Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES for the Year Ended December 31st 1956 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1958]

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0354200.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0354200.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0354200-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0354200-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0354200-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0354200-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0354200-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0354200-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0354200-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0354200.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
for the Year Ended December 31st
1956
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1957  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1956.
WILLIAM RALPH TALBOT CHETWYND,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister's Office, Victoria, B.C.  WILLIAM RALPH TALBOT CHETWYND
It is with regret that we record the death of the Honourable William Ralph
Talbot Chetwynd, Minister of Fisheries.
Mr. Chetwynd was born in Staffordshire, England, on My 28th, 1890, and
was educated at Clifton College. He came to British Columbia in 1908, arriving
at Ashcroft and finally settling at Walhachin, where he became interested in
cattle-raising and farming.
At the outbreak of World War I, Mr. Chetwynd joined up with the Royal
Field Artillery and went overseas in 1916. He was wounded in action on the
Somme in 1918, while Acting Battery Commander, and won the Military Cross.
Mr. Chetwynd returned to Canada in 1919 and resumed his cattle-raising
business until 1942, when he joined the staff of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway
as right-of-way agent, public relations officer, and general " trouble-shooter " for
that company.   He remained with the P.G.E. until he entered politics.
Mr. Chetwynd was first elected to the British Columbia Legislature in June,
1952, for the constituency of Cariboo. He was appointed Minister of Fisheries,
Minister of Trade and Industry, and Minister of Railways on August 1st, 1952.
He was re-elected in 1953 and again in 1956, at which time he was appointed
Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Fisheries.
Mr. Chetwynd died on April 3rd, 1957.
two grandsons.
He leaves his wife, one son, and ANNOUNCEMENT
The first report of the " Fisheries Office " of the Provincial Government dealing
with the fisheries of British Columbia was published in 1901. This Report has been
published annually for the past fifty-six years.
In 1947, by an Act of the Legislature, the Department of Fisheries was established
with a Minister of Fisheries as head of the Department and a Deputy Minister as
administrator.
On March 28th, 1957, the Department of Fisheries was abolished, and it became
the Fisheries Branch of the new Department of Recreation and Conservation created by
an Act of the Legislature. The Honourable Earle C. Westwood is the Minister and
Dr. D. B. Turner, Acting Deputy Minister. All matters relating to the management and
administration of the Fisheries Branch, Game Commission, Parks Branch, Photographic
Branch, and the British Columbia Government Travel Bureau come under the jurisdiction
of the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
Mr. George J. Alexander, Deputy Minister of the former Department of Fisheries,
retired on October 31st, 1956. He served the Government of the Province in commercial
fisheries work from 1934 to 1956, following extensive service in the fishing industry at
points along the coast of British Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1956 Shows an Increase  9
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1956  9
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1956  10
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  10
Other Canneries  16
Mild-cured Salmon  17
Dry-salt Salmon  17
Dry-salt Herring  17
Halibut-fishery :  17
Fish Oil and Meal  18
Net-fishing in the Non-tidal Waters  19
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  20
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces, 1955  20
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia  21
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Paper No. 42) (Digest) 21
Herring Investigation  22
APPENDICES
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (No. 42).   By
D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., and D. W. Jenkinson, Fisheries Research Board of
Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  25
The Status of the Major Herring Stocks in British Columbia in 1956-57.
By F. H. C Taylor, Ph.D.; A. S. Hourston, Ph.D.;  and D. N. Outram, B.A.,
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  45
Report of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission for
1956  78
International Pacific Halibut Commission, 1956  84
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1956  88
Statistical Tables  101  REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENT
OF FISHERIES FOR 1956
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1956
SHOWS AN INCREASE
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1956 amounted
to $67,522,000.*   This was an increase of $6,854,000 over the production for 1955.
The principal species marketed in 1956 were salmon, with a value of $44,306,000;
herring, with a value of $10,660,000; and halibut, with a marketed value of $6,636,000
(livers and viscera excluded). The value of the salmon production in 1956 was $1,436,000
more than in 1955, and the herring production in 1956 increased $3,337,000 in comparison with the year previous. It should be noted that the herring figures are for the
calendar year and, consequently, somewhat distort the picture as this fishery extends
from November to March. The herring values quoted also include those fish landed in
the months of January and February, which properly belong to the 1955-56 herring-
fishing season.   The value of the halibut-catch was $2,712,000 more than in 1955.
In the 1956 season the marketed value of shell-fish amounted to $2,074,000. The
clam production was $360,000; oyster production, $425,000; crab production, $984,000;
and shrimp production, $305,000.
The value of boats engaged in commercial fishing in 1956 was $43,143,000, and
the total value of gear used in British Columbia's fisheries during 1956 was $7,675,000.
The above figures were taken from the "Preliminary Fisheries Statistics of British
Columbia," published by the Department of Fisheries of Canada, Vancouver, B.C.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1956
During the 1956 season eighteen salmon-canneries were licensed to operate by the
Provincial Department of Fisheries. This was two less than operated in 1955. The
location of the canneries operated in 1956 was as follows: Fraser River and Lower
Mainland, 10; Central Area, 2; Skeena River, 5; and Queen Charlotte Islands, 1. No
canneries have been operated on the Nass River or on Vancouver Island for some years.
There were no canning operations on Rivers Inlet during 1956.
For the past few years the tendency has been to operate fewer canneries in remote
areas and concentrate canning operations in more central locations. This has been made
possible by the use of large, fast packers capable of carrying sufficient ice to transport
the salmon in good condition over long distances to the processing plants, and equipped
with radio-telephones for direct communication with the fishermen and shore plants.
The only disruption in the 1956 fishing season occurred during the period October
15th to December 5th, due to a price dispute between the herring seine-fishermen and
the fishing companies.
The reader, when referring to the canned-salmon pack, should take into consideration the quantities of spring, cohoe, and chum salmon which find an outlet in the fresh
and frozen-fish trade, also the large amount of chum salmon which is exported to the
United States for processing each fall. Since 1947 fresh chum salmon have been permitted to be exported to the United States after September 1st in each year, which has
had the effect of reducing the British Columbia canned-salmon pack.
♦This figure does not include Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia.
9 K 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1956
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1956, according to the annual
returns submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries by those canners licensed to
operate, was 1,112,844 cases, compared with 1,410,298 cases canned in the year previous.
The 1956 pack was the lowest since 1944. The 1956 pack was 297,454 cases less than
in 1955 and 367,705 cases below the average annual pack for the previous five-year
period.
The 1956 canned-salmon pack was composed of 320,093 cases of sockeye, 11,672
cases of springs, 1,254 cases of steelheads, 212,140 cases of cohoe, 363,614 cases of
pinks, and 204,070 cases of chums.
The 1956 sockeye-pack of 320,093 cases was 75,272 cases higher than the pack
for the previous year and 129,040 cases less than the cycle-year 1952. The spring-
salmon pack of 11,672 cases was the smallest pack since 1952, in which year 9,279 cases
were canned. The total cohoe-pack of 212,140 cases was the largest since the record
pack of 313,674 cases in 1951. The 1956 pink-salmon pack was 363,614 cases, compared with 831,225 cases in 1955 and 337,060 cases in the cycle-year 1954. The chum-
salmon pack in 1956 was 204,070 cases. This is compared with 128,289 cases in the
year previous and 96,005 cases in 1952, which was the smallest pack for this species
on record.
In considering the pack of chum salmon, due allowance must be made for the
large numbers which are exported to the United States each year.
The reader is referred to the tables in the Appendix to this Report for a breakdown
of the different species of canned salmon by districts.
In the Appendix to this Report is published, for the first time, a table giving a
complete summary of the total numbers and weight of all salmon caught by commercial
fishermen in British Columbia during 1956. These figures are compiled from sales-slips
received by the Department of Fisheries of Canada, Vancouver, B.C. The reader is
cautioned that the total figures include all species of salmon used for processing, canning,
fresh and frozen, and exported in the raw state to the United States.
Any attempt to estimate the total run of any species of salmon to any river system
should take into consideration the escapement to the spawning-beds. The reader is
referred to " The Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1956," and " Catch
Statistics," published in the Appendix to this Report.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS
Fraser River
The total canned-salmon pack for the Fraser River in 1956 amounted to 113,954
cases, compared with previous packs for this river system, as follows: 1955, 294,238
cases; 1954, 563,087 cases; 1953, 496,396 cases; and 1952, 151,147 cases. The 1956
pack was composed of 88,132 cases of sockeye, 2,873 cases of springs, 337 cases of
steelheads, 12,273 cases of cohoe, 348 cases of pinks, and 9,989 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1956 the Canadian pack of sockeye salmon for the Fraser
River amounted to 88,132 cases. This was the smallest pack for this species since 1950,
when the pack amounted to 108,223 cases. The 1956 pack was 124,784 cases less
than the average annual pack for this river system for the previous five-year period.
The 1952 cycle-year for Fraser River sockeye produced a pack of 134,625 cases.
The Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery is regulated by the International Pacific
Salmon Fisheries Commission under treaty between Canada and the United States.
The Commission is composed of six members, three of whom are appointed by the
Canadian Government and three by the United States Government. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 11
The Commission regulates the Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery in such a way
that the nationals of each country share the catch equally. The Fraser River Sockeye
Salmon Fishery Regulations are formulated by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission and are enforced by the Department of Fisheries of Canada. In 1956 the
Commission recommended a special closed period extending from June 28 th to September 19th for the purpose of providing an adequate escapement to the spawning-beds and
to obtain a closer division of the catch between Canadian and American fishermen. The
efforts of the Commission are producing excellent results.
According to the figures released by the Commission in 1956, the total sockeye-
catch was 1,801,708 fish. The Canadian catch amounted to 894,836 fish and was
49.7 per cent of the total catch. The following table shows the percentage of catch by
American and Canadian fishermen since 1939.
1939_
American
(Per Cent)
. 44.50
1940  37.50
1941  39.30
1942  37.20
1943  37.42
1944  29.77
1945  39.90
1946  43.90
1947  16.60
1948  59.47
1949  49.98
1950  57.70
1951  46.78
1952  49.74
1953  50.31
1954  50.44
1955  48.00
1956  50.30
Canadian
(Per Cent)
55.50
62.50
60.70
62.80
62.58
70.23
60.10
56.10
83.40
40.53
50.02
42.30
53.22
50.26
49.69
49.56
52.00
49.70
In the Appendix to this Report is a table showing the total sockeye-salmon packs
of the Fraser River arranged in accordance with the four-year cycles, from 1895 to 1956,
inclusive, and showing the catches made by British Columbia and Washington fishermen
in the respective years.
The report of the activities of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission
for 1956 is published in the Appendix to this Report.
Spring Salmon.—The fresh- and frozen-fish trade consumes large quantities of spring
salmon; therefore, the canned pack of this species is never indicative of the size of the
catch or the size of the run. The spring-salmon pack for 1956 was 2,873 cases, compared
with 6,843 cases in 1955, 8,298 cases in 1954, 5,620 cases in 1953, and 2,279 cases
in 1952.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Fraser River produced a pack of 12,273 cases of cohoe
in 1956. This is compared with 15,910 cases in 1955 and 11,948 cases in 1954.
In 1953, the cycle-year, 15,480 cases were canned. Large quantities of cohoe caught in
the Fraser River area enter the fresh- and frozen-fish market and, of course, are in
addition to the canned-salmon pack.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon run to the Fraser River occurs only every alternate
year, the runs coinciding with the odd-numbered years. In 1956 the Fraser River
produced a pack of 348 cases, compared with 160,187 cases in 1955, 17 cases in 1954,
and 204,421 cases in 1953. K 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack on the Fraser River for 1956 was 9,989
cases. This is compared with the 1955 pack of 7,350 cases and the 1954 pack of 45,444
cases. The 1956 chum pack was disappointing and was 9,647 cases below the average
annual pack for the past five years.
Skeena River
The Skeena River in 1956 produced a total salmon-pack of 55,527 cases. This was
the smallest pack for the Skeena since 1947, when 79,718 cases were canned. Fishing in
this river was curtailed by special regulatory measures designed to increase salmon
escapements in an effort to re-establish the salmon runs depleted as a result of the rock-
slide which blocked the Babine River, a major spawning area, during the 1951-52
brood-year.
The total pack in 1956 was 67,980 cases less than were packed in the year previous
and 75,322 cases below the average annual pack on the Skeena for the past five years.
The 1956 pack is compared with the pack of 1955, in which year there were a total
of 123,507 cases canned. The 1954 pack was 136,500 cases, while 117,406 cases
were canned in 1953.
In 1956 the canned-salmon pack on the Skeena River was composed of 14,663
cases of sockeye, 371 cases of springs, 312 cases of steelheads, 8,265 cases of cohoe,
25,633 cases of pinks, and 6,283 cases of chums.
The sockeye run to the Skeena River has been decreasing in latter years, and the
special regulatory measures enforced to increase the escapement to the spawning-beds
were justified. As a conservation measure, fishing for all species of salmon was curtailed,
which resulted in the lowest salmon-pack ever recorded for the Skeena River.
The reader should note that any consideration of the canned-salmon pack as a
measure of the total run of any species should take into account the escapement to the
spawning-beds. This is contained in the " Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia,
1956," published in the Appendix to this Report.
Sockeye Salmon.—The pack of sockeye salmon on the Skeena River in 1956,
amounting to 14,663 cases, was again disappointing. This is compared with 14,649
cases packed in 1955 and 60,816 cases canned in 1954. The 1953 pack was 65,003
cases, and 114,775 cases were packed in 1952.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon on the Skeena River, as on other river systems in
the Province, are usually caught incidental to fishing for other species and find an outlet
in other than the canned-salmon market; therefore, the size of the spring-salmon pack is
not indicative of the size of the run of this species to any river system.
In 1956 the canned pack of spring salmon amounted to 371 cases. This is compared with 1,430 cases in 1955, 1,260 cases in 1954, 1,174 cases in 1953, and 2,082
cases in 1952.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Skeena River is never a large producer of cohoe salmon.
In 1956 there were 8,265 cases of cohoe canned, compared with 14,192 cases in 1955
and 10,449 cases in 1954. The 1956 pack was 1,040 cases below the average annual
pack for this river system for the previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The 1956 pack of pink salmon, amounting to 25,633 cases, was
disappointing after the large pack of 86,788 cases in 1955. The 1956 pack was 13,691
cases less than the cycle-year 1954, in which year 39,324 cases were canned. The 1953
pack was 29,884 cases.
Chum Salmon.—In 1956 the Skeena River produced a pack of chum salmon
amounting to 6,283 cases. This is compared with 5,471 cases in 1955 and 23,135 cases
in 1954. In 1953 the chum-salmon pack was 15,114 cases, while in 1952 only 4,638
cases were canned. The chum-salmon pack was 4,645 cases below the average annual
pack for the previous five-year period. report of provincial fisheries department, 1956 k 13
Nass River
The canned-salmon pack for the Nass River in 1956 amounted to 111,414 cases.
This was the largest pack for the Nass since 1951, when the total pack was 152,742 cases.
The Nass River pack has been rather consistent since 1953. In 1955 the pack was
62,081 cases, compared with 69,358 cases in 1954 and 66,510 cases in 1953.
The Nass River pack in 1956 was composed of 22,505 cases of sockeye, 536 cases
of springs, 217 cases of steelheads, 8,165 cases of cohoe, 44,402 cases of pinks, and
35,588 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1956 the Nass River produced a sockeye-salmon pack of
22,505 cases, compared with 13,654 cases in 1955, 10,285 cases in 1954, 18,162 cases
in 1953, and 29,429 cases in 1952. The 1956 sockeye-pack was 3,698 cases above the
average annual pack for the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon on the Nass River are caught only incidentally while
fishing for other species of salmon, consequently the pack is not always an indication of
the size of the run or of the catch.
In 1956 the Nass produced 536 cases of springs, compared with 1,028 cases in
1955, 398 cases in 1954, 527 cases in 1953, and 641 cases in 1952.
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoe salmon on the Nass River in 1956 amounted
to 8,165 cases, compared with 9,356 cases in 1955, 6,024 cases in 1954, 5,118 cases
in 1953, and 1,223 cases in 1952.
Pink Salmon.—The Nass River produced a pack of pink salmon in 1956 amounting
to 44,402 cases. This pack is compared with the cycle-years 1954 and 1952, when
36,448 and 13,016 cases, respectively, were canned. The pack in 1955 was 29,040
cases, and in 1953 there were 16,635 cases canned.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack for the Nass River in 1956, amounting to
35,588 cases, must be considered a large one when compared with the size of former
packs of this species for this river system. The 1956 chum-salmon pack was the
largest pack since 1951, when 37,742 cases were canned. In 1955 the pack of chums
was 8,904 cases; in 1954, 15,965 cases; in 1953, 25,756 cases; and in 1952, 13,112
cases.
Rivers Inlet
Rivers Inlet is mainly a sockeye gill-net area. In 1956 the total pack amounted
to 146,683 cases, producing a good pack of sockeye salmon. The Rivers Inlet pack
in 1956 was composed of 124,634 cases of sockeye, 419 cases of springs, 55 cases of
steelheads, 6,601 cases of cohoe, 12,046 cases of pinks, and 2,926 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—Rivers Inlet in 1956 was one of the top sockeye-producing areas.
The pack amounted to 124,634 cases, compared with 50,702 cases in 1955, 50,639
cases in 1954, 132,925 cases in 1953, and 84,297 cases in 1952. The sockeye-pack
in 1956 was 35,995 cases above the average annual pack for this species for the previous
five years and 34,063 cases above the average annual pack for the previous ten-year
period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are usually caught incidentally while fishing for
sockeye in Rivers Inlet; therefore, the pack is never large in this area. The pack of
spring salmon amounted to 419 cases in 1956, compared with 813 cases in 1955, 649
cases in 1954, 865 cases in 1953, and 865 cases in 1952.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of cohoe salmon. The 1956
pack of 6,601 cases was the largest since 1951, when 12,416 cases were canned. The
pack in 1955 amounted to 5,316 cases, while in 1954 the pack was 4,669 cases. In 1953
there were 1,979 cases of cohoe canned from Rivers Inlet caught fish and 3,415 cases
in 1952. K 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pink Salmon.—In Rivers Inlet, pink salmon are caught in gill-nets incidentally while
fishing for sockeye salmon. The pack in 1956 amounted to 12,046 cases, while the
previous years' packs were: 1955, 8,658 cases; 1954, 2,581 cases; 1953, 7,304 cases;
and 1952, 12,469 cases.
Chum Salmon.—In 1956 the chum-salmon pack in Rivers Inlet amounted to 2,926
cases, compared with 5,588 cases in 1955, 12,352 cases in 1954, 5,627 cases in 1953,
and 3,711 cases in 1952.
Smith Inlet
Smith Inlet is similar to Rivers Inlet, in that both are predominantly sockeye gill-net
fishing areas. Other species of salmon caught in Smith Inlet are usually caught inci-
dently while fishing for sockeye. The total canned-salmon pack for Smith Inlet in 1956
amounted to 42,652 cases, composed of 36,898 cases of sockeye, 166 cases of springs,
2,249 cases of cohoe, 1,664 cases of pinks, and 1,642 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1956 Smith Inlet produced a pack of 36,898 cases of sockeye, compared with the previous year's pack of 28,864 cases. This area produced 18,937
cases of sockeye in 1954, 29,947 cases in 1953, and 34,834 cases in 1952, the cycle-year.
The 1956 pack was 7,002 cases above the average annual pack for Smith Inlet for the
previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—The spring-salmon pack for Smith Inlet is never large as this
species is only caught incidental to fishing for sockeye. In 1956 there were 166 cases
of spring salmon canned from Smith Inlet caught fish, compared with the 1955 pack
of 326 cases. In 1954 the pack was 177 cases; in 1953 it was 176 cases; and in 1952,
367 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack for 1956 amounted to 2,249 cases. This was the
largest pack since 1951, when 3,259 cases were canned. The packs for the previous
years were:   1955, 1,014 cases;  1954, 868 cases;  and 1953, 615 cases.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack for Smith Inlet has never been very large.
This species also is caught incidental to fishing for sockeye. In 1956 pink salmon
caught in Smith Inlet produced a pack of 1,664 cases, compared with 2,275 cases in
1955, 523 cases in 1954, and 1,017 cases in 1952.
Chum Salmon.—There were 1,642 cases of chum salmon canned in 1956 from
Smith Inlet caught fish, compared with 2,070 cases in 1955, 2,992 cases in 1954, and
4,015 cases in 1953.   In 1952 the pack for this species dropped to 315 cases.
Queen Charlotte Islands
The principal species of salmon caught in the Queen Charlotte Islands District are
pinks and chums, although a considerable number of cohoe and springs are caught for
the fresh- and frozen-fish markets. Pink salmon are caught only every alternate year in
this district, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years. All other species are
caught every year.
In 1956 the Queen Charlotte Islands produced a total pack of canned salmon
amounting to 44,891 cases, composed of 1,323 cases of sockeye, 7,314 cases of cohoe,
18,809 cases of pinks, and 17,443 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1956 the sockeye-pack amounted to 1,323 cases, compared
with 433 cases in 1955, 107 cases in 1954, and 246 cases in 1953. In 1952 the pack
was 635 cases. In the Queen Charlotte Islands District, sockeye are caught only incidentally while fishing for other species.
Spring Salmon.—As previously mentioned, spring salmon caught in this area usually
enter the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. In 1956, 1 case of spring salmon was canned,
compared with 16 cases in 1955, 6 cases in 1954, and 1 case in 1953. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 15
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1956 there were 7,314 cases of cohoe salmon canned from
Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish, while in 1955 the pack was 11,666 cases. In 1954
the pack amounted to 11,289 cases, and in 1953, 2,437 cases were canned.
Pink Salmon.—In the Queen Charlotte Islands, pink salmon run only in the even-
numbered years. The expected run for 1956 did not materialize; therefore, the pink-
salmon pack of 18,809 cases was most disappointing. In 1955 the pack was 548 cases,
while in 1954, the cycle-year, the pack amounted to 105,123 cases.
Chum Salmon.—The 1956 pack of chum salmon in the Queen Charlotte Islands
District, amounting to 17,443 cases, was again disappointing. In 1955 the pack was
9,402 cases, compared with 83,805 cases in 1954 and 17,304 cases in 1953. Commenting on the spawning conditions in the area in 1956, the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries says:
" The chum-salmon failure in the Queen Charlotte Islands area was pronounced and is
the fourth consecutive season of poor chum-salmon runs, calling for immediate application
of extraordinary measures for the rehabilitation of one of the prolific chum-streams in
this area. Pink returns to this area were also disappointingly light and will also require
special conservation attention."
The Chief Supervisor's report on the spawning-beds, also the catch summary for
each district, will be found in the Appendix to this Report.
Central Area
The Central Area includes all the salmon-fishing areas from the Skeena River to
Cape Calvert, with the exception of Rivers Inlet. The total production of canned salmon
from fish caught in this area in 1956 amounted to 324,164 cases, compared with 214,998
cases in 1955 and 327,820 cases in 1954. The 1956 pack consisted of 17,967 cases of
sockeye, 1,364 cases of springs, 273 cases of steelheads, 40,299 cases of cohoe, 205,658
cases of pinks, and 58,602 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—Again in 1956 the Central Area sockeye-pack was small, and
the 17,967 cases canned was the smallest pack of this species since 1949, when 16,140
cases were packed. In the previous years the packs were as follows: 1955, 19,648 cases;
1954, 30,858 cases; 1953, 25,845 cases; and 1952, 26,583 cases. The sockeye-pack in
the Central Area was 6,213 cases below the average annual pack of sockeye in this area
for the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—In 1956 the pack of spring salmon in the Central Area amounted
to 1,364 cases, compared with 1,864 cases in 1955, 1,645 cases in 1954, 1,568 cases in
1953, and 1,261 cases in 1952.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack of 40,299 cases in 1956 was the largest pack of
this species in this area since 1951, when 61,423 cases were canned. In 1955 the pack
amounted to 24,846 cases; in 1954 it was 25,611 cases; in 1953, 21,502 cases were
canned; and 17,289 cases were packed in 1952. The cohoe-pack in 1956 was 9,970
cases above the average annual pack for this area for the previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—For years the Central Area has been a heavy producer of pink
salmon. In 1956 the pink-salmon pack amounted to 205,658 cases, compared with
122,371 cases in 1955, 118,538 cases in 1954, 92,517 cases in 1953, and 207,055 cases
in 1952. The pink-salmon pack in 1956 was 56,421 cases above the average annual pack
for this area for the previous five-year period.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack for the Central Area in 1956, amounting
to 58,602 cases, must be considered disappointing when compared with the 1955 pack
of 45,950 cases. In 1954 the chum-pack was 149,672 cases, while in 1953 the Central
Area produced a pack of 175,289 cases.   In 1952 there were 36,605 cases canned.
Reports from the spawning-grounds on the escapement of chums in the Central Area
indicate that "the runs were light and below those of 1952." K 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Vancouver Island
The Vancouver Island District, like the Central Area, supports numerous races of
salmon migrating to different streams. No attempt is made to deal with the various races
separately. It should be pointed out, however, that the sockeye salmon caught in the
Sooke traps and vicinity are not credited to Vancouver Island, but to the Fraser River,
where most of them are known to migrate. Similarly, sockeye caught in Johnstone Strait
between Vancouver Island and the Mainland are also credited to the Fraser River in this
Report and not to Vancouver Island. These fish are known to be migrating to the
Fraser River.
For statistical purposes of this Report, salmon, other than sockeye, caught in
Johnstone Strait between Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland are credited to
Vancouver Island.
The total salmon-pack from Vancouver Island caught fish amounted to 265,523
cases in 1956, compared with 581,599 cases in 1955 and 349,586 cases in 1954. The
Vancouver Island salmon-pack in 1956 was composed of 13,970 cases of sockeye, 5,941
cases of springs, 25 cases of steelheads, 118,938 cases of cohoe, 55,052 cases of pinks,
and 71,595 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1956 Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland area produced a pack of 13,970 cases, compared with 13,192 cases in 1955, 12,051 cases in 1954,
46,895 cases in 1953, and 24,252 cases in 1952.
For details of the escapement to the spawning-grounds, the reader should refer to
the spawning report published in the Appendix to this Report.
Spring Salmon.—The 1956 pack of spring salmon credited to Vancouver Island and
the adjacent Mainland was 5,941 cases, compared with 5,534 cases in 1955. This area
produced 1,649 cases in 1954 and 3,115 cases in 1953. A considerable amount of spring
salmon is caught each year by trolling off the west coast of Vancouver Island. The
canned-salmon pack figures are not indicative of the size of the catch because troll-caught
salmon from this area also find an outlet in the fresh, frozen, and mild-cured markets.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe are caught in large quantities by trolling off the west coast
of Vancouver Island and, like spring salmon, also find a market in the fresh- and frozen-
fish trade. For this reason the canned pack is not indicative of the size of the catch.
Bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack.
In the Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland area in 1956 the cohoe-pack
amounted to 118,938 cases, compared with 101,349 cases in 1955, 54,783 cases in 1954,
and 57,773 cases in 1953.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack for Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland in 1956 was 55,052 cases. This is compared with the packs in the even-numbered
cycle-years—namely, 1954, when 32,913 cases were packed, and the 1952 pack of
171,812 cases. The largest pink-salmon runs and packs for this area, according to
records, are produced in the odd-numbered years. In 1955 the pack amounted to
421,355 cases, compared with 439,173 cases in 1953 and 303,102 cases in 1951.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack for Vancouver Island in 1956 was 71,595
cases, compared with 40,105 cases in 1955, 248,098 cases in 1954, 124,840 cases in
1953, and a small pack of 24,039 cases in 1952.
In 1956 there were 8,034 cases of cohoe imported from Alaska canned in British
Columbia.
OTHER CANNERIES
Pilchard-canneries.—Since 1949 there have been no pilchards in British Columbia
waters.   No pilchard-cannery licences were issued during the 1956 season. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 17
Herring-canneries.—In 1956 one herring-cannery was licensed to operate in British
Columbia, producing a pack of 11,728 cases. This pack is compared with the year previous, when a total of 25,508 cases of herring were canned in various sizes, including
sardines and oval snacks.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—The first commercial tuna-fish canning operation in British
Columbia was licensed by the Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1948. In 1956
one tuna-fish cannery was licensed to operate. This cannery produced 56,256 cases of
7-ounce cans, 19,181 cases of 48/6-ounce cans, and 22,828 cases of 4-ounce cans. In
1955 one tuna-fish cannery operated, producing 73,126 cases of 7-ounce cans and 29,675
cases of 4-ounce cans. In 1956, as in 1955, all of the tuna canned in British Columbia
were imported from Japan in a frozen condition.
The tuna-fishery off the west coast of British Columbia is still in an experimental
condition, consequently the catch will vary from year to year.
Shell-fish Canneries.—In 1956 eight shell-fish canneries were licensed in British
Columbia, all of which operated. This was two less than operated in 1955. The eight
shell-fish canneries produced the following packs in 1956:—
Crabs:   32,995 cases of 24/1/2's, 1,552 cases of 48/1/2's, and 2,281 cases of
48/14's.
Clams:  2,206 cases of 48/1's, 9,634 cases of 24/1's, 2,709 cases of 48/1/2's,
and 7,109 cases of 24/Vi's.
Oysters:   5,085 cases of 48/,4's, 1,026 cases of 48/10-oz., and 1,114 cases
of 48/10-ounce oyster stew.
Abalones:   10 cases of 48/1's.
MILD-CURED SALMON
Six plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1956, all of which operated. These
six plants produced 703 tierces of mild-cured salmon, totalling 5,985 hundredweight.
This operation is compared with the production of five plants licensed to operate in 1955
which produced a pack of 553 tierces of mild-cured salmon containing 5,085 hundredweight.
DRY-SALT SALMON
Since the end of World War II the business of dry-salting salmon has not been
revived. In 1947 two licences were issued, but no operation took place. No licences
have been issued for salmon dry-salteries since that time.
DRY-SALT HERRING
In 1956 one herring dry-saltery was licensed to operate, producing 1,202 boxes of
dry-salt herring. This is compared with the production of one plant licensed in 1955,
which produced 1,016 boxes of salt herring.
HALIBUT-FISHERY
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the International Pacific Halibut Commission, which Commission is set up under treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut-fishery.
This is a deep-sea fishery and is shared by the nationals of the two countries, Canada and
the United States. The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis and, on that
account, there is little fluctuation in the amount of halibut landed from year to year,
except when the quotas are changed by the Commission for any reason. There is, however, some fluctuation from year to year in the quantity landed by the nationals of each
country. K 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
For the purpose of regulation, the coast was originally divided into a number of
areas, the principal ones, from the standpoint of production, being Areas 2 and 3. The
Commission has found it necessary to subdivide these areas into a number of sub-areas
in order to facilitate its work and to make better use of the stock of halibut on the different banks. For a more detailed breakdown of the areas and the geographical limits
of each, the reader is referred to the Pacific Halibut Regulations for 1956.
The 1956 catch-limits set by the Commission for the different areas were as follows:
Area 2, 26,500,000 pounds, and Area 3, 28,000,000 pounds. These were the same
quantities as were permitted in 1955.
In 1956 the total landings by all vessels in all ports amounted to 67,566,000 pounds,
compared with 59,094,000 pounds in 1955. The 1956 catch was derived by areas as
follows: Area 1a, 430,000 pounds; Area 1b, 174,000 pounds; Area 2, 35,372,000
pounds; Area 3a, 30,928,000 pounds; and Area 3b, 662,000 pounds.
The total halibut-landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1956 was 25,935,000
pounds. This is compared with 22,601,000 pounds in 1955. The total landings by all
vessels in Canadian ports in 1956 were caught as follows: Area 2, 15,686,000 pounds;
Area 3a, 10,102,000 pounds; Area 3b, 147,000 pounds.
Canadian vessels landed in Canadian ports in 1956 a total of 22,934,000 pounds
of halibut. This catch is compared with Canadian landings by Canadian vessels in 1955
amounting to 19,850,000 pounds. The Canadian vessels took their catches by areas as
follows: Area 2, 14,988,000 pounds; Area 3a, 7,799,000 pounds; and Area 3b, 147,-
000 pounds.
In addition to the above, Canadian vessels landed in American ports in 1956,
2,723,000 pounds of halibut, compared with the same landings in 1955 of 2,298,000
pounds. The halibut landed by Canadian vessels in American ports in 1956 was caught
as follows: Area 2, 93,000 pounds; Area 3a, 2,456,000 pounds; and Area 3b, 174,000
pounds.
American vessels landed in Canadian ports in 1956 a total of 3,001,000 pounds of
halibut, compared with the same landings in 1955 amounting to 2,751,000 pounds.
The American catch landed in Canadian ports was caught as follows: Area 2, 698,000
pounds, and Area 3a, 2,303,000 pounds.
The average price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert and the average
price for all Canadian landings in Canadian ports in 1956 was 21.7 cents per pound,
compared with 13 cents per pound in 1955. There was no average price immediately
available for Prince Rupert alone when these figures were compiled. The average price
of halibut in the Province as a whole usually reflects the Prince Rupert price.
A breakdown of the value of halibut-livers and vitamin-bearing halibut viscera,
which is usually included in this Report, is not available at this time. However, it is
known that halibut-livers to the value of $34,708 and Vitamin A bearing viscera to the
value of $5,232 were landed by the United States fleet. The Canadian fleet will have, no
doubt, received proportionately a similar amount for livers and Vitamin A bearing viscera landed in Canada.
The above figures relating to the halibut-catch are to the nearest thousand pounds.
The statistical information for the halibut-fishery was supplied by the International
Pacific Halibut Commission and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
The production of fish-oil and edible fish-meal has been an important branch of
British Columbia's fisheries for a number of years. Previous to World War II, pilchards
and herring were the principal species used for reduction to meal and oil. The products
of the reduction plants found a ready market, the meal being used as a supplementary
food for animal-feeding and the oil being used in manufacturing processes of many kinds. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 19
The demand for natural sources of vitamins stimulated the production of vitamin
oils from fish products, and at the outbreak of World War II the demand for natural
sources of vitamins greatly increased the production of fish-oils of high vitamin content.
This increased demand brought into use other fish besides herring and pilchards during
the war years and immediately afterwards. Dogfish and shark livers were in high demand
in those years. Recently, however, the increased production of synthetic Vitamin A has
lessened the demand for fish-liver oil as a natural source of this vitamin, and if the price
of synthetic Vitamin A falls much lower, the market for livers containing this vitamin
may very soon disappear.
In addition to the production of oils from British Columbia's various fish and fish-
livers in recent years, there has been considerable activity in the use of cannery-waste
and viscera for the production of various pharmaceutical products. Besides the high
vitamin-content oils used in the medicinal field, British Columbia's fish-oils of lower
vitamin potency find an outlet in many manufacturing processes, and large quantities
are used for the feeding of poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—In 1956, only four plants were licensed to reduce fish-livers to oil,
all of which operated. The four plants processed 648,134 pounds of livers and produced
Vitamin A to the extent of 2,355,410 million U.S.P. units. This production is compared
with that of 1955, in which year four plants operated and produced a total of 4,760,668
million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A from 1,198,010 pounds of fish-livers.
Herring Reduction.—The winter herring-fishery has developed into British Columbia's second important fishery in dollar value. The season generally runs from late in
September or early in October through until the following March, with a short break at
the Christmas period. Many of the boats used in catching herring are also used in
salmon-fishing, and, generally speaking, the herring-fishery does not get into full swing
until the boats have been released from fishing for salmon.
In 1956 thirteen herring-reduction plants were licensed to operate, producing
herring-meal to the extent of 32,772 tons and 3,602,937 imperial gallons of oil. This
production is compared with the year previous, when fifteen plants produced 47,097
tons of meal and 4,475,536 imperial gallons of oil.
Whale Reduction.—In British Columbia there is only one shore-based whaling-
station. In 1956 operations from this station killed 375 whales, compared with 630 in
1955.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed by
the Provincial Department of Fisheries under miscellaneous reduction licences. These
plants operate on cannery-waste and the carcasses of dogfish and produce meal and oil
for various purposes. The oil produced from the carcasses of dogfish should not be
confused with the oil produced from dogfish-livers, the latter being a high-potency oil
which is reported in another section of this Report.
In 1956 ten plants were licensed to operate, producing 1,925 tons of meal and
187,787 imperial gallons of oil. This production is compared with 1955, when nine
plants were licensed and produced 1,993 tons of meal and 201,690 imperial gallons
of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS
Under section 73 of the British Columbia Fishery Regulations, fishing with nets in
certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under licence from
the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost exclusively to the
residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in question.
In the Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number and
approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake. K 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for
net-fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province—namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and
sturgeon. The fur-farm licences are issued to licensed fur-farmers, and the coarse fish
taken under these licences are used for food for fur-bearing animals held in captivity.
Ordinary fishing licences are issued for the capture of fish other than trout, salmon, or
sturgeon, while licences issued for sturgeon-fishing are used exclusively for that fishery.
A detailed account of the fish taken by the licensed nets in the different waters of
the Province is again carried in the table appearing in the Appendix to this Report.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S
SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS
We are again indebted to the Chief Supervisor of the Department of Fisheries of
Canada and the officers of his department, who conducted the investigation, for furnishing
us with a copy of the Department's report on the salmon-spawning grounds of British
Columbia and permitting it to be published in the Appendix to this Report. The Chief
Supervisor's courtesy in supplying us with this information is gratefully acknowledged.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING
OF THE PROVINCES, 1955
The value of fisheries products of Canada for the year 1955 totalled $179,068,000.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of $60,668,-
000, or 33 per cent of Canada's total. British Columbia, in 1955, led all of the Provinces
of Canada in respect to the production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that
of Nova Scotia, second in rank, by $16,668,000.
The marketed value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1955 was
$8,754,000 less than the year previous.   The value of salmon amounted to $42,869,000.
The following statement gives the value of fisheries products of the Provinces of
Canada for the years 1951 to 1955, inclusive:—
Province
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
$83,812,704
40,296.367
21,154,877
5,511,379
7,924,530
7,524,392
3,212,629
862,327
1,748,444
2,261,964
29,000,000
$56,635,0001
42,435,000
20 503,700
6.113.000
8.343 700
5,959,700
3,758.700
942,900
1,440,000
2,225,100
$65,455,0001
40,012,200
17,522,700
5.804 000
7,916,100
4,784,500
4 048,900
1,085.900
1,281,300
1,511,500
$69,422,0001
41.000 OOO2
18,158,0002
5,423,0002
7,890 000
5,435,000
4,000,0002
1,150 000
1,644,000
2,040,000
28.000,0002
$60,668,0001
44,000,0002
21,200,0002
Quebec 	
Ontario  —   —   ..
Manitoba.  	
6,000,0002
7,300.000
6,000,000
4,500 0002
1,000 000
Saskatchewan—	
1,800,000
1,600.000
Newfoundland (estimated)	
25,000,0002
Totals 	
$203,309,613
$148,357,200
$149,422,100
$184,162,000
$179,068,000
3 This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia.
2 Estimated figures. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 21
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1952 to 1956, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
Salmon  	
Halibut. ._ 	
$40,495,000
5,531.000
4,235,000
$47,936,000
5,552,702
6,518,000
251,000
384 000
449,000
313,000
663,000
854,000
361,0001
304,000
6.000
(3)
29,000
C2)
7,000
17,000
(2)
6,000
34,000
$50,281,000
5,965,000
7,340,000
467,000
487,000
306,000
257,000
879,000
461,000
290,0001
470,000
4,000
30,000
41,000
82,000
4,000
9,000
(2)
9,000
57,000
$42,869,000
3,924,000
7,323,000
$44,306,000
6 636,000
10,660,000
Pilchard...          	
521,000
590,000
477,000
310.000
475,000
1 533.000
227.0001
438,000
3,000
20,000
75,000
445,000
399 000
436 000
265,000
996,000
710,000
281,0001
420,000
457,000
Ling cod    	
532,000
360,000
139,000
984,000
903,000
305,000!
425,000
14,000
35,000
17,000
1,000
13,000
(2)
7,000
106,000
21.000
33,000
Perch                  	
36,000
Smelts  	
15,000
(2)
5,000
115,000
1,000
11,000
(2)
Skate 	
7.000
Eulachons 	
86,000
349,000
(«)
( = )
26,000
54,000
355,390
(2)
(2)
13,000
3,000
427,000
(2)
(2)
1,000
Whales  	
(2)
C2)
(2)
(2)
Liver and viscera—
132,000
254,000
5.000
2,016,000
42,000
158,000
Other liver and oil	
1,000
Miscellaneous  _	
1,142,000
1,399,000
1,555,000
1,419,000
Totals 	
$56,635,000
$65,455,092*
$69,422,000*
$60,668,000*
$67,522,000*
i Shrimps and prawns.
2 Included in miscellaneous.
3 Skate and flounders.
* This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia.
Miscellaneous includes octopus, whales, and fish products, meal and oil, which cannot be separated into species,
with a value of $500 or less.
The above figures were supplied by the Federal Department of Fisheries, Vancouver,
and are hereby gratefully acknowledged.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON
Paper No. 42 (Digest)
This paper was prepared this year by D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., and D. W. lenkin-
son, of the Pacific Biological Station of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Nanaimo, B.C. This is the forty-second consecutive paper in this series reporting on the
sockeye salmon in the commercial catch in the main runs north of the Fraser River.
The samples of sockeye, from which the reported data are taken, were obtained from
the commercial fishery in each area, which is mainly a drift gill-net fishery. The authors
point out that since gill-nets are selective in removing salmon from a fish run—that is,
they tend to select fish of certain sizes or sex—the samples taken may not be completely
typical of the whole run of fish being sampled. The data of the sockeye catch were
obtained from the Statistical Branch of the Department of Fisheries of Canada, Vancouver, B.C., and the pack figures were obtained from the Provincial Department of
Fisheries, Victoria, B.C. K 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In commenting on the individual runs, it is pointed out that the pack of 22,505 cases
of sockeye salmon on the Nass River was quite good for this area and above the average
of 17,899 cases for the last ten years. The run in 1956 resulted from the spawning escapements of 1951 and 1952, which were reported as very satisfactory.
Commenting on the Skeena River, the authors point out that the effect of the Babine
slide, which occurred in 1951, was noted in 1955 in the small proportion of 4-year-old
fish in the catch sample, as was expected. In the 1956 sockeye-catch sample, the expected
fall-off in the 5-year fish occurred as a direct effect of the slide. The catch sample consisted mainly of 4-year fish which came from the 1952 spawning escapement after the
partial clearance of the Babine River.
The yield of 14,663 cases of sockeye in 1956 was a slight increase over the previous
year's commercial catch, which represented the lowest on record for the Skeena River.
With respect to Rivers Inlet, the 1956 sockeye-catch produced 124,634 cases, which
was nearly two and one-half times that of the previous year. It is pointed out that the
catch was the result of the spawning escapement from the 1951 run which produced a
pack well above the average. The 1951 spawning escapement, as reported in the Department of Fisheries of Canada's spawning report for 1951, was medium to heavy, and from
this came 90 per cent of the 1956 run, according to the sample studied.
The Smith Inlet sockeye run of 1956, which yielded 36,898 cases, was 30 per cent
above the ten-year average of 27,725 cases. The catch sample consisted mainly of 5-year-
old fish, the result of heavy supplies of sockeye reaching the spawning-grounds in 1951.
For a more detailed analysis of the sizes making up the different runs, the reader is
referred to the paper which appears in the Appendix to this Report.
HERRING INVESTIGATION
Research on Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in British Columbia was continued in
1956-57 by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada at the Biological Station, Nanaimo,
B.C.
The purpose of herring research is to obtain the scientific basis for a management
policy that would permit the maximum sustained yield from this resource. The research
involves:—
(1) A general continuing study of all major British Columbia herring populations to provide information on the status of these populations and to
indicate the general application of specific studies.
(2) Detailed studies, in certain populations, of problems in population
dynamics at various life-history stages. The problems involved concern,
in general, the relationship between the size of spawning stock and the
strength of the resulting year-class, and the efficacy of catch quotas in preventing over-utilization and in stabilizing abundance at a high level.
General Studies of Adult Stocks of All Major Populations
Although tag returns in 1956-57 were fewer in number (1,708) and were attended
by more uncertainty as to the most probable area of recovery than in previous years,
they confirmed once again the relative discreteness of the populations as now defined.
Emigration in 1956-57 followed a normal, average pattern in most populations.
Relative abundance in each of the major populations was assessed from the size of
the catch made in the sub-district occupied by each population and from an estimate of
the spawning population derived from information on the amount of spawn deposited.
In 1956-57 the total catch was 177,087 tons, the lowest since 1947-48, a decrease of
29 per cent from the record catch of 1955-56. The amount of spawn deposited (131.1
miles) was 30 per cent less than in 1955-56. Thus herring were appreciably less abundant REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 23
in 1956-57 than in the previous season. The greatest decreases in relative abundance
occurred in the upper and lower Queen Charlotte Islands and the lower west coast sub-
districts. However, abundance was also appreciably lower in the lower central and
middle east coast sub-districts. In the northern sub-district, there was a substantial
increase in relative abundance from the low levels of the preceding three seasons. In the
upper central sub-district abundance increased somewhat in 1956-57, but still remained
below average. In the lower east coast sub-district there was little evidence of any
change in abundance. Late inshore migration again apparently hindered the exploitation
of the upper west coast population. However, the amount of spawn deposited there
indicated that while abundance may have decreased from the 1955-56 level, it still
remained above average.
The decreased relative abundance in most populations in 1956-57 resulted primarily
from the weakness of the dominant year-classes contributing to the fishable stocks. In
the upper and lower Queen Charlotte Islands populations the 1954, 1953, and 1952
year-classes (fish of ages III, IV, and V respectively) were weak. In the lower central
sub-district also, the 1952 and 1953 year-classes (ages IV and V) were relatively weak,
and had not the 1954 year-class (age III) been of at least average strength, abundance in
this sub-district would have declined further. The powerful 1951 year-class, which as
V-year fish contributed so strongly to the high 1955-56 catches in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands and lower central sub-districts, could not be expected as Vl-year-old fish in
1956-57 to make again an appreciable contribution to these populations. In the northern
sub-district, where abundance increased substantially in 1956-57, the 1953 and 1954
year-classes (ages IV and III respectively) were of at least average strength and were
stronger than in other Northern British Columbian populations. In Southern British
Columbia populations (District 3) relative abundance is dependent mainly on the
contributions of the year-class providing fish of age III, and to a lesser extent on that
providing fish of age IV. In the lower west coast sub-district the dominant year-class
(the 1954, age III) was very weak, and the 1953 year-class (age IV), although it appeared
of average strength in 1955-56, made a poor contribution in 1956-57. In the middle
east coast population, the 1952 year-class appears to have been the last of a series of three
strong year-classes. The 1953 year-class (age IV) was of below averge strength, and the
1954 year-class of only average strength. In the lower east coast population, the 1953
year-class (age IV) was relatively weaker than the 1952 and preceding recent year-classes,
but the 1954 year-class (age III) was probably as strong as those year-classes.
Relative abundance in 1957-58 will depend principally on the contributions to the
adult stock of the 1954 and 1955 year-classes. The 1954 year-class appears to be of
average strength in most Southern British Columbia populations, but of below average
strength in some northern populations. Present indications, on the basis of the proportion of Il-year fish in the catches in 1956-57, suggest that the 1955 year-class may be
of average strength in southern populations, but possibly of somewhat above average
strength in some northern populations. No substantial change in total catch is, therefore,
expected in 1957-58.
No significant differences were noted in the size of the fish at each age in the various
populations in 1956-57, indicating that feeding conditions were probably normal.
In the summer of 1956 a fishery for reduction purposes occurred, taking 30,579
tons of the total catch of 177,087 tons. This summer fishery was more substantial and
more widespread than those in previous years. While catches were made in all sub-
districts except the upper west coast, 44 per cent came from the upper east coast sub-
district, 28 per cent from the northern sub-district, and 13 per cent from the lower east
coast sub-district. Tag-recoveries from these fisheries, although relatively few in number,
suggested that in most areas the same stocks were fished in summer as in winter. However, the degree of intermingling with adjacent stocks was greater in summer than in K 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
winter. In all areas the summer-fished stocks contained a smaller proportion of younger
fish and a greater proportion of older fish than the equivalent winter-fished stocks. The
differences in age composition between the summer- and winter-fished stocks suggest that
new recruits do not join the fishable stocks until the time of the autumn pre-spawning
migration. The summer-fished stocks appeared to consist mainly of fish recruited in previous years and were probably the residues of the previous season's spawning populations.
Investigations of Special Problems
The juvenile (I-year) herring research programme was terminated after the 1956
season. While this programme yielded valuable information on herring at this stage in
their life-history, the effort involved in estimating the distribution and abundance of
juveniles in a given area precluded the extension of this programme to other parts of the
coast, or its continuation as a basis for the prediction of relative abundance at recruitment. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 25
APPENDICES
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE
SOCKEYE SALMON  (No. 42)
By D. R. Foskett,* B.A., M.A., and D. W. Ienkinson,
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
This is the forty-second report in a series which was begun in 1914 by the Commissioner of Fisheries for the Province of British Columbia and has since been continued
without interruption since that time, the reports appearing each year in the Report of
the Commissioner of Fisheries, latterly the Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries. The reports give, for each year, pertinent information regarding the sizes,
sex ratios, and age compositions of the sockeye caught in each of the major sockeye-
salmon fishing areas of the British Columbia coast, with the exception of the Fraser
River, which since 1937 has been within the jurisdiction of the International Pacific
Salmon Fisheries Commission. The areas dealt with, therefore, include the Nass River,
Skeena River, Rivers Inlet area, and Smith Inlet area.
The samples of sockeye, from which the reported data are taken, are obtained from
the commercial fishery in each area, which is, in the main, a drift gill-net fishery. To the
extent, therefore, that gill-nets are selective in removing salmon from a run of fish—
that is, tend to select fish of certain sizes or sex—the samples taken may not be completely
typical of the whole run of fish being sampled. It has already been shown, in No. 38
of this series, that at Rivers Inlet that portion of the run that escapes the fishery and
reaches the spawning-grounds (termed the " spawning escapement ") may have a quite
different size, sex, and age composition from that taken by the fishery.
The data herein reported pertain to the 1956 catches of sockeye. The numbers of
sockeye caught in the four areas under review were taken from the statistical records
of the Department of Fisheries, Vancouver. The sockeye-pack in numbers of cases
given in the tables was supplied by the British Columbia Department of Recreation and
Conservation, Victoria, B.C.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS AND TREATMENT OF DATA
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its fife in which the
fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers—one
in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to
the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left fresh water.
The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
3i, 4-i—the " sea types " or fish which migrate seaward in their first year and
mature in their third and fourth year respectively.
32—" the grilse," almost exclusively males and frequently called " jacks,"
which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in their
third year.
* Now on the staff of the Canadian Wildlife Service, National Parks Branch, Department of National Resources
and Northern Affairs.
3 K 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
^2j 52—fish which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in their
fourth and fifth years respectively.
^3, 63—fish which migrate seaward in their third year and mature in their
fifth and sixth years respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate seaward in their fourth year and mature in their
sixth and seventh years respectively.
Fish were measured to the nearest quarter of an inch, but when averaged the
average has been recorded to the nearest tenth of an inch to avoid using fractions of
more than one decimal place.    Weights were taken to the nearest tenth of a pound.
This has resulted in an even-pound and half-pound bias when the data are grouped to
the nearest quarter-pound.
1. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1956
(1) General Characteristics
The pack of 22,505 cases of sockeye salmon (Table I) was quite good for the
Nass area and above the average of 17,899 for the last ten years (1946-55).
The run in 1956 resulted from the spawning escapements of 1951 and 1952, which
were reported as very satisfactory. In both these years the commercial fishery was
good, packs of 24,405 and 29,492 cases respectively being made.
(2) Age-groups
The Nass River sockeye-catch sample contained 27 per cent 4-year fish, 59 per cent
5-year fish, and 14 per cent 6-year fish (Table I). Of these fish, 35.5 per cent had
spent one year in fresh water, migrating seaward early in their second year; 63 per cent
had spent two years in fresh water, migrating seaward early in their third year. The
remainder of 1.5 per cent had migrated to sea as fry, returning as adults in their fourth
year (Tables II and III).
(3) Lengths and Weights
The average weights for the main age-groups of the year's samples were slightly less
than the previous ten-year average, though in most cases slightly greater than in 1955
(Tables IV and V).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
In the Nass River sockeye sample, 49.5 per cent were males and 50.5 per cent
females. The percentage of males in the main age-groups was as follows: 42, 50 per
cent; 52, 44 per cent; 53, 47 per cent, and 63, 61 per cent (Table VI).
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1956
(1) General Characteristics
The effect of the Babine Rive slide, which occurred in 1951, was noted in 1955 in
the small proportion of 4-year fish in the catch sample, as was expected. In the 1956
sockeye-catch sample, the expected fall-off in the 5-year fish occurred as a direct effect
of the slide. The catch sample consisted mainly of 4-year fish, which came from the
1952 spawning escapement after the partial clearance of the Babine River.
The yield of 14,663 cases of sockeye in 1956 was a slight increase over the previous
year's commercial catch, which represented the lowest on record from the Skeena River
(Table VII). report of provincial fisheries department, 1956 k 27
(2) Age-groups
The 84 per cent of 4-year fish in the Skeena River sockeye-catch sample was the
highest percentage of that age-group ever recorded for that area. Of the remainder,
15 per cent were 5-year fish and 1 per cent 6-year fish (Table VII).
(3) Lengths and Weights
From a consideration of Tables X and XI it can be seen that the size of the Skeena
River sockeye caught in 1956, in all but the 6-year fish, was well above the average.
The lengths and weights for the main age-groups were as follows: The male 42 fish
averaged 23.6 inches and 6 pounds, and the female 42's, 22.9 inches and 5.3 pounds;
the male 52 fish averaged 26.1 inches and 8.2 pounds, and the female 52's, 24.9 inches
and 6.8 pounds; the male 53 fish averaged 23.9 inches and 6.6 pounds, and the female
53's, 23.5 inches and 6.2 pounds; the male 63 fish averaged 25.9 inches and 7.6 pounds,
and the female 63's, 23.7 inches and 5.6 pounds (Tables VIII, IX, X, and XI).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The distribution of sexes in the Skeena River sockeye-catch sample (Table XII)
again shows two trends which are almost invariable. These are that the catch as a whole
contains over 50 per cent females, and that the 52 age-group fish in the catch contains
an even greater percentage of females.
3. RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1956
(1) General Characteristics
The 1956 sockeye-catch, with a total of 124,634 cases, was nearly two and one-half
times that of the previous year (Table XIII). In the main, the catch was resultant of
the spawning escapement from the 1951 run which, itself, produced a pack well above
the average. The 1951 spawning escapement, quoting from the Federal Department of
Fisheries "Salmon Spawning Report, British Columbia 1951," was medium to heavy,
and from this came 90 per cent of the 1956 run, according to the sample studied.
(2) Age-groups
Three age-groups were present in the 1956 catch sample: 52, 90 per cent, 42,
10 per cent; and two fish of the 53 age-group were noted. These proportions are quite
normal for the area (Table XIII).
(3) Lengths and Weights
Lengths and weights were found to be quite normal and were well within the range
recorded in previous years.
The average length for both the 42 male and female fish was 21.5 inches. The
average length of the 52 male fish was 25.3 inches, and of the females, 24.3 inches
(Tables XVI and XVII).
The average weights in both age-groups were slightly above the ten-year average,
with the male and female 42 fish both at 4.7 pounds. The average weight of the 52 male
fish was 8 pounds, and of the females, 6.9 pounds (Tables XIV and XV).
No escapement records are available this year.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
In the two age-groups, the usual relationship of a larger proportion of males amongst
the 4-year-old fish sample, and a smaller proportion amongst the 5-year-old fish, again
occurred (Table XVIII). The over-all proportion of male fish in the catch sample was
39 per cent. K 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
4. THE SMITH INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1956
(1) General Characteristics
The yield of 36,898 cases of sockeye salmon from Smith Inlet was 30 per cent above
the ten-year average of 27,725 cases. The catch sample consisted mainly of 5-year-old
fish, the result of heavy supplies of sockeye reaching the spawning-grounds in 1951.
(2) Age-groups
The similarity of the Smith Inlet to the Rivers Inlet sockeye populations showed
itself in the usual two main age-groups. Four per cent of the catch-sample were 4-year-
old fish, and 96 per cent were 5-year-old fish (Table XIX). The three age-groups were
96 per cent 52 sockeye, 4 per cent 42 sockeye, and only one 53 fish was present in the
sample.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The size of the Smith Inlet sockeye, as with those of Rivers Inlet, was well within the
normal range over the last ten years (Tables XXII and XXIII).
The average length for the 42 male fish was 22.5 inches; weight, 5.6 pounds; for
the female fish, 22.1 inches and 5.2 pounds. In the 52 age-group, the male fish averaged
24.9 inches and 7.6 pounds, and the female 52's, 24.3 inches and 6.9 pounds. The one
male 53 fish in the catch sample was 22.2 inches in length and weighed 4.7 pounds
(Tables XX and XXI).
(4) Sex Distribution
As in the Rivers Inlet sample, the Smith Inlet fish showed a predominance of males
in the 42 age-group (65 per cent), while among the 52 age-group the females represented
62 per cent (Table XXIV). The over-all catch sample consisted only of 38 per cent
male fish. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 29
Table I.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
52
53
63
1912          	
36,037
23,574
31,327
39,349
31,411
22,188
21,816
28,259
16,740
9,364
31,277
17,821
33,590
18,945
15,929
12,026
5,540
16,077
26,405
16,929
14,154
9,757
36,242
12,712
28,562
17,567
21,462
24,357
13,809
24,876
21,085
13,412
13.083
9,899
12,511
10,849
13,181
9,268
27,286
24,405
29,492
18,163
10,285
13 fi .4
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
12
39
3
41
28
23
35
12
27
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
16
6
19
9
19
22
20
15
9
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
56
60
48
71
31
46
46
40
70
50
2
1913.    	
1914
2
10
1915
8
1916          	
8
1917
4
1918
9
1919
6
1920
6
1921                      	
8
1922             	
1
1923
6
1924
2
1925
2
1926
13
1927
4
1928   ...
1929      	
	
