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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1957 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1958

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. G. WILLISTON, Minister DR. C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1957
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1958  Victoria, B.C., February, 1958.
To Group Captain the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of
the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1957.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests. The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1957.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester. CONTENTS
Item Page
1. Introductory  11
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  19
Introduction  19
Forest Surveys  19
Forest Inventory  19
Forest Resources of British Columbia  19
Forest Area  19
Forest Volume  20
Net Forest Growth  21
Forest Depletion  24
Inventory Maintenance  24
Forest Sampling  24
Standard Sampling  24
Photo Mensuration  24
Loss Factors  26
Forest Classification  28
Compilation and Summary  28
Forest-resources Bulletins and Other Publications  28
Inventory Applications  29
Timber-sale and Other Surveys .  29
3. Forest Research  30
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station  30
Aleza Lake Experiment Station  30
Field Programme T  30
Co-operation  32
Research Publications  32
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1957  33
4. Reforestation  35
Forest Nurseries  35
Seed Collections  35
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  35
Planting  36
Preparation of Planting Areas  36
Plantation Improvement  3 6
5. Working Plans  37
Sustained-yield Units  37
Forest Management Licences  39
Tree-farm Land .  39
Farm Wood-lot Licences and Demonstration Wood-lots  39
6. Public Relations and Education  40
Photography and Motion Pictures  40
Film Library. :  40
Publications and Printing  41
Radio and Television  41 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
6. Public Relations and Education—Continued
Commercial Theatres  41
Press Liaison  42
Roadway and Roadside Signs  42
School Lectures  42
Exhibits  42
Library  42
Co-operation  43
Special Campaign  43
7. Forest Management  44
General  44
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  45
Lumber Prices  45
Log Prices    45
Stumpage Prices  45
Sliding-scale Adjustments  46
Stum page-appraisal Cost Studies  46
Administration of Managed Units  46
Silviculture Vote  47
8. Grazing  48
Introduction  48
Administration  48
Grazing and Hay Permits  48
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  49
Live-stock Counts  49
Trespass  50
Range Management  50
Range Surveys  50
Range Improvements  50
Range Research  51
Co-operation  51
General Conditions  52
Markets and Prices  52
Live-stock Losses  52
Diseases of Live Stock  52
9. Engineering Services  53
Engineering Section  53
Road Reconnaissance  53
Road Location  54
Road Construction and Maintenance  54
General Engineering  56
Mechanical Section  57
Equipment Selectioii  57
General Supervision  5 8 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 7
Item                                                                                                                                                                            Page
9. Engineering Services—Continued
Structural Design and Building Construction  58
Forest Service Marine Station  60
Marine Work  60
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop  61
Machine-shop  61
General Plant Maintenance  62
Radio Section  62
10. Forest Protection  65
Weather.  65
Fires  65
Occurrence and Causes  65
Cost of Fire-fighting.  65
Damage  66
Fire-control Planning and Research  66
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  66
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  66
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles and Sustained-yield
Units  66
Miscellaneous (Air-photo Mosaics)  66
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  67
Fire-suppression Crews  67
Aircraft  67
Roads and Trails  68
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  68
Fire-law Enforcement  68
Forest Closures  69
Co-operation—Other Agencies  69
11. Forest-insect Investigations  70
Pest-control Committee  70
Black-headed Budworm Spraying Operation  70
Forest-insect Survey  70
Research Projects  72
Accommodation and Facilities  73
12. Forest-disease Investigations  74
Forest-disease Survey  74
Nursery, Seed, and Ornamental-tree Diseases  75
Diseases of Immature Forests  75
Diseases of Mature Forests  77
13. Forest Ranger School  78
Curriculum  78
Extra Courses  78
Acknowledgments  78 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
14. Forest Accounts  79
15. Personnel -  80
Organization  80
Services  80
Communications and Training  80
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  81
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  82
Youth-training Programme  83
16. Appendix — Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  87 i :
Forest Survey and Inventory crews negotiate the fast-flowing Morice Ri'  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE,  1957
Introduction and Legislation
An event of great significance in the administration of the forest resource of the
Province was the publication, in September, of the " Report of the Commissioner, Honourable Gordon McG. Sloan, Chief Justice of British Columbia, relating to the Forest
Resources of British Columbia, 1956." This Royal Commission was set up by Order
in Council, dated January 7th, 1955, under the " Public Inquiries Act" and held hearings throughout 1955 and most of 1956 in many parts of the Province.
A chapter of Forest Service history came to a close during the year with the transfer
of the responsibility of administering the Provincial park system to the newly created
Department of Recreation and Conservation after twenty years of being under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service. Effective April 1st, 1957, the Parks and Recreation Division of the Service was transferred to the new Department, where it is now known as
the Parks Branch. Although the Forest Service continued to carry out certain internal
administrative functions on behalf of the transferred Division, no submission on parks
and recreation work appears in this Report.
There were no other major amendments to the " Forest Act" during the year.
Through the courtesy of the Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, this Report again contains submissions from the Victoria units
of that organization in forest-insect and forest-disease conditions in this Province.
Forest Surveys and Inventory
The seventh year and final phase of the work in connection with basic inventory
of the forest resources of the Province was completed, in co-operation with the Canadian Government, under the provisions of the Canada Forest Act. All inventory data
were correlated and made available in the form of comprehensive tabular statements,
maps, and analyses. Also, the first set of lithographed forest-cover index maps, at a
scale of 2 miles to 1 inch, with corresponding area and volume summaries, were completed for the entire Province. A total of 4,510 man-days were expended on the map-
compilation phase alone during the year.
Certain of the final statistics being produced after seven years of work on the inventory are noteworthy. For example, by to-day's standards of utilization there are 136,-
680,000 acres of forest land in the Province, of which 117,928,000 acres are in mature
and immature commercial forests; 87 per cent of the commercial forest area is in the
Interior; 74 per cent of Coastal forests and 44 per cent of Interior forests are mature;
sound-wood volume in the 12-inch d.b.h. class and over in exploitable mature forests
amounts to 60,000,000 M c.f.; and net annual increment in all trees 4 inches d.b.h. and
over, in all commercial forests in the Province, totals 2,310,000 M c.f.
The Division continued its high level of activity in the field during the spring and
summer of the year. Three hundred and three men were employed on survey field work,
covering a total of over 38,000,000 acres. All types of transportation, from river-boats
to helicopters, were utilized in order to maintain efficiency and speed of operations in
the field. Field crews carried out forest classification work, conventional sampling,
volume and decay analysis, and also did some double sampling as a result of the establishment of ground plots coincident with photo- or prism-measured plots.
In order to ensure that the entire Province will be re-examined during the next ten-
year cycle, a detailed programme of inventory maintenance was prepared for the period
11 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1958-67. This planning is in accordance with the extended Agreement for Inventory
with the Canadian Government, and provides the basis for forest development in the
years ahead.
During the year 11,870 standard sample plots were established, bringing the total
number in the Provincial inventory to date to 138,870. Regeneration surveys covered
54,772 acres of logged and burned forest land, and in connection with this work 6,000
sample plots were established in the Prince George Forest District.
New techniques were introduced in the estimating of forest volumes by using new
high-quality air photographs, and included the introduction of a special 8-inch photo-lens.
Twenty-one forest-resources bulletins were completed during the year, together
with a number of other publications. Nine million acres of forest land, containing a
volume of 11,700 M c.f., were resummarized for various districts and divisions, and
thirteen cut-priority site-classification and fire-hazard rating projects were completed.
In addition, three timber sales in the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Districts were
intensively mapped and sampled, and one park area was surveyed with a 100-per-cent
cruise.
Forest Research
Fourteen field parties were occupied throughout the Province working on some
sixty separate projects.
Various studies on direct seeding on the Coast were carried out in co-operation with
MacMillan & Bloedel Limited, Okanagan Helicopters, and the Elk River Timber Company.   Also, a number of previous seedings were re-examined.
In the field of genetics, the main emphasis was on the selection of plus-trees for the
first high-elevation seed orchard of Douglas fir. Other studies on inbreeding and the
evaluation of phenotypes were carried out, and the introduction of a new system of seed
classification and registering for all seed used by the Forest Service was completed.
Relative to the investigations on the ecology of coniferous forests on the Coast, a
series of eight climatic stations were established in the Elk Valley on Vancouver Island.
Twenty-three seed-lots of six species were collected from elevations between 1,000 and
4,700 feet to provide seedlings for testing the influence of environment on vigour and
growth.
Studies on the effects of slash-burning on soil productivity are being continued, and
a soil-fertility study was started at Green Timbers Nursery in co-operation with the
Faculty of Agriculture, University of British Columbia.
In the Kootenay region of the Interior, planting and direct-seeding problem studies
continued during the year in co-operation with the Reforestation Division. The partial-
cutting experiment started in 1956 in co-operation with the Celgar Company was logged
and plots established for future growth records.
A new project initiated in the Kamloops District in co-operation with S. M. Simpson
Limited was a thinning and pruning study in ponderosa pine. Also, two plantations of
Engelmann spruce and Douglas fir were established, and studies of the factors affecting
reproduction of Interior species continued to receive attention in the Kamloops and Prince
George Districts.
Altogether, the Division engaged in fifty-nine active research projects during the
year. Ten research publications, including the second issue of the Forest Research Review, were produced during the year.
Reforestation
Only 1,792,500 seedlings were ready for lifting from the three Coastal nurseries in
the spring of 1957 due, primarily, to the severe cold weather experienced in November,
1955. These nurseries had been sown to produce 6,000,000 seedlings. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1957 13
The year 1957 was an exceptionally good one for nursery germination and growth,
and the three Coastal nurseries yielded a total of 4,300,000 2-year-old seedlings by
the fall.
At the East Kootenay nursery, 525,000 2-year-old and 3-year-old seedlings were
produced, and an estimated 1,000,000 1-year-olds are in the beds.
Generally, the cone-crop on the Coast was poor in 1957. In the Interior, however,
the cone-crop was fair, with 385 bushels of ponderosa pine, 512 bushels of Douglas fir,
and 10 bushels of Engelmann spruce being collected.
The new seed-extraction plant at the Duncan nursery is now in operation, and all
Forest Service cones are being extracted there.
The serious shortage of cone-crops at high elevations on the Coast continues to
hamper the reforestation programme. With a view to remedying this situation, a programme to develop seed-production areas has been initiated.
Total plantings in the Province for the year totalled 3,622,000 trees on 8,395 acres,
the great majority of which was on the Coast. The Forest Service's largest single planting
project was on 435 acres at Momfray Creek, north of Powell River, where 294,000 trees
were planted by crews made up from the Boys' Industrial School at Brannen Lake.
Working Plans
The primary function of this Division is to study proposals for sustained-yield forest-
management units of all types of tenure and to make recommendations based on those
studies.
No additional management licences were awarded during the year while the Royal
Commission on Forestry's Report was under consideration. A number of new applications for forest management licences were received, however, and the total pending is
now 158 in good standing. The number of forest management licences in good standing
remains at twenty-three.
Eleven new sustained-yield units were approved during the year, and cutting ledgers
for these were implemented. There are now fifty-eight such units in the Province, covering approximately 29,000,000 acres of productive forest land, with a total annual allowable cut of 334,000 M c.f. As more accurate inventory information was received from
the Surveys and Inventory Division, allowable cuts were reviewed for twenty-one
sustained-yield units already in operation.
There was considerable activity in the tree-farm and farm wood-lot licence field,
with seven of the former being certified and ten of the latter awarded.
The total productive forest land now under sustained-yield management of one type
or another amounts to 34,677,600 acres, with an annual aUowable cut of 551,020 M c.f.,
equivalent to approximately one-half of the current harvest for the Province.
Public Relations and Education
Activities of the Division were maintained to the fullest extent of the funds and
man-power available. Film-editing work reached its highest point for several years with
the completion of narration and editing for two subjects dealing with range management
and forest surveys and inventory. In addition, considerable field work was done for the
Federal-Provincial-Industrial aerial spraying operations against the black-headed bud-
worm attack on Northern Vancouver Island. The successful production of animation for
regular film subjects and the commercial film protection trailer was a new undertaking
during the year.
Although there was a drop in audience totals viewing films from the lending library,
the number of individual loans and film-loans increased over the previous year. 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The volume of editing and publication production, particularly in the technical field,
and reprinting, reached a new high during 1957. The public demands on Forest Service
educational material continued at a high level, and the pressure on existing stocks resulted
in several publications going out of print during the period.
The radio-broadcasting programme remained unchanged from the previous year.
Ten new roadway forest-protection signs were located during the summer, bringing the
total to 185, while the unit costs of the signs steadily decreased. The school lecture programme continued to the extent of funds provided, giving 232 lectures to 23,500 students
in 189 schools.
The work of setting up district libraries continued apace, with two new libraries
being set up during the year at Prince George and Kamloops district headquarters. There
are now district libraries operating in each district except Vancouver.
During May and June a special intensive public education campaign was concentrated in the Peace River area and produced heartening results.
Forest Management
The total cut for the Province during 1957 was 958,946,296 cubic feet, a decrease
of 10 per cent from the all-time high cut of 1956. All forest districts showed a decline in
volume cut, with Kamloops District registering the sharpest drop of 16 per cent.
Value of production for 1957 is estimated at $571,819,569, a decrease of 9 per cent
from the previous year. The 13-per-cent drop in the value of lumber was a result of a
lower volume cut and a decrease of approximately $4 per thousand in average unit values.
The value of pulp and paper products was maintained at the same level as last year. One
exception to the general decrease in values was in poles and piling, which reached an all-
time high of $12,834,152.
Water-borne shipments increased over the previous year by 89,254 M f.b.m. for a
total of 1,078,918 M f.b.m. Shipments to the United Kingdom and the United States
were still well below the ten-year average.
Douglas fir maintained its leading position in so far as species cut was concerned,
with 365,476,097 cubic feet, or 38 per cent of the total. It was followed by hemlock,
199,116,223 cubic feet, or 21 per cent; spruce with 131,463,809 cubic feet, or 15 per
cent; and cedar with 125,517,839 cubic feet. Approximately 333,584,825 cubic feet,
or 46 per cent of the total timber cut from Crown lands, originated from areas managed
under one of the forms of sustained-yield forestry.
A total of 2,582 timber sales were cruised during the year, covering an area of
781,748 acres containing a volume of 1,171,283 cubic feet. The number of sales awarded
was 2,544, entailing a volume of approximately 650,000,000 cubic feet, a decrease of
19 per cent from 1956. In the face of sharply declining stumpage rates throughout the
year, the estimated value of the timber sold was $24,000,000, as compared with the
record high of $56,000,000 in 1956. At the end of the year, 8,396 timber sales were
active, as compared with 8,738 at the previous year-end.
The decline in net lumber prices, which started in the second half of 1956, continued
throughout 1957. By the end of the year, prices for spruce and Douglas fir were from
$17 to $20 per thousand feet board-measure below the 1956 peak.
The average prices paid for logs on the lower Coast followed the decline in lumber
prices and, by the year's end, had reached a point $12 to $20 per thousand feet board-
measure below the 1956 top prices. Cedar log prices showed the greatest decline, and
balsam and spruce the least.
As a direct result of the general market conditions, the Forest Service made 12,730
individual stumpage-rate adjustments under the sliding-scale system during the year.
Some 80 per cent of all timber sales are now operated under the sliding-scale system. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 15
The regulated cut on forest management licences during the year amounted to
125,622,175 cubic feet, and from public working circles, 207,892,534 cubic feet.
Silvicultural treatments of various sorts were carried out on 553 timber sales,
covering an area of 128,030 acres.
Grazing
The administration of the Crown's 9,000,000 acres of grazing land, most of which
is multiple-use forest land, continued to become an increasingly complex responsibility.
Added to an increased demand for forage in 1957 was pressure from other range uses—
timber production, recreation, and settlement. The nature of the problems of multiple
use did not change materially during the year, but they did become more intense in certain phases of administration.
After the preliminary steps of the previous year, active administration was commenced on two ranges in the Peace River area. The regulated use of these Crown
ranges will be of considerable benefit to the local industry.
During 1957, 1,823 grazing and hay-cutting permits were issued, covering 128,978
cattle, 3,886 horses, 20,693 sheep, and the production of 1,660 tons of hay and 48 tons
of rushes. Total billings for grazing and hay-cutting were down some $9,000, due to
lower live-stock prices. Collections were excellent, exceeding billings slightly, and
thereby further reducing the amount of outstanding fees.
Range-management work was somewhat curtailed, due to the loss of experienced
personnel. However, grazing surveys were made over 486,814 acres, bringing the total
acreage surveyed since 1945 to 8,159,915 acres. Range improvements were carried
out to the extent of $49,734, not counting expenditures on this work made by the stockmen themselves. The range-seeding programme was doubled over that of 1956, with
21,605 pounds of seed being used in 1957. Work continued on the chemical control
of goatweed and in the biological control of goatweed, the latter in co-operation with the
Canada Department of Agriculture.
There are now fifty-two local range-livestock associations approved under the
" Grazing Act" and regulations. These organizations perform a valuable service in
advising and assisting in developing range-management programmes. A total of 120
association meetings were held during the year, of which Forest Service officers attended
113.
The preference of the British Columbia market for grain-finished beef has developed
to the point where grass-finished 2-year-old steers could not be sold at certain times of
the year. Many operators are now marketing yearling feeders or even calves. This,
combined with a strong demand for feeder animals, accounted, at least in part, for heavy
cattle marketings during 1957.
The average price for all grades of cattle was up over 1956. Lamb prices were
also up, while wool prices remained firm to slightly higher than the previous year.
Engineering Services
The Engineering Section of the Division continued to press on with its programme
to alleviate the need for forest-development roads in a number of public working circles
and sustained-yield units. Forty-three miles of new road was constructed, general maintenance carried out on 110 miles of existing road, 46 miles of road located, and 255
miles of reconnaissance survey completed. This brings the total of forest-development
road constructed since 1950 to 153 miles.
A new feature of the road-construction programme was the use of labour from the
Oakalla Prison Farm, in co-operation with the Department of the Attorney-General, for
clearing and grubbing of the right-of-way for the Chilliwack River Forest Development
Road.   This co-operative programme was implemented as a rehabilitation aid.    At the 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
end of the year, 95 acres of clearing and 40 acres of grubbing had been completed on
the first 10 miles of road. Five road-construction contracts with commercial concerns
continued in as many different working circles. At the same time, the Division's own
forces were busy with construction work in three other working circles.
Activities of the Mechanical Section continued at a high level. One hundred and
fifteen units were removed from the transport fleet during the year and 188 units added.
All these vehicles, whether being traded in or purchased, call for inspections, checks,
and other administrative treatments which go to make up a considerable volume of work.
The problems presented by the new two-wheel-drive vehicles continued to be serious
as they become less and less adaptable to off-highway use. In addition to the usual two
weeks' course of instruction given to the students at the Green Timbers Ranger School,
Victoria staff members of the Section also gave a series of two-day courses in the handling of four-wheel-drive vehicles to Service field staffs, as well as to personnel from
the Departments of Lands and Mines.
The building programme of the structural Section was heavy, with eighteen projects
carried over from 1956 and twenty-eight new undertakings initiated during the year
under review. Some noteworthy projects were the development of a new type of wharf
pontoon and the refinement and enlarging of the Porta-Building design introduced the
previous year. A new 23-foot twin-outboard-powered boat, designed by the staff, proved
very successful, and when in supply will greatly increase the daily working range of personnel and reduce the need for accommodation. The 34-foot launch " Yellow Pine "
was completed and delivered to the Prince Rupert Forest District, as were two 23-foot
outboard cruisers and a standard 18-foot speed-boat.
The Radio Section continued with its programme of converting the Service network
to very high frequency, frequency-modulation systems. Fifty-eight per cent of all new
equipment purchased during the year was of the F.M. type. A total of 166 new units
were added to the Service radio network, to bring the total of all types of transmitting
units to 1,090, a net increase of 139 over the previous year.
Forest Protection
In general, the 1957 fire season was one of low to moderate fire-hazard, a distinct
change from the hazardous conditions of 1956. The total number of fires was only
slightly above the decennial average at 1,619. Service fire-fighting costs amounted to
$157,678 and the area burned was 66,274 acres, approximately 25 per cent of the ten-
year average. Railway operations caused 28 per cent and lightning 19 per cent of all
fires. This was a reduction of 11 per cent in railway and an increase of 1 per cent in
lightning as a fire-cause compared with the previous year. Of the total of 455 railway
fires, 379 were on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. Forty-nine per cent of the Service's fire-fighting costs were attributable to fires caused by industrial operations.
Visibility mapping and lookout photography crews examined a total of seventy-two
potential lookout-sites during the year and recommended twenty of these as being suitable. Preliminary field work, preparatory to drawing up protection plans, was carried
out in the Nakusp, Crooked River, and Stuart Lake Public Working Circles, and in the
Lac la Hache and Morice Sustained-yield Units. Approximately 11.5 miles of new fire
access road were constructed.
A start toward the development of a fire-danger index system for the Province got
under way. At the request of this Service, two parties from the Fire Research Section,
Canada Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, began studies in the
Cowichan Valley and 100 Mile House areas. This is a long-range project, and it will
be some years before results are available.
Sixteen suppression crews were employed during the year on 180 fires. Eighty-
seven per cent of these fires were held to an area of 5 acres or less.   Honorary Fire REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 17
Wardens numbered 957, and 1,317 Fire Prevention Officers in industrial employ were
appointed.
For the second season in twenty-three years, there were no industrial or recreational closures imposed on the Vancouver Forest District. One restricted travel closure
was imposed to protect the scene of the tragic air crash on Mount Slesse. The Nelson
Forest District had only one regional travel closure during the year.
The year 1957 saw the entire Vancouver Forest District brought under the provisions of section 113 of the " Forest Act," which eliminated the area previously exempted
from snag-falling requirements. Five snag-falling contracts were awarded, covering
2,933 acres in the Vancouver District. The reforestation Division felled snags on another
5,084 acres, preparatory to planting.
Forest-insect Investigations
The informal committee formed in 1956 to deal with the black-headed budworm
attack on Vancouver Island became a permanent Pest-control Committee of the British
Columbia Loggers' Association. The Committee organized and directed the largest aerial-
spraying operation yet carried out in British Columbia. Over a period of ten days in
June, 156,000 acres of forest land were sprayed for control of this pest. Costs were
shared one-third by the Federal Government and two-thirds between the Provincial
Government and the members of the industry represented by the Loggers' Association.
An infestation of two-year-cycle spruce budworm caused severe bud damage over
1,000 square miles in the Upper Babine Lake area during 1957. Populations of the
Douglas fir beetle remained at a low level throughout the year, but the Engelmann spruce
beetle infestations are estimated to have killed, since 1952, 54,000 M f.b.m. of spruce in
the Nelson Forest District.
Forest-disease Investigations
The scope of the forest-disease survey was broadened to include research projects
designed to contribute to a better understanding of taxonomic problems. Collection of
forest-disease material during 1957 added considerably to knowledge of the occurrence
and distribution of fungi. Twenty-five fungi were listed for the first time, and seventeen
other fungi were found to have a wider back-range than previously believed. No new
severe outbreaks of disease were brought to the attention of the laboratory during the year.
Examinations of a condition of die-back in Douglas fir were continued, and studies
of sampling methods applicable to the evaluation of disease in fir were initiated. An
analysis of mortality in Douglas fir from root-rot on Vancouver Island and studies of pole
blight of western white pine in the Slocan and Arrow Lakes regions were pursued, as were
studies of deterioriation of killed Douglas fir in the Kamloops Forest District.
Forest Ranger School
The ninth class in attendance at the School, consisting of thirty men, graduated in
December. The increased enrolment from twenty to thirty necessitated adjustments being
made to the time allotted to various subjects in the curriculum. A four-day field-trip to
Vancouver Island was included in order to bring the students up to date on progress in
research and management on the Coast.
Certain minor alterations to the dining and classroom accommodation at the School
were carried out in order to handle the larger class.
A five-day course for thirteen lookoutmen was given in the spring of the year, and
instructional staff from the School assisted in lookout training in the Kamloops and
Nelson Forest Districts. A two-day familiarization course was given to the scalers of the
Vancouver District. 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Accounts
Total revenue collected during 1957 was less than 1 per cent below the all-time high
1956 collections of over $30,000,000. Although royalty collections continued to decline
sharply as the volume of timber on tenures subject to royalty charges diminished, stumpage revenue was only $8,000 below the $26,335,715 figure for 1956, and other forms of
revenue also remained only slightly below, or exceeded, that year.
During the latter part of the year, the effects of the reduced activity in industry were
becoming increasingly evident as stumpage prices continued to decline under the sliding-
scale formula.
The volume of accounting work remained high in the Division, and although the
Parks and Recreation Division of the Forest Service was transferred to the new Department of Recreation and Conservation during the year, the Forest Service continued to
maintain its accounting records.
Personnel
At Victoria headquarters, a major change took place on April 1st, 1957, with the
transfer of the Parks and Recreation Division from this Service to the new Department
of Recreation and Conservation. Forty-two permanent employees were involved in this
transfer. As a result of further reorganization at Victoria, the Property Room of the
Lands Service was transferred to the Forest Service and now comes under the jurisdiction
