, planted to alfalfa, is
now receiving water from the system, paying the regular water tolls.
Indian Reserve Fencing, Station 11370 to Station 35779.—This fence, 10 miles in
length on both sides of the main canal where it traverses Indian Reserve No. 1, was completed to the satisfaction of the Department in early April.
Siphon Repairs, Station 37941.—A new blow-off at Okanagan River was installed.
Hester Spillway, Station 58995.—Additional covers were installed, which brings the
covered section to 40 per cent of the total length.
Testalinda Creek, Station 66700. — The overpass was repaired after suffering ice
damage.
Flume No. 17, Station 70881.—Replacement of 240 feet of zinc lining by 12-gauge
steel was accomplished.
Mud and Shale Slides, Station 77789 to Station 79527.—Mud and shale slides which
were endangering the flume were removed.
Ditch-bottom Replacement, Station 92938 (Richter Pass Road) and Station 101000.
—Concrete reinforced bottom was put in place for a distance of 240 feet, and at Station
121700 a small section of 2-foot concrete flume was replaced. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1957 JJ 87
GENERAL
Ditch Failure, Station 92938 to Station 102000.—It was necessary to unwater the
ditch on two occasions to prevent seepage from the ditch.
Pitching.—Approximately 50,000 pounds of 145-degree asphalt was used, together
with 1,500 pounds of 7Vi -ounce jute reinforcement and 15 barrels of foundation seal,
to water-proof the canal. Flumes were painted, using, in all, 5 barrels of Blackamoor
paint.
Timberwork.—The programme for 1956/57 was completed by March 21st, 1957.
Timber for the 1957/58 programme was floated into place by October 15th.
Weed Growth.—This was not too great a problem this year because of low water
temperatures and use of copper sulphate.
Mud from Shuttleworth Creek.—A very fine silt is carried annually with the freshet
into Vaseux Lake and is carried in suspension to the border, having the effect of silting up
the canal, thus encouraging weed growth and also wearing out sprinkler-heads unduly fast.
Growers' Cisterns.—Refilling of cisterns was accomplished during the latter part of
February.   Routine filling was completed on October 18th.
LATERALS
There being 42 miles of various-sized laterals, some of the problems are discussed
here.
" D " Lateral. — No. 1 flume on this lateral was raised 8 inches at the southern
extremity and the siphon discharge raised to suit, thus permitting an extra 30 to 50 acres
to be supplied with irrigation-water if and when required. The necessary repairs to the
28-inch wood-stave siphon have been completed.
No. 1 Pump Line, Station 42000.—Replacement of this 14-inch fine is indicated.
No. 3 Pump No. P3A Lateral.—An 18-inch culvert was installed where this lateral
crosses Fairview Road to accommodate a road-widening programme.
No. 8 Pump.—A new impeller was installed during the year to increase pressure.
" O " Lateral, Station 71200.—This lateral was replaced in its entirety as it had
rusted.
" QB " Lateral, Station 94000.—Three hundred feet of this lateral was replaced due
to dry-rot in the wood staves.
No. 7 Line, Station 96000. — Changes were made in the location of the pumps,
resulting in satisfactory volume and pressure throughout the season.
Leaks.—The following laterals developed serious leaks during the season, necessitating shut-down and repairs: " F," " R," " XA," and " Y."
Additional Acreage.—The irrigable acreage was increased by two lots comprising
12.17 acres.
Topsoil.—A total of 5,626 cubic yards of topsoil was supplied to the School Board
for covering the school-grounds in Osoyoos and Oliver. Areas on the upper side-hills
where soil is stock-piled were used for this large project.
Okanagan-Boundary Boy Scouts.—The Minister of Agriculture officially opened
a new area in the Park Rill, Victoria Creek district, which will be for the use of Cubs,
Scouts, Guides, and other regulated organizations as a recreational area for the South
Okanagan.   This area is being maintained for cattle-grazing and will not be fenced.
Collens Lake Drain.—Plans approved by the Water Rights Branch were the basis
for this project, which maintained a constant level in Collens Lake, thus protecting the
adjacent orchards.   Operation during the season was satisfactory.
