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Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year Ended December 31st 1955 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1957

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year Ended December 31st
1955
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1955.
WILLIAM RALPH TALBOT CHETWYND,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister's Office,
Victoria, B.C. The Honourable William Ralph Talbot Chetwynd,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1955.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1955 Shows a Decrease       7
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1955       7
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1955       8
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  8
Other Canneries  16
Mild-cured Salmon  17
Dry-salt Salmon  17
Dry-salt Herring  17
Halibut-fishery  18
Fish Oil and Meal  19
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  20
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  20
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces, 1954  20
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia  21
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Paper No. 41) (Digest)   _ 22
Herring Investigation  22
Report of the Biologist, 1955  24
APPENDICES
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (No. 41).   By
D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C  28
The Status of the Major Herring Stocks in British Columbia in 1955-56.
By F. H. C. Taylor, M.A.; A. S. Hourston, Ph.D.;  and D. N. Outram, B.A.,
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  51
Phytoplankton and Physical Conditions in Ladysmith Harbour.   By C. D.
McAllister  81
The British Columbia Shipworm  92
Report of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission for 1955 105
International Pacific Halibut Commission, 1955  109
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1955  112
Statistical Tables  127  REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENT
OF FISHERIES FOR  1955
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1955
SHOWS A DECREASE
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1955 amounted to
$60,668,000. * This was a decrease from the production of the year previous of $8,754,000,
or approximately 15 per cent less than the marketed value of fisheries products in 1954.
The principal species, as marketed in 1955, were salmon, with a value of $42,869,000;
herring, with a value of $7,323,000; and halibut, with a marketed value of $3,924,000
(livers and viscera excluded). The value of the salmon production was $7,412,000 less
than in 1954. The value of herring production in 1955 was $7,323,000, almost equal
to the value of the 1954 season. It should be noted that these figures are for the calendar
year and, consequently, somewhat distort the picture in respect to herring, as this fishery
extends from November to March. The herring values quoted are for those fish landed
in the months of January and February and properly belong to the 1954-55 herring-
fishing season.   The value of the 1955 halibut-catch was $2,000,000 less than in 1954.
In 1955 the marketed value of shell-fish amounted to $2,133,000. The value of
clam production was $436,000; oyster production, $420,000; crab production, $996,000;
shrimp production, $281,000.
The total value of boats engaged in commercial fishing in 1955 was $42,500,000, and
the total value of gear used in British Columbia's fisheries during 1955 was $7,840,000.
The above figures were taken from the " Preliminary Fisheries Statistics of British
Columbia," published by the Canadian Department of Fisheries, Vancouver, B.C.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1955
In 1955 the Provincial Department of Fisheries licensed twenty salmon-canneries
to operate in the Province. This was the same number as were licensed in the year
previous. The location of the canneries in 1955 was as follows: Fraser River and Lower
Mainland, 12; Central Area, 2; Skeena River Area, 5; and Rivers Inlet, 1. The number
of canneries operated and the distribution was the same as in 1954. No canneries have
been operated on the Nass River or in the Queen Charlotte Islands for some time, and
this is also true of Vancouver Island. All of these areas formerly supported salmon-
canneries, but in recent past years the tendency has been to operate fewer canneries in
the outlying areas and concentrate the actual canning operations in more strategically
located areas. This concentration of operations has been made possible largely by the
greater number of comparatively fast packers and an adequate supply of crushed ice,
which makes the transportation of fresh fish in good condition over longer distances a
more economical means of operation. The salmon-canners have taken advantage of this
in order to cut overhead by reducing the number of canneries operating. It would seem,
however, that this has been carried to what would appear to be the limit of concentration,
as indicated by the number and distribution of canneries over the past few years.
In 1955 there were no significant interruptions or delays in the salmon-fishery due
to disputes over prices or terms of contract.
* This figure does not include Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia.
7 K 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Normally the export of fresh salmon for canning is not permitted, but since 1947
fresh salmon have been permitted to be exported after September 1st in each year. This
permission to export after September 1st has resulted in a large movement of chum salmon
to the United States for processing in Puget Sound canneries, and in 1955 there was
again a large movement of chums to Puget Sound for canning. The reader should take
into consideration these quantities when an analysis is being made of the canned pack ot
chum salmon. The reader should also take into account, when considering the pack
figures for the canneries of the Lower Mainland, the fairly large amount of chum salmon
caught in Johnstone Strait and the Gulf of Georgia which find an outlet in the frozen-fish
trade.
Probably the most significant single feature of the salmon-canning operations in
British Columbia in 1955 was the extremely small pack of sockeye, amounting to 244,821
cases. This was the smallest pack of sockeye since 1943. Another feature of the 1955
pack was the extremely large pack of pink salmon, amounting to 831,255 cases. The
1955 pack of pinks was the largest on record in recent past years. These packs will be
dealt with further in the next section of the Report.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1955
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1955 amounted to 1,410,298
cases, compared with 1,747,854 cases in the year previous, according to annual returns
submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries by those canners licensed to operate.
The 1955 total pack was 337,556 cases less than in 1954. The 1955 canned-salmon
pack was 239,186 cases below the average annual pack for the previous five-year period.
In the year under review the canned-salmon pack was composed of 244,821 cases
of sockeye, 17,859 cases of springs, 1,882 cases of steelheads, 186,191 cases of cohoe,
831,255 cases of pinks, and 128,289 cases of chums.
As pointed out above, the total sockeye-pack in the 1955 season was the smallest
pack in British Columbia since 1943. The spring-salmon pack in 1955 was the largest
pack of this species since 1949, in which year 21,184 cases were canned. The cohoe-
pack, amounting to 186,191 cases, was the largest pack of this species since 1951, and
in no year since 1934 has the pink-salmon pack been greater than in the year under
review. Chum salmon packed in 1955 were considerably below average, and, except
for the very small pack in 1952, the 1955 pack was the smallest on record in recent past
years. In considering the pack of chum salmon, however, due allowance must be made
for the large number of chum salmon which are exported each year to the United States.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS
Fraser River
The total canned-salmon pack for the Fraser River in 1955 amounted to 294,238
cases, compared with a total pack for this river system in 1954 amounting to 563,807
cases. The pack in 1953 was 496,936 cases, while in 1952 it amounted to 151,147
cases. The 1955 Fraser River pack was composed of 103,678 cases of sockeye, 6,843
cases of springs, 269 cases of steelheads, 15,910 cases of cohoe, 160,187 cases of pinks,
and 7,350 cases of chums.   Half-cases have been dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1955 the Canadian pack of sockeye salmon for the Fraser
River amounted to 103,678 cases. This was the smallest pack of this species since 1949,
when the pack amounted to 96,159 cases. The 1955 Fraser River sockeye-pack was
110,658 cases less than the average annual pack for this river system for the previous
five years. The cycle-year 1951 for Fraser River sockeye produced a pack of 145,231
cases, while in the previous cycle-year the pack was 33,952 cases.
The Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery is regulated by an International Commission under treaty between Canada and the United States.   This fishery is an international REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 9
one, in that the sockeye salmon comprising the fishery pass through both Canadian and
United States territorial waters before reaching the Fraser River, hence the nationals of
both countries share in the catch. The Commission is composed of six members, three
of whom are appointed by the United States Government and three by the Canadian
Government. The Commission's job has been to try to rehabilitate the sockeye-salmon
runs to the Fraser River. There can be little doubt, from the results of fishing in the
last few years, that the efforts of the Commission are producing results. Much of the
catch which produced the large sockeye-packs in recent past years was due to the
remarkable comeback of the Adams River run, but there was no large run to the Adams
River in 1955. Other areas of the Fraser are showing signs of improvement over
previous years.
It is part of the duty of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission to
regulate the Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery in such a way that the nationals of each
country will share equally in the catch as closely as is practicable. According to figures
released by the Commission in 1955, the total sockeye-catch was 2,595,000 fish, the
second largest in this cycle since 1903. The Canadian catch amounted to 1,108,081 fish
and was 52 per cent of the total catch. The following table shows the percentage of
catch by American and Canadian fishermen since 1938:—
1938
American
(Per Cent)
42.00
Canadian
(Per Cent)
58.00
1939  	
   . 44.50
55.50
1940
37.50
62.50
1941	
  . 39.30
60.70
1942	
1943	
1944  	
  37.20
  37.42
29.77
62.80
62.58
70.23
1945  	
   . 39.90
60.10
1946. 	
  43.90
56.10
1947       	
      16.60
83 40
1948    	
.     . 59.47
40 53
1949         	
49.98
50 02
1950       	
    . 57.70
42.30
1951    	
   _ 46.78
53.22
1952          	
      49.74
50.26
1953	
   50.31
49.69
1954	
  50.44
49.56
1955	
  48.00
52.00
In the Appendix to this Report there is a table showing the total sockeye-salmon
packs of the Fraser River, arranged in accordance with the four-year cycle, from 1895
to 1955, inclusive, showing the catches made by British Columbia and Washington
fishermen in the respective years.
For a more detailed account of the 1955 sockeye-salmon fishery on the Fraser
River, the reader is referred to the report of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for 1955, specially prepared by the Commission for inclusion in this Report
and published in the Appendix.
Spring Salmon.—The canned pack of spring salmon on the Fraser River is never
indicative of the size of the catch of this species or of the size of the run, as spring salmon
find a large outlet in other than the canned state. The fresh- and frozen-fish trade takes
large quantities of spring salmon, and, generally speaking, the canned pack is made up
of fish which are caught incidental to fishing for other species or those fish caught in the
early spring-salmon run.   The spring-salmon catch in 1955 was 6,843 cases, compared K 10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
with 8,298 cases in 1954, 5,620 cases in 1953, 2,279 cases in 1952, and 5,719 cases
in 1951.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Fraser River in 1955 produced a pack of 15,910 cases of
cohoe. This is compared with the 1954 pack of 11,948 cases and the cycle-year 1953,
in which the pack was 15,480 cases. The 1955 cohoe-pack on the Fraser was 3,173
cases greater than the average annual pack for this species for the previous five-year
period.
In making these comparisons, due allowance should be made for large quantities of
cohoes caught in the Fraser River area which are frozen. These, of course, are in addition to the catch indicated by the canned-salmon pack.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon run to the Fraser River every alternate year, the runs
coinciding with the odd-numbered years. In 1955 the Fraser River produced a pack
to Canadian fishermen amounting to 160,187 cases. This is compared with the cycle-
year 1953, when 204,421 cases of pink salmon were canned. In 1951 the pack amounted
to 66,673 cases, while in the corresponding cycle-year 1949, the pack was 66,626 cases.
For comparison the cycle-year in 1947 produced a pack of 113,136 cases, while in 1945
the pack was 95,748 cases.
Chum Salmon.—In 1955 the chum-salmon pack on the Fraser amounted to 7,350
cases. This is compared with the 1954 pack of 45,444 cases. The 1955 pack of chum
salmon on the Fraser was the smallest since 1949, when 6,763 cases were canned. The
1955 pack of chum salmon was 17,359 cases below the average annual pack on the Fraser
for the past five years.
It was mentioned in a previous section of this Report that in recent past years the
embargo on the exportation of salmon for canning purposes was removed after September
1st. This permits much of the chum-salmon catch to be shipped to Puget Sound canneries
for canning there. This export of fall fish has resulted in a very much reduced canned-
salmon pack in British Columbia. This movement of large quantities of chum salmon
to the United States for canning in Puget Sound canneries is indicative of what could
happen to British Columbia's salmon-canning industry if, for any reason, the Canadian
embargo on the export of fresh salmon for canning were lifted. There is no doubt that
the United States canners, with their very much larger home market, would be able to
outbid Canadian canners for Canadian fish, with the result that Canadian fish would be
canned in the United States or else the Canadian consumer would have to pay a higher
price for salmon caught and canned in Canada. The extra dollars earned by the slightly
higher price obtained by the fishermen for fish on the other side of the line would certainly
not compensate for the loss incurred by the large number of people who find employment
in British Columbia canneries, together with the higher cost to the Canadian consumer.
In view of developments which have taken place in the salmon-fisheries of British
Columbia in recent past years, there would seem to be no good reason why the embargo
should be lifted on chum salmon after September 1st. It would seem only prudent that
the fish should be canned in Canadian canneries and the profits accrue to Canadians.
In considering the canned-salmon pack figures as an indication of the runs to the
different streams in the Province, the reader is cautioned that any consideration of the
canned-salmon pack as a measure of the total run of any species should take into consideration the escapement to the spawning-beds. This is contained in a report by the
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Fisheries Department, which is included
in the Appendix to this Report.
Skeena River
The total pack of all species of salmon canned on the Skeena River in 1955 was
123,507 cases. The pack was composed of 14,649 cases of sockeye, 1,430 cases of
springs, 976 cases of steelheads, 14,192 cases of cohoe, 86,788 cases of pinks, and 5,471
cases of chums.    Half-cases have been dropped in each instance.    The 1955 pack is REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 11
compared with the pack of 1954, in which year there were canned a total of 136,500
cases. In 1953 the total pack on the Skeena River was 117,406 cases, while 221,306
cases were canned in 1952.
Mention was made under this heading in the Report for 1954 that the Federal
Minister of Fisheries had announced the setting-up of a committee to recommend
measures to correct the cause of the low production for the Skeena River in recent past
years.   This committee is still functioning.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1955 amounted
to 14,649 cases, which was most disappointing. The 1955 pack is compared with that
of 1954, in which year there were canned 60,817 cases, while in 1953 the pack was
65,003 cases. The pack in 1955 was the lowest pack of sockeye salmon on record for
the Skeena River, and while it is true the run in 1955 was partly the result of the 1951
spawning, which was badly interrupted by a rock-slide, nevertheless it does not seem that
the low pack in 1955 was entirely the result of the disaster in 1951. The sockeye runs
to the Skeena have been consistently averaging smaller in late years, and the industry
should be prepared to accept rather drastic measures in order that the sockeye runs to
this system may be rehabilitated to something like their former production.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon on the Skeena River, as on most of the other river
systems of the Province of British Columbia, find an outlet in markets other than canning,
and the springs canned are usually caught incidental to fishing for other species on this
river system. The size of the pack, therefore, is not indicative of the size of the run or of
the size of the catch.
In 1955 the Skeena River produced a pack of 1,430 cases of spring salmon, compared with 1,260 cases in 1954, 1,174 cases in 1953, 2,082 cases in 1952, and 2,055
cases in 1951.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoes are never a large factor in the Skeena River canned-salmon
pack, and the total number of cases canned has varied widely from year to year. The
14,192 cases canned in 1955 are compared with 10,449 cases in 1954, 5,260 cases in
1953, 8,358 cases in 1952, and 19,977 cases in 1951.
Pink Salmon.—There were 86,788 cases of pink salmon canned on the Skeena River
in 1955. The pack figures for pink salmon also vary widely from year to year. In 1954
there were canned 39,324 cases, while in 1953 the pack was 29,884 cases. In 1952 the
Skeena produced a pack of 89,314 cases.
Chum Salmon.—In 1955 the chum-salmon pack on the Skeena River was 5,471
cases, which, when compared with the previous year, was most disappointing. The pack
in 1954 was 23,135 cases, while in 1953, 15,114 cases were canned. In 1952 the pack
was down to 4,638 cases, but in the previous year, 1951, the pack was 14,778 cases.
Nass River
The canned-salmon pack for the Nass River has fluctuated rather widely over the
years, but in recent past years the pack has been remarkably steady. In 1955 the pack
of 62,081 cases compares rather closely with the total pack in 1954, which was 69,358
cases, while in 1953 the pack was 66,510 cases. In 1952, 57,775 cases were canned, but
in 1951 the total canned-salmon pack for the Nass River was 152,742 cases.
The Nass River pack in 1955 was composed of 13,654 cases of sockeye, 1,028 cases
of springs, 99 cases of steelheads, 9,356 cases of cohoe, 29,040 cases of pinks, and 8,904
cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1955 the sockeye-salmon pack on the Nass River was 13,654
cases, and while this was 3,369 cases more than were packed in the year previous, the
1955 pack nevertheless was 5,545 cases below the average annual pack for the Nass
River for the previous five-year period, and if Nass River fish are considered to be four-
year fish, the 1955 pack is compared with the 1951 sockeye-pack, which amounted to
24,405 cases.   The 1955 sockeye-pack on the Nass was most disappointing. K 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned on the Nass River only
incidental to fishing for other species; consequently, the pack is not indicative of the size
of the run and should be considered in the light of the spawning-ground reports.
In 1955 the pack of spring salmon on the Nass River amounted to 1,028 cases,
compared with 398 cases in 1954, 527 cases in 1953, 641 cases in 1952, and 596 cases
in 1951.
Cohoe Salmon.—On the Nass River in 1955 the pack of cohoe amounted to 9,356
cases, compared with 6,024 cases in 1954, 5,118 cases in 1953, 1,223 cases in 1952, and
18,711 cases in 1951. The records for cohoe production on the Nass River in recent
past years indicate a wide fluctuation of this species.
Pink Salmon.—The pack of pink salmon on the Nass River in 1955 amounted to
29,040 cases and is compared with the previous year's pack of 36,448 cases. In 1953
the Nass produced a pack of 16,635 cases of pinks, while in the year previous 13,016
cases were canned.   In 1951 the pack of pinks on the Nass amounted to 70,880 cases.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack on the Nass River is never large, but the
pack of 8,904 cases canned in 1955 was rather disappointing in view of the recent past
record. In 1954 the pack of chums on the Nass was 15,965 cases, while 25,756 cases
were canned in 1953. In 1952 the pack was 13,112 cases, and in 1951, 37,742 cases
were produced.
In using the canned-salmon pack figures for any of the principal fishing-streams, the
reader is cautioned that these do not necessarily represent the size of the runs, notwithstanding the fact that the salmon-packs are usually considered as indicative of the size of
the run. The reader who is interested in the size of the runs to the different river systems
should examine carefully the reports of the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries on the condition
of the salmon-spawning areas of the various runs. The canned-salmon pack indicates
the size of the catch and not necessarily the size of the escapement. The Chief Supervisor's
report on the spawning areas will be found in the Appendix to this Report.
Rivers Inlet
In 1955 the total salmon-pack for Rivers Inlet amounted to 71,164 cases. This was
almost identical to the total pack for this inlet in 1954, in which year the pack amounted
to 71,023 cases. The Rivers Inlet total salmon-pack in the last two seasons has been
most disappointing when compared with the previous years' packs for this system. In
1953 Rivers Inlet produced a pack of 148,885 cases, while in 1952 the pack amounted
to 105,040 cases. In 1951 the pack was 148,996 cases, and in 1950 the pack was
172,107 cases. In the light of the foregoing, the 1955 pack must be considered as rather
disappointing.
The 1955 pack was composed of 50,702 cases of sockeye, 813 cases of springs, 86
cases of steelheads, 5,316 cases of cohoe, 8,658 cases of pinks, and 5,588 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 50,702 cases of sockeye salmon canned in Rivers Inlet in
1955 was within a few cases of the pack in 1954, when 50,639 cases were canned. When
considered in comparison with previous years' packs for this system, the 1955 pack must
be considered as disappointing. The average annual pack for the previous five-year
period on Rivers Inlet was 84,222 cases. The 1955 sockeye-pack was 34,736 cases
below the average annual pack for the previous ten-year period.
Spring Salmon.-—Spring salmon in Rivers Inlet are never a large factor in the total
pack for this area, being caught incidental to fishing for sockeye. The pack of springs in
Rivers Inlet in 1955 amounted to 813 cases, while the pack in 1954 was 649 cases. In
1953 the spring-salmon pack amounted to 865 cases, while in 1952 there were also
canned 865 cases.   The 1951 Rivers Inlet spring-salmon pack was 937 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of cohoe salmon, but the
1955 pack of 5,316 cases was somewhat larger than the pack in 1954, when 4,669 cases
- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 13
were canned.   In 1953 the pack was 1,979 cases, while in 1952, 3,415 cases were canned.
The pack in 1951 amounted to 12,146 cases.
Pink Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is not a producer of pink salmon in the true sense of the
word. The few which are canned each year are caught in sockeye gill-nets incidentally
while fishing for sockeye salmon. The pack in 1955 amounted to 8,658 cases, which is
compared with the previous years' packs of 2,581 cases in 1954, 7,304 cases in 1953, and
12,469 cases in 1952. In 1951, Rivers Inlet produced a pink-salmon pack of 20,960
cases.
Chum Salmon.—Rivers Inlet did not produce chum salmon for canning until 1935,
in which year a small fall salmon-fishery was introduced for the first time. Since then
there has been a pack of canned chums put up each year, the pack varying in size from
year to year, more in relation to the fluctuation and demand for chum salmon than to the
size of the runs.
In 1955 Rivers Inlet produced 5,588 cases of chum salmon, which are compared
with 12,352 cases in the year previous. In 1953 the pack was 5,627 cases, while 3,711
cases were canned in 1952 and 11,842 cases in 1951.
Smith Inlet
Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, is largely a sockeye-producing area. Other species
caught in Smith Inlet are usually caught incidentally while fishing for sockeye. The total
canned-salmon pack for Smith Inlet in 1955 was 34,570 cases, composed of 28,864 cases
of sockeye, 326 cases of springs, 20 cases of steelheads, 1,014 cases of cohoe, 2,275 cases
of pinks, and 2,070 cases of chums, half-cases having been dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1955 Smith Inlet produced a pack of 28,864 cases of sockeye,
compared with 49,473 cases in 1951, the cycle-year. The 1955 pack is compared with
the 1954 pack which amounted to 18,937 cases and with the 1953 pack of 29,947 cases.
In 1952 the pack amounted to 34,834 cases. If Smith Inlet sockeye are considered
five-year fish rather than four-year fish, then the 1955 pack should be compared with that
of 1950, which produced 42,435 cases.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon in Smith Inlet, as in Rivers Inlet, are caught only
incidentally while fishing for sockeye, and consequently the pack is never large. In 1955
Smith Inlet produced a pack of 326 cases, compared with 177 cases in 1954, 176 cases in
1953, 367 cases in 1952, and 174 cases in 1951.
Cohoe Salmon.—The same remarks hold true for the cohoe-salmon catch in Smith
Inlet, and in 1955 this inlet produced a pack of 1,014 cases. The 1955 pack is compared
with the 1954 pack, when 868 cases were canned. In 1953 the pack was 615 cases; in
1952, 1,466 cases and in 1951, 3259 cases of cohoe were canned in Smith Inlet.
Pink Salmon.—Smith Inlet does not support a pink-salmon run of any account. The
few pink salmon caught in this area are caught incidentally while fishing for sockeye.
In 1955 the inlet produced a pack of 2,275 cases of pinks. In the year previous, 523
cases of pinks were canned, while in 1953 the pack was 1,017 cases; in 1952 it was
6,496 cases; and in 1951 only 2,482 cases were packed.
Chum Salmon.—In 1955 there were 2,070 cases of chums canned from Smith Inlet
caught fish. The pack in 1954 was 2,992 cases, and in 1953, 4,015 cases. In 1952 the
chum-salmon pack in Smith Inlet dropped to 315 cases, while in 1951, 2,530 cases of
this species were canned.
Queen Charlotte Islands
Pinks and chums are the two species of salmon fished in the Queen Charlotte Islands
District exclusively for canning purposes. Chum salmon are taken every year in this
district, but pink salmon are caught only every alternate year, the runs coinciding with
the even-numbered years. K 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In addition to the salmon which are fished for in the Queen Charlotte Islands area
exclusively for canning, there is a large spring- and cohoe-salmon fishery for the fresh-
and frozen-fish trade. This fishery is conducted by trailers and is not considered in these
reports of the canned-salmon packs. The few cohoes which are caught incidentally while
fishing for chum salmon are canned and included in the salmon-pack figures for the
Queen Charlotte Islands. However, the canned-cohoe pack credited to the Queen Charlotte Islands is in no way indicative of the quantities of cohoes caught in this area.
In 1955 the total canned-salmon pack from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish was
22,088 cases. This pack was composed of 433 cases of sockeye, 16 cases of springs,
5 cases of steelheads, 11,668 cases of cohoe, 548 cases of pinks, and 9,420 cases of
chums.   In each instance half-cases have been dropped.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 433 cases of sockeye salmon canned from Queen Charlotte
Islands fish in 1955 were caught incidental to fishing for chum and apparently cohoe
salmon, and are probably stragglers which were proceeding elsewhere to spawn. The
1955 pack is compared with the 107 cases caught in the preceding year.
Spring Salmon.—The above remarks also apply in the case of spring salmon. In
1955 the pack was 16 cases, while in 1954, 6 cases of spring salmon were canned from
this area.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Queen Charlotte Islands District produced a pack of cohoe in
1955 amounting to 11,666 cases. This is compared with 11,289 cases in the year
previous. In 1953 there were 2,437 cases of cohoe canned, while in 1952 the pack
amounted to 4,168 cases. It is interesting to note that the cohoe-pack in the Queen
Charlotte Islands in 1951 amounted to 22,579 cases.
Pink Salmon.—As pointed out previously, pink salmon are caught in the Queen
Charlotte Islands every second year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years;
consequently, there was no pink-fishery to speak of in 1955, although 548 cases were
canned apparently from stragglers.
Chum Salmon.—The Queen Charlotte Islands have been in the past a fairly large
producer of chum salmon. The 1955 pack of 9,420 cases of chums was most disappointing and must be written off as a complete failure. The pack in 1954 amounted to 83,805
cases, but in 1953 the pack dropped to 17,304 cases. In 1952 only 1,712 cases of chums
were canned, but in that year there was a pink-pack of 178,959 cases, which could have
had the effect of diverting considerable effort from chum salmon to pink salmon. In 1951
the chum-salmon pack in the Queen Charlotte Islands was 61,696 cases, and five years
ago, in 1950, 148,669 cases were packed. It would appear that the chum-salmon runs
to the Queen Charlotte Islands and the smallness of these runs in recent years should be
investigated in order to try to find out the reason.
Central Area
For the purpose of this Report the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing
areas off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River,
except Rivers Inlet, which is treated separately. Salmon-fishing in the Central Area is
conducted on many different runs of salmon in the various parts of the district, and, as
a consequence, the size of the pack in this area is no indication of the magnitude of the
different runs to the various streams, but rather reflects the size of the runs generally
within the geographical limits of the area.
In 1955 the Central Area produced a total pack of 214,998 cases, compared with
a pack of 327,820 cases in 1954 and 317,626 cases in 1953. The Central Area pack in
1955 was composed of 19,648 cases of sockeye, 1,864 cases of springs, 318 cases of
steelheads, 24,846 cases of cohoe, 122,371 cases of pinks, and 45,950 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack in the Central Area in 1955, amounting
to 19,648 cases, was the smallest sockeye-pack in this area since 1949, when 16,140 cases
were canned.   In 1954 the pack for this area amounted to 30,858 cases of sockeye, while REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955 K 15
in 1953, 25,845 cases were canned. In 1952 the pack was 26,583 cases, and in the
cycle-year 1951 the pack was 22,312 cases. The sockeye-pack in the Central Area in
1955 was 5,401 cases below the average annual pack of sockeye in this area for the
previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon caught in the Central Area find an outlet in various
markets, including the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. Therefore, the canned-salmon pack
figures for spring salmon are not indicative of the production of the area as a whole.
In 1955 the pack of spring salmon in the Central Area amounted to 1,864 cases, compared
with 1,645 cases in 1954, 1,568 cases in 1953, 1,261 cases in 1952, and 1,082 cases
in 1951.
Cohoe Salmon.—The size of the cohoe-pack in the Central Area has varied widely
from year to year, but in the last few years the pack has been rather consistent. In the
Central Area in 1955 the cohoe-pack amounted to 24,846 cases, while in 1954 it was
26,511 cases. In 1953 there were 21,502 cases of cohoe canned in this district, and in
1952 the pack was 17,289 cases. In 1951, however, the cohoe-pack amounted to 61,423
cases.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area is a heavy producer of pink salmon, this species
producing one of the largest packs of any of the species canned in the Central Area over
the years. In 1955 the Central Area produced a canned-salmon pack of 122,371 cases
of pinks, compared with 118,538 cases in 1954 and 92,517 cases in 1953, while in 1952
the pack was 207,055 cases. In 1951 the pink-salmon pack in the Central Area was
237,599 cases.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack in the Central Area in 1955 was most
disappointing, the total production amounting to 45,950 cases. This small pack in 1955
is compared with the packs of previous years. In 1954 there were canned 149,672 cases
of chums, and in 1953 the pack was 175,289 cases. In 1952 the pack dropped to 36,605
cases, due principally to lack of effort on the part of the fishermen, owing to market
conditions. In 1951 the pack was 190,843 cases, while 164,884 cases were canned in
1950. In 1955, efforts were made to put up a large pack of chum salmon in the Central
Area, but apparently the fish did not put in an appearance.
Vancouver Island
The Vancouver Island District, like the Central Area, supports numerous races of
salmon running to different streams. In this Report no attempt is made to deal with
the various races separately. It should be pointed out, however, that the sockeye salmon
caught in the Sooke traps are not credited to Vancouver Island, but to the Fraser River,
where most of them are known to migrate. Similarly, sockeye salmon caught in Johnstone
Strait between Vancouver Island and the Mainland are also credited to the Fraser River
in this Report and not to Vancouver Island. These sockeye are known to be migrating
to the Fraser River.
For statistical purposes of this Report, salmon, other than sockeye, caught in
Johnstone Strait between Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland are credited to
Vancouver Island.
In 1955 the total salmon-pack from Vancouver Island caught fish amounted to
581,599 cases, compared with 349,586 cases in 1954 and 671,981 cases in 1953. The
Vancouver Island pack in 1955 was composed of 13,192 cases of sockeye, 5,534 cases
of springs, 63 cases of steelheads, 101,349 cases of cohoe, 421,355 cases of pinks, and
40,105 cases of chums, half-cases being dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 13,192 cases of sockeye packed from Vancouver Island
caught fish in 1955 was, with the exception of the small pack in the previous year, the
smallest pack of this species since 1948. In 1954 the pack of sockeye for the Vancouver
Island District was 12,051 cases, while in 1953 the pack was 46,895 cases. In 1952,
24,252 cases of sockeye were canned, while 22,107 cases were packed in 1951. K 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught in large quantities each year by trolling
off the west coast of Vancouver Island. These fish, however, find a market in the
fresh- and frozen-fish trade. Troll-caught salmon on the lower west coast of Vancouver
Island also find a market principally as fresh, frozen, and mild-cured. Because of these
outlets, the canned-salmon pack figures for spring salmon in the Vancouver Island District
are not indicative of the size of the catch of this species. In 1955 the spring-salmon pack
for Vancouver Island was 5,534 cases, while in 1954 the pack amounted to 1,649 cases.
In 1953, 3,115 cases of spring salmon were canned and 1,687 cases were packed in 1952.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoes, like spring salmon, are caught in large numbers by troll
off the west coast of Vancouver Island, and these, too, find a ready market other than
in cans. For this reason the canned-salmon pack of cohoe is not indicative of the size
of the catch or of the run. In 1955 the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island was 101,349
cases. This was the largest pack of cohoe since 1951, when 151,325 cases were canned.
In the intervening years, 1952 produced a pack of 23,583 cases, while 57,773 cases were
canned in 1953.   The pack of cohoe in 1954 was 54,783 cases.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon canned in the Vancouver Island District in 1955 produced 421,355 cases. In the cycle-year 1953, the pack was 439,173 cases, while in the
previous cycle-year, 1951, the pack was 303,102 cases.
According to the records the odd-numbered years for Vancouver Island pink runs
seem to produce the largest packs. In 1954, the even cycle, the pack was 32,913 cases,
while in 1952 the pack was 171,812 cases. In 1950 the pink-salmon pack was 132,016
cases.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are caught in fairly large numbers in the area comprising Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland districts. However, in comparing
the canned-salmon pack figures with other years, it must be remembered that in recent
years large quantities of this species have been shipped to the United States in the fall of
the year for canning there. Therefore, it must be assumed that the large drop indicated
in the canned-salmon pack figures for Vancouver Island in recent past years compared
with previous years is due, to some extent at least, to the export of chum salmon which,
of course, are canned in the United States.
In 1955 Vancouver Island produced a pack of 40,105 cases. This is compared with
248,098 cases in 1954 and 124,840 cases in 1953, while in 1952 the pack was down to
24,039 cases.
In addition to the British Columbia canned-salmon pack discussed in detail above,
there were canned in British Columbia in 1955 a total of 3,991 cases, composed of 5 cases
of springs, 44 cases of steelheads, 511 cases of cohoe, and 3,430 cases of chums. These
fish were packed from cold storage, some having been held over from the year previous
and others caught and frozen in the off-canning periods. Half-cases have been disregarded in each instance.
Other Canneries
In 1955 we have again to report that there was no run of pilchards in British
Columbia waters. This lack of pilchards has been consistent since 1949, and, as a consequence, no pilchard-cannery licences were issued. Reports from the biologists and
from California indicate that we need not expect a run of pilchards off the west coast of
Vancouver Island area for some considerable time in the future, and then only if the
California fishery is considerably modified.
Herring-canneries.—In 1955 one herring-cannery was licensed to operate in British
Columbia, producing a pack of 25,508 cases. This pack is compared with the year
previous, when a total of 18,940 cases of herring were canned in various sizes, including
sardines and oval snacks.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—The first commercial tuna-fish canning operation in British
Columbia was licensed by the Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1948.    Tuna-fish REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 17
in that year were caught off the British Columbia coast, but those which were caught
previous to that time were largely frozen and shipped to United States canneries for
processing there. The run of tuna to the British Columbia coast has been spasmodic
since 1948. In some years the fish appear in very large numbers, while in other years
they fail to put in an appearance. Since the end of the war there has been some importation of Japanese-caught tuna frozen in Japan and exported for canning in British
Columbia.
In 1955 one tuna-fish cannery was operated in British Columbia under licence from
the Provincial Department of Fisheries. This cannery produced 73,126 cases of 7-ounce
cans and 29,675 cases of 4-ounce cans. In 1954 two canneries operated, producing
34,250 cases of canned tuna. In 1955, as in 1954, all of the tuna canned in British
Columbia were imported from Japan in a frozen condition.
It might be worth while repeating here in respect to tuna-fish canneries that the
tuna-fishery off the west coast of British Columbia is still in an experimental condition;
consequently, the catch will varv from year to year. The canned product, however, will
vary in accordance with marketing conditions.
Shell-fish Canneries.—Under this heading those plants which are concerned with
the canning of various species of shell-fish are reviewed. In 1955 ten shell-fish canneries
were licensed in British Columbia, all of which operated. This was the same number of
canneries as operated in 1954. The ten shell-fish canneries produced the following packs
in 1955:—
Crabs:   1,433 cases of 48/1/2,s, 15,552 cases of 24/1's, and 9,426 cases of
48/Ws.
Clams:  1,628 cases of 48/1's, 27,930 cases of 24/1's, 3,296 cases of 48/1/i's,
and 2,000 cases of 6/10's (gallons).
Oysters:   341 cases of 48/1's, 4,174 cases of 48/V4's, and 1,906 cases of
24/10-ounce oyster stew.
Abalones:  77 cases of 48/1's.
MILD-CURED SALMON
Five plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1955, and all five operated. These
five plants produced 553 tierces of mild-cured salmon, totalling 5,085 hundredweight.
This operation is compared with the production of four plants licensed to operate in
1954 which produced a pack of 572 tierces of mild-cured calmon containing 4,519
hundredweight.
DRY-SALT SALMON
Previous to the outbreak of the war in 1939, large quantities of chum salmon were
dry-salted in British Columbia each season for shipment to the Orient. In some years
the production of dry-salt salmon reached quite large proportions, and it was a very
definite factor in the market for fall fish. During the war years the Provincial Government declined to issue licences for salmon dry-salteries in order to divert as much of the
salmon-catch as possible to the salmon canners and freezers. This was done as a war
measure. Since the end of the war the business of dry-salting salmon has not been
revived.
In 1947 two licences were issued, but no operation took place. No licences have
been issued for salmon dry-salteries since that time.
DRY-SALT HERRING
Since the end of the war there has been a small operation in the dry-salting of herring,
although this phase of the industry has never reached the proportions of the pre-war
years. K  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In 1955 one herring dry-saltery licence was issued, and this plant produced 1,016
boxes of dry-salt herring.
HALIBUT-FISHERY
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the
International Pacific Halibut Commission, which Commission is set up under a treaty
between Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut-
fishery. The fishery is a deep-sea fishery and is shared by the nationals of the two
countries, Canada and the United States. The Commission regulates the fishery on a
quota basis, and, on that account, there is little fluctuation in the amount of halibut landed
from year to year, except when the quotas are changed by the Commission for any reason.
There is, however, some fluctuation from year to year in the quantity landed by the
nationals of each country.
For the purpose of regulations, the coast was originally divided into a number of
areas, the principal ones, from the standpoint of production, being Areas 2 and 3. The
Commission has found it necessary to subdivide these areas into a number of sub-areas
in order to facilitate its work and to make better use of the stock of halibut on the
different banks. For a more detailed breakdown of the areas and the geographical limits
of each, the reader is referred to the Pacific Halibut Regulations for 1955.
In 1955 the catch-limits set by the Commission for the different areas were as
follows: Area 2, 26,500,000 pounds, and Area 3, 28,000,000 pounds. These were the
same quantities as were permitted in 1954.
In 1955 the total landings by all vessels in all ports amounted to 59,094,000 pounds,
compared with 71,265,000 pounds in 1954. The 1955 catch was derived by areas as
follows: Area Ia, 432,000 pounds; Area Ib, 217,000 pounds; Area 2, 28,730,000
pounds;  Area 3a, 28,782,000 pounds; and Area 3b, 933,000 pounds.
The total halibut-landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1955 was 22,601,000
pounds. This is compared with 29,464,000 pounds in 1954. The total landings by all
vessels in Canadian ports in 1955 were caught as follows: Area 2, 13,697,000 pounds;
Area 3a, 8,796,000 pounds; and Area 3b, 108,000 pounds.
Canadian vessels landed in Canadian ports in 1955 a total of 19,850,000 pounds
of halibut. This catch is compared with Canadian landings by Canadian vessels in 1954
amounting 25,240,000 pounds. The Canadian vessels took their catch by areas as
follows: Area 2, 13,005,000 pounds; Area 3a, 6,737,000 pounds; and Area 3b,
108,000 pounds.
In addition to the above, Canadian vessels landed in American ports, in 1955,
2,298,000 pounds, compared with the same landings in 1954 of 2,286,000 pounds.
The halibut landed by Canadian vessels in American ports in 1955 was caught as
follows: Area 2, 23,000 pounds; Area 3a, 2,227,000 pounds; and Area 3b, 48,000
pounds.
American vessels landed in Canadian ports in 1955 a total of 2,751,000 pounds
