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Report of the Lands Service containing the reports of the Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch, and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1957

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the Lands Service
containing the reports of the
Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch,
and Water Rights Branch
together with the
University Endowment Lands
Year Ended December 31st
1956
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
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H  Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1957.
To the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December 31st,
1956.
R.  G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 31st, 1957.
The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended December
31st, 1956.
E. W. BASSETT,
Deputy Minister of Lands.  CONTENTS
Page
1. Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands  9
2. Lands Branch—
Superintendent of Lands  13
Land Inspection Division i  31
3. Surveys and Mapping Branch—
Surveyor-General  39
Miscellaneous Notes—Permit Boundaries; Water Boundaries, etc.  44
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Survey  47
Legal Surveys Division  53
Topographic Division :  67
Surveys—
Peace River Block-Area to South i  68
Homathko-Southgate Rivers Area  70
Granduc Mine-Leduc Valley Area  73
Ingenika River Area  74
Geographic Division  .  82
Air Division  90
^4. Water Rights Branch—
Comptroller of Water Rights    99
Operations Division   104
Legal Division   112
Improvement Districts   114
International Waters   115
Hydraulic Investigations Division  120
(a) Hydro-electric Power Investigation  123
(b) Irrigation and Water-supply  131
(c) Flooding and Drainage  138
(d) Hydrology—Snow Surveys  142
(e) Fraser River Board  145
J 5. University Endowment Lands  153
6. Personnel Office  159
7. Mail and File Room  163 •as.
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o^*iiaoQft(i!a-<^ioao REPORT OF THE
BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDS SERVICE
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
The barometer of resource development and use in British Columbia is the land
and water business transacted between the British Columbia Lands Service, representing
the Crown as its real-estate agent, and public and private interests. During 1956 it is
a pleasure to record that the barometer has risen to yet another historic point—the volume
and variety of land and water surveys, mapping, alienations, and development have
increased over the previous record year of 1955. The inference is that British Columbians to-day are living in an era of continuing general prosperity, increasingly higher
levels of living standards, and rapidly mounting primary and secondary industrial activity,
with attendant and multiplying services. British Columbia is in the happy position of
being both a land of promise for the future and a land of economic and cultural dividends
in the present.
During 1956 a major undertaking of the Lands Branch has been the granting of
easements of rights-of-way for industrial enterprises. Those granted to the Westcoast
Transmission Company Limited for its natural-gas pipe-line from the B.C. Peace River
District to Vancouver are perhaps outstanding in the year's accomplishments. Easements
for rights-of-way for the West Kootenay Power and Light Company Limited, the British
Columbia Power Commission, and the British Columbia Electric Company Limited are
other examples of power and energy development needs currently of significance in the
British Columbia scene.
The Lands Branch boils over with the discharge of its many other land and water
alienation responsibilities. The keen demand for log storage and booming areas in the
coastal waters of the lower coast reflects the steady expansion of the forest and lumber
industries and the associated towing and related businesses. Purchase of Crown lands
continues unabated, particularly in the Peace River District and the area surrounding
Prince George.
Acquisition of summer-camp sites on Crown lands bordering the numerous lakes of
the Cariboo country was a noticable feature of the year's activity of the Lands Branch.
Co-ordinate with that has been a busy programme, in co-operation with the Parks and
Recreation Division of the Department, of selecting and setting aside a number of
reserves on these lakes for the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public.
To the above can be added the co-operation of the Lands Branch with many other
government agencies, both Provincial and Federal, on a host of matters dealing with
Crown land and water, such as highway rights-of-way, gravel-pits, cemeteries, Ranger
stations, airport-sites, public wharves, and foreshore and other water leases, and it will
be readily apparent that the true barometer of British Columbia's business is what land
and water transactions are completed by the Lands Branch.
The Water Rights Branch has been not a whit less busy than the Lands Branch.
The demands for water use in the Province have continued to increase, and the work of
the engineering staff, despite a continual shortage of trained personnel, has gone apace
with these demands.
Substantial progress was made in 1956 in the field of water management and
planning, and special investigations of great significance were started during the year.
Among these special scientific investigations were the commencement of the preliminary
studies of the Peace River and the Dease River with the purpose of evaluating, within
British Columbia, the hydro-electric resource of these streams. A comprehensive study
of the Chilliwack River was also started with reference to its power potential, flood-
control, and use for a supply of water to the growing population of the Lower Mainland
area.   Work also commenced with private engineering consultants. Crippen-Wright Engi- U  10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
neering Limited, to place together all the basic data on the Columbia River system in
order to prepare a report for the Government of British Columbia concerning the best
development of this river from the point of view of the interests of the Province.
In any and all, be they huge or small, of the developments of the natural resources
of British Columbia, surveys, maps, and plans are the indispensable bases upon which
they are furthered. It is no wonder, then, that the pace or tempo of activity within the
Surveys and Mapping Service during 1956 has been, to say the least, brisk and humming.
All divisions of the Branch—Air, Geographic, Legal, and Topographic—have been, and
are, under great pressure of work to meet the unprecedented demand for surveys and
mapping service.
During 1956 the Air Division completed an interim base-map programme of 35,000
square miles, on a scale of 40 chains to 1 inch. This is primarily for forest-inventory
work, but these interim maps have been invaluable in resource development studies when
standard topographic maps have not been available. Multiplex mapping services covered
some 2,000 square miles of territory for various projects in the fields of forest engineering,
water rights, and Fraser River basin studies.
The Geographic Division has continued to concentrate on the production of the new
2-miles-to-l-inch maps. This most useful contoured series, showing land status as well
as all buildings and improvements, represents the latest information on land and water
occupancy in British Columbia. Six sheets of this series have been published, and seven
sheets are in hand. The contributions of the Geographic Division to the production of
the popular British Columbia Atlas of Resources and to the operation of the " Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act," administered by the Department of Mines, are other highlight
efforts of 1956.
Subdivision of Doukhobor lands and legal survey of 14,000 acres in the Peace River
District were important Legal Surveys Division activities during 1956. Much of the
other activity of this Division during the year, apart from the regular land status and
clearance functions which become heavier with each passing year, had to do with renewal
of Land Registry plans and legal survey of highway rights-of-way.
Major triangulation and control projects were carried out by the Topographic Division. Of major interest could be mentioned the extension of survey control by triangulation of more than 3,600 square miles south of the Peace River. This work was
undertaken primarily for locations under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act." For
the British Columbia Power Commission, a control survey of Chilko Lake area was done.
The control network established was approximately 300 miles long and covered the
Homathko and Southgate Rivers as well as Chilko, Tatlayoko, and Taseko Lakes. To
control a proposed 18-mile tunnel extending from the Salmon Glacier and ending at the
Granduc mine in the Leduc Valley near Stewart, B.C., the Granduc triangulation project
was carried out.
The Surveys and Mapping Branch is dedicated to extend survey control and mapping
into the remote parts of the Province. As outlined above in the 1956 records of the Air,
Geographic, Legal, and Topographic Divisions, this important object is being furthered
with all speed commensurate with the Surveys and Mapping Branch organization.
As final comments, it may be noted in the record for the year 1956 that:—
(1) Dr. D. B. Turner, Co-ordinator, Planning and Development, University
Endowment Lands, submitted his University Endowment Lands Master
Plan Survey Report under transmittal date of December 13th, 1956. The
survey and preparation took approximately eighteen months.
(2) Units of the British Columbia Lands Service—to wit, Land Settlement
Board, Southern Okanagan Lands Project, and the office of Dyking
Commissioner—were transferred during the year to the Department of
Agriculture.
(3) The Superintendent of Lands, R. E. Burns, retired after long service, and
C. T. W. Hyslop became the incumbent. LANDS BRANCH Note 1
THE LANDS BRANCH
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years 254
pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer of real
estate and provide for the registration of titles, the "Land Registry Act" was passed in 1860.
The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-estate business in
a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that constitutes British
Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for land
quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants passed, cities came
into being, and companies became established.   Land was at the core of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation of
a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of
Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests exercises control of more than 90 per
cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia Lands
Service of to-day? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is charged with so
administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare, present and future, of
the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is
directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs
the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural, industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the " Land Act," the " Mineral Act,"
and the " Taxation Act."
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe lines,
etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use  and
enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites, cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land  and  foreshore for such  varied  purposes as  wharf-sites,  booming-
grounds,  canneries,  oyster  and  other  mollusc  fisheries,  and  for  boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft bases.
To  perform  these  and  other  functions   efficiently,   the  Lands   Branch  works   in  close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations,
town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Branches of Water Rights
and Surveys and Mapping within the British Columbia Lands Service, and all the departments
in the Government of the Province, notably Public Works, Education. Attorney-General, and
now Agriculture.
Outside the Provincial departments there is much business transacted with Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement Act
administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department
of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch and
this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this prime
duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many cases are the
only ones in British Columbia showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.—
Reprinted from 1952 Report. LANDS BRANCH
U  13
LANDS BRANCH
C. T. W. Hyslop, B.S.A., P.Ac, Superintendent of Lands
The continuing general prosperity and increasing industrial activity in the Province
is reflected in the work of the Lands Branch during the past year.
The granting of easements of rights-of-way for industrial purposes has been a major
undertaking. The easements of rights-of-way granted to the Westcoast Transmission
Company Limited for its natural-gas pipe-line running from the Peace River District in
British Columbia to Vancouver are mainly located on Crown lands.
In addition to the easements which were granted to the Westcoast Transmission
Company Limited in 1956, this Branch is also currently dealing with a number of applications for easements for rights-of-way from the West Kootenay Power and Light Company Limited, the British Columbia Power Commission, and the British Columbia Electric Company Limited. The last-mentioned company is in the process of obtaining easements for power transmission-lines running from Bridge River to Lillooet, Bridge River
to Rosedale, Cheekye to Powell River, and from Point Roberts to Maple Bay on Vancouver Island.
Applications for easements of rights-of-way have also been received from the Inland
Natural Gas Company for a natural-gas pipe-line from Savona to Nelson. This line will
effect the distribution of natural gas brought from the Peace River District by the West-
coast Transmission Company's main gas-line.
The keen demand for log storage and booming areas in the lower coastal waters by
towing and lumber companies still continues, and keeps pace with the expansion of the
forest and lumber industries.
Because there is a limited number of suitable sites for log storage and booming, it
has been necessary to carry out detailed investigations prior to adjudication. The matter
of lease rental rates was completely reviewed during the past year and a system of scientific appraisal developed in conjunction with the Surveyor of Taxes Office. As a result,
rentals on foreshore leases are now being set to reflect current values. Total revenue for
leases, rentals, permits, licences, and fees was $576,331.17, being an increase of 25 per
cent over the previous year. Special foreshore appraisal surveys were also carried out
for Steveston Cannery Channel, Ladysmith Harbour, and Centre and Long Bay on Gam-
bier Island.
There has been a continued demand for the purchase of Crown lands, particularly
in the Peace River District and the area surrounding Prince George. The economy of
the former area is expanding rapidly because of the extensive exploration programme of
oil and natural-gas companies and the construction of the Westcoast Transmission Company's gas-line and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The Prince George area continues to develop rapidly because of its strategic location at the cross-roads of the Canadian National Railway and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, and because of the increasing development of its forest industry.
There has been keen demand for summer-camp sites on Crown lands bordering the
numerous lakes that dot the Cariboo country. In this regard the Lands Branch has
co-operated with the Parks and Recreation Division in selecting and setting aside a
number of reserves for the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public on these lakes.
In addition to creating public reserves, this Branch has also maintained a close
liaison with the Department of Highways in reserving Crown lands required for road
construction and gravel-pits, with the Public Utilities Commission in setting aside
cemetery-sites, and with the British Columbia Forest Service in setting aside sites for
Ranger stations and other works. The Branch has also co-operated with the Federal
Departments of Transport and Public Works in setting aside areas required for airport-
sites and public wharves. U  14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Lowering pipe into ditch dredged in Pine River,  Pine Pass,  B.C.
Westcoast Transmission Company Limited, August, 1956.
■
B.C. Electric Company's easement of right-of-way for electric transmission-line on
Galiano Island. Easement continues over Strait of Georgia to Point Roberts, which may be
seen in the background. LANDS BRANCH
U   15
Most sections of the Administrative Section of the Lands Branch have shown an
increase in the volume of work during the past year. A brief outline of each section
follows:—
Purchase Section.—A total of 2,455 applications to purchase Crown lands
were received during the past year, an increase of 28 per cent over 1955.
Nineteen public auction sales of Crown land were held in 1956, as compared to sixteen the previous year.
Lease Section.—Seven hundred and nineteen applications to lease were received during the past year.   This represents a slight decrease in numbers
over 1955.    However, the adjudication of contentious foreshore leases
continues to be increasingly complex and requires additional time to
complete.
Crown Grant Section.—A total of 1,518 Crown grants were issued during
1956, an increase of 1.5 per cent over the previous year, and 987 certificates of purchase were prepared, a slight decrease over the previous
year.   There was a marked increase in the number of Crown grants issued
for reverted mineral claims.
Pre-emption and Reserve Section.—A total of 422 applications for reserve
were received during the past year, an increase of 8 per cent over 1955.
The demand for pre-emption continues to decrease.    Only fifty-four
applications to pre-empt were received,  as compared to ninety-three
applications in the previous year.
Easement Section.—A total of seventy-five easements were granted over Crown
lands, an increase of 241 per cent over the previous year.    The mileage
of easements increased from 83.5 miles in 1955 to 570.3 miles in 1956.
The exceptional increase resulted from the granting of easements to the
Westcoast Transmission Company for a natural-gas pipe-line from the
Peace River District to Vancouver.
Status Section.—A total of 6,494 acreage parcels and 12,779 town lots were
statused, an increase of 45 per cent over 1955.   In addition, this section
also completed 413 status jobs of a more complicated nature, and also
made 4,227 register entries.
The general administrative work in the Branch continues at a high pace.    This is
well illustrated by the fact that nearly 18,000 letters were received in the Branch and
approximately 3,000 inquiries were personally handled at the Main Office counter or
by telephone.
The drafting of detailed Orders in Council occupies a great deal of time, since it is
often necessary to carry out exhaustive research in their preparation. During the past
year 365 Orders in Council were drafted, an increase of eleven over 1955.
Total revenue for collections under the " Land Act " during the past year was
$1,140,178.27, an increase of 10 per cent over 1955 and 40 per cent over 1954.
The tables on the following pages indicate in detail the work carried out by the
Administrative Division of this Branch. The report of the Inspection Division is presented separately by the Chief Land Inspector. U  16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
STATISTICAL TABLES
Collections
Table 1.—Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1956
"Land Act"—
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc    $576,331.17
Land sales      563,847.10
Sale of maps and aerial photos        46,949.19
Water rentals and recording fees  1,081,592.07
 $2,268,719.53
"Soldiers' Land Act"—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project       $18,111.93
Houses, South Vancouver1  90.00
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act".
Refunds—advances and votes	
Total collections
18,201.93
99,528.97
132,272.08
$2,518,722.51
1 Three months only.  Transferred to Department of Agriculture, April 1st, 1956. LANDS BRANCH
CHART  1.—SOURCES OF COLLECTIONS,   1956
SEE TABLE   1   FOR DETAILS
U  17
Table 2.—Summary of Total Collections for Ten-year Period
1947-56, Inclusive
$1,770,413.49
975,772.41
1,045,969.03
1,159,988.86
1,692,737.85
2,761,152.78
3,705,480.02
2,065,181.52
2,248,293.16
2,518,722.51
Total
Ten-year average, $1,994,37 LI 6^
$19,943,711.63 U 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 3.—Sundry Revenue for the Year Ended December 31st, 1956
Collections under " Land Act"—
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc  $365,505.59
Crown-grant fees   20,280.00
Occupational rental   2,873.41
Royalty   60,699.55
Reverted mineral claims  14,327.72
Survey fees  7,551.93
Sundry  105,092.97
Total _,  $576,331.17
Table 4.—Summary of Sundry Revenue Collections for Ten-year
Period 1947—56, Inclusive
1947 hum $262,760.93
1948 mmmm 288,901.91
1949 na 322,683.92
1950 l^mmmm 387,435.19
1951 ^^mimhi 916,338.98
1952 ^HHHHiiBaHHMMnMal.694.073.93
1953 ^HMHHHMunHn 1,608,773.65
1954 ■■■■■■ 330,397.09
1955 ■««■ 425,595.79
1956 wmmm^^mm 576,331.17
Total  $6,813,292.56
Ten-year average, $681,329.25.
Table 5.—Miscellaneous Collections, 1956
Collections under " Houses, South Vancouver "•—
Principal     	
Interest1   $90.00
Administration     	
Taxes     	
Insurance     	
  $90.00
Refunds—advances and votes     132,272.08
Total  $132,362.08
1 Three months only.  Transferred to Department of Agriculture, April 1st, 1956. LANDS BRANCH
U  19
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O1 U 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 7.—Country Land Sales, 1956
Surveyed  Acres
First class     1,794.00
Second class  20,545.70
Third class   18,016.60
 40,356.30
Unsurveyed  15,310.30
Total  ;  55,666.60
Table 8.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1956
Land Recording District Number of Sales
Alberni   20
Atlin  1
Cranbrook  21
Fernie   6
Fort Fraser  45
Fort George   127
Golden ._._  11
Kamloops   48
Kaslo   3
Lillooet   68
Nanaimo  29
Nelson   14
New Westminster  20
Osoyoos   3
Peace River  175
Prince Rupert  30
Quesnel  1  72
Revelstoke   6
Similkameen   89
Smithers   85
Telegraph Creek   	
Vancouver  55
Victoria   7
Total  935
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1956
Number Value
Alberni   38 $315.00
Anaconda  10 190.00
Athalmer   1 50.00
Balfour   2 150.00
Barriere   3 155.00
Beaverdell   3 150.00
Blue River   2 300.00
Brackendale   10 2,152.00
Carmi   3 70.00
Celista   1 150.00
Chase   4 399.92 LANDS BRANCH
U  21
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1956—Continued
Clinton	
Coalmont 	
Courtenay 	
Dease Lake	
Endako 	
Evelyn 	
Fort Fraser	
Fort Nelson	
Fort Steele 	
Fraser Lake	
Hazelton	
Hope 	
Hosmer 	
Houston	
Invermere 	
Kimberley 	
Lone Butte
Lower Post	
Masset	
Merritt 	
Midway 	
Moyie 	
McBride 	
Nakusp  	
Nanaimo 	
New Hazelton __
Pemberton 	
Port Alberni _____
Port Clements „
Port Edward ___
Port Hammond
Port Hardy
Prince George         168
Prince Rupert	
Princeton 	
Queen Charlotte	
Smithers 	
South Fort George	
South Wellington 	
Trail 	
Tulameen 	
Vananda 	
Walhachin 	
Wardner 	
Wells	
Wilmer 	
Windermere	
Yahk 	
Totals   1,007
18
$1,345.00
2
100.00
10
175.00
1
5.00
2
30.00
3
105.00
28
1,505.00
63
21,617.00
1
58.70
7
215.00
94
800.00
8
3,610.00
10
500.00
7
245.00
2
100.00
1
5.00
6
375.00
2
225.00
2
70.00
6
600.00
28
975.00
7
350.00
1
200.00
3
1,290.00
3
450.00
114
570.00
1
200.00
6
275.00
7
245.00
3
530.00
2
26.70
6
390.00
168
73,611.00
7
6,245.00
26
1,450.00
19
630.00
146
8,260.00
10
1,195.00
8
750.00
1
85.00
48
2,270.00
9
725.00
4
310.00
1
50.00
1
100.00
9
185.00
18
220.00
1
50.00
1,007
$137,405.32 U 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 10.—Land-sales Collections, 1956 (Collections under
" Land Act " (Principal and Interest) )
Country lands—
Reverted  $158,355.61
Crown      264,145.88
  $422,501.49
Town lots     123,245.52
Surface rights of mineral claims       23,293.50
Indian reserve cut-off         4,935.98
Total   $573,976.49
CHART 2.—SOURCES OF  LAND  SALES COLLECTIONS,  1956
SEE  TABLE   10  FOR  DETAILS
J LANDS BRANCH
U 23
Table 11.—Summary of Land Sales for Ten-year Period
1947—56, Inclusive
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
$811,752.23
379,650.48
375,254.88
366,458.62
382,256.61
619,263.14
594,004.08
488,303.49
605,469.42
573,976.49
Total   $5,196,389.44
Ten-year average, $519,638.94.
Leases
Table 12.—New Leases Issued, 1956
Number Acreage
Hay and grazing  140 45,099.73
Agriculture     10 1,709.50
Quarrying, sand, gravel, etc.       8 298.45
Home-site        8 108.50
Booming and log storage     30 597.92
Oyster, clam, and shell-fish       8 160.53
Cannery      __ 	
Fish-trap—salmon-fishing station       1 699.00
Foreshore—miscellaneous     13 157.00
Land—miscellaneous     46 2,471.10
Totals  264 51,301.73
Table 13.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1956
Number  65
Acreage  4,807.59
Table 14.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1956
Number        21
Acreage  62.86
Table 15.—Licences of Occupation Issued, 1956
Number        12
Acreage  82.73
Table 16.—Assignments Approved, 1956
Leases, land-use permits, licences of occupation, etc.  152 U 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 17.—Easements Granted, 1956
Number
Miles
Acres
Fees
Consideration
Annual
Foreshore
15
2
3.28
0.29
58.55
0.35
$445.00
35.00
Totals         	
17
3.57
58.90
$480.00
Land
14
2
1
1
1
1
38
16.45
1.92
3.5
0.002
0.006
0.17
544.71
183.56
7.21
16.97
0.0018
0.003
1.24
118,814.00
$1.00
$150.00
20.00
20.00
10.00
10.00
$88,976.15
58
566.758
119,022.9848
$88,977.15
$88,977.15
$210.00
75
570.328
119,081.8848
1    $690 00
Table 18.—Sundry Lease Collections ("Land Act")
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc  $365,505.59
Occupational rentals          2,873.41
Royalty        60,699.55
Total  $429,078.55
Table 19.—Summary of Home-site Lease Collections for
Ten-year Period 1947-56, Inclusive
1947-
1948-
1949-
1950-
1951-
1952
1953-
1954
1955-
1956
$2,932.25
2,265.74
1,926.99
2,040.33
2,123.65
1,398.80
1,394.30
1,562.60
1,267.52
2,050.56
Total  $ 18,962.74
Ten-year average, $1,896.27. LANDS BRANCH
Pre-emptions
Table 20.—Pre-emption Records, 1956
U 25
Land Recording District
Pre-emption Records
Allowed
Pre-emption Records
Cancelled
Certificates of Improvements Issued
Number
Ten-year
Average
Number
Ten-year
Average
Number
Ten-year
Average
Alberni  	
Atlin   	
1
6
1
1
20
6
0.1
3.6
12.6
1.7
3.2
11.7
0.5
0.2
0.6
0.4
63.6
0.2
14.1
0.8
0.8
0.5
8
8
2
2
4
1
21
7
1
4
1
0.9
7.4
22.5
2.0
7.1
18.0
1.2
0.9
5.4
1.3
44.2
19.8
0.1
5.0
1.5
1.8
2
3
1
6
0.3
0.6
Femie 	
0.1
3.5
7.7
Golden  -   _ __ _	
1.4
5.1
-Casio    	
0.1
8.5
Nanaimo   __.   	
0.6
.....       |          0.2
1                2.9
1                   2.1
Peace River  - 	
28
8
1
1
37.0
0.5
10.3
Revelstoke  -         -    -
Similkameen   	
1.1
1.3
1.0
1 2
n?
35
114.6
59
139.1
57.       1          R5 7
Table 21.—General Summary c
/ Pre-emption Records
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
Ten Years
Total
Average
Pre-emption records allowed -
Certificate of improvements
284
105
171
108
145
109
141
133
85
92
87
69
53
77
97
71
48
41
35
52
1,146
857
114.6
85.7 U 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Crown Grants
Table 22.—Crown Grants Issued, 1956
Purchases (other than town lots)   647
Town lots  493
Pre-emptions  48
Mineral claims (other than reverted)   39
Mineral claims (reverted)   212
" Public Schools Act "  12
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  7
Home-site leases  14
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  10
Surface rights ("Mineral Act ")   6
" Coal and Petroleum Act "  7
Miscellaneous   23
Total  .  1,518
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 7.
Table 23.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1947 K~—umasmmMmmmmmnsmmmMw—*mnBHMm 2,577
1948 __Bn__HBHnHn__BnnnH 2,063
1949 ■____________________»_______■ 1,602
1950 H____n_nH_____B 1,580
1951 HHBKBa_nwnaH 1,740
1952 ___________________________________________________■_■_____________■ 1,872
1953 ■nnnnHnmn 1,829
1954 mmt^mammmmtBnm 1,276
1955 ■MMHO-HBOMBB 1,498
1956 M-iMnH-M 1,518
Total    17,555
Ten-year average, 1,755.
Table 24.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1956
Acres
Purchases (other than town lots)   58,389.91
Pre-emptions  6,926.20
Mineral claims (other than reverted)   1,484.62
Mineral claims (reverted)   7,636.85
" Public Schools Act "  58.61
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  330.05
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  451.00
Home-site leases  184.84
Surface rights (" Mineral Act ")   137.40
" Coal and Petroleum Act "  4,480.00
Miscellaneous   228.55
Total   80,308.03 LANDS BRANCH
Reserves
Table 25.—Reserves, 1956
Applications Reserves
Received Completed
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  213 165
British Columbia Public Works Department (rights-
of-way, gravel-pits, warehouses, etc.)     87 54
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites,
etc.)     34 25
Miscellaneous (Forest Service Ranger stations, road
access, reforestation, etc., Game Commission,
water-power projects)      88 50
Totals  422 294
Sundry Collections
Table 26.—Collections under the "Soldiers' Land Act"—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project, 19561
Principal     $2,214.18
Interest  210.20
Lease rentals  	
Realizations  229.34
Water rates—
Oliver domestic   $4,594.01
Irrigation   10,864.20
     15,458.21
Total  $18,111.93
Three months only.  Transferred to Department of Agriculture, April 1st, 1956.
U   27 U 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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i-lC LAND INSPECTION DIVISION Foreshore lease for commercial use on Lower Fraser River.
Foreshore lease for small-boat harbour, Vancouver district. LANDS BRANCH U  31
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P. Ac, Chief Land Inspector
The year ended December 31st, 1956, was a good year from the standpoint of the
amount of work accomplished by this Division. An early spring and a late fall, together
with a relatively dry working season, enabled the field staff to examine and report on
a record number of requests. An analysis of the results of the past season's field work
revealed that 31 per cent more field examinations were made in 1956 than in the previous
year and 30.7 per cent more than the over-all average of the last three years. In spite
of the concerted efforts put forth by the field staff, there were 577 outstanding land inspections at the end of 1956, as compared to 578 outstanding applications at the close of last
year. This insignificant reduction in the backlog was due to a 14.5-per-cent increase in
land-examination requests over the past year. In addition to the above backlog, there
were 180 outstanding annual pre-emption inspections.
The interest in Crown land is apparently keeping pace with the expanding economy
of the Province. The Peace River area of British Columbia is attracting the greatest
amount of attention. This may be attributed in part to the expanding oil and natural-gas
industries, which have constructed many new roads and hence provided access to remote
areas. Prince George is growing in importance as the gateway to Northern British
Columbia, and this importance is reflected in the keen interest shown in Crown lands in
and around this area. Owing to the competition for land in this vicinity, the Department
has found it advisable to dispose of, by public competition, Crown lands within a 10-mile
radius of the city.
STAFF
During the past year several staff changes were made in the Land Inspection Division. Two Senior Inspectors—namely, J. S. Gilmore, Clinton, and M. Martinuik, Vancouver—resigned to accept positions in private industry. A vacancy was created on the
staff through the promotion of C. T. W. Hyslop from Assistant Chief Land Inspector to
the position of Superintendent of Lands. In addition, a staff vacancy for a Grade 1 Land
Inspector was carried over from 1955. The filling of the staff vacancies created by
resignations and promotions necessitated the appointment of four new Land Inspectors
and resulted in the transfer of six members of the permanent staff.
W. R. Redel, Land Inspector—Grade 2, New Westminster, was appointed Assistant
Chief Land Inspector. As the result of promotions and resignations, the following transfers were effected: F. M. Cunningham, from Prince George to Vancouver; A. F. Smith,
from Kelowna to New Westminster; G. H. Wilson, from Pouce Coupe to Clinton; A.
Paulsen, from Williams Lake to Kelowna; and D. I. Snider, from Williams Lake to
Prince George.
Vacancies on the staff were filled by the following appointments: G. T. Atamanenko
and J. A. Esler were appointed Land Inspectors—Grade 2 at Williams Lake; D. A.
MacLennan, Land Inspector—Grade 1, Pouce Coupe; and R. N. Mackenzie, Land
Inspector—Grade 1, Fort St. lohn.
Two Assistant Land Inspectors—namely, M. F. Robson and A. L. Leach, both
university agricultural undergraduates—-were employed for four months during the summer to assist the Land Inspectors in the Cariboo and Peace River areas.
FUTURE TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
In the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island districts, it is becoming more and
more apparent that much of the available Crown land is in demand for industrial and
commercial purposes. Land examinations on these areas require a more intensive and
detailed study to establish a fair market value than examinations of less competitive lands U 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS LANDS BRANCH U 33
in the Interior. Realizing the need for a more professional approach to land valuations
of this nature, some of our Inspectors have enrolled in an appraisal course sponsored by
the Appraisal Institute of Canada with a view to becoming fully qualified registered
appraisers. Their efforts are to be commended. It is highly desirable that all Land
Inspectors receive further instruction in the science of appraising, and it is hoped that
an appraisal course, sponsored by the Lands Service, can be made available to all Land
Inspectors at an early date.
SUMMARY
Looking back on the past year's work, it is quite evident that the expanding network
of Provincial roads and rail lines has been largely responsible for the increased interest
in Crown lands. In the Peace River area the northerly extension of the Pacific Great
Eastern Railroad and the network of seismic, oil, and natural-gas access roads has opened
up new agricultural areas. Most of the current applications are for the purpose of establishing home-sites, but we can expect additional applications in the next few years to
expand these holdings into economic farm units. The proposed branch line of the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway from Little Prairie to Fort St. John will provide access to large
tracts of Crown land in this area which were hitherto inaccessible. The completion of
the natural-gas line from the Peace River area southerly through Central British Columbia
to Vancouver will create secondary industries along its route. We can thus anticipate an
increased number of applications for light industrial and commercial purposes.
In the central and south-eastern sections of the Province, hard surfacing of secondary
roads and the extension of rural electrification has created a demand for lands which in
the past were too remote from established communities to create much interest. The
proposed Blueberry-Paulsen and Salmo-Creston cut-off roads will open up new areas for
land settlement in the Nelson area.