Irrigation Districts Administered by Project.—The following districts were operated
under Order in Council No. 971, approved April 26th, 1957: Osoyoos Irrigation District, East Osoyoos Irrigation District, and Black Sage Irrigation District. Apart from
a flash flood on the Osoyoos Irrigation District in June, which loaded the system with
sand, no serious operational difficulties were encountered. JJ 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
River-levels.—The unusually low water in Okanagan River necessitated the lowering
of the intakes on Black Sage Irrigation District and Southern Okanagan Lands Project
(V.L.A. Project).
SUNDRY
Peanut Lake.—During the irrigation season this lake, within the Village of Osoyoos,
started to fill, and the elevation finally caused seepage to occur in basements and also
orchard property adjacent to the village. The pipe-line running from the lake to Osoyoos
Lake was examined and found plugged. The obstruction was removed but did not
entirely relieve the trouble.   It is obvious that a larger line will have to be installed.
Val Haynes Ranch Buildings.—Due to the relocation of the river-channel, a well
was installed for domestic service.
Arrears of Irrigation Charges.—The year was marked by the adoption of a different
policy for collection of arrears of water rates. Amendments to the " Soldiers' Land Act "
passed by the Legislature (Bill No. 11, 1955; Bill No. 26, 1956; and Bill No. 34, 1957)
were invoked, and all arrears of water rates to 1955 and earlier were placed against taxes,
thus relieving the Project of collecting such arrears. The imposition of interest on overdue tax account will also hasten collection.
Reclamation Committee Report. — This Committee, consisting of Departmental
heads under the chairmanship of the Provincial Horticulturist, made a study of Project
lands, water duty, etc.    Their findings, which are important, include:—
(1) A 150-day irrigation season instead of a 120-day season.
(2) Duty of water recommended varies from 2V2 to 7 acre-feet for the season,
compared with the present 4 and 6 acre-feet for two general soil types and
locations.
(3) No fifth-class land is recommended for sale.
1957 Crop.—An excellent crop was produced as to size and grade. The growing
season started off with a warm May, with growing conditions good throughout, producing
fruit of large, high quality. With reasonable prices, growers should enjoy a good year
financially.   The large crop has taxed the capacity of the packing-houses to handle.
Weather.—A total of 9.41 inches of rain fell in 1957, the heaviest rainfall occurring
in the months of May, August, and October. Snow fell in the months of January, February, March, and December, totalling 21.2 inches, of which 12.5 inches fell in January.
Maximum temperature recordedon July 13th, 1957:  93° F.
Minimum temperature recorded on February 21st, 1957:   —5° F.
Average maximum temperature for the period 1941 to 1957 was 102° F. and
average minimum was —3° F.
Unusually dry, warm weather occurred in the month of September, with only a
trace of rain, with a mean maximum temperature for the month of 72° F. and a mean
minimum of 52° F.   The weather during the remainder of the year was normal.
COLLECTIONS FOR 1957, JANUARY TO DECEMBER, INCLUSIVE
Lands—
Principal   $4,145.11
Interest ..._  775.27
Lease rentals   1,358.69
Sundry realizations  2,609.72
Water rates—
Oliver domestic  17,623.46
Irrigation  57,567.11
Total   $84,079.36 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1957 J J 89
DOMESTIC WATER
The winter 1956/57 presented the Project with more than the usual number of
frozen lines to residences in the village. Approximately twenty-five pipes had to be
thawed during a prolonged cold snap in late January and early February. The lines
which were too near the surface have now been deepened to ^Vi feet of cover.
Two filler stations are now available for growers' convenience. Applications for
two more have been made—one near the Forestry Building and the other at East Oliver.
An 8-inch pipe-line was run from the village domestic-water storage tanks on the
hillside above Oliver to the main canal to take care of overflow water.
Eight hundred and fifty feet of 6-inch wood-stave pipe, 300-foot head, were renewed
on Second Avenue East.
Arrangements have been made for replacement of the old chlorinator, which was
beginning to give trouble.
