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Provincial Game Commission REPORT For the Year Ended December 31st 1955 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1957

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 r
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Provincial Game Commission
REPORT
For the Year Ended December 31st
1955
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to submit the Report of the Provincial Game Commission for the year ended December 31st, 1955.
R. W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., July, 1956. Office of the Game Commission,
Vancouver, B.C., My 1st, 1956.
The Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report for the year ended December
31st, 1955.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
FRANK R. BUTLER,
Game Commissioner. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Reports—
Game Commission  7
Officer Commanding "A" Division  8
Officer Commanding " B " Division  11
Officer Commanding " C " Division  14
Officer Commanding " D " Division  19
Summary of Reports of Game Wardens in " E " Division  22
Report of Game Management Division—Chief Game Biologist Dr. J. Hatter___ 26
Report of Fisheries Management Division—Chief Fisheries Biologist R. G.
McMynn .  41
Report of Predator Control Division—Supervisor of Predator Control G. A.
West  60
Statistical Statements—
Comparative Statistical Statement of Revenue, etc., 1913-55, Inclusive  63
Summary of Total Revenue Derived from Sale of Various Licences, Collections,
etc., during Year 1955 .  64
Revenue—Sale of Resident Firearms Licences  65
Revenue—Sale of Deer, Moose-Elk, Goat, and Pheasant (Game) Tags  66
Revenue—Sale of Resident Anglers', Guides', Free Farmers', and Prospectors'
Firearms Licences  67
Revenue—Sale of Non-resident Firearms and Outfitters' Licences  68
Revenue—Sale of Non-resident Anglers' Licences  69
Revenue—Sale of Fur-traders', Taxidermists',  and Tanners' Licences and
Royalty on Fur  70
Comparative Statement of Revenue from Fur Trade, 1921-55, Inclusive  71
Comparative Statement Showing Pelts  of Fur-bearing Animals  on Which
Royalty Has Been Collected, 1921-55, Inclusive  72
Statement of Kind of Pelts of Fur-bearing Animals on Which Royalty Was
Collected during Year 1955  73
Statement of Firearms, Fishing-tackle, and Fur Confiscated during Year 1955 74
Bounties Paid, 1955  74
Comparative Statement of Bounties Paid from 1922 to 1955, Inclusive  75
Revenue—Big-game Trophy Fees Paid by Non-resident Hunters, 1955  76
Prosecutions, 1955  77
Hunting and Fishing Accidents, 1955  79
Statement—Trout Liberations, 1955  80
Statement—Big Game, Fur-bearing Animals, and Predatory Animals Killed by
Holders of Special Firearms Licences, Season 1955-56  88
Statement—Game-bird Liberations, 1955  88
Statement—Returns of Game-bird Farmers, 1955  90
Miscellaneous Revenue  90
List of Resident Guides and Non-resident Outfitters, 1955  90
Personnel of Game Commission as at December 31st, 1955  97  Report of the Provincial Game Commission, 1955
It is always very pleasing to be in a position to report an increase in revenue, which,
during the calendar year 1955, was $1,160,273.58, or $52,299.73 in excess of the revenue
for 1954. Taking as an example of what has happened elsewhere on this continent, we
may expect increased revenues from year to year because our population is growing at an
exceedingly rapid rate, with a consequent increased hunting and fishing pressure on our
very valuable wildlife resource.
As in other game management or conservation agencies, increased populations, the
advent of large industrial developments, and increased hunters and fishermen make it of
primary importance, after considering the effects of development, etc., in other countries,
continually to press for and receive increased personnel, scientific and otherwise, in order
that we may keep our wildlife populations intact so as to ensure continuous participation
in the excellent hunting and fishing at present available, and in order that future generations may not point a finger at us and be able to say, " You wasted a resource which we
would have enjoyed." Increased hunting and fishing pressures must be met by proper
game-management techniques and adequately trained men to safely manage our wildlife.
It is very pleasing to be able to advise that through the fairly rapid progress made
in game management in British Columbia, our Province has become known by other
agencies for the conservation work being done. This has resulted in requests for the
presentation of numerous papers on our wildlife work and problems before many of the
best-known wildlife conservation organizations in Canada and the United States.
A very successful Ninth Annual Provincial Game Convention, attended by representatives of not only game associations, but farmers, ranchers, Indians, and many other
delegates, was held in Nelson, B.C. Every person who attended the Convention was
treated with the usual hospitality of the people of Nelson, and the utmost courtesy and
kindness was extended to all delegates by the West and East Kootenay Game Zones and
the Nelson District Rod and Gun Club members.
As reported previously, these annual game conventions provide the means of sitting
down and frankly discussing game-management problems, and they furnish a very excellent opportunity of presenting to all the delegates and visitors assembled factual and
important information on the condition of the wildlife resource of the Province. It is my
thought that no better way could be devised where frank presentations and discussions
can take place.
As in former years, the Cache Creek Checking-station operations provided very
valuable data on the annual crop of game and fish taken by residents and non-residents.
The officials operating this station were in a better position to do so as a permanent
building has been constructed at Cache Creek. The general public, I can assure you,
also appreciated the service provided as a result of this new building.
Spot checking-stations were operated in a number of sections of the Province during
the hunting season with very wonderful success, and it is proposed to continue these
worth-while checking-stations. Nine thousand four hundred and seventy-seven resident
and 1,489 non-resident hunters and fishermen passed through the Cache Creek Checking-
station from September 15th to December 10th, and the following game was examined
and recorded: Bear, 82; caribou, 20; deer, 2,296; mountain-goat, 63; moose, 2,301;
mountain-sheep, 8; migratory game birds, 6,568; upland game birds, 4,231.
Revenue collected in the form of licence and trophy fees was $55,862.
No comments are being made on our wildlife or predator-control programmes
because these data are to be found in some detail elsewhere in this Report.
It would seem that, notwithstanding continual educational work, hunting accidents
occur each year.   It is proposed, however, whenever and wherever possible, to take every H 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
step to cut down these accidents. Our educational work is undoubtedly having its effect,
because even though the numbers of hunters and fishermen have considerably increased,
there has been no increase in the number of accidents reported.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The co-operation of all Governmental agencies, including wildlife organizations
in the United States and Canada, has been very helpful and much appreciated. I am
thankful also for the friendly relations existing among game associations, farmers, and
other organizations, and sincerely hope that such cordial relations will continue in the
future. I am most appreciative of the outstanding work which has been carried out by
every employee of the Game Commission, and my personal thanks are extended to each
and every one of them.
"A" DIVISION (VANCOUVER ISLAND, THE GULF ISLANDS, AND THE
MAINLAND COAST FROM TOBA INLET NORTH TO CAPE CAUTION,
INCLUDING THE ISLANDS ADJACENT TO THE EAST COAST OF
VANCOUVER ISLAND NORTH OF CAMPBELL RIVER).
By G. C. Stevenson, Officer Commanding
I have the honour to submit my annual report covering game and fish conditions in
"A" Division for the year ended December 31st, 1955.
Big Game
Wapiti (Elk).—This is the second year in succession that a short open season on
these animals was declared, and again the harvest was very small. Not more than fifteen
animals were taken on Vancouver Island. Most of the herds are in remote areas where
access is difficult, and consequently practically all the elk were taken in the vicinity of
Nanaimo Lakes, Cowichan, and Courtenay. In my opinion, the short open seasons have
had little or no effect on the population.
Deer.—There continues to be much discussion over these animals, as the average
hunter is slow to understand computations of harvest as announced by regional biologists.
Certain areas that once carried heavy populations of deer are now deserted or else carry
small numbers of substandard animals. This condition can definitely be attributed to the
deterioration of browse.
The more recently logged-off areas are maintaining good stands of deer, but in most
instances access is restricted owing to the necessity of having to traverse private logging-
roads. This question of access to deer range looms as a major problem in the near
future and will require much study by sportsmen. Many of these logging-roads are on
privately owned land, while others are through forest management leased land. Seasonal
fluctuations of deer population are inevitable and are regulated largely by winter survival
and nutriment value of browse. Many heretofore lush deer ranges have, through the
course of time, become overgrown by second growth which has smothered the deciduous
vegetation.
Black Bear.—These animals are numerous, as few people hunt them. Most of those
that are shot have generally been found in orchards or sheep ranges.
Grizzly Bear.—None of these animals are found on the islands, but are in good
numbers in Knight, Bute, and Loughborough Inlets.
Fur-bearing Animals
Beaver.—It is gratifying to know that the continuity of these animals is well established. The regulations adopted to protect the beaver have borne good results, and a
stage has been reached where this useful animal has to be controlled or become a nuisance. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 9
In places where they have become too numerous, they have been live-trapped and shipped
elsewhere.
Marten.—These animals are especially numerous in the south-western portion of
Vancouver Island.
Mink.—Mink are plentiful on Vancouver Island and the adjacent islands. Mink-
farming has considerably reduced trapping pressure on wild mink.
Otter.—Many schools of these animals are reported from the south and west coasts
of Vancouver Island. Trapping pressure on otter has been comparatively fight during
the past few years, and consequently they show a substantial increase.
Muskrats.—These animals show every sign of increasing and in many cases have
invaded farms and gardens.
Squirrels.—Except in certain localities, these fur-bearers are not numerous. Very
few are trapped.
Upland Game Birds
Blue Grouse.—This game bird continues in abundance, notwithstanding the heavy
hunting pressure. Changes in habitat have caused slight variations of numbers in certain
districts, but where they have diminished in one area they have increased in another.
Bag-limits of blue grouse were recorded from high country in the Cowichan area during
the last two weeks of the open season. Fluctuations in population are bound to occur
from adverse weather conditions during the nesting season, but with judicious management there should be good grouse-shooting for many years to come.
Willow Grouse.—There are very good showings of these birds throughout Vancouver Island. There is not much hunting pressure on these grouse as they are scattered
over a large area.
California Quail.—On the lower part of Vancouver Island, and especially the
Saanich Peninsula, quail are numerous. On Saltspring Island, where habitat is suitable,
good coveys are building up. Where snow conditions have been moderate and stretches
of broom are available, these birds have multiplied. The present hunting pressure has
had very little effect on them as few hunters go quail-shooting.
Migratory Game Birds
Ducks and Geese.—There are few places in this Division where ducks and geese
are numerous, except on the west coast of Vancouver Island and at times in the Comox
area. A moderate number are encountered where stubble fields and marshes are available
and where salt-water conditions around sand spits attract the birds. The population has
been stable for a number of years.
Black Brant.—The open season on this migratory game bird causes considerable
controversy among sportsmen in this Division. Brant do not usually show up in these
regions until the end of February, when the season is about over, and then they appear
in hundreds. Consequently few hunters obtain any shooting as only a few days remain
before the season is closed. A suggested ten-day extension for brant-shooting has been
requested from time to time, but without results from Ottawa.
Predator-control
One hundred and eighty-two cougars and seven wolves were destroyed in this Division during the past year. The wolves were all presented for bounty at the Courtenay
agency. Sixteen of the cougars were destroyed in widely scattered areas by Departmental
personnel who answered complaints from residents. Many dogs, cats, crows, eagles,
foxes, hawks, racoons, and ravens were also accounted for by personnel of this Division.
A complete list appears elsewhere in this Report. H 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The bonus paid to cougar-hunters in addition to the bounty does not appear to have
any effect in increasing the kill of these animals, and I would suggest its abolition.
Game Protection
One hundred and seventeen informations were laid for infractions under the " Game
Act " and Special Fishery Regulations.   Convictions were obtained in all but one case.
Attention should again be called to the shortage of Game Wardens. The hunting
pressure is increasing from year to year, and it is very necessary that we have an adequate
enforcement staff to cope with the expanding spheres of hunting and fishing.
Game Propagation
Seven hundred and sixteen pheasants were released on Vancouver Island during the
past year. Only selected farm lands were chosen for releases as it is becoming more and
more difficult to get farmers to acquiecse to liberations with the understanding that they
allow public shooting. These releases were made in the Duncan, Courtenay, and
Nanaimo Detachments. On the Saanich Peninsula, where the carrying of firearms and
hunting is restricted by local by-laws, pheasants have increased so greatly that they have
become a serious nuisance to farmers and gardeners, who in turn complain to this Department. Beyond pointing out to the farmer the redress they have under the " Game Act,"
there is little we can do to alleviate the situation.
Game Reserves
Apart from Strathcona, Shaw Creek, and Bald Mountain Game Reserves and the
bird sanctuaries, most of the so-called game reserves in this Division are in the nature of
restricted areas for the safety of the public.
Fur Trade
Mink-ranching is a flourishing industry in this Division, and hundreds of pelts are
shipped during the months of December and January; also there is a considerable volume
of wild mink, marten, otter, and beaver taken. Owing to the poor market prices prevailing
for other than mink, the trappers have not been active. Marten are quite plentiful, but
few are taken, trappers concentrating more on mink, beaver, and muskrat. Although
there are several chinchilla-ranches on Vancouver Island, there is little activity in the
merchandising of these pelts.
Trap-lines
Due to the lucrative employment available, trappers have not been too active on their
lines. A certain number of beaver are taken under the permit system, both on private
property and Crown land, but until prices improve there will be no undue pressure.
Registration of Guides
The demand for guides is gradually increasing, especially for grizzly bear hunting;
also there is a demand for guides for salmon-fishing in the Campbell River area.
Special Patrols
No special patrols were carried out in this Division, but several west coast patrols
were made by the Alberni Detachment with the aid of the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police launch. Logging-roads are gradually being extended westward, and in a few years
it will be possible to patrol a number of west coast areas where game is abundant. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 11
Hunting Accidents
There were no fatal hunting accidents during the year, but three hunters received
injury in the hunting field. For further details please see report " Hunting and Fishing
Accidents."
Game-fish Culture
A total of 201,920 hatchery trout were released in the lakes and streams in this
Division during the year. Of these, 33,165 were steelhead, 17,205 cut-throat, and
151,550 Kamloops. The steelhead were of specially fine quality, weighing between ten
and eighteen to the pound. This group of steelhead were all fin marked for future study.
Summary and General Remarks
The past year has been fairly successful for anglers and hunters. Fishing has been
uniformly good throughout Vancouver Island and the adjacent islands. Very few, if any,
complaints are received from anglers. The same cannot be said for hunters, who, it
would appear, do not have the philosophic understanding of the disciples of Issac Walton.
Where blue grouse and ducks are concerned, hunters do not indulge in much controversy,
but the question of deer is a different matter. Much discussion centres around harvest
figures as issued by game management and how they are arrived at. To the layman,
the formula used to compute the deer harvest is somewhat involved, even though the
equation may be simple to the biologist. May I suggest that a simple formula be used
without undue stress on hypothesis and text-book terminology so that the average hunter
may have a comprehensive idea of how harvest figures are made up. The deer harvest
on Vancouver Island is extremely difficult to assess, owing to the diversified nature of the
country and the limited checking-stations during the hunting season, which only contact
a small percentage of hunters.
At this time I would like to record my thanks and appreciation to the personnel of
this Division for their outstanding work, both as regards enforcement and their perspicuity
in evaluating situations that may be detrimental to sport fishing or hunting.
To the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and departments of Government we have
consulted during our work, I am deeply grateful for their courtesy and co-operation.
" B " DIVISION  (KOOTENAY AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS)
By C. F. Kearns, Officer Commanding
I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year ended December 31st, 1955.
Big Game
Moose.—It would appear that moose in the East Kootenay are at the carrying
capacity of their range. A persistent extrusion over the years has resulted in a resident
population in the West Kootenay which could, before long, permit an open season.
Wapiti (Elk).—Elk are plentiful at present and reflect a consistent increase over a
lengthy period, augmented by a succession of mild winters. Elk range the Kootenay-
Columbia Valley from Golden to the United States border and continue to make a steady
infiltration into the valley of the West Kootenay. A long open season with a temporary
season on antlerless animals has done no harm.
Caribou.—The extension of the season was generally satisfactory, but much comment was occasioned by the dropping of horns in November, which made it difficult to
distinguish the sexes.   The normal caribou kill (West Kootenay) is light to negligible.
Mountain-Sheep (Bighorn).—These animals are gradually regaining something of
their former abundance and wider distribution. H 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Mountain-goat.—-The situation shows little change from previous reports. Goats are
well distributed throughout the Division, but plentiful only in the East and West Koote-
nays.   They are hunted very moderately.
Deer (Mule).—Still the prime game animal of the Division, in good numbers everywhere and heavily harvested during the latter part of the open season.
Deer (White-tailed).—Plentiful in the Kootenays and increasing in the Boundary
and Similkameen.
Fur-bearing Animals
The unhealthy state of the fur market is reflected in the plentitude of some fur-
bearers, particularly lynx and bobcats. These normally shy predators are almost as
common as coyotes were a few years ago. The increasing beaver population continues
to be a problem, but we have been able to cope with it by removing offending animals.
With an appreciation in beaver prices, this situation should adjust itself.
Upland Game Birds
As was to be expected, a general lack of grouse of all species was noticed, although
some areas produced good shooting. The number of pheasants and Hungarian partridge
at Creston, Grand Forks, and Similkameen was fair and is a good illustration of how the
lack of grouse-shooting may be balanced in suitable areas.
Migratory Game Birds
Shooting was generally good in the East Kootenay for northern birds that arrived
in large numbers early in November. Waterfowl concentrations in the remainder of the
Division are of a local nature by comparison.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds
All Game Wardens co-operated with the Predator Control staff in the disposition of
baits, attention to complaints, and the hunting-down of destructive animals. For detailed
information covering the destruction of predators, see report " Vermin Destroyed, 1953
and 1954."
Game Protection
There were 121 convictions and three dismissals under the " Game Act " and Special
Fisheries Regulations.
Game Propagation
Fresh stocks of pheasants were introduced into the Creston, Grand Forks, and
Penticton-Oliver-Keremeos areas.
Game Reserves
It would appear that some of our big-game reserves should be re-examined in the
light of our present game regulations, as local or restricted open seasons have removed
most of the reasons why they were originally established. This does not apply to migratory game-bird refuges.
Fur Trade
Practically all the pelts of animals trapped are shipped directly to dealers at
Vancouver.
Registration of Trap-lines
These are in a good condition and are continually being adjusted or brought up to
date.   Due to the low prices of furs, there is not much activity or change in the trap-lines. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 13
Registration of Guides
The present system of grading and registration appears to be generally satisfactory
to the guiding industry.
Special Patrols
As the field staff in this Division are accustomed to getting around the country on
snowshoes, horses, canoes, power-boats, jeeps, and occasionally aeroplanes, there are
no patrols that would be termed other than routine.
Hunting Accidents
There was one fatal hunting accident in this Division during the past year. For
detailed information covering the accident, see report " Hunting and Fishing Accidents,
1955."
Game-fish Culture
This phase of our work is embodied in the report of the Fisheries Management
Division.
Summary and General Remarks
Every year we learn something new, and last season proved that an antlerless open
season when the deer are concentrated may develop some unpleasant aspects. This was
particularly noticeable in the Princeton area and to a lesser extent in the East Kootenay.
At Princeton, due to the abundance of hunters from the Coast, the situation was somewhat out of hand.   To quote from Game Warden Gill's report:—
" Deer were gang shot at distances of 600 or 700 yards. I watched several deer
running on a bald slope until they were finally shot down by some of a hundred shots.
Many persons shot over their limit, expecting their hunting partners to tag them, only to
find their hunting partner had done the same. Many deer were thus left in the woods.
One case authentically reported: a boy, out with his father, wounded four deer. None
dropped so he shot another, then found two lying dead. He had shot six deer to get one.
These were all does and fawns. Two cases of wounded deer escaping were reported to me
by the men responsible. They expected me to find the wounded deer and kill them.
The sight of a man carrying a recently shot fawn down the street under his arm enraged a
woman to the point where she almost slapped the hunter. Others were accosted by non-
hunters and disparaging remarks bandied about. Veteran hunters were sickened to the
point where they stayed home rather than be a party to the orgy.
" Cars were parked all along the streets, some with several freshly killed deer on
them with frozen blood streaked down the fenders; the passing dogs stopping to lap it off
further sickened the viewers going about their normal business. One trailer from the
Kettle River with seven deer piled on it didn't help much. Very few knew that some of
them were white-tailed deer and not from here. Several deer were stolen from cars
during this time, some in broad daylight."
Admittedly the situation at Princeton was unique due to the presence of a well-
populated game area adjacent to a game reserve and within easy driving distance of
Vancouver City.
Longer or earlier open season for antlerless animals would probably correct the
objectionable features mentioned above.
The past hunting season has been a good one from the standpoint of a prolific
harvest. This is an apt illustration of what Dr. Hatter and his staff have consistently
stressed; that is, ample cropping to prevent overcrowding of winter ranges. This present
winter has not been easy on members of the deer family. Snow arrived early in November
and has lain deeply ever since. There have been one or two periods of very cold weather,
but fortunately not too extensive.   At the time of writing, March, 15th, 1956, the snow H 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
still lies deeply, even in the valleys of the Kootenays, although the situation is somewhat
better in the Boundary and Similkameen. If the weather continues its present moderating trend, we may hope for little more than normal winter losses. However, should we
have an inclement spell even yet, it could be disastrous for game now at the tag-end of an
unusually long winter.
Acknowledgments
The usual cordial co-operation was received from the British Columbia Forest
Service, the Department of Public Works, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as
well as various sportsmen's organizations throughout the Division.
It is appropriate to make some comment on the outstanding work of the first two
resident biologists in the Division, who are receiving energetic co-operation from all the
Divisional personnel.
Fisheries Biologist F. P. Maher has been exceedingly active since his arrival two
years ago, and his practical efforts on behalf of game-fish culture projects have met with
universal approval by sportsmen's groups. Game Biologist W. G. Smith, who came
somewhat later, has been fully occupied in the game-management problems of the East
and West Kootenays and has given the whole question a scientific appraisal, which is long
overdue. Both of these capable young men are excellent public speakers, and their
presence at sportsmen's meetings as well as various public gatherings has been much
appreciated by attentive audiences.
"C" DIVISION  (KAMLOOPS, YALE, OKANAGAN, CARIBOO,
CHILCOTIN, AND SQUAMISH DISTRICTS)
By L. R. Lane, Officer Commanding
I beg to submit herewith the annual report for " C " Game Division for the year
ended December 31st, 1955.
Big Game
Moose.—In most parts of the Division, moose appeared to be on the increase. This
was no doubt due to the past three winters, which were quite mild, the two wet summers,
which assisted in browse production, and, in the areas where these animals are normally
scarce, to the continued migration and influx from more populous areas. A good harvest
of these animals was taken in most areas with access roads. Although there were fewer
hunters than in 1954, hunter success was better. The early heavy snowfall and sub-zero
temperatures experienced throughout most of the Division discouraged many hunters,
but at the same time brought the moose down where those who did hunt had little difficulty
in filling their bag-limits. In most areas there is little doubt that a heavier kill would have
done no harm. In fact, this winter, which is said to be the most severe in sixty years, may
be expected to take a heavy toll of moose. The Wells Detachment appears to be the only
area where less moose were taken than last year, due mainly to an early rutting period
which was over by the time the season opened. Although there was an open season on
moose in the Vernon Detachment, as far as is known, none were taken. There was also a
notable increase in the number of moose seen in the Merritt area, where about fifteen were
taken. Hunter success was also very good in the Highland Valley area near Ashcroft,
especially in the early part of the season. Moose were unknown in these areas a few
years ago. Should a heavy winter kill be experienced, it is felt that we can look forward
with some optimism to the continuation of good moose-hunting in this Division despite
the fact.
Mule Deer.—The remarks concerning moose, except regarding migration, could
also apply to mule deer, the game animal which supplies the most sport and recreation REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 15
in this Division. Mule deer were plentiful throughout most of the Division, and in the
majority of cases appeared to be on the increase. In most areas the kill was rather light
until the heavy snowfall and cold weather brought the animals down where they could
be easily reached by the hunters. From that time until the end of the season a very heavy
kill took place, but it is doubtful that any permanent harm was done as deer seemed to
be plentiful after the close of the season, and, as in the case of moose, a heavy winter kill
may be expected. There are, of course, several areas where deer are scarce, and where
they will no doubt continue to be scarce because of lack of suitable food and habitat. The
most notable of these is probably the Revelstoke Detachment. In many areas, notably the
Alexis Creek Detachment, severe weather which brought the deer down where they
could normally be well harvested prevented hunters from leaving the main roads and
resulted in a poor kill. Unless there is an extremely heavy winter kill, it is felt that a
longer open season on mule deer should be considered for 1956.
Columbia or Coast Deer.—These animals are found in this Division only in the
Squamish Valley, Lillooet Detachment, where they are reported to be on the increase.
Caribou.—Caribou appear to be on the increase in some areas, notably in the
Salmon Arm Detachment. Several were taken in Wells Gray Provincial Park, and ten
at Anahim Lake. The early heavy snowfall prevented hunters from reaching the caribou
near Sugar Lake in the Vernon Detachment. A new road being built into this area is
being watched with a view to recommending curtailment or closure of the open season
on caribou should easy access to a large number of hunters threaten extinction of this
small band. There are small bands of caribou in several areas, such as in the Wells
Detachment, Quesnel Lake and Horsefly River areas, Ahbau Lake, and Cariboo Mountains, north and east of Canim Lake, and north of Joe Rich Creek. Little is known of
most of these bands, but most of them, from meagre reports received, appear to be holding
their own. Possibly the efficient control of predators which we now have, particularly
in the case of wolves, may have a beneficial effect on these animals. Should personnel
and funds be available, a study of caribou, with a view to increasing their numbers and
harvest, seems desirable.
Wapiti (Elk).—Elk are scarce in this Division. There are a few in the Salmon Arm,
Vernon, Kelowna, and Lillooet Detachments, the latter being at Liza Lake in the Bridge
River area. Two are known to have been taken in the Kelowna area and a few were
bagged near Adams Lake. Elk cannot be considered as an important species in this
Division, and are hunted very little even in those areas where there is an open season.
They are said to be increasing in the Vernon district, and if this increase continues, a short
open season might be warranted.
Mountain-sheep.—California bighorns are found in small bands in several portions
of the Division. A short open season in the Kelowna and Vernon Detachments produced
no trophies. Three were taken in 1955 near Squilax, and a few were taken in the Cariboo
and Lillooet Electoral Districts. The open season on rams with three-quarter curls and
better should do no harm, and the continuation of this restriction is recommended. In
most areas the sheep appear to be holding their own, but very little, if any, increase in
their numbers has been noted.
Mountain-goat.—Mountain-goat are fairly plentiful in many areas, notably in the
Lillooet, Revelstoke, and Alexis Creek Detachments, with fair numbers wherever suitable
terrain occurs. Few are taken, due to the fact that they occur almost exclusively in
inaccessible areas. Reports indicate that these animals are holding their own, and there
is little doubt that a much heavier harvest could be taken without ill effects. Goats make
a fine trophy and their flesh is palatable. Both resident and non-resident sportsmen
should be encouraged to exploit this resource more fully.
Grizzly Bear,.—Grizzlies are found in many sections in limited numbers, and are
fairly plentiful in some parts of the Division.   They appear to be on the increase in the H 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lillooet and Williams Lake Detachments.   They are not heavily hunted, although a few
are taken each year for stock protection and by non-resident hunters.
Black or Brown Bear.—These animals are fairly plentiful throughout the Division.
In some areas their numbers seem to be decreasing, while in others they are increasing.
Many were killed during the year, mostly for the protection of live stock and orchards.
They are not heavily hunted, but a fair number are taken as incidental game by deer
and moose hunters.
FUR-B EARING ANIMALS
There is a small amount of serious trapping; most trappers make only a token
effort in order to retain their registered trap-lines. This situation has been brought about
by low fur prices and high wages paid in logging operations, sawmills, and other
industries, and has resulted in a definite increase in almost all fur-bearers throughout the
Division. This increase, although general, is brought to our attention most frequently
in the case of beaver. These animals are the subject of a large and increasing number of
complaints. They have been blamed for cutting off the flow of water in streams and
irrigation-ditches, flooding hay meadows and agricultural lands, and even of preventing
the up-stream migration of salmon. Unless conditions change in the near future so that
these animals are more heavily trapped, we may be forced to take steps to destroy them
in some areas. On the other hand, there are areas where nature will do this for us as
food-supplies are becoming scarce. Fall trapping of beaver and muskrat is being given
serious consideration. Anything that could be done to encourage trappers to take a
heavier harvest should be considered. Like other fur-bearers, muskrat are on the increase,
but overpopulation of these animals causes little concern except on dyked lands. Lynx
are plentiful throughout this Division, and in some cases have taken to killing deer, due
no doubt to a decrease in rabbits, brought about by the large number of lynx.
Upland Game Birds
Grouse.—Blue, ruffed, and Franklin's grouse appear to have decreased noticeably
throughout most of their ranges. In some sections the late spring and wet summer were
blamed for this, but as the decrease appears to be quite general, it is felt that it is more
likely due to cyclic conditions. Despite the scarcity of birds, good hunting was had in
some areas, particularly of blue grouse, by those hunters willing to climb the more rugged
mountains. Sharp-tailed grouse appear to be holding their own, with slight increases
noted in some areas.
Ptarmigan.—There are a few of these birds in some areas, but they are not heavily
hunted.
Pheasants.—Excellent pheasant-hunting was enjoyed by a large number of hunters,
particularly in the Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Kelowna Detachments, with good bags
taken in the Thompson Valley from Chase to Ashcroft. These birds were more plentiful
than in 1954 in most of their range, and if the present severe winter does not take too
large a toll, they should provide good hunting in 1956. Liberation of pheasants in the
Merritt district does not appear to have benefited the area, and it is recommended that
this practice be discontinued. In other areas where pheasants are found, with the
exception of Lillooet, the wild hatch appears to be sufficient, and the liberation of farm-
raised birds is not recommended. Pheasant-feeding has been necessary this winter in all
areas where they occur in any great number.
California Quail.—Apparently these birds are on the increase in the Vernon and
Kelowna Detachments. A few are also found along the Fraser benches, where their
numbers seem to remain static.
Chukar Partridge.—The first open season in the Province on these birds was held
in 1955 in the Kamloops area, where much sport was provided and a fair number bagged. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 17
Despite this, a good number remained after the close of the season. There has been
some winter kill observed in the Walhachin-Cache Creek area, but if a survey in the
spring shows that chukar are surviving in fair numbers, an open season throughout their
range is recommended. It is indeed gratifying to note how well chukar partridge have
taken hold in their new environment. The results so far achieved indicate beyond a doubt
that the money spent on the liberation of chukar, at least in the Thompson Valley, has
produced more upland game-bird hunting than it would have had it been spent on
pheasants.
European Partridge.—These birds appear to be holding their own in most areas,
with a slight decrease in some and a slight increase in others. Snow-crusting conditions
this winter may take a toll of these birds. A combination bag of chukar and Hungarian
partridge has been suggested and might be a good idea.
Migratory Game Birds
The 1955 season on ducks and geese was very disappointing in almost all parts of
the Division. This was caused mainly by the severe winter conditions, which set in very
early, freezing all the pot-holes and many of the lakes and streams, thus driving the
waterfowl south before many had been taken.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds
The poisoning programme carried out by the Predator Control Branch has resulted
in a marked decrease in coyotes and wolves, and very few complaints are being received.
Oddly enough, cougar complaints have also decreased, and it is wondered whether there
is any connection between this and the poisoning programme.
Game Protection
Continuous patrols were carried out by all Game Wardens in " C " Division throughout the year whenever and wherever possible. One hundred and ninety-two informations
were laid for infractions under the " Game Act " and Special Fishery Regulations. Convictions were obtained in all but two cases.
Game Propagation
Twenty-three California bighorn sheep were trapped near Riske Creek. Of these,
eighteen were liberated at Westbranch and four at Vaseux Lake. One was killed in an
automobile accident during transportation. Chukar partridge and pheasant liberations
will be contained in the statistical report from headquarters.
Game Reserves
There are only three game reserves in this Division, namely, Bowron Lake in the
Wells Detachment, Minnie Lake in the Merritt Detachment, and Yalakom in the Lillooet
Detachment. Of these, the Bowron and Yalakom reserves no longer appear to serve any
useful purpose, and their cancellation is recommended. There are numerous waterfowl
sanctuaries and restricted areas, and it is felt that these are serving a very useful purpose.
Fur Trade
There were twenty-one licensed fur-traders in " C " Division in 1955. There was
little activity in the fur trade for the reasons mentioned under " Fur-bearing Animals."
Registration of Trap-lines
The system of registration is a good one and appears to be operating very well in all
areas, the only problem normally encountered being that of getting trappers to do any
trapping while fur prices are so low. H 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Registration of Guides
There was a slight increase in the number of registered guides in this Division during
1955. The block system of registration appears to be operating with a minimum of
friction. The large blocks now used in the Chilcotin district appear to be satisfactory.
Many guides, however, are not co-operating fully in submitting their returns, and there
is some friction among a few of the guides in connection with the hunting of mountain-
sheep. These problems are receiving attention, and it is hoped they will soon be solved
to the satisfaction of all concerned.
Special Patrols
As all Game Wardens carry on continuous patrols throughout their detachments
by any and every means of transportation available, and as their work has so many
different phases, each of which receives its share of attention, it is not felt that any patrols
can be classed as special. Even searching for and locating lost hunters is now considered
as routine.
Hunting Accidents
It is with regret that I report three serious hunting accidents in this Division during
the year 1955. For detailed information, please see report " Hunting and Fishing Accidents, 1955."
Game-fish Culture
Game-fish cultural work was carried out in many parts of the Division during the
year. Complete data on this work will be found in the report of the Fisheries Management Division. Fishing in " C " Division took place on an unprecedented scale during
the year, with very good results in many areas, reflecting to some extent the good work
being done by our Fisheries Division. Increased fishing will continue to place more
responsibility on the shoulders of this Department for more and larger fish. Pollution
and obstruction problems have received attention from the Fisheries Division and Game
Wardens alike in several parts of this Division, and have in most instances been successfully controlled.
Summary and General Remarks
On the whole it may be said that satisfactory hunting and fishing seasons were
enjoyed in " C " Division during 1955 by a large number of resident and non-resident
sportsmen. The liberalized seasons were well accepted in most quarters and appear to
have done no harm, and it is felt that possibly further liberalization should be given
consideration. At the same time many problems exist, and the problem of channelling
hunting pressure into the more remote areas is not the least of these. While more and
more logging and mining roads are opening up vast sections to the hunter and fisherman,
there still remain many areas that are practically inaccessible except with pack-horses.
Areas adjacent to roads are heavily hunted by an ever-increasing number of hunters,
while the hinterland goes untouched. The same applies to lakes. If we are to maintain
the hunting and fishing success presently being enjoyed, some method of reducing
pressures on some areas while increasing them on others will have to be evolved.
It is gratifying to note the increased attention being paid to public relations work by
Game Wardens. Such work is extremely valuable and should be encouraged as much as
possible.
In closing, I wish to express my sincere appreciation for the excellent assistance and
co-operation received from all Game Department personnel both in " C " Division and
headquarters since taking charge of this Division in September, 1955. Without this
assistance, my task would have been difficult indeed. Excellent co-operation has also
been received from the British Columbia Forest Service and other Provincial Government REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 19
departments, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Dominion Fisheries Department,
the Department of Indian Affairs, and fish and game clubs throughout the Province, and
is much appreciated.
"D"   DIVISION   (ATLIN,   SKEENA,   OMINECA,   PRINCE   RUPERT,   FORT
GEORGE, PEACE RIVER, AND YUKON BOUNDARY DISTRICTS)
By W. A. H. Gill, Officer Commanding
Herewith I respectfully beg to submit my annual report covering game conditions
in " D " Division for the year ended December 31st, 1955.
Big Game
Moose.—A larger kill was made by local residents throughout the southern two-
thirds of this Division than in previous years. These animals appear to be in a very
healthy condition. Very few reports were received compared to past years as to diseased
animals.
Due to the early winter, a great many more moose moved down to the valleys earlier
than in past years. However, these animals appear to be preparing to winter in different
areas than in the past years.
The northern portion of this Division around Fort Nelson and Lower Post is not
heavily populated with moose as a great deal of this country does not appear to be suitable to them. I feel that the population of moose in this particular area is very high
according to the available winter feed.
Due to the wolf population being practically nil throughout this Division, the over-all
population of moose has increased greatly, and no doubt if this condition remains the
same, a far larger kill is warranted.
Deer.—These animals are still showing a slight increase. No disease has been
reported and the fawn-crop is very satisfactory. A close watch will be kept on several
small bands of deer to see what effect this winter and the coming spring will have on them,
as from all indications this is going to be a severe winter.
Caribou.—Caribou are showing a good increase in most areas. In the Tweedsmuir
Park area they have increased rapidly, and on an aerial survey 207 animals were counted
this fall in half the flying-time that only forty-three could be observed in 1953. Nearly
all cows were accompanied by calves. In view of this, I would suggest that the season be
extended another fifteen days.
Black or Brown Bear.—These animals are not nearly as abundant as in past years.
The decrease, I believe, is due to the year-round open season and the poison distributed
by aeroplane for destruction of predators.
Several complaints were received from farmers that bears were destroying a considerable acreage of oat-crops, but such complaints were less numerous than in past years.
Grizzly Bear.—These animals are plentiful in outlying areas that have not been
subjected to extensive aerial poisoning.
Mountain-sheep.—From reports received, this most-wanted big-game animal by
trophy-hunters continues to remain about the same in numbers. This is no doubt due
to the remote areas they inhabit.
With regard to Dahl sheep, these animals are in the extreme north-west corner of
the Province, and as we have no Wardens within 400 miles, I do not believe that the
closure on these animals in any way assists in building up the population. All we are
doing is protecting them for poachers and for migration into the Yukon, where an open
season is in effect.
Mountain-goat.—These animals are plentiful in all suitable terrain. The present
hunting pressure has no effect on their numbers.
3 H 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Wapiti (Elk).—The only open seasons on this big-game animal in this area are on
the Queen Charlotte Islands and the vicinity of Red Pass. As far as is known, only one
elk was taken on the Queen Charlotte Islands, and it is felt that a longer season is
warranted in order to encourage hunters to go into this inaccessible area.
The elk in the vicinity of Red pass are believed to be stragglers from Jasper Park.
Small bands are reported in the Narraway River and Moberly Lake areas.
FUR-BEARING ANIMALS
Marten.—These fur-bearers are plentiful in all areas, but very few are taken due
to the low prices paid for their pelts.
Beaver.—These animals are numerous throughout the whole Division. Trappers
are being encouraged to take more of these fur-bearers, as it is feared that unless the
population is greatly reduced, their feed-supply will become exhausted and disease will
set in. Numerous complaints are received from farmers, Department of Highways, and
railways that beaver are causing damage. Considerable work has been carried out by
Wardens installing pipes in the beaver dams and in opening dams that have caused
flooding conditions.
Fox.—There is no market at present for this fur-bearer, and, therefore, they are only
taken by accident.   They are not plentiful at present.
Mink.—These animals have decreased greatly in all this Division, except along the
coast, where they are reported to be holding their own. Prices for this fur-bearer are
better than average and have remained so during the low market for nearly all other fur-
bearers during the past few years.
Fisher.—These animals have shown a slight increase in population. Trappers are
not making special sets for them, as they do not consider the market worth while.
Lynx.—These animals are on the decrease, no doubt due to the present scarcity of
rabbits.   They are of no market value at present.
Squirrels.—These fur-bearers have decreased greatly. This is believed due to disease
and not overtrapping, as they have disappeared in areas which are not being trapped.
Muskrats.—Not many of these fur-bearers in this Division.
Upland Game Birds
Pheasants.—These birds have been raised and released in the Dawson Creek,
Smithers, and Vanderhoof areas but have not survived in any of these localities. I believe
that such practices should be discouraged as the country is not suitable to these birds due
to the severe weather and scarcity of winter food.
Grouse (Willow).—These birds are plentiful in the southern portion of the Peace
River Block around Dawson Creek and Fort St. John. In the remainder of the Division
they are at a low cycle.
Grouse (Blue).—Blue grouse are only found on higher levels. Very few are taken
by sportsmen.
Grouse (Franklin's).—These birds have decreased greatly and are also believed to
be at their low cycle.
Grouse (Prairie-chicken or Sharp-tailed).—Large flocks of these birds were to be
found at Fort St. John and Dawson Creek, especially during the latter part of the season.
Good shooting was also obtainable at Vanderhoof. In the remainder of the Division
they were scarce.
Migratory Game Birds
Ducks and Geese.—Exceptionally poor goose-hunting was had in the whole Division
as, due to the early freeze-up, all geese migrating south did not stop. A few local geese
and ducks were taken, but due to the earlier cold weather they did not remain in this
Division after October 31st. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 21
Destruction of Vermin
Timber-wolves.—Timber-wolves are no longer a major menace to our game, as they
are scarce. Only odd packs are left, and these are mostly in areas that are seldom hunted.
I do not believe that an extensive poison programme is required in 1956.
Coyotes.—These animals still remain fairly plentiful in most farming areas. A noticeable decline, however, has taken place in the Peace River Block, also the Smithers and
McBride areas.
Cougars.—These animals are steadily increasing, and several complaints have been
received regarding same.
Magpies.—These birds are not plentiful.
Eagles.—Only odd reports are received as to these birds causing damage to migratory
birds.
Game Protection
The great increase in the population throughout this Division has greatly increased
the work of the Wardens. A large number of displaced persons have settled in this
Division due to the major construction programme being undertaken, and this in itself
incurs a great deal of extra work for the Wardens in endeavouring to instruct such people
in upholding and learning game conservation.
Two additional Wardens are necessary in this Division—one at Telegraph Creek
and one at Atlin, as these areas are not and cannot be properly covered by the existing
staff.
Game Propagation
The only game propagation carried out in this Division was undertaken by the
Bulkley Valley Rod and Gun Club, which raised forty pheasants and released them in the
Smithers area.   A fair number of these birds are still doing well.
The Fort George, Lake Kathlyn, and Kaien Island Game Reserves are the only ones
in this Division. These reserves cover small areas around cities and towns and are more
for the protection of the public than game. A few ducks and the odd game animal seek
refuge in these reserves and are quite interesting to the public.
We have one migratory game-bird sanctuary at Vanderhoof which, previous to the
development by the Aluminum Company of Canada, worked very satisfactorily as a
holding-ground for geese and ducks. While on their southern migration, these birds
would make flights into the surrounding grain-fields in the morning and evening, and in
this way fair shooting was obtained. Now, since the Aluminum Company of Canada has
taken nearly all the water out of the Nechako River, the geese and ducks do not stay in
the sanctuary as in previous years but migrate farther south.
The Buckhorn Lake sanctuary is declared a protected area for migratory game birds.
This worked very well in 1954, but owing to the sudden and early freeze-up in 1955
practically no birds could use this resting-ground.
Fur Trade
The fur trade has been very poor owing to the low prices of pelts.
Registration of Trap-lines
Practically all trap-lines in this Division are registered. A few in the north-east
corner of the Province are still pending due to the reason that the only mode of travel by
the Wardens is by dog team, and many trips have to be made in order to get all bordering
trappers together so that no disputes will arise at a later date regarding the borders. We
have only one trap-line dispute pending in this Division, and this is caused by a river that
goes underground at different points and then emerges again. H 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Registration of Guides
Very little difficulty has been experienced, although during 1955 a few complaints of
overcrowding on certain waterways have come up. It is hoped that with the co-operation
of guides this will be cleared up.
A few applications from new guides to extend their areas into older guiding areas
have caused considerable work. This is especially true in the most northern portion of
the Province where long hunts of twenty to forty days take place.
Special Patrols
There was only one special patrol undertaken in this Division during 1955. This
patrol was made by Game Wardens J. A. McCabe and J. Dowsett into the Haines Road
and Atlin area for the purpose of checking resident and non-resident hunters. The trip
took ten days, and a distance of 2,036 miles was covered by car and 17 miles on foot.
Hunting Accidents
There were three hunting accidents in this Division during 1955, all of which were
fatal.   For details, please see report "Hunting and Fishing Accidents, 1955."
Game-fish Culture
Only one coarse-fish trap was kept in operation during 1955. This was in Cluculz
Creek, the outlet of Cluculz Lake. This trap was installed by the Game Wardens and is
operated and supervised by them with the assistance of C. Haines, mink-farmer, who
uses the coarse fish for mink-feed.
All the other creeks flow into Cluculz Lake, and they were treated with fish tox as
soon as the trout had returned to the lake from spawning and the coarse fish had moved
into creeks. Fairly large kills of coarse fish were obtained, but a considerable reduction
in the number of coarse fish inhabiting these streams is noted yearly. This would indicate
that headway is being made toward reducing the population of coarse fish inhabiting the
streams for spawning.
Approximately 150 trout were destroyed in poisoning operations in one of these
creeks (Norman), which is an increase over the number of trout killed in 1954 (50) and
in 1953 (11). This would indicate that trout are using these streams now in larger
numbers for spawning.
Summary and General Remarks
I feel that every possible effort should be made to open game detachments at
Telegraph Creek and Atlin, as at present it is absolutely impossible for any of the Wardens
to even make a pretence at patrolling these areas. Trap-lines and guiding areas in these
two very large sections of the Province cannot be handled by the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police, as they have not the time to handle such matters now that new roads are being
built and with the vastly increased population in this northern portion of the Province.
I wish to thank all the sportsmen who assisted us in our endeavours and also the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, who have co-operated with us in our work.
SUMMARY OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY GAME WARDENS IN "E"
DIVISION (MAINLAND COAST NORTH TO TOBA INLET AND LOWER
MAINLAND AS FAR INLAND AS NORTH BEND).
Big Game
Deer (Coast or Columbian).—Coast deer are much smaller than mule and white-
tailed deer which are found in the Interior. The eastward extremity of the range of Coast REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 23
deer is near Spuzzum, some 150 miles up the Fraser Canyon. There they overlap the
mule deer range, and the two species are known to interbreed on occasion.
The mild winters which have been the rule in this Division for the last few years
have caused favourable conditions for the deer, and they have increased. Excellent bags
have been the rule. The antlerless (any sex, any age) open seasons have been also
responsible for allowing larger numbers of deer to be brought to bag. It is interesting to
note that more bucks than does were taken from the areas where the any-sex, any-age
seasons were declared.
Wapiti (Elk).—The small herd found at McNab Creek (Howe Sound) appears to
be static. These animals were first liberated in this region in 1933, when five were
obtained from the Vancouver Parks Board. They have shown some increase but are
now thought to have reached their peak population.
The open seasons which have been in effect for the past two years have had no
effect upon them. Not a single animal has been taken by hunters. The band is not a
large one and the terrain is difficult to hunt.
Black or Brown Bear.—Despite a continuous year-around open season, these animals are a nuisance in many areas, even invading residential districts in North and West
Vancouver. Sportsmen show little interest in hunting black bear, and, unlike grizzlies,
they are not in the least deterred by human activity.
Grizzly Bears.—Grizzlies are found throughout most of the mountainous sections
of the Division and down as far as tidewater. Grave concern has recently been expressed
regarding the gradual disappearance of these fine animals from their former range in
other parts of the continent. Although «o reasonable estimate of their numbers can be
made in British Columbia, it is known that they are quite numerous. They are the least
exploited of our game species, and very few are taken annually. Two or three are taken
each year from some of the coastal inlets, but hunting pressure is light.
Mountain-goat.—These animals are numerous in this Division, being particularly
abundant along the coastal mountains. They are also found in the mountainous areas
near Chehalis, Harrison, and the Chilliwack country. Their habitat has been relatively
undisturbed by sportsmen or by any other human activity, living as they do in remote
regions. Very few are taken annually, and the hunting of mountain-goats is only undertaken by the most robust and skilful hunters.
Fur-bearing Animals
With the fur trade still in the doldrums and some traders actually going out of
business because of the slump and lack of demand for furs, all of the fur-bearing animals
have increased in numbers. Trappers are also able to find lucrative employment at good
wages in other fields and are reluctant to face the arduous work attendant upon handling
a trap-line when there is little return for their efforts. There seems to be little chance of
any recovery in the fur trade at present.
Racoons and foxes are still a pest in many places, notably the Fraser Valley, where
they take an annual toll of domestic fowl and game birds as well as their eggs.
Beavers have built up in numbers and cause considerable trouble with their damming
activity.
In summary, fur-bearing animals in this Division can be considered as being
practically unmolested by trappers at the present time.
Upland Game Birds
Blue Grouse.—Blue grouse have lost much of their former habitat to the industrial
expansion that is currently taking place everywhere. There is no doubt that predators,
especially house-cats gone wild, have some effect on their numbers. The main reasons
for fluctuation in this species, however, are cyclic factors, weather, and changes in habitat. H 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Natural laws will continue to decide the population levels of blue grouse, which are not
numerous here.
Willow (Ruffed) Grouse.—These birds are scarce in this Division. It is known that
they are governed by a cycle which so affects them that their numbers build up to a peak
then crash to a low level approximately every ten years. They are believed to be at the
low level of the cycle at present, although scattered coveys can be found. It is not believed
that hunting has any long-term effect upon cyclic species. Few were bagged during the
year.
Pheasants.—Continued and increasing land development, together with a great
increase in hunting pressure and changes in agricultural and orchard practices, has
adversely affected pheasant habitat. They were scarce in the Lower Mainland during
the season. We urge once more that every effort should be made to get pheasant-hunters
to use a good retrieving dog. Many of these fine birds are lost annually because of
failure to retrieve them after they have been shot.
Migratory Game Birds
Ducks and Canada Geese.—The first part of the season saw good bags of ducks and
Canada geese being taken, but an early freeze-up which drove the birds south was
responsible for poor hunting toward the end. Hunting pressure was heavy and will
become increasingly so as time goes on.
The breeding season was favourable, and they can be said to have been present in
goodly numbers. Waterfowl populations are controlled almost entirely by climatic and
other conditions on the nesting-grounds in the spring of the year.
Black Brant.—These birds came in well toward the end of the season, but there was
poor hunting as the season progressed.   Weather conditions were probably responsible.
Snow Geese.—These birds were present in large numbers early in the season.
Band-tailed Pigeons.—These birds were numerous and provided good sport. They
are lightly hunted. The usual spring complaints were received to the effect that these
birds were responsible for damage to green fruit-trees and truck-gardens.
Wilson's Snipe.—As usual, Wilson's snipe were numerous. They are in little
demand and few are shot.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds
A report on the over-all predator situation will be found in another section of this
Report.
It should be stated that in this Division we are deeply concerned by the steady
increase in the numbers of domestic cats and, to some extent, domestic dogs which are
allowed to run wild. No less than 258 domestic cats were destroyed by Game Wardens.
These animals are turned out by various individuals and cause a tremendous amount of
destruction among song and game birds.
There are many thousands of these useless animals at large in the Lower Mainland.
Game Protection
The usual routine patrols were carried out by Game Wardens, and a list of violations
and resultant prosecutions will be found elsewhere in this Report.
Game Reserves
Regular patrols of all game reserves are made. There is some concern being felt
regarding the usefulness of some of these reserves.   Changing conditions, such as increas- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 25
ing populations and more extensive land, water, and timber use everywhere, accompanied
by resultant changes in terrain and wildlife habitat, have made it necessary to examine our
whole system of game reserves. Some changes may have to be made where it is found
that reserves have outlived their original purpose.
Registration of Guides
There are only three registered guides in this Division. They operate along the
coastal inlets, where a few grizzly bear and mountain-goat hunting parties were taken.
Special Patrols
Departmental launches stationed at Powell River, Alert Bay, and Vancouver carry-
out constant patrols along coastal waterways.
Corporal W. J. Mason and Game Warden F. Renton, Alert Bay; Corporal R. E.
Allan, Vancouver; and Corporal B. E. Wilson, Powell River, undertake difficult and
often dangerous trips in the performance of their duties.
Other patrols of a special nature are made by Game Wardens throughout the
Province, sometimes in co-operation with Federal fisheries workers or forestry officials.
Aircraft are sometimes used on a charter basis.
Registration of Trap-lines
Ever since its inception in 1926, the trap-line system has operated with a minimum
of trouble.
Hunting Accidents
There were three hunting accidents in the Division in 1955. On October 10th, 1955,
A. A. Christenson was shot and slightly wounded by George Driediger. Both men were
from Langley. Driediger was later fined for carrying a firearm without a licence. Henry
Stewart Smith, Gillis Bay, Texada Island, accidentally shot himself in the stomach while
deer-hunting on Texada Island. He recovered after spending six weeks in hospital.
Stuart Harrell, Powell River, was shot in the hand by Stuart Campbell. The accident
occurred when Campbell was taking a loaded .22 rifle from the back of a car. Harrell
lost two fingers. Cambell was charged under subsection (1) of section 13 of the " Game
Act."
Game-fish Culture
A list of the fish plantings that took place during the year is to be found in another
section of this Report.
Experiments and research are still being conducted at the Cleveland Dam (Capilano
River) in efforts to discover methods by which fish can be assisted past dams, and to
permit the return of down-stream migrants.
Details of coarse-fish eradication measures that have been taken are contained in a
section of this Report submitted by the Fisheries Division.
Summary and General Remarks
With the ever-increasing expansion and development, especially in the Lower Mainland area, it is difficult to determine the future of wildlife. Each year there are more and
more sportsmen afield, while the hunting areas are shrinking annually. There is a steady
and increasing demand for water for industrial use. All this is bound to have a detrimental effect upon fish and other wildlife. Efforts are being made to secure land which
may be set aside as public hunting-grounds. H 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE GAME MANAGEMENT DIVISION
By Dr. J. Hatter, Chief Game Biologist
INTRODUCTION
In many respects the year 1955 was a progressive one for the Game Management
Division. The general programme, begun in 1954 toward better utilization of the big-
game resources through either-sex seasons, was again the major feature of our activities.
Following three mild winters and a long succession of seasons on the male sex only,
many of our moose, deer, and elk ranges are carrying far more animals than desirable.
The destructive effect of a sequence of severe winters has been noted in the past, and it
is the purpose of the Game Management Division to ameliorate such losses in the future
where possible. Controlled populations result in lighter losses during years of lower
carrying capacity. The problems in this regard have been outlined in the Annual Report
for 1954 and may be referred to for a fuller account of our objectives.
It is apparent that our either-sex seasons are becoming widely accepted, and I suspect
that soon our Division will be asked for further liberalizations, which we cannot safely
undertake with the present size of the Game Management staff. The situation is particularly acute in " D " Division, where big-game populations as large as those in the south
are present. Our slow progress in this area is clearly attributable to the lack of a Regional
Biologist at Prince George to undertake population studies, recommend proper seasons,
and carry out an active public relations programme to inform the public and gain their
support.
Along with the needs of management, of course, there also arises the question of
more personnel for protection. It should be apparent to all concerned that increased
public services, which are more than paying their way from the intake of revenue, necessitate additions to the staff of both the Game Management and Protection Divisions.
A glance at trends in the budget for both these Divisions reveals that no significant
increases have been forthcoming for the past three years. The situation will, if not
corrected in the near future, cripple our programme, which has now gained momentum.
The situation is precisely this: We have the game to utilize and the increased revenue
will not only take care of staff requirements, but will bolster the total moneys applied to
Consolidated Revenue and the Conservation Fund. It does not seem good economy to
hinder progress that is capable of more than paying its way.
In concluding the above, the foremost problem before the Game Management
Division is insufficient personnel. A survey by any competent wildlife authority would
reveal this fact.
HUNTER SAMPLE
A revision of the hunter sample was made during the past year, and fiducial limits
of 5 per cent apply to the game harvests of our major species. It was determined that the
sample could be reduced from ~ 12,000 to 9,000, and by applying a heavier sample to
big-game licence (general firearms licence) holders a more accurate determination of kill
could be made. Non-resident hunters were surveyed and treated as a group separate
from small-game (ordinary firearms licence) and big-game (general firearms licence)
holders. Special consideration was given the East Kootenay District for both resident
and non-resident hunters in view of the importance of the area for big game.
Comparison of the species harvest reveals a sizeable reduction in the take of ducks
and geese over the year 1954. The pheasant kill was also down in all districts, with
11,000 birds below the 1954 figure of 48,000. The reduction in the total grouse harvest
was mainly the result of a fire closure on Vancouver Island, a poor hatching season, and
the cyclic low point in populations in the Interior. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
Summary of the Harvest of Major Game Species for 1954 and 1955
H 27
District
Ducks
Grouse
Pheasants
Deer
Moose
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
	