On the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver Island, industrial expansion is creating
a demand for industrial sites and water lots. Approximately 29 per cent of the applications in the Courtenay district were for log storage and booming grounds. In the Vancouver and New Westminster districts, a large percentage of the applications are for
industrial and commercial upland and water properties. New roads under construction
and projected new roads in these districts will open up additional new areas and create
a demand for available Crown lands. The Vancouver-Squamish Highway will probably
be opened late in 1957. On the Sechelt Peninsula the road from Powell River to Gibsons Landing has been improved and, except for a few miles, is black-topped. In the
Sechelt area the improved roads have encouraged tourist travel, with an increased demand
for summer-home sites.
During the past year there has been an increased interest shown in immature forest-
cover. This has primarily been due to the establishment of additional chipper-mills and
pulp plants and the demand for immature lodgepole pine for stud-mills. Immature cover
is thus assuming new importance, and the Land Inspector has been called upon to cruise
and evaluate this type of cover on all Crown lands that are under application.
The following table is a breakdown of the number and types of examinations completed during the past year:—
Purchases—
Agricultural (other than grazing)   377
Access (roads, etc.)      11
Commercial (resorts, service-stations, hotels, airfields, etc.)___    70
Community (cemeteries, church-sites, parking areas, etc.)     14
Grazing (pasture, range)  176
Home-sites (permanent)   336
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants, etc.)     75
Summer home or campsite  136
Woodlots or tree farms     25
  1,220
2 U 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Leases—
Land—
Agriculture (other than grazing)     76
Commercial  (resorts, service-stations, hotels,  airfields,
etc.)        8
Community (parks, cemeteries, dump-sites, etc.)       8
Fur-farming        1
Grazing (pasture, range, hay-cutting, etc.)   208
Home-sites (section 83 of the " Land Act")     10
Home-sites (permanent, other than section 83 of "Land
Act")         8
Industrial (mill-sites, power-sites, manufacturing plants,
etc.)      25
Summer home or camp site       7
Quarrying (sand, gravel, limestone, diatomaceous earth,
etc.)      29
Subdivisions—
Valuations  54
Survey inspection  1
Plans cancellation  1
Proposals (lake-shore, residential, etc.)  14
380
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage or log-dumping  128
Commercial   (boat  rentals,   marine   service-station,
wharves, etc.)      41
Industrial (mill-sites, canneries, factory-sites, wharves,
etc.)        8
Quarrying (sand and gravel from river-beds)     ____
Oyster and shell-fish     23
      200
Land-use permits         54
Licences of occupation        34
Easements    5
Pre-emptions—
Applications      50
Annual inspections (including applications for Crown grant)  275
325
70
Reserves—
Grazing  '      2
Gravel-pits        1
Recreational     25
Others (State purpose)     13
        41
"Veterans' Land Settlement Act"        15
Land Settlement Board—
Classification        5
Valuations       2
Doukhobor lands      ____ LANDS BRANCH
Miscellaneous inspections—
Delinquent accounts  41
Land-use surveys  4
Land values (current market values)  10
Protests   32
Trespass   51
      138
Lease rental reviews (not recorded above)—
Land        4
Foreshore     32
        36
Pre-Crown grants—
Section 53 of the "Land Act"  175
Section 83 of the "Land Act"  120
      295
Property transferred to Crown valuations—
Department of Health and Welfare       4
Repurchase (section 135 of the " Land Act")        1
Applications under other Acts (Escheats, Quieting Titles, etc.)      4
9
Total  2,829
U 35
Foreshore lease for log-storage grounds, Lower Coast.   Note 2
THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Because the activities of man are kept orderly through a well-defined system of land
surveys, the Surveys and Mapping Branch is called upon to act as the connecting-link that binds
together many primary operations within departments of government and between government
and the general public.
Specifically, through land surveys, Crown and other lands, including water, are located and
identified accurately on the surface of the Province, and so made ready for alienation in any of
a variety of different ways. Further, a background of suitable maps and survey data is provided
to assist in the intelligent development of lands so acquired, and in the wise administration of
the natural resources associated with them.
In post-war years a great upsurge in the economic development of British Columbia's
natural resources has taken place. Each year shows increased activity in the disposition of
Crown lands for various purposes, ranging from the smallest individual application for a home-
site to industrial requirements involving many square miles of land.
In any of these transactions the Surveys and Mapping Branch plays an important part,
because it has the responsibility of clearing, as to status, all such applications for Crown lands,
whether small or large. This function involves complete record-keeping of all official survey
data by all sources, including a graphic record of all Crown-land alienations, whether surveyed
or unsurveyed.
Equally important, on the other hand, is the responsibility for the establishment, extension,
and recording of mapping control. These basic duties prescribe, among other things, the preparation of basic triangulation networks and aerial photography at suitable scales, the making of
control traverses, the delineation and maintenance of interprovincial boundaries, and the production of standard photo-topographic mapping, interim base-mapping, and cadastral surveys of
Crown lands.   The data are then condensed and presented in lithograph map form.
The main objectives, then, of the Surveys and Mapping Branch are first to provide
complete, accurate, and readily available maps on adequate scales with allied data, for
administrative control of resources and Crown-land transactions, and, secondly, to maintain this information up to date by keeping abreast of continuous cultural development.
A survey inventory of such a standard is obviously of primary advantage in encouraging
the present development of our natural resources, and further developments which seem "just
around the corner."
A brief summary of the functions of the Branch follows, and the breakdown is provided
by Divisions:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four Divisions of the Branch, being
Legal, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of boundaries under
the Provincial Boundary Commissioner-—namely, (a) Alberta-British Columbia Boundary and
(b) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary.
//. Legal Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial Acts, such as
Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to British Columbia
land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check of field-notes and plan
returns of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation and maintenance of
Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and composite (cadastral) maps; clearance by status of all applications concerning Crown lands; field surveys and inspections of
Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions as required; operation of blue-print and photostat sections.
///. Geographic Division.—Map compilation, drawing and negative engraving, editing, and
reproduction; map checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of British Columbia;
field and culture surveys for preparation of lands bulletins and map areas; preparation of legal
descriptions for and delineating administrative boundaries; editing and distribution of annual
Lands Report; trigonometric computation and recording of same; general liaison between this
Department and Federal and other mapping agencies on exchange of survey and mapping data.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field control—namely, triangulation, traverses,
photo-topographic control; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts for standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and multiplex mapping and other special
projects.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of
three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial air-photo library;
compilation of interim aerial base maps, primarily for British Columbia forest inventory; tri-
camera control propagation; multiplex aerial mapping of precise large-scale detail projects;
instrument-shop for repairs, maintenance, and development of technical equipment.
. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 39
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S.,
Director, Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
The Surveys and Mapping Branch experienced a well-sustained demand for its
varied services during the year 1956, such that staff, equipment, accommodation, and
operating budget have been heavily taxed at full capacity. Aggregates in the thousands
for various measures of work done are quoted in divisional reports which follow, so that
some broader aspects may be considered here without recourse to statistics.
THE AIR DIVISION
As the Air Division's main photo flying programme pushes farther into the north
each year, now touching latitude 57°, opportunities to fly smaller special projects in the
south diminish, especially from June to September, inclusive, when the photo aircraft are
stationed at remote northern bases. Following into the north close on the heels of the
new photography is the programme of interim map compilation. A high rate of production of these useful maps during the past two years is now overtaking a temporary
accumulation of new photographs (the raw material for these maps), to the point where,
from now on, interim map production will be limited to the area covered with new
photography progressively each year. Consideration is therefore being given to applying
energy which may accrue from a reduction in the rate of interim map production to
plotting contours on them. This useful feature has not been attempted hitherto because
of the pressing demand for the maps, with planimetry only.
The Air Photo Library continues its popular services to agencies of municipal,
Provincial, and Federal Governments, to industries, and to private individuals. There
has been a noticeable increase in use of its facilities by research scientists and graduate
students. One permissible statistic is that the Photographic Processing Laboratory passed
the million mark in the aggregate number of standard 9- by 9-inch air-photo prints
produced since its modest inception ten years ago.
THE TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
Having butted up against the Province's north boundary in 1955 with its triangulation programme in North-east British Columbia, this year, on the rebound, the Topographic Division carried out similar work in the unsurveyed wedge of country south of
the Peace River Block, east of the Rockies and west of the Alberta-British Columbia
Boundary, where locations and exploration under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act"
have been active and in need of survey control. Here again the well-developed technique
of tower-building was used in the low timbered basins of the Kiskatinaw and Beaverlodge
Rivers, but toward the south and west part of the area the triangulation network ascended
the foot-hills to the outlying ranges of the Rockies, where reversion to bare mountain-top
stations was a welcome change after four seasons of tower-building in the lowlands.
Two projects by the Topographic Division exemplified the benefits of co-operation
with outside agencies. The larger of these established intensive triangulation control in
the valleys of the Homathko and Southgate Rivers, through the Coast Range into the
valleys of Chilko and Taseko Lakes, with several cross-connections and laterals. The
purpose was to control detail large-scale air mapping for the British Columbia Power
Commission, which bore all field costs. This work, with very few additional main stations
on the higher ridges, will adequately control some twelve standard topographic map-
sheets in the region, and a valuable bridge between Coast and Interior triangulation
network will be established through some of the most rugged country in the Province. U 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The other project, comparatively small but spectacular, was a triangulation across
the Salmon and related glaciers from the Granduc mine to a point in the vicinity of
Stewart at the head of Portland Canal. This was to provide azimuth and levels between
the two ends of a proposed 18-mile tunnel. Besides useful control for topographic
mapping, the network constituted a rigid structure between points to the north and south
of Monument No. 18 on the Canada-Alaska boundary, which station was never occupied
due to inaccessibility. The Granduc Mining Company provided transportation facilities
by aeroplane and snow-tractor on to the glacier. The company also provided cabins on
the glacier for use of the survey crew, as well as living amenities at the mine for the work
at that end.
Both projects just described witness the fact that for major survey control, which
is indispensable, our government topographic surveyors are acknowledged as eminent
specialists. Outside agencies, both of government and of industry, are most appreciative
of such co-operation where their particular needs may be combined with results in the
general public interest, effectively accomplished under the direction of our Departmental
surveyors, trained in the highest tradition of government mapping surveys.
THE GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
The Geographic Division made good progress with production of the 2-miles-per-
inch scale maps of the National Topographic Series. This programme is directed to the
more settled areas of the Province and the sheets are very comprehensive. Lithographed
in colours, they show topography by contours, hydrography and culture compiled from
the latest data, including air photography and special field checks. District lots are shown
with official numerical designation, and there is a special colour legend for status of land.
These maps are replacing the old-style pre-emptors' series at 3 miles per inch, now
obsolescent. Steady progress is also reported on the new 10-miles-per-inch regional
series showing land forms. The third sheet, West Central British Columbia, is expected
to be off the press early in 1957. Three sheets will then remain to complete full cover
of the Province.
A very important function of the Geographic Division is the mathematical adjustment of all control surveys of the Province to what is known as the " North American
Datum, 1927." The work includes refinements to previous positions as control structures
are improved by new field survey work, as well as progressive reduction of the new work
itself by a method known as the " least squares" adjustment. An application of these
computations has been the co-ordination of all permits under the " Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act" to precise geographic positions, made possible by the new triangulation surveys
by the Topographic Division, already described. The Geographic Division is the Provincial map-distribution agency, and in this phase of work has had a banner year in
satisfying the unprecedented demand for all kinds of maps by the public generally.
British Columbia is officially and ably represented on the Canadian Board on
Geographical Names by the Chief of the Geographic Division. The tagging of the myriad
geographic features of a Province such as ours with appropriate and official names is
comparable in importance to the baptism and registration of our brand-new citizens.
The maternity wards for geographic features are the new maps of hitherto unknown
country, each of which presents numerous items in such forms as creeks, lakes, rivers,
mountains, islands, points, bays, channels, and so forth, as well as new settlements, all of
which should have names if they are to be usefully incorporated into the life of the
community in particular and of the Province in general. The naming of these features,
like that of new babies, is a very important business, and a strict set of rules is adhered
to. While there are occasional instances of controversy, one procedure which has met
with universal approval is the adoption of names of war casualties for features which do
not already have an acceptable or well-established local name.   New features named in SURVEYS AND MAPPING  BRANCH
U 41
this way serve as memorials to those who sacrificed their lives in the defence of our
country. In each case the next of kin are notified by personal letter from the Chief
Geographer, along with a complimentary copy of the new map which shows the feature
so named. It is hardly necessary to add that the acknowledgments are often very moving
in their expressions of gratitude.
THE LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
The Legal Surveys Division is the oldest and one of the largest in the Branch. Its
operations have to do with the actual use of land by the people in the form of Crown
grants, leases of various kinds, and rights-of-way, and for this reason perhaps come closer
to the human element than do some of the other aspects of surveys. Men are very conscious of their property boundaries if there is threat or provocation by trespass, real or
imagined. Also, in the complicated administration of Crown lands, it is essential that an
orderly and accurate system of legal or cadastral surveys is clearly established on the
ground and comprehensively delineated on official up-to-date maps and plans in the
Department; otherwise the same piece of land might be disposed of to a plurality of
conflicting interests, or, equally bad, pieces of useful land may be lost track of altogether.
A special effort was made by staff surveyors this year to relieve the pressure for surveys
of Crown lands under application to purchase in the Peace River country.
An unusual assignment was the direction of subdivision surveys of the Doukhobor
lands according to recommendations by the Royal Commission currently inquiring into
this matter. The scheme of subdivision was too large to be done by staff surveyors, who
were fully committed on routine work, but the task of preliminary subdivision design,
preparation of instructions, broad supervision, checking and approval of the final plans
and accounts were all handled by the Legal Division staff. The actual job was assigned
to a firm of private surveyors, which was able to offer the supervisory services of W. N.
Papove, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., P.Eng. His unique understanding of the Doukhobor peoples
and language contributed largely to the success of the work. Under Mr. Papove's
direction the services of local surveyors practising in the region were also utilized to good
effect.
PROVINCIAL BOUNDARIES
Some 70 miles of the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary along the 60th parallel of
north latitude, west of Teslin Lake, which had been surveyed under primitive conditions
over fifty years ago at the time of the Klondike gold-rush, were accurately retraced and
rehabilitated by a party under A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S. The operation used pack-horses
for local transportation, with main supplies being moved by float-plane from Atlin. This
could well be one of the last sizeable survey operations to use horse transport, especially
if the performance and supply of helicopters continue to improve as they have done in
recent years. This work is done under the authority and direction of the Boundary
Commission set up in 1943 jointly by the Federal and Provincial Governments. Costs
are shared between the two Governments.
It is expected that this work will continue in a westward direction for a comparable
distance next year, when contact should be made with another section of the boundary,
also surveyed some fifty years ago but believed to be of a better quality than the section
referred to above.
GENERAL
The surveys and mapping business appears to be entering a period of metamorphosis, something rather more sudden than its steady evolution during the past three
decades, features of which were the universal acceptance of air photography, optical
reading theodolites, the internal-combustion engine on the ground, on water, and in the
air, the portable voice radio, and mechanical computing-machines.    All of these have U 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
enhanced output in terms of man-power, which has become the short factor, with higher
pay, shorter hours, better amenities, and more stratified specialization. The problems
of man-power are also accentuated in government service where remuneration has been
traditionally non-competitive with industry. This has the effect of making government
service a training agency for industry, since, only too frequently, as soon as a raw recruit
has reached the point where the investment in his training begins to pay off, his competence and experience command higher remuneration outside.
On the other hand, the expanding economy of the Province has stimulated an
unprecedented demand on government for surveys and mapping. These circumstances
are forcing a metamorphosis upon us in the direction of automation, and it is propitious
that a number of recent technical developments give promise of progress in that direction.
Newly designed lenses for air-survey cameras are practically distortion-free, giving
exquisite resolution of detail, and uniform exposure over the whole area of wide-angle
photographs, which, together with new stereoplotting machines of first-order precision,
have combined to make photogrammetry an exact science. By this means the incidence
of surveyed control points on the ground may be spread out, at a great saving of expense,
and fewer photographs per square mile of country to be mapped need be processed, also
saving costs. For the first time since World War II we must admit that the air photography taken by this Branch, while still excellent, is no longer unexcelled. Our air photographs, unsurpassed for a decade, are now obsolescent, and our multiplex plotting
equipment is classified as third order in precision. This Branch has long been recognized
as a pioneer especially in air photogrammetry and in the use of helicopters. It should
continue its leadership in scientific progress.
Early in the year an electronic distance-measuring device of revolutionary design and
performance has been perfected in South Africa. Remarkably portable, this instrument
is capable of measuring distances from 1 to 20 miles to a precision of a few inches.
This promises to revolutionize control surveys. An air-borne electronic device developed
in Canada jointly by the National Research Council, the Royal Canadian Air Force, and
the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys for recording the height of aircraft over
the ground has been tested and improved to a degree suitable for 100-foot contour
mapping. Other electronic devices capable of solving involved computations, such as
the least-square adjustment of triangulation networks, do in seconds and minutes what
takes weeks and months by orthodox electric computers. Helicopters have revolutionized
transportation in the wilderness, giving our field survey crews veritable seven-league
boots.
Such technological developments will go a long way toward meeting the demand
for surveys without unduly increasing competition for man-power. It is a fact that such
equipment calls for considerable capital investment, the carrying charges on which will
tend to keep mapping costs per square mile at about the same level as in the past, but
our capacity for work will be nevertheless enhanced. First-order stereoplotting-machines
cost in the neighbourhood of $50,000 per unit; the new air cameras approach $15,000
each. The electronic distance-measurer costs about $5,000 per working set. Air-borne
profile recorders are quoted at over $20,000 each. A helicopter costs about $40,000,
or about $100 per hour to charter. Electronic computers are too costly for exclusive
use by most single agencies, so are rented by the hour at co-operative computing centres.
Surveys and mapping is being forced into big business. The day of the simple
theodolite, the chain, and pack-horse is over, just as the day of the spade, pick, and
wheelbarrow is over for road construction. Although the investment in modern equipment may be shocking, it should be realized that capitalization of the salary of each
additional employee at, say, $350 per month at 4 per cent is $105,000.
What are some of the direct benefits to be expected from a sizeable capital expenditure in such new equipment as described? Let us take, for example, the petroleum and
natural-gas permits in North-eastern British Columbia and the denser pattern of leases SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 43
which will follow actual discoveries of these valuable resources. The owners of these
tenures find it in their interest to accurately locate the corners of their holdings, and
especially the well-sites within their boundaries. To do this now, even with the benefit
of over 200 triangulation stations established at an average distance of 12 to 20 miles
apart over the 25,000-square-mile tract, it is necessary to employ competent surveyors
to run traverse many miles over the worst ground imaginable from the nearest triangulation station to the corner specified, and to extend the traverse from there to another
triangulation station beyond for a suitable tie. This is expensive and arduous work,
practicable only during the rigours and short days of winter when the boggy ground is
frozen.
With the most modern air photography, and first-order stereoplotting equipment,
it is possible to make a precise air survey of the whole area, based upon the triangulation
control presently established, without further field work. The corners of all permits
and leases could then be officially located with adequate precision on the air photographs
from co-ordinate values already known. Official copies of the air photographs, with the
permit and lease locations marked on them, could then be handed to the surveyors,
who could move directly in summer or winter to the spot by helicopter, confirm the
identification of the point on the ground, and mark it with an official survey-post. The
only traversing needed, if any, might be a few hundred feet from an identifiable photo
point to the true corner if the latter should occur in a non-photogenic site. The boundaries between the corners marked could then be bulldozed out in winter, with sufficient
accuracy.
Similar practice is applicable to all legal surveys in rural and remote areas, and
indeed in suburban and urban residential areas. Acceptable specifications for accuracy,
which vary according to land values, would be achieved by simply increasing the scale
of the photography and plotting. The conception is not fantastic that every cadastral
lot corner will some day be precisely identified and co-ordinated on an official air
photograph, probably on file and available for reference at the appropriate Land Registry
Office in the case of alienated lands or in the Department in the case of Crown lands.
When this is in effect, as it must some day be, the problem of lost and disturbed survey-
posts will be practically solved, boundary disputes and trespass will be a thing of the
past, and an infallible safeguard of title to real property will be at last realized.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
To acknowledge by name the many agencies of government, both Provincial and
Federal, and of industry which have given valuable co-operation and assistance to this
Branch in its varied activities, together with appropriate comment on the nature of each
liaison, would far exceed the limitations of this report. However, it is appropriate to
mention one or two representative items by way of example. The Federal Department
of Transport has continued its indispensable services in special weather reporting and
forecasting, in field radio communication, and in the various aspects of civil aviation.
The National Research Council of Canada has co-operated in a test of our standard
topographic mapping in two representative areas—one near Dog Creek and the other
in the vicinity of Smithers. The results of these checks are expected during the coming
year. The Provincial Highways Department assisted by building an emergency airstrip
near Dease Lake, which, with a small amount of additional work during 1957, will
render it suitable for use by our photographic aircraft in their northern operations.
We are very grateful for these services, as well as for many others not mentioned.
ADMINISTRATION
The Multiplex Section, originally set up by the Air Division in 1950 and since
enlarged from time to time to its present size of fifty-one projectors with four large and U 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
seven small plotting-tables, was transferred to the Topographic Division late in the
current year, complete with eight trained operators. The balance of the staff, up to
a total of eleven, is drawn from a rotation of field personnel during the winter months
and from trainees. The purpose of the transfer was partly to relieve the Air Division
of a disproportionate amount of responsibility and staff compared with the other
divisions, and to include in the Topographic Division a function more specifically within
its orbit, namely, preparation of accurately controlled topographic maps. It is planned
that a considerable proportion of the multiplex potential will be allocated to standard
topographic mapping at a manuscript scale of 2 inches per mile with 100- and 50-foot
contour interval.
One long-service member retired during the year. The late Miss Katherine Janet
Wilson joined the staff in May, 1919, and served for many years as secretary to the
Surveyor-General. She retired due to poor health in June, 1956, after thirty-seven years
in the Department, and passed away in the following October. During her long career
Miss Wilson made many friends in the service and among members of the land-surveying
profession. She will also be remembered by those of the Department who served overseas
for her loyal and energetic support in the form of knitted socks and other comforts during
the war years.
The Surveyor-General and Director had the privilege of attending the Eighth International Congress of Photogrammetry in Stockholm, Sweden, in July, thanks to the
benign sponsorship of the Provincial Government, the National Research Council of
Canada, and the Canadian Institute of Surveying. At the Congress he presided at the
seances of Commission IV on Mapping from Air Photographs. The Congress provided
an opportunity to consult with leaders in the field of surveying and photogrammetry
from all parts of the world and to see a remarkable exhibition of the latest equipment
in this field. The confidence with which certain remarks are made earlier in this report
was derived partly from what was seen and learned at Stockholm.
Individual reports of the four divisions follow in the usual manner, preceded by
a commentary from the Assistant Director, and a report by the surveyor in charge of
the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary re-establishment.
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES
By A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., Assistant Director,
Surveys and Mapping Branch
While this Branch experienced a good year in 1956 and can reckon many accomplishments in the surveys and mapping field, it may be interesting to pause and consider
a few of the attendant problems which have also been dealt with in the course of the
past year's activity.
The first of these deserving of mention concerns the specifications of the positions
of boundaries of old permits issued under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act " prior
to the revisions of 1954 and 1955. Various progress reports involving the participation
of this Branch in fulfilling the statutory functions of the Surveyor-General under the
Act in specifying such permit boundaries have appeared each year in these Annual
Reports since 1953.
By way of review, the problem of propagating survey control over the many
thousands of square miles of the north-eastern portion of our Province got under way
in the spring of 1953. Since then much has been accomplished, for, as well as supplying a background of survey control in the field over some 30,000 square miles of a
hitherto unsurveyed area, the office staff has contended with the arduous task of calculating all of the many permit corners. SURVEYS AND MAPPING  BRANCH
U 45
When the grid system, on which the location of future permits and leases would be
based, was introduced with the new Act of 1954, it terminated what had heretofore
proved to be an inadequate and confusing method of location.
However, although the 1954 Act provided a neat and precise method for future
locations, the Branch was still confronted with the greater portion of North-eastern
British Columbia covered with permits confusingly predicated on various points of
commencement, such as:—
(a) A staking-post planted in the ground and often difficult or even impossible
to locate.
(b) A topographical feature often indefinite and sometimes considerably different in actual position than that shown on the old maps.
(c) A mile-post along the Alaska Highway. Many of these posts are not
properly tied in to the right-of-way surveys, or are missing, and in other
cases have actually been shifted by the highway authorities due to more
accurate mileage data or because of adjustments due to certain relocations of sections of the highway.
(d) A corner of a prior location. Most of the old permits fell into this category, and it was not uncommon to have to calculate five or six prior
permits in order to obtain a particular corner. One can readily appreciate,
therefore, that considerable discrepancies might occur to the position of
a permit of low priority with higher priorities converging on it from
several directions.
The first problem was to calculate the positions of all permit corners, commencing
with the one carrying the highest priority and proceeding to that with the next highest,
and so on. This work actually was put in hand during the early stages of the large field
programme but much was left in abeyance, awaiting the location and co-ordination in
the field of all staking-posts, topographic features, etc. However, during the past year
all of the permit calculations were completed, and many were gazetted pursuant to the
powers vested in the Surveyor-General under the Act. It can be appreciated that these
calculated boundaries did not conform to the newly established grid system and presented
the Crown with fractional units to deal with. While a procedure was devised earmarking
such fractions for Crown reserves and ensuring that subsequent leases would nevertheless
conform exactly to the grid, the situation, none the less, was seen to present many problems in administration. Accordingly, in close co-operation with the Mines Department,
it was finally decided to adjust all of the old permit boundaries from the calculated positions to the nearest unit line of the grid system. While the new boundaries do not usually
conform to a zone line as for permits issued subsequent to the 1954 Act, at least they do
follow a unit line and thus eliminate fractional units. The maximum change to any
boundary is, of course, one-half a unit or about one-quarter of a mile. However, for
nearly all old permits the adjustment of all boundaries usually produces a compensatory
effect involving little, if any, acreage change. The few exceptions to this will merit special
consideration and treatment. This work of adjusting calculated positions to the nearest
grid lines was nearly completed by the year's end. It has presented a major task for the
Trigonometric Control Section of the Geographic Division but is felt to be well justified
in the promise of easier administration for the Government and the oil industry.
Another matter which has been under consideration for some time by the Branch
and particularly by the Legal Surveys Division is that concerning the definition of the
natural boundary presently adopted to define the limits of upland property abutting
bodies of water. The existing situation is unsatisfactory because there is no definite and
precise definition of such natural boundary in any Statute nor any clear procedure to
guide British Columbia land surveyors when called upon to deal with any such boundary.
Furthermore, the perpetuation of minor bends and sinuosities in  a natural boundary U 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
would seem to be unnecessary and often impractical when used as a property boundary
since these are frequently obscured or lost by the construction of works, grading,
dredging, fills, etc.
These facts were noted by a committee set up during the year by the Corporation
of British Columbia Land Surveyors with representation from the Legal Surveys Division
of this Branch. The committee confirmed previous opinions from this Branch that new
legislation would offer the best solution rather than a series of amendments to at least
four or five existing Acts.
A draft of a proposed " Water Boundaries Act" accordingly was produced which
defined boundaries abutting on navigable water as being a " natural boundary " or an
alternative " conventional boundary." The latter would consist of a straight line, or
a series of straight lines, following as closely as possible the natural boundary but
eliminating the minor sinuosities and bends. The conventional boundary was seen to
have effective use where a shore was flat, with the natural boundary very difficult to
initially determine and especially difficult, if in fact possible at all, to accurately re-establish at a future date. The conventional boundary would also be useful for industrial
sites where works would be constructed to the property-line, and thus the minor sinuosities common to the natural boundary could advantageously be avoided, especially as
construction, fill, etc., would tend to obliterate them. The proposed Act suggests that
the survey of a Crown grant in the first instance where a boundary of same abutts on
navigable water would be the natural boundary or, alternatively, a conventional boundary,
as the situation dictated.
Where a water boundary already existed by a prior survey and where accurate re-
establishment of that boundary had become impossible, then the conventional boundary
would be used, but in such cases would be referred to as a " boundary by agreement,"
and the pertinent plan would be signed on behalf of the Crown as well as by the upland
owner and, if necessary, by other adjoining owners. The proposed Act would preserve
the right of ingress and egress of the upland owner to the navigable water where a conventional boundary was adopted, as presently exists for the natural boundary.
The principle of accretion and erosion is also dealt with, the intention being, for
straightforward cases, to simplify the procedure of registration where accretion has
occurred and extinction of title where erosion has occurred. Many of these cases, of
course, are not or will not be straightforward and may exist due to a combination of
reasons. Agreement between parties where such a situation occurs may not be possible,
and the proposed Act then recognizes the need for a Court decision by way of the
" Quieting Titles Act."
As the year ended, the committee on this matter was very active, and it is hoped
that during 1957 this proposed " Water Boundaries Act " can be shaped into something
acceptable to all concerned and submitted through the proper channels for legislative
action.
During the year the Branch, again in collaboration with the Corporation of British
Columbia Land Surveyors, has been able to further to the point of submitting through
the Attorney-General's Department two proposed legislative amendments to the "Land
Registry Act" concerning certain survey matters.
The first of these involves the posting or reposting by British Columbia land surveyors of parcel or lot corners. At present there is no compulsion for a surveyor to file
a plan in the proper Land Registry Office covering (a) the posting on the ground of the
corners of a parcel of land which had previously been created by a legal description or
(b) the reposting on the ground of corners of a previously surveyed parcel which corners
had been destroyed or otherwise lost. Many of these types of survey have been and are
being carried out, with the result that a surveyor going into the field is handicapped and SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 47
confused at finding posts on the ground which are not on record in the Land Registry
Office.
The proposed amendment will make it compulsory for a surveyor to file a plan in
the Land Registry Office where such posting or reposting has been carried out by him.
Encouragement is also given for surveyors to file such plans, which in many cases number
in the hundreds, prepared prior to the enactment of the amendment. The results of this,
if it proceeds through the Legislature in the 1957 Session, will simplify investigation on
the part of surveyors and, therefore, will tend to reduce the costs of survey to the general
public.
The other matter again resulting in a proposed amendment to the " Land Registry
Act" concerns the preparation of plans on tracing-linen. It was submitted that the
larger surveying firms and corporations such as the City of Vancouver prepare a great
number of similar-sized plans each year for deposit in the Land Registry Offices. Invariably much of the surround data is common to most of the plans, and at present the
requirements of the Act involve hand-lettering of this data. The proposal is to allow
skeleton tracings to be produced by lithographic methods. A large firm could thus print
several hundred off a master tracing, each on tracing-linen and containing printed portions
covering legend, affidavit, notation for owners' and witnesses' signatures, etc. These
copies then would be available on which to add with India ink by hand specific details
of a particular subdivision by that firm, together with a completion of the pertinent
surround data. It was felt that such a procedure would improve the quality of plans
deposited and again have a tendency to reduce the cost of preparing them and thus
benefit the general public.