of halibut, compared with the same landings in 1954, amounting to 4,224,000 pounds.
The American catch landed in Canadian ports was caught as follows: Area 2, 592,000
pounds; Area 3a, 2,059,000 pounds;  and Area 3b, 100,000 pounds.
The average price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1955 and the
average price for all Canadian landings in Canadian ports in 1955 was 13 cents per
pound, compared with 16.1 cents per pound in 1954. There was no average price
immediately available for Prince Rupert when these figures were compiled. The average
price of halibut in the Province as a whole usually reflects the Prince Rupert price.
A breakdown of the value of halibut-livers and vitamin-bearing halibut viscera,
which is usually included in this Report, is not available at this time. However, it is
known that halibut-livers to the value of $56,636 and Vitamin A bearing viscera to the
amount of $32,492 were landed by the United States fleet.    The Canadian fleet will REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955 K 19
have, no doubt, received proportionately a similar amount for livers and Vitamin A
bearing viscera landed in Canada.
The above figures relating to the halibut-catch are to the nearest thousand pounds.
The statistical information for the halibut-fishery was supplied by the International
Pacific Halibut Commission and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
The production of fish-oil and edible fish-meal has been an important branch of
British Columbia's fisheries for a number of years. Previous to World War II, pilchards
and herring were the principal species used for reduction to meal and oil. The products
of the reduction plants found a ready market, the meal being used as a supplementary
food for animal-feeding and the oil being used in manufacturing processes of many kinds.
The demand for natural sources of vitamins stimulated the production of vitamin
oils from fish products, and at the outbreak of World War II the demand for natural
sources of vitamins greatly increased the production of fish-oils of high vitamin content.
This increased demand for high vitamin oils brought into use other fish besides herring
and pilchards during the war years and immediately after the war. Dogfish and shark
livers were in high demand in those years. Recently, however, the increased production
of synthetic Vitamin A has lessened the demand for fish-liver oil as a natural source of
this vitamin, and if the price of synthetic Vitamin A falls much lower, the market for
livers containing this vitamin may very soon disappear.
In addition to the production of oils from British Columbia's various fish and fish-
livers in recent years, there has been considerable activity in the use of cannery-waste
and viscera for the production of various pharmaceutical products. Besides the high
vitamin-content oils used in the medicinal field, British Columbia's fish-oils of lower
vitamin potency find an outlet in many manufacturing processes, and large quantities
are used for the feeding of poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—In 1955 only four plants were licensed to reduce fish-livers to oil,
and all four plants operated. The four plants processed 1,198,010 pounds of livers and
produced Vitamin A to the extent of 4,760,668 million U.S.P. units. This production
is compared with that of 1954, in which year four plants operated and produced a total
of 4,310,057 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A from 1,178,777 pounds of fish-livers.
Herring-reduction.—The winter herring-fishery has developed into British Columbia's second important fishery in dollar value. The season generally runs from late in
September or early in October through until the following March, with a short break at
the Christmas period. Many of the boats used in catching herring are also used in
salmon-fishing, and, generally speaking, the herring-fishery does not get into full swing
until the boats have been released from fishing for salmon.
In 1955 fifteen herring-reduction plants were licensed to operate. These fifteen
plants produced herring-meal to the extent of 47,097 tons and 4,475,536 imperial gallons of oil. This production is compared with the year previous, when twelve herring-
reduction plants were licensed, producing 28,782 tons of meal and 3,714,924 imperial
gallons of oil. It is interesting to note that the herring season of 1954-55 was the largest
herring-production season on record.
Whale-reduction.—In British Columbia there is only one shore-based whaling station. In 1955 operations from this station killed 630 whales, compared with the same
number in the year previous.   In 1953, 539 whales were killed.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed by
the Provincial Department of Fisheries under miscellaneous reduction licences. These
plants operate on cannery-waste and the carcasses of dogfish and produce meal and oil
for various purposes.    The oil produced from the carcasses of dogfish should not be K 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
confused with the oil produced from dogfish-livers, the latter being a high potency oil,
which is reported in another section of this Report.
In 1955 nine plants were licensed to operate. These nine plants produced 1,993
tons of meal and 201,690 imperial gallons of oil. This production is compared with
1954, in which year eleven plants were licensed and produced 2,361 tons of meal and
265,405 imperial gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS
Under section 73 of the British Columbia Fishery Regulations, fishing with nets in
certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under licence from
the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost exclusively to the
residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in question.
In the Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number and
approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for net-
fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province, namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and sturgeon.
The fur-farm licences are issued to licensed fur-farmers, and the coarse fish taken under
these licences are used for food for fur-bearing animals held in captivity. Ordinary
fishing licences are issued for the capture of fish other than trout, salmon, or sturgeon,
while licences issued for sturgeon-fishing are used exclusively for that fishery.
A detailed account of the fish taken by the licensed nets in the different waters of
the Province is again carried in the table appearing in the Appendix to this Report.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING
GROUNDS
We are again indebted to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government and the officers of his department, who conducted the investigations, for furnishing
us with a copy of the department's report on the salmon-spawning grounds of British
Columbia and permitting same to be published in the Appendix to this Report. The
Chief Supervisor's courtesy in supplying us with this information is gratefully acknowledged.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING
OF THE PROVINCES,  1954
The value of fisheries products of Canada for the year 1954 totalled $185,435,000.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of $69,422,000,
or 26.7 per cent of Canada's total. In addition, Japanese-caught tuna-fish canned in
British Columbia in 1954 totalled $1,273,000. British Columbia, in 1954, led all the
Provinces of Canada in respect to the production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded
that of Nova Scotia, second in rank, by $28,422,000.
The marketed value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1954 was
$3,967,000 more than in the year previous. The value of salmon amounted to $50,281,000.
The following statement gives the value of fisheries products of the Provinces of
Canada for the years 1950 to 1954, inclusive:— REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 21
Province
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
$68,821,358
38,164,967
18,053,168
5,496,282
7,033,552
6,791,290
3,320,513
767,887
1,360,114
2,297,466
30,000,000
$83,812,704
40,296,367
21,154,877
5,511,379
7,924,530
7,524,392
3,212,629
862,327
1,748,444
2,261,964
29,000,000
$56,635,0001
42,435,000
20,503,700
6,113,000
8,343,700
5,959.700
3,758,700
942,900
1,440,000
2,225,100
$65,455,0001
40,012,200
17,522,700
5,804,000
7,916,100
4,784,500
4,048,900
1,085,900
1,281,300
1,511,500
$69,422,0001
41,000,0002
18,158,0002
Quebec 	
5,423,000*
7,890,000
5,435,000
Prince Edward Island	
4,000,0002
1,150,000
1,644,000
2,040,000
28,000,000=
Totals
$182,106,597
$203,309,613
$148,357,200
$149,422,100
$184,162,000
1 This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia.
2 Estimated figures.
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1951 to 1955, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Salmon   —	
Halibut - 	
$60,749,658
5,603,901
10,639,653
$40,495,000
5,531,000
4,235,000
$47,936,000
5,552,702
6,518,000
$50,281,000
5,965,000
7,340,000
467,000
487,000
306,000
257,000
879,000
461,000
290,0001
470,000
4,000
30,000
41,000
82,000
4,000
9,000
(2)
9,000
57,000
$42,869,000
3,924,000
Herring 	
7,323,000
453,796
826,315
382,746
501,110
403,538
1,187,934
148,9331
289,624
2,229
47,4993
109,047
(2)
30,697
(=)
(2)
(s)
80,210
8,386
4,864,470
1,282,600
5,430
521,000
590,000
477,000
310,000
475,000
1,533,000
227,0001
438,000
3,000
20,000
75,000
251,000
384,000
449,000
313,000
663,000
854,000
361,0001
304,000
6,000
(s)
29,000
(2)
7,000
17,000
(2)
6,000
34,000
445,000
399,000
436,000
265,000
Crabs   	
Soles  	
Shrimps -.-  	
Oysters  	
996,000
710,000
281,0001
420,000
14,000
35,000
Perch
17,000
Smelts  	
15,000
(2)
1,000
13,000
(2)
Skate  	
5,000
115,000
7,000
106,000
349,000
(2)
(2)
26,000
54,000
355,390
(2)
(2)
13,000
3,000
427,000
(2)
(2)
1,000
Whales  	
(2)
(2)
Tuna...  	
73,211
Liver and viscera—
132,000
254 000
1,399,000
5,000
Miscellaneous 	
499,807
1,142,000
1,555,000
2,016,000
Totals  	
$83,812,704
$56,635,000
$65,455,092*
$69,422,000*
$60,668,000*
1 Shrimps and prawns.
2 Included in miscellaneous.
3 Skate and flounders.
* This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia.
Miscellaneous includes octopus, whales, and fish products, meal and oil, which cannot be separated into species,
with a value of $500 or less.
The above figures were supplied by the Federal Department of Fisheries, Vancouver,
and are hereby gratefully acknowledged. K 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON
Paper No. 41 (Digest)
This paper is supplied this year by D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., of the Pacific Biological Station of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Nanaimo, B.C. This is the
forty-first consecutive paper in this series reporting on the sockeye salmon in the commercial catch in the main runs north of the Fraser River. The data presented are, for
the most part, those of the commercial fishery and do not necessarily represent the
escapement. The numbers of sockeye in the catch, as shown in the tables, were obtained
through the Statistical Branch of the Department of Fisheries at Vancouver.
In commenting on the individual runs, the author points out that the catch for the
Nass River, which yielded a pack of 13,654 cases, was considerably below the five-year
average of 19,200 cases and even below the ten-year average of 16,909 cases for this
river system. The pack was derived chiefly from the run of 1950, which yielded a pack
of 27,286 cases.
Commenting on the run to the Skeena River in 1955, it is pointed out that the low
catch of 157,632 sockeye, which yielded a pack of 14,649 cases, indicates a drop in the
runs from the ten-year average, which totalled 70,671 cases. The author attributes this
drop to be directly due to the loss of spawners caused by the Babine River slide and is
not a serious cause for alarm, since, with the removal of the slide and the curtailed seasons being put into effect by the Federal Department of Fisheries and the Committee on
Management, Skeena River Salmon Fisheries, the situation should right itself.
In respect to the Rivers Inlet sockeye run of 1955, which yielded a catch of 584,128
sockeye, producing a pack of 50,702 cases, the writer says that this was an " extreme
disappointment" in a year when it was expected that the catch would be amongst the
largest recorded. According to the catch sample, the author points out that the main
failure was due to the lack of adequate returns of 5-year fish from the 1950 spawning,
when, according to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries report for 1950, " a large escapement of predominantly large sockeye is reported."
In commenting on the comparative failure of the Rivers Inlet sockeye run, the
author points out that " unfortunately no information on conditions in the spawning
area in the winter after egg deposition is available, so that no reason for failure can be
ascertained." If lake-level and temperature recorders are set up in the main Owikeno
Lake spawning areas, conditions likely to cause widespread destruction of eggs in the
redds would not recur without some knowledge of them being available to those interested.
Regarding the Smith Inlet sockeye run for 1955, the author remarks that " though
less than the average for the past five years, the catch of 325,478 sockeye, which yielded
a pack of 28,864 cases, was slightly above the Smith Inlet average of 27,926 cases for
the past ten years. This is in direct contrast to the poor showing of the adjacent Rivers
Inlet catch." It is pointed out that, although in general Smith Inlet runs behave similarly
to Rivers Inlet runs, recording instruments in both spawning areas at times of differing
conditions would materially add to the knowledge and ability to predict returns in these
areas.
For a more detailed analysis of the sizes making up the different runs, the reader
is referred to the paper which appears in the Appendix to this Report.
HERRING INVESTIGATION
Research on the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in British Columbia waters was
continued in 1955-56 by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada at the Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C. Herring research is under the supervision of F. H. C. Taylor;
during the winter of 1956-57, while Mr. Taylor is on educational leave, the work is
being supervised by A. S. Hourston. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 23
The purpose of herring research is to obtain the scientific basis for management
policy permitting the maximum sustained yield to the fishery. Two aspects are involved,
namely: (1) A general, continuing study of all the major herring populations in British
Columbia to keep a running check on the status of these populations and to determine
how and to what extent the results of specific studies can be applied, and (2) intensive
studies of specific problems in population dynamics at various stages of the life-history
to determine their effects on the fishing stocks.
General Studies on Adult Stocks of All Major Populations
The number of major populations of herring which have been identified in British
Columbia waters was increased to ten with the addition of the results of the 1955-56
analysis to the data already accumulated. The existence of major populations is indicated
by differences in the age composition and in average size at each age of the stocks in
different regions, and by the extent of mixing between such stocks as indicated by the
returns of tagged fish.
Emigration, as indicated from 2,666 returns of tagged fish, was greatest from the
upper Queen Charlotte Islands (36 per cent) and northern (67 per cent) populations.
This represents a sharp increase over the 1954—55 level, and both these populations
suffered a reduction in abundance in 1955-56. Homing was greatest to the lower Queen
Charlotte Islands and middle east coast of Vancouver Island, both of which yielded good
catches.    Other returns substantiated the findings of previous years.
Relative abundance in each of the major populations was determined from the catch
made in the sub-district occupied by each population, plus an estimate of the escapement
as indicated by the amount of spawn deposited. The 1955-56 herring-catch in British
Columbia was a record 250,441 tons, up 48 per cent from the previous season. The
amount of spawn deposited was 13 per cent less than in 1954-55, but was average for
recent years. Thus abundance was appreciably greater in 1955—56 than in 1954-55.
The increase in abundance was restricted to the lower Queen Charlotte Islands (catch
up a staggering 15,450 per cent and spawn deposition down only 16 per cent), lower
central (catch up 160 per cent and spawn deposition down only 39 per cent), and lower
west coast of Vancouver Island (catch up 175 per cent and spawn also up 41 per cent)
populations.
These increases in abundance were partially balanced by decreases in the upper
Queen Charlotte Islands (catch down 70 per cent with no spawn discovered in either
year), northern (catch down 43 per cent and spawn deposition down 12 per cent), upper
central (catch down 81 per cent and spawn deposition down 93 per cent), upper east
coast of Vancouver Island (catch down 90 per cent and spawn deposition up only 42 per
cent), and lower east coast of Vancouver Island (catch down 5 per cent and spawn
deposition down 52 per cent) populations. The increased catch on the middle east
coast of Vancouver Island and the decreased catch on the upper west coast were balanced
by a corresponding decrease and increase respectively in spawn deposition.
The large increases in abundance in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands and lower
central populations result from the unusually strong contribution of the 1951 year-class
as V-year fish, combined with a better than average contribution of the newly recruited
1953 year-class. The 1951 year-class was strong in most populations as III- and IV-year
fish, but its failure to make up appreciable proportion of the other more northern (District
No. 2) populations as V-year fish, combined with the weak contribution to most populations of the 1952 year-class, resulted in a decrease in abundance in these populations
in 1955-56. Relative abundance in the more southern populations (District No. 3)
in 1955-56 depended mainly on the contribution of the 1953 year-class, which was about
average on the whole. The 1954 year-class, which will be recruited to the southern
populations in 1956-57, appears to be comparable in strength to the 1953 year-class. K 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
However, the considerable reduction in the contributions of the 1951 year-class as
Vl-year fish to the northern populations will probably result in a decrease in over-all
abundance in 1956—57.
No appreciable difference in the size of fish at each age was noted in 1955-56, indicating that feeding conditions were probably normal. Females continued to slightly
outnumber males, except in the lower east coast population.
Investigations of Specific Problems
An investigation of the juvenile (1-year) herring population in the Strait of Georgia
region was continued for the second year in 1955-56. Estimates of abundance at this
stage provide a check on adequate survival in the new year-class as well as a prediction
of relative abundance at recruitment. The 1956 year-class was comparable in size to
that of 1955, which was average, according to local reports.
Returns of tags inserted in juvenile herring on the lower west coast of Vancouver
Island indicate that mixing between the juvenile stage and recruitment was greater than
that shown by fish tagged as adults which were at large for a comparable period. Thus
depletion in one spawning stock or poor survival of the brood should be buffered by the
excess in immigration over emigration prior to recruitment. Tagging experiments were
continued in the Gulf of Georgia region in 1956.
Experiments to improve the efficiency of tag-detectors in picking up tags in all
reduction plants were continued in 1956. However, the problems arising from the
modernization and increased electrification of reduction plants make the practical use
of electronic-type detectors, however sensitive, increasingly difficult.
REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST,  1955
Investigations designed to fulfil the functions of the Provincial Shell-fish Laboratory
at Ladysmith have been carried forward. These functions are to provide an information
service on commercial molluscs and to study the biology of these species in respect to
abundance, growth, reproduction, and culture.
Since the inception of the laboratory in 1948, the main emphasis has been on oyster
investigations. Work on clams has been confined to routine sampling.
Studies on the British Columbia shipworm have been carried on as time permits.
In 1955 Mr. C. McAllister, summer assistant, completed a biological-oceanographic
study of Ladysmith Harbour.
Oyster Investigations
Pacific Oyster Breeding
The weather during the summer of 1955, particularly the early part, was not unsuitable for oyster-breeding, but a single prolonged period of rain at the end of July caused a
drastic interruption in the normal sequence; consequently, breeding success was limited.
Ladysmith Harbour.—The first spawning in Ladysmith Harbour occurred on July
16th, when the water temperature at a level 3 feet below the surface was above 70° F.,
the highest level reached during the summer. This spawning produced a maximum of
sixteen straight-hinged larvae per gallon. Between July 24th and July 31st the average
water temperature dropped from 70° F. to 61° F. as a result of sustained south-east winds
and rain. By July 26th the larva? from the July 16th spawning were too few in number
to provide a set of consequence. A small spawning about July 23rd produced a small
number of larvae which did not survive. No further spawning occurred, and there was
no significant set, only occasional spat being found. This is now the third consecutive
spatfall failure in Ladysmith Harbour.
Pendrell Sound.—Water temperatures were much higher in 1955 than in 1954, particularly in July.  The salinity change pattern was also much the same as in 1954.  The REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955 K 25
first spawning of significance occurred on July 17th, producing an average of one larva
per gallon. From the distribution of the larvae, this spawning apparently occurred in the
middle sound.
On July 24th a spawning occurred at the head of the sound, and on July 26th samples
from that area contained up to 500 straight-hinged larva; per gallon. Samples from the
middle sound contained none or relatively few larva;.
On July 25th rain began and continued without interruption for eight days, when
the water temperature at the 3-foot level dropped from 75° F. to 65° F. on August 1st.
The population of larvae from the spawning of July 17th maintained good strength until
July 29th, but thereafter the numbers decreased rapidly and by August 5th only 0.25
larva per gallon remained from the extensive spawning of July 24th. Light spatting was
forecast to begin the week of August 7th, and this resulted in an average of 13.8 spat per
shell (eleven stations sampled).
Although satisfactory water-temperature conditions existed in the early part of
August, no further spawning occurred until August 18th, again at the head of the sound.
By August 20th the samples from the upper sound contained an average of 21.5 larvae
per gallon. By August 30th the distribution of the larvae had not changed, but the numbers were reduced to two larvae per gallon and by September 8th to one larva per gallon.
Light spatting was again forecast, and this set resulted in an average of ten spat per shell
(two stations).
The horizontal distribution of the spatfall was determined for the first set by the
examination of shell strings at eleven selected stations over the sound. The average catch
for the upper sound on floating cultch was 0.7 spat per shell; for the middle sound, 22.1
spat per shell; for the outer sound, 2.2 spat per shell. Floating cultch caught 18.1 spat
per shell and shore cultch caught 6.8 spat per shell.
Once again Station 5 caught better than any other station, and it has now done so on
four out of the five occasions when sets have been recorded quantitatively. It therefore
appears that, in years of low potential setting, this is the area where cultch should be
placed.
Other Investigations
A study of larval growth was made, and a growth curve has been drawn.
A study of spat growth between setting and the cessation of growth in the fall was
made, and from this it is apparent that, commensurate with keeping mortality to a minimum during the movement of the cultch from the seed-ground to the growing-ground,
spat should be held on the floats at least to the end of October in most years if full advantage is to be taken of the late summer and fall growth. In this instance the average
diameter of the spat on November 9th was nearly 1 inch, and this provides an excellent
start for growth during the next year.
No commercial cultch was exposed in 1955, since the forecasts indicated a setting
intensity below the necessary commercial level.
Cultch
Further experiments were carried out with the cement-dipped veneer circles first
tested in 1954. Cost of the circles was determined to be approximately 2 cents per circle,
whose surface is about 1 square foot. It requires about fifty to sixty circles to provide an
area equivalent to that of the shell area in a case of unbroken Japanese seed.
The circles are simply and rapidly strung on galvanized wire. A string of thirty
circles weighs about 5 pounds and, although quite light, is just heavy enough to sink, and
neither weights nor extensive floating power is required. The equivalent area of British
Columbia shell cultch would weigh about 30 pounds.
The set on the circles in 1955 was sufficient to provide a satisfactory test, the outcome of which will be determined in 1957. K 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Raft Culture
Experiments further to those previously reported have been conducted with raft
culture, using No. 12 gauge galvanized wire and with spat that have been held on the
bottom for a year. The results indicate that the heavier wire is good insurance against
loss, and that the larger spat provide a higher percentage of marketable oysters at the end
of the growing season.
It has been shown that raft-culture oysters should be held on the raft for one growing
season only, for in the second season there is excessive fouling and relatively little additional growth. Test raft-culture strings have been placed in various other locations to
determine whether or not all areas are equally suitable for this type of culture.
High-count Japanese Oyster Seed
The normal guaranteed spat content (1956) of a case of Japanese Miyagi oyster
seed is 12,000 or more for unbroken and 18,000 or more for broken seed. Recently,
extra-count seed (25,000 or more spat per case) and high-count seed (40,000 or more
spat per case) has been available in varying quantities.
In 1952 several cases of broken Japanese oyster seed with very high counts, varying
from 50,000 to 100,000 per case, were made available to the laboratory for testing to
determine the suitability of this type of seed. It was treated as commercial seed would
be, on the experimental area in Ladysmith Harbour. At yearly intervals the oysters
surviving in each case were counted, and the weight, volume, and average length were
determined.
The experiment demonstrated again that the major part of the mortality of oyster
seed with the present method of culture occurs during the first year after planting, and
that the subsequent mortality is almost negligible. The average survival of five cases of
high-count seed over a three-year period was 9 per cent, as compared with a 25-per-cent
survival of normal commercial seed (five-year period). However, the average yield of
the high-count seed in absolute numbers was 7,000 oysters per case, as compared to 4,000
oysters per case of the normal commercial-type broken seed.
Further experiments with many more cases with a wide range in spat counts will be
necessary to provide a definite answer, but this experiment has indicated that the use of
high-count seed has merit if the cost differential is satisfactory.
Pulp-mill
Plans to construct a pulp-mill in the Crofton area were announced in 1955. The
site chosen is in an oyster-producing area, and considerable concern has been expressed
by the growers, since pulp-mill effluents are known to be toxic, and in the United States
considerable litigation has resulted from pulp-mills being placed contiguous to oyster-
beds. Since there is provision in the " Canada Fisheries Act" relating to the discharge of
deleterious substances in waters where fishing is carried on, the problem of protecting the
oyster-fishery is one for the Federal Department of Fisheries, whose scientific advisers
have suggested a location for the effluent discharge that is expected to prevent any harm
to the oyster-beds.
However, as a precautionary measure, a programme has been developed to determine general conditions on the Crofton oyster-beds as they exist at the present time. The
essentials of this programme are:—
(1) A faunistic study of the tidal flats and reefs, as many of the shore invertebrates will be more sensitive to pulp-mill waste liquor than are oysters.
(2) A collection of histological material, particularly oyster tissue.
(3) A quantitative study of the seasonal and annual variation in condition
(fatness) of oysters at four stations in the area. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 27
(4) A study of the rate of growth of oysters at four stations in the area.
(5) A study of the extent of spat survival at four stations in the area.
There are several other types of biological investigation, such as the sequence and
quantity of fouling organisms under conditions of submergence and the sequence and
quantity of epiphytic material in intertidal areas that might be carried on. However, the
programme outlined above is additional to the normal programme of the laboratory, and
with the time available more extensive investigations are impossible.
Oyster Production
Production of Pacific oysters in 1955 was less than in 1954 by 1,056 gallons.
British Columbia Pacific Oyster Production in Gallons (American)
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
5,117
4,183
12,442
1,045
36,165
6,830
4,815
976
4,614
11,620
1,010
43,441
5,169
1,651
6,603
14,897
997
56,553
20,552
2,893
2,347
13,613
668
57,711
4,176
18,974
766
37,443
Totals          	
58,951
81,185
66,476
85,870
84,814
Clam Production
Butter-clam production in 1955 increased considerably over 1954 and Manila clams
increased slightly, while native little-necks and razor-clams were down somewhat.
British Columbia Clam Production in Pounds
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
3,500,500
521,900
178,900
135,500
5,492,300
493,300
495,900
125,500
3,691,000
308,700
387,700
154,500
2,896,900
137,900
450,000
271,800
4,783,500
80,200
456,000
Razor   -	
218,300
Acknowledgments
The assistance and co-operation given by the Federal Department of Fisheries, the
Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, the Pacific Oceanographic Group at Nanaimo, and
the Provincial Department of Lands and Forests are gratefully acknowledged. K 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE
SOCKEYE SALMON (No. 41)
By D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., Fisheries Research Board of Canada,
Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
This is the forty-first report in a series reporting on the sockeye in the commercial
catch in the main runs north of the Fraser River. The data presented are, for the most
part, those for the commercial fishery and do not necessarily represent the escapement.
Whenever the opportunity arose, escapement figures were obtained and compared with
those of the catch. The numbers of sockeye in the catch, as shown in the tables, were
obtained through the statistical branch of the Department of Fisheries at Vancouver.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS AND TREATMENT OF DATA
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the
fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers—
one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed
to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left fresh water.
The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
3i, 4i—the " sea types " or fish which migrate seaward in their first year and
mature in their third and fourth year respectively.
32—" the grilse," almost exclusively males and frequently called " jacks,"
which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in their third
year.
42> 52—fish which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in their
fourth and fifth years respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate seaward in their third year and mature in their fifth
and sixth years respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate seaward in their fourth year and mature in their
sixth and seventh years respectively.
Fish were measured to the nearest quarter of an inch, but when averaged the average
has been recorded to the nearest tenth of an inch to avoid using fractions of more than
one decimal place.    Weights were taken to the nearest tenth of a pound.    This has
resulted in an even-pound and half-pound bias when the data are grouped to the nearest
quarter-pound.
1. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1955
(1) General Characteristics
The catch of 154,904 sockeye, which yielded a pack of 13,654 cases (Table I),
was considerably below the five-year average (1951 to 1955) of 19,200 cases, and even
below the ten-year average (1946 to 1955) of 16,909 cases. This pack resulted chiefly
from a run (1950) which yielded a pack of 27,286 cases. The escapement was reported
as satisfactory that year. report of provincial fisheries department, 1955 k 29
(2) Age-groups
The Nass River sockeye-catch sample contained 12 per cent 4-year fish, 85 per
cent 5-year fish, and 2 per cent 6-year fish (Table I). Of these fish, 27 per cent had
spent one year in fresh water and had migrated seaward in the beginning of their second
year; 72 per cent had spent two years in fresh water and had migrated to sea at the
beginning of their third year (Table I). A few fish, which had apparently migrated to
sea as fry, returned in their third or fourth year (Tables II and III).
(3) Lengths and Weights
The average lengths recorded for the main age-groups of the year's sample were
less than those recorded at any time in the past ten years, except in the 63 males (Table
IV). In this last group, only the samples of 1949 and 1950 had smaller average lengths.
However, in weight, this year's samples were no lower than the lowest weights recorded
during the past ten years (Table V). In no case could the sockeye samples be considered as anything but small fish for this area.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The Nass River sockeye sample was 49 per cent males and 51 per cent females,
with the percentage of males varying in the individual age-groups as follows: 42, 50 per
cent; 52, 60 per cent; 53, 47 per cent; and 63, 68 per cent (Table VI).
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1955
(1) General Characteristics
Due to the low catch of 157,632 sockeye, yielding only 14,649 cases (Table VII),
the Skeena River sockeye runs have dropped from the ten-year average (1945 to 1954)
of 70,671 cases to a ten-year average (1946 to 1955) of 61,708 cases. Since, however,
this drop is believed to be directly due to the loss of spawners caused by the Babine
River slide, it is not a serious cause for alarm, since, with the removal of the slide and
the curtailed seasons being put into effect by the Federal Department of Fisheries and
the Committee on Management, Skeena River Salmon Fisheries, the situation should
right itself.
(2) Age-groups
Five-year-old fish formed 73 per cent of the Skeena River sockeye-catch sample,
59 per cent having spent one year in fresh water and 14 per cent two years (Table VII).
There were 15 per cent 42 fish and 11 per cent 63 fish. It must be realized that these
figures might have been somewhat altered if fishing had progressed evenly throughout
the run. However, a total closure during the week ended July 30th and a partial closure
in the week ended August 6th were imposed to permit a more adequate escapement.
Test fishing above the boundary with commercial nets and with graded series of mesh
sizes was carried out. While the catch from this fishing is generally considered to be
from the escapement, there is a movement of as yet undetermined extent, back and forth,
which undoubtedly exposes some of the fish to the fishery again after they have passed
the commercial boundary. The age-class composition of the sockeye taken in the test
fishing was, in round numbers, 6 per cent 32 fish, 25 per cent 42 fish, 53 per cent 52
fish, 7 per cent 53 fish, and 8 per cent 63 fish (Table XXV). As can be seen from a
comparison of Tables XXV and XXVI, this varies from the commercial catch chiefly
in having a greater percentage of jacks and 4-year-old fish and small percentage of 5-
and 6-year fish. The significance of this will be discussed below when the lengths of
these fish are considered. K 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
(3) Lengths and Weights
From Tables X and XI it is noted that the Skeena River sockeye in 1955 were in
the lower part of the normal size range in all the main age-classes. The lengths and
weights in the main age-groups were as follows:—
The 42 sockeye males averaged 22.5 inches and 4.9 pounds, and the females 22.1
inches and 4.8 pounds. Averages for the 52 sockeye were 25.6 inches and 7.4 pounds
for the males, and 24.5 inches and 6.4 pounds for the females. In the 53 fish, the males
averaged 23.0 inches and 5.5 pounds, while the females averaged 22.6 inches and 5.0
pounds. The 63 sockeye averaged 25.2 inches and 7.1 pounds for the males and 24.0
inches and 6.1 pounds for the females.
When the above lengths are compared with those obtained from the test fishing, as
shown below, certain features stand out. It is at once evident that the age-groups in the
escapement sample have lower average lengths than those in the commercial catch sample.
When comparing the abundance of each age-group in the two samples, it is readily seen
that a greater proportion of the age-groups which are made up of the smaller fish, the
32 and 42 groups, is in the escapement than in the catch. Tables XXV and XXVI show
more detail on the length distribution of the escapement and the catch than the following table:—
Age-group
Catch (604 Fish)
Escapement (1,094 Fish)
(Test Fishing)
Length
Per Cent of
Sample
Length
Per Cent of
Sample
3„
16.1
22.3
24.9
22.8
24.6
0.3
14.7
59.1
13.9
11.3
15.7
21.7
24.6
22.5
24.7
6.2
°2  -	
4„
25.1
5„                                            	
52.7
5„	
7.2
6D           -  	
8.1
It is not known what effect allowing a large proportion of the escapement to come
from the smaller fish from an age-group will have on the future size of that age-group.
However, the fact that certain runs maintain size differences from adjacent runs indicates
that hereditary factors are probably involved to a considerable extent. If so, the folly
of allowing the smaller fish to form the escapement from which our future stocks must
come is obvious.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The distribution of sexes in the Skeena River sockeye-catch shows two trends which
are almost invariable. These are that the catch as a whole contains over 50 per cent
females and the catch of 52 age-group fish contains an even greater percentage of females
than the total catch. This year was no exception, since 53 per cent of the sockeye sample consisted of females and 58 per cent of the 52 fish were females (Table XII). Only
43 per cent of the 42 age-group sample were females. This is the lowest percentage of
42 females recorded in the catch samples in over three cycles (Table XII).
3. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1955
(1) General Characteristics
The catch of 584,128 sockeye, yielding 50,702 cases (Table XIII), was an extreme
disappointment in a year when it was expected that the catch would be amongst the
largest recorded. From the catch sample, it was obvious that the main failure was in the
lack of adequate returns of 5-year fish from the 1950 spawning, when, to quote from the
Federal Department of Fisheries " Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1950," by
Chief Supervisor A. J. Whitmore, " a large escapement of predominantly large sockeye is
reported." REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 31
Unfortunately, no information on conditions in the spawning area in the winter after
egg deposition is available, so that no reason for the failure can be ascertained. If lake-
level and temperature recorders were set up in the main Owikeno Lake spawning areas,
conditions likely to cause widespread destruction of eggs in the redds would not recur
without some knowledge of them being available to those interested.
(2)  Age-groups
The Rivers Inlet sockeye-catch sample in 1955 was composed of 45 per cent 42 fish
and 54 per cent 52 fish, with minor numbers of 53 and 63 age-groups (Table XIII).
From spawning reports of 1950 and 1951, it had been presumed that the 52 age-group
would comprise a very much higher proportion of the run. The low catch of 1955 is
largely attributable to the failure of the return from the 1950 spawning.
Through the courtesy of the Fish Culture Development Branch, the author was able
to sample sockeye seined above the fishing boundary in connection with spring-salmon
tagging operations. These fish would bear the same relationship to the escapement as the
sockeye caught in the Skeena test fishing mentioned previously. In addition, a sample of
the escapement was obtained on some of the spawning-streams. The comparison of the
percentages in these two samples and the commercial catch sample is interesting in that
it shows that the younger age-classes (jacks and 42 fish) form a larger percentage of the
escapement than of the catch.
Catch (685 fish)	
Escapement seined (231 fish)..
On redds (165 fish)	
Age-class
Jacks (39,4g)
Per Cent
0.0
1.3
6.4
Per Cent
44.8
78.8 ■
52.6
Per Cent
54.2
19.5
41.0
Per Cent
0.4
0.0
0.0
Per Cent
0.6
0.4
0.0
(3) Lengths and Weights
As was the case with the Nass and Skeena River runs, the Rivers Inlet sockeye were
within the range of lengths and weights as recorded in previous years. The average length
for the 42 male sockeye was 21.2 inches, and for the females, 21.0 inches; for the 52
age-group the lengths were 25.4 inches and 24.5 inches respectively (Table XXVI).
Average weights in these classes were: 42 males, 4.5 pounds, and females, 4.2 pounds;
and 52 males, 7.4 pounds, and females, 6.5 pounds (Table XXVII).
Comparison of the length of the sockeye in the catch and escapement samples is also
interesting, as shown below (lengths taken to nearest quarter inch).
Age-class
Jacks(32,43)
42
52
53
63
Catch sample (685 fish)—	
Inches
14%
14%
14%
Inches
21'/4
1934
19Vi
Inches
24%
25
251/4
Inches
22
Inches
25
On redds1 (165 fish)	
1 This sample was divided into age-classes on the basis of length.  The 53 and 63 fish present would be indistinguishable from the larger 42 and 52 fish, and so no attempt was made to separate out these classes.
The tabulated data show clearly that the escapement comes from the smaller 42 fish
and the larger 52 fish, though the tendency in this latter case is not as striking as in the
former, where the average length of the catch is 1V2 inches greater than in the escapement. k 32 british columbia
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The sex distribution, as related to age, again showed the invariable relationship of
more males amongst the 4-year-old fish and more females in the 5-year-old fish in the
catch samples (Table XVIII). Percentage of males was 67 in the 42 fish and 31 in the
52 fish. The over-all percentage of males was 48.
4. THE SMITH INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1955
(1) General Characteristics
Though less than the average for the past five years, the catch of 325,478 sockeye,
yielding 28,864 cases, was slightly above the Smith Inlet average of 27,926 cases for the
past ten years. This is in direct contrast to the poor showing of the adjacent Rivers Inlet
catch. Though, in general, Smith Inlet runs behave similarly to Rivers Inlet runs, recording instruments in both spawning areas at times of differing conditions would materially
add to our knowledge and our ability to predict returns in these areas.
(2) Age-groups
As is normal in this run, only two main age-groups were present; 42 fish formed 42
per cent of the catch sample and 52 fish 58 per cent (Tables XIX to XXI). One 53 fish
was present (Tables XX and XXI).
(3) Lengths and Weights
As with the other samples, the Smith Inlet sockeye were in the lower part of the
length and weight ranges of former years, but set no records. The 42 fish had averages of
21.8 inches and 5.0 pounds for the males and 21.6 inches and 4.7 pounds for the females,
while the 52 fish had averages of 25.3 inches and 7.5 pounds and 24.6 inches and 6.9
pounds respectively for the males and females (Tables XXII and XXIII).
(4) Sex Distribution
The Smith Inlet sockeye catch sample showed its usual sex distribution, with 76 per
cent of the 42 fish and 37 per cent of the 52 fish being males (Table XXIV). In the
over-all sample, there were 54 per cent males. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 33
Table I.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
h
h
63
1912  	
36,037
23,574
31,327
39,349
31,411
22,188
21,816
28,259
16,740
9,364
31,277
17,821
33,590
18,945
15,929
12,026
5,540
16,077
26,405
16,929
14,154
9,757
36,242
12,712
28,562
17,567
21,462
24,357
13,809
24,876
21,085
13,412
13,083
9,899
12,511
10,849
13,181
9,268
27,286
24,405
29,492
18,163
10W
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
12
39
3
41
28
23
35
12
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
16
6
19
9
19
22
20
15
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
56
60
48
71
31
46
46
40
70
2
1913 .~        	
2
1914..   -.
10
1915
8
1916 ..
8
1917
4
1918	
9
1919	
6
1920 	
6
1921 	
8
1922  -_
1
1923	
6
1924	
2
1925	
2
1926	
13
1927	
4
1928  	
3
1929	
6
1930 -	
3
1931 _.
6
1932 	
7
1933...  	
3
1934	
	