7,000
19,500
19,000
2,500
2,500
1,800
2,739
1,998
76,000
191,000
109,000
26,000
17,000
54,404
174,245
57,548
16,498
2,663
71,000
8,000
101,000
25,700
11,300
45,257
5,665
98,537
27,023
10,072
4,239
11,518
19,913
1,118
11,900
7,300
10,200
6,600
14,943
3,851
18,418
13,706
500
300
120
503
608
Wells Gray Park	
140
49
Totals- ___
419,000
305,358
217,000 1186,554
48,000
36,788
36,000
50,918
5,220 |    6,037
Notable changes were experienced in the deer harvest, with an increase of 42 per
cent over 1954. Twelve per cent of the increase in the deer kill over 1954 is attributable
to the antlerless deer season. The moose kill was up in all districts, to give a Provincial
increase of 20 per cent.
The greater moose and deer harvest is largely attributable to increased populations
of these species over most of the Province. Three consecutive winters below average in
severity have allowed for greater survival and increased population size. It is gratifying
to see that more of the surplus is being converted to useful purposes rather than being
permitted to perish during severe winters inevitably to come. The larger moose and deer
harvests made possible by the liberalized season in 1955 represent undeniable values in
terms of money expended, meat values derived, and recreational benefits.
SUMMARY OF A SURVEY OF EXPENDITURES BY HUNTERS FOR 1955
To verify and supplement the survey of expenditures made in pursuit of hunting
in 1954, another survey was undertaken for the year under review. Inasmuch as data
obtained in this and preceding surveys will be presented at a later date in a separate
publication, details will not be included herein. Total expenditures made in pursuit of
hunting in 1955 have been calculated at over $12,000,000. This figure is much higher
than the previous total of $6,686,000 obtained in the preliminary survey discussed in last
year's Annual Report. It is felt that the new figure is much closer to the true expenditures. Fiducial limits will be applied to the various sub-totals which comprise the over-all
figure.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The spirit of co-operation between the various branches of the Game Department
has been most pronounced during the past year. Sincere thanks are extended to all those
who have assisted in one way or another the Game Biologists and others engaged in the
activities of the Game Management Division.
LOWER MAINLAND AND SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICTS
By E. W. Taylor, Game Management Biologist, Vancouver, B.C.
This report presents a summarization of game conditions and activities of major
importance in the management of game throughout the South-west Coastal, Mainland,
and Interior portions of the Province during 1955.
Deer and Elk Winter Range Survey, Princeton District
The annual spring survey of forage conditions on the Princeton deer and elk winter
range was made June 7th to 10th, 1955. Table I shows a summary of the data collected
from 16,100 feet of random line-intercept transects involving 1,011 forage units. H 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Forage Classification according to Use Class, for Various
Winter Range Areas about Princeton
(Data from survey of June 8th and 9th, 1955.)
Winter Range Area
Species
Percentage of Plants in—
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5
Coalmont Road (Rabbit's Mill to
Peterson Flat)
Ceonothus —
Amelanchier...
Salix	
Ceonothus	
Amelanchier...
Salix 	
Ceonothus.	
Amelanchier...
Salix	
Ceonothus	
Amelanchier....
Salix	
All species
22.1
1.0
33.0
19.3
30.6
15.9
40.2
1.8
29.3
2.4
28.2
61.7
50.0
22.2
50.0
42.5
33.1
48.8
100.0
14.7
19.4
43.0
3.8
46.5
53.2
17.9
48.8
4.2
1.5
7.0
1.0
Thomas Meadows and Wolfe Creek
Hill
1.8
4.3
1.3
Winter range total	
26.2
0.4
34.3
10.0
26.5
57.1
46.8
10.5
31.1
48.1
2.2
1.3
4.7
Totals	
18.8
26.7
34.7
17.6
11.7
The current forage survey was carried out on the same areas covered in 1954, and
forage classification was made on the same basis as in that year (Class 1, zero to light
use; Class 2, moderate; Class 3, heavy; Class 4, severe; Class 5, dead).
Browse conditions in the Princeton area as represented by the portions of the winter
range sampled showed little or no improvement over the previous year. Approximately
90 per cent of the 228 available Amelanchier shrubs examined were overbrowsed, and
almost all (99.6 per cent) of sixty-four willow shrubs in the sample were in a similar
condition. Compared to last year, there is no improvement in the status of these two
forage species. As a matter of fact, both willow and Amelanchier have deteriorated over
much of the main wintering ground around Princeton.
Ceonothus, which is generally more abundant than both willow and Amelanchier
in the sampled portion of the range, did show some evidence of slight improvement in
condition over that of June, 1954. Of 7.9 units examined in June of the current year,
some 39 per cent were overbrowsed as compared to 42 per cent in this state in 1954.
A more scattered distribution of elk in this district during the winter has perhaps eased
the strain on Ceonothus, particularly in the Thomas Meadows and Wolfe Creek sections.
Elk, Princeton District
Data obtained during the winter aerial survey made in February, 1955, showed little
change in the number of elk in the Princeton district as compared to that noted during
the previous winter census. It was apparent, however, that the distribution of this species
was more scattered than has been observed on previous occasions. This dispersal was
believed due to hunting and to the fact that existing snow conditions were less severe than
usual and permitted a greater mobility of animals than in the winter of 1953-54.
Herd composition showed a substantial calf-fraction in the population at the time
of survey. From the classified portion of the census data it was found that 30.7 per cent
of the wintering elk herd consisted of calves of the previous spring.
Table II shows comparative population census data for the years in which aerial
surveys have been made. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 29
Table II.—Summary of Aerial Survey Census Data for Princeton Elk
Number of Elk Counted
Census Period
Bulls
Cows and
Calves
Total
Feburary, 1953       _ 	
16
16
13
86
97
96
102
January, 1954 _ _. 	
February, 1955 _ ■• _      	
113
109
A five-day open season (October 8th to 12th, 1955) on bulls only failed to attract
the hunting pressure experienced in the 1954 season. This, combined with the more
scattered distribution of elk, resulted in a known legal kill of only five bulls, as compared
to eleven during the previous year. Since the closing of the recent elk season, an additional sixteen animals have been killed—eleven in mistake for deer during the antlerless
deer season and five in the control of haystack damage due to elk depredations.
McNab Creek.—The five-day open season on bull elk in the Mackenzie Electoral
District was held from November 19th to December 4th, 1955.   Hunting, which was
confined largely to the McNab Creek section, involved few parties and resulted in no
known harvest.
Mule Deer, Princeton
The relatively open winter of 1954-55 was apparently favourable to the currently
expanding deer population in this district. Counts made in the early spring of 1955
indicated a higher population density than that known for the last five years. The overwinter survival of fawns as evidenced by roadside counts was good. Of 369 deer seen
in April, 1955, 112 (30.3 per cent) were fawns of the preceding spring.
Post-season mortality on deer continued to be substantial in the Princeton district.
The total known kill in 1954-55 (55) was below that for the period 1953-54 (90), but
the proportion of fatalities due to traffic increased from 58 to 82 per cent (for the months
December to June) for 1953-54 and 1954-55 respectively. Known losses due to
predation dropped from 29 to 13 per cent over the same periods.
The recent open season on deer in the Yale-Similkameen District extended from
September 15th to December 4th, with a bag-limit of two bucks per hunter. During the
last nine days (November 26th to December 4th) of the season it was permissible to
take not more than one antlerless deer per hunter within the total season bag-limit of two
animals. This option, combined with ideal conditions for hunting and an abundance of
game, attracted considerable hunting pressure and resulted in the highest deer harvest yet
known in this area. The trend in harvest success for the past six years, as determined
from the number of deer placed in the Princeton cold-storage plant (Table III), shows
the relatively high increase in kill in 1955.
Table III,
Season
1950	
1951	
1952	
-Princeton Locker-plant Record of Deer Stored, 1950—55
Number of Deer Season Number of Deer
  130 1953  141
  118 1954  180
     63 1955  401
Further data on the deer harvest were obtained through a road check maintained
at Flood on the week-end of December 3rd-4th, 1955, and appears in summary in
Table IV.
Comparison of data for the final week-ends checked at Flood in 1954 and 1955
shows a general increase in hunter numbers and game taken during the past season.
In the Princeton and Hope-Skagit districts, hunting pressure increased 305 and 388 per
cent respectively over that of 1954. The Rock Creek-Grand Forks areas, which bore
heavy hunting last year, showed a decline in this factor of 23 per cent. H 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Deer Harvest Data, Southern Interior
(From road check of December 3rd-4th, 1955, at Flood.)
Area Hunted
Number of
Hunters
Number of Deer Harvested
Bucks
Does
Fawns
Unidentified
Total
Hope-Skagit—            . ..
83
645
13
42
5
83
3
10
74
7
20
2
2
137
1
14
2
28
2
62
6
15
6
2
279
Oliver-Osoyoos-   -	
1
27
2
63
Kootenay 	
4
Totals 	
884
103
186
83
6
378
In spite of the relatively heavy harvest in the Princeton section, the recent kill,
according to all available data, was not in excess of that deemed adequate for the
population.
It is doubtful that conditions contributing to such a successful harvest will occur for
some time. The recent antlerless season in the Similkameen district provided a timely
opportunity to take full advantage of an unusual set of circumstances favourable to an
increased harvest of deer. In spite of this possible reduction or thinning out of the deer
population, the impending severity of the current winter could result in abnormal losses
of animals in this district by early spring.
Coast Deer.—Investigations carried out during March and April, 1955, on Galiano
and Gambier Islands provided considerable evidence that, in spite of the favourable
climatic character of the preceding winter, deer mortality due to malnutrition was the
highest known for several years.
Sheep.—A three-day open season (September 23rd to 25th, 1955) on rams in the
Ashnola drainage resulted in a harvest of eight animals by the participating thirty-five
hunters.   All heads conformed with the minimum requirements of three-quarter curl.
Hunters considered the short season most successful and felt that the three-quarter
curl law was a satisfactory and practical instrument in the necessarily controlled harvest
of this species.
Upland Game Birds
The spring and summer of 1955 was unusually cold and wet, and the effect of such
adverse weather conditions on all upland game birds is believed largely responsible for
the recent poor production by this group.
Grouse.—In spite of indications suggesting a good breeding population, both blue
and willow grouse appeared to be much below their usual numbers in the Similkameen and
South Okanagan districts during the past fall hunting season. Harvest of both species was
down considerably from least year.
Pheasants.—Roadside census and crowing counts throughout the Fraser Valley
during April and May, 1955, indicated a decline in the pheasant breeding population
noticeably below that of the preceding spring. With the subsequent poor reproductive
success, the fall harvest in this region was the lowest for many years. August, 1955,
brood size (3.2) was below that (3.8) for this period in 1954 and only about half that
(6.3) found in 1952.
Artificial stocking of pheasants was carried out during the early spring and in the
late fall of 1955. The quantity and regional distribution of these plants are shown
elsewhere in the Annual Report for this Department. An analysis of data obtained from
studies made in connection with annual artificial stocking in the Province suggests that REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 31
this practice is both costly and relatively ineffective as a means of improving pheasant-
hunting generally.
Chukar Partridge.—April, 1955, marked the end of the five-year programme of
chukar partridge introductions in British Columbia. At this time, plants were made in
the following areas:—
April 5th, 1955—
Keremeos-Cawston    .. 	
Birds
    125
White Lake	
  125
April 12th, 1955—
Pritchard    __ _       	
  128
Vernon      _
            64
Kelowna _ _       _         	
     67
Total	
  509
The success of stocking in the South Okanagan and Similkameen districts does not
appear to be as great as that obtained in the Kamloops-Ashcroft region. Birds are
occasionally seen in the White Lake, Keremeos, and Vaseux Lake areas, and some broods
have been noted. Establishment has been slow, but may improve should a more favourable rearing season occur in the near future.
Waterfowl
Crop Damage.—Following the closing of the 1954—55 season on ducks, large numbers of widgeon and pintail ducks became troublesome to certain winter crops under
cultivation in the Delta Municipality. Sugar-beets suffered most heavily in the damage
that occurred. In only one instance were their depredations serious enough to affect crop
development.
Harvest.—Waterfowl-hunting in the Lower Fraser Valley compared favourably
with that of the previous season until mid-November: At that time a severe and prolonged period of cold weather ensued, resulting in the movement of large numbers of
birds from the area.
Public Shooting-grounds
The problem of public access to shooting-grounds in the Lower Fraser Valley has
not improved during the past year. Numerous applications for the lease of foreshore
areas in and about Steveston were investigated and found to be not inimical to game
interests in that area. However, foreseeable trends in industrial development in the
Fraser River delta section may create situations which conflict materially with waterfowl
habitat and hunting in the not too distant future.
In an effort to ensure the future welfare of the large wintering population of ducks
and geese and to provide hunting-grounds for public use, title to some 1,027 acres of
unalienated insular lands in the Fraser River estuary has been applied for by this
Department.
The possible effect of sewage-disposal on the wildlife potential of the delta region has
received attention, and such proposals will be held under constant and critical surveillance.
Acknowledgments
I wish again to extend my thanks to the Game Wardens and other persons both
within and without the ranks of the Game Department for the generous assistance
rendered me in connection with work undertaken in the past year. H 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOUTH CENTRAL INTERIOR
By P. W. Martin, Game Management Biologist, Kamloops, B.C.
During 1955, activities were largely centred about problems dealing with moose
and deer management. A six weeks' period was spent in conjunction with a combined
fish and game survey in the Atlin area. This survey was conducted to ascertain the
probable habitat changes that would be the result of the implementation of development
of the power resource by Frobisher Limited.
Big Game
Moose.—The moose harvest in the South Central Interior was the largest since 1952.
This was the result of three mild winters, during which the survival of yearling animals
was relatively high, of an early onset of winter that caused the animals to move into areas
where they were available to hunters, and of the continued open season on both sexes
of moose. The average success of all moose-hunters was higher than for several seasons
past, but the actual number of moose-hunters was slightly lower.
Table I.—Comparative Harvest and Success in Areas I and II
(Compiled from records of the Cache Creek Checking-station.)
(a) MOOSB HARVESTED BY AREAS, 1950 TO 1955, INCLUSIVE
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Area 1  _ —
144
38
1,597
228
38
2,270
395
67
1,255
133
49
1,561
420
99
1,769
620
171
2,385
(6) PERCENTAGE OF HUNTERS SUCCESSFUL BY AREAS, 1950 TO 1955, INCLUSIVE
Area 1      	
27.1
31.0
34.8
25.5
32.7
36.7
15.7
18.2
19.0
22.1
29.7
32.5
22.5
30.1
29.6
32.8
47.3
40.9
Spring range appraisals were undertaken during April and May. Upland willow is
used as a key species to indicate relative browsing intensities. Forty-three sample plots
were assessed in widely dispersed areas of moose winter range in Area I. The percentage
of plants browsed to varying degrees was then calculated on each plot and an over-all
assessment of range use calculated from totals.
Table II.—Range Assessments in Area I, Using Upland Willow as Indicator Species
Nil
Light
Moderate
Heavy
Severe
Total
201
6
2
308
9
464
14
4
673
19
6
1,800
52
31
3,446
Per cent of use , 	
100
43
Browsing of other species of shrubbery was comparatively intense in almost all areas.
A marked decrease in the vigour of swamp willow (Salix sp.) and arctic birch (Betula
glandulosa) was apparent in Area I. The sum total of samples browsed beyond the
yearly regenerative powers of the plant—namely, "heavy" and "severe"—was 71 per
cent in thirty-seven out of forty-three plots. This continuing trend in the deterioration
of the ranges is disappointing, especially in view of the cow season of 1954. It is hoped
that the heavier kill of the current year will result in a reduction in range use that will
permit some degree of rehabilitation of the range plants. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 33
Mandibles of moose were collected from hunters at Cache Creek and on all other
occasions when the opportunity occurred. These were classified as to age, and the age
composition of the herds calculated from this sample.
Table III.—Age Structure of 1955 Moose Populations
Area of Sample
Percentage Compositions by Age-classes
1V4 Years    2'/i Years  3 Vs. Years     Mature
Aged
Area I (Lone Butte-Bridge Lake-Jesmond)	
Area II (100 Mile House-Canim-Lac la Hache)....
Area III (150 Mile to Quesnel and Horsefly)	
Areas V and VI (west of Fraser to Blackwater)..
North of Quesnel	
All bulls, 1955	
All cows, 1955	
48.2
30.0
37.1
13.5
25.0
31.7
45.0
14.3
28.4
25.0
31.8
9.6
28.5
11.2
7.0
10.0
14.3
12.2
14.6
13.1
15.0
34.3
44.9
28.2
4.0
7.2
10.8
16.1
26.9
58.3
2.0
4.8
The age structure of the moose populations differs very little from that of 1954.
In the bull population young animals of the first three classes rose by 6.7 per cent in
1955, and in the over-all cow kill young animals decreased 2.3 per cent from 1954
figures. Such small differences are within the expected limits of sampling errors, and no
significant change in the age structure of the moose population is indicated.
A brief aerial survey of moose in Area I was undertaken in December of 1954
immediately following the hunting season. The sample was small, but no significant
change in the density of moose from that of the 1954 winter counts was noted.
Mule Deer.—The harvest of mule deer was greater during the 1955 season than for
several years previous. The cold spell in mid-November initiated an early movement of
deer to virtually all winter ranges. As a result, they became available to hunters and an
abnormally heavy kill ensued in accessible areas. Post-season observations indicate that
this kill was not excessive. Some relief was afforded the low, arid, and heavily used
winter ranges, and a greater percentage survival of deer will result.
Sheep.—A three-day season on California bighorns resulted in four sheep being
taken from the Vaseux Lake herd. None were taken at Shorts Creek. This was unfortunate, for there are several excess rams of trophy size in the Shorts Creek herd.
The season on Rocky Mountain bighorns in the vicinity of Chase was limited to one
week on rams bearing horns of three-quarter curl or better. The ruling was well received
by sportsmen, and only three trophies were secured.
Upland Game Birds
Pheasants.—Pheasant-shooting in the Okanagan Valley was slightly better than that
of the previous years.   No appreciable change was noted in the Thompson Valley.
Chukar Partridge.—Chukar partridge experienced a most successful hatching season
in the Thompson River valley. Shooting resulted in no appreciable reductions in the
stock of birds, and at the year's end winter losses were light in spite of sub-zero weather.
Chukar do not appear to have established themselves successfully at Vernon or Kelowna.
The small population at Vaseux Lake is doing well, but no expansion of range is apparent.
Grouse.—Ruffed grouse are passing through a low phase of their cycle of abundance.
They are very scarce in the Cariboo, and few hunters seek them assiduously, hence they
have little effect upon the grouse population as a whole. Blue grouse are scarce in the
Thompson River valley, but fair populations are to be found in the Okanagan.
Public Relations
Sixteen meetings of sportsmen's organizations were attended during the year.
Several papers were written for distribution to the public. Every opportunity was taken
to acquaint members of the public of the aims and practices of game management. H 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Acknowledgments
I would like to acknowledge the co-operation of all Departmental personnel during
the past year, and also the many members of the general public who co-operate by
assisting in the collection of moose mandibles and in many other ways.
CARIBOO AND CHILCOTIN DISTRICTS
By L. G. Sugden, Range Management Biologist, Williams Lake, B.C.
The information given in the following report represents an abstract of the major
activities during the year 1955. Three weeks of June were spent in connection with
a wildlife survey of the Atlin region to determine the probable effect upon wildlife of the
proposed hydro-electric development by Frobisher Limited. Otherwise, work related
to big-game management in the Cariboo District occupied most of the year.
Moose.—Moose management in the Southern Interior continues along a progressive
trend, and major herds are gaining productiveness as a result of extension of liberal
seasons. It is through such management that the herds eventually will reach a healthy
state and provide a maximum amount of recreation and meat for moose-hunters. Fig. 1
illustrates the trend of moose-hunting by guided hunters in the region during the past
three years. Moose-hunting in the Alexis Creek, Williams Lake, and Quesnel Game
Detachments showed improvement during the 1955 season, as indicated by the data in
the following table:—
Area
1954
1955
Hunters
Moose
Per Cent
Success
Hunters
Moose
Per Cent
Success
404
190
99
268
94
51
66
50
51
347
221
92
270
153
66
78
69
72
Totals 	
693
413
60
660        1        489
74
o
o
5
•a
3
o
3
z
1,000 -
800 -
600 -
400 -
200 -
3
*4H
CD
O
o
3
t/_
P
a
6 "3
3 <S
5 3
v5 d>
*
3
1953
1954
1955
Fig. 1. Bar graph illustrating the trend of moose-hunting by guided hunters
for three years in the Central Cariboo and Chilcotin regions. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 35
Moose Range Surveys.—Using the method described in the corresponding report
for 1954, range-use appraisals were again made in the Williams Lake-Horsefly area and
the Eastern Chilcotin.    The following table summarizes the resulting data:—
Summary of Observations on Upland Willow Condition, April-May, 1955
NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS
Area
Nil
Light
Moderate
Heavy
Severe
Totals
15
2
123
23
587
60
894
128
363
81
1,982
294
percentage of observations
Williams Lake-Horsefly „
Eastern Chilcotin	
18.5
27.6
100.0
100.0
The percentage of misused browse plants in the Williams Lake-Horsefly region
increased from 39 per cent in 1954 to 64 per cent in 1955. In the Big Creek-Chilcotin
River area there was an estimated 70-per-cent overuse during both years. With such
chronic misuse the moose winter ranges will continue to gradually deteriorate.
Aerial Moose Surveys.—During 533 miles of January aerial moose-counting in the
Williams Lake-Horsefly district, an index of 5.5 moose per square mile was obtained,
which, for practical purposes, is unchanged from that of 1954. Of 167 moose classified,
31 or 19 per cent were calves. During four hours (280 miles) of selected flying in
mid-May in the Gang Ranch-Big Creek area, 642 moose were tallied. The moose were
concentrated on open swamps and meadows behind the receding snows.
California Bighorn Sheep.—Under the three-quarter curl regulation in effect west
of the Fraser River, it is known that five rams were taken, all from the Yalakom band.
This new regulation prevents the killing of young rams, thus providing a constant supply
of trophy rams and at the same time an adequate breeding stock.
By means of live-trapping, eighteen sheep (ten rams, three ewes, and five lambs)
were removed from the Riske Creek band in November. Greater efficiency in handling
and loading the animals was achieved by the use of a small catch-pen and loading-chute.
Five rams were destined for the Vaseux Lake band, two rams to the Whitewater band,
and the balance made up a new plant in the Westbranch Valley near Bluff Lake. This
represents an individual attempt in British Columbia to restore this species of bighorn
on its former range.
Mule Deer.—A survey of the winter range of the Westbranch deer herd revealed
a situation which is common to moose of the Interior deer ranges. The primary browse
plants have been severely misused, and current food production is considerably below its
potential. In this case, service-berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), mountain maple (Acer
glabrum), silver willow (Shepherdia argentea), Douglas fir (Pseudotsugo taxifolia), and
Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) are the principal browse species and
show hedging by wintering deer.
The area is remote and experiences light hunting pressure, and the short seasons on
antlerless deer have had no material effect on the population.
Public Relations
At every opportunity public meetings concerned with wildlife management were
attended, and during the course of a year the principles of game management are discussed
with many individuals. H 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Acknowledgments
I wish to acknowledge the co-operation of Departmental personnel and many individuals of the general public who assisted in many ways during the year.
VANCOUVER ISLAND
By D. J. Robinson, Game Management Biologist, Nanaimo, B.C.
The accumulation of data relating to game species was accelerated during 1955.
The increased number of Game Department checking-stations, plus active participation
by logging companies and the organized sportsmen in gathering facts, has enabled the
Commission to better understand current problems. The 1954 trend toward better access,
a more informed public, and greater interest of logging companies in management of
game showed new impetus. Co-operation among the Game Commission, the public, and
forest industry is of paramount importance, for the bulk of Vancouver Island's game is
a product of logging. Land to produce game and people to use it are the basis of our
game programme. This past year has witnessed co-operation at all levels, concerning
the utilization of the game resource.
Big Game
Black-tailed Deer.-—The mild winter of 1954-55 allowed an excellent carry-over
of yearlings. The pattern of survival, however, varies for each range, depending upon
the relationship of the population to the environment. It is becoming apparent that the
summer range may be as important as the winter range, for it largely determines the quality of animals while the winter range determines the quantity. Table I shows that the
1955 fall harvest should have consisted mainly of IY2- and 2Ya-year-old deer. Age-class
data from studies made subsequently agrees with this, as 75 to 80 per cent of all deer over
1 year of age were in these categories. Heavy mortality in the fawn age-class can reduce
the male harvest by 40 to 50 per cent in one year.
Table I.—Spring Counts on Three Vancouver Island Deer Ranges, Showing
the Contribution of Short Yearlings to the Total Population
Adults
Yearlings
Percentage of Yearlings
in Population
1954
1955
23
178
86
18
79
51
42.2
30.6
37.2
31.6
35.7
45.41
Sayward—	
Courtenay.	
Northwest Bay..
1 Small sample in 1954.
Although the trend from year to year may be up or down, depending upon the
winter, each deer herd on Vancouver Island depends basically upon the nature of its
range. Initially the range is highly productive and large animals are present, although
the population may be quite small. While the deer population builds up the maximum
for the area, the range deteriorates. This change takes place regardless of deer numbers,
but they may speed up the process. The next phase is one of increased population but
smaller individuals, which in turn gives way to a relatively small herd of small size. This
basic pattern is complicated by recurring severe winters and by current forestry practices
which dampen the population trends.
The hunting season of 1955 was unusual, for snow cover was general from early
November. Due to this condition, deer were frequently hunted on restricted winter range
and a marked increase in the harvest was obtained (Table II). Preliminary information
indicates that the take of deer is up at least 25 per cent over 1954, giving an Island-wide
harvest of 15,000 or more. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 37
Table II.—Success of Deer-hunters during the "Any Deer" Seasons of 1954 and 1955
1955
1954
Area
Number of
Hunters
Number of
Deer
Per Cent
Successful
Number of
Hunters
Per Cent
Successful
Nanaimo
548
121
440
400
286
34
253
124
52.2
28.1
57.5
31.0
386
324
304
929
28
11.1
Courtenay —	
25.0
24.0
The importance of the last two weeks of the season is illustrated in Table III.
September and October supply sport and recreation, but few deer. Better than 75 per
cent of the deer were shot during November, with well over 60 per cent in the last two
weeks. Irrespective of deer numbers, it appears the harvest necessary for management
can only be taken when the rut and winter weather combine to make deer available.
This situation results in a short, intense period of high hunter success, with perhaps
lowered aesthetic value. Nevertheless, pre-winter thinning of big-game herds is a necessity if these animals are to be kept in good quality for future hunting seasons. The
harvest picture should not be judged on the unproductive period of September and
October or on the highly productive period at the end of November. Both must be
considered, for the initial period furnishes much recreation, while the latter period allows
the kill so necessary for the management of big game.
Table HI.—Monthly Trends in the Deer Harvest Based on Road Checks at
Courtenay and at Northwest Bay, 1955 Per Cent 0(
Date Total Harvest
September      9
October     8
November 1st to 25th  16
November 26th to December 4th  67
Elk.—The second successive season on Roosevelt elk produced twelve bulls. There
exist herds at Courtenay, Upper Campbell Lake, and Salmon River which did not yield
a single animal. It is suggested that next year a more liberal season be initiated to give a
reasonable harvest.
Upland Game Birds
Blue Grouse.—For the second consecutive year, blue grouse production was down.
This, coupled with a period of hot, dry weather preceding and during the initial week-end,
limited the harvest. The annual migration, apparently triggered by this hot weather,
removed many birds from the accessible ranges. A forest closure for the eight days after
the opening week-end allowed a further escapement. The brightest part of the blue
grouse season was the fine hunting in October at Port Alberni, Courtenay, and Nanaimo.
These areas have high slashings and adjacent standing timber, a combination which
permits shooting of the best quality until the season ends. It is predicted that with the
loss of the large tracts of lowlands which produced former harvests, increasing attention
will be paid to following the fall migration into the timbered winter ranges.
The stand of blue grouse is changing with the impact of new forestry methods.
Patch logging, efficient reforestation, and logging at all altitudes will probably end the
bumper crops of the late 1930's and 1940's. However, while it is predicted that the
population in any one year will be lower than in former peak periods, the harvest realized
throughout the complete forest rotation will be larger. Increased efficiency of harvest,
especially on adult males, will probably keep the hunting bag similar to the past five years. H 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Waterfowl
Black Brant.—The harvest of black brant was poor—perhaps the lowest of the past
decade. The local wintering group of birds supplied its usual limited quota, but the
migrant flocks did not appear until mid-March (Table IV). Shooting to supply sport to
the brant-hunter is only possible when these migrants arrive before the end of February.
Table IV.—Black Brant Observed along the East Coast of Vancouver Island
during Spring Migration
Date
Number of Birds
1953
1954
1955
February (early)-.
February 17th	
March 7th to 9th_
March 21st	
April 4th..
April 18th„
May 2nd„„.
723
1,587
2,950
2,505
50
125
373
1,923
3,135
4,340
1,625
30
4
507
3,555
4,075
5,215
2,160
Public Relations
Dissemination of information as to the work of the Game Commission and other
conservation agencies constituted a major portion of the year's work. Talks, discussions,
and forums were held at all Vancouver Island fish and game clubs at various times.
A total of forty-six such meetings, with over 1,600 sportsmen present, were addressed.
Many service clubs and high schools requested informative talks on the wildlife of the
Province, and over 700 persons were contacted in this manner. Conservation of natural
resources is a subject of interest to all people.
EAST AND WEST KOOTENAY DISTRICTS
By W. G. Smith, Game Management Biologist, Cranbrook, B.C.
The major game-management activities carried out in the Kootenays during 1955
were directed at obtaining an understanding of some of the problems of major importance
to management. An aerial census of winter ranges was carried out to determine the
extent of some of the winter ranges and to obtain an idea of the size of the game populations. Organized hunter checks were carried out in the hunting season to get data on
the hunting pressures and successes in the region and to obtain data on the species taken.
Investigations were conducted into crop damage problems and range problems. Numerous
game club meetings were attended and several talks were given at other functions.
Aerial Census
An aerial census was conducted during the early spring period on several of the
important winter ranges in the East Kootenay, which provided a good picture of the
distribution and relative abundance of deer, elk, and moose. Deer were found in very
heavy numbers on some of the ranges, and large populations of elk were found. The
total estimated game populations of big game on the ranges sampled were 13,873 deer,
4,389 elk, and 517 moose.
The ranges supporting the heavier game populations were found on the relatively
high benches along the Selkirk and Rocky Mountains. Very few animals were found
wintering in the lower elevations in the Rocky Mountain Trench. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 39
Hunter Checks
During the 1955 hunting season a total of seventeen hunter checks were held in the
East Kootenay. Checks were held on the main highways, where an optimum number of
hunters were contacted returning from a day's hunt. Two thousand two hundred and
twenty-eight hunters were checked, with a total bag of 805 deer, 43 elk, 5 moose, 5
goats, 2 black bears, 2 mountain caribou, 19 grouse, and 12 ducks.
A record was made of the occurrence of the spinous ear-tick in the big-game
mammals examined, and a total of eight cases were found. Of the eight cases discovered,
seven occurred in the Elko area and one in the Premier Lake area.
Hunter success ranged from an average of 7 per cent in the early part of the hunting
season to 14 per cent following a cold snap, and with the opening of the antlerless deer
season leapt to an average of 54 per cent per day's hunting. The highest hunting success
recorded was in the Elko area, where 174 hunters checked had taken 121 deer and 5 elk.
A record was kept of the place of residence of all hunters that were checked, giving
a picture of the distribution of hunting pressures by place of residence. It was found
that the hunters tended to concentrate within a relatively small radius from their place of
residence. Thus the Kimberley hunters tended to concentrate in the area north of
Kimberley, the Skookumchuck, Island Pond, Springbrook, and Canal Flats areas.
Cranbrook hunters concentrated in the Fort Steele, Bull River, Wardner, Galloway, and
Cranbrook areas. Fernie hunters hunted the Elko, Gold Creek, Sheep Mountain,
Plumbob, and Newgate areas.
Hunters resident in the East Kootenay comprised 92 per cent of the total checked,
and West Kootenay hunters comprised 5 per cent of the total. The remaining 3 per cent
of the hunters checked were residents of other areas of the Province.
Crop-damage Investigations
Several cases of crop damage were investigated in both the East and West Kootenays
during 1955. In the West Kootenay, elk were found to be causing severe damage to
grain-crops in the Lardeau area. A herd of about thirty elk summered adjacent to farm
lands, and in the fall these animals invaded the stooked grain and destroyed a large
percentage of the crop. Several complaints of deer doing damage to crops in the East
Kootenay were investigated, and it was found that in almost all cases the damage was
being caused by white-tailed deer invading alfalfa-crops. This type of damage seems
severe early in the year, but later growth of the plants tends to mask the damage, resulting
in a general cessation of complaints. Orchard damage by white-tailed deer in the Creston
area was found to be severe, and a special season was held as a control measure. The
total kill approximated 100 animals and resulted in cessation of the damage complaints.
Damage to haystacks is a perennial complaint, and numerous complaints of this sort arose
in the East Kootenay this winter. Wherever possible the complainants were encouraged
to build adequate fences. Damage of this type generally arises in areas of subsistence
level farming where small farms are located on winter ranges.
Game Ranges
During the summer of 1955 a herd of domestic sheep were ranging from private
lands on to bighorn sheep range in the Bull River area, and a move was made to prevent
this situation from recurring. The domestic sheep were finally removed, and it is hoped
that this situation will not arise again. In certain areas, range is being badly overused by
both domestic and wild animals, and it is felt that game should be given a place in the
scheme of range use, thus reducing the chance of severe overuse of the ranges. H 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Big Game
Moose.—Moose have been found to range extensively in the East Kootenay, much
more extensively than was anticipated on the basis of reports. This species was found
to occupy relatively high range in the winter period, and, as a result, moose are not
commonly encountered. In the Dunbar Lakes area, where a closed season had been
in effect, a population of at least 450 moose was found on about 200 square miles.
This population of moose was opened to hunting in 1955, and about fifteen bulls were
believed to have been taken by hunters.
Deer.—Deer populations during 1955 were very high, and with the advent of an
early winter during the hunting season an excellent crop was taken. The species, sex,
and age distribution of the deer kill in the any-sex season was as follows:—
Age
Species
Fawns
Yearlings
2
Years
3
Years
4
Years
5
Years
6
Years
7
Years
8+
Years
Whitetail deer—
13
16
8
4
9
26
13
7
7
8
8
2
3
5
4
5
5
3
5
2
1
7
3
1
0
5
1
2
1
4
1
2
3
6
Mule deer—
Male  	
Female                                               ...
0
7
The above table illustrates the tendency of hunters to select the animals killed.
Thus the mule deer buck kill exceeded the doe kill, and in the case of whitetail deer
almost twice as many yearling does as fawns were taken. The effect of weather conditions on the species distribution of the deer kill was remarkably contrasted in the last
two hunting seasons. During the road checks held in 1954, it was found that 80 per
cent of the deer kill consisted of white-tailed deer, which was the result of the very mild
and open fall experienced during the hunting season. The 1955 hunter checks revealed
a deer kill composed of 49 per cent white-tailed deer and 51 per cent mule deer. Thus
the 1955 deer kill reflects the effect of the early onset of winter, which drove the mule
deer down from their mountainous ranges within reach of the hunters. The deer kill
this past season also suggests that the hunters are not particularly selective in their
deer-hunting, which was formerly believed. The effect of the weather on the species
kill of deer provides good reason for holding the antlerless season late in the year, thus
ensuring a crop of both species.
Elk.—The hunter success on elk was only fair as determined from the hunter checks.
The early snowfall of up to 12 inches tended to impede the hunters but not the elk.
The cow season resulted in a very small kill, without doubt not adequate. Elk appear
to be extending their range in some areas, especially into the Selkirk Mountains. In the
future, elk seasons must be experimented with to determine the best cropping methods.
Mountain-caribou.—Little is known about the numbers or distribution of this species. The range of the caribou in the East Kootenay is limited to the Selkirk Mountains,
largely in inaccessible areas. A total known kill of five animals occurred in the Cran-
brook-Kimberley area, three from the St. Mary River, and two from the Lamb Creek-
Moyie area. The caribou ranges become inaccessible with the early snowfalls; thus
the season on this species should be advanced to permit access to the caribou ranges
while weather permits.
Grizzly Bear.—As yet little is known about this species in the East Kootenay. The
animal is reputedly not as common as it was, and the decrease is attributed to excessive
hunting. The non-resident hunting parties probably take more bear than do the residents by hunting over baits. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 41
Goat and Sheep.—The crop of these species remains relatively small. The sheep
kill this past fall was exceptionally small, due to an early snowfall on the alpine ranges.
Two known legal kills were made in the Bull River range, which could probably support
an annual kill of fifteen to twenty animals.
Upland Game Birds
Upland bird populations remain low at present throughout much of the East Kootenay. The Golden area appeared to have reasonable densities. Blue grouse are seldom
taken by hunters, except where they have access by road to alpine country. For this
reason, ultimate changes should be made in our grouse seasons if this species is to be
cropped. Ptarmigan present the same problem in management as blue grouse. Road
checks held in the past two years show the grouse kill to be small, and in fact grouse
appear to be taken incidentally to deer or other big game. Sharp-tailed grouse populations remain small, and comprise a small part of the grouse kill. Probably heavy
grazing of the ranges tends to depress this species in certain areas.
Waterfowl
Utilization of the waterfowl resource in the Kootenays remains small, but will
develop with increases in the hunter population. The Columbia River marshes and
Duck Lake contribute the bulk of the waterfowl kill. Good pot-hole shooting is available in certain areas, but appears to contribute a small part of the waterfowl kill. As in
most Interior areas, the advent of fall freeze-up closes the season with the withdrawal
of the birds. Local populations of ducks provide only a fraction of the kill; however,
there is a large breeding population of Canada geese which provides some excellent
hunting.
Public Relations
During the year numerous rod and gun club meetings were attended, and every
opportunity was made to familiarize the sportsmen with the activities of the Game Commission.   Several talks were given to schools and service clubs.
REPORT OF THE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT DIVISION
By R. G. McMynn, Chief Fisheries Biologist
GENERAL
Industrial development and population growth have placed an increasing demand on
the sport-fish resources of the Province. It is hoped, however, that the growing realization of the tremendous value of this resource (some 120,000 anglers spent a total of over
$20,000,000 in 1954) will eventually lead to a more liberal allotment of funds for
fisheries research and management.
The year 1955 has been a most interesting one and, as the reports of the various
branches which follow will indicate, much has been accomplished. Research and evaluation have clearly indicated the fallacy of planting small trout in those lakes that contain
populations of coarse fish. In these lakes, competition and predation have been shown
to be so severe that stockings with small fish have been of little or no value. However,
when larger fish, such as spring fingerlings or yearling trout, are stocked, the results are
most gratifying (these larger fish are more capable of fending for themselves). Experimental plantings of migrant steelhead were conducted for the third consecutive year on
a limited number of Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland streams.
The first returns of adult steelhead originating from the 1954 plantings have shown
up in the Vedder and Alouette Rivers.   Although it is a little early to evaluate the results H 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of the plantings, the returns to date have been rather disappointing. The appraisal of the
steelhead plantings is complicated by the lack of a suitable means of checking on the
number of steelhead migrants; in this regard a punch-card system, such as that used in
Washington and Oregon, may be attempted in the future. Although this system is not
100 per cent effectual, it certainly produces a clearer picture of the steelhead-fishery
than that provided by the voluntary returns of creel-census data.
Hatchery facilities are becoming more overcrowded each year due to the space
requirements of the larger-sized fish used in our lake stockings, together with the additional burden created by the raising of steelhead migrants. The construction of at least
one more permanent hatchery is urgently required.
In 1955 a few small lakes were cleaned out of coarse fish and rehabilitated with trout
by the use of a rather expensive chemical known as "rotenone." The results were spectacular in the treated lakes, and these lakes are now producing large populations of rapid-
growing trout yielding excellent sport fishing to the general public. However, the treatment was expensive, and only small lakes could be treated. The recent development of
a new chemical suitable for the economical removal of coarse-fish populations may open
up a tremendous field of fisheries management in British Columbia. This new chemical,
known commercially as " toxaphene," shows promise of being effective at a price of one-
quarter to one-tenth that of rotenone. Experiments will be carried out in a series of lakes
in 1956 to test the effectiveness of the toxicant and the concentration required to kill the
different species of fish in lakes of various chemical types.
Hydro-electric and water-storage schemes consumed a great deal of time and effort
of the Branch during 1955. In the majority of cases, early liaison with the companies
involved has insured a spillage of adequate minimum flows together with the installation
of fish-protective facilities. In at least two cases, distinct advantages to sport-fish values
have been achieved; that is, the assurance of greater than minimum recorded flows at all
times. Discussions are currently taking place regarding fish problems which must be
overcome before a dam on the Fraser can be built. For the time being at least, plans for
the early utilization of certain lakes of the Yukon River system have been tabled, but the
Mica Creek and Kaiser development are still in the discussion stage and no definite plans
have been received.
Pollution abatement is proceeding satisfactorily, particularly with respect to mining
activities in the Kootenay and Boundary Districts. In some cases, negotiations are protracted and token efforts by the offenders to clean up complicate proceedings. The need
of a fresh-water pollution-control agency armed with appropriate legislation is necessary
in order to integrate the various interests involved.
The fishing regulations proposed for 1956 have been further simplified and the booklet reduced in size by the elimination of the synopsis. Two major changes include the
legalization of spear-fishing for fish other than those defined as game fish and the establishment of a daily catch-limit of fifteen being placed on kokanee. Continued demands on
the sport-fish resource indicate the need for increased funds and staff. Without this aid,
the scientific management of this valuable resource cannot proceed along the lines
demanded as a result of increased utilization by the public together with the serious competition from increased water use.
HATCHERY DIVISION
By I. Barrett, Division Fisheries Biologist
Continued modernization of equipment and a critical self-evaluation of hatchery
procedures have key-noted the activities of the Hatchery Division during 1955. There
has been an increase in the numbers and pounds of yearling trout released. The steelhead
programme on the Lower Mainland has been continued and improved.   Survival experi- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955
H 43
ments have been conducted to determine the immediate effect of hatchery plantings on the
fish themselves. A large number of the trout liberated from our hatcheries in 1955 were
marked by the removal of one or a combination of fins, to aid in the evaluation of the
hatchery contribution to sport fishing. Adjustments and improvements were also effected
to the stocking lists, in co-operation with the various Regional Biologists.
Personnel retirements and transfers have resulted in the loss of one man from the
Hatchery Division. In January, 1955, Fishery Officer J. D. Inverarity retired after
twenty-two years of service with the Fisheries Division. Fishery Officer D. R. Hum,
Officer in Charge of the Summerland Hatchery, was promoted in June, 1955, to the
position of Regional Fisheries Biologist. Only one replacement has been made to date
to the strength of the Division. The present permanent staff of the Hatchery Division is
thirteen men, including the Division Chief. The strength last year was fourteen permanent
men.
The in-service training programme was deferred for one year because of the change
of supervisors at the Summerland Hatchery, where the programme was in operation.
In 1955, 241 lakes and streams in the Province were artificially stocked by the
Hatcheries Branch from its four permanent and five seasonal hatcheries. These liberations were made with the aid of two 400-gallon dual-pump tank-trucks, one 200-gallon
single-pump tank-truck, and fry-cans. The break-down of egg productions, liberations,
sales, and exchanges are given in Tables I to VIII. Table I shows the trout eggs handled
in 1955 and their source. It should be noted that 7,786,000 eggs of seven species of fish
were involved in the 1955 fish-cultural programme, of which only 398,000 were not taken
by Departmental personnel.
Table I.—Egg Production
Species
Eggs from
Wild Fish
Eggs from
Brood Fish
Eggs
Received on
Exchange
Adult Brood
Stock Held
35,000
250,000
250,000
12
Kamloops   	
5,915,000
438,000
225,000
525,000
480
Cut-throat     	
960
	
