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Minister of Mines PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT For the Year Ended 31st December 1956 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1958]

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 Minister of Mines
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
For the Year Ended 31st December
1956
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiaRmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1957 BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES
VICTORIA, B.C.
Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister.
John F. Walker, Deputy Minister.
H. C. Hughes, Chief Inspector of Mines.
G. Cave-Browne-Cave, Chief Analyst and Assayer.
Hartley Sargent, Chief, Mineralogical Branch.
P. J. Mulcahy, Chief Gold Commissioner and Chief Commissioner,
Petroleum and Natural Gas.
J. D. Lineham, Chief, Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Branch. To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Mining Industry of the Province for the year 1956 is
herewith respectfully submitted.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Mines.
Minister of Mines' Office.
May, 1957.  CONTENTS Page
Introduction    A 7
Review of the Mineral Industry    A 9
Statistics—
Method of Computing Production  A 13
Table I.—Total Mineral Production for All Years Up to and Including 1956 A 17
Table II.—Production for Each Year from 1836 to 1956, Inclusive,.—,  A 17
Table III.—Quantity and Value of Mineral Products for Years 1947 to 1956 A 18
Table IV (Graph).—Mineral Production Value, 1895-1956  A 20
Table V (Graph).—Principal Lode-metals Production, 1913-56  A 21
Table VI.—Production of Principal Metals, 1858-1956  A 22
Table VIIa.—Production, 1955 and 1956, by Mining Divisions—Summary A 24
Table VIIb.—Production, 1955 and 1956, by Mining Divisions—Principal
Lode Metals  A 26
Table Vile.—Production, 1955 and 1956, by Mining Divisions—Miscellaneous Metals '.  A 27
Table VIId.—Production, 1955 and 1956, by Mining Divisions—Industrial
Minerals  A 28
Table VIIe.—Production, 1955 and 1956, by Mining Divisions—Structural
Materials .  A 29
Table VIIIa.—Production to Date by Mining Divisions—Summary  A 30
Table VIIIb.—Production to Date by Mining Divisions — Principal Lode
Metals  A 31
Table VIIIc.—Production to Date by Mining Divisions — Miscellaneous
Metals  A 32
Table VIIId.—Production to Date by Mining Divisions—Industrial Minerals A 34
Table VIIIe.—Production to Date by Mining Divisions—Structural Materials A 36
Table IXa.—Quantity (Gross) and Value of Coal per Year to Date  A 37
Table IXb.—Coal Production (Gross) by Districts and Mining Divisions  A 37
Table IXc—Quantity and Value of Coal Sold and Used, 1946-56  A 38
Table X.—Coke and By-products Production for Years 1895 to 1925 and
1926 to 1956  A 39
Table XL—Dividends Paid by Mining Companies, 1897-1956  A 40
Table XII.—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for Mining Operations
of All Classes  A 44
Table XIII.—Average Number Employed in the Mining Industry, 1901-56 __ A 45
Table XIV.—Lode-metal Mines—Tonnage, Number of Mines, Net and Gross
Value of Principal Metals, 1901-56  A 46
Table XV.—Lode-metal Producers in 1956  A 47
Table XVI.—Lode-metal Mines Employing an Average of Ten or More Men
during 1956  A 52
Departmental Work  A 53
Administrative Branch  A 53
Central Records Offices (Victoria and Vancouver)  A 53
Mining Divisions Amalgamated since 1949 '.  A 54
List of Gold Commissioners, Mining Recorders, and Sub-Mining Recorders   A 54
Gold Commissioners' and Mining Recorders' Office Statistics, 1956  A 56
Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas  A 57
Mining Laws and Laws Related to the Mineral Industry  A 58
Analytical and Assay Branch  A 58
Inspection Branch  A 60
Mineralogical Branch  A 61
Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch _'  A 62
Grub-staking Prospectors  A 63
Museums  .  A 67
A 5 A 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Departmental Work—Continued page
Publications  A 67
Maps Showing Mineral Claims, Placer Claims, and Placer-mining Leases  A 67
Joint Offices of the British Columbia Department of Mines and the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Canada  A 68
Topographic Mapping and Air Photography  A 69
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys  A 71
Geological Survey of Canada  A 71
Field Work by the Geological Survey in British Columbia, 1956  A 71
Publications of the Geological Survey  A 72
Mines Branch  A 72
Lode Metals         1
Placer      137
Structural Materials and Industrial Minerals     145
Petroleum and Natural Gas     161
Inspection of Lode Mines, Placer Mines, and Quarries     167
Coal      195
Inspection of Electrical Equipment and Installations     227
List of Publications    231
List of Libraries     237
Lode-metal Deposits Referred to in the 1956 Annual Report     239
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Photographs
Tailings pond from Jersey mine, Salmo River  81
H.B. mine and mill, valley of Sheep Creek  81
Diesel locomotive, 2800 portal of H.B. mine  84
Underground repair-shop, Jersey mine  84
Outcrop of King Fissure ore zone, Jordan River  113
Looking down Columbia River toward Revelstoke  113
Magnetite replacing limestone, North Paxton pit  118
Iron Hill pit  118
Placer-mining on Dragon Creek  140
Dragline operation, Devlin Bench  140
Running pressure test at well-head, Pacific Imperial Boundary Lake 1  162
Tank farm, Boundary Lake field  162
Figure DRAWINGS
1. Poison Mountain area . 36
2. Index map of some properties in Highland Valley  42
3. Eastern part of the Iron Mask batholith Facing 49
4. Makaoo Development Company Limited.   Copper Head and Python workings
 Facing 55
5. Iron Mask mine area Facing 59
6. Hypothetical structural interpretation in the vicinity of the Iron Mask mine  62
7. Ajax mineral claim.   Diamond drilling, mineralization, and inferred geology  65
8. Spider zone.   No. 5 level  103
9. Spider and Eclipse zones.   No. 10 level  104
10. Cowichan Copper mine.   1340 level in vicinity of " H " orebody Facing 121
11. Plan showing Tassoo magnetite zone  126
12. Star group, Porcher Island  128
13. Texada Mines Ltd.   Main pit outlines (July, 1956)  130
14. Plan showing Iron River deposits  132
15. Head Bay deposits  134
16. Average dust counts obtained each year since 1937  187 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE MINISTER
OF MINES, 1956
Introduction
A Report of the Minister of Mines of the Province of British Columbia has been
published each year since 1874.
The Annual Report records the salient facts in the progress of the mineral industry,
also much detail about individual operations, including those undertaken in the search
for, exploration of, and development of mineral deposits, as well as the actual winning
of material from mineral deposits.
The Annual Report of the Minister of Mines now contains introductory sections
dealing with Statistics and Departmental Work, followed by sections dealing with Lode
Metals; Placer; Structural Materials and Industrial Minerals; Petroleum and Natural Gas;
Inspection of Lode Mines, Placer Mines, and Quarries; Coal; and Inspection of Electrical
Equipment and Installations at Mines and Quarries, each with its own table of contents.
A table listing the properties described, in geographic groupings, precedes the index.
An introductory review of the mineral industry and notes at the first of several of
the main sections deal generally with the industry or its principal subdivisions. Notes in
the various sections deal briefly with exploration or production operations during the
year or describe a property in more complete detail, outlining the history of past work and
the geological setting as well as describing the workings and the mineral deposits exposed
in them.   Some notes deal with areas rather than with a single property.
The work of the branches of the Department is outlined briefly in the section on
Departmental Work. This section is followed by notes dealing briefly with the work of
the British Columbia or Federal Government services of particular interest to the mineral
industry of British Columbia. Information concerning mine operations and some of the
activities of the Inspection Branch of the Department of Mines is contained in the section
on Inspection of Lode Mines, Placer Mines, and Quarries, early in the section on Coal
and in the section on Inspection of Electrical Equipment and Installations at Mines and
Quarries. For this 1956 Annual Report, notes on electrical installations at mines are
printed for separate distribution and are not included in the Report.
The section on Statistics begins with an outline of current and past practice in
arriving at quantities and calculating the value of the various products.
A 7  Review of the Mineral Industry in British
Columbia, 1956*
In total value of all products, in the value of two of the five groups of products, in
quantity of zinc produced, and in several other items new records were established by
the mineral industry of British Columbia in the year ended December 31st, 1956. As a
portent of future developments the commercial production of petroleum achieved early
in the year may well have been the most significant of the records established.
Substantial progress was made in the construction of the main pipe-line to convey
natural gas from northeastern British Columbia and the neighbouring part of Alberta to
markets in southern British Columbia and south of the International Boundary. Other
features of the year's activities include the equipping of two properties with mills for
concentrating copper ore, equipping an iron property with a mill that, in addition to
producing a high-grade iron concentrate, recovers a by-product copper concentrate, and
the beginning of a programme to prepare another iron property for production.
Prospecting and exploration were carried on in many parts of the Province, notably
in the northwestern part where much interest was shown in the search for lode metals and
asbestos, in the northeastern part where the interest was in petroleum and natural gas, in
south central British Columbia where interest was principally in copper, and on Vancouver and Moresby Islands where the interest was in copper and iron. Interest was also
shown in coal, principally on upper Elk River, in the Crowsnest Pass area. The number
of mineral claims recorded, more than 26,000, is the greatest in any year and is nearly
five times the yearly average for the preceding ten years. The area held under permit,
licence, and lease, under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act," has been exceeded in
one year only, and the total drilling in wells drilled for petroleum and natural gas is
substantially greater than for any previous year.
Tables listing average metal prices, quantities and values of mineral products, production from various parts of British Columbia, dividends, and principal items of expenditure by the mineral industry, appear on pages A 16 to A 52 and permit comparison with
preceding years.
The total value for all mineral products, $190,084,643, is substantially greater than
for any preceding year in British Columbia records of 120 years of mineral production.
The record production value reflects high output in all the major subdivisions of the
mineral industry. Principal lode metals contributed 71 per cent of the total. The value
for this group, $135,004,363, has been exceeded only in 1951. Miscellaneous metals,
including tungsten, iron, and the by-product metals recovered from silver-lead-zinc ores
contributed 7 per cent of the total. Structural materials contributed 11 per cent of the
total value, and industrial minerals and fuels each contributed more than 5 per cent. The
values for industrial minerals and for structural materials exceeded previous years; several items in these groups set new records, notably asbestos, cement, sand and gravel, and
rubble, riprap, and crushed rock.
Gold output in 1956 was materially less than in 1955, principally because the historic Nickel Plate mine was closed in September, 1955, but small reductions in gold
output were common throughout the Province. Silver output increased by 500,000
ounces, increases in the Omineca and Slocan Mining Divisions being more than enough
to offset losses in several other mining divisions. Output of copper and lead declined
slightly with little change in value, zinc output increased by ZVi per cent in quantity and
11 per cent in value.
* By Hartley Sargent, Chief of the Mineralogical Branch.
A 9 A  10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
The value of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc produced in British Columbia is
controlled by United States prices for those metals, by the rate of exchange, and by
duties on ores or metals entering the United States*. Prices for silver, lead, and zinc
rose slightly in the United States in 1956. The price for copper rose to 49.121 cents a
pound in the latter part of March and thereafter fell steadily, reaching 33.58 cents a
pound at the end of the year.
The value of the Canadian dollar in United States funds ranged from $0.9908 on
January 5th, 1956, to $1.0426 on January 5th, 1957, averaging $1.0162 for the calendar
year. Accordingly prices for the principal metals, in Canadian funds, averaged approximately 1.6 per cent below United States prices, compared with 1.37 per cent for 1955.
However, at the end of 1956 the discount on United States funds was more than 4 per
cent. The steadily increasing discount on the United States dollar in Canada partly offset
the small gains in United States prices for silver, lead, and zinc; and for copper accentuated the falling price. The net effect of changing prices and exchange gave average
prices in Canadian funds for silver, copper, lead, and zinc for 1956, 2Vi to \Wi per
cent higher than the 1955 averages.
Metals other than gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc contributed more than
$14,000,000 to the total value of mineral products. These metals include iron and
tungsten in the form of high-grade concentrates. They also include antimony, bismuth,
cadmium, indium, and tin recovered as by-products from silver-lead-zinc ores. Of these
metals, indium has reached a significant level in the last two years.
Silver-lead-zinc mines yielded a total of some 5,000,000 tons of ore in 1956, of
which more than half came from Kimberley, a fourth came from the Salmo-Pend d'Oreille
River area, and the remainder from camps in widely separated parts of the Province.
The large copper mines, at Copper Mountain and Britannia Beach, yielded 81 per cent
of the copper produced and about 8 per cent of the gold; lode-gold mines in the Bridge
River area and at Wells yielded 80 per cent of the gold; the remaining 12 per cent came
mainly from mines worked primarily for silver, lead, and zinc.
In recent years much interest has been shown in limestone for the principal ingredient in cement and for other purposes. The quarry at Cobble Hill has become the
principal source of cement rock for the British Columbia Cement Company plant at
Bamberton. The plant is supplied in part from quarries at Bamberton and on Texada
Island. The company increased the capacity of its plant in 1952, and a further increase
was being made in 1956. British Columbia Cement Company did further testing of its
limestone holdings at Davie Bay on Texada Island. Ideal Cement Company, Superior
Cement Company, and Lafarge Cement of North America Ltd. have all acquired limestone holdings on Texada Island, and the Lafarge company has acquired a site for a
cement plant on Lulu Island. Gypsum Lime and Alabastine, Canada, Limited, has
acquired limestone on Texada Island and is in production at Blubber Bay. The company closed its gypsum quarries at Falkland and is now supplying its plant at Port Mann
with gypsum imported from Mexico. The quarries at Falkland had been in production
since 1927. Gypsum produced by Columbia Gypsum Co. Ltd. at Windermere is being
sold mainly to cement plants in Alberta and Washington. A very large increase in the
production of sand and gravel recorded in 1956 reflects the construction of bridges,
highways, and buildings.
Prospecting for lode deposits was carried on actively. In northern British Columbia
fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters were used extensively for transportation. Discoveries
made by surface prospecting include: Nickel at Opal Lake, southeasterly from Teslin
Lake; silver-lead at Tootsee River, 65 miles westerly from Watson Lake; asbestos, some
50 miles southeast of Dease Lake; mercury, a few miles northeasterly from Fort St.
James; and silver-lead-zinc on Jordan River, northwest of Revelstoke. Detailed investigations applied in and close to established camps have been successful in recent years,
* United States import duties on these metals remained unchanged in 1956. REVIEW OF THE MINERAL INDUSTRY
A 11
notably in silver-lead-zinc camps in the East and West Kootenay areas, and in the copper
area at Highland Valley.
Ten years of exploration for petroleum and natural gas involving expenditure of
more than $50,000,000 for geological and geophysical exploration and for drilling wells
has proven the existence of large reserves of natural gas in a dozen areas and oil in two
fields in northeastern British Columbia. The total drilling in 1956 amounted to more
than 397,000 feet. Counting a 1952 well reworked in 1956, nine were completed as oil
wells, bringing the number of commercial oil wells to ten—six in the Boundary Lake
field and four in the Fort St. John field. All the wells were producing by the end of the
year, the oil being trucked to the X-L refinery at Dawson Creek that had begun operating
early in 1956.
Except for supplying local needs at Fort St. John, production from British Columbia gas wells awaits completion of the 650-mile 30-inch gas pipe-line being built for
Westcoast Transmission Company Limited.
The average number employed throughout 1956 in placer, lode, fuel, industrial-
mineral, and structural-material mining was 14,539. Major expenditures by those
branches of the industry included: Salaries and wages, $57,266,026; fuel and electricity, $9,762,777; process supplies, $22,036,839; Federal taxes, $14,833,556; Provincial taxes, $4,118,363; municipal and other taxes, $151,235; levies for workmen's
compensation (including silicosis), unemployment insurance, and other items, $2,636,014.
Dividends amounted to $36,262,682. The lode-mining industry spent $31,933,681 in
freight and treatment charges on ores and concentrates. Expenditure in exploration for
petroleum and natural gas in 1956 was $15,042,918.  Statistics
The statistics of the mineral industry are collected and compiled and the statistical
tables for this Report are prepared by the Bureau of Economics and Statistics, Department of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce.
In the 1951 Report, extensive rearrangements of tables and of their order were made.
The tables in the present Report closely parallel those presented in Reports for years
preceding 1951, but additional details have been incorporated, and the present order is
considered to make more apparent the relationship between summary tables and the
tables giving the details summarized.
METHOD OF COMPUTING PRODUCTION
The tables of statistics recording the mineral production of the Province for each
year are compiled from certified returns made by the operators, augmented by some data
obtained from the Royal Canadian Mint and from the operators of customs smelters.