During this season of unusually low water, with a consequent lowering of the water-
table, it became necessary to admit the river water directly into the system. Even this
failed as the intake was left above water-level when the river flow dropped to 300 cubic
feet per second. A permanent solution was sought, and after consulting with the Okanagan flood-control authorities, it was agreed to install a large, deep sump or reservoir
alongside the domestic pump-house, place a suitable dyke around it, and a wire mesh
fence around the entire area. Accordingly, a sump measuring 260 by 75 feet was excavated to water-bearing strata and connected to the pumps. Measured capacity is 3,000
gallons per minute. The present maximum demands of the village and surrounding area
is 1,000 gallons per minute in midsummer.
The domestic-water system is in reasonably good condition, and with a planned
replacement programme should give many years of satisfactory service. The domestic
water is tested weekly by the Health Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare.
LAND  SETTLEMENT BOARD
The Land Settlement Board was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of
the " Land Settlement and Development Act," superseding the Agricultural Credit Commission. It was empowered to advance money by way of loans secured by mortgage;
to purchase, develop, and colonize lands considered suitable for settlement; and to
declare settlement areas, having for its main purpose the promotion of increased agricultural production.
Settlement areas were established in Central British Columbia—namely, in the
Bulkley Valley, Nechako Valley, Francois Lake district, and the Upper Fraser River
valley.
Development areas were established at Merville on Vancouver Island, Lister, Fernie,
and Kelowna.
The Board has under its jurisdiction the administration of the former Doukhobor
lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the " Doukhobor
Lands Acquisition Act" of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on
a rental basis. In accordance with the recommendations of the Honourable Mr. Justice
Arthur E. Lord, Commissioner, under the " Doukhobor Lands Allotment Inquiry Act,"
a survey and subdivision of these lands has been carried out. A valuation of said lands
has also been made.   They are now being offered for sale to Doukhobors.
The Board also holds over 5,200 acres scattered throughout various parts of the
Province, representing properties on which it held mortgages and to which it obtained
title through tax-sale proceedings. JJ 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of the Province as
in the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's activities and collections
for 1957:—
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $13,960.40.   Thirty-five
purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and two borrowers paid up in
full and received release of mortgage.
Collections were as follows:—
Loans      $8,401.50
Land sales     22,837.96
Dyking loan refunds, etc .       7,789.84
Foreclosed properties and areas — stumpage, rentals,
etc.        9,918.68
$48,947.98
The above figures include collections from the sale and rental of Doukhobor lands
in the amount of $9,780.77.
REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE
J. L. MacDonald, B.Sc, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes
and Dyking Commissioner
GENERAL
The weather has been very favourable to the dyking districts in the Province this
year. Temperatures warmed in April, causing the run-off to start early. Weather conditions continued helpful during the entire season, permitting an orderly run-off for all the
major rivers. The Fraser reached its peak on May 25th, with the gauge at Mission
reading 20.14.
The customary inspection of dykes was made well before freshet time, and repairs
were made in several sections.
This fall the weather has been favourable. There has been no continuous rainfall
over a period of several days. Breaks between rains have permitted water to be removed
by means of flood-boxes and pumps, without the usual flooding of low areas during the
season of flash storms. This year the saving in time and money usually spent in combating flood conditions during the spring freshet and the fall and winter storms has
allowed more work to be done to improve internal drainage and reinforce dykes.
DRAINAGE
Farmers in all districts recognize increasingly the importance of drainage, or rather
the absolute necessity of improved drainage. It has become so evident that ditches not
constructed to the required design have proven inadequate, costly to maintain, and of
little use in any drainage scheme that, for the most part, farmers now are willing to give
enough land that proper-sized ditches can be constructed to provide the needed drainage
and increase the productivity and value of their farms. With this co-operation, programmes are being initiated in all districts, first, to improve the main arterial waterways
leading to the pumps and flood-boxes, and to increase the storage in these ditches to
accommodate flash-storm waters. Next, all lateral ditches emptying into the main waterways are being improved and brought to standard. New laterals and cross-ditches are
being dug where necessary to complete a scheme. This work is being done as the
finances of the various districts permit.