The above will perhaps provide an indication of some of the problems and situations
being dealt with by this Branch. In addition, there are and have been many others, some
of which have been covered in the individual reports of the divisions which follow.
BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY
WEST OF TESLIN LAKE
By A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
This report deals with the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary survey, undertaken
this year by the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary Commission,
to resurvey, as far as practicable, that portion of the boundary originally surveyed in the
years 1899, 1900, and 1901, and which is situated between Teslin Lake and Takhini
River. I was loaned by the Topographic Division to take charge of this party and was
conscientiously and efficiently assisted by George New, B.C.L.S., also from the Topographic Division.
In general, the terms of instructions for the resurvey were: —
(1) A retracement of the courses between the original monuments on the
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary to bring their precision to modern
standards of accuracy; that is, an allowable azimuth error carried by
angular measurement not to exceed 15" in arc compared to controlling
azimuth observation, and check measurements of distance to agree to
1 part in 10,000, or better:
(2) To renew or re-establish the original monuments by modern rock or pipe
posts to be referenced by pits and mounds and bearing-trees:
(3) To clear the boundary-line to give a 6-foot sky-line:
(4) To carry trigonometric levels along the boundary:
(5) To carry forward a triangulation system along the boundary to give
geodetic co-ordinates of third-order precision or better and to check
local azimuth determinations. U 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
At maximum strength the crew numbered eighteen. Besides Mr. New and myself,
it consisted of one picketman, two head chainers, two rear chainers and two supportmen,
five survey-hands or axemen, three packers, and, lastly, a cook. For the greater part of
the season eighteen head of horses were used for moving camp and supplies on the ground.
Three of these horses were also used to transport supplies and equipment to over one-
half of the triangulation stations occupied.
Our supply point was Atlin, where is based Peterson's Air Service, which flew our
supplies and mail to the many and conveniently spaced lakes along the boundary. The
last five camp moves were made by aeroplane.
Originally it was planned to commence operations at Teslin Lake, but, because of
the unusually late spring, ice conditions there prohibited us from getting to the boundary-
line, so a start was made on actual field operations on June 1st at Atlin Lake, working
east to Teslin Lake. Atlin Lake was finally free of ice on June 13th. The 47 miles of
line between Atlin and Teslin Lakes was completed by mid-August. Camp and crew
were then moved back to the west side of Atlin Lake and the line retraced westward to
Monument 70, situated between Taku Arm and Windy Arm. A total retracement and
remonumenting of 70.3 miles of boundary to the prescribed limits was completed.
All the original monuments were found and were in good repair. Whilst the original
sky-line was distinct from the air or from a distance, it was so overgrown by new growth
it was very easy to walk across the line and not recognize it. In respect to the accuracy
of courses, it was found that the original survey was most inconsistent both in azimuth
and distance. Our measurements revealed that the over-all accuracy in distance of the
original survey was no better than 1 in 200. The azimuths of each course varied from
an agreement of 02" to a discrepancy of 36' 30".
Azimuths were derived from periodic observations on Polaris. These observations
were obtained when we were able to get them, the controlling factor being the weather,
because, in spite of an excellent season of working-weather, clouds or high overcast made
stellar observing difficult.
Accuracy and a check on chainage was obtained by using double chainage, with one
crew working in links and the second crew making an independent measurement in feet.
In the process of measuring, 20 pounds of tension was applied, and the tapes were
supported at an even hundred feet, where practicable, and the temperature taken. Where
the unevenness of the ground made this impossible, the tape was supported where feasible
and 30 pounds of tension applied instead of 20 pounds. Corrections were then applied
for standard, slope, temperature, tension, and sag. Comparisons were then made between
the two independently derived distances, and if within the desired limits a mean distance
was accepted. If not, the course or bay was rechained until the desired agreement was
obtained.
In conjunction with the line-running, some 70 miles of triangulation, with stations
along either side of the boundary, was carried forward. The base for this triangulation
was two geodetic stations, namely, Teslin and Dawson. This triangulation, to which ties
were made from monument positions along the boundary, will give co-ordinated positions
for the boundary monuments, besides a further check on the azimuths of the boundary.
This phase of the work entailed setting and occupying some fifteen main triangulation
stations.
Final closure results of the portion of this net between Teslin Lake and Atlin Lake
are shown in the following table: —
Number of stations      10
Number of figures        4
Average closure per triangle  2.96"
Maximum closure, any one triangle  7.2"
Average correction after adjustment to observed angles   1.02" SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 49
Maximum correction after adjustment to any one observed
angle   3.45"
Error in azimuth on closing line  2.92"
Error in length on closing line  3.24 ft. or 1:46,800
Approximate length of network in miles  51 miles
The average elevation of the boundary above sea-level was between 3,000 and 3,500
feet, with a low at Taku Arm (2,150 feet) and a maximum of 5,910 feet at Monument
70, where the operation for the season concluded. The line ran generally over fairly
level country, with only two bad creek crossings, both of which were in canyons, the
larger of these being 340 feet in depth. It was fortunate and remarkable, as if by design
rather than coincidence, the way that the portion of boundary-line retraced this summer
skirted or ran between the many mountains and hills. Only over Dawson Peaks, just
west of Teslin Lake, and the more rugged section commencing west of Taku Arm, and,
of course, over the lakes crossed by the line, was triangulation for distance resorted to.
Should the boundary have been just north or south of its actual position, our problems
and difficulties would have been manifold.
Little, if any, merchantable timber was passed through; pine and spruce were the
main tree types. Predominantly the underbrush was scrub or arctic birch and willow.
The only berries noted were soopalalie, a few raspberries, cranberries, and low-bush
blueberries, the latter three only occurring on the eastern side of Dawson Peaks.
The outlook to the west for next year is entirely different. The mountains we had
just penetrated continue for the entire stretch of boundary remaining to be retraced.
They become more rugged and glacier-occupied. It appears that over 75 per cent of the
line will be above timber-line. The weather will be less clement, this mountain region
being a far wetter belt than the area worked in this year. Because of its altitude, delays
caused by low clouds will be frequent. Being above timber-line, the prevailing strong
south-westerly wind will make chaining impossible even where the terrain would otherwise be suitable. Triangulation will be the only answer. Because of the ruggedness of
the country and the altitudes encountered, "hoofing it" to work each day would be
arduous and time-consuming, therefore the use of a helicopter would undoubtedly prove
to be the most economical solution.   Triangulation tie of geodetic station " Elko " to highway survey.
Surveys for summer-home sites on the west shore
of Christina Lake. SURVEYS AND MAPPING  BRANCH U  53
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails the issuing
of instructions to the land surveyors engaged to make each survey and supplying them
with copies of the field-notes and plans of adjoining or adjacent surveys. After the
completion of the survey, the returns are forwarded to this office for checking and
plotting. Included in the above returns are all right-of-way surveys, such as for highways, railways, transmission-lines, etc. During the year 401 sets of instructions were
issued. This is an increase of 149 over last year and amounts to an increase of 60
per cent.
In 1956, 320 sets of field-notes, each covering one or more surveys, were received
in this office and duly indexed, checked, and plotted, and official plans prepared therefrom. Of the above-mentioned surveys, 307 were made under the "Land Act" and
138 under the "Mineral Act." At the present time there are approximately 93,550
sets of field-notes on record in our vaults.
There were 189 plans received from surveyors covering surveys made under the
"Land Registry Act." These were duly checked and indexed, and certified copies
deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands, a set of reference maps must be maintained, covering the whole
of the Province. These show all cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department.
Keeping these maps up to date by adding new information as it accrues from day to day
and renewing the master tracings when they become worn by constant handling form
a considerable portion of the work of this Division. Prints of these maps are available
to the public (see Appendix 1).
From the above reference maps, together with other information and facilities
maintained by this Division, it is possible to give an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel
of Crown land in the Province.
During the year a start has been made on the recompilation of certain reference
maps covering the south-east corner of the Province, within geographic grids which could
eventually be more easily designated under the National Topographic Series.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are received
by the Lands Branch and all applications to purchase Crown timber received by the
Forest Service are channelled through this Division for clearance. The orderly processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be made from the reference
maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans. A synopsis of the clearances
processed during the year will be found in Table A.
It has been necessary during the year, for status purposes, to obtain from the
various Land Registry Offices 778 plans; copies of these have been made, indexed, and
filed as part of our records.
Again this year this Division has co-operated with other departments of the Government by preparing and checking legal descriptions which they require. Those assisted
in this way were the Attorney-General's Department (descriptions of Small Debts Courts),
the Agriculture Department (descriptions of disease-free areas and pound districts), the
Department of Municipal Affairs (descriptions for the incorporation or amendment of
municipal areas), and our own Lands Branch (descriptions for gazetted reserves of land
from alienation, etc.). This year it has taken approximately 254 man-hours to prepare
the descriptions referred to above. U 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
BLUE-PRINT AND PHOTOSTAT SECTION
This Section continues to supply a service to all departments of Government, as well
as supplying all the prints and photostats required by the Surveys and Mapping Branch.
The total number of prints made during the year was 156,336, in the preparation of
which 106,601 yards of paper and linen were used. The increase in the number of prints
made this year as against 1955 is approximately 8 per cent.
The number of photostats made during 1956 was 49,413; this is an increase of
approximately 17 per cent over the previous year.
COMPOSITE MAP SECTION
This Section is responsible for the compilation and tracing of composite maps, at
a scale of 1 inch to 500 feet, of the more thickly subdivided areas of the Province, and
generally in unorganized territory.
However, it has been necessary during the past year to use the draughtsmen in this
Section to retrace Departmental reference maps which have become somewhat worn and
dilapidated through the constant use which they receive.
It is regrettable that this was necessary, but for the orderly processing of the large
volume of land-application clearances it is imperative that the reference maps be kept in
the best condition possible. It appears that it may be another year before we can again
commence our composite mapping.
LAND EXAMINATION PLAN SECTION
This Section is responsible for the preparation of plans for the use of the Land
Inspectors in the inspection of applications for Crown lands. The increase of the work
accomplished by this Section since its inception is shown as follows:—
Year Plans Prepared Year Plans Prepared
1953  1,192 1955  2,030
1954  1,552 1956  2,340
GENERAL
During the year a programme was initiated in conjunction with the Victoria Land
Registry Office whereby this Division would prepare for them linen transparencies of
certain registered plans which, through the course of time and continual usage, had
become somewhat tattered and worn. These linen transparencies were made without
any draughtsman's time being spent on them, the whole process being accomplished
through the facilities available in the Legal Surveys Division. This process is summarized as follows: A photostat negative is made of the plan to be copied; the cracks,
tears, etc., are then opaqued on the said negative, after which a film positive is made
in a vacuum frame. From the film positive the required linen transparencies are made
in the ozalid printing-machine. The only work required to be done by the Land Registry
Office is to put on the linen transparencies any required colouring.
The Registrar, Victoria Land Registry Office, was very pleased with the results
obtained, and it is his intention that this programme be continued during 1957, and he
is making available an appropriation to cover the expenses of this work. It is hoped that
this programme will eventually take in all the Land Registry Offices.
During the year approximately eighty registered plans were renewed by the above-
mentioned process.
Again this year the writer visited the offices of Government Agents, Land Inspectors,
Provincial Assessors, and certain other Government officials in the central and northern
parts of the Province with the object of laying before them the types of maps available
in Victoria and also discussing with them the best use that they can make of them. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 55
1956
LEGAL        SURVEYS DIVISION
SURVEY   AND   MAPPING    BRANCH
BLUEPRINTS   MADE
Y*eB9
5000 -
4000 -
3000—
2000—
1000—
CLEARANCES ,530
TRACINGS  MADE    &   LOTS   GAZETTED
 >v,m	
_Z___uI
2-3-9 Z_«fi
REFERENCE
MAPS =
COMRLED t_
TRACED	
COMPOSITE
MAPS 2
COMPLETED U 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The over-all volume of work which passes through this Division continues to increase
from year to year, and the staff is being hard pressed to keep the work flowing in an
orderly fashion. This Division continues to lose draughtsmen at an alarming rate, both
to other departments of Government and outside industry. Qualified draughtsmen outside the Government service command very much higher salaries. Thus many of our
staff find it expedient to sever their connection with us and accept employment in private
industry.
A detailed synopsis of the surveys made by this Division follows.
Table A.—Summary of Office Work for the Years 1955 and 1956,
Legal Surveys Division
1955
308
324
425
664
11
79
30
2,448
99
Number of field-books received	
lots surveyed	
lots plotted	
lots gazetted .	
lots cancelled	
mineral-claim field-books prepared	
reference maps compiled or renewed	
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared	
applications for lease cleared       1,186
coal licences cleared  23
water licences cleared  105
timber sales cleared       8,103
Crown-grant applications cleared        1,709
reverted-land clearances   648
cancellations made       3,011
inquiries cleared       1,763
placer-mining leases plotted on maps  2
letters received and dealt with       4,892
land-examination sketches        2,030
Crown-grant and lease tracings made       1,062
miscellaneous tracings made  63
Government Agents' tracings made  358
photostats made     42,233
blue-prints made    144,777
documents consulted and filed in vault     66,675
1956
320
445
425
336
35
93
23
2,279
91
1,160
18
69
7,164
1,651
880
4,591
2,004
91
4,937
2,340
1,040
115
286
49,413
156,336
82,118
FIELD WORK
W. A. Taylor, B.C.L.S., Supervising Surveyor
The demand for surveys from this Division continues to increase, and a total of
seventy surveys was completed by the staff field parties. This represents a 23-per-cent
gain over the previous year, in addition to which fourteen jobs were done at our request
by land surveyors in private practice.
Surveys varying from a small subdivision or inspection taking two or three days
in the field to highway and Crown-land surveys of four months' duration form our
programme.
The Lands Service made forty-one requests for surveys and the Forest Service made
ten. In conjunction with the Highways Department we carried out six right-of-way
surveys, and five field inspections were made at the request of a Registrar of Titles. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 57
The balance of the work is for various other departments and that initiated by our own
Branch.
The field staff has been doubling on examining plans in the office when requested
to do so by a Land Registrar. A fine degree of diplomacy, tact, and judgment must be
exercised in these reports.
This season it was possible to renew 368 old survey corners of the district lot or
section type with permanent pipe-post monuments, being an increase of 27 per cent over
last year's effort. Posted highway survey centre-line distance completed amounted to
102.6 miles, or an increase of 42 per cent. Despite the increased work accomplished,
we are hardly making a mark on the outstanding survey work needing to be done.
The writer made a field inspection and report on a riparian boundary fronting
Okanagan Lake and a resurvey of a district lot fronting Mara Lake, near Sicamous, as
the preliminary to establishing the Crown's ownership of land below the edge of the bed
of the lake.
In addition to our own nine staff surveyors, whose yearly reports follow, we include
that of F. O. Speed, whose services and those of his assistant, together with their vehicles
and equipment, were on loan for the field season from the Topographic Division. The
reports of three surveyors in private practice, engaged for a season's work by this Division,
are included and marked with an asterisk.
Subdivision, Re-establishment, and Inspection Surveys
P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S.
The first work undertaken was an inspection survey in West Vancouver and another
at Port Mellon. This was in February and had to be completed in March owing to an
excess of snow. Also in March the Forest Service landing-site at Pender Harbour was
surveyed and the Ranger station at Squamish amended.
This job was followed by the survey of access roads in District Lot 72, Oyster
District, near Ladysmith, and by the checking of some angles at Alberni in April.
In May my main programme was started, and continued until our return to Victoria
in August, covering a wide range of points, namely, Harrison Lake, Hope, Tulameen,
Vernon, Invermere, Kimberley, Canoe River, McBride, Valemount, Tete Jaune Cache,
Fort Nelson, Silver Sands Creek, and Clinton.
Later, work was done at Princeton and Greenwood, and in October at Prince George
and Summit Lake. Owing to illness, the latter job was completed by D. E. Watson,
B.C.L.S.
The year's work could be broken down as follows: Three new district lots surveyed,
four inspections made, four repostings carried out, together with one right-of-way and
fifteen subdivision surveys. Eleven old district lot corners were replaced with standard
pipe posts.
R. W. Thorpe, B.C.L.S.
The 1956 field season commenced with a " Land Registry Act" subdivision of part
of Douglas Townsite, at the north end of Harrison Lake. This survey, requested by the
Lands Department, was based on recommendations and a proposed scheme resulting
from a preliminary survey of the area in 1954. Twenty-two lots, of from one-quarter to
3 acres each, were laid out to conform with existing improvements and topography.
A foreshore lot fronting a portion of the above area was also surveyed at this time.
The outer boundaries of a portion of subdivided Crown land near Prince George
were posted and the area within reserved. This action followed an inspection which
indicated that, due to the broken terrain and costly road construction involved, it would
not be economically sound to open the area for alienation at this time. U 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In South Fort George the block corners of an extensive undeveloped subdivision
were reposted. The Public Works Department co-operated by opening up the roads
through the area prior to our survey.
As a result of numerous applications received by the Lands Department, portions
of Crown land on the west shore of Christina Lake were surveyed into twenty-seven
summer-home site lots. In addition, 3 acres recommended by the Land Inspector were
surveyed as public reserves.
An inspection survey at Naramata was made upon the request of the Registrar at
Kamloops.
In the course of the season, twelve old district lot corners were renewed with
permanent monuments.
D. W. Carrier, B.C.L.S.
The season started in April with a subdivision of Crown land establishing three lots
for the British Columbia Forest Service at Kamloops.
Next, the re-establishment of a 60-year-old mineral claim was done at Renata, along
with the survey of a park lot at Blue Lake, Osoyoos. In June ten parcels were created
under the " Land Act" for summer homes on Little Goose Island in Pitt Lake. The
main trip of the season encompassed surveys at Pendleton Bay, Babine Lake, which saw
five district lots (one foreshore) created for the Forest Service and one for an Indian
reserve, a one-lot subdivision of private land at Burns Lake, also for the Forest Service,
and a district lot at Houston for a Crown grant.
Two subdivision lots were surveyed for the British Columbia Forest Service on
Carney Hill, Prince George, and to the south a portion of the Willow River Forest-
development Road was surveyed, also at the request of the Forest Service.
Two district lots, one for a park and one for purchase, were surveyed in the vicinity
of 101 Mile, Cariboo Highway, and a subdivision of Crown land creating five lots was
made at 105 Mile.
In October and November a one-lot subdivision of private land created a park
extension at Lac la Hache, and at Williams Lake a district lot was surveyed, also for
a park.
At Puntziville in the Chilcotin, five district lots were surveyed, two of which were
subdivided into twenty-seven 1-acre lots to accommodate squatters.
At 85 Mile, Cariboo Highway, two district lots were surveyed at Mount Begbie, one
for the British Columbia Forest Service lookout and the second for an adjoining park.
In the course of this work twenty-four old corners were renewed.
G. T. Mullin, B.C.L.S.
During the 1956 field season a Crown-land survey was made at Yale Suburban
Townsite, producing fifteen lots. At the request of the British Columbia Forest Service,
three lots were surveyed as picnic-sites along Okanagan Lake, about 4 miles north of
Penticton; in conjunction with this survey, about a mile of highway was surveyed, linking
these lots together. Kaslo was the site of a foreshore survey done at the request of the
British Columbia Forest Service.
Two weeks of traversing and levelling were carried out at the University Endowment
Lands to aid in the planning of that area for subdivision.
The old townsite of Argenta was resubdivided in thirteen lots at the request of the
Lands Department. During the course of this survey five district lot corners were
re-established.
A resubdivision survey was also carried out at Savona at the request of the Lands
Department. Four inspection surveys were made, three at the request of the Kamloops
Land Registry Office, at Kelowna, Westbank, and Horsefly, and one at Fruitvale at the
request of the Nelson Land Registry Office.
. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 59
Vertical and horizontal control was established in the area between Fruitvale and
the Columbia River in order to lay the foundation for a contoured map being produced
by the Air Division.
P. W. W. Mosby, B.C.L.S.*
The major part of the work carried out this season in the Pemberton Valley has
consisted of the reposting of district lots created, for the most part, in 1890 along the
fertile banks of the Lillooet River.
Due to the lack of original posting and the subsequent flooding of the Lillooet River,
very little of the original surveys could be found in the valley itself. However, corners
that had been set above the high-water mark were in evidence, and a general re-establishment was made from these.
There is much dyking throughout the valley against the waters of the Lillooet River
and Ryan and Miller Creeks, and in fact a considerable area at a lower elevation than
the adjacent rivers at present constitutes swamp.
The valley as a whole is still susceptible to flooding, as was shown during a period
of sustained rain at the end of September when Ryan Creek overflowed and washed out
the main highway bridge.
The biggest problem affecting the field work in this area was that of crossing the
tracts of swamp and seemingly endless succession of sloughs.
During the course of the work, thirty-four district lot corners were replaced.
One new district lot, No. 8097, Lillooet District, has been delineated and then
subdivided into seventeen lots to create a small residential area adjacent to Pemberton
Townsite.
Highway Surveys
M. Perks, M.A., A.R.I.C.S., B.C.L.S.
This season three sections of the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway in the vicinity
of Cranbrook were surveyed, the total centre-line traverse amounting to 18 miles.
Continuing eastwards from the termination of last season's work, 6Vi miles were
surveyed from Wardner to join the survey by S. V. Shayler, B.C.L.S., west of Jaffray.
From the east end of Mr. Shayler's work at Galloway, the survey was carried a further
6V2 miles to Elko, where a tie was made to the triangulation station on Elko Mountain.
Moving west of Cranbrook, 5 miles were surveyed from a point 2 miles west of the
village of Lumberton.
During the course of these surveys forty-three lot and sub-lot corners were reposted,
and four falling within the right-of-way were witnessed. At few of these corners were
old posts found in situ, and practically no old bearing-trees were found. However, the
practice of setting posts in rock mounds, which have survived, where the posts have been
burned or otherwise destroyed, enabled the greatest number of corners to be relocated
with assurance. A few corners of which no evidence remained were relocated under
the provisions of the " Official Surveys Act" or from information on subdivision plans.
For about 7 of the 18 miles surveyed, the highway is paralleled by the Canadian
Pacific Railway. No posts of the original railway right-of-way survey were found, and
much time was consumed in re-establishing the boundary common with the highway
right-of-way.
C. R. W. Leak, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
Twenty-four miles of highway right-of-way were surveyed, being a portion of Highway No. 16, east of Vanderhoof, extending westerly from Bednesti Lake to a mile west
of the Sinkut River.
The major problem encountered in this project was the locating of old district lot
and section monuments, or their re-establishment, where all evidence of the original had
disappeared. U 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
>
 ■"
Survey camp, surveying applications to purchase, 45 miles east of Fort St. John, Alces Creek.
September 2nd, 1956. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 61
In all, ninety district lot or section monuments were renewed. Thirty-two of these
were re-establishments—that is, no evidence of the original was found—and a further
twenty-two were reset from old bearing-trees. Of the remainder, either the old wooden
post was found standing or its point located.
One hundred and ninety-nine standard pipe posts were used to monument the above-
noted corners and highway right-of-way boundaries, thirty-four of these monuments
being of the standard concrete type. One hundred and forty B.C.L.S. pattern iron bars
were also planted, chiefly marking points on the right-of-way boundaries.
This project also entailed the survey of a total of 31 miles of lot-line traverse in
order to establish lot ties and provide data for the numerous re-establishments.
Forest fires and road-building were the chief factors contributing to the many lost
corners of this area.
A foreshore lease was also surveyed for the Forest Service on Stuart Lake.
H. V. Buckley, B.C.L.S.
The main work of the season consisted of a survey of a portion of the Cariboo Highway extending southerly from the west boundary of Lot 9117, near Macalister, to the
west boundary of Lot 9174, where a connection was made with D. Watson's road survey.
The party of six monumented a 14.4-mile section of highway and replaced 45 district lot corners with pipe posts. In most cases original corners were found, although
difficulties were encountered in the vicinity of McLeese and Duckworth Lakes.
In addition to the foregoing, an extensive investigation of the boundaries of certain sections abutting on tidal waters at Gabriola Island was carried out.
Other work of the season consisted of the survey of a foreshore lot at Miracle Beach
on Vancouver Island and the reposting of a lot on the Industrial Reserve at Victoria.
Earlier in the year a survey was made to assist in the University Endowment Lands
development programme.
D. E. Watson, B.C.L.S.
A highway right-of-way survey north of Williams Lake on the Cariboo Highway
was the major project this year.
Commencing May 22nd and until the completion on August 31st, 16.8 miles, from
the south boundary of District Lot 8849 north to the west boundary of District Lot 9174,
were surveyed. The highway crossed thirty-two lot boundaries, necessitating the renewal
of forty-seven lot corners with permanent monuments. Most of the original surveys were
done by H. H. Roberts, B.C.L.S., and R. Haggen, B.C.L.S., in 1914 and 1920 respectively, and were so well preserved and accurate that little trouble was encountered
renewing them. There were 103 permanent monuments set on the right-of-way boundaries, of which twenty-three were in concrete.
The crew, consisting of six men, stayed at Lyne Ranch, along with H. Buckley's
adjoining right-of-way crew.
On completion of the highway survey, twenty-one lots for summer-home sites
between Cuisson Lake and Rimrock Lake were surveyed under the " Land Act."
At the request of the British Columbia Forest Service, a foreshore lot on Summit
Lake was surveyed in November.
F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S. (Topographic Division)
The right-of-way survey of the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway was carried on
from the end of R. P. Brown's and P. Shaw's 1955 field work, at the south boundary of
Lot 2835, to the north boundary of Lot 2530, a distance of 14.7 miles.
The highway was located in Townships 65 and 66, with the exception of the first
4 miles, which were in Sub-lot 2 of the Railway Lot 2709. U 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Some of the old surveys date back to 1887, although the majority of the surveying
was done just after 1900.
Most of the evidence of corner posts located near the highway had been completely
destroyed, a result of the land being under cultivation and also of the numerous fires.
Therefore, it was necessary to locate the adjacent corner posts in either direction, in
order to enable us to replace the lost corners.
A total of fifty-two corners were replaced with permanent monuments. Along the
highway a total of 31 P.-Con.s, 72 pipe posts, and 252 I.P.s were set to mark point of
curves, widenings, and lot crossing.
Ties were made by a 1:5,000 traverse to International Boundary Monument No.
121, and by triangulation to the International Boundary Commission triangulation station "Bride." Boundary Monuments Nos. 122, 123, and 124 were tied to the lot
traverses.
D. G. Whyte, B.C.L.S.*
A survey of the Trans-Canada Highway right-of-way from Spences Bridge to Oregon Jack Indian Reserve No. 5 was commenced on August 6th, 1956, and the field
work was completed on November 15th.   The length of the centre line is 13.75 miles.
Owing to the mountainous nature of the country, the duration of the field work
was longer than expected. However, this was partly offset due to the fact that there is
no timber or bush and, therefore, no line-cutting was encountered.
The condition of the section and quarter-section corners was found to be very good,
and there was no trouble in finding them. Practically all were standard D.L.S. iron pins.
In places where the highway makes a common boundary to the C.N.R. right-of-way, it
was found that practically all iron pins that were set on the C.N.R. right-of-way survey
were destroyed by highway construction. This, of course, necessitated extra surveying
to re-establish the C.N.R. right-of-way.
The traffic was quite heavy but generally paid heed to the " Survey Crew—SLOW "
signs. However, for some motorists it would not matter how many signs were put on
the road. This was proven when one gentleman ran into a new " Cooke " 20-second
instrument, despite the fact that the tripod was painted red and white like a barber-pole
and was set up between SLOW signs. The instrument was a total loss but fortunately
was covered by insurance.
One historical spot along this right-of-way is at Eighty-nine Mile Creek. The old
buildings used as a stopping-place and stable on the original Yale—Cariboo Road are
still in existence and being used, and are situated right along the side of the new highway.
These buildings were built in 1878. It is suggested that historical places like this one
should be designated with an appropriate sign by the Department of Highways.
Crown-land Surveys for Development
A. P. McLaughlin, B.C.L.S.
Applications to purchase, totalling 10,250 acres, with 61 miles of line run and
eighty-four pipe posts set, were surveyed near Fort St. John, Peace River District, this
year.
The two main areas of work were Mile 72, Alaska Highway, Montney and Alces
Creek, north and east of Fort St. John respectively.
In the former, approximately five and one-half sections were surveyed. These took
considerably longer to finish than originally expected, due to a wet June and July, heaviness of timber, and inexperience of some of the crew in bush work.
In the Alces Creek area, one block of eight sections was surveyed. This adjoined
some of A. F. Swannell's work of 1954. Three other applications in the same locality
were surveyed. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 63
Generally speaking, the weather, except for three weeks in August and two weeks in
September, was wet. Three inches of snow fell on September 2nd and lasted about
three days.
Of interest in the Peace River Area was the steady growth of oil-well roads, improving local communications; the laying of the gas pipe-lines; and the construction of the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The country is booming, though little of the money
is going to the local farmers and settlers.
A resurvey of Sections 1 and 2, Range 4, Highland District, Vancouver Island, was
carried out in the fall, five old corners being replaced.
A. W. Wolfe-Milner, B.C.L.S.
During the months of September, October, and November, I carried out district lot
surveys of Crown lands in the Peace River District. A total of twenty-four lots, varying
in size from 2V_s to 640 acres, have been surveyed and comprise an over-all area of
approximately 3,450 acres. This has involved running 22l/i miles of new boundary and
9 miles of retracement, together with 19V4 miles of traverse and the setting of ninety-one
standard pipe posts and thirty-two sets of pits and mounds or trenches and mounds.
Included in the above are seven old district lot corners which have been renewed by
standard monuments.
After three seasons spent on the survey of various projects in the Peace River
District in the late fall, I am of the opinion that the autumn months offer many advantages to survey work—no mosquitoes, muskegs frozen, leaves off the trees, seasonal
availability of accommodation, and in general a fair amount of sunshine and reasonable
temperature conditions. Against these advantages, however, are shorter days, high
winds, periods of snow and low temperatures, and the difficulties of setting monuments
in the frozen ground from November onwards.
This year, thanks to the availability of a bulldozer at no cost to the Department,
several miles of boundary and river traverse were run with the bulldozer clearing line,
while a single chainman and myself brought up the survey measurements. Excellent
results were obtained, especially along the bank of the Pine River, which at this section
was covered with thick clumps of willow and heavy underbrush. On some days we were
able to survey as much as 1 Vz miles of line.
Labour conditions in the Peace River area are such that it is almost impossible to
get local help for surveys. So much industrial activity is taking place, the conditions of
service in which are apparently more attractive to labour than those in surveying, that
wages equal to or above those offered in other projects fail to attract survey help. Unless
a surveyor has previous local contacts, he is well advised to bring a full crew from the
Coast.