The value of each mineral product, in Canadian funds, is calculated at the average price
for the year {see p. A 16). The quantities of metals are net after making deductions for
losses in smelting and refining.
Metals
Prior to 1925 the average prices for gold and copper are true average prices, but,
as a means of correcting for losses in smelting and refining, the prices of other metals
were taken at the following percentages of the year's average price for the metal: Silver,
95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc, 85 per cent. For 1925 and subsequent years
the value has been calculated using the true average price and the net metal contents, in
accordance with the procedures adopted by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics and the
co-operating Provincial Departments of Mines.
Beginning with the Annual Report for 1948, production figures for individual lode-
mining operations are the assay contents of the products shipped (ore, concentrates, or
bullion), no deductions being made for losses in smelting and refining. In previous
Annual Reports the production figures given for individual properties are net, after
deductions for smelting and refining losses.
Placer Gold
The data on placer-gold production were very largely obtained from the Gold Commissioners until 1925. The value of placer gold in dollars is now obtained from returns
received annually from the operators. At the old standard price, $20.67 per ounce of
fine gold, $17 was regarded as a close approximation of the average value per ounce of
crude placer gold produced in British Columbia. Dividing the production reported in
dollars by 17 gave the equivalent in crude ounces. The average value $17 per ounce is
equivalent to a fineness of 822Vi. Beginning with 1932 the average value per crude
ounce has been based on the same fineness but has recognized the varying price of gold.
The average price per ounce of crude placer gold for the year is listed on page A 16.
Lode Metals, Gross and Net Contents
The gross contents are the gold and silver contents of bullion and for ores and concentrates the total assay contents, obtained by multiplying the assay by the weight. The
quantities for gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in Table XV and in " Notes on Metal
Mines " are gross.
A 13 A 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Calculations of the value of production are based on the total assay content for
gold and on net content for the other principal metals. These are: In lead ores and
concentrates and zinc concentrates, for silver 98 per cent, lead 95 per cent, and zinc
85 per cent of the total assay content; and in copper concentrates, 95 per cent of the
silver and the total assay content of copper less 10 pounds per ton of concentrates.
Quantities for silver, lead, zinc, and copper in Tables I to VIII, inclusive, are net.
Average Metal Prices
In the interests of uniformity the Statistical Bureaux of the Provinces and the
Dominion Bureau of Statistics use the same average metal prices in valuing mineral
production. Up to and including the year 1939 the prices used in evaluating metal and
mineral production were: —
Gold and silver:   The average United States price for the year, as quoted in
the Engineering and Mining Journal, converted into Canadian funds at
the average exchange rate.
Copper, lead, and zinc:   For lead and zinc, the average London Metal Market
price for the year converted into Canadian funds at the average exchange
rate;  for copper, until 1932 the New York price for copper was used,
thereafter the average London Metal Market price was used.
Suspension of trading on the London Metal Exchange in September, 1939, and the
controls of metals during the war years necessitated changes from the procedures which
had been followed.
The method of arriving at the price for gold continued unchanged, but the prices for
the metals controlled were those set by the Canadian Metals Controller. In 1945 the
controls were largely removed from sales but not from prices. Control of metal prices
ended on June 6th, 1947. For 1945 and subsequent years the prices are those computed
by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, using information supplied by the principal Canadian refiners of silver and the base metals.
In the period 1945-47 the prices received for silver, lead, and zinc sold for use in
Canada were substantially less than the prices received for these metals exported to the
United States. The prices for silver in 1945 and 1946 and for copper, lead, and zinc in
1946 and 1947 are weighted averages, taking into consideration sales in Canada at the
ceiling prices and sales abroad at New York prices converted into Canadian funds.
Prices are now arrived at by the methods as given in the footnotes to table of average prices on page A 16.
Fuel
Coal
In 1926 a change was made in computing coal and coke statistics. The practice in
former years had been to list as coke production only the coke made in bee-hive ovens,
the coal used in making it not being listed; coke made in by-product ovens was not
listed as coke, but the coal used in making this coke was credited as coal production.
The result was that both the coal and the coke production figures were incomplete.
Starting with the 1926 Annual Report, the standard practice of the Bureau of Statistics,
Ottawa, was adopted. This consists of crediting all coal produced, including that used
in making coke, as primary mine production. Coke-making is considered a manufacturing industry. As the data are of interest to the mining industry, Table X is included
in the Report to show the total coke produced in the Province, together with by-products,
and the values given by the producers. The pre-1926 data have now been reworked and
brought into conformity with current practice. Table IXa lists the full mine output
(gross) produced and its net value, and these figures are incorporated in Table I, in the
total mine production for the Province.   Table X gives the complete data for coke, gas, STATISTICS
A 15
and by-products manufactured for the period 1895 to 1925, and for each year subsequent
to 1925.
Up to and including the year 1947, production was recorded in long tons (2,240
pounds). Beginning in 1948, production is given in short tons (2,000 pounds). The
quantity of coal produced in the preceding years has been recalculated in short tons.
The average price for coal, listed year by year (see p. A 16), is the total value
divided by the quantity. Up to and including 1945, the quantity is the gross mine output;
for 1946 and subsequent years, the quantity is the quantity sold and used. For 1946 and
subsequent years, the value (Tables I, III, VIIa, IXa, IXb, and IXc) is the amount
realized from sales of coal, at colliery loading points, plus the colliery valuation of coal
used under companies' boilers and in making coke. For 1946 and subsequent years the
quantity sold and used is shown in Table IXc. " Use " includes coal used under company
stationary and locomotive boilers, and used in making coke. Washery loss and changes
in stocks, year by year, are shown in the table " Collieries of British Columbia, Production and Distribution by Collieries and by Districts," page 198 of this Report.
Natural Gas
Commercial production of natural gas began in 1954. The production shown in
Tables I, III, VIIa, and VIIIa is gas sold in Fort St. John. The figures are compiled
from the Crown royalty statements filed monthly with the Department of Mines by the
producer. The quantity is reported as thousands of cubic feet at standard conditions
(14.4 pounds per square inch pressure, 60° F. temperature).
Petroleum
Commercial production of petroleum began in 1956. The figures shown in Tables
I, III, VIIa, and VIIIa are compiled from the Crown royalty statements filed monthly
with the Department of Mines by the producer. The quantity is reported in barrels (35
imperial gallons = 1 barrel). A 16
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Average Prices Used in Valuing Provincial Production of Gold,
Silver, Copper, Lead, Zinc, and Coal
Year
Gold,1
Crude,
Oz.
Gold,
Fine,
Oz.
Silver,
Fine,
Oz.
Copper,
Lb.
Lead,
Lb.
Zinc,
Lb.
Coal,
Short
Ton
1901	
$
17.00
19.30
23.02
28.37
28.94
28.81
28.77
28.93
29.72
31.66
31.66
31.66
31.66
31.66
31.86
30.22
28.78
28.78
29.60
31.29
30.30
28.18
28.31
27.52
28.39
28.32
S
20.67
23.47
28.60
34.50
35.19
35.03
34.99
35.18
36.14
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
38.50
36.75
35.00
35.00
36.00
38.05
36.85
34.27
34.42
34.07
34.52
34.44
Cents
56.002 N.Y.
49.55
50.78
53.36 „
51.33  „
63.45
62.06  „
50.22  „
48.93  „
50.812 „
50.64 „
57.79
56.80  „
52.10  „
47.20  „
62.38  „
77.35  „
91.93
105.57  „
95.80  „
59.52  „
64.14  „
61.63  „
63.442 ,,
69.065 „
62.107 „
56.37 „
58.176 „
52.993 ,,
38.154 „
28.700 „
31.671 „
37.832 „
47.461 „
64.790 „
45.127 „
44.881 „
43.477 „
40.488 „
38.249 „
38.261 „
41.166 „
45.254 „
43.000 „
47.000 „
83.650 „
72.000 „
75.000 Mont.
74.250 U.S.
80.635 „
94.55  „
83.157 „
83.774 „
82.982 „
87.851 „
89.373 „
Cents
16.11 N.T.
11.70  „
13.24  „
12.82 „
15.59 „
19.28  „
20.00  „
13.20  „
12.98  „
12.738 „
12.38  „
16.341 „
15.27 „
13.60 „
17.28 „
27.202 „
27.18  „
24.83 „
18.70  „
17.45  „
12.50  „
13.38 „
14.42  „
13.02  „
14.042 „
13.795 „
12.92  „
14.570 „
18.107 „
12.982 „
8.116 ,.
6.380 Lond.
7.454 ,,
7.419 „
7.795 „
9.477 „
13.078 „
9.972 „
10.092 ,,
10.086 „
10.086 „
10.086 „
11.75
12.000 „
12.550 ,,
12.80  „
20.39 „
22.35 U.S.
19.973 „
23.428 „
27.70  „
31.079 „
30.333 „
29.112 „
38.276 „
39.787 ,,
Cents
2.877 N.T.
3.66 „
3.81  „
3.88  „
4.24  „
4.81  „
4.80  „
3.78  „
3.85  „
4.00  „
3.98  „
4.024 „
3.93  „
3.50  „
4.17  „
6.172 „
7.91  „
6.67 „
5.19  .,
7.16  „
4.09  „
5.16  „
6.54  „
7.287 ,.
7.848 Lond.
6.751 „
5.256 ,,
4.575 „
5.050 ,,
3.927 „
2.710 .,
2.113 „
2.391 „
2.436 ,.
3.133 „
3.913 „
5.110 ,,
3.344 ,,
3.169 „
3.362 „
3.362 „
3.362 „
3.754 „
4.500 „
5.000 „
6.750 ,,
13.670 ..
18.040 „
15.800 U.S.
14.454 ,.
18.4
16.121 „
13.265 „
13.680 „
14.920 „
15.756 „
Cents
$
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905	
1906	
1907	
3.125
1908	
1909	
1910	
4.60 E. St. L.
4.90  „
5.90  „
4.80  „
4.40  „
11.25
10.88  „
7.566 „
6.94  „
6.24  „
6.52  „
3.95
4.86  „
5.62  „
5.39  „
7.892 Lond.
7.409 „
6.194 „
5.493 „
5.385 „
3.599 „
2.554 „
2.405 „
3.210 „
3.044 „
3.099 „
3.315 „
4.902 „
3.073 „
3.069 ,,
3.411 „
3.411 „
3.411 „
4.000 „
4.300 „
6.440 „
7.810 „
11.230 „
13.930 „
13.247 U.S.
15.075 ,.
19.9
15.874 „
10.675 „
10.417 „
12.127 „
13.278 „
1911	
1912	
1913  	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918 	
4.464
1919	
1920  	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925  	
1928	
1929	
1931	
4.018
3.795
1936 	
1937  	
1940  	
1941	
1944  	
1945	
4.68
1947  	
5.12
1948  	
6.09
6.51
6.43
1951  	
6.46
1952 	
6.94
1953 	
6.88
1954    	
7.00
1955 	
6.74
6.59
1 Unrefined placer gold, average price per ounce, is taken as $17 divided by $20.67 times the price of an ounce of
fine gold.
Prices for fine gold are the Canadian Mint buying prices. Prices for other metals are those of the markets indicated,
converted into Canadian funds. The abbreviations are: Mont.=Montreal; N.Y.=New York; Lond.=London; E. St. L.
=:East St. Louis;   and U.S.=United States.
Prior to 1925 the prices for gold and copper are true average prices, but the prices of other metals were taken at
the following percentages of the year's average price for the metal: Silver, 95 per cent; lead, 90 per cent; and zinc,
85 per cent.
For coal see last paragraph under " Fuel," page A 15.
The bases for the prices listed are discussed in detail on pages A 14 and A 15. STATISTICS A 17
Table I.—Total Mineral Production for All Years Up to and Including 1956
Total Quantity
Total Value
Quantity, 1956
Value, 1956
Gold—placer  —  crude, oz.
„       lode —  fine, oz.
Silver    _  oz.
Copper     lb.
Lead   .lb.
Zinc      _  lb.
Miscellaneous metals1	
Industrial minerals2..— 	
Structural materials3  	
Coal   tons
Natural gas — _ —  M c.f.
Petroleum, crude  bbls.
Totals  	
5,197,360
14,913,705
394,973,659
2,887,333,591
12,002,941,191
9,443,802,693
139,277,957*
446,055
147,146
$95,874,169
427,722,891
232,984,039
469,058,693
840,459,498
731,091,267
117,144,154
62,929,269
223,069,929
532,868,301
44,868
299,612
3,865
191,743
8,404,600
43,360,575
283,718,073
443,853,004
1,417,209*
216,521
147,146
$109,450
6,603,628
7,511,443
17,251,872
44,702,619
58,934,801
14,327,010
10,390,338
20,587,159
9,346,518
20,193
299,612
$3,733,546,690
$190,084,643
1 For individual miscellaneous metals, see Tables III and VIIIc, pages A 18 and A 32.
2 For individual industrial minerals, including sulphur, see Tables III and VIIId, pages A 18 and A 34.
8 For individual structural materials, see Tables III and VIIIe, pages A 18 and A 36.
* Total quantity is gross mine output;   it includes material discarded in picking and washing.   The quantity shown
for 1956 is that sold and used (see also Table IXc).
Table II.—Production for Each Year from 1836 to 1956, Inclusive
1836-95 (incl.)
1896	
1897	
1898	
1899	
1900	
1901	
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905	
1906	
1907	
1908	
1909 „	
1910	
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
192L.	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
$95,355,010
7,507,956
10,455,268
10,906,861
12,429,707
16,344,751
19,671,572
17,486,550
17,495,954
18,977,359
22,461,325
24,980,546
25,882,560
23,851,277
24,443,025
26,377,066
23,499,072
32,440,800
30,296,398
26,388,825
29,447,508
42,290,462
37,010,392
41,782,474
33,296,313
35,543,084
28,066,641
35,162,843
41,304,320
48,704,604
61,492,242
67,188,842
1927      $60,729,358
65,372,583
68,505,527
55,660,399
34,968,916
28,855,660
32,650,554
42,444,013
48,886,303
54,179,442
74,475,902
64,485,551
65,707,398
75,701,145
78,479,719
75,551,093
65,892,395
54,923,803
63,343,949
72,319,951
      113,314,314
1948   151,436,039
1949   131,100,468
1950   148,289,687
1951   175,613,693
1952   171,309,429
1953   152,628,683
1954   153,383,860
1955   174,710,606
1956   190,084,643
1928„
1929-
1930-
193L
1932.
1933-
1934
1935
1936.
1937..
1938
1939
1940..
1941-
1942-.
1943..
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947-
Total ...$3,733,546,690 A 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
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A 37
Table IXa.—Quantity (Gross1) and Value of Coal per Year to Date
Year
Tons
(2,000 Lb.)
Value
Year
Tons
(2,000 Lb.)
Value
1836-59
1860                      	
41,871
15,956
15,427
20,292
23,906
32,068
36,757
28,129
34,988
49,286
40,098
33,424
55,458s
55,4582
55,4592
91,334
123,362
155,895
172,540
191,348
270,257
299,708
255,760
315,997
238,895
441,358
409,468
365,832
462,964
548,017
649,411
759,518
1,152,590
925,495
1,095,690
1,134,509
1,052,412
1,002,268
999,372
1,263,272
1,435,314
1,781,000
1,894,544
1,838,621
1,624,742
1,887,981
2,044,931
2,126,965
2,485,961
2,362,514
$149,548
56,988
55,096
72,472
85,380
115,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
164,612
164,612
164,612
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
522,538
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
1,096,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,824,687
2,693,961
2,734,522
3,582,595
4,126,803
4,744,530
5,016,398
4,832,257
4,332,297
4,953,024
5,511,861
5,548,044
7,637,713
7,356,866
1909 	
1910
1911 	
2,688,672
3,515,944
2,573,444
3,388,795
2,879,251
2,426,399
2,209,290
2,783,849
2,686,561
2,888,170
2,698,022
3,020,387
2,877,995
2,890,625
2,848,146
2,226,037
2,737,607
2,609,640
2,748,286
2,829,906
2,521,402
2,113,586
1,912,501
1,719,172
1,416,516
1,508,741
1,330,524
1,508,048
1,618,051
1,466,559
1,655,217
1,867,966
2,018,635
2,170,737
2,040,253
2,165,676
1,700,914
1,639,277
1,923,573
1,809,018
1,917,296
1,756,667
1,824,384
1,650,619
1,576,105
1,447,608
1,484,066
1,589,398
$8,574,884
11,108,335
1861
8,071,747
1862.     _ -
1912..    	
1913                -
10,786,812
9,197,460
1864
1914             	
7,745,847
1915
7,114.178
1916             	
8,900,675
1867       —   -   -
1917..	
1918 	
8,484,343
1868
12,833,994
1869
1919 	
11,975,671
1870	
1871 '	
1920..  - --
1921. 	
1922..	
13,450,169
12,836,013
1872
12,880,060
1873
1923-	
12,678,548
1874
1924  -	
9,911,935
1875                             	
1925	
19?6
12,168,905
11,650,180
1877
1927	
12,269,135
1878
1928. -	
12,633,510
1929               -	
11,256,260
1880                      	
1930  	
1931 -	
9,435,650
1881
7,684,155
1882         -.
1932 - —
1933
6,523,644
5,375 171
1884
1934	
5,725,133
1885	
1935	
1936 -	
5,048,864
1886
5,722,502
1887
1937  	
6,139,920
1888 • 	
1938      	
1939 	
5,565,069
1889
6,280,956
1940        	
7,088,265
1891 	
1941 -	
1942 -  	
1943 	
1944 -	
1945 - -
1946   	
1947 —	
7,660,000
1892- 	
8,237,172
1893         ■	
7,742,030
1894       	
8,217,966
1895  	
6,454,360
1896       	
6,732,470
1897
8,680,440
1898       	
1948 	
1949  	
9,765,395
1899
10,549,924
1900
1950 	
1951 - -	
1952..	
1953 	
10,119,303
1901        	
10,169,617
1902       	
9,729,739
1903
9 528 279
1904
1954	
1955 	
1956	
9,154 544
1905
8,986,501
1906	
9,346 518
1907
Totals
1908 	
139,277,957
$532,868,301
Table IXb.—Coal Production (Gross1) by Districts
\nd Mining Divisions
District and Mining Division
Total to Date
1955
1956
Period
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Quantity
Value
Vancouver Island District
1836-1956
1893-1945
1907-1956
1926-1927
1909-1956
Tons
79,484,850
14,995
2,927,291
1,122
4,635,137
$
292,370,867
59,765
11,053,657
5,008
19,439,002
Tons
209,784
$
1,769,682
Tons
200,347
$
1,629,168
Nicola-Princeton District
1,259
12,904
1,170
12,092
Similkameen Mining Division-
73,475
379,511
72.102
366,820
District totals	
1893-1956
7,578,545
30,557,432
74,734
392,415
73,272
378,912
Northern District
1942-1944
1923-1956
1918-1956
290
83,585
401,533
1,100
549,131
2,442,757
3,650
31,460
32,850
227,010
4,642
8,553
38 211
Omineca Mining Division 	
71,234
District totals    .
1918-1956
485,408
2,992,988
35,110
259,860
13,195
109,445
East Kootenay District
Fort Steele Mining Division	
1898-1956
51,729,154
206,947,014
1,164,438
6,564,544
1,302,584
7,228,993
Provincial totals -
1836-1956
139,277,957
532,868,301
1,484,066
8,986,501
1,589,398
9,346,518
1 Gross mine output, including washery loss and coal used in making coke (see Table X
" Fuel," page A 14).
2 A combined total for 1871, 1872, and 1873 has previously been noted in Annual Reports and
is estimated.
and discussion under
the above breakdown Table IXc.—Quantity1 and Value of Coal Sold and Used,2 1946-56
Year
District and Mining
Division
Total
Sales2*
Used
under
Companies'
Boilers2t
Used in
Making
Coke2t
Total Sold
and Used2
District Totals,
1956
Vancouver Island...    .
Nanaimo    .
Tons
Tons
Tons
Tons
$
Tons
172,529
$
1,629,168
1946
502,406
450,968
365,328
451,074
472,690
391,687
267,346
204.931
181,534
. 173,861
172,140
4,396
3,786
2,801
3,925
4,329
3,425
2,986
1,798
536
465
389
506,802
454,754
368,129
454,999
477,019
395,112
270,332
206,729
182,070
174,326
172,529
3,474,182
3,625,348
3,219,868
4,055,572
4,060,337
3,486,615
2,749,206
2,059,828
2,029,099
1,769,682
1,629,168
1948
"
1950
"
1951
1953
"
1954
73.272   I        378.912
Nicola -
1,711
1,997
1,777
1,672
1,125
899
1,139
1,040
1,256
1,259
1,170
43,556
49,324
49,859
49,906
16,784
3,941
6,306
7,047
29,713
73,475
72,102
81
261
1,792
2,258
1,777
1,672
1,125
899
1,139
1,040
1,256
1,259
1,170
43,556
49,324
49,859
49,906
16,784
3,941
6,306
7,047
29,713
73,475
72,102
8,957
15,493
15,281
14,809
9,926
8,640
11,493
10,400
12.709
12,904
12,092
214,098
329,179
299,387
298,293
87,483
28,094
48,760
51,012
138.080
379,511
366,820
	
