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Department of Agriculture FIFTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 1956 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1957]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FIFTY-FIRST
ANNUAL REPORT
1956
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1957  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1956.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., February 7th, 1957.
RALPH CHETWYND,
Minister of Agriculture.  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF,  1956
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Ralph Chetwynd.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss M. Jewell.
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray.
A dministrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Markets and Statistics:
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
G. H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
J. B. Moen, B.A., Economist, Victoria, B.C.
Horticulture:
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C
I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster, B.C.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Seed Production), 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver 1, B.C.
W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crops), Abbotsford, B.C.
E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A., Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna, B.C.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, R.R. 6, New Westminster, B.C.
Plant Pathology:
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. Moisey, M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver 1, B.C.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, M.Sc, Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
Live Stock:
A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Assistant to the Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary
Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
John Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria, B.C.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola, B.C.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
A. P. Newhouse, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, B.C. DD 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
P. G. Lawrence, Beef Grading Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
S. Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton, B.C.
J. J. Carney, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
R. L. Lancaster, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
W. R. LeGrow, D.V.M., V.S., M.S., Ph.D., Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
J. Mustard, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
K. H. Thompson, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
H. Johnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
Miss P. Curwen, M.R.C.V.S., Laboratory Technician, Vancouver, B.C.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Burr, Dairy Barn Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
W. A. Cleaver, Dairy Barn Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
J. T. Godfrey, Dairy Barn Inspector, Abbotsford, B.C.
A. L. Kirkby, Dairy Barn Inspector, Nanaimo, B.C.
B. R. Stewart, Dairy Barn Inspector, Chilliwack, B.C.
Dairy:
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
R. N. Hitchman, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Prince George, B.C.
N. H. Ingledew, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
P. Regehr, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Poultry:
W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford, B.C.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
Field Crops:
N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster, B.C.
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria, B.C.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Soil Survey:
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
W. D. Holland, B.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
C. H. Brownlee, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
A. L. van Ryswyk, M.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
A. B. Dawson, B.A., B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
Agricultural Development and Extension:
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.
G. L. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson, B.C.
J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon, B.C. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 7
Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued
R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission, B.C.
R. C. Fry, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, B.C.
Miss E. L. R. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria, B.C.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale, B.C.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
J. E. Piercy, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
A. R. Tarves, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
H. Barber, Accountant, Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Service, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent, Land-clearing Division, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
Land Settlement Board:
Chairman: Wm. MacGillivray, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Director: G. L. Landon, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria, B.C.
Secretary: Miss C. Stephenson, Victoria, B.C.
Inspector: I. Spielmans, Nelson, B.C.
Dyking Commissioner:
J. L. MacDonald, New Westminster, B.C.
W. R. Meighen, Deputy Dyking Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
Southern Okanagan Lands Project:
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager, Oliver, B.C.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Report of Deputy Minister  11
Report of Markets and Statistics Branch  14
Report of Horticultural Branch  18
Report of Plant Pathology Branch  30
Report of Provincial Entomologist  31
Report of Apiary Branch  34
Report of Live Stock Branch  37
Report of Dairy Branch  50
Report of Poultry Branch  54
Report of Field Crops Branch  58
Report of Farmers' Institutes  63
Report of Women's Institutes  68
Report of Soil Survey Branch  71
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  76
Report of Southern Okanagan Lands Project  100
Report of Land Settlement Board  106
Report of Dyking and Drainage  107
Appendices—
No. 1. Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Distributing Dairy Products during 1956  110
No. 2. Blood-testing for Brucellosis by Veterinary Inspectors  111
No. 3. Calf hood Vaccinations by Veterinary Inspectors  112
No. 4. Calfhood Vaccinations in Disease-free Areas  112
No. 5. Calfhood Vaccinations under loint Policy of Federal-Provincial Brucellosis-control  113
No. 6. Dairy-farm Inspections under "Milk Act"  113
No. 7. Dairy-farm Inspections under "Milk Industry Act"  113
No. 8. Mastitis Examinations by Veterinary Inspectors  114
No. 9. Shipments of Dairy Stock under Dairy-cattle Placement Policy  114
No. 10. Dairy-cattle Placement Programme, Summary, 1950 to 1956, Inclusive 114
9 DD 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Appendices—Continued Page
No. 11. Cattle Sales—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 13th
to 15th, 1956  115
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Sale, Okanagan Falls,
August 29th, 1956 (First Sale)  115
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Sale, Okanagan Falls,
October 17th, 1956 (Second Sale)  115
Nineteenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Cattle Show and
Sale, Williams Lake, October 12th, 1956  116
Thirteenth Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale, October 23rd, 1956  116
British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association
Auction Sale, October 26th, 1956 (First Sale)  116
British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association
Auction Sale, November 28th, 1956 (Second Sale)  116
Williams Lake Fall Sale, November 1st, 1956  117
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops, November 14th,
1956  117
No. 12. Breed Averages for  1955—Dairy Herd Improvement Association
Records  117
No. 13. Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, January 1st to May
11th, 1956  118
No. 14. Dairy Herd Improvement Associations—Location, Secretary, Supervisor  119
No. 15. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1956  120
No. 16. British Columbia Egg Production (through Registered Stations)  120
No. 17. British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers  121
No. 18. Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia  121
No. 19. 1956 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver).. 122
No. 20. Poultry-flock Approval  122
No. 21. Poultry-flock Approval by Breed  122
No. 22. Turkey-flock Approval  123
No. 23. Turkey-flock Approval by Breed  123
No. 24. Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed  123
No. 25. Bees—
Table No. 1.—Diseases in Bees  124
Table No. 2.—Showing Number of Colonies Used for Pollination
Services  124
Table No. 3.—Honey-crop Report, 1956  124
No. 26. Summary of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Merchants,
January 1st to December 31st, 1956  125
No. 27. Summary of Movement of Screenings from British Columbia Elevators, January 1st to December 31st, 1956  126 Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable W. R. T. Chetwynd,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the Fifty-first Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1956.
The Report contains a review of the work of each of the branches of the Department
during the past year. These, while of necessity brief and fairly general in nature, outline
adequately the broad field of Departmental activities. There are on file reports from
branch and division heads, and from each member of the field staff, which contain
pertinent material outlining in detail operations involved in carrying out responsibilities
to each phase of agriculture. These individual reports are invaluable in that they enable
the Department to maintain a continuous record of the contribution made to the development of agriculture over the years.
The reports from various branches in your Department deal with production and
marketing for the past year in every phase of agriculture. The very serious results of the
extraordinarily severe frosts of November, 1955, were reflected in the heavy damage to
fruit-trees in the Interior, to strawberry and raspberry plantings and to nursery stocks in
the Lower Mainland and in the Interior, as well as to hay and pasture lands in those same
areas. Damage to crops on Vancouver Island was not too severe. The total adverse effect
on tree-fruits will not be fully evident for perhaps some years. Yields were, however,
reduced drastically at many points, and some varieties were killed out to an alarming
degree. The damage to small fruits is evidenced by the drop in farm cash income from
these to the extent of almost $4,000,000.
Fortunately for live-stock producers, a late, cold dry spring was followed by a very
favourable summer and fall, which offset to a considerable extent the grave feed shortages
that could have followed the frost-kill of legumes and grasses in some important farm
areas of the Province.
While net cash income of farmers for 1956 is not yet known, it is quite evidently
going to be reduced substantially from 1955 figures. The crop shortages already mentioned aggravated a situation which is becoming increasingly serious as costs of goods
and services the farmer requires in his operations rise rapidly and continuously while
prices for his products decline in more than one commodity as a result of what can almost
be termed as " dumping " of United States produce.
LEGISLATION
New legislation dealing with agriculture as passed at the Fourth Session of the
Twenty-fourth Parliament of British Columbia consisted of an Act to amend the "Animals
Act," an Act to amend the "Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act," the "Distress Area
Assistance Act," the " Farmers' and Women's Institutes Act," the " Milk Industry Act,"
the " Canada-British Columbia Potato-warehouse Construction Assistance Act," and the
" Soil Conservation Act."
In addition, amendments to the "Dykes Maintenance Act," the "Dyking Assessment Adjustment Act, 1947," and the "Soldiers' Land Act" transferred the administration of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project, the office of the Dyking and Drainage
Commission and Inspector of Dykes, and the Land Settlement Board from the Depart-
11 DD  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ment of Lands and Forests to the Department of Agriculture, and their activities are
reported on herein.
Your Deputy Minister was appointed Chairman of the Land Settlement Board, G. L.
Landon, Director of Agricultural Development and Extension, is director, and Miss C.
Stephenson continues as secretary, having been transferred to this Department.
Dr. Wallace R. Gunn, who retired on superannuation from the positions of Live
Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector, had been associated with the
Department for twenty-six years. He played a prominent part in programmes for livestock improvement and will be remembered particularly for his interest and initiative in
animal-disease control.
STAFF CHANGES
The following appointments and resignations were effective during the year:—
Appointments
Miss L. V. Manson, Stenographer, January 1st.
Miss E. M. Livingstone, Stenographer, January 1st.
Miss J. M. Kent, Clerk-Typist, February 21st.
Mrs. B. E. Gibbens, Stenographer, March 5th.
Mrs. W. Donaldson, Stenographer, March 5th.
Mrs. R. Cook, Stenographer, March 21st.
W. H. Burr, Dairy Barn Inspector, April 1st.
W. A. Cleaver, Dairy Barn Inspector, April 1st.
J. T. Godfrey, Dairy Barn Inspector, April 1st.
A. L. Kirkby, Dairy Barn Inspector, April 1st.
Miss I. D. Hudson, Stenographer, April 1st.
B. R. Stewart, Dairy Barn Inspector, April 1st.
Mrs. M. F. Lawrence, Clerk, April 16th.
Miss N. Nakahara, Stenographer, May 2nd.
W. C. Newby, Veterinary Inspector, May 7th.
W. Stonehouse, Poultry Inspector, May 7th.
P. Regehr, Dairy Inspector, May 22nd.
H. Crockard, Agriculturist, June 1st.
J. R. Hannam, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, June 1st.
Mrs M. Warren, Stenographer, June 11th.
Mrs. W. Snape, Stenographer, June 13th.
J. E. Piercy, Agriculturist, June 21st.
Miss P. Curwen, Laboratory Technician, July 9th.
R. N. Hitchman, Dairy Inspector, July 23rd.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, August 1st.
J. A. Moisey, Assistant Plant Pathologist, August 15th.
Mrs. V. Tanner, Stenographer, August 29th.
Mrs. M. J. Kitson, Stenographer, September 1st.
Mrs. B. E. Ruemke, Stenographer, September 1st.
K. G. Fletcher, Dairy Barn Inspector, September 11th.
V. N. H. Gardam, Clerk, October 1st.
A. E. Donald, Agriculturist, November 1st.
Mrs. J. A. Trace, Stenographer, November 5th.
Mrs. M. Warren, Stenographer, December 1st.
Miss F. M. Robinson, Stenographer, December 17th.
E. V. Langford, Assistant Animal Pathologist, December 20th. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD  13
Transfers
Miss E. M. I. Hodgson, Stenographer, February 28th.
Miss M. R. Smith, Stenographer, October 9th.
Resignations
Mrs. M. Gowan, Stenographer, January 31st.
Miss T. Gabriel, Stenographer, March 22nd.
D. D. Wilson, Dairy Inspector, March 31st.
Mrs. A. Lakes, Stenographer, April 15th.
D. C. Crossfield, Agriculturist, April 23rd.
Mrs. M. Case, Clerk, April 30th.
R. L. Bradshaw, Agriculturist, May 31st.
Miss H. B. Arthur, Stenographer, June 30th.
J. T. Godfrey, Dairy Barn Inspector, July 31st.
G. M. Clarke, Veterinary Inspector, August 31st.
Miss L. V. Manson, Stenographer, August 31st.
Mrs. F. M. Davis, Stenographer, August 31st.
Mrs. M. Warren, Stenographer, September 8th.
Mrs. M. David, Stenographer, September 12th.
R. Klatt, Clerk, September 20th.
Miss F. M. Duke, Stenographer, September 30th.
Mrs. L. R. Hogan, Stenographer, October 15th.
Miss S. Peterson, Stenographer, November 14th.
Mrs. F. Willems, Clerk, December 12th.
Mrs. C. Smethurst, Stenographer, December 31st.
Superannuation
W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector, August 10th.
PUBLICATIONS
The following is a list of new publications printed in 1956:—
Bulletins
Brooding Baby Chicks.
Live-stock Pests E.C. 2
The Use of Drugs and Antibiotics in Controlling Bee
Diseases A.C. 13
Wintering Bees in B.C A.C. 11
Leaflets
Weed-control series—
Hoary Cress. Russian Knapweed.
Toadflax. Leafy Spurge.
W. MacGILLIVRAY,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture. DD 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF MARKETS AND  STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
SYNOPSIS
Continued market stability was again a major factor in British Columbia's agricultural economy during the year. Declines in production in several lines were offset by
firmer prices, resulting in a total market value close to the average of recent years.
While the farm prices index (1935-39=100) showed a drop of several points in
the earlier months of the year, price gains in fruits, eggs, and live stock during the summer and early autumn raised the 1956 average close to the 248.2 index registered in
1955.
As a result, total farm cash income for the year is estimated at $109,000,000, an
increase of about 2 per cent over the 1955 figure of $107,300,000.
Despite this evidence of relative stability, agriculture in British Columbia continued
to be hampered by the high cost of operation. The buoyant economy of the Province
raised labour and handling costs to new high levels, which in turn tended to exert an
adverse effect upon net incomes at the farm level.
With about 70 per cent of the Province's 26,000 farm units comprising less than
70 acres each in size, any attempts at effectively reducing overhead costs through such
means as increased mechanization are necessarily limited. This is particularly evident
in the Province's fruit and vegetable industries, which, because of their comparatively
small acreages and the nature of their production, do not lend themselves readily to such
technological advances.
While these factors tend to produce adverse conditions, they are offset to a degree
by others, chief of which are the relatively high consumer purchasing power in the Province and the' absence of any appreciable surplus production apart from tree-fruits.
On balance, as in 1956, British Columbia's agriculture continues to play an important role in the Provincial economy. Somewhat overshadowed in recent years by the
unprecedented advances made by other industries, its true value becomes more apparent
when reviewed from the standpoint of stability in relation to the agriculture of other areas.
The sharp fluctuations experienced elsewhere in agriculture have been avoided here,
revealing, on the whole, a sound economic basis.
FEED-GRAIN MOVEMENTS
Shipments of feed-grains into the Province under provisions of the Federal Freight
Assistance Policy during the 1955-56 crop-year showed a decline of nearly 17,000 tons
or 7 per cent from the preceding year's total of 228,922 tons. This was the lowest total
recorded since the 1942-43 crop-year.
Total Federal Treasury assistance payments on this traffic into British Columbia
now total over $25,000,000 for the fifteen-year period the policy has been in effect.
For the second successive year, railway freight tariffs were increased on feed-grain
shipments. The Calgary-Vancouver rate, formerly $10.80 per ton, was raised 7 per
cent, effective July 3rd.   The subsidy of $5 per ton remained unchanged.
FEEDS
Although supplies were adequate, price increases were registered on all feed-grains
and standard mixes during the year. No. 5 feed-wheat rose a total of $9 per ton over
the January price at Vancouver. Oats increased by $4 and barley by $2 per ton. Prepared feeds advanced proportionately.
Hay prices rose steadily in the early months of the year as stocks became depleted.
Imports amounting to some 40,000 tons, chiefly from Washington, were effective in level- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  15
ling local hay prices at $40 to $45 per ton in midsummer, dropping to $35 to $40 by
autumn.
Field-crop Production
Crop
Area
Yield per Acre
1955
1956
1955
1956
Acres
Acres
Bu.
Bu.
66,000
55,000
19.0
21.4
83,000
91,000
44.0
49.0
77,000
69,000
24.0
31.1
13,000
27,000
8.0
10.0
3,200
4,500
42.0
51.0
Tons
Tons
325,000
327,000
2.4
2.0
Production
1955
1956
Spring wheat...
Oats for grain .
Barley... 	
Flax-seed	
Mixed grains ...
Tame hay	
Bu.
1,254,000
3,652,000
1,848,000
104,000
134,000
Tons
780,000
Bu.
1,175,000
4,460,000
2,147,000
270,000
230,000
Tons
654,000
FRUIT
Once again the Province's commercial tree-fruits industry was adversely affected by
severe winter damage. As a result, production of apples, peaches, apricots, cherries, and
plums was well below normal. Pears were about normal, however, with Anjous setting
a new high for that variety.
Similar production drops elsewhere produced a generally firm market tone, with
prices substantially above 1955 levels for those items in short supply. Apples, for example, were 30 to 50 per cent higher.
In the apple deal, increased use of the cardboard " handi-pak " brought ready market acceptance this year, as did the popular " junior " shook container. Also increased
in use was the cell-pack, which has proved most successful on the export market. This
latter is now to be used exclusively on shipments to the United Kingdom, since it provides the best assurance of satisfactory arrivals.
Also hit by the severe winter was the small-fruits crop. With market demand far
exceeding supply, prices were 25 to 30 per cent above averages.
For the third successive year, canners and processors were forced to turn to imported
supplies to meet domestic needs.
A reversal in the general supply situation was provided by this year's blueberry-crop,
which showed a 60-per-cent increase to nearly Wa million pounds. With an expanding
market potential, this crop is rapidly assuming an important position in British Columbia's
horticultural production.
Fruit Production
Kind
Unit
Actual
Production,
1955
Estimated
Production,
1956
Box
Box
Crate
Crate
Crate
Crate
Crate
Crate
Lb.
Crate
6,405,000
691,400
604,500
1,282,200
460,500
289,900
627,600
762,300
745,400
120,400
4,578,800
605,500
669,100
640,800
278,700
176,900
132,400
245,600
1,211,700
33,600
Raspberries  —           	 DD  16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VEGETABLES
One of the most successful deals in history highlighted the early-potato industry in
1956. Early No. 1 Whites opened at $127 per ton on the Vancouver market and held
to that level throughout. First-grade second early Whites opened at $100, rose to $112,
then fell sharply to $45 per ton by mid-August as imports exerted pressure on the market.
Late-crop Gems ranged between $45 and $58 for first grade.
The Interior tomato-crop was the most satisfactory in several years, with yields up
substantially over 1955.   Canning-tomato prices were unchanged at $36 per ton.
Also unchanged were canning-pea prices, but yields and quality were somewhat
improved over the preceding year's averages. The sweet-corn crop was up threefold over
1955, but prices were depressed under pressure of heavy marketings.
Other vegetables showed little change from 1955, although onions exhibited surprising strength for a brief period after a prolonged slow market.
Vegetable Production
Production (Lb.)
Type 1955 1956
Beans  10,023,000 11,775,000
Carrots   12,900,400 17,538,000
Corn _.._  6,694,100 20,625,000
Cucumbers (field)  3,510,800 6,587,000
Lettuce  7,959,300 8,515,000
Onions   7,451,500 8,280,000
Peas  16,196,600 21,900,000
Potatoes  .  155,100,000 157,020,000
Tomatoes (field)  19,971,800 31,556,000
Turnips   4,310,400 8,096,000
LIVE STOCK
Live-stock marketings registered gains on all types during 1956. Most significant
was the 45-per-cent increase in movement of cattle and calves. Sheep and lambs recorded
moderate gains, as did hog carcass gradings.
Shipping-season prices were slightly better than those realized in 1955, with good
steers ranging between $17 and $21. Good veal calves were steady at $16 to $20 on an
average.
Lambs were steady as usual, reaching a high of $23 by midsummer. Hogs, on the
other hand, recorded a significant increase over 1955 levels, reaching $30 by late autumn
at Vancouver.
Live-stock Marketings at Vancouver
Type
Total
B.C. Origin
Per Cent
B.C. Origin
Cattle-
Calves..
Sheep...
Hogs—
129,105
28,583
77,293
341,064
57,523
13,468
26,630
22,294
44
46
34
6
POULTRY AND EGGS
An increase of 12 per cent in poultry population coupled with a 9-per-cent rise in
egg output brought the supply situation into closer balance with demand this year. Again,
however, a firm market produced slightly higher prices than those realized in 1955.   The DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD  17
mid-year average weighted producer price reached a high of 49 cents per dozen, as compared to 46.6 cents in the comparable period in 1955.
Although prices declined more rapidly in the latter months, the all-year average of
42.7 cents was still slightly above the figure of 42.1 cents registered in the previous year.
A 10-per-cent rise in poultry-meat production forced prices downward during the
latter half of the year. By late autumn, broilers and fryers were averaging 22 cents per
pound to the producer at Vancouver, 5 cents below the comparable 1955 average.
Chicken and fowl were down 2 and 3 cents respectively in the same period.
Turkeys were in relatively good demand most of the year, with the Thanksgiving
and Christmas trade bringing good clean-ups. Prices were down sharply, however; young
birds averaging only 30 cents to the producer at Vancouver, as compared to a 40-cent
average a year earlier.
Poultry and Egg Marketings
Through registered stations only.
1955 1956
Eggs (cases)        461,349 503,923
Poultry, dressed (lb.)  15,495,000 17,122,000
DAIRY PRODUCTS
A slight decrease in dairy-cattle numbers during the year produced an estimated
5-per-cent drop in milk production. Total market returns were up, however, as fluid sales
jumped nearly 8 per cent. The buoyant fluid market was paralleled by a similar increase
in ice-cream manufacture to a new high of nearly 3,500,000 gallons.
On the other hand, creamery butter and cheese output was down, the former to less
than 3,000,000 pounds. This represented the second lowest butter production total on
record in the Province.
While fluid-milk sales continue to show steady increases each year, these can be
attributed almost entirely to similar increases in consumer popualtion in the Province.
Calculations based on available data indicate no significant change in per capita consumption, which remains at about two-thirds of a pint per day.
MISCELLANEOUS
A sharp upswing in yield per colony brought the Province's honey production to
over 1,500,000 pounds, an increase of 60 per cent over the preceding year's total. Prices
remained relatively steady throughout the year.
The wool-clip was off slightly from the 1955 total, with an average fleece weight
estimated at 7.7 pounds from some 43,000 shearings. Prices were practically unchanged
at 35 to 45 cents per pound.
An increase in yields offset a lowered acreage in commercial hop plantings this year,
with a total crop of close to 1,500,000 pounds.
This year's fur-farming picture was again highlighted by a firm market for top grades
of ranch-mink pelts. Vancouver auctions saw large-size darks averaging close to $30,
while mutations in the better colours ranged as high as $50.
ADVERTISING
In an all-out effort to stimulate public interest in and acceptance of British Columbia
farm products, a Province-wide advertising campaign was launched in midsummer,
extending into October. Conducted by James Lovick & Company, a comprehensive
campaign embracing newspaper advertisements, radio, and television was drawn for at
a total outlay of close to $100,000. DD  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Concurrently, a billboard campaign featuring milk, chicken, and turkey was placed
with the Canadian Advertising Agency at a cost of $6,000. This campaign was confined
to Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island points.
These projects represented by far the largest attempts ever undertaken by this
Department to stimulate the sale of farm products grown in this Province. While actual
results can never be accurately measured, it is known that the resultant publicity proved
of real value to the industry.
MARKETING BOARDS
No changes were made his year in any of the three marketing schemes currently
operative under the "Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act." With the
exception of the British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board, there were no
changes in elected Board personnel.
The entire membership of the Interior Board resigned in August on a policy issue,
and was replaced the following month by an interim Board. The latter was re-elected at
the annual meeting of delegates in December.
Arising from this mass resignation, it was established that the Board is a body
corporate. Thus, while there were no Board members in office during the period between
the resignations and the election of an interim body, all Board orders remained in force.
Upon the order of the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, an economic study of the area
under jurisdiction of the Interior Board was carried out during the latter half of the year.
With assistance from this Branch, the project was carried out under the direction of the
Agricultural Economics Department of the University of British Columbia.
A complete written report was expected to be released early in 1957.
PUBLICATIONS
The weekly market report prepared by the Branch for distribution among Departmental personnel in place of the discontinued Markets Bulletin was confined to a single
mimeographed sheet for each issue. Weekly price quotations for live stock, live-stock
and poultry feeds, poultry and eggs are recorded, all based on Vancouver market reports.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The year 1956 was more nearly normal from a climatic standpoint than has been
the case for several years. The spring weather was favourable for the blossoming and
growth of the various crops.
The cold spell during November, 1955, left its mark, however, and many trees and
small fruits which had been severely injured during this period either died or were unthrifty during the year. As a result of loss of trees and fruit-spur damage, the apple-crop
was the lowest in volume for several years. The other tree-fruits were damaged to a
greater or lesser degree, with pears suffering least and cherries, particularly Bings and
Royal Annes, being the hardest hit.
On the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island, small-fruit plantings were severely
injured, with the exception of strawberries on the southern end of Vancouver Island.
In this area, snow coverage during the cold spell gave ample protection and the crop was
slightly heavier than normal. On the Lower Mainland, however, the strawberry-crop
was only 11 per cent and the raspberry-crop was only 18 per cent of 1955 production. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  19
Spring weather was favourable to general growth and did much to improve the
volume of fruit. In June there was considerable rainfall, which caused rots to appear
in some of the strawberry-patches on Vancouver Island, making it necessary to restrict
the shipment from this area to one car-lot plus several L.C.L. deliveries. The bulk of
the berries were, as a result, shipped to the processors. The Oliver-Osoyoos area, which
showed fair promise of a crop of Bing cherries, received rain at harvest-time, resulting
in splitting of most of the crop.
Warm summer weather was very beneficial for the other stone-fruits, particularly
prunes. This crop sized well and was of good quality, showing much less shrivel than
had been the case for several years.
The favourable weather kept apple-scab to a minimum.
Vegetable-crops made good growth during the season. Tomato-growers, with a
long frost-free period, warm weather, and improved cultural methods, had the best yields
for many years. Early potatoes yielded well and sold at relatively high prices. In the
Okanagan the cannery-bean crop was reduced by hot weather which adversely affected
blossom-set in July and August.
Fall rains commenced in the coastal regions in late September and were fairly constant during October, resulting in some loss of root-crops due to flooding conditions in
the field.
The weather turned cold in early December and remained at relatively low levels
for a period of one week. The various tree-fruits and small fruits had, however, matured
sufficiently by this time, and no apparent injury appears to have resulted.
The folowing table, submitted by D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist, Oliver, shows
the blossoming-dates for the Oliver district for the past five years and indicates that 1956
was a near-average year from the blossoming-period standpoint: —
Fruit
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
Apricots	
Cherries  	
Apr. 16
Apr. 21
Apr. 23
Apr. 25
Apr. 26
May    2
Apr.    2
Apr. 22
Apr. 19
Apr. 23
Apr. 25
May   4
Apr. 18
Apr. 25
Apr. 24
May    3
May   4
May   7
Apr. 29
May   5
May    7
May 10
May 12
May 19
Apr.  18
Apr. 21
Apr. 23
Pears  	
Prunes 	
Apples  	
Apr. 26
Apr. 28
May   5
CROP REPORTS
All figures on acreages, yields, and values for fruits and vegetables which were
obtained by the Horticultural Branch have been turned over to the Statistician and will
be found in the report of that Branch.
SEED PRODUCTION
J. L. Webster reports:—
" Following two cool or abnormal years, the 1956 season was a pleasant return to
the average favourable horticultural growing conditions generally enjoyed in this Province.
" Most horticulture crops were seeded or planted relatively early and made good
growth. The season was marred, however, by a period of continuous cool weather during
the month of June, particularly in coastal areas, affecting heat-loving crops such as cucumbers and corn. In the Southern Interior the range of most heat-loving crops, particularly
tomatoes, was also retarded.
" In addition, during May there was more than usual dry weather, but in the coastal
area and in the Central and Southern Interiors.
" October rainfall was close to a record, causing flooding and soggy soil conditions
during the last of the potato harvest in the Fraser Valley. DD 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The following statement indicates the production of vegetable and field-crop seeds
for the years 1954 to 1956:—
1954
1955
1956 (Estimated
Lb.
3,553,088
2,734,749
Lb.
4,125,788
3,354,494
Lb.
4,059,171
2,639,100
Field-crop seed production  	
" Final compilation of 1956 figures will not be available until February, 1957.
" It is of interest to note that because of short crops in 1956, both in the United
Kingdom and Canada, prices on alfalfa-seed may rise to the highest point in twenty years.
" Mechanization is not too practical on the small acreages involved in flower- and
vegetable-seed production, and production of these seeds will probably remain at a constant level. However, as field seed-crops are well suited to mechanization, production
may increase in certain items due to price stimulus, particularly in the larger farm areas
of the Province, such as the Peace River."
VEGETABLES
The acreage devoted to vegetables in the Okanagan continued the downward trend,
which has been characteristic of the vegetable industry for the past several years. Only
4,696 acres were devoted to vegetable production in 1956, compared with 5,400 acres
in 1955 and 9,292 acres in 1949. Of the twenty major vegetable commodities grown in
the Okanagan, sixteen showed a decrease in acreage from 1955. Three commodities—
namely, tomatoes, corn, and beets—showed an increase in acreage, while one crop—
asparagus—remained constant.
Vegetable acreage on the Lower Mainland showed a decided increase as several
frozen-out small-fruit growers turned to vegetables as a cash crop. One of the crops
showing an increase was cauliflower, which was grown for the processing trade, primarily
quick frozen. Although some growers ran into problems due to inexperience, the crop
generally was successful.
Vancouver Island acreages continued to drop due to urban encroachment on the
farm lands and the competition for labour.
In the Kootenay-Creston area the acreage planted to the various vegetable-crops
was about the same as for 1955, although there was some reshuffling in the areas planted
as the acreage in the Kootenay and Lower Arrow Lakes District dropped and the acreage
in the Creston Valley rose. The increase in the Creston Valley was due almost entirely
to an increase in the late-potato acreage from 55 to 110 acres, of which approximately
60 acres were used for the production of certified Netted Gem seed.
The following table indicates the acreage of vegetables produced in British Columbia
during the past three years:—
British Columbia Vegetable Acreages
District
1954
1955
1956 (Estimated)
2,941.00
18,615.00
8,581.00
4,184.50
2,237
18,750
8,538
5,939
2,003
22,780
8,031
Kootenay	
5,629
Totals .....	
34,321.50
35,464
38,443 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 21
NURSERIES
The summer inspection of all 1-year-old nursery stock for trueness to variety was
again carried out during the summer months by W. D. Christie. This inspection included
named varieties as well as clonal stocks lined out for budding and also the stool-beds.
A total of 637 mixtures were detected and marked in the nurseries inspected. In addition, a complete block of several thousand E.M. IV root-stock at one nursery had been
purchased as E.M. VII and so labelled.
Dormant fruit-trees were again inspected as dug throughout the Province. No particular problems arose during the season, and all work was carried out smoothly.
Nursery Inspection Report, 1956
Trees
Number
Inspected
Number
Passed
Number
Condemned
Apples and crab-apples .
Pears 	
Plums and prunes	
Cherries	
Peaches 	
Apricots 	
Miscellaneous..	
Totals _
86,882
12,028
4,253
18,210
30,836
13,048
4,513
85,678
11,199
3,951
16,020
28,112
10,571
4,431
1,204
829
302
2,190
2,724
2,477
82
169,770 159,962
I    	
9,808
1955
Number of inspections  18
Per cent condemned     8.74
1956
16
5.80
The number of nursery licences issued in 1956 was 187, compared to 184 in 1955.
A survey was also made on frost-injury due to the November, 1955, low temperatures. This survey was originally carried out in December, 1955, and repeated during
the spring and summer of 1956. During the second inspection it was found that although
frost-injury to stock below ground-level was quite common, many trees had made good
growth and were healing normally.
GREENHOUSES
Routine calls were made during the year to as many greenhouses as possible, advising
the growers on the disease- and insect-control measures and assisting the growers to
interpret the soil analyses upon which they have become more and more dependent
during the past three years.
SPECIAL CROPS
Hops.—The outlook for hops continues to be poor, with a reduction in acreage and
no new plantings contemplated. One 50-acre hop-farm in the Lillooet area has discontinued production due primarily to climatic, disease, and insect problems.
Holly.—Considerable interest continues to be shown in holly-growing, especially on
Southern Vancouver Island. Growers are becoming more aware of variety difference,
and two or three propagators are growing nursery stock of desirable types, several of
which have been selected in British Columbia and which are now classed as named
varieties.
The holly-crop was not quite up to average due to flower-bud injury during the
1955 freeze, but was 75 per cent of normal or about 30 tons.
Filberts.—Plantings of filberts, which are located mainly in the Fraser Valley,
suffered considerably from frost damage. There were notable differences between varieties in respect to frost resistance. Twig damage was general on most varieties, except the
pollinator Alpha.   Many pollen catkins on Barcelona and Du Chilly failed to open, thus DD 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
reducing the crop considerably. However, the nuts harvested were of large size and good
quality. A late estimate places the crop at 200,000 pounds, compared with 500,000
pounds in 1955.
Tobacco.—Tobacco-growing continues to remain stable, with an estimated production of 85 acres in the hands of eight or ten experienced growers. The growing season
was generally very good for tobacco, although some replanting was necessary due to
drought conditions at planting-time. The estimated yield for 1956 is placed at 100,000
pounds.
Mushrooms.—This specialized crop remains fairly constant over the years, is one
which requires heavy expenditures, and does not lend itself to mechanization since the
paths between the beds in the houses are narrow, making it impossible to get in large
equipment.
A survey of mushroom-houses was undertaken this summer by W. B. A. Brandis,
who reported the area under cultivation in mushrooms at 482,620 square feet.
The production of mushrooms for 1956 was placed at 1,302,400 pounds for a value
of $466,690.
Bulbs.—Bulb production continues to remain relatively constant both on the Lower
Mainland and on Vancouver Island. The quality of the bulbs, which consist primarily
of narcissus and tulips, is excellent, as growers continue to improve their production
methods, keeping disease and insects to a minimum.
Cut Flowers.—The production of cut flowers in British Columbia is an industry in
excess of $2,000,000, with the main production areas located in the Fraser Valley and
Vancouver Island. The cut-flower industry includes both greenhouse-grown and field
bloom. The bulk of the field bloom is grown on Vancouver Island, mainly daffodils for
Easter and tulips for Mother's Day. In 1956, Easter was early and the season was late,
with the result that growers had a little difficulty in meeting their commitments.
SURVEYS
In addition to the surveys referred to under special headings, the following major
survey was carried out by the horticultural staff.
Small-fruit Survey
This survey, which is normally carried out on a Province-wide basis every two years,
was carried out on Vancouver Island only in 1956 due to winter loss of small fruits in
other parts of the Province.
The following table indicates the acreages of the four main small fruits on Vancouver Island:— i954 l956
Kind of Small Fruit Acreages Acreages
Strawberries   275.38 241.65
Loganberries   250.15 196.19
Blackberries   16.63 12.94
Raspberries   25.87 9.85
Totals  568.03 460.63
Fire-blight Inspections
The usual fire-blight inspections were carried out during the dormant period in the
tree-fruit areas as indicated on the following table: — DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 23
District
Total Acres
Inspected
Acres Passed
Acres
Not Passed
63.20
400.00
772.00
150.00
52.00
459.00
63.00
400.00
772.00
150.00
52.00
459.00
0 20
567.00
10.00
30.00
567.00
10.00
30.00
2,503.20
2,503.00
0 20
IMPORTS
During the spring of 1956 approximately 3,000,000 strawberry plants were imported
into British Columbia to replace the plants lost by the November, 1955, freeze.
The varieties imported included Northwest, Siletz, Marshall, Jacunda, and a number
of others in small quantities. These were imported mainly from the United States and
Holland, with small numbers from Great Britain and other European countries.
DEMONSTRATION WORK
Small Fruits
Strawberry-plots
As indicated in the 1955 Annual Report, eight strawberry-plots of approximately
half an acre each were set out in various areas in the Province in an effort to demonstrate
suitable cultural methods.