3
6
1930                	
3
1931	
6
1932                  	
7
1933     _
3
1934 	
4
1935     - .
6
1936
1937                     	
1938	
1939
1940
10
1941  	
	
1942  	
5
15
38
1943  	
1944 	
1945    	
1946 _ 	
3
1947  ■	
1948    —	
12
1949      ....
7
1950   	
6
1951      	
13
1952 	
1953  	
1954	
304,500
198,400
101,600
154 004
4
9
5
1955	
1956 _ 	
77 505        I      754 ROO
14
1 To nearest hundred. K 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1956, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
41
42
43
52
5
3
63
Total
1
M.      F.
M.   1   F.
M.
F.
1
M.   1   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
18%	
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
..._.
1
1
1
2
3
2
3
7
4
3
4
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
8
3
2
6
7
3
9
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
11
4
6
10
25
19
22
19
32
17
16
9
13
9
7
6
3
1
2
2
2
3
7
10
29
13
22
22
34
23
15
17
23
13
7
7
7
3
1
1
5
1
1
1
1
1
3
8
11
5
6
9
3
1
4
7
1
1
1
3
3
6
6
4
4
5
4
2
2
3
4
2
1
2
1
19    .
1
2
3
3
4
13
7
15
8
7
31
10
10
13
4
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
—-
5
3
8
4
8
14
34
10
11
6
15
4
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
19.4 	
19.4	
19% 	
20          	
20%._	
2W2 	
1
2
1
5
20% 	
21 	
21 Vi                               _	
7
8
21 !/2                  	
15
2134                                       	
8
22 	
19
2214                       	
31
22V_                      	
90
22%   	
36
23   	
23 Vi                      	
59
47
23VS    	
93
23% _ -   -
24                      	
82
57
241/4 - - -- .
24%  	
24%                        	
58
86
51
25                 	
41
25.4                     	
33
25 V_                                             	
40
25%        -	
23
26               . 	
20
26Vi           _	
23
261/2	
26%                      	
26
12
27                          	
12
27.4.	
27V_    	
12
4
27% 	
28 	
28%                	
3
4
8
28Vi          	
2
28%                     	
1
Totals  	
5 |      9
138 | 136
2
39 |    50
238
269
83 |    52
1,021
72.8   1 22.8
93.5   1 77.8
20.9
25.6   1 24.4
24.3
23.6
26.4  1 25.4
24.0 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 31
Table III.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1956, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number ol Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4
L
4
2
43                 52
5
3
6
_
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1          1
F.   1  M.   1   F.
1          1
M.
F.
M.
F.
3 	
1
1
..._.
1
3V4   	
1
3 V. _ 	
1
2
2
5
3% 	
3
	
3
4 	
1
3
	
4
4Vi       	
2
6
	
2
5
15
4V_ 	
1
3
28
1
13
46
4%    	
5
14
2
17
38
5          	
2
11
7
17
25
1
4
5
6
29
30
1
64
5V4 	
74
5V_   	
4
23
28
4
33
50
1
1
144
5% 	
1
21
3
5
20
27
1
2
80
6                                     	
1
26
13
2
2
1
4
4
22
21
25
20
3
3
6
82
6V4 _ '
71
6V_ ■	
1
1
15
3
5
5
10
4
44
17
26
6
4
3
8
6
118
6%       	
40
7 	
4
4
6
12
3
4
2
35
7V4  _	
1
1
2
3
12
1
6
18
17
6
6
6
2
2
11
3
7
7
1
38
7V.                	
62
7%  	
2 1      2
16
8     	
......
2
1
5
6
2
1
1
5
9
14
3
2
16
8V4  	
12
8V.      	
23
8%	
2
1
6
3
12
9         	
—
1
	
3
2
4
9Vi _ _	
  1 --
2
9V4          	
	
1
1
1
6
2
2
2
7
9% _ _.
4
10                              .  	
2
lOVi
2
Totals 	
5
9
138
136
2 | ...... |    39 |    50
238
269
83
52
1,021
5.5
5.4
5.8
5.0
4.1  1  1   7.6 1   6.4
6.4
5.7
8.1
7
6.1
TaWe 7F.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1956
Year
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41   	
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.8
23.6
24.0
23.9
23.9
24.1
23.1
23.5
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
22.4
22.9
22.6
22.8
23.1
23.1
23.1
22.9
23.1
22.3
22.8
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0
26.3
25.9
26.2
26.2
26.0
26.2
26.8
26.9
26.5
26.0
25.6
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.9
24.1
25.3
23.8
24.7
24.8
25.3
25.6
25.3
24.7
24.4
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
24.9
24.5
25.0
24.7
24.5
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.3
24.1
24.3
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
23.9
23.6
24.1
23.7
23.7
24.1
23.9
24.1
24.5
23.2
23.6
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
28.1
27.0
27.7
26.1
26.7
27.4
27.6
27.7
27.7
26.9
26.4
1912-41 (conversion) 	
1942     _	
25.7
1943  	
1944  	
1945   ..  ....
1946  	
1947   	
1948 	
1949 	
1950 	
1951 	
1952	
25.8
25.8
25.5
26.0
25.6
26.7
25.5
25.6
26.4
26.3
26.5
26.0
25.1
25.4
1953      _	
1954 	
1955 	
1956      	 K 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1956
Year
42
52
53
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 _	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
6.0
6.2
6.4
5.6
5.8
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.4
5.5
4.9
5.0
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
7.7
8.1
7.9
7.9
7.9
8.4
8.3
8.8
7.8
7.5
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.2
7.1
5.8
6.6
6.6
6.9
7.2
7.4
6.8
6.4
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.7
6.6
7.4
6.1
6.4
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
5.6
6.0
5.4
5.5
5.7
5.7
5.8
6.3
5.4
5.7
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.9
8.1
9.1
7.7
8.2
8.8
8.7
9.0
9.5
8.3
8.1
7.0
6.7
1943   	
6.9
1045
7.1
1946..    	
7.0
6 9
1949 . 	
68
1950  .	
7.1
1951 	
1952   	
1953.  _ ..
1954	
7.6
7.5
7.9
7 8
1955
1956 .
6.9
7.0
Table VI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1956
Year
42
52
53
63
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
49
42
51
53
37
62
50
45
57
41
46
49
50
42
50
50
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
55
43
59
54
51
50
58
50
50
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
54
56
42
47
56
44
44
60
44
53
52
33
55
63
41
48
46
44
58
53
44
56
56
40
56
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
52
51
43
46
49
46
44
47
47
55
56
53
61
62
55
49
48
49
57
54
51
54
56
53
53
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
66
50
58
70
59
62
45
68
61
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
34
50
42
30
41
38
55
32
39
47
45
54
50
38
50
56
53
53
44
49
50
48
43
49
50
53
1942... ... .. - . .
55
1943 --
46
1944 ,	
50
1945     	
62
1946...	
JO
1947 --
47
1949 . 	
1950
47
56
1951  _    .   . .
1952	
51
1953..  	
1954     	
1955   	
1956  _	
52
57
51 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 33
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack In
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
52
h
63
1907            	
108,413
139,846
87,901
187,246
131,066
92,498
52,927
130,166
116,553
60,923
65,760
123,322
184,945
90,869
41,018
96,277
131,731
144,747
77,784
82,360
83,996
34,559
78,017
132,372
93,023
59,916
30,506
54,558
52,879
81,973
42,491
47,257
68,485
116,507
81,767
34,544
28,268
68,197
104,279
52,928
32,534
101,267
65,937
47,479
61,694
114,775
65,003
60,817
14,649
14,663  1
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
20
13
14
80
17
21
33
66
48
33
15
84
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
82
13
76
72
61
26
43
54
59
14
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
8
3
6
4
4
4
3
6
10
14
1
1908             --
1909          	
1910            	
1911            	
1912	
	
1913         	
1914         	
1915     _ 	
1916            	
18
1917         	
5
1918     	
6
1919	
4
197,0         	
8
1921        _	
3
1922       _—	
2
1923	
7
1924         .. _	
1
1925    _ 	
1
1926 	
3
1927  -.
1
1928  	
3
1929 _ 	
1930        _	
	
2
1
1931            _	
	
2
1932   	
12
1933   	
2
1934  _ -
1
1935  	
2
1936  	
	
2
1937    -  —~  - -
4
1938   _ _ . .-
5
1939  — _ —
4
1940     — 	
1
1941    -
1
1942   -
3
1943        _  	
6
1944     —  	
4
1945 ..- _ - 	
5
1946     -
9
1947    _ -	
1
1948 _ _ .
1
1949    _	
3
1950-.    _	
3
1951 _ 	
1
1952  	
1,294,500
659,200
571,900
157,362
149,100
1953     	
3
1954 .. ...   ...	
1055
2
11
1
1956            . 	
1 To nearest hundred. K 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1956, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
42
52
53
63
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19%	
1
2
2
2
5
3
2
5
4
6
8
24
16
13
17
41
26
15
25
4
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
3
10
6
11
18
15
16
18
38
16
13
11
17
5
1
3
1
1
1
1
4
1
5
2
4
1
1
1
1
z
1
2
2
6
2
2
12
2
4
9
5
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
20 	
2
20Vi 	
3
20V__	
2
20%.      .
5
21.	
21V4      	
15
21V4    .    	
9
21%       	
13
22
22V4....
	
23
19
22V4 . ....    	
23
22%  	
27
23        ...
63
23 Vi
23 VS....
	
33
30
23% 	
31
24..	
65
24%	
35
24V. 	
18
24% 	
41
25  ••
6
25V4    	
7
25V. 	
18
25% 	
1
26	
12
26V4 	
5
26V4.   _ _      _
7
26%	
2
27  	
1
27Vi. 	
27V4     	
1
27%	
1
28	
Totals
1
230
207
22
50
3
1
2
5
520
Average lengths	
23.6
22.9
26.1
24.9
23.9
23.5
25.9
23.7
23.5 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 35
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1956, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Weight in Pounds
Number of Individuals
42
<
2
5
3
63
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
3 	
5
2
4
13
5
6
5
31
17
20
23
48
11
8
11
8
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
6
8
25
22
13
21
50
14
22
5
14
1
1
3
1
1
1
4
5
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
5
7
5
5
5
8
5
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
::::
1
2
1
1
1
3%...	
3Vi	
6
3%  	
6
4	
10
4%	
8
4V4	
38
4%	
28
5    	
21
5%..	
27
5V_	
83
5% 	
33
6 	
48
6V4. 	
36
6V_    ....       ....        	
69
6%
7...	
	