In Sumas, joint co-operation between the Department of Highways, the municipality,
and the dyking district resulted in considerable ditching in the south-west part of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957 IJ 91
district, providing better drainage than previously. The reconditioning of the main
waterway in the section of the dyking district east of the Vedder Canal, MacGillivray
Creek, and of branch sloughs has been in progress for several months. It is intended to
improve this drainage stream from the pumps to the easterly boundary of the district.
In Matsqui the entire 6-mile length of one main slough was brushed and all logs removed
from the stream-bed. Some 10 miles of ditches were improved by means of dragline
excavation. In the South Dewdney District approximately 2 miles of ditches were dug
to prevent seepage waters from spreading over the low lands. In Coquitlam the back
diversion ditch which keeps flash-storm waters from coming into the district was cleaned
and enlarged from the Minnekhada Ranch to the Lougheed Highway. The Maple Ridge
Dyking District, located for the most part in the Municipality of Pitt Meadows, has been
carrying out a drainage improvement scheme for two years. The major and most urgent
item of this scheme is the cleaning, deepening, and widening of the main drainage-way
called Katzie Slough. This item of the work has been delayed pending arrangements for
financing the purchase of necessary equipment. The tax levy has been raised $ 1 per acre
for this purpose, and it is hoped the work will proceed soon after the new year.
Many other items of drainage improvement works are being carried out and have
been completed in many other districts this year. All districts have a backlog of essential
drainage-works but can only undertake them when funds are available.
DYKES
A determined effort was made this year to check tree growth, principally cotton-
wood, on the slopes and berms of the dykes. The cottonwood appears to resist the
yearly application of chemical spray that controls the other varieties—alder, blackberries,
etc. In the district of East and West Nicomen Island, some 10 miles of inside dyke was
slashed, and the new shoots from these slashings heavily sprayed as they appeared. By
continuing these methods, it is hoped to keep the dykes free of brush.
Before this year's freshet a serious condition existed at the Dewdney pump-house,
located at the mouth of the slough, which drains the districts of Dewdney and South
Dewdney and which might have resulted in flooding of farm lands, railroad, and highway.
As the finances of the district did not permit correction at the local level, assistance was
given by the Provincial Government under authority of the Flood Relief Act. A possible
disaster was averted and should prevent further danger at that point.
Flood-box culverts through the West Nicomen dykes were extended approximately
100 feet to lessen seepage. In previous years these culverts frequently had to be blocked
by heavy fill when the Fraser was up, destroying their use for drainage when the river
subsided.
RIVER-BANK PROTECTION
Extensive rockwork was done on the Matsqui shore in the vicinity of the Mission
Bridge by the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Department of Highways. The work
done the previous year in the way of brush mats and rock on the bottom of the stream
and rocking of the foreshore was continued 250 feet farther down-stream by the further
placing of brush matting and rocking bottom and slopes with approximately 40,000 tons
of quarried rock.   This work was done without cost to the dyking district.
The Matsqui Dyking District expended $10,000 in rocking a section 2 miles east of
the Mission Bridge; $5,000 of this amount was a grant from the Provincial Government.
A further $15,000 was expended in the same section, the cost being shared equally by the
Matsqui Dyking District, the Provincial Government, and the Government of Canada.
The East Nicomen Dyking District rocked 350 lineal feet with its own funds. The
Municipalities of Kent and Chilliwack did considerable river-bank protecton work, the
costs being shared by the Provincial and Federal Governments. JJ 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" DYKES MAINTENANCE ACT "
Conforming to the terms of the " Dykes Maintenance Act," frequent consultations
and inspections were made with dyking authorities and municipalities that administer
their own dyking and drainage districts. Due to the industrialization of many of the
districts in the Lower Fraser Valley, the number of meetings with these authorities and
inspections is increasing. On instructions from the Minister, inspection trips have been
made during the year to the Pemberton Meadows, Okanagan, and Kootenay areas. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 93
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No. 1
Dairy-farm Inspections under " Milk Industry Act "
District
Number
of Dairy-
farm
Inspections
Number of Dairy-
farms Issued
Prohibition Notices
Number of Approved
Dairy-farms
Raw
Fluid1
Raw
Fluid
147
262
8,032
512
281
136
931
3
18
1
2
0
2
1
0
2
0
0
12
18
335
48
40
6
21
0
1
4
5
0
6
4
22
31
53
139
2,546
149
81
42
342
North Bend    _  	
1                        0
3                    3
Totals  _ _	
10,3222
8
481
7fi         1      3.355
1 " Fluid " refers to milk shipped for pasteurization before sold for human consumption.