1935	
1936 .	
10
1937 	
1938  	
	
6
1939	
7
1940  	
10
1941     	
4
1942	
5
1943	
15
38
1944.	
1945 _  .
6
1946	
3
17
12
1947	
1948     	
1949	
7
1950 	
6
1951  	
13
4
9
1952.... 	
304,500
198,400
1953. 	
1954 	
1955	
2
1 To nearest hundred. K 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age
, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
3l
\
42
52
5
3
63
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.   1   F.
1
1
M.   1   F.
1
M.
F.
M.   1   F.
18	
1
1
-  i        1
1814	
1
1
ISVi   -	
18?4	
	
19 -
	
1
	
1
19'/4-  ..
19'/2~~
1
1
19%
1
......
1
20...    ..
2
20!4.. .
IWi--
	
1
5
1
3
10
203/4.....
	
3
3
6
21..	
1
1
4
1
2
4
13
2m	
1
2
1
1
9
14
21'/2	
2
6
4
5
17
21%  	
1
5
10
8
37
61
22  	
2
6
7
1
8
22
46
22 Vi	
1
5
10
1
7
34
. _     1       58
22[/2.....
6
7
  1      2
9
21
45
2234	
...... 1 ......
1
2
13
2
12
5
1
1
24
10
78
40
129
23	
61
23<4.....
	
6
14
1
3
1
7
24
66
40
70
1
72
23%  	
160
2334	
9
1
4
37
36
87
24.     .
1
1
2
3
1
5
37
30
1
82
24'A.....
	
2
4
1
2
7
38
19
73
241/2. ..
4
2
12
51
39
108
2434        .
1
5
7
25
13
51
25	
1
6 1      9
27
12
1
56
2514.....
2
8 1      9
22
16
1
2
60
251/2	
2
2
16
10
?9
6
65
2534	
17
4
12
3
1
37
26  	
	
1
1
9
3
7
5
1
2
2
1
24
2614.....
10 |      3
21
261/2	
1
17
1
10
1
1
31
2654	
1
10
3
2
16
27 	
5
1
6
2754 	
6
1
1
1
9
27 Vi.   	
1
1
2
27%  ...	
2
1
3
98
	
1
	
4
6
	
1
1
3
5
2814 -.  	
11
28VS	
2834...	
29      	
?9i4
2
2
2914	
1
1
Totals 	
4 |      2 |      9 |      7
84 |    85
131 1   88
473
543
15
7  ! 1.448
19.9 [20.5 |24.9
1          1
23.1
23.1  ] 22.3
1
26.0
24.7
24.1
23.2
26.9 125.1 |   23.9
1          1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 35
Table III.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Weight in Pounds
Number of Individuals
M.
M.
F.       M.
M.
M.
F.
Total
214..
3......
3V4—
3V2--
3%_
4...	
414..
4VS-
434..
5	
514..
5*4-
5?4..
6......
6!4..
614-
6%_
7 ....
714..
714-
734..
814 —
814—
83/4._
9	
91/4..-.
914_
934—
10.	
3
2
5
5
11
8
23
12
12
10
8
11
9
2
4
4
1
1
5
5
8
5
13
13
16
4
6
4
2
4
6
8
9
34
21
61
40
55
52
50
24
38
21
20
11
7
5
2
2
1
2
7
13
26
57
44
83
38
89
45
60
22
24
14
7
5
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
3
10
23
42
87
68
146
77
1  I    189
100
136
93
103
62
79
44
54
30
27
18
11
17
12
2
5
5
1
Totals..
4 I      2  I
Average weights..
3.7 I   3.7 ]   6.9
I I
7
T2~
84 I    85 I 131
473  I 543
15  I      7  I 1,448
5.6  I   4.9
7.8 I   6.i
6.1  I   5.4 I   8.3 I   6.9 I     6.0
III!
Table IV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1955
4
2
52
53
63
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41 	
24.5
23.7
26.3
25.2
26.1
25.3
27.7
26.4
1912-41 (conversion)	
23.8
23.0
25.6
24.5
25.4
24.6
27.0
25.7
1942.      	
23.9
23.2
26.1
24.9
24.9
24.3
26.9
26 0
1943  ,
22.8
22.2
26.1
24.8
24.1
23.5
27.1
25.8
1944          	
23.5
22.7
25.7
24.6
24.8
23.8
26 8
1945   	
23.4
22.8
25.0
24.4
24.7
24.0
25.1
25.5
1946  	
23.4
22.4
26.3
24.9
24.9
23.9
28.1
26.0
1947 	
23.4
22.9
25.9
24.1
24.5
23.6
27.0
25.6
1948   	
23.3
22.6
26.2
25.3
25.0
24.1
27.7
26.7
1949    	
23.8
22.8
26.2
23.8
24.7
23.7
26.1
25.5
1950...        	
23.6
23.1
26.0
24.7
24.5
23 7
26 7
25 6
1951...  	
24.0
23.1
26.2
24.8
25.1
24.1
27.4
26.4
1952  	
23.9
23.1
26.8
25.3
24.8
23.9
27.6
26.3
1953.   -	
23.9
22.9
26.9
25.6
24.9
24.1
27.7
26.5
1954       	
24.1
23.1
26.5
25.3
25.3
24 5
26.0
25.1
1955  	
23.1
22.3
26.0
24.7
24.1
23.2
26.9 K 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1955
4
2
52
5
3
63
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
6.0
5.4
7.3
6.4
6.9
6.2
8.0
7.0
1942.	
5.8
5.1
7.1
6.3
6.2
5.6
7.5
6.7
1943 -	
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.9
6.9
1944	
7.1
1945.. ..   	
7.1
1946  	
7.0
1947   	
5.8
5.3
7.7
6.2
6.3
5.6
8.1
6.9
1948 	
5.8
5.3
8.1
7.1
7.0
6.0
9.1
7.9
1949 	
5.9
5.1
7.9
5.8
6.5
5.4
7.7
6.8
1950 	
5.9
5.2
7.9
6.6
6.4
5.5
8.2
7.1
1951	
6.0
5.2
7.9
6.6
6.7
5.7
8.8
7.6
1952  	
6.0
5.2
8.4
6.9
6.7
5.7
8.7
7.5
1953 ....	
6.2
5.4
8.3
7.2
6.6
5.8
9.0
7.9
1954	
6.4
5.5
8.8
7.4
7.4
6.3
9.5
7.8
1955  	
5.6
4.9
7.8
6.8
6.1
5.4
8.3
6.9
Table VI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1955
Year
42
52
53
«3
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
49
42
51
53
37
62
50
45
57
41
46
49
50
42
50
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
55
43
59
54
51
50
58
50
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
54
56
42
47
56
44
44
60
53
52
33
55
63
41
48
46
44
58
53
44
56
56
40
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
52
51
43
46
49
46
44
47
55
56
53
61
62
55
49
48
49
57
54
51
54
56
53
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
66
50
58
70
59
62
45
68
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
34
50
42
30
41
38
55
32
47
45
54
50
38
50
56
53
53
44
49
50
48
43
49
53
1942.. .    	
55
1943	
46
1944
50
1945 ...         	
62
1946        	
50
1947  . . .
44
1948              	
1949 ...         	
47
1950   .
1951     	
1952          	
56
51
50
1953...  	
52
1954   	
1955     	
57 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 37
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
h
h
63
1907
108,413
139,846
87,901
187,246
131,066
92,498
52,927
130,166
116,553
60,923
65,760
123,322
184,945
90,869
41,018
96,277
131,731
144,747
77,784
82,360
83,996
34,559
78,017
132,372
93,023
59,916
30,506
54,558
52,879
81,973
42,491
47,257
68,485
116,507
81,767
34,544
28,268
68,197
104,279
52,928
32,534
101,267
65,937
47,479
61,694
114,775
65,003
60,817
14,649
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
20
13
14
80
17
21
33
66
48
33
15
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
82
13
76
72
61
26
43
54
59
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
8
3
6
4
4
4
3
6
10
14
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
18
1917                                                  	
5
1918  	
6
1919                       	
4
1920	
8
1921	
3
1922	
2
1923       .
7
1924        	
1
1925              	
1
1926	
3
1927  	
1
1928 	
1929    	
	
3
2
1930                     	
1
1931 	
2
1932	
12
1933	
2
1934	
1
1935 	
2
1936.....  	
2
1937         	
4
1938  	
5
1939...    	
4
1940	
1
1941.   	
1942     	
1943—   	
6
1944      -  .. -
1945    	
1946.   	
1947 	
1
1948    ...  	
1949	
1950  	
1951   	
1952—  	
1,294,500
659,200
571,900
157,362
5
3
2
11
1953     	
1954  	
1955- -	
1 To nearest hundred. K 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
4i
32
42
52
62
53
63
?4
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
16                  	
	
        1
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
4
5
1
3
1
4
1
3
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
3
7
2
5
2
4
2
2
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
-----
	
	
	
1
161/4  	
1614	
	
1
1
1634
17
	
1714
	
1
4
5
6
15
11
7
11
22
12
8
13
15
4
2
6
5
1
8
6
20
13
17
17
30
11
22
14
17
6
6
4
3
1
1
1
1714
1734
18
1814
1814
1
1834
19
1914              	
2
2
1914
1934
1
1
7
1
3
2
2
3
3
1
5
3
1
4
1
2
1
4
2
1
1
1
4
2
2
9
3
2
3
6
2
2
2
1
	
1
20 —	
2014
1
1
1
1
3
2
2014    .                      	
1
2034
11
21 -
	
8
2114   ...
8
2114
10
2134                           	
	
20
22  . 	
10
22!4- —	
2214  	
22%.. 	
23 	
2314
12
1
	
8
27
21
12
2314  -
2334  -
24   	
2414  	
2414  - 	
243/4  	
25     	
2514  -	
2514                            	
1
-.—
1
1
1
1
4
2
3
2
11
2
2
1
1
1
1
6
8
2
4
5
1
1
1
1
40
21
37
29
61
1
	
34
38
	
1
30
53
253/4
21
26                            	
18
2614	
2614. 	
19
20
6
3
2714	
	
7
2714                         	
1
5
2814                          	
1
—
	
	
1
	
	
	
1
	
	
1
29*4 -	
........I	
	
Totals 	
1|      1|      2|	
51|    38|  149] 208
1|-	
42|    42
35|    33|.	
1
604
24.7
22.71 16.0
22.5
22.0
25.5
24.5
25.5
23.01 22.5
25.21 24.0|	
25.3
23.7 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 39
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4i
h
42
52
62
53
63
74
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.     F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2
2
2
?.
2
2
4
12
6
13
13
19
5
15
13
11
10
5
2
7
5
1
2
1
3
5
10
12
19
18
30
18
17
15
18
10
15
2
8
5
1
1
1
2
214 ._
214	
	
2%    -
3
2
314
2
31i
1
1
8       3
4       4
1
2
3
2
2
1
7
5
5
2
3
4
5
5
.   6
7
1
7
3
2
1
2
3% 	
4
-
3
18
414
 1 .......
1
15
414
1
5
3
6
1
5
5
3
3
2
9
4
7
4
4
1
1
1
1
7
7
25
434
........ 1	
18
5
32
514
29
514
49
534.   .
38
6
 1	
11       7
1
58
614
3
5
5
7
1
7
1
1
1
1
1
4
5
1
2
2
1
35
614
6        1
11
51
6%
37
7
2
48
714
16
714
1
1
41
734
1
........
18
8
20
81/4
	
15
814	
834               ..   .	
7
4
9
8
914
5
914
934
2
10
2
1014
1
1014
	
1034    -
1|._—
 |	
1
Totals	
1|      1]      21	
51|    38]  149] 208
1| |    421    42
35|    33| |      1|      604
Average weights	
7.5|   5.2
2.0]
1
4.91   4.8
I
7.4
6.4
7.7
5.5]   5.0
1
7.1
6.1
6.4
6.2
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1955
Year
4
2
52
5
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41                   	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.3
23.0
22.5
22.8
22.7
23.3
23.2
22.2
22.5
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
22.0
22.0
22.3
22.2
22.3
22.6
22.6
22.8
22.4
22.1
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.4
25.1
25.3
25.3
25.7
25.9
25.8
26.2
26.6
25.6
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.3
23.8
24.1
24.5
24.4
24.8
24.7
25.0
25.2
24.5
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.9
23.0
23.0
23.2
23.9
23.6
23.2
23.6
23.9
23.0
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
23.2
22.4
22.1
22.3
23.4
22.9
22.8
22.9
22.9
22.6
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
25.0
25.5
26.3
26.0
24.8
25.5
26.0
26.1
26.0
26.4
25.2
24.8
24.1
1942               .
24.9
1943                       	
24.7
1944
23.7
1945 	
1946—  	
1947 	
1948
24.3
24.4
25.8
24 5
1949  	
1950                           	
23.9
24 3
1951     	
1952  	
1953  —
1954                       	
24.6
24.6
25.5
249
1955	
24 0 K 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1955
Year
4
2
52
5
3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914^1
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.1
5.2
4.7
4.9
5.5
5.0
4.8
5.1
5.6
5.8
4.9
4.9
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.9
4.2
4.7
4.9
4.7
4.3
5.0
5.0
5.5
4.9
4.8
6.8
6.7
6.8
7.0
6.7
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.1
7.2
7.6
7.5
8.0
8.8
7.4
6.1
6.0
5.9
6.1
6.1
5.8
5.9
6.1
6.3
5.9
6.5
6.4
6.9
7.2
6.4
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.6
5.8
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.8
5.6
5.6
5.8
6.2
5.5
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.6
5.0
5.1
5.0
4.7
4.8
5.1
5.0
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.0
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.1
6.7
7.0
7.7
7.7
6.6
6.8
7.6
7.4
7.8
8.6
7.1
6.0
1942             	
6.6
1943        	
6.1
1944                   	
5.8
1945 .	
6.2
1946
1947             	
6 8
1948                                   - - -
1949    -
5 7
1950                	
5 6
1951                       	
64
1952	
6 0
1953         —   -
7.3
1954        ... .	
1955
6.1
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1955
Year
42
52
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females
48
42
50
54
41
50
50
50
54
56
41
52
40
44
57
52
58
50
46
59
50
50
50
46
44
59
48
60
56
43
43
25
31
34
35
32
29
29
30
40
37
34
34
38
42
57
75
69
66
65
68
71
71
70
60
63
66
66
62
58
46
33
43
43
38
38
33
47
36
44
39
48
39
43
47
54
67
57
57
62
62
67
53
64
56
61
52
61
57
53
1942       	
1943          -	
1944
1945 	
1946	
1947   	
1948  	
1949
1950                                            	
1951	
1952 	
1953   	
1954 	
1955 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 41
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
h
h
h
1907                	
87,874
64,652
89,027
126,921
88,763
112,884
61,745
89,890
130,350
44,936
61,195
53,401
56,258
121,254
46,300
60,700
107,174
94,891
159,554
65,581
64,461
60,044
70,260
119,170
76,428
69,732
83,507
76,923
135,038
46,351
84,832
87,942
54,143
63,469
93,378
79,199
47,602
36,852
89,735
73,320
140,087
37,665
39,495
142,710
102,565
84,298
132,925
50,640
50,702
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
8
8
76
57
37
3
55
84
13
38
41
73
60
45
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
44
14
87
60
58
26
39
54
1
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
(2)
1
1
1
1
(2)
1908              	
1909             	
1910                      	
1911                       	
1912                	
1913              	
1914                       	
1915                       	
1916                      	
1917                	
1918              	
1919             	
1920            	
1921            	
—
1922                	
1923                 	
1924                	
1
1925               	
1926 	
1
1927            	
	
1928               	
1
1929             —	
2
1930             	
1
1931            -
1
1932                	
1
1933               	
1934	
1
1935                	
1
1936              	
1937          _  -
1938 —
2
1939              	
1940            	
1941              	
	
1942 	
1
1943      -	
1
1944                 	
1945  -
1946           	
1947       — 	
1948	
1949  	
1950  	
1951    	
1
1952              	
938,700
1,522,300
575,700
584,128
(2)
(2>
(2)
1
1953 -  —
1954
1955
1 To nearest hundred.
2 Age-class represented but less than 0.5 per cent.
_ K 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XIV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
42
52
53
63
Total
M.
F.
M.     1     F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
16	
1614- 	
1
1
1
5
8
8
11
9
11
13
10
12
12
8
10
12
20
9
6
7
9
5
8
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
2
3
4
6
6
7
8
12
7
9
9
7
4
5
1
1
1
......
1
1
	
1
......
1
1
1
1
1
1
     I
1614    	
1
1634                   	
17    .
1714   -   ..
1714    .             	
17%   	
18
1
1
1814	
1
1814    .	
1
18?4	
7
19 	
11
1914    .           .
     1        1
11
1914   ..     	
1934	
1
1
1
14
13
20                                                     	
17
20!4                                          	
21
2014                   	
17
2034                                  .. 	
20
21	
25
2114                     	
15
2114       	
2134                  	
19
21
22                        	
28
2214                                                   	
     1        1
17
2214                 	
1
3
4
9
9
16
2234                                                   	
18
23	
21
2314                      	
     1        2
7
2314              _       	
5
3
6
2
8
7
10
5
7
9
15
7
4
9
6
3
4
18
13
16
32
30
25
27
21
9
20
7
3
2
4
32
23%
20
24                       -
27
2414                      -
34
241/2                   	
39
2434               ; : 	
34
25                                       .
37
2514	
251/2                      	
27
16
2534              	
29
26   	
24
2614                                                	
10
2614                                                  	
6
2634                                       	
13
27
6
2714
3
2714 	
5
Totals        -  	
206    |    101
116
255
1    |        2    |        4    |         |    685
21.2    1   21.0
25.4
24.5
22.3    1   21.9    1   24.9
     1   23.1
1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 43
Table XV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Table XVI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1912 to 1955
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4
2
52
5.3
63
Total
M.
F.
M.     I     F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
2                                       	
1
2
8
13
18
14
32
14
24
16
15
14
9
6
6
7
4
2
1
......
2
1
9
2
8
11
18
13
13
8
8
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
214	
214                   	
......
—
2
234    	
3
3.                	
18
314    .          	
314           	
15
27
3%	
25
4	
1    1    ....
52
414  -	
414      	
434.                	
5  	
514 — —
3
3
2
7
7
6
8
2
6
12
7
9
8
9
10
3
4
4
3
1
1
4
3
8
5
18
15
28
23
40
18
30
12
21
9
9
2
3
3
1
29
41
28
34
27
514                                          ...           	
30
534
29
6  	
41
614                             	
37
614                 	
634         	
52
22
7                                                                    	
714             	
24
714                                    	
7%   	
8 ....	
19
18
814  	
814    -       	
8%                 . ..                                	
11
13
9 —      .......	
914
4
4
4
2
914   .   	
934        	
10   . 	
	
1014                	
...-    |    ......
1    |    .__
10V4	
1
103/4  	
Totals 	
206
101
116    |    255
1
2
4
     |    685
4.5
4.2
7.4     1     6.5
4.3
4.4
7.0
Year
42
52
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41....           	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
21.4
20.9
21.1
21.9
21.5
21.6
22.0
21.2
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
20.7
21.3
21.4
20.8
21.9
21.5
21.8
21.6
21.0
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
25.2
23.8
25.2
25.8
26.0
26.5
26.1
25.4
24.7
23.9
23.8
23.7
23.3
23.9
24.1
23.5
24.2
22.8
24.2
24.8
25.0
25.3
25.1
24.5
1942   	
1943	
1944 	
1945      	
1946   	
1947 	
1948 	
1949  ...    	
1950      	
1951. 	
1952  	
1953        	
1954         ...	
1955	 K 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XVII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1914 to 1955
Year
42
52
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 '	
1942      - - 	
1943   	
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.4
4.2
5.2
4.9
4.7
5.2
4.5
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.6
4.3
3.9
5.0
4.7
4.7
4.8
4.2
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6.4
7.9
5.9
7.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
7.4
6.5
6.4
6.3
1944 ...  	
1945     - . -	
1946 -	
1947	
1948	
1949 	
1950	
1951     -	
1952...	
1953  -—  	
6.0
6.4
6.2
5.9
7.0
5.9
6.4
7.4
7.4
7.6
1954   	
1955
7.6
6 5
Table XVIII,
-Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1955
Year
4i
4
2
5
2
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
36
50
50
-
64
50
50
-
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
50
70
75
66
58
55
67
67
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
50
30
25
34
42
45
33
33
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
38
22
36
30
34
33
29  ]
31  |
66
65
66
67
61
63
65
62
78
64
70
66
67
71
69
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
45
63
41
44
44
49
52
48
50
1942	
62
1943              	
64
1944	
41
1945	
43
1946 	
1947	
47
64
1948          -
55
1949            	
37
1950       - -
59
1951  -    	
1952    	
56
56
51
48
1953 -   	
1954  	
1955	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 45
Table XIX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack In
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
4l
42
h
62
h
1925                      	
33,764
17,921
22,682
33,442
9,683
32,057
12,867
25,488
37,369
14,607
31,648
12,788
25,258
33,894
17,833
25,947
21,495
15,939
15,010
3,165
15,014
14,318
36,800
10,456
13,189
42,435
49,473
34,834
29,947
18,937
28,864
2
1
50
11
5
7
92
17
22
8
89
61
42
—
—
3
("2)~
(2)
1
1926  	
1927            	
-
-
1928                            -
1929  	
1930	
1931	
1932  	
1933
1934
1935 	
1936   .               	
1937                      	
1938
1939	
1940              	
1941                                 	
1942                       	
1943—  - -
1944-  	
1945
50
89
95
90
5
83
77
91
1946
1947
1948
1949
(2)
1950
(2)
(2)
1
1951
1952	
342,200
367,100
190,800
325,478
1953     	
1954       ......	
1955	
10
38
58
(2)
1
(2)
1 To nearest hundred.
! This age-class was represented by less than 0.5 per cent of the number of fish in the sample. K 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
4
2
52
53
Total
M.
F.
M.      1      F.
M.
F.
18      —
1814
1
1
1
2
4
10
14
27
23
25
22
32
18
26
12
11
6
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
7
6
8
5
14
10
9
5
5
3
1
1
1             	
1
1
1
1          2
1          7
9
3                9
3               24
8              28
13              27
11 35
12 31
13 |        36
22              20
16              23
20                7
16               11
8                 1
8       1           2
3                 1
4
2
1
	
—
1
1814                                      	
1834                               	
19                                                              —     	
1914                                           -	
1914                                                      	
1
19%                                                  	
1
20
3
2014                                                    -	
5
2014                                     -
17
2034                                                       	
20
21                                                       	
35
2114                          —-
28
2114                                                      	
39
2134                                                  	
33
22                                                               	
|          1
42
2214                                                    -	
25
2214                                                        	
32
2234                                                     	
17
23                                                      	
19
2314                                           -
15
2314.   .      	
17
27
24                          - - 	
39
2414 -	
40
2414                              -	
	
—
46
44
25 	
2554                                      	
49
42
2514	
39
25?4                                                  	
-   .      1      	
27
26                                   	
28
2614                        -	
	
—
9
2614                                                    	
10
2634                            	
5
27	
4
2714                                  -	
2
2714                                       	
1
27%    	
	
Totals   -
245
76
164      |      276
......      |           1      |      762
Average lengths	
21.8
21.6
25.3      |     24.6
|     22.3      |     23.5
1                  1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 47
Table XXI.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4
2
52
5.3
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.              F.
1
2
214. 	
214...  	
1
1
2%  	
	
	
3   	
	
354                                                  	
314 -
1
1
334       	
4
1
5
4                           	
16
23
9
10
25
414 	
33
414                       	
34
26
20
6
1
1
1
1
56
4?4	
34
5     .-
44
13
1
58
514 	
30
8
3
41
514              	
33
7
11
51
5%	
12
2
2
8
24
6 -             	
11
4
26
41
614                                                	
5
8
17
30
614             	
4
16
41
61
9
25
34
7
10
13
48
26
58
714  	
39
714             	
23
33
56
7%                                                  	
11
13
24
8      .
1
25
9
16
42
814                           	
9
814	
14
3
17
834                            	
12
2
1
14
9   	
5
1
       1      ......
6
914	
2
......      |      .	
2
914- -	
       1      —-
9%                                                	
-       1
Totals           	
245
76
164
276
|          1      |      762
5.0
4.7
7.5
6.9
1        4.7       1        6.2
Table XXII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Age-groups,
1945 to 1955
Year
41
42
52
62
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945...   	
1946
25.4
26.3
23.5
24.3
25.0
22.2
21.3
23.2
21.9
21.4
21.6
22.8
21.8
22.9
22.3
21.8
22.0
22.7
23.4
21.7
21.7
21.7
22.0
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.6
25.1
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.6
24.8
25.6
25.7
25.9
25.7
25.3
24.4
24.0
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.0
24.8
24.9
25.2
24.9
24.6
26.7
25.0
25.5
25.1
25.1
20.5
23.4
22.9
22.8
23.0
1947 	
1948
	
1949.	
1950	
1951  	
1952	
23 1
1953	
1954 . 	
1955  	
23.3
23.5
22.3 K 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XXIII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Age-groups,
1945 to 1955
Year
4i
42
52
62
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945    _    	
7.9
8.6
6.1
5.9
7.1
4.9
4.6
5.7
5.1
5.0
4.9
6.0
4.8
5.9
5.2
5.0
4.7
5.8
5.5
5.4
5.1
5.0
5.2
5.2
5.3
4.7
4.7
7.1
7.3
6.9
7.6
7.2
7.4
8.2
8.0
8.2
7.9
7.5
6.5
6.6
6.0
6.9
6.7
6.6
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.0
6.9
10.3
7.5
7.3
7.2
7.3
4.0
6.4
5.7
5.7
5.8
1946.  	
1947 	
1948   	
	
1949..  	
1950 ..         	
	