General economic conditions in the area are good. The country is booming from
the advent of the Westcoast Transmission Company's gas pipe-line and of the P.G.E.
extension to Dawson Creek and Fort St. John. Everywhere one sees new construction,
and, judging from local gossip, applications for Crown lands are being made as fast as
various restrictions are lifted. The need for more British Columbia land surveyors is
very apparent.
The settlement of Little Prairie, where most of my survey activities this season have
been centred, is situated in a particularly favoured geographic locality. Lying in a broad
section of the Pine River valley, 70 miles west of Dawson Creek, it is served by the John
Hart Highway, and finds itself at the future junction of the P.G.E. branch lines to Dawson
Creek and Fort St. John. It enjoys superior weather and temperature conditions to
the areas lying both east and west of it, and is adjacent to mountains and lakes where
good hunting and fishing may be obtained. Tourist accommodation is still limited, but
a hotel and new restaurants, presently under construction, will go toward remedying this. U 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Community life, while still relatively undeveloped, is gradually taking shape, as evidenced
by construction of a church and a community centre through voluntary labour. It is
apparent that those who live here see a future in their village as a ranching area and
a railway junction, and have confidence that it will keep abreast of the prosperity which
has already arrived in the Peace River District.  From station
" Lone " looking
east over muskeg
The Departmental
Beaver FHF at the
south end of
Kakwa Lake
(elevation,
4,800 feet).
From station
Eagle " looking
north across
Red Deer Creek. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 67
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
With our surveyors working in the vicinity of all four boundaries of the Province
as well as in the Interior, both north and south, and with each survey required for a different purpose, the Topographic Division can report an extremely interesting as well as
a highly successful year's operation.
A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S., with a helicopter-equipped party, operated south of Dawson
Creek from a main camp at Stony Lake, which is situate at the westerly end of the Monk-
man Pass Road. Primarily a continuance of the past three years' triangulation operation
to the north, where the tall tower and flat muskeg predominated, this year only the northeasterly section followed that form. As the party progressed south and west, the topography changed to mountainous and eventually penetrated the main Rockies. This year
the tower, the cotton signal, and the rock cairn all played their part as targets. A total
of nine map-sheets, comprising approximately 3,600 square miles, were controlled for
standard topographic mapping.
A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., assisted by George New, B.C.L.S., was in the area west
of Teslin Lake on a re-establishment survey of part of the British Columbia-Yukon
Boundary. They were assigned from this Division to the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Commission for this purpose.
R. P. Justice, B.C.L.S., was in charge of a control survey in the vicinity of Chilko
Lake-Taseko Lakes. They completed approximately a 300-mile triangulation network
that will control multiplex-produced maps to assist the British Columbia Power Commission in its power-development studies and as well will greatly facilitate any future undertaking to produce standard topographic maps over the area. A helicopter again proved
indispensable in this extremely precipitous section of the Province.
W. H. Stilwell, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., established a precise base line and a Laplace
observation station at the junction of the Finlay and Ingenika Rivers. This is one of two
such operations planned to assist in adjusting the Provincial triangulation network along
the Rocky Mountain Trench between the geodetic networks at Prince George and Lower
Post. The second one planned for 1957 is in the vicinity of the junction of the Kechika
and Gataga Rivers, about 160 miles farther north.
K. M. Bridge, B.C.L.S., was in the area north and west of Stewart establishing control for a proposed tunnel to commence at the toe of the Salmon Glacier and end at the
Granduc mine in the Leduc Valley. This control was necessitated by the fact that Boundary Monument No. 18, although located in the centre of the network, was a common but
unoccupied station of the Boundary Commission work of 1908-20. Mr. Bridge's party
did a considerable amount of travelling on the snow-fields and glaciers which abound in
this rugged section of the British Columbia-Alaska Boundary.
F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S., was engaged in a right-of-way survey for the Legal Surveys
Division in the Rock Creek section of the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway (No. 3).
His report will be found among those of that Division.
During the month of May, A. M. Barber, B.C.L.S., was in charge of a multiplex
control survey along the Chilliwack River from Sardis Bridge to Chilliwack Lake. During
the regular field season he assisted Mr. Wight in the Monkman Pass area.
Resignations early in the year from the regular staff among the junior personnel left
the Division without any trained junior instrument-men, all had gone to more lucrative
employment. To fill the need, a concentrated four-week course for instrument-men was
organized, using college and university students, several of whom had been employed
the previous year as tower-builders. The course was designed to supplement training
the men would ordinarily receive during the summer.    While it did not provide fully U 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
trained instrument-men, as only time and experience plus training can do, it was successful enough to indicate the desirability of a similar course before the 1957 season.
All of the above projects, with the exception of the Boundary Commission re-establishment survey west of Teslin Lake, were under the operational direction of our Supervising Surveyor, E. R. McMinn, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
TRIANGULATION CONTROL SOUTH OF THE PEACE RIVER BLOCK
A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S.
The programme for controlling the petroleum lands east of the Rocky Mountains
in British Columbia, initiated in 1953, was carried into the area south of the Peace River
Block (see Plate 1). The survey control is primarily to assist in the administration of
the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act " by establishing monumented horizontal and vertical positions to which existing and future oil explorations may be co-ordinated. Secondly,
to control vertical air photographs from which standard 1:50,000 topographic map-sheets
may be compiled. The area controlled consisted of approximately 3,600 square miles,
with topography varying from flat muskeg to 8,000-foot peaks in the Rocky Mountain
Range.
The northern migration of this survey crew passed through Dawson Creek with its
mud- and dust-covered convoy of six trucks on May 28th, 1956, then on to Stony Lake,
where the Monkman Pass Road ends. This was the site selected as the hub of the survey
operation. The week to follow was busily spent constructing a base camp, clearing a
helicopter-landing, and trucking in large quantities of supplies from Dawson Creek and
from Grande Prairie, Alta.
The entrance to Monkman Pass, with its natural-gas seepages, had remained dormant
for centuries. Approximately thirty years ago a narrow wagon-trail was cut out by the
Peace River settlers in an effort to gain an outlet through the Monkman Pass to Prince
George and on to the Coast. This was abandoned after the John Hart Highway provided
the necessary link through the Pine Pass.
In recent years the oil companies have moved in with their bulldozers, seismic equipment, and drilling-rigs, converting the narrow wagon-trail into a well-graded all-weather
road and clearing miles of seismic lines throughout the area. Six oil-wells were drilled
and abandoned.   Two more were in the process of being drilled last spring.
The Pacific Western Airlines helicopter and the remainder of the thirty-five-man
crew arrived at Stony Lake on June 2nd. Preliminary reconnaissance and making up
and equipping the three-man crews for their first objective—the construction of triangulation towers—occupied the next few days. Sites were selected, and three crews were
ready to go just as the first spring rains came, bringing activity to a halt. On the third
day the skies cleared and activity resumed with the roar of engines as the helicopter
packed out the crews and the Departmental Beaver CF-FHF arrived from Victoria. This
brought to reality the first stages of the long winter's planning.
The survey covered an area south of Dawson Creek, roughly a strip 40 miles wide
paralleling the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary from Swan Lake south for 100 miles.
This area was flat to rolling muskeg lands with a deep-cut drainage system typical of the
Peace River country. Forest-cover was predominately spruce, with poplar and jack-pine
covering the well-drained slopes. Hand-logging of white spruce is done in isolated
patches along the valley-bottoms during the winter months when access is possible. The
soil is a heavy clay, with a few gravel ridges along the toe of the Rocky Mountains. These
ridges form the foot-hills, which are insignificant, making a very abrupt change from the
plain to the precipitous mountain faces. The only potentially arable lands comprise the
area drained by the Kiskatinaw River.
At the end of June, sufficient key towers were completed to enable the instrument-
men to throw down their hammers, pick up their theodolites, and head south and west SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Plate 1
U 69
Ge o de tic     Tr tang ula t io n
Main    Triangulat ion
Secon dary   Triangulation
Oil   Test  Hole    Tied In
Campsite
L.aMe   used for  landing   Beaver X U 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
into the Rocky Mountains. The remainder of the crew continued building towers in the
fly-infested swamps, with envious eyes on the mountains to the west just visible from the
top of the towers.
The dual operation of tower construction and mountain triangulation spread the
crews over a wide area, imposing a problem in servicing the fly camps. This was anticipated and solved by a central base camp at Stony Lake, from which the entire operation
was commanded by a 60-mile operating radius. The Beaver aircraft was used to deliver
gas, men, and supplies to suitable lakes for transporting by helicopter to the various bush
sites. This compensated for the otherwise large operating radius and accomplished a
more efficient use of the helicopter flying-time. Priority was given to the instrument
crews working in the mountains, and the tower crews were serviced generally during
marginal weather conditions when mountain flying was questionable or impossible.
Precipitation was light throughout the season, but strong westerly winds 40 to 50
miles per hour were common and persisted for days at a time. A 40-foot tower built
along the Murray River, using two growing trees as upright members, was blown over,
lifting the two anchor trees out of the ground, roots and all. Snow fell every month,
and 20 per cent, not including partial days, of the 125 days the helicopter was on the job
was lost because of stormy weather.
During the last week in July a crew camping on Quintette Mountain (elevation,
6,500 feet) had their tent destroyed by gale-force winds estimated at 70 miles per hour.
This was followed by freezing rain coating the mountain with ice and then snow. For
forty-eight hours these men lived in a cave, packing the cracks with their wet sleeping-bags
for protection against the wind and cold.
On August 2nd the Bell helicopter (CF-ISH) crash-landed into a thick stand of
40-foot trees 9 miles south of Stony Lake. Fortunately there were no personal injuries,
but the ten-minute trip out by helicopter took ten hours to retrace on foot. A replacement
machine arrived on August 5th and was put to work servicing the fly camps and salvaging
CF-ISH.
A secondary base camp was set up at Kakwa Lake for a two-week period at the end
of August. This camp was used to complete the south end of the main triangulation,
which in all consisted of eleven quadrilaterals covering a route of 120 miles.
The remainder of the mountain stations were observed and the tower construction
completed by the middle of September. The last of the students by this time had
returned to school, leaving a skeleton crew to observe the angles at the remaining tower
stations. This carried through into the first week in October, with its increased incidence
of poor weather and declining daylight hours.
The season's effort controlled nine map-sheets for standard 1:50,000 topographic
mapping based on multiplex plotting equipment and 35,000-foot vertical photographic
cover. Eighty-seven marked positions were established and eight oil-well sites and one
district lot co-ordinated. This, the fourth consecutive year of tower-building, completed
a sparse network of significant control covering all the flat muskeg lands east of the
Rocky Mountain divide in British Columbia.
HOMATHKO SURVEYS
R. P. Justice, B.C.L.S.
This season's task was to provide control for maps to be produced by multiplex, on
which the British Columbia Power Commission could base its power-development studies.
This control was to consist of a triangulation network approximately 300 miles in length,
forming three main loops which covered the Homathko and Southgate Rivers as well as
Chilko, Tatlayoko, and Taseko Lakes (see Plate 2).
In the latter part of May five men were flown to the head of Bute Inlet to establish
a base camp for operations in the Coastal section of the area.   By the first of June this SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 71
Plate 2
1   124-00'
SCALE
)      miles     a
Main      Triangulation
Secondary      Triangulation
Campsite U 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
camp was occupied by twelve men, including the helicopter crew. The remainder of the
main group, two seven-man parties, left Victoria on June 6th and were establishing camps
on Chilko and Choelquoit Lakes by the 10th. June, at Bute Inlet, was a month of low
clouds and rain, the crew being employed for the greater part clearing a helicopter-landing
beside the Southgate River as well as moving 200 kegs of helicopter gas from the
Homathko River to the base camp.
The actual triangulation commenced, with the good weather, on June 20th. There
are only two places to land a helicopter in these coastal valleys—on a sand-bar in the
river or on top of a mountain. Our work was confined, with very few exceptions, to the
tops, and the major factor in determining the location of stations was helicopter-landings.
These are in the minority in this type of terrain and are practically impossible unless made
on snow-banks.
It is interesting to note the marked change in the terrain as we left the coastal
section and worked easterly into the Chilcotin range land, where the ridges tend to round
out, become smoother, even grass-covered, the rivers and creeks meandering, compared
to the coastal range knife or boulder-covered ridges flanking huge glaciers, all pointing
to the raging water contained in the canyons of the main rivers.
H. A. Wickes and party completed the triangulation of Chilko Lake by the end of
July and then moved to join the helicopter party, which by then was camped on Tatlayoko
Lake. Chilko Lake is one of the main spawning-grounds of the sockeye, and during
September the head of the Chilko River is alive with these red salmon fighting their way
to calm waters. Chilko and Tsuniah Lakes are accessible by road and both have landing-
grounds for small aeroplanes, as well as lodges to serve the tourists, fishermen, and
hunters. Good catches of rainbow and Dolly Varden trout were recorded by the party
in both lakes.
Grizzly, brown and black bears, moose, deer, goats, wolves, and coyotes were seen
by the party throughout the summer.
D. G. Alexander's group with camps at Choelquoit, Horn, and Taseko Lakes, completed all areas accessible by road and then also joined the main party, which by early
September was camped at the south end of the main lake in the Taseko group.
Besides the three party chiefs, only one experienced instrument-man was used on
the job. Seven students from the University of British Columbia and three Air Division
staff members were given a month's training prior to the summer's work. The majority
of the instrument work was done by these men. This tried the tempers and patience of
the party chiefs many times, but the job was completed and completed as accurately as
had been planned.
A total of 205 stations were occupied and approximately ten conspicuous peaks cut
in, including Mount Waddington, in the triangulation of all major lakes and rivers in
this area.
Under instructions from the Geographic Division, solid ties were made to A. C.
Pollard's 1946 main triangulation and to John Davidson's coast triangulation of Bute
Inlet. A tie was made to this season's geodetic levels near Tatla Lake and a base line
established and measured on the Tatlayoko Lake Road. Many old cairns dot the eastern
section of the area, and a number of these were tied to this year's network.
Vancouver Island Helicopters supplied the uplift and did an excellent job. The
helicopter was piloted by Ted Henson, president of the company, and the maintenance
was done by Harvey Jones.
Reconnaissance and fly trips to isolated lakes were made by float-plane chartered
from B.C. Airlines, Campbell River.
Supplies were brought in from Williams Lake by truck and from Campbell River
by float-plane. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U  73
On September 30th, with the season's work completed except for the closure of a
small loop in the Choelquoit Lake area which was abandoned because of weather conditions, the party commenced preparations to leave the field, and by October 2nd the return
journey to Victoria was under way.
Plate 3
SCALE
4
Main    Triangula t ion
Secondary    Triangulation
A
•
...•■J.J/
/:
GRANDUC TRIANGULATION
<
K. M. Bridge, B.C.L.S.
Instructions were received to carry out a triangulation survey in the area north and
west of Stewart. The triangulation was to be of second-order standard, commencing from
existing geodetic and Boundary Commission stations at the head of Portland Canal and
to extend over the snow-fields some 20 miles to the Granduc mine in the Leduc Valley,
and to make a tie to the British Columbia-Alaska Boundary northward of Boundary
Monument No. 18, the common but unoccupied station of the Boundary Commission
work of 1908-20 (see Plate 3).
The object of the triangulation was to establish control for a proposed tunnel commencing at the toe of the Salmon Glacier and ending at the Granduc mine in the Leduc
Valley. Readily accessible points and back-sights fixed from the main triangulation
stations were set at each end of the proposed tunnel. Because of the steep and narrow
valleys at both ends of the proposed tunnel, the triangulation stations had to be sited
fairly close together, which accounted for a certain amount of trouble closing triangles. U 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The triangulation net commenced from the base Boundary Monument No. 8 to
Boundary Monument No. 15 and was carried over the snow-field by a series of quadrilaterals and triangles; a tie was made to Boundary Monument No. 20 and to the
Boundary Commission station "Leduc" at the head of the Leduc River. Elevations
were carried from a bench-mark established at the toe of Salmon Glacier by spirit levels
from a U.S. Highway bench-mark on the road from Hyder to Premier. Elevations were
carried by trigonometric levelling throughout the rest of the triangulation network. Horizontal photographs were taken from all but two of the stations. All stations were permanently marked by standard rock post and were photo-identified.
The area lies in the Coast Range, the mountains of which vary up to 7,500 feet in
elevation. Permanent ice-fields blanket the ranges from 5,500 to 6,500 feet. The ridges
and peaks protrude above the glaciers, the tongues of which reach down into the narrow
valleys. The rivers are characterized by gravel-bars in the mountain valleys with canyons
in the lower reaches where a channel has been cut down. The levels of these rivers fluctuate rapidly due to the combined effect of rain and melting snow.
The forest-cover is mainly hemlock and spruce with cottonwood in the valleys.
It is extremely dense in the valleys and thins out to thick scrub at 1,700 feet on the north
sides and 1,000 feet on the south sides of the valleys. Snow persists in the shaded areas
until August and at higher altitudes remains all summer. The higher lakes are frozen all
year around.
The weather is typical of that encountered at the head of the fiords along the coast,
with the warm moist air blowing in from the Pacific Ocean up the Portland Canal and the
Leduc River valley, hitting the snow-fields, and blanketing the area with heavy fog and
rain. The average monthly rainfall during the summer is 4 inches, as compared to
Victoria's one-half inch for the same season. The hours of sunshine were 118, against
316 for Victoria. The maximum and minimum temperatures at Stewart for July and
August were 82° and 30° F. Of the seventy days spent in the area this summer, twenty
were clear, twenty-nine rain and fog, nine with fog, and twelve unsettled.
Travel was by truck to stations accessible by road from Stewart. The main access
to the snow-field and the mine were by aeroplane with a wheel-ski combination. Travel
on the snow-field was by foot. This is good during the early part of the summer, when
the snow is in good condition, but during late July and August becomes difficult because
of crevassing. During September, after the first fall of snow, conditions become dangerous because of the thin layer of fresh snow covering most of the crevasses. Travel on the
Salmon and Leduc Glaciers was fairly easy but long, because of the necessary zig-zag
course to by-pass these crevasses and ice-falls. The most treacherous snow condition
encountered was at the transition line, where the snow faded into ice.
Living accommodation was made comfortable and simple by the Granduc Mining
Company, who left two cabins on skids up in the snow-field. These cabins were fully
insulated and were equipped with bunks, oil heaters, and propane stoves. Accommodation was supplied at the mine when the crews were working at that end of the triangulation.
Game was very scarce in this area; the only wildlife encountered this summer were
a few black bears around the creeks when the salmon were running and a few porcupines.
Goat tracks were seen in the snow-field, but no actual goats were encountered. Marmots
were heard and a few seen in the rock-slides.
There were no permanent staff members available as instrument-men for the job,
so the party was made up of high-school and college students, who had to be trained on
the job.
INGENIKA BASE-LINE,  1956
W. H. Stilwell, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
The Provincial Rocky Mountain Trench net extends a distance of some 400 miles
between the geodetic Prince George-Dawson Creek net on the south and the Lower Post SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 75
section of the geodetic Whitehorse-Dawson Creek net on the north. The Provincial net
has been adjusted to the final geodetic net between Prince George and station " Wheel,"
near MacLeod Lake. When the final adjustment is made of the Rocky Mountain Trench
net, it will start from " Wheel" and "Dave," which have values based on the geodetic
final and close on stations " Nob Hill " and " Six Mile " near Lower Post. The present
co-ordinates of these two stations, based on both the geodetic and Provincial nets, disagree by approximately 60 feet in latitude and 40 feet in longitude, a surprisingly small
closure error, it would seem, for the great length of the net. Since other Provincial nets
and traverses take off from some of the Rocky Mountain net stations, it is not only
desirable but necessary to have controlled positions for the network stations.
Plate 4
GRAHAM.
2 3  MILES
I I
Vross
\
\
\
MICA
Main     Triangula-Lion   1939     k
1956     O
Observed     in    1333 —->	
-      I95S  »	
Astronomic   azimuth referred to
meridian   through   South   Bass U 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
With this idea of controlled positions in mind, base-lines and Laplace stations were
chosen in the Ingenika River area of the Finlay River and the Gataga River region of
the Kechika River, approximately dividing the total distance from the south and north
geodetic nets into three equal parts.
It was originally intended to complete both regions during the summer of 1956,
but difficulty in obtaining adequate technical personnel and equipment delayed the commencement of the work so long it was necessary to delete one region. It was decided
that the Ingenika River area was the more important at this time.
The men and equipment were transported from Tudyah Lake, on the John Hart
Highway, to the Finlay River in the vicinity of the Ingenika River by Beaver aircraft FHF
and by river-boat, a 45-foot boat driven by a 25-horsepower outboard motor.
The weather, generally speaking, was favourable throughout the period of operations
and little time was lost because of adverse conditions. Five triangulation stations were
occupied, to make the connection from the re-established base to stations " Lone Tree "
and "Towers" of the existing Rocky Mountain net (see Plate 4). Stations "North
Base," " South Base," and " Extension " cannot be assumed to be in the exact locations
of the original stations because of the loss of the monuments at these stations. New
monuments were established at " North Base," " South Base," and " Extension," using
standard pipe posts set in concrete. " North Base " monument was placed as nearly as
possible at the intersection of the base-line and a cut ray to " Deception," but this allows
for a considerable departure from the original position of the station. A squared-off
tree stump with a roofing-nail was the only sign of a monument at " South Base." The
stump was removed and replaced by a standard pipe post. No sign of any monument
or blazed trees was found at " Extension "; the standard pipe post was established at
a convenient location. In all cases the monuments were set flush with the surface of
the ground.
With " South Base " as the observing station, observations were made on two days
using " Polaris " for the azimuth determinations and " Lone Tree " as the reference
object. Some twenty sets, face right and left, were obtained, and the preliminary results
indicate a probable error in azimuth of ±0".7.
About sixty-five stars were observed by the Ball Method for latitude and longitude.
It was necessary to construct sets of programmes for the Ball Method observations because
the only publication containing them was obsolete and useless. Programmes were calculated for the full twenty-four-hour period for latitudes 56° 30', 57°, 58°, 58° 30', 59°,
and 60°. It is hoped that in the near future programmes may be constructed for each
degree, at least from 49 to 56, inclusive. It is a long and rather laborious job to obtain
the programme in its final form. Nomograms have been drawn for the purpose of facilitating the initial work of the preparation of the programmes. The tables list the stars
in order of sidereal time and give the azimuth of the star at the time of passage over
the 60° almucantar. Without a set of tables it is virtually impossible to obtain an adequate set of stars with the star catalogues now available. It is important, therefore, that
the star programmes be included as an essential piece of equipment. An eccentric station
was used at " South Base." The observing station was 12 feet on an azimuth of
117° 18'.5 from the monument.
The base-line between " North Base " and " South Base " had grown over considerably since it was last cleared in 1939, and it was necessary to spend a good deal of
time and effort in brushing it out.
The line, about 2.37 miles in length, was measured with each of the three 50-metre
invar tapes and, in the absence of the tape calibration data and assuming the tapes to be
the same length, the measured lengths agreed very well. Spirit levels were run forward
and backward over the line to determine the relative elevations of the plate on each post.
It was necessary to triangulate the last section of the base up the hill to " South Base "
because of the length and steepness of the slope.   An offset line was set to the south of SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U  77
Typical mountain
ridge in the Mount
Waddington area.
Mount Waddington
is on the extreme
right edge and the
Tiedman Glacier in
the foreground.
Looking south down
Chilko Lake.
Looking up the
Homathko River.
Mount Waddington
is in the background. U 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the base-line, and this offset line was measured with each of the three invar tapes.   The
angles of the triangle so formed with " South Base " were read carefully several times
and the mean values taken.
The final values are presently being calculated.    The preliminary results are given
below:—
Latitude of " South Base "=56° 46'  52" .9 ±0" .6
Longitude of " South Base "=124° 47'  33" .3 ±1" .3
=8h 19m   10s .22±0S .0
Azimuth," South Base " to " Lone Tree "=277°01'__ 00" .3  ±0" .7
Azimuth, " South Base " to " North Base "  319° 56' 22".2
Distance, " South Base " to " North Base " __.__12,557.22±0.12 feet
DRAUGHTING OFFICE
S. L. Clarke, Chief Draughtsman
The major duty of this office is the compilation of fair drawings on metal-backed
manuscripts at a scale of one-half mile to 1 inch. These manuscripts are primarily prepared for the lithographing of National Topographic Series 1:50,000 maps. However,
the prints from the manuscripts at compilation scale prove very useful to the public and
especially engineering concerns throughout the Province. Another important phase of
the work is the compilation of the cadastral surveys for the above-mentioned manuscripts,
also for those manuscripts of British Columbia controlled and compiled by the Federal
Government, which, this past year, have greatly increased in number.
This section has suffered during the year from the loss of trained personnel. One
of the senior draughtsmen resigned to take on duties as a teacher at a local high school.
Two other members (Grade 2) transferred to other departments of the Government
service. Owing to the shortage of draughtsmen generally, it was not until the latter part
of the year that these positions were able to be filled. Two of the replacements were
junior draughtsmen.
Fifteen metal-backed manuscripts were completed this year, which brings the total
to 160, plus forty-seven old photo-topographic manuscripts and thirty part sheets.
Prints from the above-mentioned manuscripts, as shown in Appendix 2a, Topographic Surveys, are available on request, at the scale of both 40 and 80 chains to the inch.
The Department of National Defence at Ottawa has greatly increased its production
this year of lithographed National Topographic sheets in British Columbia in the
1:50,000 scale. As the year draws to an end, only seventy-eight manuscripts remain on
hand in Ottawa, which represents a considerable decrease in last year's backlog.
Cadastral surveys were plotted on forty-three Federal Government manuscripts;
forty-two of these were on a scale of 40 chains to 1 inch and the other on a scale of
2 miles to 1 inch. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 79
Looking northerly from station " Fog," showing Granduc Mountain with the Granduc mine
in the foreground.
A typical snow cornice on Mount Jefferson-Coolidge.     Boundary point 1 6 is on the peak
to the right.  GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION U 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., Chief, and Provincial Representative
on Canadian Board on Geographical Names
In continuation of previous policy, this Division concentrated on the production of
new maps in the National Topographic l-inch-to-2-miles series during 1956. There is
a great public demand for maps at this scale, and six of the series were published during
the past twelve months and seven others are in hand.
Current with the above programme, considerable work was carried out in preparing
various reprints of previously published maps for which there is a constant demand, and
in continuing the new 1 -inch-to- 10-miles series as well as the compilation of certain sheets
in the National Topographic 1:250,000 series.
Considerable work was also undertaken by the Division for other departments in
the preparation of maps for special projects, and it should be noted that the Division
provided effective assistance in the production of the British Columbia Natural Resources
Atlas.
The numbers of maps issued and received into stock show substantial increases over
last year, and the checking of names in connection with new maps being prepared here
and at Ottawa kept the Gazetteer staff as busy as usual.
In addition to the above, the normal computations in connection with field surveys
by other divisions of the Branch were carried out, and the task of converting all petroleum
and natural gas permit boundaries (which had previously been calculated from their
initial descriptions) to the nearest unit or zone grid-line was undertaken in conformity
with the newly revised " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act." Involving considerable work,
it was with some satisfaction that a substantial number of such permit conversions was
reported by the year's end.
More detailed reports of the Division's activities are dealt with under the following
headings.
ADMINISTRATION
There were few staff changes during the year, and those occurring were largely among
the junior personnel. While for the present affecting production in only a small way,
this trend is nevertheless disquieting as, in common with all organizations, a shortage of
new men in training must always be viewed with alarm if it shows signs of persisting,
since fully trained men from " outside " are not plentiful, nor are they for the most part
as satisfactory as " trained on the job " personnel.
Progress has been made in the gradual adoption of newer cartographic techniques,
such as negative engraving for map reproduction and the utilization of photographic
processes for colour separations, etc.
Some study of, and inquiry into, the possible use of electronic equipment for computing was carried out, and it is hoped that further steps, including some actual instruction, may be taken during the coming year.
The volume of correspondence dealt with during 1956 was much the same as in
1955, but once again the largest part—that is, that dealing with map distribution—does
not indicate by its volume the very large increase in the number of maps dealt with.
COMPUTATIONS
Without the former activity in topographical control for mapping by Branch field
parties, the computations resulting from the extension of Provincial main and secondary
triangulation networks since 1952 have been below what we had come to class as normal.
Nevertheless, 1956 shows some increase over 1955 and somewhat more over 1954;
details are carried in the statistical tables following this report. Triangulation control
within the Province is shown in Appendix 2b. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 83
For the staff of the Trigonometric Control Section, however, the respite in respect
to triangulation computations has perhaps been fortunate, since a great variety of very
pressing work introduced by the activity in oil and gas exploration has grown in volume
steadily.
Extension of triangulation control south of the former Peace River Block made possible the calculation of many additional permits and, as has been previously mentioned,
the conversion of all permits established prior to acceptance of the zone and unit system
to the new system has caused considerable additional work to be undertaken. Some
ninety permits were converted between the beginning of November, 1956, and the end
of the year and, in addition, over 150 plans of the survey of well-sites were checked during
the twelve-month period, many of which, due to their positions, involved considerable
calculation and required no little time.
GEOGRAPHER
No field studies in connection with the new series of land bulletins were carried out
this year, but good progress was made in the preparation of several bulletins from previously obtained information. One (No. 3) was published for the Lower Coast area,
replacing four bulletins of the old series; three others are close to the printing stage.
Much time and effort in the form of field studies, research, and checking of existing
information by way of correspondence and liaison with other departments is required
before a bulletin is ready for publication in order that maximum usefulness and reliability
may be insured.
In addition to the above, this Division's contribution to the production of the British
Columbia Natural Resources Atlas was made very largely by the Geographer, who served
as one of the cartographic editors, an important and time-consuming task which, with his
considerable personal contribution with respect to several of the maps, no doubt helped
appreciably to insure the success of the project as a whole.
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMING AND MAP-CHECKING
It is perhaps not out of place to repeat the statement in last year's Report that the
duties of this Division include, in addition to maintaining a comprehensive record of all
geographical names within the Province, the preparation of name-sheets for submission
to the Canadian Board on Geographical Names at Ottawa for all maps to be published
by this Department as well as checking name-sheets submitted to the Provincial representative by all Federal agencies mapping in British Columbia.
As was also mentioned previously, levelling off after the field survey peak of 1951-52
allowed us to catch up largely with the backlog of resultant name-sheets, and the tables
following the report will show that we have managed to keep abreast of present production.
In addition to checking and revising proofs, etc., for our own new maps preparatory
to printing or reprinting, 162 maps were revised or colour-proved for the Army Survey
Establishment and Department of Mines and Technical Surveys at Ottawa, and nine
Topographic Division manuscripts were checked prior to shipment to Ottawa for
reproduction.