All plots were killed out by the November, 1955, freeze, with the exception of one
plot located at Brentwood on Vancouver Island. The other seven plots were replanted
during the spring of 1956.
Records of the yield indicated that the plot located at Brentwood produced at the
rate of 4Vi tons per acre. The average yield on the balance of this grower's property
was 4 tons per acre, while the average in the rest of the strawberry-growing area would
not be in excess of 3!4 tons per acre. The yield on the demonstration-plot was also
reduced to some extent by an infestation of the Sciopithes obscuras weevil, which damaged a number of plants. Many growers viewed the demonstration-plot with interest
and attended a field-day at which there was a discussion on methods used.
Strawberry-plant Selection.—The selection-work begun in 1955 whereby runners
of plants showing the desirable characteristics of vigour and production were set out at
the University of British Columbia was continued in 1956. However, the programme
received a set-back as many of the selections made in 1955 were lost during the November freeze.
Raspberries
The raspberry varieties Puyallup, Canby, and No. 151 (now known as Creston 151)
set out in 1955 were put to the supreme test in the November, 1955, freeze.
Of the above varieties, Creston 151 proved to be the most hardy and in most localities produced practically a full crop. Puyallup suffered severely, and in many locations
was killed to the ground.   This same situation prevailed with Canby.
Grapes
The continuing report on the grape varieties obtained from the Geneva Experiment
Station and planted in the Kelowna area follows: —
. DD 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Romulus.—Growth only fair.
Fruit:   Small, green, seedless, late, approximately with Diamond, that is,
first week of October.
Alden.—Plant:   Most vigorous of the five varieties.    Appears to be a heavy-
bearing variety.
Fruit:  Blue, as late or later than Sheridan and therefore not promising.
Bath.—Plant:   Good vigour, good yield.
Fruit:   Blue, small berries, ripens just before Concord, perhaps better
quality than Concord.
Himrod.—Plant:   Vigorous, equal to Alden.
Fruit:  White, small, seedless, early as Pearl Scaba, good quality. Bunches
very loose and straggly.   Crop has been light, but much of the wood has been
layered.   Twenty plants were produced by layers last season.
Naples.—Plant:   Low vigour, short nodes and fine wood.
Fruit:   Reddish, small, late.   Looks somewhat like Delaware but poorer
quality.
From the above data it would appear that Bath and Himrod are the most promising.
Vegetables
Tomatoes
The tomato demonstration-plot at Kelowna was continued in 1956, and E. M. King
reports:—
The 3-acre demonstration-plots at Kelowna have now passed their fifth year under
the British Columbia Department of Agriculture's supervision. These plots have been
outstanding in demonstrating to vegetable-growers that the use of cover-crops in rotation
with vegetable-crops, coupled with adequate fertilizer application, is a highly desirable
practice, as indicated by the following table:—
TOMATO PRODUCTION
Tons per Acre
1952
1953
19541
19551
1956
5.22
1.50
8.43
6.00
5.87
7.20
8.86
12.00
12.93
7.40
Totals                          	
6.72
14.43
13.07
20.86
20.33
usual.
1 1954 and 1955 were extremely poor tomato seasons.    Weather was cool and wet and growing season shorter than
Onions
Demonstration-plots for onions have also been carried on for a five-year period
using practices similar to those for tomatoes. As indicated in the following table, results
have also been highly gratifying:—
ONION PRODUCTION
Tons per Acre
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
O)
O)
22.8
20.91
23.27
Harvested from adjacent land in continuous crop
15.3
12.82
15.0
1 None planted. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 25
This 22-tons-per-acre crop of Yellow Globe Danvers onions was achieved
through proper use of cover-crops, fertilizers, and crop rotation.
^PH
■H
, «-.'..
___■
■
'MM&:
\    1       j 1   ...   .    v    ..    .. | ■■:'ii I   :
■5»*   •. ■-.«... ..-*■. i* ■.    _.    .   •       «_*
mk     ■ ; :-M -fill.
^1     B__I     . JWMM
This 12-tons-per-acre crop of Yellow Globe Danvers onions was grown
in an adjoining field which has not had the benefits of cover-cropping or
adequate fertilizer applications. Yields are often as low as 6 tons per
acre on worn-out land such as this. DD 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Asparagus
The following is the report for 1956 on the continuing fertilizer trials for asparagus
at Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Armstrong.
The Salmon Arm plot, laid out as indicated in the 1955 Report, again showed that
the four nitrogen-treated plots had greater vigour and darker green colour during July
and August. Since this is only a 3-year-old planting and cutting was light, no yield
records were made.
The following tables provided by W. Baverstock, Vernon, indicate treatment and
yield data over the past four years in the Okanagan Landing and Armstrong plots: —
OKANAGAN LANDING
Plot
Material
Rate in
Lb. per Acre
1953 Yield in
Lb. per Acre
1954 Yield in
Lb. per Acre
1955 Yield in
Lb. per Acre
1956 Yield in
Lb. per Acre
No. 1 	
No. 2	
No. 3  ......	
No. 4      	
No. 5 	
No. 6	
No. 7   , ,  ......
33-0-0
33-0-0
16-20-0
16-20-0
6-10-10
6-10-10
Check
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
3,225
3,455
2,450
3,755
3,780
3,480
3,010
4,570
4,370
4.200
4,525
4,080
4,425
3,375
4,165
4,225
4,045
4,470
4,150
4,455
3,920
4,685
4,725
4,625
5,010
5,065
5,225
4,530
Conclusion.—The total yield per plot this year is considerably larger, due possibly
to a longer picking season. It will be interesting to watch yields this coming season.
It is the intention to carry on this experiment again during 1957.
ARMSTRONG
Plot
Material
Rate in
Lb. per
Acre
1953
Yield in
Lb. per
Acre
1954
Yield in
Lb. per
Acre
1955
Yield in
Lb. per
Acre
1956
Yield in
Lb. per
Acre
No. 1  	
No. 2  	
No. 3                            	
33-0-0
33-0-0
16-20-0
16-20-0
6-10-10
6-10-10
Check
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
4,095
3,660
3,615
3,475
3,600
3,240
3,615
4,770
3,795
3,880
3,630
4,095
3,540
3,795
4,560
4,185
4,275
4,080
4,425
4,230
4,380
5,070
3,720
4,050
3,720
No. 4                    	
No. 5	
3,630
No. 6                   ..     —.                        	
3,765
No. 7   .          _	
3,945
Conclusion.—Once again the higher applications in most cases actually gave a lower
yield.   It is the intention to carry on this experiment again during 1957.
Asparagus Variety Trial
Mr. Carter, Penticton, reports on a trial planting of asparagus initiated in 1956 as
follows:—
Object: To evaluate the Coniston hybrid variety of asparagus which had been
developed in New Zealand.
Location:  Kelly Farms, Cawston.
Procedure: In co-operation with E. M. King, specialist in vegetables, 200
plants of the Coniston variety which had been grown in Vernon and dug
last spring were planted alongside a planting of Mary Washington, the
standard variety of asparagus for the area.   Periodic checks were made.
Observations: The plants grew very well and further observations will be
made as the planting develops. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 27
TREE-FRUITS
Apple-scab Control
J. E. Swales, Creston, in an attempt to determine whether spray volumes may be
reduced by the addition of a non-ionic surfactant, presented the following table re apple-
scab control:—
EFFECT OF NON-IONIC SURFACTANT AND DIFFERENT RATES OF SPRAY LIQUID
AND FUNGICIDE APPLICATION ON APPLE-SCAB CONTROL
Plot
Rate of Spray
Application
(Gal. per Acre)
Surfactant Added
to Sprays
Rate of Fungicide Application
Percentage
of Clean
Fruit
No. 1	
No. 2
75
75
50
50
Check
Triton B, 1956
Lime-sulphur reduced, ziram without wettable sulphur..
98.00
95.65
No. 3	
No. 4	
Triton B, 1956	
Triton B, 1956
Lime-sulphur reduced, ziram without wettable sulphur...
96.35
95.60
No. 5    	
Conclusions.—Since there were no significant differences in scab-control in the four
sprayed plots, results would indicate that where a non-ionic surfactant is added to the
sprays it may be possible to reduce the amount of fungicide applied without adversely
affecting the degree of scab-control. For example, the rate of application of lime-sulphur
may be reduced from 8 to 6 gallons per acre, while wettable sulphur may be eliminated
from the usual ferbam-wettable sulphur or ziram-wettable sulphur mixtures. However,
since little or no infection occurred prior to the calyx stage, results, in so far as rates of
lime-sulphur application are concerned, cannot be considered significant.
Seal-oil as a Deer Repellent
This investigation was carried out by J. E. Swales, Creston, in an attempt to
determine if seal-oil had any value as a repellent for deer in orchards.
In the fall of 1955, pieces of heavy cloth or sack material saturated with seal-oil
were hung in the trees or placed on stakes beside the trees. For small trees up to 5 or
6 years old, one piece of cloth was used per tree. The cloth, cut in strips measuring
approximately 10 by 4 inches, was placed on a wire hook hung from the branch of
a tree or placed over a nail in a stake driven into the ground beside the tree. Care was
taken to prevent the seal-oil from coming into contact with the bark of the young trees
to avoid possible injury.
During the winter and spring the behaviour of deer in relation to the seal-oil treated
trees was observed by the grower. In the spring, treated and untreated trees were
examined for damage caused by deer.
Observations.—While deer continued to enter the various orchards, they did not
browse or rub trees in which or by which seal-oil impregnated cloths were located. In
most orchards, trees which were not treated were badly damaged by browsing and
horn-rubbing. In one orchard where cloths were hung in all the trees, deer very rarely
appeared, while in a neighbouring orchard where no seal-oil was used, deer were
numerous and much tree damage was done.
Conclusion.—While results of this work have been promising, more work will have
to be done with seal-oil to determine how effective it will continue to be as a deer repellent.
Effects of 2,4,5-T on Apricots
Reports from California and Washington indicated that sprays containing 2,4,5-T
(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) hastened maturity, increased size, and retarded fruit-
drop of apricot fruits. This work was carried out in an attempt to duplicate these
indicated results. DD 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Locations:—
(1) A. K. W. Fraser orchard, Okanagan Falls.
(2) J. Coe orchard, Cawston.
Procedure:—
(1) In the Fraser orchard two four-tree plots of Wenatchee Moorpark
apricots were sprayed with 2,4,5-T at respective concentrations of
25 and 50 p.p.m. The sprays were applied with a dilute gun sprayer
at the start of pit-hardening on May 28th (thirty-seven days from
full bloom).
(2) In the Coe orchard two eight-tree plots of equal numbers of Wenatchee Moorpark and Reliable apricots per plot were sprayed at
respective concentrations of 25 and 50 p.p.m. These sprays were
applied on May 21st.
In each orchard, check-plots were composed of the rest of the orchard,
which received no sprays.
Observations: Neither owners nor experimenters were able to detect any discernible differences in any regard between sprayed and unsprayed trees.
In other words, duplication of results reported in California and Washington was not obtained this year under local conditions.
Antibiotics for Fire-blight Control
The following report was submitted by W. F. Morton, Kelowna:—
A test was carried out in 1956 for the third year to evaluate antibiotic materials
for the control of fire-blight of pears and to compare antibiotics with the recommended
Bordeaux mixture.
Location:   R. D. Booth orchard, Ellison.
Procedure:   Sprays were applied at 10 per cent of bloom and at full bloom
with a Trump concentrate machine.   Each plot consists of fifty trees.
Materials:   Merck & Company supplied 4,000 c.c. of Agristrep Type A;  the
grower supplied the Bordeaux mixture.
Plot 1:  Agristrep Type A and Ovotran.
Plot 2: Agristrep Type A.
Plot 3: Bordeaux mixture.
Results:   Blight infections required the removal of the tops of two trees down
to 2-inch-diameter wood in the Bordeaux plots.   Two half-inch-diameter
limbs were removed from Plot 1 and one half-inch limb from Plot 2.
There was no indication of incompatability of Agristrep Type A with
Ovotran. This was another year of low fire-blight incidence.
Weed-control
The use of amino-triazole to control grass around orchard trees.
Object: To continue testing amino-triazole for control of couch-grass around
young orchard trees.
Materials:  Weedazol, 50 per cent wettable 3-amino-l,2,4, triazole.
Procedure: On May 3rd amino-triazole was applied to a heavy stand of couch-
grass in the Rand orchard, West Summerland. The material was applied
with a stirrup pump and pail at the rate of three-quarters of a pound of
amino-triazole in 7.Vi gallons of water to 600 square feet. Approximately
two weeks later the area was given a thorough disking.
Results: The grass gradually turned white and died. By fall the patch was
covered with annual weeds.   One young apple-tree which was growing in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 29
the centre of the sprayed area was not affected by the application (care
had been taken that no spray reached the tree foliage).
Conclusions.—Amino-triazole is an effective material for killing grass. The necessity of disking two weeks after spraying is a drawback. There is danger of splashing tree
foliage with the material, and this limits the method of application to low-pressure rigs.
So far as can be seen the material does not affect the trees as long as the foliage is not
sprayed.   This was also demonstrated in the 1955 test.
The following table was submitted by W. T. Baverstock, Vernon, relative to results
obtained from the use of certain herbicides at different rates and times of application for
the control of couch-grass around mature Mcintosh trees in orchards:—
Plot
Material
Time of
Application
Rate per
Acre (Lb.)
Control
Remarks
No. 1	
No. 2.	
No. 3 	
Dalapon	
Dalapon	
Dalapon	
Check	
Amino-triazole ..
Dalapon (85% )
Fall	
Fall	
f Fall	
40
20
20
20
16
20
10
20
8
1
1
.     1
f
10
8
1     1
5
9
Couch-grass killed out all summer, light regrowth
of grass noted in fall. No damage noted to
tree or to suckers growing around base of
tree.
Couch-grass killed out all summer, light regrowth
of grass noted in fall. Lamb's-quarters, chick-
weed, pigweed growing vigorously in plot.
No damage noted to tree or to suckers
growing around base of tree.
Couch-grass killed out all summer, very light
regrowth of grass noted in fall. No damage
noted to tree.
No grass-control.
Couch-grass severely damaged but not killed
out. Broad-leaf weeds killed. Damage to
suckers around base of tree noted.
Couch-grass killed out all summer. Very l.ght
regrowth of grass noted in fall. No damage
noted to tree.
No. 4...	
No. 5	
No. 6	
No. 7	
No treatment ..
Spring	
f Fall	
) Spring	
Spring	
No. 8
Amino-triazole....
Heavy regrowth of grass  noted in fall.   No
damage noted to tree.
age to suckers around base of tree noted.
0=Good control.
10=No control.
The results as indicated on the above table appear very promising and this work
will be continued.
Greenhouse Demonstrations
Raised Beds in Greenhouses
The following work was carried out by A. E. Littler in an attempt to evaluate the
benefit of using clean soil in the growing of greenhouse tomato plants.
Field soil was moved into the greenhouse and placed between boards so that beds
raised 6 inches above the surrounding soil. 8-10-5 fertilizer was added to bring the soil
up to the desired fertility level. The beds were planted to tomatoes at the same time the
balance of the greenhouse was planted to ground beds.
Results.—The results were outstanding until the plants reached 3 feet in height,
showing a good green colour and carrying a good set of fruit, while those in surrounding
ground beds showed disease and in many cases were completely dead. However, toward
the latter part of the growing season, disease became apparent in the raised bed plants
as the roots evidently got down to the infected soil area below the beds.
Soil Fumigation
Material used:  Vapam.
Location:   Irvine's greenhouse, Victoria. DD 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Procedure: Vapam was applied to the soil at the rate of 1 quart per 100 square
feet and watered in, covering the area with a water seal.
The area was planted eighteen days after application but 90 per cent of the plants
were dead three days later. A second planting was made twenty-six days after application and all plants survived.
Results.—The plants in the treated area compared very favourably with those in
the steamed area.
Conclusion.—Since comparative costs were only about half as much in the Vapam
area compared to the steamed area and application requires much less labour than steaming, this material appears to hold much promise provided it can be eliminated from the
soil relatively quickly.
NEWS LETTERS, BROADCASTS, CROP REPORTS
The Horticultural News Letter is issued fortnightly from May through September.
All the horticultural offices co-operate in reporting seasonal conditions, fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates. The News Letter is compiled in the Kelowna office, under the
direction of the Supervising Horticulturist, J. A. Smith.
The Kelowna office, in co-operation with B.C Tree Fruits, prepared messages of
grower interest for transmission over radio station CKOV in Kelowna. Several horticultural releases were made by Tom Leach over the C.B.C. in Vancouver.
Press releases were issued to the various newspapers and radio stations throughout
the Province.
Fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates and final production figures were compiled and
forwarded to the Statistics Branch.
As in past years, growers' meetings, which were well attended, were held in the
various centres throughout the Okanagan.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Your Horticulturist wishes to acknowledge the co-operation he has received from
the Horticultural Branch Staff, the various branches of the British Columbia Department
of Agriculture, the members of the Canada Department of Agriculture, the University of
British Columbia, and the various growers' organizations throughout the Province.
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and J. A. Moisey, M.Sc.
The dry weather during April, May, July, August, and September was not favourable
for most of the important plant diseases. There was very little scab of apples, fire-blight
of pears, or late blight of potatoes.
Diseases causing greatest concern are: (1) Club-root of cabbage and other crucifers
at the Coast; (2) Rhizoctonia of beans in the Kelowna district; (3) leaf-roll of potato
in the Okanagan; (4) in the Fraser Valley bacterial ring-rot of potato was found in trace
amounts on nineteen farms and in a severe amount, about 30 per cent, on one farm;
(5) bacterial wilt of alfalfa on irrigated farms; (6) brown-rot of stone-fruits in the
Kootenays and Arrow Lakes caused a loss of about $25,000; (7) anthracnose of apples
at the Coast; (8) shot-hole of cherry and plums in the Fraser Valley; (9) black-knot
of plums in the Fraser Valley.
Low-temperature injury experienced during November 11th, 1955, caused serious
loss in tree-fruits, small fruits, and field crops. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 31
BACTERIAL WILT OF ALFALFA
Bacterial wilt was found to be widespread, causing considerable damage in all
irrigated alfalfa areas in the Province. The most practical method of control is to grow
a suitable resistant variety, for example: (1) Vernal (about 75 per cent resistant),
(2) Ranger (about 50 per cent), and (3) Ladak (about 25 per cent). The Ladak
variety produces a profitable crop for one year more than the common grown variety
Grimm. Promising new resistant varieties are under test at a number of research stations
on this continent. Better control of bacterial wilt by growing resistant varieties should
also help give better control of witches'-broom in the Ashcroft and Kamloops areas. The
two leaf-hoppers which spread the virus that causes witches'-broom do not like the shade
of the thicker, more vigorous stands.
SCAB OF APPLES
Apple-scab was not difficult to control in the Kootenays, Arrow Lakes, and
Okanagan. At Creston in the scab test-plots the average percentage of healthy fruit
varied from 95 to 98 per cent on the sprayed plots compared to no healthy fruit on the
unsprayed.
J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist, Creston, has found that it may be possible to
reduce the amount of some fungicides applied by adding a non-ionic surfactant without
adversely affecting the degree of scab.
BROWN-ROT OF STONE-FRUITS
Brown-rot caused heavy losses, about $25,000 in the Kootenays and Arrow Lakes
Districts. There was a heavy carry-over of brown-rot inoculum from the previous 1955
cherry-crop left on the trees after the fruit was badly split by rains. Sanitation, the
cleaning-up of infected fruits, twigs, etc., is as important in the prevention of the brown-
rot disease as spraying or dusting with a fungicide. The importance of thorough sanitary
practices should be repeatedly stressed in this area. The wet, dull weather in June also
favoured the development of the disease.
APPROVED STRAWBERRY PLANTING STOCK
Seventeen growers' strawberry plants, about 1,500,000, passed inspection for
approved strawberry planting stock on Vancouver Island. No inspections were made
in the Fraser Valley because of the severe damage caused by sudden low temperatures
of the previous November 11th.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST
C. L. Neilson, M.S., Entomologist, Vernon
The year 1956 continued the trend of 1955 in that it was a year of reduced insect
activity. There was no major insect outbreak which affected agricultural crops, and
many of our normal pests were absent or greatly reduced in numbers.
Highlights in entomology in British Columbia during the year were as follows:—
(1) Introduction of the Oriental fruit-moth into the Southern Okanagan from
Washington.
(2) A joint mosquito-control campaign by several cities and municipalities
in the Lower Fraser Valley between Chilliwack and Coquitlam.
(3) Grasshopper-control was not needed in any of the grasshopper-control
zones, except the Nicola Control Area. DD 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(4) Increased codling-moth infestations in both the Okanagan and Kootenay,
probably due to reduced spray applications, partially necessitated by the
November, 1955, frost damage to trees.
(5) Construction of a header-house at the Federal Entomology Laboratory,
Kamloops, with provision for research greenhouse facilities to be added
later.
(6) Revision of (a) Vegetable and Field Crop Insect and Disease Calendar,
and (b) Tree Fruit Insect and Disease Calendar.
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Field-crop and vegetable insects were generally lower than in 1955. Grasshopper
infestations continued at a low ebb, with control work necessary only in the Nicola
Control Zone, Taylor Flats in the Peace River area, and around the perimeter of a few
orchards in the South Okanagan. Infestations of red-backed cutworms were numerous
and severe in the Okanagan-Mainline, and minor outbreaks of the variegated cutworm
also occurred. Aphid populations were low throughout the season, except on cole-crops
in the Fraser Valley when heavy infestations built up late in the fall. Little or no spraying was done for aphids on potatoes in Interior British Columbia. Diamond-backed
moth damage occurred at such widely separated points as Endako, Salmon Arm, Fraser
Valley, and Vancouver Island, the first such outbreak for many years. Cabbage-worms
also required treatment in the Fraser Valley. Potatoes in the Delta Municipality were
damaged by tuber flea-beetle, due to inadequate control measures. Additional data on
wireworms in Central British Columbia were gathered as a result of a joint survey by
A. T. Wilkinson, Federal Entomology Laboratory, Vancouver, and the Provincial Entomologist. Damage by maggots attacking onions, turnips, and cole-crops was again
evident where treatments were not applied. Pea-moth occurred in numbers on Southern
Vancouver Island for the first time. Spinach leaf-miner was common on commercial
plantings in the North Okanagan. Miscellaneous inquiries concerned slugs, strawberry
root-weevil in grain, carrot rust-fly, onion-thrips, corn ear-worm, caterpillars, robber-fly
larva., collembola, red turnip-beetle, seed-corn maggot, plant-bugs, hornworms, beet
webworm, millipedes, white grubs, cabbage flea-beetle, and mites.
ORCHARD INSECTS
Orchard pests were, in many cases, more difficult to control than in 1955. This was
partially brought about by an enforced lack of some dormant sprays in winter-damaged
trees and by reinfestations from abandoned or semi-abandoned orchards. Oriental
fruit-moth was introduced as larva; in the Summerland area. The following pests were
of concern in the degree noted: —
(a) The same level as 1955: Apple-aphid, rosy apple-aphid, peach twig-
borer, peach tree-borer, California pear-slug, lygus, woolly aphid, pear
leaf-worm, clover-mite, European red-mite, two-spotted mite, yellow
spider-mite, cherry fruit-fly, grasshoppers, yellow-necked caterpillar.
(b) Less than in 1955: Black cherry-aphid, European earwig, green peach-
aphid, mealy plum-aphid, buffalo tree-hopper, cutworms, oyster-shell
scale.
(c) More prevalent than in 1955: Codling-moth, pear leaf blister-mite, apple
rust-mite, eye-spotted bud-moth, fruit-tree leaf-roller, Pulvinaria scale,
cherry fruit-worm, thrips, cicadas. Growers had difficulty this year in
controlling apple rust-mite, and blister-mite increased due to lack of
dormant sprays. An extended second-generation flight of codling-moth
was largely due for increased codling-moth infestations. Twig damage
by cicadas was the worst for several years in the North Okanagan and
Kootenay. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
DD 33
There were no new pests on small fruits in 1956. The damage from the shallot-
aphid in 1955 on Vancouver Island did not recur in 1956. Two-spotted mites were
prevalent on most strawberries in the Fraser Valley, but were not a problem in the
Interior. Infestations of the strawberry root-weevil and black vine-weevils continue to
increase on untreated plantings. Strawberry crown-moth, cane-maggot, root-borer,
raspberry fruit-worm, leaf-hopper, and black-headed fire-worm populations were much
the same as in 1955. Raspberry sawfly, oblique-banded leaf-roller, currant fruit-fly,
currant-aphis, and grape leaf-hopper infestations were of minor importance in 1956.
FLOWERS AND SHRUBS
The main economic pests, such as narcissus bulb-fly, weevils, holly leaf-miner, holly
bud-moth, were again present, but damage reduced as treatments became more general.
Cyclamen-mites, two-spotted mites, aphids, and white-flies are the main greenhouse pests.
Miscellaneous inquiries included pine needle-scale, tarnished plant-bug, grey tussock-
moth, burdock-borer, aspen leaf-miner, box-elder bugs, scale, tent-caterpillars, alder
sawfly, lilac leaf-miner, sawfly on weeping willow trees, millipedes, orange tortrix on
greenhouse mums, flea-beetles, juniper-scale, rose sawfly, aphids on many plants, rose
leaf-hopper, Virginia creeper leaf-hopper.
LIVE-STOCK PESTS
There were no new developments or outbreaks which concerned live stock during
the year. Warbles and paralysis-tick infestations were about normal. The incidence of
spinose ear-tick was again low, and surveys showed no extension of its known range.
Meetings were held on live-stock pests at Quesnel, Nazko, Prince George, Vanderhoof,
and Smithers. During the spring, sheepmen were circularized with a pamphlet on sheep-
ked control. Cattle-lice were more prevalent this year than during 1955. Miscellaneous
inquiries included winter tick, fleas on pets and poultry, poultry-mites, houseflies, and
myiasis maggots.
HOUSEHOLD PESTS
Household-pest inquiries continue to be dealt with mainly through the University
by G. J. Spencer. He reports over 200 inquiries, and of these, carpet-beetles, termites,
carpenter-ants, spider-beetles, clothes moths, ants, cat-fleas, clover-mites, honeybees,
wasps, book-lice, silver-fish, and cluster-flies as most numerous. Similar inquiries on
a smaller scale were made at Provincial offices. Miscellaneous inquiries included black
vine-weevil, strawberry root-weevil, drug-store beetle, saw-tooth grain-beetle, buprestids,
Indian meal-moth, clover-mites, paralysis tick, earwigs, mosquitoes, bat-bugs, cockroaches, larder-beetles, Insectophobia, powder post-beetles, scarabs, bedbugs, and yellow
mealworm.
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
Newspaper articles were prepared for the Vernon News and Fraser Valley papers.
Publications were as follows:—
(1) Handbook of the Main Economic Insects of B.C., Part III.
(2) Insects of the Season 1956 in British Columbia.
(3) Sheep-ked Control—mimeographed circular.
(4) Mosquito Control—mimeographed circular.
Illustrated lectures on insect-control were given at Cloverdale (2), Abbotsford,
Chilliwack, Otter, Yarrow, Ladner, Vancouver, Osoyoos, Kelowna, Vernon (2), Armstrong, Arrow Park, Kamloops, Silver Creek, Pemberton, Grand Forks, Haney, Nazko,
Quesnel, Prince George, Smithers, Vanderhoof, and British Columbia Agronomy Conference. DD 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following conferences were attended: Pacific Northwest Vegetable Insect
Conference, Western Spray Conference, Entomological Society of British Columbia,
Kamloops Fat Stock Show, International Congress of Entomology, British Columbia
Agronomy Conference, Oriental Fruit-moth Conferences.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The excellent co-operation of other Provincial departments of Agriculture is hereby
acknowledged, as is the co-operation of all officers of the various departments of the
Canada Department of Agriculture, especially those of the Division of Entomology.
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon
Beekeeping conditions during the 1956 season were, on the whole, quite satisfactory,
though winter losses were quite severe in some areas. These were due in part to beekeepers stripping as much honey as possible from colonies during the fall of 1955. The
light honey-crop harvested that year resulted in beekeepers extracting filled frames of
honey from the second brood super and not feeding back. This, together with a long
cold winter, resulted in losses as high as 30 per cent.
In the State of California, U.S.A., flood conditions affected package bee production,
and some of our beekeepers were not able to receive packages on the dates requested.
The welcome fine weather experienced during April and May, however, enabled packages
and over-wintered colonies to build up very rapidly, and in most areas a surplus of nectar
was stored. Loss of queens in package bees and rapid development of laying workers
represents one of our most difficult problems in establishing package bees.
MARKETING
The stability of the honey market in British Columbia and the rest of Canada is
very gratifying. Our continually increasing population and high level of purchasing
power indicates a bright future for the industry. Most of our commercial beekeepers
continue to market their own product, and the average retail prices in small containers
is as follows:—
Creamed honey, per case—
1-lb. tins (48)  $12.50
2-lb. tins (24)     12.00
4-lb. tins (12)     11.50
Liquid honey, per case—1-lb. jars (12)       3.50
Comb honey, sections—1 case (24) of 12-oz. sections       9.60
The trend continues from the liquid to the creamed honey pack. Chunk honey and
comb honey are a fancy product, and though much in demand, the supply is limited
because of the time, knowledge, and effort required in production.
There is a ready market for clean beeswax. Candle-manufacturers, offering between
50 and 58 cents per pound, are still having difficulty in acquiring sufficient supplies.
The bulk of beeswax, however, is used for manufacturing comb foundation. This process
requires a continuous supply, which often must be imported. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 35
In August this office was advised that effective immediately the newly organized
retail inspection unit of the Canada Department of Agriculture would be rigidly enforcing
our Provincial regulations with respect to honey. Circular letters were sent to all beekeepers having twenty-five colonies or more, as well as to Apiary Inspectors and all
divisions of the British Columbia Honey Producers' Association, advising that honey and
containers should meet with the requirements of Provincial and Federal grading regulations. This unit has been doing some excellent work, and the results indicate a definite
need for such inspection.
DISEASE-CONTROL AND INSPECTION
The fundamentals of disease-control in this Province remain the same as in the past.
Colonies infected with American foul-brood (Bacillus larva:) are burned. Education
of beekeepers through short courses and demonstrations appears to offer the most promise
in handling outbreaks of disease at the source. The inspection staff consisted of V. E.
Thorgeirson, H. Boone, G. V. Wilkinson, J. H. Drinkwater, and J. Stann.
Value of Live Colonies Infected with American Foul-brood and
Which Were Burned in accordance with the "Apiaries Act "
Total colonies burned  274
Average value per hive        $20.00
Total value  $5,780.00
Eleven samples of brood comb and smears were received. These were examined
under the microscope, and all but two showed positive infection by American foul-brood
(Bacillus larva:). Three samples of dead adult bees were received. Two of these
contained Nosema (Apis) spores. Bees from the remaining sample died from undetermined causes.
Insecticide poisoning was no problem during 1956.
POLLINATION OF CROPS BY HONEYBEES
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
During 1956 there were no research projects on pollination carried out by the British
Columbia Department of Agriculture. Honeybees are used for pollination purposes
principally in the Okanagan, Similkameen, Peace River, Kootenay, and Vancouver Island
areas. The value of honeybees as pollinators is well appreciated by fruit-growers and
especially by those growing cherries.
Apiary Inspectors are required to gather as much pollination information as possible,
and for this purpose a form is printed on the reverse side of the Inspector's report form.
This method of gathering information has proven to be very successful and provides at
least one accurate source of information on pollination.
BULLETINS AND PUBLICATIONS
Two publications are at present near completion. These are Circular No. 12,
"Package Bees in British Columbia," and Circular No. 14, "General Information on
Beekeeping in British Columbia."
The single-story honey-house plans have been completed, and many copies of this
plan have already been distributed.
Mimeographed information and circulars completed are as follows:—
(1) Package Bees in British Columbia.
(2) Bee Stings.
(3) Beekeepers' Calendar.
(4) Feeding of Sulpha Drugs as a Control for AFB. DD 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(5) Beekeeping.
(6) Eradication and Control of Wax Moth (Galleria melonella).
(7) Fumidil B for Control of Nosema.
(8) The Use of Carbolic Acid in Removing the Honey Crop.
(9) Beekeeping Terms.
Five issues of Bee-Wise were published and distributed. Beekeepers continue to
express their appreciation of this publication.
EXTENSION
Short courses on beekeeping were held in Penticton, McBride, Creston, Squamish,
and New Westminster.
A continuous-flow extracting unit was installed at the honey-house of L. Fuhr, of
Okanagan Landing. This project was sponsored jointly by our British Columbia Department of Agriculture and Mr. Fuhr. Close to 100 beekeepers from all parts of British
Columbia and the State of Washington attended the opening demonstration.
Three fumigations for the control of wax-moth were conducted by officials of this
Branch.   Methyl bromide was used for this purpose and was successful.
4-H Honeybee Clubs are now organized in Penticton and Vernon.
British Columbia beekeepers did exceptionally well in winning prizes at Canada's
largest fairs and exhibitions.
At the Toronto Royal Winter Fair, J. Stann, of Vernon, won the following: Third
in liquid white open class, first in liquid amber class, and fourth in granulated honey
class.   H. E. Hodges, of Campbell River, won first in the commercial pack.
At the Canadian National Exhibition, L. Fuhr, of Vernon, won third in white honey
(granulated) class.
Mr. Fuhr also won first prize at the Pacific National Exhibition for his 300-pound
commercial exhibit as well as the gold medal certificate for the best liquid honey in the
commercial class.
W. Townsend, of Chilliwack, won the Canadian Beekeepers' Council shield for the
best liquid honey in the show.
MEETINGS
Inspectors and members of the Apiary Branch attended a total of fifteen field-days
and thirty-five meetings, and judged honey and honey products at the Pacific National
Exhibition, the Interior Provincial Exhibition, as well as five fall fairs throughout the
Province.
Eight radio broadcasts on beekeeping were given, as well as six appearances on
C.B.C. television. A large number of visitors and inquiries on beekeeping are received
at the office in Vernon. Correspondence throughout the year has consisted of 1,477
letters in and 2,810 letters out.
I wish to take this opportunity to thank all Supervising and District Agriculturists
for their excellent co-operation throughout the year, and also Tom Leach, Norm Griffin,
and Hugh Caley, as well as members of the Okanagan Spray Calendar Committee, for
their sympathetic understanding of our problems with respect to insecticides.
If beekeeping is to flourish in this Province, every effort must be made to further
the development and application of results obtained through beekeeping research and
practical experience. An attempt is being made to anticipate the trend in beekeeping
and the attendant problems. With these thoughts in mind, a long-term programme is
planned, the basis of which is (1) the eradication of disease, (2) increased production,
(3) improved honey extracting and packing facilities, and (4) adequate and efficient
inspection services. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 37
The changing pattern of Agriculture in certain regions of this Province will ultimately require the commercial beekeeper to reorganize his thinking and administration,
particularly with respect to outyards. The basic fundamentals of beekeeping still remain
unchanged, but as the general pattern of agriculture appears to be changing we must
attempt to anticipate our problems and what we must do to cope with them.
For table of diseases and table showing the number of colonies actually used for
pollination services, together with honey-crop report for 1956, see Appendix No. 25.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH
A. Kidd, V.S., D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Assistant Live Stock Commissioner
and Assistant Chief Veterinary Inspector
This submission includes reports on the Live Stock and Veterinary Division, the
Animal Pathology Division, the Dairy Herd Improvement Services, and the Brands
Division.
LIVE STOCK AND VETERINARY DIVISION
(Dr. A. Kidd)
Responsibilities are mainly of a regulatory nature.
Acts
"Animals Act"
The "Animals Act" was amended in 1956 to provide a more realistic procedure
for establishing bull-control areas. There were no new bull-control areas gazetted during
the year.    There are fifteen bull districts within the Province.
" Beef Grading Act"
This Act applies in the Cities of New Westminster, North Vancouver, and Vancouver, and the Municipalities of Burnaby, West Vancouver, and the District of North
Vancouver.