2 These inspections include 452 inspections of raw-milk dairy-farms, 9,326 inspections of fluid-milk dairy-farms,
8 prohibition notices to raw-milk dairy-farms, 55 prohibition notices to vendors selling raw milk illegally, and 481 prohibition notices to fluid-milk dairy-farms. JJ 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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JJ 97
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 3
Breed Averages for 1956
Breed
Percentage
of Total
D.H.I.
Records
Milk, Lb.
Fat
Per Cent
Lb.
Ayrshire...
Guernsey..
Holstein	
Jersey..
Unclassified (cross-breds, etc.).
4.2
17.4
48.6
19.3
10.5
8,465
8,139
10,987
7,508
8,931
4.11
4.77
3.69
5.10
4.33
348
388
405
383
387
APPENDIX No. 4
Dairy Herd Improvement Associations
Association
Chilliwack—■
Route 1	
Route 2-
Route 3..
Route 4.
Comox Valley-
Cowichan	
Delta-
Route 1	
Secretary
H. C. Clark, 236 Corbould St., Chilliwack .
Ditto.
W. W. MacLeod, Box 714, Courtenay...
W. R. Barker, P.O. Box 1017, Duncan.
Route 2..
Dewdney-DeTOche-
Route 1	
Route 2__
Langley (Route 1)	
Matsqui (Route 1)	
Matsqui (Route 2)	
Langley (Route 2) 	
Salmon Arm-North Okanagan—
Route 1  	
Route 2   	
Route 3 	
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge and
Richmond (Route 2)
Richmond (Route 1) 	
Sumas—■
Route 1-
Route 2.
Surrey (Route 1).~.
Surrey (Route 2)....
Langley (Route 2).
Vancouver Island—
Centre	
South.
Wm.   Robertson,   Trunk   Road,   R.R.   3,
Ladner
Ditto.  _ 	
T. S. Moore, R.R. 3, Mission City-
Ditto .
H. L. Davis, Box 103, Milner...
C. A. Sward, R.R. 1, Matsqui.
C. A. Sward  	
H. L. Davis 	
P. Hibbert, R.R. 2, Armstrong.
Ditto  _. _	
G. Park, Pitt Meadows _.   	
Stephen May,  159 No. 6 Road,  R.R.  2,
Vancouver
Jack L. De Lair, R.R. 4, Abbotsford.
Ditto.    	
R. J.  Livingston,  7051  Pacific Highway,
R.R. 4, Cloverdale
R. J. Livingston  	
H.L.Davis	
T. C. Tryon, R.R. 1, Parksville	
J. Pendray, 4160 Blenkinsop Road, R.R.
4, Victoria
Supervisor
G. De Lair, c/o Goods Service, 455
Trans-Canada Highway East, R.R. 2,
Chilliwack.
F. Wiffen, 295  Maple Ave., Sardis.
N. Daykin, 179 McNaught Road, R.R. 1,
Chilliwack.
S. A. Blabey, 816 McElwee Road, R.R. 1,
Rosedale.
H. de Blieck, Box 991, Courtenay.
Robin Lister, Box 1642, Duncan.
L. Craig MacNair, 6138 Trunk Road, R.R.
3, Ladner.
G. H. Bailey, 1326 Beach Grove Road,
Box 6, R.R. 2, Ladner.
A. H. Maddocks, Grace Street, Box 141,
Matsqui.