13,195
1,158,213
"
"
"
1953
1954
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
Similkameen	
"
	
"
"
	
"
"
1955
1956
"
109,445
1946
1947
1948
2,501
5,958
8,570
12,364
12,250
3,199
3,854
4,815
4.359
3,650
4,642
12,087
10,751
10,920
11,468
13,037
27,904
37,270
42,079
30.572
30.015
8,553
78
59
60
2,579
6,017
8,630
12.364
12.250
3,199
3,854
4,835
4,359
3,650
4,642
12,138
10,810
10,986
11,531
13,099
27,904
37,270
42,079
36,572
30,015
8,553
14,540
35,012
52,721
76,607
82,258
26,095
42,600
50,895
33.079
32,850
38,211
67,928
63,375
85,981
92,865
104,790
206,799
285,732
324,986
292,862
227,010
71,234
„      	
"
"
1952
„      	
20
	
"
	
1955
1956
"
	
51
59
66
63
62
	
"
"
"
1953
	
1955
1956
"
"
7,228,993
1946
Fort Steele. 	
744,941
973,358
990,530
842,979
825,315
889,669
822,071
878,865
820,081
803,125
890,100
21,161
24,163
20,227
19,025
15,196
15,977
15,813
12,729
15,310
16,560
19,518
106,122
175,665
154,342
228,792
213,218
236,871
245,528
230,814
218,923
230,464
248,595
872,224
1,173,186
1,165,099
1,090,796
1,053,729
1,142,517
1,083,412
1,122,408
1,054,314
1,050,149
1,158,213
2,952,765
4,612,033
6,092,157
6,011,688
5,774,509
6,413.374
6,591,942
7,031,158
6,648,655
6,564,544
7,228,993
"
1950
„   	
1952
„   	
1956
,,        	
1,307,202
1,492,356
1,426,984
1,369,463
1,341,201
1,317,299
1,137,986
1,138,777
1,073,515
1,085,385
1,148,707
25,767
28,328
23,154
23,013
19,587
19,402
18,799
14,547
15,840
f7,025
19,907
106,122
175,665
154,342
228,792
213,218
236,871
245,528
230,814
218,923
230,464
248,595
1,439,091
1,696,349
1,604,480
1,621,268
1,574,006
1,573,572
1,402,313
1,384,138
1,308,284
1,332,874
1,417,209
6,732,470
8,680,440
9,765,395
10,549,924
10,119,303
10,169,617
9,729,739
9,528,279
9,154.544
8,986,501
6,346,518
1,417,209
1947
1949
„   	
1952
„   	
1954
1955
1956
9,346,518
1 For differences between gross mine output and coal sold refer to table " Production and Distribution by Collieries
and by Districts" in section headed "Coal" or "Coal-mining" in Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines.
2 The totals " sold and used " include:—
* Sales to retail and wholesale dealers, industrial users, and company employees.
t Coal used in company boilers, including steam locomotives,
t Coal used in making coke.
See also discussion under " Fuel," page A 14.
A 38 STATISTICS
A 39
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REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Table XI.—Dividends Paid by Mining Companies, 1897-1956
Dividends Paid during 1955 and 1956
1955
Bralorne Mines Ltd  $187,050
Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Ltd.    	
Canadian Exploration Ltd  4,722,000
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co.
of Canada, Ltd  28,665,451
Crow's Nest Pass Coal Co. Ltd	
Giant Mascot Mines Ltd	
Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting
and Power Co. Ltd	
Island Mountain Mines Co. Ltd	
Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C. Ltd	
Reeves MacDonald Mines Ltd	
Sheep Creek Mines Ltd	
Silver Standard Mines Ltd	
Sunshine Lardeau Mines Ltd	
Torbrit Silver Mines Ltd	
Yale Lead and Zinc Mines Ltd	
Others 	
248,472
225,116
157,607!
175,175
42,883
240,000
92,840
314,989
1956
$498,800
88,333
6,453,400
27,027,453
248,472
179,263
113,058
79,854i
224,033
584,500
93,750
164,000
185,780
321,986
Totals
$35,071,583     $36,262,682
1 " Liquidating " payments completed.
Dividends Paid Yearly, 1917 to 1956, Inclusive
Year
1917_
Amount Paid
  $3,269,494
1918     2,704,469
1919     2,494,283
1920     1,870,296
1921        736,629
1922     3,174,756
1923     2,983,570
1924     2,977,276
1925     5,853,419
1926     8,011,137
1927     8,816,681
1928     9,572,536
1929  11,263,118
1930  10,543,500
1931     4,650,857
1932     2,786,958
1933     2,471,735
1934     4,745,905
1935     7,386,070
1936  10,513,705
1937  15,085,293
Year Amount Paid
1938  $12,068,875
.  11,865,698
______ 14,595,530
  16,598,110
  13,627,104
  11,860,159
  11,367,732
  10,487,395
15,566,047
1947  27,940,213
1939
1940
1941..
1942..
1943
1944_
1945_
1946_
  37,672,319
  33,651,096
  34,399,330
  40,921,238
  32,603,956
1953  22,323,089
1954  25,368,262
1955  35,071,583
1956  36,262,682
1948-
1949_
1950.
1951-
1952..
Total  $566,162,105 STATISTICS
A 41
Table XI.—Dividends Paid by Mining Companies, 1897-1956—Continued
Lode-gold Mines1
Company or Mine
Locality
Class
Amount
Paid
Arlington  -   -
Athabasca  - 	
Bayonne 	
Bralorne Mines Ltd  	
Belmont-Surf Inlet...   	
Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Co. Ltd....	
Cariboo-McKinney Con. M. & M. Co.—	
Canadian Pacific Exploration (Porto Rico)	
Centre Star	
Fairview Amalgamated 	
Fern Gold Mining & Milling Co. Ltd	
Gold Belt Mining Co. Ltd	
Goodenough (leasers)	
Hedley Mascot Gold Mines Ltd 	
Island Mountain Mines Ltd —	
I.X.L.          	
Jewel-Denero 	
Kelowna Exploration Co. Ltd. (Nickel Plate) —
Kelowna Mines Hedley Ltd	
Kootenay Belle Gold Mines Ltd	
Le Roi Mining Co   	
Le Roi No. 2 Ltd	
Lome (later Bralorne)  	
Motherlode 	
Mount Zeballos Gold Mines Ltd  	
Nickel Plate (Hedley Gold Mining Co. Ltd.)....
Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C. Ltd	
Poorman  	
Premier Gold Mining Co. Ltd  	
Privateer Mine Ltd   	
Queen (prior to Sheep Creek Gold Mines Ltd.)
Relief Arlington Mines Ltd. (Second Relief) —
Reno Gold Mines Ltd   	
Sheep Creek Gold Mines Ltd.6	
Silbak Premier Mines Ltd  	
Spud Valley Gold Mines Ltd.... 	
Sunset No. 2  _ 	
Surf Inlet Consolidated Gold Mines Ltd —
War Eagle	
Ymir Gold  _
YmirYangee Girl  _ -	
Miscellaneous mines -	
Total, lode-gold mines  	
Erie.	
Nelson._
Tye Siding-
Bridge River. 	
Princess Royal Island .
Wells	
Camp McKinney..
Nelson	
Rossland	
Oliver _
Nelson 	
Sheep Creek..
Ymir	
Hedley.—	
Wells 	
Rossland	
Greenwood-
Hedley..
Hedley..
Sheep Creek...
Rossland	
Rossland	
Bridge River-
Sheep Creek...
Zeballos	
Hedley	
Bridge River..
Nelson	
Premier	
Zeballos	
Sheep Creek-
Erie	
Sheep Creek-
Sheep Creek-
Premier	
Zeballos	
Rossland	
Surf Inlet	
Rossland	
Ymir	
Ymir..
Gold 	
Gold	
Gold 	
Gold 	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold 	
Gold-copper.
Gold . 	
Gold 	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold 	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold-copper.
Gold-copper.
Gold	
Gold	
Gold 	
Gold	
Gold _
Gold	
Gold _
Gold	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold 	
Gold	
Gold	
Gold-copper.
Gold 	
Gold-copper.
Gold	
Gold -	
Gold	
$94,872
25,000
25,000
',385,400
1,437,500
1,679,976
565,588
37,500
472,255
5,254
9,375
668,595 =
13,731
,290,553
1,491,236 =
134,025
11,751
:,040,000
780,000s
357,856
,475,000
,574,640
20,450
163,500
165,000
,423,191
1,092,745
25,000
:,858,075*
,914,183
98,674
308,000=
,433,640=
,609,3755
,425,000*
168,000
115,007
120,279
,245,250
300,000
415,002=
108,623
$77,344,101
1 The gold-copper properties of Rossland are included in this table.
2 Includes " return of capital" and " liquidating " payments.
3 Former Kelowna Exploration Company Limited;  changed in January, 1951.
4 Up to and including 1936, dividends paid by Premier Gold Mining Company Limited were derived from operations
of the company in British Columbia. Subsequent dividends paid by Premier Gold Mining Company Limited have been
derived from the operations of subsidiary companies in British Columbia and elsewhere and are not ncluded in the figure
given. In 1936, Silbak Premier, a subsidiary of Premier Gold Mining Company, took over the former gold operations
of that company in British Columbia.   Dividends paid by Silbak Premier are given above.
6 In several years, preceding 1953, company revenue has included profits from operations of the Lucky Jim zinc-
lead mine.
6 Sinch March, 1956, company name is Sheep Creek Mines Ltd. A 42 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Table XI.—Dividends Paid by Mining Companies, 1897-1956—Continued
Silver-Lead-Zinc Mines
Company or Mine
Locality
Class
Amount
Paid
Antoine 	
Rambler  	
Field   	
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc	
Silver-lead-zinc —
Silver-lead-zinc     .
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc	
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc -
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc._.
Silver-lead-zinc-    .
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc	
Silver-lead-zinc-.—
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc...-
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc „.
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc—
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc-—
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc	
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc...
Silver-lead-zinc _.
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc	
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc
Silver-lead-zinc.
Silver-lead-zinc __..
Silver-lead-zinc
$10,000
586,1431
97,200
48,000
388,297
25,000
11,175,400
Base Metals Mining Corporation Ltd.  (Monarch and
Kicking Horse) 	
Beaverdell-Wellington    _	
Beaverdell 	
Beaver Silver Mines Ltd	
Bell 	
Bosun (Rosebery-Surprise)	
Canadian Exploration Ltd	
New Denver.	
Capella      	
New Denver. 	
Trail 	
5,500
433,578,6973
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. of Canada, Ltd—
Couverapee 	
Field.	
5,203
50,000
35,393
Duthie Mines Ltd	
Smithers 	
Florence Silver.	
Giant Mascot Mines Ltd	
Spillimacheen	
179,263
Goodenough         .
Cody	
45,668
H.B. Mining Co._	
Hall Creek      „__ .
8,904
Highland Lass Ltd.
Beaverdell	
132,464
Highland-Bell Ltd 	
Beaverdell      ....
1,398,025
Horn Silver 	
Similkameen	
Sandon  __
Salmo 	
6,000
Idaho-Alamo	
400,000
Iron Mountain (Emerald). .   __
20,000
Jackson	
Retallack	
Three Forks	
20,000
Last Chance	
213,000
Lone Bachelor 	
50,000
Three Forks 	
80,000
Mercury	
Sandon    	
Slocan City	
6,000
Meteor.—	
10,257
Three Forks —	
70,500
Mountain Con	
Cody    ...	
Three Forks	
Cody 	
71,387
McAllister ___	
45,088
Noble Five. 	
72,859
North Star	
Kimberley	
497,901
No. One 	
Sandon	
Slocan City	
6,754
Ottawa — 	
110,429
1,438,000
Providence _	
Greenwood 	
Alamo  __.
Rambler 	
Rem ac  	
142,2383
Queen Bess  	
25,000
Rambler-Cariboo	
467,250
1,753,500
Cody 	
334,992
Ruth Mines Ltd	
Sandon  _	
Moyie  	
Invermere   	
Sandon    „
Hazelton  	
Ainsworth— _ 	
Silverton	
Retallack  	
125,490
566,000
93,750
Silversmith and Slocan Star*— 	
1,267,600
Silver Standard Mines Ltd	
1,715,333
10,365
2,734,688
88,000
Beaton	
164,000
390,000
Kaslo... 	
64,000
Violamac Mines (B.C.) Ltd.
New Denver  	
850,000
Wallace Mines Ltd. (Sally)	
Beaverdell...  ____.
Rambler Station— 	
135,000
20,000
Western Exploration Co. Ltd.—  _ 	
30,867
592,515
Yale Lead and Zinc Mines Ltd.___ 	
278,620
70,239
$462,806,869
1 Includes $466,143 "return of capital" distribution prior to 1949.
2 Earnings of several company mines, and customs smelter at Trail.
3 Includes $10,504 paid in 1944 but not included in the yearly figure.
4 These two properties were amalgamated as Silversmith Mines Limited in August, 1939.
- STATISTICS
A 43
Table XI.—Dividends Paid by Mining Companies, 1897-1956—Continued
Copper Mines
Company or Mine
Locality
Class
Amount
Paid
Britannia M. & S. Co.1	
Canada Copper Corporation.
Granby Cons.
M.S
&P
Co.2    	
Hall Mines.	
Britannia Beach-
Greenwood	
Texada Island	
Copper Mountain
Texada Island..	
Nelson 	
Miscellaneous mines..
Copper	
Copper	
Copper	
Copper.....
Copper-
Copper.—
Copper.—
$18,803,772
615,399
8,500
29,873,226
175,000
233,280
261,470
Total, copper mines..
$49,970,647
1 Britannia Mining and Smelting Company Limited is a subsidiary of the Howe Sound Company, which is the holding company for Britannia and for other mines in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Dividends paid by the Howe
Sound Company, therefore, cannot be credited to British Columbia. Dividends in the above table for Britannia have
been paid by that company, none being paid subsequent to 1930, until 1939. In making comparison with yearly totals,
the amounts shown as paid by the Howe Sound Company have been deducted for the years shown, so the total in the
annual report concerned will show the higher figure.
2 The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power Company dividends commenced in 1904 and cover all company activities in British Columbia to date, the present operations being conducted at Allenby and Copper Mountain.
The dividends as set out in the table in the Minister of Mines Annual Report for 1942 were incorrect; the correct total
is as above. The figure now includes all dividends, capital distributions, and interim liquidating payments, the latter
being $4,500,000, paid, in 1936, prior to reorganization.
Coal Mines
Company or Mine
Locality
Class
Amount
Paid
Nanaimo	
Telkwa 	
Fernie 	
Nanaimo	
Coal	
Coal	
Coal	
Coal	
$16,000,000
24,000
15,973,782
651,605
$32,649,054
Bulkley Valley Collieries Ltd	
Crow's Nest Pass Coal Co. Ltd — 	
Canadian Collieries (D.) Ltd  	
Aggregate of All Classes
Lode-gold mining  $76,344,101
Silver-lead-zinc mining and smelting  462,806,869
Copper-mining   49,970,647
Coal-mining   32,649,054
Miscellaneous, structural, and placer gold  6,280,145
Total.
$629,051,149
Note.—The term " miscellaneous " noted in each class of dividend covers all payments of $5,000 and under, together
with payments made by companies or individuals requesting that the item be not disclosed.
In compiling the foregoing table of dividends paid, the Department wishes to acknowledge the kind assistance given
by companies, individuals, and trade journals in giving information on the subject. A 44
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Table XII.—Principal Items of Expenditure, Reported for
Mining Operations of All Classes
Class
Salaries and
Wages
Fuel and
Electricity
Process
Supplies
Lode-mining  	
Placer-mining   	
Fuels—coal, coke and gas plants, petroleum and natural gas _
Miscellaneous metals and industrial minerals.  	
Structural materials industry  	
Totals, 1956-
Totals, 1955..
1954-
1953..
1952-
1951..
1950..
1949-
1948..
1947_.
1946..
1945__
1944..
1943..
1942..
1941..
1940._
1939	
1938	
1937	
1936	
1935	
Grand totals, 1935-56..
$42,174,038
129,702
7,060,381
2,838,643
5,063,262
¥67,266,026
$6,194,807
4,350
705,430
634,309
2,223,881
59,762,777
51,
48
55
62
52
42
41
38
32
26
22
23
2
20
26
23
22,
22
21
17
16
890,246
702,746
543,490
.256,631
607,171
,738,035
,023,786
13,506
,160,338
,190,200
620,975
131,874
,051,467
,913,160
.050,491
391,330
357,035
,765,711
349,690
887,619
753,367
9,144,
7,128
8,668
8,557
7,283,
6,775
7,206
6,139
5,319
5,427
7,239
5,788
7,432;
7,066
3,776
3,474.
3,266,
3,396
3,066
2,724
2,619
0341
669
099
845
051
998
637
174
470
458
726
671
585
109
747
721
000
106
311
144
639
$15,295,792
4,383
4,427,329
713,493
1,595,842
$22,036^839^
21
19
20
27
24
17
17
11
13
8
6
6
131,5721
,654,724
,979,411
,024,500
724,101
,500,663
,884,408
532,121
068,948
367,705
756,628
138,084
,572,317
,863,398
,260,441
,962,162
,714,347
,544,500
,845,330
,434,501
,552,730
$758,464,894     |   $131,263,971      |   $272,549,430
1A major operator reported fuel, electricity, and process supplies for 1955 as a combined total under the heading
" Process Supplies." For that reason the lode-mining item " Fuel and Electricity" was unduly small and " Process
Supplies " unduly large.   These figures have now been revised and are as they appear in the above table.
Note.—" Process Supplies " include explosives, chemicals, drill-steel, lubricants, etc.
J STATISTICS A 45
Table XIII.—Average Number Employed in the Mining Industry, 1901-56
Year
Lode-mining
Coal-mining
s
Structural
Materials
1901	
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905	
1906	
1907	
1908	
1909	
1910	
1911	
1912	
1913	
1914	
1915	
1916	
1917	
1918	
1919	
1920	
1921	
1922	
1923	
1924	
1925	
1926	
299
1927	
415
1928	
355
1929	
341
1930	
425
1931	
688
1932	
874
1933	
1,134
1934	
1,122
1935	
1,291
1936	
1,124
1937	
1,371
1938	
1,303
1939	
1,252
1940	
1,004
1941	
939
1942	
489
1943	
212
1944	
255
1945	
209
1946	
347
1947	
360
1948	
348
1949	
303
1950	
327
1951	
205
1952	
230
1953	
132
1954	
199
1955	
103
1956	
105
2,736
2,219
1,662
2,143
2,470
2,680
2,704
2,567
2,184
2,472
2,435
2,472
2,773
2,741
2,709
| 3,357
[ 3,290
| 2,626
j 2,513
| 2,074
| 1,355
| 1,510
j 2,102
| 2,353
| 2,298
j 2,606
| 2,671
[ 2,707
| 2,926
j 2,316
j 1,463
1,355
1,786
2,796
2,740
2,959
3,603
| 3,849
| 3,905
j 3,923
| 3,901
| 2,920
| 2,394
| 1,896
j 1,933
j 1,918
| 3,024
j 3,143
| 3,034
| 3,399
j 3,785
| 4.171
| 3,145
| 2,644
| 2,564
| 2,637
1,212
1,126
1,088
1,163
1,240
1,303
1,239
1,127
1,070
1,237
1,159
1,364
1,505
1,433
1,435
2.036
2,198
1,764
1,746
1,605
975
1,239
1,516
1,680
2,840
1,735
1,916
2,469
2,052
1,260
834
j     900
| 1,335
| 1,729
| 1,497
| 1,840
| 1,818
| 2,266
| 2,050
| 2,104
j 1,823
| 1,504
| 1,699
j 1,825
| 1,750
| 1,817
| 2,238
| 2,429
j 2,724
| 2,415
| 3.695
| 3,923
I 2,589
I 2,520
| 2,553
2,827
3,948
3,345
2,750
3,306
3,710
3,983
3,943
3,694
3,254
3,709
3,594
3,837
4,278
4,174
4,144
5,393
5,488
4,390
4,259
3,679
2,330
2,749
3,618
4,033
5,138
4,341
4,587
5,176
4,978
3,576
2,297
2,255
3,121
4,525
4,237
4,799
5,421
6,115
5,955
6,027
5,724
4,424
4,093
3,721
3,683
3,735
5,262
5,572
5,758
5,814
7,480
8.094
5,734
5,164
5,117
5,464
808
2,461
854
2,842
911
2,748
966
2,948
832
3,197
581
3,157
542
2,036
531
2,436
631
2,890
907
2,771
720
2,678
1,168
3,027
919
3,158
996
3,187
1,048
2,944
1,025
3,072
960
3,555
891
2,835
849
2,981
822
2,834
672
2,813
960
3,461
1,126
3,884
1,203
3,763
1,259
3,759
1,307
4,044
1.516
4,120
1,371
3,901
1,129
3,119
1,091
3,304
1,043
3,339
3,041
3,101
3,137
3,278
3,127
3,415
2,862
| 4,432
| 4,713
5,903
5,212
5,275
4,950
4,267
3,708
3,694
3,760
3,658
4,145
4,191
4,722
4,712
4,342
3,894
3,828
3,757
3,646
3,814
3,675
3,389
2,957
2,628
2,241
2,050
2,145
2,015
2,286
2,088
2,167
2,175
2,229
1,892
2,240
2,150
1,927
1,773
1,694
1,594
1,761
1,745
1,462
j 1,280
1 1,154
1,076
1,100
968
931
910
1,127
1,175
1,280
1,390
907
1,641
1,705
1,855
1,661
1,855
1,721
1,465
1,283
1,366
1,410
1,769
1,821
2,158
2,163
1,932
1,807
1,524
1,615
1,565
1,579
1,520
1,353
1,256
1,125
980
853
843
826
799
867
874
809
699
494
468
611
689
503
532
731
872
545
516
463
401
396
358
378
398
3,974
4,011
4,264
4,453
4,407
4,805
3,769
6,073
6,418
7,758
6,873
7,130
6,671
5,732
j 4,991
| 5,060
| 5,170
| 5,247
| 5,966
[ 6,349
| 6,885
| 6,644
6,149
5,418
5,443
5,322
5,225
5,334
5,028
4,645
4,082
3,608
3,094
2,893
2,971
2,814
3,153
2,962
2,976
2,874
2,723
2,360
2,851
2,839
2,430
2,305
2,425
2.466
2,306
2,261
1,925
I 1,681
| 1,550
| 1,434
[ 1,478
| 1,366
493
647
412
492
843
460
536
376
377
536
931
724
900
652
827
766
842
673
690
921
827
977
1,591
2,120
1,916
1,783
1,530
1,909
1,861
1,646
1,598
324
138
368
544
344
526
329
269
187
270
288
327 |
295 |
311 |
334 |
413 |
378 j
326 |
351 j
335 j
555 |
585 [
656 |
542 |
616 |
628 |
557 |
559 |
638 |
641 |
770 I
124
122
120
268
170
380
344
408
360
754
825
938
369
561
647
422
262
567
628
586
679
869
754
626
660
491
529
634 I
584
722
854
7,922
7,356
7,014
7,759
8,117
8,788
7,712
9,767
9,672
11,467
10,467
10,967
10,949
9,906
9,135
10,453
10,658
9,637
10,225
10,028
9,215
9,393
9,767
9,451
10,581
14,172
14,830
15,424
15,565
14,032
12,171
10,524
11,369
12,985
13,737
14,179
16,129
16,021
15,890
15,705
15,084
13,270
12,448
12,314
11,820
11,933
14,899
16,397
16,621
16,612
17,863
18,257
15,790
14,128
14,102
14,539
1 The average number employed in the industry is the sum of the averages for individual companies. The average
for each company is obtained by taking the sum of the numbers employed each month and dividing by 12, regardless of
the number of months worked. A 46                                REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Table XIV.—Lode-metal Mines—Tonnage, Number of Mines,
Net and Gross Value of Principal Metals,4 1901-56
Year
Tonnagei
Number
of
Shipping
Mines
Number
of Mines
Shipping
over 100
Tons
Gross Value
as Reported
by Shipper2
Freight
and
Treatment2
Net Value
to Shipper3
Gross Value
of Lode
Metals
Produced4
1901	
926,162
1,009,016
1,288.466
1,461,609
1,706,679
1,963,872
1,805,614
2,083.606
2,057,713
2,216,428
1,770,755
2,688,532
2,663,809
2,175,971
2,720,669
3,229,942
2,797,368
2,912,516
2,146,920
2,215,445
1,586,428
1,592,163
2,447,672
3,413,912
3,849,269
4,775,327
5,416,411
6,241,672
6,977,903
6,804,276
5,549,622
4.354,904
4,063,775
5,141,744
4,927,204
4,381,173
6,145,244
7,377,117
7.212,171
7,949,736
8,007,937
6,894,844
5,786,864
4,879,851
4,377,722
3,705,594
5.011,271
5,762,321
6,125,460
6,802,482
6,972,400
9,174,617
9.660.281
119
124
125
142
146
154
147
108
89
83
80
86
110
98
132
169
193
175
144
121
80
98
77
86
102
138
132
110
106
68
44
75
109
145
177
168
185
211
217
216
200
126
48
51
36
50
75
97
118
112
119
95
80
78
75
74
76
79
77
72
59
52
50
45
51
58
56
59
81
87
80
74
60
35
33
28
37
40
55
52
49
48
32
22
29
47
69
72
70
113
92
99
92
96
76
32
31
27
32
33
51
64
58
64
58
48
40
34
40
$14,100,282
11,581,153
12,103,237
12,909,035
15,980,164
18,484,102
17,316,847
15,847,411
15,451,141
14,728,731
11,454,063
17,662,766
17,190,838
15,225,061
19,992,149
31,483,014
26,788,474
27,599,278
19,750,498
19,444,365
12,920,398
19,227,857
25,347,092
35,538,247
46,200,135
51,508,031
44,977,082
48,281,825
51,174,859
40,915,395
22,535,573
19,700,235
25,007,137
33,895,930
40,597,569
43,666,452
62,912,783
53,877.333
53,522,098
62,848,642
62,216,019
55,359,479
46,089,042
39,315,910
49,997,071
66,519,691
93,176.165
125,979,961
105,259,001
121,635,457
146,140,477
134,111,567
110,341,548
111,844,340
129,455,122
141,315,045
1902	
1903	
1904	
1905	
1906	
1907....
1908	
1909	
1910  .
1911	
1912   .
1913   .
1914	
	