P. G. Lawrence, Inspector, reports 1,200 inspections were made in the Greater
Vancouver area. A number of these were repeat inspections as some retail outlets
require closer attention than others. During the year one case of improper branding
of beef was investigated.    Evidence available indicated an unintentional violation.
Several retail outlets complained of improper advertising by other butchers. These
were all investigated and corrective measures undertaken. Omitting to display the grade
of meat being sold was the main infringement.
" Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act"
The " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1956," was enacted during the year.
Staff members were employed largely in duties arising from responsibilities under
this Act, particularly in the brucellosis-eradication programme and in efforts to control
vibriosis in both dairy herds and beef herds.
The Provincial picture is as follows: —
Specific Diseases.—Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis: These two diseases, singly
or in combination, are prevalent in beef cattle.
Blackleg and Malignant (Edema: Preventive inoculations with bacterin are very
effective.    These are rarely used in dairy herds but extensively in beef herds.    Some DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
losses in beef cattle occur when the owners omit precautionary measures. Calves vaccinated before 4 months of age in the spring should be revaccinated in the fall.
Carcinoma of the Eye: This cancerous condition is found particularly in Hereford
cattle, but the incidence is not abnormal.
Caseous Lymphadenitis: A few sheep flocks continue to be quarantined. Checks
at packing plants indicate the disease is well under control.
Coccidiosis: This was fairly pronounced in the Cariboo area. Positive confirmation
of the condition was made at the Federal laboratory. Better feeding and management
practices would minimize the incidence and prevent its spread to cattle of all ages in
the affected herds.
Equine Encephalomyelitis: This disease was suspected on a ranch near Oliver
during September and on a farm near Aldergrove during October. Quarantines were
instituted, and after a period of observation were raised. In neither case was encephalomyelitis diagnosed. Because of equine encephalomyelitis in Eastern Washington, Order
in Council No. 2081, approved on August 15th, allowed horses into British Columbia
from Washington by permit only, but was rescinded on September 25th.
Foot-rot in Cattle:   This is of fairly common occurrence.
Foot-rot in Sheep: Routine inspections of range flocks by our Veterinary Inspectors
keep this condition under control.
Hcemorrhagic Enterotoxemia of Calves: Caused by the organism Clostridium per-
fringens, Type C, was diagnosed in herds in Central British Columbia during 1955.
Owners were advised to inoculate the pregnant mothers with toxoid as a preventive of
calf deaths. Adult vaccination carried out in 1956 proved successful in preventing
further calf deaths. This disease is believed to be the cause of calf losses in Pemberton
Valley, and evidence indicates it is sporadic throughout the Province.
Hemorrhagic Septic_emia: Also known as " shipping fever," it occurs sporadically
as a disease entity of our animal industry.
Keratitis (Pinkeye): This is well established, particularly in our beef-cattle herds.
For the first time, bad breaks occurred in herds in the East Kootenay during the year.
Liver Fluke: This parasite is common in the cattle of the East Kootenay, particularly the Columbia Valley area. Due to the large areas of swamp land and the presence
of snails, conditions are ideal for the entire life-cycle.
Mastitis: Incidence of this disease entity is outlined in Appendix No. 8, which
shows that 6.86 per cent of the dairy cattle examined by our Veterinary Inspectors
during 1956 were infected.
Mucosal Disease: This disease was suspected in a herd of cattle in the Penticton
district and reported to the Health of Animals Division.
Rabies: This disease was suspected in eight instances in the West Kootenay. The
Federal laboratory reported negative results in all suspected cases.
Vibriosis: This disease of cattle continues to be more widespread in the East
Kootenay and has been diagnosed during the year in the cattle of the Inonoaklin Valley
in the West Kootenay. Other positive diagnoses have been made in herds at Grand
Forks and at Telkwa. The Federal laboratory reports over eighty diagnoses in the
Fraser Valley and three on Vancouver Island. It is evident that vibriosis may permeate
our entire cattle population. An intense educational programme reaching all cattle-
owners is necessary.
Non-specific Diseases.—Iodine Deficiency: Diagnosed as cause of calf deaths in
Grand Forks district.
Forage Poisoning:   Diagnosed as cause of deaths in cattle at Westport.
Malnutrition: Reported by almost all of our Veterinary Inspectors as causing deaths
in cattle in specific instances. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 39
Nitrate Poisoning: Definitely diagnosed as cause of death in cattle in the Kettle
Valley and resulting from use of oat hay as feed.
Vitamin A Deficiency:  Established as cause of death in cattle at Summerland.
Brucellosis Eradication in Cattle.—The eradication of this disease continues steadily
throughout the Province, except in the Central British Columbia-Peace River District
and the Fraser Valley. Lack of resident veterinarians has delayed measures being undertaken in the Central British Columbia and Peace River Districts. The Fraser Valley
area will require a specific programme to meet particular conditions existing there.
On May 1st, after negotiations with the British Columbia Veterinary Association,
this Department assumed the entire cost of calfhood vaccination throughout the Province.
While the programme has not yet been in operation for a full year, results appear satisfactory and the services of the veterinary practitioners are being used extensively.
Evidence indicates the best coverage yet in vaccinating calves in the range areas. The
number of calves vaccinated in the Fraser Valley District has not increased and, as stated
previously, further measures appear necessary as it is estimated that only half the
eligible calves there are being vaccinated annually. In the "Contagious Diseases
(Animals) Act, 1956," the designation "disease-free area" was changed to "brucellosis-
control area." During the year no new areas were gazetted, but brucellosis eradication
was nearly completed on Vancouver Island. From May 7th to the first week in September, five veterinary students, under the supervision of Dr. Newby, diligentiy drew bloods.
Veterinary practitioners, too, have been of service in drawing bloods, the entire cost
being borne by this Department as the area is on a test and slaughter programme. The
students returned to Guelph about a month before the work was completed. Dr. Newby
continues the blood-testing with the help of the practitioners, and it is hoped to complete
the area by early spring of 1957.
Each Departmental office issues live-stock transportation permits for cattle being
transported into the prescribed area, into a brucellosis-control area, or into a brucellosis-
free herd. Transportation permits are also necessary for brucellosis positive cows
consigned for immediate slaughter.
Four prosecutions for illegal transportation of cattle to brucellosis-control areas
were successfully prosecuted.
Permits were issued to cover 1,014 head of calves, heifers, steers, bulls, and cows
consigned to Vancouver Island for immediate slaughter.
The "Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act, 1956," has been designed for integration
with the Federal-Provincial brucellosis-eradication programme which will become effective during 1957.
Much statistical information is shown in various appendices which appear at the
end of the Departmental Report.
"Fur-farm Act"
In the licence-year 1956, 578 fur-farm licences were issued. The fur-farm industry
is located almost exclusively in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island, and required
ninety-five visits from Veterinary Inspectors.
In the Victoria office one prosecution for failure to secure a fur-farm licence was
successful.
One hundred and thirty-five fur-farm transportation permits were issued to cover
sale of mink and chinchilla to other Canadian Provinces, United States, United Kingdom,
Denmark, France, Sweden, Norway, and Poland; ninety to cover importations of mink,
chinchilla, and nutria from the Canadian Provinces, United States, and Finland; and
twenty-seven to cover movement of mink, chinchilla, and nutria from one fur-farming
area to another within the Province.
Premises licensed for nutria-farming increased from five to eighteen during the year. DD 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
"Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act"
Stallion enrolments for the year 1956, compared with 1954 and 1955, were as
follows:—
1954: A, 4; B, 2; C, 1; D, 1; E, 21; F, 11; total, 40.
1955: A, 4; B, 1; C, 1; D, 2; E, 19; F, 14; total, 41.
1956:   A, 2; B, 1; C, 1; D, 2; E, 27; F, 6;    total, 39.
"Meat Inspection Act"
Many abattoir operators are anxious for meat inspection service, but none appear
willing to build plants that meet the requirements of our Act. Clappison Packers at
Haney continues as the only abattoir under Departmental supervision.
"Milk Industry Act," 1956
Regulations under the "Milk Industry Act," 1956, were approved on June 29th,
and dairy-farm inspections under these commenced on July 17th. Nine full-time Dairy
Farm Inspectors commenced farm inspections in the Fraser Valley on January 2nd under
the supervision of Dr. Mustard. One of these was transferred permanently from the
Fraser Valley to Nanaimo on Vancouver Island during February. At the year's end, the
requirements of the " Milk Industry Act" had been met in the Lower Mainland and on
Vancouver Island. I cannot commend too highly the work of Dr. Mustard and the
Dairy Farm Inspectors for a job well done. The co-operation received from the dairy-
farmers themselves and the dairy plants is greatly appreciated. Excellent integration has
been effected with the Dairy Branch and its Inspectors and the Milk Board and its
Inspectors.
Dr. Mustard carried out a survey of the fifty-nine raw-milk producer-vendors on
Vancouver Island and submitted an extremely fair report on the suitability of their
premises to meet the approved raw-milk dairy-farm requirements of the " Milk Industry
Act." At the end of the year there were a total of thirty-four approved raw-milk
dairy-farms operating on Vancouver Island.
Appendix No. 6 contains the total of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by districts,
by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy Farm Inspectors under the " Milk Industry Act."
The period covered is January 1st to July 16th.
Appendix No. 7 contains the total of dairy-farm inspections carried out, by districts,
by Veterinary Inspectors and Dairy Farm Inspectors under the " Milk Industry Act."
The period covered is July 17th to December 31st.
Appendix No. 8 contains the totals of mastitis examinations carried out by the
various Veterinary Inspectors on cows milking at the time of inspection.
" Sheep Protection Act "
Compensation paid from the Dog Tax Fund for the years 1954, 1955, and 1956
follows:—
Year
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1954	
1
2                $43.00
173
103
141
$3,157.00
1,850.00
3,531.50
282
208
462
$460.65
1955	
871.26
1956	
1,180.50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 41
Policies
Dairy-cattle Placement Policy
This programme was inaugurated in 1950 in response to requests from District Agriculturists in areas outside the Fraser Valley for assistance in locating suitable dairy stock
for farmers in their territories.
Production background is the prime requisite and almost all have been selected
from D.H.I.A. herds.
While most of the females selected have been grades due to the difficulty experienced in obtaining suitable registered animals at a figure Interior farmers could pay, all
have had registered sires—many artificially. This policy is integrated with brucellosis-
control programme, the use of registered sires, and the Dairy Herd Improvement Services. Forty-seven head of dairy cattle have been placed in 1956, including 3 bulls, 9
heifer calves, and 35 head of mature females.
It will be noted in Appendix No. 10 that in the seven-year period 1950 through
1956, a total of 603 head of females were shipped, including 367 head of Holsteins, 121
head of Guernseys, 78 head of Jerseys, and 37 head of Ayrshires. During this period,
36 registered bulls were shipped, including 17 Holsteins, 12 Guernseys, 4 Ayrshires, and
3 Jerseys. There is a definite need for good producing dairy stock in most northern
areas, but transportation poses a problem in these cases. This is expected to improve,
and it is anticipated that there will be a continuing demand for good dairy stock, particularly milk cows, in the neighbourhood of the larger towns and cities.
Live-stock Improvement Policy
This policy assists farmers in areas where freight charges might dissuade the producers from bringing in such animals to secure top-quality boars and rams.
During the year, 5 Yorkshire boars were purchased for $375, 1 Cheviot ram for
$60, and 3 Suffolk rams for $127.50. Freight charges amounted to $121.91. This makes
a total of $215.75 in freight charges since the inception of the policy in 1955. All
animals were shipped into the Peace River District.
Pure-bred Sires for Farmers' Institutes Policy
Sire purchases for the year 1956 were as follows (1955 figures in parentheses):
8 (9) pure-bred sires were purchased during the year at a cost of $2,375 ($3,025),
with the Department paying transportation charges amounting to $280.32 ($283.89);
these included 3 Holstein, 4 Hereford, and 1 Shorthorn. The institutes receiving these
sires were as follows: Mud River, Westbridge, Wistaria, Cranbrook, Newgate, Alberni,
and Balfour. Total payments received from farmers under this policy during the year
amounted to $3,145.67 ($3,960.67). Final payments were received on 12 bulls, including 2 Holstein, 6 Hereford, 3 Shorthorn, and 1 Aberdeen Angus.
Miscellaneous
There are many other sundry duties carried out by all Inspectors, and it would be
of value to list them all here as a record of the total work accomplished. However, the
annual reports of each Inspector along with the monthly reports of this Branch give such
detail and, as a result, only the highlights will be included here.
Staff Changes
Dr. W. R. LeGrow, Veterinary Inspector at Victoria, was transferred to the Animal
Pathology Laboratory at the University of British Columbia on July 1st as Acting
Assistant Animal Pathologist. DD 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following five Inspectors received probationary appointments on April 1st as
Dairy Farm Inspectors:   Messrs. Burr, Cleaver, Godfrey, Kirkby, and Stewart.
J. T. Godfrey resigned, effective July 31st. K. Fletcher received a probationary
appointment as of August 1st.
On May 7th Dr. W. C. Newby commenced duties as Veterinary Inspector for
Vancouver Island with headquarters at Victoria.
Sales and Show Results
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show at Kamloops, March 13th to 15th, 1956.—
Total head, 269.
Car-lot of 15 steers, heavy class: Douglas Lake Cattle Company Limited, Douglas
Lake.
Car-lot of 15 steers, light class:   Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Champion car-lot:   Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Reserve grand champion car-lot:   Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Group of 5 steers, heavy class: Douglas Lake Cattle Company Limited, Douglas
Lake.
Group of 5 steers, light class:  Earlscourt Farms, Lytton.
Champion group of 5 steers: Douglas Lake Cattle Company Limited, Douglas
Lake.
Reserve champion group of 5 steers:  Earlscourt Farms, Lytton.
Single steer or heifer, 1,080 to 1,000 pounds:   Basran Brothers, Kelowna.
Single steer or heifer, 990 to 950 pounds: Earlscourt Farms, Lytton.
Single steer or heifer, 940 to 810 pounds: L. V. Shannon, Knutsford.
Champion animal of the open singles:  L. V. Shannon & Son, Knutsford.
Reserve champion animal of the open singles:  Len Wood & Son, Armstrong.
Boys' and girls' competition, single steer or heifer, heavy class: Wilma Davidson,
Kamloops.
Boys' and girls' competition, single steer or heifer, light class: Robert Hall, Barn-
hart Vale.
Champion animal of the boys' and girls' classes:  Dennis Lyster, Armstrong.
Reserve champion animal of the boys' and girls' classes: Dennis Lyster, Armstrong.
Breeding-stock classes:—
Aberdeen Angus—
Champion A.A. bull: Mrs. M. C. Hayes, Armstrong.
Reserve champion A.A. bull and champion B.C.-bred bull:   Oliver N.
Wells, Sardis.
Champion A.A. female: L. Folvik, Greenwood.
Reserve champion A.A. female: Mrs. M. C. Hayes, Armstrong.
Herefords—
Champion Hereford bull: V. E. Ellison, Oyama.
Reserve champion Hereford bull: Felix M. Abel, Westwold.
Shorthorns—
Champion B.C. Shorthorn bull: Mrs. O. J. McHattie, Royal Oak.
Reserve champion B.C. Shorthorn bull:  James Turner, Royal Oak.
The summarized reports of sales in British Columbia during the year 1956 are shown
in the appendices (Appendix No. 11).
Pacific International Live Stock Exposition at Portland, Ore., October 22nd to
25.—Approximately 100 head of dairy cattle from British Columbia were shown with
outstanding success in the Jersey, Ayrshire, and Holstein classes. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 43
In the Jerseys, out of eighteen classes, our British Columbia breeders took sixteen
first places and ten seconds, winning all championships and the State herd class. G. H.
Keur, Quilchena Farms, Richmond, was premier exhibitor, with his cattle winning eleven
first places, four championships (senior and grand champion bulls, junior champion
female, and reserve grand champion female), and the Lawbrook Trophy, a huge silver
tray valued at $500, given for first place in the senior get of sire class. This is the fourth
time that Mr. Keur has had his name engraved on this perpetual trophy.
Bella Vista Farms at Milner, owned by H. Reifel, placed first in both the 3-year-old
and 4-year-old cow classes, and in the best three females, winning three championships
(reserve grand champion bull and senior and grand champion females).
D. G. and A. M. McFetridge, Sardis, placed first with their senior yearling bull.
E. C. Milward & Son, Boundary Road, Aldergrove, had second junior yearling heifer
and second 3-year-old cow.
British Columbia Ayrshires, out of eighteen classes, won eleven first and twelve
seconds, winning five championships and the State herd class. W. H. Savage, Ladner,
was runner-up by a mere $10 to the premier exhibitor, Meadowland Dairy (Anderegg
Brothers, of Portland Ore.). Mr. Savage's cattle won six first places and four championships (junior champion bull, senior and grand and reserve grand champion females).
Harry Dawson & Son, Nanoose Bay, Vancouver Island, had first-place junior yearling heifer, which went on to win the junior female championship.
Ayrshires owned by J. L. Saville & Sons, Cobble Hill, Vancouver Island, showed top
quality, winning first-place senior yearling heifer and first-place junior get of sire. Mr.
Saville also had second senior yearling bull and second junior yearling heifer.
M. C. Nissen, Sooke, Vancouver Island; Hugh R. Lyall, Ladner; and J. R. Paton,
Ladner, also exhibited, the last named having third-place best uddered cow in a strong
class of thirteen animals.
K. G. Scott, Cowichan Station, Vancouver Island, had first-place 4-year-old cow,
and placed second in each of the following classes: Senior yearling heifer, best three
females, and best uddered cow—an excellent showing.
W. McFaul & Sons, Sardis, had second-place 2-year-old cow.
British Columbia Holsteins, with very strong competition from Washington, Oregon,
and California, won six first places, three seconds, eight thirds, and one championship.
Richmond Farms, owned by Les Gilmore, won first-place junior yearling bull.
Colony Farm, Essondale, exhibited the first-place 2-year-old bull, and the A.I. unit
at Milner (Director of Production Services) placed first with its senior yearling bull.
Harry Bose & Sons, Surrey Centre, placed first with their 3-year-old cow in a strong
class of 11 head. This cow, Meadowridge Beauty Hengerveld, went on to win the reserve
grand champion female ribbon and placed second in an exceptionally strong class of
twenty entries in the best uddered female class.
W. C. Blair, Langley Prairie, exhibited the first-place Holstein heifer calf, Langview
Corallie DeKal, a very notable achievement in view of the fact that there were fifteen
entries in this class.
J. Grauer & Sons Limited, Eburne, placed first with their 4-year-old cow, Frasea
Winnie Jewel, and had the second-place junior get of sire.
It is interesting to note that out of a possible total of fifty-four first places in the
eighteen classes open to each of the three breeds—Jerseys, Ayrshires, and Holsteins—
British Columbia entries won a total of thirty-three firsts or 61 per cent. Similarly, out
of a possible total of fifty-four second places, British Columbia entries won twenty-five
or approximately 46 per cent, and out of a possible total of 216 places (from first to
fourth place) dairy-cattle entries from this Province won ninety-two or 42.6 per cent.
Out of a possible twenty-four championships, British Columbia cattle won fourteen or
58 per cent. DD 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Six full flocks of Cheviot sheep, approximately 100 head, were shown at Portland.
Of these, 16 head were exhibited by British Columbia breeders Archie Stewart, of Mat-
squi, and J. Kirk, of Sumas. These British Columbia Cheviots won seven firsts and nine
seconds. Mr. Stewart had grand champion ewe, first and second yearling ewe, first open
flock, first pen three yearling ewes, and first produce of ewe. Mr. Kirk showed the
reserve champion ewe, first and second ewe lambs, first flock bred by exhibitor, and first
pen three ewe lambs, for which last named he was also awarded a special rosette from
the American Cheviot Association.
Publications
During the year a few publications were prepared by F. C. Clark, as follows:—
How Is Your Timing?    Re artificial insemination of dairy cattle.
Warble Incidence as Related to Age, Sex and Colour of Dairy Cattle.
Bloat.
The Long Pull.   This is published monthly in the interests of D.H.I.A. members
and is a joint effort between Mr. Clark and Mr. Mace, of Dairy Herd
Improvement Services.
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY DIVISION
(Dr. J. C. Bankier)
Introduction
The demand on the diagnostic service of the Animal Pathology Laboratory increased
considerably during the year, due largely to Departmental policy respecting the eradication of brucellosis. Owing to illness of the animal pathologist, and shortage of staff and
equipment required to cope with the sudden increase in the volume of specimens, our
staff and facilities were, by agreement with the Canada Department of Agriculture, integrated for part of the year with those of the Federal Animal Pathology Laboratory, located
adjacent to our laboratory. Splendid co-operation has been received from the staff of
the Federal Animal Pathology Laboratory, which is gratefully acknowledged. From time
to time, assistance in certain diagnostic procedures for which we do not have facilities,
particularly relating to certain virus diseases, was rendered by Connaught Medical
Research Laboratories, Toronto, Ont.; Veterinary College, Guelph; and the Animal
Diseases Research Institute, Hull, Que. Splendid co-operation in the liaison work
between the laboratory and the farmer has been received from Inspectors of the Poultry,
Live Stock, and Dairy Branches, District Agriculturists, and field service men of various
feed companies.
Conferences Attended
I attended the annual convention of the Pacific Northwest Veterinary Association,
held in Vancouver, June 28th to 30th: the annual conference of Canadian Workers in
Animal and Poultry Pathology, held at the Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull,
Que., October 4th to 6th; and the annual meeting of the Ontario Association of Artificial
Breeders, held in Toronto, Ont., October 20th.
While in Eastern Canada during October, I visited the Connaught Medical Research
Laboratories, Toronto, in connection with animal- and poultry-disease problems, and the
Ontario Veterinary College respecting equipment and methods used in the low-temperature preservation of bull semen and animal- and poultry-disease problems.
Meetings
I attended the annual meeting of the British Columbia Artificial Insemination
Association, annual meeting of British Columbia Feed Manufacturers, a meeting of the
Poultry Industries Council, and a short course for poultrymen.
I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 45
Nineteen field-visits were made. Of these, seventeen were in connection with poultry
problems, one re a cattle problem, and one re artificial-insemination work.
Laboratory Services
The total number of specimens received for diagnosis was 25,867, compared with
2,873 during the previous year. The greater part of the increase was due to blood
samples submitted for testing for brucellosis, a summary of which is shown in the following
table:—
Kind
Number of
Samples
Number
Positive
Number
Questionable
Number
Unsuitable
Number
Negative
17,308
2,392
354
(2.04%)
803
(33.5%)
399
(2.3%)
409
(17.0%)
149
(0.8%)
16,406
(94.7%)
1,180
(49.3%)
1 Of the above samples, 3,029 were submitted by veterinary practitioners, 9,519 by part-time employees, and 4,760
by Departmental veterinarians.
- The antigen used for the milk ring test was kindly supplied through the courtesy of Dr. Paul Genest, Director,
Veterinary Research Laboratory, Quebec Department of Agriculture, St. Hyacinthe, Que.
Serological Tests for Pullorum Disease in Turkeys
In order to comply with requirements of the United States respecting sale of turkey
hatching-eggs thereto from British Columbia flocks, it was necessary to conduct serum
tests for pullorum disease on three flocks, comprising 4,278 birds. Four reactors were
uncovered.
Pathological Specimens
Specimens from various species of animals and birds were received for diagnosis, as
shown in the following table. This includes specimens received during the period when
our work was co-ordinated with the Federal laboratory.
Species
Cat
Number of
Specimens
5
Species
Chinchilla .
Number of
Specimens
21
Chicken	
888
31
7
11
7
12
35
65
Duck 	
118
Dog 	
Goat	
2
Goose 	
Mink 	
120
Horse 	
Sheep 	
9
Rabbit	
Swine 	
Miscellaneous
Cattle 	
Turkey 	
Poultry blood
for special d
samples
iagnosis
245
313
Total  1,889
The more important disease problems encountered were coccidiosis, chronic respiratory disease, distemper, enterohepatitis, erysipelas, infectious bronchitis, leucosis, Newcastle disease, pullet disease, and vibriosis.
It was evident from the examination of specimens that errors in management were
the cause of considerable loss, which points to the need for further extension work,
especially as it relates to poultry-disease problems.
Staff
A. T. Coopland commenced work as student laboratory assistant on May 14th and
remained in our laboratory until the Medical School at the University of British Columbia
opened for the fall semester.   The position of laboratory technician was advertised, and DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the successful candidate was Dr. Pamela Curwen, M.R.CV.S.    She commenced her
duties in the laboratory on July 1st.
Animal Pathology Laboratory at Victoria
(Dr. E. A. Bruce)
Due to illness, Dr. Bruce was forced to discontinue his duties in the Victoria laboratory. Appendix No. 13 outlines the work carried out by Dr. Bruce from January 1st
until May 11th.
DAIRY HERD IMPROVEMENT SERVICES
(J. A. Mace)
Operation
Twenty-three routes continue in operation in fourteen associations. Complete reports of numbers of cows and herds on test are secured from supervisors semi-annually
as of June 30th and December 31st of each year. As at June 30th, 1956, 516 herds were
on test, containing 13,991 cows, a drop in total cows tested of 199. The fact that supervisors are permitted two days to complete tests in herds of 55 or more cows accounts for
the slight drop in the total, since the average size of herds on test continues to increase,
the latest figure being 27.1 cows per herd, as compared to 23.3 five years ago.
The continuing difficulty in securing sufficient suitable men for this work prevented
expansion.
Two short courses of instruction for intending D.H.I.A. supervisors were held at the
University of British Columbia during the year, results in each case being most disappointing. One tester was secured at the course held in July and two from the course
conducted in November. This number barely serves to keep the routes in operation.
Inspectors Johnson and Hannam participated in the course held from November 19th
to December 1st.
Production details for 1956 will not be available until April, 1957; however, 11,278
milking periods were completed during 1955, an increase of 245. Average production
again showed a slight drop, being 9,438 pounds of milk, 395 pounds of fat with an
average test of 4.18 per cent. A summarized report showing average production by
breeds is attached as Appendix No. 12.
Staff
J. Hannam started work June 1st as an Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Services,
The following changes of supervisors took place during the year: R. N. Marriott to
Chilliwack (Route 1) to replace J. Hannam (see above); R. Lister to Cowichan to
replace D. R. O'Brien (resigned); J. E. Jensen to Langley-Surrey Route 2 to replace P. E.
Jensen (resigned); V. Collins to Vancouver Island South to replace T. G. M. Clarke
(superannuated).
A complete list of supervisors of dairy herd improvement associations, as well as
the secretaries, is attached as Appendix No. 14.
Calf-tagging
A total of 2,850 ear-tags were issued to supervisors to identify heifer calves during
the year.
Departmental Subsidy
Grants to twenty-three D.H.I.A. routes amounted to $43,350, an increase of
$170.41. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 47
R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. Combined Service
Forty-two herds are now using this service, which is a drop due to the agreement to
enforce rules barring entirely pure-bred herds as well as those with 20 or more pure-breds.
Most herds going off the combined service for this reason have elected to go off R.O.P.
and stay on D.H.I.A.
Field Work
During the year forty-five visits were made to supervisors, fourteen to secretaries of
associations, fifty-six to D.H.I, members, and eighteen calls on other persons. Contact
work done by Inspectors will be in addition to this.
Fourteen meetings were attended and talks given, in addition to attendance at
thirteen annual meetings of dairy herd improvement associations and three fairs.
Two two-week short courses at the University of British Columbia were conducted,
as noted previously.
Office Routine
Corespondence continues to increase as farmers avail themselves of the service more
and more. A slight increase in completed D.H.I, lactations also took place, and R.O.P.
records received and processed in this office were up over 500 or 11 per cent. The switch
from M.E. 305 to Breed Class average record evaluation has consumed a lot of time and
is not complete.
Dairy Sire Lists
The Twenty-third List of Ayrshire Sires was prepared and issued, and contained
production information on 103 bulls, 49 of which were sires not previously listed.
Mechanical Tabulation Division of the Department of Trade and Industry has continued
to compile information on punch-cards. It has now completed the entire Guernsey section of sire cards, and will proceed to compile a Guernsey sire list in the near future.
Artificial Insemination Clubs
Semi-annual reports on all bulls in use in both clubs which have 10 or more daughters with recorded production have been prepared. Considerable time was spent in
connection with the committee formed to consider improved means of selecting and
evaluating bulls for use in these clubs. It is hoped that the recommendations of this
committee will be put into effect as rapidly as possible.
Parental Production Summaries
A complete report was prepared for one prospective herd sire.
Lifetime Production
Total cows in dairy herd improvement associations with a minimum of 1 ton of
butter-fat has risen to 1,379, a further increase of 67.
Publications (Stencils)
H.I.C. No. 77—Twenty-third List of Ayrshire Sires.
H.I.C. No. 78—Seventeenth Annual List of Long-distance Production Records.
General
Two new rules have been adopted in this work, which should prove beneficial to
our herd-improvement policy. One calls for the enforced tagging of all heifer calves
(except registered pure-breds), and the other insists on the use of a registered pure-bred
bull (or artificial insemination) in all herds on D.H.I, test.    Both rulings are designed DD 4S BRITISH COLUMBIA
to give the maximum parental information for our work in proving cattle blood lines,
and also to discourage the use of scrub bulls.
The co-operation and general efficiency of the entire staff is gratefully acknowledged.
BRANDS DIVISION
(Thomas Moore)
Shipments and Inspections
Inspections of cattle in British Columbia were 101,739 head, compared to 77,311
head in 1955. This shows an increase of 24,428 head. Cattle shipped from the Interior
of British Columbia to the United States in 1956 were 1,470, compared to 2,013 in 1955,
a decrease of 543 head. Inspections of cattle from the Cariboo were 23,685 head, an
increase of 6,624 head; from Kamloops-Nicola, 38,034, an increase of 9,081 head.
Shipments of hides were 19,473, an increase of 897. Horses inspected in 1956 were
6,281 head, an increase of 483 head. Shipments of cattle to the Prairies were 22,610
head in 1956, an increase of 12,690 head. A complete table of annual inspections of
cattle, horses, and hides is attached (see Appendix No. 15).
Inspection Service
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at sixty-
eight shipping-points in the following districts:—
Cariboo:   Williams Lake, Alexis Creek, Quesnel, Bella Coola, Clinton, 100
Mile House, Lillooet, Bralorne, and Wells.
Kamloops-Nicola:   Chase, Kamloops, Blue River, Salmon Arm, Merritt, Ashcroft, Lytton, Spences Bridge, Hope, Flood, and Boston Bar.
Okanagan and Similkameen:  Vernon, Lumby, Armstrong, Enderby, Kelowna,
Penticton, Summerland, Oliver, Osoyoos, Falkland, Sicamous, Princeton,
Keremeos, Grand Forks, and Greenwood.
South-east British Columbia:   Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Crescent
Valley, Nelson, Kaslo, Salmo, Creston, New Denver, Radium Hot Springs,
Cranbrook, Kimberley, Fernie, Natal, Invermere, Golden, Revelstoke,
Nakusp, and Field.
Central British Columbia and Peace River:  Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace, Burns
Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, Red Pass, Fort St. James,
Dawson Creek, Fort St. John, Atlin, Fort Nelson, and Cassiar.
Inspectors paid by the Department attended to the work at fifteen shipping-points
as follows:   Ashcroft, Bridge Lake, Clinton, Copper Creek, Dawson Creek, Graham
Siding, Houston, 100 Mile House, 150 Mile House, Kamloops, Kitwanga, Lac la Hache,
Lone Butte, Merritt, Pavilion, and Williams Lake.
Staff
Appointments
Thomas James Batten promoted to permanent appointment as Brand Inspector—
Grade 1, October 1st, 1956.
Joseph L. Burr, Ashcroft, appointed a Deputy Brand Inspector, October 31st, 1956.
Alfred Lynden Kirkby, Dairy Farm Inspector, Nanaimo District, appointed Deputy
Brand Inspector, March 28th, 1956, with authority to check motor-vehicles carrying
stock.
Resignations
Ross Eden, Graham Siding, Deputy Brand Inspector, resigned, effective December
31st, 1956. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 49
Brand Commissioners
Appreciation is expressed to the Brand Commissioners for their assistance and cooperation during the year.
Lectures to Royal Canadian Mounted Police on " Stock-brands Act "
Lectures given by the Recorder of Animal Brands during the year were held at Hope,
Grand Forks, Nelson, Cranbrook, Penticton, Vernon, Kamloops, 100 Mile House, Williams Lake, Prince George, and Dawson Creek.
Subjects dealt with were three Provincial Statutes—the " Stock-brands Act," the
" Horned Cattle Purchases Act," and the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act."
These lectures were well attended by members of the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police, Brand Inspectors, and Deputy Brand Inspectors. Practical demonstrations of
brand inspection were carried out at the various places where live stock was available.
At Kamloops, Dr. L. P. Guichon, Brand Commissioner, and T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, from Merritt, assisted in a demonstration of brand inspection.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Co-operation
Appreciation is expressed to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for their cooperation throughout the Province in the enforcement of the " Stock-brands Act," the
" Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act," and the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act."
Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachments, Brand Inspectors, and Deputy Brand
Inspectors were visited throughout the Province, and matters pertaining to the enforcement of the above-mentioned Acts were discussed.
Brand-book
The 1956 brand-book, showing all brands in good standing, will be issued early in
1957. The annual supplement, No. 3, to the brand-book, showing all brands issued in
1955, was published and distributed to ranchers, police, Brand Inspectors, etc.
Brands
New Brand Applications.—Approximately 292 brands were issued this year.
Brand Renewals.—Nine hundred and forty-four renewal applications were sent out
from this office in 1956.
Brands Renewed.—A total of 982 brands were renewed in 1956.
Brands Transferred.—Eighty-three brands were transferred in 1956.
Brands Reissued.—Fifty-seven brands were reissued in 1956.
Licences Issued 1955 1956
Stock-dealers  137 122
Slaughter-house operators  80 74
Hide-dealers   73 71
Beef-pedlars  15 13
Horse-slaughterers  18 15
Horse-meat dealers (animal-food)   9 8
Horse-meat dealers (human consumption)  1 1
Permit to transport horses for working purposes___ 58 74
Permit to transport stallions for breeding purposes 1 1
4 dd 50 british columbia
Flood Check-point
The following figures shown are for the years 1955 and 1956, and show inspections
carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at Flood in the checking of all live
stock, hides, and dressed beef through this check-point:—
1955 1956
Number of cattle  6,090 8,483
Number of horses  901 1,305
Number of hides  3,512 3,986
Dressed beef (quarters)   22 276
Number of trucks checked  1,020 1,273
Prosecutions and Convictions under the " Stock-brands Act " during 1956
Section 31 (1) (removing the hide of a dead animal and not being the owner):
Vernon, 1.
Section 35 (1) (transporting stock without the required brand inspection certificate):   Vernon, 1; Windermere, 1; Penticton, 1; Coleman, Alta., 1.
Section 37 (carrier transporting stock without a certificate of inspection): Rock
Creek, 1.
Section 46 (b) (impressing stock with other than owner's registered brand): Buffalo Creek, 1.
Convictions under the Criminal Code of Canada re Cattle
Section 284 (1)  (fraudulently taking cattle):   Merritt, 1.
Section 280 (a) (theft of cattle):  Fernie, 1; Masset, 1; Alexis Creek, 1 (theft of
horse).
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner
It is estimated that milk production in 1956 will be 5 to 6 per cent less than the
768,851,000 pounds produced in 1955. Butter and cheese production is much lower,
about 55 and 18 per cent respectively. Ice-cream production is 8 per cent higher.
Manufacture of evaporated milk shows an increase and that of milk-powder a decrease.
VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCTION
In spite of slightly lower total milk production in 1956, gross returns to the farmer
will be much the same as in 1955, due partly to increased fluid sales resulting from
greater population. The farm value of milk in 1955 was $30,891,000, approximately 30
per cent of the total agricultural production. Dairy products at factories or milk plants
were valued at $40,321,000.