of the Protection Division.
Much time was expended during the early and middle portions of the year in discussions and negotiations with the Civil Service Commission relative to the dispute over
wages and conditions of employment between the Government and the Government
Employees' Association. The major portion of the time spent during the last quarter of
the year was directed toward ways and means to conserve staff under the pressure of
economy policies.
The Personnel Officer spent 16 per cent of his time away from headquarters attending meetings and staff conferences in various districts and the Ranger School. Four
members of the Service were selected for the second class of the Executive Development
Training Plan sponsored by the Government through the University of British Columbia.
Twenty-nine supervisory personnel attended a one-day course sponsored by the British
Columbia Safety Council and the University of British Columbia Extension Department.
The total Forest Service permanent establishment reached 860 at the end of the
year. Permanent-staff turnover was 13.8 per cent, with double this rate in the Prince
George Forest District. Clerical, stenographic, and draughting staff turnover rose to 28.2
per cent during the year, with the turnover in Prince George in these specific categories
being 63.4 per cent.
In November the " Public Services Medical Plan Act" took effect, providing medical
coverage on an employer-employee contributory basis for nearly all Forest Service
personnel.
In 1957 the youth-training programme was cut back from 239 boys in twenty-two
crews in 1956 to 120 boys in eleven crews. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
19
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
INTRODUCTION
The Division completed the final phase of the initial inventory of the Province in
the seventh year during which the Canadian Government has financially assisted the
forest-resources survey, according to the specifications of the Agreement for Inventory
implemented under the Canada Forest Act. All inventory data were correlated and
presented in the form of comprehensive tabular statements, maps, and analyses concerning the forest resources of British Columbia. A Forest Resources Bulletin containing these data will be available in 1958.
It is of interest to note that, under this programme, the first set of lithographed
forest-cover index maps at a scale of 2 miles to 1 inch, and corresponding area and volume summaries, were completed for the entire Province.
FOREST SURVEYS
In the 1957 field season 303 persons were employed on the work which, when
compilations are completed, will provide maps and estimates of the following areas: —
Acres
     6,559,200
Liard drainage	
Yukon drainage	
Coastal drainages	
Special cruises (timber sales, parks)
Total 	
     9,170,000
  22,240,300
  44,796
  38,014,296
FOREST INVENTORY
Field crews, under forester supervisors, operated from five field headquarters
throughout the Province. Conventional aircraft, helicopters, three launches, numerous
small boats, and trucks were used for transportation. All crews were in continual operational contact with field headquarters. Flying time totalled 899 hours in helicopters and
237 hours in fixed-wing aircraft. All available facilities of personnel and electronic-
business machine operators were utilized at Victoria headquarters to complete the forest
mapping and compilations necessary for a comprehensive report on the forest resources
of British Columbia. A total of 4,510 man-days were expended on this project. Representative data from the resources report, now in preparation, are shown below.
Forest Resources of British Columbia
The unqualified area and volume components of the total forest resource are presented in Fig. 1 on page 21.
These components may be presented in considerably more detail and at a number
of different levels of forestry practice and utilization. Some of these detailed presentations are shown in the following pages.
Forest Area
The 136.68 million acres of forest land in the Province may be broken down as
shown in the table below:—
Category
Accessible
Potentially
Accessible
Total
Mature forest—
Immature forest-
Not satisfactorily stocked..
Non-commercial forest.	
Selectively logged forest	
Acres
46,395,000
57,835,000
5,490,000
9,736,000
297,000
Acres
9,454,000
4,244,000
945,000
2,286,000
Acres
55,849,000
62,079,000
6,435,000
12,022,000
297,000
Totals, all categories..
119,753,000
16,929,000
136,682,000 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Of the 117,928,000 acres of mature and immature commercial forest shown in the
above table, 87 per cent is in the Interior of the Province and 13 per cent is on the
Coast.
In summary:—
(1) In the Province there is a close balance between mature and immature
forest areas, the latter (53 per cent) exceeding the former by only 6 per
cent.
(2) There is approximately seven times as much commercial forest area in
the Interior than on the Coast.
(3) Coastal forests are largely mature (74 per cent), whereas Interior forests
show a slight edge in favour of immature (56 per cent).
Forest Volume
Fig. 1 indicates that the gross wood volume in British Columbia is 496 billion cubic
feet. This is the total wood volume in trees in the 4-inch d.b.h. class and above, on all
classes of forest land. It includes the wood content in all forests regardless of stocking,
quality, and disturbances such as partial logging. No deductions have been made to
account for the fact that some of these forests are growing on land of very low productivity or of difficult access. It is of interest to compare the current figure of 496 billion
cubic feet gross volume in British Columbia with the 1956 estimate of 483 billion cubic
feet of merchantable timber in all of Canada. The most significant portion of British
Columbia's gross wood volume is the 470 billion cubic feet in commercial mature and
immature stands.
All of this 470 billion cubic feet is not accessible highly productive forest. It
includes all trees down to the 4-inch d.b.h. class. A more realistic estimate of that
portion of the forest resource manageable on a long-term basis is 301 billion cubic feet
gross wood volume in commercial live trees, in the 10-inch d.b.h. class and over, in
accessible mature and immature forests on productive sites.   This total may be broken
down as follows:  Cubic Feet,
10 Inches D.B.H.
and Over
Coast     75,363,000,000
Interior  225,803,000,000
Total for Province  301,166,000,000
Allowances made for losses in volume due to decay in forest trees, waste and
breakage in logging, and utilization practices, reduce the figure of 301 billion cubic feet
gross volume to the following:—
An estimate of the usable sound-wood volume in commercial
live trees in the 10-inch d.b.h. class and over in accessible mature
and immature forests on productive sites is 170 billion cubic feet.
This volume is made up of commercial-tree species in the following order of predominance:   Spruce, hemlock, lodgepole pine, fir,
balsam, red cedar, aspen, birch, cottonwood, yellow pine, larch,
white pine, yellow cedar, alder, maple.
Considering only the volume of usable sound wood in accessible mature forest
which is now exploitable and growing on sites of average or better productive capacity,
the estimate is reduced still further, as shown below, to indicate the probable volume of
sound wood which, by present standards, could actually reach conversion plants.
The estimate of usable sound-wood volume in commercial live
trees in the 12-inch d.b.h. class and over in exploitable mature forests
growing on sites of average or better productivity in British Columbia, assuming current logging and utilization practices, is 60 billion
cubic feet. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
21
GROSS WOOD VOLUME OF ALL TREES
IN THE It-INCH D.B.H. CLASS AND OVER
Mature Forest
318 Billion Cu. Ft.
Immature Forest
Jijjt_A  152 Billion Cu. Ft.
.*.*.
Scrub
16 Billion Cu. Ft.
A
Partially-Cut, and N.S.R.
.£_    1 Billion Cu. Ft.
Non-Commercial Forest
9 Billion Cu. Ft.
AREA CLASSIFICATION OF PRODUCTIVE FOREST LAND BY OWNERSHIP
(IN MILLIONS OF ACRES)
Ownership
Coast
Interior
Province
Crown
12.1+8
11-4 .06
I26.51+
Crown Grant
2 .-+5
it.15
6.60
Licences and Leases
2 .10
0.35
2.U5
Canada Control
0.15
0 .91*
I.09
17.18
119.50
136.68
Figure 1
Net Forest Growth
The average annual net forest growth of all trees in the 4-inch d.b.h. class and over,
in all commercial forests in the Province, is 2.31 billion cubic feet. Components of this
net growth are shown in Fig. 2 on page 22.
In comparison with this estimate, which is not qualified as to the site-quality or
accessibility of forest land, the average net forest growth on all commercial forests growing on accessible forest land of average or better productive capacity is estimated to be
1.12 billion cubic feet per annum. This total is composed of 162 million cubic feet per
annum in Coast forests and 963 million cubic feet per annum in Interior forests.   Under 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
a more normal age-class distribution than exists at present, a considerably larger net
forest growth would be realized, particularly in Coastal forests.
ANNUAL      FOREST      GROWTH
PRESENT      AND     POTENTIAL
INTERIOR        FOREST
<
z
o
Totol
2-027   Billion  Cu. Ft.
Totol
2-512  Billion   Cu. Ft.
(103-2 Million  Acres) (119-5 Million  Acres)
■U-9 Million  Acres
58-3    Million    Acres
^
PRESENT
POTENTIAL
Z>
U
Z
o
COAST        FOREST
Totol
0-283   Billion  Cu. Ft.
Totol
1-013  Billion Cu. Ft.
(14-8   Million Acres) (l 7-2 Mill ion Acres)
A   11-0 Million  Acres
3-8  Million  Acres
POTENTIAL
-it   Growth — Net   periodic   onnuol   increment, stems   3-1   inches   d.b.h. ond   over, in   oil
commercial forests, accessible  and    potentially occessible, on productive and
low-site   forest   land.
ial Growth—Net   periodic   annual   increment  on all  productive   forest  land, accessible
and    potentially accessible, including commercial  forest, N.S.R, and  non commer-
cial,and assuming a normol distribution  of  oge-classes.
Figure  2 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
23
ANNUAL     FOREST     DEPLETION
<
UJ
>
z
o
INTERIOR    FOREST
Total  1-061  Billion Cu.Ft.
Extracted
0-330
0-555
Bil.
Bil.
Cu.Ft.
Cu.Ft.
Residue
0-126 Bil.
0-044
Bil. Cu.Ft.
0-006
l Bil.Cu.Ft.
J i t
Logging
Fire
Insects
<
UJ
>
Z
O
COAST    FOREST
Total   1-169   Billion   Cu.Ft
0-127
Bil.
Cu.Ft.
0-033
Bil. Cu.Ft.
0-011
Bil. Cu.Ft.
Logging
Fire
Basis:       Estimates of annual  depletion are  five-year averages  for the
period   1952-56 for occessible and  potentially accessible
mature and  immature forest stands  3-1  inches  d.b.h and over,
on  productive and   low sites.
Residues include volumes of  material  remaining after logging.
They do not include volumes of residual  forest stands left
after partial  cutting.
Disease  losses are losses in volume in forest  stands attributed
to wood-rotting fungi.
Figure 3 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Depletion
The average annual known loss in wood volume due to all agencies of forest depletion is 2.23 billion cubic feet. Components of this annual depletion are shown in Fig. 3
on page 23.
Inventory Maintenance
It is important to note that forest-resource statements are reliable at the Provincial
level and in very broad inventory zones, but they are inadequate for application to smaller
geographic units such as sub-zones of 1 to 2 million acres. To improve this situation and
to maintain British Columbia's forest inventory on an up-to-date basis, a detailed maintenance programme for the period 1958 to 1967 was prepared. This programme ensures
that the entire Province will be re-examined during a ten-year cycle, using the latest
survey techniques and new high-quality air photographs. This planning is in accordance
with the extended Agreement for Inventory with the Canadian Government, and provides
the basis for forest development in the years ahead.
FOREST SAMPLING
Standard Sampling
During the year 11,870 sample plots were established, bringing the total number in
the Provincial inventory, to date, up to 138,870. The helicopter proved invaluable in
shuttling sampling crews throughout areas of difficult access, thus providing important
savings in time and money. Volume-table and growth studies essential to the inventory
were continued. The interim standard cubic-foot volume tables published in 1955 were
supplemented by new 1-inch d.b.h. and 1-foot height class volume tables required for
compilations in growth samples and in forest district cruising projects. Cubic-foot log
volume tables were produced for Coastal Douglas fir, cedar, and hemlock, and butt-taper
tables, based on 1,776 tree measurements, were published for the commercial-tree species
of Interior British Columbia.
Regeneration surveys were carried out on 54,772 acres of logged, logged-and-burned,
and burned land. During these surveys, 6,000 sample plots were established on forty-
four separate areas in the Prince George Forest District. Initial results show that of the
6,000 plots measured, approximately 70 per cent were considered insufficiently restocked
and 30 per cent sufficiently stocked. Also, of the 17,179 chains of strip run, exclusive
of tie-lines, 10,136 chains, or 59 per cent, were considered plantable as far as general
condition and accessibility were concerned, while 7,043 chains, or 41 per cent, were
considered not suitable for planting due to rock, swamps, heavy undergrowth, or other
factors.
Photo Mensuration
Estimation of forest volumes by photo-mensuration techniques on new high-quality
air photographs was carried out in nine areas in the Interior. Conventional methods of
cruising would have required a total of 5,120 samples in these nine areas. However,
satisfactory accuracy was achieved through a combination of 414 double ground and
aerial photo samples, plus 6,235 single aerial photo samples. The final volume estimate
was obtained in 14 per cent of the time and at 10 per cent of the cost which would have
been expended for ground sampling alone.
The bases for the aerial photo volume estimates were provisional aerial photo stand
volume tables relating gross volume per acre with measurements of stand height and
density on aerial photographs. The aerial photographs on this work were flown at 19,000 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
25
feet above sea-level, using a camera with an 8-inch focal-length lens. The negatives were
enlarged 1.85 times to produce prints at a scale of 1:15,840. Each table was constructed
by least-squares solution of a linear regression of the form:—
V
ii
10
where—
—60+6iH+62D
is gross volume per acre, 10's of cubic feet, close utilization standard,
10    living trees 11.1 inches d.b.h. and over, unmerchantable stems excluded.
Determined by ground sampling.
H is average height of dominants, measured with a parallax bar on air photographs.
D is crown density expressed as a percentage of ground covered, as determined
by comparison with a crown density " scale."
b0, bi, and b2 are coefficients derived from the data by the least-squares
method.
Values of the regression coefficients and other pertinent statistics concerning this
work are shown in the table following:—
Linear Regression of Volume per Acre on Photograph Determinations
of Stand Height and Density
Location and Statistic
Mature
Coniferous
Immature
Coniferous
Lodgepole
Pine and
Deciduous,
All Ages
Zone 4 (Central Interior)
Regression constant, b0 	
Coefficient of height, bj 	
Coefficient of density, b9  	
Number of double samples 	
Multiple correlation coefficient, Ry.HD	
Zone 6 (South-east Interior)
Regression constant, b0  _ 	
Coefficient of height, b. 	
Coefficient of density, b2— 	
Number of double samples 	
Multiple correlation coefficient, Ry.HD	
+98.5
+3.380
+0.629
165
.50
+261.8
+2.677
—2.927
119
.28
-129.9
+5.531
—0.378
44
.64
—78.0
+ 1.537
+ 1.472
23
.51
-113.5
+3.328
+0.096
37
.46
—90.4
+2.846
+0.116
16
.66
It will be noted that some of the correlation coefficients are a low order, probably
because of the wide variation in volume per acre within the zone, grouping of types, and
because several photogrammetrists, each with a different " personal factor," worked
together. However, the conclusive test is in the application of these general equations
to a localized area. In practically all local applications, the final correlation of ground
volumes per acre with photo estimates of volume per acre was greatly increased. For
example, when ground volumes and photo estimates based on the Zone 4 equations
were compared in the vicinity of Babine Lake, the resulting correlation coefficient was .82.
The details of construction and application of these equations will be discussed in
a forthcoming Forest Survey Note. Refinements of them, and new equations covering
the remaining five zones of the Province, can be expected as more photography and
double samples are obtained. 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Loss Factors
Preliminary regional diameter-class decay loss factors were produced for the
deciduous-tree species of British Columbia. These factors are contained in tables included in this Report. Local diameter-class loss factors were produced for two North
Coast timber sales. These were derived entirely from samples established by the Division. A logging-waste study was carried out on the Queen Charlotte Islands. A close
working liaison was maintained with a committee of the Western International Forest
Disease Work Conference. A substantial contribution was made by the Division to an
international standard of procedure and measurement for decay studies. A growing
number of requests for special loss-factor compilations from foresters in forest districts
and in industry were answered during the year.
PRELIMINARY DIAMETER-CLASS NET-VOLUME FACTORS1 APPLICABLE
TO PROVINCIAL INVENTORY GROSS CUBIC-FOOT VOLUME SUMMARIES2 FOR THE DECIDUOUS-TREE SPECIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Forest Surveys and Inventory Division3
British Columbia Forest Service, 1958
1 Net-volume factors indicate the percentage of gross cubic-foot volume recoverable, minor forest products excluded,
when allowances are made for the losses shown. These factors have been derived as averages for all stand ages 21 years
and over, and for all sites and stand conditions sampled.
2 Net factors are applicable to gross cubic-foot volume summaries compiled on the basis of close, intermediate, or
rough utilization standards.
3 Derived from loss-factor studies carried out by Forest Surveys and Inventory Division in the Coast and Interior
regions in the period 1953-55.
NOTES APPLICABLE TO TABLES ON FOLLOWING PAGE
Decay:   These factors provide allowance for the actual volume of decayed wood only.
Decay, Waste, and Breakage: These factors provide allowance for actual decay losses plus the sound-wood waste
resulting from the arbitrary culling of logs greater than 66 per cent defective and trees greater than 50 per cent defective
based on a minimum log length of 16 feet, plus primary falling breakage.
T.C. 1:   These factors are applicable to trees in Tree Class 1;  that is, trees bearing no visible signs of decay.
T.C. 2: These factors are applicable to trees in Tree Class 2; that is, trees bearing one or more of the following
visible signs of decay—conks, scars, fork, pronounced crook, frost crack, rotten branches, dead or broken top. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
27
Cottonwood
(Basis: 383 trees.)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
D.B.H. Class
T.C.I
T.C. 2
T.C.I
T.C. 2
4
.87
.87
.66
.66
6
.70
.70
.70
.70
8            	
.67
.66
.63
.56
.31
.29
.24
10 	
.14
12	
.68
.58
.32
.17
14	
.71
.62
.37
.23
16	
.76
.68
.46
.32
18	
.80
.72
.53
.39
20	
.83
.74
.58
.42
22	
.84
.74
.60
.42
24	
.86
.74
.64
.42
26..	
.86
.73
.64
.41
28	
.87
.71
.66
.37
30	
.87
.69
.66
.34
Maple
(Basis: 62 trees.)
D.B.H. Class
Decay1
Decay, Waste,
and Breakage1
4.	
6	
8     	
.97
.96
.93
.91
.88
.84
.81
.78
.75
.73
.72
.71
.70
.70
.85
.83
.77
10  	
12   	
.73
.67
14 -...
.60
16  . 	
18	
2a	
22	
24	
26	
28   	
30	
.55
.49
.44
.41
.39
.37
.36
.36
1 Data insufficient to define tree-class relationships.
Alder
(Basis: 209 trees.)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
D.B.H. Class
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4	
.99
.99
.89
.89
6	
.99
.99
.99
.98
.89
.89
.89
8	
.87
10	
.99
.98
.89
.87
12	
.99
.97
.89
.85
14	
.99
.96
.89
.83
16	
.98
.96
.87
.83
18	
.98
.94
.87
.79
20	
.97             .93
1
.85
.77
Birch
(Basis: 281 trees.)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
D.B.H. Class
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4..	
.96
.94
.83
.79
6 _	
.96
.92
.83
.75
8	
.94
.91
.81
.74
.79
.73
.55
10	
.42
12	
.88
.69
.67
.34
14  .	
.85
.66
.62
.29
16	
.82
.64
.57
.26
18..	
.79
.62
.52
.23
20	
.76
.61
.48
.21
Aspen
(Basis: 519 trees.)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
D.B.H. Class
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4	
.93
.93
.77
.77
6	
.80
.75
.79
.75
.53
.44
.53
8	
.44
10.	
.73
.69
.41
.34
12	
.73
.65
.41
.27
14	
.74
.63
.42
.24
16	
.76
.63
.46
.24
18	
.78
.62
.49
.23
20	
.80
.62
.53
.23 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST CLASSIFICATION
Forest classification was carried out over the 38,000,000 acres which composed
the remaining portion of the Province to be classified in the initial inventory. This was
accomplished with the aid of the helicopter and fixed-wing aircraft. Considerable ground
checking was carried out. Lithographed forest-cover index maps based on this classification are now available for the entire Province. Work was continued on the production of a comprehensive stereogram library.
COMPILATION AND SUMMARY
Complex electronic punch-card and calculating-machine systems were used to complete the integration of forest-cover map planimetry and statistics from sampling throughout all forest areas in the Province. This integration provided material for a comprehensive forest-resources report, previously mentioned.
To maintain stand-history records, 10,253 timber-sale, fire, and management timber-
inspection reports were processed.
FOREST-RESOURCES BULLETINS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Twenty-one forest-resources bulletins containing forest-cover maps, area and volume
summaries, and forest descriptions were published during the year. These were:—
No. Title
12. Cape Scott Forest Unit Survey Report.
13. Say ward Forest Unit Survey Report.
14. Rivers Inlet Forest Unit Survey Report.
16. Redonda Forest Unit Survey Report.
17. Sechelt Forest Unit Survey Report.
20. Quesnel Forest Unit Survey Report.
21. Similkameen Forest Unit Survey Report.
22. Nicola Lake Forest Unit Survey Report.
23. Spallumcheen Forest Unit Survey Report.
25. Niskonlith Forest Unit Survey Report.
26. Salmon Arm Forest Unit Survey Report.
27. Carp Lake Forest Unit Survey Report.
28. Crooked River Forest Unit Survey Report.
29. West Lake Forest Unit Survey Report.
39. Nakusp Forest Unit Survey Report.
40. Slocan Forest Unit Survey Report.
41. West Creston Forest Unit Survey Report.
42. Upper Kootenay Forest Unit Survey Report.
44. Smithers Forest Unit Survey Report.
45. Babine Lake Forest Unit Survey Report.
46. Stuart Lake Forest Unit Survey Report.
These reports covered more than 3,000,000 acres of accessible mature forest and a
net volume of mature timber in excess of 10 billion cubic feet.
Forest Survey Notes 2 and 3 concerning the use of the helicopter in forest inventory
and butt-taper tables, respectively, were completed.
The Division co-operated with Public Relations and Education Division in the
production of a new sound film entitled " Silva Survey." REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 29
INVENTORY APPLICATIONS
Numerous requests from Forest Service, other Government agencies, and industrial
sources were answered by means of special compilations and summaries from available
inventory data. For forest districts and divisions, 9,000,000 acres, containing a volume
of 11,730,000,000 net cubic feet in trees 9.1 inches d.b.h. and over, were resummar-
ized, and thirteen cut-priority, site-classification, and fire-hazard rating projects were
completed.
TIMBER-SALE AND OTHER SURVEYS
Three timber sales in the Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Districts were intensively mapped and sampled, and one park area was surveyed by a 100-per-cent cruise.
These areas contained 42,731 acres and 142,000,000 net cubic feet of timber. In addition, a 2,065-acre timber sale in the Prince Rupert District was mapped in preparation
for sampling. 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RESEARCH
The second annual review of research was published early in the year. It contains
the technical details and results of projects undertaken during the 1956 field season. The
following is a brief account of projects carried out during the current year at the experiment stations and at various other points throughout the Province.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
At the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, the new office-warehouse was completed, two residences and a garage reroofed, and the water reservoir replaced by one of
larger capacity.
In co-operation with the Canada Forest Products Laboratory, Vancouver, and
Western Plywoods Limited, comparison was made of veneer recovery from thinned and
pruned second-growth Douglas fir and untreated trees of the same age. Pruning would
appear to be both necessary and practical for veneer production from young stands.
A number of exotic hardwoods were planted out for demonstration purposes. They
were Quercus spp., Northofagus spp., Castanea sativa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Acer
pseudoplatanus, and Fraxinus excelsior.
Students of the British Columbia Forest Service Ranger School spent three days of
field instruction on research and reforestation activities in the Cowichan area. The
Experiment Station was also the headquarters for the annual field meeting of the Western
Forest Genetics Association, when the seed orchard and progeny-testing were demonstrated and discussed.
Project work consisted largely of remeasuring 167 growth-and-yield plots, of which
forty were thinned or pruned plots. Ninety-two of these plots were located on the East
Thurlow Island Experimental Substation.
ALEZA LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
A camp of ten-to-thirty men was in operation at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station
from May 15th to November 15th. Road improvement continued to be the most important task. On the main access road, over 2 miles of roadside slash was piled and
burned. On the west branch, the falling on the right-of-way was completed and the slash
windrowed to be ready for burning in 1958. Repairs to the pipe-fine and dam of the
water system were carried out.
The value of camp facilities for meetings was demonstrated when a district silvi-
cultural crew of twenty held a week's training camp at the Station. Research foresters
assisted in the training programme.
In respect to demonstrations of logging practice, one sale (X73671) in the clear-
cut working circle and one (X70021) in the long-term selection working circle were
completed. Logging in a second sale in the clear-cut working circle was started but not
completed during the year. Two new sales have been prepared for logging during the
coming year.
Demonstrations of planting and soil scarification were carried out at various points
in the region. Two areas were scarified on the Experiment Station, as was a third area
at Smithers Landing, in the Prince Rupert Forest District. A small plantation of Douglas
fir, Engelmann spruce, and Scots pine was established on the Chapman Road burn in the
same district.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Fourteen field parties were occupied throughout the Province, working on some sixty
separate projects.   One man was on special assignment to the Management Division.
On the Coast, direct-seeding studies with treatment of the seed for rodent-control
continues to be a major effort. A product called " Endrin " is now being used with sue- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 31
cess, but results are still too variable. One of the factors in aerial seeding appears to be
seed dispersal. In co-operation with MacMillan & Bloedel Limited and Okanagan Helicopters, a study was made of dispersal of varying quantities of Douglas fir seed per acre
released from varying altitudes. A new project consisted of a 200-acre broadcast seeding
in co-operation with the Elk River Timber Company. A number of previous seedings
were re-examined.
In the field of genetics, the main emphasis has been on the selection of plus trees for
the first high-elevation seed orchard of Douglas fir. Ten selections have been made after
examining in detail some 500 acres. Other studies on inbreeding and the evaluation of
phenotypes are being continued. A new system of seed classification and registration for
all seed used by the Forest Service has been initiated. There has been a keen interest in
forest genetics, and several talks and displays were given during the year.
Investigations on the ecology of Coast coniferous forests continues. During the
year a series of eight climatic stations were established in the Elk Valley, on Vancouver
Island, to study the climate and altitudinal distribution of the indigenous species. Twenty-
three seed lots of six species were collected from elevations between 1,000 and 4,700
feet, to provide seedlings for testing the influence of environment on vigour and growth.
Another aspect of this study consists of reconnaissance trips to study the distribution of
Coastal species. Valuable information was gained from a trip across the western part of
the Chilcotin Plateau and into the Bella Coola Valley. Douglas fir appears to be continuous between the Coast and Interior, via the Homathko and Kleenakleeni Valleys and,
possibly, via the Bella Coola Valley.
A problem analysis of regeneration of Coastal hemlock types was undertaken. While
regeneration is generally satisfactory, localized conditions, particularly in high site areas,
suggest investigations are warranted with respect to weed growth and its control through
slash-burning and (or) chemical means. The role of planting and species to plant should
also be given consideration.
A record of exotic plantations throughout the Province was started in 1956, in coordination with the Canada Forest Biology Laboratory, Victoria. It includes private as
well as Forest Service plantations. This record is being kept up to date, and the plantations will be revisited periodically to assess possible disease conditions and their general
health and vigour.
Studies on the effects of slash-burning on soil productivity are being continued.
Considerable information on soil moisture and temperature relationships with respect to
virgin, logged and burned, and logged but unburned conditions was collected during the
year. The effect on seedling growth is being investigated. Somewhat similar studies
are being undertaken in a thinning experiment, where the effects of thinning to varying
densities upon soil-root relationships are under investigation.
A fairly comprehensive soil-fertility study was started at the Green Timbers nursery,
in which various fertilizer combinations are being tried at various rates and dates on both
seed-beds and green-manure crops. This study is being carried out with the co-operation
of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of British Columbia.
In the Interior, regional studies in the Kootenay area have dealt with planting and
direct-seeding problems. This work is being carried out in co-operation with the Reforestation Division and deals with ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, and Engelmann spruce.
The partial-cutting experiment started in 1956 in an 80-year-old mixed type in the
Arrow Lakes area has now been logged, and plots established for future growth records.
This project is in co-operation with the Celgar Company.
In the Kamloops region, further work was carried out on an ecological classification
of lodgepole pine stands. Emphasis, this year, was on mixed types, in order to obtain
a better indication as to the course of succession in these types. 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A small plantation of exotic species was started near Clinton. Species planted include Pinus sylvestris var. regensis, Pinus resinosa, Pinus pinaster, and Larix decidua, as
