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Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols for the YEAR ENDED MARCH 31ST 1957 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1958

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
department of the attorney-general
Annual Report
of the
Inspector of Gaols
for the
YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st
1957
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1958  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Inspector of
Gaols for the year ended March 31st, 1957.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., December, 1957.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction  7
Oakalla Prison Farm—
Men's Section  9
Young Offenders' Unit  10
Westgate Unit  13
Women's Building  15
Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit for Men      18
Pre-release Camps    20
Haney Correctional Institution       21
Medical Report  23
Report of Follow-up Officer, Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit      37
Report of Psychologist  39
Report of Protestant Chaplain  42
Report of Roman Catholic Chaplain       47
Report of Librarian      48
Nelson Gaol     50
Kamloops Gaol     51
Prince George Men's Gaol      53
Prince George Women's Gaol      56
New Haven    58
Gold Creek Camp  62
Probation Branch  64
Appendix—Statistics of Institutions  67  Report of the Inspector of Gaols, 1956/57
Honourable Robert Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the Annual Report covering the Provincial Gaols and Probation Branch for the year ended March 31st, 1957. In doing so, I would like to draw
attention to certain highlights of the Report and to mention the more significant developments which we have made in our correctional services during the past year.
Warden Christie has given a gratifying word picture of the continuing progress at
Oakalla Prison Farm, covering the Young Offenders' Unit, the Westgate programme, and
the Women's Gaol, and the work camps at Haney and the Chilliwack River.
In spite of handicaps in the way of physical equipment, our Medical Officer,
Dr. R. G. E. Richmond, is still able to report progress in the medical treatment of inmates.
He makes certain suggestions for the development of our facilities and has made very
constructive suggestions which I hope we will be able to carry out in the near future.
This year, for the first time, the report of the Director of New Haven is included
with that of our other institutions, and I am happy to say that the success enjoyed by the
New Haven programme in the past has been sustained again this year. Mr. Rocks-
borough Smith has acted as Director of the Gold Creek Camp and has covered this
programme in a separate statement which is also included herein.
Kamloops and Nelson Gaols, while comparatively small institutions, are still doing
good work toward the rehabilitation of those inmates for whom they are responsible.
There has been some enlargement of the programme in both institutions, and both
Warden Teal and Warden Tulloch deserve credit for the continued efforts of themselves
and their staffs in trying to develop constructive programmes with very limited resources.
It was a great shock to us all to hear of the untimely passing of Warden Trant of
Prince George Men's Gaol, as a result of a tragic accident. We were indeed fortunate
to have found an able successor in the person of W. H. Mulligan, whose report of
progress made during the year at both the Men's and the Women's Gaols will prove to
be interesting reading.
For the first time we are also able to include a brief report on our new Haney
Correctional Institution, the staff of which is now being organized. We will be taking
over the buildings within the next month or so and hope that the programme will be well
under way by the fall of this year.
It is a matter of gratification to us to have been able to secure the services of Professor E. K. Nelson as Warden of this new institution. He is well known to us, having
been responsible during the past three years for our staff-training programme for Gaol
Service personnel.
We have been successful in recruiting a number of very promising senior staff, and
with the leadership that is presently available and the splendid programme planned, I am
confident we will be able to recruit personnel of the calibre to enable us to carry out in
this institution one of the most progressive retraining programmes of any in Canada.
As in past years, included are very interesting statements from our Chaplains, the
Gaol Psychologist, the Librarian, and also, for the first time, an interesting account of
the Narcotic Drug Treatment Project under way at Oakalla Prison Farm, together with
a detailed report from the Follow-up Officer of the men's programme, which shows
that in spite of rather noticeable handicaps some very worth-while results have been
accomplished.
7 BB 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The activities of the Probation Branch are outlined. There have been staff changes,
and the service generally has been extended. The volume of the work of this Branch
again shows a steady increase. Results of the efforts put forth by the loyal members of
the staff are still most gratifying. I feel that I cannot but draw attention again to the
importance of probation as a means of treatment for offenders and would like to stress
the fact that even more successful rehabilitation might well be attained if case loads could
be reduced due to the recruitment of additional personnel.
In closing, let me once more express my sincere thanks to all those who have assisted
us in our efforts. While I know it is dangerous to mention names for fear of omitting
some who otherwise should be mentioned, I would particularly like to extend thanks
to the John Howard Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, and the Salvation Army for
their after-care work, to the press for their sympathetic interpretation of our various
programmes, to officials of other departments of all levels of government for their
co-operation, and to the many friends among the citizenry of this Province who believe
with us that the new penology is not coddling of prisoners, but is a sincere, intelligent
effort to get value for money spent through the rehabilitation of those who fall afoul of
the law and that efforts, both human and monetary in this area, are an investment of
human values. The wardens, senior staff, chaplains, matrons, guards, staff at the head
office, and probation officers are once again to be highly commended on their loyalty and
faithful application to the job at hand.
Finally, I would submit the following recommendations for your consideration:—
(1) I am very pleased with the site which we have secured for the new Women's
Gaol, and I would strongly urge that there be no delay in making the
decision to proceed with the construction of this institution at the earliest
possible opportunity.
(2) Facilities for admission, observation, and classification of prisoners at
Oakalla Prison Farm are very inadequate. This is becoming increasingly
evident as we plan for the classification process in connection with the
selection of inmates for the new Haney Correctional Institution. I would
recommend that serious consideration be given to increasing these facilities
at an early date.
(3) We have been faced with a serious overcrowding problem in Prince George
Men's Gaol, and I hope that nothing will interfere with the construction
of the addition to this building, plans for which, I understand, are now
being prepared by the Department of Public Works. It is a matter of
satisfaction to know that in these plans, provision is being made for some
facilities to enable the Warden at Prince George to conduct a reasonably
satisfactory training programme in conjunction with the works programme
that is already under way.
(4) I would once again draw to your attention the necessity of additional
personnel in order to enable us to expand the Probation Branch, to cut
down existing case loads and thereby provide a more efficient service to
the Courts of this Province.
(5) I feel that we have passed the experimental stage as far as our forest
camp programme is concerned and would recommend that, as the need
arises, this type of programme should be extended further throughout the
Province.
(6) In my opinion the opening of an additional camp in the Kamloops area
would greatly reduce the problem of overcrowding in the Kamloops Gaol
and would provide an opportunity of doing work in co-operation with the REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1956/57 BB 9
Department of Lands and Forests in opening up park areas in this district
of the Province.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. G. B. STEVENS,
Inspector of Gaols and Provincial Probation Officer.
OAKALLA PRISON FARM
Men's Section
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Oakalla Prison Farm for
the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1957.
The reports on the major segments of the organization, which have been appended
as submitted, give the detail of each unit's operation throughout the year. These reports
cover a year of prodigious effort, and reflect credit on the very excellent staff who have
kept the organization going and who have held some of the gains made over the past five
years in the face of unprecedented overcrowding.
Admissions to the prison this year totalled 10,000, which is an increase of 3,000
over the previous year. The increase was made up partly from the growing number of
teen-agers, who for lack of adequate alternatives to delinquency and the deficiency of
preventive services in the community, are not being dealt with in time to avoid the
necessity of sending them to prison. The human and financial loss involved, in not
having adequate preventive services, is made more apparent when we realize that a large
majority of these youngsters are physically and mentally above the average, the major
defect in their development being the absence of proper training in their homes or an
adequate substitute in the form of appropriate community resources so necessary in the
city of to-day. A further portion of the increase mentioned, exclusive of the growth
normally anticipated with the general expansion in the population of the Province, has
resulted from the influx of transient workers and adventurers attracted by the growing
cities and industries. With regard to these latter groups, it is interesting to note that our
recidivism rate for the general prison population has remained substantially the same,
which further emphasizes the fact that in dealing with the present situation in the Province
we must expect the normal disorganization and resultant increase in institutional demands
which, unless offset, must always be considered as an inevitable by-product of urban and
industrial growth.
There is an immediate need for proper classification facilities to process the 10,000
annual admissions now being screened and classified under the death cells in the old
South Wing. The waiting-trial facilities, which allow the mixing of the young with the
old, the most degenerate with the first offender, and the addict with the non-addict, must
be replaced by a unit which allows for proper segregation and provides a separate cell
which is both sanitary and secure for each prisoner. The facilities in this unit were never
intended to house its present occupants, and its soft iron bars, inadequate locking
mechanisms, and the absence of proper facilities for segregation are so unwholesome as BB  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to be justified for use only in an extreme emergency. In the main prison, it is essential
that sufficient production facilities be provided to ensure constructive work to the maximum ability of every man incarcerated, not only as a measure of relief to the taxpayer,
but also as an intrinsic feature of the rehabilitation programme. The inmate population
to-day also includes an increasing number of men, and some women, who require treatment not normally associated with a prison. I refer here to those inmates with intense
psychiatric problems necessitating special care. Discussions between the medical authorities at Essondale and Oakalla suggest that a proper unit for this particular group should
be constructed.
Finally, I wish to acknowledge the excellent support which both the Attorney-
General's and the Public Works Departments have given this institution to date, as this,
together with the public and agency support received, has been the biggest single factor
in making possible another successful year.
Respectfully submitted.
Hugh G. Christie,
Warden.
Young Offenders' Unit
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Young Offenders'
Unit for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1957.
Administration
During the past fiscal year, increased attention has been given to the basic rehabilitative role of this Unit, and to our fundamental approach to the problem of training,
which has three major objectives, as follows:—
(1) To help the individual inmate learn the "give and take" of group living
under the direct supervision of a staff member as a representative of
adults.
(2) To teach inmates desirable leisure-time skills.
(3) To teach the inmate a skill that will enable him to earn his living.
We have given much thought to the method by which these goals could be realized.
The reports of the department heads which follow give some indication of efforts along
this line.   Adequate staff to carry out the basic job remains our greatest concern.
Custody and Controls
During the past year the staff have consistently maintained a high level of custody
without undue repressive techniques. Two inmates attempted escape, but were apprehended before they were able to leave the prison grounds. Despite an increasingly
disturbed type of inmate being sent to the Unit, we were able to maintain flexible controls
and found it necessary to send only one inmate to the Elementary Training Unit and to
request reclassification to Oakalla for a total of seven. During the year, 192 inmates
were received. One hundred and twenty were released on B.C. parole licence, fifteen
were released on expiration of sentence, and five received the benefit of ticket of leave.
One was released on orders of the Appeal Court. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 11
Socialization Programme
The general socialization programme has met and maintained the standard of
previous years. The principal emphasis has been the encouragement given the inmate
in the unit-groups, which consists of thirteen members each. The supervisory staff, who
deal with the various situations and problems arising in such areas of intensive group
living, stimulate the acquisition of attitudes and modes of behaviour that would serve to
establish the inmate as a productive and welcome individual in the community upon
release.
Constructive leisure-time activities involving interest groups in such endeavours as
leatherwork, model construction, wood-carving, plastics and shellcraft, copper-tooling,
religious discussion, general study, and first aid have received emphasis, especially during
the winter months. These useful and educative outlets were on the whole definitely
valued by those involved.
The facilities of the new gymnasium have afforded the inmates an expansion of
programme. Compulsory group activities, encompassing basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, and various warm-up exercises and games, have proven a real success. The
gymnasium, also, has functioned as a greatly appreciated centre of entertainment, where
concerts and notable presentations, such as the much-publicized performance of " H.M.S.
' Pinafore,'" were conducted.
The library at the Young Offenders' Unit has been used extensively by nearly every
inmate. It is pleasing to note how wide and varied a range of interest is shown by the
population here.
In terms of connection with the community outside, both the representative teams
in softball and soccer played games on city parks as well as playing visiting teams on the
Y.O.U. field. The opportunity that the inmates have of measuring up to the trust
extended to them, when they are permitted to play outside the prison setting, forms the
kind of encouragement and incentive that is remarkably purposeful in helping many
bridge the distance they encounter in their transition toward a full standing in society.
Contact with the community this year has been rather limited, and, in summary, it
is hoped that a greater liaison with authorized public volunteers will be secured in order
to encourage the formation of the vital links with the community that serve to enhance
the effectiveness of a treatment institution in the rehabilitation of its inmates.
Vocational Report
During the three-month period prior to April 31st, 1957, there were several major
changes in the vocational programme. The radio-shop was eliminated as a separate
work area, but much of the course material was absorbed into the school curriculum.
The school area was enlarged to accommodate twenty-six inmates instead of the former
twelve, and the school programme was expanded to offer more subject material. Two
classrooms were established—the correspondence instruction section and the regular
classroom section. The regular classroom section was further divided into an A group,
the senior group, and a B group, the junior group. The three school instructors specialized in the different areas of instruction, and this effected a considerable improvement
in the presentation of subject material.
A number of changes were made in the organization of the kitchen. Now a select
number of boys who are desirous of becoming chefs can work their way up through the
different kitchen positions and thereby obtain extensive cooking experience. The
remaining kitchen staff, the maintenance and clean-up crew, are selected to serve in the
kitchen for a period of one to three weeks pending transfer to the shop area which is
closest to their choice of a vocation. BB  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
New shop facilities, a metal-work shop, should be available within a few months.
The construction of a new and more spacious kitchen, an addition to the main building,
is to be started shortly. It is hoped that a building of the permanent type will be constructed next year to provide better accommodation for the school, upholstery-shop, and
the woodwork-shop.
Most members of the Young Offenders' Unit were interviewed during the past few
months, and it was found that, by reason of age, maturity, experience, or social adjustment, many, especially at the time of induction, were not ready to make a rational choice
of a vocation. Some members of the Unit did not have enough education to grasp the
basic principles of trade training. This was particularly noticeable with radio training
when the radio-shop was in operation. The emphasis of training was subsequently shifted
from vocational to pre-vocational training, at least for the first part of the inmate's period
of incarceration. As much as possible, the boys were exposed to the different areas of
work to promote occupational orientation. The trainees were encouraged to form good
work habits, and every effort was made to instil in them a standard of what constituted
an acceptable day's work.
School
The average member of the Young Offenders' Unit was found to have a comparatively low standard of education. In many cases the education was not sufficient to enable
them to master the theory of trade training. It was found that several members of the
Unit had not completed Grade IV, and it was also learned that a large percentage of the
Unit's population, although out of school for only two or three years, had considerable
difficulty with basic English and arithmetic. Some of the boys claimed that they had
completed Grade VII work at school, but when tested by the Department of Education,
many of them were assessed at the Grade IV and V level. During the past three months,
three members of the elementary group were found to have missed several steps in the
early part of their educational training, and consequently experienced considerable
difficulty at a higher level. These pupils required a specialized remedial type of teaching.
The school Quonset building was found to lack equipment and to have certain structural
defects which did not encourage a maximum of academic effort. The building was below
standard in its heating, ventilation, and electric-lighting systems. The school was lacking
in blackboards, desks, maps, and other essential equipment. Recently the blackboard
area was increased by six times its former area; new equipment and text-books were
ordered; desks were constructed; and structural alterations to the building are to be
undertaken within a matter of weeks.
Since the school has been changed over to the new system, there has been a definite
improvement in the work habits and the amount of work accomplished. It is a pleasure
to report that more inmates are now requesting educational courses. The curriculum is
still largely in the planning stage. Much educational material is still to be sorted out;
different presentation techniques are being tried; and preparations are being made to
introduce a course of study which should do much to effect an interesting and a useful
instructional programme. When the school organizing is completed, it is expected that
the over-all accomplishment will be very gratifying.
Inmate Population
As far as the inmate population is concerned, the limited amount of intensive
counselling we have been able to do indicates that we are receiving a more immature and
disturbed inmate. The needs of this group—it is estimated about 20 per cent of the
population—would best be met by the application of the skilled social worker. While
we were able to have a staff member for a short period of time as Classification Officer, REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB  13
our attempts to recruit a suitable person on a full-time basis have not as yet been
successful.
The policy of using Young Offenders' Unit for the most disturbed of the younger
inmates was reflected in a decrease to 66 per cent of our parolees being successful.
Finally, Sir, we would like to thank you and your administrative staff for the support
and encouragement that has been extended to this Unit throughout the year.
Respectfully submitted.
A. L. Montpellier,
Director.
Westgate Unit
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We have the honour to submit the annual report of the Westgate Unit for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1957.
Toward Rehabilitation
If the programme of an adult correctional system is to be of the greatest usefulness
and value in the subsequent lives and behaviour patterns of the offenders, three procedures must be included therein. There is, first, the diagnosis of inmates, or what has
been called their classification, as a basis for institutional segregation and assignment.
The second is guidance; that is, the inmate must be helped or guided toward the better
understanding of himself and also toward the acceptance of his institutional programme;
this is being done individually or by the use of group methods. Third, there must be
professionally trained and experienced officers and adequate facilities for training and
treatment to bring about those changes in personality necessary to improve the likelihood
that the inmate will adjust satisfactorily to his institutional plan and conduct himself as
a good citizen upon his return to society.
It is toward these aims that the programme of the Westgate Unit is directed.
Classification and Guidance
The initial classification of offenders takes place in the classification unit of the main
gaol. Those classified for Westgate are usually transferred immediately, and the Unit
custodial and treatment staff are provided with the classification summaries. With this
information on hand, the Unit classification team conducts further studies for the purpose
of planning suitable work training and socialization or group living placements. The
inmate is brought into the process to ensure his co-operation and the greatest possible
consideration of his individual needs.
From this point on, classification is made a continuous process which provides each
inmate with the opportunity to better himself by his own efforts in a purposeful and
productive programme.
Work, Training, and Treatment
In the belief that a vigorous work programme is an essential part of any scheme of
rehabilitation, all inmates have been required to work to the maximum of their ability
for a full six days per week. This work programme, which combines the maintenance
of the institution and the establishment of good work habits, and provides considerable
amount of practical vocational training at the same time, has covered a wide variety of BB  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
projects. The licence-plate shop produced 1,900,000 individual plates during the year.
The other shops, which include the shoe making and repairing shop, the blacksmith-shop,
the garage, the carpenter, electrical, and plumbing shops, all operated at a similarly high
level. The farm, with its 80-acre market-garden, besides producing a large amount of
vegetables for the institution, also showed a very profitable return from the operation
of the piggery, the chicken-houses, and the cattle-barns and dairy.
Education
In order to extend educational opportunities to those who wish to make use of the
Department of Education's correspondence course service, time was set aside during the
normal recreation period to allow those who were interested to involve themselves in
academic study. The response to this opportunity for self-improvement justified the
appointing of a teacher, Miss Marjorie Larson, who looked after both classroom instruction, where appropriate, and the individual assistance necessary to those working on
advanced courses. More papers have been successfully completed this year than ever
before. Short courses in motor mechanics, auto-body repairs, carpentry, and barbering
were conducted under the auspices of the local Rotary Club, and twelve inmates were
presented with diplomas.
Recreation and Physical Education
The importance of desirable use of leisure time and the development of skills to
make this possible received considerable attention in the programme development. The
opportunity of doing some copper and metal craft, leatherwork, and wood-carving was
taken up enthusiastically, particularly by the teen-age members of the Unit.
The establishment of physical education classes as a part of each inmate's training
was accomplished, and inmates who were medically fit had three hours per week compulsory physical training.
Participation was encouraged in softball, soccer, and basketball. Inter-group
competition was also encouraged as part of the Unit's programme.
Social Services
Private and public welfare agencies were used whenever necessary to assist in
counselling and guidance services. Representatives from the National Employment
Service, John Howard Society, and Salvation Army came to the institution regularly and
gave special service to prisoners and their needy families at Christmas time.
Alcoholics Anonymous Association played an important part for many inmates.
Each Tuesday evening an average of twenty inmates attended regular meetings, which
were supported by the Chaplain and a number of business-men from the community.
The Alcoholism Foundation and Research Council was given full support and
co-operation. A professional representative of the Council met weekly with a group of
ten selected inmates.
Two successful voluntary blood clinics were sponsored by the Canadian Red Cross,
in which well over 600 pints of blood were given by the inmate population.
Family and Friend Visits
Westgate conducted bi-monthly Sunday visits in the gymnasium building. Relatives
and friends of the inmates were allowed supervised " table " visits.
Another successful Christmas family visits in the gymnasium building was organized
for 100 prisoners selected for good conduct and because their family needed the contact.
On this occasion it was a " chair " visit, with inmates and family sitting together as a REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB  15
family unit. During the visit, refreshments, provided from funds raised by inmate
donations, were served by the inmates. The highlight of the visit was the enthusiasm
of the children and parents over the farm zoo (small animals in pens) and the kindergarten play area.
We would like, in closing, to pay tribute to the Westgate staff, who accepted extra
responsibility over and above their regular duties to make the year's work much more
than a mere custodial programme. On their behalf and our own, we would like to thank
your administrative staff for their help and co-operation and you for your leadership
during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
G. Watt,
Senior Correctional Officer (T.).