DAIRY PLANTS
Of the ninety-eight processing and manufacturing plants operating in the Province
during the year, thirteen produced butter, two produced Cheddar cheese, one manufactured blue-vein cheese, and thirty-five made ice-cream (only four being strictly ice-cream
plants); 294 counter freezers were reported in operation; two plants made powdered
milk; one made evaporated milk; and five dairies in isolated areas were granted permits
to make reconstituted milk. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 51
CREAMERIES
While thirteen creameries made butter, the two larger plants—the Fraser Valley
Milk Producers' Association at Sardis and the Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Cooperative Association at Salmon Arm—are the largest producers in that order. Less than
3,000,000 pounds of creamery butter was made in 1956, a decrease of more than 50
per cent compared with 1955. This is the lowest annual butter production for the last
thirty years with the exception of 1951, when production amounted to 2,666,000 pounds.
CHEESE-FACTORIES
Two Cheddar cheese factories have again been in operation during the year, and
produced less than 1,000,000 pounds of cheese, a decrease of 19 per cent from the previous year. K. E. Andersen and A. Jacobson, proprietors of the Egeskov Cheese Factory
at Creston, made several thousand pounds of blue-vein cheese. This has created a reasonably good market for surplus milk in that area, which, unfortunately, is only available
during flush seasons of the year. A farm cheese factory near Nanaimo makes a few
thousand pounds annually.
ICE-CREAM
The thirty-four plants making ice-cream produced, in round figures, 3,500,000
gallons, an increase of 8 per cent from 1955. Close to 300 ice-cream counter freezers
are in use.   British Columbia ranks third among the Provinces in ice-cream production.
IMPORTS AND PER CAPITA CONSUMPTION
Dairy products imported in 1955 were valued at $15,688,700. Butter imports
amounted to 18,524,700 pounds, valued at $11,047,000; cheese, 7,577,900 pounds,
valued at $2,964,300; evaporated milk, 154,439 cases, valued at $1,135,100; incidentals
(milk, cream, etc.), $542,300.
Creamery-butter consumption has dropped from 28 pounds per capita in 1948 to 19
pounds in 1955, and margarine consumption has increased over the same period from
zero to 13 pounds per person. The over-all consumption of butter has remained much
the same.   Cheese consumption is around 6.6 pounds per capita.
EXPORTS
Exports of dairy products range in value from $500,000 to $1,000,000 annually.
SHORT COURSE IN DAIRYING
The annual short course in dairying was held at the University of British Columbia,
October 29th to December 1st.
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
The following licences and certificates of proficiency were issued during 1956:
Creamery or dairy licences, 98; milk-testers' licences, 168; milk-graders' licences, 71;
cream-graders' licences, 32; certificates of proficiency, 6; making a total of 375, an
increase of 4 over the previous year.  For list of licensed dairy plants, see Appendix No. 1.
MILK BOARD
Formula pricing and equalization was introduced by The Milk Board in September
of this year. DD 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MARGARINE LICENCES
Four firms were issued licences to manufacture margarine and twenty licences were
issued to wholesalers. A very limited amount is exported.
Manufactured Imported
Year (Lb.) (Lb.)
1954  9,917,526    7,905,883
1955  9,210,099    7,902,144
1956  9,917,000    8,074,807
INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES
There are seven Dairy Inspectors, located at Victoria (two), Vancouver (two),
Kelowna, Nelson, and Prince George (one each).
Following are excerpts taken from the Inspectors' annual reports.
George Patchett, Senior Dairy Inspector, Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands:—
" Dairy-farmers had to meet the requirements of the new ' Milk Industry Act' and
to go through the first summer season producing milk to comply with the new standards
under the Act. With the exception of a very small number, milk-producers on Vancouver
Island have done their best to comply with the new standards and regulations. The large
majority have met these challenges successfully. Much of the time usually spent on
inspection of dairy processing plants and checking of tests by Inspectors of this Branch
has been involved in assisting dairy-farmers to correct conditions that adversely affected
milk quality. The dairy-farm grading system has resulted in a remarkable improvement
in the quality of milk. The number of completed tests failing to meet the standard reached
a low of 1.3 per cent in the month of November.
"One new pasteurizing plant has been established on Vancouver Island and one
farm pasteurizer closed down. A new small plant is proposed at Port Renfrew, where
milk will be pasteurized and cheese manufactured."
Peter Regehr, Dairy Inspector and laboratory technician, Victoria:—
"As a result of the new dairy-farm grading, milk quality on Vancouver Island has
greatly improved and is still improving. Continued vigilance will be necessary for some
time to ensure this positive direction is maintained. The majority of the producers I have
vsited have been keenly interested in the new programme and fully intend to co-operate.
" By and large, the area of Greater Victoria has been and is efficiently catered to by
the four milk-distributers within the city. Competition is sufficiently keen to keep the
plant operators on the alert. Considerable bulk milk has been bought at Vancouver for
distribution here."
K. G. Savage and Charles Rive, Dairy Inspectors, Lower Fraser Valley and West
Coast:—
"In so far as the dairy industry was concerned, the year 1956 was one of anticipation and transition. The ' Milk Industry Act,' passed in March, 1956, and the regulations
under the Act, approved in June, 1956, have not as yet been in force long enough to
completely assess their impact upon the industry. For a long period of time, industry has
been more or less marking time awaiting the introduction of new legislation. It is the
consensus of opinion that, despite certain contentious sections, the new Act will lay the
groundwork for a sound dairy industry.
"The milk-grading programme, as established by regulations in 1955, functioned
throughout 1956 with a very high degree of success. A close liaison was established
among the Live Stock Branch, The Milk Board, and this office relative to all phases of
milk production, quality-control, and licensing. In addition to increased record-keeping
concerning the milk quality of all milk-shippers in the Vancouver milkshed, a very great
amount of producer work was carried out by Inspectors from this office in an attempt
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 53
to assist those whose milk quality was not up to standard. This intensive field work
occupied a considerable amount of available time and was recently changed to visit those
who request assistance. Preliminary results would indicate the soundness of this new
approach."
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Okanagan and South Cariboo:—
"Although the closing months of 1956 have seen improved and more realistic conditions prevail in the dairy industry, the past year generally has been disappointing. In
the Okanagan an estimated decrease of approximately 5 per cent in total volume has
resulted from increased costs of production and unfavourable net returns. Although
fluid-milk consumption will show an increase of about 8 per cent over 1955, only a little
more than 50 per cent of total production was used for this purpose, bringing the blended
price as low as $3.40 per hundredweight. Only in the last three months of 1956 has the
blended price risen to a suitable figure to warrant a worth-while return to the dairy-
farmer. The blended price for the month of December should be about $4.80 per
hundredweight of 4 per cent milk, f.o.b. the plants. Both butter and cheese manufactured show decreases estimated at 12 and 18 per cent respectively for 1956, whilst icecream will show an estimated increase of 5 per cent. The decrease in total production has
not resulted in an equivalent decrease in cow population, as many of the herds sold have
remained in the valley. Culling of poor producing cows and the heavy incidence of
mastitis have taken their toll production-wise, and could account for the over-all decrease.
Crops in this area were generally good, and harvesting resulted in a plentiful supply of
winter feed, although due to winter-injury many pastures had to be reseeded.
"Another sour note in the dairy industry, not during 1956 only, is the continual
prominence given by press and radio to any increased prices in dairy products, particularly milk. Very little, if any, publicity was given price increases for such commodities
as bread, vegetables, fruit, etc. Such discrimination is harmful to the consumption of
dairy products and could be countered by suitable publicity showing the percentage
increase in prices of all staple food commodities since 1949."
N. H. Ingledew, Dairy Inspector, East and West Kootenays:—
"The year 1956 has been a difficult one for producers and distributers alike. The
long, dry summer, increased feed costs, shortage of farm labour, and the necessity of
complying with stricter milk regulations have had a tendency to reduce temporarily the
number of producers on the fluid market. Shortage of qualified help, increased manufacturing costs, and, in some cases, shortage of milk-supplies have increased the problems
of the distributer.
" Production of milk for the fluid trade in some areas has remained reasonably
constant, while in others it has dropped to almost nothing. Excluding the normal surplus period in the spring, production in the entire Kootenays has not met the demand
throughout the year. This shortage has resulted in a noticeable shuffle of producers
from one distributer to another in an effort to realize higher prices and improve quota
conditions.
" The importation of milk from Alberta continues to be a problem in the East
Kootenays. It is the opinion among local producers that this constitutes unfair competition in that they must bring their premises and milk quality up to the rigid requirements
of the British Columbia regulations while at the same time competing with milk from
Alberta, which is not produced under such exacting standards."
R. N. Hitchman, Dairy Inspector, Prince George:—
" This area suffers from a severe shortage of milk. All dairy plants, with the exception of the Riverside Dairy at McBride, experience a shortage in from ten to six months
of the year. In the district containing Prince Rupert, Kitimat, Terrace and Smithers,
there is a shortage of approximately 18,000 pounds per day, and with the population
increasing rapidly, there seems to be little chance of production catching up with consumption. DD 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The shortage in this area is met by reconstituting of milk and importing cartoned
milk from Vancouver. A severe drought in the Bulkley Valley this summer aggravated
the shortage.
" This district produces a high-quality milk which consistently stands up over three
hours with the Resazurin reduction test.
" The Dawson Creek and Fort St. John area have large population increases with
little increase in milk production. Odermatt's Dairy, of Fort St. John, found it necessary to start reconstituting milk, and the Northern Alberta Dairy Pool, of Dawson Creek,
imports milk from its plants in Alberta."
SUMMARY OF PLANT INSPECTIONS, TESTS MADE, AND
MEETINGS ATTENDED
Dairy-plant inspections      659
Farm visits  1,148
Butter-fat check tests  2,193
Resazurin, sediment, and temperature tests  3,331
Whiteside tests  1,365
Lactometer and Cryoscope tests      255
Reports and test-cards sent to milk and cream producers   1,000
Examinations for milk-testers' and milk-graders' licences        30
Meetings attended      203
As our population is increasing more rapidly than our milk production, the indications are there will be a continued demand for more milk and milk products. This condition should work to the advantage of the producer, providing the price he receives is
compatible with his costs.
APPRECIATION
Appreciation is tendered to those associated with the dairy industry who, by their
efforts and co-operation, have aided in the development of this great industry in the
Province, and especially to the members of this Branch who strive consistently and conscientiously in the furtherance of the industry from year to year.
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
In British Columbia, current receipts of commercial eggs reached 1955 levels in
early May. Total Canadian receipts lagged until the end of July. British Columbia
production approached the Provincial demand (approximately 12,000 cases weekly) in
November. Prices were firm from mid-January with a seasonal high reached in July,
which continued through until the end of October. (For monthly egg production and
producer price, see Appendices Nos. 16 and 17.)
Demand for poultry-meat was strong enough during the first ten months to maintain
price levels for a 17-per-cent increase in production over 1955. In October low-priced
offerings from the United States and surplus production in Eastern Canada caused prices
to break rapidly under the pressure of heavy domestic production. (For monthly poultry production and producer price, see Appendices Nos. 18 and 19.)
Surplus turkey production in the United States and estimates of a record Canadian
crop held prices at marginal levels throughout the year. The low returns in 1956, together with credit restrictions for 1957, may force a major reduction in British Columbia's turkey production levels in spite of the steadying influence of the United States DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 55
Department of Agriculture Surplus Commodity Programme.    (For monthly turkey production and producer price, see Appendices Nos. 18 and 19.)
FLOCK APPROVAL
As of January 1st, 1956, changes in the administration of the flock approval programme made possible a reduction of 25 per cent in fees charged for the approval and
pullorum testing of chickens, and a 50-per-cent reduction in charges for turkeys.
The Approval Policy was supervised by Inspector H. Gasperdone. Dr. J. C. Ban-
kier, animal pathologist, was the official in charge of pullorum testing. (See Appendices
Nos. 20, 21, 22, and 23 for details.) Regulations compatible with current practices
were passed by Order in Council No. 1918.
NEWCASTLE DISEASE
An outbreak of Newcastle disease of epidemic proportions caused heavy losses of
production and some mortality in the Abbotsford, Matsqui, and Sumas districts in March,
April, and May. A survey of some 350 farms was made by Inspectors Gasperdone,
Supeene, and Wilkinson to determine the severity of the outbreak, the vaccination
programmes being used on the various farms, and the degree of protection afforded by
vaccination. A similar survey was made by the Health of Animals Division, Canada
Department of Agriculture, on fifty-five farms. These surveys indicated lack of adequate
vaccination programmes on the farms visited. A publicity programme which utilized
radio, farm press, paid advertisements, and public meetings may in part be responsible for
the sharp rise in the amount of vaccine purchased by producers during the months of
October, November, and December. (See Appendix No. 24 for quantity of Newcastle
and infectious bronchitis vaccines used.)
FIRST BRITISH COLUMBIA SUMMER POULTRY CONFERENCE
With the co-operation of the Canada Department of Agriculture, the Departments
of Poultry Science and Extension, University of British Columbia, a three-day poultry
conference was held at the University of British Columbia from July 24th to 26th,
inclusive. One hundred and forty-two registrants attended lectures and discussion groups
in the Westbrook Building.
GENERAL
With the increasing specialization of poultry production, management factors are
assuming a new importance. A total of 1,993 visits, excluding those required under the
Flock Approval Policy, were made to poultry-producers throughout the Province during
1956 to advise on new construction, production programmes, management, disease-
control, vaccination programmes, and other related problems.
Poultry Commissioners' Conference
A conference of Poultry Commissioners and senior officials of the Poultry Production and Marketing Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, for the purpose of revising existing regulations was held in Ottawa from January 24th to 27th, inclusive.
Poultry Random Sample Test
Meetings have been held with chicken and turkey breeders to explore the desirability
of establishing a random sample testing-station for poultry in this Province. The testing-
station of the California Poultry Improvement Commission, Modesto, Calif., was visited
and studied. DD 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
British Columbia Poultry Disease Committee
The British Columbia Poultry Disease Committee, originally established to make
recommendations for the control of Newcastle disease in 1950, has continued to serve
the industry. Members of this Committee are as follows: Dean Blythe Eagles, University
of British Columbia (chairman); Professor Jacob Biely, University of British Columbia;
Dr. J. C. Bankier, British Columbia Department of Agriculture; Dr. R. J. Avery, Canada
Department of Agriculture; Dr. F. W. B. Smith, Canada Department of Agriculture; Dr.
A. Hicks, University of British Columbia; W. H. Pope, British Columbia Department of
Agriculture (secretary); J. C. MacKenzie, Poultry Industries Council; D. L. Browne,
Canada Department of Agriculture; and A. J. Darbey, Canada Department of Agriculture.
British Columbia Poultry Industries Council
The British Columbia Poultry Industries Council, since its inauguration in 1941,
has served the interests of the industry in many ways. During the years the recommendations of this voluntary organization have been welcomed by the Provincial and Federal
Departments of Agriculture.
" Eggs Marks Act "
An action was entered in the Supreme Court of British Columbia by F. W. Crickard
et al. to test the validity of the " Egg Marks Act." Arguments by F. H. Phippen, solicitor
for the plaintiff, and P. B. Paine, solicitor for the Attorney-General, were heard by Justice
Manson on November 8th, 1956. The decision was reserved and will not be available for
this report.
BIOLOGICAL ASSAY OF QUALITY IN CHICK STARTER AND
BROILER RATIONS
In co-operation with the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Professor
J. Biely and B. E. March, Department of Poultry Science, University of British Columbia,
completed a detailed two-year study of certain poultry feeds. The following summary is
from the complete report, which is on file:—
" Summary
" The quality of ninety-four samples of chick starting rations and of fifty samples
of broiler rations manufactured in British Columbia has been determined on the basis
of biological assay using chicks. The assays were conducted during 1954 and 1955.
A U.B.C. reference chick-starter and a reference broiler ration were formulated to serve
as a standard for each classification of feed. The nutritive value of each sample was
calculated according to the following formula:—
Average weight of chicks fed Ration X
Quality rating= X100
Average weight of chicks fed U.B.C. reference ration
" It was observed that:—
"(1) The chick starting rations tested were more variable in quality and gen-
had lower quality ratings than the broiler rations. On the basis of chick
weights at 6 weeks of age, 44 per cent of the broiler rations had quality
ratings 95 or over. Only 22 per cent of the chick starters were in this
category.
"(2) A comparison of the quality ratings obtained on the basis of chick
weights at 4 and 6 weeks respectively indicated that, in general, the
values obtained were very similar.
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 57
"(3) Data from those assays on quality of broiler rations in which both male
and female chicks were used showed that in some cases the sex of the
chicks used may influence the quality rating obtained. It is suggested
that the strain of chicks used in the assay affected the differences noted
between quality ratings determined with male and female chicks respectively.
"(4) Some variation was found in the quality rating of rations, depending on
the strain of chicks used in the assay. With the particular rations tested
on separate strains, however, the differences in quality rating were not
great enough to change the relative standing of the rations within the
test involved."
ADMINISTRATION OF REGULATIONS
With the exception of the " flock approval " portion of the Hatchery Regulations
under the " Poultry and Poultry Products Act," all regulations are administered by the
office of the District Poultry Inspector, Canada Department of Agriculture.
D. L. Browne, District Poultry Inspector, Canada Department of Agriculture, 496
West Fortieth Street, Vancouver, submits the following report:—
"(British Columbia) Poultry Products Division and Consolidated
Retail Inspection Unit, Staff Activities during 1956
Registration of egg-grading stations  64
Registration of poultry processing, grading, and evisceration stations and producer-graders  83
Registered  egg-grading  station  check  inspections  and
producer-vendors   506
Registered poultry-station  check  inspections  and  producer-vendors   368
Retail-store check inspections—egg and poultry  3,860
Egg inspections  76
Poultry inspections   77
Grade A 1 Producer checks  20
Frozen-egg inspections  63
Total pounds of egg broken  437,122
Samples drilled   538
Samples analysed  179
Registration of frozen-egg plants  4
Inspections of imported eggs and poultry—
Eggs  cases 9,613
Poultry  lb.  1,646,981
Miscellaneousx   706
1 Live poultry crate checks; Grade A 1 Applicant visits; check at all registered stations for renewal of registration;
producer-vendor visits, poultry clubs, fairs; detention and releases; and general Departmental work pertaining to marketing of poultry products.
" In addition to the activities shown above, there were, of course, innumerable not
reported visits made on the industry covering Departmental policies, markets, meetings,
supervision of operations, etc.
" During the year some seventy-four chicken-hatcheries and twenty-five turkey-
hatcheries (down somewhat from the previous year) were in operation. Several of the
seventy-four hatched poults and chicks, although the turkey-hatcheries listed were engaged solely in the hatching of turkey eggs. DD 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Twenty-two chicken-hatcheries operated almost continuously throughout the year,
although, of course, at a lower level during the winter months.
" During the year our fieldmen made 340 hatchery inspections for which reports
were received, in addition, of course, to a number of calls for various purposes for which
a complete report would not be submitted.
1956 1955
Chicks produced   8,946,801 7,221,764
Chicks hatched by breed—
S.C. White Leghorn  2,754,911 1,777,549
New Hampshire  2,266,608 2,529,241
Cross-bred  3,213,378 2,312,113
White Plymouth Rock  266,336 248,774
Light Sussex  153,834 136,356
Miscellaneous  291,734 217,731
Number of chicken eggs incubated  12,280,000 9,977,655
Hatchability (all eggs set)  72.9% 72%
Number of turkey eggs incubated  975,000        	
Hatchability of turkey eggs  56%         	
Imports from United States—
Chicken eggs  696,810
Chicks   108,269
Turkey eggs  148,600
Poults   100,943 "
CONCLUSION
The evolution of poultry production from a farm side-line to its present position in
British Columbia's agriculture has brought about a high degree of specialization. Extension personnel are being required to provide detailed information and service. It is
highly desirable that these men be provided with the opportunity of extending their training so that they may more adequately meet the demands made upon them.
The Poultry Branch has received considerable assistance and complete co-operation
from the officials of the Canada Department of Agriculture and the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of British Columbia, and I wish at this time to extend to all concerned my sincere appreciation of their efforts.
REPORT OF FIELD  CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
Total production of cereal-crops is higher this year. Wheat production is lower than
normal due to a reduced acreage in the Peace River. The severe winter of 1955-56 also
killed out much of the fall wheat in the Interior, and production of that crop was reduced
severely. Most of this acreage was replanted to spring-seeded coarse grains. The acreage
of oats increased in the Peace River and nearly doubled in the Fraser Valley, so that oat
production rose sharply. The acreage of flax more than doubled, to 27,000 acres in the
Peace River.   Grades of grain in the Peace River are generally lower due to wet weather DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 59
prevailing during harvest. Grain production in the Bulkley Valley was down sharply due
to continued dry weather, and many crops were harvested for silage and hay. Congested
storage-space in elevators in the two Wheat Board areas has again seriously curtailed
marketing.
Hay and Pasture
The winter of 1955-56, beginning in early November, caused serious damage to hay
and pasture fields throughout the Province, but particularly at the Coast. The cold winter
was followed by a long dry spell into June, which hindered any recovery of grasses. As a
consequence, hay and pasture production in the Fraser Valley was very low. Rains in
mid-June tended to improve conditions, but production of hay was very light. However,
many farmers ploughed out forage-fields and seeded to annual crops of oats and corn for
supplementary hay and silage, which produced above average crops. The acreage of oats
and corn for ensilage was doubled at the Coast. Elsewhere in the Province, forage-crops
came back and gave about normal yields of excellent-quality feed.
The Bulkley Valley was the other area seriously affected, as continued dry weather
failed to allow recovery of fields, and that area went into the winter with a very serious
hay shortage. There was about three and one-half times the normal import of hay to the
Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island this year, mainly from Eastern Washington, to
meet the local hay shortage.
Production of Registered and Certified Seed
The inspection and certification of cereal- and forage-crop seeds are carried out by
the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of Agriculture, under the regulations of
the " Seeds Act." The following table lists the number of acres and estimated production
of varieties inspected in British Columbia in 1956, the largest acreage being located in
the Peace River Block:— Estimated
Production
Variety Acres (Bu.)       ,
Barley—
Gateway  28.0 1,410
Husky  4.5 208
Olli  204.5 11,600
Vantage  7.5 353
Warrior  .5 25
Wolfe  22.0 1,250
Oats—
Abegweit  3 74.0 25,065
Ajax  12.0 600
Beaver  11.0 330
Eagle  287.0 29,290
Garry  2.0 300
Larain  11.0 400
Victory  239.5 13,698
Rodney  154.66 11,551
Wheat-
Kharkov  60.0 2,200
Redman  90.0 4,200
Saunders  90.0 3,775
Selkirk  455.0 19,200
Stewart  20.0 750
Thatcher  145.0 4,575 DD 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Estimated
Production
Variety Acres (Bu.)
Flax-
Redwing  205.0 2,480
Redwood  150.0 1,750
Marine  102.4 1,610
Alfalfa-
Grimm  114.0           	
Ladak  73.0           	
Rhizoma  636.0           	
Vernal  69.5           	
Brome-grass  10.0 1,000
Duraturf creeping red fescue  20.0 6,000
Creeping red fescue  1,251.0 223,600
Kentucky blue-grass (Merion)  67.0 4,800
Climax timothy  115.0 3,000
Meadow fescue  110.0 42,000
Forage-crop Seed
Unfavourable weather conditions drastically reduced the yields of alsike and timothy
in the North Central Interior.   Alfalfa-seed production in the Peace River is above the
1955 figure but well below average. Double-cut red clover production in the Fraser
Valley is well below average because many of the fields normally harvested for seed were
cut for hay. Grass-seed production in the Peace River increased this year, particularly
creeping red fescue and brome.   Prices of all forage-crop seeds have firmed this year.
The following table gives in summary the estimated forage-seed production for
1956 and 1955:—
Estimated
Production, Production,
1955 1956
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Alfalfa  67,000 88,000
Red clover (single)  366,000 313,000
Red clover (double)  163,000 70,000
Alsike clover  390,000 490,000
Sweet clover  600,000 360,000
Timothy  220,000 48,000
Timothy-alsike mixtures  100,000 50,000
Brome  50,000 120,000
Creeping red fescue  705,000 800,000
Reed canary-grass  1,000             	
Orchard-grass  1,350 750
Red-top  34,000 20,000
Spring vetch     8,500
Intermediate wheat-grass      4,050
Merion blue-grass  800 11,000
Russian wild rye      4,000
Meadow fescue      50,000
Sanf oin  100
Seed Improvement
Foundation-stock seeds produced by the Agronomy Department of the University
of British Columbia and distributed to growers through this Branch included: Victory DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 61
Variety Acreage
Netted Gem   1,471.11
Pontiac 	
Red Warba	
60.75
0.25
Sebago 	
Warba 	
Waseca 	
Wee MacGregor _
White Rose 	
2.50
91.95
1.00
0.50
203.70
Total 	
. 2,030.56
oats, 3,300 pounds; Vantage barley, 2,325 pounds; Storm rye, 2,150 pounds; Dawson's
Golden Chaff wheat, 200 pounds; Ridit wheat, 100 pounds.
Potatoes
Potato acreage was again reduced in 1956, 8,900 acres being planted. Yields were
generally good and total production is slightly above 1955. Growers received above
average returns for early potatoes, and prices remain about average for the main crop.
Acreage in seed-potatoes increased slightly in 1956. The following list of varieties
and inspected acreage is supplied through the Federal seed-potato inspection service:—
Variety Acreage
Bliss Triumph     0.50
Canus     2.95
Columbia Russet      3.95
Early Epicure  38.55
Early Rose     9.00
Gold Coin  33.60
Green Mountain  45.95
Irish Cobbler     1.50
Katahdin    17.00
Kennebec   42.30
Keswick     3.50
The main areas of production are also given, with acreage inspected in 1956 (1955
acreage in parentheses): Vancouver Island, 179 (114); Lower Mainland, 845 (713);
Pemberton, 215 (214); Okanagan, 241 (188); Cariboo, 116 (85); Central British
Columbia, 67 (26); Boundary District, 245 (478); East and West Kootenays, 119 (141).
Oceanside Test-plots
Seed-potato samples were assembled by this Branch, treated, and shipped to Ocean-
side. Sixty-seven samples of 200 seed-pieces each were sent in by thirty-five growers.
The samples were planted at Oceanside on November 23rd. Disease readings will be
taken in February, and results forwarded to growers and buyers before planting-time.
Field Peas
There was an increase in the dry field-pea production in the Okanagan and Creston
areas again this year.   There has been a firm demand for pea-seed on the English market.
Field Crop Union
This year thirty-eight tests were distributed through the B.C. Field Crop Union,
which included mainly pasture mixtures recommended for the various districts. A total
of 311 acres were seeded by the thirty-eight members. At the executive meeting this year
the name of the B.C. Field Crop Union was changed to B.C. Crop Improvement
Association.
Demonstrations and Trials
Demonstration and trial plots, using fertilizers, herbicides, and forages, were laid
down in co-operation with District Agriculturists in most areas of the Province.
The tillage trials and strip-cropping demonstrations were continued in co-operation
with the Agricultural Engineering Division.
Data obtained to date from the work are on file in the Field Crops office. Many of
these plots are continued over several years to assess results more accurately. DD 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Soil and Forage Analyses
The soil analyst reports as follows:—
"In 1956 a total of 2,336 soil samples were received for analysis and report.
Wherever possible, results were sent to the district officials with recommendations to pass
on to the farmer.
" On all samples, pH readings with Beckman pH meter and determinations for
readily available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium, by the Spurway quick
test method, were made. About one-third of the greenhouse samples were also tested
for total salts, and on about twenty-five samples organic matter was determined by the
loss on ignition method.
" The forage-testing programme was continued last year, and 250 samples of silage
and forty-five samples of hay collected from selected farms by the District Agriculturists
were analysed for per cent crude protein and moisture. In addition, twelve samples of
grasses from test-plots, representing various levels of fertilizer applications, were analysed
for crude protein and moisture."
Agricultural Lime
Tonnage of agricultural lime used for soil-amendment purposes was lower than last
year. In 1956, 21,849.82 tons were distributed under the Federal-Provincial Lime
Subsidy Policy.   In October the maximum subsidy was increased from $2 to $3 per ton.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and subvention paid:—
Table 1
Fiscal Year
Total Number
of Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total
Tonnage
Used
1951 52                       —	
1,827
2,243
1,590
1,450
1,130
$55,387.51
69,974.18
52,458.01
48,503.42
44,070.96
31,154.17
1952 53 ....	
38,917.55
1953 54                        	
28,239.24
24,702.45
22,712.92
1954-55                       	
1955 56                - - 	
Table 2
Fiscal Year
Ground
Limestone
Hydrated
Lime
Marl
Carbide
Residue
Gypsum
Oyster-shell
Total
Tonnage
1951-52	
Tons
6,125.40
8,595.22
8,837.63
4,717.85
2,842.39
Tons
131.17
117.42
52.50
72.25
70.30
Tons
22,051.05
27,926.15
18,584.02
18,300.86
17,753.23
Tons
2,637.0
2,020.5
732.0
1,125.0
1,798.5
Tons
150.55
190.25
115.50
408.50
184.50
Tons
59.0
68.0
3.5
78.0
64.0
31,154.17
38,917.55
28,325.15
24,702.45
22,712.92
1952-53  ..,.„
1953-54 	
1954-55 	
1955-56 	
Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board
One meeting of the Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board was held with the
trade to approve the mixes used for the year. The major decision this year was to drop
0-12-20 and 2-16-6 from the official list and 10-30-10 fertilizer mix was approved.
More information was collected this year on proposed new mixes, but such information
was limited and, therefore, no further changes were made.
Weed-control
During the past season three Weed Inspectors were appointed—two in the Peace
River and one in the Pemberton District. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 63
The Department of Highways continued the roadside spraying for weed and brush
control. However, this year pressure of other work prevented the highway-maintenance
crews from doing as much as necessary. Very excellent roadside spraying was completed
in the Peace River under supervision of our Weed Inspectors. Also, we arranged
through the Weed Inspector in Pemberton to have all roadsides sprayed in that district,
with excellent results.
The acceptance of the newer weed chemicals by farmers in controlling weeds in
resistant crops continues to expand, and this is particularly true in specialty vegetable-
crops, such as corn, canning-peas, beans, etc.
We have continued trial work with the newer weed-control chemicals this year, and
one or two of the newer chemical look rather promising, including Malaic Hydrazide,
under specific conditions.
GRAIN SCREENINGS
In the period January 1st to December 31st, fifteen permits for removal of screenings were issued. During the same period, fifty-two feeders' permits have been issued,
twenty-eight renewals, and twenty-three were new permit issues. One permit was cancelled. The use of screenings for devitalization remains fairly steady. (See Appendix
No. 26.)
Appendix No. 27 gives in summary the movement of screenings from British Columbia elevators for the period January 1st to December 31st.
PRIZE-WINNERS AT THE TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
Fewer growers entered exhibits at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair this year, but
these entries again won high awards.
F. Pincosy, of Salmon Arm, won the world championship with his entry of Netted
Gem seed-potatoes. Mr. Pincosy placed first in the Netted Gem class and seventh in
the Katahdin class. A. Needoba, also of Salmon Arm, placed second in the Netted Gem
seed class, sixth in the Katahdin class, and third in the A.O.V. class with an exhibit of
the Pontiac variety.
B. Young, of Koksilah, was reserve champion with a sample of Montcalm barley
and placed ninth with an exhibit of Eagle oats.
T. Nicholson, of Cecil Lake, took the reserve championship with his exhibit of
Climax timothy.
Other British Columbia exhibitors whose entries placed well up at the Toronto
Royal were Alan R. Thomson, Ladner; H. G. Hadland & Son, Baldonnel; and N. Han-
naford, Fort St. John.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
There were no changes in the number of Farmers' Institutes in the Province during
the year 1956, the total remaining at 185. However, seventeen of these are inactive and
thirty others have failed to file returns.
At the 1956 Session of the Legislature a new "Farmers' and Women's Institutes
Act " was passed, placing institutes entirely under this Act instead of being administered
under both the Institutes Act and " Societies Act" as has been done for a number of
years.
It is interesting to note that while receipts, expenditures, and liabilities of the 138
institutes reporting decreased considerably, assets increased by approximately $20,000,
and the purchase of commodities on behalf of members increased by $220,000, being
$1,273,055 for the year. DD 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
The ten district institutes all held annual meetings during the year, and the dates
and places were as follows:—
District Date Place
" A " September 29 Nanaimo.
" B " June 18 and 19 Telkwa.
" C " June 14 and 15 McBride.
" D " October 26 Kamloops.
" E " January 13 New Westminster.
" F " November 3 Nelson.
" G "  November 6 Deep Creek.
"H "  June 12 Bridge Lake.
" I " May 31 Cranbrook.
" J " June 21 Kilkerran.
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The Minister of Agriculture called a meeting of the Advisory Board for January
30th to February 3rd, inclusive, at which time 107 resolutions were considered, eighty
being endorsed, fourteen withdrawn, twelve lost, and one tabled.
On February 3rd the Board met with the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture
and presented eleven resolutions, as follows:—
(1) Increased appropriation for agriculture.
(2) Land settlement.
(3) Erosion.
(4) Cost of fertilizer.
(5) School taxes.
(6) Grazing.
(7) Noxious weeds.
(8) Rural electrification.
(9) Assessment on farm lands.
(10) Municipal Councils and Farmers' Institutes.
(11) Working out taxes.
The following is the report of the Chairman of the Select Standing Committee to
the Legislature: —
Legislative Committee Room, February 20th, 1956.
Mr. Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
Your Committee met the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes and heard the presentation
of a list of resolutions as submitted by it.    Careful consideration was given to these regulations
and:—
(1) Your Committee suggests that in future the Farmers' Institute make specific
requests for the additional services they feel are required in the Department of
Agriculture:
(2) Your Committee feels that there may be some merit in the request that the Department of Agriculture clear portions of undeveloped land to encourage purchase and
settlement but feels that this matter should be deferred for study by the Department
before specific action is taken on it:
(3) Your Committee recommends that the problem of river-bank erosion be placed
under the authority of the Department of Agriculture and that the Department
make available adequate engineering services to give direction in the work of river-
bank control and that continued pressure be brought to bear on the Federal Government for participation in this control work:
(4) Your Committee recommends that the Economics Branch of the Department of
Trade and Industry be asked to check on the cost of fertilizer in British Columbia DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 65
and determine if the retail price is unduly high in comparison to cost of manufacture:
(5) Your Committee recommends that the Government give full consideration to the
school tax formula as it affects farm lands and attempt to further alleviate tax
burdens on farm lands:
(6) Because of opposing thoughts in different branches of agriculture in the Province
with regard to the proper administration of grazing lands, your Committee recommends that this resolution be tabled:
(7) Due to the increasing menace of noxious weeds throughout the Province as a
whole, your Committee recommends the Department of Agriculture take immediate
steps to enforce all sections of the "Noxious Weeds Act":
(8) The British Columbia Power Commission, over the past few years, has greatly
expanded its services into many rural fringe areas and has brought untold benefits
to those residing on the farms; however, your Committee recommends that whenever possible section 107 of the "Electric Power Act" be implemented to bring
this modern benefit to a greater number of farmers in outlying areas so that the
younger generation will be encouraged to stay on the farms and that lower cost of
production can be realized to compete with highly mechanized industry to-day:
(9) Due to the steady encroachment of urban dwellings and industry into the better
farm lands of this Province, your Committee recommends that the Government
make a further study into the scale of values for assessment of farm lands on the
basis of productivity or rental value of the land rather than on the basis of real-
estate value with the view in mind that farm lands be preserved for farming
purposes:
(10) Since the question of disqualification of a member of a Municipal Council arising
from his membership in Farmers' Institutes and co-operatives will be fully dealt
with in the forthcoming new Municipal Act, your Committee recommends that
this resolution be tabled:
(11) Your Committee recommends that the matter of working out taxes be tabled and
that the Government give further study to possible easement of the regulations
where need arises.
Respectfully submitted.