16
16
714	
21
7V_ 	
7%  	
8	
16
14
7
8Vi	
6
8V2	
8%...,	
4
1
9 _    	
2
9V4 	
9Vi  	
9%    	
1
10            _ 	
10%       	
lOVi-     .
1
1
Totals  -..	
230
207
22
50
3
1
2
5
520
6.0
5.3
8.2
6.8
6.6
6.2
7.6
5.6
5.9
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1956
Year
4
2
52
5
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41 	
1912-41 (conversion)	
1942              	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.3
23.0
22.5
22.8
22.7
23.3
23.2
22.2
22.5
23.6
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
22.0
22.0
22.3
22.2
22.3
22.6
22.6
22.8
22.4
22.1
22.9
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.4
25.1
25.3
25.3
25.7
25.9
25.8
26.2
26.6
25.6
26.1
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.3
23.8
24.1
24.5
24.4
24.8
24.7
25.0
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.9
23.0
23.0
23.2
23.9
23.6
23.2
23.6
23.9
23.0
23.9
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
23.2
22.4
22.1
22.3
23.4
22.9
22.8
22.9
22.9
22.6
23.5
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
25.0
25.5
26.3
26.0
24.8
25.5
26.0
26.1
26.0
26.4
25.2
25.9
24.8
24.1
24.9
1943   ... _
1944       	
24.7
23.7
1945     	
24.3
1946      	
1947 	
1948...  	
1949    _
1950                           	
24.4
25.8
24.5
23.9
24 3
1951
24 6
1952 	
1953 	
1954      	
1955                   	
24.6
25.5
24.9
24.0
23.7
1956- -            	 K 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1956
Year
4
2
52
5
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41
1942     .
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.1
5.2
4.7
4.9
5.5
5.0
4.8
5.1
5.6
5.8
4.9
4.9
6.0
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.9
4.2
4.7
4.9
4.7
4.3
5.0
5.0
5.5
4.9
4.8
5.3
6.8
6.7
6.8
7.0
6.7
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.1
7.2
7.6
7.5
8.0
8.8
7.4
8.2
6.1
6.0
5.9
6.1
6.1
3.8
5.9
6.1
6.3
5.9
6.5
6.4
6.9
7.2
6.4
6.8
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.6
5.8
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.8
5.6
5.6
5.8
6.2
5.5
6.6
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.6
5.0
5.1
5.0
4.7
4.8
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.0
6.2
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.1
6.7
7.0
7.7
7.7
6.6
6.8
7.6
7.4
7.8
8.6
7.1
7.6
6.0
6.6
1943 . _ .
6.1
1944
5.8
1045
6.2
1946 	
6.1
1947
6.8
1948
64
1949	
5.7
1950       . .
5.6
1951     .. ._	
6.4
1952 ...	
6.0
1953 	
1954	
7.3
7.2
1955       _ 	
6.1
1956  	
5 6
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1956
Year
M.
F.
M.
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
1915-41 (average).
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
1948	
1949	
1950	
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954	
195J	
1956	
48
42
50
54
41
50
50
50
54
56
41
52
40
44
57
53
52
58
50
46
59
50
50
50
46
44
59
48
60
56
43
47
43
25
31
34
35
32
29
29
30
40
37
34
34
38
42
34
57
75
69
66
65
68
71
71
70
60
63
66
66
62
58
66
46
33
43
43
38
38
33
47
36
44
39
48
39
43
47
44
54
67
57
57
62
62
67
53
64
56
61
52
61
57
53
56 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 37
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
1 To nearest hundred.
2 Age-class represented but less than 0.5 per cent.
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
52
53
63
1907                                                            	
87,874
64,652
89,027
126,921
88,763
112,884
61,745
89,890
130,350
44,936
61,195
53,401
56,258
121,254
46,300
60,700
107,174
94,891
159,554
65,581
64,461
60,044
70,260
119,170
76,428
69,732
83,507
76,923
135,038
46,351
84,832
87,942
54,143
63,469
93,378
79,199
47,602
36,852
89,735
73,320
140,087
37,665
39,495
142,710
102,565
84,298
132,925
50,640
50,702
124,634
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
8
8
76
57
37
3
55
84
13
38
41
73
60
45
10
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
44
14
87
60
58
26
39
54
90
l
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
(2)
1
1
1
1
(a)
(2)
1908
1909                                                           -
1910                                                          	
1911
1912                      	
	
1913
1914     	
1915                                                           	
	
....
1916                                                          	
1917                     ....                                   .
1918    .   	
	
1919	
1920
-
1921                                                           	
1922
1923       ...  ...     ...
1924                                                           	
	
1
1925
1926                                                           ..   . .
1
1927 _ _-
1928
	
1
1929                                                           	
2
1930                                                        	
1
1931       	
1937
	
1
1
1933                    	
1934                        	
1
1935 _.
1
1936                     ~  _	
1937   .  _.    	
1938      	
2
1939...	
1940.    	
1941        	
	
--
1942   	
1
1943   .        .                   	
1
1944
	
1945   -.
1946  _	
1947      	
1948
	
-
1949 	
1950 	
1051
	
i
(2)
(a)
(2)
1
1059
938,700
1,522,300
575,700
584,128
1,072,300
1953  	
1954  	
195.
1956	 K 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XIV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1956, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
4
2
52
53
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19% . ..
1
2
2
5
8
7
3
2
4
5
5
5
1
4
1
4
3
2
2
2
1
2
4
2
2
2
6
3
4
3
3
3
3
2
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
19*4  	
19% 	
20        ..                -  _	
2
1
1
3
2
6
3
3
4
5
7
7
14
7
11
16
15
23
20
45
27
43
23
38
14
14
5
6
2
1
3
2
7
14
15
20
14
27
22
41
36
55
49
71
51
76
49
42
20
20
10
3
4
2
9
20%                              _	
12
20V_    .                     _ 	
9
20%                        _  _ .	
5
21                                   	
10
21V4        	
11
2IV2 _     	
14
21%    _	
17
22                                	
29
22*4-   -	
22*_ _ _	
22
30
??%
21
23                                 _	
39
23%                                  .-	
30
23VS                                   - - -   -
52
23%
54
24                                  —.    -  	
65
24V4  -  	
24V_    _                  _	
62
87
24%...     	
25      .—             _   _ -
66
99
25%                             	
69
25 Vi                        	
87
25%	
47
26                                         	
63
26V4                       	
33
26V4	
26%    -              _ _ 	
41
14
27    .           - -.
14
27V4    .                     	
5
27 Vi    .                  	
6
27% -  -    -	
2
Totals  _ - —
68
47
367      |      649
1      |          1      |   1,133
21.5
21.5
25.3
24.3
23.2      1        22      1     24.3 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 39
Table XV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1956, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
dumber of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4
2
52
53
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3V4  	
3*4       _.     .
6
7
8
9
6
6
3
2
8
4
4
1
2
1
1
1
4
3
6
3
7
7
4
5
2
3
2
2
2
1
4
7
1
1
4
6
11
19
1
1
1
10
3% _ _
4 _  	
11
17
4%                      	
18
4V_     	
20
5                                                   	
22
36
5%      _	
1              20
37
5*4 - 	
5%      _   -    	
10
4
14
7
12
8
15
12
11
25
34
17
48
25
28
40
33
39
30
61
33
73
46
55
37
60
23
24
14
13
53
43
fi                                                               	
61
6*4    _   .       ..            	
38
6V2                                	
77
6%                                _	
41
7                                    	
89
714                                                           	
59
7*4      _	
66
7%    _ _ _	
62
8
94
8*4                                          ....       _	
40
8*4                        _ 	
72
8%         _	
39
9                                      ...   .
41
9V4                                _.
24      1           1
25
9*4    _       	
20
16
7
9
2
4
" 1
24
9%
16
10                                -   	
8
10*4                                  	
9
10*4                       - -	
2
10%                               .   	
......      |      ......
2      |      ......
11    - -	
2
Totals             	
68
47
367      |      649
1      |          1      |   1,133
4.7
4.7
8.0      1      6.9
6
4.7       1        7.0
Table XVI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1912 to 1956
Year
M.
M.
1912-41.  	
1912-41 (conversion)..
1942  	
1943.. 	
1944  	
1945 	
1946 	
1947	
1948. 	
1949 .. -	
1950	
1951 	
1952...   	
1953 	
1954	
1955	
1956 	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
21.4
20.9
21.1
21.9
21.5
21.6
22.0
21.2
21.5
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
20.7
21.3
21.4
20.8
21.9
21.5
21.8
21.6
21.0
21.5
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
25.2
23.8
25.2
25.8
26.0
26.5
26.1
25.4
25.3
24.7
23.9
23.8
23.7
23.3
23.9
24.1
23.5
24.2
22.8
24.2
24.8
25.0
25.3
25.1
24.5
24.3 K 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XVII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1914 to 1956
Year
M.
M.
1914-41..
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945..
1946..
1947-.
1948_
1949..
1950..
1951..
1952..
1953-
1954..
1955-
1956.
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.4
4.2
5.2
4.9
4.7
5.2
4.5
4.7
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.6
4.3
3.9
5.0
4.7
4.7
4.8
4.2
4.7
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6.4
7.9
5.9
7.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
7.4
8.0
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.0
6.4
6.2
5.9
7.0
5.9
6.4
7.4
7.4
7.6
7.6
6.5
6.9
Table XVIII,
-Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1956
Year
41
42
52
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1915-41 (average) _ — 	
1942	
36
50
50
64
50
50
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
50
70
75
66
58
55
67
67
59
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
50
30
25
34
42
45
33
33
41
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
38
22
36
30
34
33
29
31
36
66
65
66
67
61
63
65
62
78
64
70
66
67
71
69
64
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
45
63
41
44
44
49
52
48
39
50
62
1°43
64
1944               	
41
1Q45
43
1»47
64
1948 	
1949     _ -	
55
37
losn
59
1951              	
1952    _ .
56
56
195 .
51
1954
48
1955
52
1956 	
61 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 41
Table XIX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack In
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
4i
42
52
62
53
1925     .                 	
33,764
17,921
22,682
33,442
9,683
32,057
12,867
25,488
37,369
14,607
31,648
12,788
25,258
33,894
17,833
25,947
21,495
15,939
15,010
3,165
15,014
14,318
36,800
10,456
13,189
42,435
49,473
34,834
29,947
18,937
28,864
36,898
	
2
1
50
11
5
7
92
17
22
8
89
61
42
4
50
89
95
90
5
83
77
91
10
38
58
96
3
(2)
(2)
1
(~2)
1926 _	
1927   _	
1928     	
1929 _ 	
	
-
1930 	
1931       .
1932   	
1933 "   	
	
1934
1935 -	
1936 _     _     .
1937
1938	
1939.  	
-
1940  	
1941     ...   ....      ... 	
1942      ..
1943  	
1944       	
1945
—    -
....
1946
1947	
1948                                        	
-
._.
1949                                          	
(2)
(2)
(2)
l
(2)
l
1950       .._           	
1951      ...    -	
342,200
367,100
190,800
325,478
442,300
1952.      	
1953  	
1954	
1955
(2)
1956.      . 	
1 To nearest hundred.
2 This age-class was represented by less than 0.5 per cent of the number of fish in the sample. K 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1956, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
4
2
52
53
Total
M.
F.
1
M.              F.
1
M.
F.
20*4     _      ...
20*4 _ 	
1
1
1
4
4
4
2
1
3
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
5
9
13
19
26
40
34
46
39
46
30
15
9
10
6
1
1
1
1
1
4
12
19
31
37
63
81
68
78
66
56
38
24
13
7
2
1
	
1
20%	
1
21	
1
21%	
21*4        _ _	
1
2
21%      _.      	
3
22
10
22%  	
22*4 -   	
22%                                         -             —
8
10
17
23                                                  	
24
23%                                       	
36
23*4	
23%                                    	
47
76
24                                      - —
100
24% 	
24*4 	
24%.   _  	
25 ...     	
25%     	
97
119
100
102
77
25*4      	
70
25% _ _ ...
26                                  .
43
22
26%...	
26*4          	
11
10
7fi3^
6
27	
27%        -     .      .             	
1
1
27*4     	
1
1
Totals	
22
12
360      |      602
1      |       .....      |      997
Average lengths 	
22.5
22.1
24.9      |     24.3
1
22.2      |                   |     24.5
1                   1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 43
Table XXI.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1956, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Weight in Pounds
*
Number of Individuals
4
2
52
53
Total
M.
1
F.
1
1
M.              F.
1
M.
F.
4        	
1
1
2
4
6
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
1
2
3
1
7
3
6
9
25
18
14
38
63
25
37
34
36
9
8
8
7
4
2
3
2
1
6
22
24
28
33
117
59
72
61
87
30
15
19
17
5
3
1
1
	
1
4*4 _       -
1
4*4.—	
3
434
5
5
10
5 *4__ .
10
5*4 _ _  	
36
5 34    .                     —	
31
6                                               	
36
6% _	
42
6*4 —.
6%               	
144
78
7       .                    _ 	
86
7%        -	
7V_                                         	
100
151
73/4     -
8                               	
55
52
8Vi                         	
53
8V2                        	
53
834	
14
9                           	
11
9*4     _ 	
9V_                           ....                  	
8
8
934                                               _	
4
10      -	
2
1014                           ....    ...           ..
10*4.-
3
Totals    -	
22
12
360      |      602
1      |             |      997
5.6
5.2
7.6      1       6.9
4.7       1       ......       1       7.1
Table XXII.-
-Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Age-groups,
1945 to 1956
Year
41
42
52
62
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945                       _ 	
25.4
26.3
23.5
24.3
25.0
22.2
21.3
23.2
21.9
21.4
21.6
22.8
21.8
22.9
22.3
21.8
22.5
22.0
22.7
23.4
21.7
21.7
21.7
22.0
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.6
22.1
25.1
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.6
24.8
25.6
25.7
25.9
25.7
25.3
24.9
24.4
24.0
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.0
24.8
24.9
25.2
24.9
24.6
24.3
26.7
25.0
25.5
25.1
25.1
20.5
23.4
22.9
22.8
23.0
22.2
1946   	
1947-       	
1948   	
1949   —                  	
1950       	
1951	
1952.	
1953 	
1954 _	
23.1
23.3
23 5
1955    .                  	
22.3
1956  	 K 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XXIII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Age-groups,
1945 to 1956
Year
4
1
4
2
5
2
6
2
5
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945	
7.9
8.0
6.1
5.9
7.1
4.9
4.6
5.7
5.1
5.0
4.9
6.0
4.8
5.9
5.2
5.0
5.6
4.7
5.8
5.5
5.4
5.1
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.3
4.7
4.7
5.2
7.1
7.3
6.9
7.6
7.2
7.4
8.2
8.0
8.2
7.9
7.5
7.6
6.5
6.6
6.0
6.9
6.7
6.6
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.0
6.9
6.9
10.3
7.5
7.3
7.2
7.3
4.0
6.4
5.7
5.7
5.8
4.7
1946
1947  	
1948  	
1949	
1950	
1951  	
	
1952          	
5.4
1953   	
1954..	
1955     - .
5.8
5.8
4.8
1956
Table XXIV.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1945 to 1956
41
4
_
52
62
53
Per Cent
Per Cent
Year
Total
Males
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945 -	
73
27
49
51
61
39
1946
59
1947 	
38
62
47
53
46
54
1948  	
79
21
42
58
11
89
43
57
1949	
36
64
SO
20
40
60
100
77
23
1950..     ...
86
14
42
58
100
49
51
1951 	
72
28
41
59
ICO
100
48
52
1952.......	
57
43
38
62
100
63
37
40
60
1953  	
100
60
40
36
64
71
29
58
42
1954  	
25
75
70
30
25
75
25
75
52
48
1955   .. ...
	