Once again, field culture checks were carried out in connection with the 1-inch-to-
2-miles National Topographic maps—this year for 92 I/SW (Lytton) and 92 I/NW
(Ashcroft), an area of over 2,800 square miles. These will help to replace the old
Map 3k (Lillooet) of the pre-emptors' series and Map 4m (Nicola Lake) of the degree
series, both of which are out of print.
MAP COMPILATION AND REPRODUCTION
The Division's cartographic section is gradually concentrating its efforts on the
negative engraving and photo-mechanical methods of map reproduction, though many U 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
of the maps produced do not lend themselves to the newer methods entirely since they
are of necessity compiled from many sources of information at varying scales. Thus the
need for skilled draughtsmen has not lessened, and it is also more and more evident that
even with modern time-saving techniques the fully trained, experienced cartographer or
draughtsman is no less valuable than in the past.
However, it is also evident that an urgent requirement is the acquisition of, or access
to, modern and efficient photographic equipment of a size capable of handling large compilations, there being none of adequate size at present in Victoria.
Thirteen maps were published by the Division during the year, six being in the
National Topographic l-inch-to-2-miles series. Seven others of this series and ten either
regional or in the National Topographic 1:250,000 series are in hand.
Thirty-seven Provincial Topographic Division manuscripts were printed by Canadian
Government agencies during the year and, of these, sixteen were new publications and
twenty-one were 1-inch-to-1-mile maps converted to 1:50,000 scale, eight with partial
revision and the balance conversion without revision. For thirty-six of these we received
major stocks in return for our co-operation and work contributed.
In addition, Ottawa agencies published seven maps in British Columbia at 1:250,000
scale and forty-seven at 1:50,000 scale; of these, we received considerable stocks of all
but three.
Another 166 Provincial topographic manuscripts in the National Topographic
1:50,000 series, either new or revised editions, are in hand for publishing at Ottawa.
As in the past, mounted blue or paper impressions of all new Canadian Government
or Provincial topographic maps being reproduced at Ottawa, on which lot divisions will
appear, passed through the Division during the year and, with the co-operation of the
Topographic Division, the lots were compiled and added to the impressions together with
type numbers, boundaries of land districts, parks, municipalities, and forests. Forty such
sheets were dealt with during the year.
Among the many miscellaneous draughting and other tasks undertaken for other
departments and outside agencies were the preparations for lithographing two maps
showing electoral districts, two maps for Land Series Bulletin No. 3, and two maps for
the British Columbia Government Travel Bureau, as well as the checking of road and
road-surface information for various mapping agencies preparing travel maps. A total
of 834 such requests were undertaken, involving 1,360 man-hours of work for a total
of $2,687.
The usual assistance was given where required in the preparation of descriptions for
the boundaries of administrative districts and in assembling, editing, and distributing the
Annual Report.
MAP DISTRIBUTION—PUBLIC RELATIONS
A total of 59,290 maps were distributed, and 129,901 maps were taken into stock
during the year. Both figures indicate another all-time high in the Division's history,
the first being more than 11,000 greater than last year, itself a record high, and the second
being 32,000 greater than the previous record reached in 1954. However, while expected
to increase still more during 1957, the figures for new stock do not denote unprecedented
stock replacements or new publications, but are accounted for to a considerable degree by
conversions of previously published maps to the 1:50,000 scale.
Of the 59,290 maps issued, 41,869 were sold and 17,421 were issued departmentally
or by way of automatic mailing-lists in the case of new publications. Total value of maps
issued was $20,525 and of those sold $15,226, total of money collected being $13,350.
The difference in the last two figures is the value of maps issued to Government Agents
and not yet sold by them.
Indexes 5 to 11 included in Appendix 3 show all publications available from this
Division, together with information regarding prices, scales, printing sources, etc. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 85
The exhibits in the British Columbia Building on the Pacific National Exhibition
grounds at Vancouver were maintained throughout the year as a co-operative effort by all
divisions of the Branch, with certain changes and additions as in the past.
STATISTICAL
Computations
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
P.G.E. resources.„. _	
True
True
True
True
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
21
487
Provincial Main	
Bridge River-Little Mountain _ _	
63
23
41
111
Canadian Hydrographic Service	
68
The following tables give comparisons with the previous five-year period:—
Computations
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
696
1,431
248
439
1,676
586
18,049
225
614
1,484
170
643
1,342
506
19,391
272
409
1,300
189
131
1,561
450
20,952
287
28
537
114
143
1,192
830
22,144
314
518
810
49
239
1,415
576
23,559
378
814
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates
536
32
82
Index cards—
New   	
1.093
888
Total on file.  	
24,652
461
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
49
3,686
298
39
6,403
252
56
7,052
351
102
11,683
442
83
8,766
655
61
6,664
Number of new names recorded	
247
Map Stock and Distribution
Maps issued to departments and public.
Maps received into stock 	
Total value of maps issued	
41,581
45,369
45,724
73,981
40,733
92,456
$14,205    [    $13,450    |    $14,184 $17,382 $18,995
43,741
97,274
48,043
84,573
59.290
129,901
$20 525
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
53
$1,485
1
40    [
$1,024    1
31
$4,400
68
$1,361
60
$1,990
84
$2,687
Letters U 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Maps Published during 1956
Reproduced and Printed by the Geographic Division, Victoria
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
U, SE
1CX
1J
2a
920
4F
4o
82 E/NW
82 E/SW
82 K/NW
82 K/SW
92 H/SW
92 1/SE
British Columbia wall map (S.E. Vt)	
British Columbia land recording districts..
British Columbia 	
Southerly Vancouver Island	
Vancouver (preliminary edition).
Lardeau _	
Windermere  	
Kelowna (first edition)	
Penticton (first edition)	
Beaton (preliminary edition)....
Nakusp (preliminary edition)...
Chilliwack Lake (first edition)..
Merritt (first edition) 	
1:1,000,000
1 in. to 55 mi.
1 in. to 27 mi.
1 in. to 4 mi.
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint with road revisions.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint with revisions.
Reprint with revisions.
Five colours, contoured.
Five colours, contoured.
Two colours, no contours.
Two colours, no contours.
Five colours, contoured.
Five colours, contoured.
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Reproduced and Printed
at 1:50,000 Scale by the Canadian Government, Ottawa
Map No.
Name
Map No.
Name
82E/4
Keremeos (provisional).
92 G/4, E. & W.
Nanaimo (first edition).
92C/8, E. &W.
River Jordan (first edition).
93 L/2, E. & W.
Owen Lake (first edition).
92C/13,E.
Ucluelet (second edition).
93 L/7, E. & W.
Houston (first edition).
92C/15, E. &W.
Nitinat (second edition).
93L/8, E. &W.
Forestdale (first edition).
92C/16, E. &W.
Cowichan Lake (first edition).
93 L/9, E. & W.
Topley (first edition).
92 E/7, E.
Estevan Point (second edition).
102 1/16, E. &W.
Cape Scott (second edition).
92 E/9, E. & W.
Muchalat Inlet (first edition).
104 A/3, E. &W.
Meziadin Lake (first edition).
92E/16.E. &W.
Gold River (first edition).
104G/1.E. &W.
Iskut River (first edition).
92 F/5, E. &W.
Bedwell (second edition).
104G/9, E. & W.
Kinaskan Lake (first edition).
92 F/8, E. & W.
Parksville (first edition).
104 N/6, E. & W.
O'Donnell River (first edition).
Maps within British Columbia Reproduced and Printed by the Canadian Government,
Ottawa, at 1:250,000 Scale
92c
92o
93b
93c
Cape Flattery (first edition).
Taseko Lakes (first edition).
Quesnel (first edition).
Anahim Lake (first edition).
Nechako River(first edition).
Pine Pass (first edition).
Iskut River (first edition).
1:50,000 Scale
82K/1.E. &W.
Finlay Creek (first edition).
94 J/11, E. &W.
Akue Creek (first edition).
92H/13,E.
Scuzzy Mountain (first edition).
94 J/12, E. &W.
Chischa River (first edition).
93 0/3, E. & W.
Tudyah Lake (provisional).
94J/13, E. &W.
Kledo Creek (first edition).
94 A/ll.E. &W.
Murdale (first edition).
94J/14, E. &W.
Raspberry Creek (first edition).
94 A/12, E. &W.
Deadhorse Creek (first edition).
94J/15, E. &W.
Fort Nelson (first edition).
94 A/13, E. &W.
Aitken Creek (first edition).
94 J/16, E. & W.
Chuatse Creek (first edition).
94 A/14, E. &W.
Snyder Creek (first edition).
94M/11.E. &W.
Lower Kechika (first edition).
94H/3, E. &W.
Umbach Creek (first edition).
94M/15, E. &W.
Shaw Creek (first edition).
94 H/4, E. & W.
Nig Creek (first edition).
103 J/7, E. &W.
Melville Island (first edition).
94H/6, E. &W.
Black Creek (first edition).
103 J/8, E. &W.
Prince Rupert (first edition).
94 J/7, E. &W.
Big Beaver (first edition).
104 0/14, E. & W.
Swan Lake (first edition).
94 J/10, E. & W.
Jackfish Creek (first edition).
104 0/15, E.&W.
McNaughton Creek (first edition).
. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U  87
Maps in Course of Reproduction
Maps Being Reproduced by the Geographic Division, Victoria
Map No.
Name
Scale
Remarks
lA
lex
Ij
If
Ifl
lG
lKC
4d
93c
93 m
82 E/NE
82 L/SE
82 L/SW
92 B/NW, SW
92 G/SE
92 H/NW
92 1/SW
92 1/NW
British Columbia wall map	
British Columbia land recording districts-
British Columbia „ 	
West-Central British Columbia planimetric	
West-Central British Columbia jand-forms	
East-Central British Columbia planimetric 	
South-western British Columbia land-use cover..
Fernie   _	
Anahim Lake (second edition)..
Hazelton (first edition)..
Upper Kettle River (first editions-
Sugar Lake (first edition)	
Vernon (first edition) 	
Victoria (second edition)	
Langley (first edition)	
Yale (first edition) __
Lytton (first edition) 	
Ashcroft (first edition) 	
1:1,000 000
1 in. to 55 mi.
1 in. to 30 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
Compilation complete.
Reproduction in hand.
Reproduction in hand.
Reproduction in hand.
Reproduction in hand.
Compilation in hand.
Compilation complete.
Revision in hand.
Compilation in hand.
Land status edition.
Reproduction in hand.
Reproduction in hand.
Corrections and land status.
Compilation in hand.
Reproduction in hand.
Reproduction in hand.
Compilation in hand.
Compilation in hand.
Provincial Government Manuscripts Being Reproduced by the Canadian Government,
Ottawa, at 1:50,000 Scale
Map No.
Map No.
Name
82K/11.W.
82K/12, E. &W.
92B/13, E. & W.
92B/14, E. & W.
92 C/9, E. & W.
92 C/10, E.&W.
92C/14. E. &W.
92E/1,E.
92 E/8, E. & W.
92E/10, E. &W.
92E/14, E. & W.
92F/1.E. &W.
92 F/2, E. & W.
92 F/3, E. & W.
92 F/4, E. & W.
92 F/6, E. & W.
92 F/7, E. & W.
92 F/9, E. & W.
92F/10, E. &W.
92F/11.E. & W.
92F/12, E. & W.
92F/13, E. &W.
92 F/14, E. & W.
92G/5, E. &W.
92G/7, E. &W.
92G/11,E. &W.
92G/12, E. &W.
92G/13, E. &W.
92 H/l, E. & W.
92H/2, E. &W.
92 K/3, E. & W.
92 K/4, E. & W.
92 K/5, E. & W.
92 K/6, E. & W.
92L/1,E. &W.
92 L/2, E. & W.
92L/3, E. &W.
92 L/4, E. & W.
92 L/6, E. & W.
92 L/7, E. & W.
92 L/8, E. & W.
92L/11.E. &W.
92L/12, E. &W.
92L/13, E. &W.
92 0/l.E. &W.
___
Trout Lake (first edition).
Beaton (first edition).
Duncan (second edition).
Galiano Island (first edition).
San Juan (second edition).
Carmanah (second edition).
Barkley Sound (second edition).
Vargas Island (second edition).
Hesquiat (second edition).
Nootka (second edition).
Port Eliza (second edition).
Nanaimo Lakes (second edition).
Alberni Inlet (second edition).
Effingham (second edition).
Tofino (second edition).
Great Central (second edition).
Home Lake (second edition).
Texada Island (first edition).
Comox (first edition).
Forbidden Plateau (second edition).
Buttle Lake (second edition).
Upper Campbell (second edition).
Oyster River (second edition).
Sechelt (first edition).
Coquitlam (second edition).
Squamish (first edition).
Sechelt Inlet (first edition).
Jervis Inlet (first edition).
Ashnola (first edition).
Manning Park (first edition).
Quadra Island (first edition).
Salmon River (first edition).
Sayward (first edition).
Sonora Island (first edition).
Schoen Lake (third edition).
Woss Lake (second edition).
Kyuquot (first edition).
Brooks Peninsula (first edition).
Alice Lake (second edition).
Nimpkish (third edition).
Adam River (second edition).
Port McNeill (second edition).
Quatsino (second edition).
Shushartie (second edition).
Yalakom River (first edition).
92 0/8. E. &W.
92 0/16, E. &W.
93B/1.E. & W.
93 B/8, E. & W.
93K/1.E. &W.
93 K/2, E. & W.
93 L/10, E. & W.
93L/11,E. &W.
93 L/14, E.&W.
102 1/9, E. & W.
103 1/2. E. & W.
103 P/9, E.&W.
103 P/10, E.&W.
103 P/14, E.
103P/15, E. & W.
104 A/2, W.
104 A/5, E.
104A/6, E. &W.
104 A/11, W.
104 A/12, E. & W.
104 A/13, W.
104B/16, E. &W.
104 G/8, E. & W.
104G/14, E. & W.
104G/15, E. &W.
104G/16, E. & W.
104H/12, W.
104H/13, W.
104 J/2, W.
104 J/3, E. & W.
104 J/4, E. & W.
104 J/5, E. &W.
104 J/12, E.&W.
104 J/13, E.&W.
104K/16, E.
104 N/1, E.&W.
104 N/2, E.&W.
104 N/3, E.
104 N/5, E.&W.
104 N/7, W.
104 N/11, E.&W.
104 N/12, E. &W.
104 N/13, E.&W.
104 P/15, E.&W.
104 P/16, E.&W.
Empire Valley (first edition).
Springhouse (first edition).
Williams Lake (first edition).
Soda Creek (first edition).
Vanderhoof (first edition).
Fraser Lake (first edition).
Quick (first edition).
Telkwa (first edition).
Smithers (first edition).
San Josef (second edition).
Kitimat (first edition).
Kispiox River (first edition).
Cranberry River (first edition).
White River (first edition).
Brown Bear Lake (first edition).
Kwinageese River (first edition).
Bowser Lake (first edition).
Bell Irving River (first edition).
Taft Creek (first edition).
Delta Peak (first edition).
Mount Alger (first edition).
Bob Quinn Lake (first edition).
Refuge Lake (first edition).
Telegraph Creek (first edition).
Buckley Lake (first edition).
Klastline River (first edition).
Kluea Lake (first edition).
Ealue Lake (first edition).
Classy Creek (first edition).
Tahltan River (first edition).
Kennicott Lake (first edition).
Ketchum Lake (first edition).
Dudidontu River (first edition).
Prairie Lake (first edition).
Nahlin River (first edition).
Nakina Lake (first edition).
Nakina (first edition).
Sloko River (first edition).
Teresa Island (first edition).
Bell Lake (first edition).
Surprise Lake (first edition).
Atlin (first edition).
Mount Minto (first edition).
Lower Dease River (second edition).
Lower Post (second edition).  AIR DIVISION U 90 department of lands and forests
AIR DIVISION
W. Hall, P.Eng, B.C.R.F.
During the calendar year 1956 the main effort of the Air Division continued to be
directed to obtaining 40-chains-to-l-inch air-photo cover and to the compilation of
40-chains-to-l-inch interim base maps for the Forest Surveys Division.
A total of 26,500 square miles of new photography was obtained, mainly in the
Takla Lake-Peace River areas (see Appendix 4), and 37,400 square miles of interim
maps were produced (see Appendix 5a). The latter figure includes 6,800 square miles
of recompilation and revision of areas previously mapped.
This accomplishment brings the total area of the Province covered by interim maps
to 167,400 square miles, just 10,600 square miles short of the objective set in 1953.
In addition to the above standard 40-chain mapping, slotted template lay-downs
of 1,700 photos at a scale of 20 chains to 1 inch, and covering 2,000 square miles, were
completed (see Appendix 5b). No mapping was done from these photos by the Air
Division, the photos and principal-point lay-downs being handed over to the Forest Surveys Division for forest interpretation purposes. These larger-scale photographs are
proving most valuable for detailed interpretation by Forest Engineering as well as by
Forest Surveys, and it is to be expected that demands for this scale photography will
increase in the future.
A total of 1,806 square miles of topographic mapping was produced by the Multiplex Section (see following table and Appendix 5b). Because of the difficulties in the
more remote areas of the Province of obtaining ground control sufficient to produce
topographic maps to standard specifications, and because also of the time element
involved, two areas were mapped using the 40-chains-to-l-inch interim maps for horizontal control and whatever vertical control that was available or could be readily obtained. Despite this weakness the maps have proved to be sufficiently accurate for the
purposes required, that is, pondage studies in the McGregor River and the layout of forest
access roads in the Willow River-Purden Lake area.
While it is essential that every effort be made to maintain standard specifications of
accuracy in all our mapping work, it remains a fact that the year-to-year requirements
for maps for specific purposes will continue to be beyond our resources if we insist on
maintaining standard specifications for all the projects that are requested from us, and
we will continue to be forced to accept compromises on occasion. The only apparent
means of alleviating this situation would be to enlist all the electronic and machine aids
that are available, which would minimize field control requirements. The radar altimeter, precision air cameras with attendant plotting-machines for bridging using air
photos, and modern base-line measuring devices could all be fitted into our present and
potential mapping procedures to help overcome this ever-present bottle-neck.
On December 1st the Multiplex Section of eight personnel together with all the
attendant equipment was transferred to the Photo Topographic Division for administrative purposes. Apart from these, two other persons were transferred to the Photo Topographic Division, nine left the branch, and nine replacements were hired.
The reorganizing of our aircraft maintenance, which was taken over by Pacific
Western Airlines, has worked very satisfactorily. Mechanics were attached to our aircraft in the field as required, and no photographic weather was lost through unservice-
ability. Both aircraft were fitted in the spring with Fluxgate magnetic-gyroscopic compasses as aids to the navigation of long photographic strips in the northern parts of the
Province. These both functioned extremely well and proved invaluable, especially when
using relatively inexperienced personnel for this most exacting job.
The total production of the Processing Laboratory of 9- by 9-inch prints since
1946 passed the 1,000,000 mark this year, a notable achievement on the part of the SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH U 91
staff and an impressive indication of the extent to which photos are being used in the
Province.
Further details of the Air Division activities are to be found in separate sections of
this report.
FLYING OPERATIONS
A. S. Lukinuk
The extension of basic vertical photo cover into the northern regions of the Province, roughly from Fort St. John through to Stewart, was the main objective of 1956
flying operations. Because of the short photographic season in these latitudes, this programme was given top priority during the months June to September. Demands for
special photographic cover were fitted into this basic programme, as opportune.
Though an unusually early pattern of wintery weather developed in the northern
area in mid-September, photographic conditions were generally good, and the crews
were able to complete a total of 26,500 square miles of new block cover, mostly in the
Peace River drainage. However, due to the early snow on higher ground, low-level
photo identification of triangulation control points was not obtained for some of these
areas.
Special-project flying included photographic cover for multiplex mapping of power
investigation projects along the Peace River, Stikine River, Dease River, and Upper
Fraser River. Additional water investigation projects were flown along the North
Thompson River, Chilliwack River, Vedder Canal, Stacey Lake, Duck Lake, and Cuis-
son Creek.
Photographic record of regional development for taxation assessment was obtained
in the Okanagan Valley, Bulkley Valley, Nanaimo foreshore, and North Cowichan
Municipality.
Modifications were carried out on aircraft CF-EZN to accommodate a split-vertical
camera installation, designed primarily to accelerate the programme of large-scale forest-
inventory cover. Two areas were completed using this technique—a photographic assessment of insect-killed timber in the vicinity of 100 Mile House and a road reconnaissance
survey in the Willow River Public Working Circle. The usefulness of this type of photography is currently under investigation.
The number of aircraft-hours flown (427 hours 30 minutes) and the number of
exposures taken (10,873) are the lowest for the past ten years. It is anticipated that
this situation will prevail so long as both aircraft are committed to obtaining photographic cover in the far-northern regions during the main flying season and at the expense
of special projects. Unit costs will rise accordingly as the bulk of annual expenditure
is borne by the basic vertical photo cover.
Total cost of photographic flying operations (based on expenditures for the 1956
calendar year) amounts to $69,926.64, a decrease of roughly $3,000 over the past three
years' operations. This decrease is primarily due to the elimination of approximately
$8,000 hangar-rental charges, but is offset partially by the purchase of two new field
vehicles.
For details of 1956 operations costs and accomplishments, refer to Table A and B
and Appendix 4.
To alleviate some of the operational hazards incurred in these northern regions,
the construction of an auxiliary airstrip at the south end of Dease Lake suitable for
Anson aircraft was undertaken by the Department of Highways. A commendable accomplishment with limited facilities was achieved in this regard by the Highways personnel
in the district. Technical construction difficulties, however, prevented extending the
airstrip to the full length required for normal Anson operations. Nevertheless, it was a
comforting factor to the air crew, knowing that there was a landing-strip within range U 92
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
in the event of emergency. With the proposed arrival of heavier construction equipment
in the area next year, it is anticipated that this airstrip will offer considerable assistance
in completing the photographic programme through to the Yukon boundary.
Projects Completed by Multiplex
Project
Authority
Scale
(Feet per
Inch)
Vertical
Interval
(Feet)
Area
(Square
Miles)
1,000
1,320
1,000
400
500
500
600
1,320
200
500
50
50
50
10
10
10-20
10
50
(°)
10-20
106.42
937.00
"Prairie Farms Rehabilitation Act" 	
Water Rights Branch	
Water Rights Branch.....	
Water Rights Branch __	
Water Rights Branch _   	
168.00
7.74
32.50
135.65
35.14
Map-sheet 92 L/10	
370.00
Water Rights Branch	
Water Rights Branch	
4.9
8.9
Total 	
1,806.25
Not controlled to standard specifications.
: Planimetry only.
PROCESSING LABORATORY
T. H. Bell
The total production of 9- by 9-inch standard prints fell below that of previous
years due to a shortage of skilled personnel and to the small proportion of bulk printing
of new photography, only 111 new rolls being processed during the year, as compared
to an average of 163 for the past four years.
It is worthy of note, however, that during the year the total production of prints by
the processing laboratory, since its inception in 1946, passed the 1,000,000 mark (see
detail of production tabulated below).
Investigations have been made into the possibility of adapting the new electronic
automatic dodging devices now available to our projection printers. Reports received
to date are encouraging, and it would appear that the application of this equipment would
result in better-quality prints and probably an increased production over the years.
Production Record, 1956 (Confirmed Totals)
1946-51
1953
1955
1956
Grand
Totals,
1946-56
Processing completed—
Air films (Eagle V rolls, averaging 117 exposures)...	
Air films (tests—part rolls)	
Air films (K 20 rolls, averaging 40 exposures) _	
Mountain-station films1 (6 exposures each) 	
Printing completed—
Standard prints (5 by 5 inches enlarged to 9 by 9 inches)
Contact prints (5 by 5 inches)  .... _
Contact prints (large to 20 by 24 inches) _
Enlargements (various sizes to 30 by 30 inches)	
Mountain-station enlargements (11 by 14 inches)—	
Lantern-slides (2 by 2 inches) 	
Autopositive films (various sizes to 30 by 40 inches)	
Miscellaneous photographs, copies, and Kelsh plates	
Requisitions completed 	
1,202
2
1,372
351,302
40,291
4,928
7,953
174
273
248
3,897
161
13
605
165,976
135
1,568
3,445
3
100
114
1,569
163
235
151,249
1,201
102
2,457
1,788
119
278
294
1,726
161
13
4
183
136,342
715
559
1,135
48
35
1,859
119
2,215
168
14
6
115
137,229
487
610
1,019
393
15
1,613
327
2,507
111
15
10
387
137,190
731
384
1,524
2,926
980
538
2,526
1,966
42
43
2,897
1,079,288
43,560
1,655
12,631
16,553
346
5,103
1,640
14,440
For Topographic Division. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
U 93
AIR-PHOTO LIBRARY TRAFFIC
1955     >C     1956
PRODUCTION OF 9" x 9" PRINTS U 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Orders for Standard Prints (9 by 9 Inches) from
British Columbia Negatives, 1956
Reprints
Loans
Requisitions
Number
Requisitions
Number
Private—
489
197
56
48
27
18
24
222
346
3,458
3,334
1,156
9,498
864
252
143
8,810
10,935
184
34
48
4
19
5
4
211
186
2,787
785
1,030
65
350
59
58
3,870
3,050
1,427        |        38,450
695                12,054
Federal Government agencies—
14
6
5
8
10
21
4,725
201
208
139
267
165
2
6
12
7
4
210
115
11
64
5,705
27
340
Provincial Government—
356
29
38
60
13
17,681
11,162
3,587
600
47
235
18
63
68
7
51
14
17
34
276
77
13
62
53
5,617
254
965
740
7                       38
49                    1,100
62                  16,989
91                  33.476
30                       747
60                    1,215
51                      2.284
115
906
312
818
3,113
16
22
38
2,233
884
997
385
2,385
Department of Mines  	
922                93,035
988                  17,522
2.413               137.190
1,710
29,916
INSTRUMENT-SHOP
The Instrument-shop continued to service and repair field instruments for the various Government branches, as well as maintain general office equipment. Thirty-nine
theodolites, six levels, and thirty-one barometers were overhauled during the year. In
the Machine-shop Section the following projects were completed: An auto focus attachment, based on the Peaucellier invertor principle, was developed for the epidiascope
made by the Forest Service Marine Station; a new print-drying rack was made for the
Processing Laboratory; the diapositive printer was modified to make plates for the
Williamson multiplex; catenary tape stretchers were built for base-line measuring; and
a new film-carrier was built to fit the existing fixed-focus enlargers. In the Camera-shop
Section the following projects were completed: A new camera mount and view-finder
were built for CF-EZN; six Eagle V camera shutters were modified; a small enlarger
was rebuilt for transfer to the Travel Bureau; twenty-eight topographic cameras, seven
Eagle V magazines, five intervalometers, and two intervalometer auxiliaries (to provide
longer than sixty-second intervals) were rebuilt.
In addition to the above, many small repair and maintenance jobs, involving a total
of 216 work orders, were completed, as well as a complete analysis of the ventilation
requirements of the Processing Laboratory, for which detail plans were drawn and
submitted. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Table A.—Summary of Costs, 1956 Air Operations
Aircraft operations—
1. Field operations   $21,317.66
2. Aircraft maintenance and overhead  10,029.21
3. Organization and administration  6,471.36
Total, aircraft operations  $37,818.23
Photographic operations—
1. Field operations ...                                                       . $17,062.70
2. Camera maintenance   5,820.28
3. Film-processing and prints  3,029.05
4. Organization and administration  6,196.38
Total, photographic operations  $32,108.41
Grand total  $69,926.64
U 95
Table B.—1956 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects
Accomplishment
Number
of Exposures
Aircraft
Hours
Total Cost,
Flying and
Photography
1951-55
Sq. Mi.
Lin. Mi.
Stations
Averages
A. Basic  vertical cover   (approximately  40
chains to the inch)—
1. New cover—
23,500
3,000
700
6,081
847
174
Hr.
196
27
4
Min.
00
30
25
$36,076.43
5,043.56
922.47
North Coast                   	
27,200
$1.54
7,102
$5.92
227
55
$42,042.46
$4.20/photo
250
90
10
2
3
30
35
25
3. Revision—
400
500
$1,708.97
504.79
E. & N. Land Grant	
316.18
Totals                                    	
900
$2.81
340
$7.44
16
30
$2,529.44
$2.12/sq. mi.
$5.93/photo
13
30
C. Triangulation   control   identification —
26
$58.22
90
$16.82
$1,513.84
$32.98/stn.
$9.28/photo
D. Forest Inventory projects (approximately
20 chains to the inch)—
1
25
2. Improvement flying—Carp Lake-Chief
40
$7.05
51
$5.53
S281.88
$5.18,photo
E. Forest Engineering projects—
20
20
13
3
7
110
	
28
30
20
16
27
370
1
1
1
4
15
10
50
45
15
40
S198.24
196.48   i
136.06
116.56 i
195.29 [
Willow River reconnaissance (Twinplex)..
1.524.07   1
Totals -...	
173
$13.68
491
$4.82
9
55
$2,366.70
Average cost, approximate	
$10 14/lin mi
$4.09/photo U 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table B.—1956 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects—Continued
Accomplishment
Sq. Mi.
Lin. Mi.
Stations
Number
of Exposures
Aircraft
Hours
Total Cost,
Flying and
Photography
1951-55
Averages
F. Multiplex mapping projects—
1. New cover—
Water Rights Branch—
Chilliwack River flood-control	
Dease River dam-sites	
Dease River pondage —
Peace   River   pondage,   Hudson
Hope.   —
Peace    River    pondage,    Finlay
Forks     	
Peace River diversion  —
Bowron River dam-site	
McLennan River diversion..
Vedder Canal investigation 	
Land   Settlement   Board — Prince
George (East)—-   	
Saanich Municipality-
er, planning	
■Saanich sew-
50
38
36
32
20
24
16
2
16
15
Totals —	
Average cost, approximate	
2. Revision, Water Rights Branch—Goat
River erosion
51
$10.52
Average cost, approximate	
Special projects—
Federal Department of Fisheries—
Herring spawning record (experimental)  _   —
Salmon spawning record..	
Water Rights Branch—
North Kamloops irrigation  -
Cuisson Creek high-water record	
Cuisson Creek low-water record 	
Duck Lake investigation —
Stacey Lake drainage..
6
$82.82
40
20
Vedder Canal investigation	
Dease River reconnaissance 	
Liard River reconnaissance	
Forest   Service,   Kamloops — 100   Mile
House winter damage (Twinplex)—	
Fraser River Board—Lower Fraser low-
water record 	
Dyking Commission—Lower Fraser high-
water record	
Taxation Assessment Branch—
Okanagan Valley development	
Bulkley Valley development-
288
199
$18.20
3
2
22
16
16
22
20
12  |
North  Cowichan Municipality  development.  	
Nanaimo foreshore development	
Department of Mines—Iskut River Road
reconnaissance 	
110
Topographic  Division -
map revision..