R. N. Marriott, General Delivery, Agassiz.
J. Bell, P.O. Box 128, Langley.
V. A. Gill, R.R. 1, Matsqui.
} S. P. Harvey, Mount Lehman.
I
A. Colly, Box 271, Salmon Arm.
Henry Loewen, R.R. 1, Armstrong.
J. W. Stephenson, General Delivery, Kelowna.
R. Macgregor, 652 West Eighteenth Ave.,
Vancouver.
D. S. Heelas, 1657 West Fifty-ninth Ave.,
Vancouver 14.
C. S. Lillies, Box 392, Abbotsford.
H. Bvlsma, No. 5 Road, R.R. 4, Abbotsford.
S.   Baehr,   17172  Sixty-fourth  Ave.,  R.R.
4, Cloverdale.
) J. Egan Jensen, Box 631, Langley.
.
W. T. Calbick, 516 Churchill Ave., Nanaimo.
E. H. Leader, 3578 Richmond Ave., Victoria.
Superintendent, J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Services, Parliament Buildings, Victoria.
Inspectors, H. Johnson, Box 234, Agassiz, and J. R. Hannam, 236 Corbould Street, Chilliwack. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
JJ 99
APPENDIX No. 5
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1957
District
Cariboo—
Quesnel
Williams Lake, Alexis Creek 	
Clinton, Lac la Hache, 100 Mile House,
Graham Siding, Bridge Lake, Lone
Butte    	
Lillooet, Pavilion, Bralorne	
Bella Coola 	
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.—
Kamloops,  Chase  	
Merritt  	
Ashcroft, Lytton, etc.
Salmon Arm
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby, Falkland
Armstrong, Enderby, Sicamous
Kelowna _ 	
Penticton,  Summerland
Oliver, Osoyoos 	
Cattle
Hides
858
17,233
770
178
8,934
1,123
75
5
113
28,148
1,141
16,548
10,431
6,242
2,229
1,233
407
218
1,277
35,450     3,135
4,482
2,780
2,527
932
4,780
1,822
421
2,290
78
1,056
District
Similkameen—
Princeton, Keremeos, etc.
Grand Forks, Greenwood
South-eastern British Columbia-
Rossland, Crescent Valley ...
Nelson, Creston, etc	
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc ___
Invermere,  Golden  	
Central British Columbia—
Prince George, Vanderhoof
Smithers, etc. _	
Burns Lake	
Peace River—
Fort St. John ..
Dawson Creek
Cattle
Hides
4,357
1,180
65
509
5,537
574
128
1,498
3,572
1,166
221
1,393
933
6,364
2,547
1,732
797
845
1,770
231
17
3,374
2,018
995
4,832
568
3,512
15,501      5,667
5,827      4,080
Totals Compared
District
1957
1956
1955
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
28,148
35,450
21,038
6,364
9,201
1,141
3,135
6,241
2,547
6,098
23,685
38,034
21,854
7,525
10,641
1,577
2,736
6,313
2,092
6,755
17,061
28,953
18,000
7,009
6,288
1,182
3,263
6,898
2,549
4,684
Totals   	
100.201     1     19.162
101,739
19,473
77.311    1     18.576
APPENDIX No. 6
British Columbia Egg Production (through Registered Stations)
Month
Grade
AEL
AL
AM
AS
APW
CRAX
Estimated
Total,
1957
Total,
1956
January	
February ___..
March	
April	
May	
June	
July..	
August	
September-
October.	
November-
December—
Totals.