R. E. Burns,
Senior Correctional Officer (C).
Women's Building
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Women's Gaol
for the year ended March 31st, 1957.
Administration
There was little change in the basic organization of the Women's Gaol during the
year. We continued to arrange the population into nine teams for training, education,
and work from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. During the afternoon and evening each inmate was
required to live within one of eight family groups for socialization and recreation. Individual members of each work team could have been drawn from any of the eight social
groupings.
The family groups remained fairly stable, if the length of sentence permitted. Team
members, however, could progress slowly from work teams to vocational and educational
teams, depending on their interest and aptitude. Training was stressed as being most
important in all units, whether they were at work or classes.
The most notable change was in the quality and interest of supervision given each
unit. The value of good staff leadership was strongly emphasized, and each matron
was required to learn and implement the principles of safe custody, practical and orderly
discipline, training, and the teaching of socially acceptable living.
Staff
Probably one of the most encouraging aspects of the programme has been the
enthusiastic attitude of the staff. It has been the definite aim of the administration to
promote, both in policy and practice, the principle that treatment is the function of every
staff member. Many staff members have wished to increase their knowledge of human
behaviour as well as their practical skills and to learn how such knowledge and skills
fit in with the custodial requirements of the institution.
Turnover of staff was somewhat less this year, although the programme still suffered
from the loss of some experienced workers whose training represented a considerable
investment of time and effort.
Population
There were 671 women admitted during the year. The average daily population
v/as eighty; 25 per cent of the eighty were B.C. Indians sentenced to sixty days or less. BB  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Deep concern was felt by the staff for the large number of first offenders from the more
remote reserves and northern cities. This type frequently returned to serve a second
sentence, after which they refused to return home, being attracted by the glamour of the
large city. Many of these girls might have been served as well and more economically
under supervision of a Probation Officer in their own area.
Toward the end of the year the daily count rose to ninety and promised to continue
this upward trend. It was not possible to ease the congestion by transferring a sufficient
number to Prince George Provincial Gaol, as many were awaiting trial, drew too short
sentences, were not physically fit, or were custodial and behaviour problems.
The overcrowding forced us to place people in home groups or work teams merely
because there was space, a policy that works against the original idea that a woman
would be placed in a unit because it was the best possible choice for her rehabilitation.
The new wing now under construction will relieve this situation and give the programme more of an opportunity to increase its success.
Group Work and Recreation
It is four years now since the controlled programme whereby girls work, eat, sleep,
and take part in recreational activities in administratively designated groups was put
into effect. This group system, as it has become known, is much more generally accepted
by the inmate population than at its inauguration, when it was regarded with suspicion
as a method by which the staff had the inmates do something they did not want to do.
It is now a recognized pattern of the programme of the women's division, and members
become proud of their group and, instead of trying to have as little contact as possible
with staff, form a positive relationship with their group matron.
There are seven groups, plus another group operating as a narcotic-drug research
unit. The number of inmates in each group varies from about eight to twelve, although
the overcrowding that comes at various times of the year may necessitate larger groups.
The women live in certain areas of the building according to groups, eat at separate tables
with their matron, disperse to work teams, and take part in the afternoon socialization
programme by groups. The effectiveness of such a system, as distinct from one which
does not segregate but neither allows girls to intermingle and take part in activities indiscriminately, is hampered by the lack of space in the present building and the difficulties
it presents for segregation. However, a routine of programme has become established
which will greatly facilitate the movement of groups to the new addition now nearing
completion.
The groups function through use of programme. The main scope of group activity
lies outside the work programme. Now, because the inmates no longer show such
resistance to the group system, we have seen a development in the range and interest
shown in group activities. The girls now take part in such recreational activities as indoor
and outdoor sports, arts and crafts, library, gardening, and record-playing by groups
rather than as individuals. As each group has opportunity of taking part in various
activities, individuals whose interests lie in certain areas are still able to follow those
interests, but at the same time others join in who probably would not do so without some
factor of compulsion or group enthusiasm. The group discussion necessary to plan the
programme to be followed provides a medium for the simple practice of democratic
principles or intensive therapy, depending on the needs of the group and the skill of the
staff member.
The Narcotic Treatment Unit for Women
Unlike the men's unit, which has operated as a completely segregated project, the
women's unit for the treatment of addicts has been able to benefit from the vocational
facilities of the Women's Building. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB  17
This unit was completed in the spring of 1956. The number of inmates at the unit
has remained fairly constant through the period under review. Criteria of selection of
inmates to the unit was based on the following factors: —
(1) Positive motivation toward a treatment programme.
(2) Indicated previous effort at modification of her pattern of living.
(3) Inmate's ability to face reality situation in the community.
(4) Inmate's capacity toward acceptance of the treatment and rehabilitation
programme.
(5) Ability to participate in creative activities.
(6) Ability to participate in a group setting.
The treatment programme at the unit is geared to the individual needs of the inmate.
Basically, its broad outline consists of social, recreational, and occupational therapy. The
unit provides a setting for social reintegration through group living and group participation. Limited psychological, psychiatric, and group therapy services are provided by
Dr. Stephenson, the Narcotic Addiction Foundation, and prison treatment staff. A programme of vocational and occupational therapy is made possible through the utilization
of the training resources of the Oakalla setting.
Rehabilitation and follow-up is for the time being provided by the Narcotic Addiction Foundation.
Work Programme (Kitchen, Laundry, Sewing and Mending, Maintenance,
Outside Maintenance, School, Occupational Therapy)
Considerable of the inmate's work-time is taken up with the general maintenance,
housekeeping, and various other home-making tasks.
All jobs are done with a view to teaching and improving the individual's skills in
cooking, serving, mending, laundry operation, painting, and maintenance and care of
the grounds. As the majority of younger girls admitted here have little or no training,
this experience became an important phase in their development. All workers were
urged to produce as high a quality of results as possible.
There was a definite trend away from the usual ingrained prison tradition that all
inmates waste time and materials, and sabotage quietly all efforts to produce programme.
The vocational programme developed slowly from lack of instructors and space.
The groundwork was done and the equipment purchased for both a power-sewing course
and a cosmetology course. Two matrons spent part of their spare time fitting themselves
for these departments.
School
Following is the report of the matron in charge of correspondence. The school
has now developed to the point where it is capable of producing students who can compete
and secure jobs in the business world.
There were thirty-eight students who attended the school this year either full or
part time. There were sixteen courses taken on the afternoon shift, making a total of
fifty-four students for the year. There were thirteen transfers and twenty-one releases,
leaving a present enrolment of twenty.
School was held for 273 days. A total of 800 papers were submitted—718 from
the school and 82 from the afternoon programme.
A total of twenty certificates were received, as follows: Business Fundamentals 24,
1; Mathematics 12, 1; Record-keeping, 2; Shorthand 31, 1; English Literature 20, 1;
Composition 20, 1; Typewriting 20, 3; Typewriting 10, 10.
Other subjects studied by correspondence during the year were Radio and Wireless
30, Social Studies 20, Shorthand 21, Secretarial Practice 92, elementary Grade V arith- BB  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
metic and Grade VI spelling, Composition and Literature 10, Book-keeping 34, Art 10
and 20, Dressmaking.
After-care
The after-care facilities available to assist women leaving the institution are insufficient to protect adequately an institutional investment in women who sincerely wish to
re-establish themselves as good citizens. In this regard, however, I wish to express the
appreciation we all feel for the help we have received from the Elizabeth Fry Society,
the John Howard Society, and the many agencies interested, lay groups and individual
citizens, who have assisted with our work throughout the year.
In closing, I would like to express my appreciation to you and to your senior officers
for the co-operation and assistance you have given me as Matron in Charge of the
Women's Building.
B. E. Maybee,
Matron in Charge.
Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit for Men
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We have the honour to report on the programme of the Narcotic Addiction
Treatment Unit for Men for the period from March 31st, 1956, to April 1st, 1957. The
work, while only in its formative stages, seems to hold some promise. Generally speaking, the programme instituted has based its work on the premise that the use of narcotics
is a symptom of personality inadequacy and not a disease in itself once the physical
addiction is withdrawn. The objective is, therefore, to help the addict with his personality
and sociological problems, on the assumption that if he can improve his ability to meet
them he will no longer require the sedation of heroin and hence will be able to abstain
from its use.
The morning work programme has been an unqualified success to date. The inmates
have worked hard and well. The work project itself is the construction of a large
retaining-wall. The wall consists of donated scrap lumber laid in the form of a honeycomb, layer on layer, and filled with earth shovelled into the web of the honeycomb
between the layers of lumber. It is a necessary but tedious and arduous task, but in
a further six months it is expected that the work will be completed. Progress has been
rapid, and the work itself has been of better quality than that done previously by these
inmates.
The afternoon work programme has been, on the whole, less spectacular, but in some
respects more productive. The work here has been less well defined, more individual
initiative being allowed in the planning and carrying-out of this area of the programme.
There has been a considerable amount of floundering, but the less tangible but more
worth-while fruits of this personality-building process have been evident. It has been
interesting to see men who never worked hard before continue working voluntarily after
the evening meal until lock-up time at 8.30 p.m. Others have attempted to evade work
so consistently that the productive members of the group disowned them and gained
insights concerning themselves, impossible to obtain through the more regimental morning
programme.
The handicraft or hobbycraft programme is an evening programme established as
a self-supporting project through which two objectives and a possible third are capable REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1956/57 BB  19
of realization. The first objective is to teach inmates who see themselves as isolated
in the community some leisure-time activity in which they can gain confidence, find
pleasurable pastime activity, and a purposive pursuit. The second objective, perhaps
more important though less readily attainable, is to use this activity as an introduction
to group consciousness and initiate the concept of contribution to a group or community
rather than production for personal gain only. This is effected in part by setting up
a group fund which receives all profits and is administered within broad limits by a group
process. A possible third objective of this programme is the encouragement of vocational
interests within inmates, as usually no such wholesome interest exists. While this is not
a major problem on the present basis of selection, it is a problem with the larger group
of addicts who must be seen as the future population of this type of programme. The
hobbycraft programme, to date, has included some skilled work in leather, copper, petit
point, wood-carving, and woodwork. The most promising activity, from the point of
view of the above-mentioned objectives, is woodwork. Many inmates lacking the confidence for the highly artistic creations in leather, copper, etc., will attempt working
with wood, and this is one of the activities in which the boundaries between hobbycraft,
vocational training, and work programme tend to merge. A man gains confidence in his
ability to use saw and hammer in building a fence on a work project and attempts an
end-table, and the reverse process is also true. Mobility between furniture and knick-
knack making and carpentry and vice versa is smooth. It is therefore recommended that
a proper shop be constructed on the Pan Abode Unit grounds and equipped for simple
woodworking projects.
Individual and group therapy and the testing and recording associated with them
have been carried on as a shared responsibility by the psychologist, the staff social worker,
and the Follow-up Officer. The purposeful direction which this individual guidance gives
and the rapid progress it promotes is in marked contrast to the more common method
of aimlessly exposing all inmates to the same good programme in the hope that it will
somehow have a good effect.
The Follow-up Officer, Mr. Malcolm Brandon, has worked directly with the Officer
in Charge of the Unit, and this has proved productive in planning for discharge. In some
instances planning has involved the Unit with social service agencies and probation staff
through the offices of Mr. Brandon, so that case conferences have been able to be more
useful. As the discharge day is the most critical in the programme for the abstinent
addict (in terms of stress), some bridge from the Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit
to the community was seen as a programme need. It further was frequently found that
potential discharges were financially destitute. The Oakalla Prison Farm administration,
therefore, agreed to placing Pan Abode inmates in the pre-release forestry camps as a
final step in the programme. This privilege, when earned, provides an opportunity to
earn a few dollars and to get used to a non-institutional setting before release.
Shortly after coming into the programme, Dr. Stephenson, our part-time psychiatrist,
initiated monthly staff-training meetings of both Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit staffs
with a view to obtaining a common direction and philosophy in so far as this is possible.
These meetings have been highly productive and have added greatly to the teamwork
possible throughout the year.
In conclusion, Sir, I wish to thank yourself and the administration and staff of
Oakalla Prison Farm and the many agencies and people who have assisted throughout
the year for the co-operation and constructive criticisms which they have given the programme at the Male Pan Abode Unit, and thus contributed to what we feel has been
a year of good progress, positive and productive operation.
N. Schroeder,
Officer in Charge. BB 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pre-release Camps
Hugh G. Christie
Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my report of the work completed in the Oakalla
pre-release camps at Haney and Chilliwack for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1957.
Haney Camp
In spite of the distance from Oakalla, the Haney pre-release camp has continued
to operate as a very successful unit for its third year.
New bunk-houses have been erected, and with other additional facilities we have
been able to increase the inmate accommodation to a maximum of ninety. The camp
has a full work programme, and all inmates are employed constructively. In the selection of inmates, however, there has been a strong tendency to send the better types to
Chilliwack camps, where strenuous work is a more general requirement, and to place
the older candidates in the Haney camp. Nevertheless, no one is idle, and each inmate
has been given a job in which he must perform to the limit of his ability.
Logging and the operation of the small home-made sawmill continue to be the major
projects.
Most of the work activities, therefore, are centred around the production of lumber
designed for use both in Oakalla and further construction in the camps. During the past
year the trees have been removed from both sides of the road leading to the camp from
twenty-first Avenue. The logs and windfalls have been sawn in the mill, and all the
slash and debris burned, and the area fully cleared preparatory to reforestation.
The bunk-houses, ablution facilities, and kitchen and dining-room were built when
we had three years' less experience and are much less adequate than those of the new
camps at Chilliwack. In addition to this, the prospect of good work projects for the
future is limited. In view of this, it is evident that the camp should soon be relocated
in an area where there will be greater scope for the constructive employment of inmates.
For the present, the camp programme is functioning well, and discipline and morale are
at a high level.
However, one of the first considerations which should be faced by the administration
of the new Haney Correctional Institution, who are taking over this camp on April 1st,
1957, should be the consideration of the matter of relocation.
Chilliwack Camps
The erection of Camp No. 1, at the junction of Tamahi Creek and the Chilliwack
River, 6 miles east of Vedder Crossing, was begun on January 3rd of this year. Camp
No. 2, also situated on the Chilliwack River, 4 miles beyond Camp No. 1, was constructed
by work parties from Camp No. 1, and was occupied as it was completed a few months
later.
During the initial period, the main task was to complete the construction of a sufficient number of buildings and facilities as rapidly as possible to accommodate 120
inmates. To begin with, inmate labour was transported to and from the Oakalla work
camp at Haney each day to build the first bunk-houses. As soon as the first two buildings
became habitable, on January 16th, they were occupied on a permanent basis by a small
group of inmates, who were carpenters. As rapidly as additional bunk-houses were
erected, the inmate population was increased. Adverse weather conditions and delays
in the obtaining of materials tended to impede our progress at times. Nevertheless, in
spite of rather unfavourable working conditions for both inmates and staff, construction
went ahead according to schedule. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 21
By the end of January, the inmate population had increased to twenty. During
February and March, as more accommodation became available in Camp No. 1, the
count reached forty-five. The total count any given day, therefore, fluctuates between
100 and 120.
At the beginning of March, we began to employ inmate crews on the felling and
clearing of the 66-foot right-of-way for the proposed road from Scheller's Bridge to
Chilliwack Lake, a distance of 23 miles. This is a British Columbia Forest Service
project, and work is carried out under the direction of Forest Service personnel. In
accordance with the policy that has been established, the internal administration of the
camps and the supervision of the inmates at work are solely the responsibility of our
correctional officers. The Forest Service, whose personnel are on hand daily, provide
an over-all direction and guidance, and their recommendations are executed through our
senior officers.
The Forest Service has provided a number of items of equipment for the project,
such as tractors, power-saws, and transport vehicles. These are operated and serviced
by our inmates. Apart from labour costs, the Forest Service assumes the responsibility
for the payment for the parts necessary to repair their own equipment.
Discipline and morale in both camps remain at a high level, and the general atmosphere is a healthy one. We are convinced that, in addition to providing an additional
means of inmate segregation, the camp programme provides an environment conducive
to rehabilitation.
T. H. Tobiasson,
Officer in Charge.
HANEY CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspectors of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Haney Correctional Institution for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1957.
The major activity carried on by a small group of key staff members during the
period covered by this report consisted of the planning and development of the programme and operations of the new Institution. The British Columbia Prison Commission
of 1950 had recommended that the new prison be geared to "a complete training
programme—physical, academic, and vocational." It was determined, in consultation
with the Inspector of Gaols, that the Institution should be a medium-custody unit with
its honour camps operating on a minimum-custody basis. These basic objectives served
as reference points in the more specific planning which followed. A high standard of
performance was set for each part of the programme, and the heads of divisions undertook
the long and difficult job of planning and co-ordinating the many activities involved.
An organizational plan was developed which established four major divisions for the
Institution. All services and programmes aimed directly at training and rehabilitation
of inmates were grouped in the Training Division under Deputy Warden John W. Braith-
waite, who was appointed on September 1st, 1956. Primary responsibility for the
security of the prison and the maintenance of good order and discipline among inmates
was assigned to the Custodial Division under Deputy Warden Malcolm A. Matheson and
Correctional Captain S. A. L. Hamblin, both of whom were appointed on January 1st,
1957.   All business and housekeeping services were integrated in one division for pur- BB 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
poses of efficient operation, and a Business Manager, Mr. J. W. Lane, was appointed on
July 1st, 1956. A Camps Division, with a status equal to that of the other three divisions,
was planned but not activated during the report period.
In August of 1956 the nucleus of key staff members attended the Congress of
Corrections in Los Angeles and toured various correctional institutions in California,
obtaining much valuable data on the operation of facilities similar to those under construction at Haney. In September of 1956 the Institution opened temporary offices at
636 Burrard Street, Vancouver, and the detailed work of organization and development
was begun.
Budget estimates for the 1957/58 fiscal year were submitted in October of 1956.
Intensive study of the equipment required for the vocational shops and academic classrooms was carried on by Mr. W. M. Holland, the Director of Education, in consultation
with experts in these various fields. Similar studies and contacts were made in connection
with the ordering of custodial equipment, furniture, and indeed all of the materials
required to equip and operate the new facility. The ordering of these items continued
throughout the period covered by the report.
The activities referred to above required extensive contact with many other departments and agencies. We received welcome assistance from Provincial Government
officials in charge of vocational and apprenticeship training, in addition to the frequent
service afforded by the Purchasing Commission. Close contact was maintained with the
project architect and the Department of Public Works in the planning of features within
the building or ancillary to it, which had not been completed at this stage. We would
like to express our gratitude to these individuals and agencies as well as to the many
others who have helped us, since our task of organizing the new programme could not
have been accomplished without their assistance.
The recruiting of staff for the Institution was well begun during this period. Officials
of the Civil Service Commission surveyed our organizational plan and consulted with us
concerning the classification and salaries of the positions authorized. A tentative arrangement was worked out under which we were able to use the services of the Commission
in recruiting staff, and many personnel policies were determined with their assistance and
co-operation. Provision was made in our establishment for a personnel and staff-training
officer, but an appointment to this position had not been made by the end of the report
period.
During the summer of 1956, a nucleus of carefully selected custodial officers was
designated for transfer to the Haney Correctional Institution as correctional sergeants.
Still other applicants for the position of correctional officer were brought before selection
panels held in December of 1956. Approximately one-quarter of the total custodial staff
was thus designated from within the prison service, and early in the new calendar year
advertisements were placed in newspapers across Canada to obtain the remaining staff
required. Some 500 applicants were processed by means of interviews, tests, and investigations of background. It was soon apparent that this approach, while time-consuming,
would pay large dividends in the years ahead through a custodial staff possessed of the
personal qualities required to exercise a positive influence over inmates.
The Business Division was required to carry out many immediate responsibilities
concurrently with planning the large-scale operations for which it would be responsible
in the future. Mr. L. D. Douglas, the Chief of Mechanical Services, and Mr. A. E.
Wilkes, the Assistant Chief, together with a small crew of stationary engineers, began the
operation of a temporary boiler at the Institution in October of 1956, and eventually
took responsibility for the provision of heat, light, power, and maintenance within the
prison. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 23
The ordering of supplies, as well as the operation of our temporary budget, and the
establishment of accounting, stenographic, filing, and storekeeping procedures for the
organizational period, fell upon the shoulders of the Business Manager and a small staff.
The appointment of specialized personnel in these areas did not occur until after the end
of the period covered by this report.
By the end of March, 1957, much essential work had been accomplished. The
objectives of the organization had been established and an organizational structure had
been developed to carry them out. All positions to be filled in the new organization had
been laid out and duties had been described. Several key staff members had been
appointed, and many other staff had been designated for appointment later. A very large
volume of equipment and furnishings had been ordered after careful study of our
requirements.