-Pend  d'Oreille
Geographic Division—
Annacis Island map revision	
Ashcroft-Kamloops map revision-
Totals _	
Average cost, approximate
666
$8.24
Miscellaneous flying—
Air-crew training— _	
Aerial reconnaissance, Waddington..
Aerial reconnaissance, Bute	
Aerial reconnaissance, Dease-Stikine..
Mercy flights and air search	
Administrative flights 	
Aircraft-maintenance flights..
Camera-maintenance flights and tests-
Totals..
Grand totals .
28,863
150
4
15
32
70
554
$11.41
926
i
26
95
77
36
92
56
12
11
25
32
100
542
$7.67
90
$5.52
71
54
32
63
52
60
147
118
98
58
389
62
51
362
117
200
12
99
23
8
91
2,167
$5.45
Hr. Min.
3 35
5 40
3 30
4 55
2 25
— 55
1 25
2 20
  30
— 55
1 30
27 40
2 30
2 50
2 20
5
11
1 40
1 40
6 50
2 40
2 50
7 30
5 35
1 40
.... 50
1 40
.... 45
3 50
58 30
14 40
1 45
4 00
13 25
12 20
6 05
69 35
10 873 I 427 30
$611.51
751.29
429.88
726.53
389.10
120.49
163.77
289.24
140.72
102.77
433.97
$4,159.27
$496.89
I $5.74/sq. mi.
-1 $7.87/lin. mi.
I $4.24/photo
$471.57
374.87
I
309.90 j
301.60
307.65
408.30
696.00
563.87
520.52
325.38
1,780.43
429.65
412.51
1,762.36
861.37
744.70
112.43
446.45
260.22
92.93
623.08
$11,805.79
£1,355.96
161.78
369.80
1,240.68
531.58
1,070.57
1,106.50'
545.622
$3.94/sq. mi.
$6.63/lln. mi.
$3.78/photo
$4,730.37
$69,926.64
1 Amount charged to aircraft maintenance.
2 Amount charged to camera maintenance. — "■     (:.^ 4.
-
_ "-VJ
,   ....... .    J ;
" 1      '/
V   '*- *'
''Ci.l?e-',
WATER RIGHTS
BRANCH
1956
Tamihi Creek Note 3
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
As the title of the Water Rights Branch suggests, the people and industries of British
Columbia have a " right " to the " use " of water in this Province. At first reflection, the right
to use water might be considered as basic as the right to use air or to admire the scenery. And
so it is, but because it is a commodity which everyone must have, it becomes necessary for
government to control its use or the " haves " would be making a great deal of money selling it
to the " have nots." The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government
which administers the control of the use of water. The Branch administers the " Water Act,"
which has been developed by legislation into an excellent administrative vehicle, used as a model
in the initiation of other similar Acts in other countries.
The main principles of the "Water Act" are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all water at any time in any
stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in the right of
the Province.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the licence.
(3) A licence-holder's priority of right is generally based upon the date his application
was recorded by a Water Recorder. Earlier licences have priority over licences
issued later.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the rentals, and observance of the regulations of the " Water Act."
No one can adopt a " dog in the manger " attitude to this Province's water.
(5) Every licence and permit that is made appurtenant to any land, mine, or undertaking shall pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof. Ownerships
of licences are therefore automatically transferred with their appurtenant land,
mine, or undertaking.
The administration of the " Water Act " is carried out by the Comptroller of Water Rights.
He and his staff are located at a headquarters office in Victoria, and at district offices in Victoria,
Kamloops, Kelowna, and Nelson.
There is much correspondence, field investigation, and record-keeping of an exacting nature
associated with this administration because all details of every application must be carefully
reviewed before licences are issued. The filing and recording of all the mass of data associated
with water use is, in itself, an assignment of no small magnitude.
Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this Province is associated
with the use of British Columbia water, and the Government and its Civil Service are therefore
called upon to assist and direct this expansion in the public interest.
The Water Rights Branch therefore has a technical function as well as an administrative
one and is called upon to carry out many investigations and studies of a scientific nature. The
fact that almost every executive in the Water Rights Branch is a professional engineer is indicative of the technical nature of the work. These executives of the Branch take active part on a
number of important boards and committees dealing with the disposition of the Province's
water resources.
The Comptroller of Water Rights has a technical staff consisting of a Deputy Comptroller
and Chief, Operations Division; Chief, Hydraulic Investigations Division; Branch Solicitor;
District Engineers; Senior Hydraulic Engineers; Project Engineer; and a number of hydraulic
engineers, technicians, and draughtsmen. This staff carries out many assignments in the irrigation, domestic water-supply, hydro-electric, dyking and drainage, and other fields.
- WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U 99
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
A. F. Paget, P.Eng., Comptroller of Water Rights
INTRODUCTION
The Comptroller of Water Rights, through the agency of the Water Rights Branch,
is charged with the responsibility of administration of the "Water Act" with a staff
provided that is considered adequate for this purpose. Historically the organization of
the Branch had been essentially of a somewhat vertical nature. By reason of the expanding pressure for the use of this most basic resource, water, it has become increasingly
apparent that a wider organization was needed with a greater delegation of the Comptroller's responsibility to the senior officers. During the last year the Branch has functioned as two divisions, with the Deputy Comptroller in charge of the Operations Division
and the Hydraulic Investigations Division under its appropriate Chief. Some functions
of the Branch have not been placed as a divisional responsibility, and the officers functioning in these connections are directly responsible to the Comptroller. Among these,
the most important relationships are at present the Branch Solicitor, the Project Engineer
who deals primarily with international waters, and the Senior Hydraulic Engineer who is
working as the Comptroller's representative on the projects of the Fraser River Board.
Any further personnel employed on other matters concerning the direct responsibility of
the Comptroller would be seconded from their division for the time of their specific
employment.
The most important staff changes for the year were the promotion of V. Raudsepp
to Deputy Comptroller, made necessary by the resignation of W. A. Ker; the promotion
of J. H. Doughty-Davies to Senior Hydraulic Engineer in charge of field investigations,
to replace D. A. MacLean, who resigned; the appointment of H. I. Hunter to meteorologist in charge of snow surveys; the promotion of G. R. Ford as Officer Manager of the
Hydraulic Investigations Division (Mr. Ford was replaced by M. Chandler as Chief
Draughtsman); and the promodon of W. R. Tuthill to Supervising Clerk, in place of
R. D. Higgins, who transferred to a position in the Civil Service Commission.
It is considered that there has been a general improvement in efficiency within the
Branch during the past year, notwithstanding the resignation of a large group of key
engineers. Some projects have been set back awaiting staff, but good progress was made
on the work that was attempted. One function that had been contained within the headquarters responsibility, that of dam inspections, was placed with the several District
Engineers within whose areas the dams might be located. By the co-operative effort of
the senior officers, who have principally shared the additional work, there has been no
evidence yet of a markedly adverse effect on the output of work or of a deterioration in
the general relationships of the Branch with the public. It cannot be speculated as to how
long this additional work load can be successfully carried out by the present senior staff.
It will be noted from the perusal of the body of the report that there is still a very strong
interlocking between the functions of the two divisions, which is very advantageous from
the point of efficiency and permits a more uniform professional development.
The problems relative to the use of water are becoming greater in number and more
difficult to solve as the competition for available water becomes more intense due to
urbanization and industrialization in many areas. Consequently, to meet that portion
of this pressure which results in many applications for local waterworks systems, a section
under Mr. Zirul, Senior Hydraulic Engineer, has been given the responsibility of reporting
on the feasibility of these proposals. This section is also dealing with the engineering
problems in existing irrigation districts, which in many cases, as the original systems
become expended, are very acute. U 100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Comptroller of Water Rights functioned by instructions of the Government in
the following capacities in addition to his official position: Member, Fraser River Board,
and Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Board; Member, Dominion-Provincial
Committee on Reclamation within the Province of British Columbia; Member, Kootenay
Lake International Board of Control; and Member, British Columbia Pollution-control
Board.
In the Columbia River studies on Provincial level he functions as the agency through
which consultants are obtaining the data to prepare an independent report to the
Government and is adviser to the consultants.
In addition, there is participation by membership or executive membership in several
voluntary organizations concerned with water-resource development or associated subjects.   Participation of this nature is entered into by many of the professional staff.
Revenue accruing to the Crown from water rentals continues to increase, as indicated
on the comparative graph (Plate 1). This is largely due to a continuing programme of
the electric-power utilities in expansions to meet the rapidly growing load created within
the Province. There is disturbing evidence to indicate that early in the next decade,
unless some major power start is made soon, there will be a shortage of developed electric
power to keep pace with the present load growth.
No direct engineering investigations were made in the Yukon-Taku drainage area
owing to staff shortages. The information obtained by the North West Power Company
in this area has been requested from them and will be studied when available.
The Branch must express appreciation to the other branches and divisions of the
Lands Service, who have been most co-operative in helping this Branch by their unselfish
efforts during the past year. Very valuable assistance was also given by the Departments
of Mines, Agriculture, and Health and Welfare. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Plate 1
U  101
WATER. RIGHTS   BRANCH. REVENUE  AND EXPENSES
Fiscal  Years     1935-1956
AND
DISTRIBUTION    DIAGRAM     For   Fiscal  Year   1955-56
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F1SCAL.    YEARS       (Ending  March 31st) U  102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Plate 2
WATER
RIGHTS
BRANCH
ADMINISTRATION
h
1913       to     1956
00-
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APPLICATIONS
RECEIVED
1
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1913     to    1956
1
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£
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CONDITIONAL   LICENCES 1
ISSUED                     >
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FINAL   LICENCES"
ISSUED
1         /
1916    to    1956
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U 103
Plate 3
OTHER
148
IRRIGATION
 263	
NATTER  RIGHTS   BRANCH
OPERATIONS    DIVISION
NOV. 1    .   1955   —   OCT.3I       1956-
OTHER 17
TOTAL747'
APPLICATIONS
WATER LICENCES
RECEIVED
TOTAL 245
CONDITIONAL
WATER LICENCES
ISSUED
TOTAL 324
FINAL
WATER LICENCES
ISSUED
OTHER: Waterworks , Industrial, Power. Mining, Land Improvement
Storage & River- Improv/ement Purposes. U  104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
OPERATIONS DIVISION
W. A. Ker, PJEng. (January to October), and V. Raudsepp, P.Eng.,
Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights
The main function of the Operations Division is to perform the administrative duties
as required by the " Water Act" and the regulations issued under that Act, and to provide
engineering advice to the improvement districts, the water-users' communities, and the
individual licensees.   The Division comprises the following:—
(1) The offices of the four District Engineers at Nelson, Kelowna, Kamloops,
and Victoria.
(2) General Office supervised by Chief Clerk.
(3) Administrative Draughting Office under Chief Draughtsman.
(4) A Senior Hydraulic Engineer to supervise and advise the improvement
districts.
(5) A Senior Hydraulic Engineer to inspect dams and other hydraulic structures; this position is presently vacant.
"WATER ACT" ADMINISTRATION
The large volume of the detailed work which the Operations Division has carried
out, summarized in the accompanying tabulations and charts (see Plates 2 and 3) and
in the reports of the District Engineers, has involved careful consideration of the many-
sided legal, economic, and engineering aspects which are inherent to any development
of water resources- To name a few: A right to use water is comparable to a property
right and it requires registration and protection similar to that of a property right. Public
interests require that a contemplated use of water be feasible economically and engi-
neeringwise; also, that the future needs of our expanding economy be considered in
appropriation of our water-supplies.
Each year the problems of water administration become more complex as the
expanding Provincial population and economy makes further demands on the unappropriated waters of the Province. This competition for water is now especially severe in
the older settled areas, which were until fairly recently of a rural nature. With urbanization and industrialization, the expanding needs of water for waterworks purpose, agriculture, industry, and the production of hydro-electric power have raised many problems
relating to other resource use, such as recreation and fisheries, which require much
detailed study by the Division before a recommendation concerning many water applications can be made.
The protection of the existing water rights and the equitable sharing of water from
fully licensed sources is becoming more complex with the new stature of the Province.
Many of the more recent land-owners are not accustomed to the strict conformity to
water-licence requirements necessary in the arid regions of British Columbia, and a
degree of policing of water usage is now often required in excess of previous work in
this regard.
The staff of the Operations Division has been generally successful in coping with
the varied problems that have been brought to its attention from time to time. It has,
however, become increasingly apparent that the area administered by the Kamloops
District Engineer is far too large, and under recent conditions it is not possible to give
the public as satisfactory a degree of service as has been given in the past. water rights branch
General Office
U   105
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
744
23
11
36
397
734
183
147
775
30
22
42
422
766
292
137
584
17
16
33
490
965
327
137
635
48
30
27
544
618
205
108
747
25
11
Applications for change of works  	
17
632
794
Cancellations and abandonments. _	
111
93
2,275
2,486
2,569
2,215
2,430
668
425
724
363
556
485
528
347
508
324
Total licences issued, November 1st to October 31st
1,093
1,087
1,041
875
832
Draughting Office
1955
Water applications cleared and plotted on maps _ 635
Conditional-licence plats compiled and drawn  528
Final-licence plats compiled and drawn  347
Water-rights maps compiled and drawn  13
Water-rights maps renewed  11
Reference maps renewed  39
Improvement districts' maps compiled and drawn 8
Water-rights clearances (cancellations, change of
ownership, extension of time)  1,360
Land clearances concerning water rights (purchases, leases, revisions, Crown grants, timber sales, cancellations)  6,000
1956
747
508
324
27
46
12
1,600
6,200
INVESTIGATION INTO THE EXISTING HYDRO-POWER
INSTALLATIONS IN THE PROVINCE
V. Raudsepp, P.Eng., Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights
The water rentals charged to the water-power installations are to be based on several
factors, including such as the potential and developed capacity, the cost of development
and transmission, the demand for power, etc.
Because of the shortage of staff in the Branch, no recent review of the existing
water-power installations had been made. Considering the urgency of this matter, one
Senior Hydraulic Engineer was assigned to this project in April, 1956. It was anticipated
that the assignment would likely require to be a continuous effort for a period of well over
one year.
The information readily available on the existing water-power developments has
been reviewed and rearranged and a few installations have been inspected on the ground.
As the engineer assigned to this duty was appointed to another position in October,
1956, the investigation was temporarily interrupted at that date. U 106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
R. Pollard, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson office administers Water
Rights Branch matters over some 25,000
square miles, comprising Kootenay Land
District excepting Revelstoke. There are
seven water districts — Cranbrook, Fernie,
Windermere, and Golden in the East Kootenay District, and Nelson, New Denver, and
Kaslo in the West Kootenay.
In the previous reports, reference has been
made to improved water-supply, and while
it was once thought that this was a cycle, it
is now becoming more and more evident
that our estimates of available water must
be revised. Increased water-supply can no
longer be considered an incident, but a new
pattern, because, coupled with a greater
abundance of water, there is a noticeable increase in forest-cover. Stream-flow data
collected up to, say 1945, should no longer be considered typical or criteria of availability of water. Already several streams which were noted as fully recorded in the
registers of the Branch are now open to further applications as a direct result of this
increase in water-supply.
It has also been reported previously that the trend in development is toward
apportionment of existing water licences, especially along the marginal land characteristic
of the West Kootenay District in particular. Oddly enough, however, the number of
water applications is still up to the average; in fact, this year there have been more
than usual.
Disputes due to shortage of water are still arising, notwithstanding improvement of
supply already referred to, and our usual rotation orders on upwards of twelve streams
are still being sent out in the spring of each year.
The following is a resume of the work performed by the Nelson office since the
1955 report was prepared.
Summary of Year's Work
The following tabulation indicates the variety of field activities of the staff of the
Nelson District office during the last year, ended October 31st, 1956:—
New applications investigated  114
Final-licence surveys — 54
Flooding investigations   7
Pollution investigations   2
Miscellaneous investigations  5
Arbitration cases   2
Miscellaneous complaints   2
Meetings with the improvement districts  4
Engineering advice to the improvement districts,  design of
works, etc.   5
Compilation of data on irrigated areas  1 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  107
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
H. D. DeBeck, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops office is charged with the
administration of the " Water Act" throughout an area of approximately 75,000 square
miles of Central British Columbia, comprising the drainage-basin of the Fraser River
and its tributaries from Spuzzum up-stream,
with the exception of the watersheds of the
Shuswap River and the Stuart and Nechako
Rivers above their confluence. This area is
divided, for administrative purposes, into
eight water districts—Ashcroft, Barkerville,
Cariboo, Kamloops, Lillooet, Nicola, Prince
George, and Quesnel. Although the City of
Kamloops is not at the geographical centre
of this area, it is near the centre of the Dry
Belt, where the water use is greatest and the
supply most critical.
Climate
Records for Kamloops for the climatic year November 1st, 1955, to October 31st,
1956, show that the precipitation was 18 per cent above the sixty-three-year average,
and the annual mean temperature was 3 degrees below the average. Both these variations
are factors tending to produce a better than average water-supply year. This was borne
out by experience throughout the district, and as a consequence the number of complaints
received regarding the regulation of water use was relatively small.
Water Use
The types of use to which water is put in the Kamloops District are closely related
to the resource developments of the different areas. In the southern areas, irrigation is
first in importance; in the north, industrial use of water by the logging industry is the
most important; in the Barkerville district and the mining areas of the Quesnel and
Lillooet districts, most licences are for mining purposes. Domestic use is important
throughout the whole area.
With the exception of use by major power developments, by far the greatest quantity
of water is used by agriculture for irrigation. With the exception of small areas in the
Kamloops, Ashcroft, and Lillooet districts where fruit, vegetables, and other specialized
crops can be grown, most irrigated land in the area is devoted to growing hay and feed
for the raising of live stock. Since most arable land is located in the narrow valleys, and
since fairly large holdings are required for cattle-ranching, most irrigation systems are
operated by individual licensees or small groups of licensees with joint works. For this
reason, few irrigation districts have been incorporated in this part of the Province. There
are at present only nine such irrigation districts, and most of these are comparatively
small and not highly developed.
The amount of water required for irrigation is referred to as the duty of water.
In practice this depends on many factors, including soil types, ground-water levels,
temperature and precipitation during the growing season, type of crop, and method of
application of irrigation-water; but for administrative purposes an average figure is used
for duty of water, based on the estimated effect of these factors.   A duty of 3 acre-feet U  108
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
per acre is used generally for the valley-bottom lands of the Kamloops, Nicola, and
Ashcroft districts, reducing to 2V_. or 2 acre-feet for the higher lands. In areas where
the rainfall is greater and the growing season shorter, such as parts of the Cariboo and
Quesnel districts, the duty is further reduced to 1 Vi or 1 acre-feet per acre.
Storage-dams
Where water is seasonally in short supply, many users have constructed dams to
provide storage-reservoirs to level out the seasonal fluctuations in stream-flow. About
400 such storage-dams are under licence in the district, and many of the small streams
are fully controlled or are controlled to the full extent of the economically feasible
storage-sites.
Fig. 2.  Up-stream face of breached storage-dam, Rosette Lake, at Likely.
Such storage-dams can impose a serious hazard on life and property down-stream
if they are improperly constructed or maintained. For this reason, the construction of
new dams and the maintenance of existing dams comes under the surveillance of the
Water Rights Branch in the public interest. Routine work of this nature is carried out
by the staff of the district offices, and although it has not yet been possible to institute
a systematic programme of regular inspections, any dams which are considered to impose
a hazard because of their location, size, or condition are watched closely.
During the past season particular attention has been given to a group of storage-
dams in the Cariboo mining district around Likely. These are dams which were built to
supply water for hydraulic mining purposes, and with the decline of mining in the area in
recent years some of the dams have been neglected and will soon require major reconstruction or removal. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  109
Summary of Year's Work
The following is a summary of the routine work carried out by the staff of the
Kamloops office for the period November 1st, 1955, to October 31st, 1956: —
New applications investigated and reported on  114
Conditional licences inspected  101
Final-licence surveys made     32
Miscellaneous surveys and investigations       8
Routine dam inspections     39
Dam repairs and maintenance inspected       7
New dam construction inspected       4
Proposed dam-sites inspected       8
Complaints investigated      28
Well-logs collected of new test-wells       5
Meetings for the organization of improvement districts and
water users' communities attended       8
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna office, administering an area
of approximately 15,000 square miles, includes the Grand Forks, Fairview, Princeton,
Vernon, and Revelstoke Water Districts.
This area comprises the Kettle River, Simil-
kameen, and Okanagan drainage-basins and,
in addition, the Shuswap River drainage-
basin from Sicamous to its source, and that
part of the Columbia River drainage-basin
from Boat Encampment, the northerly limit
of the Columbia River, to a point about 15
miles south of Arrowhead on the Upper
Arrow Lake.
Kelowna is centrally situated with regard
to serving its administrative area, and most
of the important centres are readily accessible with a few hours' drive.
The principal industries of this district are agriculture, lumbering, and mining, with
agriculture predominating. The Okanagan Valley is best known for its production of
tree-fruits and early vegetables. The Similkameen and Kettle River valleys are basically
agricultural areas also, although of lesser importance than the Okanagan. The main
economy of the Revelstoke area is mining and logging.
Owing to the latter part of the 1956 summer being dry, a longer than average
irrigation period was required, in some instances extending to the end of October. Consequently shortages of water were experienced in many of the smaller streams.
Duty of Water
The duty of water can be defined as the amount of irrigation-water required during
the growing season, and is usually expressed in acre-feet per acre per annum.
The duty of water in this district varies from a maximum of 6 acre-feet per acre
in the southerly part of the Okanagan Valley to a minimum of 1 acre-foot per acre in
the northerly part.    In the Similkameen and Kettle River valleys and the central part U  110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
of the Okanagan Valley, the average water duty is approximately 2.5 acre-feet per acre.
For lands at a higher elevation than the valley-bottoms or where lands are partly sub-
irrigated, lower water duties are recommended.
Water Use
Normal rainfall in the greater part of this area is insufficient to sustain crops, and
irrigation must therefore be applied. The summer flow of many of the streams, from
which water is taken for irrigation purpose, is insufficient to meet the demand, and
storages have been established to retain the spring-freshet water to supplement the
natural flow.
The amount of storage in this district varies from a few acre-feet to several thousand,
the largest being 8,200 acre-feet, held in McCulloch Lake, near Kelowna. As many
streams are now fully recorded for their low flow, further storage will have to be developed.    Over 150 storage-dams are already under licence in this district.
Ground-water from wells is used extensively for domestic supply, and in some
instances from wells and sumps for irrigation. In the Similkameen Valley, where this
practice is fairly common, the Cawston Irrigation District has abandoned its gravity
system from the Similkameen River and is pumping water from individual wells for
irrigation purposes.
The trend is now toward sprinkler irrigation, and where a gravity supply under
pressure is not available, pumping is carried out. Electric pumps are now in common
use in areas where electric power is available.
Summary of Year's Work
The following is a summary of the routine work and includes major engineering
investigations carried out by the staff of the Kelowna District office for the period November 1st, 1955, to October 31st, 1956:—
New applications investigated  115
Final-licence surveys     46
Miscellaneous licence investigations       6
Routine dam inspections     21
New dam construction inspected       2
Dam repairs inspected        2
Proposed dam-sites inspected       4
Flooding, seepage, and drainage investigations       3
Minor engineering advice to improvement districts       6
Major engineering investigations       7
For major investigations see Hydraulic Investigations Division's report. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  111
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
C. Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Victoria District office administers an
area of approximately 50,000 square miles
and includes the relatively thickly populated
and rapidly developing Lower Fraser Valley
and Vancouver Island. It is divided into
five water districts, namely, Victoria, Alberni.
Nanaimo, New Westminster, and Vancouver. The last named extends from Vancouver in the south north-westerly up the coast
for some 350 miles.
Irrigation
The rainfall records show that the month
of May was a very dry one. This was followed by a consistently wet June, more than
twice the long-term average precipitation, so
that we entered the irrigation season with our
reservoirs full, the streams full, and ground-water table abnormally high. July, August,
and early September produced a more or less normal period of drought when irrigation
was pactised more than ever before in this district. Troubles due to any water shortage
were at a minimum during the year.
The trend to create storage by the use of dugouts referred to in the last Report
has continued, and there are more such structures continually appearing and can be seen
by the casual observer along the highways. Many of these are not licensed and perhaps
are not licensable.   Therefore, we have no record of many of them.
VICTORIA
Work Carried Out During the Year
During the period November 1st, 1955, to October 31st, 1956, some twenty-seven
special studies, investigations, and reports were made. These covered such subjects as
disputes over drainage and flooding, complaints of obstructions in streams, and illegal
diversions, advice regarding dugouts, advice to improvement districts, etc. It is noted
that there is a total of seventy-two improvement districts within the area administered
by this office.
A total of 294 new applications were received and processed; of these, fifteen were
recommended to be refused. There were 102 final-licence reports completed and a
further eighty-four surveys made but not yet plotted.
The year's work (November 1st, 1955, to October 31st, 1956) appurtenant to
licences is summarized in the following table:—
Applications received  294
Applications recommended to be refused     15
Final-licence reports   102
Conditional-licence reports :  246
Recommendations re extension of time  228
Recommendations re amendment of licences     20
Abandonments of applications     14
Cancellations of applications     12
Abandonments of licences     32
Cancellations of licences     27 U 112
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LEGAL DIVISION
A. K. Sutherland, Solicitor
The Water Rights Branch functions under the " Water Act," being chapter 361 of
the "Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1948."
Sections 1 to 49 inclusive, apply to the licensing of water and to the administration
of the Water Rights Branch pertaining thereto. Sections 50 to 71, inclusive, apply to
improvement districts, and sections 72 to 85, inclusive, apply to water users' communities.
Improvement Districts
There are 201 improvement districts under the supervision of the Water Rights
Branch. These districts are incorporated for various purposes, among which are: To
extend financial aid to hospitals; irrigation; waterworks; fire protection; street-lighting;
sewage-disposal; garbage collection and disposal; land protection; dyking; drainage;
the operation and maintenance of cemeteries; the provision and maintenance of parks
and playgrounds; the operation and maintenance of airports (see Plate 4)-
Nineteen improvement districts were incorporated this year, namely:—
Selkirk Hospital Improvement District No. 12.
Derby Dyking District.
Canal Flats Improvement District.
Bluebird Bay Waterworks District.
South West Extension Waterworks District.
North Peace Hospital Improvement District No. 13.
Blue River Waterworks District.
Shuttleworth Creek Irrigation District.
Shuswap Lake Hospital Improvement District No. 14.
Brunswick Beach Improvement District.
Golden Hospital Improvement District No. 15.
Eagle Heights Waterworks District.
Meadowbrook Waterworks District.
Cowichan Hospital Improvement District No. 16.
Grand Forks Rural Fire Protection District.
Seahaven Improvement District.
Airport Hill improvement District.
Mamquam Waterworks District.
North Saanich Fire Protection District.
The Annable-Warfield Waterworks and Sewerage District and Cowichan Hospital
Improvement District No. 16 were dissolved in 1956.
Pursuant to section 58 of the " Water Act," funds were advanced to improvement
districts by the Province of British Columbia to provide fire protection, financial aid to
hospitals, and street-lighting, and will be collected by the Province by way of taxes over
a period of time from one to twenty years, depending on the capability of the area to
repay.   The advances are as follows:—
(1) With first collections in 1956—advance      $834,653.00
(2) With first collections in 1957—advance         581,012.00
Total advance _'  $1,415,665.00
Pursuant to the " Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act," chapter 38 of the
Statutes of 1945, and amendments thereto, the Province of British Columbia guaranteed
debentures of the following districts with respect to both principal and interest after this WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  113
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Plate 4
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40
IMPROVEMENT      DISTRICTS
1920 1925 I930 1935 1940 1945 1950
YEARS   (ENPIN6  3|STOCT. 1956)
1955 I960 U  114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Branch recommended the feasibility of the project and, further, that the area could liquidate the debentures as they become due:—
Rutland Waterworks District     $200,000.00
Duhamel Creek Waterworks District  25,000.00
Petroglyph Waterworks District  45,000.00
Willow Point Waterworks District  300,000.00
Kemp Lake Waterworks District  10,000.00
Total   $580,000.00
Water-users' Communities
There are forty-eight water users' communities in the Province at the present time.
They function under the " Water Act" and are incorporated by a certificate of incorporation issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Although some have a large membership, they are usually small corporate bodies of six or more persons holding water
licences. Their powers are more restricted than those of an improvement district, and
administration is carried out by a manager under the supervision of the Comptroller of
Water Rights.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT ENGINEERING
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Senior Hydraulic Engineer
A new section was established under the Operations Division this year, and a Senior
Hydraulic Engineer appointed, to supply the engineering requirements in connection
with the supervision of improvement districts. Due to the heavy demand for engineering investigations and reports on various districts, an assistant engineer was appointed
to the section in July.
The three main functions for which this section has been set up are as follows:—
(1) To carry out such preliminary investigations and to prepare preliminary
designs with cost estimates as are required to prove the feasibility of
establishing waterworks or irrigation systems for proposed new districts.
In this regard we are concerned primarily with the ability of the district
to support the costs involved in operating the system if installed, and to
retire the debts incurred in financing the installation. Water Rights
Branch recommendations to the Department of Finance with regard to
financing of the districts are based on the reports submitted by this section.
(2) To check the engineering reports submitted by improvement districts for
proposed waterworks or irrigation systems. This consists mainly of
checking the estimate of costs contained in the report with a view to
determining whether or not the district can afford the system proposed.
In some cases modifications to the design are suggested in order to reduce
the costs.
(3) To investigate the existing improvement districts, especially with regard
to the condition of the works serving the district and the provisions being
made for maintenance of the system and replacement of the depreciable
items. The need for complete information in this regard is becoming
increasingly apparent. Many of the districts are finding that the rate of
depreciation of their system properties has been greater than the provision made to offset it, and this situation requires immediate correction if
the district is to continue to function.
A list of the investigations carried out and reports submitted by this section is contained in the report of the Hydraulic Investigations Division. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  115
INTERNATIONAL WATERS
Gordon J. A. Kidd, P.Eng., Project Engineer
Previous descriptions bearing upon rivers in British Columbia falling within the
category of international waters have appeared in the issues of the Annual Report of the
Lands Service during the last few years. Attention has been focused primarily on the
Columbia River basin because of the complex international problems of immediate
importance which are involved in its development, with brief mention made of other
major streams of international significance. It is not considered necessary to repeat these
descriptions in any detail, and for background information the reader is referred particularly to the section on International Waters contained in the Annual Reports of 1954
and 1955.
Since the status of studies on other international streams has remained basically
unchanged during the past year, this discussion will deal only with the international
aspects involved in the planning for the development of the Columbia River basin.