11,000
137,000
Totals _  	
7,103,000
285,000
398,000
1,452
The egg plants made by the various hatcheries and rod and gun clubs are given in
Table II. Of the 1,313,000 eggs planted, 460,000 were kokanee eggs. These were
planted into four streams in the Kootenay area in an attempt to establish kokanee runs
after a successful pollution-control programme in these streams.
Table II.—Egg Plantings
Source
Beaver Lake Hatchery__
Penask Lake Hatchery__.
Lloyds Creek Hatchery_
Loon Creek Hatchery_
Smithers Rod and Gun Club	
Vanderhoof Rod and Gun Club	
Prince George Rod and Gun Club_
Nelson Hatchery	
Kamloops Trout
__ 325,000
_ 165,000
_ 33,000
__ 30,000
_ 60,000
__ 90,000
__ 150,000
Kokanee Trout
460,000
Totals-
853,000        460,000 H 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
A tabulation of the number of eggs which have been sold, exchanged, or used for
experimental purposes during 1955 is presented in Table III. It will be seen that no sales
of eggs were made to private individuals in 1955, in line with a stricter control policy of
the Game Commission.
Table HI.—Egg Sales and Exchanges
Recipients
Species
Kamloops     Kokanee     Cut-throat
Greek Ministry of Industry	
Government of Canada (Whitehorse)..
University of British Columbia-
Government of Canada (Waterton Park)...
Alberta Department of Lands and Forests_
■ Oregon State Game Commission	
Government of Canada (Jasper Park)	
Nevada State Game Commission....	
Washington State Game Commission 	
Totals	
200,000
10,000
3,000
50,000
400,000
200,000
250,000
100,000
5,000
50,000
100,000
1,213,000
5,000
150,000
Fry liberations were made from six of the nine hatcheries during 1955. Liberations
of these unfed trout were discontinued from the Smiths Falls Hatchery (into Lower Mainland lakes), from the Puntledge Park Hatchery (into Vancouver Island lakes), and from
the Nelson Hatchery (into lakes of the West Kootenay area). A total of 1,677,000 fry
of three species were liberated during 1955. The weight of these fish was 437 pounds.
The releases for each hatchery are given in Table IV.
Table IV.—Fry Liberations
Species
Hatchery
Kamloops
Grayling
Cut-throat
Number
Pounds
Number
Pounds
Number
Pounds
273,000
336,000
178,000
90,000
231,000
215,000
82
101
51
29
58
59
11
	