Considerable planning had taken place within each of the four divisions of the
Institution, and the personnel in each of these areas had gained experience in consultation
with each other as well as with numerous persons and agencies outside of our organization.
Each problem solved seemed to reveal many other problems requiring solution, but
progress was steady. Every effort was made to follow the practices of sound administration, planning operations carefully before undertaking them, assigning duties and
responsibilities as clearly and accurately as possible, and encouraging good co-ordination
and communication throughout the growing organization.
All staff members of the new Institution were conscious of the importance of their
task and the significance of their opportunity to create a new and important facility for
the training and rehabilitation of offenders. The challenge implicit in this opportunity
gave strong motivation to all of our efforts.
I would like to close this report by expressing the appreciation which we have felt
for the assistance given us by units and individuals within the Department of the Attorney-
General. Arrangements for the transfer of staff from other institutions, particularly
Oakalla Prison Farm, have been made most generously, and many specific services have
been given us—for example, the making of furniture for certain areas in the new Institution by Oakalla and New Haven. The constant and essential support given by the
Attorney-General, the Deputy Attorney-General, the Departmental Comptroller, the
Inspector of Gaols, and other officials in the Attorney-General's Department has facilitated our work in countless ways.
Respectfully submitted.
E. K. Nelson,
Warden.
MEDICAL REPORT
E.G.B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the medical report for Oakalla Prison Farm, for
the satellite camp at Haney, the two Chilliwack camps, Gold Creek camp, and New
Haven Borstal Institution.
With increasing population at Oakalla Prison Farm itself, and the inception of
additional establishments, demands on the medical services have increased considerably.
As you are aware, policy is taking shape of centralized medical supervision, with local
physicians carrying out the more immediate care of the inmates detained in institutions
outside the metropolitan areas. BB 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
We received close interest and co-operation from the Medical Health Officers
exercising medical control over the areas in which the camps are situated. Those complaining sick at the camps either are seen as emergencies by the local practitioner or
brought to Oakalla Prison Farm for treatment. Another major extension of medical
organization has been the commencement of examining inmates committed to Oakalla
Prison Farm during the same day as their committal. This was made imperative owing
to the largely increasing number of alcoholics sentenced to Oakalla Prison Farm and the
deterioration in their health whilst at liberty. On the whole, from their condition on
examination, it would appear that the liquor of which they partake is more virulent and
that the habit is more intense. There was one death, which occurred in the South Wing,
of an alcoholic inmate during the night following his admission to Oakalla Prison Farm.
These facts have necessitated stringent medical precautions during the first twenty-four
hours following their admittance. It is also significant that the numbers of those
developing D.T's. during the first three to five days has risen.
Since September we have had the assistance of a part-time Medical Officer, the
duties being shared by Drs. O. Kringhaug and T. Mitchell. Dr. Minovitz has now joined
as whole-time resident physician.   He takes the place of the part-time physicians.
The general health of the prisoners has been satisfactory. As you are aware from
the statistics, there has been a slight rise in the number of infections from staphylococci.
Considering the overcrowding, which has been inevitable, and the increase in prison
population, this does not give rise to anxiety, but it does mean that all possible precautions
should be taken concerning general and personal hygiene. There should also be ample
facilities for sterility in the hospital area. For example, in certain departments there are
not sufficient toilets and toilet basins and showers.
The number of inmates referred as out-patients to the Vancouver General Hospital
has remained approximately the same. It amounts roughly to four appointments a day,
but many of these are not new cases, but are referred for subsequent visits. There is no
prospect of reducing this number until we have a part-time consultant staff of specialists
who can visit the gaol itself. This is not likely to materialize before the establishment of
a new hospital with the necessary facilities for specialist examinations and treatment.
We would like once more to place on record our thanks to the administration and
the clinical staff of the Vancouver General Hospital for the expert care which they have
continued to give to inmates from our correctional establishments. The interest and
co-operation shown by the medical and nursing staffs of the Vancouver General Hospital
have greatly lessened the anxiety and burden placed on the somewhat slender medical
resources at Oakalla Prison Farm and other correctional institutions in the Lower
Mainland.
The prison hospital is being faced with a heavy expansion of numbers of inmates
passing through, either in-patients or out-patients; 1,393 have been admitted to the
prison hospital during the year. We are relieved to know that during the next three or
four years there will be a move to another building, which can be adequately equipped
as a central hospital for the Corrections Branch of British Columbia. However, the fact
remains that for a considerable time the prison hospital as it stands is faced with a heavier
demand each year, with no extension of any facilities with regard to accommodation for
patients and very necessary plumbing. For instance, there are thirty to thirty-five inmates
in the tower of the hospital, with no tub bath or showers, and only two toilets. The tub
bath on the main floor of the hospital is used for the cleansing of inmates infected with
vermin or affected with boils, for example, and this bath has to be used for general use,
also for those inmates in the tower and those in the surgical ward on the main floor.
Again, with the co-operation of the Warden, we have been able to staff our technical
department with prison-trained technicians, excluding the officer pharmicist, who origi- r
REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 25
nally learned much of his work in the Royal Navy. We are urgently in need of registered
nurses. Although we are well served in the mechanical departments, we are lacking in
qualified staff for clinical nursing, but there are two graduate psychiatric nurses. It will
be seen later that a strong recommendation is made for the appointment of a registered
female nurse for the supervision of treatment, also for supervision of the operating-room.
A suggestion was made earlier to yourself, and to the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm,
that the status of these specialized officers be raised by means of trade allowances. It was
also mentioned that it was felt that the status of the Senior Hospital Officer should be
raised to Senior Correctional Officer. The amount of work passing through the hospital
is emphasized by the statistics, which include 38,000 treatments administered in the
prison hospital during the period under review.
Departments within the Hospital
Opera ting-room
The activities carried on in this department are detailed in the Appendix of this
Report. We had hoped to carry out more surgery in the prison hospital, but, as you are
aware, the necessary alterations and additions requested have not been approved owing
to the possibility, it is understood, of a move later on to a new building. The basic
addition required to the present operating-room is that of a tesselated floor as a protection against static electricity. Without this, of course, it means that no general anaesthetic
can be given, although we are fully equipped to give general anaesthetics with the apparatus
which was purchased during the year. However, apart from this, any operations which
can be performed under a local anaesthetic are carried out, and a good deal of minor
surgery has been possible. We are once more very grateful to Dr. E. Lewison for his
generous contribution to medical services in the field of plastic surgery. There is no
doubt but that the repair of nasal disfigurements must play a considerable part in the
general morale of the patient. His research in this respect continues, and with each
subject for plastic surgery a social history is submitted. This is the fourth year of his
study in this field.
A registered nurse with recent operating-room technique would be of great value,
not only in the operating-room itself, but in maintaining the general standard of asepsis
and dressing for both in-patients and out-patients.
With your co-operation, we have added greatly to the stock of surgical instruments.
There are sufficient to provide most surgeons with what they would require for major
surgery.
X-ray
This has continued to serve fundamental requirements. The present equipment is
mainly designed for bone X-rays, and in a hospital of this capacity an instrument is needed
to take X-rays of kidneys, gastro-intestinal series, and other soft tissues. However, a
plan is under consideration now for the purchase of a larger and more powerful machine.
A total of 1,158 X-ray examinations have been carried out.
Dental
Two dental officers have been pressed to their utmost capacity in dealing with only
an urgent section of the gaol population. In all they provide service for three days a
week. This amount of time is clearly not adequate. In reality the presence of a dentist
every day in the week is a necessity. We are glad to report the inception of a supply of
dentures to carefully selected inmates at public expense.    In the cases recommended, BB 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
we include the potentiality of the inmate with regard to rehabilitation and assess the
part which the provision of dentures might play toward it. Drs. Gilroy and Alexander
have continued to give unstinted service throughout the year. Most of the work actually
consists of extractions due to pressure of numbers. The stock of dental instruments
has been greatly expanded during this year.
Pharmacy
Increased population has placed on this department also an increasing pressure of
activity. The pharmacy is a small room quite unable to contain the amount of stores
which are required. This results in pharmaceutical stores being placed in various
positions throughout the gaol. Here again it would seem that no major improvement
can be made until the new hospital is established in the next few years. The calls upon
the officer in charge of the pharmacy are those which would be normally met by a
graduate pharmacist, but we are fortunate in having a service-trained compounder. The
general trend of pharmaceutical treatment entails the use of more expensive drugs.
Whereas the Vancouver General Hospital pharmacy used to supply the medications for
inmates treated in the out-patient department there, the practice was discontinued.
This threw a heavier burden on the prison pharmacy, as specialists naturally prescribe
a wider variety of drugs which would usually be contained in a large pharmacy. However, through the close co-operation and assistance of the Provincial Pharmacy in Vancouver, all materials for prescriptions which we have not been able to fill are now supplied by that pharmacy. It was our own choice that the prison pharmacy should take
on these increased obligations as the passage of so much medication between the Vancouver General Hospital and the prison was presenting quite a problem of administration
and of custody.
TB. Wing
This has continued to house on an average ten patients throughout the year. These
are active cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and a great part are also drug addicts, and
very disturbed individuals. As many as possible obtain a temporary release to the
Pearson Hospital and Indian hospitals, but a large proportion of these patients come
for so short a time that arrangements cannot be made for admission to an outside hospital, or whose behaviour is so disorderly that they cannot be retained in any environment
outside the gaol. Attempts are made to persuade patients who should be in hospital to
seek admission to the Pearson Hospital or one of the Indian hospitals on their discharge
from Oakalla Prison Farm, as they are a menace to the community from the point of
view of their infection. Very few agree to do this. It is hoped that an increasing number of these recalcitrant TB. patients will be apprehended under the " Health Act " and
retained in the TB. hospital. Dr. Hakstien, consultant of the Tuberculosis Control,
pays frequent visits and gives expert advice concerning treatment. This unit remains
unsatisfactory in regard to the accommodation of TB. patients, but it appears that no
improvement can be made until a new prison hospital is in operation. Should the
present Women's Building be utilized as such, the annex which is now being added to
it is a section which could be adequately adjusted to the use of a TB. wing; but in spite
of the many difficulties, some of the patients acquired the arrest of the disease in the
present unit. Owing to the fact that tubercular persons cannot be sent to the Penitentiary, some of the patients in the TB. Wing of Oakalla Prison Farm are faced with many
years of confinement therein. At times this wing becomes highly disturbed, and many
of the privileges which are allowed tubercular patients become abused, but this is understandable in the light of so little activity and so many neurotic people being in such
close quarters for so long a time in some instances. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 27
The Right Wing
This continues to be the mental observation wing. It is surprising that so many
mentally ill individuals can reside in this unit without more damage being done to themselves and equipment, as there are no areas for isolation and no protective cells. The
wing usually contains one or two inmates awaiting transfer to Essondale and others under
close observation because of extreme depression, agitation, or violence shown in their
previous environment. The comparative freedom from serious outbreaks in this wing
is perhaps partly due to two factors—the technique of the staff and the increasing use of
the tranquillizing drugs, such as sparine and largactil, and more recently equanil. The
increasing number of inmates committed on charges of intoxication has caused an increasing number of those under observation and treatment for D.T's.
Surgical Ward
During the year the accommodation has been increased by the merging of two
rooms, and now contains eight beds which are available for the more seriously ill patients
and those receiving surgical treatment.
Laboratory
This is one of the departments which has given great encouragement in the diagnosis
and treatment available in the prison hospital. By slow degrees, facilities have now
been established which enable most standard laboratory tests to be carried out. A hospital officer has been trained to take charge of the laboratory. Difficulty arises on the
days he is off duty, but instructions in the simpler techniques are being given to other
officers so that emergency investigations can be carried out. As in other departments,
the pressure of work necessitates a larger room. We have not so far been able to carry
out bacteriological investigations in this laboratory, but we have the equipment and we
are grateful to the Provincial Laboratories for the use of an incubator.
Hospital Kitchen
This, as previously, is only used for the distribution of food brought up from the
main kitchen and for the preparation of liquid diets. We still have no resource for the
supply of special diets, and we have to do the best we can by selecting items from the
" line " meals.
Tower
This houses forty inmates, including those assisting in the various medical departments and many of the more chronically ill and aged patients. No additions have been
made in the way of bathing and toilet facilities. There is no bath of any sort and only
two toilets.   This clearly does not come up to the requirements of any health authority.
Treatment-room
This handles a surprisingly large number of inmates requiring out-patient and
in-patient treatment. The amount of treatment carried out in this room was mentioned
earlier in this report. Many of these treatments should be carried out in the out-patients'
examination-room on the ground floor of the Main Gaol building, but this has to be
closed for so many hours during the day owing to absence of staff in that area. The
Westgate Unit and the wings require the presence of officers carrying out treatment in this
room. We still await the installation of a sink; the only sink or toilet basin available for
the officers carrying out treatment in this room is the sink in the operating-room, which,
of course, can only be used for work actually being carried out in the operating-room,
and the ordinary wash-basin in the bathroom, which has to be used by the general population of the prison hospital. BB 28 ,        BRITISH COLUMBIA
Exercise Yard
The exercise yard has been as fully protected as possible against accidents to patients
in the way of suicide by the erection of a metal canopy as described in previous reports.
Office
The office accommodation is very limited for the amount of office work which is
carried on, also with regard to interviewing-rooms. However, we look forward to a
more spacious accommodation in the new building. In the meanwhile, plans have been
drawn up to expand the office section in the present prison hospital. We look forward
also to the appointment of a stenographer.
Tuberculosis Control
A heavily increasing number of routine and diagnostic investigations have been carried out by this unit under the supervision of the central Tuberculosis Control authority,
and also at the request of the Department of Indian Affairs.
We are grateful to the consultant in diseases of the chest, and to the Director of
the tuberculosis clinic in New Westminster, Dr. Hakstien, and to Miss Winifred Nean.
Both Dr. Hakstien and Miss Nean have given generous service throughout the year, and
they work in close co-operation with the prison medical department.
East Wing
Medically speaking, this wing continues to be the most problematical unit in the
institution. It houses the drug addicts under sentence and non-addicts who are considered unsuitable for other sections owing to persistence of delinquency and failure to
respond to other techniques. So far no treatment resources have been available for the
East Wing inmates. There is some recreational opportunity unless it is abused. For
a proportion of the year a social worker was on the staff of the wing, but since his transfer
to the Probation Branch there has been no service of this nature. A few of the addicts
have been selected for transfer to the Narcotic Addiction Treatment Hut, which will be
mentioned below. On the whole, the programme is negative and inevitable morbidity
of behaviour ensues. Observed medically by the heavy instance of malingering, large
sick parades containing many applicants for sedation point to the absence of constructive
and varied employment, although it is possible to keep a number of the inmates busy
in the tailor-shop and in the laundry, also many are employed in outside work. The staff
of this wing carries a heavy burden, as many of the population there have serious damage
to personality, and to some extent the officers are performing duties which combine
custody and counselling. It is hoped that when the new institution is opened at Haney
and the pressure at Oakalla Prison Farm is relieved somewhat, it will be possible to carry
out a more rehabilitative project. The East Wing has to carry some inmates who would
be placed under segregation in a psychiatric ward if one existed, although they are not
considered committable to a mental hospital under present conditions. There is reason
to believe that very shortly after the termination of the year under review there will be
a thorough reorganization of programme in this wing.
West Wing
This has remained as the awaiting-trial section of the prison, and medically there
is no comment to make. In any future planning it would be wise to establish some form
of segregation of various types and age-groups of prisoners awaiting trial. Some require
segregation on account of their youth and some on account of their dangerous poten- REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 29
tialities, including those most likely to escape. On the whole, the hygiene of those wings
in the main building is inclined to be poor. The health authorities have remarked on the
" utility " ducts which receive drainage from the cells which is thought to be insufficient,
with the result that the utility tunnel is wet and odorous. This would also apply to the
other two wings in the main building.
Admission Unit
This is in every way medically unsatisfactory, though additions in the form of cells
for those awaiting documentation and other admission procedure have assisted the administration. The showers, delousing, and disinfecting facilities are primitive. The ventilation, though slightly improved recently, is still very inadequate, and change of air is
almost negligible, especially in the shower-room. An entirely new unit is urgently
necessary.
Classification
Owing to the increasing pressure of medical duties, the Medical Officers have not
been able to attend the classification sessions, except infrequently, but, as mentioned
previously, each inmate is examined upon admission medically and is classified as to his
physical state. However, close contact has been maintained for the procedure, and any
cases requiring special consideration are referred to the Medical Officer for his advice.
The panel is subjected to many pressures owing to the increasing number of units which
have been established. The classification board has now fuller information about each
individual inmate than previously, and there is preliminary testing in certain aspects.
It is quite evident that, in the near future, amplification of the function of the classification team will be inevitable. At present there is no psychiatrist and no psychologist.
The system has made considerable progress, but, as in other departments, its resources
have rapidly become unequal to the pressure of numbers and other requirements. Also,
the material surroundings are not conducive to efficiency of work. The wing is becoming
too small for the numbers of those awaiting classification, and the short time which is
available for the necessary investigations, in my opinion, prohibits the potentialities of
such an organization. It will, it is thought, become necessary sooner or later to allot a
separate building for this purpose, and an expanded staff of professional workers equal
in its composition to the eminent significance and task of classification. Difficulty has
been experienced in maintaining the standard of individuals required for the forestry
camps and New Haven. This has resulted at times in a shortage of candidates for these
establishments. However, as time goes on, no doubt increasing experience in the running
of the open units will equip the staffs to take perhaps those inmates of lower personality
calibre. The possibilities of an adequate classification unit are very great. From the
medical point of view there should be means to make intense physical investigations,
especially in relation to the present trend of biological and neurological research into the
mechanics of human behaviour; for example, fully equipped laboratory and electro-
encephalogical apparatus would be required. The number of types of personnel involved
in this procedure would appear to be an extravagant project, such as technicians, part-
time neurologists and specialists in internal medicine, and psychiatrists, for example, but
eventual economy is ensured if the efforts of rehabilitation are concentrated on those most
appropriately selected as requiring specific resources. The present classification area is
most unsatisfactory from the point of view of health of the staff. There is no daylight
and quite inadequate ventilation.
Young Offenders' Unit
The staff of this Unit has once again whole-heartedly accepted the challenge of the
more disturbed young offenders.   In actual fact the population of the Unit is quite varied. BB 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
With some there is no clear indication as to whether they should be in the Westgate or
Young Offenders' Unit. There are some who would be suitable for New Haven, except
perhaps for the short definite sentence, and some who are so young and immature they
should not be located anywhere else, and some of the juvenile age-group who are too
rebellious, psychopathic, or neurotic to conform to the demands of an open institution.
In spite of the absence of caseworkers, it is greatly to the credit of the staff there that
such disordered young delinquents are handled with so infrequent resort to primitive
methods. A psychiatric caseworker, apart from psychiatric consultant service, is essential
in any therapeutic operation, and it is hoped that sooner or later contributions of this
sort can be offered. There must be many boys leaving the Unit who might have profited
by special skills of a clinical nature, although it is remarkable how effective the supervisors
can become after they have gained experience in dealing with seriously disturbed youngsters under wise and encouraging leadership. It is very important in units such as this
that changes of staff should be minimal. Vocational training in a situation such as this
must often defer to the need for work more in the medium of occupational therapy.
Medical observation shows that in all maladjusted individuals it is not wise to expect much
persistent effort in the case of very disturbed youths, and, therefore, the vocational curriculum has to be elastic. One of the more helpful attributes of the programme in this
Unit is the opportunity for certain boys to obtain whole-time education.
The general health of the inmates of this Unit has been, on the whole, very satisfactory. Attendance at sick parade has been relatively free of malingering, and it is
exceptional if there is need for any boy to be detained in his cell for sickness of any other
cause.
The diet has been adequate, and the advice of the Government dietician has been
followed. There have been various occasions when the preparation of the food has been
unsatisfactory, but taking into consideration the fact that the staff, apart from the instructors, consists of inexperienced boys, the quality of cooking is reasonable. The training
value compensates in some degree for many of the difficulties which inevitably arise in
such a setting. However, some reorganization has improved the standard of the meals
served, and also has resulted in a cleaner kitchen. Certain additions to equipment and
utensils have aided the general hygiene of the kitchen, and the health authorities have
approved of the alterations, although it is apparent that this kitchen is too small for the
number of inmates it has to serve, but a new kitchen is in the course of construction, and
it will be a great asset to the Unit.