	
76
24
37
63
100
54
46
1956	
65
35
38
62
100  I
38
62 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 45
THE STATUS OF THE MAJOR HERRING STOCKS
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA IN  1956-57
By F. H. C. Taylor, Ph.D., A. S. Hourston, Ph.D., and D. N. Outram, B.A.,
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
This report is the tenth of a series of annual reports on the results of herring research
carried out at the Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., by the Fisheries Research Board
of Canada. The various aspects of the research programme discussed in previous years
were outlined in 1955-56 (Taylor, Hourston, and Outram, 1956). Continuing the policy
of the past three years, the degree of integrity, present status, and level of abundance of
each of the major British Columbia herring stocks in 1956-57 are discussed.
THE 1956-57 FISHERY
The total catch in the 1956-57 season (May 1st, 1956, to March 10th, 1957)
amounted to 177,087 tons, the lowest since 1947-48; 30,579 tons were taken in the
summer fishery lasting from the beginning of June* to the end of September, and 146,508
tons in the regular winter fishery.
The summer fishery in 1956 was more substantial and more widespread than in
preceding years, with catches being made in all sub-districts except the upper west coast
(Table I). In 1953, 10,600 tons were taken in the summer, 8,600 tons from the middle
east coast sub-district and 2,000 tons from Swiftsure Bank (Area 21) in the lower west
coast sub-district; in 1954, 4,868 tons were taken, entirely from the middle east coast
sub-district; in 1955 there was no summer fishery. In 1956 the August fishery in Queen
Charlotte Sound, in the upper east coast sub-district, provided 44 per cent of the total
summer catch of 30,579 tons, the September fishery in Caamano Sound in the northern
sub-district 28 per cent, the lower east coast fishery (May to September) 13 per cent,
and the September fishery on Swiftsure Bank 7 per cent. The remaining 8 per cent came
from small fisheries in the upper and lower central, the middle east coast, and upper
Queen Charlotte Islands sub-districts. In general, individual catches were small in
comparison with those made in the winter fishery. Availability or catch per unit of
effort (Table I) in nearly all sub-districts was much lower than in the subsequent winter
fisheries.
In the regular winter fishery, catches (Table I) were below the average of the last
five years in all sub-districts except the lower Queen Charlotte Islands and lower central,
and, with one exception, were well below the 1955-56 catches. Only in the northern
sub-district was the catch greater than in 1955-56, but still below the five-year average.
In the lower Queen Charlotte Islands, in Area 2be, the catch was the second largest
recorded, although it was only about one-third of the phenomenal catch of 85,609 tons
made in 1955-56. The catch in Area 2ae of the upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-
district was sharply down in comparison to previous years and was the poorest since
the area was first exploited in 1953-54. Catches were made on the west coast of the
Queen Charlotte Islands for the first time in 1956-57; 117 tons were taken in one day's
fishing in Renfell Sound in Area 2aw and 512 tons in Louscoone Inlet in Area 2bw
during the first half of February.
In the northern sub-district, the quota was taken for the first time in three years,
with the winter fishery accounting for 22,983 tons out of the season's total of 31,461
* In all sub-districts, except the lower east coast of Vancouver Island where the fishing season commences on
May 1st. K 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fig. 1. Map showing the division of the British Columbia coast into districts,
sub-districts, and areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 47
tons. In contrast to the previous season when the fishery depended on populations
(probably local) in Tuck Inlet and Morse Basin, the greater part of the 1956-57 catch
was from the main migratory population fished in Hecate Strait off the southern tip of
Porcher Island.
In the upper central sub-district (Area 6), the catch, although well below average,
was considerably greater than in 1955-56. Meyers Pass and Green Inlet were the main
fishing areas.
In the lower central sub-district (Areas 7 to 10), the catch, while slightly above the
1951-52 to 1956-57 average, was well below that of 1955-56. The main fishing-
grounds were in Kildidt Sound and Kwakshua Passage, farther to the south than in the
previous year.
In the middle east coast sub-district, the catch was 17,753 tons, almost double the
normal quota of 10,000 tons, although only slightly more than one-half the record catch
of the previous year. Almost the entire catch was made in the Deepwater Bay region
of Area 13 during the first three weeks of December. In 1955-56 the main fishery
occurred in January and early February, with approximately two-thirds of the catch being
made in Area 13 and one-third in Area 14. Availability was higher in 1956-57 than
in 1955-56.
In the lower east coast sub-district, while the quota was taken, the catch was about
20 per cent smaller than in 1955-56. Because of the delay in the start of the season due
to price negotiations, this fishery, usually the first to occur, was about a month later than
usual. It did not start until the first week in December, and for the first time in a number
of years the quota was not taken before the Christmas closure. Availability was about
the same as in 1955-56.
The catch in the lower west coast sub-district was the lowest recorded. Almost the
entire catch was made in Barkley Sound, and represented the smallest catch from this
area since 1941-42. The upper west coast sub-district produced only 541 tons of fish,
almost all from Ououkinish Inlet. In spite of the low catch, the level of abundance in
this sub-district, as indicated by the amount of spawn deposited, was probably above
average.
TAGGING
The coastwise adult herring tagging programme was discontinued after 1954, when
it was considered that the general relationship between most major populations was
sufficiently well understood for the practical purposes of management, and that the annual
variations in the extent of intermingling between populations were not large enough to
warrant the continued expenditure entailed (Taylor, 1955). In 1955 and 1956 adult
tagging was confined to the Strait of Georgia in an effort to determine more precisely the
complex relationships between the middle and lower east coast populations. This programme was suspended after the 1956 season when it became apparent that no additional
information was likely to be obtained because of difficulties in separating tags recovered
from these populations when the fisheries occur, as is often the case, at approximately the
same time.   No adult herring were tagged, therefore, in the spring of 1957.
Juvenile herring also have been tagged to provide information on the juvenile stocks
reared in certain areas and on the spawning stocks that support the fisheries in these and
other areas (Taylor, Hourston, and Outram, 1956). From 1952 to 1954 this programme
was confined to the lower west coast sub-district and in 1955 and 1956 to populations
in the Strait of Georgia and adjacent San Juan Islands area. This programme was terminated after the 1956 season, when the entire juvenile herring research programme was
discontinued. The data on the 1956 juvenile herring taggings are summarized below:— K 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sub-district and Area
of Tagging
Middle East Coast-
Area 13	
Number Tagged
in 1956
3,130
Area 14  4,060
Area 15  7,253
Area 16  3,102
Lower East Coast—
Area 17a  3,075
Area 17b  3,023
Area 18  6,058
Area 19  3,106
San Juan Islands   6,003
Total.
38,810
TAG RECOVERY
In the 1956-57 season, tags were recovered only by magnets in reduction-plant
meal-lines. No tag-detector was operated, even on an experimental basis, because the
difficulties introduced by the increased use of electricity to operate plant machinery proved
insurmountable (Taylor et al., 1956).
For reasons discussed in previous reports {see Taylor et al., 1956), the various
reduction plants differ in their efficiency in recovering and submitting tags found on the
magnets. Tests to determine the efficiency of the various plants in recovering tags were
conducted in the same manner as in previous years (Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson, and
Outram, 1952). The average efficiency of each plant in 1956-57, together with its
average efficiency in 1955-56 in parentheses, is given below:—
Adult Tags
Juvenile Tags
Plant
Number of
Tests
Average
Efficiencv
Number of
Tests
Average
Efficiencv
West Coast of Vancouver Island
- (1)
1   (3)
1  (3)
1  (2)
1  (3)
1   (2)
.... (92)
84 (84)
98 (94)
68 (76)
96 (97)
86 (89)
- (1)
1   (3)
1  (3)
1  (2)
1  (3)
1  (2)
(60)
Steveston and Vicinity
60 (53)
70 (80)
30 (60)
70 (85)
North Shore   ■          	
90 (75)
87 (88)
96 (91)
.... (92)
68 (78)
64 (79)
90 (71)
90 (81)
64 (71)
70 (65)
North and Central British Columbia
1 (2)
- (1)
2 (2)
1 (2)
2 (2)
1  (2)
1 (2)
(1)
2 (2)
- (2)
2 (2)
1  (2)
(70)
55 (50)
- - (35)
80 (60)
North Pacific                    _  	
30 (70)
|        82 (82)
59 (58)
In 1956-57 there was little change in the general level of efficiency of adult tag
recovery. Fairview and North Pacific plants in the Prince Rupert area showed increases
in efficiency, while Colonial and Port Edward showed substantial decreases for the second
year in succession. The Seal Cove plant has always been relatively inefficient in recovering tags. After an increase in 1955-56, the efficiency of this plant in 1956-57 fell to its
normal level.
The average efficiency of the major plants in Northern British Columbia in recovering
juvenile herring tags was about the same as in 1955-56, while the efficiency of plants in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 49
Southern British Columbia was somewhat less. Again, there was considerable variation
in efficiency among individual plants. The greatest changes were at Colonial and North
Pacific, where sharp decreases occurred, and at North Shore and Fairview, where marked
increases in efficiency were recorded. Over the past four seasons there has been a
decrease in the relative efficiency of juvenile tag recovery. In 1956-57 the ratio of
juvenile to adult efficiency was 0.74; in 1955-56, 0.77; in 1954-55, 0.78; and in 1953-
54, 0.83.
A total of 1,708 tags, including nineteen State of Washington tags, were recovered
in 1956-57 from the magnets in twelve reduction plants. Of these, 272 were recovered
in the summer and early fall fishery, the remainder in the regular winter fishery.
Using the same methods as in previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948), the most
probable area of recovery has been determined for each plant magnet return (Table II).
The tendency for reduction plants to process fish simultaneously from a number of
diffierent areas was accentuated in 1956-57 by the delay in the start of the regular winter
fishery. As a result, only a small proportion, 516 out of 1,436,.or 36 per cent, of the
tags recovered could be assigned with any certainty to a particular area of recovery.
Recoveries from the middle and lower east coast sub-districts were the most seriously
affected. Of 1,152 fish tagged and possibly recovered in these two sub-districts, the most
probable area of recovery could be determined for only 239 or 21 per cent.
To assess movement between populations, the probable numbers of tags in the
catches were calculated from the plant magnet returns (Table III). The method used
was described by Taylor and Outram (1954). Tags recovered at Port Albion and Bute-
dale reduction plants were omitted, as no magnet efficiency tests were carried out at these
two plants. Because of the relatively small numbers of tags certain as to area of recovery
(Table III, column 9), the estimates of movement between populations are considered
generally less reliable in 1956-57 than in previous years. Certain other sources of error
are also liable to affect these estimates:—
(1) The length of time the tagged fish have been at liberty. In 1955 and 1956
only the middle and lower east coast populations were tagged. The
remaining populations have not been tagged since 1954. The majority
of the recoveries from the middle and lower east coast populations in
1956-57, as in previous years, were mainly from fish that had been at
liberty for one or two seasons.* From all other populations, recoveries
were from fish that had been at liberty for three or more seasons. Because
of the greater time at liberty, estimates of movement based on these
recoveries may not be strictly comparable to estimates in.previous years
or to estimates for the middle and lower east coast populations. On the
basis of recoveries in 1955-56, the tendency for the degree of dispersion
from the sub-district of tagging to increase the longer the fish had been
at liberty was not sufficiently marked to warrant the assessment of movement on the basis of recoveries from fish at liberty for the same number
of years (Taylor, Hourston, and Outram, 1956). In 1956-57, because
of the additional year of liberty, this tendency might be expected to be
more pronounced. However, the number of recoveries certain as to area
of recovery was insufficient to provide a reliable test of this possibility.
(2) Differences in the degree of exploitation of the various populations both
in the same season and in different seasons. As the number of tags recovered varies with the size of the catch, differences in the amount of fish
caught in the area of tagging and in areas receiving tags from it will affect
estimates of the amount of movement between areas. Similarly, if the
proportional sizes of the catches vary from year to year, comparisons of
* More exactly eight or twenty months, since herring are tagged in March and the fishery develops in November. K 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the degree of dispersion between years will also be affected.    Errors of
this type might be minimized if estimates of dispersion were based on
calculations of the probable number of tags per ton in the various areas.
However, because of the large and variable number of tags doubtful as
to area of recovery, such calculations would not be reliable.
Since the catches in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands and northern sub-districts
have varied widely in the last three seasons and since neither population has been tagged
since 1954, estimates of the migration of fish from these two populations will be affected
the most seriously by errors from the above two sources.   Estimates of dispersion from
the middle and lower east coast populations will be the least affected, since catches in
each have varied little in the past three years and since both have been tagged every year.
Because of the relatively small number of tag returns certain as to area of recovery
and because of the possibility of additional errors from the sources discussed above,
estimates of movements between populations in 1956-57 should be accepted with caution.
(1) In 1956-57 most of the recoveries from the regular winter fishery were
from the sub-district of tagging and confirm previous conclusions on the
relative discreteness of the major populations. The " homing " tendency
was apparently least pronounced in the upper Queen Charlotte Islands
population (Area 2ae) and most pronounced in the lower east coast
population.
(2) The apparent emigration of 44 per cent (14/32) from Area 2ae to the
northern sub-district was very much greater in 1956-57 than in previous
seasons. This estimate may be unreliable because of the small number
of tags involved. It may reflect in part a greater degree of dispersion
related to the longer period the tagged fish were at liberty, but more probably overestimates the true movement because of the great difference in
the sizes of the catches in the two regions (Table I).
(3) Emigration from the lower Queen Charlotte Islands population (Area
2be) amounted to 22 per cent (21/94) in 1956-57, compared to 3 per
cent in 1955-56. The majority of the emigrants (17) were recovered in
the northern sub-district, and the remainder in the lower central sub-
district. Once again the apparent increase in emigration may be due to
increased time at liberty, but more probably it is a reflection of the smaller
relative difference in the sizes of the catches in the two regions (Table I).
Eighty per cent (73/91) of the recoveries from the lower Queen Charlotte Islands region were from fish tagged there, 8 per cent (7/91) were
from the northern sub-district, and 10 per cent (9/91) from the upper
and lower central sub-districts.
(4) Of the recoveries of fish tagged in the northern sub-district, 8 per cent
(7/97) were from the lower Queen Charlotte Islands area and 13 per
cent (13/97) from the lower central sub-district. Emigration in 1956-57
was similar to the average emigration (23 per cent) between 1936 and
1952 (Stevenson, 1955) and very much less than the estimate in 1955-56.
The apparently great emigration in 1955-56 may have been the result of
the dependence of the fishery on the isolated untagged stocks of herring
in Tuck Inlet and Morse Basin rather than on the main migratory northern sub-district population tagged in previous years (Taylor, Hourston,
and Outram, 1956). Thus the number of returns from the northern
sub-district from fish tagged there would be proportionately smaller than
normal in comparison with the number of returns from other regions. In
1956-57 the fishery, although centred farther to seaward than in other
years, again apparently depended on the main migratory northern popu- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 51
lation. Sixty-eight per cent (76/112) of the recoveries made in the
northern sub-district were of fish tagged there, 15 per cent (17/112)
were from the lower Queen Charlotte Islands, and 12 per cent (14/112)
from the upper Queen Charlotte Islands. The remaining 5 per cent were
from the upper and lower central sub-districts.
(5) Emigration from the lower central sub-district amounted to 8 per cent
(13/150) in 1956-57, with the major portion (5 per cent) again to the
lower Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district. Limited movement occurred
to the northern and middle east coast sub-districts. The pattern of emigration from the lower central sub-district was similar to that in previous
years, in spite of the fact that the main centre of the fishery shifted southwards from the Thompson Channel-Seaforth Channel region to the
Kildidt Sound-Kwakshua Passage region. Of the recoveries made in the
lower central sub-district, 80 per cent (138/172) were from fish tagged
there, 6 per cent from fish tagged in the upper central sub-district, 7 per
cent from fish tagged in the northern sub-district, 4 per cent from the
middle east coast, and 2 per cent from the lower Queen Charlotte Islands
sub-district.
(6) The fishery in the upper central sub-district was again too small to be
able to assign tag recoveries to it with any degree of certainty. About
77 per cent (10/13) of the recoveries from fish tagged in this sub-district
were apparently recovered in the lower central sub-district. The remainder were recovered from the northern and lower Queen Charlotte Islands
sub-districts.
(7) Movement from the middle east coast population amounted to 28 per cent
(58/204) in 1956-57, considerably greater than in the previous two
seasons (6 per cent in 1955-56 and 4 per cent in 1954-55) but less than
the average of 45 per cent for the years 1936 to 1952 (Stevenson, 1955).
The majority of the emigation (25 per cent) was to the lower east coast,
as compared to 5 per cent in 1955-56 and 2 per cent in 1954-55. Emigration to the lower east coast was greatest from Area 14 and least from
Area 13. Of recoveries made in the middle east coast sub-district, 97
per cent (146/150) were from fish tagged there, the remaining 3 per cent
coming from the northern, lower central, and lower east coast populations.
(8) The apparent dispersion of lower east coast herring to other sub-districts
(3 per cent) was less in 1956-57 than in 1955-56 (about 15 per cent).
It was all to the middle east coast sub-district. Only 54 per cent (59/110)
of the recoveries from the lower east coast sub-district were from fish
tagged there, and 46 per cent were from the middle east coast. The
remainder were fish tagged in the San Juan Islands.
(9) No tags certain as to area of recovery were obtained from the small west
coast fishery.
In 1956-57 there was a substantial summer and early fall fishery with a total catch of
30,579 tons (Table I). Tags were recovered from the summer fisheries in the northern,
upper east coast, middle east coast, lower east coast, and lower west coast sub-districts.
Of the eight tags from the northern sub-district landings, six were from fish tagged
in that sub-district and the remaining two from fish tagged in the lower central sub-
district.
The probable number of tags in the relatively large upper east coast fishery was
seventeen—fifteen from fish tagged in the middle east coast sub-district and two from
fish tagged in the lower central sub-district. The relatively small number of recoveries
suggests that while the stocks contained some middle east coast and a few lower central K 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sub-district fish, the majority most probably were from the upper east coast population,
which has only been very lightly tagged in the past five years, rather than from some
previously unexploited stock.
The relatively small middle east coast summer fishery yielded sixty-two tags certain
as to area of recovery. Of these, 74 per cent (46/62) were from the middle east coast
sub-district, mainly from Area 14, and 25 per cent (15/62) from the lower east coast
sub-district. Recoveries from the summer fishery in 1953-54 showed a similar distribution, with 73 per cent of the recoveries from taggings in the middle east coast sub-
district and 22 per cent from the lower east coast sub-district. In the winter fisheries in
the same two seasons in this sub-district, 88 and 97 per cent respectively of the recoveries were from middle east coast tagged fish and 8 and 2 per cent respectively from lower
east coast tagged fish. In both the summer and winter fisheries in 1954-55, the percentages of middle east coast tagged fish were lower (47 and 60 per cent respectively) and
the percentages of lower east coast tagged fish higher (44 and 15 per cent respectively).
The 1954-55 results were, however, probably biased by the large number of recoveries
in the summer and winter fisheries from a lower east coast tagging on the border between
the two sub-districts.
In the summer of 1956 there was a substantial fishery for reduction purposes in
the lower east coast sub-district for the first time. This fishery yielded 196 tags certain
as to area of recovery. Of these, 57 per cent were from fish tagged in the lower east
coast sub-district, and 43 per cent from fish tagged in the middle east coast sub-district,
a pattern of recoveries similar to that obtained in the regular winter fishery.
A total of eleven tags were contained in the Area 21 catches—five, or 46 per cent,
from fish tagged in the middle east coast sub-district and four, or 36 per cent, from the
lower east coast sub-district. There was one recovery each from an American tagging
in the San Juan Islands and from an upper west coast tagging. Because of the small
number of recoveries and because of the lack of tagging in the lower west coast sub-
district after the spring of 1954, these results cannot be considered reliable. In 1953-54
there was also a summer fishery in Area 21. In this fishery 46 per cent (17/37) of the
recoveries were from fish tagged in the lower west coast sub-district, 43 per cent (16/37)
from the lower east coast sub-district, and 8 per cent (3/37) from the middle east coast
sub-district. In contrast, in the 1953-54 winter fishery 95 per cent of the recoveries
were from lower west coast taggings, with only 1 per cent from the lower east coast.
In the middle and lower east coast sub-districts, tag recoveries suggest that, while
in the summer there may be a greater degree of intermingling with adjacent populations,
the stocks are the same as those fished in the winter. In Area 21 the stocks fished in
summer probably consist predominantly of fish that spawn in the lower west coast and
lower east coast sub-districts. Fish from the middle east coast sub-district are also
present, and in some years, at least, may form an appreciable portion of the stock.
The recoveries of fish from the upper east coast, lower east coast, and lower west coast
fisheries which were tagged in the middle east coast sub-district tend to confirm the
hypothesis that middle east coast herring migrate seaward both northward through
Johnstone Strait and southward through the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but suggest that
possibly the southward route in some years may be the dominant one.
However, because of the small numbers of recoveries from all summer fisheries,
these conclusions on summer intermingling must be treated with caution.
RECOVERY OF JUVENILE HERRING TAGS
Three juvenile herring tags were recovered in 1956-57. Two were from fish tagged
in Barkley Sound in 1953—one was recovered in the upper west coast sub-district, the
other in either the middle or lower east coast sub-district. The third recovery, made in
the lower east coast sub-district, was from fish tagged in Jervis Inlet (Area 16) in 1954. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 53
SAMPLING
The objective of a sampling programme is to obtain a number of individuals from
a population, the average and range of whose characteristics are representative of the
entire population. Each fishing season, random samples of the herring-catch are taken
at the reduction plants, and age, length, weight, sex, and degree of maturity are recorded
for each of a standard number of fish from every sample. Practical difficulties preclude
attaining a perfect representation of the fishable stocks, but examination of the sampling
data from previous years has indicated two aspects of the programme in which improvement could be made within the scope of our present operations.
Firstly, the annual goal of a sample taken from every unit (that is, a certain number
of tons) of fish caught seldom has been attained except at plants in the Vancouver area,
where Biological Station personnel were established throughout the fishing season.
Sampling at other plants is done by plant personnel who are subject to other demands
on their time and who show varying degrees of conscientiousness. Since the Vancouver
plants process mainly fish from the southern stocks (District 3, Fig. 1), information on
the northern stocks has not been nearly so complete and reliable as that on the southern
stocks. In an attempt to overcome this bias, a field station was established in Prince
Rupert during the 1956-57 season to give comparable coverage on the fish landed in
that area. Plants in the Prince Rupert and Vancouver areas, which handle 65 per cent
of the total catch, process appreciable amounts from all sub-districts. To increase the
coverage at other plants, the numbers of samples requested were increased to 50 per cent
more than the number desired, and then these samples were sub-sampled to obtain a
comparable catch-sample ratio.
Secondly, it has been noted in past sampling programmes that two or more samples
taken from the same locality on the same day may differ appreciably in their composition.
In order to increase the coverage of the catch by samples, the 1956-57 programme was
set up to include double the number of samples. Because the mean and range of variation in the characters sampled are demonstrated almost equally well by the first fifty fish
in a sample as by 100 fish, it was possible to double the number of samples without
increasing the number of fish to be processed by reducing the size of the samples to
fifty fish.
AGE COMPOSITION AND YEAR-CLASS STRENGTH
The age of a herring can be determined from the number of growth seasons shown
on its scales. Age determinations were made for each of fifty fish in forty-five samples
obtained from the summer fishery in 1956 and in 575 samples obtained during the
1956-57 winter fishing season. (In 1955-56, 288 samples of 100 fish were employed.)
One sample was taken for every 680 tons of fish caught in the summer fishery and for
every 250 tons caught in the regular winter fishery, as opposed to one sample for every
900 tons in the previous winter season. Percentage age composition was calculated
from these data for the ten major British Columbia herring populations and for stocks
on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands in the regular winter fishery and for
fish from various statistical areas by months for the summer fishery (Table IV). These
data, along with data on the average weight of fish at each age in each population (Table
VII) and the total catch taken from each population (Table I), give an estimate of the
number of fish at each age taken by the summer and winter fisheries from each population
(Table V). Data from Table IV show the relative contributions of the various year-
classes to the stocks, while data from Table V show the relative importance of these year-
classes in the catch from the various populations.
Data from the winter fishery indicate that the 1954 year-class dominated in most
populations and appears to be somewhat stronger than the below-average 1953 year-class.
A notable exception was the northern sub-district, where the 1953 year-class, of above- K 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
average strength in that sub-district, dominated the catch. The 1955 year-class made a
strong showing in the upper central and upper east coast sub-districts and may be stronger
than the 1954 year-class in these populations. The strong 1951 year-class (Vl-year
fish) again made appreciable contributions to the lower Queen Charlotte Islands, lower
central, upper east coast, and middle east coast populations, where it had dominated in
the previous year's catch. However, after four successive years of supporting the fishery
in most of these populations, its numbers have been reduced to a level where it can no
longer be expected to make major contributions to future fisheries. On the basis of its
contributions as H-year-old fish, the 1955 year-class appears to be above average in the
District 2 and upper east coast populations but below average in those farther south.
Thus the general picture of recruitment in recent years along the coast is that of a
very strong 1951 year-class followed by a weak 1952 year-class, a below-average 1953
year-class, an average 1954 year-class, and finally the 1955 year-class, which appears
above average in the north but weak in the south. Abundance in most populations
reached a high level when the strong 1951 year-class was recruited and then declined as
this year-class moved through the fishery. The 1951 year-class held abundance at a fairly
high level as the poor 1952 year-class moved through the fishery, and the decline was
buffered somewhat as the 1953 and 1954 year-classes made somewhat stronger, although
no more than average, contributions to the stocks. The apparently good 1955 year-class
may hold abundance at is present level in the north, but further declines can be anticipated
in the south.
The year-class newly recruited as Ill-year fish continued to dominate in the lower east
coast and lower and upper west coast populations, indicating no major variation in year-
class strength in these regions. The middle east coast and lower central populations have
reverted to this pattern with the disappearance of the 1951 year-class as an important
contributor to the catch. Fish of age III (the 1954 year-class) also dominated the stocks
in both areas on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, forming a somewhat
larger proportion of the catch in the northerly than in the southerly area. The more usual
situation in the north of extended recruitment with several year-classes dominating the
catch obtained in the upper and lower east coasts of the Queen Charlotte Islands and
upper central populations. These populations were made up largely of III-, IV-, and
Vl-year fish, II-, III-, and Vl-year fish, and II- and Ill-year fish respectively. The poor
1952 year-class (V-year fish) in all these populations and the poor 1953 year-class (IV-
year fish) in the lower east coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands and upper central
populations disrupted this pattern only slightly. The 1953 year-class (IV-year fish)
appears to be the only one recruited to the northern population since 1951 which was
not below average, and it alone dominated the population in 1956-57.
In the summer of 1956, in the lower east coast sub-district (Areas 17a, 17b, 18,
and 19) the 1953 year-class as IV-year-old fish formed the greatest proportion of the
population from June to August. In September and in the regular winter fishery, the
1954 year-class (age III) was the dominant contributor. In the middle east coast sub-
district in September, the 1953 year-class contributed the largest number of fish, but in
the regular winter fishery the 1954 year-class did. In the upper east coast sub-district in
June the 1952 year-class was the largest contributor, in July and August the 1954 year-
class was, and in the regular winter fishery the 1955 year-class (age II) provided the most
fish. In the upper and lower central sub-districts the 1951 year-class (age VI) was
dominant in September, while in the regular winter fishery the 1954 year-class was
dominant in the lower central and the 1955 year-class (age II) in the upper central.
In all areas the stocks providing the summer fisheries contained a smaller proportion
of younger fish and a larger proportion of older fish than the equivalent winter populations. In areas where samples were available for several summer months, there is an
indication of a relatively small but progressive increase in the proportion of younger fish REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 55
as the summer progresses. In late summer or early fall before the winter fishery commences, a sharp increase occurs in the proportion of fish in those age-groups where
recruitment is greatest. Thus, in all populations, the proportion of Ill-year-old fish
increases in this interval. The increases are less marked in the middle east coast and the
northern and central British Columbia populations, where a greater proportion of the
recruitment occurs at older ages and hence where fish of age III generally form a smaller
proportion of the population.
The differences in age composition between summer- and winter-fished stocks suggest
that the new recruits do not join the fishable stocks until the time of the autumn pre-
spawning migration. The summer stocks appear to consist mainly of fish recruited in
previous years and are the residues of the previous season's spawning populations.
AVERAGE LENGTH AND WEIGHT
In six of the ten major herring populations, upper and lower east coast of the Queen
Charlotte Islands, northern, upper central, upper east coast, and lower west coast fish of
each age were larger, on the average, in the winter of 1956-57, than in the previous year
and than the ten-year average for the seasons 1946-47 to 1955-56 (Tables VI and VII).
In some of these populations, however, the H-year fish were smaller than average or than
in 1955-56. In the lower central and upper west coast sub-districts the fish were smaller
than average and the lower central fish were smaller than in the previous season. (No
data were obtained for the upper west coast in 1955-56.) Fish taken from the other
two sub-districts (lower and middle east coast) were similar in length to the previous year
and to the ten-year average. Irregularities in the average length and weight patterns of
fish younger than III years and older than VI years probably reflect the relatively small
numbers of fish sampled from these age-groups.
In animal populations there is often an inverse relationship between the relative size
of the population and the growth rate of individuals comprising it—that is, the population
limits the amount of food available to the individual. This situation appears to apply
roughly in 1956-57 to all but the northern population. Abundance in 1956-57 was
generally low except for the upper west coast, lower central, and northern populations,
and average size was greater except in the upper west coast and lower central populations.
However, catch, spawn deposition, and average size were all high in the northern sub-
district. This anomalous situation might be related to the fact than 97 per cent of the
northern catch was taken on the offshore grounds fished intensively for the first time in
1956-57. If these fish were from other than the northern stock, abundance would be
low in the northern population and size would consequently be greater. However, tag
returns indicated that these were the northern stocks fished prior to 1955-56. The most
probable explanation, therefore, appears to be that the abundance and (or) distribution of
the planktonic food-supply of this population was unusually favourable in 1956 and in
excess of the population requirements.
The somewhat erratic growth pattern presented by the average lengths and weights
of herring from the summer fisheries may be due in part to sampling inadequacies. The
number of samples from any area for any month is small and may not provide a reliable
indication of the population average lengths and weights. The data (Tables VI and VII)
suggest that the fish in summer are longer and heavier in all populations, except the lower
central, where the summer fishery (in Area 8) may have depended on a slower-growing
local population. Two possible explanations of the larger size of summer-caught herring
are offered. Environmental conditions may be more suitable for growth in those localities
where the summer fisheries occurred than in those where the fish caught in winter had
spent the summer, or more probably, considering that the greatest differences occur
among the younger fish, that the younger age-groups in the summer stocks contain a
greater proportion of earlier-maturing, faster-growing fish than do the same age-groups K 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in the winter stocks. In the lower east coast sub-district there is also some indication of
a progressive increase in average length and weight during the summer until September,
when the fish appear intermediate in size between those taken earlier and winter-caught
fish. The different size and age composition of fish taken in September may be the result
of the first incursion of the winter stocks. In other sub-districts the trend in growth
during the summer is less obvious and more erratic from age-group to age-group.
SEX RATIO
Females continued to slightly outnumber the males in the British Columbia herring
stocks (Table VIII). The high sex ratios in the lower west of the Queen Charlotte
Islands and the upper west coast populations probably reflect poor sampling as only two
samples were obtained from each of these populations. The generally lower sex ratios
in 1956-57 presumably result from the reduced number of older fish in the stocks as
females tend to live longer and thus dominate the older age-groups. The only heavily
sampled population (northern) which showed an increase in sex ratio over 1955-56
was also the only one to show a significant increase in average age.
EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF SPAWNING
Each year, officers of the Federal Department of Fisheries measure the extent and
intensity of herring-spawn depositions along the entire British Columbia coast-line.
Independent and more detailed surveys are also carried out by Biological Station personnel in certain regions. In 1955 and 1956, the lower and middle east coast sub-districts
were surveyed, but in 1957, only the latter sub-district and the Boundary Bay region
were searched for spawn.
Estimates of the extent and intensity of spawn depositions provide an index of the
size of the relative spawning escapements, since natural mortality during the short period
between the close of the fishery and the commencement of spawning can be considered
negligible. A measure of the extent of spawn deposition also provides information on
the initial size of the new year-class.
The length of each individual spawning-ground was measured by pacing along the
beach or by reference to detailed charts. Compensation was made for width, only when
this dimension was greater than 100 yards or less than 5 yards. In these cases the
reported length was converted to an equivalent length at a standard width of 30 yards.
The intensity on each spawning was estimated in terms of one of five categories—very
light, light, medium, heavy, or very heavy—depending on the number of eggs per unit
area of vegetation. The length of each spawning at the reported intensity was converted
to an equivalent length in statutory miles at a standard intensity of medium, and the
results totalled for each statistical area. By summing the area totals, an estimate of the
amount of spawn deposited in 1957 in each sub-district and on the coast as a whole was
obtained (Table IX).
A total of 131.5 miles of herring spawn at standard intensity was deposited in British
Columbia coastal waters in 1957, the lowest amount ever recorded, and a reduction of
30 per cent from the 1956 level. The number of miles of spawn deposited in 1957
decreased markedly in six sub-districts, increased slightly in two  sub-districts,  and
Substantially in One. PerCent PerCent
Sub-district Reduction Increase
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands  (x) (*)
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands     71 	
Northern  56
Upper central    2002
1 No change.
2 Although the per cent increase in the upper central sub-district is very large, the actual increase in miles of
spawn is small;  deposition in 1957 was less than a mile for the second successive year. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956                   K 57
Per Cent Per Cent
Sub-district                                                                                       Reduction Increase
Lower central      39 	
Upper east coast      38 	
Middle east coast     56 	
Lower east coast    6
Lower west coast     33 	
Upper west coast     55 	
In the upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district, spawning in Area 2ae was almost
negligible for the third successive year. A small spawning of 0.11 mile was located in
Seal Inlet in Area 2aw. This is one of the few reports ever received from the west coast
of the Queen Charlotte Islands. In the lower Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district (Area
2be), spawning was drastically reduced. Only one spawning of any consequence (at
Burnaby Narrows) was reported from this sub-district.
In the northern sub-district, the above-average spawn deposition was due primarily
to a record spawning in Area 3, principally in the vicinity of Port Simpson. The extent
of spawn also showed an increase in Area 4 for the second successive year. In both the
upper and lower central sub-districts, the amounts of spawn found were well below
average for the second successive year. The absence of any spawnings in the usually
productive Myers Pass-Kitasu Bay region (Area 6) for the second year in a row were
primarily responsible for the low level of spawning in the upper central sub-district. In
the lower central sub-district, a small increase in spawn deposition in Area 8 was more
than offset by substantial reduction in Area 7. The lack of spawning along the north
and south-west coast of Campbell Island (Area 7) caused the reduction in the lower
central sub-district.
In the upper east coast sub-district, spawning was well below the average for the
last twenty years. Although spawn deposition occurred on all the usual spawning-
grounds, the individual spawnings were reduced in size and intensity from 1956. A small
spawning occurred at Nugent Sound (Area 11) for the first time since 1954.
In the middle east coast sub-district, the extent of spawn was less than one-half of
the previous year. Marked reduction in the number of spawnings in Area 14, particularly
in the Comox Harbour vicinity, were primarily responsible for the decrease. While no
spawn was observed in Area 15 in 1956, 3.2 miles were found there in 1957.
In the lower east coast sub-district, spawn deposition increased slightly in 1957.
Exceptionally heavy and extensive spawnings in Nanoose Bay in Area 17a more than
offset the very reduced spawnings in Area 17b, where, following four years of progressive
reduction, spawning in 1957 for the first time on record was negligible.
In the lower west coast sub-district, spawning was below average. The absence of
the usual spawnings in Useless Inlet (Area 23) was mainly responsible for the reduced
1957 level of spawn deposition in this sub-district. The reduction in deposition in Area
23 was partly compensated for by a small increase in the extent of deposition in Area 24.
In the upper west coast sub-district, spawn deposition in 1957, while less than one-
half of that of the previous year, was still about average. The decrease in spawn deposition in 1957 was due primarily to a reduction in the size of the usually large spawning
at Nuchatlitz (Area 25). In 1956 this locality accounted for about 80 per cent of the
total spawn deposition in this sub-district, but in 1957 it produced only about 40 per cent
of the total. A small increase in deposition occurred in Area 26. In Area 27 no
spawning was reported in 1956;  however, in 1957 a small amount again was found.
In the Boundary Bay region, 2.1 miles of spawn were located in 1957, considerably
less than the 15.6 miles found in 1955, the only other year in which spawning was reported
there. K 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
DISCUSSION
The status of the major B.C. herring stocks will now be discussed in the light of
information derived from data in the previous sections.
In 1956-57, herring in British Columbia were generally less numerous than in the
previous season and below the average for the past five years. The total catch was only
70 per cent of the record 1955-56 catch and 90 per cent of the average catch for 1951-52
to 1956-57. Catches in all sub-districts were below average except in the northern,
lower Queen Charlotte Islands, and lower central sub-districts, where they were slightly
above average. The greatest declines in catch occurred in the lower west coast and
upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-districts. Spawn deposition in 1957 was only 74 per
cent of the 1956 deposition, well below average. Marked decreases in the amount of
spawn deposited occurred in all sub-districts except the northern, upper and lower east
coast sub-districts. In the first of these, spawn deposition increased considerably in
1957, but in the other two only slightly.
In the upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district there was a marked decline in
catch for the second successive year; no spawning was reported for the third year in
succession. In 1953-54, the first year this area was fished, the catch amounted to 26,600
tons and availability was very high; in 1954-55, while the catch (21,800 tons) was
almost as large as in the previous year, considerably greater effort was required to take
it; in 1955-56 the catch was sharply reduced to 6,458 tons, and was accompanied by
a further decline in availability; in 1956-57 the catch was again markedly reduced,
amounting to only 1,276 tons, and availability also was very sharply down. In 1954,
1.4 miles of spawn were reported, but in succeeding years only insignificant amounts of
spawn were found. Thus, assuming the same proportion of the population was available
to the fishery each year, it appears that a sharp decline in abundance has occurred in
this area in the last four years.
One reason for the decline undoubtedly lies in the relative strengths of the year-
classes which contributed to these fisheries. In 1953-54 the 1949 year-class as V-year-
old fish contributed almost one-half the catch; its contribution was over twice as large
as that made by the 1951 year-class as Ill-year fish, the 1950 class as IV-year fish, or
the 1948 year-class as Vl-year fish. In 1954-55, catch was maintained at a high level
by the strong entry of the 1951 year-class which, as IV-year fish, provided over one-third
of the catch, and almost twice as many fish as either the 1950 year-class or the 1949
year-class, which for Vl-year-old fish made a relatively substantial contribution. The
catch of the 1952 year-class as Ill-year-olds was only one-third the size of the catch
provided by the 1951 year-class the previous year. In 1955-56 the 1951 year-class, as
V-year fish, provided about one-third of the season's reduced catch; its contribution was
about twice that provided by the 1953, 1952, or the 1950 year-classes. The contribution
of the 1953 year-class as Ill-year fish was only about one-fifth of the contribution made
by the 1951 year-class at the same age. In 1956-57 the 1951 year-class, now at age VI,
was again the dominant contributor to the very reduced catch. The 1954 year-class as
Ill-year fish made a very poor showing, contributing about one-twentieth the amount
the 1951 year-class did at age III.
Thus it would appear that the 1949 year-class was very strong and the 1951 year-
class of above average strength. The 1952 and 1953 year-classes were weak, and the
1954 year-class very weak. Thus the good catches of 1953-54 and 1954-55 were the
result of large contributions by two strong year-classes—the 1949 and the 1951. The
sharply declining catches of the next two seasons, although partially sustained by the
remnants of the 1951 year-class, resulted from the successive recruitment of three weak
year-classes.
In the lower Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district, the catch, although slightly above
average, was only a little over one-third the phenomenally large catch of the preceding REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 59
season. Spawn deposition was sharply reduced. The very large catch of 1955-56
resulted from the extremely large contribution of the very strong 1951 year-class as
V-year-old fish. This year-class provided almost two-thirds of the catch. In 1956-57
this year-class contributed over one-third of the catch, over two to three times as much
as any of the younger year-classes. The recent decrease in abundance in this population
is explained by the appearance of three relatively weak year-classes, those of 1952, 1953,
and 1954. The decline in catch would have been greater had it not been for the large
contribution for Vl-year-old fish of the strong 1951 year-class. As this year-class cannot
be expected to make a substantial contribution as VH-year-old fish, a further sharp decline
will probably occur in 1957-58.
The catch in the northern sub-district reached the level of the quota for the first
time in three years. Spawn deposition also showed a substantial increase in this region.
The increase in abundance appears to be due to the above-average strength of the 1953
year-class (IV-year fish). The strong 1951 year-class also made a good contribution as
Vl-year-olds. The increase in catch may also have been influenced by the change in
fishing-grounds. In 1955-56 the fishery centred in Tuck Inlet and Morse Basin and
may have been dependent more on local populations. In 1956-57, on the other hand,
the fishery centred in Hecate Strait, and tag returns suggest that it was dependent on the
major northern population normally fished around Porcher Island.
In the upper central sub-district, while catch increased considerably over 1955-56,
it still remained well below average. Spawn deposition, although slightly greater than
in 1956, remained at a very low level. It would appear, therefore, that although abundance has increased slightly, it is still well below average. The increase in abundance
may be traced to the strength of the 1954 year-class. This year-class may be of average
strength in contrast to the two preceding year-classes, which were weak. This year-class,
while probably not as strong as the 1951 year-class and definitely not as strong as the
1947 year-class, appears stronger than any of the remaining recent year-classes. The
1955 year-class, which made a strong contribution as II-year fish in 1956-57, may
possibly turn out to be as strong as the 1954 year-class.
In the lower central sub-district, the catch, although about average for the last five
years, was only about two-thirds as large as in 1955-56. Spawn deposition showed a
marked decline for the second year in succession and was about 40 per cent less than
in 1956. The strong 1951 year-class, although it made a contribution above average
for Vl-year fish, was too old to sustain the level of abundance. The 1952 and 1953
year-classes, V- and IV-year-old fish, were relatively weak. The 1954 year-class, as in
the upper central sub-district, appears relatively strong, although probably not as strong
as the 1951 year-class. The 1955 year-class made an excellent showing as Il-year-old
fish, particularly in the more southern areas of the sub-district. There is the possibility,
therefore, that abundance may increase in 1957—58.
The catch in the upper east coast sub-district was the largest recorded for this region.
A substantial summer fishery (13,584 tons) occurred in 1956 off the entrance to Queen
Charlotte Strait. The regular winter fishery, however, contributed only about another
1,300 tons, well below average. Spawn deposition decreased fairly sharply from the
1955-56 level, but was probably not greatly below average. As the available evidence
suggests that the summer-fished stocks were of upper east coast origin, it would appear
that the level of abundance in this population was fairly high in 1956-57. The strong
1951 year-class, while it by no means dominated the summer or winter fisheries, made
very strong contributions to both. The 1952 year-class appears to be stronger in this
population than the 1953 year-class. The 1954 year-class made a relatively good contribution to both the summer and winter fisheries and appears to be stronger than the 1953
year-class, although probably not as strong as either the 1952 or 1951 year-classes. As
the 1955 year-class shows prospects of being of average strength, abundance may remain
at a reasonably high level in 1957-58. K 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the middle east coast sub-district, the catch, although almost double the 10,000-
ton quota, was well below the 1955-56 catch, and slightly below the average catch for
the past five years. Spawn deposition was only a little more than 50 per cent of the
1956 deposition. Abundance in 1956-57 declined from the high level of the past few
years and now is probably not above average. The 1952 year-class appears to have been
the last of a succession of three strong year-classes. The 1953 year-class was below
average in strength and the 1954 year-class of probably average strength. No great
increase in abundance is expected in 1957-58.
In the lower east coast sub-district, while the quota was again exceeded, the catch
was the smallest for the past five seasons. Spawn deposition was about average, approximately the same as in 1955-56. The suggested moderate decline in abundance has
probably resulted from the below-average contribution of the relatively weak 1953 year-
class as IV-year-old fish. The 1954 year-class appears to be of at least average strength.
No marked change in abundance is foreseen in this population.
Both catch and spawn deposition were at a low level in the lower west coast sub-
district in 1956-57. The catch was the smallest ever recorded from this region. Spawn
deposition, while below average, was greater than in some past years. The newly
recruited 1954 year-class appeared to be weak, and the 1953 year-class, although it made
at least an average contribution as Ill-year fish in 1955—56, made a poor showing as
IV-year fish this past season. Little increase is looked for in 1957-58 unless the 1955
year-class is stronger than expected.
In the upper west coast sub-district there was again no appreciable fishery. Spawn
deposition, while less than in 1956, was still above average. Abundance would appear
to be at a relatively high level in this population, but the fish have not become available
to the fishermen because of late inshore movement.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Each year, through their co-operation in many ways, the fishing companies, herring
fishermen, and officers of the Federal Department of Fisheries materially contribute to
the success of the British Columbia herring investigation. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks are due to the various members of the staff of the
Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., whose advice and effort attend these investigations.
This report continues a series published until 1956 under the auspices of the British
Columbia Department of Fisheries. Following the reorganization of certain Provincial
Government services, the British Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation
has kindly consented to publish this report.
SUMMARY
Although the 1956-57 tag returns were fewer in number and were attended by more
uncertainty as to the most probable area of recovery, they confirmed once again the relative discreteness of the populations as now defined.
Fish from the upper Queen Charlotte Islands population, as in 1955-56 but in contrast to 1954-55, showed the greatest tendency to wander from the sub-district of tagging. Fish from the northern population, in contrast to 1955-56 but as in 1954-55,
showed a relatively high "homing" tendency. The 1956-57 returns from fish tagged
in this sub-district provide some confirmation of the assumption that the 1956-57 fishery,
although centred in Hecate Strait, was dependent on the main northern stock, while the
1955-56 fishery centred in Tuck Inlet and Morse Basin depended to a larger degree on
local untagged stocks. In all other populations from which adequate tag returns were
available, the proportion of recoveries from the area of tagging followed the average
pattern. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 61
The tag recoveries from summer fisheries in 1956-57 and in two previous seasons,
although relatively few in number, suggest that in most areas the same stocks are fished
in summer as in winter. However, the degree of intermingling with adjacent stocks is
greater in summer than in winter.
The total catch in 1956-57 was 177,087 tons, the lowest since 1947-48. Of this
total, 30,579 tons were taken in a summer fishery. In the summer fishery, 44 per cent
of the catch came from the upper east coast sub-district, 28 per cent from the northern
sub-district, and 13 per cent from the lower east coast sub-district. The remaining 15
per cent came from small fisheries in the lower west coast, upper and lower central, middle east coast, and upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-districts. In the regular winter
fishery, catches were below average in all sub-districts, except the northern, lower Queen
Charlotte Islands, and lower central. The greatest declines occurred in the lower west
coast and upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-districts. Spawn deposition in 1957 was
the lowest recorded, and represented a reduction of 30 per cent from the 1956 level.
The greatest decreases occurred in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands, middle east coast,
upper west coast, lower central, upper east coast, and lower west coast sub-districts.
A substantial increase in spawn deposition occurred in the northern sub-district, and slight
increases in the lower east coast and upper central sub-districts.
In 1956-57, herring were relatively less abundant than in 1955-56 in the upper
and lower Queen Charlotte Islands, lower central, middle and lower east coast, and upper
and lower west coast sub-districts.
In 1956-57 the strong 1951 year-class, although it made relatively substantial contributions for the Vl-year-old fish to the catches in some sub-districts, was too old to
sustain the level of abundance in any population. In the upper and lower Queen Charlotte Islands sub-districts, the low level of abundance is associated with the weakness of
the year-classes providing fish of ages III, IV, and V (the 1954, the 1953, and the 1952
year-classes respectively). In the lower central sub-district the 1952 and 1953 year-
classes were relatively weak, and had the 1954 year-class not been of at least average
strength, abundance would have been lower. In the middle east coast sub-district, the
1952 year-class appears to have been the last of a succession of three strong year-classes.
The 1953 year-class (IV-year fish in 1956-57) was of below average strength, but the
1954 year-class (age III) may be of average strength. In the lower east coast sub-district
the decrease in abundance was relatively slight and may be traced to the below-average
strength of the 1953 year-class (IV-year-old fish). The 1954 year-class was probably
of average strength. In the lower west coast sub-district, in common with other Southern
British Columbia populations, newly recruited fish of age III formed the bulk of the population. In 1956-57 the dominant year-class (that of 1954) was very weak. The 1953
year-class (age IV) made a poor contribution, although it had appeared to be of average
strength the previous season.
Only in the northern sub-district did fish appear to be definitely more abundant
than in 1955-56. In this sub-district the 1953 year-class (age IV) appeared to be of
about average strength and the 1954 year-class (age III) of probably average strength.
In the upper central sub-district, although abundance showed probably a slight
increase over the 1955-56 level, it still remained well below average. In this sub-district
the 1954 year-class was probably of average strength, while the two preceding year-
classes were weak.
In 1956-57, fish of each age were somewhat larger than in 1955-56 and larger
than the average for the last ten years in the upper and lower Queen Charlotte Islands,
northern, upper east coast, and lower west coast populations. In the lower central and
the upper west coast sub-districts, the fish were smaller than average, and the lower
central fish were smaller than in 1955-56.   Fish in the lower and middle east coast sub- K 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
districts were similar in size to those of the previous year and close to the ten-year average.
Females continued to outnumber males in all populations.
REFERENCES
Stevenson, J. C. (1955):   The movement of herring in British Columbia waters as
determined by tagging, with a description of tagging and tag recovery methods.
Rapp. et Proc.-Verb., Cons. Explor. Mer. 140, II, pp. 33-34.
Stevenson, J. C; Hourston, A. S.; Jackson, K. J.; and Outram, D. N. (1953):*
Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1951-52.   Rept.
British Columbia Fish. Dept, 1951, pp. 57-87.
Taylor, F. H. C. (1955):  The status of the major herring stocks in British Columbia
in 1954-55.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1954, pp. 51-73.
Taylor, F. H. C, and Outram, D. N. (1954):  Results of investigation of the herring
populations on the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island in 1953-54.
Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1953, pp. 52-82.
Taylor, F. H. C; Hourston, A. S.; and Outram, D. N. (1956):  The status of the
major herring stocks in British Columbia in 1955-56.   Rept. British Columbia Fish.
Dept., 1955, pp. 51-80.
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1948): * Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1947-48.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1947,
pp. 41-86.
' Reprints were published in year following the date of publication of report,
Table I.—Catch and Availability by Sub-district for the 1956-57 and 1955-56 Seasons
Sub-district
Season
Catch,
1956-57
Catch,
1955-56
Average
Catch,
1951-52 to
1956-571
Catch per
Unit of
Effort,
1956-57
Catch per
Unit of
Effort,
1955-56
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands—
Summer2—
Winter3	
Winter
Winter
Winter
Summer
Winter
Summer
Winter
Summer
Winter
Summer	
Winter
Summer
Winter
Summer
Winter
Summer—
Winter  ....
Winter
Summer—
Winter
344
1,276
117
25,626
512
8,478
22,983
355
5,043
792
29,323
13,584
1,312
906
17,753
4,007
39,164
2,114
2,858
541
6,458
85,609
35
15
33
19
58
52
14
38
30
45
24
14
73
13
56
19
42
44
14,033
24,987
58
Area 2aw	
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands—
138
28,306
8,382
27^962
5,266
11,429
22
Lower central—Areas 7 to 10	
Upper east coast        _.  	
1,869
46,391
920
29,652
98
46
20,401
47
Lower west coast          _  . .
48,709
18,847
560
46,567
13,837
7,249
59
88
62
Total (tons)           	
30,579
146,508
250,444
196,486
-
1 Catches in 1952-53 omitted.
2 Summer fishery, June 1st to September 30th, except in lower east coast sub-district where the opening date is
May 1st.
3 Winter fishery, October 1st to February 5th, in District 3 and to March 10th in District 2.   Because of a delay in
reaching a price agreement, the season started on December 4th in 1956-57. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 63
Table II.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging and
Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1956-57 Fishing Season
SUMMER FISHERY, 1956-57
Sub-district and Area
of Tagging
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
OS
o5
Ih  O
5 -;
-JO
Sw
Lower Queen Charlotte
Islands
Area 2be	
Northern
Area 4..
Area 5..
Lower Central
Area 7..
Middle East Coast
Area 13	
Area 14..
Area 15.
Lower East Coast
Area 17a  	
Area 17b .
Upper West Coast
Area 25 	
18S
16AA
18Q
18N
16X
17FF
17HH
17KK
19A
20A
19B
19C
20B
20C
20D
20E
20F
18A
19D
19E
17E
18C
19G
20H
18B
19H
19K
20J
20K
15F
17J
18E
19M
San Juan Islands, U.S.A.
QuilceneBay 	
I 1952
I 1954
I
|  1954
1952
1953
1953
1953
1955
1956
1955
1955
1956
1956
1956
1956
1956
1954
1955
1955
1953
1954
1955
1956
1954
1955
1955
1956
1956
1951
1953
1954
1955
1956
2
1 [ 1
I  2
1 | 24
3 I 42
....   1
I I
9
7
4
1
13
22
4
32
38
4
10
2
1
2
2
25
2
2
2
25
51
1
2
1
1 K 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging and
Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1956—57 Fishing Season—Continued
WINTER FISHERY, 1956-57
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
to
.0
S
(/.
8
c/_
v.
u
Sub-district and Area
_>
on
'5b
C
aS
□
ra
"ra
o
U
C3
o
0
ra
o
O
O
U
C
u
o
of Tagging
o
DO
C.
O cn
CD*.
d
fi
t«
tn
CA
V.
CB^
■a *-
0
60
H
<**
aS
33
a
U
u
ra
w
[3
ra
W
1
>•
b2
c _=
ra S
rt, o
a
o
Lj   O
u O
i.
1.
k,
^i
-J -—
-O
4> Tl
"u
w
_>
aj
■a
V
K
tt
»*H   H
T3„
_D
c.
S"»
S ra
a.
?
a
•a
>
s
a
t- «
"a cn
cd
H
->
Du
o_=
o
Z
S3
o
1-1
a
D
is
o
o
a
v5 ra
C—
o
h
Upper Queen Charlotte
Islands
1
Area 2ae ..	
18T
1954
4
2
6
18U
1954
13
1
8
22
18W
1954
1
1
—
—
....
....
-
....
2
Lower Queen Charlotte
Islands
|
Area 2be    —  	
16CC
1952
10
2
1
l
14
17QQ
1953
13
3
1
_.-
1
18
17RR
1953
10
1
....
1
	
	
12
18S
1954
29
7
....
2
—
....
-
3
41
Northern
Area 4	
16Z
16AA
1952
1952
1
1
—
....
—
1
2
1
17MM
1953
1
6
	
1
8
I7NN
1953
1
2
	
	
1
1
5
17PP
1953
1
1
	
2
18P
1954
	
1
1
18Q
1954
1
10
	
	
.- 1 11
18R
1954
1
24
2
—
—
—
....
—
28
Area 5   . —	
18N
1954
-
1
13
6
i
-
2
23
Upper Central
Area 6            	
14BB
15V
1950
1951
—
—
1
1
—
....
—
—
-
....
1
1
17LL
1953
4
	