	
254,000
100,000
46
Totals
1,323,000
380
100,000
11
254,000
46
All the permanent hatcheries except Summerland effected fall fingerling liberations,
as did the Loon Creek and Cranbrook Hatcheries of the seasonal establishments.
A severe epidemic at the Summerland Hatchery reduced the stock of trout there to the
point where it was considered advisable to eliminate the fall liberations and retain the
trout on hand for 1956 yearling liberations. Eight hundred and eighty pounds of fall
fingerlings of three species, totaling 915,000 trout in all, were liberated from five hatcheries during 1955.   The figures are given in Table V. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
Table V.—Fall Fingerling Liberations
H 45
Hatchery
Species
Kamloops
Eastern Brook
Cut-throat
Number
Pounds
Number
Pounds
Number
Pounds
150,000
216
__
353
128
117
17,000
56
114,000
Smiths Falls	
9,000
374,000
251,000
        	
Totals .__
784,000
707
114,000
117
17,000
56
Liberations of yearling trout were made from the four permanent hatcheries only,
during 1955. Kamloops, cut-throat, and steelhead trout and cohoe salmon were the
species involved. The total number of yearlings released was 453,800, which weighed
15,000 pounds. Table VI gives the breakdown for each hatchery of the 1955 yearling
liberations. In addition to the below-noted liberations, 13,150 trout, weighing 430
pounds, were used for experimental display and children's fishing purposes. The details
are given in Table VII.
Table VI.—Yearling Liberations
Species
Hatchery
Kamloops
Steelhead
Cut-throat
Cohoe
Number
Pounds
Number
Pounds
Number
Pounds
Number
Pounds
310
170
3,985
33,000
"■7X000
2,580
6^660
863
11,000
800
293,000
Smiths Falls	
32,000
13,000
432
Totals	
304,800
4,465
104,000
9,240
32,000
863
13,000
432
In total, 3,058,950 fish, weighing 16,147 pounds, were liberated during 1955. This
represents a drop from 1954 of 406,550 trout and 2,423 pounds. This can be explained
on the basis of two facts: the circumstance that the Nelson Hatchery operated on a
sustaining basis only during 1955 and the circumstance that no fall fingerling liberations
were made from the Summerland Hatchery.
Table VII.—Miscellaneous Trout Distributions
Species
Number
Pounds
Purpose
Steelhead..   	
Kamloops
Kamloops 	
5,000
7,000
4
25
11
50
260
100
100
600
217
51
1
1
15
1
65
2
2
75
Penstock survival experiments.
Puntledge River.
Vancouver Public Aquarium Association.
Cut-throat   _	
Cohoe    	
Kamloops   _ 	
Cut-throat _.  _ _	
Vancouver Public Aquarium Association.
Fisheries Institute, U.B.C.
Cohoe     	
Fisheries Institute, U.B.C.
Totals   .
13,150
430
Of the total number of trout released, 331,000 were marked by the removal of one
or more fins and were liberated in thirty-three lakes or streams. Ninety-nine thousand
two hundred of these marked fish were migrant-size steelhead.   Since the steelhead pro- H 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
gramme is of some interest, and a considerable amount of time and man-power is going
into it, the following specific data concerning liberations and marks are given in Table
VIII. The first eight liberations noted in the table were made into Sweltzer Creek at
different times of the year and with two different sizes of fish. These liberations were
part of an experimental programme set up to determine the best times and sizes of release.
Table VIII.—Steelhead Liberations
Date
Number
per Pound
Number
Water Stocked
Fin(s) Clipped Off
March 16	
March 16	
April 15	
April 15	
May 15	
May 15..	
June 15	
June 15	
May 26	
June 2	
June 9-14._...
June 16-21....
June 23	
June 27	
June 30	
June 16-17...
June 16	
June 24	
July 28	
June 24_	
July 28	
July 28 :
July 31_ _
10
15
10
15
10
15
10
15
10
10
10
10
10
13
14
10
10
10
15
10
15
18
18
2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500
2,500
7,000
7,000
7,300
7,500
15,000
5,300
2,000
5,000
5,000
4,000
1,000
2,500
5,000
2,000
3,600
Sweltzer Creek..
Sweltzer Creek..
Sweltzer Creek..
Sweltzer Creek..
Sweltzer Creek..
Sweltzer Creek_
Sweltzer Creek..
Sweltzer Creek..
Nicomekl River 	
Serpentine River 	
Alouette River (South )_.
Alouette River (North)..
Capilano River 	
Capilano River	
Capilano River.. 	
Englishman River, V.I	
Oyster River, V.I	
Tsolum River, V.I	
Tsolum River, V.I	
French Creek, V.I 	
Tsable River, V.I	
Browns River, V.I	
Sooke River, V.I	
Dorsal.
Right ventral.
Left ventral and adipose.
Left ventral.
Right ventral and adipose.
Both ventrals.
Adipose.
Adipose and dorsal.
Left ventral.
Right ventral.
Right ventral and adipose.
Left ventral and adipose.
Adipose.
Adipose.
Adipose.
Adipose.
Right ventral.
Left ventral and adipose.
Left ventral and adipose.
Left ventral.
Right ventral and adipose.
Adipose.
Both ventrals.
Also included in the liberation programme were a number of post-liberation survival tests. A growing body of data from other organizations tends to indicate that the
mortality of hatchery trout immediately after liberation is rather high. To test this in
British Columbia, at least 100 trout were placed in live boxes at the time of liberation
into each of eleven widely scattered lakes, and then examined for mortality forty-eight
hours after the liberation. Only one of the twelve tests showed a total mortality, and
that was in the outlet end of Jack of Clubs Lake, where a very definite mining pollution
problem exists.   The results of these survival tests are given in Table IX.
Table IX.—Survival Experiments
Lake
Species
Number per
Pound
Per Cent
Mortality
after 48 Hours
Kawkawa..
Lake of the Woods..
Kalamalka	
Osoyoos	
Woods	
Crown	
Beaverdam~
Watch	
Chimney-
Jack of Clubs (inlet)....
Jack of Clubs (outlet)..
Island pond	
Cut-throat..
Cut-throat-
Kamloops_.
Kamloops-.
Kamloops-.
Kamloops-.
Kamloops-.
Kamloops...
Kamloops-,
Kamloops...
Kamloops.-.
Kamloops...
44
44
68
68
75
3,500
3,500
3,500
3,500
1,000
1,000
1,960
100
Some improvements were made during the past year to various facilities, both for
fish and employees, at several of the hatcheries. The water-supply at the Puntledge
Hatchery now comes from the British Columbia Power Commission penstock, with a
great improvement in water temperatures in the hatchery. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 47
The old meat-grinder has been replaced. The living-quarters at the Puntledge
Hatchery were refurnished and an electrical hot-water system was installed. At the
Smiths Falls Hatchery a new large-capacity meat-grinder unit was installed and the
feedroom renovated. A new refrigerator was installed at the hatchery to serve as a
coldroom. The hatchery interior was lined and painted, effecting a considerable improvement in appearance. A new steelhead-trap was installed at Sweltzer Creek, near the
Smiths Falls Hatchery. The water rights to the creek supplying the Summerland Hatchery, which had been the subject of negotiation with the District of Summerland, were
divided to the mutual satisfaction of both groups. The remaining old troughs at the
hatchery were replaced with new plywood ones. Also, a new type of perforated pond
screen is being tested at the Summerland Hatchery. The water-supply at the Nelson
Hatchery has been completely rebuilt, except for a minor section to be completed in
1956. The interior of the hatchery has been lined and painted. Telephone services
have now been provided to the Nelson Hatchery and a new oil heater has been installed.
In addition, the brood-stock ponds were renovated in anticipation of the maintenance
of Kamloops brood stock at the hatchery.
Major changes in the living facilities were made at the Beaver Lake Seasonal Hatchery. A complete hot-water and plumbing system was installed, including sinks, a shower
and toilet, necessary septic tanks, and a separate wash-house. The capacity for raising
fall fingerlings at the Loon Creek Seasonal Hatchery was doubled by the construction of
three new plywood rearing-ponds. The three older ponds were roofed in during the
summer, in preparation for the trial winter operation of the hatchery. At the Cranbrook
Seasonal Hatchery, the fall fingerling production capacity was doubled by the construction of two new plywood rearing-ponds. All four ponds were moved to one area alongside the hatchery building, and were housed in a partly sided, roofed-in enclosure.
The living-quarters at the Lloyds Creek Hatchery were repainted, and routine
general maintenance was carried out. No specific capital improvements were made at
the Penask Lake Hatchery, although the hatchery was maintained in good shape during
the season.
Generally 1955 was a busy year for the Hatchery Division. The eight vehicles of
the Division covered 128,000 miles in pursuit of their varied duties. Over 55 tons of
food were ground and fed at the seven hatcheries feeding trout. Experimental feedings
were initiated with manufactured trout-food pellets, both floating and non-floating.
These trials are still being conducted. Disease outbreaks occurred at four hatcheries—
Loon Creek, Summerland, Puntledge, and Smiths Falls. It was controlled with complete
success only at the Loon Creek and Smiths Falls Hatcheries, with the use of the drug
P.M.A. The use of P.M.A. at Summerland and Puntledge proved fatal to the trout
treated. The second annual meeting of the Hatchery Division was held in conjunction
with the meeting of the Fisheries Division on November 4th and 5th at Summerland.
The meetings were characterized by a critical approach to hatchery problems and by a
solid appreciation of the many facets of fisheries management problems.
The Loon Creek Hatchery is being operated throughout the winter of 1955-56 to
test the feasibility of a year-round operation there. At Nelson the first-year class of
fall spawning Kamloops trout brood stock has been established.
The past year has brought encouraging changes to the Hatchery Division. There
has been a continued replacement of outdated equipment and an increased awareness
on the part of the hatchery personnel of the more up-to-date techniques of game-fish
culture. The outlook for 1956, however, is not so optimistic. Monetary and personnel
cuts will reduce or strain the facilities available from the hatcheries to the fisheries management branch of the Division. Liberations will be hampered by the lack of a suitably
sized trout-liberating tank-truck, for which funds are not available. It will be necessary
to considerably slow down the process of modernization which the Branch has been H 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
undergoing during the past three years. On the credit side of the sheet, however, the
Hatchery Division will increase its programme of liberating marked trout, and will continue its survival experiments and the experimental steelhead programme. It also intends
to initiate an experimental programme of sea-run cut-throat culture at the Puntledge
Hatchery. Given the funds and personnel, the Hatchery Division can effectively contribute to the sport-fish management programme of the Fisheries Management Division
of the British Columbia Game Commission; it is its sincere wish to do so.
PROTECTION DIVISION
By E. H. Vernon, Division Fisheries Biologist
The work of the Protection Division, which is mainly concerned with evaluating the
effects of industrial development on stocks of game fish, continues to increase in magnitude, complexity, and also in geographical area. Some very large industrial water-use
proposals, such as the Columbia-Fraser River hydro plan and the Frobisher proposals
for the Atlin-Taku area, have been under investigation. Many smaller but important
water-use projects have required evaluation, particularly in the Lower Mainland and
Vancouver Island areas. In the Interior and Kootenay areas a major share of the work
has been done by the respective Regional Biologists with some assistance from headquarters.
I. L. Withler, with two assistants, was engaged during the summer in an extensive
survey of Atlin and Tagish Lakes. Inspection of all water-licence applications continues
to be a source of useful information regarding water-use proposals, particularly in the
case of smaller projects. Some of the major projects requiring evaluation are listed
below.
Capilano River.—In co-operation with the Federal Department of Fisheries, preliminary tests on the spillway of 290-foot-high Cleveland Dam indicated mortalities of
young descending fish to be from 65 to 73 per cent. Liaison has continued with the
Federal Department of Fisheries and Greater Vancouver Water District to resolve problems associated with the up-stream movement of fish in the facilities provided.
Puntledge River.—In co-operation with the Federal Department of Fisheries, a
series of tests was conducted to establish mortality rates of young fish passing through
a turbine installed by the British Columbia Power Commission. Ten thousand five hundred young fish of various sizes were supplied by the Hatcheries Branch to establish mortality rates, varying from 27.5 to 41.9 per cent.
Cowichan River.—In connection with plans of the British Columbia Forest Products Limited for a low storage dam at the outlet of Cowichan Lake, co-operative negotiations with the Federal Department of Fisheries and the company resulted in changes
of the structure to provide additional water in the river vitally needed by game fish during
the summer low-flow periods.
Somass River System.—Proposals for extensive storage and power development by
MacMillan & Bloedel Limited and the British Columbia Power Commission were placed
under study.
Columbia-Fraser Systems.—Information on sport fish was incorporated in a report
by fisheries organizations on the effects on fish of a proposed diversion of Columbia
River water into the Fraser system and development of power at a series of ten dams on
the Thompson and Lower Fraser.
Cheakamus River.—In connection with the diversion of water from the Cheakamus
River to the Squamish River by the British Columbia Electric Company for the development of power, an evaluation of fisheries problems is being carried out by the Federal
Department of Fisheries with assistance from the British Columbia Game Commission.
Bass Creek.—In connection with a proposed hydro-electric development by Cas-
siar Asbestos Corporation, requirements of sport fish were made known to the company. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 49
Eastern Creek.—To prevent access of coarse fish from Ootsa Lake reservoir to the
eastern lake chain, a concrete barrier was constructed. This structure was largely paid
for by the Aluminum Company of Canada.
Achelitz Creek.—As a result of representations by the Protection Division, a cannery cleared up a long-standing pollution by screening wastes and utilizing liquids for
irrigation.
Brunette River.—Negotiations with a brewery resulted in some improvement in the
effluent discharge into this stream. Negotiations to the same end with a slaughter-house
are continuing.
Coquitlam River.—Representations to the Lands Department were successful in
preventing removal of gravel from certain sections of the stream-bed.
Stave River.—Plans for removal of gravel from the stream-bed were modified after
recommendations to protect fish.
Salmon River.—This stream declared fully recorded by the Water Rights Branch
following recommendations for protection of fish.
Fishway Plans.—Provided for low diversion dams on Lac la Hache, Brunson Lake,
and Criss Creek.
Logging Operations.—Liaison was established with the Lands Department for
inspection of all applications for booming-ground rights.
Frobisher Survey.—In the spring of 1955 Northwest Power Industries Limited
began the survey of a proposed hydro-electric development near Whitehorse, Y.T. This
project, known as the Frobisher Development, will affect, by flooding, large bodies of
water in both Yukon Territory and British Columbia; therefore, the Protection Division
outlined a survey which would correspond to a similar survey by the Federal Department
of Fisheries of Marsh Lake, one part of the Yukon waters affected.
The objective of these surveys during the summer of 1955 was to evaluate the
present and future sport and commercial fisheries of this region and to attempt to determine the effect of the proposed development on these fisheries.   The survey included:—
(a) A limnological survey to determine the productive capacity of these lakes.
This included a complete survey of lake depth, and sampling of plankton,
bottom organisms, light penetration, and water temperatures.
(b) A stream survey programme wherein each tributary stream was surveyed
for its present spawning area, and the area remaining after lake flooding.
Each stream was also sampled for bottom organisms, temperatures, and
water-flows.
(c) Fish were sampled to determine the species, composition, and abundance.
(d) Observations were made to determine the morphological features of the
proposed flood area. This survey was completed in September, and at
present the data which were collected are being analysed in preparation
for a report to the Game Commission.
Cheakamus River.—Early in 1955 the British Columbia Electric Company began
construction of a dam on the Cheakamus River near Squamish to divert part of its water
by tunnel to a power-generating station on the Squamish River. Construction of this
dam was viewed as a threat to runs of commercial and sport fishes to the Cheakamus
River.
During the months of October, November, and December of 1954 and 1955, the
Protection Division has been working with the biologists of the Federal Department of
Fisheries to assist in tagging surveys to determine the size of the present runs of pink,
chum, and cohoe salmon and steelhead trout, and with their engineering branch to locate
and evaluate the present spawning areas of these species. The purpose of these surveys
was to assist in making sound recommendations as to the design of the dam to avoid
blocking of fish movement to the existing spawning-grounds, to locate sites for artificially H 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
prepared spawning-grounds, and to determine the minimum water-flow requirements in
the channel below the dam.
RESEARCH DIVISION
By Dr. C. C. Lindsey, Division Fisheries Biologist
The investigations of Kamloops trout spawning at Loon Lake, near Clinton, has
been the main project of the Research Division since 1953. Two-way fish-traps were
maintained at several points in inlet and outlet spawning-streams, and movements of
clipped and tagged trout were recorded.
By 1955 many of the trout marked earlier as fry or fingerlings had reached sexual
maturity and were recaptured as adults in the spawning runs or by anglers on Loon Lake.
A large body of information has now been accumulated, and results valuable to the
management of trout sport fisheries are appearing. It will be necessary to wait for at
least one more year's returns of marked fish in the spawning runs before the project can
be finalized; in the meantime certain tentative conclusions have been reached which are
summarized below.
The Loon Lake trout-fishery is characterized by production of a large number of
small fish. Over fifteen fish per acre are removed yearly by anglers, averaging about 9Vi
inches and seldom exceeding 12 inches in length. Spawning facilities are fairly extensive,
but must serve roughly 26,000 spawning fish yearly, about three-quarters of which use
the inlet stream and one-quarter the outlet. Survival of eggs is low, probably due in part
to destruction of deposited eggs by late spawners and in part to cannibalism by fingerlings
and large fry on small fry within the streams, and to predation by mink, birds, and leeches.
Cannibalism within the lake by larger trout on fry and fingerlings might be expected
where food is evidently in short supply, but stomach samples of angled and gill-netted
fish have contained only plankton and invertebrates.
A striking difference exists between the sexes in the age of first spawning. About
one-third of the males in the spawning run are age 2, while virtually none of the females
mature until at least one year later at age 3. Mortality amongst spawners is high, and
probably only a very small proportion of fish over the age of 4 occur in either the spawning
runs or the anglers' catches.
The over-all proportion of males to females is close to 1:1 in the spawning runs and
also in the anglers' catch. Spawning mortality is somewhat greater amongst males than
females; within each sex there is a more marked difference in mortality between young
and old spawners. For example, in the outlet creek, survival of 2-year-old males (all
spawning for the first time) was over three times as great as that of males 3 and older
(some of them second spawners). The same holds for females, in which smaller fish
have a better chance of survival than large fish. This increased spawning mortality
amongst older fish undoubtedly contributes to the scarcity of old fish in Loon Lake.
Judging from present figures available, over-all survival of spawning fish up to the
time they return to the lake is roughly 12 per cent. Of 1,175 spent fish returning to the
lake from the outlet in 1954, 257 returned to spawn a second time in 1955. This 22 per
cent return, coupled with estimates of 12 per cent survival between entering and leaving
the spawning-stream, indicates that the over-all survival between one spawning and the
next is less than 3 per cent. These figures may require alteration when data on the 1956
spawning runs become available.
In 1955 a total of 386 fish were artificially stripped of eggs or milt in the outlet trap
by officers of the Loon Creek Hatchery. These fish were fin-clipped and placed below
the trap. Their subsequent behaviour was similar to that of unstripped fish; some passed
down-stream a considerable distance, and after a period comparable to that spent in the
creek by natural spawners, thirty-five stripped individuals swam back up-stream into the
lake. Survival of stripped females (11 per cent) compared favourably with survival of
natural spawners, but only 3.5 per cent of the stripped males were recovered. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 51
As part of the study of the homing of Loon Lake trout to inlet or outlet streams,
a number of transfers of ripe adults between the two streams were conducted in 1955,
using fry-cans. On two occasions fifty fish were captured in the outlet spawning-stream
and transferred in the reverse direction. Transferred fish were distinctively clipped and
their subsequent movements through various two-way fish-traps were recorded.
A few of these transferred fish behaved in their new environment in the same fashion
as the fish naturally occurring there, moving in the appropriate direction up-stream or
down-stream before spawning, and eventually regaining the lake after spawning. Many
transferred fish, however, completely failed to conform to their new surroundings, and
instead continued, in varying degrees, to carry out their previous behaviour. Most striking was the behaviour of twenty-two fish which returned a distance of 13 miles, through
the lake, to the stream from which they had been removed. These individuals included
both fish which returned from the inlet to the outlet creek and vice versa. Other individuals, while remaining in the stream to which they had been transplanted, either headed
toward the lake before they had spawned or away from the lake after they had spawned.
Their subsequent fate is unknown.
Another indication of the fixity of the behaviour of adult trout concerned the homing
of second spawners. Of 258 adults clipped in the outlet spawning run in 1954 and
recaptured while spawning a second time in 1955, 257 of these had returned to the outlet.
Only a single stray was recovered in inlet stream, out of over 9,000 fish examined there.
These experiments have shown that in Loon Lake certain fish appear to prefer one
or other of the spawning-streams. The relation between this preference and where the
fish were hatched can be studied from the recoveries in 1955, as adult spawners, of fish
which were earlier marked in the inlet or outlet as fry or fingerlings.
In 1953 and 1954 over 12,000 fry and fingerlings were clipped as they ascended
from the outlet stream into the lake. It is estimated that about 230 of these spawned in
1955 (almost all of them males). Of these, 93 per cent returned to their home stream
and only 7 per cent strayed to the inlet, despite the fact that over five times as many
2-year-old fish spawned in the inlet as in the outlet. Of a smaller number of fish which
had been clipped as fry leaving the inlet, about 130 spawned in 1955; these were distributed in the two spawning localities roughly in the same proportion as the total numbers
of 2-year-olds present, so that no strong homing of fish hatched in the inlet is indicated.
Checks of tag recoveries by anglers show that fish from the two ends mix freely
within the lake. As would be expected, fish entering from one end were more often
taken by anglers in that half of the lake closest to their point of entry, but over a third
of clip and tag recoveries from the lake were taken in the opposite half of the lake from
their home stream. Therefore, the homing to the parent stream, which has been demonstrated at least for outlet-hatched fish, cannot be due solely to the fish entering the stream
which happens to be closest when it is ready to spawn.
Studies of the factors directing young trout toward the lake from either inlet or outlet
were switched in 1955 from the Loon Lake field investigation to the laboratory of the
Institute of Fisheries at the University of British Columbia. During the summer an indoor
artificial stream was constructed, in which current, depth, temperature, and light are all
controllable. Assistant Biologist T. G. Northcote, who is in charge of this phase of the
investigation, left in September, 1955, on one year's leave of absence; he is currently
studying the effect of light and temperature on the behaviour of newly hatched rainbow
trout fry in Cambridge, England.
A new research project was started in August, 1955, at Baker Lake near Quesnel.
This study will cover the spawning habits and life-histories of various species of coarse
fish and their effects on the production of Kamloops trout. Two-way traps were constructed on spawning-streams at Baker Lake, and a number of marked Kamloops trout
fall fingerlings were released.    Preliminary to this programme, some fifty lakes were H 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
visited during the summer of 1955; observations were recorded on spawning times and
habits of coarse fish. This information is valuable in the planning and assessment of
control of coarse fish by poisoning or other means.
An experimental programme to assess the use of Toxaphene as a cheap coarse-fish
eradicant has been drawn up. Data on lake volumes, dissolved solids, species present,
etc., were collected by Regional Biologists, and from this a series of experimental Toxaphene poisonings was planned. Money has been applied for from the Conservation Fund
to conduct these experiments in 1956. Several investigations carried out in co-operation
with the University were successfully completed during the year. Collections of fishes
deposited in the Institute of Fisheries further increased the knowledge of British Columbia
forms.   The known range of several species was considerably expanded.
At least one new species was taken in the Province. Study was completed on the
distribution and taxonomy of fishes in the Peace and Liard River systems, and a scientific
paper was submitted for publication. Studies were conducted on the growth and food
habits of squawfish. Samples of hybrid cutthroat-Kamloops trout reared at Cultus Lake
Hatchery were preserved and are being studied in detail. A study of the comparative
behaviour of various Salmonid fishes was completed.
The relationship between trout and redside shiners in Paul Lake was studied throughout the summer of 1955 and also by winter fishing. Periodic samples were taken by
minnow-trapping and netting, and angled fish were sampled regularly. Experiments were
also conducted on fish held in enclosures both at Paul Lake and the University.
Chemical analysis of scales was tried as a means of distinguishing sea-run steelhead
from non-migratory Kamloops trout. Chloride analyses by the British Columbia Research
Council showed that the scales of fish known to have been to sea had on the average a
higher chloride content than fresh-water fish. Unfortunately there was a fair degree of
overlap in measurements of samples from the two types; scales of Thompson River trout
whose seaward migration was in question lay within the zone of overlap and so could not
be assigned with certainty to one or other group. The method will evidently be useful
in detecting sea growth only in samples having either a quite high or quite low chloride
content.   Experiments involving chemical analysis of scales continue.
Dr. Peter Ford, of the University of British Columbia, completed a comparison of
the internal anatomy of hatchery-reared and wild trout. This was undertaken to determine whether or not dietary deficiencies amongst hatchery fish might produce detectable
abnormalities which would lower their chances of survival. Microscopic examination of
sections of various parts of the viscera and measurements on sizes of different structures
gave no evidence of such deficiency. The only difference detected between the two
samples was that hatchery-raised trout had a much heavier deposit of fat in the viscera
than had wild fish.
During 1955 a fifteen-minute colour film on lake poisoning was completed. A film
showing the operation of Game Commission hatcheries is in preparation.
REGIONAL MANAGEMENT, LOWER MAINLAND DISTRICT
By S. B. Smith, Regional Fisheries Biologist
Activities during the year were varied, but the largest amount of time was spent
on three major programmes. These were: (1) Resort operators' creel-census records,
(2) economic survey of the British Columbia sport fishery, and (3) steelhead investigations. In addition to the three programmes dealing with catch records, lake and stream
surveys were carried out and work was continued on research previously started. A brief
resume of these activities follows.
Resort Operators' Catch Records.—The past year saw continuation of the creel-
census programme initiated in 1953. Coverage was expanded, mostly by the efforts of
F. P. Maher and G. Hartman in the Kootenay region and by G. E. Stringer in the Okana- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 53
gan region. Resort operators keeping catch records now total about 150 persons. Data
for three years' sport fishing is now available for more than 100 lakes. Catch success
was about 25 per cent higher on the average for the Province as a whole in 1955 (0.75
fish per hour) than in 1953 and 1954 (0.61 fish per hour). This indicates that stocks
of fish are still available in equal or greater numbers than in the previous two years.
Weather appears to be highly important, since we had a warm dry summer for the first
time in these years. Resident angler's licence sales rose 9.4 per cent in 1955, while
non-resident angler's licence sales increased 9.3 per cent. Result of increase in total
angling pressure and better catch success resulted in a large increase in total catch of
sport fish in the Province. It is conservatively estimated that 10,000,000 fish were taken
by licensed anglers in 1955.
Economic Survey of British Columbia Sport Fishery.—Analysis of returns of the
postal questionnaire used to survey the 1954 sport fishery were completed in July, 1955.
About 120,000 licensed anglers in British Columbia in 1954 spent slightly more than
$20,000,000 on sport fishing. Some indication of the importance of this industry may be
seen in a partial breakdown of the totals. For instance, transportation accounted for
$4,450,000; food and lodging, $4,430,000; fishing-tackle, $2,500,000; and boats and
motors, $4,620,000. A paper covering this project will be available in the near future
as " Management Publication No. 4 of the B.C. Game Commission."
Steelhead Investigations.—Steelhead investigations consisted mainly of attempting
to evaluate steelhead-catches and distributions of anglers by a voluntary record-card
system. Lack of co-operation by anglers and difficulty in contacting many steelhead
fishermen contributed to almost total failure of this phase of the investigation. Later in
the year (November and December), extensive checking of the Vedder River for marked
steelheads was commenced and will continue until April, 1956. Data supplied by the
State of Washington Department of Game on its steelhead programme were examined
and may be valuable in directing the steelhead programme in this Province.
Research.—A paper dealing with the relation between scale diameter and body
length of trout was published in the Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
Method of calculating size of fish from scales is now used extensively in the Game Commission fish laboratory at the University of British Columbia.
A paper concerning the survival and growth of wild and hatchery trout in Corbett
Lake, near Merritt, has been completed and will be submitted for publication to the
Canadian Fish Culturist. This paper provides worth-while information of interest particularly to the Hatchery Division.
General.—Killarney Lake on Bowen Island, Deer Lake near loco, and Buntzen Lake
near the north end of Burrard Inlet were surveyed. Killarney Lake will be treated to
remove the squawfish. Work was continued on Deer Lake in Burnaby. This lake also
will be treated and restocked with trout. .Preliminary surveys of the Vedder River were
carried out to determine whether the river can be effectively diverted around a large mudslide which adversely affects fishing during high water. Upper Seymour River has been
mapped, and it appears to hold good possibilities for increased production of steelhead
and cohoe if eggs were planted or a fishway installed on the dam about 4 miles from its
mouth. Following results of the economic survey, it was recommended to the Federal
Department of Fisheries that Sechelt Inlet, Howe Sound, and Burrard Inlet be closed
to commercial fishing. The recommendation for Burrard Inlet may be implemented
for 1956.
VANCOUVER ISLAND DISTRICT
Our Regional Fisheries Biologist for Vancouver Island was not placed until October
1st, 1955. Thus there is little to report from this area at this time. Considerable time
has been spent in a review of the problems which confront the sport fishery of the area.
In addition, much profitable time was spent with the various Game Wardens gaining an H 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
appreciation of the local problems in each detachment and in visiting fish and game
associations on the Island.
Considerable public relations work has been carried out along the line of explaining
the fishing regulations and outlining the approach of the Commission to industrial problems. Practical field work has been somewhat limited by adverse weather conditions
and a lack of knowledge of the area. However, in spite of this, examinations of several
lakes were made and numerous water-licence applications were investigated. In addition,
general angler checks were made on some of the Island streams in the interest of the
steelhead study.
At the present time, preliminary investigation is being made in the setting-up of a
cut-throat trout experiment.
OKANAGAN-CARIBOO DISTRICTS
By G. E. Stringer, Regional Fisheries Biologist
During the months of January and February, much of the time was spent attending
rod and gun club meetings. The latter month was particularly noteworthy, with sixteen
meetings attended. In addition, the steelhead survey on the Thompson River was continued, with scale samples collected and voluntary cards handed out to the anglers.
Stocking lists were drawn up for the Interior and submitted for approval. A brief
trip was made to Vancouver for library research. During this period the writer attended
the Pacific Northwest biologists' meeting in Oregon and took part in a panel discussion