Athletics have continued to be a major part of the programme, and there have been
relatively few injuries resulting from sport and employment. Floor hockey is the sport
which causes most of the physical injuries, but it is a valuable outlet for exuberance and
less benign emotions and is worth the risks which are inevitable. A gymnasium is greatly
needed, as the calls on the main gymnasium are too frequent to allow of sufficient use by
the boys of the Young Offenders' Unit. Although there are certain handicaps in the
placing of a unit of this nature within the grounds of the Main Gaol, it is felt that it is
irreplaceable in any correctional organization.
Westgate Unit
This year has seen the continuation of Westgate as a unit for holding a wide age-
group of what it is hoped are more responsive inmates, some 350 in all. Amongst the
younger ones there has been an overflow from the Young Offenders' Unit owing to
pressure of numbers, and some who are considered too sophisticated or mature for admission there or who have been there and failed. There has been a change in programme in
that the somewhat ambitious scheme previously adopted has been reduced to a simpler
arrangement, which more clearly defines work and recreational periods for the whole of REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 31
the population of the Unit. Also, compulsory physical training has been instituted for
those medically fit. A most welcome innovation has been the establishment of an educational syllabus which has been carried out by a staff containing one woman teacher.
It is representative of the policy which approves the appointment of women staff to an
institution for males. This is widely carried out in the English correctional system, and
provided that appropriate types of women are selected, the results have been nothing but
very encouraging. As mentioned in previous reports, construction of this Unit renders it
unsatisfactory from a medical point of view. Ventilation and heating continue to be
inconsistent, and at times inadequate, though the added ventilators and apertures both in
the outside walls and the roof have improved the situation considerably. The composition
of the floors increases the dust and exposure to upper respiratory infections, the incidence
of which has been high. Infection is apt to spread rapidly. In the early spring of this
year there were twenty-four cases of measles, mostly of the rubella type.
Medical services have again remained inadequate owing to the shortage of staff.
Sick parades have been held twice weekly, and as the hospital officer attending Westgate
has discontinued his first-aid lectures, he has more time to spare for attending to the
medications and dressings between noon and 2 p.m. However, as before, the afternoon
and evening requirements medically have not been met, except for emergencies, and in
order to meet these an additional hospital officer and a relief should be appointed. The
general health of the inmates, except for the conditions mentioned above, has been satisfactory, and the food served by the main kitchen has been of good quality and palatably
served.
Units for the Treatment of Narcotic Addiction
(Eleven males and eleven females.)
It is just a year now since these Pan-Abode units were started. It has been an
enterprise seriously handicapped from the beginning by failure to obtain staff which could
have been provided according to the budget. It was only in the last two weeks of the
year that a psychiatrist was appointed. There has been one full-time psychiatric social
worker for the men in the person of Mr. A. V. Bentum. The women's unit has had the
part-time service of one psychiatric social worker for a portion of the year, Mr. Bob
McDonald, who had previously been at the Child Guidance Clinic, followed by Mr.
George Trasov, of the Narcotic Foundation. There was a teacher for the men's unit for
a few months, but he was also employed on custodial duties. The difficulty has been in
finding the appropriate individuals for the work; Miss Brown, the teacher, admirably
assisted the women inmates of the units in their education. In both units the psychiatric
social workers have given individual psychotherapeutic interviews to the inmates. They
have also given group therapy sessions that have been found to be most productive. We
have been most grateful for the help of interested persons from agencies in the community
at large. They have given much time and effort to come and give talks and discussions on
matters of general interest, which have done much to expand the thinking of people who
tend to be markedly egocentric. Many documentary films of a psychiatric nature have
been shown.
It is clear that the fundamental requirement of any treatment unit is the reception of
those most likely to respond to therapy. The inmates of the men's unit have been selected
by the main classification panel of the men's gaol. The names of those in the East Wing
who are considered to be suitable for such treatment are submitted to the Classification
Officer, who assembles the panel and recommends those whom the panel believes would
be receptive to treatment. The names may be suggested by the staff of the East Wing, the
Medical Officer, or the Chaplain, or by any other person who has intimate knowledge of
the men concerned. Women have been mainly selected by the matron in charge of the
women's gaol, after consultation with the Medical Officer and her staff. BB 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This has been an entirely new venture. The first year has inevitably been spent in
learning and experimentation, and it has not been found possible to formulate concise
qualifications which would entitle an inmate to be transferred to the huts; for example,
age, degree and time of addiction, history of general delinquency, or categories of personality have not yet been shown to be valuable guides. It has been found that some older
men with a long history of addiction and accompanying delinquency have made greater
effort to refrain from narcotics on discharge than younger individuals with a comparatively short history of addiction. One of the first essentials is to differentiate between
those who genuinely want to be helped to abandon the habit and those who merely wish
a transfer from the Main Gaol to a more favourable environment. It is quite evident that
those who show the greatest apathy toward work do not offer hopeful prognosis as regards
treatment. The resources which are available cannot contend with those who have manifested behaviour of a markedly psychopathic nature; also, owing to the lack of security
in the Unit, those who are considered to be a marked custodial risk cannot be accepted.
Custodial necessity also demands that men serving a long sentence should not be transferred to the treatment hut until a significant portion ot their sentence has been served.
This has not been found to be so necessary in the case of women. The men have carried
out hobby and garden work throughout the year, and a small carpenters' shop has been
added. These activities have not sufficed to keep them sufficiently busy. During the last
month or so they have been employed on manual labour consisting of construction of a
sports field. The men do not cook their own food, but it is sent down in thermos containers from the kitchen in the Main Gaol, but there is a fully equipped kitchen in each
hut. The men do a little extra baking, preparing snacks which employ one or two men at
intervals during the day. Women do their own cooking entirely. It is appreciated that
there is training and treatment value in cooking, but in the case of the men it has been
difficult to find one inmate who is sufficiently skilled in cooking, and a suitable candidate
for treatment, and who will be there for a sufficient length of time. One cubicle in each
hut has been reserved for an automatic washer and drier. Both women and men do their
personal laundry; the women work domestically, and some of them take whole-time
schooling. Many of the men and women also undertake correspondence courses. As is
well known, the treatment of the drug addict is one of the most frustrating taslcs which
can be undertaken, and especially so in the case of those who are delinquent. Most of
the addicts in Oakalla Prison Farm have a long incidence of delinquency prior to their
habit, and the treatment must endeavour to repair damage to the personality, perhaps
shortly alter birth. It would be presumptive to claim tnat tnree or six montns or a year
can arrest or eliminate the morbid process which has been in operation from childhood
and upwards, but it should be possible, in some cases, for an inmate of these huts to begin
to take stock of himself and to think in a different light. Perhaps the greater part of
treatment must take place on release, and so far no resources for this are available, except
the untiring service of Mr. Malcolm Brandon, the men's after-care officer. Mr. Brandon
has toured the Province with the aim of obtaining the co-operation of employers and
influential organizations. We look to a closer tie-up between the Narcotic Foundation,
but so far there is no facility for the drug addict outside gaol who has no funds and wishes
to withdraw from this habit.
The location of these two units on prison grounds presents an almost overwhelming
difficulty as regards achievement of an adequate treatment setting. Being under the
prison administration, and inevitably so as they are situated, it involves limitation of
programme and method, which is a great handicap. Although freedom in any hospital
for the treatment of drug addiction must be seriously restricted, the restrictions necessary
in a gaol environment are considerably in excess of what are desirable. Also, owing to
pressure of accommodation it is only very rarely practicable for any inmate who has
failed to rehabilitate to return to the unit for further treatment, whereas in other larger REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 33
centres it is not unusual for one patient to return three or four times. However, in spite
of the immensity of the task and many frustrations and disappointments, the staff of both
units have courageously pioneered the project. In the men's unit Mr. A. V. Bentum has
contributed his highly skilled psychiatric services in a most dedicated degree. It is hoped
that, before long, treatment of the narcotic addict under prison sentence will be able to
continue when he is free; this would include psychiatric out-patient sessions, additional
residential treatment of those outside prison environment, resources for withdrawal from
narcotics other than in prison, and possibly a residential hostel. So far it is almost a
tragic certainty that if a narcotic addict remains in Vancouver on his release from gaol,
he is as sure to resume his habit as night follows day. Those who are able and wise
enough to seek employment farther afield have shown longer periods of abstinence.
Dietary
This is satisfactory. Quantity and quality of food have on the whole been more than
adequate, though the distance of Westgate from the main kitchen has notable disadvantages; however, the Airvoid containers are efficient. We are still unable to supply
satisfactory diet for such illnesses as nephritis, hypertension, diabetes, and gastric and
duodenal ulcer patients.
Main Kitchen
The structure and equipment continue to be satisfactory, and approximately 3,000
meals a day are served. Health authorities of the Burnaby Municipality suggest the
importance of eliminating heavy cockroach infestation by insecticides and hygiene, of
closing the open ends of tiled walls, of replacing broken tiles, and of replacing wooden
bread-boxes with metal containers. They also recommend additional dish-washer and
further refrigeration space.
Officers' Mess Kitchen
This requires new equipment in the form of a three-compartment metal sink and
drainage board, and it is also in need of cleaning, painting, and vermin eradication.
Bedding
The increasing population with rapid turnover has made it impossible to change
the blankets sufficiently frequently. Inmates are issued with blankets which have been
passed on from several previous users without washing.    Sheets are urgently needed.
Clothing
This has been satisfactory, except that night attire is necessary. Inmates still have
to sleep naked in blankets or in their day clothing. The absence of slippers or shoes
to wear in the units greatly increases the difficulty of preserving cleanliness in living
accommodations.
Rat-control
There is a constant menace of rats arising from the cooker-house in the farm, owing
to accumulation of washing from the food which is being prepared for the hogs. This
is an attraction to the rats. However, there is a new cooker under construction, and
the health authorities recommend that draining and washings for the new cooker be run
to a sump and that the continuous cockroach-control programme should be carried out.
Dairy
This has been frequently visited by the municipal health authorities and by the
Medical Officer.   The points noted are those of lack of ventilation, the position of the BB 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
office in the dairy, which means too much traffic going backwards and forwards, and
the need for a new separator. Also, there is need for renewal of the present sinks.
Rat-control has been efficient, but at times the number of rats seen at night in the area
of the garbage-dump has been excessive.
Garbage -disposal
The garbage-dump requires continuous supervision and coverage by a bulldozer.
The nuisance of flies and odour arises in hot weather with any lessening of control.
It is important that wet garbage be separated from the dry, and that procedure has been
inadequate.
Sewerage
Additions to the present plant are under construction, and by a new chlorinating
operation they will render the air free from any harmful organisms.
Tailor-shop
The ventilation here is inadequate.
Laundry
The ventilation is inadequate, and it requires a drinking-fountain.
Plate-shop in Westgate
The two large exhaust fans fail to prevent the accumulation of paint fumes, which
are injurious to health, although every attempt is made to see that inmates working with
the paint are supplied with a quart of milk daily.
Electrical Shop
This is crowded and poorly ventilated.
Shoe-shop
This is satisfactory.
Stores
Much improvement has been made here. All perishables are kept in screened
cages and the rats have disappeared.
Women's Building
It is greatly to the credit of the staff in this section of Oakalla that in a year of
overcrowding, with the detention of some women inmates seriously criminal and many
psychiatrically ill, it has passed not only without serious incident, but with a continued
programme for rehabilitation. It is interesting to observe the classification which takes
place by groups in such a small area, varying from the long-established narcotic addict
to the first offender and juvenile. In medical opinion there is a great need for a separate
establishment for the young female offender, of the age-group of New Haven and the
Young Offenders' Unit on the male side. We are looking forward to the opening of the
new wing of the Women's Building, which will greatly assist the medical services by
improving admission procedure, isolation and narcotic withdrawals, and accommodation
for sick inmates and isolation.   The new laundry will also be a valuable acquisition.
The general health of the women has been satisfactory. The individual attention
and nursing afforded by the nursing staff for sick inmates have, as previously, been of
exceptional service.    The dietary, hygiene, and living conditions are up to the highest REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 35
standard of institutional care, except, of course, that most services have been pressed
beyond their capacity by overcrowding.    The huts containing small groups of selected
inmates have again added a very great contribution to the treatment programme as a
whole, and the only comments made by inspecting health authorities have been those
of the need of increased refrigeration in the kitchen of the main women's building and
of poor ventilation in the huts owing to windows opening directly on occupants of the
top bunks.
Haney Camp
This has steadily risen in accommodation, and now has seventy-seven inmates.
Largely it has continued to be a pre-release unit to which men up to 60 years of age
are sent. The industry of the sawmill is very productive. The general health of the
inmates of this camp has been good, and many who are evasive of work in a closed
prison excel themselves in the camp environment. Increase in population has necessitated enlargement of the kitchen and dining-room, and an increased number of huts.
This camp is below the standard of other camps in construction and requires very close
supervision of hygiene, especially in the matter of fly prevention by general hygiene and
screens of wire between the boards of the buildings and windows and doors. Very few
of the men have had to be returned to Oakalla on grounds of illness. Except for those
employed on domestic duties, the medical category is such that they are fit for manual
labour.
The Medical Officer from Oakalla visits once a month, and urgent medical attention
is available from the doctors in Haney.    The dietary and cooking are of the highest
standard.
Chilliwack Camps
At time of writing this report the two camps were in process of construction. From
experience at the Haney camp, improved kitchen and toilet facilities were planned, and
an approved septic-tank system was shortly to be in operation, and a tested water-supply,
of which there is no shortage. Visits of the Medical Officer will be made as often as
possible. Urgent medical attention will be available from doctors in Chilliwack. From
what was observed, it is quite evident these camps will be of inestimable training value.
Gold Creek Camp
This was in full operation by the end of the year under review. The huts have been
completed, with an excellent toilet and shower room, septic tank, kitchen with ample
hot-water supply and an oil stove and store hut. There is a generating plant for electricity. A domestic-size refrigerator in the kitchen may prove inadequate. Something
akin to the deep freeze at Haney camp would be of great assistance. The construction
of the huts is such that hygiene can be maintained at high level. The dietary and cooking are very satisfactory. This camp differs from the other camps in that it is not a
pre-release camp. Those at Gold Creek camp are often sent for the major part of their
sentence. Gold Creek takes inmates from classification who are carefully screened.
Some inmates are sent there with relatively long sentences. Up to the present they have
been relatively inaccessible as regards medical care, but emergencies have been treated
by the doctors at Haney and have been only a negligible number requiring such urgency
of attention. Others are returned to Oakalla Prison Farm for treatment, and the Medical
Officer visits the camp as often as possible, but when the Haney Correctional Institution
opens, the medical department there will be readily available. Dental attention has been
scarce, but that also will be available at the new institution. The general health of Gold
Creek camp inmates has been very good. This camp has confirmed the undoubted
success of the training of selected inmates in a camp environment, but, of course, a great BB 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
deal rests on classification, especially for those camps which contain men with longer
sentences.
New Haven
This institution has continued its achievements. Its function is being observed with
great interest as the resources of the correctional branch expand. This expansion is
bound to have its impact on the character of inmates classified for New Haven. Whereas
in earlier years the type of candidates stood out prominently, as a variety of other units
come into existence there is overlapping of criteria for selection. This has resulted in
New Haven population remaining under strength, but it is hoped that after close deliberation, and when the classification policy and organization have been established to meet
the more complex demands, New Haven will be filled to capacity. The individual attention afforded by a small unit with such a skilled staff is unsurpassed, and there must
always be a group of boys which requires this more than any other approach. Weekly
visits of the Medical Officer and psychologist have continued to combine psychiatric
assessment and medical care. The health of the institution has been good. The clothing
and living conditions have continued to be of high standard. Inspections have been
maintained by the Burnaby health authorities, and their report shows their satisfaction,
and only one major recommendation was made, to the effect that the milk from the
dairy herd should be pasteurized. There has been close co-operation with the medical
department at Oakalla, and some New Haven inmates have been hospitalized at Oakalla
for minor surgery and other purposes. Those cases requiring more intensive treatment
have been transferred to Vancouver General Hospital.
Staff Training
Two lectures in each training course have been given by the Medical Officer.
Parole Board
A medical report on each inmate appearing before the Board has been submitted.
The numbers interviewed by the Parole Board have risen considerably; therefore, this
has meant an extension of the time required of the Medical Officer, who attends all or
part of all Parole Board sessions, with few exceptions. It is considered that this is an
important part of the medical work, as some attempt is made to give the Parole Board
as full a medical opinion as possible in the case of more problematical inmates.
Research
It is felt that prison populations living under conditions of control offer invaluable
medium for medical research, not only from the aspect of correctional needs, which are
many, but on behalf of the community at large. With this in view, entirely harmless
medical research is being carried out under the Director of the British Columbia Medical
Research Institute, and inmates have offered their services in the research which is associated with the salt output of the healthy human body in relation to the factors which
might have a bearing on arterial degeneration. One inmate a week has been the subject
of research of this sort. Drs. H. Price and C. G. Campbell, of the British Columbia
Medical Research Institute, are directing the research with great skill. We are grateful
for association with such experts. Research of this nature contributes to the welfare of
the inmates themselves undergoing it. Firstly, there is the benign effect of the attention
which is obtained; secondly, the rest under hospital conditions; and, thirdly, the sense
of gratification that they are contributing something for the benefit of fellow human
beings. report of inspector of gaols, 1956/57 bb 37
Conclusion
This concludes, Sir, a summary of the medical situation in the institutions under
your control.    It is felt that the following requirements merit emphasis:—
(a) Provision of a new prison hospital. This is stressed each year, and it is
known that you have plans which will supply the pressing needs of this
nature when they become effective.
(b) The inclusion of registered nurses on the hospital staff.
(c) The recognition of medical technicians by trades pay.
(d) The construction of a new admission unit.
(e) The construction of a unit for the psychiatric care and treatment of grossly
disturbed inmates.
(/)  The construction of a new classification unit or the use of another building.
(g)  The appointment of a part-time psychiatrist for classification.
(h) The establishment of a separate unit for alcoholics, which would be in
the nature of a farm or colony.   This would necessitate, perhaps, changing the existing law so that they could be retained for more prolonged
periods.
Once more we would record our sincere appreciation of your continuing support
and encouragement.   We also gratefully acknowledge the co-operation and ready assistance of the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm, Mr. Hugh Christie, and his deputies, and
also that of the Director of New Haven and Gold Creek camp, Mr. Rocksborough-Smith.
Finally we wish to express our commendation of the manner in which the senior
administrative officer of the Oakalla Prison Farm hospital, Mr. John Macleod, has carried out his onerous duties.
Respectfully submitted.
R. G. E. Richmond, M.D.,
Medical Officer.
REPORT OF FOLLOW-UP OFFICER, NARCOTIC DRUG
TREATMENT UNIT
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour of submitting the annual report of the Follow-up Officer's
activities in connection with the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit at Oakalla Prison Farm.
This report covers the period from April 1st, 1956, to March 31st, 1957.
An attempt has been made to encourage dischargees from the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit to take up residence in the larger Interior centres. It was felt that Vancouver
and its environs offered too great a temptation to these people. Practically the Province's
entire population of addicts congregate in this area. In the Interior centres there is very
little trafficking in narcotics. We are aware that some narcotics reach these centres, but
such events are spasmodic.
Groups of local citizens have been contacted in the following Interior centres:
Kamloops, Princeton, Prince George, Quesnel, and Williams Lake. These people agreed
to befriend and provide some companionship to any addicts who might move to these
communities.
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the National Employment Service were
contacted and their co-operation was assured us. I have found the local officers of the
National Employment Service very helpful in the outlying districts. BB 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
If the people released from the Unit were as sincere in their desire to obtain help as
the general public is in their desire to help, we would accomplish quite some success.
The great majority of the inmates of the drug huts are serving definite sentences, and
any contact that we maintain is on a voluntary basis as far as the ex-inmate is concerned.
Often we have planned together an acceptable plan upon release, only to have the subject
discard it immediately he is out.
It is found to be very difficult to assist these people to plan ahead. Their entire
attitude changes the moment that they are on the street. When discussing their reasons
for wishing to abstain from narcotics, one finds the reason most generally forwarded is
that they are tired of serving time. It seems very difficult to convince them that there
should be other reasons for abstaining.
The committees in Kamloops and Prince George have been very helpful when we
have been able to persuade people to go up to those localities. One lad of 24 years, with
two convictions for possession of narcotics, took up residence in Kamloops and secured
permanent employment there. He was assisted in becoming acquainted in the community
and has attended ball games, banquets, etc., in company with various members of the
group there. There were plans made to send four people to Kamloops at different times,
but only this one lad made an honest effort to stay there. The other three either never
went up or only stayed a day and returned. Incidentally, all three have since been
convicted.
In Prince George we have practically a duplication of the Kamloops picture. In
fact, one man who was placed on a bus for Prince George jumped off the bus at Hope.
We have one man in Prmce George who has been working there since September and is
definitely not using narcotics.