Cases
1,280
1,063
1,092
1,166
1,473
1,045
1,166
1,000
917
965
759
839
Cases
36,252
28,670
31,100
32,150
39,288
29,340
33,111
24,733
23,790
29,699
26,662
29,485
Cases
16,895
9,856
9,274
9,818
12,823
11,056
14,002
14,137
17,425
23,915
17,575
15,126 |
Cases
2,423
1,354
1,257
1,676
3,138
2,780
4,724
5,723
7,103
7,940
3,959
2,643
12,765  |364,280 [171,902
44,720
Cases
149
100
75
107
259
364
673
776
799
619
224
112
Cases
1,670
1,513
1,421
1,369
2,838
2,174
2,140
1,691
1,515
1,573
1,207
1,064
Cases
373
253
344
261
504
291
346
297
386
520
345
313
Cases
2,159
1,772
1,734
1,913
2,741
2,264
2,690
2,236
2,197
2,540
1,878
1,840
4,257
20,175 | 4,233 | 25,964
I I
Cases
61,201
44,584
46,295
48,460
62,064
49,314
58,852
50,593
54,132
67,771
52,609
51,420
647,295
Cases
48,170
32,413
31,111
32,452
42,203
32,691
45,079
41,018
44,457
58,350
48,509
47,559
504,012 J J  100
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 7
British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers
(Average paying price weighted by grade.)
Month
1957
1956
1955
Canada, 1957
Cents
35.0
36.5
36.5
32.4
28.7
30.9
37.7
34.5
32.8
30.7
29.5
30.0
Cents
38.7
41.6
46.5
46.3
45.6
49.0
48.0
44.2
44.2
44.9
34.3
34.4
Cents
33.3
34.7
37.6
37.4
38.9
45.4
45.6
46.2
45.3
48.8
52.5
53.5
Cents
28.5
February       	
30.4
29.6
April          	
28.7
27.5
29.2
July   	
37.4
35.6
34.5
36.4
33.6
31.4
32.6
42.7
42.1
31.4
APPENDIX No. 8
Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia
Month
Chicken
Fowl
Turkey
Duck
Gocse
Monthly
Total,
1957
5-year
Average,
1952-56
January— — 	
February— 	
634,113
425,905
441,226
482,053
763,163
553,338
779,987
1,016,097
785,123
950,146
683,729
451,359
319,809
290,055
216,461
331,719
485,474
332,010
297,470
573,274
579,169
676,887
421,941
223,028
636,112
129,449
60,562
83,734
289,589
62,944
113,489
341,968
454,483
961,673
1,113,413
769,351
4,419
5,842
7,406
9,985
13,304
11,363
18,217
31,881
27,617
25,946
16,696
14,637
162
67
62
1,576,670
851,318
725,717
907,491
1,551,530
959,655
1,209,163
1,963,220
1,846,392
2,615,193
2,235,946
1,460,945
716,205
588,224
686,737
774,388
972,369
June..  	
July. _	
	
907,148
953,901
August 	
	
1,076,035
1,267,172
October 	
November 	
541
167
2,570
1,446,425
1,208,224
2,594,852
Yearly totals—
7,015,718
4,252,178
5,204,632
171,399
17,064
16,660,991
11,577,377
APPENDIX No. 9
1957 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver)
Chicken
Fowl
Young Turkey
Month
Broilers
and
Fryers
4-5
Lb.
Over
5 Lb.
Under
4 Lb.
4-5
Lb.
Over
5 Lb.
Under
10 Lb.
10-20
Lb.
Over
20 Lb.
22
25
26
27
27
27
27
25
25
25
25
25
23
26
26
27
27
27
27
25
25
25
25
25
23
26
26
27
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
29
18
17
16
16
15
13
13
14
15
15
15
15
25
20
18
18
17
15
15
16
18
19
19
19
23
24
22
22
21
18
18
20
22
22
22
22
35
35
36
31
31
33
33
28
May   —
June  —   	
July                        	
'—
September - —	
October 	
27
27
27
36      1      33
28 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
APPENDIX No. 10
Poultry-flock Approval
JJ 101
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1957                          _           _ _	
164
381
286,446
293,264
1,747
770
.076
.0997
APPENDIX No. 11
Poultry-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
Jan.-June
July-Dec.