4
18M
1954
2
—
—
5
....
1
l
9
Lower Central
Area 7           	
15AA
15BB
1951
1951
....
—
2
4
—
....
-
2
l
2
7
16U
1952
1
	
	
3
	
4
16W
1952
	
10
	
	
1
11
16X
1952
3
1
4
16Y
1952
	
13
	
1
14
17EE
1953
1
3
15
2
21
17FF
1953
	
23
	
1
24
17GG
1953
1
11
1
13
17HH
1953
4
-   1     4
1711
1953
	
	
4
	
4
17KK
1953
	
	
5
	
	
	
5
18J
1954
	
13
1
14
18K
1954
	
	
	
15
	
1
l
17
18L
1954
3
—
....
9
i
—
1
l
—
15
Area 10   	
15CC
1951
—
—
1
....
-
-
-
1
Upper East Coast
Area 12	
17DD
1953
—
14
4
18
Middle East Coast
Area 13 	
19A
1955
6
2
1
57
6
72
20A
1956
—
—
—
1
45
6
206
16
274
Area 14   	
14A
1950
1   !        11
16A
1952
2
1
2 1    1
6
17B
1953
	
	
	
1   | .-
1
18B
1954
	
	
	
	
1   [ -
1
19B
1955
	
1
	
24 j    1
26
19C
1955
~
—
—
—
1
2
....
5 1    1
I
9 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.  1956
K 65
Table II.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging and
Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1956-57 Fishing Season—Continued
WINTER FISHERY, 1956-57—Continued
JUVENILE HERRING TAG RECOVERIES
o
-0
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district and Area
a
a
es
"ra
"ra
ra
o
U
o
0
ra
o
O
ra
o
O
ra
o
O
o
o
-J
of Tagging
OB
<D cn
CO
vS
cn
w
(B'j
XI   «
0
H
&?.
&?.
E
O
<_
O
ra
W
w
N
&
£
c1-!
rara
.3
00
o
I* o
u o
.c
_>
D.
^
U
CD
CD
P.
5 E
^3 ...
"ra
H
0>
>>
DO
OJ5
JO
Z
D
o
-1
a
§
O
0
0
z9
s<3
C-
o
H
20B
1956
1
1
10
12
20C
1956
20
7
113
5
145
20D
1956
	
	
.....  1  13  1    1
53
5
72
20E
1956
1
10
6
77
4
98
20F
1956
1
13
9
1
88
6
118
14B
14C
1950
1950
-
....
-
1
1
1
1
15A
1951
1
3
4
15B
1951
	
	
3
3
17A
1953
-   1    2
	
5
7
18A
1954
.... 12 12
12
1
17
19D
1955
2
11
2
52
3
71
19E
1955
—
—
14
4
—
55
3
73
20G
1956
-
1
1
Lower East Coast
18C
19F
1954
1955
1
1
2
2
5
3
8
19G
1955
3
2
5
20H
1956
—
7
--
23
2 [ 32
18D
19H
1954
1955
—
2
—
1
4
.... |    1
....  1    6
19K
1955
1  1    1
20J
1956
	
	
22
11
33
20K
1956
1
—
15
27
2 | 45
Area 18 _	
15F
18E
1951
1954
....
....
1
1
1
1
2
18F
1954
	
	
	
4
4
19L
1955
2
2
19M
1955
....
_..
—
2
2
Lower West Coast
Area 24   	
16K
1952
1
....  1    1
17T
1953
—
....
1
Upper West Coast
Area 25 	
18H
1954
1952
1953
--
1
1
....
....
1
1
Area 26 	
16T
17AA
17BB
1953
....
....
....
....
1
San Juan Islands, U.S.A.
1955
1956
1956
....
—
....
....
1
1
....
1
....
1
3
5
1
1
3
3
8
1956
1
....  |    1
Locality Unknown   _.
....
....
....
2
Middle East Coast
19B
17YY
17BBB
1955
1953
1953
-
—
—
1
1
_..
1
1
1
|    1
Lower West Coast
Area 23	
—
1
I    1
....
-- I    1 K 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Probable Numbers of Tags in the Catches during the 1956-57 Season, Based
on Magnet Recoveries, Shown by Area of Tagging and Probable Sub-district of
Recovery, with Actual Number of Tags1 in Parentheses.
SUMMER FISHERY, 1956-57
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district and Area of Tagging
co
i
a*
CJ w.
ui-h
&S
u O
as
co
•a
G
c 1
<U   -0
0J 1—1
&s
u o
PT3
a
£
"3
a
ID
u
Ih
OJ
o
t-4
to
rt
0
gw
ft CQ
E_
rt
CA
ra
o
CD w
*tn
o ra
JW
co
rt
O
■Ss*
g
'ra
,-< K
ra aj
fo
H3
q
a «_
CD--
si
5(5
Zw
ra
o
O
-S
n ra
rar£i
Su
SI
§3
.-•
*ra
o
H
■o
a
ra
ox:
JO
z
O
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands
1
(1)
1
Northern
4
(2)
2
(1)
2
(1)
	
i
(i)
3
(3)
37
(31)
6
(5)
8
(7)
6
(5)
1
(1)
4
(2)
2
(1)
5
(4)
18
(15)
115
(99)
17
(15)
30
(25)
94
(80)
6
(5)
1
(1)
2
(2)
(1)
4
(2)
2
Lower Central
2
(2)
7
(6)
5
(5)
3
(3)
(1)
5
Middle East Coast
7
(5)
69
(59)
8
(7)
22
(18)
84
(71)
5
(4)
i
(i)
4
(4)
i
(i)
17
(15)
1
(1)
6
(5)
2
(2)
.
(4)
19
(16)
132
	
	
(114)
18
Lower East Coast
4
(4)
(16)
36
	
(30)
96
Area 18 	
(82)
6
Upper West Coast
1
(1)
1
(1)
(5)
1
United States of America
1
(1)
(1)
2
(2)
WINTER FISHERY, 1956-57
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands
16
(6)
2
(1)
73
(47)
6
(4)
1
(1)
14
(8)
17
(11)
58
(34)
18
(13)
4
(3)
4
(3)
9
(6)
32
(15)
94
(61)
68
(41)
29
(21)
6
(5)
1
(1)
3
(2)
1
(1)
32
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands
(15)
101
Northern
	
2
(2)
(67)
71
1
(1)
	
(44)
32
(23)
1 No magnet efficiency tests were carried out at the Butedale or Port Albion plants. Therefore, in calculating the
probable number of tags, recoveries at these plants were omitted. Hence the actual number of recoveries in Table III
will not agree in all cases with those in Table II. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 67
Table III.—Probable Numbers of Tags in the Catches during the 1956—57 Season, Based
on Magnet Recoveries, Shown by Area of Tagging and Probable Sub-district of
Recovery, with Actual Number of Tags1 in Parentheses—Continued.
WINTER FISHERY, 1956-57—Continued
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district and Area of Tagging
co
-a
a
a J
<D^_
UH
&s
u 0
CD VI
O.H
PO
co
al
U cn
Clt-t
OS
u O
_!"
£ ra
o-=
JO
a
N
ID
U
O
Z
"ra
t-j
a
o
O
IH
o
J
co
cd
o
hU
<_> w
ft W
a «
PW
co
rt
&8
2 ™
cn
ra
o
i-O
*t_
o ra
JW
CO
rt
O
CD 4_>
>   CO
,3>S
'3
i—i tn
<n 01
q
«CN
EtJ
£%
■e.2
5Q
Z"
co
M
O
0
B «
TJ  U
? J
"rt
O
H
T3
a
rt
■h
o
Upper Central
1
(1)
8
(6)
2
(1)
3
(2)
10
(8)
137
(105)
1
(1)
13
(10)
149
(114)
1
(1)
16
(14)
63
(60)
97
(88)
44
(40)
i
(i)
13
(11)
2
(1)
4
(3)
16
Lower Central
	
l
(i)
	
1
(1)
(12)
167
Area 10 -	
(129)
1
Upper East Coast
Area 12   ~	
16
(14)
4
(4)
17
(15)
15
(14)
4
(4)
1
(1)
2
(2)
(1)
20
Middle East Coast
1
(1)
3
(2)
3
(2)
53
(51)
62
(59)
31
(30)
9
(8)
32
(27)
10
(8)
	
1
(1)
310
(251)
446
(363)
157
(129)
1
(1)
37
(31)
52
(42)
13
(12)
1
(1)
1
(1)
15
(12)
(18)
391
(327)
558
1
(1)
(465)
206
(174)
1
Lower East Coast
2
13
(12)
45
(39)
1
(1)
15
(14)
45
(39)
1
(1)
(1)
53
(2)
(46)
99
Area 18                 — -
(83)
14
Lower West Coast
Area 24	
(13)
1
Upper West Coast
(1)
1
United States of America
2
(2)
2
(2)
	
2
(2)
(1)
19
(16)
JUVENILE HERRING TAG RECOVERIES
Middle East Coast
1
(1)
1
(1)
1
Area 23..
Lower West Coast
3
(1)
	
(1)
3
(1) K 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—The Average Percentage Age Composition of Herring Sampled from Each
Major Population or Sub-district during the 1956-57 Winter Fishing Season and by
Months for Each Statistical Area during the 1956 Summer Fishing Season.
(Comparable data for the previous four seasons are also shown together with the
ten-year average for the seasons 1946-47 to 1955-56, inclusive. Dominant year-classes
are given in italics.)
WINTER FISHERY
Population and
Fishing Season
In Year of Age
III
VI
VII
VIII
rx-i
West Coast, Queen Charlotte
Islands
Area 2a w-
Area 2bw-
-1956-57 i..
•1956-571..
Upper East Coast, Queen
Charlotte Islands2
1952-533..
1953-54 ...
1954-55 ...
1955-56 ...
1956-57—
Lower East Coast, Queen
Charlotte Islands*
1952-533..
1953-54...
1954-556..
1955-56—
1956-57 —
Northern
Ten-year average	
1952-53  	
1953-54..  	
1954-55	
1955-56 	
1956-57 	
Upper Central
Ten-year average.
1952-53—.	
1953-54— 	
1954-55. 	
1955-56 	
1956-57 —
Lower Central
Ten-year average —
1952-53   	
1953-54.	
1954-55...... _	
1955-56	
1956-57  	
Upper East Coast
Ten-year average	
1952-53—   	
1953-54 	
1954-55   _	
1955-56 	
1956-57. 	
Middle East Coast
Ten-year average  	
1952-53 	
1953-54... 	
1954-55 	
1955-56-  	
1956-57  	
0.05
0.10
0.20
0.02
0.22
0.70
0.42
0.06
0.34
0.40
0.18
0.39
0.03
0.01
10.49
1.11
2.42
7.81
13.81
6.04
0.16
20.47
5.57
1.27
1.96
2.78
8.85
11.31
19.81
6.94
5.12
12.53
84.74
55.14
4.66
16.84
41.60
9.93
30.99
2 AS
6.02
9.39
1.22
63.41
40.60
27.18
13.77
24.71
24.94
38.24
15.39
23.42
26.27
34.34
28.35
4.90
56.30
18.39
31.04
24.74
74.47
18.82
12.72
35.11
7.46
29.89
9.14
28.13
5.52
70.41
5.74
10.20
7.64
13.76
19.61
47.97
24.13
33.88
1.14
9.31
65.87
34.37
17.15
26.10
38.03
41.18
28.59
37.71
13.08
42.31
31.71
17.63
21.27
40.90
20.49
21.39
38.24
9.82
15.71
35.80
23.58
29.37
70.78
9.77
39.96
23.47
24.39
14.11
63.43
1.26
6.76
33.37
24.04
18.00
69.83
9.96
13.11
19.34
20.45
15.20
45.23
19.45
7.57
31.17
17.00
40.98
45.88
28.68
18.74
2.44
13.22
35.10
18.07
23.85
15.88
8.82
62.25
9.71
23.18
25.72
23.80
15.32
20.84
12.88
18.01
28.49
4.93
4.08
1.14
1.88
23.59
26.69
4.39
10.86
64.77
7.04
7.22
36.36
6.61
10.10
41.16
7.75
15.18
6.30
18.82
8.25
39.14
23.76
2.44
15.34
10.66
14.81
9.92
22.26
11.76
8.62
27.60
6.77
11.03
13.33
5.02
3.28
15.85
6.01
14.06
0.94
0.87
0.15
1.06
4.29
9.70
1.32
2.65
3.46
11.56
3.09
28.41
2.32
3.36
5.40
15.41
4.25
3.16
6.77
2.01
7.78
12.43
1
9.92
1
2.18
2.33
|    0.68    |
4.18
0.29    |
5.22
1.34    |
5.94
2.94    1
2.94    |
2.89
0.70
2.35
0.39
1.93
0.38
0.98
0.08
2.54
0.58
1.04
0.15
0.62
0.19
1.31
0.28
1.11
0.24
0.68
0.21
	
0.05
0.82
0.19
1.42
0.48
0.13
0.33
0.38
0.03
0.63
0.07
1.12
0.45
9.09
2.27
0.45
0.08
1.58
0.54
!    1.43
0.14    |
1
0.91
0.20
0.66
0.10
1.91
0.39
0.12
1.37
0.40
1.41
0.11
0.29
0.10
0.56
0.63
0.17
0.14
0.08
0.06
0.14
0.03
0.10
0.04
0.02
0.28
2.27
0.04
0.05
0.16
1 No catch in previous seasons.
2 No samples were obtained prior to the 1952-53 season.
3 No fishery.
4 No samples were obtained prior to the 1950-51 season.
5 No samples obtained. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 69
Table IV.—The Average Percentage Age Composition of Herring Sampled from Each
Major Population or Sub-district during the 1956—57 Winter Fishing Season and by
Months for Each Statistical Area during the 1956 Summer Fishing Season—Cont'd.
WINTER FISHERY—Continued
Population and
In Year of Age
Fishing Season
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX+
Lower East Coast
0.28
0.12
0.02
0.04
0.07
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.26
3.48
2.65
0.79
2.81
4.37
1.12
7.71
8.88
2.72
16.82
11.89
2.55
3.32
22.57
6.24
58.25
60.53
57.98
57.18
53.07
74.91
58.47
55.66
64.29
59.39
63.70
72.11
43.44
60.74
46.14
34.57
51.55
30.30
32.83
34.23
33.37
29.86
19.36
26.69
32.86
26.71
19.81
15.86
24.83
31.64
14.60
41.85
50.40
28.87
6.38
3.25
6.18
6.05
10.70
2.98
5.74
1.95
5.47
3.32
7.04
0.34
15.90
1.35
9.04
6.78
15.46
1.07
0.54
0.62
0.50
1.71
1.37
1.07
0.54
0.53
0.59
1.29
0.17
3.83
0.40
2.04
1.68
4.12
0.19
0.05
0.14
0.10
0.24
0.18
0.20
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.14
1.25
0.07
0.94
0.26
—
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.06
0.04
0.45
0.07
0.01
1952 53                    ....    	
1953-54         .
0.01
1954-55 	
1955-56	
1956-57  ..   .   ...
0.02
Lower West Coast
0.02
1952-53                 _	
1953-54   	
1954-55     	
1955-56        	
0.05
1956-57               	
Upper West Coast
0.15
1952 53	
1953 54
1954-55  	
1955-565  	
1956-57           -	
	
B No samples obtained.
SUMMER FISHERY
Population and
Fishing Season
In Year of Age
III
IV
VI
VII
Upper Central
Area 6—September, 1956
Lower Central
Area 8—September, 1956
Upper East Coast
Area 12—
June, 1956
August, 1956	
September, 1956	
Middle East Coast
Area 14—
July, 1953 .
August, 1953 .
September, 1953..
Area 16—
June, 1953	
July, 1953	
Area 14—
July, 1954.
0.33
September, 1956.	
Lower East Coast
Area 17a—
May, 1956 .
June,1956	
September, 1956	
Area 17b—July, 1956..
Area 18—
June, 1956—
July, 1956 .
September, 1956—
Area 19—September,
1956. _	
Lower West Coast
Area 21—July, 1953	
3.70
20.41
0.86
0.90
3.23
18.73
6.18
0.28
13.65
14.29
13.95
43.11
44.90
21.19
14.29
23.26
19.66
14.29
29.53
30.81
2.05
2.76
26.19    ]    40.48    |    4.76    |
53.49
17.99
12.24
15.79 36.89
22.76 35.78
23.02 37.35
3.63
0.58
0.22
15.38
39.85
77.32
19.48
2.11
39.54
9.57
24.47
36.05
10.92
12.74
65.91
87.50
30.93
15.46
52.89
46.81
28.36
44.88
47.34
41.28
43.38
38.91
25.00
12.50
32.19
29.71
23.57
8.29
1.03
20.31
37.09
24.36
27.25
20.49
13.37
25.71
19.85
9.09
36.34    |    47.25
9.30
13.92
1.62
11.31
2.96
8.08
2.42
0.11
0.23
8.40
3.25
1.18
2.06
	
	
6.76
0.28
12.36
1.62
	
	
4.12
16.92
0.67
7.70
7.56
0.58
0.58
16.60
2.27
0.90
10.65
1.74
0.37
1.57
0.96
0.14
0.72
0.37 K 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Number of Fish of Each Age (in Millions) in the Catch from Each Population
during the 1956—57 Winter Fishing Season and by Months for Each Statistical Area
during the 1956 Summer Fishing Season.
(Comparable data for the previous four seasons are also shown.
are given in italics.)
WINTER FISHERY
Dominant year-classes
1 No catch in previous seasons.
2 No catch.
3 One hundred and eighty-five tons caught;  no samples obtained.
4 Five hundred and fifty tons caught;  no samples obtained.
5 One hundred and three tons caught;  samples'inadequate.
6 Eighty-three tons caught;  45 tons by seine shown here but not in previous Reports.
Population and
In Year of Age
Fishing Season
I
II
HI
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
West Coast Queen Charlotte
Islands
Area 2aw—1956-571      ..
0.05
0.77
1.65
83.61
28.74
17.16
2.92
7.23
0.39
0.72
65.44
85.36
14.23
2.51
0.03
0.54
0.03
0.63
0.40
7.17
8.72
3.62
0.70
18.95
5.21
0.18
6.34
1.91
0.76
3.39
0.01
0.24
0.04
0.09
0.48
0.48
1.35
2.37
0.41
0.64
0.21
+
2.78
0.21
3.25
2.05
0.09
2.08
0.60
0.93
0.34
0.56
4.59
0.86
0.02
1.45
0.27
0.23
0.72
0.03
0.14
0.20
0.07
0.22
0.02
+
0.59
0.91
0.16
0.89
0.38
0.39
0.07
1.11
0.31
0.14
0.17
0.08
0.16
0.11
0.07
0.34
......
......
1.22
Area 2bw—1956-571       	
4.08
Upper East Coast, Queen
Charlotte Islands
1952-532 _ -   ...
1953-54 _	
1954-55	
0.12
7.43
16.32
9.59
0.71
107.98
37.71
16.57
1.86
32.78
30.91
6.89
2.61
2.22
307.50
208 74
1955-56.   	
1956-57..	
Lower East Coast, Queen
Charlotte Islands
1952 533
0.07
69.45
11.72
1953-54  	
1954-554                              	
1.05
45.40
0.23
4.87
5.09
10.78
13.93
0.06
5.30
14.53
32.12
42.44
0.99
13.94
14.26
20.74
61.28
723
64.39
34.84
4.34
73.33
129.86
11.90
81.70
0.21
14.14
73.50
0.48
5.20
2.14
66.51
125.38
36.91
45.12
1.67
18.91
1955-56                             	
100.91
51.94
6.87
70.77
8.98
68.57
39.05
0.21
77.14
21.81
4.82
27.02
2.66
234.14
25.86
47.11
164.24
408.15
21.53
4.73
59.42
28.11
25.38
25.48
0.24
5.11
4.73
0.43
1.45
2.17
15.85
19.85
242.67
24.76
56.52
6121
2.02
33.28
9.21
4.00
35.37
0.12
0.97
1.01
0.06
0.82
0.78
3.49
4.63
12.59
45.40
655.67
1956-57    _ _.	
0.44
221.74
Northern
1952-53    —
1953-54 	
1954-55 	
1955-56	
18.39
249.60
183.43
121.79
1956-57....	
199.72
Upper Central
1952-53   .
1953-54   	
1954-55     .   .....
1955-56.....	
0.01
0.44
0.63
0.04
0.41
0.72
0.14
0.05
0.13
0.24
0.86
103.10
116.45
37 91
1956-57	
76 97
Lower Central
1952-53...... _.  	
1953-54                	
8.90
1954-55...  	
1955-56. 	
1956-57	
Upper East Coast
1952-535  	
361.76
343.42
1953-54	
8.60
9.06
1.87
6.02
0.18
4.40
15.44
28.97
1.78
60.90
49.67
1.90
3.78
0.24
50.42
95.15
36.00
61.58
14.05
75.7 J
2.16
1.10
0.10
70.08
112.83
73.94
27.28
6.11
18.15
4.57
1.12
0.04
27.55
20.03
96.90
34.58
2.15
3.24
0.60
2.23
0.02
10.47
5.04
18.92
18.09
92.42
156.35
11.10
14 48
1954-55	
1955-56  ...
1956-57	
Middle East Coast
1952-53°	
+
0 58
1953-54       .
1954-55                        	
166.36
248 70
1955-56..	
1956-57   ....                       	
	
259.23
145 52 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 71
Table V.—Number of Fish of Each Age (in Millions) in the Catch from Each Population
during the 1956-57 Winter Fishing Season and by Months for Each Statistical Area
during the 1956 Summer Fishing Season—Continued.
WINTER FISHERY—Continued
Population and
In Year of Age
Total
Fishing Season
I
II
HI
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
Lower East Coast
1952-53   	
1953-54                   	
0.12
2.00
3.54
13.55
20.75
4.45
0.04
7.92
11.86
25.00
0.63
57.59
283.14
261.95
246.47
297.91
0.12
194.15
41.89
129.16
17.75
30.51
167.41
151.56
137.66
76.99
0.07
86.22
13.97
30.65
6.11
2.98
29.55
26.41
48.26
11.85
+
18.36
2.34
8.36
0.08
0.51
3.02
2.22
7.36
5.45
+
1.98
0.42
1.47
0.04
0.06
0.67
0.31
1.07
0.72
+
0.58
0.02
0.27
1.02
0.17
0.03
0.20
0.16
0.16
	
0.21
0.07
0.04
0.09
0.08
......
0.12
0.03
	
87.80
487.62
1954-55     	
456.00
1955-56   	
461.73
1956-57   	
Lower West Coast
1952-537     	
0.08
397.69
0.23
1953-54......  	
1954-55—	
1955-56...	
0.27
0.02
309.81
70.52
195.01
1956-57.  	
24.61
Upper West Coast
1952-53-	
	
1953-54 	
42.42
21.62
39.80
31.07
9.03
4.32
2.19
0.92
94.46
1954-55	
3.95
62.09
1955-568	
1956-57... 	
	
2.44
1.37
0.73
0.20
4.74
SUMMER FISHERY
2 No catch.
7 Twenty-three tons caught;  not shown in previous Reports.
8 Five hundred and sixty tons caught;  no samples obtained.
Upper Central
Area 6—September, 1956.	
0.10
0.41
0.98
42.40
2.19
0.53
2.76
10.00
1.39
2.42
5.28
0.12
0.13
0.44
0.33
2.34
0.72
0.33
2.71
1.89
6.52
0.15
0.41
1.63
19.34
0.70
1.23
4.34
16.22
1.08
0.48
14.34
2.56
0.09
2.06
0.64
2.68
2.86
1.02
1.03
0.27
8.48
0.21
0.76
3.75
17.70
0.60
1.07
3.60
10.23
0.29
0.03
5.51
2.03
0.08
1.25
0.28
0.87
1.69
0.52
0.37
022
1.17
0.65
13.69
0.40
0.38
0.98
3.65
0.07
0.01
0.14
1.59
0.10
0.29
1.41
0.08
0.09
0.03
0.04
0.15
0.05
0.17
0.02
0.01
0.51
0.04
0.06
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.01
0.71
Lower Central
Area 8—September, 1956	
	
2.89
Upper East Coast
Area 12—
June, 1956 	
7.01
August, 1956.....	
September, 1956    .. ...
	
3.64
1.00
0.03
0.11
1.40
0.65
0.19
0.08
98.37
4.89
Middle East Coast
Area 14—
July, 1953	
3 34
August, 1953...     .   ...
12.12
September, 1953 	
43 42
Area 16—
June, 1953 	
July, 1953	
0.01
3.49
3.12
Area 14—■
July, 1954	
1.83
0.68
0.01
0.78
0.10
0.49
1.09
0.28
27.12
5 48
September, 1956 _	
Lower East Coast
Area 17a—
May, 1956	
0.01
June, 1956	
September, 1956	
Area 17b—July, 1956	
Area 18—
June, 1956.	
	
0.04
0.01
0.40
1.35
6.50
6 58
July, 1956	
September, 1956..
4.11
Area 19—September, 1956	
0.28
2.16
Lower West Coast
Area 21—July, 1953   	
2.47
17.95 K 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VI.—The Average Length in Millimetres of Herring Sampled from Each Major
Population or Sub-district during the 1956-57 Winter Fishing Season and by Months
for Each Statistical Area during the 1956 Summer Fishing Season.
(Comparable data for the previous four seasons are also shown together with the ten-year
average for the seasons 1946-47 to 1955-56, inclusive.)
WINTER FISHERY
1 No catch in previous seasons.
2 No fishing.
3 No samples obtained.
Population and
In Year of Age
Fishing Season
I
II
III
TV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X+
West Coast Queen Charlotte
Islands
Area 2aw—1956-571	
144.00
140.58
191.42
191.03
161.47
204.15
206.25
179.48
175.69
184.32
176.27
186.59
192.43
215.00
211.58
198.92
197.14
201.68
200.62
200.30
202.32
227.00
221.58
211.81
208.13
214.50
213.52
214.55
210.70
221.25
235.00
236.33
237.00
236.50
243.50
210.00
253.33
262.00
244.00
254.00
Area2BW—1956-571 "
230.89
223.81
216.68
228.87
223.70
226.67
216.51
228.50
232.70
Upper East Coast, Queen
Charlotte Islands
109.50
1952-53 2  	
1953-54.. 	
1954-55 ... —
1955-56    .	
122.00
97.00
101.41
132.53
147.28
139.06
146.59
151.03
160.50
153.83
145.24
149.41
144.30
155.58
145.40
138.00
143.43
149.50
146.96
145.76
147.11
148.05
139.36
148.11
126.59
132.66
143.07
135.39
137.22
165.58
162.59
159.54
171.13
181.05
231.09
243.67
231.54
236.00
223.10
1956-57..      .          _      	
Lower East Coast, Queen
Charlotte Islands
Ten-year average   .
1952-533	
1953-54     :	
...
178.85
197.23
204.67
228.00
224.50
226.89
217.60
217.00
238.88
229.00
230.67
237.17
215.12
	
241.00
1954-553 	
1955-56..	
186.19
189.83
173.78
182.72
177.12
181.53
176.76
179.79
172.93
192.96
165.24
162.18
161.38
177.81
170.96
185.36
158.15
161.46
180.16
171.30
160.43
154.67
159.13
135.67
168.97
181.38
177.93
174.03
176.53
181.72
180.62
197.74
204.45
190.70
200.95
200.98
193.91
190.39
198.26
188.19
208.01
182.90
179.17
170.43
196.08
187.39
200.22
184.06
180.63
196.47
182.81
179.28
179.24
165.32
162.90
189.57
197.68
199.05
196.28
190.15
198.00
200.90
203.16
211.89
202.46
210.98
215.88
205.37
200.03
208.88
203.16
215.63
198.12
193.65
200.29
207.56
201.93
210.70
195.62
194.64
205.18
193.76
198.27
215.06
215.04
208.69
215.87
223.45
218.03
211.48
216.07
204.82
223.44
214.00
188.23
235.00
217.77
208.96
219.58
203.75
201.68
212.24
206.51
213.39
224.82
207.92
207.37
207.23
221.00
224.58
224.26
215.95
217.56
214.66
221.92
223.82
211.18
222.00
232.42
222.23
217.89
230.02
210.79
228.00
1956-57    	
Northern
101.44
117.43
227.17
219.35
1952-53 	
1953-54     _
230.00
237.50
247.00
216.73
250.00
1954-55  -	
1955-56  	
1956-57                         	
109.39
105.50
122.00
128.00
	
Upper Central
1952-53  _ 	
1953-54  	
	
1954-55	
219.33
	
1955-56	
1956-57  	
223.00
210.79
226.59
211.67
207.08
217.56
214.60
216.69
216.58
232.62
Lower Central
111.38
119.18
112.22
103.24
114.00
95.00
100.06
220.70
1952 53
1953 54
222.00
::::
1954-55
1955-56                    	
208.50
202.40
211.36
235.00
1956-57
Upper East Coast
252.63
192.25
_     '
1952-533	
1953 54
114.25
101.00
132.35
135.61
115.79
134.39
146.68
138.73
148.32
150.12
147.03
153.10
202.62
178.41
198.98
200.62
209.86
215.77
213.68
204.99
206.06
209.22
231.91
225.85
237.50
227.71
1954-55
  |   	
1955 56
 1    --
1956 57
214.90
228.72
228.62
230.88
227.67
226.83
222.79
219.00
232.57
229.00
236.33
246.37
	
246.00
246.00
Middle East Coast
103.89
107.75
1952 53
1953 54                                    -   -.
269.00
238.20
1954 55
1955 56                     	
	
234.36
240.00
1956-57    	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 73
Table VI.—The Average Length in Millimetres of Herring Sampled from Each Major
Population or Sub-district during the 1956-57 Winter Fishing Season and by Months
for Each Statistical Area during the 1956 Summer Fishing Season—Continued.
WINTER FISHERY—Continued
Population and
In Year of Age
Fishing Season
I
II
Ill
rv
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X+
Lower East Coast
99.51
106.50
155.00
155.94
151.97
163.09
160.16
158.67
162.65
162.12
160.53
164.34
165.12
157.40
153.72
145.86
187.16
183.81
187.22
188.88
186.44
185.57
186.55
184.02
185.34
182.31
185.74
187.72
188.45
187.81
181.01
180.52
183.68
198.63
195.96
199.49
199.58
198.36
197.89
200.61
197.83
199.81
198.64
197.71
200.97
201.91
199.25
198.05
194.96
199.96
210.29
208.64
210.70
210.63
208.26
210.98
209.68
209.41
211.16
210.38
204.18
215.00
215.35
207.10
210.71
210.04
211.73
218.74
214.45
222.89
225.25
215.85
216.84
219.24
219.20
222.52
221.81
216.46
232.00
223.02
228.50
222.64
216.21
213.25
226.13
222.80
226.70
238.33
224.08
223.22
224.87
211.00
241.38
220.00
227.71
227.81
233.33
227.33
230.50
235.50
232.23
239.50
232.75
1952-53.. 	
1953-54	
237.00
1954-55	
1955-56.   	
1956-57.                      	
99.00
107.06
97.00
90.50
140.00
236.14
Lower West Coast
Ten-year average.	
1952-53
278.00
1953-54--                	
271.00
278.00
1954-55
1955-56                   	
233.00
221.00
1956-57
Upper West Coast
100.60
99.50
229.51
233.00
231.83
230.75
233.91
238.57
230.75
1952-53
1953 54
1954-55
153.97
236.00
1955 563               -   --	
1956-57
	
SUMMER FISHERY
Upper Central
Area 6—September, 1956	
Lower Central
	
181.60
148.67
181.50
175.65
174.73
179.72
182.54
177.54
171.42
165.57
191.83
187.00
187.09
171.93
186.26
176.02
182.19
182.74
184.48
183.36
198.94
167.50
192.20
192.67
192.00
201.35
202.61
200.26
195.55
191.33
204.07
205.28
197.50
198.14
205.03
196.24
195.76
200.35
200.09
194.67
210.74
174.27
198.70
206.95
191.33
215.01
215.47
214.92
211.65
212.00
213.29
212.98
206.98
206.78
212.21
209.83
203.80
209.96
205.50
213.96
179.76
207.75
210.56
197.25
223.83
225.76
224.06
223.00
225.33
184.00
220.50
234.67
230.95
230.06
231.00
227.50
211.00
214.00
223.00
221.00
229.75
Upper East Coast
Area 12—
June, 1956              	
143.60
146.20
140.50
136.00
147.80
130.46
140.17
173.00
162.83
September, 1956	
Middle East Coast
Area 14—
July, 1953              	
240.00
237.54
269.00
September, 1953	
Area 16—
June, 1953                	
109.00
July, 1953               	
Area 14—
July, 1954           	
224.18
217.48
213.00
212.06
218.18
221.85
214.30
214.87
	
	
Lower East Coast
Area 17a—
May, 1956                       	
June, 1956
229.00
September, 1956 _ 	
Area 17b—July, 1956	
Area 18—
June, 1956      -. -
244.00
222.00
160.00
163.00
130.41
227.00
July, 1956
222.00
Area 19—September, 1956    ....
	