We were able to make representations to the remission service and secured a ticket
of leave for one addict with two convictions for possession of narcotics. He was placed
as a lineman's helper at Kitimat and is still on the job up there.
There have been three inmates of the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit serving definite
and indeterminate sentences. Employment was secured for all three but, without exception, each violated the terms of his licence upon release and it was found necessary to
recommend revocation of their licences. Two were reconvicted before their licences
were revoked.
The following is a resume of the number of inmates released in this period:—
Released upon satisfaction of sentence  19
Released via ticket of leave     1
Released via British Columbia Parole Board     3
Total  23
Employment placement effected (some were provided with temporary work and received help more than once)  29
Number of those reconvicted who were not on indeterminate
sentence   10
Number reconvicted while on licence     2
Total  12
All those reconvicted were using narcotics.
Number considered to be using narcotics again but not convicted 3
Number who have used but we believe to be abstaining at present 2
Number that we feel have not returned to narcotics  5
Number of revoked licences without reconviction  1 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1956/57 BB 39
In the group which does not appear to be using narcotics at present, all are in outside
centres with one exception.
Employment was secured for every man discharged from the Unit, but not all
availed themselves of the opportunity to take the employment offered.
The Unit is greatly indebted to many persons for invaluable assistance in placements.
Particular mention should be made of officers throughout the Province of the National
Employment Service.
The matter of placements would have been practically impossible if it were not for
the assistance and co-operation of the following labour organizations: Local No. 97,
Ironworkers' Union; Local No. 344, International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers;
Local No. 168, Tunnel and Rock Workers' Union; Local No. 115, International Union
of Operating Engineers; United Steel workers of America; Local No. 1, Marine Workers'
and Boilermakers' Industrial Union; Local No. 740, Culinary Workers' Union; Local
No. 501, International Longshoremen's Union; Local No. 170, Plumbers' and Steam-
fitters' Union; and Local No. 602, Hod Carriers' and Building Labourers' International.
In many cases the employer would have been powerless to place our men, regardless of
his willingness, had it not been with the permission of the business agents of the above
locals.
The staff of Narcotic Addiction Foundation and narcotic squads of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and Vancouver City Police are entitled to special thanks for their
advice and assistance in keeping this office informed of the activities of men released
from the Unit.
The co-operation and assistance rendered this officer by Warden Christie and every
member of his staff contributed a great deal toward the effectiveness of the after-care
programme. The facilities of the institution were placed at my disposal, and every
assistance required was made available at all times.
I also wish to thank you, Sir, for your advice and guidance, as well as the assistance
rendered me by members of the Probation Branch staff.
Trusting that this report will serve to inform you of the activities of this office during
the past year, I have the honour to be, Sir, your obedient servant.
Malcolm N. Brandon,
Follow-up Officer, Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit.
REPORT OF PSYCHOLOGIST
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The following is the report of the Provincial Gaol Service Psychologist for
the fiscal year April 1st, 1956, to March 31st, 1957.
This fiscal year produced no great changes in the work covered by the Gaol Service
Psychologist.   However, some trends were noted:—
(a) More time was devoted to the testing of female inmates, particularly those
placed in the drug addict treatment hut.
(b) The Oakalla Prison Farm administration was able to provide sufficient
personnel of its own to make up a Classification Committee, and so by
the end of 1956 it was no longer thought necessary to have the Gaol Service Psychologist sit as a regular member of this committee.
L BB 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(c) The time alloted to providing psychological services to the British Columbia Parole Board was considerably increased.
(d) Individual testing of Oakalla Prison Farm personnel was left almost
entirely to the Oakalla Prison Farm Psychologist, Mr. R. Downey.
New Haven was visited on the usual one-half day weekly basis, and Mr. Harriss
Goad continued to make his able contribution to the psychological services by supervising the completion of a personality questionnaire for each inmate of New Haven.
In the Reception Wing at Oakalla Prison Farm a test battery was administered
under the supervision of a member of the Classification Committee to all inmates with
a combined definite and indeterminate sentence, plus the occasional referral from the
definite-sentence-only group. Messrs. R. Downey, N. Schoeder, J. Smith, J. Boone,
and H. Bentum individually contributed, at some time during the year, to this aspect of
the testing programme, thus ensuring its continuity.
Test Statistics
Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Male Inmates
Main Gaol and Westgate—
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II     21
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (Elementary)      23
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (Elementary )      25
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (High
School)     20
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (High
School)         5
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (College)      1
Otis Employment Test, Form 1a  335
Otis Alpha, Form A        1
Shipley Hartford Retreat Scale       5
Non-Ianouaee Multi-mental Test     40
Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test (AA)   235
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Intermediate)   335
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational), Form CH       8
Johnson Temperament Analysis       8
Young Offenders' Unit—
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II       3
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (Elementary)   35
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (Elementary )   3 0
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (High
School)   25
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (High
School)   14
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Intermediate)        2
Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test (AA)        1 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 41
Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Female Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  4
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (Elementary) 2
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (Elementary) 8
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (High School) 5
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (High School) 3
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  2
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale  1
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Intermediate)   2
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational), Form CH  16
Johnson Temperament Analysis  15
A dministered in New Haven to Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  24
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  20
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Intermediate)   8
Mental Health Analysis  40
Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Staff-training Classes
O.P.F. officers—
Otis Employment Test, Form 1a  33
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  45
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  2
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale  1
Kuder Preference Record (Personal), Form AH  19
O.P.F. matrons—
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia  2
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b   8
Kuder Preference Record (Personal), Form AH  10
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  1
New Haven supervisors—
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b   1
Kuder Preference Record (Personal), Form AH  1
Officers from Kamloops—
Otis Employment Test, Form 1a  3
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  l
Kuder Preference Record (Personal), Form AH  4
Officers from Nelson—
Otis Employment Test, Form 1a  2
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  2
Kuder Preference Record (Personal), Form AH  4
Officers from Prince George-
Otis Employment Test, Form 1a  8
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  5
Shipley-Hartford Abstract Reasoning Scale  l
Kuder Preference Record (Personal), Form AH  12 BB 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm for Assessment of O.P.F. Personnel
O.P.F. officers—
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B  (High
School)   130
Otis Employment Test, Form 1a     25
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational), Form CH  131
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory    50
Incomplete Sentence Test     76
Respectfully submitted.
R. V. McAllister,
Provincial Gaol Service Psychologist.
REPORT OF PROTESTANT CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Protestant Chaplain,
Provincial Gaol Services, for the year ended March 31st, 1957.
Within the past few years the role of the Protestant Chaplain in correctional institutions has increasingly reflected the response of the Protestant community generally to
the problem of delinquency. It is generally admitted that in the community at large there
is a growing recognition of the significant contribution which Christianity can make to the
solution of the problem of delinquency both in its preventive and rehabilitative aspects.
How inmates of our correctional institutions can be made aware of the positive
therapeutic force which a vital faith can offer is the earnest concern of the chaplain who
works in the correctional field. He is well aware that it is a comparatively easy thing to
win men's hearts; it is another thing to win their souls. The chaplain may be, and often
is, a professional worker with some technical training. But first and foremost he is a
representative. He speaks and acts, not for himself, nor for a body of knowledge and skill,
but for the Christian community, the Christian church. An evaluation of his work can
never stop at the point of technical competence but must always go on to ask how well has
he helped people to appropriate for themselves the purposes and common goals of the
Christian community, how effectively has his representative function been carried out.
This role of the chaplain has been the yardstick by which the programme and policy
of the chaplains' services have been developed and measured during the past year.
During the year ended March 31st, 1957, in addition to the full-time chaplain for
the Provincial Gaol Services, a part-time chaplain, Rev. Frank Humphreys, was appointed
to the staff of Oakalla Prison Farm. For a six months' period, October to March, two
" chaplain-interns " were also on the staff at Oakalla. These interns were theological
students from the Anglican Theological College and Union College on the University of
British Columbia campus. Rev. Donald Anderson, of the Anglican College, was assigned
to the Westgate Unit, and Mr. Jack Hooper, of Union College, to the Young Offenders'
Unit.
With the additional help of these three chaplains, more intensive work was made
possible than heretofore. Reference will be made further to the type of work carried on
later in this report. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 43
The Theological Colleges on the University of British Columbia campus have
expressed keen interest and gratification in having selected students given an opportunity
to visit Oakalla regularly and participate in the religious programme under the supervision of their faculty and the resident chaplain.
The function of religion and religious leaders is the guidance of people into accepting, or perhaps of finding for themselves, the basic values and meanings that give direction
and consistency to their lives. It is most important what a man thinks about life for his
conduct will be determined by his thought—" as a man thinketh in his heart" so is he.
The man who has thought about life and developed a reasonable perspective and philosophy will, under normal conditions, be in a position to follow through without serious
infringement on the laws of God or of human society.
The chaplains, then, seek to achieve this object through (1) the conduct of the sacramental ministry which involves public worship and religious education, (2) the conduct
of a counselling ministry, (3) the conduct of a ministry to inmate families and related or
concerned persons, and (4) the exercising of an interpretative ministry to the community.
(1) The Sacramental Ministry
(a) Public Worship
The purposes of worship within institutional walls are identical with the purposes of
any worship service—to bring the assembled congregation to a keener awareness of God,
of the forgiveness which He offers, and of their need of God in their daily life. As far as
is possible, the services are planned so that they may be conducted in a dignified manner
and in a setting conducive to worship. A chapel properly built and used solely for religious work is much to be desired, but this is not found in any of the Provincial institutions, with the exception of New Haven. The chapel at Oakalla Prison is, of necessity,
used for many other purposes.
In the formal services of public worship it is essential that the preaching be down to
earth and practical. The chaplain is well aware that many inmates grew up in nominally
religious homes or environments, but none the less ended up in confinement because their
religious experiences in childhood were purely theoretical, not tied to life. The fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of man, the qualities of loyalty, courage, humility, sacrifice,
and others become opportunities for challenging the thinking of those who attend.
At New Haven and the Women's Gaol, the Gaol Services Chaplain has conducted
all services, with the exception of once each month when an Anglican service is conducted
at New Haven by Rev. H. Berry and a Salvation Army service is held in the Women's
Gaol.
At Oakalla and the Young Offenders' Unit, services are conducted as in previous
years by ministers of the various Protestant denominations, representatives of the Salvation Army, the Anglican Church, the United Church of Canada, and the Union Gospel
Mission, each taking one Sunday of the month. Baptist, Presbyterian, and Lutheran
clergymen have also assisted during the year. Music being an integral part of worship,
choirs attend each Sunday, thus aiding in creating a worshipful atmosphere. One of the
chaplains is usually present at these services, introducing the visitors and maintaining a
continuity in the relationship toward inmates.
The service at Oakalla, which is voluntary, has had an average attendance of 265.
At the Women's Gaol the average has been twenty-one, a considerable increase over
previous years, and at the Young Offenders' Unit the average has been thirty. The service
at New Haven is attended by all Protestant inmates.
Several services during the year were held at the Gold Creek forestry camp. Owing
to its comparative inaccessibility and the time required, it was not possible to carry on any
intensive programme, either by way of discussion groups or by individual counselling. BB 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Holy communion was administered at Christmas to any who were church members;
there were six present at the Oakalla service and ten at the Women's Gaol.
Special Christmas and Remembrance Day services were held in each institution and
were largely attended.
On the occasion of the observance of the Women's Day of Prayer on March 8th, the
world-wide programme was used in a special service at the Women's Gaol. There was a
total of thirty-nine present plus five members of the Elizabeth Fry Society. Three girls
took part in the reading of the printed programme and the inmates' girls' choir assisted.
This choir, consisting of twelve girls, met regularly throughout the fall and winter months
for rehearsal under the direction of a voluntary worker, Miss Shirley Lennox. For eight
months this choir assisted with one or two numbers at each service in the Women's Gaol.
A new hymn book recently prepared for correctional institutions has been introduced into the institutions at Oakalla, and is proving very popular.
(b) Religious Education
Frequently, as a result of these services of worship, there follows a curiosity about
religion involving many questions. There arises the matter of personal belief, how does
one start, what does one do, and what should one read to learn something about it.
The chaplains endeavour to meet this situation by three differing methods—by study
groups, by discussion groups stimulated by the use of religious films, and by personal
counselling.
Study groups were held by Chaplain Humphreys at the Westgate Unit of Oakalla
weekly, with an average attendance of nine. The chaplain-intern, Mr. Jack Hooper, conducted a similar group at the Young Offenders' Unit with a weekly average attendance of
eleven. A third group met weekly at New Haven under the Gaol Chaplain, with an
average attendance of twelve.
These groups in each case followed a rather intensive study of religion as related to
everyday life, based upon Bible study, and a consistent attendance, though of a voluntary
nature, resulted in a maintained interest which may have far-reaching results.
Religious films, carefully chosen, served to stimulate discussion under the direction
of the Gaol Chaplain for other groups of inmates at New Haven and the Women's Gaol
and the Women's Drug Research Hut. While attendance was voluntary at the two
women's groups, the type of programme was well received and frequently spirited discussion followed. A series of twelve films on the life of St. Paul and another series of ten
films on the life of Christ proved very helpful. These more intimate and smaller groups
have two goals. One is the imparting of facts and information on religious subjects; the
other is the group therapy ideal of letting individuals, by their contribution to discussion,
show to others what has happened and is happening in their own experience. The chaplain's part is to guide and moderate, as much as to instruct. The formal instruction of the
group serves as a starting-point. The free discussion and sharing of fears, problems, and
solutions is the constructive side.
The possibilities of such groups are only limited by the amount of time available on
the part of the chaplains. There is no doubt in our mind as to the therapeutic value of
these groups.
Frequently, as a result of these group discussions, inmates expressed a desire to
take some concentrated Bible study course. For this purpose the Salvation Army Bible
course was used, three completing the course from the Westgate Unit and nine from the
Women's Gaol.
The chaplains also sponsored the Alcoholics Anonymous group at Westgate, supervising the programme and arranging for visits every second week from carefully screened
members of outside A.A. groups. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 45
An interesting experimental course on successful living was conducted at the West-
gate Unit of Oakalla on three successive Wednesday evenings. The programme consisted
of a twenty-minute talk followed by a one-hour question-and-answer period. One
hundred and forty inmates registered for the course. Dr. W. G. Black, of the Department
of Citizenship and Immigration, discussed the problem of the new Canadian in becoming
part of the life of Canada and the effects of immigration upon employment; Mr. W. G.
Bryenton, of the Canadian Mental Health Association, spoke on marriage problems; and
Mr. James Newton, of a large retail and wholesale firm, spoke on what employers look
for in applicants for jobs.
The interest shown indicates the possible value of such courses on a larger scale in
the future.
(2) The Counselling Ministry
Of major importance in the religious programme is the chaplain's personal contacts
with the inmate, and his skill in nourishing wholesome religious experience and attitudes
through the counselling process.
In this area the chaplain, of necessity, moves slowly and with caution. For some
individuals an " emotional conversion " to the Christian way of life may be an answer to
their need. For others it may be a slow, lengthy, involved process before the inmate
discovers a philosophy of living and a motivation which satisfies his longing.
It is obvious that religious counselling can only be undertaken in a limited number of
cases; nevertheless, in several instances known to the chaplains, inmates have committed
themselves to the Christian way of life, and upon release have become members of the
church in the community. Two women inmates, for example, presented themselves for
Christian baptism after lengthy periods of counselling.
Rev. Donald Anderson, the Anglican chaplain-intern, who has had some clinical
training in this field, was especially helpful in counselling inmates in the Westgate Unit
of Oakalla.
Every chaplain, of course, had a case load of not less than ten inmates, whom he
counselled on a weekly basis, of one hour's length each week.
Regular visits were made to the elementary training unit, the hospital, and the
" condemned " cells at Oakalla. Bibles and religious literature were distributed each
week, and in the case of those in the " condemned " cells regular visits were made and
spiritual consolation offered. The chaplains attended two inmates prior to and at their
execution, and in each case conduced the funeral services a few days later.
Whenever word is received at Oakalla of the death of a relative of an inmate, the
chaplain is notified, and he in turn gives the information to the inmate. There were nine
such notifications during the year. This phase of the chaplain's work affords him an
opportunity of spiritual ministration which may create a relationship in which spiritual
counselling over a period of weeks may be possible.
(3) Ministry to Inmate Families
The chaplains are well aware that the more extensive treatment of the inmate's
family is a new and promising field of endeavour. Merely to expend time and money
upon the individual delinquent, while leaving the family situation as it is, has been shown
to be a very wasteful procedure. It is becoming increasingly recognized that in many
cases the families of adult offenders also need treatment as well as the individual prison
inmates. Research studies have proven that the men and women who leave prison and
go to stable homes are much more likely to adjust and stay out of trouble.
Through conference with appropriate agencies, and through visits of the chaplains
themselves, some assistance has been rendered in this direction. A number of visits have
been made to the families of inmates which have resulted in a strengthening of the family BB 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ties and helped to ensure a stable home situation to which the inmate may return on
his release.
(4) An Interpretative Ministry to the Community
It is essential that the community to which the offender returns upon his release
should have some conception of what has been attempted toward the rehabilitation of the
inmate; consequently the chaplain, as do other treatment workers, welcomes the opportunity of speaking to outside groups, interpreting to them the programme of our institutions. Due to the increased interest of the community at large to the problem of crime
and the treatment of the offender, a number of requests are received for the chaplain
to speak at service clubs, church groups, P.-T.A. groups, and similar organizations.
Throughout the year a total of thirteen groups were given some insight into what is
being attempted.
On January 31st some twenty-seven students of the Anglican College visited Oakalla
in the company of Professor Frank Peake, and were addressed by Warden Christie and
members of the Chaplain's staff upon what was being attempted in the Oakalla institution.
As far as was possible, the chaplains attended meetings of the Alcoholism Foundation, the Council of Churches, the British Columbia Corrections Association, and similar
groups.
Conclusion
It is becoming increasingly apparent, after five years of experience, that the true
effectiveness of the chaplain is related in an inverse ratio to the number of men under his
care; that is, his real effectiveness decreases as the population increases. His problem is
further complicated by the relatively short sentences of many offenders. Under these
circumstances the conclusion is inevitable that, although he may seek to attain the
maximum effectiveness possible under current policies, opportunities for rehabilitative
effort are irretrievably lost.
To deal with this situation adequately it would seem advisable to increase the
number of part-time chaplains, who, working under the direct supervision of the Gaol
Chaplain, would reach a larger number of individuals in a more intimate fashion, and
thus render the work of the chaplains' services much more effective.
One does not wish to simplify the problem of the rehabilitation of the offender. The
help of doctors, psychiatrists, social workers, vocational instructors, and others is vitally
necessary to send these inmates out, able to adjust to living in conformity with the laws
of society. But it is our firm conviction that they are better able to profit by these aids
if they are taught and encouraged to reach out for Christ's help and experience and
regeneration.
The role of the chaplain, therefore, in the treatment programme is a vital one
because he is most concerned with the inmate's spiritual and inner compulsions.
He does what he can, recognizing that he often fails, and that in many cases a man
will go back to the same unwholesome environment from which he came, but hoping
that he has been able in some measure to direct the thinking, realign the allegiances, alert
the conscience, and encourage the spirit of the men confined.
We would acknowledge once again this year the continued co-operation and support
of the Salvation Army, the John Howard Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, the Borstal
Association, the Bible Society, the Gideons, the Vancouver Council of Churches, and the
Probation Branch.
The encouragement and support of the Wardens and Directors and staffs of our
institutions is gratefully acknowledged, as is the direction, advice, and understanding of
yourself as Inspector of Gaols.
Respectfully submitted.
W. D. Grant Hollingworth,
Protestant Chaplain. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 47
REPORT OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Catholic Chaplain for
the year ended March 31st, 1957.
The Catholic Chaplain administered to all the spiritual needs of the Catholic inmates
of Oakalla Prison Farm, Young Offenders' Unit, Women's Goal, and New Haven. These
needs were many.
Instruction
Most Catholic inmates were lacking in their knowledge of the Catholic faith. This
knowledge was given to them according to the intelligence and length of sentence of the
inmate. All received individual instruction, thanks to the wonderful and faithful members of the Legion of Mary. The more difficult cases received the personal attention of
the Catholic Chaplain.
Those inmates who displayed sincerity to the rehabilitation programme were contacted just before release, and their future was discussed. All were urged to contact
their local pastors on return to their home town or wherever they were going. Those
who knew where they were destined were given the same request, and the Chaplain sent
a confidential letter to their pastor.