on size-limits. Only one general survey was made in the above period, and that on the
extent of the early spring fishery in Adams River and the Little Shuswap Lake. Some
assistance was given to the hatchery at Summerland in grading fish so they would be
ready for marking prior to liberation. Because of a controversy over the alleged steelhead
run in the Eagle River, a check was made and a report sent to the Revelstoke Club, in
which it was pointed out that many of the samples were non-anadromous types, but some
were uncertain. It was concluded that the fish were likely large rainbow from Shuswap
Lake rather than sea-run fish of the same species.
Pollution of the Similkameen River occurred, which was traced to the Hedley mine.
Improvements in the impounding system were recommended and eventually adopted by
the company.
Fyke nets were set in Mission Creek for fry evaluation and continued at irregular
intervals throughout the summer. A winter kill in Kilpoola Lake, in the Osoyoos area,
was recorded and a rough count of the dead fish made.
The usual investigations of pollution, water-licence applications, and complaints
constituted much of the activity of this period, but only a few of the more important will
be mentioned. At Deka Lake a complaint arose over the installation of a culvert by the
Department of Highways at the outlet of the lake which created an obstacle to small
trout. A number of letters and a discussion with the local engineer resulted in a few
large boulders being placed near the down-stream end of the culvert. It was felt that
these should reduce the velocities and create a pool, thereby giving the small trout a
better chance. Our suggestion that the culvert be removed and the bridge replaced could
not be carried out, since the culvert had created a 4-foot head of water which would flood
the farmers below if let out suddenly. At present all parties are happy with the arrangement except the Game Department.
Operations of the Blackwater Timber Company at Lac la Hache resulted in numerous complaints from a few locals in the area. E. H. Vernon was instrumental in having
the company install a proper burner to eliminate the sawdust pollution. Complaints
regarding the erection of a booming-site on the only kokanee-spawning site in the lake
instigated a complete survey of the lake-shore for spawning-sites.    It was the writer's REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 55
opinion that the 50-yard strip affected would have little or no effect on the kokanee
population.
Pollution of Jack of Clubs Lake at Wells has not been cleared up as yet, but will
receive further attention in the spring. The complaints dealt with silting resulting from
failure of an old placer-mining dam on one of the tributary streams. The silt soon settled
out. However, test-cages placed in the lake when the fish were planted revealed high
pollution at the outlet end.
Relocation of the road to Loon Lake reduced a natural barrier to coarse fish, causing
considerable concern. It was recommended to the Department of Highways that large
boulders be placed at strategic points; this was done.
A number of surveys were made. Heffley Lake and its tributaries were carefully
checked with the view of poisoning the lake. A dam-site was located for the erection
of a fish-barrier and was later surveyed by J. Dyson, consulting engineer from Vancouver,
B.C. It is planned to build the dam in 1956 and possibly poison the lake the same year.
A complete report on the findings was submitted.
The Allison Lake poisoning plan was set up and markers made, but the poison did
not arrive in time, and the poisoning is planned for August, 1956. A fish-barrier has been
constructed by a Princeton contractor.
Numerous resort operators were visited and encouraged to keep the fishing-record
books which were issued. Local problems, if any existed, were discussed. A number of
other lakes were checked in the Interior during the summer. Creeks tributary to the
Pimainus Lakes were poisoned and the trout sampled. This operation is designed to
determine the effect of eliminating the spawning component of an overpopulated lake.
Bear and Madden Lakes, in the Oliver area, were tested on three occasions to ascertain
whether or not the toxicity had dissipated.
Lakes were last checked in October and found to be toxic to trout after a period of
sixteen months.
Remainder of the year's activity consisted of meetings, reports, general correspondence, and working up the lake evaluation data. The latter will take many months to
finalize. Tenders were called and the contract let for the construction of the Mission
Creek fishway. Gill-netting of Paul Lake was started in December. A file on the important or potentially important lakes was started, outlining the public reserves existing. This
has been done in conjunction with the Parks and Recreation Division of the Forestry
Service, in the hope that reserves will be established on all the fishing-lakes. Results to
date indicate that many lakes had no reserves and access was taken for granted. In these
cases, reserves were promptly recommended by the Parks Division.
Summary
In retrospect, 1955 was marked by many investigations and reports, but little actual
improvement to the sport fishery. However, 1956 will see the completion of many
operations inaugurated in 1955, which will improve the sport fishing in terms of better
catches. The lake-poisoning programme will have tangible results which can be pointed
to as actual accomplishments. Also, our change in policy with regard to the stocking of
large lakes in the Interior should not go unmentioned. Deletion of these large unproductive lakes marks an advance in efficiency and has been recognized by the clubs in the
area affected as such.
KOOTENAY AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS
By F. P. Maher, Regional Fisheries Biologist
All phases of fisheries management in the Kootenay and Boundary Districts during
1955 showed increase in activity over the preceding year. The resort-operator survey
was increased in scope, and many investigations were made of pollutions, fishing regula- H 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
tions, and stocking requirements. In co-operation with the Game Commission, many
worth-while rod and gun club projects were carried out. These and other activities are
discussed briefly below.
Investigation into Fishing Regulations
The sweeping regulation changes that came into effect in 1955, particularly with
regard to stream closures, met with the general approval of the public. A maze of confusing closures were replaced by a single April, May, and June closure for all streams,
with the exception of a few streams managed for eastern brook trout and Dolly Varden
trout, where an August, September, and October closure was in effect.
It became evident during the year that the April closure on the streams was largely
unnecessary, and sportsmen's organizations asked that this month be left open. In 1956
the closure will be for May and June only for most streams. The widely differing spawning times of the eastern brook trout and Dolly Varden trout made the single fall closure
on the streams managed for these fish ineffective. For 1956, therefore, Dolly Varden
streams will have an August, September, and October closure, while the eastern brook
trout streams will have a September, October, and November closure.
Other regulation changes investigated and recommended during the year included
the legalization of spears for taking coarse fish, a year-around open season on certain
major rivers, and a separate and increased catch-limit for kokanee. Sportsmen's organizations and the general public appear to be well satisfied with the simplified regulations.
Resort-operator Survey
The appointment of a summer assistant who made the resort-operator survey his
sole responsibility resulted in greatly increased coverage of resort operators. By the end
of the season approximately 100 operators were keeping records of the angling success
of their guests. This number will not likely be increased in the near future, since few
new resorts are being developed, and nearly all of the operators willing to keep records
have been contacted.
Sport-fishing Survey
It is difficult to assess sport-fishing activity in areas not covered by resort operators.
The fishing area is so large that creel-census work is nearly impossible. To obtain
information needed for proper management of various waters, two different techniques
were tried. Road checks were set up with the co-operation of local Game Wardens in
places where a single road gave access to a large fishing area. These checks were highly
successful, and a good volume of useful information was gathered. Scale-sample collecting was more successful at the road checks than in any other way.
In places where the road checks were not practical, interested anglers were sought out
and asked to keep records of their angling success. Returns from the 150 anglers contacted are most promising, and it is expected that this programme will be expanded in
1956.
With the notable exception of Kootenay Lake, which experienced a poor fishing
year, angling throughout the district was highly successful in 1955, particularly in the
East Kootenay, where one of the best seasons in years was enjoyed. Winter sport-fishing
activity is increasing, with the best catches being made in eastern brook trout waters.
Catches of these fish so far exceed other species for winter angling that it is probable that
fish will be planted in suitable waters throughout the district for this purpose.
Coarse fish are becoming increasingly popular for sport. Night fishing for ling in
midwinter with spear and lantern is attracting more sportsmen every year in the Spilli-
macheen and Creston regions. On Lake Windermere, cars are driven on to the ice, where
holes are cut over the ling-spawning areas, where the fish are taken by gaff and spear.
Spear-fishing for carp in Christina Lake has indications of becoming popular. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955 H 57
The over-all fishing picture is good in the Kootenay and Boundary Districts, with the
sportsmen enjoying their fishing resources more fully with the advent of liberal fishing
regulations.
Lake Rehabilitation
The first lake to be treated to remove unwanted coarse-fish populations in this district
was Peckhams Lake, near Cranbrook. The lake was treated in June of 1954, and
restocked with Kamloops trout fingerlings in October of the same year. In mid-August
of this year, limit catches of trout 8 to 10 inches in length were taken from the lake. This
growth is excellent and indicates that the lake has been successfully rehabilitated.
Erie Lake, near Salmo, was treated in October, 1954, with an experimental poison
concentration of one-quarter that usually used, in an attempt to kill off the fish population
of squawfish, suckers, and shiners without leaving the lake toxic for a long period. The
lake was found to be non-toxic the following spring and was restocked with Montana
grayling in June. It was subsequently discovered that eastern brook trout and shiners
had been reintroduced, or had escaped the effects of the poison in a swamp area. Approximately 4,000 eastern brook trout were then salvaged from Big Sheep Creek and liberated
in the lake, in an attempt to establish this fish while the shiner population was low. The
results of this work are closely followed.
Survey of Stocking Needs
A continuing survey has been conducted to gather information needed to prepare
lists of the kind, number, and size of fish needed in various waters. In addition to these
surveys, an alternate stocking programme is being carried out in waters where hatchery
plantings are of doubtful value. Using this system, fish available to the angler should be
more plentiful every second year if the plantings are of value. If little difference is noted
in successive years, then the plantings are unnecessary.
It is hoped that a continuing programme of lake rehabilitation to remove coarse fish
will enable the wider use of fry rather than fingerlings and yearlings, which are expensive
to produce. However, some of the larger lakes with serious coarse-fish problems are
impractical to poison, and will likely need heavy plantings of yearling trout where it can
be shown that such plantings materially add to the anglers' catch.
Pollution-control
Pollution-control is well in hand in the Kootenay and Boundary Districts, with industry now well aware of its responsibility to protect our waters for the use and enjoyment
of the public. Repeated contacts with company officials and the constant inspection of
pollution danger points are needed to keep abreast of rapidly growing industrial developments.   The principal activities in this field during 1955 are listed below:—
(1) Arrow Lakes (Cusick Lumber Company).—A sawdust-burner was installed after the company had been warned about the danger of a sawdust
pollution.
(2) Arrow Lakes (Urban Sawmill).—Cribbing was carried out to prevent the
entry of sawdust into the lake after warnings had been given.
(3) Big Sheep Creek (D. B. Merry Lumber Company). —A burner was installed after complaints that sawdust was entering the creek. This company also removed logs which had caused jams in the creek, after being
requested to do so.
(4) Findlay Creek.—An investigation was carried out to determine the effects
of a proposed placer-mining operation and gold-leaching plant adjacent
to this creek.   This development is still under study. H 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(5) Kootenay Lake (Bluebell Mine). —A temporary surface-water pollution
was caused while the pipe carrying tailings beneath the surface was under
repair. The work was expedited at the request of the Game Commission
and the pollution ceased.
(6) Kootenay Lake (Kaslo Lumber Company).—A sawdust pollution of the
lake was imminent because of the proximity of a large sawdust-pile at the
water-edge. After a meeting with city officials and the company, permission was arranged for the company to burn the pile.
(7) Kootenay River (Interior Breweries). — An investigation was conducted
into the effects of waste materials from a new brewery on the Kootenay
River.   This matter is still under study.
(8) Kootenay River (Walmac Planing Mills).—The operations of a new mill
at Taghum threatened a serious sawdust pollution of the river. After
negotiations with company officials, a retaining-wall was built and later an
efficient burner.
(9) Lost Creek (Canadian Exploration Company Limited).—The operations
of the company's tungsten mill caused a pollution of Lost Creek. After
negotiating with company officials an impoundment was built, which will
be modernized in 1956 to retain all tailings. At the present time there is
a slight escapage of fine materials.
(10) Michel Creek (Crows Nest Pass Coal Company).—Operations of the coal-
washing plant caused a coal-dust pollution of this creek. The situation
was corrected after talks with company officials.
(11) Motherlode Creek (Apex Gold Mines).—The site of a proposed new
mill was investigated to assess the danger of a pollution in this creek,
which flows into Boundary Creek near Greenwood. The construction of
an impoundment was recommended, and negotiations with the company
are now being conducted.
(12) Pend d'Oreille River (Remac Mine).—This mill, which started operations in late autumn, is polluting the river. However, the company is now
carrying out surveys for an adequate impoundment area, after being
advised that the pollution could not continue.
(13) Salmo River (Canadian Exploration Company Limited).—This year saw
the completion of the modern $75,000 impoundment built by this company to prevent a pollution of the Salmo River. The river, which parallels
the highway to the United States Border at Nelway, is no longer offensive
to visitors and residents alike.
(14) Sheep Creek (H. B. Mine).—This mine started operations this year, and
caused a pollution because of broken flumes carrying the tailings. The
flumes have been repaired, and the pollution is under control.
(15) Slocan River (Passmore Lumber Company).—A proposed log-driving
operation was investigated. It was proposed to channelize the river for
18 miles from Slocan Lake to the mill.  This scheme has been dropped.
(16) Slocan Lake (Roseberry Lumber Company). — The operations of this
company caused a minor pollution of the lake. No burner has been
installed as yet, but sawdust is now being kept back from the lake.
(17) Sulphur Creek (East Kootenay Lumber Company).—A pollution was
caused by a sawdust-pile on the river-edge. The pile was moved back, and
the company plans to build a burner.
(18) Spillimacheen River (Giant Mascot Mine).—Although impounding its
tailings from the mill operation, the impoundment has not been adequate
to prevent occasional pollutions in the winter months.   After discussions REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 59
with company officials it is anticipated that a better impoundment will
be constructed.
(19) St. Mary Lake (McGuiness Logging Company).—The company applied
for permission to boom logs at the outlet of the lake. An investigation
was made, after which it was considered that the booming would not be
harmful provided certain conditions were met.
(20) St. Mary River (Marysville Fertilizer Plant).—The impoundment on the
banks of the river was destroyed by flood-water this summer. A new
impoundment of stronger design is being built, and is expected to resist
future flooding. A temporary impoundment has been built to handle the
tailings until the new impoundment is ready in June, 1956.
(21) Toby Creek (Mineral King Mine).—Operations of the mill caused a
serious pollution of Toby Creek. After negotiations with the company
a small impoundment was built at the mill-site as a temporary measure.
The company has applied for a large flat area of land down-stream on
which to build a suitable impoundment. The Game Commission has
assisted company officials in expediting the acquisition of this land. It
is hoped that the new impoundment will be in operation in 1956.
(22) Wildhorse Creek.—A proposed placer-mining operation was investigated
here. Discussions with the promoters of the scheme were held to ensure
that adequate precautions to prevent pollutions were taken. The operation
subsequently fell through.
In addition to the above, routine inspections were carried out on many operations,
most of which were carrying out satisfactory pollution-control measures.
Rod and Gun Club Activity in Fisheries Work
The willingness of rod and gun clubs to assist the Game Commission wherever they
can has been a continuing source of gratification to the Game Commission employees.
Some of their projects, which have been supervised by the Game Commission, are listed
briefly below.
Greenwood and District Rod and Gun Club.—Constructed spawning-grounds at
the outlet of Jewel Lake by filling in silty area with gravel. This work will be completed
in 1956. Trout were observed spawning in the new beds.
Trail Rod and Gun Club.—Rebuilt the fish-barrier it constructed in 1954 at the
outlet of Erie Lake.
Salmo Rod and Gun Club.—Cleared trails into two alpine lakes near Salmo. Maintained the fish-barrier at the outlet of Erie Lake by periodic visits to remove debris.
Nelson Rod and Gun Club.—Continued development of a picnic-site and children's
fishing area on Cottonwood Lake.
Kokanee Rod and Gun Club.—Cleared slash and other debris out of Sitkum Creek
which was blocking stream. Under supervision of the Game Warden, broke beaver dams
on Kokanee Creek to allow the passage of spawning kokanee. This last necessitated daily
visits for almost a month.
New Denver Rod and Gun Club.—Operated a rearing-pond for Kamloops trout.
Creston Rod and Gun Club.—Assisted in a bass-salvaging programme at Duck Lake.
Cranbrook Rod and Gun Club.—Operated a sucker-trap on the Little Bull River,
which removed several thousand suckers.
Fernie Rod and Gun Club.—Operated rearing-ponds for the release of fish into the
Elk River.
Kimberley Rod and Gun Club.—Operated a rearing-pond at Premier Lake. Constructed a fish-ladder on the inlet stream to Premier Lake, which had been blocked. This H 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ladder passed spawning trout into the creek shortly after construction. The club also ran
a netting programme to remove surplus kokanee from Premier Lake and repaired the
road in to Echo Lake.
Canal Flats Rod and Gun Club.—Constructed a road giving access to the south end
of Columbia Lake, a body of water almost inaccessible over most of its shore-line.
REPORT OF PREDATOR CONTROL DIVISION
By G. A. West, Supervisor of Predator Control
The operations of this Division during 1955 are felt to have been of a satisfactory
nature, as, in general, complaints of predators and damage by same were at a very low
mark. As a direct result of activities and this negligible damage, it was possible to
eliminate the payment of wolf bounties as of September 1st, 1955. This step will influence our field of operations tremendously, as now the wolf populations can be treated on
their merit instead of on their bounty value. In addition to their regular year-around
duties, the personnel of this Division, aided by Game Wardens, established 2,101 major
poison stations during the winter months of 1955 for the control of wolves and coyotes.
This procedure met with considerable success according to reports from guides and trappers, especially north of Prince George. The use of aircraft for the majority (1,568) of
these stations is the only means by which a tremendous area can be treated in an adequate
manner. This type of aerial control will continue as our main source of operations if
circumstances will permit.
The destruction of predators, from a numerical point of view, fell rather sharply
below the figures shown for 1954. This is partially explained by the fact that personnel
are spending less time looking for carcasses. This procedure is extremely time-consuming
in most cases, and as our success against the major mammalian predators is measured by
the lack of complaints and apparent scarcity of the animals themselves, it is felt that
figures do not show the true value of operations or their results. The attached table shows
the vermin destroyed and accounted for by Game Branch personnel during the year.
The major mammalian predators and their impact on game and domestic stocks are
as follows:—
Bears.—After three years of many complaints of damage, these animals did not
cause too much concern during 1955. It is felt that the population of black bears has
reached its peak and is actually on the decline. A total of 237 bears were destroyed
during 1955, as against 321 in 1954. This represents a decrease of about 29 per cent
and corresponds very well with the decrease in numbers of complaints of bears destroying
live stock, game animals, and field crops. In any case, the use of poison and traps will
take care of most dangerous or nuisance bears. There has been much experimentation
in our operations against bears, and consequently techniques have been stream-lined
accordingly.
Cougars.—An over-all reduction in cougar bounties was realized during 1955.
However, this situation is rather misleading, as the Interior of the Province experienced
an increase in numbers of bounties paid. Vancouver Island had a reduction of 27.5 per
cent over 1954, possibly as a direct result of heavy hunting pressure on these cats over
the past three years or since the introduction of the registered bonus hunter system. Of
the total of 358 cougars bounded within the Province, 153 were taken by the registered
bonus cougar-hunters. An additional eighty-seven cougars were destroyed by Game
Branch personnel.
The control of cougars presents an expensive, intangible problem, as the use of dogs
is the only fairly reliable method of control. It is known that numbers (unknown) of
cougars have been destroyed by coyote or wolf baits, but these are believed to be young
or otherwise subnormal animals. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 61
An experiment using cyanide guns was carried out during 1955 on Vancouver
Island, but the results were disappointing, although possibly one cougar was destroyed
by a cyanide gun. Possibly someone may arrive at a practical method of mass control
sometime in the future, but until then our cougar-control will continue to be weak on a
Province-wide basis.
Coyotes.—Complaints of damage by coyotes remained low in numbers during 1955.
The controls used by personnel have apparently reduced the coyote population by a large
degree and have held them at that point. During the past year we have had requests not
to poison in many local Interior areas. This was brought about by ranchers and farmers
who believe the coyote population was too low. This is an exact reversal of a few years
ago and indicates the efficiency of control measures.
The losses of live stock during the past two years have been very low and could
possibly apply to our game stocks as well. Here we have an added complication to our
game management, as the game animals saved from predation must be harvested by the
hunter or they may be lost to other causes of mortality.
Foxes.—These animals are of importance only on the Lower Mainland areas of the
Province. We are faced with exerting control measures within a highly populated area;
consequently we cannot use any means of mass destruction. This has resulted in a never-
ending stream of complaints, but the damage has been reduced considerably and should
remain at that or a drop to a lower level. A total of 319 foxes were accounted for in
the Fraser Valley, but many more were not located but probably destroyed.
Wolves.—As mentioned previously, the wolf bounty payments were eliminated
during 1955; consequently we have no numerical values for comparison with that of
previous years. However, in the months of 1955 preceding the elimination, the figures
available showed a very large drop in bounty payments as compared to a corresponding
period of 1954.
Wolves are almost non-existent over much of their former range in the Interior areas
of British Columbia. This applies particularly to the stock-raising regions, where the
wolves were a very serious problem only a few years ago. They are present in fair numbers in the coastal area and in some sections of the northern portion of the Province.
In these areas they are not of any particular importance and are largely only a nuisance
when they migrate to a more accessible or settled area.
Reports are encountered from time to time from guides and trappers who state that
the stands of game animals, such as moose and caribou, are increasing and have been
doing so since heavy pressure was first taken against the wolves. It is not known whether
the mild winters, our poisoning operations, or a combination of both are responsible or
not. The Game Branch is receiving the credit from these same people, regardless of the
actual cause.
There will be no reduction in wolf-control measures, except where the populations
have been reduced to the point where the depredations are negligible, and the wolf
population in these instances will be kept at a low level through reduced intensity of
controls.
Other Predators.—Racoons and bobcats have again been a source of annoyance
and damage in the Fraser Valley. Game Branch personnel have accounted for 157
racoons and 23 bobcats in this area during the past year and have thus kept the damage
to various domestic and game stocks at a fairly low level. Here we also have the problem of controls being governed by human population. This results in taking only the
actual culprits, which has no effect in lowering the predator population as a whole.
Lynx have continued to cause damage in some Interior areas due to lack of natural
food. As the lynx population appears to be on the decline, this source of trouble will
take care of itself. H 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Special Projects.—In addition to protecting on a general basis, we have made special efforts to keep our controls at a high level for the protection of special game animals
such as California bighorn sheep. These animals are relatively scarce and very valuable
and are well worth while to protect from predators. This operation will continue in the
future.
Another special project attempted during 1955 was our entry into the field of
rodent-control. This was started in the Cranbrook area on an experimental basis during
the months of July and August. The results are not conclusive but are encouraging, and
it is hoped that we will enter that field on a permanent basis in the spring of 1956. The
controls, if carried out, will be in the form of Compound 1080 treated grain. The first
objective will be to reduce and control the populations of the Columbia ground-squirrel.
From there we will tackle the problems presented by pocket-gophers and mice. There
will be many unknowns encountered at first, so that the results may well be obscured
for the first season or two, but with our experience and the aid offered by the United
States Fish and Wildlife Service, we should make a sizeable impression in the rodent
populations and their associated problems.
I wish to extend my sincere thanks to all members of the enforcement division for
their invaluable aid that they have given so freely during the past year.
Vermin Destroyed, 1955
Species
Division
Totals
Bears	
Bobcats	
Cats (wild)..
Cougars	
Coyotes..
Dogs (wild) —
Foxes 	
Gophers	
Racoons—	
Skunks	
Wolves	
Wolverines	
Totals-
Crows...
Eagles...
Hawks.-
Owls	
Magpies	
MerganserS-
Ravens	
Starlings	
Totals-
Grand totals-
82
22
47
166
118
3
34
155
57
35
94
51
185
17
~27
71
24
174
13
241
40
6
183
5
9
82
6
85
1
20
28
576
112
20
50
64
8
319
3
157
6
59
51
466
766
404
234
34
28
13
43
19
51
21
567
10
69
49
716
12
203
4
262
23
44
117
104
3
87
443 1,630
640 1,160
321
909
2,396
1,044
2,403
237
93
1,011
87
558
218
333
213
165
70
60
1,243 3,045
988
2,169
48
115
71
215
7
186
863
4
38
34
409
8
33
4,028
7,073 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
STATISTICAL STATEMENTS
H 63
Comparative Statistics, 1913 to 1955, Inclusive
Calendar Year
Prosecutions
Informations
Laid
Convictions
Cases
Dismissed
Firearms
Confiscated
Fines
Imposed
Revenue
Derived from
Sale of Game
Licences
and Fees
Revenue
Derived from
Fur Trade
1913-
1914..
1915-
1916.
1917-
1918..
1919-
1920-
1921-
1922-
1923-
1924..
1925-
1926..
1927-
1928-
1929-
1930..
1931-
1932-
1933-
1934-
1935..
1936-
1937-
1938-
1939..
1940..
1941-
1942..
1943-
1944..
1945-
1946..
1947..
1948-
1949..
1950..
1951-
1952..
1953-
1954-
1955-
188
294
279
127
111
194
267
293
329
359
309
317
296
483
518
439
602
678
676
538
498
477
454
451
585
613
547
440
446
409
356
379
652
819
895
1,142
1,115
1,359
1,489
1,504
1,519
1,241
1,136
181
273
258
110
97
167
242
266
312
317
280
283
279
439
469
406
569
636
625
497
474
454
438
436
552
574
526
419
430
392
342
372
632
798
878
1,117
1,099
1,337
1,468
1,476
1,500
1,158
1,065
7
21
21
17
14
17
25
27
17
42
29
34
17
44
49
33
33
32
51
41
24
23
16
15
33
39
21
21
16
17
14
7
20
21
17
25
16
22
21
28
19
83
71
5
36
46
74
44
24
24
43
39
47
29
54
33
40
37
22
4
19
14
20
42
21
18
9
27
18
8
30
39
56
74
86
69
83
87
67
48
57
Totals..
25,823
24,643
1,160
1,493
$4,417.50
5,050.00
4,097.50
2,050.00
1,763.50
3,341.00
6,024.50
6,073.00
6,455.00
7,275.00
5,676.50
4,758.00
5,825.00
7,454.00
10,480.50
7,283.50
9,008.00
9,572.75
8,645.00
5,493.50
3,531.00
5,227.82
4,399.50
3,965.00
5,332.50
5,729.50
4,776.50
5,197.00
4,977.50
5,079.50
5,554.50
5,570.50
8,381.50
10,921.00
11,837.50
17,537.00
18,148.50
22,923.00
24,087.50
25,755.00
23,663.50
22,540.50
20,479.00
$109,600.80
92,034.20
72,974.25
66,186.97
65,487.50
75,537.00
116,135.00
132,296.50
114,842.00
127,111.50
121,639.50
125,505.50
123,950.50
135,843.50
139,814.00
140,014.75
142,028.22
147,660.00
137,233.31
141,269.55
135,876.94
149,955.11
148,689.64
157,647.30
177,771.33
192,024.07
193,170.53
188,605.20
213,267.67
205,451.71
207,661.72
238,902.36
352,228.85
502,555.25
597,529.30
610,383.56
656,997.38
706,591.06
830,178.59
856,971.22
1,032,264.31
1,029,903.83
1,081,135.24
$5,291.39
24,595.80
51,093.89
60,594.18
56,356.68
56,287.78
62,535.13
71,324.96
58,823.07
47,329.89
45,161.11
46,091.08
40,363.79
44,167.48
47,102.81
49,831.95
52,196.50
53,697.48
44,963.87
49,187.00
68,466.33
63,125.30
68,475.07
58,354.03
70,363.23
104,250.95
107,357.72
99,344.14
73,392.08
61,543.26
71,335.44
76,454.56
58,713.48
56,788.19
55,529.52
58,659.34
$386,358.57
$12,792,926.72
$2,119,148.48 H 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Total Revenue Derived from Sale of Various Licenses,
Collections, etc., January 1st to December 31st, 1955
Revenue derived from—
Sale of resident firearms licences  $423,665.00
Sale of deer, moose-elk, goat, and pheasant tags  109,713.50
Sale of resident anglers', guides', and prospectors' firearms licences  205,657.00
Sale of non-resident firearms licences and outfitters' licences _-___—  65,478.00
Sale of non-resident anglers' licences  174,846.50
Sale of fur-traders', taxidermists', and tanners' licences,
and royalty on fur  58,659.34
Sale of confiscated firearms  209.75
Sale of confiscated fishing-tackle  27.30
Sale of confiscated fur  595.87
Collection of big-game trophy fees from non-residents 98,960.00
Prosecutions—fines imposed under the " Game Act" 20,479.00
Miscellaneous revenue —     1,982.32
Total $1,160,273.58 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 65
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■3 H 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Revenue Derived from the Sale of Moose-Elk, Deer, Goat, and Pheasant
Tags, January 1st to December 31st, 1955
Deer Tags
Moose-Elk Tags
Goat Tags
Pheasant Tags
Total
Agency
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
Alberni 	
3,115
896
7
312
1,164
5,897
4,742
1,178
2,325
2,032
2,133
1,412
5,246
245
2,727
916
505
5,053
1,985
539
12,722
1,673
3,284
2,418
1,150
2,795
2,024
1,678
2,087
367
2,897
1,272
467
191
13,163
566
3,067
8,813
2,388
$1,557.50
448.00
3.50
156.00
582.00
2,948.50
2,371.00
589.00
1,162.50
1,016.00
1,066.50
706.00
2,623.00
122.50
1,363.50
458.00
252.50
2,526.50
992.50
269.50
6,361.00
836.50
1,642.00
1,209.00
575.00
1,397.50
1,012.00
839.00
1,043.50
183.50
1,448.50
636.00
233.50
95.50
6,581.50
283.00
1,533.50
4,406.50
1,194.00
77
325
77
362
444
72
1,664
218
61
794
828
23
1,060
70
195
112
72
157
196
39
2,889
313
191
1,915
22
1,912
417
161
752
113
278
211
450
351
2,339
525
340
198
736
$154.00
650.00
154.00
724.00
888.00
144.00
3,328.00
436.00
122.00
1,588.00
1,656.00
46.00
2,120.00
140.00
390.00
224.00
144.00
314.00
392.00
78.00
5,778.00
626.00
382.00
3,830.00
44.00
3,824.00
834.00
322.00
1,504.00
226.00
556.00
422.00
900.00
702.00
4,678.00
1,050.00
680.00
396.00
1,472.00
1
25
45
21
19
13
366
29
4
228
322
3
31
31
2
113
7
2
80
27
155
40
6
91
27
87
111
8
5
24
39
5
90
182
178
8
25
12
74
$2.00
50.00
90.00
42.00
38.00
26.00
732.00
58.00
8.00
456.00
644.00
6.00
62.00
62.00
4.00
226.00
14.00
4.00
160.00
54.00
310.00
80.00
12.00
182.00
54.00
174.00
222.00
16.00
10.00
48.00
78.00
10.00
180.00
364.00
356.00
16.00
50.00
24.00
148.00
75
206
$37.50
103.00
$1,751.00
1,251.00
247.50
6
206
3
375
388
922.00
Clinton  	
Courtenay 	
3.00
103.00
1.50
187.50
194.00
1,511.00
3,221.50
6,432.50
Creston 	
Duncan...	
1,270.50
1,486.50
3,060.00
3,366.50
149
1,337
74.50
668.50
832.50
Kamloops.....	
5,473.50
324.50
Kelowna 	
Lillooet	
Merritt 	
Nanaimo	
Nelson 	
975
4
81
367
29
487.50
2.00
40.50
183.50
14.50
2,245.00
910.00
451.00
3,028.00
1,559.00
401.50
New Westminster	
Oliver 	
Penticton..	
Pouce Coupe	
6,440
171
443
3,220.00
85.50
221.50
15,669.00
1,628.00
2,257.50
5,221.00
11
13
94
5.50
678.50
5,395.50
6.50
47.00
2,074.50
1,224.00
Quesnel 	
Revelstoke  	
Rossland	
2,557.50
87
86
497
43.50
43.00
248.50
501.00
2,125.50
1,316.50
1,313.50
1,161.50
Vancouver 	
5,577
2,788.50
14,404.00
1,349.00
Vernon 	
Victoria 	
1,620
1,296
9
810.00
648.00
4.50
3,073.50
5,474.50
2,818.50
Totals	
105,451
$52,725.50
20,959
$41,918.00
2,536
$5,072.00
20,545
$10,272.50
$109,988.00
274.50
Total
$109,713.50
	