1915   .
	
1921	
1924	
$38,558,613
27,750,364
29,070,075
34,713,887
21,977,688
10,513,931
7,075,393
13,976,358
20,243,278
25,407,914
30,051,207
43,954,077
35,278,483
40,716,869
43,670,298
46,681,822
45,199,404
33,293,703
26,449,408
31,383,625
46,016,841
76,311,087
100,128,727
79,814,604
86,751,361
117,493,684
100,601,451
66,739,892
77,088,160
88,343,241
93.110,262
1927	
1937	
$48,617,920
40,222,237
45.133,788
50,004,909
52,354,870
50,494,041
37,234,070
29,327,114
34,154,917
48,920,971
81,033,093
118,713,859
99,426,678
108,864,792
142,590,427
140,070,389
94.555.069
$4,663,843
4,943,754
4,416,919
6,334,611
5,673,048
5,294,637
3,940,367
2,877,706
2,771,292
2,904,130
4,722,010
18,585,183
19,613,185
22,113,431
25,096,743
30,444,575
27.815.152
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
1948	
1949	
1950	
1951	
1952	
1953     	
1954	
8,513,805     |          63
9,126,902     I          53
8,827,037     j          70
100,223,833            29,135,673
119,039,285     1     30,696,044
125.043.590            31.933,681
1956	
i Includes mercury ores, tungsten ores, iron ores, and silica (flux).
2 Data not collected before 1937.
3 Previous to 1937 the shipper reported " Net Value at Shipping Point," no indication being given as to how the net
value was computed.   From 1937 on, the shipper has reported "Gross Value," from which deduction of freight and
treatment gives " Net Value."
4 Gross value as represented by valuing gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc at yearly average prices and for 1956
includes value of tungsten content in concentrates shipped. M3
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261,206,492
10,676,335
1,217,616
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189,756,121
3,736,861
12,126,327
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110,592
196,668
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shipped for smelter test
Bullion; gold concentrates, 2,218
tons
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Concentrates, 170 tons; clean-up
material
Manganese   ore,   small  tonnage
shipped for experimental purposes
Copper concentrates, 43,610 tons
Lead concentrates, 108,953 tons;
zinc concentrates, 279,503 tons;
tin concentrates, 384 tons
Lead   concentrates,   3,014   tons;
zinc concentrates, 8,850 tons
Lead   concentrates,   8,641   tons;
zinc concentrates, 783 tons
31
33
131,662
88,537
45
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East Lemhi Mining Co., Spokane, Wash.
Bralorne Mines Ltd., Vancouver
Pioneer  Gold Mines   of  B.C.
Ltd., Vancouver
Guichon Mines Ltd., Vancouver
Consolidated Mining and Smelting   Co.   of   Canada,   Ltd.,
Trail
Joe Barillaro, Oliver	
W.  B.  Graham,  Hedley;    lessee, Kelowna Mines Hedley
Ltd.
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Sheep Creek Mines Ltd., Nelson
Giant Mascot Mines Ltd., Vancouver
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Copper Mountain.
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Spillimacheen
Kamloops Mining
Division
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Southeastern British
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Fort Steele Mining
Division
Golden Mining
Division
Mineral King and Paradise.
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2,405
5,147
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23,109
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11,097
46,200
1,011,774
16,712
150
818
3,118
428
36
258
357,714
702,412
590
1,535
48,122
807,709
3,393,616
5,599
855
2,050
11,739
1,929
71,878
6,347,899
16,558
2,574
2,556
25,220
661
116
185
128,646
423,815
13,474
6,445
39,550
351,559
5,274,047
3,986
3,090
10,521
I
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1,035
1,196
6,400
100,648
1,629
37
41
1,601
25
2,732
27
13,108
48,228
319
148
18,459
68,669
560,778
2,453
194
596
300
CN
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Crude ore, 30 tons; lead concentrates, 22 tons; zinc concentrates, 35 tons
Lead concentrates, 4,064 tons;
zinc concentrates, 798 tons
a
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Lead concentrates, 107 tons; zinc
concentrates, 305 tons
Crude ore, 20 tons; zinc concentrates, 163 tons from 1952
stockpile; and 442 tons zinc
concentrates from current production
Crude ore..___ 	
Crude ore „  _	
Crude ore, 9 tons; lead concentrates, 349 tons; zinc concentrates, 748 tons
Crude ore, 348 tons; lead concentrates, 3,276 tons; zinc
concentrates, 3,061 tons
Dump ore..-  	
Clean-up material-—	
Crude ore. _	
o\      irt      oo           o      o*      C.      ^*
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3,527
3,520
139
7
193
5,799
22,236
170
4
10
1,736
E. H. and H. A. Petersen, Sandon
F. Mills and S. Dewis, Silver-
ton
Yale Lead & Zinc Mines Ltd.,
Ainsworth
W. D. Pengelly, New Denver;
and R. Harding, Sandon
F. Sonnenberg, Ainsworth; lessee from Western Mines Ltd.
F. Sonnenberg, Ainsworth; lessee from Western Mines Ltd.
Cody-Reco Mines Ltd., Toronto, Ont.
K. Miller and H. Lyon, Silver-
ton
5
C
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Carnegie Mines Ltd., Montreal,
Que.
Western Exploration Co. Ltd.,
Silverton, and lessees
D.  H.   Norcross and  A.   En-
dersby, Jr., Nelson
c
t
c
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Slocan  Van  Roi Mines  Ltd.,
Vancouver, and lessees
Violamac Mines (B.C.)   Ltd.,
New Denver
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Silver Ridge Mining Co., Nelson
Mid-West Copper and Uranium
Mines Ltd., Rossland
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TraiV Creek Mining
Division
Velvet 	
A 51 A 52
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Table XVI.—Lode-metal Mines Employing an Average of Ten
or More Men during 19561
Name of Mine or Operator
Days
Operating
Tons
Average
Number
Employed
Mine
Mill
Mined
Milled
Mine
Mill
Shipping Mines
310
279
N.A.
278
143
366
272
263
365
366
366
254
222
365
185
313
365
366
365
365
180
255
252
307
365
307
365
270
135
365
364
365
N.A.
208
51
366
255
259
365
366
366
355
222
182
253
223
366
365
365
180
356
252
349
365
340
31
186
365
203,688
94,721
4,200
19,333
5,580
134,652
834,458
14,332
131,662
88,537
1,933,193
249,126
53,120
3,527
3,520
5,799
22,236
435,305
371,971
204,952
4,847
400,204
2,769,177
146,566
185,441
28,192
1,736
3,075
126,801
280,220
203,688
94,721
4,200
19,333
5,580
134,652
834,458
14,332
131,662
88,537
1,933,193
252,523 2
53,120
3,527
3,500
5,790
247
193
N.A.
82
39
102
657
42
359
236
317
284
63
11
23
20
74
122
156
191
12
107
1,112
79
107
50
27
45
82
94
37
13
16
10
28
18
13
12
41
10
11
26
Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Co. Ltd  _ 	
New Cronin Babine Mines Ltd	
17
N.A.
9
4
24
196
Highland Bell Ltd.                            - 	
6
28
Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C. Ltd —  	
22
146
Bluebell (Cons. M. & S. Co. of Canada, Ltd.)—     	
20
Highlander (Yale Lead & Zinc Mines Ltd.).    	
8
4
14
3
435,305
371,971
204,952
4,847
400,204
2,769,177
146,566
185,441
28,142
1,736
17
15
37
Queen Victoria, Eureka (Finley Co., Kootenay Division)	
5
23
Sullivan (Cons. M. & S. Co. of Canada, Ltd.) ...  	
383
11
17
13
2
Blue Grouse (Cowichan Copper Co. Ltd.)— 	
175,022s
280,220
21
14
Non-shipping Mines
Noranda Exploration Co. Ltd  	
Phoenix Copper Co. Ltd     	
	
Makaoo Development Co. Ltd   - 	
Rexspar Uranium Metals Mining Co. Ltd 	
1 The average number employed includes wage-earners and salaried employees.   The average is obtained by adding
the monthly figures and dividing by 12, irrespective of the number of months worked.
2 Includes 3,397 tons of tailings dredged from Kootenay Lake at site of original concentrator.
3 In addition to the ore shown as milled, 521,000 tons of tailings was reclaimed and retreated.
N.A.=Not available. Departmental Work
ADMINISTRATION BRANCH
The Administration Branch is responsible for the administration of the Provincial
laws regarding the acquisition of rights to mineral and to coal, petroleum and natural gas,
and deals with other departments of the Provincial service for the Department or for any
branch.
Gold Commissioners, Mining Recorders, and Sub-Mining Recorders, whose duties
are laid down in the " Mineral Act " and the " Placer-mining Act," administer these Acts
and other Acts relating to mining. Mining Recorders, in addition to their own functions,
may also exercise the powers conferred upon Gold Commissioners with regard to mineral
claims within the mining division for which they have been appointed. Similar duties
may be performed by Mining Recorders with regard to placer claims but not in respect
of placer-mining leases. Recording of location and of work upon a mineral claim as
required by the " Mineral Act" and upon a placer claim or a placer-mining lease as
required by the " Placer-mining Act " must be made at the office of the Mining Recorder
for the mining division in which the claim or lease is located. Information concerning
claims and leases and concerning the ownership and standing of claims and leases in any
mining division may be obtained from the Mining Recorder for the mining division in
which the property is situated or from the Department's offices at Victoria, and Room
104, 739 West Hastings Street, Vancouver. Officials in the offices of the Gold Commissioner at Victoria and the Gold Commissioner at Vancouver act as Sub-Mining Recorders
for all mining divisions. Sub-Mining Recorders, who act as forwarding agents, are
appointed at various places throughout the Province. They are authorized to accept
documents and fees, and forward them to the office of the Mining Recorder for the
correct mining division. Officials and their offices in various parts of the Province are
listed in the table on pages A 54 and A 55.
Central Records Offices (Victoria and Vancouver)
The transcripts of all recordings made in Mining Recorders' offices throughout the
Province are sent to the office of the Chief Gold Commissioner in Victoria twice each
month, and include the names of lessees of reverted Crown-granted mineral claims.
These records and maps showing the approximate positions of mineral claims held by
record and of placer-mining leases may be consulted by the public during office hours
at Victoria and at the office of the Gold Commissioner at Vancouver, Room 104, 739
West Hastings Street. The maps conform in geographical detail, size, and number to
the reference and mineral reference maps issued by the Department of Lands, and the
approximate positions of mineral claims held by record and of placer-mining leases are
plotted from details supplied by the locators. Provision has been made to supply the
general public, on request to the office of the Chief Gold Commissioner, with copies of
the maps.   The charge for these maps is $1 plus 5 per cent tax for each sheet.
Staking reached an all-time high in 1956; 26,170 mineral claims were recorded,
representing twice the number of claims recorded in 1955 and four times the number
recorded in 1954. The Highland Valley area of the Kamloops Mining Division continued
to attract the greatest interest in staking, but the increase in staking was reflected in
nearly all of the mining divisions.
A 53 A 54
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Mining Divisions Amalgamated since 1949
Date
Mining Divisions Amalgamated
New Name
Mining
Recorder's
Office
Oct.   1, 1949
Revelstoke and Lardeau            	
Dec.   1, 1949
K am loops  	
Kamloops.
Apr.  1, 1951
Skeena and Portland Canal
Mar. 1, 1952
Aug. 2, 1954
May   1, 1955
Caribo o...—_.	
Quesnel.
List of Gold Commissioners, Mining Recorders, and Sub-Mining Recorders
in the Province
Mining Division
Location of Office
Gold Commissioner
Mining Recorder
Sub-Mining Recorder
T. G. O'Neill
T. G. O'Neill.
Sub-office 	
W. W. Deans.
Sub-office	
N an a i mo	
Tofino - _
  	