1951	
1952	
1953.	
1954   	
1955	
1a
5.8
5.8
4.8
Table XXIV.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1945 to 1955
Year
41
42
52
62
h
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945           	
36
25
64
100
75
73
76
38
79
80
86
72
57
60
70
76
27
24
62
21
20
14
28
43
40
30
24
49
37
47
42
40
42
41
38
36
25
37
51
63
53
58
60
58
59
62
64
75
63
11
89
100
100
100
100
100
63
71
25
37
29
75
100
61
41
46
43
77
49
48
40
58
52
54
39
1946         	
59
1947 	
1948            . -
54
57
1949         	
23
1950          	
51
1951 	
52
1952  . .     	
60
1953... .	
1954 	
1955  ... .    	
42
48
46 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 49
Table XXV.—Skeena Test-fishing Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age,
Length, and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Total
32
42
h
43
53
63
1334                   .        	
1
1
4
13
13
15
14
5
2
2
2
1
1
1
5
8
3
11
13
18
28
33
27
34
1
26
19
16
11
5
2
2
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
7
2
8
16
31
35
53
1
44
2
65
72
1
65
51
50
25
1
21
1
12
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
12
15
8
1
9
7
4
5
2
1
2
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
8
14
12
10
10
10
5
7
2
1
1
1
14       	
1414	
1
1414                                  	
4
I434                     	
15                              	
14
1514	
13
1514             	
15%                                                  	
15
16                                                      	
1614                        _ 	
14
16!4 -	
6
16%           .          	
17 	
2
1714     	
3
1714 	
17%   - -	
18              	
3
2
18%                         	
1814
6
1834.	
19    ..
9
19%   	
4
1914        	
19%	
12
20           	
13
2014      	
7014     -	
20
2034                                  .....            _.
34
21                                       ...           	
2114         	
52
2114
2134     	
44
22 	
51
22%     	
2
2214	
51
22?4  ....    	
58
23       	
2314 -	
2314	
59
77
2334
1
24	
65
2414                   	
2
241/2         .__	
?434
80
86
25  	
1
25%                	
81
2514        	
66
25?4       	
26          	
58
26%      	
25
2614    	
26%    	
27                                        	
9
23
1
27%                                	
15
2714    -
7
2734	
1
28                                                    	
1
28%                    - 	
28 Vi                                  	
2834                                  	
29	
1
29%   	
2914                                                  	
1
72
275
577                2
79
89
1,094
15.7
21.7
24.6            15.8
22.5
24.7
23.1
6.2
25.1
52.7
0.2
7.2
8.1 K 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XXVI.—Commercially Caught Skeena River Sockeyes, 1955, Grouped by Age,
Length, and by Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
Total
41
32
42
S2           62
5.3
63
74
15                       	
	
1
1
2
1
1
8
5
5
4
11
6
5
4
11
5
3
6
1
2
1
4
2
1
1
	
15%                            -   _
1514   	
1534                                       	
16                	
16% 	
1
1
1614                          - - 	
16?4 	
17	
17%.      	
1714  	
1734 —
18                                	
18%                                        	
......    [    ......
......    1    ......
1814            	
     I         1
1
18%                                         —.    .
	
1
2
1
2
3
3
4
9
2
6
3
8
7
3
6
2
1
1
1
1
......
1
19                                            	
1914 	
2
1914      -  .-	
19% 	
20                 ...	
1
3
20%                                           	
2
20!4
1
20?4  ......  	
21 	
11
8
21%           ....          	
1     j
1     1    	
1    |    .._..
1     1    ......
8
2114   	
     1    	
10
2134    .
22                ..             	
1
1
......
20
10
22%       ' 	
2214       — 	
12
8
22%     	
23  	
7
8
6
21
17
22
23
45
22
29
25
39
27
21
23%	
......    1    	
12
2314  .   	
23%      	
7
1
9
3
8
40
21
24. _   	
......    |        4
......    1        2
37
24%        	
29
2414  	
1
4
4
3
1
1
2
	