Total, 1957
Total, 1956
300
1,805
960
1,389
29,844
1,559
22,671
443
14,513
893
5,069
52
2,830
1,094
183
4,483
38,583
1,931
114,942
409
14,530
2,601
11,666
397
3,130
2,899
1,143
5,872
68,427
3,490
137,613
852
29,043
3,494
16,735
449
4,596
1,436
2,024
9,107
102,829
4,567
129,170
38,076
18,443
1,445
A.O V.                                   -	
79,498
193,649
273,147
311,693
APPENDIX No. 12
TURKEY-FLOCK APPROVAL
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1957        _
Five-year average, 1952-56 	
32
42
22,736
21,408
711
510
.031
APPENDIX No. 13
TURKEY-FLOCK APPROVAL BY BREED
Breed
Jan.-June
July-Dec.
Total, 1957
Total, 1956
Beltsville Small Whites.  	
7,273
470
14,652
21,925
470
22,484
341
341
White Holland-  	
77
106
7,743
14,993
22,736
23,641 J J  102
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 14
Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed
Type of Vaccine
1957
1956
1955
1954
5,149,350
1,628,950
4,385,050
1,683,050
2,152,600
600,500
2,282,450
300,800
Totals                           	
6,778,300
6,068,100
2,753,100
2,583,250
APPENDIX No. 15
Bees
Table No. 1.—Diseases in Bees, 1957
1 Two slightly infected with sac brood.
2 Always present.
3 Sac brood more widespread this year.
Type of Disease
Burned
Treatment
Combs
Burned
District
A.F.B.
E.F.B.
Sac Brood,
Wax Moth
26
16
18
24
12
19
34
7
1
200
O)
2
1
(2~)
1
1
1
12
4
1
22
12
6
10
7
14
12
18
2
13
23
140
Central Okanagan     _ 	
120
Totals-      	
156
201
(3)
74
82
	
Table No. 2.—
-1957 Summary of Cucumber Pollination (Greenhouse), Greater Victoria
No.
Number
of
Greenhouses
Size
Number
of Hives
Used
Cucumber
Other Crops
Number
of Hives
Used
Estimated
Crop
Total
Number
of Hives
Owned
1   	
4
4
2
1
3
2
8
22
12
5
3
1
2
3
2
30' x 140'
4
4
_.__
1
4
1
4
11
6
3
3
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
4
2
3
3
2
2
2
Good
Good
5
lA._ — -	
5
2 _	
3  _	
30' x 200'
30' x 200'
30' x 200'
30' x 150'
Good
Good
Average
Good
Good
Good
Average
Average
Poor
Average
Good
Average
1
4  	
1
5	
5
6      	
7
Tomatoes	
5
12
8	
17
9                  	
3
10	
11  	
	
Bitter melons	
Long Eng. cukes
9
5
12    	
3
13
1
14
3
15
	
3
16	
Tomatoes, melons,
and cukes mixed
3 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1957
J J  103
APPENDIX No.  15—Continued
Bees—Continued
Table No. 3.—Honey-crop Report, 1957
District
Beekeepers
Colonies
Crop
Average
390
1,284
999
93
1,990
3,928
7,666
3,471
Lb.
39,800
157,120
766,600
590,070
Lb.
20
40
100
170
Totals                                      	
2,766
17,055
1,553,590
91
Value to producers of 1,553,590 pounds of honey at 22 cents per pound (wholesale), $341,789.80;   11,450 pounds
of beeswax at 50 cents per pound, $5,725; pollination services, $1,780.
APPENDIX No. 16
Summary of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Merchants,
January 1st to November 30th, 1957
Date
Consumed in
British Columbia
(Processed Refuse)
Exports
(Processed Refuse)
Totals
January	
February..
March	
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September-
October	
November..
Totals-
Tons
693
715
341
28
95
24
335
72
68
156
111
~2,642
Lb.
1,927
344
1,282
312
95
20
130
1,520
1,940
1,290
300
1,160
Tons
698
575
420
603
591
941
1,183
790
801
862
1,148
8,617
Lb.
1,479
201
750
975
1,700
900
450
1,750
600
250
1,550
605
Tons
1,392
1,290
762
631
686
965
1,518
863
870
1,018
1,259
11,259
Lb.
1,406
545
32
1,287
1,795
920
580
1,270
540
1,540
1,850
1,765 J J 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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