General
The availability of cheap electric power as a major factor in the industrial development and prosperity of the Pacific Northwest region is well recognized. In the United
States section of this region a vast and growing industrial empire has materialized, based
on power from the great dams and power-houses constructed on the Columbia River at
Grand Coulee, Chief Joseph, McNary, Rock Island, and Bonneville. Many of the
remaining water-power resources of the Columbia River in that country are now under
construction or proposed for immediate development. In British Columbia the water
resources of the Columbia basin are, in the main, as yet untouched, except on the lower
reaches of the Kootenay and Pend d'Oreille Rivers, where hydro-power has been
developed to service the vast industrial and mining complex of the Consolidated Mining
and Smelting Company.
Power demands in the North-western States and in British Columbia are increasing
at a rapid rate. Large new hydro-power plants being completed in the United States
section of the basin, with still others in various stages of construction, are barely keeping
pace with the rapidly increasing power requirements of the region. Similarly, although
British Columbia is in a more immature stage of development, the water resources in
close proximity to the areas of heavy power demand are rapidly being used up, and to
satisfy the burgeoning requirements of the future it will be necessary to seek farther
afield, to the vast resources of the Fraser and Columbia Rivers. The difficult salmon-
fisheries problems associated with the potential hydro-power development of the Fraser
River are apparent, and attention is thus focused primarily on the Columbia River as the
source of blocks of power to feed the large Mainland load centres of the Province in the
immediate future.
The problems associated with the development of the Columbia are no less complex
than those of the Fraser, but are more susceptible to satisfactory solution without detrimental effect to an already developed resource such as the salmon-fisheries. Briefly, by
way of summary, the Columbia River and some of its major tributaries, such as the
Kootenay and Okanagan, rise in British Columbia and cross the International Boundary
en route to the Pacific shore. Because of widely varying seasonal run-off, the storage of
water and subsequent release to create more uniform flow conditions down-stream are
of considerable advantage for the production of hydro-power. Consequently any large
storage developments in British Columbia, such as Mica and Arrow Lakes, which could
be operated to regulate stream-flow would add greatly to the hydro-power capability of
down-stream projects in the United States. Canadian representatives have maintained
that by creating these benefits in the United States through release of stored water from U 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Plate 5 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  117
British Columbia, Canada is contributmg^^J-J-J" ^^S^SS
benefits so created with a return for use in ^ d ^°lum bPenefits resulti„g in the
power produced.   The Canadian view-point that the powJ ^^ b
United States from release of stored water J^ ^epSentatives. Commonly called
the two countries has not been "^P^^^^JLy political and economic aspects
the upstream-downstream benefits P»Wan, the rn a     P whlch are
nvolv'ed have become increasingly «*&£*££ £ ™  Kootenay into the Columbia
being investigated for the dtyersion othe^Jj"*,^ int0 the Fraser system.
t £S ^ A'SSM -d p°ssible potential develop'
ments is shown on Plate 5.
Fig. 3.  Mica dam-site on Columbia River, looking down-stream.
_ U  118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Columbia River Basin Planning
Many governmental and private agencies from both countries are vitally interested
in planning for the optimum development of the water resources of the Columbia basin.
Various studies and investigations are being carried out, and several engineering groups
have been set up to determine the best plan of development or to analyse particular
aspects of the many problems involved. The activities of the more important of these
groups, together with progress during the past year, are summarized briefly as follows:-—
International Columbia River Engineering Board and Committee. — The Governments of Canada and the United States recognized at an early date the importance of
a co-operative international study of the Columbia basin to determine the best over-all
plan for the development of its water resources, and in 1944 the two Governments joined
in a reference to the International Joint Commission to carry out the required studies.
The International Columbia River Engineering Board, composed of senior federal representatives from both countries, was formed to conduct the studies and prepare reports.
In order to expedite the work, a committee was formed, composed of field representatives
of the federal offices of both countries located in the basin, together with the Deputy
Minister of Lands representing the Province of British Columbia. Until recently the
efforts of these agencies have been concentrated mainly in obtaining the necessary basic
information, but this phase is very nearly completed and engineering studies to determine
the best plan of development are now in progress. Appendices have been prepared on
sub-basins, such as the Okanagan-Similkameen and the Kootenay Rivers. Work is
presently progressing on the preparation of appendices on other sub-basins, such as the
main-stem Columbia River in Canada and the Clark Fork-Pend d'Oreille, as well as on the
main comprehensive basin-wide report. It is anticipated that the comprehensive report,
which will set forth a recommended international plan or alternative plans for the ultimate
development of water resources of the Columbia basin, will be completed for submission
to the International Joint Commission late in 1958.
Pacific Northwest Governors' Power Policy Committee.—The Minister of Lands and
Forests for British Columbia sits with the Governors of the several North-western States
on the policy group of this organization. The principal United States agencies concerned
and public- and investor-owned utilities both in the North-west States and British Columbia have representation in the body of the organization. The group has established an
Engineering Committee with technical-staff nucleus. The purpose of this organization
is to study the many obstacles blocking the utilization of power resources in order to
recommend procedures and methods to expedite the development of adequate amounts
of power to meet the estimated electric loads of the future. During the past year the
Engineering Committee has carried out load-growth studies for the region and prepared
inventories of the available resources. Several of the problems affecting water-resource
development are under study, including the international upstream-downstream benefit
problem.   A close liaison is being maintained with fisheries and wildlife representatives.
Columbia River Basin Development Advisory Committee.—This Committee with
Engineering Sub-committee was established under the chairmanship of the Minister of
Lands and Forests for British Columbia to serve as an advisory group to the Provincial
Government in the formulation of policy in respect to the development of water resources
for hydro-power purposes. The group, which is composed of representatives of Government and private British Columbia hydro-power utilities, has been inactive during the
past year, awaiting the completion of the various studies which are being carried out.
It is anticipated that the Committee will play a continuing part in the planning involving
the Columbia basin in British Columbia.
Provincial Studies.—From discussions which took place during the year between the
Premier of British Columbia and the Federal Minister of Northern Affairs and National
Resources, it was agreed that the study of all aspects of possible development of the WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  119
Columbia basin in British Columbia should proceed as rapidly as possible, to ensure that
the largest possible amount of power at the lowest possible cost is derived from the
hydro-electric possibilities that are available, to meet the tremendously rapid increase
of power demands being experienced and forecast for British Columbia. To expedite
these studies it was agreed that all available and relevant data with respect to the Columbia
basin which was held by the two Governments would be exchanged and also made
available to any interested Canadian entity. A large amount of basic data on Columbia
basin power-sites which had been accumulated by the Federal Department of Northern
Affairs and National Resources became available to Provincial authorities, and as a result
the Minister of Lands and Forests for British Columbia instructed the Comptroller of
Water Rights to commence the necessary investigations and studies to evaluate the hydro-
power potential of the Columbia River. In this connection the firm of Crippen-Wright
Engineering Limited, consulting engineers, was retained to study and assess, under the
direction of the Comptroller of Water Rights, all the basic engineering data that existed
and to prepare reports to serve as a basis for determination of policy by British Columbia
leading to an optimum plan for development of the hydro-power resources of the Columbia basin at the earliest possible date. These studies are now well in hand, and it is
hoped that they will be completed late in 1957.
British Columbia is particularly well endowed with large hydro-power resources,
but it is recognized that the more accessible of these will be rapidly developed to satisfy
the ever-increasing demands of our growing economy. Thus it is of extreme importance
that development of our major river-basins be planned for the maximum utilization possible within engineering and economic limits. That the Province is well aware of this
is demonstrated by its active participation in all the planning phases which are presently
going on for the future development of the Columbia basin. U  120 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
T. A. J. Leach, P.Eng., Chief, Hydraulic Investigations Division
It has been said that the habits of men and the form of their social organizations
have been influenced more by their close association with water than with the land by
which they earn their bread. This is particularly true in British Columbia, where anything from the simple agricultural endeavour to the most complex of industrial developments depends primarily on water resources.
The inventory and evaluation of these resources during the last fifty years has been
the responsibility of the Water Rights Branch. At the beginning of the century the main
effort was directed to obtaining preliminary information on our hydro-electric resources,
but with the growth of the Province the programme has been expanded to include almost
every conceivable use. To-day Water Rights engineers are working in the irrigation,
municipal, and domestic water-supply field and are also concerned with ground-water
and the interrelated water problems, such as flood-control, dyking, drainage, and international water use.
The latest edition of Water Power of British Columbia, published in 1954, points
out the existing and potential power available. More detailed information can be
obtained from the Water Rights Branch library, which contains over 200 reports in
hydro-electric power and many other water uses.
The present organization within the Hydraulic Investigations Division can be
broken down into three main sections, namely: (1) Water Resource Compilation Section,
(2) Hydrology Section, and (3) Fraser River Board Section.
A description of the work which has been carried out by each of the sections follows.
However, for the purpose of coherency the investigational work of the operational division engineers has also been included under the appropriate heading.
The Hydrology Section at present consists of a meteorologist and his assistant,
although many engineers of the Branch contribute to this aspect of our studies.
Prior to the formation of the Fraser River Board in March of 1949, the Branch had
built up an inventory of basic data within the Fraser River basin. However, with the
additional joint funds which have been made available in the last seven years, together
with the man-power contributions from other members, the programme has been greatly
accelerated. The Comptroller has been a member since the Board's inception, and further
Branch representation is through the Fraser River Board Section engineer, who is a
member of the working group.
WATER RESOURCES COMPILATION SECTION
J. H. Doughty-Davies, P.Eng., Senior Hydraulic Engineer
The Water Resources Compilation Section is composed of hydraulic engineers,
technicians, and draughtsmen. The Section is charged with carrying out field investigations and preparing reports on irrigation, hydro-power, domestic water-supply, flooding,
drainage, and allied subjects. This year forty-five engineering reports were prepared and
sent to interested parties. In addition to new reports, eighty reprints of older reports were
assembled and distributed, also eighty requests for copies of Water Power of British
Columbia were filled.
The Section also keeps a library of these engineering reports and maintains records
of various types of hydrologic and hydro-power data. Administrative and technical data
are also recorded and kept in this Section. Apart from the normal work of this Section—-
that is, of compiling information on British Columbia's water resources—it also does work
on behalf of the Fraser River Board. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Plate 6
U  121
WATER RESOURCES INVESTIGATION .WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
I™00 DEVELOPMENT OF HVPRO-POWER IN BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
SHOWING
ANNUAL DISTRIBUTION BY MAJOR POWER PRODUCERS
FOR CALENDAR YEARS   ISOO-I9SS
LEGEND:
■      BRITISH COLUMBIA POWER COMMISSION
II      BRITISH COLUMBIA ELECTRIC CO. LTD.
-500    Q      CONSOLIDATED MININ6-SMELT1NG CO.LTD.ssot.
9      OTHER PRODUCERS
1915 19.0 1925 1930
CAL   E    N    D    A.    R.
1935        1940        19+5
"T"  E .*_ R. U  122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Plate 7 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  123
The investigations carried out during 1956 are described in the following pages.
Reports on most of this work are already available.
A.  Hydro-electric Power Investigations Initiated by Branch
Along with the accelerated programme within the Fraser River watershed, the
Branch has endeavoured to carry out similar investigations on several of our other major
rivers, including the Peace, the Dease-Stikine, and Chilliwack Rivers. Actually the latter
is contained within the Fraser watershed but is included here as it was a special project
initiated by the Province.
Peace River Hydro Survey
R. G. Fernyhough, F.S.A.
During the summer of 1956 preliminary information was obtained regarding the
feasibility of diverting the Peace River in its upper reaches southward through Summit
Lake into the Fraser. Farther down-stream, at the Peace River Canyon, the possibilities
of at-site power were also investigated.
The first, or Finlay Forks, section begins 8 miles below the confluence of the Finlay
and Parsnip Rivers, where the Peace begins its journey through the mountains east of
the Rocky Mountain Trench, and ends where the river emerges from the main chain,
some 14 miles down-stream. This area was investigated for storage-dam sites and was
controlled for 500-feet-to-l-inch multiplex mapping. Preliminary examination indicates
a 550-foot dam just up-stream from the Wicked River would be sufficient to divert the
water southward (see Plate 8).
The second section of the river investigated was the Peace River Canyon. The
canyon, terminating just above Hudson Hope and extending some 20 miles up-stream,
was studied for power-sites and was also controlled for 500-feet-to-l-inch multiplex
map coverage.
The Finlay Forks Section
This area of the Peace is accessible only by water, and initial supplies were moved
by three river-boats down-stream from Tudyah Lake to the first camp-site at the mouth
of the Wicked River, a distance of over 100 miles.
Triangulation, tied to Provincial stations " Selwyn Scarp " and " Billygoat," was
selected as the most satisfactory method of obtaining the necessary horizontal and secondary vertical control, and a network of twenty-four stations was erected and read. This
phase of the work was completed before the area was flown, and it was hoped that identification of the stations would supply all the necessary multiplex points. This, unfortunately, was not the case. Only a small percentage of the stations could be accurately
pin-pointed, and it was necessary to revisit the area at the end of the season and, under
very adverse weather conditions, fill in the gaps with additional horizontal and vertical
control.
Seventy-five miles of levels, double line, feet, and metres were run to establish
primary vertical control. Geodetic Bench Marks 689-H and 690-H, terminal monuments of a spur line to the head of the Peace River Canyon, were used for datum origin.
Intermediate camp-sites were located at Clearwater and Gold Bar as the level line
progressed, and this phase of the work was completed on August 25th.
Monuments, controlled horizontally and vertically, were set in the vicinity of each
of five possible dam-sites.
Peace River Canyon
The upper and lower ends of the canyon are accessible by road and the lower 14
miles are navigable (not by the timid) by boat. River-boats equipped with two 30-horse-
power outboards were proved to be best suited for this purpose, and one was moved to U  124
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Fig. 4.   Peace River Canyon, lower section.    Water Rights survey boat in centre. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  125
the head of the canyon (for river crossings) and another was put in the water at Hudson
Hope. Camp was built at Portage Creek, 4 miles west of Hudson Hope, and after
a preliminary reconnaissance of the area, work was begun on August 27th.
Horizontal control was initiated at Provincial topographic stations " Bullhead " and
" Portage." A small triangulation net was built up to supply the control required for
mapping and to tie in the brass bolts located in the vicinity of the three dam-sites studied.
Fourteen stations were erected and read for this purpose. Control in obscure, heavily
wooded areas was obtained by stadia traverse.
Plans now under way are for the completion of this investigation in 1957, when
details of the Summit Lake area will be carried out. A number of map-sheets are also
planned by topographic surveys during the coming year, which will allow an accurate
determination of the volume of the 300-mile lake which would be created by the dam
near Wicked River.
Dease-Stikine Hydro-electric Power Investigation
G. Wabersk., f.s.a.
The Water Rights Branch started this year on an investigation of a proposed diversion of the Dease River southward into the Stikine River for the development of hydroelectric power. This project, which will require several years to survey, will include
such tributary streams as the Tanzilla and Tuya Rivers. Additional storage for this
project would be provided at the Stikine River above the Grand Canyon.
This project is within the Cassiar Land District, which has an area of about 100,000
square miles. It is bounded on the south and east by Range 5, Coast District, and Cariboo and Peace River Land Districts, to the north by Yukon, and to the west by Alaska.
Based on office studies, possible dam-sites were selected for field investigation, and
it was decided to start the survey along the Dease River (see Plate 9).
Physical Features of the Dease River
The Dease River starts at Dease Lake and winds its way in a northerly direction
through a wide, flat valley which gradually narrows until it becomes bordered by mountains from 4,500 to 5,000 feet in height, the summits of which still bore snow in June.
Finally the river comes out upon several wide grassy plains and forms a chain of little
lakes from three-quarters to 2 miles in length and approximately one-quarter mile in
width. The valley of the three lakes, including Cottonwood Lake, is hemmed in on both
sides by very rough and high mountains which are chiefly composed of granitoid rocks.
From the last of these lakes the Dease River cuts through a rock barrier, called " Cottonwood Rapids," and beyond merges with the Cottonwood River, rapidly increases in size,
doubles its volume, and flows with a rather strong current. After several large bends it
flows past the mouth of McDame Creek and a few buildings which are known as Mc-
Dame Post.
In this reach the current is slack and the river averages 300 feet in width. The
valley is wide and the mountains, which are far back to the north and south, are high
and bold, with an elevation from 6,000 to 7,000 feet. Some of them retain snow throughout the summer.   The lower slopes are generally thickly wooded with spruce and willows.
Leaving McDame Post the river narrows again to pass through a gate of rock and
comes to long, wide stretches with concave banks, islands, and gravel-bars. The country
becomes low and uninteresting, being covered generally with forests of inferior growth
often degenerating into swamp with only occasional grassy openings.
For the last 50 miles the Dease River flows through several rapids, gradually leaving the mountains behind. After 180 miles the Dease River sweeps out into its wide
confluence with the Liard. U  126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Plate 8
V   . WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Plate 9
U  127
HMVT NOSJUbM. U  128 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Field Work
The investigation of the year 1956 was divided into two parts: (1) Site topography
for the dam-sites on the Dease River, and (2) to establish the elevation at Dease Lake
based on geodetic datum on the Alaska Highway.
For (1) the intention is to produce maps by multiplex at a scale of 500 feet to
1 inch. The control for this year extended over 29 miles of six selected sites. Each
site was controlled for at least 1 mile up or down stream. (See Plate 9, which shows
dam-site areas.)
For (2), since no bench-marks were available near the sites, the elevation to geodetic datum was brought into the area from the Geodetic Survey of Canada Monument
No. 29If on the Alaska Highway near the turn off to the Cassiar asbestos mine.
The level line as shown on Plate 9 followed the Cassiar Road until Mile-post 77,
the turn off for the Stewart Road, and then continued until Sawmill Point, 3 miles south
of the north end of Dease Lake. A sub-line was carried out from Mile-post 64, the
junction of Cassiar Road and McDame Trail, to establish vertical control for the dam-
sites near McDame Post. The total run, Alaska Highway to Dease Lake, mostly over
hilly country, had a length of 135 miles. Along these two roads, elevations for thirty-
three bench-marks, brass plugs set in concrete approximately 5 miles apart, were established.
The height of Dease Lake, as determined by this year's survey, is 2,467 feet (September) and that of the confluence of the Dease and Liard Rivers is 1,886 feet. The
total fall of the river, according to these figures, is 581 feet, giving an average slope of
3.2 feet to the mile for its entire length.
It is planned to continue the survey from Dease Lake south to Telegraph Creek
next summer.
Chilliwack River Investigations
A. S. Goodyear, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
During the summer of 1956 a study of the Chilliwack River was initiated to determine whether flood-control could be achieved with up-stream storage-dams, with the
additional possibility of developing hydro-power and supplying water for future growth
in the Fraser Valley. The Chilliwack River has its watershed to the south of the Fraser
River and emerges from the hills at Vedder Crossing, near the Township of Chilliwhack,
and from this point to its confluence with the Fraser River it is locally known as the
Vedder River. In past ages it has followed a number of courses between Vedder Crossing and the Fraser River, and some of these may still be seen near Chilliwack, including
Luckakuck Creek and Chilliwack Creek. Between 1876 and 1894 most of the discharge
was down the previous course of Luckakuck Creek, but some was down a new channel
to what was then Sumas Lake, following much the same course as that of the present
day. In 1894 a log-jam blocked Luckakuck Creek and was the cause of a bitter feud
between the people of the Sumas area, who wanted to destroy it, and the residents of
Chilliwack, who were glad to see the water diverted away from their homes. In 1922
the Sumas area was reclaimed and the Vedder River was diverted into the Vedder Canal
between Yarrow and Sumas Mountain, but on the alluvial cone between the Vedder
Canal and Vedder Crossing there has been some flooding and bank erosion since then.
In this area the river has a braided channel and is slowly aggrading, and there is a possibility that in time of flood it could take a completely new course between Vedder Crossing and the Fraser River.
Up-stream of Vedder Crossing the Chilliwack River has a remarkably uniform
gradient and occupies a valley that was once glaciated and whose floor is now mantled
with glacial till and alluvial deposits. The valley is virtually uninhabited and the terrain
rugged, although there are logging-roads in the lower portion and several summer resi- WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U   129
Fig. 5.  McDame Post, on Dease River, now abandoned.
Fig. 6.   Dease River, possible dam-site in lower right-hand side of picture. U  130
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Plate 10 Plate 11 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  131
dences on the shores of Chilliwack Lake. In 1938 a fire swept through the main valley
and destroyed much of the millable timber that then remained, although the tributaries
were almost untouched and are now well forested at lower elevations. The United States
border is a mile south of the head of Chilliwack Lake, and that portion of the watershed
within the United States is uninhabited and very remote.
In May, 1956, the Air Division took vertical photographs between the Vedder Canal
and the United States border and a Topographic Division party ran in levels for vertical
control, horizontal control being from a previous topographic survey. Maps have been
prepared at a scale of 600 feet to 1 inch, with 10-foot contours at least 150 feet above
stream-level and higher at individual dam-sites. Daily discharge records are available
for the Chilliwack River at Vedder Crossing and Chilliwack Lake for twenty-four and
twenty-seven years respectively, but no records are available for the tributaries (see
Plate 10).
With such good mapping provided and with the available hydrological records, it
was possible to be more detailed than is usually the case in a preliminary study. On
the main stream of the Chilliwack River the following six areas were investigated to
determine their feasibility as dam-sites:—
(1) At the outlet of Chilliwack Lake.
(2) Immediately down-stream of the confluence with Chipmunk Creek.
(3) Immediately down-stream of the confluence with Slesse Creek.
(4) At the small canyon between Borden and Tamihi Creeks.
(5) Immediately down-stream of the confluence with Lihumitson Creek.
(6) Immediately up-stream of Vedder Crossing.
On the tributaries the following areas were investigated:—
(1) On Slesse Creek at the road bridge half a mile up-stream of the confluence
with the Chilliwack River (see Fig. 9).
(2) On Tamihi Creek at the head of the gorge half a mile up-stream of the
confluence with the Chilliwack River.
(3) On Lihumitson Creek at the head of the gorge immediately above the
Chilliwack Valley (see Fig. 8).
(4) On Lihumitson Creek 1 mile up-stream of the confluence with the Chilliwack River at the head of the upper gorge.
In addition, several diversions were studied, and also the possibility of bank protection between Vedder Crossing and the Vedder Canal. Until office studies are completed,
the feasibility of the various alternatives is unknown.
B.  Irrigation and Water-supply
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
A. S. Goodyear, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
Further to the work that was done during the summer of 1955, in May, 1956, tests
were carried out to determine the capacity of the main canal. These were continued in
August, and, in addition, a test devised by the Department of Mines was used to determine
whether the copper sulphate that is added to control weed growth is absorbed when
passing down the canal. The tests indicated that little absorption takes place, and it is
thus sufficient only to add the copper sulphate at the intake of the main canal. Providing
weed growth can be controlled as it has in the past year and excessive water usage can be
curtailed, it would appear that an additional 600 to 800 acres of land can be irrigated.
(See Plate 11.) U 132
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Fig. 7.  Chilliwack Lake, looking south from near the outlet.
i
Fig. 8.  The down-stream dam-site on Lihumitson Creek, at the head of a narrow gorge
leading down to the Chilliwack River. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  133
Fig. 9.  This possible dam-site on Slesse Creek appeared feasible
but does not provide much storage.
Fig.   10.    During the summer of  1956 the Vedder River changed  its course  in the
vicinity of Browne Road, eroding some farm land and endangering the barn and home in the
background,
6 U  134 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Creston Area Water-supply and Irrigation Investigation
A. R. D. Robertson, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
The difficulties experienced in obtaining water-supplies by the residents of the area
surrounding Creston were outlined in the 1955 Lands Service Report. Studies based on
last year's field work were continued through the early part of 1956, culminating in
a comprehensive report and map atlas.
The atlas of maps accompanying the report contains a series of topographical maps
covering the area at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch, together with the engineering drawings
recording proposed reservoir-sites and distribution layouts, etc.
The report included an inventory of present water-supply systems throughout the
district and the conclusions drawn from field examination of the water sources of the area.
Recommended alternative developments for those systems which require improvement
and expansion are included, with especial attention being paid to the waterworks system
of The Corporation of the Village of Creston, serving the main residential area. Alternative proposals for progressive enlargement of its supply system to accommodate future
growth have been estimated, and a discussion of possible further developments has been
included in the report, together with an outline of a scheme to supply the irrigation and
domestic water requirements of the whole Creston area.
Improvement District Engineering Section
M. L. Zirul, P.Eng., Senior Hydraulic Engineer
Naramata Irrigation District
A field investigation of this district was carried out last season (see 1955 Report)
and air-photo strips were flown for multiplex mapping. The multiplex tracing showing
contours and surface detail for the area under consideration became available in early
June, and our draughting division was able to proceed with preparation of the necessary
detailed maps on which a system layout could be made.
It is required to supply a complete final design for a combined irrigation and domestic
water-supply system together with a cost estimate and breakdown of annual costs in order
to prove the financial feasibility of the project. The report is intended to be in sufficient
detail to allow for submission for tenders with only the addition of detailed construction
drawings required for installation.
The trustees of the district have required that provisions for fire protection and
chlorination will have to be provided. The design has been completed at the date of this
writing and the preparation of cost estimates and the report is nearly complete.
A preliminary estimate of total cost of the replacement works is in the neighbourhood
of $323,000, and the annual cost of irrigation-water supply, after deducting the revenue
assumed available from domestic services, is approximately $20 per acre per annum.
Cowichan Bay Waterworks District
Following requests received from the trustees of the district, a field investigation was
carried out in January of this year and a preliminary design prepared for a system to
supply domestic water to the properties within the boundaries of the existing district plus
the adjacent subdivided property which is developing as a residential area. The area
under consideration contains twenty-five consumers within the existing district and
a further twenty-five potential users requiring service in the adjacent area.
The present supply is obtained from small springs near the shore-line of Cowichan
Bay and is proving inadequate for the limited shore-line development which is served.
The system has also reached the end of its useful life. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  135
The preliminary design submitted proposed pumping the water-supply from a drilled
well in the vicinity of an already proven well within the area to be served into a distribution system consisting mainly of 4-inch asbestos-cement pipe. A 30,000-gallon wood-
stave balancing-reservoir was to be provided.
Total cost of the system proposed was $28,000, which could be supported by a
domestic water charge of $4.50 per month per residence plus a $6 per annum parcel tax.
Charges to commercial users would be slightly higher.
Cuisson Creek Irrigation Proposal
A further reconnaissance of the storage possibilities on the watershed of Cuisson
Creek near Alexandria was made in connection with the " Prairie Farms Rehabilitation
Act." It is proposed to revise our data on the storage available for the Cuisson Creek
irrigation proposal.
Brentwood Waterworks District
The Brentwood Waterworks District, located within the boundaries of The Corporation of the Municipality of Central Saanich, has constructed its own reservoirs and
distribution system and obtains its bulk water-supply from the main operated by the
Department of Transport and supplying the Patricia Bay Airport. The source of supply
is Elk Lake, near Victoria, where a pumping plant with filtering and chlorinating facilities
is located.
Following advice received from the Department of Transport that it intended to
withdraw from the business of supplying water to any outside interests, the Brentwood
Waterworks District requested the Water Rights Branch to investigate and advise it of
possible alternative methods of obtaining a water-supply.
Alternative costs were developed for obtaining a supply from Durrance Lake, which
is located in the vicinity of Mount Work, south of Tod Inlet on the Saanich Peninsula,
and for operating the Elk Lake pumping plant independently.
On the basis of the data submitted, the district is carrying on negotiations with the
Municipality of Central Saanich and the Department of Transport.
Kaleden Irrigation District
The Kaleden Irrigation District is located at Kaleden, on the west shore of Skaha
Lake, south of Penticton. The original system serving the area was constructed by private
interests in 1910. The improvement district became organized and took over operation
of the system in 1922. The area irrigated is 536 acres.
Since its incorporation, the Kaleden Irrigation District has been one of the best-
managed districts under our supervision. In spite of this, however, the trustees of the
district have realized that the replacements they have been able to make were not keeping
up with the deterioration of the structures, and they appealed to the Water Rights Branch
to review the situation.
A field investigation was made and a revised renewal schedule prepared, covering
all depreciable items on the system inventory.
The report prepared to accompany the revised renewal schedule showed that the
total replacement or new value of the depreciable works operated by the district was
$318,700 or nearly $600 per acre, and that depreciation at the date of the report
amounted to 66 per cent of the value of the works. The amount required to be set aside
annually for replacement of depreciable structures in accordance with the schedule was
$13,052, amounting to $24.30 per acre for the 536 acres irrigated.
The above figures, added to the cost of administration, operation, and maintenance,
would put the cost of irrigation above what the district apparently can afford, and the
matter has been referred for further study. U 136
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Westside, Wilmer, and Vermilion Irrigation Districts
Three irrigation districts in the East Kootenay area were visited during the year and
reports prepared covering their special problems. These are the Westside Irrigation
District at Invermere, the Wilmer Irrigation District at Wilmer, 4 miles north of Inver-
mere, and the Vermilion Irrigation District at Edgewater. Further work may be required
on some of these districts.
Kemp Lake Waterworks District
An engineering design prepared by its consulting engineer for a waterworks system
to supply residences in the Otter Point area near Sooke by pumping from Kemp Lake
was submitted by the Kemp Lake Waterworks District.
Investigation showed that the probable costs of the proposed system would exceed
the available revenue of the district, and the design submitted was therefore not economically feasible.
Alternative proposals for modification of the design in order to reduce costs were
worked out, and one of these, incorporating the temporary use of the old pipe-line
installed to serve the war-time army camp at Otter Point, was adopted by the district.
A feature in the design submitted was the extensive use of plastic pipe in sizes of
2, 2Vi, and 3 inches. The installation will be watched with interest as the use of this
type of pipe in small systems could effect considerable savings if it proves to be satisfactory in service.
Saltair Waterworks District
The Saltair Waterworks District, located near the City of Ladysmith on Vancouver
Island, submitted an engineering design prepared by its consulting engineer for a waterworks system incorporating joint use with the City of Ladysmith of its main supply-works
from Stocking Lake.
A study of the design enabled us to offer some suggestions for improvement of the
pressures in the distribution system.
It was also considered that certain items contained in the draft agreement covering
the joint use of part of the Ladysmith system unfavourably affected the design, and this
is being reconsidered on our suggestion.
Summary of Investigations Carried Out during the Year by This Section
Name of District
or Proposal
Location
Irrigated
Area
(Acres)
Purpose of Investigation
Remarks
Naramata Irrigation District
Kaleden Irrigation District...
Kemp     Lake     Waterworks
District
Cowichan  Bay Waterworks
District
Brentwood Waterworks District
Saltair Waterworks District...
Cuisson     Creek     irrigation
proposal
Naramata (Okanagan).
Kaleden (Okanagan)
Otter    Point    (Sooke,
V.I.)
Cowichan Bay (V.I.)	
Saanich (V.I.)_. _.
Near Ladysmith (V.I.).