well as three provenances of Pinus ponderosa.
A new project was a co-operative thinning and pruning study in ponderosa pine with
S. M. Simpson Limited.
Two small splantations of Engelmann spruce and Douglas fir were established at
McGillivray Lake and Cicero Creek. The project was carried out with the assistance of
the district office and Ranger staffs as a demonstration of the technique and problems
of planting.
The study of factors affecting reproduction of Interior species continues to receive
attention, including the influences of rodents, seed-beds, seed-crops, and dissemination
of seed.
A study of cutting methods carried out in 1929, in a spruce-alpine fir type near
Myra, was critically re-examined to determine some of the factors affecting radial-release
growth of the residual stand.
In the Prince George region, a number of studies on factors affecting reproduction
of spruce and alpine fir were continued from previous years. These included studies on
seed production and dispersal under various stand conditions, seed production in relation
to climatic conditions, and the influence of seed-beds.
A new trial study of planting spruce throughout the growing season was initiated.
Lots of 100 2-1 and 2-2 seedlings were planted June 19th, July 18th, and August 22nd.
Possibly due to the wet season experienced in 1957, initial survival was 99 per cent.
A problem analysis was made on areas scarified during 1956 to determine the
significance of vegetation, both residual species sprouting from root stock and newly
established pioneer annuals, upon germination and growth of coniferous seed.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, an assessment was made of timber sales in
semi-mature spruce-alpine fir stands. This reconnaissance is to provide a basis for an
experiment on cutting methods planned for 1958 by means of a timber sale.
CO-OPERATION
Efforts are being continued to make the Research Division a more useful and essential service to other divisions and to the districts. Research personnel contributed to
Ranger School instruction. Assistance to district silvicultural and cruising-crew training
programmes was given at Prince George and Kamloops. District libraries at Nelson and
Kamloops are under the supervision of the regional research officer.
A short course on statistical sampling methods given district cruising officers in 1956
was followed up by several visits to the districts to discuss progress and problems in
improved timber-sale cruising procedures.
A considerable number of inquiries from industrial and government foresters relative
to application of statistical analysis and sampling method were dealt with. For the most
part, questions were concerned with use and interpretation of standard statistical procedures rather than research or development of new applications. These inquiries emphasize
that the average forester is becoming increasingly aware of the use of statistical methods
in promoting efficient sampling procedures and in assessing sampling error.
Again this year, a considerable number of requests for seed were received from
foreign countries. Seed was sent to Sweden; India; Korea; Iceland; Denmark; Argentina; Oregon, U.S.A.; and Ottawa, Canada. Seed was received from California, U.S.A.;
Japan; and Formosa.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Annual Review of Research, year ending March, 1957.
Garman, E. H:  Occurrence of Spruce in the Interior of British Columbia.   Technical
Publication T. 49, 1957. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
33
Joergensen, Chr.: Thinning Experiment. Technical Publication T. 45, 1957.
Knight, H. A. W.:   Growth and Survival of Experimental Plantations of Douglas Fir.
Research Note No. 33, 1957.
McKell, Cyrus M., and Finnis, J. M.: Control of Soil Moisture through Use of 2-4, D on
a Mustard Nurse Crop during Douglas Fir Seedling Establishment.   Forest Science,
Vol. 3, 4: 330-335, 1957.
Orr-Ewing, A. L.: Better Timber for B.C. Depends on a Good Seed Programme.   B.C.
Lumberman, May, 1957.
  Possible Occurrence of Viable Unfertilized Seeds in Douglas Fir.   Technical
Publication T.47, 1957.   Forest Science, Vol. 3, 3: 243-248, 1957.
  A Cytological Study of the Effects of Self-pollination on Pseudotsuga menziesii
(Mirb) Franco., Technical Publication T. 48, Silvai Genetica, Vol. 6, 6:  179-
185, 1957.
  Further Inbreeding Studies with the Douglas Fir.  Technical Publication T. 50,
Forestry Chronicle, December, 1957.
Schmidt, R. L.: The Silvics and Plant Geography of the Genus Abies, Technical Publication T. 46, 1957.
TABULATION OF ACTIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 1957
Experimental
Plot No.
Title
Region
160
195-198
226
274
343
364
366
368
370
371
378
387
390
418
423
428
436
438
458
459
460
463
465
466
467
468
470
472
474
477
478
479
480
482
483
485
487
488
494
495
496
498
499
500
501
Conditions after logging of a spruce-alpine fir forest	
Pruning experiments in Douglas fir, Vancouver Island .
Seed production, immature stands, Cowichan Lake	
Seed production, mature stands, Elk Falls..
Thinning experiments in pure even-aged red alder stands, Cowichan Lake-
Commercial thinning in Douglas fir, Cowichan Lake-
Pruning and disbudding in a 10-year-old Douglas fir plantation, Cowichan Lake..
The adaptability of tree species to forest sites, Vancouver Island— 	
Partial cutting study, Interior wet belt type, Arrow Lake  -—
Cutting methods in overmature spruce-alpine fir, Kamloops	
Ecological investigations in Coastal forests..
Factors affecting reproduction of species in the Boreal forest region, Aleza Lake-
Direct seeding of Douglas fir, Meade Creek -  	
Thinning experiment in pure even-aged plantation of Douglas fir, Cowichan Lake..
Direct seeding of Douglas fir, Block 403   	
Survival of spruce transplants, Kamloops	
Cone stimulation study, Douglas fir, Cowichan Lake	
Effect of slash study on soil productivity, Cowichan Lake 	
Seed production under various stand conditions, Aleza Lake... 	
Selection of seed trees by morphological characteristics, Aleza Lake-
Seed production in relation to climate -
Seedfall and regeneration study, Stevens Creek-
Plantation of exotic species, Clinton..
Exploratory direct-seeding studies, Kamloops...
Regeneration studies in spruce-alpine fir types..
Annual record of cone-crops-
Direct seeding with cover-crops and rodent-control, Bear Creek-
Exploratory direct-seeding studies, Cranbrook..
Inbreeding experiments with Douglas fir, Vancouver Island. 	
Study of site and environment in relation to cone collection, Vancouver Island...
Phenotypic selection in an open-grown Douglas fir stand, Vancouver Island—	
Development of a seed orchard, Duncan..
Co-operative seed provenance study, Vancouver Island_ „. __	
Climatic conditions in relation to altitudinal distribution of mature Coastal conifers,
Vancouver Island.. 	
Record of plantations of exotic species throughout British Columbia.-
Preliminary classification of lodgepole pine sites .
Seed-dispersal study from single trees and marginal stands of Douglas fir-
Composting sawdust, Duncan..
Trial of four rodent-control treatments, Caycuse Creek-
Seed spotting, Bear Creek-
Aerial seeding trial, Nitinat River..   	
A tentative prediction of thinning yields in Douglas fir	
Practical demonstration of thinning and pruning on a farm wood-lot, Vancouver Island-
Hardwood arboretum, Cowichan Lake  	
Scarification trials    	
Southern Interior.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Kootenay.
Southern Interior.
Coast.
Central Interior.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Southern Interior.
Coast.
Coast.
Central Interior.
Central Interior.
Central Interior.
Kootenay.
Southern Interior.
Southern Interior.
Southern Interior.
Southern Interior.
Coast.
Kootenay.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Southern Interior.
Southern Interior.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Coast.
Central Interior. 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TABULATION OF ACTIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 1957—Continued
Experimental
Plot No.
Title
Region
502
503
505
506
508
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
519
Plantation trials  	
Some factors affecting radial-release growth of a residual spruce-alpine fir stand-
Planting of white spruce throughout the growing season-
Effect of thinning on certain ecological factors in a second-growth Douglas fir stand,
Vancouver Island      _ 	
Co-operative meteorological stations-
Planting stock trials, Cranbrook-
Crop-tree thinning of larch, Cranbrook..
Seeding and planting trial in a recent burn-
Experimental planting of exotic conifers for future hybridization with related Coastal
species
Cutting methods for immature spruce-alpine fir stands, Smithers..
Dispersal of Douglas fir seed from a helicopter	
Direct seeding, Douglas fir, Elk River-
Thinning and pruning in ponderosa pine, Bear Creek-
Effects of soil scarification on ground cover	
Central Interior.
Southern Interior.
Central Interior.
Coast.
Coast.
Kootenay.
Kootenay.
Kootenay.
Coast.
Central Interior.
Coast.
Coast.
Southern Interior.
Central Interior. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1957 35
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
The effect of the November, 1955, cold snap was still evident in the Coast nurseries
during the spring of 1957. Only 1,792,500 trees were lifted from nursery beds sown to
produce 6,000,000 seedlings. Losses were most severe at the Quinsam nursery, Campbell River, where repeated frost heaving left only 125,000 plantable seedlings out of a
total of 2,000,000.
The three Coast nurseries had a total of 4,300,000 two-year seedlings available for
planting in the fall. The year 1957 was an exceptionally good one for nursery germination
and growth. As a result, there is an estimated total of 13,800,000 one-year seedlings on
hand.
At the East Kootenay nursery, 525,000 two-year and three-year seedlings were produced. An estimated 1,010,000 one-year seedlings are in the seed-beds sown in the
spring. Pelleting of ponderosa pine seed with Arasan again provided good control of
damping-off, and satisfactory seedling stands were produced. Much work is still necessary to evolve a satisfactory technique for the production of spruce at this nursery.
SEED COLLECTIONS
Generally, the cone-crop on the Coast was poor in 1957. Several areas were located
where small quantities of Douglas fir were collected, but the seed yield is expected to be
low. In the Interior, however, the crop on ponderosa pine and Douglas fir was fair.
A total of 385 bushels of ponderosa pine, 512 bushels of Douglas fir, and 10 bushels of
Engelmann spruce were collected.
The seed-extraction plant at the Duncan nursery is now in operation, and all Forest
Service cones are being extracted there.
The serious shortage of cone-crops at high elevations on the Coast continues to
hamper the reforestation programme. In an effort to remedy this situation, and also to
improve the genetic quality of collected seed, a programme was initiated to develop
seed-production areas. A number of young stands at suitable elevations were examined
intensively, and two selected for treatment. Plots were laid out in these, competing
vegetation was removed, and the best-formed trees marked for retention as cone-bearers.
Poorly formed trees will be removed and the stand thinned to approximately 100 trees
per acre. These "leave" trees will later be pruned and fertilized to try to stimulate the
production of cones.
A further step in the seed-tree improvement programme was the decision to register
all seed used or handled by the Forest Service. A complete record of all seed used in the
Provincial reforestation and tree-development programme will now be kept in a central
registry at the seed-extraction plant at Duncan.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
A three-man crew operating from an outboard cruiser made a reconnaissance of
16,170 acres of cut-over timber land in the Sechelt Public Working Circle and 13,790
acres in the Harrison Lake drainage. Only 2,720 acres of the 29,960 examined were
deemed to be plantable. Restocking has taken place on 11,050 acres, and the balance
of 16,190 acres is unplantable because of heavy debris and (or) brush.
Three areas—one at Cultus Lake and two in the Cowichan Valley—were intensively
examined and mapped. Of the 5,855 acres covered, 2,178 were found in need of planting.   Much of this will be planted in the spring of 1958. 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PLANTING
During the spring the Forest Service conducted only one project on the Coast, at
Homfray Creek, north of Powell River. A total of 294,000 trees were planted on 435
acres by crews from the Boys' Industrial School at Brannen Lake. Industry and other
agencies planted 1,487,294 trees on 3,624 acres. These were the last of the seedlings to
survive the November, 1955, freeze, when about two-thirds of the then 1-year-old stock
was killed in the nurseries. Forest Service planting during the fall was confined to a few
acres of research stock. Industry and other agencies planted 1,534,100 trees on 3,940
acres.
In the Interior the Forest Service planted 140,000 trees on 184 acres, including 25
acres in the Manning Provincial Park burn. Industry planted a further 86,000 trees on
120 acres. One private forester planted 8,500 trees in the Terrace region. Forest
Service planting in the fall was mainly of an experimental nature. Fifteen thousand trees
from the East Kootenay nursery were planted by the district staff on McGillivray and
Cicero Creeks in the Kamloops Forest District. Ten acres were planted with similar
stock in the Chapman Lake burn, near Smithers, in the Prince Rupert Forest District.
Total fall planting was 59,000 trees on 78 acres.
Total planting in the Province for the year totalled 3,622,000 trees on 8,395 acres.
(See table 2 of Appendix for statistics of planting over the past ten years.)
Preparation of Planting Areas
Maintenance work in the Say ward Forest plantations included the grading of 100
miles of road, constructing of three-quarters of a mile of new road, converting 1 mile of
truck-road, ditching 27 miles, slashing 8 miles, and replacing or repairing fifteen culverts
and bridges of various sizes. A further 25 miles of road was graded on other plantation
areas. Reforestation crews working in four different areas on Vancouver Island, the
Sechelt Peninsula and Lower Fraser Valley felled 70,000 snags on 5,084 acres.
At the Forest Experiment Station, Cowichan Lake, work was commenced on a
modern thirty-two-man bunk-house to accommodate planting crews working in the Cowichan Valley. Near the Station, an area of some 20 acres was cleared of brush and
debris to make an out-planting area for an international Douglas fir provenance study.
Plantation Improvement
At the Green Timbers Forestry Station, 20 acres of young exotic plantations were
cleaned in order to remove competing deciduous brush and weeds. Some 30 acres of
young pine stands on the East Kootenay nursery property were thinned. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
37
WORKING PLANS
Further progress was made during the year in placing the forest lands of the Province under sustained-yield management. A brief review of the Division's activities
follows.
SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS*
Eleven management units were approved during the year and cutting ledgers placed
in operation.   A complete list of all approved units is given below.
There are now fifty-eight such areas in the Province, comprising approximately
29,000,000 acres with a combined annual allowable cut of 334,000,000 cubic feet. With
proper management, it will be possible to gradually increase the annual production from
these areas periodically.
As revised and more accurate forest-inventory information was received from the
Forest Surveys and Inventory Division during the year, the allowable annual cuts for
twenty-one of the management units already in operation were reviewed. This resulted
in some adjustments in the allowable cuts originally approved. Where the basic forest
inventory has reached a reasonable standard of accuracy, subsequent allowable annual-
cut reviews will generally be carried out at five-year intervals.
* Forests, including Public Working Circles, which are managed by the Forest Service.
Sustained-yield Units
Vancouver Forest District
Name of Sustained-
Yield Unit
1. Barkley 	
2. Broughton 	
3. Cape Scott	
4. Chilliwack 	
5. Fraser Canyon
6. Harrison	
7. Kyuquot	
8. Redonda 	
9. Sayward 	
10. Sechelt	
11. Seymour 	
12. Soo 	
Productive Area
(Acres)
47
355
226
73
46
164
362
257
111
304
345
206
665
,431
,330
,023
,944
,653
,635
,099
,876
1
,028
585
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
2,500
13,000
2,250
3,000
6,000
6,400
19,650
17,000
2,500
15,000
4,200
4,500
Totals
2,502,150
96,000
Name of Sustained-
Yield Unit
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Babine	
Burns Lake	
Graham Island
Morice	
Prince Rupert Forest District
Productive Area
(Acres)
  1,014,667
  1,024,791
  100,620
  778,957
Ootsa  1,720,969
Rivers Inlet  374,041
Smithers  -  506,810
Terrace   387,550
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
6,900
5,500
4,000
7,000
9,300
6,330
4,500
9,000
Totals
5,908,405
52,530 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Prince George Forest District
Productive Area
(Acres)
  353,179
  376,247
  1,237,385
  407,868
  604,231
  149,828
Name of Sustained-
Yield Unit
1. Big Valley	
2. Bowron 	
3. Carp Lake	
4. Cottonwood 	
5. Crooked River	
6. Longworth 	
7. Narcosli      1,136,526
8. Naver 	
9. Parsnip	
10. Purden Lake
11. Stuart Lake ...
12. Westlake 	
13. Willow River
302,217
1,034,333
154,562
481,813
595,570
259,446
Totals     7,093,205
Kamloops Forest District
Name of Sustained-
Yield Unit
1. Barriere	
2. Big Bar	
3. Botanie	
Eagle	
Lac la Hache	
Nehalliston	
Nicola Lake 	
Niskonlith 	
North Thompson
Quesnel Lake	
Salmon Arm 	
Similkameen	
Spallumcheen 	
Stum Lake	
Taseko 	
Williams Lake
Yalakom 	
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Totals
Productive Area
(Acres)
140,461
1,488,311
462,852
288,862
1,413,238
365,114
323,963
219,700
219,975
761,245
85,311
706,403
561,428
994,430
2,006,885
741,645
425,515
11,205,338
Nelson Forest District
Name of Sustained-
Yield Unit
Productive Area
(Acres)
1. Arrowhead   79,975
2. Creston  568,018
3. Edgewood   221,609
4. Kettle   713,281
5. Nakusp  63,801
6. Slocan   231,663
7. Upper Kootenay   186,506
8. Windermere   503,073
Totals
2,567,926
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
6,000
8,000
6,100
5,000
8,740
2,300
4,000
6,720
3,500
2,500
6,500
6,000
6,440
71,800
Annual Allowable
Cut (M C.F.)
1,800
12,000
5,600
2,600
12,000
2,000
3,900
2,350
3,000
8,500
1,760
3,000
9,700
3,000
4,200
6,300
3,000
Grand totals  29,277,024
84,710
Annual Allowable
Cut (MC.F.)
2,000
6,000
2,800
4,400
2,200
2,500
4,700
4,500
29,100
334,140 report of forest service, 1957 39
Forest Management Licences
The number of forest management licences remains unchanged at twenty-three. Of
six new working plans for existing licences received during the year, four have been
approved.
A number of new forest management licence applications were submitted, and there
are now 158 in good standing.
Tree-farm Land
Seven additional tree-farms under the " Taxation Act" were certified, bringing the
total to twenty-six. A number of previously certified tree-farms were enlarged through
the incorporation of additional Crown-granted land.
The first tree-farm to be managed primarily for the production of Christmas trees
was certified. It lies within the Nelson Forest District and comprises 15,000 acres of
productive forest land.
Farm Wood-lot Licences and Demonstration Wood-lots
There was considerable activity in the farm wood-lot licence field. Of forty-six
applications reviewed, ten were awarded.
Total Number of Farm Wood-lot Licences in Good Standing by Districts
Vancouver District  15
Prince Rupert District  2
Prince George District  8
Kamloops District  13
Nelson District  6
Total  44
Working plans for three demonstration wood-lots were prepared during the year.
Two of these are on Vancouver Island and one is in the Lower Fraser Valley.
Forest Areas Committed to Sustained-yield Forest Management
Productive Annual Allow-
Area able Cut
(Acres) (M C.F.)
Sustained-yield units1   29,277,000 334,140
Forest management licences  4,858,800 191,272
Tree-farms   531,300 25,343
Farm wood-lots  10,500 265
Totals  34,677,600 551,020
Includes public working circles. 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
The various activities of the Division were maintained during 1957 to the fullest
extent commensurate with the funds and the man-power available.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
Over 6,000 feet of 16-mm. colour film was produced by the Photographic Section
during the year in order to complete footage on two educational films and acquire additional footage for a third. In addition, film footage was taken of all phases of the Federal-
Provincial-Industrial co-operative black-headed budworm spraying operations on Northern Vancouver Island. This footage was subsequently placed in the hands of the joint
Pest-control Committee for sounding and completion, as sufficient funds for completing
the film were not available to the Division.
The Section produced an animated thirty-second sequence as part of the one-minute
35-mm. forest-protection trailer shown in the commercial theatres throughout the Province. The production of the animation was a new venture for the Section and entailed
220 separate drawings and 720 individual exposures. The result was effective and well-
received by the public.
A 950-foot film "Food for Thought"—on the Province's grazing industry—was
edited to completion. This film, which is now ready for sounding, also includes animated
art work. Also completed and ready for sounding is "Silva Survey," dealing with the
work of the Surveys and Inventory Division. In connection with this production, two
sequences of live sound filming were produced commercially in Vancouver, with Forest
Service personnel and vehicles being used in these sequences. Shooting scripts and narrations were completed by the Division for both these productions.
As well as art work and drawings for our motion-picture programme, sketches and
layouts were supplied in connection with various publications and posters, an over-all
total of 652 drawings being made.
The production of still negatives and prints was off by approximately 15 per cent,
but this decline was more than offset by increased production of motion-picture footage
and colour transparencies.
In a new approach to visual education for this Section, a set of fifty 35-mm. colour
slides were taken to illustrate a lecture on log-scaling. This was initially undertaken for
the Prince George District office, and duplicate sets have since been sent to Prince
Rupert, Kamloops, and Nelson. Also, a set of forty slides of the Natural Resources Atlas
maps were photographed and two duplicate sets requested and supplied.
Film Library
The audience total for the film-lending library showed a drop of some 74,000 from
the 1956 total of 218,255. This was almost entirely due to the concentration of the
school lecture team in the more remote areas of the Province, where, although the programme is most appreciated, the audience numbers are small. Another contributing
factor was the temporary suspension of the lecture programme in mid-November due to
a shortage of funds. These totals do not include circulation given five subjects lodged
with British Columbia House in London, England.
The library started the year with seventy-five subjects and two new subjects were
purchased, making a total of seventy-seven subjects available at the year's end. All but
one subject received circulation during the year. The actual level of activity of the
library was up over the previous year in number of loans, number of film loans, and
number of showings. The officer in charge of the library gave sixty-nine showings himself, more than in any previous year. (See Table 64 in the Appendix for details of film
stock and circulation records.) REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 41
Films were shown over five different television stations during the year, the most
distant being CBC, Toronto. A total of nine films were previewed with a view to purchase. Four of these were productions of the National Film Board, three of Encyclopedia Britannica Films, and two of the United States Department of Agriculture.
One particularly interesting loan during the year was a shipment of ten subjects to
the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, in Libya, Tripoli.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The 1956 Annual Report of the Service was edited, synopsized, printing supervised,
and distributed. The 1958 Forest Service calendar, designed to emphasize British Columbia's Centennial Year, ran to a total of 27,750 copies, a new record volume for this
item. As usual, the calendar received wide distribution throughout the Province, including provision for one calendar to be placed in every public-school room in British
Columbia.
The two school-scribbler designs, which proved to be very popular the previous
year, were reprinted and two new designs added. A total of 67,600 of these scribblers
were produced, which was again an inadequate supply in the face of the great demand.
Publication and editorial services to other divisions of the Service included the editing and supervision of printing and distribution of six technical bulletins, one research
note, four protection bulletins, two lay bulletins, one research review, one personnel
directory, and one Forest Service news-letter. In addition, two editions of the new
Surveys and Inventory series, " Survey Notes," were edited preparatory to printing and
distribution. Ten publications of various categories were reprinted, with or without
revision, as were fourteen poster designs, to which two new designs were added during
the year.
The public demand for forestry information of all types, manifest by the number
of items requiring reprinting, was never more evident. Funds available for this phase
of the Division's work are being seriously overtaxed in making a realistic attempt to at
least partially meet the demand.
For the first time, the Division maintained a record of the number of manuscripts
typed for other divisions of the Service. The results show that between January and
May six separate items, comprising 170 pages of typed multi-copy manuscript and eight
pages of stencils, were prepared.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
The twenty-one radio stations operating throughout British Columbia were again
utilized to inform the public on general forestry and forest fire-hazard conditions. The
series consisted of a total of thirty-two flash broadcasts and sixteen one-minute spot
announcements written by the Division and scheduled, for the most part, between July
15th and September 7th, inclusive. Special hazard flashes were broadcast in the spring
over stations CKPG, Prince George, and CJDC, Dawson Creek, in order to coincide
with the early flash hazard occurring in the Prince George Forest District when snow
recedes and the mosses dry out from the sun.
A return was made to the policy of having radio-station personnel make all broadcasts instead of utilizing Forest Officers and local citizens for some of the broadcasts,
as was done in the two previous years. This resulted in a reduction of the complexity
of administering the programme and was deemed to produce an improved quality of
broadcasting.
COMMERCIAL THEATRES
For the third consecutive year a 35-mm. forest-protection trailer, produced by the
Division, was circulated throughout the commercial theatres of the Province. This trailer
was shown for one week in each of seventy-five theatres of the Odeon and Famous Players chain during July and August to a total estimated audience of 920,000. 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PRESS LIAISON
The usual volume of press releases, special articles, and background material was
prepared for the daily and weekly press and the trade journals. A new series of weekly
releases relating to the weekly fire reports was instituted. A total of twenty-two of these
releases were distributed over the period August 2nd to October 4th, inclusive, to fourteen daily and seventy-seven weekly newspapers and to twenty-one radio stations.
Resulting coverage was encouraging.
ROADWAY AND ROADSIDE SIGNS
The roadway-sign project of stencilling a fire-protection message on the surfaced
highways was continued, and ten new sites were added to the previous coverage. A total
of 185 signs are now in place. Added experience and technical refinements enabled a
slight reduction in the time spent on each sign, with resulting reduction of $2.63 in the
cost per sign. A further saving in the accommodation costs of the six-man crew was
effected by the securing of a trailer bunk-house for sleeping-quarters.
To the extent to which funds and staff at the Marine Station were available, progress was made in the construction of standardized forest district boundary signs and in
the replacement of damaged Scotchlite protection signs. Plans for the construction of
fire-hazard rating signs as an addition to the standard Ranger station signs were abandoned due to lack of funds.
SCHOOL LECTURES
The two school lecturers attached to the Division were in the field from January to
November, with the exception of the major vacation periods. In all, they gave 232 lectures to 23,500 pupils in 189 schools. In addition, they gave special addresses and film
showings to seventeen other groups with a total audience of 575. (See Table 65 in
Appendix for details of school lecture tour.)
EXHIBITS
Some financial assistance was given to district displays throughout the Province.
However, it is felt much more should be done to support these efforts on the district and
ranger levels, where the local effect can be most beneficial to Service public relations.
The permanent Service exhibit in the British Columbia Building, Pacific National
Exhibition, Vancouver, featured a simulated television set featuring general forestry programmes in addition to the model protection lookout, which forms the heart of the exhibit.
The exhibit was staffed by Division personnel each day of the two-week period of the
exhibition. By the end of the year, plans had been finalized to completely rearrange and
redesign the display in order to provide room for the new Department of Recreation and
Conservation exhibit and to emphasize Centennial Year in 1958.
LIBRARY
Two district libraries were set up during the year. The librarian spent one week in
Prince George processing the publications on hand. A severe lack of space in the district office hampered the orderly shelfing of library material, but temporary shelves were
installed in a small room adjoining the office of the Assistant District Forester, who is
presently supervising the operation of the library. It is anticipated that more adequate
library quarters will be available on the completion of new Government offices at present
under construction.
In December the librarian visited Kamloops, where reallocation of office space made
possible the setting-up of a district Library in a large room used for meetings. The
district research officer took an active part in processing publications and will continue
to supervise the library with the assistance of the management officer.    About 1,000 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 43
publications were catalogued during the week, a far greater number than in any other
district office. An equally large number remains to be processed, including the complete
holdings of the grazing office.
In 1957 a major library project was thus completed—the installation of libraries in
all districts except Vancouver. Shortage of space in the latter district office precludes
any immediate prospect of installing a library there. In the meantime, Vancouver is
being adequately served by the main forestry library in Victoria. It is noteworthy that
a single, simple classification of forestry material now covers the whole Forest Service,
with the advantage that Forest Officers should be able to use any district library with
equal facility. Further, the orderly collection of publications in each library has resulted