3 No samples obtained. K 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—The A verage Weight in Grams of Herring Sampled from Each Major Population or Sub-district during the 1956—57 Winter Fishing Season and by Months for
Each Statistical Area during the 1956 Summer Fishing Season.
(Comparable data for the previous four seasons are also shown together with the ten-year
average for the seasons 1946-47 to 1955-56, inclusive.)
WINTER FISHERY
Population and
In Year of Age
Fishing Season
I
II
III
rv
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X+
West Coast Queen Charlotte
Islands
Area2AW—1956-571
16.50
20.00
78.50
82.51
53.03
100.85
113.25
76.54
67.00
85.52
74.38
85.58
93.82
104.00
128.67
103.12
129.00
148.64
126.24
110.89
135.16
137.12
131.36
129.84
168.00
152.20
Area 2bw—1956 571
28.00
33.39
158.00
165.78
154.36
174.33
173.46
189.44
156.48
Upper East Coast, Queen
Charlotte Islands
157.50
198.00
1952-53-       	
1953-54                            	
25.09
39.93
32.03
34.06
38.65
43.00
41.11
42.26
38.82
35.98
40.36
37.13
28.88
38.12
35.05
41.83
41.27
40.95
40.46
33.89
35.72
26.74
30.49
36.03
30.23
40.93
50.84
57.78
54.12
64.44
77.70
68.00
95.17
114.52
111.42
106.90
116.29
105.33
121.15
135.13
112.95
130.68
130.77
114.41
113.70
122.74
117.64
135.96
108.21
105.14
112.29
116.31
117.84
126.10
101.66
108.54
126.40
102.30
115.98
131.87
163.38
154.60
159.11
142.11
143.33
215.00
155.00
201.50
129.00
145.00
1954-55                            	
200.00
1955-56 	
1956-57     _
13.00
249.00
Lower East Coast, Queen
Charlotte Islands
9.11
1953 54
93.08
150.75
147.42
143.34
121.26
143.32
145.19
138.24
140.48
136.99
122.24
153.41
138.80
97.15
155.00
132.55
131.56
146.07
115.69
124.25
141.15
125.97
146.95
154.40
134.53
127.16
139.27
152.43
161.45
166.83
144.78
141.82
150.94
170.00
166.30
168.67
135.83
1954-553
11.44
31.22
180.17
145.15
1955-56
87.54
87.00
67.33
80.31
71.76
79.53
76.33
74.37
72.28
91.93
60.22
64.10
60.03
77.07
68.35
82.37
53.09
60.02
83.16
69.00
64.42
.....
109.14
119.22
89.69
110.76
105.91
95.62
94.38
103.36
95.35
118.41
85.68
84.16
70.57
99.06
94.23
106.57
84.18
85.31
110.31
85.34
84.03
163.11
164.36
124.96
157.22
164.32
147.00
151.78
170.56
136.60
169.00
1956-57-                               .   ..
Northern
156.50
1952-53
1953-54-
182.62
154.00
170.00
185.33
148.82
193.00
181.00
1954-55
1955-56
199.00
200.00
156.87
1956-57                                 .
15.19
10.50
20.50
28.00
16.15
18.00
17.44
14.06
15.50
9.00
12.68
17.50
14.00
Upper Central
1952-53
1953 54
144.15
1954-55                                    	
156.67
130.00
136.41
160.91
125.50
126.23
155.83
143.81
162.36
1955-56   .    .    _
175.03
169.86
1956 57                                 _   -
Lower Central
1952-53-                                  .    -
1953-54
131.00
1954-55 _                               .    ..
1955-56                                 .    ..
122.00
118.80
157.11
180.00
1956-57	
Upper East Coast
146.44
109.33
1952 533
1953-54
34.90
32.84
17.89
54.13
49.50
29.84
42.59
45.24
42.84
47.19
56.37
61.17
32.97
70.48
79.71
69.59
70.65
79.54
79.54
79.61
85.03
66.78
62.38
105.69
106.97
103.04
104.41
94.34
105.58
117.70
117.04
86.25
116.10
125.39
130.17
134.00
142.57
124.42
120.02
136.98
157.45
170.05
183.00
186.29
144.00
184.30
156.00
195.94
1955-56	
1956 57
	
153.70
171.03
165.00
183.69
167.00
160.66
171.08
Middle East Coast
36.71
11.91
180.25
186.50
1953-54                             	
185.00
1954-55
1955-56. - —
1956-57	
	
177.89
210.00
174.80
186.50
1 No catch in previous season.
2 No fishing.
3 No samples obtained. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 75
Table VII.—The Average Weight in Grams of Herring Sampled from Each Major Population or Sub-district during the 1956—57 Winter Fishing Season and by Months for
Each Statistical Area during the 1956 Summer Fishing Season—Continued.
WINTER FISHERY—Continued
Population and
In Year of Age
Fishing Season
I
II
Ill
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X+
Lower East Coast
11.03
12.83
47.58
44.89
46.36
56.64
51.36
48.80
53.33
51.67
53.72
57.83
57.40
87.74
76.78
88.41
94.08
85.16
83.08
87.67
78.83
85.55
83.06
85.99
88.74
82.27
77.41
84.59
107.67
93.56
107.69
113.45
105.53
104.41
109.65
100.06
106.65
107.68
106.64
130.68
118.66
127.25
131.96
124.75
135.27
129.55
121.18
126.75
124.91
119.25
147.89
135.30
148.66
163.44
140.22
149.87
146.17
143.60
148.35
151.40
138.89
156.11
158.50
143.25
141.86
167.56
146.40
157.50
178.33
161.92
162.56
157.29
123.00
165.75
131.00
144.00
171.60
168.00
145.00
180.67
176.95
185.00
181.00
179.67
1952-53.	
1953-54  	
186.00
1954-55
	
1955 56
173.00
167.50
171.68
1956-57	
10.00
15.61
8.50
8.50
37.00
10.20
9.75
197.00
Lower West Coast
164.75
1952 53
1953-54                         	
155.00
1954-55
1955 56                           	
140.00
1956 574
Upper West Coast
Ten-year average  	
1952 53                       _         -   .
43.52
36.23
46.44
111.98
100.25
98.51
104.91
109.93
137.25
114.70
123.85
134.67
184.14
185.80
180.00
1953 54
1954-55
174.00
	