	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 67
Revenue Derived from Sale of Resident Anglers', Guides', Free Farmers', and
Prospectors' Firearms Licences, January 1st to December 31st, 1955
Anglers
Guides
Free
Farmers
Prospectors
Total
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
No.
Amount
1,842
998
156
657
725
3,860
2,637
972
1,260
1,316
929
787
4,410
318
3,104
889
594
2,709
2,876
600
18,472
767
2,884
1,991
1,161
2,961
2,489
1,367
1,199
655
2,450
1,725
982
835
18,200
561
2,606
4,289
1,284
$3,684.00
1,996.00
312.00
1,314.00
1,450.00
7,720.00
5,274.00
1,944.00
2,520.00
2,632.00
1,858.00
1,574.00
8,820.00
636.00
6,208.00
1,778.00
1,188.00
5,418.00
5,752.00
1,200.00
36,944.00
1,534.00
5,768.00
3,982.00
2,322.00
5,922.00
4,978.00
2,734.00
2,398.00
1,310.00
4,900.00
3,450.00
1,964.00
1,670.00
36,400.00
1,122.00
5,212.00
8,578.00
2,568.00
1
$5.00
60.00
315.00
1,005.00
140.00
160.00
10.00
20.00
485.00
600.00
90.00
705.00
8
8
15
22
16
24
51
2
18
25
66
6
32
1
2
75
27
1
87
5
52
18
44
2
3
30
2
1
43
33
1
7
156
67
8
2
7
19
20
2
2
31
13
1
$3,689.00
1,996.00
Atlin
6
33
91
19
18
1
2
48
58
10
69
372.00
1,629.00
2,455.00
7,860.00
5,434.00
	
1,954.00
2,540.00
3,117.00
21
14
40
22
20
41
1
5
42
9
55
4
7
45
2,458.00
1,664.00
9,525.00
636.00
$6.00
6,214.00
17
140.00
1,918.00
	
1,188.00
5,418.00
6
60.00
5,812.00
2.00
1,200.00
4
88
1
94
38
5
56
8
7
19
36,946.00
1,534.00
35.00
765.00
10.00
835.00
340.00
50.00
555.00
75.00
60.00
155.00
5,803.00
4,747.00
2,332.00
58
32
29
78
16
10
6
27
19
205
12
21
20
19
6,757.00
5,318.00
2,784.00
	
2,953.00
1,385.00
Rossland 	
4,900.00
3,510.00
2,119.00
1,670.00
36,410.00
	
1
18
2
1
199
10.00
110.00
20.00
10.00
1,870.00
1,232.00
5,232.00
8,588.00
Vernon _	
Victoria 	
	
4,438.00
Totals 	
98,517
$197,034.00
920
$8,695.00
958
975
$8.00
$205,737.00
80.00
Total. -
	
	
........    j   	
$205,657.00 H 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Revenue Derived from Sale of Non-resident General Firearms, Non-resident
General Firearms (Special), Non-resident Ordinary Firearms, and Outfitters' Licences, January 1st to December 31st, 1955.
Government
Agency
General Firearms
Licences
General Firearms
Licences (Special)
Ordinary Firearms
Licences
Outfitters'
Licences
Total
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.         Amount
1
67
11
5
30
8
116
49
123
54
3
80
1
16
3
3
13
3
1,216
293
25
75
1
31
39
2
10
5
$25.00
1,675.00
275.00
125.00
750.00
200.00
2,900.00
1,225.00
3,075.00
1,350.00
75.00
2,000.00
25.00
400.00
75.00
75.00
325.00
75.00
30,400.00
7,325.00
625.00
1,875.00
25.00
775.00
975.00
50.00
250.00
125.00
16
2
8
2
1
24
6
2
4
1
$25.00
3
5
1
1
1
5
$45.00
75.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
75.00
1,720.00
Atlin
$48.00
398.00
140.00
765.00
Courtenay	
215.00
2,975.00
6.00
1,231.00
8
14
1
2
120.00
210.00
15.00
30.00
	
3,195.00
24.00
1,584.00
90.00
6.00
2,036.00
25.00
400.00
	
75.00
75.00
1
7
1
4
15.00
105.00
15.00
340.00
3.00
78.00
	
30,505.00
- -
7,340.00
625.00
60.00
72.00
2,007.00
25.00
8
120.00
18.00
6.00
913.00
981.00
	
50.00
	
250.00
125.00
1
1
2
15.00
15.00
30.00
15.00
3
4
1
200
14
8
8
46
75.00
100.00
25.00
5,000.00
350.00
200.00
200.00
1,150.00
90.00
130.00
25.00
3
1
2
45.00
15.00
30.00
12.00
5,057.00
365.00
3.00
203.00
230.00
1
$50.00
1,200.00
Totals       -
2,567
$64,175.00
72
$1,080.00
66
$198.00
1
$50.00
$65,503.00
25.00
Total
$65,478.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 69
Revenue Derived from Sale of American Non-resident Anglers', Canadian Nonresident Anglers', and Minor Non-resident Anglers' Licences, January
1st to December 31st, 1955.
Government Agency
Anglers' Licences
(American)
Anglers' Licences
(Canadian)
Anglers' Licences
(Minor)
Total
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
98
166
39
30
192
653
425
559
60
216
153
451
930
94
851
30
51
193
835
15
10,184
1,791
502
362
163
129
79
128
39
50
186
565
28
5
976
73
319
268
144
$686.00
1,162.00
273.00
210.00
1,344.00
4,571.00
2,975.00
3,913.00
420.00
1,512.00
1,071.00
3,157.00
6,510.00
658.00
5,957.00
210.00
357.00
1,351.00
5,845.00
105.00
71,288.00
12,537.00
3,514.00
2,534.00
1,141.00
903.00
553.00
896.00
273.00
350.00
1,302.00
3,955.00
196.00
35.00
6,830.00
511.00
2,233.00
1,876.00
1,008.00
11
19
8
10
5
55
257
142
20
928
828
15
112
20
118
10
7
34
166
7
161
35
113
845
3
129
15
12
8
31
12
83
9
17
93
38
51
27
12
$38.50
66.50
28.00
35.00
17.50
192.50
899.50
497.00
70.00
3,248.00
2,898.00
52.50
392.00
70.00
413.00
35.00
24.50
119.00
581.00
24.50
565.00
122.50
395.50
2,957.50
10.50
451.50
52.50
42.00
28.00
108.50
42.00
290.50
31.50
59.50
325.50
133.00
178.50
94.50
42.00
24
50
"" 2
62
121
115
69
1
80
180
100
168
14
206
4
8
29
99
2
2,549
420
108
130
5
33
$24.00
50.00
$748.50
1,278.50
Atlin    	
301.00
2.00
62.00
121.00
115.00
69.00
1.00
80.00
180.00
100.00
168.00
14.00
206.00
4.00
8.00
29.00
99.00
2.00
2,549.00
420.00
108.00
130.00
5.00
33.00
247.00
1,423.50
Courtenay
4,884.50
3,989.50
4,479.00
491.00
4,840.00
4,149.00
3,309.50
Kamloops..        	
7,070.00
742.00
Kelowna..  	
Lillooet   	
6,576.00
249.00
389.50
1,499.00
Nelson _	
6,525.00
131.50
74,402.00
13,079.50
Penticton        —	
4,017.50
5,621.50
1,156.50
1,387.50
605.50
46
12
12
39
79
46.00
12.00
12.00
39.00
79.00
984.00
Quesnel  ._
313.00
470.50
Rossland    ..
1,383.00
4,324.50
227.50
94.50
111
18
53
45
26
111.00
18.00
53.00
45.00
26.00
7,266.50
662.00
2,464.50
2,015.50
1,076.00
Totals  	
22,032
$154,222.00
4,466
$15,632.50
5,020
$5,020.00
$174,874.50
28.00
Total 	
	
	
	
$174,846.50 H 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Revenue Derived from Sale of Fur-traders', Taxidermists', and Tanners'
Licences and Royalty on Fur, January 1st to December 31st, 1955
Government
Agency
Resident
Fur-traders'
Licences
Resident
Fur-traders'
Licences
(Transient)
Agent for
Non-resident
Fur-traders'
Licences
Royalty
or Tax
on Fur
Taxidermists'
or Tanners'
Licences
Total
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
Amount
No.
Amount
1
2
3
~1
1
1
1
15
3
4
2
6
52
5
20
$25.00
2
1
1
1
3
1
7
_ 3
2
$3.00
73.63
1,010.05
15.00
13.50
1
1
1
1
~~9
2
$28.00
Atlin.. 	
	