L. H. Shantz, Chairman.
The Minister again called the Board to meet from November 19th to 21st, inclusive,
at which time they were given an outline of the work of the Department of Agriculture
and an opportunity to discuss with the Minister of Agriculture the agricultural needs of
their respective districts. They also considered forty-three resolutions, thirty-eight of
which were endorsed, two withdrawn, and three lost. Resolutions for presentation to the
Select Standing Committee on Agriculture at the next session deal with such subjects as
assessment of farm lands, milk prices, rural electrification, insurance for farm tractors,
surface rights, land-clearing, location of logging-roads, and prices to producers.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
One Class A exhibition, four Class B exhibitions, and sixty-four fall fairs were held
in the Province during the year 1956, being an increase of one Class B exhibition—
namely, Lower Fraser Valley Agricultural Association at Cloverdale—and a decrease of
five fall fairs. The fall fairs, exclusive of the Class A and B exhibitions, paid out prize-
money in excess of $50,000.
The places and dates of these exhibitions and fairs were as follows:—
Exhibitions
Chilliwack August 14 to 16.
Vancouver August 22 to September 3.
Duncan September 6 to 8.
Armstrong September 11 to 13.
Cloverdale September 13 to 15. DD 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fall Fairs
Vancouver Island
Victoria May 7 to 12.
Mayne Island August 22.
Coombs August 24 and 25.
Luxton August 25.
Courtenay August 30, 31, and September 1.
Saanichton September 1 and 3.
Cobble Hill September 5.
Alberni September 6 to 8.
Sooke September 8.
Nanaimo September 13 to 15.
Lasqueti September 15.
Ladysmith September 19 and 20.
Fraser Valley
Ladner. August 16th.
Haney August 16 to 18.
Gibsons August 16 to 18.
Port Coquitlam September 3.
Squamish September 3.
Abbotsford September 4 to 6.
Langley September 7 and 8.
Mission September 12 and 13.
Agassiz September 14.
North Burnaby September 14 and 15.
Hope September 15.
North Delta September 20 and 21.
Powell River September 20 to 22.
Aldergrove September 21.
South Burnaby September 21 and 22.
Vancouver September 28 and 29.
Okanagan-North Thompson
Penticton August 16 to 18.
Peachland August 31.
Louis Creek September 3.
Sicamous September 3.
Merritt  September 3.
Cawston  September 6.
Westbank September 7.
Lillooet September 13 and 14.
Grand Forks September 14.
Salmon Arm September 20 and 21.
Rock Creek September 26.
Westwold September 3.
East Kelowna October 27.
Chase September 3. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 67
East and West Kootenays
Invermere August 24 and 25.
Arrow Park August 25.
Fruitvale September 3.
Edgewood September 3.
Crawford Bay September 5.
Rossland September 6 to 8.
Castlegar September 7 and 8.
Nelson September 13 to 15.
Creston September 21 and 22.
Central British Columbia and Peace River
Sunset Prairie August 15.
North Pine August 15.
Dawson Creek August 16 to 18.
Fort Fraser August 25.
Smithers August 25.
McBride August 28 and 29.
Williams Lake August 30 and 31.
Prince George ...August 31 and September 1.
Burns Lake August 31 and September 1.
Bridge Lake September 1.
Bella Coola September 3.
Quesnel September 7 and 8.
Watch Lake September 8.
POUND DISTRICTS
During the year 1956 twelve pound districts were constituted in unorganized areas
of the Province, namely: Sicamous, March 27th; Glenora, April 6th; Madeira Park,
April 6th; Bella Coola, July 25th; Ashton Creek, August 20th; North Malaspina, September 10th; Green Gables, September 10th; The Bench, October 19th; Northfield,
November 27th; McConnell Creek, December 13th; 100 Mile House, December 13th;
and Denman Island, December 31st. The boundaries of five pound districts—Pemberton,
Rose Prairie, South Taylor, Cecil Lake, and Maxey Road—were extended, and pound-
keepers for eleven pound districts were appointed.
GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL AREAS
Advances were made to the following Grasshopper-control Committees: Clinton,
$1,000; Nicola, $20,000; Oliver-Osoyoos, $1,000; Princeton, $1,000; South Riske
Creek, $2,000; Thompson Valleys, $4,000; and Westbank, $150—a total of $29,150.
However, owing to light infestations again this year, $20,942 has been refunded, leaving
$8,207.56 to be collected.
MISCELLANEOUS
The regulations governing the sale of drugs and poisonous substances used exclusively in agriculture were amended to prohibit the sale of strychnine and articles containing more than 2 per cent of strychnine or its salts.
Fence-viewers were appointed in the Cariboo and Lillooet Electoral Districts. DD 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent
The Women's Institutes have shown a healthy growth during the year, and four
new institutes have been added, to make our total 241. These are Aberdeen in the
Hopeline District of the South Fraser, South Hazelton in the Bulkley-Tweedsmuir, Upper
Clearwater in the North Thompson, and Fort St. James in the Central Interior. On the
other hand, Burns Lake has never functioned very successfully and has been struck off
the rolls.
Annual reports received from 231 Women's Institutes for the year 1955 show that
their total membership was 5,321, their receipts $146,963.73, and their expenditures
$104,795.59.   Grant cheques of $10 were sent to each of these institutes.
PROVINCIAL CONVENTION
The Provincial convention held at the University of British Columbia, May 29th to
31st, was the biggest convention ever held, with 197 delegates registered and many
visitors who came from institutes all over the Province. Special guests were Mrs. A. M.
Berry, of Australia, president of the Associated Countrywomen of the World, and Mrs.
W. A. C. Bennett, wife of British Columbia's Premier. The Honourable Lyle Wicks,
Minister of Labour, represented the Government at the official complimentary banquet
given in honour of special guests, officers, and delegates. The programme was planned
around the work of the standing committees and featured a panel on citizenship, with
new Canadians from different countries giving their impressions. Talks by Mrs. Berry
on the Associated Countrywomen of the World and her visits to different societies, and
also on agriculture in her native Australia, and by Willard Ireland, Provincial Archivist,
on the preparation of village histories were of great interest.
Officers elected were: President—Mrs. E. J. Roylance, Greenwood; vice-president
—Mrs. J. O. Decker, Pemberton; directors—Mrs. R. Partington, Francois Lake; Mrs.
R. C. Palmer, R.R. 4, Kelowna; and Mrs. J. Frolek, Knutsford.
Following the convention a meeting of the new board was held, and Mrs. R. Doe
was reappointed secretary.
Conveners were appointed as follows: Agriculture—Mrs. Lyle Braden, Dawson
Creek; Citizenship—Mrs. M. Broughton, R.R. 1, Quesnel; Cultural Activities—Mrs.
Stanford Borthwick, Barriere, Chinook Cove; Home Economics—Mrs. Clyde B. White,
R.R. 1, Nelson; Publicity—Mrs. Hazel M. Woodward, R.R. 1, Brentwood Bay; Social
Welfare—Mrs. F. Mulligan, Langley Prairie; United Nations and International Exchange
Programmes—Mrs. J. Bowen-Colthurst, Penticton.
Plans were made for delegates to attend the first National convention of the Federated
Women's Institutes of Canada at Ottawa, October 28th to 31st, 1957. With the money
on hand from the per capita tax of $ 1 per member, one delegate could be financed from
each district along with the Provincial officers who are not already members of the
Federated. Each district is to be asked to nominate one delegate with her fare paid
from the central fund and her expenses met by her district.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
The Women's Institute exhibit was once again under the supervision of Mrs. A. A.
Shaw and had 261 entries from forty-one institutes. Penticton won the challenge cup
with 22 entries and 39 points, Summerland came second with 20 entries and 30 points,
Point Grey third with 10 entries and 21 points, Cobble Hill fourth with 8 entries and
16 points, and Lake Hill fifth with 12 entries and 14 points. Thirty-one institutes in all
won prizes. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 69
The display booth was most attractive with a new backdrop, and this was a busy
place during the whole time of the Pacific National Exhibition. Demonstrations of quilting, weaving, rug-making, ceramics, copperwork, pillow lace, and painting for pleasure
were carried on by different members, and there was a constant group of interested
observers.
DISTRICT MEETINGS
Successful district meetings were held in all sixteen of the districts, and these were
well attended and full of interest. Resolutions were concerned with local problems, such
as roads and education, homes for the aged and welfare. These meetings, noteworthy
in that large numbers of the membership as well as the delegates attended and took part
in the day's programme, were held as follows:—
March 27th—Hopeline at Atchelitz.
March 28th—Douglas at Ladner.
March 29th—North Fraser at Haney.
April 10th—North Vancouver Island at Courtenay.
May 3rd—North Thompson at Clearwater.
May 5th—North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Vernon.
May 8th—South Okanagan and Similkameen at Okanagan Falls.
May 9th—Kettle River at Rock Creek.
May 10th—West Kootenay at Fruitvale.
May 12th—Arrow Lakes at Arrow Park.
May 15th—East Kootenay at Cranbrook.
June 12th—Cariboo at Bridge Lake.
June 14*h and 15th—Central Interior at McBride.
June 18th—Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Topley.
June 21st—Peace River at Fort St. John.
September 20th—South Vancouver Island at Cobble Hill.
ASSOCIATED COUNTRYWOMEN OF THE WORLD
Your Superintendent was entrusted with the responsibility of arranging the Canadian
tour of delegates attending the Associated Countrywomen of the World meeting at
Ceylon scheduled for December. Arrangements were made for thirty-five Canadians
to attend, including four from British Columbia, Mrs. A. A. Shaw, Mrs. J. H. Blackey,
Mrs. C. C. Collier, and your Superintendent. Unfortunately world conditions were such
that this meeting was postponed indefinitely one week before the British Columbia delegates were to start on their way. The date for the meeting is being considered and in
all probability will be held in 1957.
INDIVIDUAL MEETINGS
Individual meetings were attended at Okanagan Centre for their fortieth anniversary,
Langford for their first meeting after reorganization (the meeting held in their newly
renovated hall), Cowichan, Point Grey, South Saanich, Brentwood, Craigflower, and
Pender Island.
SPECIAL MEETINGS
Meetings of the Home Arts Committee of the Pacific National Exhibition were
attended, also the opening of the Home Management House at the University of British
Columbia, meetings of the Farm Forum Council, and the Farm Forum Workshop in
October. The largest attendance of any group at this workshop was from the Women's
Institutes of the Fraser Valley, and Nicomen Island Women's Institute organized the
first farm forum to follow this meeting.   Meetings of the Recreation Committee for the DD 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Centennial have been attended and also the Fifth Adult Education Conference at Vancouver, which had for its subject " Vocational and Technical Education."
BORDER PICNICS
Four border picnics have been held this year, with women from various parts of
the Province meeting with women across the border for an exchange of ideas and to get
better acquainted. These were held at Sullivan Lake with Kootenay women attending,
at Oroville with the Okanagan women present, at Blaine where the Fraser Valley women
and those from Whatcom and other adjoining counties met, and at Victoria with women
from Clallam County as guests. These border picnics are growing in popularity and
have proved of value and interest.
CENTENNIAL COOK-BOOK
To celebrate the British Columbia Centennial in 1958, plans have been made for
a Women's Institute Centennial Cook-book. This plan has the support of the Centennial
Committee and is to be representative of the whole Province, with each of the sixteen
districts being responsible for a section of the cook-book. It is planned to have the first
edition ready for distribution at the Provincial convention the last week of May in 1958.
INTEGRATION OF THE INDIANS
Following a meeting called by the Honourable Lyle Wicks regarding the integration
of Indians into the community life, the institutes were asked for their opinion, and the
following suggestions were received from different institutes:—
(1) Make the integration of Indians into the community our Citizenship
project for 1957.
(2) Establish a contact with Homemakers' Clubs by inviting them to Women's
Institute meetings and also visiting their meetings. Where there are no
Homemakers' Clubs and a strong Indian population, try to interest the
Indian women in joining the Women's Institutes with full rights and
responsibilities.
(3) Establish a point of contact in encouraging Indian handicrafts among our
Women's Institute members to develop a pride on the part of the Indian
women in their heritage and also assist in the preservation of this outstanding part of our history.
(4) Honour the Indians on Citizenship Days by giving them a part in the
programme.
NEWS LETTER AND HANDBOOK
The Handbook is in such constant demand that a new edition will have to be printed
early in the new year. Five hundred News Letters have been sent out each month, except
for July and August. These were sent to each secretary, Provincial and District Board
members, Provincial conveners, District Agriculturists, and to those who have especially
requested that their names be put on the mailing-list.
SUPPORT FOR THE WOMEN'S INSTITUTE PROGRAMME
While co-operation has been forthcoming by all members of the Department, the
District Agriculturists especially go out of their way to help the Women's Institute programme and for all this support our warm thanks and appreciation is extended.
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 71
REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Four surveys were undertaken during the 1956 field season. The main field work
consisted of progress with a reconnaissance soil survey of the Kettle River and tributary
valleys. A broad reconnaissance was made of the Columbia River basin from Revelstoke
to the 49th parallel. Detailed surveys of the Municipality of Pitt Meadows and the
Naramata Irrigation District were completed.
One technical officer was steadily engaged at extension work in the Okanagan Valley,
his activities consisting of land drainage and farm soil problems. Galley and page proofs
were corrected for the report " Soil Survey of the Upper Kootenay and Elk River Valleys,"
which is in process of publication by the Canada Department of Agriculture. Another
report, " Soil Survey of the Upper Columbia River Valley," will be available for editing
and publication by April, 1957. A start was made on the chemical examination of
classified soils.
During the year an effort was made to fill three vacancies on the staff of this Branch.
The year ended with one position filled on a tentative basis. At the present time there
is difficulty in finding new staff with suitable academic and other qualifications.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE KETTLE RIVER VALLEY
The reconnaissance soil survey of the Kettle River and tributary valleys was
continued in 1956, about 55,000 acres being classified. Mapping in the section west of
Boundary Creek was completed in August, and in September work began in the Grand
Forks locality. Th's was continued until the middle of October. Delay of completion
is due to the small size of the field party. An additional three months in 1957 will be
required to classify the whole area.
The primary purpose of the survey is soil classification to estimate the total irrigation-
water requirement of potentially arable lands in the Kettle River watershed. This
information is required as part of the Columbia River basin investigation. The secondary
purpose is to publish a soil-survey report giving an inventory of agricultural land resources
in the area.
During the year a sequence of soil groups not previously correlated elsewhere was
identified in the more humid valleys. This is a pedological transition from Grey Wooded
soils to Brown Podzolic-Grey Wooded soils and finally to Brown Podzolic soils. The
sequence is found in the order of increasing rainfall. In certain Brown Podzolic soils an
indurated pan, possibly a fragiopan, was observed.
Consulting geologists in 1956 were Dr. J. E. Armstrong, Geological Survey of
Canada, and H. Nasmith, Department of Mines. They were able to correlate the soil-
forming deposits and outline the main events of glacial history in this area. Preliminary
field work was undertaken by A. McLean, Kamloops Range Experiment Station, who
will describe the native vegetation for the soil-survey report.
A noteworthy feature of the whole region is the occurrence of a volcanic-ash layer
from 1 to 3 inches thick, which lies at and near the surface. In places this layer has been
disturbed by rodents and uprooting trees. In peat-bogs the ash occurs from 3 to 8
inches beneath the surface. It is evidently a deposit of the prevailing south-west wind
at a time more or less recent and yet to be determined.
The agriculture of the area consists chiefly of ranching. Hay and alfalfa are grown
where irrigation is available. Grain and some alfalfa are produced by dry farming.
There are a few dairy-farms, and some specialized crops are grown in the vicinity of
Grand Forks.
- DD 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
RECONNAISSANCE IN THE WEST KOOTENAY DISTRICT
A broad reconnaissance survey was undertaken in the Columbia River valley and
tributary valleys to the south of Revelstoke. The purpose was to estimate the amount
of potentially arable land and land cleared and cultivated that would benefit from irrigation, and the amount of water it would use. This information was requested by the
Comptroller of Water Rights for use by the International Columbia Basin Engineering
Board.
In this region the land suitable for agriculture is confined to a number of separate
sections of different size. In the northern part two main areas lie between Revelstoke
and Arrowhead and between Nakusp and Edgewood. In the south there is one important
area between Robson and Waneta. Smaller parcels occur at Beaton, Galena Bay, Deer
Park, in the Slocan Valley, in the Kootenay River valley between Nelson and Castlegar,
and in the Crescent and Norns Creek valleys. The amount of potentially arable land in
the whole region was estimated at 147,630 acres. With an average duty of water of
18 acre-inches per acre, the total irrigation-water requirement would amount to 221,445
acre-feet.
The irrigation requirement is based on the needs of sandy soils in a summer dry
climate. The average rainfall, May to September, inclusive, ranges from 11.38 inches at
Revelstoke to 6.11 inches at Deer Park, with dry years showing extreme moisture
deficiency in periods up to thirty days or more. Under these conditions irrigated soils
may require from 3 to 7 inches of water per month, depending on the month, temperature,
rainfall, and soil type.
In this area the duty of water for irrigated soils is less than in the warmer, more arid
southern valleys. In the northern part of the district, where land is most abundant, the
mean annual temperature is 44° to 45° F. Higher annual means, from 46° to 48° F.,
and comparable to those of the Okanagan Valley, apply to limited areas between Nelson
and Waneta.
The native vegetation on potentially arable lands in the northern part of the Arrow
Lakes district and in the Slocan Valley is composed chiefly of cedar-hemlock forest of
considerable density. This thins out to the southward and becomes intermingled with
larch and Douglas fir. Burned areas have a variable density of deciduous growth with
conifers coming in. All growth is scanty in the valley depression down-stream from
Castlegar.
The soil parent materials consist mainly of fine to medium terrace sands derived
from igneous rocks, stony fans, gravelly terraces, and silts and clays of glacial origin.
The soils that developed on these materials are Podzols at the higher elevations and
chiefly Brown Podzolic soils of sandy loam texture on the valley terraces. The limited
areas of silt and clay soils have Grey Wooded and Podzol-Grey Wooded characters.
Farming in the area to the north of Castlegar received its main stimulation in the
early part of the century, when an attempt was made to develop tree-fruits. Extensive
acreages of heavy forest were cleared and planted to fruit-trees between Edgewood and
Nakusp, and between Arrowhead and Revelstoke. This agriculture declined slowly since
the First World War. A substantial number of farms are now abandoned, and many
others, while occupied, are not farmed or farmed on a casual basis. Exceptions to these
general conditions are small areas of active farming near Arrowhead and in the valley of
Inonoaklin Creek in the vicinity of Needles. The reasons for failure consist chiefly of
adverse economic conditions and lack of irrigation. The potentially arable soils of the
region can be made productive if they are farmed according to their requirements.
SOIL SURVEY OF PITT MEADOWS MUNICIPALITY
This survey, covering about 12,000 acres, was undertaken at the request of the
Assessment Commissioner, Department of Finance.    It was of an experimental nature DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 73
designed to rate the productivity of different soil types for use in the equalization of rural
land assessment. A soil map and report, and a productivity index for each soil type, will
be supplied to the Assessment Commissioner.
Most of the lowland soils in the area are derived from flood-plains of the Fraser
River. The textures vary from silt loam to silty clay overlying a stratum of very fine sand.
The soils have gleisolic features impressed upon them by a high water-table. Intermingled
with the Fraser River deposits are very fine sands laid down by the Alouette River.
In addition to delta deposits of recent origin, there are about 800 acres of higher
land in the vicinity of Pitt Meadows Village. This section of upland is a remnant of an
older delta of the Fraser, and the soils thereon developed under well-drained conditions.
Two soil types in this area and two others in the upland along the mountain-slope in the
north-east corner of the municipality are regarded as Shotty Brown Podzolic soils.
Several large bogs of the " hochmoor " type were also encountered. The raised centres
of these bogs are too acid to permit decay, and the undecayed peat supports a peat
industry.   Other areas of bog are used for blueberry production.
A series of twelve mounds were located in the north-east corner of the municipal
district, between the north and south arms of the Alouette River. They range in area
from about 3 acres to a few hundred square feet. The mounds rise only a few feet above
the delta sediments, and they differ in composition from the surrounding soils. They are
composed of a dark-coloured horizon about 40 inches thick, containing charcoal and
broken stones. While no bones or shells were found, it is believed that the mounds are
native camp-sites, possibly of greater age than those along the coast. The mounds were
assigned to the Neptune series, a group of soils derived from Indian middens, and they
were referred to the proper authorities for archaeological study.
Farm holdings in the lowland area are often less than 40 acres, and generally
rendered inefficient by poor drainage. The high water-table limits soil fertility, kills the
better grasses, reduces the effectiveness of fertilizer and lime applications, and generally
gives the area a marginal rating for agriculture. At higher elevations the soils are better
drained, and irrigation would be of benefit during the dry summer months.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE NARAMATA IRRIGATION DISTRICT
A detailed soil survey of the Naramata Irrigation District was undertaken in October.
Of 2,834 acres classified, 1,279 acres are irrigated or suitable for irrigation. The soil
survey formed part of a general investigation in connection with redesign of the irrigation
system by the Water Rights Branch. The area classified includes lands not presently
irrigated, but which may serve to enlarge the system if sufficient storage-water can be
made available.
In November a meeting of the Reclamation Committee was held at Penticton, the
purpose being to contribute information that would have a bearing on the design of the
new irrigation-works. The water requirements of the different soil types were determined,
and the meeting considered the use of irrigation-water for domestic purposes.
The increase of population in the Okanagan Valley has also increased the amount
of coliform organisms that contaminate the stream and storage water. This situation
would appear to have reached a stage where it will require more attention in future than
it has received in the past. Arrangements were made for closer co-operation with the
Public Health Department in connection with future alterations of irrigation-works.
Brief 33 of the Reclamation Committee, giving the proceedings of the meeting, was
completed and distributed in December. A soil map of the area was supplied to the
Water Rights Branch.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Farm soil conditions causing loss of production are often due to erosion, depletion
of organic matter, excessive irrigation and seepage.   Such problems are studied as they DD 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
are brought to attention by farmers. Farm soil samples received during the year amounted
to 305, of which 30 per cent contained an excess of black alkali and 10 per cent had
white alkali in concentrations too great for normal growth. Incoming water samples
numbered fifteen, of which 20 per cent were too alkaline for irrigation purposes. Tests
for alkali are encouraged to avoid loss of capital investment in this region.
Seepage from excess irrigation-water makes advisory assistance on land drainage
a useful service. During the year eighty farm visits were made in connection with under-
drainage. Investigations were completed and plans prepared for 4,322 feet of underground drains, all of which were installed. A further ten plans for 14,835 feet of
drainage-works were completed and awaiting favourable weather for construction by the
end of the year. Preliminary work was done on six additional schemes. In addition to
farmers, two School Boards received technical advice about drainage of buildings and
grounds.
Miscellaneous duties included advisory assistance in regard to irrigation problems,
participation in lectures at a "Veterans' Land Act" refresher course, and lectures to
agricultural classes in high schools. Amendments to the " Soil Conservation Act," the
" Dykes Maintenance Act," and the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act, 1947," were
prepared, and applications for assistance under the " Soil Conservation Act " were studied
and reported. Advisory assistance was also given to the City of Kelowna in regard to
park-land reclamation.
REPORT OF SOIL-SURVEY ACTIVITIES, CANADA
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
The following is a report received from L. Farstad, Senior Pedologist, Experimental
Farms Service:—
"During the past year, soil-survey activities were confined chiefly to the following
projects: (1) Inventory and evaluation of British Columbia soil resources; (2) soil
survey of the Prince George, Giscome, McBride, and Tete Jaune sections of the Rocky
Mountain Trench; (3) checking of active projects; (4) laboratory analyses; and
(5) soil map of Canada.
"Resources Conference
" Information was prepared for the Ninth British Columbia Natural Resources
Conference in co-operation with the Provincial Soil Survey Branch and the Soil Science
Department, University of British Columbia. A map was designed for the Atlas of
Resources, showing the distribution of the major kinds of soils. To supplement the
Atlas information, a report was published in the Ninth Proceedings.
" The soils shown on the Atlas map are defined in terms of great soil groups and
complexes of great soil groups. The kinds of soil profiles expressed include Brown,
Dark Brown, Black, Degrading Black, Non-calcareous Dark Brown, Brown Wooded,
Brown-Podzolic-Grey Wooded, Podzol-Grey Wooded, Concretionary Reddish Brown,
Podzol, Alluvial, and Organic soils.
"The Atlas map shows (1) dominant soil groups or group combinations, (2) type
of terrain, and (3) the nature of the soil parent materials. Unclassified rough terrain
was grouped as Rough Mountainous land, and symbols were used in reference to other
land types.
" The report presented at the Ninth Conference was called ' The Soil Resources of
British Columbia—Progress Report, 1956.' This paper outlined the role of soil as a
basic resource. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 75
" Soil Survey of the Prince George, Giscome, McBride, and
Tete Jaune Portions of the Rocky Mountain Trench
" The surveyed area is located in the east central part of the Province. It extends
from Red Pass Junction to Giscome in the Fraser River valley section of the Rocky
Mountain Trench. The survey includes 30 miles of the Canoe River valley to the south
of Valemont, the valleys of Camp Creek, Albreda, and North Thompson rivers from
Valemont to Blue River, and the McGregor River valley, 70 miles up-stream from its
junction with the Fraser. All valleys tributary to the Fraser River were investigated, the
total area mapped being about 620,000 acres.
" The soils were mapped on a reconnaissance basis, with definition of catena boundaries. The more common parent materials consist of glacio-lacustrine clays and clay
loams, and coarser sands and sandy loams of glacio-fluvial and more recent alluvial
origin.   On smaller areas the soils are derived from glacial till.
" In the higher, better drainage positions, the main groups are Grey Wooded soils
on the heavier-textured materials and Podzols on materials of lighter texture. Peaty
Gleizolic soils were mapped on poorly drained glacio-lacustrine clays, and the newer
alluvium, showing little or no weathering, supports Regosolic soils.
" The published ' Soil Survey of the Prince George Area' describes the Grey Wooded
Pineview Clay and Bednesti Silt Loam. These and an associated peaty glei type named
Aleza Clay occur in an extension of the Prince George glacial lake basin, in the northern
section of the mapped area. Agriculturally, these soils may have the same potential as
they have in the Prince George area, but the topography and heavy forest-cover would
make development for farming difficult at the present time. The precipitation in this
section is said to be greater than at Prince George.
" The Grey Wooded McBride Clay and Peaty Gleizolic Dore Clay are derived from
a small glacio-lacustrine clay deposit in the McBride area. These soil types have the
best possibilities for agricultural development in the classified area.
" The Podzols are located in the northern portion of the soil map. These soils offer
few agricultural possibilities under present conditions, owing to sandy parent material
and rough topography. In this category, two complexes, named Fraser and Longworth
soils, occupy low terraces of the Fraser River and its tributaries. These terraces are
severely eroded, leaving very limited acreages topographically suited to agriculture.
"An extensive area of duned sand occurs in the Valemont locality, with minor duning
still active.    The possibilities for agriculture in this section are limited.
"A Regosolic type, derived from recent alluvium, was mapped as the McGregor
series. It occupies a small portion of the mapped area, the most extensive acreage being
at the junction of the McGregor and Fraser Rivers. While this type has agricultural
possibilities, the heavy forest-cover and flooding at the time of the annual freshet will
delay any development.
"Checking of Active Projects
"The National Soil Survey Conference held at Saskatoon in November, 1955,
devoted time to revision of committee reports dealing with certain technical aspects of
soil-survey work. As a result of decisions made at this conference, considerable time was
spent during the summer in checking surveyed areas for which reports have not been
published. Particular attention was given to areas of solonetz, solodized solonetz, solodic,
and solonetz-like soils in the Peace River Block.
"In addition, a month was devoted to correlation work with soil-survey officials
from Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. In this connection the technicalities agreed
upon will be of assistance in promoting a uniformity of procedure across Canada. DD 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Chemical and Physical Analysis of Soils
" Chemical anaysis of samples from selected soil profiles is undertaken in the winter
months to increase the accuracy of soil descriptions and for better interpretation and
evaluation of soil series. Following recommendations of the National Soil Survey Committee, this office has initiated studies on chemical and physical procedures that are
unsatisfactory.
"SOIL MAP OF CANADA
" In July work was started on the gathering of data for the proposed soil map of
Canada, which will appear in a proposed Canadian atlas. The scale of this map will be
1:10,000,000. It is hoped that the British Columbia section will be completed in another
two or three years."
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
AND EXTENSION BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ag., Director
The year 1956, from an agricultural standpoint, proved variable. Many districts
had suffered from the severe frost damage of November, 1955, adversely affecting yields
of crops such as winter wheat, small fruits, tree-fruits, pastures, and hay lands.
Weather in March and April indicated a poor hay-crop, but improved moisture conditions in May and June followed by high temperatures broueht average yields to many
areas in the Province.   Continued dry weather affected crops in the Bulkley Valley.
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Extension activities have been linked to planned programmes by a number of District
Agriculturists. These are designed to examine production and marketing problems in
every district, the phases of each requiring special examination and, in close association
with locally organized farmer groups and subject-matter specialists, preparing plans and
outlining methods which appear practical to correct unsatisfactory conditions adversely
affecting local agricultural stability.
Planned programmes are intended to bring together the various groups in a community who can, individually or collectively, assist in determining causes of unsatisfactory
farm income and in formulating general and specific plans to correct them.
Efficient management is key-noted, stressing that the greatest stability and highest
net returns are likely to result from an enterprise developed to make the best use of soil,
climate, and available markets. There is further emphasis that competent management
of the home and a family pride in the entire farm operation are essential to full success.
The District Agriculturist takes the initiative in these programmes, and integrated
with his efforts at the technical level are the services of the subject-matter specialists who
can contribute best in achieving objectives.
Short courses were held during the year on dairying, poultry, live stock, farm management, income tax, farm accounting, etc.
Special mention should be made of the regional meetings held during the year, which
were attended by representatives of the feed, fertilizer, and agricultural supply firms.
These are most valuable in conveying the recommendations of the Federal and Provincial
Departments to sales and field staffs of the trade. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 77
The 4-H Club programme continues to expand and is a valuable asset for extension.
Temporary officials were employed during the year in the Fraser Valley and Cariboo
areas to assist the District Agriculturists in this work.
This report includes excerpts from the reports of each District Agriculturist.
The activities of the Extension Agricultural Engineering Division and the 4-H Club
Division are outlined.
Land-clearing operations continue to expand and were undertaken this year for the
first time in the Fraser Valley.
CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, NORTH CARIBOO,
AND PEACE RIVER
(S. G. Preston, PAg., Supervising Agriculturist)
The 1956 growing season was characterized by excellent weather in the early spring,
a very dry.May, and a very cold June, but exceptionally favourable growing conditions
in July and August. Near-drought conditions caused concern in all areas by the end
of May, but good rains late in that month and early in June relieved the situation generally,
though in the Nechako Valley pasture hay and other crop yields, particularly in the
Bulkley Valley, were seriously reduced as a result of prolonged dry weather.
Harvesting and haying weather was excellent in Central British Columbia, but
unfavourable, particularly for cereals, in the Peace, where, however, warm drying weather
in November allowed farmers to complete threshing, though grades were lowered
seriously.
Cultivated- and native-hay lands and pastures suffered varying extents of winter-kill
in many areas as a result of the very severe frosts of the previous winter and reduced
further yields of hay and pasture, already adversely affected by shortage of early spring
moisture and adverse growing conditions in June. However, no acute shortage of hay
occurred except in the western section of Central British Columbia.
Crop Production
Cereals
Cereal yields in the Peace were fair to good but suffered in grade through poor
threshing weather.
Much of the cereal-crop in the Bulkley and Nechako was cut for hay.
Cereal production in the Prince George and North Cariboo was fair. Threshing
weather was excellent. Most of the grain will be used at home, with possibly two or
three cars of barley being shipped out.
Forage-crops
More hay and silage were put up than ever before to meet the demands of increased
dairy and beef herds.   This has meant a temporary reduction in forage-seed production.
Recommendations on hay and pasture mixtures have been simplified and, as far as
possible, are in line with varieties grown for seed.
The Field Crops Branch programme of publicizing recommended hay and pasture
mixtures will greatly aid in bringing this information to the farmers.
Over forty cars of hay was shipped to the Bulkley Valley from Prince George and
Vanderhoof.
Horticulture
The Bulkley Valley and Terrace have produced a considerable proportion of the
potato and staple vegetable requirements for Prince Rupert and Kitimat, with Houston
contributing as well.   The dry season reduced yields, and consequently it was not possible
I DD 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
to share as extensively hoped in available markets. One farmer in the Bulkley Valley
using irrigation obtained outstanding yields of potatoes and turnips.
A few farmers in the Prince George district have catered successfully to the wholesale trade in competition with imported potatoes, turnips, cabbage, and some other
vegetables in season. Too many farmers, however, are unwilling to make the effort to
meet consumer standards. This was borne out during the visit from the Federal Fruit
and Vegetable Inspector in November.
As Peace River vegetables are marketed locally, value of production is difficult to
estimate.   Mr. Johnson reports potato acreage down but yields up over 1955.
The only field inspected potatoes are grown in the Bulkley Valley and North Cariboo.
Acreage and production of seed-potatoes for 1956 is estimated as follows:—
Acres Tons
North Cariboo
Bulkley Valley
118.0
37.3
1,060
200
Mr. Jameson has not included figures this year for fruit production in the Terrace
district. This business has gradually been replaced by vegetables, which are more readily
marketed and certainly more dependable for production.
Live-stock Production
Beef Production
This phase of agriculture reached a low ebb. Depressed prices for beef and increased
feed and labour costs put this industry in a position that all concerned must take a good
look at such matters as beef quality, economy of gains, labour efficiency, optimum herd
size, reduction of calf losses, market demands, range management, finishing, etc. The
romance of cowboys and trail drives will have to give way to sound management, good
farming practices, and catering to consumer demands.
A price of 13 to 14 cents per pound for a steer does not meet the costs involved
in wintering and pasturing that animal as well as 1.43 cows for a year.
Dairying
Dairying showed a healthy increase in all areas except the Bulkley Valley. Even
there, despite poor pasture and hay shortage, they were able to come close to 1956
production, but could not take care of new markets.
The following table shows 1956 production and current prices:—
District
Production
Price to
Producer
Retail Price
per Quart
Bulkley Valley and Terrace...
Vanderhoof— _ _
Prince George and McBride..
Quesnel—  	
Dawson Creek ._	
Fort St. John      ..
Lb.
3,013,000
861,577
3,541,084
1,699,811
3,240,000
1,022,000
$5.00'
3.601
5.00
5.00
4.90
4.80
$0.25
.27-
.29s
.25
.25
.25
.18E
.22
n $5.80 at January 1st, 1957.
2 Smithers.
3 Prince Rupert.
4 Price paid to producers; balance applied toward plant indebtedness.
5 19 cents at January 2nd, 1957.
All areas were close to meeting the whole-milk requirements with a minimum of
seasonal surplus or the necessity of bringing in milk. The Bulkley Valley had worked
up an agreement to supply milk to Kitimat at $4.06 f.o.b. Smithers.   This would have DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 79
been a considerably better price for surplus milk than was being paid for butter-fat.
However, the very dry season made it impossible to keep up even minimum commitments
to Kitimat.
Producer and retail prices in the Bulkley and retail prices at Prince Rupert were
raised in the new year to take care of increased cost of production and handling. This
brings the retail price at Smithers to 27 cents; Terrace, 27 cents; and Prince Rupert,
29 cents.
The retail price of milk at Dawson Creek was increased from 18 to 19 cents per
quart in the new year. This is probably the lowest price for milk in British Columbia.
No increase over $4.90 per hundredweight had been made to the farmer.
Negotiations are under way between Prince George milk-producers and Northern
Dairies for over-all increases. It is expected this will result in an increase of 40 to 60
cents per hundredweight to farmers and possibly an increase of 3 cents per quart in the
retail price.
Milk production for Prince George-McBride is allocated as follows:—
Prince George— Lb.