in the disposal of numerous duplications and, consequently, a saving of space. In Nelson
and Kamloops the presence of district research officers ensures the continuous supervision of new material and local borrowings, both essential for the orderly development of
a useful library.
In the main forestry library the overhauling of the catalogue, started in 1956, continued as time allowed throughout the year. This work has involved the scrutiny of
about 30,000 cards, and the retyping of at least a third of them. All three library clerks
have taken part in this project in addition to their regular duties.
The use of monthly accession lists continues to increase. Three hundred and ten
copies are now being distributed throughout the Province. This is almost three times
the number circulated five years ago. Table 66 in the Appendix indicates the steadily
growing volume of work in all aspects of library circulation and classification.
A major difficulty faces the library for future operations. A sampling of essential
periodicals received during the past few years indicates that their prices have increased
from 20 to 40 per cent.    Book prices have also been increased by similar percentages.
CO-OPERATION
The Division continued its school lecture programme throughout the Province with
the co-operation of the Department of Education and the Canadian Forestry Association.
The demand for literature from schools both in British Columbia and elsewhere
throughout the world exceeded anything experienced previously. Considerable reprinting was required in order to keep stocks of publications on hand.
The commercial radio and television stations, and their agencies, continued to offer
much free broadcast time and assistance in forestry and forest-protection matters, which
is gratefully acknowledged.
Each of three industrial firms—Crown Zellerbach Canada Limited, MacMillan &
Bloedel Limited, and the Powell River Company—placed prints of their own 16-mm.
motion-picture subjects at the disposal of the film library. These subjects were circulated through the regular facilities of the library.
The Division acted as a liaison and advisory agency between a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation television production crew and personnel of the Nelson Forest District during the making of a forest-protection film scheduled for national television transmission next spring. The Ranger at Canal Flats and various other members of the district staff took part in this production.
Special Campaign
Between May 6th and June 7th a special forest-protection public education and
public relations campaign was concentrated in the Peace River area, where the early fire-
hazard was serious. This programme developed from a request for assistance in protection education received from the Prince George Forest District. The two school lecturers were employed on this project, and, through the media of public talks, press and
radio liaison, posters, special window displays, and other techniques, the results obtained
were most heartening. 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
The industry faced more difficult times during 1957 than during the previous year
and, although production and value were maintained during the first quarter, a definite
recession was evident by the end of the year. As a result, the value of all products for
the year amounted to $571,819,569, which was a decrease of 9 per cent over the previous
year. The value of lumber showed a decrease of 13 per cent, which was due to a lower
volume and a further drop of approximately $4 per thousand in average unit values. The
value of pulp and paper production was maintained at the same level as last year. A lower
volume of logs was used, but the production of paper products, with a higher unit value
than pulp, was greater than the previous year, whereas the production of pulp for sale
was less. One notable exception to the general decrease in values was that of poles and
piling, which reached an all-time high of $12,834,152. The increased production was
due to an increasing number of sawlog operators turning to pole-making because of the
depressed lumber market. As the year ended, there was every indication of overproduction of poles and piling, so that considerably lower prices may be expected in the coming
year.
Water-borne shipments for 1957 were 1,078,918 M f.b.m., an increase of 89,254
M f.b.m. Shipments to the two major markets—the United Kingdom and the United
States—were, however, still well below the ten-year average.
The statistical tables in the Appendix to this Report supply details of the Forest
Management Division activities during the year. In commenting on these tables, the
following highlights are considered worthy of special attention.
The total cut for the Province amounted to 958,946,296 cubic feet, a 10-per-cent
reduction from the all-time high of last year. All forest districts showed a decrease, with
the greatest loss, 16 per cent, occurring in the Kamloops Forest District.
Of the 958,946,296 cubic feet cut, Douglas fir maintained its leading position with
365,476,097 cubic feet, or 38 per cent of the total. Other species in order of output
were 199,116,223 cubic feet, or 21 per cent, hemlock; 131,463,809 cubic feet, or 15 per
cent, spruce; 125,517,839 cubic feet, or 15 per cent, cedar, as compared with 21, 15,
and 15 per cent respectively during 1956.
On the basis of forest tenures, 704,261,794 cubic feet, or 75 per cent, originated
from Crown lands, and of this total, 453,271,094 cubic feet, or 64 per cent, originated
from timber sales, as compared with 74 and 66 per cent during 1956. Old Crown grants
accounted for 156,130,855 cubic feet.
Table 10 in the Appendix shows the volume of wood removed under relogging, and
it will be noted that the volume doubled over previous years to a total of 3,663,000 cubic
feet. This increased utilization is encouraging when it is considered this type of material
in past years was either burned or left to rot on the ground.
Timber sales to the number of 2,582 were cruised, covering an area of 781,748
acres and an approximate volume of 1,171,283 cubic feet. This was less than the previous year, with many operators waiting to see what the future trend in markets would be
before applying for further timber. Another reason for this decline was the effect of
restricted cuts in the sustained-yield units.
The actual volume and value of timber sold for cutting declined from the high of
1956. The number of sales awarded was 2,544, and the total volume included in the
sales was approximately 650,000,000 cubic feet, a decrease of 19 per cent from 1956.
With sharply declining stumpage rates throughout the year, the estimated value of timber
sold was $24,000,000, as compared with the all-time high of $56,000,000 for 1956. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 45
At the end of the year, there were 8,396 timber sales in existence, as compared
with 8,738 at the end of 1956. The total area held under timber sale is 3,236,555
acres, and money held as guarantee deposits amounted to $14,982,263.58.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
Shippers of dressed lumber in the Interior continued to supply lumber-sales figures
to the Forest Service throughout the year. Co-operation in this programme is excellent.
Many contributors summarize their figures and mail them to the Forest Service each
month in order to minimize delay in collecting and compiling the average prices for the
zone. Six lumber-price zones are recognized, with a new three months' average price
compiled every month for each lumber species shipped from the zone. The f .o.b. average
prices thus obtained are used in calculating the stumpage value of standing timber being
sold under timber-sale contracts and management-licence cutting permits and in adjusting
existing stumpage rates according to the sliding-scale formula.
Net lumber prices paid to the producer had reached their highest point in the first
half of 1956, and the decline in prices which began in the second half of that year continued through 1957, with the result that by the close of the year they had dropped to
lower levels than were experienced in 1954. At the end of 1957, prices for spruce and
Douglas fir were from $17 to $20 per thousand feet board-measure below their 1956 peak,
but from $3 to $5 of this decline may be attributed to the normal seasonal difference
between summer and winter prices.
Log Prices
The average prices paid for logs on the Lower Coast of the Province followed the
decline in lumber prices and, at the end of the year, had fallen by $12 to $20 per thousand
feet board-measure below the 1956 peak. Cedar log prices showed the greatest decline,
with a reduction of $19, while fir prices fell $16, and hemlock, balsam, and spruce trailed
with reductions of $13 per thousand feet board-measure.
Stumpage Prices
Before timber is advertised for sale, the stumpage value is appraised by the Forest
Service. This appraised price constitutes a fair value for the timber at the time, and the
timber is offered for sale at this price, but, in order to ensure that everyone has an opportunity to purchase the timber, it is sold to the highest bidder by public competition. The
form of competition may be either sealed bids or public auction. In 1957, more than 90
per cent of the timber included in timber sales was sold at the appraised prices.
The two factors which have the greatest influence on the appraisal of the value of the
timber are the anticipated operating costs and the value of the products. The sale value
of the products must cover all extraction and processing costs, including stumpage and a
reasonable profit. It therefore follows that, after provision has been made for anticipated
costs and a reasonable profit, the remaining portion of the sale value is the indicated or
appraised stumpage value. The stumpage value of each particular tract of timber being
sold is appraised on its individual merits.
With this system of appraisal, a moderate change in the selling price of the product
has a substantial effect on the stumpage value; stumpage prices follow the trend in log
and lumber realization prices, but, due to the time required to collect and compile lumber-
price data and the statutory requirements in advertising timber for sale, fluctuations in
appraised stumpage prices tend to lag behind market conditions by three or four months.
The twelve months' average stumpage price for all species in timber-sale contracts
issued in the Province dropped from the 1956 peak of $6.92 per hundred cubic feet to 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
$3.88 for 1957.   Further particulars concerning average stumpage prices are contained
in Tables 21 and 22 of the Appendix to this Report.
It should, however, be understood that the bid prices are not necessarily the unit
prices which will be collected when the timber is cut and the logs have been scaled, as the
majority of timber-sale contracts have the stumpage rates adjustable under sliding scale.
Sliding-scale Adjustments
When a person obtains a timber-sale contract or cutting permit, he may elect to have
the stumpage rates made subject to adjustment under a sliding-scale formula each time
the average market price of logs or lumber changes by 15 per cent. This system applies
only to timber suitable for sawlogs; it does not apply to timber used for products such as
poles, ties, and cordwood, nor does it apply to salvage logging. This method of stumpage
adjustment has become very popular with the industry and is elected by operators 80 per
cent of the time.
Under the system, the stumpage rate for each species in each timber sale or cutting
permit is treated as a separate entity and is adjusted as soon as the average market value
for the species has changed by the required 15 per cent or more. The first adjustment
downward or upward will result in a change of approximately 40 per cent in the stumpage
rate, but the effect of subsequent adjustments in the same direction is much smaller. As
a result of the serious decline in market prices during 1957, the Forest Service made
12,730 individual stumpage-rate adjustments under the sliding-scale system.
These reductions in stumpage rates assisted the industry to carry on during this
period of adverse market conditions. At the same time, the public interest is protected
by providing for upward adjustments in the event of a rise in market prices. The sliding-
scale system has thus introduced an element of flexibility to stumpage rates for Crown
timber. The system has been in use in timber-sale contracts since 1951, but it was not
until 1957 that its application was extended to forest management licence cutting permits.
Stumpage-appraisal Cost Studies
As more than 90 per cent of our timber is sold at the stumpage prices appraised by
the Forest Service, it is essential that the appraisers have adequate information concerning
the effect of variable factors on operating costs so that equitable appraisals may be made
with due regard to the relative costs and difficulties likely to be encountered in logging the
specific areas.   Field studies are being continued for this purpose.
ADMINISTRATION OF MANAGED UNITS
With the exception of Forest Management Licence No. 2, which does not come
under regulation until 1974, all the other twenty-two forest management licences were
under regulation as to cut in 1957. Revised working plans resulted in a reduction of
annual allowable cut from Forest Management Licence No. 14 and in increased annual
allowable cuts from Forest Management Licences Nos. 20 and 21. The five-year variance
condition became effective December 31st, 1956, on five forest management licences,
one of which was assessed. Assessments under the variance condition are reconsidered
in another five years and may be refunded at that time. In 1957 there were 163 cutting
permits in effect, of which twenty-nine were extensions, and the recorded cut was
125,622,175 cubic feet from the regulated forest management licences.
In publicly managed areas there were eleven more units created as sustained-yield
units with annual allowable cuts set. The number of publicly managed units now stands
at fifty-eight, of which thirty-three are public working circles and twenty-five are sustained-
yield units. In 1957 about 70 per cent of these units were fully committed and 10 per
cent were being overcut, but these are being brought into line gradually so as not to
disrupt industry unduly. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 47
The cut from timber sales within the approved public working circles and sustained-
yield units amounted to about 207,892,534 cubic feet in 1957.
The total cut from all managed units was approximately 333,584,825 cubic feet,
which is 46 per cent of all the timber cut from Crown lands.
SILVICULTURE VOTE
The programme implemented during 1957, through moneys from the Silviculture
Vote, included stand treatment, silvicultural studies, planning in working circles, slash-
disposal projects, road location in working circles, and co-operative studies with the
Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. The following is a summary of
work accomplished in the four Interior forest districts—Prince Rupert, Prince George,
Kamloops, and Nelson.
The main effort during the year has been centred on stand treatment. In the above
four districts, a total of 553 sales were treated, involving 128,030 acres. Tree-marking
is becoming a highly specialized task, requiring a carefully planned and well-systematized
training programme. During the year considerable stress has been placed on improving
the quality of marking through intensive training both on the job and in the classroom,
and further improvements are planned.
All of the Interior districts continued to make progress in the field of planning in
public working circles, and crews were actively engaged in timber-sale layout work.
As in the past a free exchange of information concerning insect outbreaks was carried on between the Forest Service and the Forest Zoology Unit, Science Service, Canada
Department of Agriculture. 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING DIVISION
INTRODUCTION
The administration of Crown range, most of which is multiple-use forest land, continues to be an important function of the Forest Service. This range is vital to the
Interior ranching industry, and the demand for forage again increased in 1957. The
pressure from other uses for the same land, such as timber production, recreation, and
settlement, also continued to increase. Thus, to the problems of implementing good
range management in the face of increased numbers of live stock is added the continually
growing difficulty of correlating grazing and the various other forest-land uses. The
nature of the problems did not change materially during 1957, but they did become more
intense, particularly in certain fields.
ADMINISTRATION
A reduction in the experienced grazing staff in the Kamloops District due to a fatal
accident early in the year and one resignation, made it impossible to undertake some
work which had been planned for 1957. However, a generally reduced cruising load
permitted Rangers in some range areas to give more attention to grazing, both directly
and indirectly, through improved supervision of other forest activities which affect grazing. Unfortunately, this advantage was partially offset due to Rangers being required to
undertake some land-inspection work. More intense range supervision at the Ranger
level is a continuing need, particularly on fully stocked ranges.
A grazing officer was again assigned, part time, to the Prince George District in
1957. This permitted more attention being given grazing problems throughout that dis~
trict and, following preliminary steps taken in 1956, active administration was commenced
on two ranges in the Peace River area. The regulated use and the implementation of an
improvement programme on these Crown ranges will be of considerable benefit to the
industry in the areas concerned.
In an effort to keep pace with the growing load of office work, procedures were
further revised. A notable move in this direction was the combination of the formerly
separate grazing permit and account forms. The single revised form was also designed
to permit the conveyance, in one permit, of grazing privileges covering several groups of
stock, seasons of use, and areas. The necessity of issuing more than one permit to a
single operator was thereby reduced.
Although conflicts continued to occur as a result of logging on forest-range areas,
they were not as serious as formerly. This is due to improved supervision and growing
co-operation between the rancher and logger.
On the other hand, conflicts arising from recreational use and land settlement continued to increase. Considerable effort was made during the year to devise means of
better correlating these uses. The effect on grazing interests of the yellow pine planting
programme in the East Kootenay area also required special attention. This problem is
not yet resolved and requires further study.
Grazing and Hay Permits
Grazing on Crown range is authorized through the issuance of annual grazing permits. During 1957, 1,640 permits were issued, authorizing the depasturing of 128,978
cattle, 3,886 horses, and 20,693 sheep over some 9,000,000 acres of Crown range. The
numbers of permits issued was down considerably from 1956, due to the use of the more
versatile permit form referred to earlier rather than by any reduction in the number of
range-users. Numbers of cattle and horses were up slightly over 1956 with the total for
cattle representing an all-time high. The number of sheep was down approximately 7 per
cent from the 1956 figure. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
49
Table 67 in the Appendix shows a breakdown of the above figures by forest districts
and a comparison with figures for the past ten years.
A total of 183 hay-cutting permits were issued, but twenty-nine of these were cancelled because abnormally wet weather prevented cutting the meadows concerned. The
total tonnage cut was down from 1956 and amounted to 1,660 tons of hay and 48 tons
of rushes. Most of the hay harvested had to be cut late in the season and was generally
of very low quality.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale related to live-stock prices. During 1956, prices
for cattle were down slightly from the 1955 level, while the prices paid for sheep and
lambs were about the same. Consequently, fees charged for horses and cattle were down
in 1957, while those for sheep remained at the same level. Fees charged per head per
month usage of Crown range in 1957 were 11 cents for cattle, 13% cents for horses,
and 2% cents for sheep. Hay-cutting fees, which are not on a sliding scale, remained
at $1 per ton for wild hay and 70 cents per ton for rushes.
Total billings for grazing and hay-cutting fees were down from the 1956 level due
to the reduced rate of fees charged. Collections exceeded billings slightly, resulting in
a further reduction in outstanding fees at the end of the year.
A summary of fees billed and collected for the past ten years is to be found in
Table 68 of the Appendix.
Live-stock Counts
Only one cattle count was carried out during the year, in order to check the number
of stock on a unit of heavily used range.
Working cattle in a corral, Kamloops Forest District. 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Trespass
A few cases of trespass on Crown range occurred during the year. However, these
were satisfactorily resolved without recourse to Court action. The one case still before
the Courts at the beginning of 1957 was successfully prosecuted.
RANGE MANAGEMENT
Good management practices must be effected on the Crown range if this resource
is to continue producing the wealth of which it is capable. Permissible rates of stocking,
seasons of use, and necessary management practices must be determined before they
can be prescribed as permit conditions. This work was curtailed to some extent due to
the loss of experienced personnel mentioned earlier. However, some progress was made,
with attention being focused on those ranges which are at, or near, full rates of stocking.
Range Surveys
Range surveys are a basic feature of any range-management programme. Surveys
conducted in the past year covered 484,814 acres, as follows: —
Acres
Edgewater and Brisco Stock Ranges  101,560
Riske Creek and Meldrum Creek Stock Ranges  355,254
Upper Baker Creek Stock Range     30,000
Total  486,814
This brings the total area covered by range surveys, from 1945 to 1957 inclusive, to
8,159,985 acres.
Final field work was done on the Okanagan Falls and Tranquille surveys, which
were largely completed in 1956. In addition to this work, several intensive inspections
of range were carried out to check previous survey work, and adjustments in capacity
estimates were made where indicated. Permanent plots, established in the past to
determine range readiness, were maintained during the past year.
Range Improvements
In order to properly manage Crown range, many improvements are required. Range
Improvement Fund money spent during 1957 amounted to $49,734.55 and was used
as follows:—
Five stock-bridges  $2,041.48
Twenty-three cattle-guards ,     5,941.19
One corral  68.09
Forty-five drift-fences   15,589.83
Two hazard-removals         587.00
Five holding-grounds     1,772.22
Two meadow improvements        325.00
Three mudhole-fences        423.57
Fifty range-seedings     7,788.81*
Twenty-six stock-trails     6,274.78
Nine water developments     1,099.15
One weed-control   34.80
Wild-horse disposal        685.00
Machinery and equipment (purchase)        158.78
Maintenance and operation of equipment        688.79
Materials purchased but not assigned to projects     1,255.03
Supervision, surveys and technical studies     5,001.03
1 Purchase cost of seed only. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 51
In addition to the above projects, authority was extended to permittees to build, at
their own expense, four breeding-pastures, five corrals, eleven drift-fences, and two stock-
trails. This programme was larger than any completed for several years, due mainly to an
easing of the labour situation. Most of the work was done by live-stock associations and
individual ranchers under contract, although day-labour was used to a larger extent than
usual on projects where adequate supervision could be given.
Range-seeding has now become a major feature of the range-improvement programme, being double that carried out in 1956. Most seedings continue to be outstandingly successful. In all, 21,605 pounds of seed was used on recently logged areas,
pipe-line rights-of-way, and on other areas where soil had been disturbed. One large
burn in the East Kootenay was seeded from the air. For the first time, seed was provided for use on grazing leases logged under timber-sale contract. All necessary labour
was supplied by co-operating stockmen and Forest Service personnel. Preliminary surveys, site selection, seed distribution, and supervision were carried out by Forest Service
personnel. Costs for this work are shown under the " Supervision " heading in the Range
Improvement Fund table.
Chemical control work on goatweed (Hypericum perforatum) was again limited
to the use of 2, 4-D on roadside infestations. Studies on the biological control of goatweed were continued by the Division of Entomology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, with the Forest Service co-operating. The Chrysolina spp. beetles
being used in this study continue to show some promise, and during the year some 13,000
beetles were transplanted to new goatweed infestations.
During the winter of 1956/57, all of the Kamloops Grazing District and most of
the Nelson Grazing District were closed to horses. The areas not closed in the Nelson
Grazing District include minor areas where winter grazing can be carried on without
damage to Crown range. A total of seventy-seven horse-disposal licences were issued.
One hundred and forty-seven animals were cleared for shipment. Bounties and subsidies
were paid on 101 mares and geldings and twenty-four stallions. Only eight mares and
geldings and one stallion were shot under this programme. Bounties and subsidies of
$5 on mares and geldings and $7.50 on stallions were paid on horses shipped for
slaughter or shot. The costs noted earlier in this report include only the subsidies and
bounties paid. This programme, while it is reduced from previous years, was reasonably
effective in keeping the range clear of horses during the winter and early spring seasons.
Range Research
Close contact was maintained during the year with the Canada Range Experimental
Farm at Kamloops. A number of problems of particular interest in the management of
Crown range are now under study at the Farm, including range-seeding, timber milk-
vetch poisoning, abortion caused by yellow pine, carrying capacities of certain range
types, and range-burning. As preliminary results become available, field trials are undertaken on Crown range in co-operation with the Farm.
CO-OPERATION
Live-stock associations perform a valuable service in advising and assisting in
developing range-management programmes for their individual areas. There are now
fifty-two local range-livestock associations approved under the " Grazing Act" and
regulations. Three new associations were officially recognized during the year. The
British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep
Breeders' Association remained active during 1957 and were consulted regarding matters
affecting the whole industry. A total of 120 association meetings were reported, of which
Forest Service officers attended 113. Close contact was also maintained with other
agencies dealing with the live-stock industry. 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GENERAL CONDITIONS
Weather has a great effect on a ranching enterprise. Not only does it affect forage
that grows on the ranges, but also winter feeding periods, quantity of water available
for stock-watering and irrigation, and quality and quantity of winter feed.
The winter of 1956/57 was longer than usual in the northern districts and moderately shorter than usual in the southern districts. The spring was dry and warm, and
ranges were ready for use at about the usual time. However, the dry spring reduced
total forage production on some spring ranges. The summer was generally very wet and
cool, particularly in the Cariboo, and forest-range feed was plentiful. Alpine ranges did
not produce as well as usual due to the cool weather. The fall ranges were very productive due to the wet summer weather, and, as the fall of 1957 was mild, cattle were grazing
out on some native range lands until the end of the year. Grasshoppers did not become
a serious problem in 1957.
As a result of the poor weather during the haying season, quality of hay cut was
down, although quantity produced was about average. With the extremely mild and open
fall, hay-supplies on most ranches should be adequate to carry stock until range is ready
for use in the spring.
The ranch-labour situation eased slightly during 1957, but, because of the high price
of labour combined with low returns, ranchers could not afford to hire all the men necessary to perform the various duties around the ranches. Many of the smaller operators
depend entirely on family labour. The shortage of man-power on many ranches is having
a definitely adverse effect on range-management practices.
Markets and Prices
The preference of the British Columbia market for grain-finished beef developed to
the point where grass-finished 2-year-old steers could not be sold at certain times during
the year. Many operators are now marketing their cattle as yearling feeders, or even as
calves. This situation, combined with a strong demand for feeder animals, accounted, at
least in part, for the heavy cattle marketings by ranchers during 1957.
During the period required to increase cow herds to compensate for the marketing
of younger animals, it is anticipated that many ranches will be carrying reduced numbers
of cattle. However, the end result is not expected to materially affect the demand for
Crown range.
The average price for all grades of cattle was higher in 1957 than during the previous
year.   Lamb prices were also up, while wool prices were firm to slightly higher.
Live-stock Losses
There were no reports of unusual losses of stock on the range during 1957. Some
damage was caused by bears, and highway and railway traffic continued to take their toll.
Reports of animals shot by careless hunters were more numerous than for some time.
As is usual in a wet year, losses due to poisonous weeds were not heavy and high water-
levels resulted in little trouble from mudholes.
Diseases of Live Stock
There were no outbreaks of disease necessitating changes in range-management
plans during the year. One outbreak of blackleg occurred, the animals concerned apparently not having been vaccinated. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
53
ENGINEERING SERVICES
ENGINEERING SECTION
Engineering work for the year included 255 miles of route reconnaissance, 46 miles
of road location, 43 miles of new road construction, and general maintenance work on
110 miles of roads previously constructed under the forest-development roads programme.
The following table shows the work accomplished to date under this programme:—
Forest-development Road Programme, 1950-57
1 Forest toad classes:—
2=30-foot subgrade, 20-foot surface; average speed design, 30 to 40 miles per hour.
3=24-foot subgrade, 20-foot surface; average speed design, 30 miles per hour.
4=20-foot subgrade, 14-foot surface; average speed design, 30 miles per hour.
5=16-foot subgrade, 12-foot surface; average speed design, 20 miles per hour.
6=12-foot subgrade, 10-foot surface; average speed design, 15 miles per hour.
Public Working Circle or
Sustained-yield Unit
Forest District
Class of
Road1
Reconnaissance
Location
Survey
Constructed
Salmon Arm.	
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Kamloops  	
Kamloops	
5
,   3
4
5
4
5
5
4
5
5
3
4
5
3
5
2
3
4
2
3
4
■5
4
4
5
2
3
4
5
6
5
3
4
4
5
3
5
5
5
3
4
5
6
Miles
23
17
10
4
13
10
22
37
36
8
10
5
14
20
3
29
28
15
29
22
15
5
25
11
4
26
16
5
8
13
12
25
9
25
25
20
7
28
14
21
20
5
Miles
21.2
12.1
8.9
3.9
10.2
16.9
17.5
1.5
29.0
7.5
14.9
22.8
18.9
6.4
26.0
16.0
5.0
3.9
5.0
1.5
7.0
22.0
14.0
7.0
16.0
Miles
12.1
12.1
3.0
7.0
Eagle River 	
Big Valley .	
	