73.63
50.00
1,060.05
	
15.00
75.00
88.50
$200.00
$2.00
200.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
2.00
235.14
33.00
29.40
260.14
Kamloops
58.00
	
29.40
25.00
25.00
2.00
2.00
100.00
17.40
3.00
12,631.97
2,420.14
1,479.77
370.13
3.00
1,507.10
6.90
33,502.58
42.38
56.25
26.00
117.40
$400.00
3.00
375.00
75.00
100.00
50.00
100.00
100.00
300.00
100.00
2.00
13,508.97
2,595.14
2.00
1,881.77
520.13
3.00
150.00
1,657.10
700.00
18.00
6.90
1,300.00
125.00
35,520.58
167.38
	
4.00
60.25
500.00
300.00
826.00
Totals	
117
$2,925.00
19
$1,900.00
2
$400.00
$53,479.34
15
$30.00
$58,734.34
75.00
Total 	
	
	
	
	
$58,659.34 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 71
Total Collections from Fur Trade, 1921 to 1955, Inclusive
Year
Fur Royalty
or Tax
Fur-traders',
Tanners', and
Taxidermists'
Licences
Total
1921.....
1922.....
1923	
1924	
1925.....
1926.....
1927	
1928	
1929	
1930....
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934.....
1935	
1936.....
1937	
1938.....
1939.....
1940	
1941	
1942.....
1943	
1944.....
1945	
1946....
1947	
1948	
1949	
1950.....
1951	
1952	
1953.....
1954	
1955	
$24,595.80
51,093.89
60,594.18
56,356.68
48,737.78
56,045.13
61,629.96
51,563.07
40,769.89
40,431.11
41,056.08
36,253.79
39,592.48
42,697.81
44,986.95
46,186.50
47,257.48
39,423.87
44,238.00
62,745.33
56,755.30
63,176.07
52,122.03
63,412.23
93,793.40
98,766.72
92,637.14
66,939.08
56,563.26
65,205.44
70,799.56
54,256.48
52,565.19
52,199.52
53,429.34
$6,195.00
6,365.00
6,930.00
6,090.00
7,550.00
6,490.00
9,695.00
7,260.00
6,560.00
4,730.00
4,925.00
4,110.00
4,575.00
4,405.00
4,845.00
6,010.00
6,440.00
5,540.00
4,949.00
5,721.00
6,370.00
5,299.00
6,232.00
6,951.00
10,559.00
8,591.00
6,707.00
6,453.00
4,980.00
6,255.00
5,655.00
4,457.00
4,223.00
3,330.00
5,230.00
Totals-
$1,928,876.54
$210,737.00
$30,790.80
57,458.89
67,524.18
62,446.68
56,287.78
62,535.13
71,324.96
58,823.07
47,329.89
45,161.11
45,981.08
40,363.79
44,167.48
47,102.81
49,831.95
52,196.50
53,697.48
44,963.87
49,187.00
68,466.33
63,125.30
68,475.07
58,354.03
70,363.23
104,352.40
107,357.72
99,344.14
73,392.08
61,543.26
71,460.44
76,454.56
58,713.48
56,788.19
55,529.52
58,659.34
$2,139,553.54 H 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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aNOsOOsOsO\0\0\ONO\0\OsOsO\ONO\0\OsaNOsOiONONO\OsOsOsOsOsOsONO\CJ\ONOs REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 73
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^ H 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statements Showing Firearms, Fishing-tackle, and Fur Confiscated under
the "Game Act," January 1st to December 31st, 1955
Confiscated Firearms
The following firearms were confiscated under the " Game Act," January 1st to
December 31st, 1955: 50 rifles and 7 shotguns. The sum of $209.75 was received
during 1955 from the sale of confiscated firearms.
Confiscated Fishing-tackle
The following fishing-tackle was confiscated under the " Game Act," January 1st
to December 31st, 1955: 1 rod and 1 reel. The sum of $27.30 was received during
1955 from the sale of confiscated fishing-tackle.
Confiscated Fur
The following fur was confiscated under the " Game Act," January 1st to December
31st, 1955: 1 beaver-pelt, 1 cross-fox pelt, 1 lynx-pelt, 9 marten-pelts, 2 mink-pelts,
15 muskrat-pelts, 157 squirrel-pelts, and 13 weasel-pelts. The sum of $595.87 was
received during 1955 from the sale of confiscated and surrendered fur.
Bounties Paid during the Year Ended December 31st, 1955
Government Agency
Wolves
Cougars
Total
$40
$25
Bounty, $20
Bonus, $20
3
1
1
i
5
21
7
1
30
91
25
4
3
8
27
22
70
11
10
6
7
29
3
10
14
17
6
1
1
4
1
4
14
1
1
1
2
8
3
34
52
16
10
53
8
7
4
6
8
10
6
2
11
13
$860.00
Atlin  	
125.00
525.00
Clinton  	
Courtenay	
640.00
2,635.00
380.00
340.00
Golden	
200.00
260.00
885.00
Kelowna  	
Lillooet    	
60.00
240.00
480.00
Nelson  —	
340.00
120.00
770.00
20.00
2,355.00
645.00
Princeton	
Quesnel  ~ „
Revelstoke 	
80.00
440.00
20.00
20.00
Smithers   ...
120.00
40.00
235.00
200.00
100.00
925.00
1,340.00
Trials
6
196
359
154
$15,400.00
NOTE.-
1955.
-Coyote bounty discontinued, effective August 1st, 1954.   Wolf bounty discontinued, effective September 1st, REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955
H 75
Comparative Statement of Bounties Paid from 1922 to 1955, Inclusive
Calendar Year
Wolves
Cougars
Bonus
Cougars
Coyotes
Crows
Magpies
Eagles
Owls
Amount
1922              	
303
162
195
291
336
344
452
411
312
310
372
195
173
137
183
372
444
530
491
701
8
628
572
430
599
423
384
366
285
196
261
265
301
472
461
519
725
524
395
488
465
500
400
359
1,092
1,687
5,175
7,276
14,070
20,192
3,672
1,881
1,544
2,864
53,443
2,246
70
7,095
20
89
17,625
172
$60,494.80
1923      _
	
14,840.00
1924          	
172
20,398.40
1925
2,487
24,397.00
1926
5,770
10,046
	
41,077.00
1927
65,377.95
1928
1,025
1,389
403
1
50,709.25
1929	
42,122.00
1930
36,090.25
42,036.15
1931
3,427
1932              	
	
80.00
1933
1
221
561
837
828
915
1,159
1,659
1,002
1,039
1,017
1,321
1,202
932
1,102
1,156
1,180
991
753
728
544
415
202
6,285.00
6,825.00
12,374.00
1934
1935
1,877
1,950
1,400
2,094
1,971
2,038
1,924
1,546
1,221
1,259
5,506
2,720
2,976
3,911
6,847
9,822
5,202
4,769
4,425
2,343
	
1936	
20,350.00
1937
19,540.00
1938
	
21,018.00
26,399.00
1939.. 	
	
	
1940 	
	
	
23,131.00
1941
16,868.00
17,397.00
1942
	
1943
	
16,587.00
1944 	
	
20,243.00
1945      _
	
.
46,627.00
1946     	
	
22,392.00
1947
	
	
36,386.00
58,344.00
70,501.00
1948
	
	
1949 	
1950	
	
	
	
73,688.00
1951
59
185
156
154
	
51,133.00
1952	
1953  	
	
	
48,551.00
45,645.00
1954...	
1955
	
31,497.00
15,400.00
Totals 	
22,881
13,624
554
125,254
69,431
8,230
7,204
20,615
$1,104,803.80
Note.—Bonus cougars are included in the number of cougars presented for bounty. H 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Big-game Trophy Fees Paid by Non-residents, January 1st to
December 31st, 1955
Species
Government Agency
Bear,
Grizzly
Bear,
Black
or
Brown
Caribou
Deer,
Coast
Deer,
Mule
or
White-
tailed
Mountain-
goat
Mountain-
sheep
Moose
Wapiti
(Elk)
Amount
Atlin	
4
2
10
2
12
14
12
5
14
3
12
2
7
5
2
27
8
8
8
~22
8
14
16
7
6
3
7
~1
6
—4
4
44
13
3
3
7
2
2
1
2
2
__
176
28
5
9
26
5
31
56
1
8
4
49
12
33
46
3
"3
8
31
23
7
7
4
5
4
1
8
4
4
50
7
4
3
1
16
819
6
18
27
3
4
26
48
24
53
7
11
2
6
36
57
38
4
42
27
$240.00
1,245.00
55,695.00
Courtenay  	
130.00
3,900.00
325.00
Fernie 	
5,360.00
5,610.00
Kamloops 	
180.00
440.00
15.00
3,155.00
4,720.00
4,430.00
4,185.00
1,045.00
660.00
Revelstoke— —
Smithers 	
Vancouver        	
Vanderhoof.. 	
100.00
120.00
1,110.00
2,370.00
4,070.00
Totals 	
104
136
87
7
346
235
85
1,164
111
$99,105.00
145.00
Total.   	
	
	
	
	
	
$98,960.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 77
Prosecutions (Provincial Game Divisions), January 1st to
December 31st, 1955
Description of Offence
Divisions (.See Foot-note)
,B,:
'C"
'D"
a g
Fines or
Penalties
Imposed
Game Animals
Allowing dog to run deer  	
Buying or selling game animals illegally	
Exceeding bag-limit on game animals   	
Hunting or killing game animals with rim-fire shells or
metal-cased bullets	
Hunting, killing, or possession of game animals under 1
year of age _. 	
Hunting, killing, or possession of game animals or parts
thereof during close season 	
Hunting, killing, or possession of game animals of female
sex      	
Hunting big game from power-boat —	
Keeping big-game animals in captivity without a permit	
Pit-lamping or hunting game animals at night	
Possession of game animals in logging camp, hotel, etc	
Possession of untagged moose, elk, goat, or deer	
Possession of game animals with sex removed	
Firearms
Carrying firearms on game reserve  	
Carrying loaded firearms or discharging same from automobile  	
Carrying or possession of unplugged shotgun	
Discharging firearms on or across highway  _	
Minors carrying firearms unaccompanied by an adult	
Non-residents in possession of unsealed firearms..	
Licences
Non-resident  carrying   firearms   or   hunting  without   a
licence	
Non-resident carrying tackle or fishing without a licence....
Resident carrying firearms or hunting without a licence	
Resident carrying tackle or fishing without a licence —	
Fur Trade and Trapping
Interfering or trapping on another person's trap-line	
Trading in fur without a licence 	
Trapping or carrying traps without a licence 	
Trapping or possession of fur during closed season	
Trapping beyond the bounds of his registered trap-line	
Tanner or trader did fail to keep a record in English
language of all fur-bearing animals purchased	
Upland Game Birds
Allowing dogs to run during prohibited time	
Hunting pheasants during prohibited hours	
Hunting  or  possession  of  upland   game   birds   during
close season 	
Possession of untagged pheasants  	
Migratory Game and Non-game Birds
Hunting migratory game birds from power-boat	
Hunting migratory game birds during the night	
Hunting migratory game birds with a rifle  	
Hunting migratory game birds during close season	
Hunting migratory game birds in closed area	
Possession of migratory game birds with plumage removed
28
7
2
1
17
20
21
7
24
7
4
41
4
3
4
3
1
1
1
9
54
23
2
34
24
1
1
3
2
23
168
12
11
5
2
29
63
140
184
61
1
32
1
1
10
38
30
2
1
8
2
26
9
168
12
13
30
63
148
186
18
3
10
63
1
34
2
1
$10.00
80.00
135.00
85.00
470.00
1,415.00
1,645.00
10.00
10.00
1,025.00
25.00
305.00
100.00
85.00
2,632.00
145.00
160.00
50.00
20.00
1,060.00
785.00
1,652.00
1,907.00
650.00
335.00
75.00
25.00
25.00
10.00
15.00
65.00
810.00
35.00
120.00
779.00
10.00
420.00
10.00
10.00 H 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Prosecutions (Provincial Game Divisions), January 1st to
December 31st, 1955—Continued
Description of Offence
Divisions (See Foot-note)
c
o
U
HH h-J
u
f2°
Fines or
Penalties
Imposed
Special Fishery Regulations
Angling for trout during close season	
Allowing sawdust, etc., to pollute stream-
Commercial fishing for salmon without required licence..
Exceeding bag or possession limit on trout	
Fishing in closed area „
Jigging or molesting fish on spawning-grounds	
Possession or using salmon roe in prohibited area-
Taking or possession of undersized trout 	
Taking trout otherwise than by angling	
Using more than one rod or line  	
Using gear designed to catch more than one 6sh_
Miscellaneous
Allowing another person to use his licence	
Giving false information to obtain a licence	
Guide failing to make returns..
Guiding without a licence or permit-
Guiding on other than his own area...
Non-resident hunting big game without a guide	
Obstructing Game Warden and giving false information _
Trespassing on private property-
Transferring game seals and beaver tags__
Using another person's licence-
Failing to produce a firearms licence when so requested-
Using another person's game tag	
Molesting game birds-
Did carry on business of tanner or fur-trader without a
licence	
Did attach an elk tag to an elk he himself did not kill	
Did guide more than two persons at one time	
Did leave traps out after close of season 	
Did fail to report fur-bearers killed under section 5 of
" Game Act"   	
Unlawfully did carry a pistol without a permit-
Did export big game without a permit-
Did operate an aircraft for purpose of hunting without
a permit	
2
8
2
1
1
	
3
1
1
1
1
2
Totals..
192
229
45
2
29
16
38
3
1
5
38
1
1
7
2
10
4
45
5
1
5
38
1
1
7
2
12
4
$395.00
410.00
10.00
70.00
394.00
5.00
10.00
120.00
20.00
105.00
40.00
100.00
145.00
10.00
100.00
10.00
50.00
270.00
160.00
35.00
55.00
80.00
30.00
35.00
85.00
10.00
25.00
25.00
10.00
10.00
150.00
300.00
467
71
1,065    1,136
$20,479.00
Gaol Sentences
Killing moose under 1 year of age—1, thirty days.
Trapping when not in possession of a licence so to do—1, ten days.
Killing moose of female sex during close season—2, total of sixty days.
Killing moose under 1 year of age during close season—1, thirty days.
Possession of game animal with sex removed—1, ten days.
Possession of untagged deer—1, ten days.
Hunting when not in possession of a licence—1, ten days.
Note.—"A" Division: Vancouver Island area and part of Mainland. "B " Division: Kootenay and Boundary
areas. "C" Division: Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, Cariboo, and Lillooet areas. "D" Division: Atlin, Skeeha,
Omineca, Fort George, Peace River, and Yukon Boundary areas. "E" Division: Vancouver, Coast, and Lower
Mainland areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955
H 79
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Fisheries Management Division—Continued
Summary of Plantings of Other Species, 1955
H 87
Kind of Fish or Eggs
Hatchery or Station
(Particulars of Plantings or Liberations)
Arctic
Grayling
Cohoe
Steelhead
Hatcheries
Fry
Yearlings
Fingerlings
Yearlings
Fingerlings
Vancouver Island
Puntledge Park Hatchery
B rowns River    	
2,000
5,000
2,500
5,000
5,065
3,600
5,000
5,000
Englishman River   	
French Creek      —
Puntledge River  _	
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Tsable River     	
Totals   	
33,165
	
Lower Mainland
Smiths Falls Hatchery
11,000
22,316
7,000
7,500
7,000
7,200
20,000
	
2,000
Totals  	
13,000
71,016
Okanagan District
Summerland Hatchery
Puntledge Park Hatchery  	
67.3502
81,6002
Totals  _ __	
i
148,9502
Kootenay District
Cranbrook Hatchery
Erie Lake (Salmo)	
100,000
Totals   _	
100,000
! Kamloops trout. H 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Returns from 2,275 Holders of Special Firearms Licences Showing Big Game,
Fur-bearing Animals, and Predatory Animals Killed, Season 1955-56
Big Game
Bear 	
Caribou
Deer	
Moose __
433
21
524
401
Mountain-goat   30
Mountain-sheep      6
Wapiti (elk)   40
Fur-bearing Animals
     8,070
        443
        308
     1,918
     4,410
Mink _      12,245
Muskrats   31,108
Beaver
Fisher _
Fox	
Lynx __.
Marten
Otter ___.
Racoon
Skunk _
  456
  479
  119
Squirrels  125,571
Weasels   12,270
Wildcat   133
Wolverine   128
Cougar .
Coyotes
Predatory Animals
93 Wolves
1,226
136
Summary of Liberation of Game Birds, 1955
Pheasants Chukar Partridges
Area
Vancouver Island—
Alberni 	
Courtenay 	
Cowichan 	
Duncan 	
Galiano Island	
Ladysmith   	
Nanaimo-Parksville 	
Victoria (North and South Saanich)
Saltspring Island	
308
204
204
Totals
716 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955 H 89
Summary of Liberation of G
Area
Lower Mainland—
Abbotsford   __ 	
.me Birds, 1955—Continued
Pheasants         Chukar Partridges
85
Agassiz      	
      350
Bradner           _
      100
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack                           	
763
Delta 	
Dewdney  	
Essondale   	
  1,212
	