61
24% 	
7     1    ......
34
25- ,_. 	
25%	
4
3
12
2
2
1
2
1
1
	
1
38
30
2514	
53
25%    	
18     1    ......
21
26	
14
17
18
5
3
7
5
1
1
18
26%             -             .——	
19
2614    	
20
2634      	
6
27                                  —- 	
3
27%                                         	
7
2714                            	
1
2734                                             .    .           .
5
78
28%                 	
1
2814                                          -	
28%           	
1
29 - -
2914...	
Totals   	
2
2
89
357    |         1    |      84
68    |        1    [    604
23.8    |   16.1    |   22.3
24.9    |   25.5    |   22.8
24.6    |   25.3    |   24.2
0.3    1     0.3
14.7
59.1     I     0.2
13.9
11.3
0.2 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 51
THE STATUS OF THE MAJOR HERRING STOCKS
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1955-56
By F. H. C. Taylor, M.A.; A. S. Hourston, Ph.D.; and D. N. Outram, B.A.,
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
The status of the major aspects of the herring research carried out at the Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C., by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada is reviewed annually
in these reports. During the period from 1946-47 to 1951-52 the results of a detailed
study of the effects of a virtually unrestricted fishery on the herring stocks on the west
coast of Vancouver Island were presented, along with such data on other stocks as were
pertinent to this problem (Tester and Stevenson, 1947, 1948; Stevenson, 1950; Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950; Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951; Stevenson, Hourston,
Jackson, and Outram, 1952). The comparative nature of this study was stressed in the
next two reports, which treated the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island
stocks with equal detail (Stevenson and Outram, 1953; Taylor and Outram, 1954).
With the termination of this experiment, attention was again focused on the coast as a
whole, and the 1954-55 report (Taylor, 1955) included an analysis of all the major
herring stocks on the British Columbia coast. The inclusion in this report of data from
a study of the abundance and nature of the stocks of juvenile (I-year) herring provides
complete coverage of the current herring research for the first time.
The results of the study to date have indicated that certain sub-districts (west coast
of Vancouver Island, central, and Queen Charlotte Islands) contain more than one population, and these have been split to expand the number of sub-districts to ten (Fig. 1).
In the following report, the sections on the fishery and adult tagging and tag recovery
were prepared by the senior author, who is in charge of the research programme. Outram
provided the section on extent and intensity of spawning. The remaining sections were
written by Hourston.
THE 1955-56 FISHERY
The phenomenally high catch in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands and good catches
in the lower central and middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts
were mainly responsible for the record catch of 250,444 tons of herring taken in 1955-56
(Morgan, MS.). Catches in the northern, upper central, upper east coast of Vancouver
Island and upper west coast of Vancouver Island were poor. The table below shows for
each sub-district the catch and catch per unit of effort in 1955-56 and in the previous
season, and the average catch from 1951-52 to 1955-56.
Sub-district
Catch.
1955-56
Catch.
1954-55
Average
Catch.
1951-52 to
1955-561
Catch per
Unit of
Effort.
1955-56
Catch per
Unit of
Effort.
1954-55
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands2 (2a (E))
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands2 (2b (E))
Northern  	
Upper central2.   	
Lower central3 	
Upper east coast of Vancouver Island	
Middle east coast of Vancouver Island	
Lower east coast of Vancouver Island	
Lower west coast of Vancouver Island2	
Upper west coast of Vancouver Island2	
Totals (tons) 	
6,458
85,609
11,429
1,869
46,391
920
29,652
48,709
18,847
560
250,444
21,800
550
20,050
9,700
17,850
9,200
24,650
51,300
6,863
7,200
13,715
24,827
29,632
9,218
27,620
6,255
21,062
48,418
17,281
8,925
58
138
22
98
46
47
59
88
62
169,163
206,953
75
76
51
22
32
82
40
56
18
61
Catches in 1952-53 were omitted.
2 Changes in terminology are discussed in section on Age Composition. K 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The catch in the upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district (Area 2b (E)) in
1955-56 was the largest ever caught in a single area. Between February 5th and March
9th a total of 85,609 tons were taken from the Burnaby Narrows-Huxley Island region.
Availability declined from 251 tons per seine-day in the first week to 178 tons per seine-
day in the second week, and levelled off at the relatively high level of between 112 and
126 tons per seine-day for the remaining three weeks. On the other hand, fishing in the
lower Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district (Area 2a (E)) was poor in 1955-56. The
catch (6,458 tons) was less than one-third of the 1954-55 catch. Availability decreased
sharply during the fishery from 96 tons per seine-day in the third week in January to
9 tons per seine-day two weeks later. The fishery was closed on February 1st because
of the large proportion of small fish present.
In the northern sub-district (Areas 3, 4, and 5), the quota was not taken for the
second successive year. The catch, the smallest since 1946-47, was little more than
one-half of the 1954-55 catch. The fishery centred in Morse Basin, with Tuck Inlet
and Prince Rupert Harbour providing small catches. It would appear that the 1955-56
fishery was dependent on local resident stocks, and that the main migrating population
usually fished in Edye Pass, Ogden Channel, and Kitkatlah Inlet did not become available to the fishery in 1955—56. There were reports of a large body of herring off Porcher
Island during the season, which might have represented at least part of this population,
but these fish were inaccessible to the fishery. This supposition receives some support
from the 1956 spawn survey. Although spawning was slightly less than in 1955, it was
not below the average for recent years. The decrease occurred in Area 5, while spawning in Areas 3 and 4 showed slight increases.
The catch in the upper central sub-district (Area 6) declined sharply from the
1954-55 level, which was average for the past five years. A small fishery developed in
Thistle Passage and Laredo Passage, but poor availability, combined with good fishing
in the neighbouring lower central sub-district, resulted in the poorest catch from the
upper central sub-district since 1943-44.
The lower central sub-district (Areas 7, 8, 9, and 10), in contrast to the previous
two seasons, supported an excellent fishery. The 1955-56 catch was exceeded only by
those made in 1950-51 and 1948-49; it came almost entirely from Area 7. Availability was 98 tons per seine-day, treble that of the previous season. In the peak fishing
period during the two weeks immediately prior to the pre-Christmas closure it reached
266 tons per seine-day. During this period over half the catch was taken. Insignificant
catches were made in Areas 8 and 9, and there was no fishery in Area 10.
In the upper east coast sub-district (Areas 11 and 12) the catch was the lowest on
record, one-tenth that of the previous season.
In the middle east coast sub-district (Areas 13, 14, 15, and 16) a record catch of
29,652 tons was made. Of this total, 17,916 tons was taken in Area 13 and 11,735
tons in Area 14. The main fishery developed after the Christmas closure. The quota
of 10,000 tons was taken by January 13th, followed with a quota extension of 10,000
tons taken by January 28th, and a second extension of 10,000 tons taken by February
10th as a result of a five-day extension of the season. Availability in the sub-district as
a whole was about the same as in previous years; it was somewhat greater in the post-
Christmas than in the pre-Christmas period and was slightly greater in Area 14 than in
Area 13.
The catch in the lower east coast sub-district (Areas 17a, 17b, 18, and 19), while
high, was slightly less than in the previous two seasons. Fishing commenced approximately a month later than in 1954-55, and although the original 40,000-ton quota was
again taken in three weeks, a 10,000-ton extension granted on December 6th was not
filled by the time of the Christmas closure. After Christmas, only desultory fishing
occurred as the fleet dispersed to other sub-districts. Availability was similar to that in
1954-55 but less than that in 1953-54. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 53 K 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the lower west coast sub-district (Areas 21, 23, and 24), the only region in
which a major fishery developed was Barkley Sound (Area 23). Here a catch of
18,160 tons was made, 16,877 tons being caught in December prior to the Christmas
closure. This is almost three times the catch made here in 1954-55. Availability for
the season as a whole was 89 tons per seine-day, compared to 18 tons per seine-day in
1954-55.   Area 24 produced a catch of only 685 tons.
In the upper west coast sub-district (Areas 25, 26, and 27) only 560 tons were
taken, all from Area 26. No fishery developed in Area 27, and for the second successive year no catches were made in Area 25. As spawn deposition in Area 25 was at a
high level in 1956, late inshore migration rather than a lack of abundance of herring
may have been responsible for the absence of a fishery in Area 25.
TAGGING
Tagging of Adult Herring
In 1955 the emphasis of the adult tagging programme was transferred from assessing the degree of intermingling between the major herring populations on the British
Columbia coast to determining more accurately the complex relationships existing
between the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island populations. In the
spring of 1956, tagging in British Columbia waters was again confined to these two
Strait of Georgia populations. A total of 15,535 tags were inserted (Table I), using
the same methods as employed in previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1947). The
numbers of fish tagged in the various areas in 1955 and in 1956 are summarized
below:—
Year
Sub-district and Area of Tagging
Middle East Coast
Lower East Coast
13
1                     1
14                  15        I         16
1                     1
1                     [
17a       I        17b                 18
1
1955    	
1,500
1,529
2,953
3,020
1                     I
3,025               5,509               1,498
1,249             3,008             1,518
1                    1
17,505
1956    	
6,713
1,518
15,535
In recent years, recoveries have been made in the Canadian fishery from taggings
carried out by the State of Washington Department of Fisheries in the San Juan Islands
and Puget Sound regions.   Information on these taggings is given in the table below:—
Number
Tagged
April 8th, 1953 	
November 23rd to 25th, 1953..
March 18th, 1955..
April 19th and 20th, 1955..
November 7th, 1955	
November 20th, 1955	
November 21st, 1955.-	
1,010
3,650
1,000
5,000
153
4,000
4,000
Quilcene Bay, Hood Canal.
Mitchell Bay, San Juan Island.
Agate Pass, Bainbridge Island.
Holmes Harbour, Whidbey Island.
Small Pox Bay, San Juan Island.
Between Upright Head and Shag Rock, Orcas Island.
North of Shoal Bay, Lopez Island.
Tagging of Juvenile Herring
Juvenile herring remain in inshore waters until early fall, when they migrate offshore in large schools and do not reappear in inshore waters again in appreciable
numbers until they mature and join the spawning stocks two years later.
In order to provide information on the relationship between the juvenile herring
stocks reared in certain areas and the spawning stocks that support the fisheries in these
and other areas, a juvenile-herring tagging programme was initiated in 1952.    Tagging REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 55
methods (Hourston, 1956) are similar to those used for adult herring, except that the
tags are considerably smaller (13 by 3 by 0.5 mm. instead of 21 by 4 by 1 mm.).
Until 1954 this programme was centred on the stocks in the Barkley Sound (Area
23) region on the lower west coast of Vancouver Island. Tagging on a limited scale
was also carried out in Areas 24 and 25 in the lower and upper west coast sub-districts
respectively, and in Area 17a in the lower east coast sub-district. After 1954, tagging
on the lower west coast of Vancouver Island was discontinued, and emphasis was
shifted in 1955 to populations in the Strait of Georgia and the adjacent San Juan
Islands region. Data on the 1955 juvenile taggings (Table II) are summarized below,
along with comparable data for the 1951-53 taggings. No juveniles were tagged in
1954.
District or Sub-district of Tagging
Year
Upper West
Coast
Lower West
Coast
Middle East
Coast
Lower East
Coast
District
1
San Juan
Islands
(U.S.A.)
Total
1951  ...
1952. 	
1,940
11,373
25,993
18,181
8,437
5,650
3,149
11,373
27,933
1953  .
1955
7,291
3,553
26,618
20,055
TAG RECOVERY
As in previous seasons, tags were recovered in 1955-56 mainly from magnets in
the reduction-plant meal-lines tended by plant crews. A small number of adult tags
were recovered by a tag-detector operated by herring-investigation staff.
Tag-detector Operations
In the 1955-56 season, only one tag-detector was again operated, on an essentially
experimental basis, in the Gulf of Georgia plant in Steveston. The modernization and
increasing electrification of reduction plants has raised considerable practical problems
to the continued successful operation of tag-detectors. In spite of technical improvements in the designs of the induction-type tag-detector to increase its inherent sensitivity
and stability, detector efficiency again decreased. Detector efficiency was 36 per cent
during the pre-Christmas period and 39 per cent during the post-Christmas period, as
compared with 44 per cent during the pre-Christmas period in 1954-55, 51 per cent for
the same period in 1953-54, and 80 per cent in 1951-52. The increased electrification
of the reduction plants has resulted in an increase in possible sources, both of variations
in line voltage and of switching transients. As was pointed out in the previous report
in this series (Taylor, 1955), the amplitude of the pulse produced by a tag is little
greater than that produced by such transients. Any improvements in detector sensitivity
and amplification also result in an almost proportional increase in the reaction of the
detector to these unwanted transients. Suitable screening of the detector may reduce
or eliminate the effects of these transients, and experiments along this line are planned.
On the other hand, the use of magnetic tags could be the answer to this problem. Such
tags might produce a proportionately larger impulse on passing through the field of the
tag-detector's magnet and hence produce sufficient increase in the signal-to-noise ratio.
Magnetizing the tags could, however, reduce or eliminate the recovery by plant magnets
of tags missed by the detector, as magnetic tags would tend to cling to the iron in the
plant machinery whenever they came into contact with it. On the other hand, the press
of the wet meal might prevent such contacts until the cooker or drier is reached, where
the heat might be sufficiently great to destroy the magnetic properties of the tags. Thus
an appreciable increase in the efficiency of detector recovery might be obtained by this
means at the cost of a relatively small reduction in the efficiency of magnet recovery. K 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Operation of Magnets in Reduction Plants
Reduction plants differ in their efficiency in recovering tags from the catches
processed. These differences arise from differences in the type of processing equipment
used, in the location and effectiveness of the plant magnets, and in the diligence of plant
crews in tending the magnets and submitting the tags found. To determine the efficiency
of the various plants in recovering tags, tests were conducted in the same manner as in
previous years (Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson, and Outram, 1952). A table of the
average 1955-56 efficiency of each plant, along with its average efficiency for the
previous season in parentheses, is given below:—
Adult Tags
Juvenile Tags
Plant
Number of
Tests
Average
Efficiency
Number of
Tests
Average
Efficiency
West Coast of Vancouver Island
1 (1)
3 (2)
3 (3)
2 (2)
3 (4)
2 (2)
92 (90)
84 (87)
94 (94)
76 (91)
97 (98)
89 (79)
1 (1)
3 (2)
3 (3)
2 (2)
3 (3)
2 (2)
60 (30)
Steveston and Vicinity
53 (70)
80 (60)
60 (85)
85 (93)
75 (40)
Colonial    	
North Shore                 ...	
88 (90)
91 (-)
92 (83)
78 (87)
79 (64)
71  (.-)
81  (—)
2 (..)
1 (-)
2 (-)
2 (-)
2  (-)
2 (..)
71 (68)
North and Central British Columbia
2  (.)
1 (2)
2 (2)
2 (3)
2 (..)
2 (..)
65 (-.)
70 (_..)
50 (....)
35 (....)
60 (._.)
70 (_)
82 (78)
58 (_..)
In 1955-56, Port Albion was again the only plant operating on the west coast of
Vancouver Island. The Namu reduction plant, enlarged in 1954, was modified prior
to the 1955-56 season and magnets reinstalled. A new reduction plant in the Prince
Rupert area, North Pacific, began operation in the 1955-56 season. Magnet tests were
carried out for the first time at this plant and at the Fairview plant, which commenced
operation in 1954-55 in the same locality.
In general, there was relatively little change in the efficiency of adult-tag recovery
in 1955-56. North Shore, Butedale, and particularly Seal Cove showed increases in
efficiency, while Port Edward and Colonial showed decreases. The drop in efficiency
of Colonial may have resulted from the enlargement of the plant and installation of a
cyclone-type drier.
The average efficiency of the major plants in Southern British Columbia in recovering the small juvenile-herring tags was only slightly greater in 1955-56 than in the
previous season. However, individual plants showed considerable variation in efficiency between the two seasons. Port Albion, Gulf of Georgia, and North Shore showed
marked increases in efficiency, while Imperial, Colonial, and, to a lesser extent, Phoenix
showed marked decreases. Tests of efficiency in recovering juvenile tags were carried
out in plants in Northern and Central British Columbia for the first time in 1955-56.
The average efficiency was somewhat lower than for plants in Southern British Columbia.
In general the plants appear to be about 80 per cent as efficient in recovering juvenile
tags as in recovering adult tags. The ratio of juvenile to adult efficiency was 0.77 in
1955-56, 0.78 in 1954-55, and 0.83 in 1953-54.
Officers of the Federal Department of Fisheries carried out the magnet efficiency
tests in plants in Northern and Central British Columbia, and personnel of the Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C., those in other regions. report of provincial fisheries department, 1955 k 57
Recovery of Adult Tags by Plant Crews
A total of 2,666 tags, including thirty-five State of Washington tags, were recovered
in 1955-56, approximately the same number as in the previous season. The distribution of adult-tag recoveries by area of tagging and probable sub-district of recovery is
shown in Table III.
The varying amount of time taken for tags to pass through the plant machinery
and reach the magnets in the meal-lines and the practice in most reduction plants of
processing fish from several different areas in a relatively short period of time led to
uncertainty as to the area of recovery of plant magnet returns. Qnly in cases where a
plant processes fish from one area for a relatively long period of time can the area of
recovery of tags found be considered certain. The same methods as employed in previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948) have been used to assign the most probable
area of recovery to each plant magnet return. The most probable area of recovery could
not be readily determined for 793 (29.7 per cent) of the tags (Table IV). Lack of
precision in the determination of the exact area of recovery of plant magnet returns
makes the analyses of movements within populations impossible and, as has been discussed in previous reports (Taylor and Outram, 1954, and preceding reports), limits
the accuracy of the use of plant magnet returns in assessing the movement of fish between
populations.
The analysis of movements between populations is based on estimates of the probable numbers of tags in the catches derived either from tag-detector recoveries or from
plant magnet returns (Taylor and Outram, 1954). Because of the relatively small
number of the former, obtained from one plant only in 1955-56, estimates of the probable numbers of tags in the catches derived from plant magnet returns were considered
more accurate. Table IV shows by area of tagging and probable sub-district of recovery
the probable numbers of tags in the catches that have been at liberty for one, two, three,
and more than three years, along with the totals for each area and sub-district. Actual
numbers of recoveries are shown in parentheses in all cases. As herring are tagged in
March, and recoveries made in the winter fishery from November to early February or
March, tagged fish are at liberty for up to four months less than the full period recorded.
The majority of recoveries from the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver
Island populations were from the 1955 taggings of fish that had been at liberty for a
year. (In 1955, tagging was confined to these two sub-districts.) In contrast to this,
the majority of the recoveries from populations in Northern British Columbia and in
the upper and lower west coast of Vancouver Island were from fish tagged in 1954 and
1953 that had been at liberty for two or more years. It will be noticed from Table IV
that there is a tendency for the degree of dispersion from the sub-district of tagging to
increase slightly the longer the tagged fish have been at liberty. This tendency is somewhat more marked in the Strait of Georgia populations than in those from Northern
British Columbia. However, on the basis of the 1955-56 recoveries, this tendency does
not seem sufficiently marked to warrant comparing the amount of dispersion from a
population in different seasons on the strict basis of recoveries from fish at liberty for
the same number of years. Such comparisons were therefore made, as in previous years,
on the total probable number of tags recovered from each sub-district's tagging. A more
important and more difficult source of error to estimate arises from differences in the
degree of exploitation of the various populations in the same season and of the same
population in different seasons. This effects comparisons between the same population
in different seasons or different populations in the same season.
As in previous years, most of the recoveries were from the sub-district of tagging.
In 1955-56 this " homing " tendency appeared to be strongest in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands and the middle east coast of Vancouver Island populations and weakest in
the populations on the upper Queen Charlotte Islands and northern sub-district. K 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The number of recoveries of fish tagged on the lower and upper west coast of Vancouver Island was small in 1955-56, reflecting the lack of tagging there in 1955 and the
light tagging in 1954. The indicated movement of herring from this region to other sub-
districts was about 18 per cent (10/58). While this is somewhat less than the amount of
emigration in the previous year (24 per cent), it is probably still above average for recent
years. Additional recoveries were made from lower Queen Charlotte Islands, the lower
central, and the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts.
Movement of lower east coast herring was greatest to the middle east coast sub-
district, where 13 per cent (77/586) of the recoveries were made. This compares with
20 per cent in 1954-55 and 16 per cent in 1953-54. Movements to the lower central
sub-district and west coast of Vancouver Island amounted to about 1 per cent each
(6/586 and 8/586 respectively). More lower east coast tags were recovered from the
lower west coast sub-district (seven tags) than from the upper west coast sub-district
(one tag). Considering the small number of recoveries involved and the great difference
in the size of the catch in the two west coast regions, this may not represent an actual
difference in movement to the two areas.
A total of thirty-five recoveries were made from tags inserted in the San Juan Islands
and Puget Sound region by State of Washington Department of Fisheries. Of these tags,
one was recovered from the lower central sub-district, one from the lower west coast sub-
district, and the remainder from the lower east coast sub-district. Of the lower east coast
recoveries, twenty-two were from herring tagged in the San Juan Islands region immediately prior to or during the lower east coast fishery, ten were from fish tagged in Holmes
Harbour, Whidbey Island, in mid-April, 1955, and one from fish tagged at Agate Pass in
Puget Sound in March, 1955. The large number of recoveries from the San Juan Islands
region is to be expected. This locality is within 20 miles of the main centre of the lower
east coast fishery, and the San Juan Islands herring are probably an adjunct to the main
migrating lower east coast population. The Holmes Harbour and Agate Pass fish may
represent local stocks which intermix to a more limited extent with the lower east coast fish.
Movement from the middle east coast population amounted to 6 per cent (40/647)
in 1955-56. This is approximately the same as in 1954-55 (4 per cent, 6/152), but
considerably less than the average of 45 per cent for the years 1936 to 1952 (Stevenson,
1955). Approximately 5 per cent of the middle east coast tags were recovered from the
lower east coast sub-district, compared to 2 per cent in 1954—55, 17 per cent in 1953-54,
and 6.8 per cent from magnet recoveries, or 29.9 per cent from detector recoveries in
1951-52. Although, as in 1954-55, the movement of fish tagged in Area 17a to the
middle east coast (23 per cent) was greater than for those tagged in Area 17b (7 per
cent) or Area 18 (6 per cent), the movement from Areas 17a and 17b in 1955-56 was
somewhat less than the previous year (Area 17a, 46 per cent, and Area 17b, 14 per cent).
The movement of middle east coast fish to the lower east coast sub-district was greater
from Area 14 (14 per cent) than from Area 15 (4 per cent) or Area 13 (<1 per cent).
Mixing between stocks in the middle and lower east coast sub-districts is thus greatest
between the contiguous areas—northernmost lower east coast area and southernmost
middle east coast area. This pattern of recoveries, shown by fish tagged in the middle and
lower east coast sub-districts, thus tends to confirm the hypothesis that herring enter the
Strait of Georgia from two directions—from the south into the lower east coast sub-district
and from the north into the middle east coast sub-district.
Emigration from the lower central sub-district amounted to 16 per cent (76/472) in
1955-56, the main portion of which (9 per cent) was to the lower Queen Charlotte
Islands. Limited movement of lower central fish to the upper Queen Charlotte Islands,
northern, and middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts was also
indicated.
The 1955-56 fishery in the upper central sub-district was too small (less than 2,000
tons) to provide tags certain as to area of recovery or to be able to assign recoveries to it REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 59
with any degree of certainty. About 85 per cent (194/229) of the recoveries of fish
tagged in the upper central sub-district were from the upper or lower central sub-districts,
5 per cent were from the northern sub-district, 6 per cent from the lower Queen Charlotte
Islands sub-district, and 2 per cent each from the upper Queen Charlotte Islands and the
middle east coast sub-districts.
Of the recoveries of fish tagged in the northern sub-district, 55 per cent (143/260)
were from the lower Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district and 12 per cent (31/260)
from the lower central sub-district, as compared to 31 per cent (81/260) from the sub-
district of tagging. This pattern of recoveries is quite different from that shown by
northern fish in previous years. In 1954-55 and in 1953-54, emigration amounted to
only 4 per cent (Taylor, 1955). On the basis of recoveries of fish tagged and recovered
between 1936 and 1952, Stevenson (1955) found that the average emigration from the
northern sub-district amounted to 23 per cent. The extent to which the greater emigration from the northern population represents an actual change in migration pattern is
uncertain because:—
(1) The small northern fishery occurred concurrently with the large lower
Queen Charlotte Islands and lower central fisheries. This made it difficult
to decide with a reasonable degree of certainty which tags were actually
recovered from the northern sub-district.
(2) The possibility exists that the herring in Tuck Inlet and Morse Basin,
where the 1955-56 fishery was centred, represent a local population, not
part of the main population usually fished around Porcher Island.
Results in other years indicate that it was this latter population that had
been tagged. A local population would probably not contain as great a
proportion of tagged fish as the main population, and hence the number
of recoveries from it would be expected to be proportionately low. It is
interesting to note that during the season there were reports of a large
body of herring off Porcher Island that remained out of reach of the
fishery. This body of herring might have been at least part of the normal main migratory population which for some reason did not become
available to the fishery in 1955-56. This speculation receives some
support from the amount of spawn deposited in this sub-district in 1956.
Spawning was only slightly less (12 per cent) than in 1955. The
decrease is not as great as might have been expected in view of the very
poor 1955-56 catch. Spawning was not below the average for recent
years. It increased in Areas 3 and 4; the decrease occurred in Area 5,
where a large spawning in Wilson Inlet, recorded in 1955, for the first
time in recent years was not repeated.
The fishery in 1955-56 in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district far
exceeded in size that in the upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district. This is in contrast to the previous two seasons, in which the upper Queen Charlotte Islands fishery
had far exceeded in size that in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands. The bulk of recoveries of fish tagged in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands were from that area. Emigration amounted to only about 3 per cent (19/619), divided almost equally to the upper
Queen Charlotte Islands, northern, and lower central sub-districts. On the other hand,
of fish tagged in the upper Queen Charlotte Islands, 64 per cent (85/132) were recovered from the area of tagging, compared to about 96 per cent in 1954-55. Movement
to the lower Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district amount to 20 per cent (27/132); to
the northern sub-district, 8 per cent (11/132); and to the lower central sub-district,
5 per cent (6/132). Three recoveries were made from Southern British Columbia populations. The greater amount of emigration indicated in 1955-56 may be, in part, due
to greater errors in the correct assignment of tags to area of recovery. The upper
Queen Charlotte Islands fishery, like the northern fishery, occurred concurrently with K 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the large lower Queen Charlotte Islands and lower central fisheries, and a proportion of
the tags actually recovered in the upper Queen Charlotte Islands may have been assigned
in error to the lower Queen Charlotte Islands.
Recovery of Juvenile Tags by Plant Crews
Plant crews recovered twenty-two juvenile-herring tags during the 1955-56 fishing
season. Only eight of these could be assigned with certainty to catches from a specific
area but probable recovery areas for seven more were determined on the same basis as
that employed in analysing adult-tag returns. The twenty-two returns obtained during
the 1954-55 fishery and the six from the 1953-54 fishery were similarly analysed, and
the resulting probable returns were corrected for magnet efficiency and the proportion
of the catch searched by magnets (Hourston, 1956). The results were tabulated by
sub-district (Table V), as the number of returns was too small to make analysis by area
worth while. Methods employed, and consequently difficulties encountered and assumptions made, were similar to those in the analysis of adult-tag returns.
Fish tagged as juveniles showed 56 per cent homing after two years and 62 per
cent after three years. This is considerably less than that shown by fish tagged as
adults in the same sub-district (90 and 74 per cent respectively). Data were considered inadequate for comparison of tags at large for one year, as only three such juvenile
tags were recovered. Thus the juveniles show greater wandering tendencies than do
adults. A larger unit of population than the adult population may therefore be necessary for considerations relating population data on juveniles to that on adults. Most of
the juveniles emigrating from the lower west coast sub-district moved to the lower east
coast sub-district, and these two sub-districts may form a suitable unit for such considerations. However, it remains to be seen whether juveniles tagged on the lower east
coast reciprocate this emigration. If so, it would appear that the depletion of one adult
population would be compensated in part by immigration of new recruits from one or
more of the others, provided, of course, they were not depleted at the same time.
AGE COMPOSITION
The age composition of the herring stocks fished was estimated from age determinations for each of 100 fish in 288 samples removed from herring-packers in the
approximate proportion of one sample per 900 tons of fish caught (Isaacson, MS.).
Practical difficulties precluded close adherence to this ratio, resulting in a variation of
105 to 3,722 tons per sample.
When the stocks in two sections of the Queen Charlotte Islands showed appreciable
differences in age composition, the presence of two separate populations was suggested.
The returns of tagged fish and the data on average length and weight supported this
hypothesis. Thus Area 2a (E) is occupied by the upper Queen Charlotte Islands population and Area 2b (E) by the lower Queen Charlotte Islands population. For the sake
of consistency, the north central (Area 6) and south central (Areas 7, 8, 9, and 10)
populations have been redesignated upper and lower central, and the north-west coast of
Vancouver Island (Areas 25, 26, and 27) and the south-west coast of Vancouver Island
(Areas 21, 23, and 24) populations have been renamed upper and lower west coast of
Vancouver Island.    Sub-districts have been modified accordingly (Fig. 1).
For the third successive year, the 1951 year-class formed a major portion of the
fishing stocks, dominating the lower Queen Charlotte Islands, lower central, and upper
east coast and middle east coast of Vancouver Island populations. It shared dominance
with the 1953 year-class in the upper Queen Charlotte Islands population and, to a lesser
extent, in the northern population. The 1953 year-class dominated the lower east coast
and lower west coast populations.  The 1954 year-class formed the vast majority of the REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955 K 61
upper central population, and appears to be at least as strong in most other populations
as the 1953 year-class was as Il-year fish. It would thus appear that, over the coast as a
whole, both the 1953 and 1954 year-classes are above the average abundance of the last
seven years, but not as large as the big 1951 year-class. The 1952 year-class was the
poorest of the seven, followed by the 1949, 1948, and 1950 year-classes in that order.
Thus the over-all population level of the fishing stocks will probably be lower in 1956-57
than in 1955-56. However, the recruitment of the above-average 1954 year-class should
compensate somewhat for the decline in the contribution of the strong 1951 year-class.
The consistency with which the newly recruited year-class has each year dominated
the heavily exploited lower east coast and lower west coast populations and the relative
stability of the extent of this domination suggests that recent fluctuations in year-class
strength have not been major, in these sub-districts at least. The ability of the 1951 year-
class to dominate catches over a three-year period in more northerly sub-districts suggests
more violent fluctuations in year-class strength in these sub-districts or that the fishery
does not catch as large a proportion of a strong year-class as it enters the fishery. The
latter alternative could result from relatively large portions of the year-class not being
recruited until age V or age VI.
The actual contribution of these year-classes to the fishery in each population in
terms of numbers of fish may be determined from the age composition, average weight at
each age, and total catch. These calculations were made for each area and summed by
sub-district (Table VII). The table shows the great strength of the 1951 year-class even
more strikingly than the age-composition data. It experienced the strongest recruitment
of any of the five most recent year-classes in the lower each coast and lower west coast
sub-districts, a fact not evident from the age composition alone.
AVERAGE LENGTH AND WEIGHT
With the exception of the upper Queen Charlotte Islands, upper central, and upper
east coast populations, the average length (Table VIII) and weight (Table IX) of fish
from each year-class showed little variation from population to population (Isaacson,
MS.). Relatively large differences in the very old and very young fish may be attributed
to the small number of fish sampled in these age-groups.
For the past three fishing seasons, the upper east coast fish of all ages have been
smaller, both in length and weight, than the fish in other sub-districts, whereas in 1952-53
they were larger. This supports the hypothesis that the upper east coast population is
made up largely of local stocks subject to different environmental effects than the migratory populations. The upper Queen Charlotte Islands fish and the upper central fish were
smaller at Ages III and IV than in other sub-districts, suggesting that these fish also are
subjected to different environmental stresses than the other populations up to at least
Age IV. This gives additional support to their classification as separate populations, as
proposed from the age-composition analysis.
No appreciable change in the average length and weight of the various age-groups in
1955-56 is evident, except in the upper east coast where the fish were smaller than in the
previous year. The lower east coast and northern fish tended to be slightly shorter than
in the previous year, but this difference was not reflected in the average weights. The
upper and lower central populations appear to have been a year behind in their growth
from the third year on, as in 1953-54 and 1954-55. This trend is continued in 1955-56
in the upper central population. This could have occurred as a result of inclusion of a
false annulus on the scales when ageing the fish, although a spot check on these scales
failed to show any such possibility. A more thorough check will be made before any final
decision is reached in this matter. In any event it would appear that these two populations resemble each other more closely than do any other two populations. K 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SEX RATIO
The sex ratio (the number of females divided by the number of males) has fluctuated
between 0.96 and 1.11 over the past five years (Table X). In 1955-56 it was 1.09,
slightly higher than the average for the past five years (1.05). Although, as a general
rule, females tend to predominate in the older age-groups, the sex ratio bears no apparent
relationship to the average age of fish in the catch or to population size as indicated by the
size of the catch. Males were proportionally more abundant in samples from the lower
east coast, whereas females tended to predominate elsewhere.
EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF SPAWNING
In addition to providing the initial size of the new year-class, estimates of the
extent and intensity of spawn depositions give an index of the relative size of the spawning escapement. These estimates are made each spring by officers of the Federal
Department of Fisheries for the entire British Columbia coast. Independent and more
detailed surveys of the lower and middle east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts
were also conducted in 1955 and 1956 by staff members of the Biological Station,
Nanaimo, B.C. The size of the spawning population is determined from the amount of
eggs deposited, sex ratio, and fecundity of the different age-groups. The resulting calculation is taken to represent escapement from the fishery, since natural mortality during the short period between the closure of the fishery and the commencement of
spawning is considered to be negligible.
The length of each spawning-ground was measured by either pacing along the
beach or by reference to large-scale charts. When the width was found to be extremely
small or large (that is, less than 5 yards or greater than 100 yards), the actual length
was converted to an equivalent length based on a standard width of 30 yards. The
intensity of spawning was estimated as one of five categories—very light, light, medium,
heavy, or very heavy—depending on the number of eggs deposited per unit area of
vegetation. These data were converted to the number of statutory miles of spawn at
a standard intensity of medium in each statistical area (Table XI).
A summary of the results of the 1956 surveys (Outram, 1956) is presented here.
The total amount of herring spawn deposited was 188.1 miles, a reduction of 13 per
cent from the 1955 level. The 1956 spawning depositions were slightly below the
average of the last ten years. Increases in spawn depositions over the previous year
occurred in the upper east coast (73 per cent), upper west coast (200 per cent), and
lower west coast (41 per cent) of Vancouver Island sub-districts. Marked decreases in
the amount of spawn deposited were recorded in the upper central (96 per cent), lower
central (38 per cent), lower east coast of Vancouver Island (51 per cent), and middle
east coast of Vancouver Island (31 per cent) sub-districts. Smaller decreases in spawn
deposition occurred in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands (14 per cent) and northern
(12 per cent) sub-districts. Of the numerous reductions in spawn deposition that
occurred throughout British Columbia, only the sharp decrease in the upper central
sub-district appears to be of a serious nature. On the other hand, the amount of spawn
deposited in the upper west coast of Vancouver Island sub-district was nearly the largest
on record.
In spite of the abundance of fish in the Queen Charlotte Islands region during the
fishing season, the amount of spawn recorded in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands was
slightly lower than the previous year. In the upper Queen Charlotte Islands, spawning
was virtually non-existent for the second successive year.
The small reduction in spawn deposition in the northern sub-district was due to the
failure of the large 1955 spawning in Wilson Inlet (Area 5) to reoccur. The reduced
spawning in Area 5 was partly compensated for by slight increases in Areas 3 and 4. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 63
The amount of spawn deposited in the upper and lower central sub-districts continued to decline in 1956. A small increase in spawn deposition in Area 10 was more
than offset by sharp reductions in Areas 6, 7, 8, and 9. The absence of spawnings in
the usually productive Myers Pass region (Area 6) was responsible for the large
decrease in spawn deposition in the upper central sub-district.
In the upper east coast of Vancouver Island sub-district, unusually large spawnings
in Knight Inlet and Mackenzie Sound (Area 12) maintained spawning at an average
level for the sub-district.
On the middle east coast of Vancouver Island there was less spawning in all
regions, except Area 14, where a large spawning in Comox Harbour kept the spawn
deposition for the sub-district at the average level. Spawnings failed to occur in Area
15 this year for the first time; spawning in this area during the past ten years has
averaged about 3.4 miles.
Although there was a marked reduction in the amount of spawning on the lower
east coast of Vancouver Island for the third successive year, the 1956 level remained
about equal to the average of the last ten years. The lack of extensive spawnings
along the shore-line on either side of Stuart Channel (Area 17b) was mainly responsible for the decreases in this sub-district. Reductions in the size of the Area 17b
spawnings were partly compensated for by increases in Area 18, particularly in
Saanich Inlet.
The increase in the amount of spawn deposited in the lower west coast sub-
district results from greater spawning in Area 23, which more than compensated for
the sharp reduction in Area 24.
The increase in the amount of spawn deposited in the upper west coast of Vancouver Island sub-district resulted primarily from a large spawning at Nuchatlitz Village (Area 25), which was responsible for about four-fifths of the total amount of
spawn found in this sub-district.
On the coast as a whole, the amount of spawn deposited has been decreasing
continuously for the past four years. The continuous increase in the two west coast
populations has failed to compensate for decreases in Areas 6, 15, and 17b. However, the 1953 to 1955 spawnings were above average in extent, and the 1956 spawning is about average for the ten-year period immediately preceding the record spawning
of 1953.
DISCUSSION
The status of the major herring populations in British Columbia may now be
discussed in the light of the information presented above.
On the basis of tag returns and data on year-class strength and average length
and weight of fish at each age, two populations were found in each of what were
formerly known as the Queen Charlotte Islands, central, and west coast sub-districts.
The latter two sub-districts were treated in two parts in the 1954-55 report (Taylor,
1955), and indications of more than one population in each have been noted for some
time. Previously these divisions were known as north and south, but, for the sake of
consistency and to avoid confusion, they have been redesignated upper and lower.
The 1955-56 fishery in the Queen Charlotte Islands was the first in recent years to
appreciably exploit both Areas 2a (E) and 2b (E), and thus it was not until this year
that the presence of two populations was clearly indicated.
The populations in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands and middle east coast of
Vancouver Island sub-districts showed the strongest homing tendencies, as was the
case in 1954-55. However, the upper Queen Charlotte Islands and northern populations, which also showed strong homing tendencies in 1954-55, were the poorest in
this respect in 1955-56. This greater wandering in 1955-56 was reflected in the
catches, which were lower than anticipated that season. Emigration from the lower
west coast sub-district was again relatively high in 1955-56, but was lower than in K 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the previous season.    The increased catch in this sub-district may reflect the greater
homing tendency in 1955-56.
In 1955-56, herring in British Columbia were generally more abundant than in
the previous year and than the average for the past five years. The total catch was one-
third greater than in 1954-55 and one-fourth greater than the five-year average, while
the amount of spawn deposition decreased only slightly from the previous year and
remained equal to the average of recent years. The record size of the 1955-56 catch
may be attributed to large increases in abundance in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands
and lower central sub-districts. With the exception of the catch on the middle east coast
of Vancouver Island, which was slightly above average, and that on the lower west coast
of Vancouver Island, which was average, catches in the other sub-districts were below
average.
The amount of spawn deposited increased considerably in the lower and upper
west coast and upper east coast sub-districts but decreased elsewhere.
In the upper Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district there was a marked reduction in
catch, and no spawning was located for the second consecutive year. The decrease in
abundance may be partially attributed to the decline in numbers with age of the strong
1951 year-class which was not compensated by recruitment from the weak 1952 year-
class. However, it would appear that this population did not become as available to
the fishery in 1955-56 as in the previous year, and this may be the major cause of the
decrease in catch. In 1956-57, abundance will probably be even lower, but until this
population can be related to its spawning-grounds, it will be impossible to assess its
availability and predict its future strength with any confidence.
The lower Queen Charlotte Islands catch showed a tremendous increase over
1954-55, possibly also resulting from a difference in availability to the fishery. The
1951 year-class made up the major portion of the catch. The amount of spawn deposited
showed a slight decrease in 1956, but not nearly enough for the decrease in escapement
to account for the increase in catch. As the 1951 year-class cannot be expected to
make a major contribution as Vl-year fish next year, the 1956-57 population will probably be appreciably smaller, but should still be about average.
There was a sharp decline in catch in the northern sub-district, accompanied by a
slight decrease in escapement, as indicated by the amount of spawn deposited. The
decrease in abundance may be traced to the exceedingly poor contribution of the 1952
year-class as IV-year fish, the age-group which usually dominates this population. But
for the excellent contribution of the 1953 year-class, this population would have been
exceedingly small in 1955-56. Abundance should be greater in 1955-56, but not above
average.
In the upper central sub-district, one of the biggest decreases in recent years was
experienced in 1955-56 in both catch and spawn deposition. The good 1951 year-
class was too old to make an appreciable contribution to the stock, and both the 1952
and 1953 year-classes were exceedingly poor in this population. Consequently only an
unusually good contribution of the 1954 year-class as Il-year fish sustained the population at a level high enough to permit a fishery. Had this year-class been equally poor
as its immediate predecessors, the population might not have been large enough to provide adequate spawning. This population should be appreciably larger in 1955-56,
but probably not above average.
In the lower central sub-district, spawning was down about one-third from the level
of the past three years, but the catch was nearly double the average for that time. The
sustained abundance of the very strong 1951 year-class as V-year fish in this sub-district,
along with nearly average contributions by the 1952 and 1953 year-classes and a good
recruitment of the 1954 year-class as Il-year fish, resulted in a very high level of abundance.   Abundance should be about average next year. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 65
The upper east coast catch declined considerably in 1955-56, but since spawn
deposition showed a marked increase, the general level of abundance was probably about
the same as in the previous year. However, since the strong 1951 year-class, which
dominated the catch as V-year fish this year, cannot be expected to make a major contribution to next year's population, abundance will probably decline in 1956-57.
In the middle east coast sub-district, the 1955-56 catch was slightly above average,
but the extent of spawn deposition was slightly below average. The relatively weak
contribution of the 1953 year-class as Ill-year fish was offset by the above-average contributions of the 1951 and 1952 year-classes. The 1954 year-class may be sufficiently
strong to sustain the present level of abundance in 1956-57 in spite of the weakness of
the 1953 year-class, but it is more likely that abundance will decrease slightly.
The catch on the lower east coast was average in size, but, for the third successive
year, the extent of spawn deposited showed a sharp decline (approximately one-half that
of 1955, one-third that of 1954, and one-fifth that of 1953). Since the 1954 year-class
appears to be at least average in strength, the decline in spawning in 1954 was not sufficient to affect the strength of the resulting year-class. According to reports from fishermen and local residents, the juvenile herring were more abundant than usual in 1955,
and surveys by Biological Station personnel of the juvenile herring in this sub-district
indicate the 1955 and 1956 year-class are comparable in strength. Thus the amount
of spawn deposited those years was also probably adequate. Unless the intensive fishery
in the lower east coast can continue to reduce the spawning stock (quota extensions have
not been fully taken during the past two seasons), there appears to be no real danger
of the population not sustaining itself. No appreciable change in abundance is anticipated in 1956-57.
After a poor showing in 1954-55, both catch and spawn in the lower west coast
sub-district increased in 1955-56 to the average level for the past five years. The
newly recruited 1953 year-class was of average strength, whereas the 1952 year-class
failed to provide the usual number of new recruits in the 1954-55 fishery. As the 1954
year-class appears to be at least as strong as that of 1953, the population level in 1956-57
should be slightly higher than in 1955-56.
In the upper west coast sub-district, no appreciable fishery materialized in 1955-56
and no samples were obtained. However, the extent of spawning was three times that
of the previous year and was more than double the average for the past four years.
Consequently abundance in this sub-district was probably sustained at least at the average
level in 1955-56. The lateness of the inshore movement of the fish did not make them
available to the fishery.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The co-operation and assistance of the fishing companies, herring-fishermen, and
government fisheries departments during this study is sincerely appreciated and gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks are extended to the numerous members of the staff
of the Biological Station whose counsel and labours have culminated in this report.
SUMMARY
Analysis of recent data as to the status of the major herring stocks has indicated the
presence of ten major populations. The Queen Charlotte Islands, central, and west coast
sub-districts have been divided into lower and upper populations on the basis of differences in their age composition and average size, and from the extent of mixing indicated
by the returns of tagged fish.
Emigration, as indicated by the returns of tagged fish, was greatest from the upper
Queen Charlotte Islands (36 per cent) and northern (67 per cent) populations, both
of which showed strong homing tendencies in 1954-55. This greater wandering was
reflected in reduced catches from these sub-districts in 1955-56.   Most of the emigration K 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
was to neighbouring populations. Homing was greatest to the lower Queen Charlotte
Islands (97 per cent) and middle east coast of Vancouver Island (94 per cent) sub-districts, whose populations also showed little emigration in 1954-55.
Returns of tags inserted in juvenile herring on the lower west coast of Vancouver
Island indicate that mixing between that stage and recruitment is greater than that shown
by fish tagged as adults and at large for a comparable period. Thus depletion in any one
population should be buffered by the excess in immigration over emigration prior to
recruitment.
A record catch of 250,441 tons was taken during the 1955-56 fishing season. Large
increases in abundance in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands and lower central sub-
districts were mainly responsible for the increase in catch. These two populations were
sustained mainly by the strong 1951 year-class as V-year fish.
The total amount of spawn deposited was slightly less in 1956 than in 1955, with
appreciable increases in the upper east coast and upper and lower west coasts of Vancouver Island sub-districts nearly offsetting decreases in all other sub-districts. Spawn
deposition in 1956 was average for recent years. The extent of spawn deposition on the
lower east coast of Vancouver Island has declined steadily since 1953 (from 102.5 miles
in 1953 to 21 miles in 1956) with the increase in exploitation by the fishery. However,
surveys of the juvenile (I-year) stocks in 1955 and 1956 and the contributions of the
previous two year-classes to the fishery fail to show any corresponding decrease in the
size of the resulting brood.
Fish were relatively more abundant in 1956 than in 1955 in the lower Queen Charlotte Islands, lower central, and lower west coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts, and
less abundant in the upper Queen Charlotte Islands, northern, upper central, lower east
coast of Vancouver Island, and upper west coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts. The
strong 1951 year-class continued to form the major portion of most of the populations in
the north, while the above-average 1953 year-class dominated in the south. The 1952
year-class was relatively small in most populations. Although the 1954 year-class appears
to be above average, it is not likely to sustain the present level of abundance in 1956-57,
as the 1951 year-class will cease to contribute appreciably to the population.
No appreciable difference in the size of fish of each age was noted in 1955-56. Fish
from the upper east coast at ages II, III, and IV were again smaller than those in neighbouring populations. This trend probably indicates different growth conditions for this
population, supporting the hypothesis that it is made up mainly of local stocks. The
general trend of a decrease in size at all ages with an increase in latitude continued in
1955-56. Females continued to slightly outnumber males (except on the lower east
coast) for the fifth straight year.
REFERENCES
Hourston, A. S. (1956): Population dynamics of juvenile herring in Barkley Sound,
British Columbia, as an integral part of the life history. Ph.D. thesis, University
of California at Los Angeles, 176 pp., plus tables and figures.
Isaacson, R. S. K. (MS.): Preliminary analysis of data derived from samples of herring
taken in British Columbia waters in 1955-56.   20 pp., plus tables.
Morgan, O. (MS.): Catch statistics of the herring fishery of British Columbia for the
season 1955-56.   9 pp., plus tables.
Outram, D. N. (1956): Amount of herring spawn deposited in British Columbia waters
during 1956.   Fish. Res. Bd. Can., Pac. Biol. Stn., Circ. No. 44, pp. 1-13.
Stevenson, J. C. (1949): * Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1948-49.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept, 1948, pp. 37-85.
  (1955):   The movement of herring in British Columbia waters as determined
by tagging, with a description of tagging and tag recovery methods. Rapp. et Proc.,
Verb., Cons. Explor. Mer. 140, II, pp. 33-34. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 67
Stevenson, J. C; Hourston, A. S.; Jackson, K. J.; and Outram, D. N. (1952):*
Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation,  1951-52.
Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1951, pp. 57-87.
Stevenson, J. C; Hourston, A. S.; and Lanigan, J. A. (1951) :* Results of the west
coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1950-51.   Rept. British Columbia
Fish. Dept, 1950, pp. 51-84.
Stevenson, J. C, and Lanigan, J. A. (1950): * Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1949-50.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1949,
pp. 41-80.
Stevenson, J. C, and Outram, D. N. (1953): Results of investigation of herring populations on the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island in 1952-53, with
an analysis of fluctuations in population abundance since 1946-47.   Rept. British
Columbia Fish. Dept., 1952, pp. 57-84.
Taylor, F. H. C. (1955):  The status of the major herring stocks in British Columbia
in 1954-55.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1954, pp. 51-73.
Taylor, F. H. C, and Outram, D. N. (1954) :* Results of investigation of the herring
populations on the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island in 1953-54.
Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1953, pp. 52-82.
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1947):  Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1946-47.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1946,
pp. 42-71.
  (1948) :* Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation,
1947-48.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1947, pp. 41-86.
* Reprints were published in year following the date of publication of report. K 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Tags Inserted in Adult Herring during the 1956 Spawning Season
Code
Letters
Tagging
Code
Place
Date
Number
NIN
20A
20A
20A
20B
20B
20B
20C
20C
20C
20D
20D
20D
20E
20E
20E
20F
20F
20F
20G
20G
20G
20H
20H
20H
20J
20J
20J
20K
20K
20K
20L
20L
20L
Area 13
Apr.   10
Apr.   10
Apr.   10
Mar.    8
Mar.    8
Mar.    8
Mar.    9
Mar.    9
Mar.    9
Mar.   11
Mar.  11
Mar.  11
Mar.  18
Mar.  18
Mar.  18
Mar.  19
Mar.  19
Mar.   19
Mar.  15
Mar.   15
Mar.  15
Feb.     8
Feb.     8
Feb.     8
Mar.   12
Mar.   12
Mar.   12
Mar.   30
Mar.  30
Mar.  30
Apr.     6
Apr.     6
Apr.     6
508
NKN
507
NLN
514
LOL
Area 14
231
LNL
205
LPL
297
JZJ
485
JXJ
483
JYJ
IJI
Cape Lazo.             	
N.W. Hornby    	
471
504
IKI
N.W. Hornby	
523
ILI
N.W.Hornby	
505
JLJ
Thames Creek  	
510
JMJ
500
JNJ
507
JTJ
498
JUJ
495
JWJ
499
NAN
Area 16
Porpoise Bay	
508
NBN
507
NCN
Porpoise Bay 	
503
IEI
Area 17\
503
III
507
IHI
Departure Bay.	
239
IPI
Area 17b
Coffin Point	
480
ISI
Coffin Point	
492
ITI
Coffin Point 	
517
KSK
507
KTK
509
KYK
503
LDL
Area 18
506
LJL
508
LKL
Finlayson Arm      	
Total
504
15,535 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 69
Table II.—Tags Inserted in Juvenile Herring during the Summer of 1955
Code
Letters
Tagging
Code
Place
Date
Number
GAAG
19N
19N
19N
19N
19N
19N
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
190
19P
19P
19P
19P
19P
19P
19Q
19R
19R
19R
19R
19S
19S
19S
19S
19S
19S
19T
19T
19T
19T
19T
19T
19T
19T
Middle East Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 14
Sept. 22
Sept. 22
Sept. 22
Sept. 22
Sept. 22
Sept. 22
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept.  14
Sept. 14
Sept.   14
Sept.  14
Sept.  14
Sept.   14
Sept. 26
Sept.  30
Sept.  30
Oct.     1
Oct.     1
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Sept. 25
Oct.     3
Oct.     3
Oct.     3
Oct.     3
Oct.     3
Oct.     3
Oct.     3
Oct.     3
482
gbbg
gccg
gddg
Off Union Bay, Baynes Sound    	
Off Union Bay, Baynes Sound  	
480
547
510
geeg
gggg
Off Union Bay, Baynes Sound.. 	
492
524
ghhg
Area 16
519
GIIG
529
GJJG
526
GKKG
552
GLLG
547
GMMG
521
GNNG
GOOG
DXXD
524
538
Lower East Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 17b
506
dyyd
520
EDDE
525
EXXE
524
EYYE
EZZE
Off Grappler Rock, Kuper Island	
514
541
GYYG
412
GXXG
Area 18
516
HUH
HTTH
Village Bay, Mayne Island —  	
517
532
HWWH
553
GPPG
District No. 1
Area 28
518
GRRG
519
GSSG
519
GTTG
519
GUUG
530
GWWG
544
HUUH
San Juan Islands
498
HXXH
536
IAAI
476
IBBI
496
ICCI
472
IDDI
503
IEEI
486
IFFI
486
Total  	
20,053 K 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1955-56 Fishing Season
OD
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
CO
to
a
5
£
^L,
Sub-district and Area
on
g|
C*
a
of Tagging
5
rt
CJhH
UH
^
w
to
CO
H
6S.
a*
B
a
cd
o
cd
O
'oo
o
H
tH    O
COT*
i-2
S a
£
ov
CJ w
CD ^j
rt
H
SO
os:
JO
z
Sj
Sw
O  C3
JW
5^
e..
O
H
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands
18T
1954
5
8
1
1
1
19
35
18U
1954
8
6
1
3
1
29
48
18W
1954
5
2
1
	
15
23
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands
Area 2b (e)	
16CC
17QQ
1952
1953
64
93
—
2
-
—
	
18
27
84
120
17RR
1953
63
14
77
18S
1954
270
2
80
352
Northern
Area 4
15T
1951
1
2
3
16Z
1952
2
2
4
16AA
1952
2
1
1
1
5
16BB
1952
1
1
17MM
1953
7
2
3
11
23
17NN
1953
6
3
9
17PP
1953
8
1
5
14
18P
1954
5
1
3
9
18Q
1954
11
2
15
28
18R
1954
20
2
5
	
	
—
19
46
_
14CC
1950
2
2
18N
1954
	
27
	
7
1
	
24
59
Upper Central
,
15V
1951
1
2
3
15W
1951
1
1
17LL
1953
1
18
1
11
31
18M
1954
1
3
1
108
1
46
160
Lower Central
14HH
1950
1
1
15X
1951
2
2
15AA
1951
3
1
4
15BB
1951
1
2
3
16U
1952
3
3
16W
1952
8
1
3
12
16X
1952
1
10
1
5
17
16Y
1952
1
1
10
1
9
22
17EE
1953
1
24
1
4
30
17FF
1953
4
26
2
10
42
17GG
1953
3
17
7
27
17HH
1953
1
11
2
14
1711
1953
2
8
2
12
17 J J
1953
2
1
_
	
	
3
17KK
1953
3
1
19
6
29
18K
1954
5
1
44
19
69
18L
1954
	
4
	
84
2
1
32
123
14EE
15CC
1950
1951
	
1
1
	
1
1
2
Upper East Coast
Area 12           	
17DD
1953
1
1
2
Middle East Coast
Area 13	
19A
1955
116
1
	
29
146
1 It was impossible to separate returns from the upper and lower central sub-districts as catches from these regions
were mixed freely in reduction plants. However, since the catch from the upper central sub-district was quite small in
comparison with that from the lower central, it is assumed that most, if not all, of these recoveries were taken in the
lower central sub-district. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 71
Table III.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1955—56 Fishing Season—Continued
CJ
•o
o
O
00
0
'00
oo
cd
H
00
a
'So
00
cd
H
CW
O
u
cd
CJ
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district and Area
of Tagging
CO
§
tu to
<D>—1
aS
u 0
DO
•a
0
b|
CJ   CO
o t—t
3 CJ
a~
s S
ex
JO
E
co
o
Id
•a e
c»
cdO
c- u
CJ  CJ
as
CO
cd
sd
|0 co
CO
cd
O
IhO
O cd
►JW
cd
O
§1
cd
O
nO
B|
Pi*
c
"cd
O
H
14A
1950
1
1
16A
1952
5
1
6
17B
1953
3
	
3
17C
1953
	
1
1
2
18B
1954
	
	
	
4
1
5
19B
1955
	
55
8
i
27
91
19C
1955
10
3
13
13A
14C
1949
1950
1
2
1
2
15A
1951
	
2
1
3
15B
1951
4
	
2
6
17A
1953
	
	
12
2
_
2
16
18A
1954
	
1
44
1
4
50
19D
1955
87
2
25
114
19E
1955
71
1
30
102
Lower East Coast
15C
1951
1
1
2
15D
1951
1
1
16C
1952
	
1
	
	
1
17E
1953
	
1
	
	
1
18C
1954
14
4
	
8
26
19F
1955
16
19
18
53
19G
1955
5
56
—
i
37
99
Area 17b 	
15E
1951
2
2
16F
1952
	
2
2
17F
1953
	
	
	
2
2
17H
1953
1
1
171
1953
1
	
1
18D
1954
_
2
4
7
13
19H
1955
1
1
35
i
29
67
19J
1955
1
8
9
18
19K
1955
	
	
1
5
35
20
61
19L
1955
1
5
7
13
15F
17J
1951
1953
1
2
2
1
18E
1954
1
7
9
17
18F
1954
	
1
4
4
	
11
20
19M
1955
1
1
34
3
19
58
Lower West Coast
Area 23	
161
16J
1952
1952
—
1
1
1
—
	
1
2
17K
1953
	
1
1
2
17M
1953
1
1
2
17N
1953
	
1
1
	
1
3
17P
1953
	
2
4
6
17R
1953
1
1
Area 24	
12L
14N
1948
1950
1
1
1
1
15M
1951
	
	
1
—
1
2
15N
1951
	
...
	
1
1
16M
1952
._
2
	
2
17T
1953
	
...
	
2
2
4
18G
1954
	
	
7
3
10
1 It was impossible to separate returns from the upper and lower central sub-districts as catches from these regions
were mixed freely in reduction plants. However, since the catch from the upper central sub-district was quite small in
comparison with that from the lower central, it is assumed that most, if not all, of these recoveries were taken in the
lower central sub-district. K 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table HI.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1955-56 Fishing Season—Continued
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
to
a
a
a
%
Sub-district and Area
o
M
c«
s3
of Tagging
o
CJt-l
<D 1—1
+j
^
to
W
H
&z
aS
s
§o
cd
cd
cd
O
cd
O
a
o
CO
nO
u w
2q
>-o
kO
*<->
fcO
3
g.cd
ji cd
&*
"VZ,
ss
S S!
CJ +j
cd
.£•-0
DO
JO
%
Dj
Sb
O cd
JW
J?
S£
e-
O
H
Upper West Coast
Area 7.5
17X
1953
1
1
18H
1954
2
1
3
18 J
1954
	
—
1
	
	
	
	
1
2
Area 26	
16T
1952
1
1
17AA
1953
	
	
	
	
	
	
4
2
6
17BB
1953
—
—
—
	
	
	
	
	
1
1
Area 27 _  _	
17CC
1953
—
—
 .
	