Northern Dairies  3,110,584
Rose's Ice Cream      248,000
McBride—Retail trade       182,500
Total  3,541,084
The Vanderhoof district, with a small local market for milk, is experiencing difficulty in disposing of production at a profit. Markets exist at both Burns Lake and
Prince George, but it has been difficult to make satisfactory arrangements for distribution of the milk at these points.
Production and sales of milk at Fort St. John have now passed the critical minimum
volume, and the business should henceforth be on a sound basis. Local milk production
passed the million-pound mark during the past season.
The Quesnel district continues to make butter along with whole-milk production.
Surplus going into butter is getting less, and considerable butter has to be imported to
maintain plant sales. The writer feels that the butter-making could well be discontinued,
with ice-cream and cottage-cheese manufacture and a " drink more milk " programme
taking care of any surplus.
The McBride district had what appeared to be a very satisfactory local milk business.
The operation covered retail milk sales in McBride and Jasper; however, management
problems resulted in loss of trade in both places, and this business is not too satisfactory
at the present time.
Swine
Hog production continues to contribute the largest proportion of the live-stock
income in the Peace River and fits particularly well into its economy. Hogs, however,
have almost passed out of the picture in Central British Columbia due to recent low pork
prices and increased labour costs. A few are still raised in the Vanderhoof and Quesnel
Districts.
Peace River hog production is estimated as follows:— Hogs
Rail shipments   16,786
Truck shipments      4,959
Local slaughter-houses  10,000
Total  31,745 DD 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
It is estimated that 60 per cent of these originated north of the Peace River and
40 per cent south. Possibly 4,000 of the locally slaughtered hogs are on a custom basis
and go back to the farm (not included in above table).
Grades of hogs out of the Peace showed 2.2 per cent increase in A's. This is
gratifying after several years of the reverse in quality.
Sheep
While sheep production is very small in the Peace and Central British Columbia,
it is estimated some 600 lambs were marketed this year from the Prince George-McBride
district, and about 300 each from the Peace, Nechako, Lake District, and North Cariboo.
There is certainly room for more farm flocks throughout Central British Columbia
and the Peace, especially where new land is being developed. However, fencing, predators, and lack of knowledge of sheep hold up any further production.
Poultry
Poultry production in all areas continues a satisfactory and a steadily increasing
enterprise. Gross income to the producers from poultry is difficult to ascertain, as are
figures showing baby-chick imports. Conservative estimates indicate that returns to the
poultrymen range from $50,000 to $150,000 per year for the different districts.
Ten years ago, with a local consumption of eggs half the present requirements, the
farmers in the Peace River and Prince George district produced approximately 5 per
cent of the local needs. To-day approximately one-third of the eggs are produced
locally. This increase indicates, more strongly than anything else, the soundness of
poultry-raising for Central British Columbia and the Peace.
A small but remunerative broiler business operates in the Prince George district,
while a few turkeys are raised in the Bulkley Valley, Quesnel district, and Peace. Those
producing in those areas have started on a smaller scale than some of the previous
operators, and their experience was less costly to acquire. There would appear to be
room for expansion of the turkey business in these areas and Vanderhoof.
Smithers District
(K. R. Jameson, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this area featured a programme to maintain the dairy industry, which was threatened by a shortage of feed owing to winter-injury and drought.
A great deal of time was spent assisting farmers with problems involved with maintaining
their herds and with marketing.
Nechako Valley and Lakes District
(J. A. Pelter, P.Ag.)
Features of the extension programme in this area were the projects outlined by the
Planning Committee, which included feasibility of meat inspection, community grazing,
pasture competitions, marketing of eggs and poultry, grassland farming, and sprinkler
irrigation for Vanderhoof area. Details of the sprinkler project are included in the
Agricultural Engineering report.
Prince George District
(A. E. Donald, P.Ag.)
This area had the most comprehensive land-clearing programme since its inception.
Over 1,000 acres were cleared, 846 broken, and several dugouts and dams constructed.
Emphasis was also placed on live-stock and forage-crop production.
J ... .       ■     .
department of agriculture, 1956 dd 81
North Peace River
(R. W. Brown, P.Ag.)
The extension programme in this area included a large volume of land-clearing
(2,000 acres), the placing of pure-bred boars and rams, the development of improved
live-stock production programmes and forage-crop acreage.
South Peace River
(A. M. Johnson, P.Ag.)
Extension efforts stressed land-clearing and dugout construction (twenty-four dugouts constructed), programme to expand live-stock and poultry production, and to
improve quality through use of registered sires.
North Cariboo District
(A. R. Tarves, P.Ag.)
The extension programme in North Cariboo included a project for improving the
quality of milk produced, dairy-herd management, grassland production, and better
methods for beef production.
A fairly heavy volume of land-clearing is done annually in this area and increased
acreages are brought under cultivation.
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND LOWER FRASER VALLEY REGION
(J. S. Allin, Supervising Agriculturist)
Extension activities of the six District Agriculturists operating in this region were
influenced by the severe weather conditions of the winter of 1955-56. The results of
the low temperatures affected all phases of agricultural work during the year.
The majority of farm and office calls, recommendations, meetings, and surveys were
concerned with estimating (a) damage to forage-crops, (b) forage production versus feed
requirements, and (c) optimum recommendations for reseeding and management of
forage-crops. It was of the utmost importance to produce as much forage as possible
in an attempt to provide adequate winter feed. This situation applied most particularly
to the dairy-farmer of the Lower Fraser Valley and, to a smaller degree, on Vancouver
Island.
Several District Agriculturists initiated and conducted surveys of agricultural production in each respective district to determine factors such as live-stock population,
crop acreage, etc. The data so compiled had a twofold purpose—(1) to assist in estimating forage production and feed requirements and (2) to become better informed regarding the basic facts of agricultural production in the district as a prerequisite to planning
agricultural programmes based on the needs of the producer and facts of the situation.
It is of particular interest to refer to some of the agricultural production problems
which farmers acting on the Planning Committees consider of major importance. The
Ladner District Agricultural Planning Committee listed the following in order of
importance:—
(1) District drainage.
(2) Individual farm drainage.
(3) Aids in reducing costs of milk production.
(4) Labour efficiency on the dairy-farm.
(5) Soil fertility re forage-crop production. DD 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The problems arrived at by the Pitt Meadows Agricultural Planning Committee
were arranged in the following order:—
(1) District drainage.
(2) Lime requirements.
(3) Forage-crop varieties.
(4) Weed-control.
(5) Forage-harvesting methods and machinery.
(6) Supplemental cash crops for dairy-farms.
(7) Dairy- and beef-cattle housing.
Although the time interval has been short and the procedure new, the extent of
progress to date can be illustrated by referring to the problems of the Ladner district.
The Agricultural Planning Committee met one year after the idea was first introduced
in order to evaluate progress and redefine further plans of action, as follows:—
(1) On the district drainage and irrigation problem, costs of surveys have been
estimated and joint action is being considered with the Municipal Council
Irrigation and Drainage Committee.
(2) Individual farm drainage: The Agricultural Planning Committee is proceeding to locate a farmer who will co-operate by having his farm used
as a demonstration of how adequate drainage can be achieved, the costs
involved, and the results obtained.
(3) Dairying: The Dairy Herd Improvement Association has been requested
to provide some figures from available records on the returns to the farmer
from the sale of milk over feed costs dependent upon different levels of
feeding.
(4) Labour efficiency: Meetings have been arranged for presentation of
principles involved in barn arrangements, time-motion studies, reorganization of procedure, etc., using films, slides, and panel discussions.
(5) The problem of soil fertility on forage-crops has been handled by the
committee arranging for field-size demonstrations to determine fertility
values.
It becomes apparent, therefore, that through an organized effort such as this, of
approaching the farmers' problems, all of the resources of the Department must be
co-ordinated and integrated. Only in this manner can we expect to achieve optimum
results which the farmers concerned can appreciate.
We have made continued progress with the organization of Agricultural Programme
Development Committees (Programme Planning). By means of this effective extension
method the farmer and extension worker jointly assess the needs of the producer and
arrive at a plan of action designed to assist in solving the problems. Of major importance
to the farmer of to-day are problems of economics and management. Efforts to investigate
such problems have been small in proportion to the extent and complexity of the problems
when compared to the testing programme of varieties, fertility, etc.
The presentation of "An Inventory of Agriculture in B.C.," made to the Ninth
British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, was repeated eleven times during the
year to urban as well as rural groups at meetings in the Okanagan, Lower Fraser Valley,
and on Vancouver Island.
In trying to bring closer together the work of the research station and the problem
of the farmer, all the District Agriculturists from Vancouver Island and Lower Fraser
Valley met for one day with the staff of the Agassiz Experimental Farm. By means of
this informal discussion we were able to become better acquainted with the research
programme of the station and at the same time advise the experimental staff of problems
of production of major importance to producers. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 83
Vancouver Island (Courtenay Office)
(S. B. Peterson, P.Ag.)
The production and utilization of grass received prime attention. The extension
programme on forage encouraged proper seed mixes, fertilizers, and soil preparation.
Increasing attention was given to the improvement of returns to the farmer and will
continue to emphasize management practices.
Vancouver Island (Duncan Office)
(J. D. Hazlette, P.Ag.)
A programme was initiated this year in attempting to reduce the time spent on
individual units by working through organized groups. To overcome the greatest
deficiency of a lack of basic data, the major project for the year has been to gather
statistics and other detailed information regarding the extent and classification of agriculture. It is hoped that this programme can be completed quickly so that farmers'
problems can be studied through groups using these basic facts.
Cloverdale Office
(G. A. Muirhead)
The result of the serious winter-killing of crops affected all phases of the agricultural
extension programme for the year. Because of the apparent disastrous condition, more
definite information was needed in relation to the forage-livestock situation. A survey
procedure was prepared, and with the valuable assistance of farmer contacts a more
complete evaluation of the livestock-feed picture was obtained. With further improvements, the survey should provide more complete data on which to base a more effective
extension programme.
Mission Office
(P. E. Ewert)
Time spent on forage-crop production exceeded that given to all other subjects.
In so far as farm visits were concerned, the emphasis on Forage and Grassland Club
work was followed by work with 4-H Clubs, weeds, farm buildings.
Greatly increased use has been made of radio and local press as a means of
disseminating information.
An Agricultural Programme Development Committee was formed covering the Pitt
Meadows district.
Abbotsford Office
(J. V. Zacharias)
In view of the fact that Mr. Zacharias was transferred from Prince George to
Abbotsford, effective June 1st, much time was spent in becoming familiar with the district
and in assessing the problems. Forage-crops, land-clearing, and 4-H Clubs were the
most important fields of activity.
Chilliwack Office
(George Cruickshank)
The major extension work for the year was associated with the winter-killing which
occurred. From April to July numerous farm calls were made and office visits received
concerning the handling and management of hay and pasture fields, feed requirements,
and general prospects of the dairy-farmer. Much of the normal extension work associated
with 4-H Club and Grassland Club activities was upset. r
DD 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LIVE-STOCK PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
(By G. A. Luyat, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
G. A. Luyat, who had been Supervising Agriculturist for South Cariboo, Kamloops,
Shuswap, North Okanagan, Kootenay, and Boundary Districts for several years, devoted
his time to live-stock production and marketing, with particular reference to beef, sheep,
and swine.   His report is as follows:—
Trends in Cattle Production in British Columbia
There is a general trend in cattle production in the Interior to convert to a cow and
calf basis of operation, and the trend is manifested to a greater degree in the Cariboo
plateau region. The markets of to-day, in demanding " red " and " blue " brand beef,
place the Cariboo cattle especially in a very unfavourable position pricewise, unless they
have been on a short feed period or on very good grass. The latter is rapidly being
depleted to the point that in order to market a 2-year-old steer at the higher prices it has
become necessary to spend $25 to $35 in supplementary feeds. This has not been
economically sound, and without the supplement such steers are classed as feeders commanding a very low value because a 2-year-old steer under present markets is termed
risky to the feed-lot operator. The fall sales have clearly pointed out that since a 400-
pound weaner calf sells for the same price or better than the 2-year-old steer, there is an
economic loss sustained in keeping the latter over two years just for a gain in weight.
On the other hand, a cow and calf operation will sell more pounds of meat per animal
unit without substantially increasing its summer grass and winter hay requirements. The
fall sales in the Cariboo have shown a considerable increase in calf offerings, pointing
out that ranchers are recognizing the economic advantages of conversion to such an
operation. The natural forages of the Cariboo, even though overgrazed, would be
considered as still satisfactory for cows and calves but not for finishing 2-year-old steers
on the present very exacting market. In order that this cow and calf operation make
satisfactory returns to the producer, it will be necessary to provide and build up outlets
for feeder calves.   The essentials required will be as follows:—
(a) A finishing area not too distant from the calf-producing ranges.
(b) A direct and short haul back to Vancouver.
(c) The finishing area should be well supplied with a cheap source of growing
and fattening feeds, grains, summer grass and hay.
Peace River Project
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway extension to Fort St. John and Dawson Creek
will have its effects on the cattle industry of the Cariboo and will indirectly affect the
remainder of the Interior, perhaps by relieving the pressure of the grass cattle market.
Unless subsidies from the Federal Freight Assistance Policy should be made to apply to
Peace River feed-grains for consumption in the Cariboo, it would seem, in the light of
some cost accounting done by M. J. Walsh, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, and
the writer, that young cattle can be advantageously shipped and finished in the Peace
River area. In discussion with A. M. Johnson, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, on
the effects of the entry of the railway into the Peace River on the grain and finishing of
cattle, it was his suggestion that perhaps young cattle might be shipped to the Peace in
the spring, grown on grass, and followed by a dry-lot finish in the late summer and fall.
The suggestion seemed to have merit in view of the fact that it is generally cheaper to
move cattle to the grain than vice versa. However, this case presented a somewhat
different pattern in that the cattle, by going farther from the ultimate consumer market,
would be charged with two additional freight tariffs. To buy yearlings in the spring is
not an easy accomplishment without paying extra for the wintering, which would be more DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 85
than the costs of wintering the same calf in the Peace River. Besides, more freight would
accrue on an older calf. There are three well-organized annual sales held—two at
Williams Lake and one at Quesnel, where an ever-increasing number of calves are offered.
A policy of shipping calves north in the fall would build up a tremendous calf market
with satisfactory returns to both the producer and the feeder, assuming that a wide
differential remains between the price of the feeder steer in the fall and the finished steer
at the same date a year later.
Some summer grazing possibilities are offered in the Peace River in many localities,
and most certainly there exists in the late fall for newly purchased calves the gleaning
of grain-fields and creeping red fescue seed stands. Improved summer pastures developed
with alfalfa, creeping red fescue, and brome are within the realm of possibility. Silage
can be made from alfalfa-brome mixtures and used as a part of the first winter ration.
Thus all the necessary ingredients for the development of a calf are in the Peace River
area. Perhaps, however, the watering problem might prove critical on some farms in
the dead of winter, but, no doubt, engineering techniques are offering a solution. The
writer feels that the finishing of yearling steers and heifers could become a major enterprise both as a commercial venture and a farm operation.
A comparison is given on a hypothetical case of a yearling steer fed to a finish at
Alexis Creek versus Fort St. John, and a further comparison is included on the basis of
a 2-year-old steer. A commercial feed-lot operation at Williams Lake on the railway
does not seem to be the answer for the Cariboo cattle on a long feed period because of
feed costs. The estimated daily cost at the Cariboo Cattlemen's Association yards for
cattle fed this winter has been 60 cents per day per head.
Summary and Conclusions
Thus the cost study shows that only young cattle can be advantageously shipped
to the Peace River area from the Cariboo for finishing by virtue of the fact that they put
on more gain, but, of course, with longer feeding, and yet finish out within the range of
desirable weights. The 2-year-old, on the other hand, because of the danger of overweight, and hence a cut in his market price, can be only put on a short feed. Thus it
is clearly shown that it would not be economically feasible to have him travel to the
Peace for finishing. In fact, the analysis shows that he does not hold a too favourable
position in the general economy of beef-ranching in the Cariboo under present conditions. Buyers of calves always display some shyness toward heifer calves, but at present
approximately the same differential between purchase and selling price exists here as
with steer calves. The latter, however, prove more flexible and a better deal for finishing
generally.
Irrigated Pastures in the Fraser and Thompson River Basins
A study of costs and the economic returns from beef production on irrigated pastures
is being made by the Riverland Irrigated Farms Limited, a subsidiary of the B.C. Electric.
They have developed water from the Fraser River, lifting it 350 feet to what was formerly
parched sagebrush land maintaining a few native bunch-grass plants. This area was
considered for development for half a century at least as ideal for fruits, tomatoes, and
other ground crops, but this company deviated completely from the old line of thought
to one of intensive live-stock production. One hundred and sixty acres were developed,
fertilized, seeded, and water applied by July 4th, and henceforth produced two cuttings
for silage. They intend to fully develop 400 acres in all here. The first trial lot of 50
calves was purchased in the late fall in readiness for the pasture season of 1957. Further
developments are projected by the same company in the vicinity of Walhachin on the
Thompson River during 1957. DD 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The extension of this intensive type of grazing along the benches of the two rivers
will demand cheap electric power to lift water economically to the generally high terraces. The project may develop rather slowly, being governed by further development
of power and power-sites to serve industry. In the meantime the feasibility of such pastures shall undergo the test of economics and, if successful, could provide a further outlet
for range calves from the Cariboo ranges.
There is already a trend established to move feeder cattle from the ranges to the
areas capable of growing cheaper fattening feeds. In the late fall the Chilco Ranch,
Hanceville, sent one large shipment of 700 to 800 2-year-old light steers to Nanton, Alta.,
to be finished there, with the feeder taking the gain as his payment for labour and feed-
supplies. The Douglas Lake Cattle Company is about to ship twenty cars of calves to
Medicine Hat for finishing for the market in September, 1957. A few this last fall have
attempted to do some finishing of cattle with refuse screenings where permitted under the
regulations. This type of feed does provide a cheaper source of nutrients but is not too
satisfactory for the last fifty days. The prices per ton delivered at Kamloops and laid
down in the feed-yard ranged from $16 to slightly over $20. The feed-yard established
at Williams Lake has not proven too satisfactory on account of high grain prices and
age of steers fed. They have found out that older steers requiring more than fifty to
sixty days were a losing proposition.
Performance Testing of Beef Cattle
A meeting of representatives of the three breed associations and the Beef Bull
Research Committee was called together in Vancouver on February 15th by the Deputy
Minister to meet with A. W. Peterson, Chief, Livestock and Poultry Division, and J. D.
Baird, Production Service, of Ottawa, to discuss proposals for a national beef performance
testing programme. Following the outline of the proposals, the Deputy Minister
announced that several commercial herds had already signified their intention to undertake performance testing within their own respective herds. The pure-bred breeders, on
the other hand, were rather lukewarm to the situation with unfounded fears that it should
upset type within the breeds. After the procedure and technique of testing were further
explained, three breeders—two Hereford and one Angus—announced that they wished
to go on test in 1956. This group, it was decided, would form the nucleus for a small
beginning on a programme of testing beef cattle in this Province and one which would not
be too unwieldy prior to getting fully set up with equipment, records, and experience.
It was the policy in the last year not to solicit further entries but more to explain the
programme to as many breeders and commercial men as possible.
Under the chairmanship of A. W. Peterson, Production Service, Ottawa, a meeting
was called on May 17th and 18th in Regina to organize a committee comprised of J. D.
Baird, Production Service, as secretary; Dr. S. S. Munro, Production Service, as geneticist
to committee; and a representative from each of the five Provinces of Ontario, Manitoba,
Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. At this meeting all the details of procedure to set up a national programme were studied and agreed upon. The forms and
records were duly printed by Ottawa and sent to the writer with binders for distribution
to the District Agriculturists in whose territory breeders had registered for the programme.
A few complications arose. The first was that a set of scales ordered by the Department in early October for use in the programme did not arrive until late December, the
delay caused by the distributer having to forward them direct from the manufacturer in
Illinois. The second was that the 180-day weaning age for calves as agreed by the
national committee did not conform with the practices in British Columbia, a 210-day
weaning being preferable. Also, unlike the Prairies, where most of the calves are born
in a group in the spring, here in British Columbia they are born throughout the year,
making it very difficult to get enough in a sixty-day age-group of one sex for the purposes DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 87
of a true basis of comparison. This will have to be adjusted for this Province. The third
problem was that of a suitable method of identification of cows in commercial herds.
It is the opinion of the writer that it will take a period of observation on the part of the
older-established ranches before they give the programme their blessing. On the other
hand, there are many smaller concerns operating close to the line under less favourable
conditions which have a very urgent need for such a programme as an efficient tool for
selection of good performing cattle. Interest is being shown by a few in practically
every community in the Interior, including the Peace River. During the year of 1956
three pure-bred breeders registered and completed their test up to weaning age. These
were L. Wood, Armstrong, Herefords; J. G. Lyster & Son, Armstrong, Herefords; and
O. Wells, Sardis, Angus. Several commercial men had made an entry but, because of
the lack of scales, only one completed his first weighing. W. T. J. Bulman, of Kelowna,
completed the test up to weaning for 300 commercial cows.
Sheep
It was not possible to come up with any practical programme for the sheep industry
in that the range operations are seriously handicapped by the lack of herders and packers
with any experience for grazing at the high levels. The sheep numbers in the range bands
are barely maintaining themselves, and perhaps there has been a slight decline in the
population this fall when a few smaller bands were dispersed. The farm flocks are showing a small increase but are not showing the progress they should because the would-be
operators of small flocks find it more profitable to work out, mainly in the lumber
industry. The fruitmen who could run small flocks in conjunction with their orchards to
augment their income do not seem to be able to surmount damage done to orchards by
the sheep. They do not appear to have the inclination to cope with the idiosyncrasies
and habits of sheep, and generally do not make good sheepmen. One fruit-orchard, the
Western Farms Limited in Penticton, is doing a real job with about 40 ewes, where the
operator faces and solves the problems as they arise. Considerable assistance was given
to sheepmen selling out their small bands or flocks in placing these. The bloat problem
is handicapping the irrigated pasture programme with sheep. The Prosser Irrigated
Station in Washington is making some progress toward eliminationg bloat by pasturing
alfalfa in a more mature state.   More research is required on this work.
A series of four meetings were held in June in the Peace River with the stockmen
and representatives of the Department of Agriculture, the Grazing Division of the Forest
Service, and the Lands Department to study the grazing problems made acute by the
increasing rate of settlement. The meetings held were at Fort St. John, Upper Cache
Creek, Groundbirch, and Arras. The meetings were called to revise the blocks of land
set aside formerly as reserves for grazing use by the settlers and to have the blocks come
under the " Grazing Act " for better enforcement of grazing regulations. In the Cache
Creek area a block of arable land was placed under reserve for grazing in 1952, but
since then the settlers progressing to a position of necessary expansion have been hindered
because of the reserve. It was therefore recommended that this area be thrown open for
settlement and a new block to the north opened for grazing but not reserved against
settlement so as to give further opportunity to expand in the future. They asked for this
area to be administered under the " Grazing Act" with grazing permits so as to not
alienate it against settlement. The agricultural representatives deemed this kind of
tenure as risky to the future operations of the stockmen, even though the association
might have some say in the granting of applications of land for purchase.
Visits to natural grazing areas and reseeded locations were made with R. Brown and
A. Johnson, District Agriculturists at Fort St. John and Dawson Creek. One area
reseeded in 1951 with alsike and creeping red fescue on a burn was quite impressive and
certainly demonstrated what could be done in many such areas of the Peace. DD 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Research
At the Canada Range Experiment Station in Kamloops, several live-stock projects
of interest were undertaken, as follows:—
(1) One experiment to find out the maintenance values of four rations, each
calculated out with the same nutrients on the basis of 13 pounds of hay,
gave the following results on 2-year-old steers in pounds gain over
winter: Silage and grain, 16.6 pounds; silage and hay, 13 pounds;
silage, 11.2 pounds; and hay, 38.7 pounds.
(2) Thirty-two of these steers went on irrigated pasture for eighty-seven days
and graded 6, "A"; 18, "B"; and 8, "C."
(3) Eighteen cows were used on a repeated pine-needles test. The group
consuming up to 20 pounds of needles per day had its first abortion
twenty days after the commencement of the test. In all, there had been
four abortions by the early part of the year.
(4) On the timber milk-vetch experiment some interesting and revealing
information has come up for further study. Vitamin B administered to
cows badly affected by the weed and unable to stand because of incoordination of movements had the cows back to normal on their feet in
twenty-four hours.
During the year, stockmen's meetings were attended for the purposes of disseminating information on live-stock matters at the following points: Fort St. John, Dawson
Creek, Vanderhoof, Williams Lake, East Kootenay, Rock Creek, Clinton, Salmon Arm,
Cloverdale, and Duncan. During the severe winter of 1955-56 the short feed-supplies
to the live-stock industry were kept under close supervision and much information on the
feeding of supplements was made available.
SOUTH CARIBOO, KAMLOOPS, SHUSWAP, NORTH OKANAGAN,
KOOTENAY, AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS
East Kootenay District
(J. W. Awmack, P.Ag.)
Features of the extension programme in this area were the project undertaken to
control vibriosis in cattle, the project to control Columbian groundsquirrels in cooperation with the Game Branch, an economic survey of ranching in East Kootenay,
and improved live-stock production.
West Kootenay District
(A. J. Allan, P.Ag.)
Extension activities included a study of the dairy situation, particularly in the
Creston area, with a view to improved marketing of milk, visits to outlying areas where
agriculture is being developed in small areas required 36 per cent of the normal work
period, and an increased 4-H Club programme.
Boundary District
(J. F. Carmichael, P.Ag.)
The extension programme for this area featured weed-control, improved dairy production, short courses for farmers, active 4-H Club projects, and considerable assistance
to beef-producers in improving production and marketing. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 89
North Okanagan District
(R. C. Bailey, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this area included considerable time spent in assistance to
the dairy industry owing to declining milk production, a very active 4-H Club programme,
grassland and silage production, and a survey of the ranges in the area for basic data on
increased carrying capacity. A dairy short course was arranged at Armstrong in cooperation with the vocational agriculture instructor.
Shuswap-Mainline District
(J. C. Ryder, P.Ag.)
Diversity of agricultural production in this area is illustrated in the extent of extension activities. The programme included active 4-H Club projects, a survey of noxious
weeds, considerable time on dairy production, forage-crops, and silage, including a silage
survey. Field-days are important. The 4-H Club projects mentioned above included
exchange visits of members between Salmon Arm and the Peace River.
Kamloops District
(R. L. Wilkinson, P.Ag.)
This district includes a large area with heavy live-stock production. Consequently
the extension activities included considerable work with beef-cattle producers on bull-
control areas, the inauguration of beef progeny testing in several commercial herds, and
assistance to committees of the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association.
Other activities included a very extensive 4-H Club programme, grassland and forage-
crop production, silage production, short courses for poultrymen, weed-control, grasshopper-control, a very heavy land-clearing programme, field-days, tours, etc.
South Cariboo District
(M. J. Walsh, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this area were confined largely to beef-cattle production and
marketing, range management, meetings with live-stock associations, irrigation and drainage programmes.
B  F   B 4-H CLUB DIVISION
(Miss Echo Lidster, B.S.A., P.Ag., Supervisor)
Following is a table indicating the 4-H Clubs enrolment for British Columbia this
year:—
Enrolment
Projects
Clubs                                   Members
1955
1956                  1955                   1956
Beef Calf   	
27
10
51
14
1
6
18
1
3
20
1
8
7
3
22
1
23                   310
6                   129
278
62
515
192
Dairy Calf                                    	
47
15
1
6
23
1
1
15
1
7
6
1
30
568
152
Goat   	
9        J               8
96                      81
259         1             286
12
33
191
11
89
63
35
141
18
9
167
6
91
56
8
214
192
183         !         2.111          I         1.991
' DD 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA
National 4-H Club Delegates from British Columbia, 1956
Mae Skelton, Armstrong, and lanet Elderkin, Chilliwack.
Edith Krebs, Salmon Arm, and Victoria Feistmann, Chilliwack. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 91
National 4-H Club Delegates from British Columbia, 1956
Marlene Hamilton, Aldergrove, and Harry Bailey, Chilliwack.
Lindsay McPhee, Chilliwack, and John McKechnie, Armstrong. DD 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The T. Eaton Agricultural Scholarship
This was the sixth year in which the T. Eaton Company awarded the scholarship.
The winning boy this year was Maurice D'Aoust from the Province of Quebec.
The British Columbia candidate was Wayne Smith, of Armstrong. Wayne has been
active in the Future Farmers of Canada programme at the Armstrong High School, as
well as being a prominent member of the 4-H Club movement in that district. Five
candidates applied.
Eaton Watches
This was the sixth year in which the T. Eaton Company awarded gold watches to
the highest-scoring individuals in each project in the Provincial elimination competition
in British Columbia. In 1956 the winners were as follows: Beef—Edward Lautard,
Westbridge; Dairy, Harry Bailey, Chilliwack; Grain—John Wynn, Armstrong; Homecraft—Edith Krebs, Salmon Arm; Poultry—Janet Elderkin, Chilliwack; Sheep—Jim
Oldham, Chilliwack;  Swine—Lindsay McPhee, Chilliwack.
Provincial Elimination Competitions
It was difficult to find fully qualified club members to take part in these competitions.
So many boys and girls who would normally have participated were not available because
they were working. This was one impact of British Columbia's industrial boom felt by
the 4-H Clubs.
Beef (eight members competing): Jim Gordon, Vernon, and Edward Lautard,
Westbridge.
Dairy (six members competing): Harry Bailey, Chilliwack, and Marlene Hamilton,
Aldergrove.
Homecraft (eight members competing): Edith Krebs, Salmon Arm, and Victoria
Feistmann, Chilliwack.
Poultry (seven members competing): Mae Skelton, Armstrong, and Janet Elderkin,
Chilliwack.
Sheep (four members competing): Jim Oldham, Chilliwack, and Carole Jones,
Westbridge.
Swine (five members competing): Lindsay McPhee, Chilliwack, and John McKechnie, Armstrong.
National 4-H Club Week
This Province, for the third time, sent the full quota of fourteen club members to
attend this event held in conjunction with the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair in Toronto,
November 8th to 17th, 1956.
For the first time no competitions were held at National 4-H Club Week, and the
consensus of opinion was that this was a great asset. Club members began to mix from
the moment they met, in contrast to other years when mixing did not occur until after
the competitions. In addition, this allowed an extra day for other educational activities,
such as trips to Ontario Parliament Buildings, Ontario Museum, Casa Loma, and arriving
on Saturday instead of Sunday ensured a hockey game at Maple Leaf Gardens.
Canadian National Exhibition Scholarship
The Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto this year offered each Province a
scholarship of $750 to be awarded to a boy or girl from each Province. British Columbia
selected John Kennedy McFaul, of Chilliwack, from two candidates who applied.
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 93
National 4-H Club Week Delegates, 1956
Edward Lautard, Westbridge.
James Oldham, Chilliwack.
Earl Mueksch, Armstrong.
John Wynn, Armstrong. DD 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
National 4-H Club Week Delegates, 1956
James Gordon, Armstrong.
Carole Jones, Westwold.
Provincial Advisory Council of 4-H Club Leaders
On February 15th and 16th, 1956, this Council met in Victoria. The areas represented were. Peace River-Mrs. Clay Martin, Montney; Kamloops-Clarence Bryson,
Merritt; Okanagan-Mrs. William Caldwell, Salmon Arm; Fraser Valley-Cornelius
Froese, Chilliwack; Vancouver Island-Lloyd Hammond, Nanaimo. Cariboo and
Kootenay did not send representatives.
The University of British Columbia
t w^IWAS a 4",H ^ FFC' Alumni f0rmed on the caraPus this year-president,
Tom Windt, Quesnel, and secretary, Marina Parker, Armstrong, with the Supervisor of
4-ti Clubs as honorary president.
4-H Club Award Trips
1. Four club members from the Interior attended Washington State 4-H club camp
at Pullman in June—Phyllis Parker, Prince George; Alma Marshall, Armstrong; Harry
Zschiednch, Quesnel; and Duncan Bryson, Merritt. Mr. and Mrs. K. R Jameson
Smithers, accompanied the party. '
2. Four club members from Vancouver Island attended Whidbey Island camp in
^ll~ClaTa Tayl°r' Saanidr> Ruth Gibbon, Saanich; David Wootten, Saanich; and Don
McKmnon, Alberni—accompanied by Roger Fry, Duncan.
3. Club members from Peace River attending Fairview School of Agriculture in
Alberta were: Allan Suchy, Shearer Dale; Blaine Marshall, Doe River; Ronnie Morton
Landry; Hazel Abel, Landry; Ida Holden, Montney; and Paul Cowger North Pine
4^ An exchange trip was arranged between Salmon Arm and Peace River Districts
with the Provincial Department of Agriculture paying half the expense. Clarinda Hendricks and Walter Hetman spent a week in Salmon Arm Club members' homes while
Grace McQueen and Heather Turner from Salmon Arm spent a week in the Peace River
Block. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD 95
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale
Champion steer and champion lamb were owned by Patsy Abel, of Westwold. The
steer sold for $1 a pound and the lamb for 70 cents a pound.
Leadership Certificates
The following are the leaders who were awarded the certificate for five years of
leadership for 1956: Arnott J. Bailey, Chilliwack; Harry Bryant, Mission City; Clarence
G. Bryson, Clinton; Leo Fuhr, Vernon; Joseph Hetman, North Pine; Mrs. C. E. Husband, Armstrong; Henry Rottacker, Vernon; Floyd A. Shook, Louis Creek; Mrs. R. M.
Spraggs, Armstrong;  and Clarence Veiner, Dawson Creek.
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, Extension Agricultural Engineer)
The staff has concentrated on the group approach and increased use of demonstration projects in an attempt to increase the value of its services to the farm population with
a limited staff.
Farm Machinery
Group programmes in agricultural machinery included a two-day tractor clinic at
Armstrong. This clinic, attended by nineteen junior farmers, dealt with preventive maintenance, and the actual work outlined was carried out by the students on their own
tractors. In co-operation with the Extension Department of the University of British
Columbia, a two-week tractor course was given to eight farm operators, who were
presented with the general theory, then supervised in carrying out motor overhauls on
four tractors. Other work included the organization and judging of the Pacific National
Exhibition tractor-driving competition, which was won by Peter Jones, of Chilliwack
F.F.C. Club, and judging of a similar competition at the Saanich Fair. Preliminary
investigation has been conducted into the design of a plot-type fertilizer-spreader and
a small portable packer.
Short courses given dealt with tractor maintenance and repair. One of these was
held in March at the University, and this Division co-operated with the University Agricultural Engineering Department and the University Extension Department in giving both
theoretical and practical instruction to the eight farmers who attended.
Demonstration Projects
A farm safety demonstration was developed and shown to twelve farm groups
throughout the Province. Total attendance at these demonstrations was 820. Subjects
covered were safety practices around farm machinery, fire safety, and safe tractor operation. In the fire-safety demonstrations, extinguishers were demonstrated to show what
equipment could be used to fight small farm fires. In the tractor demonstration a tractor
fitted with safety arms and switches was used to demonstrate the speed with which accidents could occur when tractors were not operated in an intelligent and safe manner.
A second demonstration was the tillage trial work being carried out at Duncan. This
completed the third year of the trial and also the series in so far as tillage is concerned.
Some cost figures are now available. It will only be possible to relate these cost figures
to production when the trial has run at least three more years and harvesting figures are
available. A third project was the provision of assistance in the design and development
of a portable conveyer to be used for tomato-harvesting. Rough plans of the machine
are available for distribution, which, in actual operation, gave a 40-per-cent reduction
in labour required for harvesting. A fourth demonstration dealt with machinery for lifting onions.    A machine at present on the market was obtained and trial operations DD 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
carried out. In its original design it was unsatisfactory for local conditions. Although
limited alterations improved its operation, it was not too practical for this type of job.
Further trial and adaptation will be required to obtain a satisfactory lifting-machine which
can later be used in conjunction with other equipment for topping onions. In order to
obtain information on other possible equipment which can be used, Mr. May made a visit
to the Lethbridge area to observe mechanization of vegetable production in that area.