Prince George...	
ioii
Prince George 	
Prince George...	
Piince George	
Prince George  	
26.0
Willow	
8.4
2.4
12.8
4.7
26.0
Prince Rupert 	
12.0
Broughton 	
Vancouver 	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vancouver 	
Barkley Sound  	
Kettle
Upper Kootenay  	
14.0
2.0
Totals	
694
317.1
153 0
Road Reconnaissance
Feasible routes for forest-development roads were established into nine stands of
timber covering 783,000 acres of mature timber with a current merchantable volume of
2.5 billion cubic feet.    In the Vancouver Forest District, reconnaissance was completed 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
for a development road in the Cape Scott Public Working Circle, commencing at Port
Hardy. A route was also investigated in the Kingcome River valley. In the Kamloops
District, reconnaissance was completed in the Yard Creek drainage and a preliminary
development study was made of the Hendrix Creek, McKinley Creek, and Upper Horsefly River drainages. Routes required for a road adjacent to the Upper Arrow Lake and
one in the Damfino Creek drainage, both in the Nelson Forest District, were reconnoitred.
Two probable road developments were investigated in the Prince George District—
namely, the Ahbau Lake Forest Development Road and the Weedon Lake Forest Development Road. A possible development was reconnoitred in the Chapman Lake area,
Prince Rupert Forest District.
Road Location
During the year, roads were located and designed for the following public working
circles and sustained-yield units.
(1) Cottonwood: On the Swift River Forest Development Road, 8.5 miles of
main road and 1.5 miles of branch road were located. To date, 17.5
miles of main road have been located to the crossing of the Little Swift
River.
(2) North Thompson (sustained-yield unit): The Finn Creek Forest Development Road, a low-order main road, was located from the junction
with the proposed North Thompson-Yellowhead Highway into the Finn
Creek valley.
(3) Morice: The main-road location was extended for 5 miles to Mile 46
on the north shore of McBride Lake.
(4) Cape Scott: Road location was set for 7.5 miles of the main road and
an additional 7.5 miles of preliminary lines. Surveys for ancillary works
were also completed.
(5) Similkameen: A further 8.8 miles of location was established to complete
17 miles of secondary-class main road designed to develop approximately
25,000 acres of productive forest land with a presently merchantable
volume of 70,000,000 cubic feet.
(6) Chilliwack: Supplementary surveys were carried out to finalize location
and design of the Chilliwack River Forest Development Road.
Road Construction and Maintenance
Adverse weather during the early part of the summer delayed construction in many
parts of the Province, but improved conditions during the latter part of the season
resulted in satisfactory progress on the following projects: —
1. Morice Public Working Circle.—The Service's own forces constructed the Morice
River Forest Development Road from Mile 26 to Mile 38. This work involved clearing
165 acres of right-of-way, excavating approximately 196,000 cubic yards of common
material and 3,000 cubic yards of solid rock, placing 83,000 tons of surfacing, and
installing 2,600 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
2. Cottonwood Public Working Circle.—(a) The Service's own forces constructed
4 miles of the Swift River Forest Development Road. This work involved clearing 70
acres of right-of-way, excavating approximately 183,000 cubic yards of common material,
and installing 900 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
(b) The Service's own forces also erected a single-lane, prefabricated, creosoted-
wood bridge, with an over-all length of 110 feet, spanning Lightning Creek on the Swift
River Forest Development Road.
3. Similkameen Public Working Circle.—The Service's own forces constructed the
Lawless Creek Forest Development Road from Mile 0 to Mile 7.5.   This work involved ■•
Finished grade, Class 3 Forest-development Road, Naver Public Working Circle.
■
'■~- '€r.i0*X
Start of clearing for development-road right-of-way, Chilliwack Public Working Circle. 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
clearing 95 acres of right-of-way, excavating approximately 77,000 cubic yards of rock
and common material, and installing 1,800 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
4. Chilliwack Public Working Circle.—The Service's own forces, in co-operation
with the Attorney-General's Department, commenced construction of the Chilliwack
River Forest Development Road. The 1957 operations were confined to clearing and
grubbing of the right-of-way. At the end of the year, 95 acres of clearing and 40 acres
of grubbing had been completed on the first 10 miles of the project.
5. Naver Public Working Circle.—Forest Development Road Contract No. 1.
Road construction by the contractor continued from Mile 12.2. During the year the
subgrade was completed to Mile 22.4. This work involved excavating 97,000 cubic
yards of common material, removing 900 cubic yards of solid rock, placing 62,000 tons
of gravel, and installing 800 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
6. Upper Kootenay Public Working Circle.—Forest Development Road Contract
No. 3. Road construction by the contractor continued from Mile 11. During the year,
right-of-way clearing and the subgrade were completed to Mile 20.5. This work involved
clearing 80 acres, excavating 164,000 cubic yards of common material, removing 60,000
cubic yards of solid rock, placing 64,000 tons of gravel, and installing 1,100 lineal feet
of culvert pipe.
7. Willow River Public Working Circle.—(a) Forest Development Road Contract
No. 4. Road construction by the contractor continued from Mile 12.5. During the
year, right-of-way clearing and 4.7 miles of subgrade were completed. This work
involved clearing 40 acres, excavating 117,000 cubic yards of common material, removing
2,100 cubic yards of solid rock, placing 31,000 tons of gravel, and installing 1,500 lineal
feet of culvert pipe.
(b) Bridge construction by contract. A double-lane, prefabricated, creosoted-wood
bridge, with an over-all length of 90 feet, was erected at George Creek on the Willow
River Forest Development Road.
8. Salmon Arm Public Working Circle.—Forest Development Road Contract No. 6.
Road construction by the contractor continued from Mile 10.1. During the year, right-
of-way clearing and subgrade were completed. This work involved clearing 20 acres,
excavating 12,000 cubic yards of common material, removing 400 cubic yards of solid
rock, placing 7,100 tons of gravel, and installing 600 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
9. Niskonlith Public Working Circle.—Forest Development Road Contract No. 7.
Road construction by the contractor continued from Mile 12. During the year, right-of-
way clearing and 5 miles of subgrade were completed. This work involved clearing
40 acres, excavating 30,000 cubic yards of common material, removing 12,000 cubic
yards of solid rock, placing 15,000 tons of gravel, and installing 750 lineal feet of culvert
pipe.
10. Road Maintenance.—Maintenance work, including snow-ploughing, clearing
frozen culverts, cleaning ditches, repairing road surfaces, and improving drainage, continued on 110 miles of completed forest-development road.
General Engineering
Design work was completed for a pressure-creosoted timber bridge having glued
laminated girders in the Willow River Public Working Circle. Work is in progress for
a bridge of a similar type, but with three spans, to cross the Willow River. Work continued on the design of two bridge having 100-foot main spans for the Chilliwack Public
Working Circle. Some preliminary sketches and cost estimates were made for two
bridges in the Kootenay Public Working Circle and other smaller structures. Some
designs for large reinforced-concrete box culverts were prepared for use in situations
where such structures provide the most economical stream crossings.   A laboratory was REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
57
operated for identification and classification of soil samples taken by location-survey
parties, construction projects, and for testing concrete materials. Assistance was given
to survey and construction staffs in making field soil-surveys and gravel-pit investigations
and letting contracts.
MECHANICAL SECTION
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
Type
Total Units.
Jan. 1, 1957
Removed
from Service
New
Purchases
Total Units.
Dec. 31, 1957
98
70
26
26
36
193
22
207
58
48
22
11
1
24
7
10
2
3
24
36
6
3
1
7
23
13
17
25
54
1
7
30
8
2
1
81
86
Small-type passenger-vehicles—	
29
41
58
223
Power-wagons     	
23
178
82
14,000-22 000 G V.W trucks (2 and 3 tons)
53
25,000-40,000 G.V.W. trucks (H.D.) 	
23
11
Snow-ploughs (Sicard) (848) (1844)                 	
2
818
115
188
890
47
19
4
4
1
320
625
360
83
28
16
9
107
99
10
5
2
1
1
20
13
6
3
2
2
36
11
34
7
3
2
2
5
2
63
83
77
21
10
4
1
10
28
2
2
1
1
47
Graders 	
22
4
Shovels—power 	
4
3
347
697
403
97
High-pressure Bean fire-fighting units	
38
1
17
10
Trailers—dwelling, bunk-house, etc.... 	
115
127
10
5
Muskeg-tractors (personnel carriers) , 	
Yarders   	
4
1
1
22
14
7
Augers—power, planting 	
3
Equipment Selection
The 1957 additions to the transport fleet raised the total by seventy-two units, of
which fifty-three were four-wheel-drive vehicles required for travel on back-country roads
in all kinds of weather. The long, low styling of modern two-wheel-drive models is no
doubt advantageous on super-highways but reduces usability on dirt roads during a
large part of the year. Possibly the introduction of the " limited slip " differential on
^-ton panel or open pick-up trucks may change the picture somewhat as tests of units
equipped with this feature have shown improved tractive ability on level ground and
moderate slopes. However, clearance on rough ground and pulling power at low speed
on steep slopes are factors which will continue to make the four-wheel-drive unit of
maximum value to the field staff.
There Were no noteworthy items of new equipment purchased, although the selection of routine replacements and the modest increase in equipment itemized in the preceding table accounts for a major part of the Mechanical Superintendent's time. Other
work included the modification of two used trucks for special purposes and the adaptation 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Placing a laminated girder over George Creek in Willow Public Working Circle.
of the diesel motors from two worn-out tractors, which were utilized successfully to
power electric generating sets. The 15-kilowatt and the 25-kilowatt lighting plants
resulting from this last project have performed well and are to be housed on a trailer to
provide a mobile power-supply for construction camps.
General Supervision
The general level of equipment maintenance continued reasonably high in 1957.
Regular inspections of all equipment were made by the district mechanical supervisors.
In addition, considerable time was spent in demonstrating good maintenance practice to
members of the field staff and testing new equipment operators for proficiency.
The Victoria staff presented a two weeks' course of instruction to students at the
Green Timbers Ranger School, in accordance with established policy. A second project
was a series of two-day sessions on the maintenance and handling of four-wheel-drive
vehicles, which was organized at Langford, to improve the proficiency of the field staff of
headquarters divisions. Personnel from the Departments of Lands, Mines, and Finance
were also invited to attend in order that all drivers of this type of vehicle in the Government service could benefit.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
Projects carried over from the 1956 construction season, together with increased
emphasis on maintenance, accounted to a large extent for a decrease in new construction
during 1957.   As a result, staff could give closer supervision to projects carried out by REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
59
Departmental crews than had been possible in recent years, and were able to supply better
detailing of designs. It was also possible to investigate new materials and techniques,
resulting in a new type of marine installation.
Maintenance costs on the creosoted plywood pontoons, formerly used in floats, was
rather high due to the frequency of pumping required. In order to reduce the danger of
sinking, which required constant inspection and servicing, a Styrofoam- or Foamglas-filled
pontoon was designed, manufactured, and tested at the Marine Station. The finished
cost of the new type is at least 10 per cent less than the plain, creosoted, hollow pontoon
and requires no expensive pumping maintenance. In addition, ramp design was investigated, and two types were used for the first time—a ring-connected trussed ramp for
exposed locations and a plywood-trussed ramp for sheltered locations.
The development and production of portable buildings (Porta-Buildings) were
continued, with the introduction of even larger units measuring 10 feet wide by 35 feet
in length. Nineteen such units were built by contract and are being delivered to Ranger
and Assistant Ranger stations throughout the Province to provide stop-gap accommodation at new stations or at stations where outside accommodation is unobtainable.
Three additional units are being built at the Forest Service Marine Station.
The design of these buildings was carried out with the definite intention that their
compact 350 square feet would provide only temporary accommodation until such time
as more conventional and spacious buildings could replace them. If this policy of
replacement is followed as originally intended, these mobile buildings will prove to be
a valuable solution to urgent accommodation problems. If they are allowed to become
static, their transportable compactness will have been wasted and an unattractive housing
picture will develop on Ranger stations.
Eight conventional house trailers for mobile field crews had been built by contract
or were in the process of requisitioning at the end of the year. Four additional bunk-
house trailer units were acquired in a used condition for the Reforestation Division and
for the Department of Recreation and Conservation.
The recent development of reliable high-powered outboard motors has made the
construction practical of fast outboard-powered cruisers, in sizes up to about 26 feet.
A 23-foot twin-engined craft, designed by the staff, has proved very successful, having
a service speed of over 20 miles per hour. Such speed increases the daily working range
of personnel, expedites field work, and reduces the need for living accommodation aboard
ship, resulting in a reduction in first cost and maintenance. However, in considering
these craft as possible substitutes for older, slower, and larger vessels, due regard must
be taken of the extent of open water to be traversed. Sea-worthiness is still proportional
to the size of the craft employed.
Building construction at various points throughout the Province is detailed in the
following table. It will be noted that a significant portion of the programme was handled
by district crews. 60                                           DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Building and Construction Undertaken during 1957
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Stage of
Construction
Carry-over of 1956/57
Programme
Contract.	
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Tenders called.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Tenders called.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Forest Service	
Contract	
Contract 	
Forest Service	
Contract	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Contract and Forest
Service
Ditto	
Contract 	
Contract	
Contract. 	
Contract	
Forest Service	
Elko                         	
Assistant Ranger residence	
Fort St. James  	
Lund — -	
Mesachie Lake - -—
Office                                                 -
100 Mile House -
Programme for 1957/58
Fiscal Year
Greenhouse, lathhouse, and potting-shed 	
Duncan. -—
Contract 	
Contract 	
Contract 	
Fishermans Cove	
Float
Forest Service	
Lumby™. , 	
Forest Service	
Contract	
Contract 	
Forest Service 	
Contract	
Forest Service	
Forest Service	
Contract 	
Contract 	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract 	
Forest Service	
Forest Service....
Lund 	
Approach and float installation	
Mesachie Lake ..,,. .-.
100 Mile House	
100 Mile House.....	
Heating, electrical, and roofing. 	
Sewer installation __ ...	
Office conversion  .	
Approach and gangway
Parksville	
Pemberton	
Pemberton ...	
Ranger residence .__   	
Office and stores building-	
Four-car garage	
Telkwa    .	
Vancouver  - -
Various Vancouver stations..
Addition, Forest Service Marine Station
Painting 	
Contract	
Forest Service 	
Forest Service	
B arriere	
Chase	
Assistant Ranger residence	
Forest Service 	
Forest Service 	
Forty-four com
FOREST SERVICE MARINE
Marine Work
3lete launch overhauls, twenty-fo
, STATION
ur minor repair
jobs, and mainte-
nance of the fifty small craft in the " mosquito fleet" of the Surveys and Inventory
Division left little time in which to construct new launches. However, the 34-foot fast
planing-type launch " Yellow Pine " was completed and delivered to Prince Rupert in
the spring. Construction of the new type of Ranger vessel " Western Hemlock," which
is a 40-footer, continued, and it is hoped the craft can be put in service early in 1958.
In addition, two 23-foot outboard cruisers of new design and a standard 18-foot speedboat were built during the year.
The launch " Dogwood " was successfully salvaged and towed to the Forest Service
Marine Station, after striking a rock and sinking approximately 110 miles north-west of REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
61
Vancouver. Using the Vancouver headquarters launch " Syrene " as a base vessel and
tow-boat, the operation was carried out by three Forest Service Marine Station personnel,
assisted by the Lund Ranger District staff.
Prefabrication and Carpenter-shop
The woodworking-shop operated at capacity, producing a variety of items required
by the Service. Five 30-foot portable buildings were constructed for the Engineering
Section. Twenty 14- by 14-foot and eight 8- by 8-foot lookout buildings were prefabricated and shipped. Twenty sets of lookout furniture and 118 pieces of other furniture
were manufactured for use by Ranger stations, district offices, and divisions of the Service.
New pumps, outboards, chain-saws, and lighting plants required the construction of 430
boxes, crates, and tool-boxes. Three dozen road, lookout, and Assistant Ranger signs
and nineteen fire-finder stands were constructed.
Machine-shop
The machine-shop completed 401 overhauls on pumps, outboard motors, chain-
saws, and lighting plants. Two hundred and nine new units were tested prior to shipment
to the field. Altogether, over 1,200 pieces of hose and pump accessories were machined.
In addition, 30 epidiascopes were assembled, 11 fire-finders neared completion, and 200
lookout hardware fixtures were machined.
New developments include an improved Forest Service pattern three-way valve and
a three-tip nozzle. New patterns were made for these items, also for the casting of
numerous marine fittings.
New outboard cruiser " Seedling," built by Marine Station for Reforestation Division. 62 department of lands and forests
General Plant Maintenance
In addition to general repairs and painting, 100 feet of new fence was erected and
a 36- by 50-foot addition was added to the main building. With the exception of piling
for foundations and the electrical service, all work was carried out by Service personnel.
RADIO SECTION
Plans for the installation of very high frequency, frequency modulated (F.M.)
systems in two forest districts were delayed until the middle of July because of wet
weather and non-delivery of equipment. The latter factor forced abandonment of conversion to F.M. in the Nelson District, and a propagation survey was carried out instead.
Specification 116, a new Department of Transport regulation, has been added to
the list, but not yet implemented. This regulation affects most fixed amplitude modulated (A.M.) land stations in Canada and all stations of this type in the Forest Service.
Implementation may take place on January 1st, 1958, unless current petitions to Ottawa
for postponement are successful. Failure to obtain respite will necessitate the modification of all types of a.c.-powered A.M. transmitters used by the Forest Service within
three years, although a further extension of this very limited period will probably be
granted on request.
New transmitting sets of all types (A.M. and F.M.) totalled 166 for the year, with
twenty-seven obsolete units being written off. Based on 951 units at the end of 1956,
the net total at December 31st, 1957, is 1,090.
It is significant that while F.M. purchases in 1956 formed 17 per cent of the total,
in 1957, 58 per cent of the equipment purchased was F.M. The policy of buying the
very minimum of A.M. equipment and concentrating on F.M. is responsible for this
change, which should be even more marked in future.
Net Radio Units, 1957
Portables, A.M.   52
Mobile, A.M  11
Marine, A.M.     4
Fixed station     3
— 70
Portables, F.M  64
Mobile, F.M.      9
Fixed station, F.M.   23
— 96
Total new units, 1957   166
Written off     27
Net increase during 1957  139
Total transmitting units, all types   1,090
In the Vancouver District, the most significant advance in the current change to
F.M. equipment lay in its installation in nearly all Vancouver Island lookouts. These
proved highly successful, allowing more time on the air for both Ranger and Lookout
and, at the same time, removing these stations from the network on 3245 k.c. and from
the F.M. administrative circuit.
V.H.F. transmission was extended to Sechelt, Powell River, Lund, and Madeira
Park, and currently experiments are in progress to include Mission, Harrison Lake, and REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
63
Radio technicians testing a two-channel, 60-watt F.M. transmitter.
Hope. Except for Lower Mainland lookouts and Interior points, the district now operates
to a great extent on F.M.
The Prince George District F.M. installation was completed under difficult conditions
of continual rain and mud. While the results obtained from Pilot Mountain repeater were,
on the whole, excellent, Fort St. James was found to be out of range. Therefore, plans
have been laid for a second repeater on Fraser Mountain, which will radiate signals to
Fort Fraser, Vanderhoof, and Fort St. James.
All lookouts equipped with transistor F.M. portable units were found to have a much
longer range than had been anticipated. They communicated not only with their respective Ranger stations, but with most of the other lookouts similarly equipped. The failure
incidence of the transistor F.M. portable proved to be low by comparison with the older-
type portable operated entirely by radio tubes. Continuance of low maintenance costs is
a matter for conjecture as insufficient data are available on the ageing characteristics of
transistors.
The new lookout building on Pilot Mountain was constructed to include a lower
room to house the F.M. repeater. Only commercial power at this point is needed to make
this one of the best repeaters in the Province.
The A.M. circuit was much improved by the substitution of high-power two-channel
units at Fort St. John, Fort Nelson, Lower Post, and Pouce Coupe.
The remote-control receiving-station on Carney Hill was moved to its new location,
a new mast system erected, and by the end of 1957 the advent of power-lines should
permit the use of A.C. receivers instead of batteries as a means of power. 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In the Prince Rupert District, where F.M. is not practical at present due to the
complete lack of repeater-sites, communication improvements were exclusively in the
A.M. field. A new mast system on Mount Hays improved headquarters reception, and
higher power at Telkwa, Houston, and Southbank strengthened previously erratic circuits.
Further improved results were obtained by the installation of aluminium masts at Smithers,
Telkwa, and Atlin. One launch was supplied with a unit approved under Specification 110
during 1957. As with all other A.M. systems the world over, the existing peak sun-spot
activity played havoc with communication at times.
The Kamloops District transistorized F.M. units for lookouts arrived too late for
installation during the season. Thus the F.M. network remained at the same level as in
1956. Erratic behaviour of V.H.F. signals received at Dufferin Hill, at the beginning of
the season, caused the transfer of equipment to Greenstone Mountain, where the signals
from Silver Star repeater are received without difficulty. It was also found that the Greenstone repeater covered the Lower Cariboo, via Begbie repeater, and, by substituting
Timothy Lookout for Begbie, current tests may show that this site covers Clinton and
100 Mile, plus extra points to the north and west.
Improvements to Silver Star repeater included a new building and improved access
road, and a winter propane-gas fuel-supply for the generator. In spite of improvements,
two generator breakdowns during the summer underline the need for commercial power
or a heavy-duty power unit. Relative to the vital role of Silver Star repeater and its
present fallibility, plans were formulated for propagation-tests from two other sites, both
equipped with commercial power, which could replace Silver Star as a key repeater.
Winter conditions prevented the carrying-out of these tests during the current year.
As mentioned previously, the intention to install F.M. in the Nelson District in 1957
was abandoned, but further information was gathered applicable to installing this type of
unit in 1958. Complete coverage tests were carried out for Moyie and Thompson
repeaters, signals being proven north to Invermere and east to Fernie. In the west, Red
Mountain and Phoenix were tested, and the latter found to be unexpectedly good, covering as far as the western boundary of the district and north to Beaverdell. One obstacle
remains, the transfer of signals from Phoenix to Red Mountain, an essential circuit needed
to integrate the entire repeater chain.
The Victoria Radio Section experienced an extremely active year both at headquarters and in the districts, assembling equipment, installing all new district F.M. stations,
and surveying sites for the future. While wet-weather propogation-testing is not usually
reliable, it was found possible to continue limited surveys until December.
F.M. facilities to the Mainland were increased by the addition of a new 40-megacycle
circuit to supplement the existing one on 160 megacycles. The new channel supplied
excellent communication until the beginning of December, when a sun-spot peak caused
freak long-distance interference from the eastern United States and Canada, obliterating
local signals for a considerable portion of the time. It has therefore been decided to convert the new circuit to 160 megacycles, which is immune to this and nearly all other types
of interference. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 65
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
Warm weather in May, following below-normal precipitation in April and May,
resulted in moderate to high spring hazard in the two northern forest districts and in the
Big Bend area. The break in the weather came in the second week in June, with cool,
wet weather prevailing generally until about mid-August. A number of new records for
heavy rainfall and below-normal temperatures were set during July and August. Along
the southern edge of the Province, there was a local increase in hazard during the latter
part of August.
By the second week in September, the weather pattern had changed again and warm,
sunny conditions returned. New records for light rainfall were set at several points.
However, the generally green state of the vegetation reduced fire danger during this
period. Dry, sunny weather continued into October. During that month two invasions
of cold air from the north dropped snow over much of the Interior and kept mean temperatures below normal.
Lightning activity appeared to be less than normal. Occurrence of fairly extensive
thunder-storm activity was reported on the last day of April; June 2nd and 3rd, 5th and
6th; July 11th to 15th, 22nd, 30th and 31st; August 9th to 12th, 19th and 20th.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
The number of fires was slightly above the ten-year average. The occurrence by
months again deviated somewhat from normal (see Table 52 of the Appendix). It will
be noted that the percentage of fires occurring in April, May, and October was twice the
ten-year average. Fire occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage
Forest District Period, 1948-57 of All B.C.
Vancouver  5,191 32.8
Prince Rupert  782 4.9
Prince George  1,681 10.6
Kamloops  4,847 30.6
Nelson  3,348 21.1
Totals  15,849 100.0
The principal cause of fires was railways operating, which accounted for 28 per cent,
followed by lightning with 19 per cent. The actual number of fires from various causes
showed a slight decline in the number caused by lightning and smokers, with railways
operating being about 10 per cent higher than the ten-year average (see Tables 52 and 53
in the Appendix). It should be noted that of the total of 455 railway fires, 379 were on
the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
Cost of Fire-fighting
In 1957 the fire-fighting costs to date amounted to $157,678, or $166,186 less than
the ten-year average. For further tables of costs, see Tables 42, 58, and 60 in the
Appendix.
The heaviest costs of suppression were attributable to fires caused by industrial
operations, being 49 per cent of the total, although that cause only represented 7 per cent
of the total number of fires. 66 department of lands and forests
Damage
The total area burned was estimated to be 66,724 acres (see Table 57 in the Appendix). This is about 25 per cent of the average annual acreage burned in the last ten
years. Of the total area burned, 48,505 acres were in the Prince George Forest District.
Fifty-three per cent of the total area burned was on non-productive sites. The total
damage to forest-cover was approximately 30 per cent of the ten-year average.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The Provincial Fire Atlas has been brought up to date. The fire-statistics ledgers
and fire-classification atlas for all five forest districts are currently being brought up
to date.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
The field staff was increased to three two-man crews this summer. Lookout photographs were taken from ten lookouts and seventy-two points were visibility-mapped, with
a breakdown of the latter as follows:— Points Points
Visibility- Recommended
Forest District mapped for Lookouts
Vancouver  16 4
Prince Rupert  16 4
Prince George     8 1
Kamloops  18 6
Nelson  14 5
Totals  72 20
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles
and Sustained-yield Units
Preliminary field work, preparatory to drawing up protection plans, was carried out
in the Nakusp, Crooked River, and Stuart Lake Public Working Circles and Lac la Hache
and Morice Sustained-yield Units. In addition, existing data were revised on the Kettle,
Edgewood, Williams Lake, Quesnel Lake, Cottonwood, and Similkameen Public Working
Circles for the purpose of consolidating the previous plans.
In the fire-protection access-road programme, a road was constructed from the
Kettle River Road, at Bruer Creek, to Moore Mountain Lookout, connecting with last
year's road from Grey stoke Lake. This access-road system now provides connecting
links between Lumby, Kelowna, and Edgewood Ranger Districts through an area formerly of relatively poor access. In addition, the Park Mountain access road in the
Spallumcheen Public Working Circle was improved and extended to a secondary lookout
point on the ridge.
Approximately 11.5 miles of new road was constructed and 6.5 miles of previous
construction improved, under Victoria headquarters supervision. These roads are included
with forest district projects in the table on page 68.
Miscellaneous (Air-photo Mosaics)
Coverage has been extended to the north central part of the Nelson Forest District
and part of the Peace River area of the Prince George Forest District. Some forty
mosaics were completed this year, making a total of 168 mosaics available for use.
Prints of these mosaics are available for general use ($5 plus 5 per cent tax per
print) through the Air Photo Library, Department of Lands and Forests. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
67
FIRE-WEATHER RECORDS AND INVESTIGATIONS
There was no change in the programme of fire-weather observations during the
1957 season. The Nelson Forest District continued to make use of the Model 8 meter,
and one or two other districts gave this rating system a limited trial.
The weather-instrument checker was able to maintain uniform standards of fire-
weather observation throughout the Vancouver Forest District, and was able to find time
to make a quick inspection trip through part of the Prince George Forest District.
At the request of the British Columbia Forest Service, two parties of the Fire
Research Section of the Forestry Branch, Canada Department of Northern Affairs and
National Resources, began studies in British Columbia with a view to developing a fire-
danger rating system for this Province, to be in line with systems developed over the
past twenty-five years in other Provinces. One party was based in the Cowichan Valley,
on South-eastern Vancouver Island, and the other was located near 100 Mile House,
in the Cariboo. This is a long-range study, and it will be some years before results are
available.
Fire-danger build-up studies were continued by means of daily observations throughout the fire season of moisture content of small logs at Mount Shepherd Lookout. A paper
on this subject was prepared and presented to the Canadian Branch of the Royal
Meteorological Society.
Two other papers dealing with the calculation of evapo-transpiration have been prepared for publication.
The meteorological requirements of forestry in British Columbia are being reviewed,
both from the point of view of the Forest Service and of industry, so as to be prepared
in the event an expansion of this service becomes possible.
During 1957, 754 sets of fuel-moisture indicator sticks were distributed. Of these,
450 went to industrial operators, an increase of fifty-nine sets over 1956.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Sixteen suppression crews, averaging ten men each, were again employed during the
summer for approximately 100 days. They attended 180 fires, of which 87 per cent
were held to a size of 5 acres or less. When not fighting fire or on fire stand-by, the
crews worked on improvements and training.
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Size of Fire When Attacked
lA Acre
or Less
Over 1/4
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
131
8
17
19
5
129
3
|           1
4                    1
1                  17
1
14
Over lA acre and up to 1 acre 	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres    -	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres 	
4
5
Totals                                   	
180
132
5         1         20
14
9
AIRCRAFT
Protection flying was continued under contract with Pacific Western Airlines Limited, who supplied six float-planes. A total of 2,168 flying-hours were logged throughout
the Province during the period April 15th to November 15th, as follows:— 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver	
Vancouver  	
283
373
Prince George	
Prince George  ,
386
621
Nelson _     	
Nelson 	
505
TotaL 	
2 168
A helicopter was used under contract for the first time for protection flying. It was
operated entirely in the Kamloops Forest District, and 147 hours were flown during the
period of the two months' contract.
The helicopter was used for cargo-hauling to lookouts, reconnaissance and familiarization flights, fire patrol and ferrying, and lookout visibility mapping. A total of 36,600
pounds of freight was hauled, most of this being building materials to establish four new
lookouts.   The helicopter proved itself on protection work.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The Service continued to maintain and add to the network of roads and trails
throughout the Province, as shown in the table below.
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
61.55
606.75
Miles
16.70
351.05
Miles
21.05
160.00
Miles
99.30
1,117.80
688.30
367.75
181.05
1,217.10
75.15
506.95
18.50
423.90
29.95
150.80
123.60
1,081.65
582.10
442.40
180.75
1,205.25
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
During 1957 the distribution of rainfall was such that the hazard remained at a
relatively low level throughout the summer. Consequently, a very early start on slash-
burning was possible—as early as August 16th in the Port Hardy region.
Slash-burning conditions were often ideal during this early period, excellent results
being obtained at minimum cost. However, following a drying period during the latter
part of September, a few slash burns did escape their boundaries.
The year 1957 saw the entire Vancouver Forest District brought under the provisions of section 113 of the "Forest Act," eliminating the previous exemptions in the
northern areas of the district.
Two snag-falling contracts, totalling $21,442, were awarded by the Protection
Division. They covered a total area of 2,933 acres in the Powell River and Pender
Harbour Ranger Districts. Reforestation Division crews felled snags on 5,084 acres,
preparatory to planting, in the lower Coastal area.
For statistical data on slash-disposal and snag-falling in the Vancouver Forest District, see Tables 44 to 51, inclusive, in the Appendix.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
The forty-four prosecutions were slightly less than the ten-year average,
prosecutions are further analysed in Table 61 of the Appendix.
The REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
FOREST CLOSURES
69
For the second season in twenty-three years, there were no industrial or recreational
closures imposed in the Vancouver Forest District. The last year such closures were
imposed was 1954. One restricted travel closure was imposed to protect the scene of
the air crash on Mount Slesse. The Nelson Forest District only had one regional travel
closure during the year.   The summary of closures is shown in the following table:—
Forest Closures, 1957
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Effective
Date
Termination Date
Vancouver	
Nelson 	
Travel	
May 27
July 25
Nov.  18
Travel- .	
Sept.    5
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES
During the 1957 fire season, 957 Honourary Fire Wardens accepted appointment.
These public-spirited citizens take voluntary action on fires which occur in their vicinity,
and their invaluable aid in reporting and fighting fires is acknowledged with appreciation.
In addition, there were 1,317 Forest Fire Prevention Officers appointed under section
123 of the " Forest Act." These men, appointed at the request of their employers, have
the same authority as a Forest Officer on the particular operation with which they are concerned. 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS*
During the year, survey and research activities received substantial support and cooperation from the British Columbia Forest Service and industry. This aid, mainly in the
form of transportation, accommodation, and seasonal assistants, is gratefully acknowledged.
PEST-CONTROL COMMITTEE
Early in the year, an informal committee that had been organized to deal with the
black-headed budworm problem on Vancouver Island became a permanent Pest-control
Committee of the British Columbia Loggers' Association. Most of the major logging
companies on the Coast are represented on the Committee, while the British Columbia
Forest Service and the Forest Biology Laboratory act as advisers. The chief forester of
the Alaska Pine and Cellulose Company Limited, chairman of the informal committee,
became the first chairman of the Pest-control Committee.
The main functions of the Committee are to act as a co-ordinating, planning, and
directing agency for carrying out control operations against forest insects on the Coast
and, where it is considered advisable, to aid the Forest Biology Laboratory in conducting
surveys and research on problems of immediate concern to the Committee.
The Committee successfully organized and directed the largest aerial-spraying operation yet carried out in British Columbia. It also assisted the Forest Biology Laboratory
in conducting an aerial survey of Vancouver Island to determine the extent and intensity
of the black-headed budworm outbreak in 1957 and a budworm egg survey in the fall of
1957. In November, 1957, a special meeting was called to review the current status
of ambrosia beetle investigations and to consider suggestions for further study in the
immediate future. The Committee is also taking an active part in exploratory discussions
aimed at finding ways and means of reducing fish mortality caused by aerial-spraying
operations.
BLACK-HEADED BUDWORM SPRAYING OPERATION
During the period June 10th to 20th, 1957, about 156,000 acres of forest land on the
north end of Vancouver Island was sprayed for control of the black-headed budworm.
One-third of the cost was borne by the Federal Government, and the remaining two-thirds
was shared between the Provincial Government and the British Columbia Loggers' Association (acting on behalf of Alaska Pine and Cellulose Company Limited, Canadian
Forest Products Limited, MacMillan & Bloedel Limited, and Powell River Company
Limited). Spray-deposit and biological assessment work was directed by officers of the
Forest Biology Division.
The operational spray solution was DDT in oil solution, with an emulsifier added,
applied at the rate of 1 pound of DDT per U.S. gallon per acre. The operation was
successful, though a number of circumstances made it difficult to obtain uniform and
controlled spray coverage. The indicated over-all control of about 90 per cent was