1956 57                                     	
	
	
83.48
135.73
131.75
SUMMER FISHERY
Upper Central
Area 6—September, 1956-
Lower Central
Area 8—September, 1956-
Upper East Coast
Area 12—
June, 1956..
August, 1956	
September, 1956-
Mlddle East Coast
Area 14—
July, 1953 	
August, 1953	
September, 1953..	
Area 16—
June, 1953	
July, 1953 	
Area 14—
July, 1954 	
September, 1956	
Lower East Coast
Area 17a—
May, 1956	
June, 1956.
September, 1956..
Area 17b—July, 1956
Area 18—
June, 1956	
July, 1956 .
September, 1956.—	
Area 19—September, 1956	
Lower West Coast
Area 21—July, 1953 -	
14.00
42.20
40.80
34.00
31.89
40.67
26.64
72.00
60.17
59.00
59.00
34.81
86.80
44.50
85.50
81.25
80.23
77.03
83.33
78.14
74.34
60.44
101.00
92.25
87.69
83.21
100.83
84.81
93.80
93.11
91.93
91.83
86.68
122.00
64.33
107.40
110.88
111.71
112.91
117.53
117.00
111.66
93.60
124.56
133.89
103.27
131.58
136.06
121.54
120.59
126.65
122.36
118.83
103.41
153.51
69.09
115.61
136.18
118.50
139.65
146.40
151.80
140.56
158.00
144.23
151.32
122.98
149.98
154.45
146.52
137.65
147.54
152.00
122.48
161.42
76.35
137.00
146.50
125.00
160.21
168.75
175.33
165.17
163.38
167.78
129.00
169.76
171.72
174.92
160.14
166.13
138.00
195.33
79.00
157.50
176.17
180.82
192.45
195.17
174.00
136.00
190.20
172.20
203.00
210.00
209.54
216.00
185.50
164.33            208.00
185.00
194.00
230.00
192.00
3 No samples obtained.
4 Salted—no weights taken. K 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) in Populations of Herring on the
British Columbia Coast during the Past Five Fishing Seasons.
Population
Fishing Season
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
Upper west coast, Queen Charlotte Islands
Lower west coast, Queen Charlotte Islands	
0.88
1.13
1.37
1.00
1.02
0.84
1.06
1.24
1.05
0.484
1.12
1.02
0.96
1.07
1.01
0.81
1.07
1.08
1.05
1.12
1.15
1.16
1.12
1.24
0.92
1.07
1.15
1.18
1.00
1.04
1.23
1.15
1.10
1.15
1.04
0.93
1.00
1.91
1.01
1.07
1.09
1.03
1.02
1.08
0.92
0.98
1.97
1.04
1 Based on only thirty-four fish and so omitted from averages. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 77
Table IX.—Number of Statutory Miles of Herring Spawn, Adjusted to Medium Intensity,
Deposited in British Columbia Waters and at Boundary Bay in 1957, by Area
and Year.
(Comparable data are also given for the preceding four years.   Figures in parentheses
include surveys carried out by Biological Station personnel.)
Statutory Miles of Spawn of Medium Intensity
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands
3.2
--
1.9
-    -
0 1
Totals              _          	
3.2
10.2
0.9
16.1
3.3
1.9
20.2
0.5
5.4
10.5
11.3
4.3
18.8
9.7
2.6
5.8
11.9
0 1
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands
2 8
Northern
11.1
9.8
10.8
Totals              _	
20.3
6.8
29.4
0.2
4.2
9.2
16.4
4.7
28.0
2.7
0.4
5.8
23.1
4.0
28.2
8.9
1.1
1.6
20.3
0.3
18.8
1.4
0.1
4.1
31.7
Upper Central
0.9
Lower Central
Area 7 (Bella Bella)    _ —
11.4
Area 8 (Bella Coola) 	
Area 9 (Rivers Inlet)  _ 	
Area 10 (Smith Inlet)..	
1.6
0.1
1.7
Totals             _	
43.0
24.7
36.9
0.4
14.0
39.8
9.2
24.4
15.9
14.8
Upper East Coast
0.1
Area 12 (Alert Bay) -  -	
9.8
Totals-   	
Middle East Coast
24.7
5.8
23.7
3.0
3.2
14.4
3.2
11.4
2.4
4.8
9.2
12.2   (13.8)
19.0   (21.0)
1.4     (1.6)
4.0     (4.0)
15.9
-■■     (5.3)
21.7   (22.6)
    ( )
2.0   ( )
9.9
2.8     (2.0)
6.1
2.8     (3.2)
1.1     (1.1)
Totals              _     	
35.7
17.6
82.4
2.5
......
21.8
0.8
61.5
1.9
—
36.6   (40.4)
9.0     (9.4)
6.5   (28.8)
1.4     (5.2)
23.8   (27.9)
3.0     (4.2)
9.4     (7.7)
1.8     (9.1)
(■■'■)
12.8   (12.4)
Lower East Coast
Area 17a (Nanaimo)- — 	
16.9
0.5
4.9
102.5
7.8   (13.1)
7.0     (7.8)
64.2
4.6   (11.0)
4.2     (4.5)
16.9   (43.4)
5.6
4.7
14.2   (21.0)
13.4
1.1
22.3
Lower West Coast
7.9
Area 24 (Clayoquot Sound)- _ —
1.8
Totals           	
14.8   (20.9)
11.4   (36.4)
4.4     (8.0)
10.8   (11.5)
8.8   (15.5)
7.1 (17.5)
3.2 (4.8)
7.2     (7.3)
10.3
6.9
8.6
2.6
14.5
53.2
0.9
9.7
Upper West Coast
22.0
1.6
0.8
Totals	
26.6   (55.9)
17.5   (29.6)
18.1
    (15.6)
54.1
24.4
United States of America
2.1     (2.1)
Grand totals, all areas	
287.8 (323.2)
206.8 (225.6)
169.3 (215.2)
177.2 (188.1)
131.5 (131.1)
• K 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON
FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR  1956
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission was appointed under a
convention ratified in 1937 between Canada and the United States for the protection,
preservation, and extension of the sockeye-salmon fisheries in the Fraser River system.
For nineteen years the Commission has been conducting scientific investigations of these
sockeye runs in order to successfully perform its obligations under the terms of this
convention. Since 1946 the Commission has been recommending, to the two national
governments, fishing regulations considered necessary to the fulfilment of the convention.
Such regulations must provide, in so far as is practicable, equal division of the allowable
catch of Fraser River sockeye between the fishermen of the two nations. The investigations carried on by the Commission deal with practically all phases of the life-cycle of
the sockeye salmon as they may affect or assist in the fulfilment of the Commission's
duties. In addition, an increasing amount of time is being devoted to protection of the
fishery from possible adverse effects of general water-use development resulting from
population and industrial growth in the Fraser River watershed.
Among the most important factors arising from the researches is the basic evidence
of the intimate relations of the sockeye salmon throughout its whole life-history with its
environment. Their life-cycles are on strictly hereditary time schedules which are set
by the unvarying cycle of the run. Throughout their lives their reproductive functions,
growth, and migrations coincide with the environmental conditions, and this precise
interrelation is absolutely essential to their survival. The appreciation of this general
fact of hereditary sensitivity is of practical importance in the programmes for the rehabilitation and extension of the runs of sockeye salmon, and is extremely pertinent in relation
to considerations of the possible adverse effects of industrial and other water-use developments on the river system.
Recommendations for regulations governing the 1956 sockeye-fishery in convention
waters were adopted by the Commission on April 13th, 1956, as the orders and regulations controlling the taking of sockeye in convention waters during 1956.
In the high seas convention waters, the Commission recommended that the taking
of sockeye be permitted from June 28 th until August 5th by troll-fishing only, with no
restrictions in hours of fishing. In Canadian convention waters it was recommended that
there be ninety-six-hour weekly closed periods from June 28th to August 14th, 120-hour
weekly closed periods from August 15th to September 13th, and that there be no fishing
from 7 a.m., September 13th, to 7 a.m., September 19th. In United States convention
waters it was recommended that there be seventy-two-hour weekly closed periods from
June 28th to September 2nd.
Three modifications were made to these regulations, as adopted by the respective
authorities of the two governments.
The first modification in the regulations was a twenty-four-hour extension of the
weekly close time in Canadian convention waters commencing Friday, August 3rd, and
extending to Wednesday, August 8th. This action was deemed necessary to provide
escapement and to obtain division of the catch between the two countries.
The second amendment to the orders and regulations affecting Canadian convention
waters was issued on September 7th. This amendment closed Canadian waters to linen
gill-nets of less than 8 inches extension measure and nylon gill-nets of less than 8%
inches extension measure during the period commencing at 7 a.m., September 10th, and
extending to 7 a.m., September 14th, in order that the run of white spring salmon might
be reasonably exploited.
Upon termination of the closure of Canadian convention waters from September
14th to 19th for the protection of sockeye, the statutory weekly close times of the Depart-
J REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 79
ment of Fisheries were in effect until October 12th, when an additional twenty-four hours
per week was imposed for the protection of chum-salmon stocks.
A special closure to allow for spawning escapement of species other than sockeye
was imposed by the Department of Fisheries from 8 a.m., October 29th, to 8 a.m.,
November 12th. All salmon net-fishing closed for the balance of the season at 8 a.m.,
November 15th.
By August 6th the extremely heavy concentration of fishing-gear in United States
convention waters made it evident that a stringent curtailment of fishing time was necessary if the Commission was to fulfil its terms of reference under the convention. Consequently the orders and regulations of April 13th were amended to add thirty-nine hours
to the weekly closed time for the second week in August, making it extend from 5 a.m.,
August 8th, to 8 p.m., August 12th. Also at this time the weekly closed time for the
period August 12th to September 2nd was increased from forty-eight hours to seventy-two
hours. After September 2nd the United States fishery reverted to a forty-eight-hour
weekly closed time under regulations issued by the Director of the Washington State
Department of Fisheries.
In recent years each annual report of the Commission has emphasized the serious
effect of increasing gear efficiency and the increasing numbers of fishing units on the
regulations affecting the United States fishery. It has become obvious that the changeover from linen to nylon gill-nets in 1951, the addition of the power-block to the purse-
seine in 1955, and the increasing numbers of gill-nets can only result in less fishing time.
Fishing efficiency in United States waters is becoming so high that the fishing period is
too short for sound economic operation and stable administration. The following table
effectively demonstrates the necessity of the short fishing periods and the rapid rise in
the ability of the United States fishing fleet to take its share of the cyclical run:—
Year
United States
Catch
United States Gear
Fishing-days
per Week
Percentage
R.N.
P.S.
G.N.
Escapement
1956         	
1952    	
1948 	
906,872
1,113,475
1,089,041
85
66
71
164
207
185
491
195
130
31
5
6
32.05
26.59
34.11
1 Although fishing in 1956 was permitted for four days a week for most of the season, fishing in one week was
reduced to two days during the peak of the run. It is calculated that a three-day week in 1956 without adjustment
would have provided a better-balanced escapement to all areas and the same total season catch.
A detailed record of the cycle-year catches of sockeye in United States convention
waters is presented in Tables I and II.
In respect to the excessive gear efficiency in United States waters, it should be
emphasized that the Commission is specifically restricted from controlling gear in any
manner except in regard to fishing time. Partial-day fishing would be advantageous to
the proper management of the fishery since it would reduce the daily catch, balance the
catch more evenly throughout the fishing area, and increase the number of days during
which fishing would be conducted. Partial-day fishing involves serious patrol problems
since gill-net fishing would of necessity have to start or stop during the hours of darkness.
Such a measure also would not be the answer to the whole problem created by increased
efficiency of gear. For these reasons the Commission has been reticent to recommend
partial-day fishing, but would do so if such action were acceptable to the national enforcement agencies and the industry in general. In any event either control of gear or partial-
day fishing, or both, is essential to the solution of a problem which currently is being
solved by the unsatisfactory three-day fishing-week. K 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Sockeye-catch by Gear
UNITED STATES TREATY WATERS
Year
Purse-seines
Gill-nets
Reef-nets
Total
Units
Catch
Percentage
Units
Catch
Percentage
Units
Catch
Percentage
Catch
1944 	
1948 	
1952	
1956	
57
185
207
164
335,172
940,415
826.304
428,562
76.97
86.35
74.21
47.26
45
130
195
491
40,620
70,991
175,064
371,729
9.33
6.52
15.72
40.99
31
71
66
85
59,651
77,685
112,107
106,581
13.70
7.13
10.07
11.75
435,443
1,089.091
1,113,475
906,872
CANADIAN TREATY WATERS
Year
Purse-seines
Gill-nets
Traps
Total
Units
Catch
Percentage
Units
Catch
Percentage
Units
Catch
Percentage
Catch
1944.	
14
41
50
1.93
10.58
24.18
1,580
1,067
1,470
1,335
974,529
663,635
966,852
678,074
98.08
88.17
83.75
75.78
4
5
5
29,297
74,545
65,417
2.92
9.90
5.67
1,003,826
752,691
1,154,383
894.8361
1948	
14,511
122,114
216,388
1952 	
1956- 	
1 Includes 374 troll-caught sockeye.
Note.—Gear counts represent the maximum number of units delivering on any single day.
Table II.—Cyclic Landings and Packs of Sockeye
United States
Canada
Total
1956—*
Total
Share
Total
Share
1953-56—
Total
Share
Total
Share
1949-52—
Total
Share
Total
Share
landings (No. sockeye)..
in fish (per cent)	
pack (48-lb. cases)	
in pack (per cent)	
landings (No. sockeye)..
in fish (per cent)	
pack (48-lb. cases)	
in pack (per cent)	
landings (No. sockeye)-
in fish (per cent)	
pack (48-lb. cases)	
in pack (per cent)	
1956
Cyclic Packs
1957.    -
1Q48
1944
1940                                                            .     	
1936=                                        ...         ... — 	
1932- ....      	
1928                              -    	
1994                                                   ..      ..          _       .               .
1920
1916	
101.
1908
1904                   	
906,872
50.33
84,052
49.93
8,752,177
50.10
849,007
50.19
4,527,955
50.96
429,794
51.04
Cases
84,052
114,638
90,441
37,379
59,354
59,505
81,188
61,044
69,369
62,654
84,637
184,680
170,951
123,419
894,836
49.67
84,296
50.07
8,717,722
49.90
842,575
49.81
4,357,813
49.04
412,353
48.96
Cases
84,296
115,814
61,650
88,150
93,361
184,854
65,769
29,299
39,743
48,399
32,146
123,879
74,574
72,688
1,801,708
168,348
17,469,899
1,691,582
1,885,768
842,147
Cases
168,348
230,452
152,091
125,529
152,715
244,359
146,957
90,343
109,112
111,053
116,783
308,559
245,525
196,107
1 Fourteen canneries in the United States and ten canneries in Canada received the sockeye caught in convention
waters.
2 1904 to 1936 from Pacific Fisherman, 1948 Year Book Number, p. 139. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 81
The basic problem in gear regulation in Canadian convention waters has been created by the addition of Juan de Fuca Strait as an effective gill-net and purse-seine fishing
area. The historic Fraser River gill-net fishery for many years has been capable of taking
an estimated 98 per cent of the fish available to it when operating. In addition to this
high efficiency, there has been a super-saturation of gear which allows a substantial
reduction in the number of units of gear normally operating without any measurable
reduction in fishing efficiency.
A large fleet of gill-net boats can leave the Fraser River area for Juan de Fuca
Strait without reducing the 98-per-cent fishing efficiency of the residual Fraser River
fishing fleet. The catch of the gill-net fleet in Juan de Fuca Strait is now reaching substantial proportions, and when combined with the increasing catch of purse-seines in
the same area, it is obvious that a substantial reduction must be made in the fishing time
of both areas if adequate escapement is to be secured.
The changing distribution of the catch by fishing area in Canadian convention waters
is best illustrated by the following table. It should be noted that a substantial percentage
of the catch in Juan de Fuca Strait was taken by traps in 1944, 1948, and 1952. The
traps did not operate in 1956, hence the entire catch for that year in the latter area was
taken by the rapidly expanding gill-net and purse-seine fisheries.
Cycle-year
1956 __    ______    	
Per Cent of Catch
Taken in
Fraser River Area
___       65.36
Per Cent of Catch
Taken in
Juan de Fuca Strait
34.64
1952 __
____      84.00
16.00
1948	
      89.50
10.50
1944	
  97.10
2.90
In 1956, when quality of the catch in the Fraser River area was not a factor and
the expected size of the total season's run was relatively small, the Commission approved
recommendations for closing the San Juan fishery as being in the best interests of proper
management of the entire fishery. Although generally supported by the fishing industry,
these recommendations were not approved since they were beyond the regulatory powers
as specified by the Sockeye Fisheries Convention.
The Commission, under the proposed Pink Salmon Protocol presented for the approval of the two governments at the end of 1956, would have the power to recommend
area restrictions to fishing in the convention waters of the United States and Canada.
The approval of the protocol would permit the design of a new fishing policy in Canadian
waters which would eliminate the conflict between the two major fishing areas.
Under the provisions of the present convention, which require uniform regulations
for both Juan de Fuca Strait and the Fraser River, the increasing fishing fleet in Juan de
Fuca Strait can only result eventually in a two-day fishing-week throughout the Canadian
fishery. Such a fishing-week is entirely impractical both to the industry and to the management agency.
A detailed record of the cycle-year catches of sockeye in the convention waters of
Canada is presented in Tables I and II.
The total 1956 run of sockeye to the Fraser River system, including the commercial
catch, Indian catch, and the escapement, was 2,743,000 fish, representing a decline of
14.4 per cent over the run of the previous cycle in 1952. In spite of substantial increases
in fishing efficiency, the fishing regulations were so designed that the total escapement
of 879,000 to all spawning areas actually increased by 3.2 per cent over the escapement
in 1952.
The 1956 escapement is considered to be satisfactory in spite of the fact that the
number of spawners were below those recorded in most areas in the previous cycle-year.
The Chilko run is now the principal supporter of the cycle run, and the escapement to K 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
this area was actually estimated at 147,000 fish more than is believed to be required to
produce a maximum returning run. Substantial numbers of fish were found spawning
in non-productive areas, which is a positive indication over and above spawning density
studies that some surplus escapement occurred.
The excess escapement to Chilko which resulted from emergency closures in the
fishery is direct evidence of the serious management problem involved in an increasing
fishery having an increasing efficiency. Fishing time is so restricted and the open period
of fishing in the several major fishing areas so effective that a minor change in fishing
time for the purpose of either providing the desired escapement or equal division of the
allowable share of the catch has a major effect on the catch, escapement, and division of
the catch. Post-season calculations indicate that the escapement would have been better
distributed if a three-day fishing-week had prevailed throughout the season instead of the
permitted four-day week, with a two-day special closure during the main part of the
Chilko run.
Increased fishing time through the reduction of the fishing fleet, fishing efficiency,
or fishing area, depending upon which method or methods are most practical, is essential
to eliminating the danger of underfishing, overfishing, or unbalanced catch between the
fishermen of Canada and the United States.
The decline in the 1956 run as well as the decline in the 1955 run is believed to be
caused by poor ocean survival. Proof that ocean survival has been below that of the
previous two years may be found in the following data, obtained during certain stages in
the life-history of the Chilko run:—
Spawning Year
Survival
from Egg to
Fry
Survival
from Fry to
Migrant
Adult
Survival
1949 --             ...
Per Cent
6.71
10.27
13.12
6.04
Per Cent
56.65
52.02
Per Cent
19 001
1950 	
14 001
1951 	
5.50
1952      . ..	
7.52
1 Estimated.
Rehabilitation of barren streams continued to play an important part in the Commission's activities. Investigation continued of the possible use of artificial spawning-
grounds adjacent to suitable lake rearing areas lacking in natural spawning-grounds.
Results of the 1955 experiment at Horsefly Lake indicated survival from eggs to fry of
40 to 71 per cent, for various conditions of egg deposition, gravel type, and flow of water.
A total of 264,000 fry were released to Horsefly Lake in the spring of 1956. The migration of these fish from the lake will be checked in the spring of 1957. In the fall of 1956
the artificial spawning-ground was modified slightly to give better control of the flow of
water, and 247 adult sockeye and 1,098,000 green fertilized eggs were introduced to
provide a measure of survival for heavy seeding conditions. Transplantations of eyed
eggs were again made to the Upper Adams River. Such transplants have now been made
in three out of four cycle-years. Transplants were also made to the Barriere River, in
which obstructing dams have now been removed, and in a tributary of Nadina Lake,
which does not at present have a sockeye run.
The protection of the Fraser River sockeye and the river which forms their freshwater environment becomes increasingly a more complex problem each year and requires
the careful attention of the Commission's staff. The Department of Fisheries is vested
with the legal authority to obtain fish protection in the case of water-use development,
and the Commission acts as technical advisers to the Department in dealing with those
projects affecting sockeye in the Fraser River system. During 1956 much interest was
directed by public and private power companies to the possibility of development of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 83
hydro-electric power on the Fraser River and its tributaries. The British Columbia
Electric Company made a grant of $50,000 to the University of British Columbia for a
survey of existing knowledge and research on salmon-fishery problems related to hydroelectric power developments on the Fraser River. The Moran Power Development
Limited made a proposal for the construction of a 720-foot dam on the Fraser River at
Moran. This structure would affect from 40 to 60 per cent of the production of Fraser
River sockeye, and the proposal has required the careful and continuing attention of the
Commission. The British Columbia Power Commission proposed the development of
power based on the diversion of water from the Chilko and Taseko Lakes. This proposal
was a modified version of the original plans prepared by the Water Rights Branch, which
it was hoped would satisfy fishery requirements for the preservation of the Chilko sockeye
run. The Commission, after careful consideration, reaffirmed the conclusions previously
reached in the Interim Report on the Chilko River Watershed, in which it was opposed
to any alteration to the natural inflow of Chilko Lake. Negotiations are continuing with
the Power Commission with the object of determining a mutually acceptable method of
power development based on a diversion from Taseko Lake.
Research continued on methods for guiding down-stream migrant sockeye away
from hazardous paths at large hydro-electric dams. This research has been under way
since 1953, and although small-scale experiments have given promising results, the same
principles applied to full-scale tests have been entirely without success. Research also
continued on the characteristics of sockeye-spawning nests and the hydraulics of flow of
water through these nests. This work is directed toward understanding the causes of
the low natural survival in nests as compared with survival in hatcheries or artificial
spawning-grounds, and determining if corrective measures are possible. Prevention of
pollution in the Fraser River and its estuarial waters presented an ever-increasing problem. During 1956, discussions were held with ten new industries regarding pollution-
prevention measures, and eleven applications for disposal of raw or settled domestic
sewage were reviewed. Following the discovery of a high water block to the early Stuart
sockeye run in 1955 at a rapids near Yale, a survey was made of the block-site in the
spring of 1956, and remedial measures were planned for completion by the spring of
1957 in order to prevent a recurrence of the blockade during the dominant-cycle early
Stuart run in 1957. It is estimated that the blockade in 1955 will result in a loss of over
$400,000 to the industry before the affected run can be rehabilitated.
The Commission held six meetings during the year, at Seattle, Wash.; Vancouver,
B.C.; Bellingham, Wash.; and New Westminster, B.C. Senator Thomas Reid, H. R.
MacMillan, and A. J. Whitmore, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, Pacific Area, represented
Canada on the Commission. The Chairman for 1956-57 was Robert J. Schoettler,
Director of the Washington State Department of Fisheries. Other United States Commissioners were Elton B. Jones and Arnie J. Suomela. K 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC HALIBUT COMMISSION, 1956
During the year the Commission completed its twenty-fifth year of regulation of the
halibut-fishery and carried forward the broad programme of statistical and biological
research required by the Halibut Convention of 1953.
The members of the Commission from Canada in 1956 were S. V. Ozere, Ottawa
(elected Vice-Chairman); Harold S. Helland, Prince Rupert; and Richard Nelson, Vancouver. The United States members were Seton H. Thompson, Washington, D.C.
(elected Chairman); Mattias Madsen, Seattle, Wash.; and J. W. Mendenhall, recently
of Ketchikan, Alaska.
The annual meeting of the Commission was held at the Commission's research headquarters in Seattle, Wash., from January 20th to 26th, inclusive. The results of investigations and regulations in 1955 were reviewed in conferences with representatives of
halibut-fishermen's, vessel-owners', and wholesale dealers' organizations, and industry
proposals regarding regulation in 1956 were discussed. Thereafter, the Commission
approved a research programme and adopted regulations for the ensuing fishing season.
The regulations adopted for 1956 and recommended to the two governments were
not materially different from those of 1955. Abnormal fishing conditions during the 1955
season had obscured the effectiveness of the multiple seasons inaugurated in 1954. Consequently the Commission decided against any change in the regulations which would
significantly alter either the amount or the disposition of fishing during 1956.
The halibut regulations were approved by the Governor-General of Canada in
Council on April 12th and by the President of the United States on April 18th, and
became effective on the latter date.
The five regulatory areas of 1955 were continued in 1956, as follows: Area 1a,
the waters off the Northern California and Southern Oregon coasts, south of Heceta
Head, Oregon; Area 1b, the waters off the Oregon and Washington coasts between
Heceta Head and Willapa Bay, Washington; Area 2, the waters between Willapa Bay
and Cape Spencer, Alaska; Area 3a, the waters between Cape Spencer and Kupreanof
Point near the Shumagin Islands; Area 3b, all convention waters west of Area 3a,
including those of the Bering Sea.
Catch-limits of 26,500,000 pounds for the first season in Area 2 and of 28,000,000
pounds for the first season in Area 3a were continued in the regulations. Control of
fishing in other areas and for other seasons, in which the total catch of halibut is comparatively small, was again accomplished by limiting the lengths of the fishing seasons.
Closed nursery areas, minimum size-limits, prohibition of the use of nets for the capture
of halibut, and provision for the landing of a limited amount of halibut caught incidentally
by set-line vessels in areas closed to halibut-fishing were also continued without significant
change.
All areas were opened to halibut-fishing on May 12th. Area 1a was closed on
October 23rd. The first season in Areas 1b and 2 closed on June 27th, and the first
season in Areas'3a and 3b closed on August 24th, at which dates it was deemed that the
catch-limits set for Areas 2 and 3a respectively would be attained. Second seasons of
seven days in Areas 1b and 2 and of nine days in Areas 3a and 3b commenced on
September 9th. A third season of twenty-three days in Area 3b commenced on September 30th and terminated on October 23rd.
The catch landed from Areas 1a and 1b combined was approximately 600,000
pounds, somewhat below the total for 1955.
The total catch from Area 2 in 1956 was 35,200,000 pounds, approximately
6,500,000 pounds more than in 1955. The catch during the first season amounted to
26,800,000 pounds, approximately the catch-limit set in the regulations. The first season
lasted thirty-eight days, two weeks longer than in 1955, due primarily to an eight-day REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 85
voluntary delay in the start of fishing and a voluntary seven-day lay-in between trips on
the part of the Canadian and United States fleets.
The catch in Area 2 during the seven-day second season, commencing on September
9th, amounted to 7,400,000 pounds, compared to 9,400,000 and 5,300,000 pounds during the second seasons in 1954 and 1955 respectively.
Landings of halibut caught incidentally to fishing for other species under permit in
Area 2 after the area was closed to halibut-fishing amounted to 756,000 pounds. The
amount was below the levels of 1954 and 1955. Permit fishing in September, normally
a very active period of black-cod fishing, was reduced in 1956 by the occurrence of the
second halibut-fishing season in that month.
The combined total catch from Areas 3a and 3b amounted to 31,600,000 pounds,
compared to 29,700,000 pounds in 1955 and 33,800,000 pounds in 1954. The catch
in Area 3a during the first season, which lasted ninety-six days, was approximately
29,300,000 pounds, about 1,300,000 pounds over the 28,000,000-pound catch-limit
provided in the regulations for that season. The first season was prolonged by almost
continuously bad weather, the voluntary delay in commencing fishing, and the voluntary
between-trip lay-in programme adopted by the fleets.
During the second season of nine days in Area 3a, a catch of 1,500,000 pounds
was taken. This was about the same as during the second season in 1955 but considerably
below the 3,400,000 pounds taken in 1954.
In Area 3b during the first and second seasons, only about 479,000 pounds were
taken, including 294,000 pounds of dead fish retained by the Commission's tagging-vessel.
The fleet largely remained to the eastward of the area as in 1954 and 1955.
During the third fishing season in Area 3b, commencing on September 30th and
lasting twenty-three days, the catch amounted to 264,000 pounds, compared to 934,000
pounds in 1955 and 611,000 pounds in 1954 when the third season occurred in September. The decline in 1956 resulted from the prolongation of the first season in Area 3a,
which had the effect of delaying the third season in Area 3 b until October, an unattractive
fishing month due to weather conditions.   Part of Area 3b catch was taken in Bering Sea.
United States and Canadian landings from all areas amounted to 67,400,000 pounds
in 1956, compared to 59,100,000 pounds in 1955 and to 71,200,000 pounds in 1954.
The lower amount in 1955 resulted chiefly from a 6,000,000-pound reduction in yield
from the second fishing seasons in Areas 2 and 3a and deficits in the first-season catch-
limit landings taken in the two areas. The higher catch in 1954 was due chiefly to the
fact than 1954 was the first year of multiple seasons, and that the second fishing season
was conducted to a considerable degree upon accumulated stocks which had been subjected to relatively little fishing for a number of years.
The availability of halibut, as indicated by the catch in pounds per unit of fishing
effort, was higher in each major section of Areas 2 and 3a than during 1955, in which
prolonged bad weather interfered with effective fishing. During the second seasons the
catch per unit effort was higher in Area 2 and lower in Area 3a than in their first seasons.
Due to poor weather conditions and the lateness of the fishing season in Area 3b, the
catch per unit of effort was not comparable to that of 1955.
A few individual grounds in Area 2, such as Cape Scott and Goose Island, which
are very important to the Vancouver and Seattle fleets, failed to show any recovery from
the low level of 1955. In the important section of Area 3a between Cape St. Elias and the
Trinity Islands there was a decline in the second season from 1955 to 1956. The trends
on the former grounds and in the latter region suggested strongly that the heavy removals
from them since 1953 had reached, if not exceeded, the current productive capacity of
their stocks.
Size-composition studies showed that, despite the increased entry of young noted in
Area 2 in 1955, the numbers of chicken halibut (5 to 10 pounds) declined and the K 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
numbers of large (over 60 pounds) increased in the very important section of Area 2
between Goose Island and northern Hecate Strait. Similar changes were observed in the
Portlock-Albatross section of Area 3a.
The age composition of landings from the Goose Island section of Area 2 showed
that the 6- and 7-year-olds which entered the fishery strongly in 1955 were dominant in
numbers in 1956. However, the older age-classes, and particularly those over 12 years
of age, were dominant in weight and largely maintained the catch.
In Area 3a the strong 1944 brood was still dominant, and the catch in that area
continued to depend mainly on 11- to 16-year-olds. Eight- and ten-year-olds made a
strong entry into the fishery. Individuals of the 8-year group were more abundant than
in any of the preceding thirteen years.
In Area 3b, on the Shumagin and Makushin Bay grounds, the same strong year-
classes were present as on grounds to the eastward in Area 3a.
An interesting catch was made by the Commission's tagging-vessel on a spot on the
Bering Sea edge in 1956. It showed the same strong age-classes as were found south of
the Alaska Peninsula. It also contained numerous older fish, some up to 31 years of
age, whose average weight at each age was well below that found elsewere in Area 3b.
The composition of the catch suggested that the spot might contain a semi-isolated segment of stock, such as has been discovered from time to time elsewhere on the coast
during the past history of the fishery.
Studies of growth, begun in 1955, were intensified. Preliminary results showed that
profound changes had occurred in growth from early to recent years on various grounds,
and particularly in Areas 3a and 3b. These seemed to be associated with changes in the
density of the halibut stocks.
Additional tagging experiments were begun in 1956 to further the study of the
effects of the multiple seasons on availability and utilization. Tagging was done in Area
3 b during the spring and summer and on the spawning-grounds in Area 3 a during the
winter.
The halibut vessel "Polaris" was chartered and operated from mid-April to mid-
September in Area 3b. Seven trips were made near the Shumagin Islands, Unalaska
Island, and in Bering Sea. A total of 4,674 fish, weighing approximately 194,000 pounds,
were tagged.
Three experiments were begun near the Shumagin Islands, two on the Bering Sea
side of Unalaska Island, and two on the "edge" between Unimak Pass and the Pribilof
Islands. The experiments in each location were separated by sufficient time to permit the
use of tag recoveries in subsequent years for study of seasonal differences in availability.
Fishing was conducted as far north as Cape Newenham and the Pribilof Islands
during the tagging operations and indicated a virtual absence of halibut in that section of
Bering Sea. Halibut were found in reasonable abundance along the north side of
Unalaska Island and in considerable abundance on the previously mentioned spot upon
the "edge" north-west of Umnak Pass. A large number were tagged in two experiments
in the latter location and should help to explain the peculiar character of the fish encountered there.
The halibut vessel " Pacific " was operated for six weeks in November and December on the Yakutat and " W " spawning-grounds. Halibut were difficult to locate, and
only 588 fish, weighing 23,000 pounds, were tagged.
The operations of the " Pacific " were so hampered by bad weather that there was
doubt as to whether the fish had been late in reaching the spawning-grounds or the
abundance of spawners had been below that of earlier years. To resolve these questions,
arrangements were made for resumption of the " Pacific " charter for an additional trip
in January, 1957. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 87
Tag recoveries in 1956 totalled 1,573, compared with 783 and 1,584 in 1955 and
1954 respectively. New experiments on Goose Island in 1955 accounted for more than
one-third of the year's recoveries, which was expected in view of the large size of the
experiments and the high intensity of the fishery upon the Goose Island grounds.
Recoveries from 1955 experiments on the Masset and Timbered Islet nursery
grounds were very low. In this they agreed with first-year returns from the 1947 Masset
experiment.   The migration of halibut from the nursery areas is a gradual process.
The apparent utilization of the halibut on different sections of the coast appeared
to vary greatly from one ground to another. The rate of utilization indicated by tag
recoveries was relatively high for most of Area 2 and as far north as the Yakutat grounds
in Area 3a, but became progressively lower on the grounds farther to the westward. Tag
returns suggested that the stock on the far-western grounds was not being fully utilized,
but were contradicted by the results of statistical and age-composition studies. Decision
in this matter must be deferred until the causes of the different results obtained by the
different methods are ascertained.
Studies of the early bottom life of the halibut, begun in 1955 to increase knowledge
of the factors that determine recruitment of young into the commercial stock, were continued in 1956. The University of Washington's research vessel "Commando" was
chartered for two months in two periods between June and September and operated
between the north end of Vancouver Island and Sitka Sound in Southern Alaska.
As in 1955, these investigations consisted chiefly of exploratory fishing with various
types of experimental gear. They were directed primarily toward increasing knowledge
of the habitat of the young halibut and learning how to capture them. Fishing was conducted from the surf-line to depths as great as 70 fathoms.
A total of eighty-six halibut in the 0 to 3-year-old age-classes, ranging from 3 to 23
inches in length, were caught. Though no concentrations of small fish were located, much
was learned regarding methods of sampling, both as to gear and locality. Results showed
that considerably more exploratory work must be done before standardized quantitative
sampling techniques can be applied.
A summary report upon the regulation of the fishery and upon the investigations in
1955 was published and distributed. K 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1956
GENERAL
Foreword.—Developments or trends of special interest associated with the 1956
salmon migration and spawning escapement include:—
1. No outstanding runs were looked for in 1956. With the exception of chums,
the returns, as reflected in catches and spawning-ground escapements, indicated the
occurrence of the several species at levels comparable to brood-years with normal variations as applied to the various areas and species.
2. Special regulatory measures designed to increase salmon escapements for reproduction were applied in Skeena, Butedale, and Bella Coola areas. These were fully
justified in the light of developments and results achieved.
3. After a series of low-production years, the Nass area experienced excellent runs
of all species of salmon.
4. There was a good run of sockeye to Rivers Inlet and Smith Inlet, providing a
commercial catch of slightly less than 1,500,000 fish as well as satisfactory supplies for
spawning-ground needs.
5. While the catch of pinks amounted to some 7,352,000 fish and was below general annual average, it was approximately 2,000,000 fish greater than the catch in the
brood-year 1954. It is noteworthy that individual size of the fish generally was small,
almost 1 pound less than normal.
6. For the second consecutive year, the outstanding feature was the serious decline
in the chum run to most sections of the coast. A lengthy fishermen's strike during September and October in 1952 helped to provide brood stocks, the progeny of which
would make up the runs in 1956. Although the runs in a few areas were larger than
that of 1955, generally they were only about one-half of normal. Despite immediate
application of added fishing restrictions designed to augment escapements for reproduction purposes, the seeding of the spawning-grounds, with few exceptions, can only be
classed as light. As this year's failure follows that of the 1955 coastwise pattern, it can
again only be assumed, with present information, it resulted from very unfavourable
survival conditions either in fresh water or later during the longer period of existence in
the ocean.
7. The chum failure in the Queen Charlotte Islands area was pronounced, and is
the fourth consecutive season of poor chum runs, calling for immediate application of
extraordinary measures for the rehabilitation of the once prolific chum-streams of this
area. Pink returns to this area were also disappointingly light and will also require special conservation attention.
8. Despite special protective measures, chums destined for the Fraser were seriously
reduced in numbers during passage through Johnstone Strait and Discovery Passage by
the highly efficient and mobile seine and gill-net fleets there. Other important chum
reproduction areas, in common with the Fraser, also suffered from the effectiveness of
this fishing operation. These included generally the streams along the east coast of Vancouver Island below Seymour Narrows as far south as Chemainus River as well as on
the Mainland streams opposite, including Jervis Inlet and Howe Sound. Further measures to provide for an adequate progressive escapement through this fishery are imperative immediately.
9. Two further aids to salmon-spawning migration were brought into operation
during the year. Concrete and steel fishways were completed at Naden River, flowing
into Naden Harbour on the north coast of Graham Island, in time to enable pink and REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 89
chum salmon to migrate to spawning-grounds not previously reached above the falls,
and also facilitated passage of sockeye and cohoe. Two similar fishways were completed
at Indian River on Princess Royal Island, where previously serious losses of spawning
salmon, particularly pinks and chums, had occurred at unfavourable low-water stages.
10. The problem of securing adequate escapements for perpetuating our salmon
runs was accentuated by the greater catching efficiency of the net-fishing fleet; coupled
with this was the high mobility of the fleet for day-to-day concentration on high points of
developing runs.
Sockeye.—While the over-all return of sockeye to the Fraser system was slightly
less than in the cycle-year, the escapement to the various spawning-grounds is considered
satisfactory.   The Chilko spawning was heavy and equal to the brood-year.
In the northern area all the principal sockeye areas received satisfactory supplies—
that is, Nass, Bella Coola, Rivers Inlet, and Smith Inlet. The Skeena, still in process
of recovering from the Babine slide losses, experienced a run of unexpected proportions
below normal but much larger than in 1955. On Vancouver Island the Nimpkish system
was well stocked. The escapement to the Somass River in Alberni Inlet was light,
amounting to about half of the cycle-year.
Springs.—Stocks of this species throughout the Province were fairly well maintained.
In District 2 the escapement to the Nass and Skeena Rivers was above average, and in
Bella Coola a heavy escapement, one of the best ever observed, reached the spawning-
grounds.   Supplies in Rivers Inlet were better than average.
Along the east coast of Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland, stocks were
moderate except in the Campbell River and Salmon River, where they were only 40 per
cent of the brood-year levels, and in the Puntledge River, where stocks were light. There
was a good run, the best in the past three years, to the Somass River.
In the Fraser River system the run was below brood-year levels in the Prince George,
Yale-Nicola, and Mission-Harrison areas, but comparable to the cycle-year in the
Quesnel-Chilko, Kamloops, and Chilliwack-Hope sub-districts.
Cohoe.—The escapement of this species in District 2 was generally good and well
above parent-year abundance in all sections, with the exception of the streams in the
Queen Charlotte Islands and Rivers Inlet and Smith Inlet areas, where spawning was
fight.
In the streams of the east coast area of District 3, supplies were above average in
the Alert Bay area, satisfactory in the Quathiaski and Pender Harbour districts, only fair
in the Comox and Cowichan areas, and light in the Nanaimo-Ladysmith sub-district.
Also the west coast of Vancouver Island streams in the Kyuquot and Clayoquot areas,
as well as the Somass River, were well stocked; elsewhere spawning was generally light.
Other than the Chilliwack and Nicola Rivers, which were moderately seeded, all
spawning areas tributary to the Fraser system were lightly stocked.
Pinks.—With the exception of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Skeena River,
where seedings were light, the escapement of pinks to all sections of District 2 was
generally quite satisfactory, particularly so in the Namu-Bella Coola, Bella Bella, and
Nass areas, and the northern portion of the Butedale area.
In District 3, supplies to the Alert Bay sub-district and Quathiaski sub-district were
satisfactory. Spawning in the Comox area was much lighter than in 1954. Supplies to
Koprino River were fairly good, about equal to those of the cycle-year.
This was the off-year for pinks in the Fraser system.
Chums.—For a second consecutive year, with few exceptions, the escapement of
chums was again one of the lightest on record.
Runs to the Queen Charlotte Islands were generally light and below those of 1952.
There was a medium seeding in the Nass, but stocks were below parent-year levels.
Grenville-Principe area had light supplies, comparable with those of the cycle-year. K 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The run to Butedale sub-district was light, especially in the case of the early run. In
Namu, Bella Bella, and Bella Coola areas the runs were light and below those of 1952.
Stocks on the spawning-grounds in Rivers Inlet were medium-heavy and better than
in the parent year, while in Smith Inlet supplies were also medium-heavy, similar to
those of 1952.
In District 3, supplies were light, and only in Alert Bay and Quatsino sub-districts
were they comparable to those of the parent year. Quathiaski, Comox, and Cowichan
areas had poor runs, while stocks in the Nanaimo-Ladysmith area were very light. The
escapement to Sarita and Nitinat Rivers was good, but throughout the remainder of the
Barkley Sound and Nitinat areas was generally light. Other west coast sub-districts
had light escapements.
In the Fraser system the escapement was extremely poor. In Lower Mainland
streams the escapement was about 10 per cent of normal requirements. Early runs were
a failure in the Mission-Harrison area and late runs were light, being satisfactory only
in the Chehalis sloughs. Stocks in the Chilliwack-Hope area were poor and far below
1952 levels. The run to Squamish was extremely light, and supplies to Indian River in
the North Vancouver area totalled only 2,000, compared with a spawning of well over
20,000 in the parent year. A flash flood in the Lower Mainland streams during the first
week of December caused heavy damage to chum spawning-grounds.
IN DETAIL
Masset Inlet and North Coast of Graham Island Area
Generally the usual small run of sockeye was somewhat heavier than in the past,
but the escapement to Yakoun River was lighter than for several seasons. A medium
seeding of spring salmon occurred in the Yakoun River system. The run of cohoe was
light to Masset Inlet streams, while in Naden River supplies were light to medium.
Throughout the remainder of the area, numbers on the spawning-grounds were light.
This was an on-year for pinks in Masset Inlet and Naden Harbour. The four main
pink-streams on the west shore of Masset Inlet had light spawnings. In Juskatla Inlet
the stocks were the heaviest for some years. Supplies to the Yakoun were moderate.
Stocks in Naden River were medium, while in the outside streams flowing into Dixon
Entrance seedings were light. The lightest escapement of chums ever observed occurred
in Masset Inlet streams this year, with runs to the two main producers, the Awun and
Ain, being very light.    The escapement to Naden River was light to medium.
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham-Moresby Islands Area
Sockeye-supplies to Copper River and Skidegate Lake were the best in several years.
Stocks of cohoe in Tlell River were heavy. Returns to Copper River and Skidegate Inlet
streams were moderate, while streams on the west coast of Graham and Moresby Islands
were lightly seeded. The expected returns from the heavy seeding of pinks in 1954 did
not materialize in volume. Spawning in Copper and Tlell Rivers was heavy. Deena
River received an adequate seeding, as did Kaisun River and the Security Inlet streams.
Stocks in all other streams in the area were generally light. The chum escapement was
disappointing and well below parent-year levels. Deena, Slatechuck, and Long Arm
Rivers received adequate seedings, while the remaining Skidegate Inlet streams were
lightly stocked. Streams on the west coast of Graham and Moresby Islands had very
light spawnings, with the exception of Athlow Creek, where supplies were moderate.
East Coast of Moresby Island and South Queen Charlotte Islands Area
Cohoe-supplies were light in all streams in the area. The pink-seeding was generally
light to very light, reflecting the poor seeding of 1954.   The over-all spawning of chums REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956 K 91
was light. Stocks in the George Bay streams were heavy, while Sedgwick Bay, Skaat
Harbour, Harriet Harbour, and Huston Inlet streams were moderately supplied. All
other streams in the sub-district were lightly seeded.
Nass Area
In general there was a moderately good escapement of sockeye to the entire Nass
system. The Meziadin system, the main producer, was adequately seeded. Gingit River
had a medium escapement, only slightly less than that of the cycle-year. The Damdochax
system was also moderately supplied. The main spring-salmon spawning-grounds were
adequately seeded. Supplies to the Meziadin were somewhat above average. Escapement to the Damdochax was moderate to heavy. A light to moderate escapement of
cohoe, slightly better than that of the brood-year, 1953, occurred throughout the area.
Generally there was a medium to heavy escapement of pinks. Dogfish, Toon, and
Ensheshese Rivers were heavily supplied. Better than average stocks were also present
in the Nass system.   The chum escapement was adequate but slightly below 1952 levels.
Skeena and Babine-Morice Area
The below-normal run of sockeye to the Skeena River anticipated from the light
seedings of 1951 and 1952 in the Babine system, the principal producer of this species,
resulting from the block in the Babine River caused by the large rock-slide, developed
in larger proportions than expected. Nine Mile, Morrison, and Anderson Creeks were
heavily seeded. Stocks in Fulton River, Twin Creek, Grizzly Creek, and Tahlo Creek
were moderately good. The total numbers of salmon passing through the counting-fence
of the Fisheries Research Board located in Babine River just below the outlet of Babine
Lake for 1956 were: Sockeye, 373,509; springs, 4,345; cohoe, 9,250; pinks, 2,691;
and chums, 3. Spring-salmon supplies were near average in numbers but the percentage
of jacks was large. The cohoe run was good, with only a few jacks present. The pink
run was light, smaller than in the cycle-year.
Numbers of sockeye in the Bear Lake area were light and less than those of the
parent year. The spring-salmon run to Bear River was estimated at 15,000 to 20,000
fish, an improvement over the cycle-year. Good numbers of cohoe spawned in the Bear
River.   No pinks were observed in this system in 1956.
The sockeye escapement to Nanika River was light, with stocks estimated at 5,000
to 7,000 spawners. Small runs were also present in other spawning areas of the Bulkley
and Morice systems. The run of spring salmon to Morice River was average, estimated
at apparently 10,000. Escapement of this species to the Upper Bulkley River was light.
Average stocks of cohoe were noted in the Bulkley River and Morice Lake areas, all
grounds being moderately seeded. Cohoe experienced some difficulty in surmounting
beaver dams in the Upper Bulkley. A few pinks spawned in the Bulkley River below
Moricetown Canyon, but none were observed above that point.
Skeena-Lakelse Area
The Kispiox and Allistair Lake systems were very well seeded with sockeye.
Escapement to the Lakelse Lake grounds was very light. The Kitsumgallum area stocks
were about average. The spring-salmon run was about average, with good numbers
present in the Kitsumgallum and Kitwanga Rivers. Supplies in the Kispiox River were
about average, as was the case in most of the smaller streams in the area. The cohoe
spawning was good, much heavier than in the parent year. Very good seedings occurred
in Lakelse system and Gitnadoix River. The escapement to the Kispiox was about
average. Pink-supplies were below those of the cycle-year, 1954, the seeding in all
streams throughout the sub-district being generally light. The chum escapement to the
area totalled about 2,500 fish, compared to 11,000 in the parent year, 1952. K 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lower Skeena Area
The sockeye escapement to Diana Creek and Johnson Lake, tributary to the Ecstall
River, was moderate but well below that of the cycle-year. In Shawatlans River, stocks
were about the same as those in 1952. The spring-salmon run to Johnson Creek was
heavy and equal to that of the cycle-year. However, in Johnson Lake and Big Falls
River, supplies were well below those of the brood-year. The cohoe run was light,
showing decrease from the brood-year. Pink-supplies in the small streams were light
and below those of 1954. In Big Useless Creek, La Hou Creek, and Moore Creek,
however, stocks were on a par or better than those of the parent year. The escapement
of chums to the spawning-grounds in general was light and below brood-year levels.
Grenville-Principe Area
The seeding of sockeye in the majority of streams and lake systems was light. In
Bonilla Arm, Quinstonsta, Lewis Lake system, Endhill Creek, Gale Lake system, and
Mikado Lake system, stocks were moderate, similar to the brood-year. Supplies to the
Bear Lake and Mink Trap Lake systems were light. A moderately good run of cohoe
was found on the spawning-grounds in most streams in the area. Supplies of pinks
generally were medium throughout the area, considerably better than in the 1954 brood-
year. Turn Creek on Gil Island had a particularly heavy escapement of this species.
Good supplies were also found in Alpha Creek on Pitt Island and in Turtle Creek on
Gil Island. The chum-spawning in practically all streams in the sub-district was light,
about on a par with the brood-year. The heaviest seeding of this species occurred in
the Bonilla Arm creeks and in Turn Creek on Gil Island.
Butedale Area
Generally there was a light escapement of sockeye, a decrease from the brood-year.
Kitlope River and the rivers flowing into Douglas Channel received a light seeding.
Stocks in Aristazabal Island, Laredo Channel, and Laredo Inlet streams were light and
similar to those of the parent year. Supplies of spring salmon were similar to those of the
brood-year. Generally the run of cohoe was good. Streams in Douglas Channel and on
Aristazabal Island received excellent seedings. The escapement of pinks to the area
showed a marked improvement over the past three years. Notwithstanding an intensive
fishing effort, Kitimat River, Bisch Creek, Quaal River, Kitkiata River, and Kishkosh
River, flowing into waters north of Wright Sound, were well seeded. This is attributed to
the special closure measures applied to these waters throughout the season. Streams in
the outer portion of the area received adequate stocks, with the exception of Laredo Inlet,
where the escapement was light. Tolmie Channel, Klekane Inlet, Aaltanhash Inlet, Green
Inlet, Sheep Passage, and Finlayson Channel streams received light to medium supplies,
similar to the parent year. Generally the chum run was very light and the escapement was
light. The early chum runs to Douglas Channel and Gardner Canal were exceptionally
light, similar to the runs in the cycle-year.
Bella Bella Area
Sockeye-supplies were moderate, comparable to those of 1952. Some decrease was
noted in Kwakusdis River and the East and West Tuno streams. Stocks in Kajusdis
River were better than those of the cycle-year, while in Tinkey the spawning compared
favourably with that of 1952. Good seedings of cohoe were noted throughout the area,
especially in the Kajusdis system. The escapement of pinks was moderately heavy.
Kainet River showed a marked decrease from the cycle-year, but this was more than offset
by the excellent supplies present in Nameless Creek, Salmon Bay, James Bay, Neekis,
Klatse, Howyet, and Gullchuck Rivers.    Supplies of chums were light to moderate. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 93
Matheson Channel streams had very light seedings, with stocks in Kainet River being only
15 per cent of those of the brood-year and in Salmon Bay only about 5 per cent of those
of 1952. Supplies to Neekis River and the Bullock Channel streams were moderately
heavy. Elsewhere in the area the escapement was light to medium, showing slight
decrease from the brood-year.
Namu-Bella Coola Area
The Bella Coola-Atnarko River system received a heavy supply of sockeye spawners,
and about 70 per cent of the run was composed of large fish. This was the reverse of other
years, when 60 to 70 per cent of the run was composed of jacks. Stocks in Koeye River
were medium and in the Kimsquit system light. Namu and Kisameet Rivers received
heavier supplies than usual. The spring-salmon escapement was heavy, one of the best
ever seen in the Bella Coola-Atnarko system. Very good supplies of cohoe, far above
average, spawned in the Bella Coola-Atnarko system. Dean Channel streams also
received good supplies of this species. The pink escapement was heavy, much better
than in the cycle-year. The Bella Coola-Atnarko system received a heavy seeding, the
best since 1951. Koeye and Kwatna Rivers received moderate supplies, and in the latter
stream there was improvement over the cycle-year. Smaller streams in the area were
moderately to heavily stocked. In general the chum escapement was light and below that
of the parent year, 1952. Some Dean Channel streams had moderate escapements, while
supplies to the Bella Coola, Dean, Kwatna, and Nootum Rivers were light. Undoubtedly
the special closure of Dean and Burke Channels throughout most of the season was well
justified from the results attained.
Rivers Inlet Area
Generally the over-all sockeye escapement to the Owekano system was satisfactory.
Supplies in the Dallac River were heavy and similar to those of the 1951 and 1952 parent
years. A good escapement was also noted on Whonnock Flats at the outlet of Owekano
Lake. Stocks in the Quap and Wauk-Wash Rivers were medium and showed some
decrease from those of the 1951 and 1952 cycle-years. Supplies in Indian River were
heavy and similar to those of 1951, while in the Gennesse River the escapement was light
to medium, comparing favourably with the brood-year. The Nookins and Asklum Rivers
received moderate supplies. A heavy escapement was found in Shumuhalt River, comparable to that of 1952. The Cheo River was moderately stocked. A fair escapement
occurred to the Markwell River. A medium-heavy escapement of springs reached the
Whonnock River. Supplies to Kilbella and Chuckwalla Rivers were light. Stocks of
cohoe were light and below those of 1953. The supply of pinks was better than in the
brood-year. The chum escapement to most streams was light; however, moderately heavy
supplies, better than in the brood-year, reached the Whonnock, Chuckwalla, and Kilbella Rivers.
Smith Inlet Area
The sockeye escapement to the Long Lake system was good. The Delabah and
Geluck Rivers, which comprise the principal spawning-grounds, were both heavily supplied. Stocks of springs to the Docee River were medium and showed some increase
over the parent year. The cohoe escapement was light and less than that of 1953. There
was a heavy escapement of pinks to the Nekite River, showing considerable increase over
the brood-year. Supplies of chums to Walkum River were moderately heavy, greater
than in 1952, while in the Nekite and Takush Rivers spawning was similar to that of the
parent year.
Alert Bay Area
The escapement of sockeye throughout the area was light to medium, comparing
favourably with that of the brood-year.    Stocks in the Upper Nimpkish River system K 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
were most satisfactory, with the best spawning being observed on Woss Lake. Fair to
good seedings occurred in Nahwitti, Quatse, Kakweiken, Mackenzie, Klinaklini, and
Kingcome Rivers. Light numbers were found on spawning-grounds of other streams
in this sub-district. The spawning of spring salmon was moderate, slightly less than last
year. The run to Nimpkish River was satisfactory, while returns to Klinaklini and King-
come Rivers were similar to those of recent years. Cohoe returned to the area in above
average numbers, and the over-all escapement was considerably better than that of
the brood-year, 1953. Satisfactory spawnings were observed on the Quatse, Keogh,
Cluxewe, and Wakeman Rivers. A good run also occurred in the Nimpkish River, and
once again Salmon River in Seymour Inlet and Tsulton River in Beaver Cove supported
very good runs. Fair escapements of this species were noted in Nahwitti and Shushartie
Rivers, Bughouse Bay and Embley Creeks, and to the rivers at the head of Knight and
Kingcome Inlets. A medium-heavy return of pinks occurred throughout the sub-district.
In Vancouver Island streams the spawning was generally heavy, particularly in Nahwitti,
Shushartie, Quatse, Keogh, Tsitka, and Adam Rivers. In spite of the fact it was an
off-year for the Mainland, the spawning returns were satisfactory. Stocks in the Embley,
Glendale, Waterfall, and Hoeya Rivers were heavy, while streams such as the Kakweiken,
Wakeman, and Viner Rivers had fair to good escapements. The over-all escapement of
chums throughout the sub-district was light and similar to that of the cycle-year, 1952.
The run to Nimpkish River was moderate and somewhat less than that of the brood-year.
Moderate escapements also occurred in Salmon River in Seymour Inlet, Village Bay
Creek in Belize Inlet, and in Nimmo, Tsibass, Mackenzie, Viner, and Klinaklini Rivers
on the Mainland.
Quathiaski Area
The return of sockeye to Hayden Bay was light and less than that of the parent year.
Supplies to Phillips River were also light, somewhat less than half brood-year numbers.
Stocks of spring salmon in the Campbell and Salmon Rivers were low, estimated at 40
per cent of the brood-year escapements in both cases. Seedings in Quatum, Orford, and
Phillips Rivers were also light. The early run of white springs to the head of Bute Inlet
arrived in satisfactory numbers, comparable to those of the cycle-year. The spawning of
cohoe in the majority of streams was satisfactory, comparable to 1953. Exceptions were
Salmon, Stafford, Apple, and Orford Rivers, and Read, Fraser, Fredericks, and Christie
Creeks, where returns were light and considerably less than those of the parent year. This
was an on-year for pinks in the Vancouver Island, Quadra Island, and outer Loughborough Inlet streams. All spawning-grounds in these localities were well seeded, with
the exception of Salmon River, where stocks were light. Campbell River showed an
improved return over the brood-year, as did Grassy Creek in Loughborough Inlet.
Cameleon Creek, Granite Bay Creek, and Kanish Creek supported very satisfactory
numbers of this species. The number of chums which appeared on spawning-grounds in
the sub-district were generally poor, comparable to the light spawnings of 1955 and considerably less than those of the cycle-year. Apple, Homathko, Orford, Salmon, and
Southgate Rivers were very lightly seeded. Exceptions were Quatum River and Read
Creek, where stocks were comparable to those of 1952. In Campbell and Phillips Rivers,
Cameleon, Forward Harbour, and Hayden Bay Creeks, supplies were better than average
but below brood-year levels.
Comox Area
The escapement of spring salmon to Puntledge River, estimated at 1,500, was very
light, the lightest since 1941. However, stocks in both the Big and Little Qualicum
Rivers, estimated at 1,200 in each stream, were more than four times greater than those
of the brood-year. The escapement to Oyster River was again very light. With the
exception of Englishman River and three smaller streams, the cohoe escapement was REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 95
lighter than that of the cycle-year. The escapement to Little Qualicum and Oyster Rivers
was only half that of 1953, while stocks in the Big Qualicum River were only about two-
thirds those of the parent year. Escapement of this species to Puntledge and Tsolum
Rivers was also lighter than that experienced in 1953. Generally pink-supplies were
much lighter than in brood-year, 1954. The pink escapement to Tsolum and Oyster
Rivers was only 20 per cent of that of 1954, when an estimated 100,000 entered the
former and 200,000 the latter stream. Numbers of this species in the Puntledge River
totalled only 6,000, compared to 16,000 in the cycle-year. In Englishman River the
escapement was about half that experienced in 1954, while stocks in other streams
throughout the area were about equal to those of the brood-year. The chum run to
Puntledge River was comparable to that of 1952. In the Little Qualicum and Big Qualicum Rivers, supplies were well below brood-year levels. In Englishman River, numbers
on the spawning-grounds were only about one-tenth those of the parent year. In Oyster
River, only 300 were noted on the spawning-grounds, compared to 6,000 in 1952. In the
smaller streams, chum escapements were generally lighter than in the brood-year.
Pender Harbour Area
The escapement of sockeye to Sakinaw Lake was light, about two-thirds of the
escapement in 1952. Stocks in Tzoonie River were good and substantially more than
those of the parent year. Numbers of spring salmon in Tzoonie River were far in excess
of those of the cycle-year, while average seedings occurred in the Toba River system and
Klite Creek. Numbers of cohoe on the spawning-grounds were generally satisfactory,
with about half the streams frequented by this species showing increases over the cycle-
year. This was most apparent in Brem, Sakinaw, Squawawka, and Vancouver Rivers, as
well as in Shannon Creek, Storm Bay Creek, and Tzoonie River. Stocks of this species
in Toba River showed a marked increase over the cycle-year. This was an off-year for
pinks in the area, and in those streams normally frequented by this species, only a few
individual spawners were observed. A light chum escapement occurred in most of the
streams throughout the sub-district, about one-quarter showing an increase over brood-
year numbers. Returns to Kelly Creek, Klite Creek, Little Toba River, Toba River, and
Squawawka River were double the 1952 spawnings. Some increase was also noted in
Saltery Bay Creek in Jervis Inlet and in Pete Creek in Sechelt Inlet. The escapement to
Deserted River in Jervis Inlet, one of the top chum-producers in the area, was only about
half that of the cycle-year.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith Area
The spring-salmon escapement to Nanaimo River showed a marked improvement.
It was much better than average and nearly double that of the brood-year. A light supply of this species also entered Chemainus River. For the second successive year the
cohoe escapement showed marked decline. Stocks on the spawning-grounds were well
below average, amounting to about one-third those of the cycle-year. The escapement
to the secondary and minor streams was very light, and even to the main producers the
runs can only be classed as light. The usual small pink-salmon run to the Nanaimo
River was light. Notwithstanding the application of special conservation measures, the
escapement of chum salmon was extremely light. While last year stocks were inexplicably
poor, this year over-all numbers on the spawning-grounds were only 75 per cent of the
1955 level. Nanaimo River is the only stream in the area which received any appreciable
escapement.
Cowichan Area
Stocks of cohoe salmon in both Cowichan and Koksilah Rivers were below those of
1955 and somewhat below those of the brood-year, 1953. It is estimated that 30,000
cohoe were present in the Cowichan River, while about 3,500 spawned in the Koksilah K 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
system. The run of spring salmon to the Cowichan system was much below the run
experienced in 1955. It is estimated that between 3,000 and 4,000 of this species spawned
in the Cowichan River, which is about half of the number present last year. Generally
the escapement of chums was below the parent-year level. The Koksilah River was the
only stream where the escapement of this species was comparable to that of 1952. Conditions in the streams at the time chums started to move in, however, were ideal.
Victoria Area
Stocks of cohoe throughout the area were generally light, somewhat less than half
those of the parent year. The escapement of chums to Goldstream was considerably less
than that of 1952. Very light seedings occurred in Stoney, Tugwell, Muir, and Coal
Creeks. In Jordan River, spawning-grounds were almost barren of this species. In De
Mamiel Creek, about 11,000 chums were present. In Sooke River, stocks were in excess
of those of 1952. On December 8th and 9th melting snows and unprecedented rainfall
played havoc with the spawning-grounds throughout the area; for example, 14 inches of
rain fell at Jordan River in twenty-four hours. Streams suffered considerable erosion,
scouring of gravel-beds, and changes in course due to extreme flooding. Fortunately
late runs of chums materialized at Goldstream and at De Mamiel Creek, which will assist
in replacing spawn-deposits lost through flood conditions.
Alberni-Nitinat Area
The sockeye escapement to the Somass system was light, totalling about 10,000 fish,
which is about half the number of the cycle-year. The Henderson (Anderson) Lake run
was also down this year, also estimated to be less than half that of the brood-year. The
escapement to Hobarton Lake was light, estimated at slightly in excess of 3,000 fish.
Stocks of spring salmon in the Somass River were good, somewhat better than for the past
three years. Henderson (Anderson) River received a normal escapement, while the
Nitinat, Gordon, San Juan, and Sarita Rivers received light seedings. The escapement
to the Nahmint River was below average, and Toquart and Effingham Rivers had their
usual light runs. The escapement of cohoe to the Somass River system was satisfactory,
showing improvement over the past three years. The San Juan and Gordon Rivers had
fair seedings, while supplies in Maggie and Toquart Rivers were somewhat less than those
of the last few years. Runs to other streams in the area were in general fairly light.
This being an on-year for pinks in the area, the usual light escapement of about 2,000
fish reached the spawning-grounds of San Juan and Gordon Rivers. Several hundred
pinks were also observed in each of the Toquort, Sarita, and Nahmint Rivers, as well as
a few in Carnation Creek and the Somass River. Generally the chum-salmon escapement
was fair. Supplies in the Sarita and Nitinat Rivers were fairly good. The escapement
to Nahmint and Toquart Rivers was light for the second successive year. Effingham
River was well seeded, showing some improvement over recent years. Salmon Creek in
Ucluelet Harbour, Grappler Creek near Bamfield, and the Dutch Harbour creeks maintained their usual very good runs. All of the Alberni Inlet streams, which include the
Somass system, were poorly seeded, and in some cases, such as Mackintosh, China, and
Coleman Creeks, almost barren conditions prevailed.
Clayoquot Area
The Kennedy Lake system received a very poor seeding of sockeye. Runs of creek
sockeye to Megin and Cecilia Lakes were light. The light run of springs to the area was
about average. The seeding of cohoe was above average and generally satisfactory
throughout the area. The Kennedy River system, Tofino Inlet streams, and Moyeha
River had particularly good escapements.   The spawning of chums throughout the area REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 97
was generally light. However, fair seedings occurred in Bowden Bay Creek, Moyeha
River, Atleo River, and Tranquil Creek. Sidney Inlet streams were very lightly stocked,
but showed slight improvement over recent years.
Nootka Area
The escapement of creek sockeye to the streams frequented by small runs of this
species was about average, and small numbers were seen on the spawning-grounds in the
Gold, Burman, Owossitsa, Parks, and Zeballos Rivers. The spring-salmon escapement
to Gold and Burman Rivers was below average. The cohoe escapement was generally
light and below that of the parent year. This being an on-year for pinks, a few of this
species were observed in streams throughout the sub-district in numbers comparable to
the parent year. Stocks of chums were light and lower than levels of the cycle-year.
An exception was the Mary Basin streams, where fairly substantial numbers were found
on the spawning-grounds.
Kyuquot Area
Power Lake and River creek-sockeye seeding can only be classed as exceedingly
light due to adverse water conditions on the spawning-grounds. The run to Jansen Lake
and River was almost wiped out for the same reason. A lighter than brood-year run of
spring salmon occurred and encountered low water-levels, which delayed their arrival on
the spawning-grounds. A very heavy escapement of cohoe took place in all streams
throughout the area. The seeding in Easy Inlet and Nasparti Inlet streams was particularly good, as was the case in Ououkinish and Tahsish Inlet rivers. This being an on-year
for pinks, this species returned in good numbers to the sub-district. Increases over parent-
year spawnings were noted in nearly all streams. Good runs were reported in Kaoowinch,
Tahsish, and Malksope Rivers. The escapement of chums was considerably lighter than
in the parent year. The usual late run in most cases did not materialize in any strength.
Fairly good numbers were found in Chamiss River and in Kaouk River in Easy Inlet.
Normal runs also occurred in the Nasparti, Malksope, and Chamiss Rivers. Stocks were
light in the Tahsish Inlet, Cachalot Inlet, and Kashutl Inlet areas. It was also estimated
that up to 40 per cent of the chum spawn deposited was destroyed as a result of floods
during November. Flood damage to Malksope and Chamiss Rivers was, however, considerably less than in the remainder of the area.
Quatsino Area
The creek sockeye-salmon escapement was light to fair and continued to follow the
pattern of previous years. The run is of little commercial importance. Spring-salmon
stocks were fairly light but comparable to those of the past few years. The cohoe escapement showed improvement over that experienced in 1955 and was on a par with that of
the parent year. This was particularly apparent in the San Josef and Fisherman Rivers
and in a number of smaller streams throughout the sub-district. This was a pink-salmon
year for the sub-district. While the escapement was generally less in all streams than in
the cycle-year, stocks in Koprino River, one of the main producers, almost equalled those
of 1954. Supplies in the Cape Scott area were disappointingly light, as was the case
in the Cape Cook area. Klaskish River, which had a moderate escapement in 1954, had
practically no pinks on the spav/ning-grounds this year. The only major river which
showed improvement over the parent year was Rupert River. While the over-all chum-
salmon escapement was light, it was better than that of 1955 and compared favourably
with the cycle-year, particularly so in Rupert, Marble, and Mahatta Rivers. Browning,
Klaskish, San Josef, and Fisherman Rivers all showed some slight decrease from brood-
year levels. K 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fraser River-Prince George Area
Approximately 27,000 sockeye spawned in the Stuart Lake system. The early runs
consisted of 25,150 fish, compared to 1952 stocks of 33,500. The late run, totalling
1,500, on the other hand, was an increase over the cycle-year. Supplies in Forfar,
Kynock, and Gluskie Creeks were smaller than those of the cycle-year, while small
increases were noted in Rosette Creek and Middle and Tachie Rivers. The runs commenced to arrive in Stuart Lake on July 17th, which date is comparable to the arrival
date of July 18th in 1952. The early-run escapement to the Fraser-Francois system was
approximately 1,610 fish, compared to 2,800 in the cycle-year. The late run to Stellako
River was estimated at 38,200 sockeye, compared to 40,000 fish in 1952. Supplies of
spring salmon at Tete Jaune were less than in the brood-year. The escapement to Stuart
River was light and less than in the brood-year. Two hundred springs were present on
the spawning-grounds in the residual Nechako River above Fort Fraser.
Quesnel-Chilko Area
The Chilko sockeye-spawning was heavy. Runs arrived on the spawning-ground in
excellent condition, and in the Farwell Canyon area at the peak of migration there was
no noticeable delay in the passage of fish. The Taseko Lake area was adequately seeded.
In the Horsefly River on the Quesnel system there was a light showing of sockeye, about
the same as that observed in 1952. A few were also observed in Mitchell River.
Although stocks in the Upper Bowron were considerably below the brood-year levels, all
spawning occurred on the best areas under ideal conditions. Supplies of spring salmon
to the Chilcotin and Quesnel systems were about average. The usual small number of
this species also appeared in Upper Swift River. The return to the Bowron also compared
favourably with that of the parent year, and spawning conditions were better than in the
past several years.
Fraser River
Kamloops Area.—In general the sockeye runs to the Kamloops sub-district were
light and in only a few instances surpassed brood-year populations. The Adams and
Little River run totalled about 10,000 fish, showing a decrease from the parent year.
In Seymour River about 2,500 sockeye were found on the spawning-grounds. Supplies
in Scotch Creek amounted to about 200. Stocks to Raft River were estimated at 9,000
to 10,000. Spring-salmon supplies in the Upper and Lower Shuswap Rivers totalled
6,500 fish. In the North Thompson system there was a good run to Finn Creek, almost
double that of the parent year. In Raft River supplies were comparable to those of the
cycle-year. The run to the South Thompson was light, with only 450 spring salmon
present, compared with 2,700 in the parent year. Supplies to Eagle River totalled 800
and fell far short of the brood-year, when over 3,000 were present in this stream. Light
to medium runs were also found in Salmon River, Little River, and Adams River. With
the exception of Eagle River and Deadman Creek, the number of spawners in all streams
barely approached or fell short of brood-year populations. Spawners in the Eagle River,
estimated at 3,000, comprised the largest individual run to the area.
Lillooet Area.—A fairly large spawning of sockeye occurred in the Birkenhead
River. Between 9,000 and 10,000 spawned in Gates Creek, an increase over the brood-
year. Small numbers were observed in Seton Creek, Anderson Lake, and in Portage
Creek. A few spring salmon were observed in Seton and Portage Creeks. The cohoe run
to Birkenhead was light, estimated at 2,500, compared with 5,000 in the brood-year.
Only the odd spring was observed in the Yalakom River.
Yale-Nicola (Formerly Yale-Merritt) Area.—The spring-salmon run to the Cold-
water River and Spius Creek was fair but slightly less than runs of the past two years.
The escapement to Nicola River was light.    Nicola River received a moderate seeding of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 99
cohoe, and moderate supplies were also noted in Coldwater River and Spius Creek. This
was the off-year for pinks, and none of this species was observed in the streams in the area.
Chilliwack-Hope Area.—Approximately 13,000 sockeye entered Cultus Lake this
year, compared with 18,200 in 1952. The escapement to Chilliwack River and Kawkawa
Creek was very light. Stocks of spring salmon in the Chilliwack River were comparable
to those of the parent year, when 600 were present. Fifteen thousand cohoe, comparing
favourably in numbers with those present in 1953, spawned in the Chilliwack-Vedder
system. The main spawning took place in the upper reaches of the Chilliwack River.
In 1954, 2,500,000 pink eggs were planted in the control channel at Jones Creek.
Despite several severe freshets and considerable silting during the winter of 1954-55,
2,800 pinks returned to the stream this year. Of these, approximately 2,500 spawned
in the control channel while 300 utilized the spawning-grounds near the mouth of the
stream. The chum escapement was very light, with the Chilliwack-Vedder system
supporting about 8,000 fish, compared with 42,000 in 1952. In Sweltzer Creek only
700 were observed, compared to an estimated 20,000 in the parent year. The run to
Coquihalla River totalled only fifty, compared to 1,000 in the brood-year. Stocks were
also very light in Silver, Succer, Luckakuck, and Jones Creeks.
Mission-Harrison Area.—Supplies of sockeye generally were not up to the relatively good escapements of the brood-year. It is also estimated that there was a 25-percent loss of spawn due to flood conditions from the below-average run to Weaver Creek,
which had been anticipated as a result of drought conditions in the parent year. Supplies
to Harrison River and Big Silver Creek also showed decrease from previous cycles.
Elsewhere throughout the district supplies were light. The early cohoe runs were very
weak or non-existent. Late-run fish to the Chehalis totalled 2,000, compared with
10,000 in the parent year. The run to Weaver Creek was very light, totalling not more
than 700 fish, compared with 3,000 in 1953. Supplies to Nicomen Slough and Hicks
Creeks were also light, with escapements being only approximately half those of the
brood-year. Stocks in the Hatzic watershed, Whonock Creek, and Suicide Creek were
but a fraction of those of 1953. The early chum runs were practically non-existent. The
late runs provided a satisfactory spawning in the Chehalis sloughs as well as a fair escapement to the Stave River. The seeding in Inches Creek was fair, while a moderate run
occurred to Worths Creek. Supplies to all other streams in the area were very light.
The early run of red springs to Chehalis River did not appear. There was, however,
an unusually large number of this species in the Stave River in May and June. From the
late run there was a good escapement to Big Silver River and fair supplies were observed
in Spring Creek. The run of white springs to Harrison River was light, with less than
4,000 on the spawning-grounds, including approximately 800 jacks.
Lower Fraser Area.—The over-all escapement of sockeye to the Upper Pitt River
system was approximately 32,000 fish. A comparatively good escapement of 1,500 to
2,000 spring salmon occurred in the Upper Pitt system. While good catches of cohoe
were made in the early-fall commercial fishery in the Fraser River, the over-all escapement of this species to the Lower Mainland streams was very light. The exceptions were
the Nicomekl, Serpentine, and Campbell Rivers. Stocks in the Nicomekl and its tributaries, Twigg and Anderson Creeks, totalled 1,500 to 2,000, comparing favourably with
the parent year. This was also the case in the Serpentine River, where 1,000 to 1,500
spawners were present, and in the Campbell River, with an estimated 500 to 1,000 of this
species on the spawning-grounds. All other streams in the area had light escapements.
The escapement of chums to Lower Mainland streams was very poor, in some cases
practically non-existent, and in general estimated to be only about 10 per cent of normal
requirements. The South Allouette River, with about 300 on the spawning-grounds,
had the best seeding in the area. Supplies to the North Allouette were very light, with
150 to 200 present, compared with over 2,000 in the parent year.    This was also the K 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
case with Coquitlam River, where 150 chums spawned, compared with 5,000 to 10,000
in 1952. Other streams in the sub-district had light or negligible stocks of this species
on the spawning-grounds. A severe flash flood during the first week of December caused
heavy damage to the chum spawning-grounds, and it is felt that this condition, together
with the abnormally light runs, has created a serious situation in the area. This flood
also affected the spawning of cohoe, but the damage to their spawning-grounds was not
as great as in the case of the chum salmon.
Squamish Area
The spring-salmon run to the Squamish system was about the same as that of the
parent year, when 15,000 were present on the spawning-grounds. Stocks of cohoe in
the Squamish were about half those of 1953. Supplies of this species to the Cheakamus
were light but slightly in excess of those recorded in the brood-year. The chum run to
the area was very light, and only 10,000 were found in the Squamish River, compared
with 175,000 in 1952. In the Cheakamus River 3,000 chums were present, compared
with 15,000 in the brood-year, and in the Mamquam stocks were only about one-seventh
those of 1952, when 10,000 spawned in this river. The runs of this species to Howe
Sound and Gulf of Georgia streams were abnormally small and below parent-year levels.
North Vancouver Area
Supplies of cohoe to Seymour and Lynn Creeks and Indian River were moderate
and comparable to those of 1953. The run to Capilano River showed a marked decline.
The fish-trap facilities provided by the Greater Vancouver Water Board in this stream
below Cleveland Dam were in operation, and during the season 1,840 cohoe were trapped
and trucked to a point several miles above the dam, where they were released to migrate
to their spawning-grounds. Of interest is the fact that 50 per cent of these fish were
small. The chum escapement was far below brood-year levels, with 2,000 being found
in Indian River, where well in excess of 20,000 spawned in 1952. There was also a
marked decline in Seymour River, where 150 were present, compared with 1,000 to
2,000 in the parent year. A maximum of fifty of this species spawned in Capilano River,
where numbers in the brood-year were comparable to those in Seymour Creek. There
were two flash floods in the streams in the area during the late fall, but the resulting
damage fortunately was slight. RFPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 101
STATISTICAL TABLES
LICENCES ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
FOR THE 1956 SEASON
Kind of Licence
Salmon-cannery ___
Herring-cannery ___
Pilchard-cannery __
Herring reduction _
Pilchard reduction
Tierced salmon	
Number of
Licences
13
Fish cold storage     14
Fish-processing      17
8
1
9
4
1
Shell-fish cannery
Tuna-fish cannery ___
Fish-offal reduction
Fish-liver reduction
Whale reduction	
Pickled herring  	
Herring dry-saltery       1
Processing aquatic plants  	
Harvesting aquatic plants  	
Fish-buyers   494
Non-tidal fishing  190
Dog-fish reduction       1
General receipts       3
Revenue
$3,600.00
100.00
1,300.00
600.00
1,400.00
17.00
8.00
1.00
9.00
4.00
100.00
12,350.00
193.00
1.00
27.50
Total
$19,810.50 K 102
BRITISH COLUMBIA
SUMMARY SHOWING NUMBERS OF SALMON CAUGHT
IN 1956 BY AREA
(Rounded to nearest hundred.)
Area
Cohoe
Sockeye
Pinks
Chums
Red
Spring
White
Spring
Steel-
head
Jacks
Total
C            	
83
2,331
683
97
509
10
1,142
1,205
1,021
1,173
1,392
1,665
355
122
47
4,772
1,019
920
195
382
472
27
12
1,270
1,981
10
350
676
1,195
1,626
679
29
1,169
12
65
O)
28
C1)
6
C1)
1,638
1,252
840
306
O)
10,052
4,164
5,713
17,322
9,531
10,334
942
253
3
8,001
1,201
3
1
1
0)
0)
5
163
51
42
19
4
165
252
115
30
120
84
31
36
1
269
226
70
112
116
251
4
1
32
83
0)
2,846
752
798
297
101
13
395
12
195
1
25
7
7
9
O)
29
39
17
16
16
18
11
3
C1)
72
217
8
21
32
7
1
C1)
7
16
0)
268
41
82
15
10
7
451
8
76
0.
1
1
(*.
C1)
C*)
51
9
9
11
14
29
9
4
C1)
28
28
32
10
11
36
(x)
2
152
42
89
1                       	
182
251
762
223
69
3,613
514
266
1,141
2,123
2,402
111
137
26
3,455
1,911
75
45
168
114
109
1
15
33
1,184
2,574
535
883
391
487
77
688
17
2
1
4,369
2ae. 	
2,245
1,754
1,066
2aw.	
7bf.
C1)
34
56
4
3
2
39
21
10
C1)
9
2
C1)
C1)
O)
C1)
1
2bw   _ 	
83
3... -                            	
2,548
1,491
706
436
143
1,086
10,723
4,423
58
1,237
329
(a)
C1)
34
4
11
8
2,504
587
15
92
277
3
3
1
2
4,055
160
1,605
17,634
7,730
4                                   	
5                                    	
7,851
6    -                            	
20,132
7                                    	
13,341
8 	
15,657
9 	
10                                      .
12,203
4,988
11  	
12  	
13
135
17,843
4,933
14
1,108
15                                   	
384
16                                 	
744
17                                        ...
384
18	
153
19
24
20                               	
6
6
1
2
5
C1)
f.1)
f1)
f1)
C1)
33
C1)
7
3,987
21                                     	
2,750
22
1,209
23
2
15
72
231
1,611
9
2
3
1
f1)
2
88
5
14
6,146
24                             	
2,298
25                                    -
3,036
26                               	
2,564
27                                  ■
2,889
28                               	
130
15
5
6,894
29c  -- -   	
29d -	
214
1,969
Totals          	
28,696
32,575
73,520
24,584
7,691
1,537
230
603
169,436
1 Less than 50 pounds.
The above figures were taken from British Columbia Catch Statistics,
(Pacific Area).
1956, Department of Fisheries of Canada REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 103
SUMMARY SHOWING TOTAL WEIGHT OF SALMON CAUGHT
IN 1956 BY AREA
(In hundredweight.)
Area
Cohoe
Sockeye     Pinks
Chums
Red        White
Spring      Spring
Steel-
head
Jacks
Total
2AE-.
2aw_.
2be_.
2bw..
3	
4	
5	
6	
7	
10	
11	
12  	
13	
14	
15 	
16	
17	
18	
19	
20.--	
21 	
22	
23	
24	
25 -.--
26	
27	
28 	
29a and 29b_
29c	
29d	
Totals .
451
15,853
5,159
916
3,707
71
8,900
8,704
7,112
10,302
11,106
15,881
3,272
1,055
451
40,476
9,226
4,674
1,471
1,870
2,186
261
97
9,392
16,560
126
15,480
4,643
7,879
9,392
4,960
291
9,733
103
408
232,168
C1)
157
1
30
15,448
8,796
4,113
2,453
650
5,279
77,053
31,524
392
7,379
2,078
3
3
184
24
70
52
16,017
3,894
54
503
1,513
18
16
6
10
26,021
1,040
10,193
214,974
O)
6,627
4,671
3,322
1,157
(*)
37,969
17,518
22,493
71,366
34,917
40,366
4,013
1,177
11
31,971
4,378
9
1
2
2
(!)
25
29
58
258
820
6,085
79
2
28
289,362
1,901
2,411
7,357
2,030 I
627 |
42,773  I
6,434
3,226
12,468
21,976
31,832
1,527
1,591
279
38,949
21,276
830
510
64
2,744
680
771
280
86
2,999
4,360
1,419
372
1,625
1,513
500
319
9
3,293
1,900
531
757
1,831
813
1,231
1,663
1,169
42
9
9
176
457
343
896
13,000
1
25,859
28,361
5,618
9,020
8,843
12,397
3,953
4,694
4,679
1,537
894
101
8,438
5,982
197
124
33
2,867
274,270
93,186
18
496
111
91
34
5
577
899
248
178
286
383
218
43
2
1,262
2,597
92
215
328
79
16
2
104
235
C1)
3,865
602
1,155
238
143
107
10,270
110
1,596
~26^605~
(!)
f1)
303
619
34
26
16
368
183
87
2
85
18
1
1  I
(i)
O)
12
11
17
f1)
36
1
1
1
G)
C1)
386
3
69
2,290
C1)
4
4
f1)
(!)
f1)
248
43
43
50
64
106
41
17
1
132
111
115
34
37
131
(a)
7
478
155
37
7
14
6
1
6
438
24
68
2,422
533
27,792
13,037
12,487
7,208
789
109,217
47,373
38,688
97,215
70,640
95,728
86,807
35,813
1,147
123,547
41,584
6,255
2,992
5,065
5,316
1,570
176
26,660
22,129
13,181
74,149
21,462
30,565
19,120
17,411
1,409
61,347
1,603
15,262
1,135,277
1 Less than 50 pounds.
The above figures were taken from British Columbia Catch Statistics,
(Pacific Area).
1956, Department of Fisheries of Canada
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, 1956 SEASON
(Showing the Origin of Salmon Caught in Each District (48-pound Cases))
District
Sockeyes
Springs
Steelheads
Cohoes
Pinks
Chums
Total
88,1321/2
1,323
22,505
14,663
124,6341/2
36,898
13,970
17,967
2,873i/2
1
536
371
419
166
5,941V-
l,364i/2
3371/2
12,2731/2
7,314i/2
8,165i/2
8,265
6,601V_
2,249
118,938
40,299
8,0341/2
348
18,8091/2
44,4021/2
25,633
12,046V.
1,664
55,052V-
205,658
9,989
17,4431/2
35,588
6,283
2,926i/2
1,642
71,5951/2
58,6021/2
113,954
44,8911/2
217
312
55
331/2
251/2
2731/2
111,414
55,527
146,683
Smith Inlet 	
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland   —- -
42,6521/2
265.523
324,164V_
8,034i/2
Totals -	
320,093
11,6721/2
1,254
212,1401/2
363,614
204,070
1,112,844
Note.—10,549 cases of bluebacks are included with cohoes, Vancouver Island;   also included are 360V£ cases of
chums packed in oil. K 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA BY SPECIES FROM 1948 TO 1956, INCLUSIVE
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
Sockeyes.      -
Springs-	
Chums 	
Pinks	
Cohoes.- 	
Steelheads -
320,093
11,6725
204.070
363,614
212,1405
1,254
244,8213
17.859J
128,289
831,255
186,1915
1,882
680,789
14,357
582,1245
337,0625
129,624
3,8975
510,148
13,0485
394,867
795,330
110,1645
3,0305
449,4945
9,279
96,005
679,182
67,438
3,762
428,299
13,698
462,101
736,093
313,674
3,6555
408,0265
9,2335
507,611
446,4565
123.629J
3,2275
259,821
21,184
230,5565
709,987
215,944
2,373
261,2305
16,4455
511,404
321,7215
221,804
5,6635
Totals	
1,112,844
1,410,2981
1,747,8545
1,826,5885
1,305,160!
1,957,5205
1,498,1845
1,439,866
1,338,271
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS FROM 1948 TO 1956, INCLUSIVE
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
113,954
55.527
146,683
42,6525
111,414
265,523
377,0905
294,2388
123,507
71,164
34,5705
62,0815
581,599
239 147
3^991
563.807J
136,500
71,023
23,5485
69,3585
349,5865
529,9725
4,058
496,9365
117,406
148,8855
35,8705
66,5105
671,9811
338,432
566
151,147
221,3061
105,040
43,5621
57,775
245,437
475,066
5,8261
268,233
130,681
148,996
58,022
152,7425
585,240
612,482
1,124
139,7215
97,889
172,1075
52,750
57,961
347,9961
623,609
6,150
189,938
129,027
70,2101
19,083
58,3365
538,3705
431,4985
3,402
104,485
193,4355
72,117
Smith Inlet—   	
14,675
38,5385
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland
317,572
567,314
30,134
1,112,844
1,410,2983
1,747,8543
1,826,5885
1,305,160*
1,957,5201
1,498,1845
1,439,866
1,338,271 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956 K 105
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE FRASER RIVER,
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE,  1895-1956
British Columbia  1895— 395,984 1896— 356,984 1897— 860,459 1898— 256,101
Washington  _                       65,143 72,979 312,048 252,000
Total                      461,127 429,963 1,172,507 508,101
British Columbia  1899— 480,485 1900— 229,800 1901— 928,669 1902— 293,477
Washington                      499,646 228,704 1,105,096 339,556
Total                      980,131 458,504 2,033,765 633,033
British Columbia  1903— 204,809 1904—   72,688 1905— 837,489 1906— 183,007
Washington                       167,211 123,419 837,122 182,241
Total                       372,020 196,107 1,674,611 365,248
British Columbia  1907—   59,815 1908—   74,574 1909— 585,435 1910— 150,432
Washington _ ___                       96,974 170,951 1,097,904 248,014
Total                      156,789 245,525 1,683,339 398,446
British Columbia  1911—   58,487 1912—123,879 1913—719,796 1914—198,183
Washington                      127,761 184,680 1,673,099 335,230
Total                       186,248 308,559 2,392,895 533,413
British Columbia  1915—   91,130 1916—   32,146 1917— 148,164 1918—    19,697
Washington                         64,584 84,637 411,538 50,723
Total                      155,714 116,783 550,702 70,420
British Columbia  1919—   38,854 1920—   48,399 1921—   39,631 1922—   51,832
Washington                        64,346 62,654 102,967 48,566
Total                       103,200 111,053 142,598 100,398
British Columbia  1923—   31,655 1924—   39,743 1925—   35,385 1926—   85,689
Washington                        47,402 69,369 112,023 44,673
Total                         79,057 109,112 147,408 130,362
British Columbia    1927—   61,393 1928—   29,299 1929—   61,569 1930—103,692
Washington                        97,594 61,044 111,898 352,194
Total                      158,987 90,343 173,467 455,886
British Columbia  1931—   40,947 1932—   65,769 1933—   52,465 1934— 139,238
Washington                        87,211 81,188 128,518 352,579
Total                       128,158 146,957 180,983 491,817
British Columbia  1935—    62,822 1936— 184,854 1937— 100,272 1938— 186,794
Washington                        54,677 59,505 60,259 135,550
Total                      117,499 244,359 160,531 322,344
British Columbia  1939—   54,296 1940—   99,009 1941— 171,290 1942— 446,371
Washington                         43,512 63,890 110,605 263,458
Total                         97,808 162,899 281,895 709,829
British Columbia  1943—   31,974 1944—   88,515 1945—   79,977 1946— 341,957
Washington                        19,117 37,509 53,055 268,561
Total                        51,091 126,024 133,032 610,518
British Columbia  1947—   33,952 1948—   64,8235 1949—   96,159 1950— 108,223
Washington                          6,760 90,441 80,547 116,458
Total                         40,712 155,264. 176,706 224,681
British Columbia  1951—145,321 1952—134,625 1953—191,123 1954—497,023
Washington                     118,151 114,638 178,323 501,496
Total                      263,472 249,263 369,446 998,519
British Columbia  _ 1955— 103,678 1956—   88,132
Washington                         85,136 84,052
Total                       188,814 172,184 K 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES
Fraser River, 1948
to 1956, Inclusive
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
88,1325
2,8735
9,989
348
12,2735
3375
103,678}
6,8435
7,3505
160,1875
15,910
269
497,023
8,298
45,444
175
11,948
1,077
191,123
5,620
26,921
204,4215
15,480
371
134,625
2,279
8,480
60
5,5005
2025
145,231*
5,719
35,5305
66,673
14,8485
2305
108,223
1,8185
23,3435
72
6,0251
240
96,1595
9,889
6,763
66,626
10,286
2145
64,8235
2,9555
20,209
Pinks _ _	
Cohoes 	
16,102
Totals	
113,954
294,2381
563,8075
496,396*
151,147
268,233
139,7215
189,938
104,485
Skeena River, 1948
to 1956, Inclusive
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
14,663
371
6.283
25,633
8,265
312
14,649
1,430
5,4715
86,788
14,192
9765
60,817
1,2605
23,135*
39,3245
10,449
1,5135
65,003
1,1741
15,1145
29,884
5,260
970
114,775
2,082
4,638
89,314
8,358
2,1395
61,6945
2,0555
14,778
30,3565
19,9775
1,819
47,4795
1,7585
10,969
26,256
9,781
65,937
2,5075
4,896
33,069.
21,3335
2,5075
101,2675
4,0185
11,863
50,656
22,0865
3,544
Pinks       	
Totals 	
55,527
123,507
136,500
117,406
221,3065
130,681
97,889
129,027
193 435*
Rivers Inlet; 1948 to 1956, Inclusive
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
124,6345
419
2,9265
12,0465
6,6015
55
50,7025
813
5,588
8,658
5,3165
86
50,6395
649
12,3525
2,5815
4,669*
131
132,9255
865*
5,627
7,3045
1,979
184
84,2975
865}
3,7115
12,4695
3,4155
2801
102,5655
9375
11,8425
20,960
12,146
2745
142,710*
619J
10,0145
12,864
5,736
163
39,4945
743
11,819
11,937
5,978
239
37,6655
899*
11,4861
13,491
8,143
4315
Totals	
146,683
71,164
71,023
148.855J
105,040
148,996
172,107.
70,2105
72,117
Smith Inlet
, 1948
to 1956, Inclusive
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
36,898
166
2,249
1,664
1,642
331
28,864
326
1,0145
2,2755
2,070
205
18,937
1771
868
523
2,992
51
29,947
176
615
1,017
4,015
1005
34,834
367
1,466
6,496
3155
84
49,473
1741
3,259
2,482
2,530
1035
42,435
711
397
5,308
4,4995
39
13,189
159
785
2,533
2,361
56
10,4565
1865
9295
1,481*
1,5211
Steelheads	
995
Totals          	
42,6525
34,5705
23,5485
35,8705
43,5625
58,022
52,750
19,083
14,675
Nass River
1948 to 195t
i, Inclusive
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
22,505
536
35,588
44,402}
8,1655
217
13,6545
1,028
8,904
29,040
9,356
99
10,285
3981
15,9655
36,448
6,0241
237
18,1625
5275
25,756*
16,6355
5,118
3105
29,429
641
13,1125
13,016
1,223
2905
24,405}
5965
37,742
70,880
18,711
4075
27,2861
7985
14,321
12,582
2,737
236
9,268
1745
7,854
34,324
6,665
51
13,1815
416
7,2725
Pinks            -   _	
8,565
8,9545
Steelheads.-   . ~
149
Totals          	
111,414
62,0815
69,3585
66,5101
57,775
152,742}
57,961
58,3365
38,5385 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1956
K 107
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued
Vancouver Island District and Adjacent Mainland, 1948 to 1956, Inclusive
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
Sockeyes_
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes1	
Steelheads	
Totals.
13,970
5,941}
71,595}
55,0525
118,938
255
13,1925
5,534
40,105
421,3555
101,349
63
12,051
1,6495
248,0985
32,913
54,783
915
46,8955
3,115}
124,840
439,1735
57,773
184
24,2525
1,687
24,039
171,812
23,583
635
22,107
3,133
105,458
303,102}
151,3255
114
13,806
3,343
125,833
132,016
72,871
127*
19,486}
6,3611
51,629
361,7831
98,9585
1515
9,981}
6,622
147,227*
43,574}
109,939*
227
265,523
581,599
349,586}
671,9815
245,437
585,240
347,996}
538,3701
317,572
1 Since 1940, bluebacks have been included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1948 to 1956, Inclusive
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
Sockeyes	
1,323
1
17,443}
18,809}
7,3145
433
16
9,420
548
11,666
5
107}
65
83,805*
105,123
11,289
375
246
15
17,304
811
2,4371
6
635
96
1,712
178,9591
4,168
195
510
89
48
148,669
92,986
9,021
15
	