	
1
1
United States of America
7
5
12
4
5
9
8
5
13
	
—
	
	
 .
	
1
	
	
1
Totals
	
20
628
10
436
487
262
23
7
793
2,666
1 It was impossible to separate returns from the upper and lower central sub-districts as catches from these regions
were mixed freely in reduction plants. However, since the catch from the upper central sub-district was quite small in
comparison with that from the lower central, it is assumed that most, if not all, of these recoveries were taken in the
lower central sub-district. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 73
Table IV.—Probable Number of Tags in the Catches during the 1955—56 Season, Based
on Magnet Recoveries, Shown by Area of Tagging and Probable Sub-district of
Recovery, with Actual Number of Tags in Parentheses.
Sub-district and Area of Tagging
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Upper
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
Lower
Oueen
Charlotte
Islands
Northern
Central
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
Lower
West
Coast
Upper
West
Coast
Total
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands
Area 2n <V\
Northern
Upper Central
Area 7....
Lower Central
Area 10	
Area 12	
Upper East Coast
Middle East Coast
Area 15	
Area 17a	
Lower East Coast
Area 18	
Area 23	
Lower West Coast
Area 24       	
Area 25	
Upper West Coast
Area 26	
Area 27   .
85
(68)
9
(7)
3
(2)
5
(4)
4
(3)
27
(22)
721
(614)
99
(85)
43
(34)
14
(12)
43
(37)
United States of America
San Juan Islands 	
Holmes Harbour	
Agate Pass	
1
(1)
1
(1)
1
(1)
11
(8)
7
(5)
59
(38)
22
(16)
11
(8)
14
(10)
2
(1)
2
(1)
6
(5)
(7)
19
(16)
12
(10)
194
(168)
393
(351)
2
(2)
1
(1)
1
(1)
3
(2)
3
(3)
2
(2)
1
(1)
1
(1)
2
(2)
1
(1)
5
(3)
(7)
1
(1)
1
(1)
154
(144)
125
(103)
327
(282)
51
(45)
17
(13)
8
(7)
1
(1)
1
(1)
1
(1)
1
(1)
6
(5)
1
(I)
21
(16)
13
(10)
173
(137)
214
(163)
106
(84)
1
(1)
3
(2)
28
(22)
12
(10)
1
(1)
1
(1)
1
(1)
6
(5)
15
(13)
22
(20)
2
(2)
1
(1)
Totals	
106
(84)
950
(807)
128
(87)
646    1    702
(570) ] (611)
1
581
(454)
(43)
1
(1)
9
(8)
1
(1)
11
(10)
132
(106)
745
(633)
181
(142)
78
(61)
229
(195)
468
(413)
3
(3)
2
(2)
156
(146)
148
(121)
343
(294)
225
(183)
235
(180)
124
(99)
19
(17)
23
(21)
7
(6)
9
(8)
1
(1)
28
(22)
15
(12)
1
(1)
3,172
(2,666) K 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Probable Recoveries during the 1953—54, 1954—55, and 1955—56 Fisheries
(Corrected for Plant Magnet Efficiency and Proportion of the Catch Searched by
Plant Magnets) of Tags Inserted in Juvenile Herring on the Lower West Coast
of Vancouver Island.
(The actual numbers of recoveries are given in parentheses.)
Years
at
Large
Recovery Sub-district
Year
Lower
West
Upper
West
Lower
East
Middle
East
North-
Oueen
Charlotte
Islands
All
Per Cent
Homing
Coast
Coast
Coast
Coast
1953-54	
1
3.4
(3)
—
—
3.4
(3)
100
(100)
2
1.4
(1)
—
1.3
(1)
2.7
(2)
52
(50)
1954-55	
1
2
16.9
1.1
14.2
1.1
33.3
50
3
(11)
(1)
(8)
(1)
(21)
(52)
1955 56                            	
2
2.8
(2)
—
2.8
(2)
100
(100)
3
14.6
8.0
	
1.3
23.9
61
(10)
(5)
(1)
(16)
(62)
1
3.4
3.4
100
(3)
(3)
(100)
2
21.1
1.1
14.2
1.1
1.3
...
38.8
54
(14)
(1)
(8)
(1)
(1)
(25)
(56)
3
14.6
8.0
	
1.3
23.9
61
(10)
(5)
(1)
(16)
(62)
Table VI.—The Average Percentage Age Composition of the Herring Sampled from Each
Major Population or Sub-district during the 1955—56 Fishing Season
(Comparable data are also given for the previous four seasons.   Dominant year-classes
are given in italics.)
In Year of Age
Aver-
Fishing Season
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX+
Age
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands
1951-52	
1952-53	
1953-54                	
0.05
0.10
1.12
0.07
0.15
0.70
2.42
7.81
13.81
15.97
0.16
4.47
1.27
1.96
2.78
8.85
7.09
6.94
27.18
13.77
24.71
21.43
38.24
15.39
8.77
34.34
28.35
4.90
56.30
16.75
24.74
21.27
40.90
20.49
34.55
38.24
9.82
33.59
23.58
29.37
70.78
9.77
23.60
24.39
35.10
18.07
23.85
21.52
8.82
	
62.25
45.62
25.72
23.80
15.32
20.84
45.72
28.49
10.66
14.81
9.92
4.23
11.76
8.62
6.10
11.03
13.33
5.02
3.28
4.93
14.06
2.33
4.18
5.22
1.09
2.89
1.04
0.98
2.54
1.04
0.62
1.54
0.68
0.68
0.29
1.34
0.09
2.94
0.70
0.31
0.08
0.58
0.15
0.19
0.22
0.29
0.10
0.56
0.17
0.05
0.06
0.14
4.35
1954-55	
1955-56	
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands
1951-52	
1952-53	
1953-54           	
4.33
4.15
3.77
4.06
1954-55.	
1955-56 	
Northern
1951 52                	
4.76
4.45
1952 53                 	
4.16
1953-54           	
4.28
1954-55          	
4.18
1955-56 	
3.57
Upper Central
1951 52	
4.30
1952-53      	
4.18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 75
Table VI.—The Average Percentage Age Composition of the Herring Sampled from Each
Major Population or Sub-district during the 1955-56 Fishing Season—Continued
(Comparable data are also given for the previous four seasons.   Dominant year-classes
are given in italics.)
Population and
In Year of Age
Aver-
Fishing Season
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX+
Age
1953-54  	
0.42
5.12
74.47
14.11
4.93
0.94
3.21
1954-55	
0.06
12.53
18.82
63.43
4.08
0.87
0.21
3.62
1955-56	
84.74
12.72
1.26
1.14
0.15
	
2.19
Lower Central
1951-52	
1.99
5.59
25.14
33.53
27.66
3.89
1.49
0.64
0.07
4.00
1952-53  	
0.40
9.14
28.13
24.04
26.69
9.70
1.42
0.48
4.05
1953-54	
0.18
5.52
70.41
18.00
4.39
1.32
0.13
0.04
3.26
1954-55	
0.39
5.74
10.20
69.83
10.86
2.65
0.33
3.94
1955-56	
0.03
7.64
13.76
9.96
64.71
3.46
0.38
0.03
0.02
4.44
Upper East Coast
1951-52	
43.17
20.22
13.12
10.65
7.93
3.23
1.12
0.50
0.50
2.37
1952-53...	
1.14
20.45
36.36
28.41
9.09
2.27
2.27
5.40
1953-54 	
0.16
9.31
65.87
15.20
6.61
2.32
0.45
0.08
3.28
1954-55	
0.17
4.66
34.37
45.23
10.10
3.36
1.58
0.54
3.80
1955-56	
16.84
17.15
19.45
41.16
5.40
4.01
Middle East Coast
1951-52	
0.25
32.61
45.82
14.18
5.44
1.57
0.06
0.06
2.97
1952-53 	
0.60
30.99
2.48
41.18
28.59
17.00
40.98
6.30
18.82
3.16
6.77
0.66
1.91
0.10
0.39
0.05
3.10
1953-54	
4.06
1954-55 	
6.02
37.71
45.88
8.25
2.01
0.12
3.63
1955-56	
9.39
13.08
28.68
39.14
7.78
1.37
0.40
0.16
4.29
Lower East Coast
1951-52 	
0.04
6.62
57.51
27.14
6.99
1 31
0 31
0 07
0 01
3 40
1952-53	
0.12
2.65
60.53
32.83
3.25
0.54
0.05
0.03
3.38
1953-54	
0.79
57.98
34.23
6.18
0.62
0.14
0.04
0.01
3.48
1954-55 	
2.81
57.18
33.37
6.05
3 45
1955-56	
4.37
53.07
29.86
10.70
1.71
0.24
0.05
3.53
Lower West Coast
1951-52	
0.06
5.21
65.71
20.08
7.94
0.83
0.17
3.34
1952-53..	
0.07
8.88
55.66
32.86
1.95
0.54
0.04
3.30
1953-54	
0.03
2.72
64.29
26.71
5.47
0.53
0.14
0.07
0.04
3.38
1954-55	
0.03
16.82
59.39
19.81
3.32
0.59
0.03
3.11
1955-56	
11.87
63.70
15.86
7.04
1.29
0.14
0.04
0.05
3.23
Upper West Coast
1951-52	
0.19
10.11
27.23
52.54
7.32
2.12
0.42
0.05
4.65
1952-53 	
0.26
22.57
60.74
14.60
1.35
0.40
0.07
2.96
1953-54..	
46.14
41.85
9.04
2.04
0.94
3.70
1954-55...	
	
6.24
34.57
50.40
6.78
1.68
0.26
0.07
3.64
1955-56	
    |
	
1
1
Table VII.—Number of Fish (in Millions) of Each Age in the Catch from
Each Population during the Past Five Fishing Seasons
(Dominant year-classes are given in italics.)
Population and
In Year of Age
Fishing Season
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX+
Total
Upper Queen Charlotte
Islands
1951-521.	
1
1
1
32.78
30.91
6.89
1952-531	
83.61
28.74
107.98
37.71
16.57
1953-54	
1954-55                   	
0.12
7.43
16.32
65.44
SJJ6
14.23
7.17
8.72
3.62
2.08
0.60
0.93
0.89
0.38
0.39
307.50
208.74
69.45
1955-56	
0.07
9.59
17.16
] No catch. K 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Number of Fish (in Millions) of Each Age in the Catch from
Each Population during the Past Five Fishing Seasons—Continued
(Dominant year-classes are given in italics.)
Population and
In Year of Age
Fishing Season
I
II
III
rv
V
VI
VII
VIII
DC+
Total
Lower Queen Charlotte
Islands
1951-52
1.24
0.24
0.26
0.01
0.44
0.63
3.35
0.04
0.41
0.72
0.14
65.59
18.03
24.18
~Z23
100.91
38.12
6.87
70.77
8.98
68.57
24.02
0.21
77.14
21.81
4.82
41.86
2.66
234.14
25.86
47.11
19.92
'60.90..
49.67
1.90
55.84
50.42
95.15
36.00
201.13
51.59
283.14
261.95
246.47
73.56
1947l~5
41.89
129.16
12.87
~42~42
21.62
38.99
7.23
64.39
145.91
4.34
73.33
129.86
11.90
32.84
0.21
14.14
73.50
0.48
56.09
2.14
66.51
125.38
36.91
16.17
14.05
75.73
2.16
17.28
24.29
~~L67
408~T5
198.17
4.73
59.42
28.11
25.38
63.39
0.24
5.11
4.73
0.43
46.30
2.17
15.85
19.85
242.67
12.04
6.11
18.15
4.57
6.63
27~55
20.03
96.90
23.54
2.98
29.55
26.41
48.26
8.89
4.77
~2.22
56.52
26.51
2.02
33.28
9.21
4.00
6.88
0.12
0.97
1.01
0.06
6.52
0.78
3.49
4.63
12.59
4.91
2.15
3.24
0.60
1.91
10.47
5.04
18.92
4.30
0.51
3.02
2.22
7.36
0.91
1.98
0.42
1.47
9.31
2.19
0.92
1.23
18.95
4.51
0.18
6.34
1.91
0.76
2.13
0.01
0.24
0.10
"a56
4.59
1.35
0.02
1.45
0.27
0.23
0.31
1.08
0.03
0.14
0.76
112.83
1952-532
1953 54
18.91
1954-553
~1.05
19.44
0.23
4.87
5.09
10.78
12.31
0.06
5.30
14.53
32.12
9.15
0.99
13.94
14.26
20.74
30.71
"~8.60
9.06
1.87
39.74
4.40
15.44
28.97
29.52
2.00
3.54
13.55
20.75
5.84
7.92
11.86
25.00
0.23
3.95
1955-56 	
1.11
0.21
0.14
0.17
0.13
6.16
6.TI
0.07
655.67
Northern
1951-52   	
434.46
1952-53   	
18.39
1953 54
249.60
1954-55 	
1955-56     . .
Upper Central
1951-52     —.
183.43
121.79
142.14
1952 53                           	
0.86
1953-54
103.10
1954-55    	
116.45
1955 56
37.91
Lower Central
1951 52                       	
2.50
0.09
0.48
0.48
1.35
1.70
166.98
1952-53	
8.90
1953 54                    .  .
334.98
1954 55                   	
191.18
1955-56	
Upper East Coast
1951 52                               	
361.76
151.87
1952 53*
1953 54                         	
0.13
0.24
0.34
0.41
0.64
0.07
0.22
0.07
0.59
0.91
0.29
0.03
0.20
0.16
92.42
1954 55                         	
0.07
034
0.06
ao9
156.35
1955 56                          	
11.10
Middle East Coast
1951-52 	
1952 535
0.07
2.78
0.21
3.25
1.24
0.06
0.67
0.31
1.07
0.20
0.58
0.02
0.27
2.70
1.02
0.17
121.88
1953-54	
1954 55                      	
70.08
112.83
73.94
83.93
30.51
167.41
151.56
137.66
22.44
166.36
248.70
1955 56
259.23
Lower East Coast
1951-52 -----
1952-53     	
1953 54                	
0.23
0.12
344.24
87.80
487.62
1954 55                         	
456.00
461.73
Lower West Coast
1951 52
0.06
0~12
0.03
0.06
	
111.90
1952 53a
0~21
0.07
0.53
1953 54                              	
0.27
0.02
86.22
13.97
30.65
34.65
18.36
2.34
8.36
66.85
309.81
1954-55     -
70.52
1955 56
195.01
Upper West Coast
1951 52                       	
127.20
1952 531
	
1953 54
39.80
31.07
9.03
4.32
  |
94.46
1954 55                   	
0.04
62.09
2 One hundred and eighty-five tons caught; no samples obtained.
3 Five hundred and fifty tons caught; no samples obtained.
4 One hundred and three tons caught; no samples obtained.
6 Eighty-three tons caught; no samples obtained.
6 Twenty-three tons caught; no samples obtained.
7 Five hundred and sixty tons caught; no samples obtained.
- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 77
Table VIII.—The Average Length in Millimetres of the Herring Sampled from Each
Major Population or Sub-district during the 1955—56 Fishing Season
(Comparable data are also given for the previous four seasons.)
Population and Fishing
In Year of Age
Season
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
Upper Queen Charlotte
Islands
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54	
1954-55	
122.00
97.00
101.41
132.53
147.28
139.06
150.98
160.50
155.65
149.41
144.30
155.58
145.40
156.42
149.50
146.96
145.76
147.11
144.86
148.11
126.59
132.66
143.07
143.92
165.58
162.59
159.54
180.21
175.69
184.32
176.27
194.11
197.14
201.68
200.62
202.42
208.13
214.50
213.52
212.45
221.25
215.06
216.09
215.87
223.45
218.03
211.48
218.72
223.44
214.00
188.23
235.00
219.62
219.58
203.75
201.68
212.24
215.40
224.82
207.92
207.37
219.25
224.58
224.26
215.95
217.56
216.92
214.45
222.89
225.25
215.85
221.14
219.20
222.52
221.81
216.46
225.96
228.50
222.64
216.21
216.68
228.87
223.70
218.13
231.09
243.67
231.54
213.50
236.33
237.00
236.50
262.00
244.00
1955-56.. 	
Lower Queen Charlotte
Islands
1951-52	
254.00
1952-53
1953-54
178.85
197.23
204.67
228.00
1954-55	
1955-56	
186.19
182.48
182.72
177.12
181.53
176.76
187.75
192.96
165.24
162.18
161.38
181.64
185.36
158.15
161.46
180.16
180.42
197.74
200.15
200.95
200.98
193.91
190.39
203.35
208.01
182.90
179.17
170.43
199.94
200.22
184.06
180.63
196.47
195.06
179.24
165.32
162.90
196.52
199.05
196.28
190.15
198.00
198.36
195.96
199.49
199.58
198.36
198.38
197.83
199.81
198.64
197.71
207.42
199.25
198.05
194.96
203.16
206.92
210.98
215.88
205.37
200.03
210.92
215.63
198.12
193.65
200.29
210.81
210.70
195.62
194.64
205.18
207.44
221.92
222.84
222.00
232.42
222.23
217.89
221.58
228.00
224.50
224.76
217.00
238.88
229.00
230.67
226.33
Northern
1951-52 	
119.67
253.50
1952-53	
1953-54	
230.00
237.50
250.00
1954-55.	
	
1955-56    	
Upper Central
1951-52 	
108.50
105.50
122.00
128.00
1952-53	
1953-54	
	
1954-55 	
219.33
1955-56 	
Lower Central
1951-52
107.95
119.18
112.22
103.24
114.00
99.80
225.10
226.59
211.67
207.08
217.56
222.54
225.50
232.62
238.50
222.00
1952-53    ..
1953 54
1954-55
1955-56
208.50
226.77
235.00
Upper East Coast
1951-52.  	
	
249.00
1952-53...  	
1953-54...    ...
114.25
101.00
132.35
135.61
115.79
142.52
138.73
148.32
150.12
147.03
150.84
155.94
151.97
163.09
160.16
158.41
162.12
160.53
164.34
165.12
167.14
145.86
154.67
159.13
135.67
176.93
177.93
174.03
176.53
181.72
185.46
183.81
187.22
188.88
186.44
186.16
184.02
185.34
182.31
185.74
191.18
187.81
181.01
180.52
202.62
178.41
198.98
207.00
215.77
213.68
204.99
206.06
208.93
208.64
210.70
210.63
208.26
212.19
209.41
211.16
210.38
204.18
217.49
207.10
210.71
210.04
231.91
225.85
216.00
228.62
230.88
227.67
226.83
225.61
222.80
226.70
238.33
224.08
225.67
211.00
241.38
220.00
227.71
231.84
233.00
231.83
230.75
237.50
227.71
221.00
229.00
236.33
1955 56
Middle East Coast
1951 52
103.25
107.75
269.00
1954 55
1955-56
234.36
226.60
233.33
227.33
238.20
222.00
237.00
246.00
Lower East Coast
1951-52	
96.33
106.50
1953 54
	
1955-56    ...
Lower West Coast
1951 52
230.50
131.00
97.00
90.50
140.00
1952 53
271.00
1953-54  ..
239.50
278.00
1954-55
1955 56
233.00
236.53
221.00
240.00
Upper West Coast
1951-52	
1952-53    ..
99.50
1953-54
236.00
1954 55
	
153.97
1955 56 K 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IX.—The Average Weight in Grams of the Herring Sampled from Each Major
Population or Sub-district during the 1955-56 Fishing Season
(Comparable data are also given for the previous four seasons.)
Population and Fishing
In Year of Age
Season
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
Upper Queen Charlotte
Islands
1951 52
1952 53                     	
25.09
39.93
32.03
38.63
110.89
135.16
137.12
136.32
143.33
215.00
155.00
1953 54         .    	
20.00
50.84
57.78
54.12
76.38
67.00
85.52
74.38
100.64
95.17
114.52
111.42
116.16
105.33
131.87
163.38
154.60
153.38
154.36
174.33
173.46
143.00
145.00
1954-55
200.00
1955-56  	
Lower Queen Charlotte
Islands
1951 52
13.00
9.11
249.00
1952 53
1953 54
68.00
93.08
109.14
115.90
110.76
105.91
95.62
94.38
114.91
118.41
85.68
84.16
70.57
109.68
106.57
84.18
85.31
110.31
99.12
85.03
66.78
62.38
114.82
103.04
104.41
94.34
105.58
113.54
93.56
107.69
113.45
105.53
108.79
100.06
106.65
107.68
106.64
117.11
100.25
98.51
104.91
150.75
147.42
150.11
143.32
145.19
138.24
140.48
145.29
153.41
138.80
97.15
155.00
150.63
146.07
115.69
124.25
141.15
141.50
154.40
134.53
127.16
170.79
161.45
166.83
144.78
141.82
157.65
135.30
148.66
163.44
140.22
159.64
143.60
148.35
151.40
138.89
156.48
158.50
143.25
141.86
170.00
1954-55
1955 56                        	
43.00
46.31
38.82
35.98
40.36
37.13
47.50
35.05
41.83
41.27
40.95
37.86
35.72
26.74
30.49
36.03
35.79
87.54
83.87
80.31
71.76
79.53
76.33
88.57
91.93
60.22
64.10
60.03
80.20
82.37
53.09
60.02
83.16
74.36
121.15
130.68
130.68
130.77
114.41
113.70
130.23
135.96
108.21
105.14
112.29
132.40
126.10
101.66
108.54
126.40
122.71
117.04
86.25
116.10
141.00
134.00
142.57
124.42
120.02
138.55
118.66
127.25
131.96
124.75
138.84
121.18
126.75
124.91
119.25
138.46
114.70
123.85
134.67
163.11
165.77
157.22
164.32
147.00
151.78
155.92
169.00
156.67
166.30
166.35
Northern
1951 52
22.00
221.50
1952 53
1953 54                                  	
182.62
154.00
170.00
165.00
193.00
199.00
181.00
1954-55
1955 56                           	
14.75
10.50
20.50
28.00
Upper Central
1951 52	
1952 53	
	
1953 54         -	
1954-55                           —
1955 56                            	
Lower Central
1951 52                  	
14.51
18.00
17.44
14.06
15.50
11.05
160.10
160.91
125.50
126.23
155.83
159.36
161.06
169.86
173.00
131.00
1952 53	
1953-54..  	
1954-55
	