The above request was also given to the discharged inmates of the Women's Gaol,
but it was found that most did not return to their home towns. Everyone admits that the
follow-up is most important. This gave birth last July to a separate group working under
the rules of the Legion of Mary, which consisted of ten girls and two men (the men are
present for the girls' protection when they are assigned to visit a dischargee who fives
in a dubious hotel). Most of the girls are registered nurses and work in the various
hospitals throughout the city. The work of these girls has been very effective and resulted
in a low count at Oakalla during the last two weeks of February. The aim of these girls
is to set up a hostel to further the work of rehabilitation.
A men's hostel will be set up next February in the present Northern Electric Building on Cambie Street under the supervision of the Archdiocese of Vancouver.
Catholic Services
At the Main Gaol the holy sacrifice of the mass was offered every Sunday at 8.15
a.m. The inmates who attended this mass were from East Wing, the West Wing (for
security reasons South Wing is not allowed to attend mass), Westgate, Young Offenders'
Unit, and inmates of the Old Gaol. Mass is celebrated in the Women's Gaol at 9.15
a.m., and the majority of inmates attend. At New Haven, mass is celebrated at 10.30
a.m.
On the second Sunday of last May, Father Moore, of Scarboro, Ont., took Our
Lady of Fatima Pilgrim Statue into Oakalla. This statue has travelled around the world
and even into Russia. It was present at the Main Gaol, the Women's Gaol, and New
Haven. At each unit the inmates constructed a shrine for the statue, consisting of
flowers, binding, and candles. The boys at New Haven constructed a most attractive
shrine, surpassing the men's and the girls' in simplicity and individuality.
In February a documentary film about Our Lady of Fatima was loaned to the
Chaplain and shown to the Catholic inmates of Westgate, the East Wing, the Women's
Gaol, and New Haven. In each place it was shown a spontaneous applause was given
and a discussion period was then held. BB 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Material Aid
There are many inmates who come into Oakalla during the cold weather and leave
when the days are warm, or vice versa. Upon request from the inmate, he is given a
slip of paper to report to St. Vincent de Paul's Salvage Bureau on East Hastings Street.
There he may pick out the necessary clothing he needs and, upon agreement, he works
for the value of the clothing.
Requests
The Catholic Chaplain received fifty written requests more than last year. The
total number of requests cannot be tabulated because many would be received verbally
while working in a unit. This necessitated assigning a particular day of the week to
each unit, so all could be handled in due time.
Since the 1st of January, 1957, two Catholic inmates died suddenly, and the Catholic
Chaplain was not immediately notified. After the first death the Deputy Warden was
notified that it is the duty of the Catholic priest to be present before death or soon afterwards, if possible, so he can administer the sacraments of the church. This is a strict
obligation upon all Catholic priests. A Catholic chaplain assigned to any institution is
always on duty twenty-four hours a day and is subject to call at any time. After the
second death the situation was discussed with Warden Christie, and he assured the Chaplain that he would be notified whatever the hour.
During the year a Catholic occupied one of the " condemned " cells. Care and
solicitude was given this individual, and the sacraments were administered within the
confines of his cell.   With this fortification he was prepared to accept his fate.
The Catholic Chaplain made contact with the Reader's Digest to have the Librarian
pick up the " off-sale " Digest in New Westminster.
Father Steele, of Haney, has been designated as Chaplain of the new gaol at Haney.
He will also take care of the spiritual needs of Haney forestry camp. Father Gordon
McKinnon, of Chilliwack, is to perform this same service at Chilliwack forestry camp.
Wherever Catholics are located, it is the duty and obligation of the local Catholic priest
to see that spiritual aid is available to all, no matter how large or small the number
may be. At Prince George, Father Corrall has already offered to take care of the local
gaols of that city. Even in the smaller gaols, such as Nelson and Kamloops, a priest
could be designated to visit the inmates occasionally.
The Chaplain is very grateful to Warden Christie, the Deputy Wardens, Miss May-
bee (Matron in Charge), Mr. Rocksborough Smith, and their staffs for their sincere
co-operation; also to the Classification Department, without whose faithfulness we would
not have been able to contact every Catholic inmate.
Respectfully submitted.
Thomas Francis M. Corcoran, S.P.M.,
Catholic Chaplain.
REPORT OF LIBRARIAN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is the report of the Provincial Gaol Service Librarian for the fiscal
year ended March 31st, 1957. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 49
A development which will undoubtedly prove to be of major importance during the
coming year was the appointment in July of a clerk-typist. The necessity for such action
has long been apparent, and the appointment will make it possible to achieve a considerable improvement in book-supply to the eight institutions presently served from the
central depot at the Oakalla Prison Farm.
While the appointment of a clerk-typist should help to eliminate the bottleneck in
book processing by reducing the dependence on inmate assistance (which has been of
unusually low calibre during the past year), it also underscores the need for improved
working facilities.
If the present office space—a room measuring 12 by 7 Yz feet—is evaluated in terms
of an operation which involves the handling of thousands of books annually, then it
immediately becomes apparent that the lack of space constitutes a serious hindrance to
effective and economic work procedures. Thus, to provide storage room for some 4,000
volumes awaiting processing, it was necessary to further subdivide the already limited
and cramped quarters in the centre hall library at Oakalla by constructing a partition
which furnishes 240 linear feet of shelving. Though this makeshift solves the storage
problem, it means in practice that books have constantly to be shuttled back and forth
between the Librarian's office in the outer administrative area and the centre hall, a cumbersome and time-consuming operation.
When we turn to finances, the picture presented is an interesting one. During the
period under review, total book budgets increased by 94 per cent, some $6,800 having
been made available for purchases, as compared with $3,500 in the previous fiscal period.
Viewed solely from a quantitative standpoint, this represents an impressive absolute
increase, and certainly a most welcome one. The major weakness in this budgetary
structure is that it retains—and, in fact, extends—what can only be characterized as
"incidental " allotments. These sums of $50 and $100 are too limited individually to
permit the purchase of anything like the quantity of books needed in even the smallest
institutions. Consideration might well be given to a plan under which all institutional
book votes of less than $200 would be amalgamated. This combined fund would be
used to establish a centrally housed collection which would be made available to the
smaller institutions by regular exchanges. In effect, the outcome of such action would
be to increase the quantity of books available to Nelson, Kamloops, and the Gold Creek
camp.
Considerable attention was devoted during the past year to a consideration of
library matters both at the new gaol under construction at Haney and at the Oakalla
Prison Farm.
In the course of numerous discussions with yourself, Warden E. K. Nelson, and
Deputy Warden Braithwaite, a constructive solution to the special problem of providing
additional space for reading-room facilities at the Haney institution was arrived at.
Broadly outlined, the open-shelf stack-room, measuring 30 by 30 feet, is to be supplemented by provision of an additional attractively furnished room of the same dimensions, which can comfortably accommodate fifty-five inmates. I would suggest that the
possibility of sinking a stair-well from the upper stack-room to connect it directly with
the reading-room be considered. In view of the vitally important role of the library in
the programme of the Haney institution, it was agreed that an institutional librarian
should be appointed there as soon as possible.
At the Oakalla Prison Farm, a series of productive discussions with Warden Christie
resulted in plans involving the conversion of what is now the chapel into an open-shelf
library and reading-room. The provision of this room, which is freely accessible from
the three wings of the institution, means that some 2,500 square feet of floor area will
be available for the inmates' library.    Work on the alterations is now in progress, and BB 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
we look forward to the day when their completion will enable us to replace the present
antiquated distribution system with a reasonably modern one permitting the inmates to
make their choice of reading material directly from the shelves.
The library has been aptly described as the " all important . . . key to continuous education." It is impossible to avoid the conclusion that the positive developments
of the past year reflect a growing recognition of this vital and constructive role of the
library services in the correctional system.
Respectfully submitted.
D. Lebofsky,
Provincial Gaol Service Librarian.
NELSON GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Nelson Provincial Gaol
for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1957.
Administration
The number of inmates handled in this Gaol over the last fiscal year has exceeded
the number handled in the previous fiscal year by some 30 per cent. Janitor, laundry,
and kitchen services were carried out by selected inmates, under prison staff supervision.
Staff Changes
There were two resignations from the staff during the year. These vacancies were
filled locally.
Population
The population of the Gaol at the beginning of the year was 13 inmates. We received 374 and discharged 360; this leaves a total of 27 inmates at the beginning of
this fiscal year. The peak of the Gaol population was 47 inmates and the lowest number
was 7 inmates.   Our daily average was 27 inmates.
Religious Services
There has been a new arrangement of religious services since our previous report.
The Salvation Army and Pentecostal group now hold services in the prison chapel on
alternate Sundays. Attendance by the inmates is voluntary, and about 60 per cent of
the inmates attend. Inmates of specific faiths are alowed to see the clerics of that faith
on request.
Medical Welfare
The general health of the inmate population has been excellent; there were several
inmates hospitalized for short periods due to injuries and conditions acquired before
being received, and this resulted in the transfer of two inmates to the Willow Street
Tuberculosis Sanatorium in Vancouver. Dr. H. H. Smythe has continued to render his
services to the Gaol by holding a routine sick parade once a week, and remains on call
at all other times. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 51
Farm Work
The Gaol garden has produced vegetables to the value of $462.40. With produce
coming to maturity faster than we could utilize, it enabled us to donate vegetables to the
Kootenay Lake General Hospital, the Senior Citizens' Hostel, and Mount St. Francis
Infirmary.
Discipline
Inmate discipline has been very good. There were only five breaches of prison
rules reported, all of a minor nature.
Projects
An approved arrangement was made whereby prison inmates were used as labourers at the Nelson Fish Hatchery. This was invaluable in rounding out our Gaol work
programme. Up to twelve inmates were working on this project, and the Fish Hatchery
officials have expressed great satisfaction with the work done and were highly pleased
with the manner in which the project was conducted.
Maintenance of Buildings, Grounds, etc.
During the last fiscal year a much-needed garage was constructed to house the Gaol
truck and the Warden's car. A large section of the Gaol fence was rebuilt after it had
been destroyed in a gale last summer. New fire-ladders were built, and the exercise
yards were lined with plywood.
Summary
In closing, I would like to mention the fine co-operation that I received from the
Deputy Warden and the guards under me.
A. Tulloch,
Warden.
KAMLOOPS GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Kamloops Provincial
Gaol for the year ended March 31st, 1957.
Population
1955/56 1956/57
Received (Male and Female)      1,060 1,464
Transferred to Oakalla Prison Farm        116 268
Total number of days stay  13,909 16,784
The above excerpts from the summaries of annual statistics show an increase from
the previous year in all columns. The transfers to Oakalla Prison Farm increased over
the year 1955/56 by 121 males and 31 females. The aforementioned shows that we are
full to capacity (our total capacity 43 males and 4 females). The average daily population was 45.9.
Maintenance, Construction, and Works Programme
Two public works projects were completed during the year—the laying of a new
water-main in the grounds of the institution and the installation of a steam-pipe to ser- BB 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
vice the Department of Highways garages, paint-shop, and yard offices.    Both these
projects were completed before the winter weather set in.
Farm and Garden
We had a successful year, our crops being very good, with the exception of the tree-
fruits.   We supplied the Oakalla institution with 17 tons of vegetables.
Farm and Garden Maintenance
During the year the Provincial Home cemetery was maintained, and the cemetery
detail excavated and filled twenty-three graves during the year.
Medical Care
The general health of our inmate population was good—no major operations or
epidemics. The doctors from the Burris Clinic have served as Gaol surgeons during the
year, examining and treating all inmates in need of medical care.
Discipline
Discipline has been well maintained throughout the year. Breaches of prison rules
and regulations amounted to ten.
I am pleased to report that we had no escapes from this Gaol during the year.
Staff
We lost one member of our staff during the year—Guard D. L. Clark resigned.
I have had the best of co-operation from all of my staff during the year and commend
them to you for the vigilance they have used during the year in keeping our record clean
in so far as escapes from this goal are concerned.
Summary
I have, in all annual reports from 1952 to the present, with the exception of 1955,
included in the summary of the reports the following pertinent facts: (1) Insufficient
accommodation; (2) decreasing area for Gaol purposes; (3) increase in convictions in
the Counties of Yale, Cariboo, and North-east Kootenay.
The Kamloops Provincial Gaol was built in 1894. The Gaol at present accommodates 43 males and 4 females. This is inadequate. As my statistics show, we transferred 223 males and 45 females to Oakalla because of insufficient space.
I have previously suggested that a new gaol be built in the North or Central Okanagan or this side of the Monashee Range. The building of a new gaol in the Kamloops
area would, in my opinion, be too far north and west to service the centres with the greater
population. I believe that the amalgamation of the Nelson and Kamloops Gaols would
be good and would place the central and south-east portions of the Province's correctional institution under one head. The new institution should house 250 inmates, with
facilities and allowances made to increase to 500 at some future date. This also would
be the mother institution for the forest camps or other projects the Department must
undertake if we are to operate a well-balanced correction system in the future.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. Teal,
Warden. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1956/57 BB 53
PRINCE GEORGE MEN'S GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I hereby have the honour to submit the annual report of the Prince George
Men's Gaol for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1957.
Population
Our population remained high throughout most of the year, the average daily population being 96,04, a noticeable increase over last fiscal year's daily average. During part
of the fiscal year 1955/56 we were required to transfer prisoners to Oakalla when our
count exceeded our cell capacity. During the fiscal year 1956/57, however, by using our
auditorium as a temporary dormitory unit, we were able to house approximately twenty
more inmates. Even with this temporary increase in our housing capacity, however, it
was necessary to transfer 127 prisoners to Oakalla during the last fiscal year.
Maintenance and Construction
Electrical, plumbing, and general mechanical maintenance of the institution was
efficiently carried out during the year by Chief Engineer Leslie and his staff.
A crew of inmates were employed throughout most of the winter clearing snow from
roads, driveways, paths, entrances, and fire-hydrants around both the Men's and
Women's Gaols.
A fire-protection plan has been drawn up and material and equipment ordered.
A member of the staff has been named Fire Officer, and is at present in the process of
housing and placing of equipment so that staff can be trained and the plan put into effect.
The Gaol carpenter, with inmate help, built and completed a temporary observation-
room off the outside corridor. Inmate labour under the carpenter's direction also produced neat bedside tables for the hospital, permanent stools for the visiting area, built and
placed janitor supply and cleaning cupboards throughout the institution, as well as carrying out many smaii repair projects and the general woodwork maintenance of the Gaol.
The Gaol laundry has operated quite efficiently throughout the year. The tailor-
shop, as well as pressing and repair work, produced the following articles and inmates'
clothing: 175 pairs of trousers, 220 shirts, 100 tea-towels, 63 aprons, 68 white uniforms,
36 caps, 30 pairs of mitten liners, vacuum and coffee bags, and smaller numbers of other
articles for use in the institution.
A 2-inch levelling cap of asphalt pavement was laid over the original pavement in
the driveways and parking area in front of the Gaol during the year.
The root-house was stripped down, checked, and alterations made in the ventilation
and insulation. By making regular round-the-clock checks on this building we were able
to store successfully our root crops through the severe winter months.
Administration
On May 1st, 1956, Warden W. F. C. Trant was accidentally shot to death on the
Gaol rifle range. Deputy Warden W. H. Mulligan acted as Warden until July, when his
appointment in that position was confirmed.
Senior Prison Guard A. H. Collins acted as Deputy Warden from May until October,
1956, and was officially appointed Deputy Warden on October 1st, 1956.
Second-class Guard R. E. Johansen was promoted to senior prison guard on October
1st, giving us a senior administrative staff of two officers and four senior prison guards.
This number of confirmed ranks, however, still did not fill our requirements, and a BB 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
second-class guard was required to relieve as acting senior guard approximately three
days per week.
The Warden has continued to act as bursar, assisted by a guard clerk. Numbers
and details of accounts, records, stores, and equipment and the volume of correspondence
in regard to same have been increasing to a point where it is felt that consideration should
be given to the appointment of a bursar as soon as possible.
Two officers were transferred from the staff at Oakalla Prison Farm to the staff of
this institution during the year. These two officers, Supervisor R. S. T. Uncles and First-
class Guard J. Braun, with their previous training and experience, have added additional
support to the staff strength of the institution.
Gaol general orders have been revised, supplemented, and put into force during
the year.
Security
Under the direction of the Gaol carpenter a security fence, consisting of 354 poles,
50 strands of barbed wire, with 5-foot double aprons, was constructed during this year.
The new fence enclosed most of the Main Gaol buildings and approximately 17 acres of
land. Gates and a gate-house have been constructed and an outside security patrol set
up in connection with the gate-house and security fence. This patrol guards our outside
security from 4.30 p.m. till 8 a.m. Necessary staff are not available to maintain this
post during the daylight hours 8 a.m. to 4.30 p.m.
A steel security grille and gate was secured over the main boiler-room and kitchen-
stores entrance to the Gaol, and the admittance-entrance doors were reinforced with
steel plating, giving us better security in these areas.
Our engineering staff constructed and secured steel gratings over the kitchen-door
outside entrance and over the large skylight in the kitchen, and also placed outside
security hasps and locks on the outside basement door and boiler-room ash-disposal door,
as well as on the new steel grating covering the main entrance to the boiler-room.
During the year our emergency lighting system has been maintained and checked
regularly, and security checks and searches have been irregularly carried out. Admitting
and discharging routines have been revised and reorganized with a view to improving
control of movement in this area.
Escape plans for both Men's and Women's Gaols have been revised and amended,
and all staff members have been required to become familiar with these plans.
Delivery was received of a new Gaol panel truck during the year. This new vehicle,
properly equipped with security partition, bars, and seats, has greatly reduced our custodial risk in movement of prisoners.
With the institution filled to more than capacity during a good part of the fiscal year,
secure confinement, supervision, and segregation of inmates charged and sentenced under
the more serious offences has been a problem. It has been difficult to provide proper
supervision and isolation, during certain periods, for drug addicts, attempted suicides,
and inmates charged with murder.
Discipline
A high average level of discipline was maintained throughout the year. Some staff
members, under the direction and instruction of the Deputy Warden and the senior
guards, have shown ability to deal wisely with disciplinary problems and are on the way
to becoming good disciplinarians in the true sense of the word.
Sixty-eight inmates were found guilty of infractions of Gaol rules and regulations
and were sentenced to short terms in cells, dark cells, and to loss of remission. Suspended
sentences in some cases proved to be an effective deterrent.
Regular cell inspections for cleanliness and neatness were carried out before the
work programme commenced each morning throughout the year. The Deputy Warden
has carried out daily inspections, and Warden's rounds have been conducted weekly. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 55
Farm and Garden
Manure fertilizer for the Gaol garden was obtained from Cariboo Meat Packers.
Approximately 7 acres of land was planted in garden and was hand-cultivated throughout
the season by inmate labour. This garden produced the following crop: 961 bags of
potatoes, 128 bags of turnips, 93 bags of carrots, 35 bags of beets, 24 bags of cabbage,
11 bags of onions, 7 bags of cauliflower, 22 bags of lettuce, 5Vi bags of beans (in pod),
5 bags of radishes, 7 bags of peas (in pod), 5 bags of parsnips and 10 bags of Swiss
chard. The farm crew, under the direction of Guard Snider, also produced sufficient
bedding plants to supply both the Men's and Women's Gaols.
Approximately 5 acres of new land was cleared, stumped, and cultivated during
the year. Another 5 acres of land was slashed, and 90 cords of stove-wood was produced. Thirty-five cords of this wood was sold to staff members through the Purchasing
Commission.
During the winter a Public Works Department survey crew retraced the outer
perimeter of the Gaol property, and one officer with an inmate work crew slashed out
the property-line.
Welfare and Recreation
Weather permitting, all inmates who were not placed on outside work gangs have
been allowed to go to the exercise yard for games and exercise daily during the year.
Games in the units also remained popular during the winter months. At Christmas,
New Year, and Easter, special programmes were organized and carried out by members
of the staff. Inter-unit competitive games were organized, with prizes presented to
winning groups or individuals. These scheduled programmes also included religious
services, films, and a choral group, and kept inmates occupied and entertained during
the holiday periods.
Feature or educational films have been shown approximately once a month, and
church services conducted, for the most part, by local members of the Salvation Army
have been held at least twice monthly throughout the year.
The first outdoor day for all convicted inmates at the Gaol was organized and successfully carried out on Labour Day. A good deal of effort and co-operation on the
part of the staff went into this successful event.
The Gaol library has been increased during the year. Magazine subscriptions
approved by the Gaol Service Librarian have been much appreciated by the inmate
population.
Five inmates were assisted with applications for ticket of leave during the year.
Dr. G. M. Fierheller, Gaol physician, made regular weekly visits as well as quite
a number of special calls to the institution throughout the year. Dr. Fierheller's ready
service and advice on medical matters has been appreciated by all concerned.
Chief Steward R. S. T. Uncles, appointed to the Gaol staff during the year, has
made a noteworthy contribution to this institution in reorganizing the kitchen, planning
balanced menus, and generally bringing efficiency and good order to that most important
part of the welfare of the institution—the feeding of the inmate population. Dietary cost
per inmate per day has also been reduced from that of the previous fiscal year.