W. H. Cochrane.
Sub-office  „	
B. Warne.
W. Gilchrist.
Atlin  	
Atlin
L. D. Sands   ,
L. D. Sands.
H. O. Callahan.
Telegraph Creek	
H. L. Abbott.
F. E. P. Hughes.
P. Shalapata.
F. E. P. Hughes.
Sub-office 	
Sub-office 	
J. E. Mclntyre.
Sub-office	
Sub-office       ...
C. W. Speed.
Snb-offire
S. M. Carling.
Clinton	
W. E. McLean 	
W. E. McLean.
Williams Lake	
Cranbrook 	
Fort Steele
E. L. Hedley
E. L. Hedley.
R. E. Manson.
R. MacGregor.
D. Dalgleish.
B. J. H. Ryley.
R. E. Manson	
T. N. Weir.
Greenwood.	
Grand Forks	
Greenwood	
Oliver  	
Kamloops 	
R. MacGregor	
G. A. Hartley.
D. Dalgleish	
Chu Chua.	
G. M. Fennell.
C. W. Speed.
H. S. Tatchell.
R. H. McCrimmon.
Atlin-	
L. D. Sands.
W. H. M. Collison.
Fort St. John
R. W. Sangster.
H. O. Callahan.
S. M. Carling.
Mrs. B. J. Corder.
Telegraph Creek	
Watson Lake„. 	
Lillooet  .   ..
Haylmore	
E. B. Offin.
P. Shalapata.
W. Haylmore.
Lillooet	
E. B. Offin	
W. H. Cochrane	
W. H. Cochrane.
Alberni  —
Alert Bay
T. G. O'Neill.
D. J. Phillips.
G. W. McFarland.
	