1955 56 	
122.00
157.50
	
180.00
Upper East Coast
1951 52
17.50
14.00
34.90
32.84
17.89
39.51
29.84
42.59
45.24
42.84
46.06
44.89
46.36
56.64
51.36
52.53
51.67
53.72
57.83
57.40
57.00
36.23
56.37
61.17
32.97
80.81
69.59
70.65
79.54
79.54
91.25
76.78
88.41
94.08
85.16
89.63
78.83
85.55
83.06
85.99
89.49
82.27
77.41
84.59
157.45
170.05
183.00
186.29
1955 56
Middle East Coast
1951 52
14.00
11.91
178.00
165.00
183.69
167.00
160.66
175.39
146.40
157.50
178.33
161.92
170.00
123.00
165.75
131.00
144.00
169.66
168.00
145.00
180.67
143.00
156.00
195.94
1953 54
185.00
1955 56
177.89
172.60
185.00
181.00
173.00
174.80
178.00
186.00
186.50
Lower East Coast
1951-52  - -.--	
1952 53
11.33
12.83
1953 54
1954-55
1955 56
Lower West Coast
1951 52
30.00
8.50
8.50
37.00
1952 53
155.00
1954-55
140.00
190.00
1955 56
Upper West Coast
1951 52                 	
179.50
1952 53
9.75
1953 54
1954-55
46.44
174.00
1955 56 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 79
Table X.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) in Populations of Herring on the British
Columbia Coast during the Past Five Fishing Seasons
Population
Fishin
g Season
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
Average
0.96
0.98
1.05
1.10
0.84
0.80
0.88
1.04
1.02
0.96
0.88
1.13
1.37
1.00
1.02
0.84
1.06
1.24
1.06
1.05
0.481
1.12
1.02
0.96
1.07
1.01
0.81
1.07
1.08
1.02
1.05
1.12
1.15
1.16
1.12
1.24
0.92
1.07
1.15
1.11
1.18
1.00
1.04
1.23
1.15
1.10
1.15
1.04
0.93
1.09
1.09
.98
1.03
1.12
1.15
1.03
1.04
.90
1.03
1.12
Average    	
1.05
1 Based on only thirty-four fish and so emitted from averages. K 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XI.—Number of Statutory Miles of Herring Spawn Deposited in British Columbia
Waters in 1956, Adjusted to Medium Intensity by Area and Year
(Comparable data are also given for the preceding four years.   Figures in parentheses
include surveys carried out by Biological Station personnel.)
Sub-district and Area
Statutory Miles of Spawn of Medium Intensity
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
Upper Queen Charlotte Islands
Area 2a (E) (Skidegate Inlet) 	
Lower Queen Charlotte Islands
Area 2b (E) (Skincuttle Inlet)	
Northern
Area 3 (Nass)	
Area 4 (Skeena) —
Area 5 (Grenville)..
Totals	
Area 6 (Butedale)..
Upper Central
Lower Central
Area 7 (Bella Bella)	
Area 8 (Bella Coola).-
Area 9 (Rivers Inlet)	
Area 10 (Smith Inlet)._
Totals	
Upper East Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 11 (Seymour Inlet).. _ 	
Area 12 (Alert Bay)  	
Totals	
Middle East Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 13 (Campbell River)  	
Area 14 (Comox)	
Area 15 (Powell River)  _ 	
Area 16 (Pender Harbour)  	
Totals  	
Lower East Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 17a (Nanaimo )._   	
Area 17b (Ladysmith)  	
Area 18 (Ganges Harbour) _ 	
Area 19 (Victoria)  	
Totals     	
Lower West Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 23 (Barkley Sound)  _
Area 24 (Clayoquot Sound) 	
Totals	
Upper West Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 25 (Esperanza Inlet)  	
Area 26 (Kyuquot Sound)  _	
Area 27 (Quatsino Sound)  	
Totals  	
Grand totals, all areas	
0.8
4.6
1.6
11.6
0.9
14.1
4.3
17.7
1.5
0.8
2.8
22.8
0.2
9.7
9.9
6.0
24.4
2.3
3.4
36.1
7.8
20.4
2.0
0.1
30.3
3.2
10.2
0.9
16.1
3.3
1.9
20.2
0.5
5.4
10.5
20.3
6.8
29.4
0.2
4.2
9.2
16.4
4.7
28.0
2.7
0.4
5.8
43.0
24.7
36.9
0.4
14.0
5.8
23.7
3.0
3.2
14.4
3.2
11.4
2.4
4.8
35.7
17.6
82.4
2.5
21.8
0.8
61.5
1.9
4.8
4.9
(9.8)
(2.4)
102.5
7.8   (13.1)
7.0     (7.8)
9.7   (12.2)[  14.8   (20.9)
2.8
0.9
1.2
I
(26.6)|
(L6)[
(1.3)|
11.4
4.4
10.8
(36.4)
(8.0)
(11.5)
4.9   (29.5)| 26.6   (5S.9)   17.5   (29.6)
11.3
4.3
18.8
9.7
2.6
5.8
11.9
23.1
4.0
28.2
8.9
1.1
1.6
20.3
0.3
18.8
1.4
0.1
4.1
39.8
24.4
9.2
15.9
9.2
15.9
I
12.2 (13.8)|     (5.3)
19.0 (21.0)| 21.7 (22.6)
1.4 (1.6)|     (..-)
4.0 (4.0)| 2.1    ( )
36.6   (40.4)! 23.8   (27.9)
9.0 (9.4)|
6.5 (28.8)
1.4 (5.2)
  (_....)
3.0 (4.2)
9.4 (7.7)
1.8 (9.1)
  (......)
64.2
4.6   (11.0)
4.2     (4.5)
16.9   (43.4)|  14.2   (21.0)
5.6
4.7
8.8   (15.5)
7.1
3.2
7.2
(17.5)
(4.8)
(7.3)
10.3
6.9
8.6
2.6
18.1
137.5 (164.6) 287.8 (323.2) |206.8 (225.6)
169.3 (199.6)
13.4
1.1
53.2
0.9
54.1
177.2 (188.1) REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 81
PHYTOPLANKTON AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN
LADYSMITH HARBOUR
By C. D. McAllister
ABSTRACT
The general characteristics of Ladysmith Harbour and distributions of salinity, temperature, and phytoplankton there are described and factors accounting for them are
suggested. The distributions of phytoplankton in the harbour are shown to be related to
the physical characteristics and processes occurring in and adjacent to the harbour.
Variations in the abundance of phytoplankton are suggested to be related to variations in
circulation as well as to changes in abundance of zooplankton. It is calculated that
advection contributes significantly to the total crop of phytoplankton in the Inner Harbour.
INTRODUCTION
Two types of agents may control the abundance, composition, and distribution of
plankton in a local area. Firstly, local factors such as grazing, nutrient depletion and
regeneration, mixing, and heating may act on local populations. Secondly, renewal of
water through circulation and mixing may act on populations directly by adding and
removing organisms and indirectly by influencing the properties of the water in the area.
In this paper, distributions of phytoplankton in Ladysmith Harbour and some of the
factors and processes resulting in them are described and discussed.
COLLECTION OF DATA
Most of the data used here were collected between May, 1954, and August, 1956.
A small, open, inboard-engined boat equipped with a hand-windlass and plankton pump
and hose was used for the work inside the harbour. An Atlas water-sampling bottle,
reversing thermometer, and bathythermograph were operated from the windlass to obtain
water samples and temperatures. A 36-foot launch similarly equipped was used for more
extended cruises into Stuart and Trincomali Channels.
Water for plankton samples was pumped from various depths through 1-inch hosing
and filtered through No. 20 or 25 Monel netting. The volume of water filtered, usually
about 3 cubic feet, was measured by a meter. This method of plankton-sampling is
claimed to be inefficient for capturing the more active zooplankters, although excellent
for phytoplankton (Gibbons and Fraser, 1937).
The pattern of oceanographic stations and the periods during which they were used
are shown in Fig. 3.
Additional unpublished data were made available by D. B. Quayle and the Canada
Department of Transport.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. Morphometry
Ladysmith Harbour is a small, narrow bay situated on latitude 49° north on the east
coast of Vancouver Island. In contrast to the typical British Columbia inlet, it is short,
about AVz miles long, with extensive intertidal flats and is apparently less dominated by
fresh-water inflow. A constriction, approximately at the middle, divides the harbour into
a shallow inner portion and a wider, deeper outer bay (Fig. 1). The harbour opens into
Stuart Channel, a typical coastal passage separated from Georgia Strait by two chains of
islands (Fig. 2). K 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The distribution of depths in the harbour is indicated in Fig. 1. About one-third of
the area of the Inner Harbour is above the zero tide-line. Most of this intertidal area lies
at the head of the harbour. Two mud-flats lie on the west side of the harbour.
Along the east side of the Inner Harbour the rocky shore drops sharply. From the
west the bottom slopes gradually, changing from a mixture of mud and gravel to a soft
organic ooze at the zero tide-level. The deepest part of the Inner Harbour is along the
eastern shore.
Mean depths in the Inner Harbour range from 3 to 35 feet in the channel, and in the
Outer Bay from 35 to about 130 feet.
The constriction between the two parts of the bay is about 800 feet across. The
narrow channel formed by this construction is deepest at the western side and shallows
rapidly toward the east shore, forming a modified sill.
B. Fresh-water Drainage
The drainage area of the whole harbour is 39.6 square miles and that of the Inner
Harbour is 20.4 square miles. The average annual rainfall is about 37 inches, giving a
mean annual discharge of fresh water into the Inner Bay of about 5.5 x 106 cubic metres.
This would form a layer 1.5 metres thick on the Inner Bay. No single stream dominates
the drainage. Three major streams—two in the Inner Bay and one larger one in the Outer
Harbour—discharge from the west shore. Small creeks, seepage, and direct run-off contribute the rest of the fresh-water drainage.
While none of the streams entering Ladysmith Harbour are metered, discharge figures
are available for Haslam Creek in an adjacent watershed about 5 miles north-west of
Ladysmith (Water Resources Pub. 114). The drainage area of Haslam Creek is about
27 square miles, comparable to that of the Inner Harbour. These discharge figures indicate peaks of flow in November, February, and April-May. The November and February
maxima occur during periods of heavy rainfall and may be separated by a time when
precipitation is being stored as snow in the watershed. The melting of this stored run-off
may result in the spring peak discharge.
C. Distribution of Salinity
Surface salinities ranging from 13 o/oo to 29 o/oo have been observed at Station I
over a period of years in Ladysmith Harbour (Quayle, unpublished data). Sub-surface
salinities may exceed 29.5 o/oo, but are not known to reach 30 o/oo. Typically three
major salinity minima occur each year. Two are associated with the autumn and winter
peaks of fresh-water discharge. The third occurs in midsummer, when drainage has an
almost negligible effect on salinity.
Cruises into Stuart, Trincomali, and Northumberland Channels indicate that the
summer salinity minima result from intrusions of Georgia Strait water, diluted by the
Fraser River spring freshet, into the Stuart-Trincomali Channels system. Several such
intrusions may occur in a summer, with increases in salinity between them (Fig. 4).
In late fall and early summer, salinities above the halocline tend to increase to seaward. In midsummer, when dilution is occurring, this gradient is reversed and salinities
decrease to seaward. The gradients above the halocline may be variable in late summer
and early fall, when the change in salinity along the harbour may be negligible, or salinities
at Station II in the Outer Harbour may be either higher or lower than at Station I or
Station III.
The longitudinal gradients are typically small—less than one part per thousand.
However, salinity data from Station I in the winter of 1951 reveal very strong vertical
gradients of salinity in the upper 3 feet. If wind mixing in the more exposed Outer
Harbour could break down this structure, then large horizontal gradients might develop
in winter.   Such gradients were not observed in this study, since surface salinities were REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955 K 83
not taken during the first year. However, the winter cruises do indicate that the vertical
gradients of salinity are much stronger in the Inner Harbour than just outside, indicating
that wind mixing may act as suggested.
Typical longitudinal salinity sections in the harbour are shown in Figs. 5, 6, and 7.
Lateral salinity gradients in both Inner and Outer Harbours are usually of the order
of 0.1-0.2 o/oo and are always less than 0.5 o/oo in the spring and summer, the only
periods when lateral salinity gradients were observed. The lateral gradients are variable,
but there is a tendency toward lower salinities on the west side, except when dilution from
seaward is occurring.   Sometimes the lateral gradients reverse below the halocline.
Observations made at six stations (ED 1.5, ED 3.5, H4, HI, Kl, K4), occupied
by three vessels over a period of twenty-four hours on May 18th and 19th, 1955, indicate
that salinities above and below the halocline tend to vary with tidal height. Salinities in
the Outer Harbour tended to increase on flood tides and decrease on ebb tides. The fact
that the reverse was true at the pair of stations in the Inner Harbour could be due to the
movement of relatively dilute water off the mouth of Holland Creek (Fig. 1) into the
Inner Harbour on the flood tide. The halocline in the Outer Harbour showed a tendency
to a steady decrease in depth rather than any marked tidal fluctuations. The range of
variation of salinity with tide was about 0.1-0.6 o/oo.
The average excursion of the intersection of isohalines with the surface on ebb or
flood tides was about one-half mile. Since cruises in the first two patterns of stations
required a maximum of about three hours, the maximum distortion in longitudinal points
of salinity due to tidal variation during the cruise should be about one-quarter of a mile.
Since the maximum distortion amounts to less than one-eighth of the length of the
harbour, it is neglected.
Observations made at a station occupied for twenty-four hours on May 29th and
30th, 1954, in the constriction forming the entrance to the Inner Harbour indicate that
the extremes of salinity at this location occur at times of maximum tidal current rather
than at the extremes of tidal height. This could result from the bottom configuration in
the Gap, which may impede water-flow except at maximum current speeds. However,
lateral temperature sections across the constriction indicate strong and characteristic distorting in the configuration of isotherms for both ebb and flood tides (Fig. 13). Since
the twenty-four-hour station was situated to the east of the middle of the Gap, the change
in salinity may be an effect of the distortion rather than a true indication of the average
salinity of the water moving through the constriction.
D. Distribution of Temperature
Maximum surface temperatures of about 22° C. occur in August and minimum of
about 4° C. in February. Temperature maxima and minima generally coincide with
salinity minima. This may result partly from the coincidence of radiation and salinity
cycles and partly from the stability at salinity minima, which usually occur with strong
vertical gradients.
Inner Ladvsmith Harbour has a source and sink of heat in addition to the usual ones
of oceanographic and meteorological origin in the extensive area of intertidal flats. The
large intertidal zone will gain or lose heat during low-tide periods, according to the
conditions prevailing. When the flats are submerged during high tides, the gain or loss
of heat will be passed on to the water. This phenomenon, coupled with the effect of the
shore configuration in restricting water exchange and wind mixing, may be reflected in
the temperature distributions. In addition, the shallow depths eliminate the possibility
of modification of temperatures resulting from mixing with deep water.
In spring, summer, and early fall, temperatures above the thermocline tend to
increase, sometimes irregularly, toward the mouth of the harbour.   Longitudinal tempera- K 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ture gradients in the thermocline are sometimes strong.    Below the thermocline the
gradients may be similar or opposite to those above the thermocline.
Temperatures in the Inner Harbour tend to decrease from head to mouth and from
west to east in spring and summer. This may result from the fact that the intertidal
flats, sources of heat in spring and summer, lie at the end and side opposite the source
of colder water. The distributions of temperature as indicated by extensive use of the
bathythermograph may be quite irregular within the net gradient. This irregularity
may result partly from the effect of the constriction mentioned on page 83. In longitudinal plots of the distribution of temperature taken by bathythermograph on the flood
tide, isotherms rise sharply over the " semi-sill" in the constriction and follow the bottom down closely inside the sill. During large tidal rises relatively cold water from the
greater depths of the Outer Harbour may be forced in over the sill, and be unable to
move out on the following ebb tide. This effect may be enhanced by the existence of a
two-layer system of circulation in which cold water tends to flow inward along the bottom. The distribution of the intertidal sources of heat and mixing resulting from a jet
stream through the Gap on flood tides may also contribute to the sometimes irregular
distribution of temperature.
Variations in temperatures at the six stations occupied for twenty-four hours on
May 18th and 19th, 1955, were more irregular than variations in salinity. The temperature changes differed at each of the three sections and, except for Stations H 1 and
H 4, the stations in each pair exhibited differences in the change of temperature with
tide.
Of the six stations, only ED 3.5 and K 4, the inner and outermost on the west side
of the harbour, revealed regular variation in temperature with tidal height. At Station
ED 1.5, paired with ED 2, but on the east side of the inner bay, shallow layers of warm
water were observed at both lower low-water periods, as might be expected. However,
isotherms below a depth of 10 feet showed little change in depth, other than to appear
slightly shallower at low water after the small ebb tide. This effect could be attributed
to the outward movement of the upper water over the relatively immobile deeper water
on this small tide.
At Stations H 1 and H 4 in the Outer Harbour, surface temperatures tended to
vary directly with tidal height. Below a depth of about 20 feet, the changes in temperature at these two stations were parallel, showing an increase on the small ebb, a
marked decrease on the small flood, and virtually no change on the large flood and large
tides. The temperatures at intermediate depths showed a steady decrease at Station H 1,
the eastern station, and paralleled the deeper temperature changes at Station H 4.
As already mentioned, temperatures at Station K 4, the western station at the mouth
of the Outer Harbour, varied directly with tidal height. Temperatures below a depth
of about 10 feet at Station K 1, across the harbour from K 4, varied inversely with tidal
height. Above 10 feet, at Station K 1, a decrease in temperature occurred on the first
flood tide and a slow increase in temperature continued from the first high-water period
until occupation of the stations was terminated.
The complexity of these variations of temperature with tide could be due to simple
distributions of temperature and complicated patterns of flow, to complicated distributions of temperature and simple flow patterns, or to intermediates between these two
alternatives. The relative regularity of the variation in salinities suggests that the distribution of temperature rather than flow patterns may be responsible for the complex
variation of temperature with tide. Some temperature sections from the Outer Harbour
reveal complex distributions, indicating that this may be the case.
The station occupied for twenty-four hours in the Gap indicates that temperatures
varied in much the same way as salinities. Extremes occurred at times of maximum
current speed rather than at high- and low-tide periods. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 85
On August 10th and 11th, 1955, a station was occupied for twenty-four hours at
position CD 5 in the grid of stations covering the Inner Harbour (Fig. 3). Bathythermograph casts and observations of current velocities at eight depths were made at intervals
of one hour for the twenty-four-hour period. At high and low tides and half-way between
high and low tides, bathythermograph casts were made at four stations across Section CD.
In general, maximum temperatures occurred at low tides and minimum temperatures at high tides. The maximum change in temperature of about 4° F. took place at
a depth of 12 feet on the large flood tide between lower low water and high water. The
depths of the isotherms did not change smoothly, but with many small irregular fluctuations which were greatest in the lower region of the thermocline. These fluctuations
may indicate turbulence or be an effect of the constriction.
Each of the eight observations on the transverse distribution of temperature indicated that temperatures above the thermocline increased toward the west side of the
harbour. No distinctive variations in the lateral distributions of temperature with tide
were observed other than a general increase and decrease of temperature.
Longitudinal temperature gradients in the Inner Harbour vary from 2° to about
7° F. along its length.   For the whole harbour, the longitudinal gradient may exceed 10°.
Vertical temperature gradients from less than 2° to over 18° F. in 25 feet have
been observed in the Inner Bay.
Transverse gradients of up to 2° F. across the width of the Inner Harbour may occur.
E. Water Exchange
1. Circulation
Longitudinal distributions of density suggest that a two-layer system of circulation
with outflow in the upper layer and inflow in the lower layer operates in Ladysmith
Harbour during most of the year. However, during periods of dilution from seaward
in summer this circulation reverses and inflow in the upper layer occurs.
Direct observations of the distributions of velocity with depth over a twenty-four-
hour period on two occasions support the existence of the two-layered circulation inferred
from the distributions of variables. Also the movements of free drags suspended from
surface floats indicate that mid-depth velocities (10 to 15 feet) are greater than those
nearer the surface during the flood tide in spite of the prevailing up-harbour winds.
Observations on the movement of detritus, surface floats, and a Chesapeake Bay
Institute current drag suggest that an anticlockwise lateral circulation prevails in the
Inner Harbour. However, at times flood currents have been observed to be stronger
on the western shore of the inner half of the Inner Harbour.
While most data indicate that less dense surface water originating toward the head
of the harbour tends to move to seaward over denser water moving inward on the flood
tide, a few observations suggest that mild, localized upwelling may occur there.
2. Exchange Rates
Where conservation of salt and volume are maintained by a two-layer circulation
in a body of water receiving fresh-water drainage, the rate of water transport inward
may be calculated by use of the expression—
Ti=-
SuD
(Si-Su)
where Ti=rate of transport of water inward,  Si=salinity  of the inflowing layer,
Su=salinity of the outflowing layer, and D=the rate of fresh-water drainage.
On the basis of data taken in the Inner Harbour in 1955, Station I salinities were
accepted as approximations to the mean salinities of the inflowing and outflowing layers. K 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The mean salinity above and below the depth of no net motion (taken as the inflection
point of the sigma-t profile) were used as Su and Si respectively.
Fresh-water discharge rates for Haslam Creek (Canada Department of Natural
Resources, 1955) in a watershed adjacent to that of Ladysmith were adjusted for the
difference in drainage area and assumed to represent the fresh-water inflow into Inner
Ladysmith Harbour.
The salinities in Ladysmith Harbour fluctuate continuously. However, conservation of salt may be considered satisfied at times of salinity maxima and minima.
The volume of the Inner Harbour was assessed to be constant.
The mean of the thirty-three rates calculated by this method is a transport inward
of 78 cubic metres per second, or 32 per cent of the mean volume of the Inner Harbour
renewed per day.
A method of calculating renewal rates analogous to the above one exists if continuity of heat and volume can be assumed.
If it can be further assumed that transport in and out are approximately equal it
can be shown that—
(-Qv) A
Ti=	
PC (0u-0i)
where (—Qv)=the amount of heat passing through a square centimetre of upper water
surface per unit time, A=the area of the upper water surface, p=the density of the
water, C=the specific heat of the water, 0u=temperature of the outflowing layer, <9i=the
temperature of the inflowing layer, and Ti=the rate of transport of water inward.
The meteorological data necessary for the calculation of (—Qv) were obtained
from Cassidy airport, about 4 miles north of Ladysmith Harbour, and from tables of
solar radiation prepared by Kimball (1928). The reader is referred to Sverdrup et al.
(1942) for the method of calculating (—Qv).
Water temperatures from Station I and transverse Section C (Fig. 3) were assumed
to be the mean for the Inner Harbour. Data from the summer of 1955 suggest that
this tends to be the case.
The mean of the fifteen rates calculated by the heat budget method, 78 cubic metres
per second, agrees well with the mean of the salt budget rates.
The over-all mean of all renewal rates calculated on the assumption of a two-layer
circulation is 32 per cent of the mean volume of the Inner Harbour per day with a
standard deviation of 18 per cent. While values of 32±18 per cent do not seem unreasonable, those near the limits of the range, about 10 and 100 per cent, appear likely to
be in error.
Assumptions and sources of error in these calculations have been discussed by
McAllister (1956, unpublished).
The two-layer circulation is known to exist. However, the large proportion of the
mean volume of the Inner Harbour (47 per cent in an average tide) involved in tides
and the effect of the constriction at the Gap in producing a jet stream suggests that horizontal mixing may also contribute significantly to water exchange in the Inner Harbour.
The amount of exchange due to horizontal mixing is unknown, and in subsequent calculations it is assumed that renewal results entirely from the two-layer circulation.
F. Distribution of Phytoplankton
1. Seasonal Occurrence
Four phytoplankton blooms may occur in Ladysmith Harbour during the growing
season. The spring bloom in Ladysmith Harbour may start early in May and last from
three to six weeks. During this time, although patchiness is evident and concentrations
vary with time, the gradients of concentration along the length of the harbour are gen- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 87
erally small. A second bloom or series of blooms may occur in midsummer. Concentrations during the midsummer blooms generally increase toward the mouth of the
harbour and may be low in the Inner Harbour. Observations in late August and early
September of 1954 indicate that a third bloom, confined to the Inner Harbour, occurred.
Concentrations of plankton from the only cruise made during the fall bloom increased
toward the mouth of the Harbour.
The maintenance of the concentrations of phytoplankton in the shallow Inner Harbour during the spring blooms suggests that water exchange may be important in supplying either organisms or nutrients or both. Since concentrations of plankton and nutrients are usually higher in the lower layers, the two-layer circulation during this period
would tend to advect both plankton and nutrients into the Inner Harbour.
The fact that the establishment of a gradient with concentrations of phytoplankton
decreasing to seaward coincided with the reversal of circulation during the first dilution
in the summer of 1954 may further indicate the importance of the spring circulation in
maintaining phytoplankton populations in the Inner Harbour. The surface inflow associated with dilution would tend to replace water in the Inner Harbour with water from
the plankton-poor and nutrient-depleted upper layers to seaward.
Another factor could operate if the sporadic reversal of the circulation during dilution proved to be unimportant. When depletion of nutrients to seaward of the Inner
Harbour reached a certain depth, the inflow in the lower layer might fail to advect
sufficient nutrients into the Inner Harbour to maintain production at the level prevailing during the spring bloom.
Two mechanisms may be responsible for the occurrence of blooms of phytoplankton
in midsummer at a time when plankton concentrations have frequently been observed
to be low in other geographical areas. Temperature and salinity sections for July 7th,
1954, suggest that relatively dilute water was moving into Ladysmith Harbour over the
more saline deep layers. The vertical gradient of salinity was strong. Inversions of
temperature suggest that strong velocity gradients existed between the two layers.
Between the two layers and associated with a tongue of low temperature was a narrow
band of a very high concentrations of diatoms. This may indicate that entrainment of
nutrients into the upper layer gives rise to production, or that mixtures of the two layers
are fertile.
This phenomenon of high standing crops in the interface between low-salinity
Georgia Strait water and the deeper layers is not always evident. However, such entrainment or mixing could result in conditions suitable for production which could persist
after the structures revealing the processes had deteriorated. Also plankton so produced
might persist after the processes had ceased.
Some data (Fig. 11) suggest that the area in Trincomali Channel between Porlier
Pass and the north end of Thetis Island is a highly productive one. This area is adjacent to a region of intense tidal mixing which could supply the nutrients necessary to
maintain a large standing crop of phytoplankton. The distribution of salinity on July
2nd, 1954 (Fig. 12), suggests that the water causing the summer dilutions in Ladysmith
Harbour enters the Stuart-Trincomali Channel system through Porlier Pass. If this is
the case, then movement of plankton-bearing water from Trincomali Channel into the
Ladysmith Harbour area is also possible. Sporadic intrusions of water from Trincomali
Channel into Stuart Channel could result in small clouds or masses of water rich in
phytoplankton which could occasionally pass by or enter Ladysmith Harbour.
Probably both advection of plankton originating in Trincomali Channel and entrainment are at least partly responsible for the midsummer blooms in Ladysmith Harbour.
The third bloom, confined to the Inner Harbour, follows the decomposition of large
amounts of eel-grass and sessile alga? which appear floating in the late summer. Since
the relative concentration of these forms is higher in the Inner Harbour than to seaward, K 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
plankton blooms resulting from the release of nutrients through decay of sessile plants
would be more intense in the Inner Harbour.
Data taken from the Inner Harbour during May, June, and July of 1955 indicate
that distributions of phytoplankton there reveal both even gradients and patchiness.
Patchiness in the distribution of phytoplankton may result from small areas of productivity or from localized grazing. Both factors probably operate in the Inner Harbour.
Intermittent flow of fertile water in through the Gap on strong flood tides could result in
small masses of water which could produce localized blooms. Lateral water movements
in the Inner Harbour have been described previously as complicated and variable.
If masses of water were retained in intermittent or temporary eddies in regions of the
Inner Harbour where concentrations of sessile and bottom grazers were high, an otherwise even distribution of phytoplankton could become patchy through grazing. Flow
patterns suggest that this may sometimes occur. The occurrence of copepods and larval
decapods in swarms could also result in patchiness due to uneven grazing.
2. Distribution of Genera of Phytoplankton
The generic composition of phytoplankton in Ladysmith Harbour varies in both
time and space. Results from 1954 and 1955 suggest that the sequence of genera from
spring to autumn is as follows: Thalassiosira, Chatoceros, Skeletonema, Chaztoceros, and
in late summer a complex of dominant genera. No one type of distribution of genera
along the harbour appears common. It can only be said that the generic composition of
the phytoplankton in the Inner Harbour tends to differ from that to seaward.
Ketchum (1954) shows that exchange rates may be important in determining the
types and distributions of plankton in estuaries. After considering known division rates
of phytoplankton, he concludes that endemic phytoplankton populations should be able
to maintain themselves in estuaries having exchange ratios of 0.5 or less. The exchange
ratio is defined as the proportion of water moving seaward from the estuary on the ebb
tide and not returning on the following flood tide. Inner Ladysmith Harbour, with a
daily renewal rate of about 30 per cent of the mean volume per day (exchange ratio less
than 0.15), should thus be able to maintain endemic phytoplankton populations; that is,
the rates of division of phytoplankters are such that they could maintain or increase their
numbers in the Inner Harbour in spite of depletion to seaward by the circulation. However, if the rate of reproduction of the plankton fell below a critical level due to grazing
or nutrient depletion, the endemic population would be unable to maintain itself. In this
case the composition of the plankton in the Inner Harbour would resemble that to seaward, providing the composition to seaward remained constant. If the composition to
seaward varied, the time lag between the changes in the composition of the phytoplankton
in the two parts of the harbour would give rise to apparent endemism.
The increase in the proportion of the total population of phytoplankton formed by
Chatoceros between May 3rd, 1955, and May 18th-19th appears to have been a form of
population succession. On May 3rd, Thallassiosira was the dominant genus at all depths
in Ladysmith Harbour. The composition varied little longitudinally (Fig. 26). By May
10th Chcetoceros had become dominant in the upper layers on the east side of the inner
Harbour. The proportion of the population formed by this genus decreased markedly to
seaward. The observations taken at the six stations sampled over a twenty-four-hour
period on May 18th and 19th indicated that Chcetoceros had extended its distribution
farther to seaward in the upper layer of the harbour by this date. At each of these
stations except Hl5 the proportion formed by Chatoceros varied inversely with tidal
height, suggesting that the genus was dispersing from the Inner Harbour. In the Inner
Harbour the greatest concentrations of phytoplankton during the twenty-four-hour period
were associated with increases in the proportion of Chaitoceros. This would be expected
if Chatoceros was endemic to the Inner Harbour. During the same period the highest
concentrations in the Outer Harbour were associated with high proportions of Thalas- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 89
siosira. A cruise into Stuart and Trincomali Channels on May 17th indicated that Thalas-
siosira was dominant throughout these bodies of water. Thus between May 3rd and May
18th-19th Chcetoceros had increased from a relatively minor form to a dominant one in
spite of depletion to seaward by circulation in the upper layers and the advection of other
forms into the harbour in the lower layer. Through population succession, Chatoceros
had become endemic to the Inner Harbour. The change appeared to have been associated with an increase in temperature and a slight drop in salinity.
The change in the composition of the plankton between June 12th and June 22nd,
1954, may have been brought about by the circulation. On June 12th Chcetoceros was
the dominant genus in the harbour. Skeletonema formed less than 50 per cent of the
phytoplankton, but the proportion it formed increased with depth and to seaward. By
June 23rd Skeletonema had increased until it had formed the major constituent of the
phytoplankton. The proportion of the population it formed was greatest in the Inner
Harbour. This change in distribution could be interpreted to mean that the inflow of
water in the deeper layers had carried Skeletonema into the harbour, where it largely
replaced the formerly dominant Chcetoceros. The fact that Chmtoceros formed a higher
fraction of the population in the Outer Harbour than in the Inner Harbour on June 22nd
could have resulted from its advection out of the Inner Harbour or from changes beginning in the population after Skeletonema had attained dominance.
If Skeletonema had attained dominance in the Inner Harbour through advection
followed by population changes in the Outer Harbour resulting from either succession or
sequence, the greater proportion of this genus in the Inner Harbour is a case of apparent
endemism. However, the time interval between these two cruises, ten days, is too great
to allow definite conclusions to be drawn. The division rate of diatoms is such that the
change in numbers and proportion of Skeletonema could have resulted from population
succession.
The distributions of the genus Chxtoceros cannot be related to any particular conditions of salinity and temperature. This genus contains many species adapted to a wide
variety of conditions.
Only one species of the genus Skeletonema, S. costatum, has been observed in British
Columbia coastal waters. As with Chcetoceros, the occurrence of this species did not
appear to be related to particular values of salinity or temperature. On June 12th, 1954,
it was associated with the deeper and more saline layers. On August 2nd, 1954, the
highest numbers and proportions of this genus were associated with low salinities. In
general, Skeletonema was most prominent during July, 1954, the period during which
dilutions were occurring.
Few generalizations concerning the distribution of genera can be drawn. The
increase in the proportions of Skeletonema following the period when Chcetoceros was
dominant was associated with dilution. Following this, Chmtoceros again became the
most prominent genus, although Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, and Nitzschia at times
formed significant proportions of the populations. The generic composition of the phytoplankton tends to vary vertically and longitudinally as do salinity and temperature. The
lateral gradients of composition are usually small. Except for the first instance discussed
above, no clear relationships between distributions of genera and physical-chemical factors
or circulation are evident.
G. Advection of Phytoplankton in the Inner Harbour
1. Advection of Phytoplankton
It has been indicated that a two-layer circulation operates in Ladysmith Harbour.
The net transport of phytoplankton in a body of water with such a circulation can be
expressed as PT=PiTi—PuTu, where Pi=the mean concentration of phytoplankton in K 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA
the inward flowing layer, Pu=the mean concentration of phytoplankton in the seaward
moving layer, Ti=the rate of transport of water in, and Tu= the rate of transport of
water to seaward.
If PT is positive, a net gain of phytoplankton results from advection. If PT is negative, the reverse is true. The expression applies to phytoplankton only. For zooplankton,
part of which perform diurnal vertical migrations (Sverdrup et al., 1942), the amount
of time spent in each layer would have to be considered.
In calculating net transports of phytoplankton for Inner Ladysmith Harbour, it is
assumed that plankton concentrations at Station I represent the mean for the Inner
Harbour, and that the mean transport of water inward, 78 cubic metres per second, prevailed throughout the period studied (June 6th, 1954, to August 27th, 1954). During
periods of outflow in the upper layer, Pi and Pu were taken to be the mean concentrations below and above the depth of no net motion respectively. When the circulation reversed during dilution, Pi and Pu were taken from the upper and lower layers respectively.
Variations in the mean standing crop in the water column at Station I and in the net
rate of transport of phytoplankton are presented in Figs. 13 and 14.
The mean rate of advection of phytoplankton into Ladysmith Harbour for the period
studied is calculated to be about 140,000 cells per litre per day, suggesting that advection may contribute significantly to the total crop of phytoplankton in Inner Ladysmith
Harbour.
Changes in the standing crop of phytoplankton appear to be related to variations
in the rate of advection of phytoplankton as well as to changes in concentration of
zooplankton.
CONCLUSIONS
1. Configuration of shore-line and distribution of depth in Ladysmith Harbour affect
the distribution of phytoplankton directly by limiting the supply of nutrients in the Inner
Harbour and indirectly by restricting exchange with waters to seaward.
2. Although the gradients of salinity and temperature (in part determined by freshwater drainage and morphometry) affect productivity in the harbour only indirectly, they
may be important in directly determining the gradients of composition of phytoplankton.
3. The two-layer circulation transports significant amounts of phytoplankton into
Inner Ladysmith Harbour.
4. Variations in the standing crop of phytoplankton appear to be associated with
changes in both the rate of transport of phytoplankton and changes in the concentration
of zooplankton.
5. Circulation indirectly affects the composition of the phytoplankton in the Inner
Harbour by maintaining salinity and temperature conditions despite dilution and heating
and also by changing them.
6. The rate of water exchange in Inner Ladysmith Harbour is such that local forms
of phytoplankton may survive and increase in spite of depletion by circulation. However,
if the rate of production of local forms falls below a level determined by the circulation,
organisms transported in from seaward may determine the composition of populations in
the Inner Harbour.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The writer wishes to express his gratitude to Dr. D. B. Quayle, Dr. R. F. Scagel,
Dr. W. Cameron, and Dr. G. L. Pickard for their advice, criticism, and encouragement.
LITERATURE CITED
Fleming, R. H. (1939): The Control of Diatom Populations by Grazing.   J. du Conseil
Int. pour l'Exploration de la Mer.   14 (2): 1-20.
Gibbons, S. G., and Fraser, J. H. (1937):  Pump and Suction Hose Sampling.   J. du
Conseil.   12:163. LADYSMITH    HARBOUR '.
DISTRIBUTION    OF DEPTH
(depth in feet, referred  to zero  tide level)-
■LAT- 49° N
BURLEITH   ARM *9°N
HOLLAND
CREEK
FIGURE    I ^S^S"
Gabrioia  Past
STUART
and
TRINCOMALI
CHANNELS
Porlier   Pom
VANCOUVER
ISLAND
Figure  2 l23o 40.
 1 OCEANOGRAPHIC  STATIONS
IN
LADYSMITH HARBOUR
MAY-SEPT-, 1964.1,1a,IT,
ica ,ir b ,:nr
SEPT, 1954- MAY, 1955: 1,1Tb,
ir,in:
MAY, 1955 - AUO-, 1955: 9RID
FIGURE   3 DEPTH
(FEET)
JUNE JULY AUGUST
FIGURE   4 DEPTHS    OF   I80HALINES    (9%o),   STN- Z,   LADYSMITH
HARBOUR ,    SUMMER ,   1954 • 20
40
20
DEPTH
FEET)
40
SALINITY (%0)
LADYSMITH   HARBOU
JULY    16,1994
MIDSUMMER,   DILUTION
FROM     SEAWARD-
FIGURE   6
I
 I
20
40
26-0
SALINITY     <%o)
LADYSMITH   HARBOUR,
AUGUST    27,     1954
LATE    SUMMER,     GRADIENTS
VARIABLE -
FIGURE     7
28-0 STATION  X
Xb
xc
HE
20
40
FIGURE
TEMPERATURE   (°F)
LADYSMITH   HARBOUR
JULY   16,    I9B4-
DILUTION    FROM   SEAWARD
FIGURE    9
20
40
TEMPERATURE   <°F)
LADYSMITH   HARBOUR
JULY   24,   1954
FIGURE   10 LADYSMITH   HARBOUR     REGION
PORLIER    PASS    REGION
FIGURE     II MEAN    RELATIVE   MAGNITUDES    OF   STANDING
CROPS   OF     PHYTOPLANKTON    IN    THE
LADYSMITH    HARBOUR   AND    PORLIER PASS
REGIONS   FOR   THE   DATES \
JUNE    4, 1954
JULY    2
SEPT   9
MAY    17,  1956
JULY   II    -
HE
STUART
CHANNEL
PORLIER
PASS
20
DEPTH
(FEET)
40
FIGURE   12
SALINITY    (%o)
LADYSMITH    HARBOUR
JULY    2,   1954-
PORLIER   PASS 2X10
CELLS
PER
LITER
I X I06   H
STATION  L     STANDING     CROPS    OF   PLANKTON
JUNE
AUGUST
A              RATE   OF    ADVECTION
\                    OF    PHYTOPLANKTON
lOXIO10-
CELLS
PER
\          FIGURE    14              A
SECOND
0
\               ^
>.
JUNE
L- '                 JULY                         ^
/"^       AUGUST
1954 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
K 91
Harvey, H. W. (1950):  On the Production of Living Matter in the Sea off Plymouth.
J. Mar. Biol. Ass., U.K.   29:97-138.
J0rgensen, C. B. (1955):  A Summary of Filter Feeding in Invertebrates.   Cambridge
Philosophical Soc. Biol.   Rev.   30.
Ketchum, B.  (1954):   Relation between Circulation and Planktonic Populations in
Estuaries.   Ecology.   35 (2): 191-200.
Kimball, H. (1928): The Amount of Solar Radiation that Reaches the Surface of the
Earth on the Land and on the Sea, and the Methods by Which It Is Measured.
Monthly Weather Review.   56:393-399.
Marshall, S., and Orr, A.  (1955):   The Biology of a Marine Copepod (Calanus
finnarchicus Gunnerus).   Edinburgh.
Scagel, R. F. (1955): Saanich Inlet Cruises, 1954, 1955.   Institute of Oceanography,
Univ. of British Columbia, Data Report 5.