Alexandria (Cariboo)._
Invermere.. 	
Near Invermere 	
915
536
2,680
110
115
364
Design of replacement irrigation
and domestic water system
Renewal of replacement schedule..
Review of engineering design for
waterworks system
Preparation   of   preliminary   design for waterworks system
Review of supply possibilities	
Review of engineering design for
waterworks system
Revision    of   data   on   storage
available.
Design and Report
nearing completion.
Report available.
Suggestions made for
modification of design.
Report available.
Information submitted
to Water Committee.
Information submitted
to improvement district.
Office work pending.
Wilmer Irrigation District...
Vermilion Irrigation District WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  137
Kelowna District Office
R. G. Harris, P. Eng., District Engineer
Westbank Irrigation District.—An evaluation of the Westbank Irrigation District's
irrigation system was made following completion of the air-photo mapping of 1955.
A tentative design and approximate estimate of cost of an all-pressure system for
sprinkler irrigation has now been prepared for approximately 1,000 acres. A more
detailed design will be submitted this winter.
Further work will include the feasibility of developing an additional 300 acres
which lies immediately north of the present district.
Ellison Irrigation District.—An all-pressure system for sprinkler irrigation was
designed for an area of approximately 100 acres, consisting of nine farms, the "North
End System." This system has now been installed and is in use. It replaces a system
which was partly gravity and not suitable for sprinkler irrigation.
Westbank Co-operative Water Users.—The domestic system of the community of
Westbank is presently owned by the Westbank Co-operative Water Users' Association.
Following a meeting of the shareholders this spring, a petition was submitted for incorporation of an improvement district for waterworks purpose, and the Letters Patent are
pending.
Using the base maps prepared for the investigation of the Westbank Irrigation District, it is proposed to design a new domestic system for the area under incorporation.
Christina Waterworks District.—During the summer of 1953 a survey was made
of the district. After a series of meetings with the district during 1955 and 1956, this
office designed a new domestic system. The old system, which it is to replace, consists
of a main pipe made from machine-bored logs, and a distribution system of various pipe
sizes, mostly under capacity.
Blue Bird Bay Waterworks District.—An investigation was carried out during 1955
of a water-supply for an area known as Blue Bird Bay. Ths area lies a few miles south
of Kelowna, and at that time contained fifty-five houses plus fifteen auto courts. The
present water-supply consists of individual pumping systems, the principal source being
from wells.
A preliminary design and estimate of cost, in which water would be pumped from
Okanagan Lake and stored in a tank on a tower 80 feet high, was prepared.
The area has now been incorporated into the Blue Bird Bay Waterworks District,
and a final design and estimate of cost has been prepared by a consulting engineer.
Queen Charlotte City Water-supply (Queen Charlotte Islands).—During August,
1956, the water-supply at Queen Charlotte City was investigated and surveys were made
of domestic systems on Premier Creek and Andys Creek.
During the latter part of the summer, shortages are experienced on one or more of
the small streams supplying domestic water to Queen Charlotte City. The watershed
of these streams is principally a low ridge immediately behind the city and the run-off
is dependent upon rainfall.
A public meeting was held to discuss the possible formation of a waterworks district, and a committee was appointed to look into all aspects. The Kelowna District
office is at present compiling a composite plan of Queen Charlotte City, and a report
will be submitted at a later date.
Crozier Waterworks District.—During the fall of 1956 a survey was made of the
district's system with the view of designing a new system for future replacement, taking
into consideration the maximum development of the district. U  138 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
C.  Flooding and Drainage
Stacey Lake Investigation
A. S. Goodyear, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
The possibiliy of diverting the discharge from Stacey Lake into the Harrison River
has been considered for some time, as this would reduce pumping costs at the Hammersley
pumping-station. A short investigation was made in September, 1956. Recent aerial
photo coverage by the Air Division was used to accurately determine the drainage area,
and this was found to be much smaller than previously estimated, indicating that the
diversion was not economically feasible.
Goat River Flooding Investigation
A. R. D. Robertson, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
The Goat River, near Creston, was the subject of an investigation by the Water
Rights Branch during the summer of 1956, due to flooding conditions in the lower reaches
of this river. Just above its junction with the Kootenay River, the Goat River has formed
a fan of gravel and silt deposits, which is now used for pasture land and small holdings.
In the spring the increased run-off can no longer be accommodated in the main channel of
the river and overflows into old channels and sloughs meandering through the alluvial
fan, flooding cultivated land and isolating dwellings.
The peak flow of the 1956 freshet occurred on the morning of May 20th, with
12,900 cubic feet per second recorded; this flow is the third highest during the thirty-
nine years of record of the Goat River. The main flow was diverted to the smaller
southern channel of the river (see air photograph, Fig. 11), washing out the highway
bridge over this channel and inundating roughly 200 acres of land; some families were
evacuated and several others were inconvenienced. The photographs (Figs. 12 to 15)
illustrate the bank erosion and the damage to property which was caused by the flooding.
Field work undertaken later in the summer included surveys to determine the extent
of flooding and the various alterations of the river-channels, and to form the basis for
estimating possible control measures. Property, improvements, and land-ownership
records were also examined to determine the value of the real estate affected by the river
flooding.
The flood-plain of the Goat River was photographed by the Air Division of the
British Columbia Lands Service on September 8th, 1956, and a multiplex map is being
prepared from the photographs at a scale of 200 feet to 1 inch.
A preliminary report, including the cost of protection of the flooded lands and also
the alternative of their purchase for dedication to a channel right-of-way, has been
prepared.
Creston and Duck Lake Dyking Districts
The spring of 1956 produced a record run-off on the Kootenay River, and there was
a real danger that the dykes on the Kootenay Flats near Creston would not hold, threatening some 20,000 acres of reclaimed land.
Previous high water occurred on June 12th, 1948, when the gauge at the Creston
Ferry read 23.59 feet, corresponding to an elevation of 1,763.34 feet, some 12 feet higher
than the average land elevation behind the dykes. But for thirteen days this spring,
water-levels stood higher than the 1948 record, with a peak reading of 25.10 feet on
the gauge (elevation, 1,764.85 feet) (see Figs. 16 and 17).
Military aid was requested, and sappers of the Royal Canadian Engineers were
rushed to Creston from the Royal Canadian School of Military Engineering at Chilliwack,
B.C., to help the civilians who were already sand-bagging the dykes. The dykes were
hastily reinforced and raised in sections where settlement had occurred, and under close WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U 139
Fig. 11.  Air photograph showing the area !
bject to flooding by the Goat River near Creston. U  140
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Figs. 12 and 13.   Damage to property caused by spring flood of the Goat River, May 21st, 1956.
Figs. 14 and 15.   Showing erosion of pasture land on the bank of the Goat River near Creston
at high water, May 21 st, 1956. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  141
supervision were able to withstand the record load placed upon them. It is a tribute to
the engineering and the care with which these dykes were constructed that they were
sufficiently strong to resist a flood height 18 inches higher than the previous peak. For
comparison, it should be recorded that several of the dyking districts near Bonners Ferry,
Idaho, farther up-stream, were inundated in the same high-water period.
Aerial photographs of all the dyking districts between the United States border and
Kootenay Lake were taken by the Air Division of the British Columbia Lands Service
in September to serve as an up-to-date record of the reclaimed land. Multiplex maps
at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch could also be prepared from these photographs in the
future should the necessity arise.
Critical sections of the dykes in the Creston Dyking District and in the Duck Lake
Dyking District were inspected during the summer, and levels were run by Water Rights
Branch personnel to check the top height of these sections. It was found that settlement
had been greater than had been anticipated, and it is expected that the dykes will be raised
in the course of the maintenance work which will be done on them.
Fig. 16. Portion of south dyke, Creston Dyking District, showing sand-bagged
" boil " which broke through in the 1956
spring flood.
Fig. 17. Main dyke separating the
Kootenay River from Duck Lake. The
solid line shows the present slope of the
dyke after emergency heightening, compared to the previous cross-section
(dotted). u 142 department of lands and forests
Kelowna District Office
R. G. Harris, P.Eng., District Engineer
Kelowna (Mill) Creek Flooding
Kelowna (Mill) Creek has, in the past, caused damage to property in the City of
Kelowna and the areas outside the city limits as well.
A complete field investigation was made by this office. The area was air-
photographed and base maps (scale 500 feet to 1 inch) were prepared. This was
followed by a detailed field survey. A report was submitted by the Mill Creek Flood
Control Committee, entitled " Preliminary Report on Study of Kelowna (Mill) Creek
Flood Control," March 12th, 1956. This report presents several alternate proposals
and estimates of cost for alleviating the flooding and gives recommendations.
Seepage at Hollywood Ditch, Black Mountain Irrigation District
In August, 1956, this office investigated the cause of flooding in an orchard and
basement in the Black Mountain Irrigation District.
The stream-gauging indicated an excessive ditch loss, which would appear to be the
cause of seepage below. Lining of the ditch will be recommended to eliminate this
seepage.
Sicamous Drainage Problem
An investigation was made of a drainage problem near Sicamous, where approximately 460 acres of irrigable land, partly cleared, are affected by spring run-off from the
mountain-slopes.
An existing drainage-ditch along the toe of the slope, and which is partly filled in,
is not able to carry the maximum run-off. The land-owners were advised to form a
drainage district to operate and maintain the ditch.
D.  Hydrology Section
Investigations under this section comprise, for the most part, snow-survey sampling
and analysis, ground-water inventories, and miscellaneous hydrology studies.
Snow Surveys and Forecasts
J. H. Doughty-Davies, P.Eng., Senior Hydraulic Engineer (Ianuary to November, 1956),
and H. I. Hunter, Meteorologist (December, 1956)
The activities in the snow surveys this year were highlighted by the holding of the
Western Snow Conference in British Columbia. Only once before has this Conference
been held in British Columbia, and that was in Victoria in 1951. This year the City of
Penticton was chosen as the Conference site, and the members gathered there April 17th
to 19th. Water Rights Branch staff were active in the organizing of the Conference, and
they also supplied one of the technical papers.
The Western Snow Conference is held to disseminate knowledge on snow surveys
and stream run-off forecasts. Several excellent papers were presented, and the Conference was held to be un unqualified success.
Summer field work was carried out with the services of only one man, as the engineer in charge of snow surveys was assigned other work. A meteorologist was placed
in charge of this Section at the end of November. Nevertheless, two extensive field-trips
were made, together with several minor trips. Twenty-four snow courses were visited,
six new courses were laid out, and an attempt is being made to supplement the snow
courses in the Campbell River area by using markers that can be read from aircraft.
Most of the new snow courses were put in at the request of power companies and are  WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  143
Fig. 18. Snow surveys during the summer months entail travelling in out-of-the-way
spots looking for possible sites for new courses. The above photo shows the light travelling
equipment used.
near Jordan River, Campbell River, Mabel Lake, Sugar Lake, and Whatshan Lake. One
other was put in near Nazko to increase the information in the Fraser River basin (see
Plate 12).
Accuracy of the 1956 Spring Run-off Forecasts Based on Snow-survey Data
This year, as last year, there were sixteen run-off forecasts made for the various
watersheds in the southern part of the Province. It is felt that the results were quite
good and were of value to those concerned with water use. It can be seen from the table
on page 145 that about 70 per cent of the forecasts were within 10 per cent of the actual
run-off. Approximately 20 per cent were within the range of 10 to 20 per cent error and
only 10 per cent of the forecasts were in error greater than 20 per cent. U  144
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Fig. 20. Many means of transportation are used in snow surveys. Here a
party is going out to establish a course in
winter near Jordan River.
Fig. 19. Weighing the sampling-tube
to determine the water content of the
snow. A mean is taken of ten or more
readings.
Fig. 21. Here a snow surveyor digs
out the lower portion of the sampling-
tube, which has broken off. The top
portion is left in the snow as a guide. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  145
Stations Forecast
Forecast
Actual
Actual
Forecast
Difference
Difference
1. Columbia at Nicholson1 	
2. Columbia at Revelstoke1	
3. Columbia at Bird-bank1	
4. Kootenay at Wardner1	
5. Elk at Stanley Park1   _
6. I.ardcau at Gerrard1	
7. Duncan at Howser1	
8. Slocan at Crescent Valley1 _	
9. Inflow to Kootenay Lake1 	
10. Inflow to Okanagan Lake3	
11. North Thompson at Barriere3	
12. Fraser at Hope1 	
13. Inflow to Stave Lake3 	
14. Capilano at North Vancouver intake3
15. Inflow to Powell Lake3	
16. Inflow to Lois Lake3	
Acre-feet
2,300,000
18,600,000
47,500,000
5,260,000
1,534,000
735,000
2,060.000
2,000,000
21,400,000
500,000
7,700,000
56,000,000
1,140,000
220,000
1,100,000
272,000
Acre-feet
2,713,000
18,516,000
45,950,000
5,448,000
1,703,000
703,000=
2,076,000
2,205,000
21,962,000
494,000
6,911,000
48,754,000
1,661,000
(4)
1,155,000
283,000
Acre-feet
413,000
84,000
-1,550,000
188,000
169,000
-32,000
16,000
205,000
562,000
-6,000
— 789,000
-7,246,000
521,000
      I
55,000    |
11,000    |
Per Cent
15.2
0.5
—3.4
3.5
9.9
-4.6
0.8
9.3
2.6
— 1.2
— 11.4
-14.8
31.4
4.8
3.9
1 April to August, inclusive.
•" April flow estimated.
3 April to July, inclusive.
4 Gauge discontinued.
Ground-water Studies
Ground-water level observation programme as reported in the 1953, 1954, and
1955 Annual Reports was continued for the Agassiz-Harrison Lake and Cawston Irrigation District areas.
Hydrologic Investigation
Most of the reports already listed deal in part with hydrology, and there have been
numerous office studies along these lines. In the case of Lac la Hache, plans were completed of the lake and the San Jose River which drains it. These basic data are needed
in order to determine the effect of a proposed dam at the lake outlet.
The operations of the B.C. Electric dam at the outlet of Alouette Lake during the
period of heavy fall rains were investigated in 1956.
E. Investigations for the Fraser River Board
The Fraser River
G. E. Simmons, P.Eng., Senior Hydraulic Engineer
Since its inception, the Water Rights Branch has conducted many field and office
studies in the assessment of the water resources of British Columbia. While the work
has covered streams in all parts of the Province, the Fraser River has been given a large
measure of attention. However, with the advent of the crippling floods of 1948, it was
recognized that the problems of this particular river warranted much more detailed
investigation.   For Lytton-Moran map surveys see Plate 7.
With Federal participation, the Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, was
formed in 1949. This Board, later reconstituted as the Fraser River Board, began collecting all available information in order to evaluate the flood and power potential of
the Fraser River system. The Water Rights Branch, represented on the Board since 1949
by the Comptroller of Water Rights, has been a principal source of data. Studies using
these data have been carried out by a working group acting under a committee of the
Board.
Flood-control
During the spring freshet of 1948, many areas along the banks of the Fraser and its
tributaries felt the weight of flooding waters.    Up-stream communities of Prince George, U  146
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS WATER RIGHTS BRANCH U  147
Quesnel, and Kamloops were flooded in the low-lying settled areas. At Prince George
and Quesnel no protective measures were undertaken, but at Kamloops certain critical
areas were temporarily safeguarded by hastily built dykes. In the Lower Fraser Valley
the picture was somewhat different, for here the water encountered dykes which had been
built over the course of years. Many were not of sufficient strength to withstand the
extremely high water-level and were breached. These dykes and a system which was
commenced in 1946 in the Lillooet Valley were the only structures in existence prior to
the 1948 flood.
Acting on instruction from the two Governments, the Fraser River Board, in 1955,
commenced a detailed study of flooding and flood-control on the Fraser River. The
object of this study was to determine the frequency and magnitude of floods on the river
and to ascertain what protective measures might be developed to reduce the flood threat
in critical areas. The results of this study have been compiled into a report entitled
" Interim Report—Investigations into Measures for Flood Control in the Fraser River
Basin, 1956." In this report, released in November, 1956, the problems involved in
flood-control of the Fraser have been outlined, along with some of the possible methods
likely to be effective against floods of a specified frequency and magnitude.
The interim report indicates that, to ensure protection against a flood not much
greater than that of 1948, some reduction would have to be made in the estimated probable water-level at Mission in order to prevent overtopping the Lower Fraser Valley
dykes. This could be accomplished by diverting a large proportion of the flow at some
point up-stream from Hope or by storing the spring freshet in reservoirs on the main stem
and on the tributaries of the river. Since 1948 one major diversion has been developed.
This is the Nechako Reservoir of the Aluminum Company of Canada, which stores a
large percentage of the flow of the Upper Nechako River system and diverts it westward
to the coast. However, estimates indicate that, while this is a fairly large reduction to
the Nechako River, its effect on the Fraser River at Hope is not appreciable. A second
major diversion of Fraser River water, as yet undeveloped, is that of the Chilko River,
where storage could be created on Chilko Lake and the water carried by tunnel to the
seaward side of the Coast Mountains. By itself, this, too, would not have a large effect
on the Fraser flows at Hope, but in combination with that of the Nechako the effect
would be appreciably beneficial.
In order to reduce the flood level in the Lower Fraser Valley, it would thus appear
that a series of up-stream storage-reservoirs might suffice. The interim report of the
Fraser River Board deals with all the reservoir-sites which have been investigated with
this object in view. On the accompanying map (Plate 13) may be seen some of the
major sites and the approximate extent of the resulting reservoirs. In all, the sites range
from small artificial lakes to the vast pool which would be created behind the Moran Dam.
It is estimated that such a reservoir behind a dam over 700 feet high at this site would
contain more than 3,300,000,000,000 gallons of water, sufficient to supply the City of
Vancouver for 200 years at present rate of demand.
The use of such large reservoirs only for flood-control does not appear to be a reasonable appreciation of the potentialities of the river. A more feasible application would
be the operation of such reservoirs for other purposes as well—that is, multi-purpose
reservoirs-—where storage would be available for power production, irrigation, and other
demands.
Power Potential
The power resources of the Fraser River have been estimated at over 10,000,000
horse-power of electrical energy. At present, within the basin, some 578,000 horsepower is being developed, with the largest block of power generated at the Bridge River
plant of the British Columbia Electric Company.    Over 550,000 horse-power are being U  148
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Plate 14
KEY  MAP
Survey Work DonelnThe
UPPER. FRASER AREA
Area contro/fea.                 ____   leve//i'ne        _n.   -.   .   ....    	
for Mcr/tijo/ex         =________===. Road.
mapplngr at            ^.^.--.^-....T^-z//
lOOO/Z—'ffhch.
-
jjamoirs areas
to 6e mapjoed
at Sooft=f/nch.
r<            /
^               \   .-.                       i.         B   r-                                   fa ..
.--       \g>a nj>^—-n°               J^
X.:^ \.       >^Sf _^__
V»   i                                    '-^ a0'                               ^   A i       ^^dc/ rf                                                             ^^^-
v                          ^^"^ ijS^^v^v.
-f         _^\           /""^       2®F'¥/\y 7
_ k                     _^^    \                        /               V     st&r       f/ f A '       /
\ >^ \ X- ^a^ //* /
y jjS*^    >\ H5SC —' ^M'\     />     if V/       /                           MILES
*?&?'   ^^       \     "Ss-,**-55bSS?\
\S       /        HI <u  J           /             3210                        3                         6
'      \ _^^                       \               '.t^ "*\^/
)  / Me>/   /            '—       . '—
/   M^/     /
V      /    ,k2\& ' >^S   ^-v__ (_u>/       /
vi/\ ^CJ'   /r   x—-if>
vnc°<      \^r      j   /^^—7^     '    ^~^V
_    /     /fl^/             /"^                                                            Y?~                       ^\
^k/#?            /                                              /                  \9-                         V        -
_         //                                   /                    V                      ^^
!   //                           \o    r'r
/       /f/tZ-.   _/~^                                  1                 /\    v*        _/
v S               MT-                         /              '>/#£___TTR                                            ^N<J^         .   /                        s          \         vr    S
O              .OB3CH                       /               mrj                                                         ^UKrr          /                    W
^vrfp^b. mk V                ^\/         7v
^—^fee^^MLX                        A^            V\
WWr  \          >^                 / v-s          ,^^r { \
\   \sL.    *V     \r^^                      /          \      ,*_^       ^^S^^)
v^^aZ      ~#ff?~\   /          °\
y^r    \   \
^) v.\ViD                  ^s^si?  ^r>S              A                                      A
-&;.                       )
"M7      W
\/    5M'   //                                                                              \
\ ^/^A   /                                               1 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
U  149
Fig. 22.   Resplendent River valley.
Fig. 23. Camp, Moose River survey. U  150 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
produced by Fraser River water now diverted outside the watershed, to Kemano on
Gardner Canal and to Buntzen on Indian Arm.
While the interim report released this year deals only with flood-control, continuing
studies of the Fraser River Board cover the hydro-electric power potential of the river
and the effect that selected power-reservoirs would have in controlling the spring run-off.
The choice of sites and their inter-operation for power production will probably allow
an upward revision of the power potential of the river. The present studies include the
more complex problems associated with fish migration, erosion, silting, and irrigation,
and it is not expected that any report will be compiled on this subject prior to 1958.
Moose-Fraser Power and McLennan Diversion Project
V. A. Gilbert, Assistant Hydraulic Engineer
Through funds made available through the Fraser River Board a survey of potential
hydro-electric power on the Moose River near Yellowhead Pass was carried out (see
Plate 14).
The area extended from Tete Jaune eastward along the Fraser River for 35 miles
to the Moose River. From the mouth of the Moose River it ran for 17 miles following
the east branch and 13 miles following the west branch, Resplendent River. Again from
Tete Jaune it extended southward about 15 miles to the Canoe River, a tributary of the
Columbia River.
The ultimate purpose of the work is to find the water-power potential of the Fraser
River and that of the Moose River in this area and also the possibilities of diverting the
Columbia into the Fraser River via Canoe River or vice versa.
Because there are no contour maps of this area, it was required that the field party
collect sufficient data to draw contour map-sheets by multiplex. Four dam-sites on the
Fraser River and six on the Moose River were tied into the mapping control and two
brass monuments were set at or near most dam-sites. The scale of the plans will be
200 feet to 1 inch for dam-sites and 1,000 feet to 1 inch for other areas.
Photo control points along the Fraser and McLennan Rivers were tied to features
on the Canadian National Railway. These features have been given grid co-ordinates
by the Surveys and Mapping Branch Computation Section. In the Moose River valley,
vertical control was established by a double run of levels and horizontal control by
triangulation. Bench-marks were set in the base of well-blazed live trees after each
half-day of levelling. Twenty-six bench-marks were set in addition to the eight brass
monuments in this section.    In the triangulation net, twenty-one stations were occupied.
Following completion of the topographic survey, the various dam-sites were visited
by a geologist who in turn has prepared reports covering the detailed geology. While
this information has now been made available to the Board, further time is required
before the detailed maps will be available. UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS  UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
U  153
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson,Manager
As a result of the continued rapid expansion of the University of British Columbia,
more and more attention is being focused on the development of the University Endowment Lands. This growing public interest covers not only possible new subdivisions, but
what endowment security can be established to meet the almost staggering amounts that
will be required to finance the future development and expansion of the University.
Conditions such as these invariably tend to create an atmosphere of urgency, which has
been the case during 1956 in regard to the operations at the University Endowment
Lands. Future policies are being prepared but cannot be finalized until the master-plan
survey and report, now completed, have been carefully studied.
With no lots available to sell, there was nothing to show statistically regarding real-
estate sales, but the lack of lots promoted office activity. A vast number of man-hours
were expended trying to satisfy the queries of literally hundreds of people as to when property would become available, at what price, with what restrictions, and related questions.
Naturally the amount of new building construction was far below normal due to the
fact few vacant lots remain. It is pleasing to note, however, that the few new homes
built again measured up to the high standard that has been established in this area over
the past number of years. This further supports a general feeling of the public that homes
in the University Endowment Lands are protected sufficiently by restrictions and other
factors to justify a slightly higher investment than in many other properties.
The performance of the general maintenance services that are required of a district
of this kind was carried out in the normal manner and, despite increased costs of wages
and materials, the mill rate increased less than 2 mills. This kept the tax structure in line
with the operations of previous years.
From the following tables it is quite evident that the amount of new construction is
far below normal due to lack of building-sites. It was necessary, however, to carry out
the second stage of additions to the junior-senior high school, after a period of only two
years, at which time the initial construction phase had been completed.
Early in the new year it is hoped that the future general plan and policy matters will
have been established and that development will again proceed in a rapid and orderly
fashion. The current year's operations are concluded with the feeling that 1957 will be
the greatest year of progress since the U.E.L. project was started.
STATISTICAL
Table A.—Lot Sales
1954
1955
1956
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
Unit 1	
J
Unit 2	
$10,541.25
1       ~-
1
$10,541.25
      	 U  154
Table B.-
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
—Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the Years
Ended December 31st, 1954, 1955, and 1956
1954
1955
1956
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
New schools.
1
7
11
1
8
$368,565.00
1
2
3
10
7
$54,654.00
7,700.00
116,000.00
1
3
3
12
9
$149,681.00
23,500.00
New houses	
187,500.00
115,000.00
28,100.00
19,857.00
4,450.00
91,990.00
58,100.00
Garages, etc.. _   ._	
6,450.00
6,880.00
Totals	
28
$608,472.00
23
$276,794.00
28
$353,161.00 UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
U 155
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1—1 *-  PERSONNEL OFFICE  PERSONNEL OFFICE U 159
PERSONNEL OFFICE
J. H. Palmer
STAFF
Personnel changes were at a high level during 1956, there being a total of sixty-
seven persons who left the Service. This represents a turnover of 21 per cent. Of the
group leaving, fifty-one left to accept private employment, two resigned to join our temporary field staff, eleven were promoted or transferred into other departments, and three
retired. Among this last group were A. Paton, Senior Clerk, Lands Branch, whose
service dates back to 1912, and R. E. Burns, Superintendent of Lands, who had completed
over forty-eight years with the Department.
As a result of these separations, sixty-three new persons were employed and twenty-
one promotions were effected through Civil Service competitions. The most noteworthy
promotions were those of C. T. W. Hyslop, who succeeded to the position of Superintendent of Lands, and V. Raudsepp, who became Deputy Comptroller of Water Rights and
Chief, Operations Division. In addition to these promotions, sixteen internal transfers
were made without change of grade or salary.
Following upon a classification study of positions designated as " Draughtsman "
and " Technical Survey Assistant," three new and more accurately descriptive classifications were established, and these were assigned to personnel whose duties warranted such
change. These revisions eliminated many anomalies as between field and office personnel.
In addition to this group, forty-four reclassifications were implemented on the basis of
changed duties or progression by examination and qualification up the various technical
grades.
ESTABLISHMENT AND ORGANIZATION
Two positions—(1) Administrative Assistant — Grade 1, Lands Branch, and
(2) Chief Clerk, Hydraulic Investigations Division, Water Rights Branch—were added
to the Civil Service staff, and one position of Senior Clerk was added to the University
Endowment Lands staff. One position was deleted from the Air Division. Eight positions were transferred from the Air Division to the Topographic Division. These form
the nucleus of the Multiplex Section, which is now under the administration of the latter
division.
The staffs of the Dyking Commission, the Land Settlement Board, and the Southern
Okanagan Lands Project were transferred to the Department of Agriculture.
SERVICES AND FUNCTIONS
The Personnel Officer assisted in negotiations with the firemen's representatives at
the University Endowment Lands, the result of which was increased salaries for the group
concerned. Salaries paid to members of the outside staff at the University Endowment
Lands were also raised following discussions with the workers' representatives.
The normal Personnel Office functions of staff recruitment, selections, classification
studies, administration of leave-of-absence regulations, recording of wage and salary
information, personal interviews with staff and supervisors, and documentation of personnel, etc., were carried on throughout the year.    MAIL AND FILE ROOM
U  163
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
J. A. Underwood
The pass-slip system, recommended by the survey team composed of Miss Campbell, J. Palmer, and R. Torrance, for recording the location of files on Monday mornings
was tried out experimentally in the Lands General and Forest Management offices during
the latter part of 1955. Proving successful, it was instituted throughout the whole of the
Department of Lands and Forests in February, 1956. It has proven a valuable help to
staff personnel generally in that the files are recorded by late Monday afternoon, as compared to Wednesday or Thursday under the old system. The effect has been to speed up
the Departmental work-flow.
The segregation of " 0 " files was completed early in 1956, and at present the Central Microfilm Bureau has filmed 100,000 of the 200,000 segregated " 0 " files. The
completed rolls of film are stored in cabinets in the File Room and are available for reference by all members of the Department. The master rolls of film are kept in the
Central Microfilm Bureau's vaults, which doubles the security angle in case of loss or
destruction of the File Room copy.
The microfilming of the Crown-grant volumes started in December, 1956. This
project was undertaken both for reasons of security and for the freeing of valuable vault
storage-space. It is pointed out that there is no intention of destroying the original Crown
grants. They will be rebound and stored in the lower vaults of the Department and will
be available if required. It will be interesting to note that the Crown grants will be microfilmed on cards and stored in special cabinets in the upper vault. In this connection, the
cabinets have already been obtained by the Department, as has a special reader for
viewing the cards.
To give a more accurate picture of money collections received, it has been decided
not to include payments received in the District Foresters' offices, but only the actual
collections handled through the File Room.
The total collections for 1956 in so far as the Mail Room is concerned are as
follows:—
Lands  $1,097,825.00
Water Rights     1,079,695.00
Surveys         48,291.00
Forests      2,051,056.00 U 164
department of lands and forests
Letters Inward
Branch
1955
1956
10-year Average,
1947-56
43,250
94,652
23,976
17,688
38.5711
32.830
136,061*        |          70,208
23,755*                    13,054
17.2471                   12,508
Totals...    	
'    179,566
215,634
128,600
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch                                                                  1955
1956
10-year Average,
1947-56
9,144
3,000
984
8.0061
2,237'
1.238*
19,404
12,030
4,660
I
13.128           1           11.481
36,094
.
Miscellaneous Reports Received
Designation
1955
1956
10-year Average,
1947-56
Forest-fire reports	
Slash-disposal reports .
Logging-inspection reports .
Land-classification reports-
Totals _
Cruise reports.
2,772
420
15,360
2,264
20,816
Stumpage-adjustment notices .
Totals  	
4,214
4,200
8,414
Grand totals .
29,230
5.6341
331*
14,556*
2.8291
23,350
1,957*
2,200*
4,157
27,507
2,389
708
15,040
2,111
20,248
New Files Created
Designation
1955
1956
10-year Average,
1947-56
" 0 " files	
4,128
1,860
4,344
4,254'
1,762*
4,270*
5,004
1,659
3,366
10,332
10,286
10,029
1 Estimated for one month (December) and totalled.
- Records kept separately by divisions.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDurmid. Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1957
1,360-157-6296

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