sufficient to prevent serious defoliation in 1957.
FOREST-INSECT SURVEY
The black-headed budworm infestation on Vancouver Island decreased greatly in
extent and intensity during 1957. Only 80 square miles of forest was lightly defoliated,
as compared with about 3,000 square miles which suffered light to heavy damage in 1956.
* Prepared by R. R. Lejeune, Forest Zoology Unit (Victoria and Vernon, B.C.), Forest Biology Division, Science
Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,   1957
71
Top-kill is apparent in some areas heavily defoliated for two consecutive years. In the
autumn of 1957 the egg population was only 3 per cent of that recorded in 1956; no
serious defoliation is expected in 1958.
Although the size of the one-year-cycle spruce budworm outbreak in the Lillooet
River and Lake region increased to about 500 square miles, populations continued to
decline and the infested stands on the whole continued to recover. A further drop in the
population is expected in 1958, but severe defoliation is expected in small localized areas.
An infestation of the two-year-cycle spruce budworm caused severe bud damage over
most of the 1,000 square miles of spruce-alpine fir stands in the upper Babine Lake area
in 1957. This is unusual as the spruce budworm was in its first and, normally, light
feeding year of its two-year cycle. Top-kill of both spruce and alpine fir is common in the
areas of heaviest defoliation. If high larval populations occur in 1958, some of the alpine
fir may be killed, but the spruce is expected to survive.
Populations of the Douglas fir beetle generally remained at a low level, although the
number of trees attacked increased in the western portion of the winter-damaged stands
about Lac la Hache. Aerial and ground surveys in the southern and eastern parts of the
Nelson Forest District revealed that Engelmann spruce beetle infestations caused more
Hi
H
■■*,
Motor-driven rotating net used for sampling air-borne ambrosia-beetles. 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
damage in remote stands than previously suspected. Some infestations continued to be
active in 1957. An estimated 54,000 M f.b.m. of spruce has been killed by this insect
since 1952.
Western hemlock and Douglas fir at Queen's Park, New Westminster, and Central
Park, Burnaby, were again heavily infested by the phantom hemlock looper. Both parks
were sprayed with DDT on June 24th, and Central Park was sprayed again on July 8th.
The control operation greatly reduced defoliation. This insect was also abundant in
a park at Hope, but damage was not severe.
Progress was made in acquiring more accurate and comprehensive estimates of losses
caused by bark-beetles. For example, as a result of intensive effort, it is now possible
to give a more realistic but still conservative estimate of losses caused by Dendroctonus
spp. in the Interior of British Columbia for the period 1951 to 1955, inclusive, as
follows:— Losses
Tree Species (M C.F.)
White pine   4,665
Ponderosa pine  202
Lodgepole pine  2,954
Engelmann spruce   4,815
Douglas fir, Lac la Hache winter damage  11,823
Other   4,741
Total  29,200
On the Coast, a conservative estimate of losses caused by the Douglas fir beetle
during the same period is placed at 11,000 M c.f.
RESEARCH PROJECTS
Studies on cone and seed insects were resumed during the year, and it is planned
to maintain this project on a continuing basis. The initial emphasis will be placed on
cone- and seed-insect problems of Douglas fir. It is hoped that fundamental biological
and ecological studies will provide information that can be used for control of these pests
when Douglas fir seed orchards come into production. The Douglas fir cone-moth,
Barbara colfaxiana (Kearf.), and a cecidomyid gall-midge were the most numerous
insect pests of Douglas fir cones in the Cowichan Lake area.
Studies were begun to determine to what extent different kinds of host materials
such as logs of various ages, stumps, windfalls, and slash contribute to building up
ambrosia-beetle populations in the woods. The distribution and number of over-wintering beetles in several woods situations were determined, and attempts are being made to
develop a suitable reconnaissance method for sampling beetles in the duff. This laboratory
collaborated with the Forest Products Laboratory, Department of Northern Affairs and
National Resources, Vancouver, and British Columbia Forest Products Limited in a mill
study to evaluate degrade losses caused by ambrosia-beetle attack.
An experiment was started to determine the effect of tree-girdling, at various
intervals before felling, on susceptibility to attack by ambrosia-beetles. A somewhat
similar exploratory experiment involving the introduction of chemicals into standing trees
was conducted. Work on the isolation and identification of chemical constituents of
sap-wood was continued at the University of British Columbia, in co-operation with the
Forest Biology Division.
The main effort in the Douglas fir beetle project was a study of the effect of attack-
density on brood-productivity and the effect of log-ageing on attack-density. In these
experiments, attacks of between three to seven per square foot of bark produced the
greatest number of progeny per square foot.   At higher attack-densities, the total progeny REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
73
produced per square foot was lower, presumably owing to competition. Logs freshly
felled in the spring began to lose their attraction to bark-beetles after fifteen days,
although a few attacks were still taking place forty-five days after felling.
During the year, research was continued on the fundamental aspects of insect
behaviour in relation to population dynamics, insect pathology, and taxonomy. Studies
were also maintained on specific insect problems such as the black-headed budworm,
Douglas fir needle-miner, and powder post beetles.
ACCOMMODATION AND FACILITIES
Contracts have been awarded for the construction of a header-house and greenhouse
at the site on Burnside Road in Victoria. A new station was constructed at Prince
George for the use of the Forest Biology Ranger responsible for the West Prince George
Ranger District. A request has been made to the Forest Service for a reserve to be placed
on 156 acres of forest land near Lac la Hache, to be used as an experimental area for
Douglas fir beetle research. 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
A preliminary reorganization of studies of decay in old-growth forests was carried
out during the year. This reorganization was directed to the segregation of problems
which could be carried out by a supporting staff through application of established sampling practices. It was considered that this segregation of problems would enable the
laboratory to deal more effectively with projects of short duration and, at the same time,
gain essential data from which more long-term considerations could be developed.
Although staff restrictions did not permit of the full implementation of this reorganization,
initial steps were taken and future plans developed.
Changes were also introduced in regard to the forest-disease survey. Thus the scope
of the survey was broadened to include research projects designed primarily to contribute
to a better understanding of appraisal and taxonomic problems.
Publications distributed during 1957 included the following: —
Engelhardt, N. T.:   Pathological Deterioration of Looper-killed Western Hemlock on Southern Vancouver Island.    For. Sci. 3 (2): 125-136.    1957.
Foster, R. E.:   Pole Blight of Western White Pine.    Timber of Canada,
18 (9) :60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 100.    1957.
Parker, A. K.:   Europhium, a New Genus of the Ascomycetes with a Lepto-
graphium Imperfect Stage.    Can. J. Bot, 35 (2): 173-179.    1957.
Parker, A. K.:   The Nature of the Association of Europhium trinacriforme
with Pole Blight Lesions.   Can. J. Bot., 35 (6) :845-856.    1957.
Ziller, W. G.:  Studies of Western Tree Rusts: III, Milesia lazviuscula, a Needle
Rust of Grand Fir.    Can. J. Bot., 35 (6): 885-894.    1957.
In addition to the above-mentioned publications, six multigraphed reports were
prepared for regional distribution during the year.    These reports provided technical
reference to an appraisal of total loss from decay in mature forests of British Columbia;
considerations in respect to the management of decadent hemlock forests in the Upper
Columbia region;   studies of the progress of deterioration in wind-damaged spruce-
balsam forests in the Prince George Forest District; the progress of research directed to
root-rot of immature Douglas fir forests;  a study of factors influencing the distribution
of needle blight of western red cedar; and an index of the forest fungi deposited in the
laboratory herbarium.
FOREST-DISEASE SURVEY
Collections of forest disease submitted during 1957 by co-operators and by Forest
Biology Rangers and other laboratory personnel added substantially to knowledge of the
occurrence and distribution of the forest fungi. Thus twenty-five fungi were listed for
the first time in the laboratory forest-disease herbarium, and seventeen other fungi were
discovered to have a wider host range than had previously been recognized. In addition,
extensions were made in respect to the geographical distributions of several previously
recorded mistletoe, rust, and canker diseases.
No unusually severe outbreaks of forest disease that had not previously been
recorded were brought to the attention of the laboratory during the year. Foliage
diseases appeared to remain at endemic levels, and reports of new climatic injury
pertained to relatively light damage in all instances.
Special surveys were continued in plantations of exotic tree species in Coast and
Interior regions. Although no evidence of severe pathological disturbance was gained,
the presence of several diseases of potential importance was noted. Continuing surveys
are planned.
* Prepared by R. E. Foster, Forest Pathology Unit  (Victoria, B.C.), Forest Biology Division, Science Service,
Canada Department of Agriculture. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 75:
Examinations of a condition of die-back in Douglas fir were continued, with special
attention provided to an area of severe damage near Sooke (Vancouver Forest District).
The evidence pointed to the low temperatures of November, 1955, as the primary factor
most likely predisposing the stand to initial damage and weakening. It was noteworthy
that there has been progressive die-back of the main stem and laterals as the result of
subsequent fungus-attack. Some evidence was obtained of a history of frost susceptibility
in affected trees. Although damage and mortality from this condition were observed at
scattered locations throughout the Coastal fir belt, severe damage appeared to have been
sustained only near Sooke.
Studies of sampling methods applicable to the evaluation of forest disease in Douglas
fir plantations were initiated during the year. Complete enumeration data were obtained
following analysis of a 9-acre plantation of 13-year-old fir in the Robertson River area
(Vancouver Forest District). Studies are in progress to determine the relative precision
and efficiency that might be gained through application of different sampling systems to
this population. The most conspicuous damage encountered in the study was a sapwood-
exposing scar, a condition apparently not previously recorded in fir. Scars were present
on 20 per cent of the 4,422 fir examined. Although there was no direct evidence that
scars per se had produced a deleterious effect on tree growth or vigour, it was noteworthy
that a number of the scars had been invaded by active canker-producing fungi, with
subsequent girdling or partial girdling of the main stem.
NURSERY, SEED, AND ORNAMENTAL-TREE DISEASES
Moderately high post-emergence losses, attributed to damping-off and root-rot,
were recorded at the Duncan nursery during 1957. Post-emergence losses at other forest
nurseries were light.
Continuing investigations were undertaken on root-rot of ornamental cypress.
Examinations of Douglas fir and other native species established adjacent to infected
areas failed to reveal any spread of the disease to natural stands.
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS
An analysis of mortality in Douglas fir from root-rot, caused by the fungus Poria
weirii Murr., was carried out through the examination of permanent sample plots in
seven areas on Vancouver Island. These records showed that losses over the past twenty-
five years had been variable, ranging from 2 to 84 cubic feet per acre per year. Although
damage in several areas appeared to be static, marked increases in the rate of mortality
during the past decade were recorded in other instances. The data available did not
permit of an appraisal of mortality in relation to forest site, stand age, stand composition,
or other factors. Studies of infected stands of young fir were continued near Cowichan
Lake. It was determined that infected trees may fail to develop crown symptoms before
excessive root infection and mortality.
Studies of the pole-blight disease of western white pine were continued in the Slocan
and Arrow Lakes region (Nelson Forest District). Re-examinations of permanent sample
plots, established in 1950 and 1951 to evaluate the progress of decline, were continued.
Trends to reduction in the rate of intensification in and mortality from pole blight, first
noted in 1956, were strengthened by the more recent appraisals. Thus some trees which
had showed early symptoms of distress in previous appraisals appeared healthy when
examined in 1957. Some improvement was also noted in trees previously assigned to
a severe stage of decline. Despite improvement of certain trees of the latter class, further
mortality has continued in this group.    Further observations will be required to deter- 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Typical stem lesion of unknown cause on 13-year-old Douglas fir.
mine whether the dominant movement within this latter class will be to improvement or
increase in severity and eventual death. Although some reappraisal of existing salvage
policies would appear warranted, further study will be required before decision can be
reached in respect to stands containing a major proportion of their volume in trees
showing a late stage of decline. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
77
DISEASES OF MATURE FORESTS
Analysis of data derived from a study of wind-damaged forests in the Prince George
Forest District showed that the cumulative loss from deterioration may reach a substantial value within a few years following the death of trees. Thus average losses of 26 per
cent in alpine fir and 43 per cent in white spruce were recorded in the Crescent Spur
area after six years. Correlations showed that deterioration has been more rapid in
spruce than in fir of equivalent size-classes. In both species, deterioration has progressed
more rapidly in small trees and upper logs. Large basal logs may thus have a period of
economic salvage longer than that of trees of average diameter.
Studies of deterioration of killed Douglas fir were continued in the Kamloops Forest
District, with further sampling completed near Williams Lake, Lac la Hache, Loon Lake,
and Falkland. Dissectional analyses also were completed for 100 western larch in the
Trinity Valley region (Kamloops Forest District). Stem decay was found to be present
in 35-year-old larch, but to be of little consequence in stands under 100 years of age. 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
CURRICULUM
The ninth class, consisting of thirty men, graduated in December, 1957. The
increase of nine in enrolment over the previous class of twenty-one resulted in many
adjustments being made to the time allotted to various subjects in the curriculum.
This year a four-day field-trip to Vancouver Island was included in the curriculum
to bring the students up to date on progress in forest research and forest management on
the Coast. In addition to covering this work as done by the Forest Service, the field-trip
included demonstrations of the work being done in these fields by private companies.
Minor alterations were made to the buildings to increase the dining and classroom
accommodation for the larger class, and the usual maintenance work was carried on.
Subjects given during the year were as follows:—
Second Term, Ninth Class, Spring Term, 1957
Days
Subject Allotted
Scaling   14
Management Policy and Procedures  17
Mechanical Theory and Field  12
Preliminary Fire Organization  11
Public Speaking  4
Written Expression (Business English)  4
Construction  4
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips  6
Total days  72
Third Term, Ninth Class, Fall Term, 1957
Days
Subject Allotted
Mensuration and Photogrammetry '  21
Stumpage Appraisal     5
Ranger District Organization     8
Silviculture     8
Fire Suppression  15
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips  12
Total days  69
EXTRA COURSES
A five-day course for lookoutmen followed the spring term. Thirteen men completed the course and were appointed to stations in the Vancouver Forest District.
In addition, the instructional staff assisted in lookout courses given in the Kamloops
and Nelson Districts.
A two-day familiarization course was given to the scalers of the Vancouver District
during the spring term.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are due to speakers and lecturers provided by the following agencies:
National Film Board; Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Air Division,
Department of Lands and Forests; Canadian Forestry Association, as well as lecturers
from other divisions and districts of the Forest Service.
The co-operation of the Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, in the
use of the University Forest is appreciated. Thanks are due to the Forest Products
Laboratory, Vancouver; MacMillan & Bloedel Limited; and British Columbia Forest
Products Limited for arranging field-trips. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
79
FOREST ACCOUNTS
The volume of business handled by the Division continued at a high level during
1957, as may be noted by reference to Tables 31 to 43, inclusive, appearing under
" Forest Finance " in the Appendix.
Total revenue collected was less than 1 per cent below the 1956 total, which was
the highest in the Department's history. Although royalty collections continued to decline
sharply as the volume of timber on tenures subject to royalty charges continued to
diminish, stumpage received almost equalled the 1956 figure. Other forms of revenue
also remained near to, or exceeded, 1956 totals.
However, during the latter part of the year the effects of the reduced activity in the
industry, due to unfavourable market conditions and the prolonged strike of the pulp and
paper workers, were becoming increasingly evident, and there were no immediate prospects of improvement. Stumpage prices continued to decline under the sliding-scale
formula, and the frequency of the resulting adjustments in timber-sale rates created an
increasing problem for the Timber Sale Records Section.
The volume of expenditure accounting work continued high, and although the Parks
and Recreation Division was transferred to the Department of Recreation and Conservation, this Division continued to maintain its accounting records for the 1957/58 fiscal
year.
Further progress was made in preparation of the Accounting Manual during the
year—Part II (Collections) and Part III (Timber Licences, Leases, and Berths) being
completed. This leaves only the final section, Part IV (Timber Sales), to be finalized,
and preparation of this section was begun.
Auditing and investigation of mill records was continued by the Division's field
auditors, but the loss of one man in the late summer resulted in reduced coverage in
this work. 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL
ORGANIZATION
Two new Ranger districts were established—one at Pemberton, in the Vancouver
Forest District, and one at Spences Bridge, with temporary headquarters at Ashcroft, in
the Kamloops Forest District. The new districts were created by splitting former overloaded districts and are to be staffed and in operation by January, 1958. In the Prince
George Forest District, a member of the research staff was established with permanent
headquarters rather than on the former seasonal transfer.
At Victoria headquarters, a major change took place at the commencement of the
fiscal year with the transfer of the Parks and Recreation Division to form a branch of the
newly created Department of Recreation and Conservation. Forty-two permanent employees were transferred with the Division but, for the first year, co-operative arrangements were made whereby Forest Accounts continued to handle Parks vouchering, and
Parks district staffs and park-development projects continued under the direction of
Forest Service officers.
Also at Victoria, a reorganization resulted in the transfer of the Property Room
functions and staff from the Lands Service to the Forest Service. There was an expansion
of office facilities for the Engineering Services Division and the Working Plans Division.
In keeping with expanding activities in the Northern Interior, a third Ranger Supervisor
was appointed to the Prince George Forest District and a Project Supervisor was added
to the Operations Section of that office.
SERVICES
The functions of personnel administration carried out by the Personnel Office
remained substantially the same as in the previous year. The Personnel Officer's time
during the early and middle portions of the year was largely spent in discussions and
negotiations with the Civil Service Commission pertinent to the dispute over wages and
conditions between the Government Employees' Association and the Government.
Revisions of personnel estimates and studies of ways and means to conserve staff under
the pressure of economy measures consumed a major portion of time during the last
quarter.
During the year, only one matter of grievance was presented by the Government
Employees' Association, and it was satisfactorily settled.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
A District Foresters' meeting was held during the second week of January, and
Ranger meetings were held in each forest district, except Nelson, in the spring of the year.
The Personnel Officer attended all meetings, and at the Vancouver Ranger meeting conducted an informal demonstration of " brainstorming " and moderated a debate and discussion on the matter of extra time worked by the Ranger staff. Including these meetings, all forest districts and the Ranger School were visited, with an average time of one
week in each district and additional time at Vancouver and Kamloops. Sixteen per cent
of the Personnel Officer's time was spent away from headquarters, representing a slight
increase over the previous year.
In the matter of communications and esprit de corps within the Service, the Public
Relations Division again obtained approval to publish a special Christmas edition of the
popular " Forest Service Newsletter." The Civil Service Commission commenced a series
of articles entitled " Supervision," for distribution to all supervisory personnel. The first
four of the series were issued in 1957.   Subscriptions were continued and expanded for REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 81
the publications " Daily Memos for Supervisors," which are distributed to Ranger and
Scaling Supervisors, and " Just between Office Girls," no doubt also surreptitiously
enjoyed by male staff.
In the field of training, four members of the Forest Service professional staff were
selected for the second class of the Executive Development Training Plan sponsored by
the Government through the University of British Columbia. Nine regional supervisors
and assistants of the Surveys and Inventory Division and the Personnel Officer took part
in a short vocational-training course in " Job Instruction and Safety," conducted by the
Training Officer of the Civil Service Commission. Arrangements were made for twenty-
nine supervisory personnel to attend a one-day course on " How to Tell Your Men What
You Know," presented through the British Columbia Safety Council and the University
Extension Department at various centres throughout the Province. The Forest Service
representative on the Provincial Government Safety Committee attended and reported on
the British Columbia Safety Council's Second Annual Provincial Conference. The Deputy
Minister's secretary attended a two-day secretarial-training institute presented by the
National Foreman's Institute and subsequently held a five-day series of one-hour meetings with twenty headquarters secretaries and stenographers. The Engineering Services
Division organized its first formal two-week training course in engineering surveys, at
Mesachie Lake, in April. Twenty-one key men received instruction in practical field
work, related office procedures, supervision and organization, followed by a written examination. Various other training programmes were continued, such as Lookout and Assistant Ranger schools, first-aid courses and field-training courses, organized by the districts
and divisions concerned.
The Forest Service was actively represented at various professional and industrial
meetings. Forest Service officers were elected president of the British Columbia Registered Foresters' Association and of the Pacific Northwest Personnel Management Association. Most noteworthy was the participation of the Chief Forester and Deputy Minister
in the Seventh Quinquennial Commonwealth Forestry Conference, held in Australia and
New Zealand.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by the
Legislative Assembly, for the fiscal year commencing April 1, 1957, was 858, an increase
of twenty-four positions over the previous year. This excludes the forty-two Parks Division personnel who were transferred to the new Department of Recreation and Conservation. Two additional positions were approved by Order in Council and filled during the
year, bringing establishment up to 860 at the year's end. During 1957, 147 persons
received Civil Service appointments and 115 left the permanent service. One twenty-five-
year service badge was earned. There was one retirement during the year. Eighteen
transfers of permanent staff took place, only one-fifth the movement of the previous year.
Permanent-staff turnover for the year averaged 13.8 per cent, with double the average turnover at Prince George, followed by higher than average turnover at Vancouver
and Prince Rupert. There was a 4.6-per-cent turnover in permanent technical staff and
a 4.5-per-cent turnover in professional staff. This represented a substantial improvement
over the previous year. Clerical, stenographic, and draughting staff turnover rose to
28.2 per cent, with the Prince George District being hardest hit at 63.4 per cent turnover
during the year. The trend toward serious depletion of foresters in the past few years
was completely reversed. Apart from six professional foresters transferred to the Recreation and Conservation Department and one senior man retiring, there was a loss of only
nine graduate foresters with an average of eighteen months' experience. Twenty-six
graduate foresters were employed, filling all vacancies, but only six had any experience 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
with British Columbia conditions, these being 1957 graduates from the University of
British Columbia.
Of particular significance was the unprecedented migration of the faculty and
students of the Forestry School of the University of Sopron in Hungary to British Columbia, where they are now established on the University campus. Special efforts were made
by the Forest Service, in co-operation with industry, to offer summer employment to these
Hungarian students and professors.
Some 402 applications for employment—up 23 per cent over last year—were
handled by correspondence in the Personnel Office alone, apart from youth-training
programme applications and many others handled through divisional and district offices.
Written examinations were held for two promotional positions, and oral examinations at
panel interviews were employed in filling twenty positions. The Personnel Officer and
his assistant also participated in making selections for sixty-nine other Civil Service positions. During the year five dismissals by Order in Council were required, and two persons
were released during their probationary period.
At the annual spring examination for Assistant Rangers, 324 candidates sat, of
whom ninety-four passed and sixty-six accepted employment. This was a 74-per-cent
improvement in recruitment over the previous year but, as there were seventy-two vacancies for Assistant Rangers, the remaining positions had to be filled on an acting basis, by
candidates not fully qualified.
Despite increasing safety consciousness, a fatal accident occurred in the spring when
the District Forest Agrologist at Kamloops was drowned, together with two other men,
when travelling in a rented boat. Within the Forest Service, a safety project was completed this year whereby a small plaque is attached to all open boats indicating the maximum carrying capacity and maximum horse-power motor which may safely be used.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Only minor changes took place in the Civil Service classifications system. A new
classification of Bookkeeping-machine Operator was set up, and the three grades of Assistant Engineer and two grades of Engineer in the Forest Service were renamed to
Engineer—Grade 1 to Grade 5. Specifications were changed for Engineering Aides,
permitting a higher grading for the majority of these technical fieldmen.
Numerous individual position classification reviews were carried out. Of the sixty-
three (less than half of the previous year) which were submitted to the Civil Service Commission for approval of reclassification, fifty-one were approved, nine rejected, and three
approved in modified form.
In the matter of salary rates, adjustments were made in categories specifically provided for in the 1957/58 estimates—namely, Mechanics and Mechanic Foremen, Mechanical Superintendent—Grade 1, Forest Service Marine Station Superintendent, Foremen, Marine Mechanics, and Shipwrights. Student Assistant and Forest Survey Assistant
rates went up substantially, following the pattern of the Federal Government's summer
field-staff rates. Strong representations were carried forward from the previous year to
correct other internal anomalies in the rates for Foresters, Engineers, Research Assistants,
Forest Protection Officers, Engineering Assistants, Personnel Officer, Forest Assistants-—■
Grades 1 to 3, Assistant Ranger and Ranger—Grade 1, Investigator Forest Products
Accounting, and the higher stenographic and clerical grades. A Civil Service strike
threatened in the midst of the fire season. The strike was averted two days before the
dead-line of July 12th on the basis of a 7.5-per-cent average increase to be approved by
the 1958 Legislative Assembly, and the appointment of a Royal Commissioner to hear
and recommend on Civil Service bargaining rights.   This agreement, together with the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 83
handing-down of the Report of the Royal Commissioner on Forestry and the marked
reduction in job opportunities outside the Service, cut staff turnover to a very low figure
in the last quarter and morale began slowly to improve.
A number of changes took place in general conditions of employment. Meal allowance for fire-fighters and launch crew were revised upwards and, in July, a uniform policy
was adopted throughout the Government service for board and lodging allowances. A
uniform lunch period was established throughout the Civil Service, with the exception of
emergency and essential services, such as fire-fighting and radio operations. A definite
policy was adopted providing two ten-minute rest periods per day for Government employees. The Federal Department of Transport regulations regarding radio secrecy were
modified, with the effect that Forest Service recruitment of Assistant Rangers, Lookout-
men, Dispatchers, and others using radio equipment may now be extended to landed
immigrants rather than only British subjects. There was some modification and clarification in the matter of recruitment of relatives in the public service which permits such
employment, except where relatives would be under one another's direct supervision or
would be under the same immediate supervision. The system of house-rental charges
throughout the Civil Service was modified and standardized, resulting in slight changes in
some individual rental charges to Forest Service employees. In November the " Public
Services Medical Plan Act " took effect, providing medical coverage at half premium for
nearly all Forest Service and Government employees.
YOUTH-TRAINING PROGRAMME
The 1957 youth-training programme employed 120 youths in the age-group from
16 to 18 years, making up eleven crews of ten to twelve boys each. Two crews at Manning Park, three at Champion Lakes, and one at Mount Robson Park were administered
by the Parks Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation. The remaining five
crews were administered by forest districts, as follows: Kokanee (Nelson), Lac le Jeune,
and Lac la Hache (Kamloops), Dry William (Prince George), and McLure Lake campsites (Prince Rupert).
Second-year applications are given first consideration when placements are made,
and subsequent placements are made on the basis of priority in application. The crews
are transported to development-sites, where they are encamped in tents with lumber
side-walls and floors. Small wood-burning heaters are placed in the tents for warmth
and comfort during inclement weather.
Each crew was under immediate supervision and direction of a foreman, employed
specifically for the purpose, who was responsible to the forester in charge of the district
or division concerned. Food was varied and nutritious and was prepared by competent
cooks. Each camp was equipped with light-delivery trucks of the Vi-ton pick-up model
for transporting supplies, both food and materials, and were available in case of emergency, such as fire or accident. First-aid equipment and supplies and, where necessary,
life-preservers were provided; further, each crew was equipped with transmitting-type
radio, which permitted constant contact with the headquarters office. For the purpose of
carrying out the duties assigned to them, the crews were equipped with tools suitable for
rough carpentry work, and such items as saws and axes for woods work. Digging-tools
were also provided.
At the commencement of the camp, the youths were given instruction in the use of
the various tools necessary for their work. After the instruction period was completed,
the boys were employed developing and expanding camp-sites, picnic-sites, and park
areas. In some cases, trail and light road maintenance and construction were carried out,
but no work beyond the physical capabilities of the youths was attempted.
Educational features of the programme consisted of lectures and practical demonstrations on forest protection, management, and entomology.   Senior officers advised on 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
a career in the Forest Service at both the professional and practical levels. Where possible, organized trips were arranged to industrial operations—logging, milling, and mining.
The recreational aspect of the programme was not overlooked. The boys were
provided with light sports equipment, and games were arranged with local teams. In
addition to the games, the boys had the opportunity of swimming, fishing, and boating.
Excellent reading material was provided, plus the showing of recreational and educational
moving pictures. APPENDIX  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 87
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
General
Table No. Page
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1957  89
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1948/57  90
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1948/57  91
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1948/57  91
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1948/57  92
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1956/57,
(A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  93
7. Species Cut, All Products, 1957, (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  94
8. Total Scale of All Products, 1957 (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts), (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  95
9. Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1957 (by Months and Forest Districts)  96
10. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and Stumpage,
1948/57, in M Cubic Feet  97
11. Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working Plans,
1948/57  97
12. Total Scale of All Products from Managed Lands, 1948/57_.___  97
13. Logging Inspections, 1957  98
14. Trespasses, 1957  98
15. Pre-emption Inspections, 1957  99
16. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land
Act," 1957  99
17. Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1957  99
18. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1957  99
19. Timber-sale Record, 1957  100
20. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1957  101
21. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-timber
Cruised on Timber Sales in 1957, per C C.F. Log-scale„_   102
22. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
timber Scaled on Forest Management Licences in 1957, per C C.F. Log-
scale  103
23. Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1957  104
24. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1957  105
25. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1957  105
26. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1957  106
27. Summary of Exports, Minor Products, 1957  106
28. Timber Marks Issued, 1948/57  107
29. Forest Management Draughting Office, 1957  107
30. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as Compiled from
Taxation Records  108 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Finance
Table No. Page
31. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  108
32. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records  108
33. Forest Revenue  109
34. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1957  110
35. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1956/57—  111
36. Forest Revenue,  (A) Fiscal Year 1956/57,  (B) Fiscal Years 1936/37 to
1956/57 112, 113
37. Forest Service Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1956/57  113
38. Scaling Fund  114
39. Silviculture Fund  114
40. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  114
41. Forest Development Fund  115
42. Forest-protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1957,
by the Forest Service  116
43. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by Other Agencies,
1957  117
Forest Protection
44. Summary of Snag-falling, 1957, Vancouver Forest District  117
45. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1957, Vancouver Forest District  117
46. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1957, Vancouver Forest District 117
47. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1957, Vancouver Forest District  118
48. Summary of Operations, 1957, Vancouver Forest District    118
49. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1957, Vancouver Forest District.___ 118
50. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1935/57  119
51. Recapitulation of Snag-falling, 1940/57  119
52. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1957  120
53. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1957  120
54. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  120
55. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1957  121
56. Damage to Property other than Forests, 1957  121
57. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1957—Parts I and II 121, 122
58. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1957  122
59. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years __ 123
60. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1957 :  123
61. Prosecutions, 1957  124
62. Burning Permits, 1957  124
Ranger School
63. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1957  125
Public Relations
64. Motion-picture Library, 1948/57  126
65. Summary of Programmes by School Lecturers, 1957  126
66. Forest Service Library, 1948/57  127
Grazing
67. Grazing Permits Issued  127
68. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  127 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
89
CO
Distribution of Personnel, 1957
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Chief Forester, Assistant Chief Foresters, and Division
Fore ster s  	
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officer-	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters..
Foresters and Assistant Foresters	
Agrologists and Assistants 	
Engineers and Assistants  	
Forest Protection Officers 	
Supervisors of Rangers	
Rangers .
Supervisor of Scalers and Assistants..
Scalers, Official	
Scalers, Official, temporary 	
Comptroller, Accountant and Audit Assistants-
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio...
Technical Forest and Public Relations Assistants-
Reforestation, Research, and Survey Assistants......
Nursery Superintendents   	
Draughtsmen _   	
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers..
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
Station _.   _ 	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians..
Launch Crewmen  	
Assistant and Acting Rangers..
Dispatchers _	
Cruisers, Compassmen, and Marking Crewmen-
Truck and Tractor Operators 	
Foremen  	
Miscellaneous _ -	
Totals, continuous personnel-
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers..
P atr olmen 	
Lookoutmen	
Dispatchers and Radio Operators 	
Fire-suppression Crewmen 	
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc..
Cruisers and Compassmen  	
Truck and Tractor Operators	
Student and Survey Assistants  	
Silvicultural Crewmen... _	
Foremen.. _ _	
Youth-training Programme-
Miscellaneous	
Total, seasonal personnel-
Totals, all personnel	
9
3
37
7
46
5
9
5
6
20
18
1
4
5
	