Staff-training
Senior staff and general staff meetings have been held monthly during the year.
Meetings have been well attended, and a noticeable growing interest in the job and in
becoming efficient correctional officers has been shown by the majority of the staff.
Staff members assigned to shift work have been rotated every forty-five days.
Whenever possible, staff members in key positions have also been rotated with senior BB 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
members of the custodial staff.   Tradesmen have from time to time been given the opportunity of taking part in custodial work.
Ten members of the staff at the Men's Gaol attended the staff-training school held
at Oakalla Prison Farm during the winter months.
Firearm practice and instruction and demonstrations in the use of gas equipment
have been held on the Gaol rifle range periodically throughout the year.
Lectures and general instructions in supervision, custody, movement, and control,
and dealing with inmates' problems, have been given to staff members at general staff
meetings. Valuable question and discussion periods have been developed during these
meetings. Newly appointed staff members have been carefully briefed and allowed to
work as long as reasonably possible with another officer before taking up a post of duty.
Arrangements have been made during the year to have guards on the staff at the
Prince George Women's Gaol rotated with staff at the Men's Gaol for further training
and experience.
Summary
We were honoured during the year to receive as visitors to the institution the
Honourable R. W. Bonner, Attorney-General, and the Honourable Eric Martin, Minister
of Health and Welfare.
Definite progress has been made in the development of the Prince George Men's
Gaol as a correctional institution.
I wish to thank the officers of the Government and the Department, the members of
the staff, and officers and workers from outside agencies who have contributed to our
progress in the past year.
I especially wish to thank you, Sir, for your direction and advice and your constant
interest in our successful operation.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Mulligan,
Warden.
PRINCE GEORGE WOMEN'S GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I hereby have the honour to submit the annual report for the fiscal year
1956/57 from the Prince George Women's Gaol.
Population
A total of 221 prisoners were admitted during the year, 34 of these being transferred
from Oakalla and 195 discharged.
Discipline
Discipline has been fairly well maintained, with the exception of two inmates who
were taken before Warden's court for insubordination.
Welfare
At the beginning of the year the Prince George Ministerial Association decided that
each denomination would provide services on Sundays in rotation, but all discontinued
after two or three services, with the exception of the Salvation Army, which has served REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1956/57 BB 57
us every other Sunday throughout the year.    Lieutenant Chapman is most helpful and
takes great interest in the inmates.
Films have been provided regularly by the Prince George Film Council; one full
feature film was shown at Christmas time and at New Year's. These were operated by
our two matron-projectionists, Mrs. Austgarden and Mrs. Ganton.
The Canadian Folk Society gave a carol service Christmas week, and a local orchestra gave three concerts.   These were very much appreciated.
Dr. McKenzie is still our able Gaol doctor. Apart from his weekly visits, we call
him in case of emergency or serious illness.
Occupational Therapy
Exhibits of leatherwork, crochetting, sewing, knitting, tatting, wood-burning, cooking, baking, canning, and flower arrangements were shown at the Prince George Fall Fair.
We were awarded twenty-two first prizes, nineteen seconds, nineteen thirds, and three
specials.   The general public are always very interested in our display.
The usual Christmas gifts came from the following firms: Swift Canadian Company,
Edmonton, Alta.; Loyal Order of Moose; Royal Produce; Kelly, Douglas; Malkins;
Slade & Stewart; the Canadian Folk Society; and Mr. McLellen, of the Prince George
50 to $1 Store.   Letters of thanks were written to all these firms.
Staff Meetings
Approximately five meetings were held this year, presided over by Warden Mulligan.
Internal policy and changes were discussed, among these being our revised escape plan.
These meetings, conducted by Warden Mulligan, are most helpful. He has made clear
so many items of vital importance, for which all members of the staff are extremely
grateful. I would like to commend our Warden for his unlimited and understanding
advice at all times.
Administration
Office duties were carried out for the fiscal year 1956/57 competently by Senior
Matron Mclntyre, who is in charge of accounts and general office work. All members
of the staff have carried out their duties well.
Building and Maintenance
This building, due to its wooden construction, is a fire-hazard and presents a very
real concern to me and the members of my staff. We have complete confidence in Senior
Guard Hallgren, Chief Engineer, who has full knowledge of the boilers and heating
system.
I appreciate, Sir, your help and counsel on your visits to us.   Your first visit, after
I became Matron in Charge, was of the utmost help, and I am most grateful for your
advice and answers to all my queries.
Respectfully submitted.
B. Mullen,
Matron in Charge. BB 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
NEW HAVEN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—During the twelve-month period April 1st, 1956, to March 31st, 1957, fifty-
two lads were received and fifty were released. All admissions passed through the
Classification Wing at Oakalla Prison Farm and were selected as suitable candidates for
the New Haven training programme.
Classification for New Haven has become increasingly difficult as the number of
correctional facilities have increased and developed. With the expansion of probation
services throughout the Province, many of those in the Borstal age-group who were
formerly committed under section 151 of the " Prisons and Reformatories Act" are now
placed on probation. A large percentage of those in this age-group who are committed
are not given sufficiently lengthy sentences to enable them to undergo a course of training
and, of necessity, end up in prison. The short prison sentence has been variously
described by penologists as ineffective, wasteful, and a costly distraction from the true
function of prison, which is the protection of society against crime. This is particularly
true of the youthful offender who has already been before the Courts a number of times
and is in need of prolonged training if his outlook and attitude are to be changed. To him
a short sentence is merely an opportunity to foregather in prison with others of his kind
equally hostile and anti-social in attitude. It does not even serve as a deterrent, as any
fear of imprisonment he may have had is quickly dispelled through familiarity with
prison life.
The importance of the open correctional institution as a training centre for young-
adult offenders has by no means been minimized in recent years. The first United Nations
Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, held in Geneva
in 1955, came out strongly in favour of the more rapid development of such facilities on
the grounds that they are more favourable to the social readjustment of the inmates and
more conducive to their physical and mental health; that the absence of material and
physical constraint and the relations of greater confidence between inmates and staff tend
to create in the inmates a genuine desire for social readjustment; that the system, based
as it is on self-discipline and the inmate's sense of responsibility toward the group in
which he lives, encourages him to use the freedom accorded him without abusing it; and
that the open institution represents one of the most successful applications of the principle
of the individualization of penalties with a view to social readjustment. The Congress's
recommendation goes on to state that "it is these characteristics which distinguish the
open institution from other types of institution, some of which are run on the same
principles without, however, realizing them to the full."
In view of this trend toward the extended use of open training centres, much thought
and study have been given throughout the year to the criteria governing the selection of
youths for admission to New Haven. The ultimate criterion would appear to be not the
particular type or category to which the offender belongs, so much as his suitability for
admission to an open institution and the fact that his social adjustment is more likely to
be effected by such a system than by treatment under other forms of correction. This
can only be ascertained by a careful and thorough investigation of each individual offender
eligible for such training.
The following material—the result of an investigation made by the staff of New
Haven in co-operation with the British Columbia Borstal Association of those received
at the institution during the period April 1st, 1956, to March 31st, 1957, and of those
released on licence during the same period—is presented with a view to giving a brief REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 59
factual account of the type of youth received at New Haven during the year and the
results achieved.
Admissions
Age
The average age was found to be 18.4 years. This is a very slight increase over the
average age of those admitted during the preceding year. The spread in age extended
from seven 16-year-old youths to two of 23 years.
Marital Status
An average of 5.7 per cent were married.
Intelligence PerCent
Superior   Nil
Above average  29.8
Average   38.2
Below average   32.0
Dull     Nil
Emotional Stability Per Cent
Above average  18.2
Average   13.6
Below average   68.2
Social Participation Per Cent
Above average     9.0
Average  1  22.8
Below average   68.2
To be able to function as a normal, effective person, the individual should obtain at
least an average score in the above three categories.
Education
Sixty-one per cent failed to achieve higher than Grade VIII standing at school;
fifty-six per cent left school at or prior to 15 years of age.
Home Background
Domicile— pe_ cent
Living at home at time of committal  44.2
Wards of the Provincial Government     7.6
Parents deceased—living on their own     3.8
Of the remaining 44.4 per cent, 39 per cent left home at or before the age of 16.
Marital Status of Parents— Per Cent
Parents married and living together  48.1
Both parents deceased     3.9
One parent deceased  28.8
Parents divorced  11.5
Parents separated     5.8
Mother unmarried     1.9
Relationship with Parents.—Of those lads with parents married and living together,
36 per cent were on good terms with both parents, while only 8 per cent were on poor BB 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
terms with both; 56 per cent had a good relationship with their mother but a poor one
with their father, while none experienced a good relationship with their father and a poor
one with their mother. The above figures are particularly interesting in view of the findings of a recent study in parental-child relationships undertaken in the United Kingdom,
which showed specific evidence of paternal rejection in the case of many of the delinquents
studied.
Number of Children in Home.—Fourteen per cent were an only child; 32 per cent
only came from large families of five or more children and 68 per cent came from families
of from one to four children.
Offences
Eighty-four per cent were committed for crimes against property. Breaking and
entering and theft, and theft of auto were the most common offences. Sixteen per cent
were convicted of crimes against the person.
Previous Convictions
There were 42.4 per cent who had no previous conviction recorded against them in
adult court, 38.5 per cent had been on probation, and 9.5 per cent had had previous
institutional experience.
Vocational Training at New Haven
At New Haven all lads undergo vocational training during the working-day and are
assigned to one of the four trade parties for the length of their stay at the institution,
distributed as follows: 36 per cent obtained their training in the machine-shop, 27 per
cent in the woodworking-shop, 22 per cent in the kitchen, and 15 per cent on the farm.
The aim of the vocational programme is to develop within each lad habits of industry
and application and at the same time introduce him to the fundamental skills of a trade
to assist him in planning his future.
Educational Courses
Course work is carried out in the evenings when the day's work is over and is
organized along the lines of adult education. A lad is expected to enroll in at least one
course. The courses vary from formal schooling to vocational and technical subjects.
The object of the programme is to encourage lads to continue their education, to provide
a mental stimulus, and to broaden their interests.
There were 45.5 per cent who enrolled in one course, while 20.4 per cent enrolled
in two or more courses. The remaining 34.1 per cent were not sufficiently advanced to
handle a correspondence course on their own and were given special instruction in
elementary reading, writing, and arithmetic. Included in this group were recent immigrants not as yet familiar with English, dull and backward lads, and those with reading
difficulties.
Releases
All those released on licence came under the supervision of the British Columbia
Borstal Association, and were found employment and supervised by members of the
association under the direction of the executive director.
Length of Training
Ninety-eight per cent received from seven to twelve months' training at New Haven;
2 per cent only spent over one year at the institution. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 61
Domicile
Fifty per cent returned to their homes to live on release, 18 per cent went to live
with relatives, and 32 per cent had lodgings found for them.
Employment
Eighty per cent had employment found for them by the Borstal Association, 10 per
cent went to jobs arranged for them by their relatives, 8 per cent returned to former
employers, and 2 per cent went back to school.
During the period under review 56 per cent remained with their initial placement,
16 per cent made one change, 28 per cent made from two to four changes, 10 per cent
received promotion during the period, and 82 per cent were considered to have made good
adjustment as regards employment.
Results
As at March 31st, 1957, the end of the reporting period, the position is as follows:
68 per cent of those released are still on licence, 18 per cent successfully terminated their
licence period, 6 per cent had their licences revoked for infractions, and 8 per cent were
reconvicted for further offences.
Reports indicate that 76 per cent have achieved fair to good social adjustment since
leaving the institution, while 10 per cent are as yet unsettled and are having difficulty
adjusting.
Summary
In conclusion, it would appear that in spite of the fact that standards of selection
have had to be relaxed and broadened and youths accepted who are obviously more
disturbed and in need of more intensive treatment, it has been possible to gear the training
to meet the new situation and still achieve not unsatisfatcory results. This is in no small
part due to the zeal and enthusiasm with which the staff has met this new challenge,
coupled with the splendid after-care provided by the members of the Borstal Association,
without whose assistance it would not have been possible. The problems we have had
to meet were intensified by the lack of a gymnasium during the vital winter months, when,
on account of the wetness of our land, we rely entirely on indoor recreation. We were
saved from what might have developed into a serious situation by the Burnaby School
Board allowing us to use the Nelson Avenue School gymnasium on one night a week and
on week-ends.
I cannot conclude this report without calling attention to our appreciation of the
many services we have received from our Medical Officer, Protestant and Roman Catholic
Chaplains, visiting psychologist, and members of the headquarters staff; the assistance
of the National Employment Service, Vancouver Junior Chamber of Commerce, Burnaby
Public Health Department, Camp Artaban Society, Indian Affairs Commissioner, Youth
Counselling Service, and the many public agencies and private individuals interested in
our work; to the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm and his senior correctional staff for
their continued co-operation; and to you, Sir, for your generous assistance and support
at all times.
Respectfully submitted.
S. Rocksborough Smith,
Director. BB 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
GOLD CREEK CAMP
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Gold Creek camp is a specialized training camp for those physically fit male
offenders sentenced to imprisonment by the Courts of British Columbia who have not
got long criminal histories and who are not in need of the security of a prison. The
camp's intake is selected on the basis of the following general criteria:—
(1) The men must be physically fit and in the age-group 18 to 50.
(2) They must be desirous of making the most of their sentence and of
co-operating with those willing to help them.
(3) They must not need the security of a prison.
(4) They must not have had an extensive prison history, to the extent that
their ideas and attitudes have become warped by close association with
confirmed and sophisticated offenders.
(5) They must have sufficiently long sentences to be able to profit from training at the camp (in excess of three months).
Selected " trainees," as the men are called, are transferred by Order in Council to
Gold Creek camp and are conveyed there via New Haven. At New Haven their documentation is completed, their clothes and effects itemized and stored, and they are completely outfitted for work in the bush.
The camp is situated at the lower end of Garibaldi Park, 8 miles north of the Haney
entrance to the park and close to the west side of Alouette Lake. It is reached by an
access road built upon an old railway-bed many years ago. This road is the only means
of reaching the camp, and in bad weather is only fit for vehicles equipped with four-wheel
drive. For this reason, traffic to and from the camp is cut to a minimum. The staff
of twelve is divided into three teams of three men each, with two men acting in a supervisory capacity and one as a spare. Each team goes up to the camp for a three-day
shift, when it is relieved by another team. Rations and stores are sent from New Haven
once a week.
The camp can accommodate fifty men. It consists of five ten-man bunk-houses
(20 by 24 feet), a cookhouse-mess hall, an ablution hut, and a small administration
building. Situated on high ground in a small clearing, surrounded by bush, the camp
is on a slope and overlooks Alouette Lake to the east. A playing-ground is being planned
to the north of the clearing.
Gold Creek camp was built by stages, commencing in the spring of 1956. Considerable planning preceded its actual development. In the fall and winter of 1955/56
small parties of New Haven lads were sent up by the day, improving the access road and
brushing and clearing the site. It had been decided to build the camp of prefabricated
materials so that no skilled tradesmen would be required. It was felt that to place
a premium on men with certain specific trades skills would upset the system of selection
mentioned earlier on. Finally, in April, 1956, the first eleven trainees were transferred
to the camp; they slept in tents and had their meals in a cook-house previously erected
by the New Haven party. In the early days, as the population of trainees was being
gradually built up, work was concentrated on the building programme, with a small party
assigned to maintenance of the access road. By autumn the buildings were up, the
water-tower had been erected, a diesel power unit installed for supplying electricity, and
radio communication established with the New Haven base. The camp was now
operational.
The programme of the camp is based on a good hard day's work in the woods (six
days per week), supplemented by a spare-time activity programme which encourages REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 63
and provides the tools for hobby work, correspondence courses, and general recreation.
With the exception of a small party of cooks and maintenance men in camp, the trainees
all work on park development and are transported each day to their jobs along the road
in our own motor-coach. Co-operating very closely with forestry crews stationed in
the park, our men have slashed and burned some 3 miles of right-of-way 100 feet wide,
as well as bridged creeks, installed culverts, and prepared camping and parking areas.
For three months this spring a donkey-winch crew cleared some 5 acres of shore-line on
Alouette Lake to allow campers to get down to the lake-shore to launch their boats.
Over and above all this, our men have hauled and spread hundreds of tons of gravel in
an attempt to keep open and improve their precarious access road from the camp to
civilization. Along with this has gone the day-to-day repair and maintenance on old and
unserviceable equipment—the ancient Dodge forty-passenger motor-coach, an Austin
dump-truck of uncertain age, a heavy Caterpillar tractor, and the donkey-winch.
Important as the work programme is, it is felt that the welfare of the men must
naturally come first. Many of the men have problems—domestic, financial, and personal. It is important that these should be resolved if a man is to benefit by his stay
and plan successfully for his future. The members of the staff are aware of this and
spend much of their time lay counselling. Difficult domestic problems are passed on
to the John Howard worker, who visits the camp monthly. The Protestant padre also
visits the camp and has introduced an organized A.A. programme, under the leadership
of a local Mission City man. Members of the Haney service clubs are taking an interest
in the camp, and during the winter when monthly family visits to the camp had to be
suspended due to the impassable condition of the roads, a community hall was placed
at our disposal, and we were able to bring trainees out for their monthly visits with their
families. Later on it was possible to reciprocate by enlisting a group of volunteer
trainees to shingle the hall one week-end. In this way we are able, in a small degree,
to build up good public relations with the neighbouring community. The trainees themselves are anxious to foster these, and through their group committee have invited neighbouring local teams to the camp for exhibition games.
The camp is still in its early stages and there is much yet to be done. I feel that
a full-time trained welfare worker would be a valuable addition to the staff. Men are
spending the whole of their sentence at Gold Creek, and under the informal, relaxed
atmosphere of the camp setting there is a great opportunity to get at the individual and
to do some real casework with the more disturbed and troubled.
It is difficult as yet to talk about results. To date just over 100 men have either
passed through the camp or are in the process of doing so. All go out with an accumulation of their dollar-a-day earnings. These earnings have proved invaluable in cases
where a man has not been able to obtain work immediately and has had no home to
return to. Some are released on ticket-of-leave licence under supervision. The fortunes
of these can be followed while they are on licence. The remainder are released " time
expired," and little is heard of them again, which is, perhaps, a good sign. It is , however,
misleading to assess success on the basis that no news is good news. Careful research
over a period of years will be needed to determine the results of the programme. All we
can say at the moment is that the camp appears to be filling a need and to be providing
yet another alternative to prison for those men who are more likely to be harmed than
helped by such an experience.
Respectfully submitted.
S. Rocksborough Smith,
Warden. BB 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROBATION BRANCH
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
1075 Melville Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting to you the annual report of the Provincial Probation Branch for the year commencing April 1st, 1956, and ending March 31st, 1957.
During the year under review, further expansion of the Branch was effected by the
establishment of a new branch office at Kamloops, and certain personnel moves were
made to consolidate and reduce case loads, as were forecasted in the annual report of
the previous year. Referrals from the Courts increased greatly, as will be noted in the
appended statistical report.
Mr. St. John Madeley joined the Branch in May and took over the Prince Rupert
office, which was unmanned at the first of the year. In July Mr. T. A. Blackwood was
appointed to the staff, and he was placed with Mr. Jones in the Victoria office. This
placement was made to reduce the heavy case load carried by Mr. Jones. Later in
July, Mr. G. C. Howitt joined the staff of the Vancouver office. All staff members
mourned his sudden death in November. The next appointment was made in September.
Mr. O. J. Walling, recently returned to British Columbia from Newfoundland, began
working in Burnaby under Mr. R. J. Clark, and took over this office following Mr. Clark's
appointment to the position of Staff Supervisor on October 1st.
Mr. A. W. Garwood, stationed at Nelson, resigned at the end of July to return to
England. Mr. H. Penny, employed as a summer relief officer, was sent to Nelson and
carried on there until late in September. In October Mr. A. R. Billington and Mr. R.
Richardson joined the staff, Mr. Billington remaining in the Vancouver office while, after
a period of orientation, Mr. Richardson was moved to Nelson.
During September Mr. L. Dewalt was moved from the Vancouver office to Cranbrook and Mr. L. Howarth moved from Cranbrook to Abbotsford, where he assumed
responsibility for half of the territory covered by Mr. Langdale. This consolidation
reduced Mr. Langdale's case load to a manageable number. Also at this time, Mr. J.
Putnam was moved to the Vancouver office from New Westminster, and Mr. O. Hollands,
of the Vancouver office, replaced him in New Westminster. This exchange cut down
travelling time from home to office for each officer.