Harrison Bay 	
Hatzic            _        _ 	
          344
Lulu Island
1,118
Langley   ___	
        60
Matsqui       	
      460
Mission     	
Nicomen Island
__     330
Pitt Meadows	
      910
Port Coquitlam	
Sumas Prairie
625
Surrey     	
      548
Squamish ____     	
Vancouver  ;             __ _
Totals _   	
  6,905
Interior—
Armstrong                      	
Cache Creek  	
Chase   	
        25
Creston   _   _
      410
Dawson Creek 	
Grand Forks
      262
Kamloops	
      165
Kelowna
67
Keremeos ____   _
Merritt 	
Pritchard _   _ __	
      240
      200
125
128
Peace River     __
        25
Vernon      __      __ _   _   ___
64
Westwold     	
        50
White Lake	
125
Totals 	
  1,377
509
Note.—Total cost covering purchase of all game birds listed was $9,507. H 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statement of Game-bird Farmers, 1955
Number and Kind of Birds on Hand as at January 1st, 1955
Pheasants   7,689 Ducks 	
Quail        40 Partridge   698
Number and Kind of Birds Raised, 1955
Pheasants   15,935 Partridge   601
Quail  63
Number and Kind of Birds Purchased, 1955
Pheasants   1,517 Ducks     2
Quail        18 Partridge   14
Number and Kind of Birds Sold, 1955
Pheasants   14,194 Partridge   1,000
Quail  34
Number and Kind of Birds Killed, 1955
Pheasants   4,203 Ducks
Quail         27 Partridge   46
Number and Kind of Birds on Hand as at December 31st, 1955
Pheasants   6,738 Ducks     16
Quail        52 Partridge   267
Note.—During the year there were 144 licensed game-bird farmers in the Province,
but during the year 1955 thirty-two of these farmers discontinued business. Game-bird
bands sold to licensed game-bird farmers during the year 1955 amounted to $475.80
(4,758 bands at 10 cents each).
Miscellaneous Revenue, 1955
Sale of Lists to Various Licence-holders, etc.
11 Game Convention minutes at 75 cents per copy  $8.25
4,758 game-bird bands at 10 cents each   475.80
191 trap-line transfer fees ($2.50 each)   477.50
Proceeds, sale of live fur-bearing animals   35.00
Proceeds, permits to export game meat  109.00
Proceeds, fee for tagging deer and moose hides  177.75
Proceeds, sale of three fur-traders' lists  4.50
Proceeds, sale of one game-bird farmer list  1.50
Proceeds, sale of trout eggs   693.02
LIST OF GUIDES AND NON-RESIDENT OUTFITTERS
Definition of Guide Licence Classifications
A First-class Guide shall be one who has acted as a guide in the Province for a period
of at least three years in the ten years immediately preceding his application for a guide's
licence and who has suitable equipment for outfitting any person desiring to hunt game.
A Second-class Guide shall be one who has acted as a guide in the Province for a
period of at least three years in the ten years immediately preceding his application for
a guide's licence but who cannot qualify as a First-class Guide. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 91
An Assistant Guide shall be one who cannot qualify as either a First-class or Second-
class Guide, and shall be entitled to act as a guide in the hunting of game birds or in
angling for trout, and after securing a permit so to do from the Game Commission, when
employed by or under the supervision of a First- or Second-class Guide, to guide big-game
hunters.
Block A—Vancouver Island and Mainland Coast North to North End of
Vancouver Island
Class of
Licence
Flesher, Eric Reed, Phillips- Arm  2nd
Hancock, Arthur, Lake Cowichan     1st
Kirkman, lack, Harrison Hot Springs  2nd
Marshall, Don, Campbell River  2nd
Parkin, Alvin, Campbell River  2nd
Patrick, Walter, Westview  2nd
Class of
Licence
Robertson, George R., 2329 Blanshard St.,
Victoria     2nd
Ryan, J., Campbell River  2nd
Stanton, James R., P.O. Box 3400, Vancouver      1 st
Vanstone, Edward R., Campbell River  2nd
Williamson, David, Oyster Bay  2nd
Block B—Mainland Coast (Stewart South, Including Bella Coola)
Brynildsen, G. A., Bella Coola....
Bugnella, Angelo, Stewart	
Edwards, Ralph A., Bella Coola..
Fraser, J. G., Sandspit.
Mack, Clayton, Bella Coola.
Class of
Licence
.____ 1st
...__ 2nd
.____ 2nd
.____ 2nd
.____   1st
Class of
Licence
Nygaard, Martin, Bella Coola     1st
Nygaard, Wilfred T., Bella Coola  2nd
Saugstad, Stener O., Bella Coola  2nd
Siwallace, Andrew S., Bella Coola  2nd
Block C—Cassiar District (Atlin-Telegraph Creek District)
Class of
Licence
Asp, Phillip, Atlin  2nd
Ball, Robert E. A., Telegraph Creek     1st
Campbell, Richard S., Telegraph Creek  2nd
Carlick, John E., Telegraph Creek  2nd
Carlick, Tom Dunstan, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Carlick, Walter, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Dalziel, George C. F., Dease Lake     1st
Davidson, John Ogilvie, Lower Post     1st
Day, Alfred George, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Delmonico, Henry A.,  1475 Trimble St.,
Vancouver   2nd
Dennis, Alec, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Dennis, John Creyke, Telegraph Creek     1st
Dennis, Thomas, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Edzerza, George, Atlin    1st
Frank, Benny, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Class of
Licence
Gaugh, Allen H., Box 233, Prince George    1st
Gleason, Henry, Telegraph Creek     1st
Groat, Allen Henry, Lower Post     1st
Hall, Cyril A., Prince George  2nd
Jack, Henry Taku, Atlin  2nd
Jackson, Dick, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Johnston, Freddie, Mile 747 Alaska Highway, Teslin, Y.T  2nd
Longhurst, William lames, Lower Post     1st
Nelson, William, Atlin  2nd
Nole, Loveman, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Nyman, Robert, Atlin  2nd
Simpson, Walter S., Telegraph Creek  2nd
Tashoots, Frank Pete, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Williams, Mike, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Block D—Peace River District and Lower Post District
Class of
Licence
Beattie, Robert, Gold Bar  2nd
Behn, George, Fort Nelson  2nd
Belcourt, Dolphus, Kelly Lake     1st
Brown, Wesley J., Mile 175, Alaska Highway      1st
Calliou, John, Kelly Lake     1st
Callison, Dennis W., Fort Nelson     1st
Callison, Elisha O., Fort Nelson     1st
McGarvey, George, Farrell Creek.
McGarvey, Morris M., Taylor	
McGuire, Colum, Rolla	
Class of
Licence
_ 2nd
____     1st
.____ 2nd
Cameron, Pat, Moberly Lake_.
1st
2nd
1st
1st
2nd
Cameron, Ralph, Moberly Lake	
Dahl, Joel O., Mile 300, Fort Nelson____
Dhenin, Rene G., Fort St. John	
Durney, Lavirl, Groundbirch	
Durney, Milo, East Pine     1st
Elden, Otto, Little Prairie     1st
Golata, Frank, Dawson Creek    1st
Larson, Albin O., Fort Nelson     1st
Letendre, James, Kelly Lake  2nd
McDonald, Charlie, Mile 442, Fort Nelson 2nd
McLean, William, Little Prairie     1st
Mould, Thomas J., Mile 496, Alaska Highway, Lower Liard     1st
Paquette, Morris, Moberly Lake     1st
Peck, Donald, Trutch     1st
Peck, O. Keith, Hudson Hope  2nd
Peterson, Adolf Fred, Muncho Lake, Mile
462, Alaska Highway    1st
Powell, Gary, Hudson Hope     1st
Powell, Jack, Fort St. John  2nd
Ross, James A., Pink Mountain     1st
Ross, Lynn, Pink Mountain  2nd
Rutledge, Leo, Hudson Hope     1st
Southwick, Tullie O., Fort Nelson  2nd
Watson, James Henry, Fort St. John  2nd
Young, Andrew, Dawson Creek  2nd H 92
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Block E—Prince George District (Prince George East to Jasper, Alta.)
Class of
Licence
Bergenhammer, Joe, Fort McLeod  2nd
Bricker, William, South Fort George     1st
Brooks, George, South Fort George     1st
Cannon, Walter L., 893 Burden St., Prince
George   2nd
Copperthwaite, Harry B., McLeod Lake  2nd
Corless  (Jr.), Richard F., 2358 McBride
Crescent, Prince George     1st
Hansen (Sr.), Anund, Hansard     1st
Hansen (Jr.), Anund, Hansard  2nd
Hargreaves, Roy F., Mount Robson     1st
Class of
Licence
Henry,  Malcolm   G.,   730   Third   Ave.,
Prince George     1st
Henry,  Walter  J.,  Prince  George  Hotel,
Prince George     1st
Hooker, Kenneth, Dome Creek  2nd
Jensen, Arne, Dome Creek  2nd
Monroe, Everett A., McBride  2nd
Simmons, Herbert, Box 128, Prince George    1st
Van Somer, Art, Summit Lake  2nd
Zlot, Martha, Summit Lake  2nd
Zlotucha, Antoni, Prince George  2nd
Block F—Prince George District (Prince George West to Terrace)
Class of
Licence
Anderson, Duncan MacC, Babine  2nd
Blackwell, Allan E., Wistaria  2nd
Buchanan, Curtis A., Vanderhoof  2nd
Campbell, Theodore Blair, Hazelton  2nd
Cooke, Ted, Vanderhoof    1st
Cowan (Jr.), Hugh S., Clemretta  2nd
Craker, Ronald J., Box 83, Houston  2nd
Davidson, Charles B., Vanderhoof     1st
Easter, Calvin, Fort St. James     1st
Fisher, Edward, General Delivery, Vanderhoof   2nd
Gale,  Herwyne Peter,  Babine Lake,  via
Topley     2nd
Gilliland, Donald W., Germansen Landing   1st
Grainger, Barry H., Noralee  2nd
Grasser, Wm. Harold, Tatalrose  2nd
Hall, Gordon A., Southbank  2nd
Harrison, Alford J., Burns Lake  2nd
Haugen, Karl, Manson Creek  2nd
Henson, Frank E., Marilla     1st
Hobson, Richard, Vanderhoof  2nd
Hoff, Wm. M., Box 305, Prince George_- 2nd
Johnson, George M., Vanderhoof  2nd
Johnson,   John   H.,    1735   Ingledew   St.,
Prince George   2nd
Knox, John, Ootsa Lake     1st
Kohse, Louis, Vanderhoof     1st
Lee, John Thomas, Hazelton     1st
Leon, Paddy, Topley  2nd
Loback, Wes L., Marilla     1st
Loper, Howard A., Vanderhoof  2nd
Lord, Roy E., Burns Lake  2nd
Class of
Licence
Loss, Helmar Fredrick, Topley  2nd
McKenzie, George, Box 8, Fort Fraser  2nd
McNeill, Cliff, Ootsa Lake    1st
McNeill, John Wm., Ootsa Lake     1st
Meier, John, Vanderhoof  2nd
Menard, Gerry, Nithi River  2nd
Mesich, Emil, P.O. Box 545, Smithers  2nd
Moran, Thomas E., Vanderhoof  2nd
Munger, Francis W. R., Noralee  2nd
Nelson, George Wm., Vanderhoof    1st
Nelson, John N., Clemretta     1st
Pease, Clarence A., Nithi River     1st
Plowman, Clarence, Nithi River  2nd
Plowman, Enid A., Endako  2nd
Prince, Alex., Fort St. James  2nd
Prince, Dixon, Fort St. James  2nd
Prince, John, Fort St. James    1st
Prince, Norman, Fort St. James  2nd
Prince, Teddy, Fort St. James  2nd
Reid, William, Box 673, Prince George  2nd
Rowland, E. F., Decker Lake  2nd
Smith, Harold Craig, Fort St. James     1st
Smith, Richard H., Fort St. James    1st
Van Tine, Doug, Ootsa Lake  2nd
Van Tine, James, Ootsa Lake     1st
Van Zanten, James, Francois Lake  2nd
Watson, Paul Eugene, Telkwa  2nd
Westgard, Edward Victor, Box 102, Houston  2nd
Wheeler, William A., Burns Lake  2nd
Winsor, William J., Prince George  2nd
Block G—Cariboo District (100 Mile House South, Including Ashcroft)
Abbs, R., Fawn P.O.	
Baker, James A., Clinton
Bara, Peter, Ashcroft..
Black, Jack P., Bridge Lake..
Boule, James, Savona	
Burdett, George, Savona	
Burdett, Loretta, Savona.
Class of
Licence
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd
  1st
  1st
  1st
  2nd
Chabara, Anna, 70 Mile House  2nd
Choate, Ted, Clinton  2nd
Christy, Frank, Lillooet  1st
Christy, Thomas G., Lillooet  1st
Cleveland, J. G., Bridge Lake  1st
Cleveland, R. C, Bridge Lake  1st
Cleveland, Weston L., Bridge Lake  1st
Coldwell, H. W., Jesmond  1st
Comeau, W. R., Savona  1st
Cooper, Norman, Savona	
Cunningham, C. B., Bralorne..
Dougherty, C, Clinton-
Dougherty, E. G., Clinton	
Dyer, G. H., 70 Mile House	
Eden, Donald D., 70 Mile House..
Ellis, Douglas K, Kamloops	
Faessler, C. J., R.R. 1, Fawn	
Fenton, Charlie, Clinton
Class of
Licence
..... 2nd
...__ 1st
.____ 1st
.-_ 1st
____ 2nd
.__ 2nd
.____ 1st
.____ 1st
.____ 1st
Fenton, Walter, Big Bar Creek    1st
Flaherty, R. J., Fawn P.O  2nd
Forde, H. D. W., Clinton  2nd
Fowler, Norman, Clinton  2nd
Gaines, Clinton, Fawn P.O  2nd
Gammie, H. G., 70 Mile House    1st
Graf, Mike, R.R. 1, Fawn     1st REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 93
Block G—Cariboo District (100 Mile House South, Including
Ashcroft ) —Continued
Grandberg, Norman, Fawn P.O..
Grice, Percy, 70 Mile House..
Class of
Licence
..... 2nd
..... 2nd
Grinder, Albert W. (Bert), Clinton  2nd
Grinder, Isidore, Clinton  2nd
Grinder, Louisa, Big Bar Creek  2nd
Grinder, Louise, Clinton  2nd
Grinder, Walter, Big Bar Creek     1st
Hansen, John F., Bridge Lake     1st
Hansen, R. L., Bridge Lake     1st
Hansen, Wesley B., Bridge Lake  2nd
Higginbottom, Alfred, Jesmond     1st
Higgins, Cecil, Fawn P.O     1st
Higgins, Marion, Bridge Lake     1st
Hodges, E. W., R.R. 1, Fawn     1st
Horn, Walter A., 70 Mile House  2nd
Huckvale, A. J., R.R. 1, Fawn     1st
Hunter, M. T., Ashcroft  2nd
Johnson, Oren M., Bridge Lake  2nd
Johnson, Zale A., Clinton P.O    1st
Kent, A. G., Lytton  2nd
Kent, W. R., Lytton  2nd
King, C. J., R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd
King, Gordon B., R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd
Koster, Frances, Empire Valley  2nd
Koster, Henry, Empire Valley  2nd
Krebs, L. B., Lac la Hache  2nd
Land, Robert, Ashcroft     1st
Larson, Jack O., Bridge Lake     1st
Larson, K. J., R.R. 1, Fawn     1st
Leavitt, F. W., Fawn P.O  2nd
Levick, J. S., R.R. 1, Fawn     1st
Long, C, Fawn P.O  2nd
Loring, Edwin, Clinton  2nd
McFaul, S. F., 70 Mile House  2nd
McMahon, J. C, 70 Mile House     1st
McNeil, B. S., Fawn P.O..
Matier, Muriel, Ashcroft.
Class of
Licence
  1st
  2nd
Minnabarriet, Percy, Cache Creek  2nd
Mooring, Alex., Fawn P.O  1st
Murray, George E., Savona  1st
O'Keefe, W., Bridge River  1st
Osterlund, Ed, Moha  2nd
Park, Arlie H., 70 Mile House  2nd
Park, Jack P., 70 Mile House  1st
Parkes, L. G., 70 Mile House  2nd
Petersen,  Ross, Savona  2nd
Pierro, John, Cache Creek  2nd
Pigeon, Clarence, Clinton  2nd
Pigeon, J. R., Clinton  1st
Pigeon, Norman, Clinton  2nd
Pollard, J. H, Clinton  1st
Powell, Henry J., Fawn P.O  1st
Powell, T. G., Fawn P.O  1st
Reynolds, A. J., Big Bar Creek  1st
Reynolds, H. D., Big Bar Creek  1st
Rideout, Robert L., Ashcroft  2nd
Rosette, Augustine, Gang Ranch  1st
Sarver, Lyle, Cache Creek  2nd
Scheepbower, J. A., 70 Mile House  2nd
Scheepbower, William, 70 Mile House  2nd
Sedman, John E., R.R. 1 Fawn  2nd
Shuldes, Bruce, Clinton  2nd
Singleton, W., Fawn P.O  1st
Smith, J. T., Clinton  2nd
Umphrey, S. T., Fawn P.O  2nd
Van Horlick, Buster H., Clinton  1st
Vequeray, A. E., Clinton  2nd
Vequeray, R. J., Clinton  1st
Winteringham, Frank, R.R. 1 Fawn  2nd
Womack, C. B., Fawn  1st
Block H—Cariboo District (100 Mile House North to Marguerite and
Williams Lake, East of Fraser River)
Class of
Licence
Abram, Arthur E., Lac la Hache  2nd
Archie, Jacob, Canim Lake    1st
Ash, Christopher, Big Lake  2nd
Atkins, Daniel F., Horsefly  2nd
Bob, Edward, Canim Lake     1st
Camille, Francis, Canoe Creek  2nd
Christopher, David, Canim Lake     1st
Decker, English, Canim Lake  2nd
Dodd, John E., Williams Lake  2nd
Eagle, Clifford B., Lac la Hache     1st
Goetjen, Charles E., Horsefly     1st
Graham, James, Horsefly   2nd
Graham, John, Horsefly   2nd
Greenlee, E. L., Canim Lake    1st
Hamilton, Gavin G., Williams Lake  2nd
Hamilton, Herbert M., Lac la Hache     1st
Hamilton, Peter, Williams Lake  2nd
Hamilton, Ray M., Williams Lake  2nd
Hamilton, Tom, Williams Lake  2nd
Higgins, Edward, Mahood Falls P.O    1st
Higgins, K. E., Mahood Falls     1st
Hockley, George, Horsefly    1st
Hooker, Fred C, Horsefly    1st
Hooker, S. B., Horsefly  2nd
Hubbard, Isaac H, Horsefly     1st
Jacobson, John, Big Lake  2nd
Jefferson, Jesse T., Big Lake  2nd
Jenner, Ernest, Horsefly   2nd
Jones, Fred E., Horsefly	
Jones, Lawrence, Horsefly _.
Louie, Fred, Canoe Creek...
McDougall, Robert, Big Lake..
Class of
Licence
     1st
     1st
    1st
    1st
McKenzie, Kenneth James, Big Lake     1st
McNeil, H. M., Fawn P.O     1st
Morris, D. L., Forest Grove     1st
Nicol, Alex., Horsefly     1st
Nicol, Shelley, Horsefly      1st
Oak, Ernest, Horsefly   2nd
Paxton, Hubert E., Williams Lake  2nd
Pickering, Leonard H., Williams Lake  2nd
Poirier, J. E., Hydraulic  2nd
Racher, Wilfred J., Horsefly     1st
Reid, William R., Horsefly  2nd
Robertson, William, Soda Creek  2nd
Roper, Alfred, Canim Lake    1st
Sharp, William M., Ochiltree  2nd
Thygasen, Julius, Horsefly    1st
Vaness, John, Horsefly    1st
Webster, Alister J., Horsefly  2nd
Westwick, Burton, Williams Lake  2nd
Westwick, Lawrence, Williams Lake  2nd
Williams, Aubrey, Horsefly     1st
Williams, Thelma V., Horsefly  2nd
Wotzke, Herbert, Williams Lake  2nd
Wynstra, Jack, Horsefly   2nd H 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Block I—Chilcotin District (Cariboo West of Fraser River)
Class of
Licence
Allen, George H., Quesnel     1st
Armstrong, Thomas B., Bouchie Lake P.O. 2nd
Armstrong, Wilfred, Quesnel  2nd
Auchinachie, J. W., Alexis Creek  2nd
Blatchford, Bob, Alexis Creek  2nd
Blatchford, John A., Alexis Creek     1st
Bliss, Bill, Alexis Creek     1st
Bliss, Jack, Alexis Creek  2nd
Bowe, Alfred, Alkali Lake  2nd
Bracewell, Gerry, Tatlayoko Lake     1st
Bryant, A. L., Anahim Lake     1st
Bullion, Sammy, Hanceville  2nd
Buttler, Lenard, Tatla Lake  2nd
Cahoose, Gus, Anahim Lake  2nd
Capoose, Oggie, Anahim Lake  2nd
Church, Dick, Big Creek     1st
Coldwell, Reg, Quesnel (Punchaw)  2nd
Collier, Eric, Riske Creek  2nd
Dester, Baptiste, Kleena Kleene     1st
Dick, Matthew, Alkali Lake  2nd
Dorsey, Lester, Anahim Lake     1st
Elkins, loe, Alexis Creek  2nd
Elkins, Thomas, Alexis Creek     1st
Fraser, Tommy, Penticton,  2nd
Garner, Tom, Alexis Creek     1st
Gilbert, Wilfred G., Quesnel  2nd
Gregg, Frank, Kleena Kleene  2nd
Hamilton, Theodore, Lac la Hache     1st
Hance, Grover, Hanceville     1st
Hansen, Fred, Kleena Kleene     1st
Harrington, A. G., Box 578, Quesnel     1st
Haynes, Harry, Tatlayoko Lake     1st
Haynes, Kenneth, Tatlayoko Lake     1st
Heaton, William F., Buck Ridge  2nd
Henderson, lohnny, Tatlayoko Lake     1st
Henry, Cecil, Big Creek     1st
Henry, Eagle Lake, Tatlayoko Lake     1st
Holte, James, Anahim Lake     1st
Holtry, Lewis, Anahim Lake    1st
Hudson, E. R., Kleena Kleene  2nd
Jack, Johnny, Alexis Creek  2nd
Johnson, Lames A., 100 Mile House     1st
Johnson, W. T., Riske Creek     1st
Kellogg, Bruce, Kleena Kleene  2nd
Knauf, Mrs. Cathrine E., General Delivery, Quesnel  2nd
Knauf, Harold, General Delivery, Quesnel    1st
Knoll, Alvis, Redstone  2nd
Lavington, Arthur C, Quesnel (Nazko)—_    1st
Lavington, Harold (Dude), Quesnel     1st
Class of
Licence
Lavoie, George, Quesnel (Nazko)  2nd
Leake, Bill, Quesnel (Nazko)  2nd
Leake, Clarence, Quesnel (Nazko)  2nd
Le Levre, Lind, Penticton     1st
Lloyd, David, Kleena Kleene  2nd
McKenzie, James Henry, Cinema     1st
Maindley, John, Alexis Creek  2nd
Max, Maxine, Alexis Creek  2nd
Maxted, William, Big Creek     1st
Miller, I. E., Quesnel (Punchaw)     1st
Mitchell, Samuel, Williams Lake     1st
Mullen, B. A., Tatla Lake  2nd
Mulvahill, Bill, Redstone  2nd
Mulvahill, Randolph, Redstone     1st
Nelson, R. C, Big Creek  2nd
Nicholson, Donald, Tatla Lake  2nd
Nicholson, Terry, Tatla Lake  2nd
Paley, Robert G., Quesnel     1st
Paxton, Alex., Alexis Creek     1st
Paxton, Ann, Alexis Creek 2nd
Petal, Henry, Alexis Creek  2nd
Petrowitz, Arthur, Williams Lake  2nd
Phillips, Floyd, Anahim Lake     1st
Potvin, A., Redstone  2nd
Quanstrom, Carl, Quesnel  2nd
Quanstrom, Harry, Quesnel     1st
Rafferty, A. T., Riske Creek 2nd
Rawling, Arden, Box 977, Quesnel  2nd
Reinertson, R. J., 100 Mile House    1st
Robson, Bert, Atnarko  2nd
Schuk, E. A., Tatlayoko Lake  2nd
Scott, Douglas, 100 Mile House     1st
Scott, Bob, Riske Creek  2nd
Siebert, John, Jesmond     1st
Smith, Bert J., Batnuni (Quesnel)  2nd
Snow, Shannon, Penticton  2nd
Stephenson, Donald, Alexis Creek  2nd
Squinas, Thomas, Anahim Lake     1st
Stowell, Orvel, Meldrum Creek  2nd
Sulin, Willy, Anahim Lake  2nd
Tibbies, Fred C, Quesnel     1st
Ulm, R. C, Soda Creek  2nd
Vogellaar, P. W., Alexis Creek  2nd
Watson, Art, Alexis Creek     1st
Wilkinson, Hugh J., Quesnel  2nd
Wilson, David, Tatla Lake     1st
Wilson, Gordon, Anahim Lake  2nd
Wilson, Tom, Big Creek  2nd
Witte, Duane, Big Creek     1st
Witte, Frank, Big Creek    1st
Non-resident Outfitters' Licence
White Water Lodge (Ed Gunsolley), Hanceville.
Block J—Cariboo District (Quesnel-Barkerville North from Marguerite)
Class of
Licence
Asserlind, Hillyerd C, Keithley Creek  2nd
Barrett, Stanley N., Horsefly  2nd
Bowden, Ted, Box 99, Quesnel  2nd
Bowers, Robert W., Marguerite  2nd
Conn, Robert Hanley, Keithley Creek  2nd
Crittenden, John Stanley, Keithley Creek__ 2nd
Ellison, Ray, Box 323, Quesnel  2nd
Fowlie, Albert, Box 339, Quesnel  2nd
Gibbons, Melvin L., Horsefly    1st
Hooker, Fred P., Horsefly    1st
Kellogg, Earl J., Wells  2nd
Kinvig, Tom, Keithley Creek  2nd
Larrent, Louie, Quesnel (Nazko)  2nd
McBurney,  Aubrey, Keithley Creek  2nd
Class ot
Licence
McBurney, Gordon, Likely   2nd
Maclnnes, John, Barkerville   2nd
McKitrick, Roy D., Wells  1st
McKitrick, William, Wells   2nd
Moffat, Ronald H., R.R. 1, Quesnel  1st
Moore,  Bill S.,  Quesnel  2nd
Morgan, Dallas J., Likely  1st
O'Leary, Arthur, Quesnel  1st
Redlack, Wilfred Louis, Hixon Creek  2nd
Sorum, Erick, Quesnel  2nd
Twan, Clarence, R.R. 1, Box 9, Quesnel  2nd
Walters, Glenn H., Horsefly  1st
Walters, Leonard F., Horsefly  1st REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1955
H 95
Block K—Kamloops District (Savona-North Thompson-Clearwater-
Spences Bridge-Merritt)
Class of
Licence
Archibald, David A., Clearwater  2nd
Blackman, William, Valemount  2nd
Blair, Percy, Little Fort  2nd
Brousseau, Cliff, Savona     1st
Brown, A. Starr, Little Fort  2nd
Carter, Cecil, Black Pool  2nd
Charlton, June, Pritchard  2nd
Cochran,  Glen, Darfield   2nd
Crate, Lloyd, Lucerne   2nd
De Vooght, Roger P., Vavenby  2nd
Farquharson, James, Kamloops  2nd
Grant, Gordon, McLure     1st
Helset, Ted, Clearwater      1st
Hogue, John S., Clearwater     1st
Hoover, Eldred, Westsyde      1st
King, Marvin L., East Black Pool  2nd
Korsvick, George Emil, Valemount  2nd
Lafave, Everett, Louis Creek  2nd
Lafave, George E., Louis Creek  2nd
Lafave, John W., Louis Creek     1st
Latremouille, loseph L., Little Fort     1st
Lean, Theodore, Clearwater     1st
Loveway, Thomas, Little Fort  2nd
Class of
Licence
__._     1st
Ludtke, Laurence, Clearwater 	
McDiarmid, Garfield G., Clearwater    1st
McGarrigle, William J., Little Fort  2nd
Modrall,   Thomas   Franklin,   East   Black
Pool  2nd
Marriot, Robert W., Heffley Creek  2nd
Marshall, James, 717 Pine St., Kamloops.. 2nd
Nelson,  Gerald,  Black Pines  2nd
Owens, John H, Ashcroft     1st
Peacock, Colin, Box 537, Kamloops  2nd
Phillips, Roy, Red Lake  2nd
Pringle, Joseph, Westwold  — 2nd
Rainer, Karl, Darfield  2nd
Rorison, William, Savona  2nd
Sandj Martin J., Vavenby  2nd
Scott, Duncan, Barriere     1st
Stadnyk, Mural, Falkland  2nd
Turner, John, Criss Creek  2nd
Tuson, Clifford, Copper Creek     1st
Wagner, Martin, Kamloops   2nd
Watson, Charles, Merritt   2nd
Wharton, Francis, Little Fort  2nd
Whittaker, John, Kamloops   2nd
Block L—Boundary Districts (Grand Forks West to Princeton, Including
Kettle Valley and Ashnola)
Class of
Licence
_ 2nd
—_ 2nd
__ 2nd
Anschetz, Chris, Rock Creek	
Bradshaw, George A., Westbridge_.
Carey, Bertram Chas., Westbridge__
Clark, Herbert G., Box A38, Keremeos      1st
Cochran, Fred M., Westbridge  2nd
From, Oliver, Westbridge   2nd
Hall, D. Elmer, Westbridge  2nd
Holding, Richard, Princeton  2nd
Class of
Licence
__.. 2nd
Lawrence, George V., Hedley	
Lutner, E. C, Beaverdell       _ 2nd
McLean, Robert Donald, Box 12, Okanagan Falls   2nd
Manion, William B., Tulameen  2nd
Smith, Howard J., Westbridge  2nd
Wright, Brian (Pat), Princeton.__.__  1st
Block M—Adams Lake-Salmon Arm-Revelstoke-Vernon Areas
Class of
Licence
DeSimone, Samuel H., Revelstoke     1st
Daney, Seldon M., Ferguson  2nd
Donnelly, C. W., Salmon Arm  2nd
Harrison, Robert Owen, Adams Lake  2nd
Hurstfield, Frances, Scotch Creek  2nd
Kachuk, John, Trout Lake  2nd
Laforme, George W., Revelstoke.
May, Arthur W., Celista	
Potts, William, Chase
Robertson, Douglas F., Squilax	
Upper, Clarence F., Revelstoke	
Werner, Carl L., R.R. 1, Lumby_
Class of
Licence
.__._ 1st
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd H 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Block N—East Kootenay (Cranbrook-Invermere-Golden Districts)
Class of
Licence
Anderson, Charles, D., Windermere     1st
Barbour, J. A., Wilmer  2nd
Bjorn, Henry Manning, Fort Steele     1st
Bower, L. G., Bull River  2nd
Brewer, Carl, Canal Flats     1st
Canning,  Lester,  Skookumchuck  2nd
Capilo, Louis, Athalmer..
Cooper, Albert, Invermere...
Ellis,  Camille,  Skookumchuck..
Fisher, Tony, Invermere	
Gabry, Mike, Brisco
1st
1st
2nd
2nd
2nd
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
1st
2nd
2nd
Kohorst, Charles, Edgewater  2nd
Lindborg, Axel, Golden     1st
Lum, Peter, Skookumchuck    1st
McClain, Jesse I., Spillimacheen     1st
Goodwin, Dave, Invermere	
Goodwin, Elwood, Edgewater_.
Goodwin, Lester, Invermere....
Gould, Percy, Canal Flats	
Hammond, Lyle, Golden	
Hansen, T., Wilmer..
Harrison, William O., Edgewater..
Jimmie, Joe, Fairmont	
Keir, Eugene, Maryville .
McKay, Gordon, Invermere..
McKay, James, Invermere	
Michel, Abraham, Windermere..
Class of
Licence
..._    1st
._.__ 2nd
.... 2nd
Mitchell, Robin A., Brisco     1st
Morigeau, Martin, Fairmont     1st
Nicholas, Dominic, Windermere     1st
Pommier, Emile, Skookumchuck  2nd
Rande, Eugene W., Field  2nd
Rauch, Harold C, Golden  2nd
Romane, W. H. (Bill), Golden  2nd
Seward, Arvid, Golden
Seward, Roy S., Golden
Sheek, Pat, Golden	
Tegart, George, Edgewater..
Tegart, Hiram W., Brisco	
Tegart, James, Brisco..
lst
2nd
2nd
1st
1st
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
Wallin, Dawson, Invermere  2nd
White, lames Freeman, Fort Steele     1st
Wolfenden, Winston, Brisco     1st
Zinkan, E. J., Invermere  2nd
Tegart, Raymond, Invermere..
Thompson, Jim, Edgewater	
Thompson, John, Edgewater	
Thompson, Lioel, Edgewater..
Block O—East Kootenay (Cranbrook East to Crowsnest, Including
Fernie and Natal)
Baher, Frederick, Natal
Baher, Martin C, Natal-
Class of
Licence
....    1st
-.    1st
Baher, Mathias, Natal      1st
Barnes, Alfred, Corbin    1st
Barnes, James Norman, Nelson      1st
Bossio, William, Fernie .
Bush, William, Ta Ta Creek..
Crossorini, Louis, Natal 	
Cutts, Jack, Fernie 	
Dvorak, Frank, Fernie
1st
2nd
2nd
1st
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
Dvorak, Wenzel, Fernie 	
Eftoda, Gordon, Fernie, 	
Gorrie (Jr.), Methden, Flagstone	
Gorrie (Sr.), Methden, Flagstone    1st
Gravelle, Alex., Flagstone      1st
Gravelle, Nick, Flagstone   2nd
Class of
Licence
      1st
...    1st
Hicks, Frank, Fernie	
Hicks, Phillip, Fernie 	
Kubinec, Peter, Fernie      1st
Logan, Doris May, Wardner   2nd
McDougall, Joe, Flathead, via Polebridge,
Mont., U.S.A.   2nd
McGinnis, Earl, Natal      1st
McKenzie, Fergus, Fernie      1st
Phillips, Frank, Flagstone     1st
Porco, Albert, Natal    1st
Riddell, Harry Scott, Wardner  2nd
Rosicky, Anton, Wardner      1st
Rothel, Malcolm, Natal      1st
Travis, Frank, Natal     1st
Volpatti, Ben, Drawer 10, Natal    1st
Non-resident Outfitters' Licence
Russell, Andy, Twin Butte, Alta.
Block P—West Kootenay (Including Nelson-Creston, Kootenay Lake,
AND LARDEAU)
Class of
Licence
Bennett, Arthur, Box 482, Kaslo  2nd
Blakeman, Clare F., Nelson  2nd
Cummings, Arnold, Boswell  2nd
Lewis, Jack D., Box 389, Nelson  2nd
Class of
Licence
MacNicol, J. W., Johnsons Landing  2nd
Oliver, George, Gray Creek  2nd
Schwartzenhauer, Carl, Deer Park  2nd
Simmons, R. Thomas, Lardeau  2nd REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION. 1955
H 97
PERSONNEL OF GAME COMMISSION AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1955
Attorney-General (Minister) —
Game Commission (member).
Scientific Advisors	
..Hon. R. W. Bonner, Q.C..
..Frank R. Butler	
..Dr. W. A. Clemens	
Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan.
.Victoria.
Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
Vancouver.
Headquarters
Administrative Assistant H. D. Simpson	
Senior Clerk J. McLellan	
Intermediate Clerk W. Fowkes	
Intermediate Clerk Miss I. Lawson	
Secretarial Stenographer Miss J. Smith	
Senior Clerk-Stenographer Miss P. Golder	
Senior Clerk-Stenographer Miss R. McKay	
Clerk-Stenographer Miss T. Hayes	
Clerk-Stenographer Miss P. Kalenchuk..
Clerk-Stenographer Mrs. J. Whitfield	
Clerk Miss J. Hine	
..Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
..Vancouver.
Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
-Vancouver.
"A" Division (Vancouver Island and Portions of Lower Mainland)
Inspector	
Intermediate Clerk-
Stenographer	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
_G. C. Stevenson..
_.D. Keirs	
Miss J. Bull	
. R. W. Sinclair	
_E. Martin	
..R. S. Hayes	
..C. E. Estlin	
..W. S. Webb	
_F. H. Greenfield.
.Victoria.
..Victoria.
.Victoria.
.Victoria.
.Alberni.
..Campbell River.
..Courtenay.
-Duncan.
..Nanaimo.
" B " Division (Kootenay and Boundary Districts)
Inspector	
Clerk-Stenographer..
Game Warden	
Corporal Game Warden-
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
_C. F. Kearns	
.Miss L. Hickey.	
. R. A. Rutherglen..
A. F. Sinclair	
P. D. Ewart	
..J. W. Bayley	
_R. R. Farquharson.
B. Rauch	
J. J. Osman	
. W. A. McKay..
..J. V. Mackill—
..A. Monks	
A. F. Gill	
... Nelson.
 Nelson.
...Nelson.
 Grand Forks.
.-Castlegar.
—Cranbrook.
 Cranbrook.
...Creston.
...Fernie.
.Golden.
...Invermere.
 Penticton.
...Princeton.
"C" Division (Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, and Cariboo Districts)
Inspector	
Intermediate Clerk-
Stenographer	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
_L. R. Lane..
_.G. Ferguson	
..Mrs. S. D. Bertoli
-L. G. Smith	
_ H. Tyler	
_.K. R. Walmsley.	
_.W. I. Fenton	
D. D. Ellis	
_.R. S. Welsman	
_.E. M. Martin	
_.H. J. Lorance	
_G. A. Lines	
-D. Cameron	
.A. S. Frisby..
-E. Holmes.—.
_J. P. Gibault.
-Kamloops.
..Kamloops.
Kamloops.
.Kamloops.
..Kamloops.
-Alexis Creek.
..Clinton.
..Kelowna.
Lillooet.
..Merritt.
.Quesnel.
..Revelstoke.
.Salmon Arm.
..Vernon.
..Wells.
..Williams Lake. H 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA
' D " Division (Atlin, Skeena, Omineca, Fort George, Peace River, and
Yukon Boundary Districts)
Inspector	
Intermediate Clerk..
_.W. A. H. Gill
_R. I. Guay.
Stenographer Miss C. Sieben.
Game Warden A. J. Jank	
Game Warden R. A. Seaton.	
Corporal Game Warden	
Stenographer	
Game Warden	
_C. J. Walker	
..Mrs. M. Richardson.
.W. H. Richmond	
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince Rupert.
Prince Rupert.
Burns Lake.
Fort Nelson.
Fort Nelson.
Game Warden J. A. McCabe.
Game Warden B. Villeneuve.
Game Warden H. O. Jamieson Fort St. John.
Game Warden J. Dowsett Lower Post.
Game Warden J. M. Hicks McBride.
Game Warden G. R. Taylor Pouce Coupe.
Game Warden L. J. Cox Smithers.
Game Warden I. D. Williams Terrace.
" E " Division (Vancouver, Coast, and Lower Fraser Valley Districts)
Corporal Game Warden-
Game Warden	
 R. E. Allan Vancouver.
 R. S. King Vancouver.
Game Warden R. K. Leighton Vancouver.
Game Warden F. R. Lobb Vancouver.
Game Warden H. D. Mulligan Vancouver.
Game Warden W. T. Ward Vancouver.
Corporal Game Warden-
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
_.W. J. Mason Alert Bay.
_F. J. Renton Alert Bay.
.A. J. Butler	
-H. P. Hughes	
-W. H. Cameron..
_P. M. Cliffe	
_F. Urquhart	
_B. E. Wilson	
.Chilliwack.
..Cloverdale.
Ladner.
Mission.
..Port Coquitlam.
..Powell River.
Chief Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Game Management Division
 Dr. J. Hatter Vancouver.
 E. W. Taylor Vancouver.
 W. G. Smith Cranbrook.
 P. W. Martin Kamloops.
 D. J. Robinson Nanaimo.
Regional Game Biologist L. G. Sugden Williams Lake.
Fisheries Management Division
Chief Fisheries Biologist	
Division Fisheries Biologist...
Division Fisheries Biologist-
Division Fisheries Biologist._.
Regional Fisheries Biologist-
Regional Fisheries Biologist-
Regional Fisheries Biologist-
Regional Fisheries Biologist-
Assistant Fisheries Biologist.
_R. G. McMynn..
.1. Barrett	
_Dr. C. C. Lindsey.
..E. H. Vernon	
..D. Hurn	
_F. P. Maher	
-S. B. Smith	
_G. E. Stringer.	
_G. E. Northcote...
Assistant Fisheries Biologist—.  1. G. Terpenning..
Assistant Fisheries Biologist I. L. Withler	
Fishery Supervisor F. Pells	
Fishery Officer F. H. Martin	
Fishery Officer I. J. Phelps	
Fishery Officer E. Hunter	
Fishery Officer R. A. McRae	
Fishery Officer J. C. Lyons	
Fishery Officer N. W. Green	
Hatchery Officer-
Hatchery Officer-
Hatchery Officer-
Hatchery Officer-
Hatchery Officer-
Stenographer	
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Nanaimo.
 Cranbrook.
 Vancouver.
 Kelowna.
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Cultus Lake.
 Courtenay.
 Courtenay.
 Nelson.
 Summerland.
 Summerland.
 Nelson.
 Summerland.
 Vancouver.
_L. E. Hunter.—  Cultus Lake.
.R. A. H. Sparrow Clinton.
J. D. Varty Cranbrook.
..Miss M. Jurkela Vancouver.
_J. C. Chatwin.
.G. Dibblee— REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1955
H 99
Predator Control Division
Supervisor of Predator Control G. A. West.
.Vancouver.
Assistant Supervisor of Predator ControLE. H. Samann Kamloops.
Predatory-animal Hunter W. J. Hillen Kamloops.
Predatory-animal Hunter N. Lingford Abbotsford.
Predatory-animal Hunter G. Haskell Cranbrook.
Predatory-animal Hunter J. Kandal  Castlegar.
Predatory-animal Hunter J. Dewar Nanaimo.
Predatory-animal Hunter A. M. Hames Merville.
Predatory-animal Hunter C. G. Ellis Pouce Coupe.
Predatory-animal Hunter M. W. Warren . Prince George.
Predatory-animal Hunter A. E. Fletcher Smithers.
Predatory-animal Hunter M. Mortensen Williams Lake.
Predatory-animal Hunter J. T. Lay Williams Lake.
victoria, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956
1,060-856-4861 

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