2
12
12
30
18
536    |      225    |      256    |
I I I
2
2
2
2
11
8
10
10
1
4
4
1
2
3
2
3
3
27
15
18
24
11
2
4
3
77
2
46
1
4
3
4
4
5
4
9
1
4
6
3
4
4
105
31
31
30
3
1
15
6
49
25
30
46
17
6
8
13
30
34
51
52
	
4
1
1
1
1
5
	
413    |      145    |      189    |      204
7
2
33
9
48
20
11
123    |        80    |        67    |      146
350
1
3
23
2
3
10
3
24
46
7
16
3
157
1
14
39
14
32
6
10
12
13
2
69
3
21
2
7
72
11
66
4
28
111
5
37
2
11
29
13
2
10
117
10
21
10
14
107
22
79
47
7
90
43
67
4
48
332
5
41
23
196
51
183
16
12
39
501    1   1,609
142
23
200
1
801
103
31
30
147
35
126
142
3
43
201
24
134
185
136    |      549    |   1,101
293    |   1,050    I   2,710
I 1
1 Employed by Parks Branch, Department of Recreation and Conservation, under Forest Service supervision. 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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93
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during
Years 1956 and 1957 in F.B.M.
(6A)                                                              (All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
1956
1957
Loss
3,502,590,505
387,841,647
3,216,651,623
331,497,495
285,938,882
56,344,152
3,890,432,152
3,548,149,118
342,283,034
235,923,363
675,328,926
1,004,549,740
501,084,443
197,499,334
645,733,022
839,983,005
430,416,274
38,424,029
29,595,904
164,566,735
70,668,169
2,416,886,472
2,113,631,635
303,254,837
6,307,318,624-
5,661,780,753
645,537,871
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during
Years 1956 and 1957 in Cubic Feet
(Conversion factor:  Coast—6 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m.=1 cu. ft.)
(6B)                                                          (All products converted to cubic feet.)
Forest District
1956
1957
Loss
583,765,084
64,640,275
536,108,604
55,249,582
47,656,480
9,390,693
648,405,359
591,358,186
57,047,173
41,030,150
117,448,509
174,704,303
87,145,120
34,347,711
112,301,395
146,084,000
74,855,004
6,682,439
5,147,114
28,620,303
12,290,116
Totals, Interior 	
420,328,082
367,588,110
52,739,972
1,068,733,441
958,946,296
109,787,145 94
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a
Z REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
95
(84)
Total Scale of All Products, 1957, in F.B.M. (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences-
Timber berths	
Timber leases......
Pulp leases-
Pulp licences	
Hand-loggers' licences..
Farm wood-lots	
Timber sales	
Pulp-timber sales..	
No mark visible	
Management licences-
Miscellaneous	
Sub-totals, Crown lands.
Federal lands	
Crown grants—■
To 1887 	
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
1914 to date—
Totals-
639,672.
82,635.
79,355.
22,151.
3,546
14.
187.
938,887
198
944
346
.682
,792
678
111
978
629,001
2,151,409
4,798,459
15,017,186
35,098,374
7,011,178
59,488
522,588
,596,243
30,083
495,736
518,343
124,926,810
43,769
566,791,156
120,932
641,038,076
35,228
257,351,691
95,877
140,449
14,881
843
.912
.436
900,051
136,778
54,966,260
3,058,377
7,441,489
26,805,794
22,914,977
7,035,183
51,257,492
3,529,318
682,349,441
104,664,308
79,414,834
45,674,270
42,143,035
44,761
387,040
2,650,491,447
52,518,343
95,877,843
325,930,181
66,446,886
2,017,660,920
26,132,344
895,708,213
82,181,049
10,371,898
184,597,199
296,828,823
3,177,800
182,951,447
1,516,700
603,233,617
690,924,813
20,576,695
5,558,550
18,106,310
7,826,012
25,263
5,305,611
7,700,313
668,958 36,436,415
233,8471 12,955,839
5,860,692   15,877,728
35,735,908| 63,211,515
3,216,651,623
331,497,495
197,499,334
645,733,022|839,983,005
354,342,769
1,311,713
2,260,006
41,838,250
9,160,721
21,502,815
430,416,274
4,145,942,389
52,715,252
935,073,592
142,792,798
64,682,960
320,573,762
5,661,780,753~
(8B)
Total Scale of All Products, 1957, in Cubic Feet (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
(Conversion factor:   Coast—6 f.b.m. =zl cu. ft.;   Interior—5.75 f.b.m. = 1 cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
106,612,033
13,772,657
13,225,891
3,691,947
591,132
2,446
31,185
104,834
	
374,158
834,515
2,611,684
1
6.104.065     114.029.605
1,219,335
10,346
17,603,676
13,236,237
3,920,431
6,432,707
5,014
	
7,612,378
7,023,839
7,460
Hand-loggers'licences	
21,032
111,484,883
7,612
98,572,375
6,127
44,756,816
65,956
156,481,329
20,249,289
8,753,057
21,726,402
453,271,094
8,753,057
15,979,641
23,408,319
2,480,240
336,276,820
4,355,391
149,284,702
13,696,841
1,728,650
30,766,200
~~536,108^604
15,979,641
Management licences (Crown
8,150,009
1,856,130
49,~471~471
529,633
9,559,349
531,892
31,817,643
263,774
1,294,172
4,661,877
3,985,213
1,223,510
8,914,346
613,794
55,311,408
11,367,443
Sub-totals, Crown lands..
104,910,194
120,160,837
3,578,556
6,336,767
2,253,189
2,761,344
10,993,307
61,624,829
228,124
393,045
7,276,217
1,593,169
3,739,620
704,261,794
8,955,478
Crown grants—■
To 1887  	
116,341
40,669
1,019,251
6,214,940
156,130,855
1887-1906    	
1906-1914	
1914 to date...       _   ..
926,425
3,017,718
1,304,335
"55,249,582
4,394
922,715
1,339,185
34,347,711
24,197,735
11,042,847
54,357,587
Totals	
112,301,395
146,084,000
74,855,004
958,946,296 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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H-l
< REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
97
Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty
no) and Stumpage, 1948-57, in M Cubic Feet
Salvage Wood
(M C.F.)
 1,053
  1,888
  1,209
  1,795
 3,663
Salvage Wood
Year
(M C.F.)
Year
1948 	
 727
1953
1949
 549
1954
1950	
 324
1955
1951	
 420
1956
1952	
 732
1957
Ten-year average, 1948-57, 1,236.
Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working
f«J Plans, 1948-57
Year
Forest Management
Licences
Christmas-tree
Permits
Farm
Wood-lots
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Unitsi
Total
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
1947
1
2
7
10
13
14
19
23
23
23
13
82
107
118
129
135
145
163
174
209
221
283
168
32,139
40,767
43,778
45,360
47,250
49,986
64,835
68,689
72,603
76,457
80,651
59,038
3
5
20
25
29
37
44
16
24
28
33
47
58
19
32,139
1948
795,208
1,081,711
1,668,663
1,953,754
2,071,918
2,158,898
2,788,313
4,685,492
4,680,846
4,871,237
2,675,604
835,975
1949
1,125,489
1950
1,714,023
2,001,456
1951
452
727
4,571
5,549
6,455
8,320
10,488
3,656
1952
2,122,631
1953	
1954.	
1955       	
5,649,162
7,019,759
9,328,447
21,667,410
28,820,776
7,248,555
7,877,466
9,882,310
14,092,997
1956	
26,433,033
1957	
Ten-year average,
1948-57	
33,783,152
9,986,853
1 Approved public working circles and sustained-yield units.
Total Scale of All Products from Managed Lands, 1948-57
(12)
(In Table 8B, "management licences" includes only the cut from Crown lands within forest management licences.
The cut from "other tenures " is shown under appropriate headings. In this table, all the cut from managed lands under
regulation is combined.)
Year
Forest Management
Licences
Christmas-tree
Permits
Farm
Wood-lots
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Units
Total
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
Number
of Trees
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
Cubic
Feet
Number
of Christmas Trees
Cubic
Feet
1948   	
1
2
7
10
13
14
19
23
23
23
13
107
118
129
135
145
163
174
209
221
283
168
157,944
165,035
174,609
175,755
195,803
267,182
326,106
301,319
430,447
500,786
269,499
3
5
20
25
29
37
44
16
24
28
33
47
58
19
157,944
165,035
174,609
175,755
195,803
267,182
326,106
301,319
433,8501
500,7851
269,839
1949
	
	
1950
	
1951
27,440,866
33,532,810
40,442,745
47,631,411
69,715,422
121,869,721
125,622,175
46,625,515
27,440,866
33,533,042
1952	
232
17,497
26,939
64,482
92,124
70,116
27,139
1953	
89,731,000
100,166,664
115,091,229
188,455,411
207,892,534
70,133,683
130,191,242
1954 	
1955
147,825,014
184,871,133
310,425,8262
333,584,825
116,787,194
1956    	
1957	
Ten-year average,
1948-57	
i Includes 5,903 Christmas trees cut on forest management licences and farm wood-lots.
2 Includes 8,570 cubic feet cut from Christmas-tree permits. 98
(13)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Logging Inspections, 1957
Type of Tenure Operated
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
Total
Number of
Inspections
1,344
1,013
1,776
2,735
635
1
2
2,076
246
1,614
1,230
771
3,421
1,261
3,390
3,965
1,406
8,882
3,601
5,037
2,914
4,819
Totals 19-V7
7,503
3
5,937
13,443
25,253
Totals, 1956                   	
7,492
3
5,838
13,333
22,038
Totals, 1955 _	
6,818
3
4,673
11,494
22,355
Totals, 1954—
5,855
3
4,874
10,732
21,011
Totals, 1953   .           	
5,851
3
4,859
10,713
20,656
Totals, 1952                   _
5,822
6
5,710
11,538
20,264
Totals, 1951   -	
5,448
6
4,766
10,220
17,754
Totals, 1950  	
5,189
6
3,812
9,007
16,221
Totals, 1949      .     	
6,405
7
4,440
10,852
15,483
Totals, 1948..	
4,847
5
3,982
8,834
15,432
Ten-year average, 1948-57	
6,123
5
4,889
11,017
19,647
(14)
Trespasses, 1957
Ci
in
d
u
<—1
o
u
Si
£
a
s
Z
-U
o
o-s
tn m
d £
Quantity Cut
i-<
.1
u
iMtfi
S3.S
Eg
a o
z«
■a
si
Forest District
si
ft
0
s
CO
o
si
ft
"3
C
3
•o
o
U
as
Si
H
1
f 8
OH
cn
<U
m d
dM »
•o « h
lis: d
o
Oh
O
c
O
s
<
173
109
146
165
75
574
1,448
2,344
3,078
588
1,127,293
1,432,442
1,004,105
1,150,758
235,186
34,131
121,890
28,760
142,044
59,695
1            1            1
17      528   1.047 664.115
1
4   S128.832.00
132
5,645
745
6
949
594
150
18,606
707
1,200
2,301
2
8
1
61,163.04
95,753.64
4,793
1,826
76,167.44
Nelson— 	
	
	
304
18,141.71
Totals, 1957	
668
8,032
4,949,784 |	
386,520
6,545| 2,0711 7,666|664,569|22,814
15 |$380,057.83
630
7,744
5,692,862
384,231
1,3211 1,367|14,794|177,559|28,573
5 |$489,065.90
Totals, 1955
499
6,098
4,218,705
458,426
1,6071     963|14,100| 66,975| 5,607
4 |S212,183.49
Totals, 1954	
463
5,910
4,373,368
	
266,856
270| 5,083|14,914|119,364| 9,750
7 1$198,220.15
Totals, 1953	
446
10,188
4,072,874
466,401  |
230,636
2,917| 6,335|16,3141116,368|30,663
4 |$221,000.12
Totals, 1952	
419
5,768
372,788
24,247,327
272,770
1,147| 5,237[10,921|227,267| 3,991
13 |$312,774.33
Totals 1951
454
5,999
24,545,775
159,064
1,779|20,976[28,121
 j
13,325
41  |$237,588.00
Totals, 1950	
276
3,072
	
12,753,405 |
360,190
1,4751  1,806] 6,312| 75,309| 7,550
16 | $87,589.23
Totals, 1949    .
418
4,132
20,419,563
244,655
1,298| 3,514| 9,022] 34,070| 8,785
28 | $81,923.27
Totals, 1948-	
312
3,062
11,738,855 |
470,674
3,569|18,211| 3,711] 11,135] 4,100
8 | $59,654.37
Ten-year average,
1948-57	
459
6,001
3,946,730! |
15,695,221-1]
323,402
!        1        1         1
2,1931 6,556|12,588|149,262|13,516
1           1           1             1
1
14 |$228,005.67
1
1 Cubic feet—six-year average; feet b.m.—six-year average. report of forest service, 1957
<15> Pre-emption Inspections, 1957
Vancouver  1
Prince Rupert    1
Kamloops   5
Total   7
99
Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous
<16> Purposes of the "Land Act," 1957
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
teH    Ac-
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
1
     |     	
1
14
32
7
20
1,784
3,340
1,277
2,517
40
34
5
11
1,068
2,059
323
319
54
72
12
70
2,852
5    |      1,485
     |     	
77
6,961
1,600
Kamloops	
39    |      9,209
44    [    10,694
1
	
12,045
Totals	
1
77
73
8,918
90
3,769
208
23,458
<17>       Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1957
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-
agricultural
Land
Merchantable-
timber
Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable-
timber Land
Acres
2,852
6,961
1,600
12,045
Acres
43
1,721
1,429
6,679
Acres
2,809
5,240
171
5,366
Acres
359
849
2,756
M F.B.M.
2,705
10,777
Kamloops —	
17,918
Totals   	
23,458
9,872
13,586
3,964
31,400
(IS)
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1957
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes.
Posts,
Shakes.
etc.
(No.)
Saw-
timber
(M C.F.)
839
358
519
653
213
163,375
95,580
181,906
244,331
96,556
130,531
3,262,108
3,710,728
3,633,065
5,363,057
2,347
2,128
30,957
57
3,765
1
146,500 1   510,015
23,800
68,409
3,000
7,500      227,022
134,820 |   211,231
417,613 |   167,961
442,700 1     55,054
Totals, 1957	
2,582
781,748
16,099,489
39,254
95,209
1,149,133  |1,171,283
Totals, 1956
3,089
1,095,150
13,981,856
44,287
128,432
1,916,510 |1,273,970
Totals, 1955 	
3.354
1,077,986
9,885,451
16,819
145,525
501,820 |1,131,521
Totals, 1954 	
3,085
781,665
10,532,164
76,859
76,310
1,127,346 |   697,421
Totals, 1953
2,579
719,234
12,887,882
12,328
141,313
694,182 |   561,601
Totals, 1952.   .
2,340
1,029,199
2,543,890
40,005,329
13,405
989,144
518,652 |1,188,361
Totals, 1951 	
2.704
934.475
6,577,298
20,674,280
25,630
316,954
432,000 | 	
Totals, 1950	
2,196
333,435
1,777,025
7,388,875
24,522
123,091
352,440 | 	
Totals, 1949 	
1,638
269,576
1,355,342
9,599,176
57,002
170,475
738,510 |  	
Totals, 1948	
1,851
346,648
1.817.737
7.603.641
44,726
180,602
1,947,010 |
Ten-year average, 1948-57-
2,542
736,912
2,814,2581| 14,865,814
35,483
236,706
937,760 11,004,026ft1
1
M B.M.—five-year average; M C.F.—six-year average. 100
(19)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Timber-sale Record, 1957
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest Protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver. 	
Prince Rupert 	
Prince George	
632
347
481
539
240
699
470
539
543
330
2,001
1,417
1,672
2,372
934
494,562
378,669
653,162
1,256,313
589,700
444,839
365,183
602,163
1,246,035
578,335
$5,816,633.74
1,293,809.01
2,247,946.99
3,826,327.18
Neknn
1,797,546.66
Totals...	
2,239
305
2,581
8,396
3,372,406
3,236,555
$14,982,263.58
Total sales	
2,544
	
	
   , REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
101
ON
U3
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1957
105
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shir
gle-mills
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Vancouver  	
243
315
704
695
298
9,442
1,923
6,535
5,627
3,225
54
1
3
1,343
107
67
167
62
111
701
368
974
298
783
6
4
87
5
42
Nelson.  	
34
Totals, 1957 	
2.255
26,752
58
1,390
514
3,124
10
121
Totals, 1956	
2,435
29,080
66
1,381
390
2,013
8
15
Totals, 1955 	
2.489
28,016
72
1,804
404
2,285
3
19
Totals, 1954	
2,346
25,602
57
1,108
367
2,281
13
22
Totals, 1953	
2,413
23,300
59
1,121
286
2,186
12
47
Totals, 1952	
2,223
23,433
59
1,173
332
2,092
24
117
Totals, 1951..	
2,100
21,748
60
1,169
294
1,474
16
78
Totals, 1950
1,826
19,143
65
1,234
234
1,462
11
25
Totals, 1949	
1,671
19,082
61
1,101
314
2,373
17
73
Totals, 1948 -
1,671
18,570
68
1,209
179
840
11
51
Ten-year average, 1948-57.
2,143
23,443
62
1,269
331
2,013
12
57
(25)
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), in 1957
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir
Totals, 1957	
Totals, 105fi
Totals, 1955 _	
Tr-tnli:   1<K4
Totals, 1953	
Totals. 1952	
	
Totals, 1951 	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949    	
Totals, 1948	
Ten-year average, 1948-57..
391,670
93,220
6,615
2,687
29.988
524,180
183,859
906,141
3,948,345
5,341,576
4,732,890
5,901,140
1,659,552
6,392,228
9,380,092
4,597,000
743,882
1,994,553
4,874
1,028,179
151,615
64,340
1,788,349
3,993,506
18,163
15,934,814
1,036
162,412
118,011
241,002
5,384,908
2,176,366
1,879
68,632
1,108,987
64,266
1,224
I
3,987,443  |    22,016,291
5,625,910 |      3,421,354
2,933,129
7,468,949
19,595,544
15,853,076
15,944,292
12,229,159
21,625,295
21,382,979
31,127,805
15,214,767
27,433,037
58,8637477"
12,929,722
3,530,479
16,974,165 |      4,754,796
90,691,771
74,187,464
17,465,267 |      9,274,995
18,974,550
5,788,905
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660
51,699,605
10,202,844 |      2,224,693
88,031,088
19,210,615
103,550,707
14,228,041
106,739,296
16,367,096 |
70,796,985
15,037,8
3,015,688
4,708,597
6,381,608
332,671
18,165,200
5,449,174
2,260
320,642
2,687
212,339
35,575,178!
47,010,2261
88,967,528
140,975,922
120,145,571
124,996,218
82,257,441
137,526,550
145,553,955
163,614,289
108,662,288
1 Of this total, 30,175,355 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;   5,399,823
f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas. 106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(26)
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
Railway-ties, etc., 1957
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value.
F.O.B.
Where Exported
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver-
Poles...
Piling..
Fence-posts..
Shakes	
Stakes and sticks...
Poles-
Ties..
Fence-posts	
Cordwood	
Kamloops—
Poles and piling..
Fence-posts —
Christmas trees...
Nelson—
Poles and piling..
Corral-rails	
Mine-timbers	
..lin. ft.
..pieces
..lin'.'ft.
Christmas trees .  —pieces
Prince Rupert—
Poles _ _  lin. ft.
Ties   pieces
Prince George—
Piling  lin. ft.
..cords
lin. ft.
...cords
..pieces
..lin. ft.
Mine-props  cords
Cedar-shakes   —    ,,
Cordwood  — —    „
Fence-posts     ,,
Ties pieces
Christmas trees..
Total value, 1957-
Total value, 1956-
5,194,077
1,229,064
47,305
14,949,469
224,897
92,841
4,908,024
138,987
3,315
1,631,665
127,075
59,033
74
4,586,805
4,938
737,526
6,021,875
43,639
238,311
275
35
6
5,275
10,236
1,725,898
$2,739,129.56
421,750.70
15,137.60
726,696.25
4,047.30
92,841.00
1,914,129.36
208,480.50
944.50
417,617.90
207,216.00
8,854.95
814.00
830,885.80
172,830.00
221,257.80
2,216,107.00
523.00
16,682.00
4,422.00
1,260.00
60.00
168,800.00
21,291.00
862,949.00
3,148,205
116,631
2,200
14,373,334
224,897
92,841
3,381,510
121,515
282
2,293,395
727,362
3,580,420
690
1,523,952
1,005,992
518,713
45,105
1,526,514
138.987
3,315
1,510,150
126,793
59,033
74
2,293,410
4,938
10,164
2,441,455
43,639
238,311
275
35
6
4,585
10,236
201,946
1,039,880
593,720
" 576,135
| $11,274,727.22
|    $8,501,409.09
I
(27)
Summary of Exports of Minor Products for Province, 1957
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles  lin. ft.
Piling                                                                                         ,,
11,733,766
1,232,379
10,608,680
43,639
238,311
224,897
106,338
14,949,469
276,298
2,556,265
10,213
80
275
35
$5,070,876.82
422,695.20
3,046,992.80
523.00
16,682.00
4,047.30
23,992.55
726,696.25
436,987.50
1,177,047.80
341,630.00
874.00
4,422.00
1,260.00
44.9756
3.7491
27.0249
0.0046
0.1480
0.0359
0.2128
Shakes    —     ,,
Ties          „
6.4453
3.8758
10.4397
3.0301
0.0078
Mine-props..   - —-               „
Cedar shakes...     „
0.0392
0.0112
	
$11,274,727.22
100.0000 (28)
report of forest service, 1957
Timber Marks Issued
107
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
Ten-year
Average,
1948-57
791
156
150
439
82
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
549
169
165
505
69
5
8
32
2,591
33
4
4
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
696
201
204
538
62
8
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
63
3
528
175
160
485
69
1
1
30
2,786
44
1
609
218
171
653
95
2
10
31
3,130
43
6
480
207
172
655
82
6
10
46
2,859
71
1
320
108
97
460
59
1
7
23
2,239
74
1
596
Crown grants, 1887-1906	
Crown grants, 1906-1914	
177
157
521
78
Pre-emptions under sections 28
4
6
Indian reserves 	
28
2,718
Special marks and rights-of-way
57
2
1
Totals 	
4,301
3,763
4,134
5,458
4.428
4,139
4,280
4,968
4,589
3,389
4,345
Transfers and changes of marks
745
550
752
1,086
983
744
780
867
873
615
800
(29)
Forest Management Draughting Office, 1957
Month
Number of Drawings Prepared or Tracings Made
Timber
Marks
Timber
Sales
F.M.L.
C.P.1
Survey
Plans1
Miscellaneous
Total
Number of Blue-prints or
Ditto-prints Made from
Draughting Office Drawings
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
Total
January  —
February -	
March 	
April  	
May 	
June 	
July  -   _
August.	
September -	
October  	
November   —
December..	
Totals, 1957—	
Totals, 1956	
Totals, 1955	
Totals, 1954  __	
Totals, 1953 	
Totals, 1952 	
Totals, 1951 	
Totals, 1950— 	
Totals, 1949 _	
Totals, 1948.	
Ten-year average, 1948-57
140
130
131
95
127
116
170
119
131
134
86
92
1,963
2,309
1,983
1,823
2,827
3,196
2,050
1,547
2,300
2,147
36
37
41
21
37
19
19
25
30
43
8
47
381
274
270
491
1,008
828
514
681
526
7
22
17
9
7
7
9
2
3
1
7
16
14
12
19
15
11
15
16
7
11
5
6
47
41
49
35
36
17
52
37
67
59
91
63
246
244
250
179
222
170
265
199
238
257
201
215
705
1,006
991
637
471
575
1,084
785
477
721
396
592
1,670
1,710
1,945
1,025
1,805
900
940
1,220
1,550
2,150
885
2,350
91»  |    1471
594    |    2,686
8,440
819    |    3,226
9,041
1,244    |    3,934
574
2,831
3822
350    |    2,825
1,3872
1,068    |    5,773
1,336---
1,891    |    7,431
1,1082
805    |    4,791
9882
353
3,402
1,2472
241    |    4,469
818
4,137
1,694
6,275
6,976
18,924
13,759
10,184
13,625
11,346
18,150
20,893
15,538
9,920
6,989
10,320
T9.360
16,599
10,344
12,959
14,107
2,375
2,716
2,936
1,662
2,276
1,475
2,024
2,005
2,027
2,871
1,281
2,942
26,590
29,934
24,232
16,195
13,965
29,244
36,900
30,358
20,528
26,584
25,453
1 Included under " Miscellaneous " prior to 1957.
2 This column previously under heading " Examination Sketches.' 108
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(30)
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1957                                	
614,095
723,103
783,517
801,983
757,516
718,284
682,746
631,967
597,790
571,439
596,900
601,148
591,082
571,308
543,044
527,995
543,633
549,250
719,111
756,328
766,413
Acres
146,535
205,503
221,934
236,350
201,264
203,249
191,435
207,308
172,024
158,120
153,072
■ 146,331
142,504
134,194
125,313
112,834
105,541
103,486
89,209
106,833
96,598
Acres
288,046
389,396
429,350
429,037
444,014
433,496
410,037
378,985
340,200
326,738
354,207
364,556
357,037
345,378
325,996
322,306
335,468
338,419
338,794
344,858
363,693
Acres
88,580
64,606
69,822
69,416
27,692
29,418
31,333
8,635
30,625
25,485
26,591
23,125
21,536
20,816
20,205
20,072
26,016
24,852
153,032
157,508
153,566
Acres
90,934
1956                                    -     -                          	
63,598
1955	
1954     	
1953                           	
62,411
67,180
84,546
1952 - 	
1951—      	
1950                 ..  	
52,121
49,941
37,039
1949 	
1948  -	
1947                                	
54,941
61,096
63,030
1946 	
1945	
67,136
70,005
1944     	
70,920
1943
71,529
1942             	
72,781
1941                              - -	
76,608
1940                  -	
82,493
1939                       -                   	
138,075
1938	
1937            - 	
147,129
152,556
(31)
Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts
District Acres
Alberni     19,143
  140,132
  89,298
  1,121
  444
  606
  3,365
 .... 103,236
Nelson-Slocan   139,711
Comox 	
Cowichan	
Gulf Islands
Kamloops
Kettle River.
Lillooet 	
Nanaimo	
District Acres
Omineca   160
Prince George  800
Prince Rupert  34,549
Princeton  555
Quesnel Forks  40
Revelstoke   33,194
Vancouver  3,928
Vernon  639
Victoria   43,174
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection
<32> Tax as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year Area (Acres) Year Area (Acres)
1957 614,095 1938 754,348
1956 723,103 1937 743,109
1955 783,517 1936 515,924
1954 801,983 1935 535,918
1953  757,516 1934 557,481
1952 718,284 1933 567,731
1951 682,746 1932 552,007
1950 631,967 1931 602,086
1949 597,790 1930 629,156
1948 571,439 1929 644,011
1947 596,900 1928 671,131
1946 601,148 1927 690,438
1945 591,082 1926 688,372
1944 571,308 1925 654,016
1943 543,044 1924 654,668
1942 527,995 1923 883,344
1941  543,632 1922 887,980
1940 549,250 1921  845,111
1939 719,112 ,33)
report of forest service, 1957
Forest Revenue
109
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1953
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1954
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1955
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1956
Twelve
Months to
Dec. 31, 1957
Ten-year
Average,
1948-57
$364,497.01
4,670.00
1,646.74
50.00
48,974.49
5.96
187,991.05
15,405,085.68
108,881.28
26,080.28
2,338,624.30
9,046.93
68.74
1,249.14
64,024.29
20,297.86
33.19
27.33
102,983.97
$372,401.39
1,970.00
4,112.38
72,117.02
48.56
235,597.98
14,702,704.22
151,679.94
28,224.58
2,260,406.43
9,190.37
51.77
1,501.64
79,248.71
19,851.56
10.92
102.74
81,589.75
$361,975.14
2,120.16
1,204.89
$365,257.80
3,121.00
1,442.27
$363,632.93
430.00
1,130.33
$372,875.82
Timber-licence transfer fees......
Timber-licence penalty fees
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
2,590.12
2,708.32
72,165.65
73.18
313,865.18
19,538,202.71
221,334.48
39,249.17
2,368,344.78
10,532.29
51.99
740.22
102,231.43
19,592.47
13.05
89.99
75,250.32
72,021.27
15.48
379,821.98
26,335,715.53
213,058.29
42,858.60
2,069,424.19
10,381.64
34.68
768.72
130,293.84
20,139.94
20.19
85.00
79,247.61
364,388.20
70,395.42
60.05
380,963.43
26,327,150.06
208,516.78
37,025.62
1,838,162.25
11,745.99
25.79
3,020.62
141,267.64
19,380.72
21.52
84.50
69,041.15
459,312.26
58,898.36
45.60
204,399.31
13,730,360.79
Timber-sale cruising - _
117,618.54
24,000.78
Timber royalty and tax 	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling
Fund ) 	
Exchange  	
Seizure expenses 	
2,298,493.15
7,736.54
72.98
1,208.49
67,835.87
Timber-berth rentals and bo-
20,093.39
Interest on timber-berth rent-
16.99
Transfer fees on timber berths
99.16
75,749.03
Forest protection tax	
Totals	
$18,684,238.24
$18,020,809.96
$23,127,037.10
$30,088,096.23
$29,931,367.06
$16,984,803.24 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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HHHHHHHHHHH
z 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(36A> Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1956/57
Ten-year
Average
Timber-licence renewal fees         $368,199.05 $378,492.31
Timber-licence transfer fees               1,080.00 2,763.97
Timber-licence penalty fees               1,409.08 3,683.67
Timber-lease rentals             68,699.29 55,863.38
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest                    12.10 55.10
Timber-sale rentals           362,309.36 170,849.09
Timber-sale stumpage      27,425,646.48 10,896,933.96
Timber-sale cruising           220,503.52 98,256.22
Timber-sale advertising             43,332.11 20,301.91
Timber royalty        2,020,496.43 2,414,563.74
Timber tax              2,342.16 22,755.11
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)             10,885.22 4,668.68
Exchange                     30.40 78.49
Seizure expenses                  859.31 856.67
General miscellaneous           145,227.45 55,206.60
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees             20,139.94 18,343.44
Interest on timber-berth rentals                    20.19 27.94
Transfer fees on timber-berths                  48.00 63.89
Grazing fees and interest            76,905.23 63,049.87
Forest protection tax          472,115.05 (!)
$31,240,260.37    $14,206,814.04
Taxation from Crown-granted timber lands   675,079.21 504,947.13
Taxation collected under authority of " Esquimalt
and Nanaimo Railway Belt Land Tax Act"      1,147,535.382 	
Taxation collected on forest land  (section 32a,
"Taxation Act")          652,243.083        	
Taxation collected on tree-farm land (section 33a,
" Taxation Act")    33,368.41* 	
$33,748,486.45
1 Formerly credited to Forest Protection Fund.
2 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last seven fiscal years.
3 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last three fiscal years.
1 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last four fiscal years. (36B)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
Forest Revenue by Fiscal Years
113
Fiscal Year
Direct Forest
Revenue
Taxation from
Crown-granted
Lands
Taxation Collected under
Sees. 32a and
33a of "Taxation Act"
Taxation Collected under
Authority of
"E. &N. Railway Belt Land
Tax Act"
Total
1956-57. -	
19«_S6
$31,240,260.37
23,867,705.50
19,130,835.31
17,578,625.58
18,016,025.17
13,703,715.41
10,089,884.69
8,331,497.19
7,977,676.22
7,010,038.77
4,880,232.89
4,352,179.14
4,017,653.53
3,703,703.13
3,519,892.44
4,057,437.86
3,549,931.53
3,236,731.36
2,982,702.42
3,257,525.05
3,001,054.84
$675,079.21
681,503.26
621,527.16
612,865.29
588,821.78
484,475.51
440,213.07
445,632.68
453,980.08
253,345.02
237,506.83
244,980.89
213,912.46
203,457.36
206,146.21
211,410.13
224,652.87
267,290.48
241,109.96
269,285.54
299,992.41
$685,611.49
532,010.00
518,648.74
$1,147,535.38
940,632.27
879,822.00
863,116.21
418,395.59
972,156.13
345,220.16
$33,748,486.45
26,021,851.03
1954-55 	
1953-54  ....
21,150,833.21
19,054,607.08
1952 53                   	
19,023,242.54
1951 52                            	
15,160,347.05
1950-51
10,875,317.92
1949-50    	
8,777,129.87
1948-49    	
8,431,656.30
1947-48    	
	