Farm Structures
The demand for farm building plans is increasing rapidly. This increase is directly
related to the development of good workable plans such as those presented by the Canadian Farm Plan Building Service. This Service has added two new sets of plans during
the past year. They are " Fruit and Vegetable Storages and Equipment" and " Sheep
Housing and Equipment." A total of 4,210 plans have been distributed by the Division.
Of this total, 2,313 were supplied through the Canadian Farm Plan Building Service, and
the remaining 1,897 were supplied from mid-West plans or plans developed by this
Division. Two new plans were developed by the Division, and include a hay-storage
self-feeder building and a honey-processing house, the latter having a complete bill of
materials. Also included in the structures field was the revision of the trench and horizontal silo bulletin. Planning assistance was given on a potato-storage building in the
Pemberton area, with emphasis being placed on a suitable ventilation system. Some
assistance was provided in the planning of fair buildings for the Cloverdale Agricultural
Association. Other extension methods employed included talks to five groups on details
of dairy-building construction, detailed replies to fifty-seven letters of inquiry on various
building or building-material problems, twelve farm-building visits, one press release on
farm structures, and one television appearance. A demonstration has been set up to
determine the value of light polyethylene plastic sheets as covers for horizontal silos.
Information should be gained as to the effect on feeding values, waste reduction, palata-
bility, and also the relative costs of this type of cover.
Soil and Water
Land-clearing and domestic water development required a large amount of time and
supervision. Although only limited assistance was possible in most of the other sections,
information was supplied in answer to fifty-eight letters of inquiry.
Drainage
Drainage surveys were made for three farms and systems designed for the 52 acres
involved. Levels were obtained and plotted for a portion of Pitt Meadows Dyking District No. 2 at the request of the Dyking Commissioner. A contour map of the Armstrong
fair grounds was drawn for the Interior Exhibition Association, and a subsequent plan
for levelling and ditch diversion, together with cost estimates, was presented.
Irrigation
Irrigation systems were designed for five farms, covering a total of 132 acres.
Advisory visits were carried out on ten other farms. Directly related to irrigation was
the planning of a storage-dam for irrigation-water in the Williams Lake area. An irrigation demonstration has been initiated at Vanderhoof to determine the value of this
practice in the area. A sprinkler system is being used in the initial phases, with water
supplied from a surface stream. Since water sources of this type are quite limited in
the area, future work may entail the use of ground-water supplies linked with other
methods of surface-water spreading.
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 97
Soil Conservation
Separate reports have been submitted regarding erosion problems on the North
Thompson River near Clearwater, Legace Creek near Hatzic, and Cole Creek near Sooke.
Discussions on these problems have been held with the Department of Highways and
other officials as required. Only two visits were possible on terrace-construction problems
in the Boundary area, and although interest is slow in this particular project, limited
progress is being made.
Domestic Water Development
Assistance in the development of domestic water-supplies has been concentrated
almost entirely in the Peace River area, though it has spread to the Prince George area
also this year. Some difficulty was encountered in attempting to obtain suitable contractors for this work. Large contractors do not appear to be interested in small jobs
which are badly spread out, and small contractors are not always able to handle the
anticipated amount of work. Agreements were drawn up with five contractors. One
completed no jobs, another only one job, and the balance completed twenty-seven reservoirs at a total of $12,181.05. Dugouts were constructed to a minimum size of 60 by
150 by 14 feet, although in one or two cases extremely hard rocky ground conditions
made it impractical to obtain this depth, in which case 12 feet was considered adequate.
Although site preparation was necessary in some cases, the average cost, based on the
size of the dugout constructed, becomes 20.7 cents per cubic yard of storage capacity,
which in most cases also indicates the cost per cubic yard of earth moved. At least two
dugouts will be equipped with filters and wells and finally completed. An unsuccessful
trial was run to determine the feasibility of jacking a pipe from the dugout to the well.
A large amount of rock encountered in the subsoil throughout the area of construction
would appear to make this practice unfeasible, and an alternate method of connecting the
filter and well will have to be developed in most cases. Detailed supervision of all construction was provided by this Division.
Land-clearing
The Land-clearing Division operated two outfits during 1956. One outfit, composed
of three Caterpillar D-7's, cleared land in and around Princeton, Merritt, and Kamloops.
The second outfit, composed of three Caterpillar D-8's, cleared land in the Duncan area
and on Saltspring Island. These two units operated a total of 6,993Vi pay-hours, completing $87,418 worth of work. All other equipment used in land-clearing operations
was obtained through private contractors. Agreements were signed with thirty-two contractors, covering a total of forty-six machines. During the past year, contractors were
signed up for the Fraser Valley area, thereby extending assistance under the " Farmers'
Land-clearing Assistance Act " to every area of the Province. Of the thirty-two contractors signed up, three completed no jobs and six were hired to complete one job only.
Unsatisfactory work, or failure of the contractor to stay with the job, caused the cancellation of two agreements. The total volume of work completed was $168,786.75. The
work completed in the Fraser Valley amounted to only approximately $22,000. This
may be attributed in part to weather conditions, which limited feed-supplies and hence
available funds.
The amount of work carried out would indicate that this programme is giving farmers
a worth-while service and one which they desire to have continued. DD 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Land-clearing, 1956
District
Number
of
Contracts
Acreage
Cleared
Average
Cost per
Acre
Arrangements
115
6
8
3
15
9
31
1
64
4
16
60
13
5
7
1
......
63
465
30
42!4
24
103
37
138V2
43
1,040
55
f       2081
1        126=
[          313
f    1,026
}        8461/2*
118
71/2
1711
18*
2 0001 5
'437*
f    1.7071
•j     1,081*
[       349=
$78.70
76.66
57.64
96.91
85.68
102.93
60.00
73.01
46.90
44.58
40.97
10.54
5.70
27.50
8.50
40.25
71.04
30.03
16.00
12.00
13.70
11.60
7.30
Fraser Valley—
Matsqui-Sumas-Surrey-Delta ,.,.. 	
Contractor.
[ Contractor.
/ Contractor.
s
Vanderhoof  _  	
Vanderhoof   _	
Contractor.
Peace River South	
Clearing.
'■ Disking.
1 Repiling.
Breaking.
5 Piling.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FARM LABOUR SERVICE
The usual fine co-operation between the Provincial Department of Agriculture and
the National Employment Service was evident in 1956.
Twelve temporary Farm Placement officials were engaged during the season and
located at strategic points throughout the Province. In addition, nine National Employment Service officers were allocated to the farm-labour programme. Penticton was
transferred from Farm Placement to National Employment Service.
Weather conditions during the 1955-56 winter season resulted in drastic reduction
in the small-fruit crop of the Fraser Valley and Interior, with the result that no female
labour was brought from the Prairie Provinces for the first time in several years.
Excellent co-operation was received this year from the growers' organizations, such
as Saanich Fruit Growers' Association and organizations in the Fraser Valley and British
Columbia Fruit Growers' Association. The meetings with these groups were most
satisfactory.
Farm labour is becoming progressively scarcer each year and the farm-labour
programme correspondingly more difficult. However, the co-operation from growers'
organizations, local School Boards, Boards of Trade, and other groups was most
gratifying.
Every available source of farm labour was utilized, including high-school pupils,
although it is regrettable that school pupils have to be used in the harvesting of farm
crops.
PUBLICITY PROGRAMME
This year a new approach was made to publicity on farm-labour problems. In
addition to the usual paid advertising in newspapers, both daily and weekly, and radio
stations, a series of news-letters were prepared for publication. These were very effective
in bringing to the attention of the general public the seriousness of the farm-labour
problem. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
FARM-LABOUR SURVEY
DD 99
At the suggestion of W. W. Dawson, Director, Special Services Branch, Department
of Labour, a survey was conducted in July. A questionnaire was sent out to eighteen
District Agriculturists and eleven Horticulturists.
The reports indicated that permanent help was required on dairy-farms, some on
poultry-farms, greenhouses, nurseries, etc.
Total placements for 1956 and previous years are shown in the following table:—
Year
Dairy-
farms
Berry and Orchard
Other Work
Total
Male
Female
Male
Female
1952                                                             	
23,000
29,035
1953        	
1954 	
1,060
756
41,361
1955...  	
1956              	
11,793
7,267
24,926
9,730
2,313
891
2,102
1,570
42,209
20,308
The industrial development which is taking place in British Columbia is making it
more difficult each year to secure farm labour due to wage differentials, and this trend
will likely continue for some time.
I wish to express my appreciation to B. G. White, Employment Officer for Primary
Industries in National Employment Service, for his co-operation in the programme, and
also to the National Employment Service officials and Farm Placement officers, who did
an excellent job under most difficult conditions.
BRITISH COLUMBIA RESOURCES CONFERENCE
The Department of Agriculture staff co-operated in presenting the " Inventory and
Evaluation of Agriculture " to the British Columbia Resources Conference in February.
Actual presentation was made by J. S. Allin, Supervising Agriculturist, and Professor
W. J. Anderson, University of British Columbia Faculty of Agriculture.
These presentations and the Atlas of British Columbia Resources have been
described as the best outline ever prepared of the agriculture industry of the Province.
CANADIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION COUNCIL
A meeting of the Canadian Agricultural Extension Council was held in Saskatoon
in March.   Directors of Agricultural Extension and Home Economics were in attendance.
Real progress is being made toward establishing short courses for agricultural and
home economics extension workers in Canada.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Further improvements were made on the Department of Agriculture exhibit in the
British Columbia Building at the Pacific National Exhibition.
EROSION SURVEY
During June and July a survey was made of soil erosion, including river-bank
erosion. Questionnaires were mailed to each District Agriculturist requesting certain
information.
Replies received from seventeen District Agriculturists can be summarized as
follows: — DD  100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Between 600 and 700 farmers have reported loss from river-bank erosion. Some
loss from sheet erosion and from gully erosion reported, particularly from the Peace River.
Erosion is also being caused by road construction, logging operations, poor management practices, etc.
DATA FOR OTHER DEPARTMENTS
During the year a survey was made for the Department of Trade and Industry and
data forwarded for the next issue of the Industrial Index of British Columbia.
Several short papers were prepared by Department staff members for the Department of Labour dealing with crop production, dairy industry, health of animals, mosquito-
control, etc.
A report on the Department of Agriculture work was prepared by the Deputy
Minister and Director of Extension for the B.C. Agrologist published by the British
Columbia Institute of Agrologists.
Your Director attended a two-day conference in July at Victoria dealing with
vocational agriculture in the high schools of the Province. A number of improvements
to the curriculum were suggested.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
The Extension staff continued to utilize radio and television as media for extension.
The staff in Central British Columbia use the radio station at Prince George, and the staff
in the Peace River use the station at Dawson Creek.
Considerable time was spent arranging television programmes with Tom Leach,
CBUT in Vancouver, on the " Country Calendar " presentation.
Your Director attended several meetings at the University of British Columbia on
Farm Radio Forum.
CONCLUSION
The Extension Branch co-operated with municipal, Federal, and Provincial authorities in matters pertaining to agriculture in the Province.
I wish to express my appreciation to all members of the staff of the British Columbia
Department of Agriculture, the University of British Columbia, Canada Department of
Agriculture, Veterans' Land Act Administration, Washington State Extension Service,
and other agencies for their co-operation during the year.
REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager
This Project, initiated in 1920 and administered by the Department of Lands and
Forests until April 1st, 1956, was transferred to the Department of Agriculture on that
date. It is opportune, therefore, to briefly discuss its extent, functions, service, personnel, and properties.
EXTENT
It embraces District Lot 2450 (S.), a tract of 22,000 acres in the Valley of the
South Okanagan from Mclntyre Creek to the United States Border, a distance of 20
miles. Of this acreage, approximately 8,000 acres could be irrigated successfully. The
elevation of the intake, immediately south of Vaseux Lake, is 1,073 feet (see picture
following), while Osoyoos Lake at the border is 910 feet. The main canal is 23 miles long
and is designed to carry 170 cubic feet per second of water at a depth of 4.2 feet.   In its DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  101
initial stages it is 8 feet wide across the bottom and 18 feet wide at the top and the sides
slope 1:1 generally. The gradient of the canal is 1 in 4,000. Main gullies and depressions are crossed by means of metal and wooden flumes, twenty-seven in number. The
total length of all flumes is 3.96 miles. The valley itself is crossed at the Village of
Oliver by means of an inverted siphon, 78 inches inside diameter. It is of wood-stave
construction in its exposed section and of 3/s-inch plate underground. The main canal
traverses the Okanagan Indian Reserve No. 1 lands for a distance of 5 miles north of
the siphon. It should be noted here that this portion of the right-of-way, comprising
56.09 acres, was purchased by the Government late in 1956, negotiations with the
Indian band having been brought up periodically since the original construction in 1920.
Intake, main river gates.
The canal decreases in size as it proceeds southward until it reaches the border in
a square concrete flume 2 feet wide. Spillways are provided in strategic locations, six
in number, to carry the full flow of the canal at each point, in case of emergencies such
as washouts, slides, major repairs, etc. Laterals, twenty-eight in number, carry the water
to the individual lots and are constructed mostly of concrete pipe. There are roughly
42 miles of these laterals on the Project, varying in size from 4 to 24 inches. Two smaller
siphons, 24 inches in diameter, carry the water to isolated areas—one to the north of
Oliver on the west side of the valley and one to a high area along the river south of
Oliver. Eight pumps force water to the higher levels, irrigating a total of 1,140 acres.
Total irrigation-water services are 590. The average holding is 8 acres. A tendency to
subdivide and thus decrease the average lot farmed is having its effect on the economy
of the district. It is considered by most authorities that 15 acres is a minimum economical unit for fruit-farming. A glance at the map of the area reveals the meandering nature
of the Okanagan River throughout the Project. The Okanagan Flood-control (see picture following), presently under active construction, will change the whole topography of
the bottom-lands in that a wide channel with thirteen drop structures will stabilize the
river. This will assist in the drainage and should bring into production a considerable
acreage, suitable for growing forage-crops and vegetables. It is expected that this construction will be completed by July, 1957. DD  102
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The duty of water in the Project is 4 acre-feet in the northern area and 6 acre-feet
in the southern area, from the head of Osoyoos Lake to the border. With the advent
of sprinkler irrigation, it was expected that growers would use less water than with furrow
irrigation; this has not proven the case, as evidenced by ditch flow. Irrigation tolls
presently are $12.50 per acre.
Okanagan flood-control channel at Oliver.
OLIVER DOMESTIC WATER-SUPPLY
The Oliver domestic water-supply is administered by the Project. Water is pumped
from an underground supply by three pumps, totalling 130 installed horse-power, delivering 1,000 gallons per minute, to three storage-tanks of combined capacity of 180,000
gallons, located 300 feet in elevation above the pump runners. This supply is chlorinated and is under observation at all times by the Health Department. The distribution
system is of wood-stave pipe, with 465 domestic services, 75 commercial services, and
6 industrial services. Tolls are as follows: Domestic water rate, $2.20 per month; summer rate, $2.70 per month net. Where considered necessary, meters are installed, rates
being $2.50 for first 600 cubic feet and 9 cents per 100 cubic feet thereafter. A discount
of 20 per cent if paid before thirty days is allowed. Hydrants for fire protection are
installed throughout the village and adjacent areas where lines extend. These are four
in number—acre lots south of the village, No. 5 pump line energized by domestic flow
when irrigation water is off, the cemetery line, and forestry line. The last two mentioned
were installed during 1956 and include 1,600 feet of 6-inch and 3,000 feet of 4-inch
wood-stave pipe, four hydrants, and twenty-four services. Amongst the large users are
the Canadian Canners, the Oliver Sawmills, and the B.C. Fruit Processors, which accounts
in some measure for the large amount of water used—namely, 1,000,000 gallons per day
during the summer.
All repairs, replacements, servicing, metering, collecting, etc., is the full responsibility of the Project. The administering of the Oliver domestic water-supply serves a
very useful purpose in that a somewhat larger crew can be trained and maintained the
year around and thus is available in the event of an emergency and for main-canal repairs DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD  103
and maintenance. Replacements are indicated on several streets where the original pipe
is showing signs of failure, usually caused by rusting of the wire binding. The Oliver
domestic water system is considered in good condition, with sufficient capacity to take
care of present needs and normal population expansion in the immediate future. The
Oliver Sawmills Limited is installing its own pumping unit to supply boiler-water, roof
sprinklers, and log wash.   This programme will further relieve the summer peak load.
REPLACEMENTS
During the summer a new 8-inch line was installed on Main Street between Fourth
and Sixth Streets, a distance of 1,000 feet. During the period from July 24th to August
3rd, sprinkler regulations were imposed due to the heavy drain on the system during the
hot weather. The restrictions applied during the hours of 5 to 8 p.m., so that there was
no real hardship.
A connection was made from the domestic system to the main irrigation siphon in
order to keep the latter full during the winter. The serious problem of drying out of the
wood staves was thus solved. The water volume involved is small and the cost is more
than offset by having a tight siphon with which to start the irrigation season.
GENERAL FUNCTIONS AND SERVICES
1. Supplying irrigation-water to 5,000 acres of land, maintaining the system, collection of tolls, sending out accounts, etc.
2. Administration of the Oliver domestic water system, collections, notices, maintenance of the system, repairs, etc.
3. Land sales throughout the Project and land sales in the Villages of Oliver and
Osoyoos. (N.B.—Lifting of the height restrictions near the airport has released twenty-
four valuable lots in the Village of Oliver). All lots in Osoyoos are sold, with the exception of a few held under reserve for hospital purposes. There are only a few isolated
pieces of Crown land within the Project remaining unsold with benefit of irrigation-water.
4. A complete mapping service is maintained for the benefit of the public.
5. Headquarters building and grounds are maintained in Oliver, providing office
space and storage for records. Office space is rented to the resident Government Sub-
Agent and to the District Horticulturist. The building is situated on First Avenue between
Sixth and Seventh Streets.
6. Operation of three irrigation districts—Black Sage, Osoyoos, and East Osoyoos
Irrigation Districts. This operation has been the responsibility of the Project for the past
four years and involves ditch-riding, operation of pumps, repairs, etc.
7. A meteorological station is operated for the Department of Resources and Development at Oliver (see report herewith).
8. Electric lighting of fringe areas—acre lots and East Oliver.
9. A service-yard containing at all times materials, tools, and equipment for Project
repairs and maintenance, consisting of lumber, gasoline, flume sections, pipe of all sizes,
asphalt, and iron, to mention only a few items, are stock-piled.
10. The issuing and servicing of Crown-land leases within the Project.
11. In co-operation with the Federal Department of Public Works, the operation
of the control-diversion dam in the Okanagan River at the outlet of Vaseux Lake.
12. Distribution of topsoil under a permit system from stock-piles at various points,
five in number, from Osoyoos to Oliver. This system prevents the " scalping " of topsoil
from future agricultural lands.   A nominal charge of 25 cents per yard is made. DD  104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PERSONNEL
The personnel, nineteen in number, consists of the following: Project manager,
accountant, clerk-stenographer, foreman, assistant foreman, six ditch-riders, mechanic,
janitor-gardener, all on a monthly salary, and the following daily-paid men—three bridge-
men, mechanic, (blacksmith-welder), truck-driver and "cat" driver.
In the spring an emergency crew of twenty to thirty men is used for pitching the
main canal.
GENERAL
Again we have to report a trouble-free year, with one exception. In the afternoon
of July 15th a cloudburst in the vicinity of Spotted Lake caused a flash flood, and, as a
result, mud and shale encroached on the main canal, which was completely filled in several places with debris. This in turn caused the canal to overflow for several hours.
Water was shut off immediately at Hester Creek spillway, but some orchard land below
the canal was severely eroded. Crew were placed and work carried on during all available daylight, and service was again resumed at noon on July 17th. No damage resulted
to ground crops in Osoyoos as a result of the water shortage. The damage to the orchards
concerned has since been repaired to the satisfaction of the owners.
Excess water has been available all season throughout the system. General water
service was commenced on May 2nd and discontinued on September 22nd, although
water was not turned out of the main canal until October 20th. Some leaks in the main
canal during the season caused outages in the Osoyoos area, but these were of short
duration.
1956 CROP RETURNS
It is difficult any longer to speak of a normal crop since there has been so much
winter-injury to trees, with high mortality among the 4- to 12-year age-group. Apple-
trees have been the worst damaged, with peach, apricot, and pear trees suffering very little.
Consequently crops of stone-fruit and pears have been normal. Considerable damage
has been done to fully grown and young cherry-trees, especially Bings. In general the
crop volume for 1956 was about 75 per cent of normal. It is also expected that returns
will be more satisfactory than in previous years. Growers on newly planted orchards—
for example, S.O.L.P. No. 2—have suffered the most and feel pessimistic about the immediate future as they face replanting of a large percentage of their acreage.
ROADSIDE FRUIT-STANDS
This is mentioned here because the volume being sold direct to the consumer plays
an important part in the district's economy, especially in the Osoyoos area, where market-
gardens are maintained, and these vegetables—tomatoes, corn, cucumbers, melons, peppers, eggplant, canteloupe, etc.—add colour and interest to the fruit-stand trade. In
general the quality of the produce sold and offered is good to excellent.
SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS DURING THE YEAR
1. January 20th, water turned into the ditch and growers' cisterns filled.
2. Raised No. 1 flume at Gallagher Lake and improved free-board by 8 inches.
Repaired footings.    This materially increased the capacity of the main canal.
3. Osoyoos spillway strengthened against water-hammer by installation of 22-inch
wood-stave in lieu of concrete pipe.
4. Drainage problem between Lots 634 and 635 solved by installation of a new
flume and catchment basin.   Protection against undermining by shallow sheet piling.
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD  105
5. Trestle No. 21a: This again gave trouble, slipping on bedrock. It had to be
completely rebuilt. All overburden was removed, footings rebuilt and attached to bedrock.   No further trouble was experienced during the year.
6. No. 7 pipe-line renewed with concrete-asbestos pipe. This 2,500-foot line completely renewed as former 8-inch wood-stave pipe had rotted out. An additional 5-horse-
power motor pump was installed, since pressures could not be maintained. Four Veterans' Land Act settlers on 56 acres should now have satisfactory service over a great
many years.
7. No. 8 pumping project, S.O.L.P. No. 2: Nineteen growers under Veterans' Land
Act, serving 202.71 acres, suffered from lack of pressure at higher levels. The pump
impeller was altered to give greater pressure with slightly less volume; present calculated
volume, 3,000 gallons per minute. On try-out, pressure seemed sufficient to operate all
sprinklers without requiring individual boosters as heretofore.
8. Ditch-riders were placed on a six-day week with one swing ditch-rider. This
arrangement gives all ditch-riders one day off each week and has the effect of cutting
down on the compensatory time earned during the operating season. The five-day week
inaugurated in 1955 required that something had to be done about the ditch-riders putting in a full seven-day week.   The new arrangement has worked well.
9. Davidson, Franz, Laszanski, and Isaac (Lots 441, 450, 451, and 452): Many
meetings and discussions were held re drainage problems on these lots. The Department
finally authorized C. C. Kelly, of the Soil Survey Branch, to conduct a survey. Accordingly a comprehensive scheme was drawn up for the benefit of the above land, which will
be placed in front of the growers concerned early in 1957.
10. A D-7 tractor was loaned to the Project by the Land-clearing Division. This
machine was made available in November and accomplished the following: One-half
mile of road at No. 7; opened up shale-pit and built road to same; stock-piled topsoil
at Dividend, Richter Pass, Testalinda, and silica-pit; fixed washout and built road on
account of July 15th cloudburst; built roads on Indian reserve section of the canal;
cleared sump-site at No. 8 pump; assisted in pipe-line right-of-way at domestic tanks;
built road west of Lot 284.
11. Wolf Creek channel deepened and widened from ditch to river in order to take
spring freshet. This creek endangers the homes at East Oliver and is also one of the
main-ditch spillway channels.
12. Indian reserve fencing project: Prepared plans and specifications for right-of-
way fence, approximately 10 miles; ran line and put in stakes.
13. Flume No. 17: Raised this flume 7 inches for a distance of 1,480 feet, thus
improving the free-board and increasing the capacity of the ditch in the Osoyoos area.
14. Black-topped a 250-foot section of the main canal as a trial, in lieu of concrete.
(N.B.—Looks good after one year's operation.)
15. Removed booster pumps from No. 1 and No. 2 location, IVz horse-power each,
thus saving the power outlay. These pumps were not performing the service intended—
that is, increasing the capacity at No. 1 and No. 2 locations.
16. Renewed "O" lateral (a 6-inch line) from ditch to main road, as the previous
pipe of light galvanized steel had rusted out. Substitution was with cement-asbestos and
pressure-creosoted wood-stave pipe.
17. Added 500 feet to Hester Creek spillway covers, as this spillway is a hazard to
children playing in the vicinity because of the high velocity of the water.
18. Survey made of Collens Lake, 1 mile south-east of Oliver, where rising water
during August and September, caused by irrigation seepage, is encroaching on orchard
lands, causing wet-feet and tree mortality. This drainage scheme is presently receiving
Departmental study. DD  106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
19. About 1,500 pounds of copper sulphate was introduced into the main canal
during the season and proved effective in controlling aquatic growth. It is interesting to
note that this chemical did not settle out in its 23-mile journed, but retained its efficiency
for the entire trip.
20. Indian reserve lands irrigated total 75 acres—Ritchie Farms, 60 acres, and
Abraham Louis, 15 acres. This volume of water, approximately 5 cubic feet per second,
has had no effect on volume of water passing through the main siphon.
LAND SALES
During 1956, sales of lands were as follows:—
Osoyoos Townsite lots (10)     $2,525.00
Oliver Townsite lots (2)  165.00
$2,690.00
COLLECTIONS FOR 1956
Land—
Principal   $9,082.95
Interest   1,283.46
Lease rentals  1,092.95
Sundry realizations   1,326.04
Water rates—■
. Oliver domestic  18,030.62
Irrigation  59,941.82
Total  $90,757.84
WEATHER
The rainfall for 1956 amounted to 9.23 inches, of which more than two-thirds fell
during the period from April 1st to September 30th. The heaviest rainfall occurred in the
months of June and July.
The maximum temperature recorded in 1956 was 100° F. on July 19th, and the
minimum was —5° F. on February 15th, and the mean temperature for the year was
50.8° F. This compares favourably with the average for the period 1941-56, during
which the average maximum temperature was 103° F., the minimum —3° F., and the
mean 49° F.
Snow fell in the months of January, February, March, and December, with a total
of 25.2 inches, 14.3 inches of which fell in January.
REPORT OF LAND  SETTLEMENT BOARD
The Land Settlement Board was transferred from the Department of Lands and
Forests to the Department of Agriculture in April, 1956.
It was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of the " Land Settlement and
Development Act," superseding the Agricultural Credit Commission. It was empowered
to advance money by way of loans secured by mortgage; to purchase, develop, and
colonize lands considered suitable for settlement; and to declare settlement areas, having
for its main purpose the promotion of increased agricultural production.
Settlement areas were established in Central British Columbia—namely, in the
Bulkley Valley, Nechako Valley, Francois Lake district, and the Upper Fraser River
valley.
- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956 DD  107
Development areas were established at Merville on Vancouver Island, Lister, Fernie,
and Kelowna.
The Board has under its jurisdiction the administration of the former Doukhobor
lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the " Doukhobor Lands
Acquisition Act " of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on a rental
basis. They are reserved from sale at the present time. In accordance with the recommendations of the Honourable Mr. Justice Arthur E. Lord, Commissioner, Doukhobor
Allotment Inquiry Commission, a survey and subdivision of these lands is now being
carried out.
In addition to the above-mentioned lands, the Board holds over 6,000 acres scattered throughout the various parts of the Province, representing properties on which it
held mortgages and to which it obtained title through tax-sale proceedings.
The Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of the Province, as
in the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's activities and collections
for 1956:—
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $14,258.25. Forty-five
purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and one borrower paid up in
full and received release of mortgage.
Collections were as follows:—
Loans      $7,392.18
Land sales     26,375.86
Dyking loan refunds, etc.        7,678.42
Foreclosed properties and areas—stumpage, rentals, etc.    11,917.28
Total  ,  $53,363.74
The above figures include collections from the sale and rental of Doukhobor lands
in the amount of $9,289.45.
REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE
J. L. MacDonald, B.Sc, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes and
Dyking Commissioner
RESPONSIBILITIES
Under the provisions of the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act," with amendments, this office administers the dyking and drainage affairs of Coquitlam, Maple Ridge
Dyking and Maple Ridge No. 2 Drainage, Pitt Meadows No. 2, Matsqui Dyking and
Matsqui Drainage. Under the provisions of the " Dyking, Drainage, and Development
Act " and special Statutes pertaining to each district, the districts of Dewdney, West
Nicomen, Sumas, and South Westminster are administered. Under the " Water Act"
we administer the districts of East Nicomen and North Nicomen as receiver for the
districts. The Trustees of the South Dewdney District, Harrison Mills District, and
Silverdale District have named this office as Secretary, Assessor, and Collector for their
districts.
The task of keeping the assessment rolls of the above-named fifteen districts up to
date and the annual levies for the total of 5,000 owners with the mailing of Court of
Revision notices, tax notices, and receipts to each is done by an office staff of two.
The activities of the two engineers include supervision of the total 72,400 acres
involved; the maintenance, strengthening, and general upkeep of the dykes, flood-boxes,
and pumping-stations; the cleaning, maintenance, and improvement of several hundred
miles of drainage canals and ditches. Frequent meetings are held, mostly in the evenings
for the convenience of the farmer, with Municipal Councils, ratepayers' societies, com- DD  108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
mittees, etc., and individual owners with problems. Each spring before freshet time,
meetings are held in all districts to appoint committees, tabulate equipment, material,
and make general plans to fit into the over-all organization to combat flood threat as
set up under provisions of the " Flood Relief Act."
Under the provisions of the "Dykes Maintenance Act," 1950, all dyked areas in
the Province are inspected and consultations are held with the authorities in these districts
in order to further proper maintenance and needed repairs. The number of meetings and
inspections necessary is increasing in the tidewater districts due to the rapid change of
the districts from rural to urban and industrial areas.
Short comments on some individual districts administered by this office are given
below.
COQUITLAM DYKING DISTRICT
In this district of 3,213 acres the cost of power for pumping absorbs over two-thirds
of the yearly tax revenue. This has not left enough money in the maintenance fund after
other fixed charges are paid to do necessary cleaning and improvement of the drainage-
canals. The job of reconstructing a 4-mile-long diversion-ditch is being completed now.
It is expected that financial arrangements will have to be made to pay for this and other
urgent work. This will probably necessitate the raising of the annual tax rate, which
is now $3.70 per acre.
PITT MEADOWS No. 2
This district now enjoys very good drainage. Two years ago, at a cost of $25,000,
all existing ditches in the area were reconditioned and several new ones were constructed,
including a ditch to intercept the seepage-waters, which was dug approximately 200 feet
from the dyke for the entire length of 5 miles of dyke. The results of this ditching were
shown this year in the increase in production and general welfare of the district.
MAPLE RIDGE DYKING DISTRICT
This district of some 8,382 acres has always been plagued with drainage problems.
The amount of water coming into the district during fall and winter rains is being increased
yearly as the adjacent high lands are cleared and the tree growth replaced by dwellings,
streets, and ditches. A new pump with a capacity of 30,000 imperial gallons per minute
was financed from the district's renewal reserve fund and installed this year. A new
ditching programme has been started and is being carried on as funds permit. Some
flooding during severe winter flash storms is still experienced in the lower areas. As
settlement continues on the ridges, more pumping capacity will have to be added. The
total pumping capacity at present is 150,000 imperial gallons per minute. The annual
overhead charges on this capacity are all the district can stand at this time. Residents
in the district consider it unfair that they have to pay the full cost for disposal of surface
waters without some assistance from people dwelling on the high land outside the district
boundaries.
WEST NICOMEN DYKING DISTRICT
A yearly programme of widening the cross-section of the dykes and improving the
slopes was continued this year; also some 2 miles of the dyke along Nicomen Slough
was gravelled on top to permit truck travel for maintenance and patrol. A new pump
of 3,000 imperial gallons per minute was installed this year, bringing the total capacity
to 12,000 imperial gallons per minute.
SOUTH WESTMINSTER DYKING DISTRICT
Two new pumps were installed in the district this year. The pumps have a capacity
of 10,000 imperial gallons per minute each.   This brings the total pumping capacity to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD 109
35,000 imperial gallons per minute.    In very severe storms, even with the increased
pumping capacity, some flooding occurs.
MATSQUI DYKING DISTRICT
A rock quarry was opened in the district by the Department of Highways to replace
the district's stock-pile used by the Highways Department in its operations in connection
with the temporary ferry-landings. It is estimated that the new stock-pile contains 50,000
cubic yards of rock. Further grouting work was done at No. 1 pumping-station to
strengthen the dam and lessen seepage.
SUMAS DYKING DISTRICT
Two new pumps of 30,000 imperial gallons per minute capacity each were installed
at the MacGillivray station at a cost of $53,000. This expenditure was financed from
the district's renewal reserve fund. A new flood-box was also constructed to divert
waters east of Hopedale Road direct to the Fraser. These improvements should prevent
flash winter flooding in the area east of the Vedder Canal. A new pumping unit, capable
of 100,000 imperial gallons per minute, has been ordered for installation in the main
Sumas station.   Delivery and installation should be completed before 1958.
OTHER DISTRICTS
In all other districts as well as the ones mentioned above, the normal work of the
year was carried out. Three draglines were busy throughout the year cleaning ditches
to the extent permitted by the finances of the various districts. In all districts a more
determined effort is being made to remove brush growth from the dyke right-of-way.
The chemical spraying carried out yearly on all dykes has not proven to be 100 per cent
successful. This is being supplemented by cutting with small circular power-saws. Rocking of the river-bank to combat erosion has been necessary in several places this year.
Protection work against the Alouette River in Pitt Meadows was quite extensive. Similar
rip-rap work has been started in East Nicomen and will be completed before the next
freshet.
The dyking districts in the Creston area were visited twice this year. Their chief
and continuing problem is erosion. Previously when erosion occurred, dykes were moved
back from the eroded sections. This method is no longer feasible. A timber mattress
was used in one section this year. Rock protection work such as is used in the Fraser
Valley is not practical due to the great depth of the banks and length of dykes needing
protection. It is believed that a floating bucket dredge is needed to clear bars from the
river-bed and repair the banks after each freshet. The problem of erosion is being studied
by the districts in the area with a view to co-operation on a plan to combat the common
enemy. DD  110
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No.  1
Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Distributing Dairy Products during 1956
Acme Dairy Ltd., 130 West Hastings Street, Vancouver 3.
Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association,
Armstrong.
Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association, 156
Victoria Street, Kamloops.
Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association, 64
Nanaimo Avenue, Penticton.
Arrowsmith Farms (Nicholson Ltd.), Hilliers.
Avalon Dairy Ltd., 5805 Wales Road, Vancouver 16.
Baby's Own Dairy (H. Armishaw), 600 Albert
Street, Nanaimo.
Brooksbank Farms Ltd., 804 River Road, Richmond, Vancouver 14.
Bulkley Valley Creamery (Paulsen & Kinney),
Telkwa.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association, Box
176, Quesnel.
Central Creameries (B.C.) Ltd., 325 Railway
Street, Vancouver 4.
Chilliwack Dairy Ltd., Box 274, Chilliwack.
City Dairy Farm (Barrett & McCrindle), Cranbrook.
Colfax Ice Cream Co., 1520 West Sixth Avenue,
Vancouver 9.
Comox Co-operative Creamery Association, Box
460, Courtenay.
Crawley & McCracken Co. Ltd. (Kemano), 1111
West Georgia Street, Vancouver.
Creamland Crescent Dairy Ltd., 1335 Howe
Street, Vancouver 1.
Creamland Ice Cream Ltd., 1335 Howe Street,
Vancouver 1.
Creston Co-operative Milk Producers' Association, Creston.