Quatsino.	
Nelson	
Nelson. - 	
K. D. McRae 	
K. D. McRae 	
G. C. Kimberley.
F. R. Carmichael.
R. S. Allen
New Westminster-
J. F. McDonald
Sub-office
Hope 	
J. H. Richmond. DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 55
List of Gold Commissioners, Mining Recorders, and Sub-Mining Recorders
in the Province—Continued
Mining Division
Location of Office
Gold Commissioner
Mining Recorder
Sub-Mining Recorder
Nicol a  	
Merritt....- __	
D. Dalgleish (Kamloops)
G. H. Beley....
T. S. Dobson.
G. H. Beley.
W. H. M. Collison.
W. E. Horwill.
Fort St. John	
Hazelton	
R. W. Sangster.
C. H. Drake.
N. R. Blake.
T. C. Hamilton.
S. M. Carling.
T. J. Thorp.
E. G. Chubak.
T. S. Dalby...
T. S. Dalby.
Oliver- _	
Revelstoke 	
Beaton...-	
Princeton 	
Prince Rupert	
W. T. McGruder
W. T. McGruder.
J. T. Slater.
B. Kennelly.
T. H. W. Harding.
T. H. W. Harding      ..
A. D. York.
W. H. M. Collison.
N. R. Blake.
Mrs. B J Corder
Terrace. 	
C. Macdonald	
B. F. Palmer.
T. P. McKinnon.
Slocan  _..
Rossland	
W. E Graham.
Trail Creek  	
W. L. Draper	
J. Egdell    .
W. L. Draper.
Miss S. Hyham
(Deputy).
Alert Bay
D. J. Phillips.
Vernon	
Vernon  _.
G. F. Forbes 	
G. F. Forbes.
E. R. Oatman.
Vi ctoria   	
Victoria  	
R. H. McCrimmon
R. H. McCrimmon.
W. W Deans. A 56
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
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A 57
Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas
The Administration Branch has been responsible for the administration of the
" Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1954," and for the " Coal Act, 1944," since April 1st,
1953. Information concerning applications for permits and leases issued under the
" Petroleum and Natural Gas Act" and concerning the ownership and standing of them
may be obtained upon application to the office of the Chief Commissioner, Department of
Mines, Victoria, B.C. Similar information may be obtained respecting licences and leases
issued under the " Coal Act." A series of maps showing the locations of permits and
leases under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act" is provided, and copies may be
obtained upon application to the office of the Department of Mines, Victoria, B.C., accompanied by payment of $3 per sheet. Monthly reports listing additions and revisions to
permit-location maps and giving information listing changes in title to permits, licences,
and leases and related matters are available from the office of the Chief Commissioner
upon application and payment of a fee of $1 per annum.
Petroleum and Natural-gas Statistics, 1956
Permits—
Issued       50
Renewed   295
Assigned   108
Leases—
Issued      3 9
Renewed      95
Assigned        2
Petroleum and Natural-gas Revenue, 1956
Permits—
Fees
$86,000.00
Rent    2,567,062.72-
Cash in lieu of work      120,003.94
$2,773,066.66
Leases—■
Fees
$700.00
Rent        121,457.44
—        122,157.44
Tender bonus     1,614,325.15
Royalties—
Gas         $2,826.46
Oil         37,196.05
Assignment fees	
Operators' licences
Miscellaneous 	
40,022.51
2,500.00
8,720.00
1,207.80
$4,561,999.56 A 58
REPORT OF THE MINISTE
Coal Revenue,
Licences—
Fees	
R OF MINES,
1956
$1,825.00
5,641.40
1956
Rent  	
Leases—
Fees	
$7,466.40
$100.00
1,258.24
500.00
Rent  	
Cash in lieu of work.. .   .
Miscellaneous	
1,858.24
67,205.00
$76,529.64
Mining Laws and Laws Related to the Mineral Industry
Synopses of mining laws and of laws related to mining are available on application.
The titles of the various Acts and the prices charged for each are listed on page 236.
ANALYTICAL AND ASSAY BRANCH
By G. C. B. Cave, Chief Analyst
Rock Samples
During 1956 the chemical laboratory in Victoria issued reports on 2,114 samples
from prospectors* and Departmental engineers. A laboratory examination of a prospector's sample generally consists of the following: (1) A spectrographic analysis to
determine if any base metals are present in interesting percentages; (2) assays for
precious metals, and for base metals shown by the spectrographic analysis to be present
in interesting percentages. The degree of radioactivity is measured on all samples submitted by prospectors and Departmental engineers; these radiometric assays are not
listed below in the table.
The laboratory reports were distributed in the following manner among prospectors
who were not grantees, prospectors who were grantees under the " Prospectors' Grubstake Act," and Departmental engineers:—
Samples
Spectrographic
Analyses
Assays
1,558
157
399
1,538
157
283
3,704
Prospectors (grantees)       	
397
829
Totals                     -. -	
2,114
1,978
4,930
Mineralogical specimens submitted for identification and rocks for classification are
examined by the Mineralogical Branch of the Department.
Coal, Petroleum, and Gas Samples
Sixty-six samples were analysed.    Of these, fifty-one were samples of formation
water from wells being drilled for oil and gas; three were samples of coal for proximate
* A reasonable number of samples are assayed, without charge, for a prospector who makes application for free
assays and who satisfies the Chief Analyst that prospecting is his principal pccupation during the summer months.
A form for use in applying for free assays may be obtained from the office of any Mining Recorder. DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 59
analysis and calorific value; one was a seepage of gas for identification; two were samples
of mine air for complete analysis; two were samples of petroleum for identification; and
seven were petroleum seepages for identification.
The measurement of resistivity of formation waters was instituted on a routine basis.
A more accurate method for measuring the pH of formation waters was studied and then
adopted for routine use.
Police and Coroners' Exhibits
For the Attorney-General's Department and various police forces, sixty-four cases
of a chemico-legal nature were undertaken. They involved a scientific examination of
155 exhibits.
Two of the sixty-four cases required analysis for narcotics under the " Opium and
Narcotic Drug Act"; twenty were toxicological analyses for possible poisons in human
viscera, and four were similar analyses on animal viscera; thirteen were determinations
of the alcoholic content of blood and body fluids; four were determinations of both the
alcoholic content and the carbon monoxide content of blood; two were determinations
of only the carbon monoxide content of blood. Eight cases involved the determination of
the alcoholic content of exhibits seized under the " Indian Act," the " Government Liquor
Act," and the " Excise Act." Seven samples of gasoline required the identification of
marker dyestuff in gasoline, for the " Coloured Gasoline Tax Act." In three cases, fibres
and glass were examined in connection with investigations of breaking and entering.
Clothing was examined in one hit-and-run case. Evidence was not presented in Court
in 1956.
Miscellaneous Samples
For the Purchasing Commission, specification tests were made on nine samples of
anti-freeze, on four samples of fibre and cloth, on three samples of soap, on six samples of
carbon paper, and on one sample of jelly powder.
For the Taxation Branch of the Department of Finance, six samples of gasoline were
analysed for marker dyestuff. The dyestuff in three packets was weighed for calibration
purposes. Two different marker dyestuffs were compared with respect to their suitability
as gasoline markers.
For the Department of Agriculture, two samples of limestone were analysed for lime.
For the Department of Lands and Forests, a study was made of the effect of a certain
kind of rock chips on the acidity of water in contact with the chips.
For the Department of Health and Welfare, one sample of a water deposit was
analysed by spectrographic means.
For the British Columbia Research Council, two samples were analysed by spectrographic means.
For the Department of Geology and Geography, University of British Columbia,
a mineral of the Helvite-Danalite series was analysed by chemical and by X-ray spectrographic means.
X-ray Installation
In co-operation with the Mineralogical Branch, a North American Philips X-ray
Diffractometer and Spectrograph were installed in May. This equipment is used by the
Mineralogical Branch to study and to identify minerals, and by the Analytical and Assay
Branch to assay ore samples for base metals. A member of the staff from the latter
Branch was assigned to operate the instrument, so that no increase in staff was necessary.
All personnel in the X-ray laboratory wear badges that contain special monitoring
film provided by the Occupational Health Division of the Department of National Health
and Welfare, Ottawa. a 60 report of the minister of mines, 1956
Research
An accurate method was developed for determining the lead and the zinc content of
ores by using the X-ray spectrograph. This method is now in routine use in the laboratory. The effect of variations in the particle size of the powdered ore required very careful
study before the development work was successfully concluded.
A short experimental and theoretical study was made of some factors that can affect
the pH of slurries prepared from Granduc ore.
Examinations for Assayers
Provincial Government examinations for certificates of competency and licence to
practise assaying in British Columbia were held in May and in December. In May four
candidates were examined; two passed and two failed. In December four candidates
were examined; one was granted a supplemental examination in fire assaying, another
was granted a supplemental examination in wet assaying, and two failed. In addition to
these examinations, one application was received for a licence under section 11, subsection (2), of the " Department of Mines Act "; a licence was not granted.
INSPECTION BRANCH
Organization and Staff
Inspectors and Resident Engineers
H. C. Hughes, Chief Inspector Victoria
Robert B. Bonar, Senior Inspector of Mines Victoria
L. Wardman, Electrical Inspector of Mines Victoria
J. A. Mitchell, Senior Inspector of Mines Victoria
J. W. Patterson, Inspector and Resident Engineer Lillooet
Robert B. King, Inspector and Resident Engineer Vancouver
A. R. C. James, Inspector and Resident Engineer Prince Rupert
J. E. Merrett, Inspector and Resident Engineer Cranbrook
E. R. Hughes, Inspector and Resident Engineer Princeton
J. W. Peck, Inspector and Resident Engineer Nelson
D. R. Morgan, Inspector and Resident Engineer Fernie
The Inspectors are stationed at the places listed and inspect coal mines, metalliferous mines, and quarries in their respective districts. They also examine prospects and
mining properties.
J. A. Mitchell supervised the Department's roads and trails programme and grubstakes until he resigned on June 13th, 1956. He was replaced by E. R. Hughes, who
was moved to Victoria on October 1st, 1956.
Instructors, Mine-rescue Stations
Arthur Williams Cumberland Station
T. H. Cunlifle Princeton Station
Joseph J. Haile Fernie Station
H. W. Aitchison . Nelson Station
H. W. Aitchison resigned on November 21st, 1956.
Board of Examiners for Coal-mine Officials
H. C. Hughes, Chairman Victoria
Robert B. Bonar, Secretary Victoria
E. R. Hughes, Member Princeton DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 61
Upon assuming his duties as supervisor of the Department's roads and trails programme and grub-stakes, E. R. Hughes resigned from the Board of Examiners for
Coal-mine Officials and was replaced by A. R. C. James.
R. B. Bonar, E. R. Hughes, or A. R. C. James and the Inspectors for the district
in which an examination is being held form the Board for granting certificates of
competency to coal-miners. In the absence of the Inspector, the mine-rescue instructor
is authorized to act in his stead.
An Inspector is empowered to grant provisional certificates to coal-miners for a
period not exceeding sixty days between regular examinations.
MINERALOGICAL BRANCH
Field work by officers of the Mineralogical Branch includes geological mapping and
examination of mineral deposits, and studies related to ground-water and engineering
geology. The results are published partly in the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines
and partly in a series of bulletins. The Mineralogical Branch supplies information
regarding mineral deposits and the mineral industry, in response to inquiries received in
great number. The activities of the Branch also include identification of rock and
mineral specimens submitted by prospectors and others, including, if required, the
identification of rocks and minerals submitted by prospectors to the Analytical Branch.
Since April 1st, 1953, the Mineralogical Branch has been responsible for preparing and
logging samples representing the bit cuttings from wells drilled for petroleum and natural
gas and cores from the wells. Those responsibilities were assumed by the Petroleum
and Natural Gas Conservation Branch in the autumn of 1956.
Professional Staff
On December 31st, 1956, the professional staff included the following engineers
classified as geologists or mineral engineers: H. Sargent, Chief of the Mineralogical
Branch; M. S. Hedley, S. S. Holland, W. R. Bacon, J. W. McCammon, N. D. McKechnie,
G. E. P. Eastwood, J. T. Fyles, A. Sutherland Brown, J. M. Carr, H. W. Nasmith, A. F.
Shepherd, C. G. Hewlett, and J. E. Hughes.
Technical editing of the Annual Report of the Minister of Mines and of other
publications was directed by M. S. Hedley. Copy for printing was prepared under the
direction of Mrs. C. C. Savage, who serves as editor for English. Messrs. Hedley and
Holland assisted in directing and supervising field work. Most of the other members
of the professional staff are assigned to mapping the geology of the selected areas and of
mineral deposits. The following have special assignments: J. W. McCammon, industrial
minerals and structural materials; H. W. Nasmith, ground-water and engineering geology;
A. F. Shepherd, records and library.
Staff Changes
W. R. Bacon resigned, effective December 31st, 1956.
J. M. Carr joined the staff as acting associate geologist in May.
S. S. Cosburn was transferred to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch in the
autumn.
J. E. Hughes was granted leave in October to undertake postgraduate studies at
McGill University.
Field Work
Thirteen field assistants were employed for the 1956 season to work under members
of the professional staff who had the following assignments.
W. R. Bacon visited the Granduc property northwest of Stewart early in the season,
and devoted most of the field season to a study of iron-ore occurrences in the Coastal
and Tulameen areas. A 62 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
A. S. Brown did geological mapping in the northeastern Cariboo district from
Quesnel Lake to Bowron Lake game reserve and east to Isaac Lake. He briefly examined
two mining properties near Quesnel and Williams Lake.
J. M. Carr did geological mapping in the copper-bearing region south of Kamloops.
At the end of the season he spent two weeks in the Highland Valley preparatory to a
programme of mapping in 1957.
S. S. Cosburn visited wells being drilled in the Fort St. John area and logged core
there.
G. E. P. Eastwood continued geological mapping in the Lardeau in the general
vicinity of Trout Lake and spent some time mapping surface and underground at the
Spider mine on Poole Creek.
J. T. Fyles and C. G. Hewlett made detailed studies of the lead-zinc deposits near
Salmo as a concluding phase of the mapping programme of the past five years. Geological
investigations of a regional nature were made as a preliminary to possible future mapping
between Ymir and Procter (east of Nelson) and at various points on Kootenay and
Duncan Lakes.
S. S. Holland spent about three weeks in the Kamloops and Highland Valley area
studying the general progress of exploration. He also examined prospects in the