7,263,383.79
1946-47  	
5,117,739.72
1945 46	
4,597,160.03
1944-45 _ __	
4,231,565.99
1943-44 	
	
3,907,160.49
1942-43	
3,726,038.65
1941-42 	
4,268,847.99
1940-41  	
3,774,584.40
1939^10  	
3,504,021.84
1938-39	
3,223,812.38
1937-38	
	
3,526,810.59
1936-37	
3,301,047.25
(37)
Forest Service Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1956/57 x
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
Victoria	
$380,232.88
238,219.04
257,227.69
362,626.07
319,746.12
425,264.97
$163,156.43
106,810.95
93,737.37
110,309.88
99,553.20
344,924.12
Totals..
$1,983,316.77
$918,491.95
Reforestation and forest nursery-
Provincial parks  	
Forest management 	
Forest research.  	
Public relations	
Forest Ranger SchooL.
Grant to Canadian Forestry Association-
Office furniture and equipment	
Silviculture2  	
Youth-training Programme.  _	
Engineering services 	
Forest protection  	
Forest surveys 	
Grazing Range Improvement Fund2..
Forest-development roads2	
Special Warrant No. 14	
Special Warrant No. 15	
Fire suppression-
Forestry administration buildings and property-
Park development 	
Temporary assistance	
Grand total..
1 All figures in this table are true gross expenditures.
2 Separate statements on these items are shown in this Report.
$543,389.31
345,029.99
350,965.06
472,935.95
419,299.32
770,189.09
$2,901,808.72
380,775.14
902,618.58
284,258.85
155,032.60
96,248.12
104,158.36
6,000.00
49,704.63
1,152,249.23
128,277.12
336,082.93
2,458,439.71
1,088,442.41
35,846.64
1,198,950.13
6,500.00
37,000.00
493,524.96
50,285.75
876,596.19
320,705.32
$13,063,505.39 114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<38> Scaling Fund
Balance for April 1st, 1956 (debit)     $137,810.65
Collections, fiscal year 1956/57      960,566.60
$822,755.95
Expenditures, fiscal year 1956/57   $1,089,428.81
Less refunds  2,588.79
  1,086,840.02
Deficit, March 31st, 1957 (debit)     $264,084.07
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1957       961,464.13
$697,380.06
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1957       811,724.93
Balance, December 31st, 1957 (debit)     $114,344.87
(39> Silviculture Fund
Credit balance at March 31st, 1956   $537,165.55
Less applied to Vote 264, fiscal-year estimates 1956/57      300,000.00
Less balance in Fund taken to revenue (Fund abolished March
31st, 1957)      237,165.55
Balance at March 31st, 1957   Nil
(40> Grazing Range Improvement Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1956 (credit)  $37,617.24
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")     38,611.23
$76,228.47
Expenditures, fiscal year 1956/57  $36,097.10
Less refunds         250.46
     35,846.64
Balance, March 31st, 1957 (credit)  $40,381.83
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")     38,452.61
$78,834.44
Expenditures, April 1st, 1957, to December 31st, 1957     42,687.19
Balance, December 31st, 1957 (credit)  $36,147.25
J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957 115
(4i) Forest Development Fund
Amounts borrowed under authority of " Forest Development Fund Loan Act, 1948 "■—•
Fiscal year 1950/51  $35,000.00
Fiscal year 1951/52  45,000.00
Fiscal year 1952/53  185,000.00
Amounts advanced under authority of the Legislature—
Fiscal year 1953/54    345,104.72
Fiscal year 1954/55  312,207.48
Fiscal year 1955/56  304,162.33
Fiscal year 1956/57  999,221.34
Nine months to December 31st, 1957  1,338,437.82
Total gross expenditures—
Fiscal year 1950/51  $7,958.84
Fiscal year 1951/52  71,986.26
Fiscal year 1952/53  161,378.25
Fiscal year 1953/54  365,883.00
Fiscal year 1954/55  364,910.47
Fiscal year 1955/56  439,131.51
Fiscal year 1956/57  1,186,353.68
Nine months to December 31st, 1957  1,427,931.64
$3,564,133.69
$4,025,533.65
Less collections (under authority of section  164 (4), "Forest Act")
and loan repayments—
Fiscal year 1952/53      $10,582.22
Fiscal year 1953/54        20,778.28
Fiscal year 1954/55       52,702.99
Fiscal year 1955/56      134,969.18
Fiscal year 1956/57      187,132.34
Nine months to December 31st, 1957        89,493.82
        495,658.83
     3,529,874.82
Balance, December 31st, 1957 (credit)        $34,258.87 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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117
(43)
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
by Other Agencies, 1957
Forest District
Expenditures
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals..
$125,600.00
32,844.00
47,000.00
3,400.00
8,870.00
$228,000.00
21,780.00
8,000.00
16,440.00
34,005.00
$217,714.00
$308,225.00
Ten-year average, 1948-57..
$253,986.00    i   $333,226.00
$62,993.00
5,381.51
24,507.00
8,832.00
39,326.00
$36,000.00
12,408.00
6,000.00
69,950.00
57,225.00
$141,039.51
$181,583.00
$259,892.00
$99,500.00
$452,593.00
72,413.51
85,507.00
98,622.00
139,426.00
$848,561.51
$946,604.00
<44)        Summary of Snag-falling, 1957, Vancouver Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1957  70,862
Logged in small exempted operations1      835
Assessed for non-compliance, less 1,864 acres subsequently felled  1,517
■     2,352
Balance logged acres snagged, 1957  68,510
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1957, Vancouver
<45) Forest District
Total area logged, 1957-
Acres
70,862
Area covered by full hazard reports  36,769
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-disposal1  32,267
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from slash and snag
disposal)           835
Slash created too late to be dealt with in 1957..
69,871
991
Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, " Forest Act."
Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1957,
<46) Vancouver Forest District
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1957 19571
Broadcast burning     1,697 3,109
Spot burning  14,621 17,342
Total Acres
4,806
31,963
Totals..
16,318
20,451
36,769
1957 reports not recommending slash-disposal  32,267
1957 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination      835
Total area of slash dealt with, 1957..
69,871
1 Above table does not include the estimated 991 acres (see Table 45) created too late to be dealt with in 1957. 118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1957, Vancouver
<47> Forest District
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table 46)  36,769
Acres of Slash
Type of Disposal                                             Prior to 1957            1957 Total Acres
Spring broadcast burning          96                 30 126
Spring spot burning1 =     1,015                   2 1,017
Fall broadcast burning   14,788            6,856 21,644
Fall spot burning2  20,407            7,851 28,258
Total burning completed  51,045
Burned by accidental fires     1,139
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc     Ml
Total i  52,184
Balance reported slash not yet abated     NU
Slash created, 1957—acres assessed     Nil
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1957        991
Total area of slash carried over to 1958 for disposition     Nil
1 Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 149 acres.   Difference accounted for by clean-up of older slash previously extended or assessed.
2 Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 2,833  acres.    Does r«ot show the acreage instructed in  1957 to be
extended or assessed in 1958.
The above figures do not include 1956 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1956 Annual Report,
1,885 acres.
(48> Summary of Operations, 1957, Vancouver Forest District
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District  1,231
Intentional slash-burns  254
Operations on which slash was disposed of by lopping, scattering, land-
clearing, etc.   Nil
Operations on which slash was accidentally burned     27
Operations not required to burn  783
Operations granted total exemption under subsection (3), section 113,
" Forest Act "  220
Operations where compensation assessed or security deposit posted     90
Operations pending decision re assessment or further time for disposal-    45
  L4191
1 Difference noted above is accounted for by slash on some operations being disposed of by both accidental and
intentional means and some operators conducting both spring and fall burns.
Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1957, Vancouver
<49> Forest District
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1957 acres 1,670
Net damage to forest-cover     $29,114.00
Net damage to cut products       50,462.00
Net damage to equipment and property       94,682.00
Total damage   $ 174,258.00
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Cost per Cost per
Total Cost               Acres            M B.F. Acre
(a) Spring broadcast burning        $457.04               126          $0.09 $3.63
(b) Spring spot burning       2,344.22            1,017              .08 2.30
(c) Fall broadcast burning   117,007.67          21,544              .14 5.43
{d) Fall spot burning    75,791.65         28,258             .09 2.68
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M b.f. per acre.
(b) and (d) based on volume of 30 M b.f. per acre. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
119
(SO)
Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1935-57
1957-
1956-
1955..
1954-
1953-
1952-
1951-
1950..
1949-
1948-
1947-
1946..
1945-
1944-
1943-
1942..
1941-
1940
1939.
1938..
1937-
1936.
1935..
Acres of Slash Burned
Accidentally      Intentionally
1,139
51,045
2,872
19,551
199
34,486
225
41,596
17
22,220
3,856
39,064
11,614
10,436
1,700
25,389
1,468
53,543
2,215
30,652
2,663
34,414
2,174
25,498
3,897
46,467
5,121
27,278
2,046
40,013
4,504
80,226
3,385
5,524
2,265
33,034
1,930
51,603
35,071
50,033
3,015
27,516
1,340
7,691
11,783
13,239
Recapitulation of Snag-falling, 1940-57, by Logging
<51> Operations and Forest Service
(Acres totally logged.)
Year
Logging
Operations,
Vancouver
District
(Sec. 113)
Forest
Service by
Protection
Division
Forest
Service by
Reforestation
Division1
Total
1957 -	
1956	
1955   -  	
1954                    	
68.510
82,688
78,450
74,332
73,556
67,214
66,120
72,205
47,770
56,778
74,567
57,424
55,508
51,440
49,130
58,097
58,247
40,000
4,464
4,069
3,717
1,947
884
541
980
1,500
5,084
4,731
7,711
10,387
7,820
9,517
6,583
11,440
12,500
16,843
13,000
16,775
4,181
2,620
21,409
20,960
15,000
5,500
78,058
91,488
89,878
86,666
1953                     -	
82,260
1952	
77,272
1951                     	
73,683
1950                                                           	
85,145
1949	
60,270
1948                                               	
120
1,500
73,741
1947 	
1946
89,067
74,199
1945                     '■'                        	
59,689
1944    ..               	
54,060
1943                     	
70,539
1949
5,896
341
84,953
1941                         	
73,588
1940                                                              	
45,500
1 Includes all areas snagged for planting (Coast and Interior), areas snagged in parks, and A.S.W. work during
war years. 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(52)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1957
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
3
9
5
13
29
37
38
249
24
48
74
41
72
16
35
75
40
91
2
7
82
123
64
3
11
77
80
50
4
10
71
60
34
10
25
7
565
65
159
441
389
34.9
4.0
9.8
27.3
Nelson	
24.0
Totals               	
12
122
436
238
305
235
195
76
1,619
100.0
Per Cent        -
0.7
7.5
26.9
14.7
18.9
14.5
12.1
4.7
100.0
13
59
292
203
408
382
195
33
1,585
Per Cent  	
0.8
3.7
18.4
12.8
25.8
24.1
12.3
2.1
100.0
(53)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1957
i.     C
to
m
Forest District
on
a
xn
2«
m
.5   73
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gnu
= »i
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00
£
U
s 2
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O
£
■-Z °
CQ _t!
■ohU
it
So
a
<U
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S8
c
a
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O
H
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9
22
382
40
17
11
20
50
14
565
34.9
6
7
6
4
12
3
11
11
5
65
4.0
28
33
20
13
4
5
24
2
29
1
159
9.8
99
87
26
74
17
5
26
6
82
19
441
27.3
165
21
21
51
15
22
26
14
48
6
389
24.0
307
170
455
182
65
46
107
22
220
45
1,619
100.0
19.0
10.5
28.1
11.2
4.0
2.8
6.6
1.4
13.6
2.8
100.0
Ten-year average, 1948-57—
403
201
315
237
78
25
100
18
168
40
1,585
	
Per Cent                	
25.4
12.7
19.9
15.0
4.9
1.6
6.3
1.1
10.6
2.5
100.0
(54)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years
Causes
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
Total
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
1,923~
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
597
174
184
171
47
10
83
10
116
28
116
157
118
120
63
11
64
12
82
21
418
195
206
206
47
24
89
15
134
50
497
214
1,090
281
112
73
183
27
260
73
307
170
455
182
65
46
107
22
220
45
4,035
2,007
3,154
2,375
778
251
Smokers - 	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) —
Road and  power- and telephone-line
999
176
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
1,677
397
799
1,701
1,515
1,914
1,420
764
1,384
2,810
1,619
15,849 (55)
report of forest service, 1957
Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1957
121
Total Fires
Under Va Acre
Vt to 10 Acres
Over 10 to 500
Acres
Over 500 Acres
in Extent
Damage
Forest District
E
3
Z
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Vancouver.  .
565
65
159
441
389
34.9
4.0
9.8
27.3
24.0
500
21
75
267
288
88.5
32.3
47.2
60.5
74.0
43.5
1.8
6.5
23.2
25.0
45
24
50
126
84
8.0
36.9
31.4
28.6
21.6
13.7
7.3
15.2
38.3
25.5
18
17
25
47
16
3.2
26.2
15.7
10.7
4.1
14.7
13.8
20.3
38.2
13.0
2
3
9
1
1
0.3
4.6
5.7
0.2
0.3
13.0
18.8
56.2
6.0
6.0
553
56
137
421
372
3
6
15
15
10
9
3
7
5
7
Totals	
1,619
100.0
1,151
...... | 100.0
329
—
100.0
123
100.0
16| —
100.0
1,539|   49|   31
100.0
71.1
_|     .__
20.3
..._.
-....
7.6
	
1.0| ......
95.1[ 3.0| 1.9
Ten-year average, 1948-57
1
1,585j 	
998
411
142
34
1
 j 1,466
70
49
100.0
1 63.0
	
25.9
	
9.0
-- 1 -	
1
2.11—1 	
1         1
92.5
4.4
31
(56)
Damage to Property Other than Forests, 19571
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Vancouver	
$22,046.00
10,595.00
750.00
$750.00
$42,249.00
2,260.00
27,000.00
11,308.00
130.00
$300.00
$65,345.00
12,855.00
29,915.00
13,196.00
8,893.00
50.2
9.9
1,000.00
1,750.00
1,000.00
1,165.00
138.00
6,670.00
■    23.0
10.1
Nelson...	
1,093.00
6.8
Totals	
$34,484.00
$4,500.00
$82,947.00
$8,273.00
$130,204.00
100.0
26.50
3.50
63.70
6.30
100.00
Ten-year average, 1948-57	
$156,107.00
$22,392.00
$184,393.00
$23,627.00
$386,519.00
40.40
5.80
47.70
6.10
100.00
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 118.)
c57-1      Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1957—Part I1
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
Net Area
Killed
U
tsB-o
d 3 <D
sis
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
CD
Uj
73
O.
»2o
Z«-J
73
SJ
z^
-E-3
« 3 JD
o oq
7->U
00
d
s
d
■ Q
73
Si
u?3
Is
0r>
Acres
72
585
429
308
MB.F.
1,358
MB.F.
1,358
$
5,775
995
20,071
Acres
8
MB.F.
$
16
223
47
Acres
46
96
1,335
1,727
1,029
$
2,920
2,744
2,107
58
2,538
850
15
120
65
160
188
5,593
Kamloops..	
490
1,120
10,769
17,745
Totals	
1,394
6,061
2,343
26,841
421
1,610
286
4,233
39,771
2.1
79.0
38.7
21.8
0.6
21.0
0.3
6.4
32.3
Ten-year average, 1948-57.
7,056
68,801
37,658
132,636
3,502
2,861
9,534
31,457
187,900
2.7
96.0
54.7
32.7
1.4
4.0
2.3
12.2
46.3
Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 118.) 122 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<57>     Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1957—Part II1
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
Noncommercial
Cover
Grazing or
Pasture
Land
Nonproductive
Sites
Grand Totals
Forest District
■a
si
■og
Si    -
eo-2
■-ID
•a   -o
Si        CD
DO       C
MT3 fc.
O 3 3
S ~.~
■a"   -a
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C        BO
C~ 00
3 O o
mZiJ
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E
73
a
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CD fc.
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OO
ed
B
d
Q
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u
cs q
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5 3
V
eo
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rt C
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CD
60
E
rt
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73
3
a
si
73
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rt
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Vancouver.	
Acres
1,126
291
2,184
146
152
Acres
185
84
4
145
Acres
758
1
1,034
504
108
$
1,201
2,189
31,795
3,142
3,528
Acres
258
5,321
9,634
1,821
149
14
1,310
2,276
1,325
34
Acres
7
439
400
522
125
$
22
38
239
30
Acres
584
1,238
33,264
59
133
$
135
310
8,294
13
239
Acres
3,044
7,470
48,505
5,368
2,337
MB.F.
1,358
2,107
548
3,658
$
4,270
6,575
53,787
16,706
41,694
Totals. —	
3,899|     418| 2,405
41,855
17,183
4,959
1,493
329
35,2781 8,991
66,724
7,671
123,032
5.8|      0.6|      3.6
34.0
25.8
4.0
2.2
0.3
52.91      7.3
100.0
100.0
100.0
Ten-year average,
1948-57- -.
1           1
5,810| 2,506|20,201
38,827
83,374
21,903
46,470
2,487
57,977 12,470
258,353
71,662
405,757
2.21      1.0
7.8
9.6
32.3
5.4
18.0
0.6
22.41      3.1
100.0
100.0
100.0
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 118.)
(58)
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and
Total Damage, 1957
Causes
Fire Causes
Area Burned
Forest Service Cost
Total Damage
Number
Per Cent
Acres
Per Cent
Amount
Per Cent
Amount
Per Cent
307
170
455
182
65
46
107
22
220
45
19.0
10.5
28.1
11.2
4.0
2.8
6.6
1.4
13.6
2.8
7,483
8,577
188
1,038
1,216
1,562
5,737
23
40,889
11
11.2
12.9
0.3
1.6
1.8
2.3
8.6
61.3
$25,650.00
12,610.00
923.00
6,874.00
1,277.00
462.00
77,633.00
1,808.00
30,397.00
44.00
16.3
8.0
0.6
4.4
0.8
0.3
49.2
1.1
19.3
$8,626.00
7,824.00
7,955.00
17,856.00
5,207.00
8,766.00
155,224.00
819.00
40,888.00
71.00
3.4
3.1
3.1
7.1
Brush-burning (not railway-
2.1
Road and power- and tele-
3.5
61.3
0.3
Miscellaneous (known causes).
Unknown causes 	
16.1
Totals. _
1,619
100.0
66,724
100.0
$157,678.00
100.0
$253,236.00
100.0 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1957
123
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fc (63)
report of forest service, 1957
Enrolment at Ranger School, 1957
125
Forest District
Forest
Assistants
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
Vancouver  	
3
1
6
5
2
8
5
6
5
5
8
5
1
—
Research Division	
	
Attendance, 1957. 	
4
26
30
30
4
26
30
Attendance, 1956.	
3
18
21
21
Attendance, 1955 	
3
18
—
21
—
Attendance, 1954 	
20
20
20
Attendance, 1953 	
21
21
Attendance, 1953  	
20
20
20
Attendance, 1952	
20
20
—
Attendance, 1951..	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1950       	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949 	
3
2
16
....
21
Attendance, 1948	
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947	
8
12
....
20
20
Attendance, 1946   ...
2
9                  9
20
20
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949/50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course. 126
(64)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Motion-picture Library, 1948-57
Stock Records
Year
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
Films in library at January 1st	
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
75
9
9
75
76
75
8
7
74
71
74
3
6
77
72
77
80
24
8
64
64
64
2
9
71
70
71
3
10
78
80
78
New films added during year..	
Films in library at December 31st
3
80
79
2
80
79
Circulation Records
Number of loans  made  during
year.
Number of film loans during year
(one film loaned one time)	
Number of showings during year..
Number of audiences—
Adults  	
Children-
Mixed	
Totals..
436
1,122
1,293
21,633
20,455
42,930
85,018
397
1,075
1,505
14,568
24,031
87,506
126,105
416
1,046
1,880
26,988
95,102!
43,282
165,372!
461
1,057
2,943
13,542
264.2451
26,706
304,4931
492
1,218
2,764
13,655
157,085s
59,182
234,3962
490
1,158
2,288
12,640
118,622-
43,099
174,3672
1,474
2,664
12,333
102,0131
54,069
168,4151
429
1,280
1,998
14,353
131,8441
41,340
413
.743
909
537
.0861
587
455
1,758
1,956
18,983
86,829i
38,143
187,5371 |218,275i 1148,1241
1 Including attendances of lecture tour of two school lecturers.
2 Including attendances of lecture tour of three school lecturers.
Leased Films, 1957
Title
Number of
Showings
Number in Audience
Adult
Children
Mixed
Total
12
155
91
160
726
14,871
698
829
" Olympic Flk "
15,884
(65)
Summary of Programmes by School Lecturers, 1957
Lecturer
Period
Schools
Non-school
Grand Total
Forest
District
Number of
Schools
Number of
Programmes
Total
Attendance
Number
Attendance
Number of
Programmes
Total
Attendance
Kamloops	
Kamloops	
Prince George-
Prince George-
Vancouver
Nelson	
T. C. Jones
R. F. Hall
T. C. Jones
R. F. Hall
T. C. Jones
R. F. Hall
T. C. Jones
February to March	
January to February
34
37
20
46
10
20
22
47
39
25
50
11
27
33
7,690
2,356
2,151
3,520
871
2,349
4,653
4
6
2
1
1
3
122
227
84
20
30
92
38
45
27
51
11
28
36
7,812
2,583
2,235
3,540
April	
October to November
October to November
871
2,379
4,745
Totals
189"
232       1  23.590
17
575
236      1 24.165 (66)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1957
Forest Service Library, 1948-57
127
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
Ten-year
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1948-57
39
123
140
72
3,543
36
100
153
80
2,074
27
62
140
102
1,960
23
109
152
no
2,650
9
122
337
115
2,203
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
62
246
92
124
127
932
55
190
94
136
141
1,090
37
179
170
151
177
1,321
45
266
109
155
214
1,417
37
188
148
116
Serialsi   	
1,899
1 Previous to 1953, included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
(67)
Grazing Permits Issued
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Forest District
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,122
434
84
110,757
14,810
3,411
2,721
972
193
18,839
1,835
19
Totals, 1957 	
1,640
128,978                  3,886
20,693
Totals, 1956	
1,776
127,182        |         3,667
22,310
Totals, 1955	
1,705
121,284
3,575
22,560
Totals, 1954	
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
Totals, 1953	
1,730
108,894
4,133
23,172
Totals, 1952  	
1,621
104,610
4,040
23,565
Totals, 1951 _	
1,561
100,082
4,350
22,282
Totals, 1950 _.
1,562
98,484
4,650
23,100
Totals, 1949 	
1,496
101,349
5,029
25,842
Totals, 1948	
1,444
110,333
6,644
29,444
N.B.—Some of the figures in this table for the years 1948 to 1951, inclusive, have been revised and differ from those
shown in previous Reports. Past tables have shown net figures for some years and gross figures for others. This table
shows the total number of permits issued and the net number of live stock covered for each of the years listed.
(68)
Grazing Fees Billed and Collected
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collectedi
Outstanding
1957                                             	
$67,593.88
76,155.51
76,061.32
80,191.97
95,088.64
125,495.09
108,400.14
80,178.43
27,819.65
28,960.42
$68,131.94
79,247.61
75,250.32
85,043.96
102,460.00
110,731.32
106,161.36
74,305.08
28,299.94
27,089.74
$13,117.01
1956                                              	
13,655.07
1955        	
16,577.24
1954	
15,766.24
1953
20,618.23
1952     —                      .             — .
27,989.59
13,225.82
10,986.74
5,113.39
5,597.18
1951                 ...                                .    -               	
1950              _                                                  . 	
1949   — 	
1948  	
i Includes statutory penalties.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
in right of the Province of British Columbia.
1958
1,260-158-3670 

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