Creston Co-operative Milk Producers' Association, Kimberley.
Dairy Queen Mixco (J. C. Mulvey), P.O. Box 55,
Vancouver 1.
DeClark's Dairy (J. DeClark), Ladysmith.
Delta Dairies Ltd., King Edward Street, Ladner.
Diamond Dairy (H. H. Trerise), Box 442, Haney.
Dominion Dairy (Gordon Milum), Box 186,
Golden.
Drake's Dairy Ltd., 441 Sixth Street, New Westminster.
Dutch Dairy Farms Ltd., 21 Tranquille Road,
North Kamloops.
Edgewater Dairy (D. A. Bowers), Edgewater.
Egeskov Cheese Factory (K. E. Andersen and A.
Jacobson), Box 570, Creston.
Elk Valley Co-operative Dairy Association, Natal.
Fernie Dairy (W. H. Runions), Fernie.
Frasea Farms Ltd., Postal Station " L," Vancou-
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, 425
West Eighth Avenue, Vancouver 10.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, 1166
Hornby Street, Vancouver 1.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Sardis.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Abbotsford.
Glenburn Dairy Ltd., 3695 Hastings Street East,
Vancouver 6.
Hay Bros. Farms Ltd., 1598 South-east Marine
Drive, Vancouver 15.
Hazelwood Creamery Ltd., 441 Keefer Street,
Vancouver 4.
Hillside Farm Dairy (William Crawford), R.R.
4, Cloverdale.
Holland Dairy Farm (Theo Buursma), Parksville.
Hudson's Bay Co., Ocean Falls.
Island Farms Dairies Co-operative Association,
2220 Blanshard Street, Victoria.
I.X.L. Dairy Ltd., 145 Terminal Avenue, Nanaimo.
lersey Dairy (Jack Taylor), 130 Young Road
South, Chilliwack.
Jersey Farms Ltd., 2256 Broadway West, Vancouver 8.
Kelowna Creamery Ltd., 1474 Pendozi Street,
Kelowna.
Kootenay Valley Co-operative Milk Products
Association, 609 Railway Street, Nelson.
Lakelse Dairy Products Ltd., P.O. Box 79, Station A, Kitimat.
Lewis & Sons' Dairy (E. R. Lewis), Box 162,
Powell River.
Little Mountain Dairy Ltd., Box 396, Abbotsford.
Lucerne Milk Co., 995 Mainland, Vancouver 3.
McKinnon's Dairy (John McKinnon), R.R. 2,
Alberni.
Medo-land Farm Dairy Ltd., Port Coquitlam.
Modern Dairy (K. F. Sharpies), Box 265,
Castlegar.
Nanaimo Dairy Co. Ltd., 535 Franklyn Street,
Nanaimo.
National Dairies Ltd., 1132 Hastings Street East,
Vancouver 6.
Nechako Valley Dairy Co. Ltd., Vanderhoof.
Northern Alberta Dairy Pool Ltd., Dawson Creek.
Northern Dairies Ltd., Prince George.
Northland Dairy Ltd., 401 Third Avenue, Prince
Rupert.
Northwestern Creamery Ltd., 1015 Yates Street,
Victoria.
Odermatt's Dairy (Paul Odermatt), Box 728,
Fort St. John.
Oliver Dairy (Henry Hettinga), Box 601, Oliver.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Kamloops.
Palm Dairies Ltd., 685 Baker Street, Nelson. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  111
APPENDIX No.  I—Continued
Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Distributing Dairy Products during 1956—Continued
Palm Dairies Ltd., Dewdney Avenue, Trail.
Palm Dairies Ltd., 3333 Main Street, Vancouver 10.
Palm Dairies Ltd., 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Peerless Dairy (John Lancaster), Box 456, Cranbrook.
Penticton Dairy and Ice Cream Co. Ltd., Front
Street, Penticton.
Peter's Ice Cream Co. Ltd., 3204 West Broadway,
Vancouver 8.
Pinelawn Dairy (Mrs. Dulcie Hamilton), R.R. 1,
Back Road, Comox.
Primrose Dairy (L. R. Singlehurst), Box 353,
Williams Lake.
Princeton Dairy (Sidney D. Atkinson), Box 286,
Princeton.
Richmond Milk Producers' Co-operative Association, 3277 Cambie Street, Vancouver 9.
Riverside Dairy (Alan V. Frear), McBride.
Rose's Ice Cream Ltd., Box 70, Prince George.
Royal City Dairies Ltd., 309 Sixth Street, New
Westminster.
Salt Spring Island Creamery Co. Ltd., Ganges.
Seal-Kap Dairy Ltd., R.R. 1, Langley Prairie.
Shannon Dairies Ltd., 8584 Granville Street, Vancouver 14.
Shepherd's Dairy Ltd., 1645 Fort Street, Victoria.
Shirley Dairy Farm (H. G. Morson), 5711 Kittson Road, R.R. 1, New Westminster.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, 1136 Richter Street, Kelowna.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Salmon Arm.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Vernon.
Silver Rill Dairy (Stanley H. S. Fox), Saanich-
ton P.O.
Standard Dairy (Mrs. D. McKinnon), Box 655,
Revelstoke.
Stanhope Dairy Farm (R. Rendle), 3578 Richmond Avenue, Victoria.
Sunny Brae Dairy Ltd., Queens Road, Duncan.
Sunshine Valley Dairy Ltd., Box 74, Grand Forks.
Surrey Dairy (Mrs. F. R. Lipsey), 10410 Scott
Road, R.R. 7, New Westminster.
Tip Top Dairy Ltd., 1070 Marine Avenue, West-
view.
United Dairies Ltd., 1601 Second Avenue, Trail.
Valley Dairy (Albert Doratti), Box 527, Ross-
land.
Westview Dairy (John Van Zwietering), 1070
Marine Avenue, Westview.
Wood's Dairy (J. P. Wood), Creston.
APPENDIX No. 2
Blood-testing for Brucellosis by Veterinary Inspectors
Inspector
Number of
Premises
Number of
Cattle
Negative
Positive
Suspicious
29
74
18
78
60
12
13
18
314
676
179
486
1,077
347
356
618
311
655
167
470
1,053
332
316
590
1
10
9
9
17
6
20
19
2
Dr. I D. C. Clark                          ~~             	
Dr. G. M. Clark....                     	
3
Pr. W. C. Newby	
7
Dr. R. L. Lancaster 	
7
9
20
Dr. K. H. Thompson 	
9
Totals  	
Veterinary students and practitioners on Vancouver
302
1,608
4,053
11,643
3,894
11,166
91
210
68
267
1,910
15,696
15,060
301
335 DD  112
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 3
Calfhood Vaccinations by Veterinary Inspectors
Inspector
Brucellosis-control Area
Number of
Premises
Number of
Calves
174
19
155
6
37
5
13
5
13
32
118
22
68
6
31
1,071
91
1,567
36
Dr. I. D. C. Clark...   ...	
West Kootenay  __	
184
Dr. G. M. Clark	
North Okanagan  _ _	
114
191
466
596
Dr. W. C. Newby	
219
1,081
Dr. W. R. LeGrow ...           	
Cariboo	
Cariboo.	
2,349
1,594
174
Dr. C. F. Morris     	
2.428
52                     678
4        |              15
Cariboo  	
22         |            162
17                       31
2
65
26
10
2,647
North Okanagan  	
136
887         1       15.840
APPENDIX No. 4
Calfhood Vaccinations in Disease-free Areas
Area No. and Area
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1. Inonoaklin1	
51
3,614
30
3,433
24
3,936
667
280
504
197
120
330
55
3,750
19
4,298
43
4,554
618
703
653
220
63
469
10
9
50
5
39
4,679
660
569
792
196
44
566
15
38
4,842
3. Cherryville..... 	
4. Alkali Lake-Dog Creek ...
736
269
504
530
321
453
148
70
221
539
414
682
209
51
375
31
557
473
740
201
43
460
20
782
164
6. Savona _ -	
7. Nehalliston	
8. South-west Kootenay.	
702
188
46
486
39
13
12. Squamish	
15
55
14
18
52
7
47
27
6
48
15. North-west Kootenay..	
	
2,074
9
1,349
.
1,617
2,306
2,255
19
7,641
1,719
2,637
	
13
1,078
3,503
4,858
7,116
6,549
16
1,326
1,900
134
3,332
32
1,628
	
77
22. Kamloops —
....   Non-area 	
881
113
1,084
102
3,041
2
5
5
133
Totals        	
6,252
6,557
8,752
11,315
14,807
19,331
22,954
20,487
1 In 1947-48, 14 calves vaccinated.
2 In 1946-47, 170 calves vaccinated, and in 1947-48, 2,206 calves vaccinated. r
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  113
APPENDIX No. 5
Calfhood Vaccination under Joint Policy of Federal-Provincial Brucellosis-control
Period
Area
Vaccinations
by Provincial
Veterinarians
Total
Vaccinations
July 15th, 1950, to June 30th, 1951...
July 1st, 1951, to June 30th, 1952	
July 1st, 1952, to June 30th, 1953	
July 1st, 1953, to June 30th, 1954	
July 1st, 1954, to June 30th, 1955	
July 1st, 1955, to June 30th, 1956_._
Totals	
8,798
11,324
14,820
19,321
22,977
20,487
18,929
24,178
29,605
34,152
36,815
36,412
97,727
180,091
Total calves vaccinated under the Provincial policy during the period from July 31st, 1941, to July 14th, 1950, was
83,730 head.
APPENDIX No. 6
Dairy-farm Inspections under " Milk Act '
Number of
Premises
Grades
Ungraded
A
B
C
Number of
Premises1
Prohibition
Notices
4,694
274
146
20
30
2
11
20
20
3
2
1
2
3,017
144
133
17
16
5
494
89
9
2
1
1,163
21
1
3
10
1
3
565
15
1
3
10
1
3
Totals	
5,177
48
3,332
595
1,202
598
1 Number of premises shown as ungraded is greater than number of prohibition notices issued as many premises
visited by Inspectors were already shipping solely to the manufacturing market, were going out of shipping voluntarily,
or had sold out.   In these instances, prohibition notices were not issued.
APPENDIX No. 7
Dairy-farm Inspections under " Milk Industry Act," 1956
District
Number of
Premises
Approved
Raw
Certificates
Approved
Fluid
Certificates
Prohibition Notices
Raw
Fluid
2,153
307
20
97
25
14
47
95
5
18
2
2
8
1,938
209
14
67
18
12
23
3
3
6
215
1
12
2
Southern Interior 	
West Kootenay _ _	
5
Totals            .    ..
7 fiss      I       nn
2,281
12
235 DD  114
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 8
Mastitis Examinations by Veterinary Inspectors
Inspector
Number of
Premises
Number
Examined
Number of
Clinical
Cases
Number to
Treat
Number to
Eliminate
Dr. J. J. Carney  _	
Dr. I. D. C. Clark 	
14
21
6
5
98
130
394
46
70
876
22
25
3
20
34
17
21
2
17
27
5
4
Dr. G. M. Clark	
1
Dr. W. C. Newby... _ 	
Dr. K. TJ Thompson
3
7
Totals     	
144         1      1.516
104
84
20
APPENDIX No. 9
Shipments of Dairy Stock under Dairy-cattle Placement Policy
Breed
Males
Females
Total,
Both
Sexes
Calves
Mature
Total
Calves
Mature
Total
Ayrshire 	
Guernsey   	
1
2
1
2
9
35
44
1
46
Jersey	
Totals
i
2
3
9
35
44
47
APPENDIX No. 10
Dairy-cattle Placement Programme, Summary, 1950 to 1956, Inclusive
Year
Ayrshire
(Number of Head)
Guernsey
(Number of Head)
Holstein
(Number of Head)
Jersey
(Number of Head)
Total
(Number of Head)
1            1
M.    1    F.    [    T.
1            1
M.
t
F.    I    T.
1
1
M.    1    F.    1    T.
1             1
M.
F.
T.
1            1
M.    1    F.    1    T.
1
1950 	
1951.... 	
1952..
2
1
1
4
12
6
13
2
4
12
8
14
3
1
6
1
1
2
1
37
21
22
25
12
4
37
22
28
26
13
6
1
9
4
2
2
1
30    |    30
43    |    43
53    1    62
2
1
-
26
33
5
10
4
I
26
33
7
10
4
1
....    |    97
1 | 109
9    |    86
2 |    93
6    j    98
5    |    76
3 |    44
97
110
105
1953......	
1954....
45
80
72
44
45
84
74
46
95
104
1955	
1956	
81
47
Totals.
4
37
41
12
121
133
17
367
384
3    |    78    |    81
1            1
36    1 603    [ 639
1            1
M-=Male.
=Female.
T.;= Total. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  115
APPENDIX No.  11
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 13th to 15th, 1956
Fat-stock Section
Number and Kind
Highest
Price
per Cwt.
Lowest
Price
per Cwt.
1956
Average
1955
Average
Car-lots of 15 steers .
Groups of 5 steers..
Open singles and boys' and girls' classes..
Spares. 	
$18.50
18.50
42.00
$16.20
15.50
16.00
$17.30
17.21
20.15
$19.44
19.43
24.39
19.76
Breeding-stock Section
1956 Average
1955 Average
Breed
Number
of Head
Average
Price
Top Price
Number
of Head
Average
Price
Top Price
83
18
11
13
$462.00
321.00
210.00
351.00
$1,200.00
600.00
525.00
575.00
112
16
6
18
$508.00
415.00
147.00
366.00
$1,125.00
725.00
155.00
500.00
1956:
1955:
Breeding-stock classes, $51,045;
Breeding-stock classes, $72,285;
fat-stock classes, $50,631.34.
fat-stock classes, $73,172.64.
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Sale, Okanagan Falls, August 29th, 1956
Number
of Head
Highest
Price
per Cwt.
Lowest
Price
per Cwt.
Average
Price
per Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total Price
Cows..—
Heifers..
Spey-
Steers	
Pen of 5 steers.
Calves 	
Bulls	
Boys' and Girls' Calf Club..
Open singles  ._	
Stags..  	
Totals-
210
157
1
488
20
70
8
11
5
$11.50
15.00
14.75
19.80
20.10
14.00
10.35
30.00
23.75
15.60
$5.35
9.30
14.75
9.75
17.00
8.00
7.00
20.50
17.25
9.00
$8.30
12.08
14.75
16.90
19.07
12.95
9.80
24.45
21.71
14.44
I
209,570
120,445
1,030
435,735
18,475
21,930
10,385
9,540
3,955
3,230
834,295
$17,400.05
14,554.00
151.93
73,618.18
3,523.38
2,838.86
1,017.70
2,332.34
858.44
466.26
$116,761.14!
1 Plus gift to St. Martin's Hospital by Val C Haynes, $195.69, making a grand total of $116,956.83.
Second Sale, October 17th, 1956
275
135
33
310
285
22
2
2
$11.50
12.60
12.10
18.75
17.75
10.35
12.60
$5.35
9.35
11.50
9.10
12.75
10.25
12.60
$7.81
11.31
11.80
15.14
15.10
10.30
12.60
272,155
91,410
20,730
245,100
102,470
30,460
1,725
$21,252.30
10,329.72
2,445.3?
37,112.04
15,477.76
3,136.45
217.35
600 00
Calves	
Bulls                                              	
Totals                         	
1,064
764,050
$90,570.99 DD  116
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  11—Continued
Nineteenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Cattle Show and Sale,
Williams Lake, October 12th, 1956
Kind
Number
of
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total
Price
Steers  	
Cows...  	
1,455
565
20
689
414
30
7
10
$18.50
11.90
8.90
14.25
17.25
10.20
10.00
35.00
$11.00
4.50
8.90
8.30
10.25
5.50
10.00
21.50
$14.80
8.40
8.90
11.19
13.83
9.48
10.00
25.80
1,261,059
570,398
11,698
434,871
137,215
38,839
5,995
8,671
$186,661.19
47,917.38
1,041.12
48,663.13
18,975.91
3,671.77
599.50
2,237.08
Heifers      .
Calves        	
Bulls  	
Stags        	
Boys' and girls' singles  ...
Totals.	
3,190
	
2,468,746
$309,767.08
Thirteenth Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale, October 23rd, 1956
Kind
Number
of
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total
Price
470
203
281
22
23
177
$17.20
13.40
11.00
9.10
8.10
15.75
$8.90
7.20
5.60
6.50
8.10
3.75
$13.71
10.31
7.49
8.84
8.10
12.53
413,672
140,301
289,207
30,263
17,557
70,111
$56,720.60
14,468.84
21,649.64
Bulls    	
Miscellaneous.. 	
Calves	
2,675.52
1,422.12
8,786.00
Totals	
1,176
	
961,111
$105,722.72
British Columbia Livestock Producers' Co-operative Association Auction Sale,
October 26th, 1956
Kind
Number
of
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total
Price
Bulls    .....
s
ftQ.fiO
$8.25
11.75
6.00
7.50
13.85
8.00
7.50
11.00
4.25
7.00
$9.18
14.05
14.14
15.40
13.85
11.48
13.63
14.06
7.38
9,500
13,030
220,665
128,680
2,750
126,340
80,390
3,610
198,430
	
$871.69
1,830.46
~K4       1       15.75
322
330
6
197
213
9
196
2pr.
17.85
17.00
13.85
15.75
16.10
14.50
11.60
8.60
31,210.62
19,810.75
Steer and bull calves  	
Heifers      .. 	
380.88
14,504.86
10,959.19
Calves   	
Cows  	
507.70
14,638.99
Totals	
1,317
	
783,395
$94,715.14
Second Sale, November 28th, 1956
Cows   _	
Steers  	
52
142
366
2
98
273
8
14
$11.75
17.25
17.25
14.50
12.85
16.35
9.50
16.00
$3.00
9.00
7.75
14.50
9.00
6.75
8.25
10.75
$7.29
13.48
15.71
14.50
10.53
13.61
9.42
13.66
48,320
1,001,150
134.470
580
66,730
83,810
11,680
4,190
$3,521.98
13,499.51
21,129.21
Calves     	
Heifers
84.10
7,025.97
11,407.07
Bulls        	
1,099.71
572.36
Totals  	
955
	
	
1,350,930
$58,339.91 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  117
APPENDIX No.  11—Continued
Williams Lake Fall Sale, November 1st, 1956
Kind
Number
of
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total
Price
Steers  	
Cows  	
Heifers  	
Calves —   	
Bulls     	
718
529
359
424
47
4
30
$17.50
9.35
10.25
16.35
8.35
7.10
8.00
$7.85
4.00
7.00
11.00
7.75
7.10
2.00
$13.26
6.42
9.26
13.24
8.27
7.10
4.54
608,036
499,677
242,017
135,473
64,661
3,104
21,515
$80,630.69
32,092.99
22,416.62
17,942.74
5,344.37
Stags 	
Miscellaneous 	
220.38
977.74
Totals 	
2,111
	
1,574,483
$159,625.53
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops, November 14th, 1956
Kind
Number of
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt., 1956
Average
Price per
Cwt., 1955
Total
Weight
Total
Price
105
55
2
33
58
35
197
32
$22.50
22.10
17.60
70.00
19.50
25.00
100.00
15.80
$16.50
16.70
17.60
18.00
15.50
18.00
16.00
15.30
$19.45
19.22
17.60
27.37
18.62
19.48
22.00
15.53
$20.63
20.22
19.09
94,313
50,769
3,667
3,219
5,572
3,316
173,647
24,880
$17,952.72
9,798.69
645.39
Open singles and boys' and girls' entries of
881.10
1,037.25
646.08
Open singles and boys' and girls' entries of
21.96
21.96
38,400.43
3,845.33
Totals     -	
517
359,383
$73,206.99!
1 Plus Lot No. 27 donated to Red Cross for resale, $58.30 (lambs); plus Lot No. 48 donated to Governor of Bank
of Canada for resale to re-establish credit for British Columbia ranchers for resale, $32.01 (lamb); plus Lot No. 495
donated to Society for Retarded Children for resale, $407.60 (steer); plus Lot No. 668 donated to Salvation Army for
resale, $344.37 (steer), making a total of $842.28 and a grand total of $74,049.27.
1956 Head
Total fat stock   391
Total lambs  126
Total sale  517
Value
$70,642.56
2,564.43
$73,206.99
Average price of qualified stock per hundredweight, $19.57.
1955                          Head Value
Total fat stock   512 $101,169.30
Total lambs   115 2,505.57
Total heifers          6 726.00
Total sale   633 $104,733.06
Average price of qualified stock per hundredweight, $20.64.
APPENDIX No.  12
Dairy Herd Improvement Associations—Breed Averages for 1955
Breed
Percentage
of Total
D.H.I.
Records
Milk, Lb.
Fat
Per Cent
Lb.
4.2
19.1
44.3
21.6
10.8
8,614
8,136
11,154
7,496
8,931
4.07
4.76
3.67
5.10
4.34
351
Guernsey    	
387
410
Jersey.	
etc.)	
382
388 DD  118
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  13
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, January 1st to May 11th, 1956
Diseases Due to—
to
u
si
IA
ca
rt
O
O
to
(3
S
3
O
e-t
to
fa rt
a a,
U..O
on
o
a
u_
si
Jo
a c
Remarks
Total
Bacteria
3,369
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
9
3
4
2
17
1
3
1
3
2
1
1
1
7
4
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
4
3
4
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
i
1
1
1
2
N., 3,252; P., 96; S., 24..
3,372
9
2 budgerigar, 1 chinchilla
7
	
4
1
1
3
Protozoa
Chukar	
Chinchilla, negative	
1
22
3
Metazoa
1
1
2
Virus
1
	
4
1
3
1
	
1
Miscellaneous
3
1
2
Cysts   	
1
1
1
3
1
3
Hatchability...
Impaction  _        .
7
4
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
Omphalitis.  —
1
1
Phosphoric ac def	
1
1
Pork..	
1
Stiff lamb             —   	
Phosphoric ac. def.....	
1
1
1
1
4
Yellow fat  -	
_.   _
Chinchilla 	
1
3,375
7
4
2
63
6
26
1
i
3
2
3,483
Counted twice 	
7
3,375
7
4
2
57
25  1     1
3
2
3,476 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1956
DD 119
APPENDIX No.  14
Dairy Herd Improvement Associations
Association
Chilliwack—
Route 1	
Route 2-
Route 3-
Route 4 _
Comox Valley..
Cowichan	
Delta-
Route 1	
Route 2	
Dewdney-Deroche-
Route 1	
Route 2	
Langley (Route 1)_
Matsqui—
Route 1 _
Route 2...
Salmon Arm-North Okanagan-
Route 1 	
Route 2	
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge and
Richmond (Route 2)
Richmond (Routes 1 and 2)	
Sumas—
Route 1-
Route 2-
Surrey (Route 1)	
Surrey (Route 2)	
Langley (Route 2)	
Vancouver Island—
Centre	
South-
Secretary
H. C. Clark, 236 Carbould St., Chilliwack..
Ditto  _   	
D. Russell, R.R. 1, Comox .
W. R. Barker, P.O. Box 1017, Duncan..
A. W. Mitchell, R.R. 3, Ladner..
Ditto	
A. McDonald, Agassiz...
Ditto	
H. L. Davis, Box 103, Milner..
C. A. Sward, R.R. 1, Matsqui..
Ditto	
J. H. Thompson, R.R. 1, Salmon Arm-
Ditto     _.
G. Park, Pitt Meadows	
Stephen May,  159 No. 6 Road, R.R. 2,
Vancouver
William Porter, R.R. 2, Abbotsford..
Ditto	
R. J. Livingston, 7051  Pacific Highway,
R.R. 4, Cloverdale
R. J. Livingston   	
H. L. Davis    _
T. C. Tryon, R.R. 1, Parksville.
J. Pendray, 4160 Blenkinsop Road, R.R.
4, Victoria
Supervisor
R. N. Marriott, c/o Goods Service, 455
Trans-Canada Highway East, R.R. 2,
Chilliwack.
F. Wiffen, 295 Maple Ave., Sardis.
N. Daykin, 179 McNaught Road, R.R. 1,
Chilliwack.
S. A. Blabey, 816 McElwee Road, R.R. 1,
Rosedale.
H. de Blieck, Box 991, Courtenay.
Robin Lister, Box 1642, Duncan.
L. Craig MacNair, Box 76, Ladner.
G. H. Bailey, 5200 Trunk Road, Ladner.
A. H. Maddocks, c/o C. G. Lancaster,
Matsqui.
J. W. Stephenson, General Delivery, Agassiz.
H. Clair, Lone Rock Farm, R.R. 7, Langley.
V. A. Gill, R.R. 1, Matsqui.
S. P. Harvey, Mount Lehman.
A. Colly, Box 271, Salmon Arm.
P. Hibbert, R.R. 2, Armstrong.
R. MacGregor, Box 454, Pitt Meadows.
D. S. Heelas, 1657 West Fifty-ninth Ave.,
Vancouver 14.
C. S. Lillies, Box 392, Abbotsford.
H. Bylsma, No. 5 Road, R.R. 4, Abbotsford.
S. Baehr, 17172 Sixty-fourth Ave., R.R. 4,
Cloverdale.
) J. Egon Jensen, Box 631, Langley.
.
W.   T.   Galbick,   516   Churchill   Ave.,
Nanaimo.
V.  H.  Collins,  3236  Rumble St.,   South
Burnaby. DD  120
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  15
Cattle and Hide Shipments and Inspections, 1956
District
Cariboo—
Quesnel
Cattle    Hides
Williams Lake, Alexis Creek	
Clinton, Lac la Hache, 100 Mile House,
Graham Siding, Bridge Lake, Lone
Butte     	
Lillooet, Pavilion, Bralorne 	
Bella Coola	
1,593
12,710
7,972
1,410
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.—
Kamloops, Chase	
Merritt    	
   18,077
   11,715
Ashcroft, Lytton, etc    5,447
Salmon Arm    2,795
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby, Falkland..
Armstrong, Enderby, Sicamous..
Kelowna   	
Penticton, Summerland
Oliver, Osoyoos 	
4,429
4,482
2,201
709
3,818
979
484
95
4
15
23,685      1,577
1,540
473
145
578
38,034     2,736
1,645
238
2,493
84
921
District
Similkameen—
Princeton, Keremeos, etc...
Grand Forks, Greenwood.
South-eastern British Columbia-
Rossland, Crescent Valley	
Nelson, Creston, etc..
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc..
Invermere, Golden 	
Central British Columbia—
Prince George, Vanderhoof-
Smithers, etc.   —
Burns Lake 	
Peace River—
Fort St. John...
Dawson Creek
15,639      5,381
Cattle
Hides
4,355
1,860
97
835
6,215
932
323
1,469
4,121
1,612
109
1,049
934
7,525
2,092
1,770
2,363
1,097
1,323
1,061
194
5,230
2,578
667
4,744
434
3,743
5,411
4,177
Totals Compared
District
1956
1955
1954
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
23,685
38,034
21,854
7,525
10,641
1,577
2,736
6,313
2,092
6,755
17,061
28,953
18,000
7,009
6,288
1,182
3,263
6,898
2,549
4,684
22,684
29,312
15,687
5,544
6,407
1,569
2,853
6,625
3,153
4 033
South-eastern British Columbia 	
101,739
19,473
77,311
18,576
79,634
18,233
APPENDIX No.  16
British Columbia Egg Production (through Registered Stations)
Month
Grade
Estimated
Total,
1956
Total,
AEL
AL
AM
AS
APW
B
C
CRAX
1955
Cases
1,065
1,074
1,365
1,174
1,427
1,097
1,065
1,145
864
807
791
858
Cases
25,425
23,211
27,730
22,789
28,168
20,458
19,542
22,623
17,017
18,521
22,378
24,869
Cases
9,451
7,200
6,550
5,373
7,579
6,276
7,865
14,334
15,052
17,580
18,161
16,224
Cases
1,182
814
888
926
1,774
2,291
4,192
8,095
7,616
6,437
4,403
2,792
Cases
44
24
40
50
173
396
666
1,206
1,112
560
320
151
Cases
553
548
663
773
1,303
869
814
1,049
973
860
757
754
Cases
127
138
154
189
198
162
180
272
278
272
236
263
Cases
1,135
1,042
1,233
1,133
1,603
1,179
1,302
1,811
1,462
1,377
1,428
1,395
Cases
38,982
34,051
38,623
32,407
42,225
32,728
35,626
50,535
44,374
46,414
48,474
47,306
Cases
49,203
February. 	
March  	
40,040
37,590
35,155
May —	
June	
July  	
37,104
33,995
35,109
38,070
September.. 	
October     	
November.—  	
39,447
39,097
37,593
38,946
Totals 	
12,732
272,731
131,645
41,410
4,742
9,916
2,469
16,100
491,745
461,349
One case=30 dozen. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  121
APPENDIX No.  17
British Columbia Weighted Egg Price to Producers
(Average paying price weighted by grade.)
Month
1956
1955
1954
Canada, 1956
January...
February-
March	
April	
May	
June	
July-
August	
September-
October	
November-
December...
Cents
38.7
41.6
46.5
46.3
45.6
49.0
48.0
44.2
44.2
44.9
34.3
34.4
Cents
33.3
34.7
37.6
37.4
38.9
45.4
45.6
46.2
45.3
48.8
52.5
53.5
Yearly average..
42.7
42.1
Cents
40.8
42.8
37.1
36.6
36.0
41.3
44.6
36.3
34.1
37.5
30.2
33.0
37.5
Cents
32.7
35.3
38.6
39.1
38.8
43.5
46.4
42.1
39.1
42.6
30.6
29.8
38.1
APPENDIX No.  18
Poultry in Pounds through Registered Stations in British Columbia
Month
Chicken
Fowl
Turkey
Duck
Goose
Monthly
Total,
1956
5-year
Average,
1951-55
January 	
February     	
445,531
357,754
508,201
546,806
701,814
621,982
719,765
900,313
703,049
599,595
572,726
338,182
319,809
291,584
333,760
343,780
355,750
330,563
348,829
540,653
558,677
345,531
262,333
220,909
101,013
29,749
38,589
50,719
136,677
137,918
89,947
248,444
433,388
624,693
756,830
2,556,665
3,978
4,173
12,720
10,953
17,845
13,037
7,445
22,378
33,988
24,975
9,377
10,530
235
7,202
954
108
1,518
1,917
66
1,868
870,566
690,462
894,224
952,366
1,213,604
1,105,417
1,166,052
1,713,656
1,729,102
1,594,998
1,601,853
3,128,691
609,772
518,698
578,621
664,885
May	
885,175
804,061
856,594
July _	
August 	
883,438
1,069,718
October _  ...
November.. 	
December	
204
587
2,405
1,340,240
1,078,904
2,287,271
Yearly totals	
7,015,718
4,252,178
5,204,632
171,399
17,064
16,660,991
11,577,377 DD 122 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  19
1956 Average Monthly Producer Price for Live Poultry (Vancouver)
Month
Chicken
Fowl
Turkey
(Y.H. and Y.T.)
Under
3 Lb.
3^1
Lb.
4-5
Lb.
Over
5 Lb.
Under
4 Lb.
4-5
Lb.
Over
5 Lb.
Under
18 Lb.
Over
18 Lb.
Cents
26-28
26-28
26-28
26-28
28
27-28
27
27
26
22
20
20
Cents
26-28
26-28
26-28
26-28
28
27-28
27
27
26
22
20
20
Cents
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
28
28
25
20
20
Cents
37
37
37
37
37
34
34
32
32
27
23
23
Cents
19
20
22
22
22
21
20
16-18
14-16
14-16
14-18
16
Cents
21
22
25
25
25
24
23
20
18
18
18
19
Cents
24
26
28
28
28
26
25
22
20
20
20
21
Cents
36
36
40
40
40
40
40
33
31
31
31
31
Cents
34
February     .
34
34
34
34
June	
July
34
34
33
28
28
November _     	
28
28
APPENDIX No. 20
Poultry-flock Approval
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1956     	
231
414
311,693
291,086
1,349
703
0.035
0.010
APPENDIX No. 21
Poultry-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
Jan.-June
July-Dec.
Total, 1956
Total, 1955
611
80
534
1,969
3,522
975
15,703
10,579
8,845
886
3,985
1,356
1,490
7,138
67,608
3,592
113,467
27,497
9,598
559
4,596
1,436
2,024
9,107
102,829
4,567
129,170
38,076
18,443
1,445
8,853
3,464
2,458
8,265
118,562
2,645
S C White Leghorn	
106,049
21,781
19,521
A.O V.                                         - - -	
400
Totals	
75,403
236,290
311,693
291,998 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
APPENDIX No. 22
Turkey-flock Approval
DD 123
Number
of Flocks
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Average
Number
of Birds
per Flock
Per Cent
Reactors
1956 	
Five-year average, 1951-55  ■   —	
34
46
22,641
22,524
695
490
0.016
APPENDIX No. 23
Turkey-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
Jan.-June
July-Dec.
Total, 1956
Total, 1955
Beltsville Small Whites
4,658
511
681
17,826
247
22,484
758
26,408
455
142
216
216
308
25
White Holland,                  	
30
106
47
77
106
209
Totals	
5,305
18,336
23,641
28,228
APPENDIX No. 24
Amount and Kind of Vaccine Distributed
Type of Vaccine
1956
1955
1954
Newcastle disease     	
Infectious bronchitis     _         __
4,385,050
1,683,050
2,152,600
600,500
2,282,450
300,800
Totals	
6,068,100
2,753,100
2,583,250 DD  124
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 25
Bees
Table No. 1.—Table of Diseases in Bees, 1956
District
Type of Disease
A.F.B.
E.F.B.
Nosema
Sac Brood
48
4
2
12
3
17
48
3
69
61
7
10
3
C1)
—
C1)
Kelowna
(2)
Similkameen
—
274
13
Mild. 2 More than usual.
Table No. 2.—Showing Number of Colonies Actually Used for Pollination Services
Area
Number of
Colonies
Rented
Total
Charge
Charge per
Colony
Number of
Colonies
No Charge
Total
Colonies
Used
Crop
Pollinated
115
110
10
100
60
$561.00
810.00
30.00
200.00
120.00
f   2 @ $7.00
\  95 @   5.00
(  18 @   4.00
f 40 @   6.00
) 70 @   8.00
10 @   3.00
100 @   2.00
60 @   2.00
1
j.    406
J
}       24
r
46
64
521
134
56
164
60
Fruit.
Similkameen 	
Vancouver Island	
Fruit.
Cucumbers, tomatoes,
bitter melons.
Legumes.
Kootenays	
Legumes.
Totals
395
$1,721.00
O)
540
935
1 Average, $4.36 per colony.
Table No. 3.—Honey-crop Report, 1956
District
Beekeepers
Colonies
Crop
Average
158
163
307
461
850
61
480
721
1,643
1,774
8,109
3,773
Lb.
36,000
54,075
110,081
127,728
721,701
482,944
Lb.
75
75
67
72
89
128
2,000
16,500
1,532,529
Value to producers of 1,532,529 pounds of honey at 23 cents per pound (wholesale), $352,481.67;   18,000 pounds
of beeswax at 55 cents per pound, $9,900.
. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1956
DD  125
APPENDIX No. 26
Summary of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Merchants, January 1st to
December 31st. 1956
Date
Consumed in British Columbia
Exports—Processed Refuse
To
Refuse
Processed Refuse
S.W.O.
Tons       Lb.
1
       1,040
1,000
1,000
1
1,480
       1,200
Tons       Lb.
438         195
881         850
1,064          10
287      1,820
443      1,100
175      1,200
31      1,000
40        570
25      1,350
83        205
352        520
660        380
Tons
32
Tons       Lb.
633      1,700
977      1,575
704      1,425
741       	
488      1,100
981        700
1,046      1,800
1,184        350
873      1,450
834     1,625
573        650
470        596
Tons
1,072
1,859
1,769
1,029
932
1,156
1,078
1,225
899
918
926
1,130
Lb.
1,895
425
475
April
820
1,200
June	
July     ...          .    .
1,900
800
August..	
September...	
920
800
1,310
370
976
Totals
4     1,720
4,483      1,200
32
9,510        971
13,993
1,891 DD  126
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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