Omineca area, and with Mr. Nasmith made studies of the approaches to the Peace River
bridge of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, and of the Moran dam-site on the Fraser
River.
J. E. Hughes completed the mapping of stratigraphy and structure in the area traversed by the John Hart Highway between Commotion Creek and the West Pine bridge.
J. W. McCammon studied the limestone deposits of Vancouver Island, Texada
Island, and the lower Mainland in preparation for a revision of the bulletin on " Calcareous Deposits of the Georgia Strait Area."
N. D. McKechnie examined copper deposits near Cowichan Lake and near Jordan
River, Vancouver Island.
H. W. Nasmith spent three-quarters of the season in continuing glacial geology and
ground-water investigations in the Okanagan Valley. He also made or participated in
special studies of foundations for the Pacific Great Eastern Railway in the Peace River
region and at Moran dam-site on the Fraser River.
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS CONSERVATION BRANCH
Staff
J. D. Lineham, Chief Petroleum Engineer Victoria
S. S. Cosburn, Mineral Engineer (Geology) _...Victoria
R. R. McLeod, Senior Petroleum Engineer Victoria
T. A. Mackenzie, Engineering Assistant Victoria
W. L. Ingram, Petroleum Engineer Dawson Creek
R. E. Anderson, Petroleum Engineer Dawson Creek
P. K. Huus, Engineering Assistant Dawson Creek
This Branch is responsible for the administration of the regulations, under the
"Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1954," governing conservation and the drilling and
production of oil and gas wells. It was established on April 1st, 1956, although it has
functioned, nominally under the Inspection Branch, since April 1st, 1953.
The field staff had headquarters at the government office building in Pouce Coupe.
During the year three Pan Abode three-bedroom housing units were constructed in
Dawson Creek to provide accommodation for the staff and temporary office space.
Two of these dwellings were occupied in October by the engineers. The third unit will
be used as combined office and bachelor quarters when it is ready for occupancy in DEPARTMENTAL WORK
A 63
early 1957. In addition to an auxiliary office to be available in the new government
building in Fort St. John, it is expected that a permanent office will be erected in Dawson
Creek adjoining the residences.
Drilling activity increased considerably during 1956, necessitating an increase in
staff. R. R. McLeod, formerly in charge of the field office, was transferred to Victoria
in July to organize the reservoir engineering section. He was replaced by W. L. Ingram,
who joined the Department in Dawson Creek on May 1st. Another engineer, R. E.
Anderson, was employed, beginning June 18th, to assist with the expanding field work.
P. K. Huus transferred from the Central Records Office to the Branch on April 1st,
and after receiving four months' training in Alberta at several field offices of the Alberta
Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board, he was posted to the Dawson Creek
office as an engineering assistant. T. A. Mackenzie, a former drilling engineer with
broad experience in industry in both North and South America, commenced work in
Victoria on November 1st as an engineering assistant. S. S. Cosburn, mineral engineer,
was transferred from the Mineralogical Branch late in the year to assume charge of the
geological section. Essential clerical and stenographic personnel were taken on staff,
while the excess work was done by the stenographic pool.
GRUB-STAKING PROSPECTORS
Under authority of the " Prospectors' Grub-stake Act," as amended in March,
1944, the Department of Mines has provided grub-stakes each year since 1943 to a
limited number of applicants able to qualify. The maximum grub-stake is $300, but
an additional amount up to $200 may be added for travelling expenses to and from the
prospecting area.
To qualify at the present time the Department requires that the applicant shall be
a physically fit male British subject, holder of a valid free miner's certificate, who has
been resident in the Province during the year preceding his application for a grub-stake,
or who has been honourably discharged from Her Majesty's services, who is between
the ages of 18 and 70, and who can identify common rocks and minerals.
It is required that in order to obtain the maximum grub-stake, he agree to spend at
least sixty days actually prospecting for lode occurrences in one area of his choice in
British Columbia considered favourable by officers of the Department of Mines. If he
prospects a lesser time, the grant will be reduced proportionately. In the past, rebates
have been recovered from grantees to whom payments have exceeded the proper amount
for the time and effort devoted to prospecting.
The grantee must not accept pay from any other source for services rendered during
the period credited to the grub-stake. At the end of the season he shall provide the
Department with a diary and maps outlining his activities while working under the grubstake.   Any discoveries made, staked, and recorded are exclusively his own property.
Statistical information covering the grub-stake programme since its inception is
given in the following table:— A 64
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Grub-stake Statistics
Field Season
Approximate
Expenditure
Men
Grub-staked
Samples and
Specimens
Received at
Department
Laboratory
Mineral
Claims
Recorded
1943
1944                      	
1945   	
1946   	
1947   	
1948     —  .    	
1949 	
1950....
1951...	
1952	
$18,500
27,215
27,310
35,200
36,230
35,975
31,175
26,800
19,385
19,083
17,850
19,989
21,169
20,270
90
105
84
95
91
92
98
78
63
50
41
48
47
47
773
606
448
419
469
443
567
226
255
251
201
336
288
163
87
135
181
162
142
138
103
95
137
95
1953  	
1954
1955 „ 	
1956	
141
123
183
217
Samples and specimens received from grub-staked prospectors are spectrographed,
assayed, and tested for radioactivity.   Mineralogical identifications are made on request.
Of the forty-seven grantees in 1956, twenty-three were given grants for the first
time, and only five of these proved unsatisfactory. Five grantees who had received
previous grub-stakes were also struck from the list for unsatisfactory work. Six grantees,
who for various reasons were unable to fulfil the terms and conditions of the grant,
returned the whole or part of the grub-stake. Generally speaking, however, the 1956
season was satisfactory and more claims were located than in any previous season.
Several new discoveries were recorded, and the claims located by one group in the
northern part of the Province were optioned by a major Canadian company and exploration work was started on them.
D. H. Rae again gave able service in interviewing applicants and supervising
grantees in the field. The following notes have been largely compiled by Mr. Rae from
information provided in the diaries of the grantees, and from his own observations while
in the field.
Atlin Mining Division.—A small amount of work was done between Telegraph
Creek and Tulsequah.   Nothing of interest was reported.
Liard Mining Division.—A short distance east of Tootsee Lake, and roughly 90 air
miles southwest of Watson Lake, intensive prospecting was done by a group of four
men .on an important discovery made late in 1955. A wide gossan area was thoroughly
investigated, numerous trenches and open-cuts were put in, and the ground was later
optioned to a mining company. A large northeast-striking fault or shear zone in limestone close to a granite-limestone contact appeared responsible for the mineralization.
High assays in silver and lead were obtained in the unoxidized vein material throughout
the zone.
More work was done close to the Little Rancheria River, where feldspar-pegmatite
dykes were encountered in coarse granite. A small amount of prospecting was done on
the chromite discovered during the 1955 season near the headwaters of Blue Creek.
Some inconclusive work was done east of Dease Lake. Near Rainbow Lake a wide
pegmatite dyke cutting coarse granite was investigated, and some encouraging mineralization was reported along a granite-limestone contact. At King Lake stringers of short,
brittle fibre asbestos were found in a belt of serpentine. Some ground was prospected
along the divide between the Racing and Toad Rivers. This area merits further work.
In the Iskut River area some claims were located where considerable galena float
was found.    Some heavily stained zones along Porcupine River 10 miles north of the DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 65
mouth of the Iskut were prospected. Inconclusive work was carried out in the watershed
of the Anuk and in the upper part of the basin of Porcupine River.
Skeena Mining Division.—Considerable work was done northeast of the Toric mine
at Alice Arm. Along the west fork of the Kitsault River some gossan zones were prospected where much green copper stain was in evidence. Very little primary copper
mineralization was encountered.
Two men were flown in and established a base camp at Shishilabet Lakes, about 25
miles northeast of Alice Arm; Illiance Mountain, south fork of Latte River, and the
watershed of Tchitin River were prospected; gossan areas showing some green copper
stain, and considerable pyrite were discovered and sampled, but the values obtained were
disappointing. In the Shishilabet Lakes area, shear zones, fault zones, and extensive
pyrite mineralization were encountered, but the results of sampling were disappointing.
Along the coastline, some work was done at Shearwater Bay, where low values in
copper were reported; at Smith Inlet, where considerable copper stain was found; and at
South Bentinck Arm, where a pyritic iron capping showed very low values in gold and
copper. Copper showings of a very scattered nature were reported from the north end
of King Island. A fairly large deposit of graphite at Elcho Harbour will be further
investigated.   Some inconclusive work was done in the Kynoch Inlet area.
Omineca Mining Division.—Some prospecting was done near Endako and on the
north side of Francois Lake in search of extensions of the radioactive rhyolite dykes discovered in 1955; none of interest were found. Ultrabasic rocks on the east shore of
Stuart Lake and in the area near Ogston, Whitefish, and Grassham Lakes were prospected
without success.
Claims were located on a new find of cinnabar on the Fort St. James-Pinchi Lake
road. The west end of Germansen Lake and the east side of Wolverine Lake near
Manson Creek received some attention. Copper float was found in the vicinity of Gaff-
ney Creek, and ground near Blue Lake and on Mount Gillis was prospected for a short
time.   Some free gold and stibnite were found near Twenty Mile Creek.
Some claims were located in the Finlay River area near the mouth of Ingenika
River, and on Chowika Creek.
Near Humphrey Lake basic dykes carrying low values in nickel were discovered,
and some work done on the find. At the west end of Pinchi Lake toward Tezzeron Lake
some work was done along the Pinchi fault; nothing of importance was found.
A large area of country embracing Mount Ogden, Ogden Creek, Ogden Lake, and
Mitchell Range was investigated. Outcrops of granite, gabbro, and serpentine were
observed; mariposite and magnetite were found associated with the serpentine. Commercial values in copper were found in a wide shear zone in dunite-peridotite
near the Axelgold Range.
In the vicinity of Wasi and End Lakes south of the Osilinka and in the Thane Creek
watershed, prospecting was continued close to the granodiorite-volcanic contact. Considerable copper stain and some molybdenite were found along fracture zones in a buff-
coloured granodiorite. Fairly good assays in titanium were obtained from samples taken
from a dark-green basalt.   A small gossan-covered area was also investigated.
Near Eutsuk Lake, at Pondosy Arm, and around Pondosy Bay, the main granite
contact was prospected without success.
Quesnel Mining Division.—An outcrop of copper mineralization was investigated at
Mile 13 on the Quesnel-Wells road, and some work was done on a granodiorite-argillite
contact a few miles to the northwest. Some inconclusive work was done between Horsefly
River and Crooked Lake.
Clinton Mining Division.—Intensive prospecting was carried out near Franklin Arm
of Chilko Lake, where encouraging showings of chalcopyrite and scheelite occur in altered A 66 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
limestone near stocks of granodiorite close to the main batholith. Commercial values
were found in some samples taken here.
Work was done at Taseko and Tsuniah Lakes and on Mount McClure, Battlement
Ridge, and Lord River, where heavily stained volcanic rocks were sampled. Nothing
of economic interest was found.
Lillooet Mining Division.—Along Anderson Creek, 6 miles above its confluence
with Upper Hat Creek, a small amount of work was done to try to locate reported copper
showings.   Some unsuccessful prospecting was also done close to Pavilion Lake.
Kamloops Mining Division.—From a base camp near Eagle Lake, pyrrhotite showings near the old Lakeview property west of Little Fort were prospected. Some work
was done near Azure and Clearwater Lakes and at the headwaters of Goat Creek.
Nicola Mining Division.—Near Aspen Grove, copper occurrences in volcanic rocks
were prospected, and some old pits were cleaned out to permit better sampling.
Similkameen Mining Division.—Discouraging results were obtained from an area
about 20 miles west of Peachland.
Osoyoos Mining Division.—Some work was done on the west side of Okanagan
Lake near Summerland.   Nothing of interest was found.
Vernon Mining Division.—Twelve miles east of Vernon, quartz veins in mica schist
were prospected for possible beryllium.
Thirty-two miles from Enderby, at the headwaters of Kingfisher Creek, some inconclusive prospecting was done.
Greenwood Mining Division.—A small amount of prospecting was done along the
Kettle River northwest of Greenwood, also on Brown and Pass Creeks along Granby
River, and on Hardy Mountain.   Nothing of interest was reported.
Nelson Mining Division.—On Mount Kelly, and in the basin of Kelly Creek near
Fruitvale, an unsuccessful attempt was made to locate the source of some zinc float.
Claims were located in the Kokanee Creek area. Some pegmatite dykes close to the old
Molly Gibson mine were investigated. Narrow quartz veins and dykes near Whitewater
Creek were found to be of no interest.
Considerable work was done on the west side of Kootenay Lake, starting 12 miles
due west of Wynndel and extending north to Midge Creek. This work followed approximately along the western contact of the main body of granite with the Horsethief Creek
series. Some previously discovered copper showings were investigated and some new
discoveries were made. This area merits further work.
Slocan Mining Division.—On Snow Creek, close to Burton Creek, further prospecting was done on a series of felspathic dykes which showed some radioactivity.
Samples did not show values of importance. Some work was also done along Ice Creek,
Mineral Creek, Blue Grouse Creek, Caribou Creek, Rodd Creek, and Burton Creek.
Samples from showings discovered high up on Burton Creek assayed well in tungstic
oxide.   Nothing further of interest was found.
Fort Steele Mining Division.—An area roughly 10 miles due west of Kootenay River
between Flagstone and Waldo received some attention. This area was accessible by way
of logging-roads. The valleys of Bloom, Warren, and Gold Creeks were prospected.
Much of the exposed rock was unaltered limestone.   Nothing of interest was found.
New Westminster Mining Division.—On the east side of the Fraser River at Yale,
some time was spent in the divide area between Anderson River and Ladner Creek.
No finds were made.
Vancouver Mining Division.—Along the coast, in the Redonda Bay area, along