20
145
61,6961
3,455
22,579
24,8525
1,550
8,141}
71,287
Pinks	
51,722
Cohoes 	
4,145
Totals	
44,8915
22,088
200,369
20,806
185,590
88,2405
250,828
34,544
127,319
Central Area, 1948 to 1956, Inclusive
1956
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
17,967
1,3645
58,602}
205,658
40,299
2735
19,648
1,864
45,950
122,371}
24,846
3185
30,858}
1,645
149,672
118,538}
26,511
5955
25,8455
1,568
175,289
92,517
21,502
9041
26,5835
1,2615
36,605
207,055
17,289
682
22,312
1,082
190,8431
237,559
61,4235
7061
25,997
776
164,884
163,301
17,061
762
16,1405
1,007
116,2925
173,456
44,169
355
23,246*
Springs   	
Chums _	
Pinks -  	
1,1955
225,686
152,2005
36,816
Steelheads _	
8505
Totals	
324,1645
214,998
327,8205
317,626
289,476
513,9265
372,781
351,420
439,995 K 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1956
Season
Canned
Meal
Oil
l-30_3i
Cases
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
2,656
Tons
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
Gal.
3,204,058
1031 32
2,551,914
1031 33
1,315,864
1933-34                         _	
275,879
1034-35
1,635,123
1°35 36
1,634,592
1036-37
1,217,087
1037  38
1,707,276
1938-39	
1Q3Q-40
2,195,850
178,305
1940-41                                   --	
890,296
1Q41-42
1,916,191
1047.43
1,560,269
1943 44
2,238,987
1,675,090
1044-45
1045-46
1,273,329
1046-47
81,831
1947-48
12,833
1048-40
1049-50
	
1950-51 .... _ _	
1951-57
	
1957-53
1953-54. .. .                            	
1954-55
	
1955-56
1956-57	
—
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1956
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Pickled
Meal
Oil
1935-36..
1936-37..
1937-38..
1938-39-
1939-40-
1940-41..
1941-42..
1942-43..
1943-44..
1944^15-.
1945-46-
1946-47-
1947-48...
1948-49...
1949-50...
1950-51...
1951-52...
1952-53..
1953-54...
1954-55...
1955-56..
1956-57...
Cases
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
92,719
77,913
56,798
103,928
5,132
66,231
25,508
11,728
Tons
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
302
5,807
3.0841
412
3,858
4,418
4,331
5,871
3,910
2,397
249
290
892
779
502
591
26
100
1295
1
Tons
Gal.
5,313
328,639
10,340
786,742
14,643
1,333,245
18,028
1,526,117
22,870
1,677,736
10,886
923,137
8,780
594,684
4,633
323,379
7,662
512,516
9,539
717,655
5,525
521,649
7,223
484,937
18,948
1,526,826
31,340
2,614,925
30,081
3.823,464
31,913
3,385,685
32,777
3,832,301
218
7,203
31,740
3,516,106
28,782
3,714,924
47,097
4,475,536
32,772
3,602,937
1 Previously reported as 2,988 tons.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1956
K 109
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, VITAMIN A, AND
FERTILIZER PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING
AND PILCHARD, 1947 TO 1956.
Season
From Whales
From Fish-
livers
From Other Sources
Whalebone
and Meal
Fertilizer
Oil
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1947-48
Tons
119
921
1,098
1,981
2,349
1,786
2,502
3,411
2,182
Tons
324
21
Gal.
Units1
11,109,063
10,121,374
12,079,015
3,578,905
5,250,441
5,409,264
5,339,768
4,310,057
4,760,668
2,355,410
Tons
3,929
1,172
1,635
1,717
3,593
2,011
2,059
7.361
Gal.
519,802
141,098
175,202
166,898
250,777
192,315
243,819
965.405
1948-49	
1949-50	
1950-51	
1951-52	
1952-53
1953-54	
1954-55           	
186,424
312,055
393,176
680,129
668,408
5,707,968
872,060
759,785
526,584
1955-56 	
1.993         1         201.690
1956-57—	
1,925
187,787
1 Million U.S.P. units Vitamin A. K 110
BRITISH COLUMBIA
o
<
pq
1/5
t>
V.
VO
to
Pi
&
t
<
Q
M
H
O
55
O
Ph
Ph
go
Ph
o
u
H
<
43-3 '
Q     OrP     QJ
I
a
3 O
« -0
OC
S4S
cninoov      qoovocNthtj-
th oo tN ov ^j cn vq O cn Tt cn
CN Tt Jgj eo CN Tt"
Tt  CN
CN Tt ^3
of 00 fe-
cn en
oo cn
m cn
OV  O  O OO OO^MHIC
THinooo      r-nr-nr-H
THinincn^oooTtoo       -r-*
oo vo
o r-
Tf r-
o o
o o
CN vo
o o
O O
cn oo
O O
in O
cn oo
© o
m in
Ov c-
o o
O m
O Ov
! O O
! CO Tt
!   TT   T>
I o o
! O VO
! CN CO
o
t>
en
tH
(N m
o o
Tt vq
CN
o
00
CJ    CJ
M M
■a-a
>Z3-
2s
_fc 3  u £
Cd        J4   rt   0  *-J i_J
"«^3_
a & b S .3 3-°-*i2c.!5„..g--.2.c5'5Ea£K
§11II 1^1981 lliilllllNSs
<;<;«uouubih(i,(.«2zzzoo.(i.«h(h??
J- J
T_ a,
O ■-
o £
g 6
G _. a
1|S
"h .9 to
6 *3 ___
3   Ih 3
feOwa
o
H
0)
3
o
pa
A
CM
u r-
u m
_.
5     TH
B
0
Vh
Cm.
tt.
o
n
5
s
s
S
9
S
,g
z
(1
p  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0354200/manifest

Comment

Related Items