In the middle of October Mr. J. Sabourin transferred to the staff from the Provincial
Industrial School for Boys. He worked in the Nanaimo office under Mr. McGougan
for a short period, after which he was sent to Kamloops, where he opened a new branch
office. This new office effectively reduced the territory previously covered by Mr. Guest
from Vernon, and at the same time made possible services to additional Courts.
On the 1st of December Mr. K. Holt was transferred from the staff of Oakalla Prison
Farm to the Probation Branch. He was placed in the New Westminster office, where
he became responsible for part of the territory covered by Mr. Hollands as well as part
of the territory previously served by Mr. Walling, of the Burnaby office. This appointment helped to reduce case loads to manageable numbers in both the New Westminster
and Burnaby offices.
The last appointment made during the year was that of Mr. W. Haines, who joined
the Probation Branch staff on March 14th, 1957, coming to us from the probation service
of London, England.
Mr. R. J. Clark's appointment to the position of Staff Supervisor complemented the
other appointments made throughout the year. With the increased volume of referrals
to the Branch and the concomitant increase of detail work handled by the head office,
administrative personnel found less time to visit branch offices to discuss problems arising
in those offices.    This personal contact with head office is vital to maintaining good REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 65
morale and a high quality of performance on the job.   Mr. Clark has been able to give
this service, to the benefit of the whole staff.
The staff of the Provincial Probation Branch consisted of the following personnel
as at March 31st, 1957:—
Vancouver office: E. G. B. Stevens, Chief Probation Officer; C. D. Davidson,
Assistant Chief Probation Officer; R. J. Clark, Staff Supervisor; H. W.
Jackson, J. M. Putnam, M. M. Wright, A. R. Billington, and W. J. Haines,
Probation Officers.
North Vancouver office:   G. G. Woodhams, Probation Officer.
New Westminster office:  O. E. Hollands and K. Holt, Probation Officers.
Victoria office:  A. E. Jones and T. Blackwood, Probation Officers.
Nanaimo office:   E. H. B. McGougan and A. A. Byman, Probation Officers.
Burnaby office:   O. J. Walling, Probation Officer.
Abbotsford office:  A. L. Langdale and L. D. Howarth, Probation Officers.
Penticton office:  J. Wiebe, Probation Officer.
Vernon office:  D. Guest, Probation Officer.
Nelson office:   R. Richardson, Probation Officer.
Cranbrook office:  L. Dewalt, Probation Officer.
Kamloops office:  J. Sabourin, Probation Officer.
Prince George office:   R. G. McKellar, Probation Officer.
Prince Rupert office: St. John Madeley, Probation Officer.
The statistical report which is appended indicates the increased number of referrals
during the year. Three hundred and forty-four persons more than the previous year were
placed on probation, while 285 more pre-sentence reports than during the previous year
were prepared in those cases where a disposition other than probation was made by the
Court. The percentage of persons placed on probation from Magistrates and other adult
courts as compared to the total number placed on probation decreased slightly from the
previous year—27.5 per cent as compared to 33 per cent for the previous year.
While enlarged office accommodation was made available for the Vancouver office
of the Branch during the previous year, nevertheless the facilities were taxed to the
utmost. More private interviewing space is still needed, and all staff members are
looking forward to moving into the new offices being prepared in the B.C. Estates Building on Melville Street. In January the North Vancouver office was moved to a part of
the Motor Licence Office, but it is believed other space will have to be found for this
office. With a second permanent officer working in the New Westminster office, the
present office accommodation is proving to be inadequate and other space will have to
be found.
As in the previous year, close relationships were maintained with the British Columbia Board of Parole, and the number of new parole cases increased greatly over last year.
It should be noted the Courts have been using the definite-indefinite type of sentence,
instead of a definite sentence alone, in more cases of male offenders between the ages of
16 and 23 years, and as the facilities of New Haven have not been enlarged, these
offenders are going to either the Young Offenders' Unit or to the Westgate Unit of
Oakalla Prison Farm. A staff member of the Probation Branch attended all meetings
of the Parole Board held at both the Young Offenders' Unit and at Westgate during the
year.
This year has been one of moderate expansion and definite consolidation. The
services provided by the Branch have been used to a greater extent than in any previous
year.
The staff of the Provincial Probation Branch gratefully acknowledge the help and
co-operation which has been given by the many agencies, services, and institutions with
whom they come in contact. This teamwork takes us farther along the road of assisting
the offender to rehabilitate himself. BB 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial Probation Branch Statistics
New
Probation
Cases
New
Follow-up
Cases
Presentence
Reports
Total
Cases
Miscellaneous
1942/43  ■"'  	
63
60
46
105
142
158
276
350
455
591
598
688
831
962
1,306
24
56
57
50
61
35
36
28
14
33
46
92
151
186
313
49
54
31
84
117
122
262
349
461
472
638
736
892
965
1,250
136
170
134
239
320
315
574
727
930
1,096
1,282
1,516
1,874
2,113
2,869
1943/44                                          	
1944/45  	
1945/46.   _   _	
1946/47 	
1947/48   _  	
1948/49 _   _.
1949/50- _  _ —
1950/51- .             ___.   _
1951/52 -_ 	
74
1952/53    	
1953/54    ._                _   _
178
151
1954/55.  ■"•       '      	
1955/56 _ - .
1956/57   	
238
263
206
6,631
1,182
6,482
14,295
1,130
New Probation Cases
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over 25
Years
Probationers
Married
Single
Total
April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952  .,
496
49
46
40
551
591
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953	
481
66
51
54
544
598
April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954-	
527
79
82
83
605
688
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955 _  .   •
710
65
56
58
773
831
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956   	
785
99
78
73
889
962
April 1st, 1956, to March 31st, 1957.    	
1,102
109
95
99
1,207
1,306
5,275
817
539
575
6,056
6,631
New Follow-up Cases
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over 25
Years
Follow-up Cases
Married
Parolees
Single
Parolees
Total
April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952 ■
22
37
70
107
151
215
11
9
22
41
33
90
3
2
.8
3
1
2
8
5
19
30
45
90
143
181
294
33
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953....	
46
April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954  	
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955- 	
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956 	
April 1st, 1956, to March 31st, 1957 _	
92
151
186
313
867
288
27
56
1,126
1,182
Respectfully submitted.
C. D. Davidson,
Assistant Chief Probation Officer. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1956/57
APPENDIX
ANNUAL REPORT OF GAOLS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 3 1st, 1957
BB 67
Oakalla and
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
1. Total number of county gaols in B.C 	
2. Total expenditures for gaol maintenance in
B.C.—
Year ended March 31st, 1957	
Year ended March 31st, 1956	
3. Average total maintenance cost per day per
prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1957	
Year ended March 31st, 1956  	
Average dietary cost per day per prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1957- 	
Year ended March 31st, 1956  	
4. Number of prisoners committed—
Year ended March 31st, 1957- 	
Year ended March 31st, 1956. 	
$2,713,219.14
1,957,340.25
$6,563
5.259
$0,782
.936
10,456
6,839
$63,339.52
63,103.08
$5.45
6.36
$0,711
.622
374
282
$51,444.40
46,501.73
$3.06
3.34
$0,610
.589
1,464
1,060
$275,122.35
229,635.43
$7.15
7.78
$1.00
1.31
1,816
1,449
$3,103,125.41
2,296,580.49
$5.55
5.68
$0,776
.86
14,110
9,630
I. Movement of Population, Year Ended March 31st, 1957
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
On register, April 1st, 1956-
Received—
From gaols and lockups-
By transfer-
By recapture  _	
By revocation of licence	
By forfeiture of ticket of leave..
By internal movements	
From bail —	
By breach of recognizance-
Totals 	
Discharged—
By expiry of sentence-
By ticket of leave _	
By deportation	
By pardon	
By escape 	
By death-
By payment of fines	
By release of Court order (including bail)-
By transfer-
By internal movements —	
By licence (B.C. Parole Board).
Totals	
On register, March 31st, 1957-
1,097
9,192
53
26
48
1,006
100
31
7,301
55
6
27
5
221
841
497
1,006
745
10,_: 04
1,349
13
365
9
31
1,460
4
10,456 374 1,464
342
1
1
11
5
962
193
25
268
82
1,782
34
1,223
12,799
100
26
48
1,006
100
31
1,816      |    14,110
1,442
1
106
42
131
32
|      1,448 1,754
27
47
144
10,047
57
1
6
27
5
531
913
896
1,038
245
13,766
1,567 BB 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
II. Commitments
1955/56
1956/57
Decrease
Increase
Murder. _   	
Manslaughter  	
Crimes—■
Against person	
Against property  	
Against public morals and decency_
Against public order and peace _.
Other offences not enumerated below..
Insanity-
Number of prisoners sentenced	
Number of days' stay of prisoners. 	
Average number of prisoners per month-
Average number of prisoners per day	
Escapes	
Escapes and recaptured-
Deaths in gaols.—	
11
13
389
1,970
238
5,472
236
28
7,696
427,572
34,937
1,143
7
15
6
21
19
389
2,377
241
9,430
349
37
12,042
488,262
39,799
1,341
28
26
5
10
6
407
3
3,958
113
9
4,356
60,690
4,862
198
21
11
III. Sex
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Un:t
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
1                     1
8,512               287      j      1,290
680                 42                168
1,595
221
11,684
1,111
Totals   -__	
9.192       1          329       !       1.458
1,816
12,795
IV. Educational Status
396
5,202
3,373
221
33
105
187
4
175
949
327
7
152
1,296
364
4
756
7,552
4,251
236
Totals      _ _	
9,192
329
1,458
1,816
12,795
V. Nationality
British-
1
7,253
539      j
366      |
283
10
1
1,395
7
19
1,508
95
10,439
651
386
Totals   	
8,158
294
1,421
1,603
11,476
Foreign—
247       |
739      j
41       |
7       1
12
10
13
7
30
44
168
1
310
947
Orientals   — 	
42
20
Totals      	
1,034      |
35
37
213
1,319
9,192
1
329
1,458
1,816
12,795
VI. Habits as to Use of Intoxicants
Abstainers _  _   	
Temperate  	
Intemperate  	
1
468
2,766
5,958
70
177
82
9
90
1,359
63
336
1,417
610
3,369
8,816
Totals        ...            	
9,192
1
329
1,458
1,816
12,795
1
VII. Habits as to Use of Drugs
8,650
542
328
1
1,456
2
1,775
41
12,209
Addicts  _ - _ _._
586
Totals       .   .             ...                         	
9,192
329
1,458
1,816
12,795 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57
BB 69
VIII. Occupations
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
170
302
964
4,724
334
276
1,432
216
208
110
456
9
6
48
115
50
39
51
3
8
232
221
155
428
13
19
367
20
3
31
177
1,163
11
13
419
2
411
560
1,344
Labourers    _	
Mechanics  _	
6,430
408
347
2,269
216
231
123
456
Totals  	
9,192
329
1,458
1,816
12,795
IX. Racial
White _                  	
7,785
93
1,239
48
27
288
41
	
759
1
696
2
1,353
4
457
1
1
10,185
Coloured. - _   _ __...
98
2,433
Mongolian    _ _	
49
30
Totals   _ _ _	
9,192
329
1,458
1,816
12,795
X. Civil State
5,808
1,502
351
1,256
275
218
96
3
11
1
947
294
62
144
11
1,264
335
38
170
9
8,237
Married   _	
Widowed
2,227
454
1,581
296
Totals   	
9,192
329
1,458
1,816
12,795
XI. Ages
Under 21 years-
21-25 years	
25-30   „    	
30-40   „   	
40-50   „   	
50-60   „    	
Over 60 years—
Totals-
963
987
1,171
2,186
1,811
1,484
590
9,192
70
51
33
88
49
26
12
329
79
141
217
411
310
234
66
1,458
1,816
104
1,216
225
1,404
287
1,708
438
3,123
397
2,567
271
2,015
94
762
12,795
XII. Creeds
3,873
1,428
1,113
234
1,045
251
633
86
42
23
13
21
142
25
263
104
103
3
2
20
7
10
4
64
3
1
8
1,038
109
92
4
67
21
60
4
45
6
12
1,104
168
116
9
105
40
192
55
2
24
1
6,119
1,808
1,324
249
Presbyterian 	
1,237
319
895
94
142
Doukobor     	
Hebrew       —
Buddhist          	
93
15
21
Others    _ 	
145
50
284
Totals           .                    	
9,192
329
1,458
1,816
12 795 BB 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
XIII. Duration of Sentence
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
5,337
1,074
471
460
345
167
62
222
101
27
280
50
265
11
1
114
35
43
107
5
8
7
130
44
27
22
4
1
4
79
6
3
6
3
1,063
206
59
41
36
12
4
8
2
12
1
14
1,248
261
52
67
53
39
28
20
13
9
12
11
3
7,778
1,585
609
590
438
218
95
254
103
27
384
59
271
11
Habeas corpus. _ _ _	
Suspended _ 	
Withdrawn  -     " -
1
127
35
46
Dismissed
132
11
14
7
Totals.	
9,192
329
1,458
1,816
12,795
XIV. Previous Convictions
2,666
1,138
827
499
378
340
265
249
232
173
165
144
139
117
122
105
86
76
75
140
61
115
68
145
273
274
90
230
216
39
17
14
11
4
3
5
7
3
3
1
1
1
1
3
374
170
116
107
81
72
50
47
51
34
24
24
23
18
18
21
20
14
15
12
12
11
10
12
73
29
20
686
220
144
135
91
79
58
52
55
40
28
20
24
19
18
15
12
7
11
15
8
10
10
6
14
13
26
3,942
1
1,567
2
1,104
3    _                      _     _	
755
4 _ _  	
5            ._- _ _.   _            _
561
495
6
376
7   	
8      _ _ -	
353
345
9 _  _  _	
10                     _             ... ..     __	
250
220
11 _ ._ _	
12                                    _ —     -
189
186
13 .                    _ _ _ ...
154
14...            	
15.    	
16     ...       _           _ _	
159
141
118
17   _ _	
97
18
102
20                                                                      	
167
21                            ...   __ -    	
82
23    	
24                            ~      -           _ 	
136
88
26       .              .   - _ _	
163
27 _.    _ _ -
49   ._        _	
60   _  _  —  -__
Over 60
363
316
136
230
Totals     ...
9,192
329
1,458
1,816
12,795
70.996
29.11
73.4
52.05 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 71
XV. Offences for which Prisoners were Committed and Sentenced during the Year
Commitments
Sentences
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
(a) Crimes against the person—
3
152
137
6
4
6
1
19
21
3
36
6
2
2
3
158
139
6
4
8
1
19
21
3
36
1
145
133
15
5
3
1
11
13
2
16
5
2
1
1
Abortion  —	
150
Assault, felonious 	
135
15
Cutting, wounding, and attempting same
5
4
1
Manslaughter	
11
13
2
Rape with assault with intent to rape	
16
Totals   	
388
10
398
345
8
353
(6) Crimes against property—
9
487
156
101
48
217
3
902
88
33
130
135
5
7
8
1
9
35
3
9
492
163
109
49
226
3
937
88
33
133
135
11
679
135
178
56
393
3
997
72
29
161
143
5
4
9
1
14
41
2
_
11
684
139
187
57
407
Conspiracy.   	
3
1,038
72
29
163
143
2,309
68
2,377
2,857
76
2,933
(e) Crimes against public morals and decency—
3
54
24
4
6
82
12
4
6
1
2
1
1
5
2
4
54
26
4
6
1
1
87
12
2
4
6
11
48
22
1
4
86
2
11
1
2
1
1
2
1
12
48
24
Gross indecency  _ —	
1
4
Inmates and frequenters of houses of ill
1
Keeping houses of ill fame 	
1
88
Prostitution    	
1
2
11
Totals      	
195
12
207
185
8
193
(<_) Crimes against public order and peace—
Breaches of " Government Liquor Act "
6,174
3
171
3
467
26
1
225
2
1
2
69
682
377
274
474
	
110
1
5
130
4
194
33
34
6,648
3
281
4
472
26
1
355
2
1
2
73
876
410
308
6,149
156
6
627
23
2
217
3
6
3
1
75
695
373
279
446
77
5
2
4
195
35
35
6,595
Breaches of " Narcotic and Drug Act "_.	
233
6
632
Carrying unlawful weapons 	
25
2
217
3
6
3
1
79
890
Vagrancy  _ _	
408
314
Totals 	
8,477
985
9,462
8,615
799
9,414
331
18
349
366
17
383
Grand totals of  (a),   (6),   (c),
(d),and (e)   _        	
11,700
1,093
12,793
12,369
907
13,276 BB 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
XVI. Employment of Prisoners
(Per cent of population.)
Oakalla and Young
Offenders' Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince George
Male
Female
Male
Female
24.645
3.297
5.777
6.962
16.901
5.006
37.412
14.970
5.528
17.0
45.0
38.0
17.0
1.0
22.0
42.0
5.0
13.0
16.6
1.0
2.6
20.8
5.2
2.6
51.2
97.0
Sick                   —-      -     -
3 0
32.872
21.941
24.689
XVII. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31st, 1957
Oakalla and
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
1
1
1
4
6
1
1
1
30
12
2
1
1
2
5
1
260
40
4
2
53
24
2
1
1
10
2
1
1
1
7
2
1
Deputy Warden, Custody   	
1
Deputy Warden, Treatment 	
2
1
4
Chaplain, temporary —  —	
8
2
24
2
Clerk    Grade II -             _ -	
1
11
Director   	
Totals         _	
463
14
12
57
J REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1956/57 BB 73
XVIII. Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for Year Ended March 3 1st, 1957
Oakalla
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince George
Total
Men
Women
Men
Women
Expenditure
Salaries  -
Office expense . ,. ,	
Travelling expense — 	
Office furniture and equip-
$1,339,032.72
15,172.98
22,672.25
1,465.45
100,335.00
13,676.54
104,733.18
323,290.50
14,773.75
32,018.21
432.78
44,786.72
23,396.24
3,680.03
16,928.34
11,727.19
2,094.88
4,033.94
21,354.79
4,599.64
49,731.60
116,289.11
1,117.88
5,967.98
45,000.00
9,602.83
$153,667.19
336.47
913.61
$45,990.94
655.89
1,107.74
4,439.15
1,569.92
1,359.93
8,540.64
51.23
432.90
$39,912.56
281.39
1,223.94
159.26
2,188.22
885.10
2,071.18
10,240.54
$141,017.53
1,697.29
4,775.20
$64,017.24
353.20
294.39
$1,783,638.18
18,497.22
30,942.13
1,624.71
Heat,   light,   power,   and
15,168.98
3,084.80
7,222.04
32,663.44
2,216.48
1,712.10
5,696.20
2,035.06
1,007.27
12,775.79
769.59
650.60
127,827.55
Medical services ... 	
Clothing and uniforms
3,549.49
2,227.90
24,800.91
118,621.50
387,510.91
4,572.83
1,401.00
3,360.07
4,605.03
421.17
713.81
1,090.91
22,383.88
Good Conduct Fund   	
917.90
37,132.71
432.78
50.54
62.40
672.73
186.23
388.97
48,586.30
28,001.27
36.77
1,032.57
143.42
436.86
5,848.88
1,301.44
4,637.23
Maintenance  of buildings
463.45
489.48
25,659.78
Transportation (prisoners)
14,938.67
2,094.88
690.91
359.33
1,202.22
250.12
5,084.18
Motor-vehicles and acces-
22,557.01
Incidentals and contingen-
336.11
326.71
53.91
	
232.26
5,798.75
49,731.60
116,289.11
308.27
1,426.15
5,967.98
45,000.00
Acquisition and construe-
9,602.83
Recreational facilities and
94.40
94.40
Totals
$2,327,869.53
93,288.90
313,648.31
$177,980.90
	
$65,466.95
$59,535.73
281.84
$218,956.71
2,275.59
1,127.25
$89,092.80
$2,938,882.62
Public Works expenditure-
95,846.33
314,775.56
	
Gross expenditure
$2,734,806.74
$177,980.90
$65,466.95
$59,817.57
$222,359.55
$89,092.80
$3,349,504.51
Revenue
$191,759.49
$7,809.01
$199,568.50
$1,688.51
418.92
$961.65
7,411.52
2,650.16
$34,746.00
$1,584.00
44,160.44
Total refunds	
$191,759.49
$7,809.01
$2,107.43
$8,373.17
$51,444.40
$34,746.00
$187,613.55
$1,584.00
$87,508.80
$246,379.10
Total cost	
$2,543,047.25 ($170,171.89 | $63,339.52
1                      1
$3,103,125.41
XIX. Average Cost of Each Prisoner and Miscellaneous
Dietary cost of each prisoner per diem	
Keep of prisoners (including salaries and all expenses) per diem 	
$1.01
7.96
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1958
360-258-3882   

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