Filer Creek and Toba River, considerable prospecting was done. The stream sands here
were found to contain a large amount of magnetite. A large pegmatite dyke was found,
cutting across Montrose Creek valley;  this showed some green and blue copper stain DEPARTMENTAL WORK A 67
and a little bornite, but assays of samples were low.   Some inconclusive work was done
in the Brem River area.
West of the Pacific Great Eastern at Brandywine, some prospecting was done from
the old Price property to Callaghan Lake, along Edna Creek and in the valley of Cal-
laghan Creek, and in the Dority Creek watershed. Several well-mineralized zones were
uncovered, and interesting assays were obtained from some of the samples taken.
Further work should be done in this area.
Alberni Mining Division.—Some work was done close to Zeballos. In the Mooyah
Bay area and in Tahsis Inlet, granite contacts were investigated. Interesting copper
float was found near the J.C. group on Muchalat Arm. A heavy iron-stained capping
containing considerable arsenopyrite was uncovered along the Brennan River valley.
A base camp was established on Muchalat Lake, and some prospecting was done
in the adjacent area. Copper float was found on the Oktwanch River. Heavy timber
in the area made field work difficult.
Nanaimo Mining Division.—A small amount of work was done in the Cameron
Lake area near Mount Arrowsmith. Heavy overburden was encountered and no information was obtained.
Victoria Mining Division.—Considerable work was done west of Chemainus in the
Mount Brenton area. Several mineralized zones containing pyrite and scattered chal-
copyrite and zincblende were found associated with shear zones around Mount Hall, and
Boulder, Sally, and Jones Creeks. Several interesting assays were obtained from the
samples taken.
MUSEUMS
The Department has a large exhibit of mineral rock specimens in the Douglas
Building, Victoria; collections are also displayed in the joint office in Vancouver and in
the offices of the Inspectors of Mines in Nelson and Prince Rupert.
Information regarding collections of specimens of rocks and minerals available to
prospectors and schools in British Columbia will be found on page 235.
Specimens from the collection in Victoria, accumulated in a period of nearly sixty
years, are displayed in cases on the fourth floor of the Douglas Building. The collection
includes specimens from many of the mines and prospects in the Province, and also
specimens of type rocks and special minerals from British Columbia and elsewhere.
British Columbia material includes specimens collected by officers of the Department of Mines and specimens donated by property-owners. The collection also includes
type specimens purchased from distributers. Other valued specimens or groups of
specimens have been donated or loaned to the museum.
PUBLICATIONS
Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines, bulletins, and other publications of the
Department, with prices charged for them, are listed on pages 231 to 236.
Publications may be obtained from the offices of the Department in Victoria and
elsewhere in the Province. They are also available for reference use in the Department's
library (Mineralogical Branch) at Victoria, in the joint office in Vancouver, and in the
offices of the Inspectors of Mines in Nelson and Prince Rupert, as well as in public
libraries listed on page 237.
MAPS SHOWING MINERAL CLAIMS, PLACER CLAIMS, AND
PLACER-MINING LEASES
From the details supplied by the locators, the approximate positions of mineral
claims held by record and of placer-mining leases are shown on maps that may be
inspected in the Central Records Offices of the Department of Mines in Victoria and in A 68 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Vancouver. Copies of these maps may be obtained on request. The boundaries of surveyed claims and leases are shown on the reference maps and other maps of the British
Columbia Department of Lands and Forests.
JOINT OFFICES OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF MINES
AND THE DEPARTMENT OF MINES AND TECHNICAL SURVEYS,
CANADA.
The Provincial Department's Inspector and Resident Engineer, the Gold Commissioner and Mining Recorder for the Vancouver Mining Division, and the officers of the
Federal Geological Survey occupy one suite of offices. All official information relating
to mining is now available to the public in the one suite of offices in Vancouver.
The services offered to the public include technical information on mining, the identification of mineral specimens, distribution of Federal and Provincial mining publications, a reference library, a display of rocks and minerals, and a central records office. Topographic Mapping and Air Photography
During 1956, topographic mapping and air photography were carried on by the
Surveys and Mapping Branch of the British Columbia Department of Lands and Forests
and by the Canadian Government Departments of Mines and Technical Surveys and of
National Defence.
In addition, the Legal Surveys Division of the British Columbia Surveys and Mapping Branch was responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands in the Province,
and during the field season carried out surveys of 14,000 acres in the Peace River District
for settlement purposes, surveyed the rights-of-way of new highways in the vicinities of
Cranbrook, Rock Creek, Spences Bridge, Williams Lake, Macalister, and Vanderhoof,
also various lots and subdivisions for alienation and reserve totalling fifty-one parcels.
In the course of such work, 368 old lot corners were replaced by permanent monuments.
The Air Division of the British Columbia Surveys and Mapping Branch continued
its programme of compiling interim maps at a scale of 2 inches to 1 mile showing planimetry, watershed boundaries, and cadastral surveys, and completed a total area of 37,400
square miles, with a further 29,100 square miles in hand at the end of the year.
The Air Division also flew 26,500 square miles of new photography at various scales,
adding 10,873 photographs to the Air Photo Library. The total number of air photographs (Federal and Provincial) now on hand in the Air Photo Library at Victoria is
420,754.
The Topographic Division of the British Columbia Surveys and Mapping Branch
extended horizontal ground control into the unsurveyed country south of the Peace River
Block, between the Alberta boundary and the Rockies, for the purpose of co-ordinating
permits located under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1954." Some eighty-seven
marked stations were established in the area, which comprises 3,600 square miles, and
sufficient vertical control was obtained to permit topographic mapping at a scale of 40
chains to 1 inch.
Another party obtained triangulation control in the Homathko and Southgate River
valleys, extending through the Coast Range to the valleys of Chilko and Taseko Lakes,
on behalf of the British Columbia Power Commission, whilst a small party on the Salmon
Glacier (near Stewart) carried a triangulation net into the Leduc Valley to establish
control for a tunnel proposed by Granduc Mines.
The Geographic Division of the British Columbia Surveys and Mapping Branch
produced thirteen lithographed maps, of which six were in the l-inch-to-2-miles series.
The latter are six-colour contoured sheets compiled from interim and topographic manuscripts with the aid of field culture checks.
The Canadian Government Departments of Mines and Technical Surveys and of
National Defence, working in close co-operation with Provincial agencies during 1956,
completed the field work for 111 half-sheets of the National Topographic 1:50,000 series
in the Province.
The 1956 Annual Report of the Deputy Minister of Lands contains key maps indicating coverage by air photographs and by topographic and interim maps. Further
information concerning these or the corresponding Federal mapping may be obtained
from the Director, Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria, B.C.
A 69  Department of Mines and Technical Surveys
The Canadian Government Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, created by
an Act of Parliament introduced in November, 1949, took over most of the branches and
functions related to mining of the former Department of Mines and Resources. The
Mines Branch, Geological Survey of Canada, and Surveys and Mapping Branch are the
three branches of the Department of the most direct interest to the mining industry. Brief
reference to the work of the Surveys and Mapping Branch in British Columbia is made
in the preceding note headed " Topographic Mapping and Air Photography." A note on
the Geological Survey of Canada follows this paragraph and is followed by a note on the
Mines Branch.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA
By an arrangement made at the time the Province of British Columbia entered Confederation, geological investigations and mapping in the Province are carried on by the
Geological Survey of Canada. Several geological parties are in the field each year. Many
excellent reports and maps covering areas of British Columbia have been issued by the
Geological Survey of Canada, and they have made available a great amount of information
that has been of much benefit to the mining and prospecting activities in British Columbia.
A branch office of the Geological Survey of Canada is maintained in Vancouver.
Maps and reports on British Columbia can be obtained there. J. E. Armstrong is in
charge of this office.
Field Work by the Geological Survey of Canada in British Columbia, 1956
E. F. Roots, officer in charge of helicopter-assisted Operation Stikine, completed
the geological mapping of about 25,000 square miles in northwestern British Columbia
(104 A, B, G, H, I, and J) adjacent to the proposed Stewart-Cassiar road. In addition
to the officer in charge, the party included the following officers of the Geological Survey
staff: J. A. Roddick, J. A. Souther, H. Gabrielse, R. L. Christie, L. H. Green, and W. D.
McCartney. Although the work was completed in sufficient detail for publication of
preliminary maps on the scale of 1 inch to 4 miles, some additional ground mapping
will be done in 1957 to fill in gaps and to resolve critical geological problems.
J. G. Fyles commenced mapping the surficial deposits of the coastal lowland of
eastern Vancouver Island between latitude 49° 30' and 50°. This work is being done
for publication on the scale of 1 inch to 2 miles.
E. C. Halstead continued his study of the ground-water resources of the Lower
Fraser Valley and completed his work within Maple Ridge and Mission Municipalities.
G. B. Leech completed the geological mapping of the Canal Flats 1-mile map-area
(82 J/4), and commenced geological mapping of the west half of the Fernie 4-mile
map-area (82 G, W. V_s).
H. W. Little completed the geological mapping of the east half of the Kettle River
4-mile map-area (82 E, E. V_t).
J. E. Reesor continued the geological mapping of the Lardeau 4-mile map-area
(82 K, E. 1/2).
H. W. Tipper continued the geological mapping of the Anahim Lake 4-mile map-
area (93 C).
H. Frebold continued a detailed study of the Jurassic fauna and stratigraphy of
southern British Columbia, examining sections in the Nelson, Salmo, and Harrison Lake
districts.
W. L. Fry continued a detailed study of the Tertiary palasobotany and stratigraphy
of southwestern and south central British Columbia.    Particular attention was paid to
A 71 A 72 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
the Princeton and Coalmont areas, but reconnaissance was done in several adjacent
districts preparatory to future detailed studies.
E. J. W. Irish continued the geological mapping of the Charlie Lake 4-mile map-
area (94 A).
R. A. Price commenced the geological mapping of the east half of the Flathead
North 1-mile map-area (82 G/7, E. Vz).
B. A. Latour continued to collect data necessary for estimating the coal reserves
of Canada, spending part of the field season in southern British Columbia.
In addition, J. E. Armstrong, E. C. Halstead, and E. Hall, of the British Columbia
office, undertook various incidental field tasks, including assistance to the Department
of Northern Affairs and National Resources with geological problems concerning potential
dam-sites and other features of the Columbia River and related projects, advice to the
Department of Public Works concerning rock required for a break-water on Vancouver
Island, co-operation with the British Columbia Department of Agriculture in soil investigations, and ground-water investigations for the Federal and Provincial Departments of
Agriculture, and the Federal Departments of Citizenship and Immigration, and Health
and Welfare.
Publications of the Geological Survey
The following reports relating to British Columbia published by the Geological
Survey were received by the British Columbia Department of Mines during 1956:-—■
National Advisory Committee on Research in the Geological Sciences, Sixth
Annual Report, 1955-56.
Paper 56-5:   A Bibliography on the Occurrence of Uranium in Canada and
Related Subjects, by J. W. Griffith.
Economic Geology Series No. 7:   Prospecting in Canada.
Geophysics Paper 304:  Aeromagnetic Coverage to 1955, Canada.
Map 900a:  Canada, Principal Mineral Areas.
Map 1039a:   Alberta and Northeastern British Columbia, Showing Oil and
Gas Fields.
Map 1045a: Geological Map of Canada.
MINES BRANCH
The Mines Branch has branches dealing with mineral resources, mineral dressing
and process metallurgy, physical metallurgy, radioactivity, and fuels and explosives.
Publications of the Mines Branch pertaining to British Columbia received in 1956
included tabular pamphlets dealing with coal mines, gold mines, stone quarries, petroleum
refineries, and milling plants in Canada, and the reports listed below:—
Mines Branch No. 846:  The Granite Industry of Canada, by G. F. Carr.
A/fincic   T5t*or_r>T-_   "\Tr_     Q*_'7*      Tl-na   /^anac-liar.   TV/fitiAral   Tr.HnctriT'     1Q^_d_
Mines Branch No. 857:  The Canadian Mineral Industry, 1954.
Memorandum Series 132:   Interim Report on Hardness of Major Canadian
Water Supplies, by J. F. J. Thomas.
Memorandum Series 133: Power and Population: Canada's Present Electricity
Requirements and the Long-term Outlook, by C. E. Baltzer and John
Convey.
Technical Paper No. 10:  Electronic Concentration of Low Grade Ores with
the Lapointe Picker, by A. H. Bettens and C. M. Lapointe.
Technical Paper No. 15:  Studies on the Precipitation of Sodium Polyuranates
from Solutions of Sodium Uranyl Tricarbonate, by H. J. Herbst.
Technical Paper No. 16:   Master Sieves at the Mines Branch, by J. Brannen
and L. E. Djingheuzian. DEPARTMENT OF MINES AND TECHNICAL SURVEYS
A 73
Information Circular No. M.R. 17:   A Survey of the Iron Ore Industry in
Canada during 1955, by W. Keith Buck.
Information Circular No. M.R. 18:  A Survey of Developments in the Titanium
Industry during 1955, by W. Keith Buck.
Information Circular No. M.R. 19:   A Survey of the Petroleum Industry in
Canada during 1955, by R. B. Toombs.
Information Circular No. M.R. 20:   A Survey of the Natural Gas Industry in
Canada during 1955, by R. B. Toombs.
Topical Reports, Radioactivity Division, No. TR-134/56: Experiments on the
Possible use of Radioactive Dynamite in Mines, by G. G. Eichholz, A. O.
Smith, and A. Bauer.
The Mineral Dressing and Process Metallurgy Division investigates the milling of
ores and industrial minerals from many deposits and also tests clays and other ceramic
materials.   The British Columbia Department of Mines has received the following report
on work performed by the Mineral Dressing and Process Metallurgy Division, in 1956,
on British Columbia ores:—
Investigation No. Title
MD3152.    Concentration Tests on a Sample of Lead-Zinc-Silver Ore from
Silver Tip Gold Mines Limited, Victoria, British Columbia. 

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