Sverdrup, H. U.;   Johnson, M. W.;   and Fleming, R. H. (1942):   The Oceans.
Prentice-Hall, New York.
Anonymous (1955):   Surface Water Supply of Canada.    Pacific Drainage, Climatic
Years 1950-51 and 1951-52.   Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources. Water Resources Paper No. 114. K 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE BRITISH COLUMBIA SHIPWORM
The shipworm, also known as the " teredo," has been a scourge ever since mankind began using ships and structures of wood in sea-water, for it burrows into and
finally destroys submerged timber structures such as ships' hulls or wharves. Phoenicians
were troubled by them and used many remedies, mostly unsuccessful, to combat the pest.
From that time on a vast amount of time and effort has gone into attempts to overcome
this marine " termite," but so far with no success.
British Columbia has a considerable interest in the shipworm problem, since the
majority of marine structures, such as wharves and floats, are of wooden construction.
The major industry in the Province is lumbering, and a large proportion of the logs are
transported by water and stored in salt-water booming-grounds. When a tree has been
felled and moved to tidewater, its value has been increased considerably, and to have it
destroyed or partly destroyed by shipworm attack is most uneconomical. The loss due
to this animal may reach as high as 10 per cent or more in transporting a single raft
of logs valued at $75,000 from the Queen Charlotte Islands to the Georgia Strait area.
Estimation of the total loss due to shipworm attack is difficult, for it will vary considerably from year to year.
Since much of the data on shipworms are available only in isolated scientific journals, there appears to be a need for a general account of the nature of the British Columbia
shipworm and the problem it presents. Much of the information given here has been
taken from publications that deal mainly with the common Atlantic species of shipworm
(Teredo navalis), for there is relatively little information available on the British Columbia species, most of the published accounts of which are listed as references.
DESCRIPTION
The shipworm, as it is commonly called because of its shape, is a member of the
family of molluscs called the Teredinida?. There are many members of this family, only
one of which, as far as we know, occurs in British Columbia waters. It has no common
name, but its scientific designation is Bankia setacea Tryon (Fig. 7), and it is quite distinct from the common Atlantic species which occurs in California, where it was accidentally introduced in the days of the wooden sailing-ships. Biologically, shipworms
have most of the characteristics and structures of other molluscs, the group to which
clams and oysters belong.
As the name indicates, it is worm-like in shape, and it has a soft body enclosed in
a thin skin called the mantle (Fig. 7). At the anterior or " head " end are located the
two shells which are the actual boring mechanism (Figs. 8 and 14). Partly enclosed
by these shells is a muscular adhesive disc called the " foot." Also at this end is the
mouth, which leads into a small stomach to which is attached a rather large appendix-
like organ which is used mainly as a temporary storage for wood borings. The posterior
or " tail" end of the shipworm ends in two tubes of unequal length called " siphons,"
which correspond to the "neck" of a clam (Fig. 9). The siphons maintain outside
contact, and fresh water is drawn in through the longer one and used water and excretory
products are discharged through the other. In addition, two feather-like calcareous
structures called " pallets " are also developed in this region, and they are used for stopping up the hole against the entry of other animals or toxic materials which are usually
detected by the sensitive siphons.
DEVELOPMENT
There are male and female Bankia, and in breeding the eggs and sperms are discharged separately into the open water. (In most species of Teredo, preliminary development takes place within the body space called the "mantle cavity.") In order to
.ensure fertilization, many individuals must spawn simultaneously.    The smaller the REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955 K 93
number of individuals taking part in the spawning and the farther apart the individual
shipworms are, the less are the chances that all of the eggs will be fertilized and developed.
After the egg is fertilized, growth and development begin, and shortly two tiny shells
are formed. About the same time a digestive system is developed, along with a pro-
trusible organ, the velum, which enables the young larva, as it is now called, to swim
well enough to maintain a fairly constant depth. However, the horizontal movements
are essentially determined by the water currents. The larva continues to grow, feeding
on the very minute organisms found in the sea-water until it attains a length of about
one-one hundredth inch. At this size it is yellow in colour and nearly spherical in shape
(Figs. 1 to 6). When it reaches this length it is ready to settle, and on striking a suitable wooden object it attaches itself with a fine thread called the " byssus." Tiny calcareous teeth soon develop on the outer edges of the shell, and observations at Ladysmith indicate that within twenty-four hours the tiny shipworm is able to completely
bury itself.
No information is available to show whether, when the time for settling has arrived,
the young shipworm is able to prolong its free-swimming existence if it does not come
into contact with wood. There are indications this may be the case, for swimming larvas
much larger than normal have been found. The length of the period between spawning
and settlement is not definitely known for B. setacea, but from a limited amount of data
it appears to be about three to four weeks. A male and a female Bankia, grown to
a length of 4 inches in four months in the aquarium at the Shell-fish Laboratory at
Ladysmith, spawned after being removed from the burrows, indicating that breeding may
occur at quite an early age.
The exact time of breeding varies from place to place and from year to year, and
most likely varies with depth. Studies on Bankia setacea in British Columbia have so far
not demonstrated a close relationship between temperature or salinity and breeding.
However, the time of maximum intensity of attack appears to be during the colder months
in most areas. Continuous observations of this species over a considerable period of time
will be necessary to obtain a clear picture of the breeding habits, with particular reference
to time and intensity. It is now generally conceded that some breeding is possible in
most areas at any time of the year. In Ladysmith Harbour the maximum attack occurs
during March in most years.
However, a combination of relatively low salinity (5 to 22 parts per thousand) and
low water temperature (40° F. to 61° F.) appear to provide optimum conditions at or
near the surface. These occur in the Queen Charlotte Islands in Masset Inlet, an area
which is notorious for the intensity of shipworm attack.
Recent investigations at the Shell-fish Laboratory on the vertical distribution of the
larvas of Bankia indicate that they occur at deeper levels during the summer than in winter.
In the period August 1st to 14th, 1953, in Pendrell Sound, fir blocks at a depth of 40 feet
below the surface were attacked at an intensity of twenty shipworms per square inch.
Only occasional larvae were found in samples above the 24-foot depth, and no attack
occurred on the blocks above that level. The temperature at the lower level was about
52° F., where the number of larvae varied between one and three per gallon during the
settlement period, while the surface temperature was 70° F. Attacks of nearly 200 per
square inch have been recorded.
Recent work on other species of shipworms indicates the degree of illumination may
influence the vertical distribution of larva and where they are likely to settle. In the
Pendrell Sound studies there was no indication of a diurnal vertical movement of the larvae
of Bankia setacea.
Workers in the Puget Sound area have concluded that Bankia setacea settles most
intensively during October, November, and December, with a cessation in January and
February, beginning again in March and April, to continue off and on sporadically
throughout the summer.   They suggest that 45° F. to 54° F. constitute the temperature K 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
limits for effective breeding in Puget Sound and that above and below these limits no
attacks of destructive intensity may be expected. The presence of four or more animals
in a single block 11 by 5Vi by % inches was considered an attack of destructive intensity.
HABITAT
Bankia setacea is found only in wood burrows, and very few species of wood are
immune to attack. Certainly most of the softwoods, and many of the so-called hardwoods,
are liable to infestation. Under certain conditions it will burrow into fir-bark and can
pass over a narrow gap between adjoining pieces of timber.
This particular species is found only on the Pacific coast of North America. Its
range there is from San Diego in the south to Kodiak Island in the north, so it is able to
survive under a wide range of temperature and salinity conditions.
It occurs in varying abundance practically everywhere on the British Columbia
coast, and the availability of considerable quantities of submerged wood permits the
development and maintenance of large populations of this animal.
It is distributed vertically from the surface down to a depth of at least 150 feet.
With the wide temperature fluctuations found in these latitudes, particularly in inshore
waters, optimum breeding temperatures occur for considerable periods of the year at the
surface and for a much greater time at deeper levels. In very few areas is the limiting
effect of low salinity likely to occur for extended periods, so there are few localities which
are free from attack at all times of the year. Studies by the British Columbia Research
Council show the lower salinity limit for adult survival to be about ten parts per thousand.
An extended free-swimming period assists in the widespread distribution of the species.
It has been demonstrated for other species of shipworm that the larvae are unable
to become attached at current speeds greater than about IVi knots. However, the slack-
water periods that occur in most British Columbia waters would permit settling during
several hours each day.
BORING METHOD
Shipworms apparently bore by a purely mechanical rasping action of the shells. The
top and bottom of each shell is provided with a round articulating knob so they are able
to rock back and forth on these areas. This is unlike most clams, whose shells are held
together along the top by a hinge.
Each shell of the shipworm is divided into three main parts. The most anterior
section holds a series of horizontal rows of teeth, the central section holds a series of
vertical rows of teeth, while the large posterior flanges hold a large muscle between them
(Fig. 14). In addition, there is a small anterior muscle which draws the front edges of
the shell together. While the sucker-like foot and dorsal flap of flesh, together with
hydrostatic pressure in the tunnel, hold the shells against the end of the burrow, contraction of the powerful posterior muscle causes the front part of the shell to flare outward
and backward, allowing the teeth to rasp and cut. As this process is repeated over and
over again, the head of the shipworm is gradually turned right and left through 180
degrees, thus creating a circular burrow. The tiny particles of wood shavings are taken
into mouth, passed to the digestive system, and finally discharged outside the burrow
through the exhalant siphon. Often the pile of whitish-coloured pellets of wood shavings
outside the burrow is the only visible evidence of shipworms.
FOOD AND DIGESTION
The raspings are passed through the digestive system, where they are partly digested
and expelled through the exhalant siphon. In addition, the sea-water drawn in through
the inhalant siphon also carries planktonic food.
Chemical analysis of ejected wood borings of Teredo navalis indicates the digestive
process converts some of the wood constituents to a form that can be assimilated.   This REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 95
ability is possessed by relatively few other animals, such as snails and insects. In addition,
the borer uses plant and animal food (plankton), which it attains by filtering water that
it draws in through the inhalant siphon. The filtering action is carried out by the gills,
which are basket-like structures on which tiny vibrating hairs or cilia create water currents. The blood is aerated and the food particles are trapped in the mucus secreted by
the gills. The food-laden mucus is then transported in ciliated grooves to the mouth.
However, it has been shown by European workers that Teredo navalis is able to subsist
for a period up to a year without planktonic food. When held in glass tubes and supplied
with planktonic food only, the shipworms were unable to maintain life.
GROWTH
After becoming attached, the young shipworm undergoes quite drastic anatomical
changes. The swimming organ is lost, and its digestive, nervous, and muscular systems
become very much altered as adaptations to its new mode of life. Immediately after
being completely buried, and at about the same time as the formation of the pallets, a
calcareous cone is formed in the entry, with two small holes, one for each siphon (Fig.
10). After several weeks the bridge separating the two small apertures disintegrates.
The entry hole at this time is about one-seventy-fifth of an inch in diameter. As the
animal grows older, the size and shape of the entry hole is enlarged, mainly by disintegration of the surrounding wood. As the animal grows, it elongates as the " head "
(Fig. 8), together with the two shells, grows and moves forward in the burrow. What
might be called the tail (Fig. 9) remains at the entry point, where contact with the outside
water must be maintained. In fact, this tail region becomes attached to the walls of the
burrow by means of a muscle.
When the animal has penetrated an inch or so, it often, but not always, lines the
walls of the burrow with a thin layer of shell. The shell formation begins in the region
of the siphons and proceeds toward the shell valves. When a block of wood has been
completely riddled and no more burrowing is possible, calcification of all the walls is
completed and the animals are apparently able to subsist for a time on a diet of plankton
only, but death occurs relatively soon. Shipworms only very rarely have been observed
to penetrate the burrows of adjacent shipworms. They may withdraw the head from the
inner end of the burrow for as much as 2 inches, abandon and seal off this part of the
shell, and start off in another direction (Fig. 11). Whenever possible, shipworms follow
the grain of the wood.
Since the shipworm is completely encased in wood, specimens may be obtained only
by splitting open the burrows. Therefore, the rate of growth of an individual specimen
is difficult to measure. It has been found, however, that X-rays in very small amounts do
not appear to harm the shipworm, and in radiographs the outlines are seen quite clearly
(Fig. 12). By taking a series of X-ray photographs of the same piece of infested wood
over a period of time, the growth of the shipworms may be measured. Such observations
were conducted in Ladysmith Harbour in 1955, where fir blocks were X-rayed at monthly
intervals and the length of the burrows measured. The first X-ray, taken on December
15th, 1954, showed that altogether twenty-seven shipworms had entered through the end
of six of the twelve blocks exposed. The average length at this time was 0.4 inch, with
a range of 0.2 to 0.7 inch. It was not until April, 1955, that the blocks were attacked
by seven more shipworms. Growth of the original group continued at a steady rate until
March, when it increased slightly. The average length at this time was 5.5 inches. By
May the shipworms in the more heavily infested blocks had so changed the direction of the
burrows that the blocks were quite riddled, and it was quite difficult to measure accurately
the individual burrows. By July only five of the original twenty-seven animals could be
measured with confidence, and the average length of these was 19.9 inches, or an average
growth rate of about 2.8 inches per month for the period. The largest specimen was 22.5
inches in length.   The growth rate of this group is shown graphically in Fig. 13. K 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The shipworms attacking in April showed a higher rate of growth than those of the
earlier group. From a length of 0.6 inch in mid-April, one specimen attained a length
of 24 inches by mid-August, or an average of about 6 inches per month. This rapid
growth may be associated with the higher water temperatures prevailing at this time, in
comparison with those earlier in the year.
In more northern waters, Bankia setacea is said to attain a length of 48 inches, but
the greatest length reached by a specimen in the Ladysmith Harbour experiment was 24
inches, although in this case the possibility for extended growth was limited, due to the
fairly small blocks.
PRESENT CONTROL MEASURES
The main emphasis on the shipworm problem throughout the ages has been on protection rather than on eradication, as is the case with most pests. Protective measures
are based on the application of an impenetrable or a toxic coating to the surface of the
wood that is to be exposed to shipworm attack.
Copper sheathing, fibreglass, etc., are examples of material used to prevent penetration, but these are limited in the range of application. Anti-fouling paints containing
copper or arsenic are the commonest protective coatings. The poisonous compounds in
the paint leach out slowly and form on the paint surface a thin layer of toxic solution which
inhibits the attachment of fouling and boring organisms.
For heavy wooden structures, probably the most important and widely used protective material is creosote. The wood is impregnated with creosote to a considerable depth,
and the greater its penetration beneath the surface, the greater the protection, for leaching
or abrasion may reduce effectiveness. For use in sea-water, plywood impregnated with
creosote is becoming widely used, and pontoons of such material are being used instead
of logs for floats.
There are many special anti-fouling compounds which may be suitable for special
purposes if expense is not too great a consideration. Copper sulphate in solution has
been used to destroy shipworms in special cases. Numerous other chemicals are toxic to
shipworms, but are difficult to apply.
The British Columbia Research Council has made extensive studies on toxic substances that could be used to protect sawlogs against marine borers. Sodium arsenite was
found to be very toxic, and twenty-five parts per million of this substance will completely
kill shipworms in eighteen hours of exposure. The important feature of this chemical is
that it does not cause the borers to close off their burrows.
Flat rafts of sawlogs containing shipworms are treated by ponding them in a tidal
basin to which sodium arsenite is added. Deep-sea rafts (usually called Davis rafts),
where the piles of logs are bundled together with steel cables, are treated by spraying with
sodium arsenite solution as the raft is built up. The main use of this method is to kill
shipworms already in the logs, although the protective action does appear to persist for
some time. Care must be taken in the use of this chemical, since it is also toxic to fish
and other marine life.
To destroy shipworms in untreated piling and in permanent rafts, underwater
dynamite blasting has been used with apparent success by some logging companies.
Investigations by the British Columbia Research Council indicate that blasting is only
partially effective in killing adult shipworms.
CONTROL OF SHIPWORM POPULATIONS
It has already been pointed out that the shipworm menace has been met almost
entirely by protective methods. Little or no effort has been made to combat the animal
by eradicating it from an area. Since any true control involves a reduction of the population of the pest, some consideration should be given to whether or not this is feasible in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 97
the case of the shipworm. The larvae of the shipworm of the Bankia group are dispersed
by water currents during the comparatively long free-swimming period. During this time
they feed on the small aquatic organisms. Food-supply, predators, and unsuitable hydro-
graphic conditions, such as extremes of temperature and salinity, all may limit survival.
At the same time, however, the long larval period affords opportunity for wide distribution. At the end of the free-swimming period, the larva must find a suitable place to settle
within what is believed to be a relatively short time or it dies.
Because of these factors, especially predation, mortality is very great, but is
compensated for by the production of large numbers of eggs. While no measure of egg
production is available for Bankia setacea, in many molluscs it is known to be great, but
with a relatively low survival. In a related species a specimen 4 feet long was estimated
to have spawned 100,000,000 eggs. In favourable years, only one larva per million of the
Danish oyster is able to survive and develop into an adult. It is evident that, as a general
rule, the number of adults reflects the production of young. Thus oyster-growers maintain heavy stocks of oysters to ensure an abundance of larvae which will settle as seed.
In the case of the shipworm, however, it is desirable to eliminate or reduce the number of
larvae in order to minimize infestation, and efforts toward this end may be made by
reducing the number of adults.
The only habitat of the shipworm is in submerged wooden structures. If these are
removed, the contained population of the shipworms will be eliminated and there will be
no place for the larvae from other sites to settle and develop into adults. In British
Columbia, for various reasons, there is a great deal of timber in sea-water. One deliberate concentration is the result of a procedure known as " graveyarding " in log-booming
operations. Graveyards are areas where " deadheads," which are partly sunken logs,
are gathered and stored. In time most of these sink completely (called " sinkers ") and
lie on the bottom. These are excellent breeding centres for shipworms. It is obvious
that a reduction in the number of deadheads would affect a reduction in the number of
adult shipworms, the number of larvae produced, and, therefore, the risk of heavy
infestation of other timber in the general area. Therefore, the elimination of graveyards,
the removal of old, unused wharf piling and booming-ground pylons would be essential
steps in a thorough shipworm-control programme.
It is realized that all deadheads, sinkers, and submerged wooden structures cannot
be immediately or completely removed, but if no further deliberate accumulation occurred,
the shipworms themselves would quickly destroy all old timber (Fig. 15) and there would
be no new homes for them.
Adventitious floating and sunken timber will always present a problem in British
Columbia, but the quantity might not be great enough in most areas to have a significant
effect (log wharf floats also harbour considerable populations of shipworms, but there
is a trend toward replacing them with creosoted wooden pontoons, and if this trend is
continued it will constitute an important advance).
Another way in which adult populations of shipworms may be reduced is in controlling the infestation of log-booms in storage-grounds by the orderly utilization of these
booms so each unit is allowed to remain in an infested area only as long as is absolutely
necessary. This is already a fairly general practice. A knowledge of the time and extent
of local breeding cycles would be of considerable assistance here, as well as in the
selection of new booming and storage grounds.
The destructive ability of the shipworm needs no elaboration. It may be that some
inexpensive protective measure may be developed in the future or some technique to
wipe out existing adult populations may be developed. In the meantime, the possibility of
reducing loss by common-sense low-cost measures appears possible and would be well
worth investigating.   This could be done on an experimental basis in a selected area. K 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REFERENCES
Black, E. C. (1934):   The Shipworm.   Pac. Biol. Sta. and Pac. Exp. Sta. Prog. Rep.
21, 7-9, 1934.
Elsey, C. R., and Black, E. C. (1948):  Incidence of wood-borers in British Columbia
waters.   Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., LXXX.   1948.
Fraser, C. McLean (1923):  Marine wood borers in British Columbia waters.   Trans.
Roy. Soc. Can., 17, Sect. V, 21-28.   1923.
■  (1925):   Marine wood borers in British Columbia waters.    Trans. Roy. Soc.
Can., 19, Sect. V, 159-167.
(1926):   Marine wood borers on the Pacific Coast of North America.    Proc.
Third Pan-Pacific Sci. Congr., Tokyo, 2270-2275, 1926.
Hill, C. E., and Kofoid, C. A. (1927):   Marine borers and their relation to marine
construction on the Pacific Coast.   Final Report of the San Francisco Bay Marine
Piling Committee, San Francisco, 1927.
Johnson, M. W., and Miller, R. C.  (1935):   Seasonal settlement of shipworms,
barnacles and other wharf-pile organisms at Friday Harbor, Washington.   Univ.
Wash. Pub. Oceanog., 2, 1-18, 1935.
Kofoid, C. A. (1921):  The marine borers of the San Francisco Bay region.   Report on
the San Francisco Bay Marine Piling Survey, 1, 23-61, 1921.
Miller, R. C. (1926):   Ecological relations of marine wood-boring organisms in San
Francisco Bay.   Ecology, 7, 247-254.    1926.
Neave, F. (1943):  Seasonal settlement of shipworm larvae.   Fish. Res. Bd. Can. Prog.
Rep. Pac, 54, 12-14, 1943.
Quayle, D. B. (1942):   The use of dynamite in teredo control.   Fish. Res. Bd. Can.
Prog. Rep. Pac, 51, 20, 1942.
  (1953):   The larva of Bankia setacea Tryon. Rep. B.C. Dept. Fish, for 1951.
  (1955):  Growth of the British Columbia shipworm.   Fish. Res. Bd. Can. Prog.
Rep. Pac, 105, 3-5, 1956.
Trussell, P. C; Fulton, CO.; Cameron, C. J.; and Greer, B. A. (1955):  Marine
borer studies: evaluation of toxicants.   Canadian Journal of Zoology, 33.   327-338.
1955.
Trussell, P. C; Anastasiou, C. J.;  and Fulton, C. O. (1956):   Protection of sawlogs against marine borers.   I, Treatment of flat rafts by ponding.   Pulp and Paper
Magazine of Canada.   February, 1956.
Trussell, P. C;  Fulton, C. O.;  Anastasiou, C. J.;  and Gillespie, R. E. (1956):
Protection of saw-lags against borers.    II, Treatment of deep-sea rafts.    Pulp and
Paper Magazine of Canada.   February, 1956.
Trussell, P. C; Greer, B. A.; and Le Brasseur, R. J.: Protection of saw-logs against
marine borers.   Ill, Storage  ground study.   Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada.
February, 1956.
White, F. D. (1929):  Studies on marine borers.   III. A note on the breeding season of
Bankia (Xylotrya) setacea in Departure Bay, B.C.    Contrib. Can. Biol. N.S. IV,
No. 3.
  (1930):  The pile-borer or " teredo."   Pac. Biol. Sta. and Pac. Exp. Sta. Prog.
Rep. 5, 3-6.   1930. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 99
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig.
Fig. 6.
British Columbia Shipworm {Bankia setacea)
Fig. 1. Photograph of very young larva, 100 /j. in length.    (1 Ai=M>.->ono inch.)
Fig. 2. Photograph of larger larva, 145 n in length.
Fig. 3. Photograph of single shell of larva, external view, 175 fi in length.
Fig. 4. Photograph of single shell of larva, external view, 220 m in length.
Fig. 5. Photograph of whole larva, 220 n in length.
6. Photograph of newly settled Bankia, showing the cutting-teeth, 245 /j. in length.
Fig. 7. British Columbia shipworm (Bankia setacea). Whole animal
removed from burrow. The feather-like structures at the right are the pallets.
The two shells are at the left end.   Magnification X % • K  100
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fig. 8. Front view of head of the British Columbia shipworm showing
foot with shells on each side. Magnification X7. Showing the foot (centre)
with shells on each side.
Fig. 9. Tail end of British Columbia shipworm showing the calcareous
feather-like pallets, the two siphons, and the collar (upper left hand) which
surrounds these organs. The siphons are in the retracted position. Magnification X 3. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 101
Fig. 10. Calcareous cone of the British Columbia shipworm
formed in the entry hole in the early stages after settling. Magnification X 15.
Fig. 11. Burrow of the British Columbia shipworm {Bankia setacea)
showing the abandoned burrow (upper right) and the calcareous seal
(upper left). The main burrow has been lined with lime while the grain
of the wood shows in the abandoned burrow.    Magnification X 2. K 102
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fig.   12.   X-ray of a piece of fir,
|   1   by 4  by 9 inches, exposed at the
4-foot tide-level in Ladysmith Harbour
from August to December, 1952.
(Radiograph by H. Duncan.) REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 103
S3k
JUL.
JUN.
MAY
APR.
CM
mm    mar.
FEB.
JAN.
1955.
—    DEC.
J I L
1954.
J I I I I I I I I      I
6 8 10 12
LENGTH    IN   INCHES
IG
18 20
Fig. 13. Growth rate of the shipworm (Bankia setacea) in
Ladysmith Harbour.
Fig. 14. External view of left shell of the British Columbia ship-
worm (Bankia setacea). The large flange for the insertion of the powerful posterior adductor muscle is shown on the right. The two groups of
cutting-teeth are shown on the left.   Magnification X 6. K 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fig. 15. Photograph of piece of fir to show the complete destruction of timber by the British Columbia shipworm (Bankia setacea).
Magnification X V2. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 105
REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON
FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1955
For the eighteenth consecutive year the Governments of Canada and the United
States continued the work of restoration of the sockeye salmon of the Fraser River watershed, acting through the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission. Since its
establishment by a convention between the two countries in 1937, the Commission has
sought to fulfil its designated purpose of protection, preservation, and extension of the
sockeye-salmon fisheries in the Fraser River system.
The total 1955 run of 2,595,000 fish was the second largest on this cycle since
1903, but represented a 17-per-cent decline over that of the previous cycle-year, 1951.
The Canadian catch of 1,108,081 fish was 52.40 per cent of the total catch. The table
which follows shows the sockeye-catch by gear in convention waters of Canada and the
United States for the cycle-years 1943, 1947, 1951, and 1955.
1955 Sockeye-catch by Gear
Canadian Convention Waters
:ar
Traps
Purse-seines
Gill-nets
Total
Units
Catch
Units
Catch
Units
Catch
Catch
1943    	
4
5
5
5
18,023
3,617
42,012
18,548
97
50
104
854
1,072
1,148
1,348
330,988
307,407
1,031,963
625,207
349,011
1947      	
44,011
214,187
462,934
355,035
1951  	
1,288,162
1955             	
1,108,081!
United States Convention Waters
;ar
Purse-seines
Gill-nets
Reef-nets
Total
Units
Catch
Units
Catch
Units
Catch
Catch
1943   	
139
174
242
286
202,927
76,691
875,607
621,527
22
29
177
584
5,688
1,770
152,372
282,995
57
60
105
88
33,161
9,758
108,497
102,088
241,776
1947   	
88,219
1951.    	
1.136.7912
1955 	
1,006,610
1 Includes 1,392 troll-caught sockeye.
- Includes 315 drag-seine caught sockeye.
Note.—Gear counts represent the maximum number of units delivering on any single day.
In addition to the commercial fishery catches, Indians in various parts of the Fraser
River watershed captured 65,630 sockeye for subsistence purposes, according to data
received from the Inspectors of the Department of Fisheries of Canada.
The 1955 escapement to the spawning-grounds was 379,185 sockeye, representing
a decline of 38.6 per cent compared with that of the previous cycle-year, 1951. This is
considered to be the first unsatisfactory seasonal escapement since the Commission started
controlling the fishery in 1946. Although the decline in escapement was caused in part
by the unexpected decline in the run, it was also due to overfishing engendered by a larger
and individually more efficient Canadian Sooke-San Juan fishing fleet and a marked
increase in the United States fishing fleet. The catch, in per cent of the total run, increased
over that of the brood-year (1951) in spite of greatly increased protective closures. In
order to assure that such overfishing will not be repeated in the future, it is necessary to
have a relatively stable fishery that is reasonably controlled in size, efficiency, and fishing
area. K  106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A natural factor of lower than average ocean survival, apparently affecting all North
Pacific Coast sockeye populations, also adversely influenced the numerical escapement
in 1955. The closely estimated return of adults in the Chilco run from a known number
of down-stream migrants indicated a sea survival of only 5 per cent. A second natural
factor which reduced the numbers of spawners resulted from late high water in the Fraser
River. A six-day block to the up-stream migration of the early runs of sockeye occurred
near Yale, B.C. The early Stuart run was almost annihilated, with only 2,170 sockeye
reaching the spawning-grounds out of an estimated escapement from the fishery of
between 30,000 and 35,000.
Recommended regulations for the 1955 Fraser River sockeye-fishery were adopted
by the Commission after consultation with the Advisory Committee in Vancouver, B.C.,
on January 8th, 1955. The recommendations for regulations, as approved by the Commission, were transmitted to the Departments of Fisheries of Canada and the State of
Washington, and to the Secretary of the Interior at Washington, D.C. The recommendations were accepted in substance for Canadian waters by an Order in Council adopted
on June 2nd, 1955, and for United States waters by an Order of the Director of the
Washington State Department of Fisheries promulgated April 1st, 1955.
For Canadian convention waters the Commission recommended that fishing for
sockeye commence on June 30th, 1955, and that the following weekly closures be in
effect: For Areas 19, 20, 21, and 23, seventy-two hours from June 30th to August 1st,
and forty-eight hours from August 1st to August 22nd. For Areas 17 and 18 and
District No. 1 below Pattullo Bridge, seventy-eight hours from June 30th to August 8th,
ninety-six hours from August 8th to August 30th, seventy-two hours from August 30th
to September 15th, and a complete closure from 8 a.m. on September 15th to 8 a.m. on
September 20th. For District No. 1 above Pattullo Bridge the closures were the same as
for Areas 17 and 18 and District No. 1 below Pattullo Bridge, except that the closed
periods extended four hours longer. During the course of the fishing season, certain
modifications of these regulations were recommended by the Commission. In Areas 19,
20, 21, and 23 the weekly close time was increased by forty-eight hours during the period
August 3rd to August 10th. In Areas 17 and 18 the weekly close time was increased by
eighteen hours during the period July 27th to August 10th. In District No. 1 below
Pattullo Bridge the weekly close time was increased to ninety-six hours for the period
July 27th to August 10th; above Pattullo Bridge the weekly close time ceased four hours
later than this. Additional closures effected by the Canada Department of Fisheries for
the protection of pink salmon extended the close time to include all except two days of
sockeye-fishing between September 9th and October 11th, which was virtually the end
of the sockeye season.
With respect to United States convention waters, the Commission recommended the
following regulations: Seventy-two hours weekly closure from June 30th to August 1st,
forty-eight hours weekly from August 1st to August 8th, and thirty-six hours weekly from
August 8th to August 29th. The following modifications of these regulations were recom-
mented by the Commission: Extension by twenty-four hours of the weekly close period
for the first week-end in August, and extension by twelve hours of the weekly close time
for the period August 10th to August 17th. As conservation measures for pink salmon
the Washington State Department of Fisheries extended by twelve hours the weekly
closures recommended by the Commission from August 17th to the end of the salmon
net-fishing season and closed the waters west of a line projected from Point Roberts Light
to Patos Island Light from September 15th to the end of the fishing season.
In high seas convention waters the weekly close period was seventy-two hours from
June 30th to August 1st, and forty-eight hours from August 1st to August 15th.
During 1955, as in previous years, the Commission continued to expend the greater
part of its effort on scientific research. Biological and technological research for the
purpose of developing and supporting the fisheries management policies of the Commis- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 107
sion and for rehabilitation and extension of the runs is a continual part of the staff's programme. Technical studies by the Commission staff of various current and proposed
industrial water-use projects are expanding more each year.
Part of the biological research in 1955 included enumeration of both catch and
escapement on a racial basis. This allowed calculation of the catch of each major race
by date, fishing area, and relative fishing intensity, as well as yielding close estimates of
the true racial catch-escapement ratios. These studies were conducted on a daily basis
during the fishing season. In conjunction with these studies the progress of the runs was
closely followed through the fishing areas and up to the spawning-grounds by means of
statistical analysis of the daily catches, week-end test fishing, and observations along the
migration routes. In continuation of previous practices, the individual populations were
carefully enumerated and observed through spawning while environmental conditions
were simultaneously recorded. The relative success of reproduction of each of these
spawning populations will subsequently be studied in relation to the reproductive
environment.
Studies of the possible long-term effect of selective fishing-gear were continued, and
additional experiments were conducted on the relative efficiency of spawning with various
sex ratios. Studies of relative survival during the different stages of life-history of a major
population were continued through field enumeration of the newly hatched fry as they
entered their lake-residence period and yearlings as they migrated seaward. Investigation of possible relationships between young sockeye and predators or competitors or
food availability was continued as a part of the programme to determine the cause, or
causes, and functioning of cyclic dominance. Determination of age-composition relationships in the mixed-age populations shows promise as an alternative means of determining the way in which cyclic dominance functions, although the exact physical cause
may not be revealed by such analysis.
At the Commission's field station on Horsefly Lake a second and technologically
improved experimental artificial spawning area was constructed. The experimental area
was divided into sections; one half was stocked with 100 adult sockeye of mixed sexes
and the other half planted with 340,000 newly fertilized eggs. The fish and eggs were
transported by air from Stellako River.
Attempts to rehabilitate barren areas by the introduction of new stocks are continuing. Transplanting of eyed eggs was shown by 1954 adult returns to be an effective
method. The 1955 transplanting of 780,700 eyed eggs from Seymour River to Upper
Adams River is expected to produce adult returns in 1959. Eyed-egg transplantations
will be rapidly expanded to meet the requirements of replacing exterminated populations.
The Commission, in liaison with the Canadian Department of Fisheries, the British
Columbia Fisheries Department, and the British Columbia Game Commission, analysed
the expected effects on the Fraser River sockeye-fishery of the proposed diversion of the
Columbia River and the associated power development in the Thompson and Fraser
Rivers. A joint report was prepared on this subject, which stated that preservation and
extension of the Fraser River sockeye runs, assessed at an average annual wholesale value
of $23,850,000, would be precluded by the proposed ten dams.
As a continuance of research in the methods of protecting down-stream migrants at
dams, the first prototype guiding experiment attempted on young Pacific salmon was conducted in 1955 by the Commission in co-operation with the Department of Fisheries of
Canada and the Washington State Department of Fisheries. During 1955, its first season
of operation, the fishway recently constructed at the Seton Dam successfully passed 129
sockeye destined for Gates and Portage Creeks and 8,800 pink salmon to Seton Lake
tributaries. Technical meetings were held between personnel of the Department of
Fisheries of Canada, British Columbia Fisheries Department, British Columbia Game
Commission, International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, and Moran Power
Development Limited in connection with the salmon problems associated with the pro- K 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA
posed dam on the Fraser River at Moran. These meetings will be continued in 1956.
Recommendations for handling and disposal of waste products and screening of water
intakes for the proposed brewery on the Nechako River at Prince George were detailed
in a preliminary report. The delay and subsequent loss of a large portion of the early
Stuart, Bowron, and Nadina River sockeye escapements in 1955 at a point below Hells
Gate near Yale, B.C., prompted surveys of the area to determine the extent of the blockade
and the remedial measures which might be indicated. Laboratory experiments investigating the effect of silt on incubating sockeye eggs buried in gravel were concluded.
Commission meetings in 1955 were held in Vancouver, New Westminster, Ottawa,
Washington, D.C., and Seattle. The Canadian Government was represented on the Commission by Senator Thomas Reid (Chairman of the Commission for 1955), A. J. Whit-
more (Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, Vancouver), and H. R. MacMillan. Robert J.
Schoettler (Director of Washington State Department of Fisheries), Elton B. Jones (Commission Secretary, 1955), and A. J. Suomela (Assistant Director of the U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service) were the United States Commissioners. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 109
INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC HALIBUT COMMISSION,  1955
During 1955 the Commission continued the regulation of the halibut-fishery and
broadened its programme of statistical and biological investigations as required by the
Halibut Convention of 1953.
The members of the Commission for Canada in 1955 were Richard Nelson (elected
Chairman), Harold Helland, George R. Clark, and S. V. Ozere, appointed in January to
succeed Mr. Clark, who resigned after seven years of service. The United States members
were Seton H. Thompson (elected Vice-Chairman), J. W. Mendenhall, Edward W. Allen,
and Mattias Madsen, appointed in June to succeed Mr. Allen, who resigned after twenty-
three years of service on the Commission.
The Commission held its annual meeting at its research headquarters in Seattle,
Wash., from January 24th to 27th, inclusive. It reviewed the results of investigations
and regulations in 1954 in conferences with representatives of halibut-fishermen's, vessel-
owners', and wholesale dealers' organizations and discussed with them proposals regarding
regulations in 1955. Thereafter it approved a research programme and adopted regulations for the ensuing year.
At the close of the annual meeting the Commission announced that because of the
inauguration of multiple fishing seasons in 1954 and the resultant great increase in catch,
it was recommending few regulatory changes to the two Governments for 1955. It felt
that the multiple fishing seasons should be repeated under virtually the same conditions
as in 1954 to make sure of their effectiveness, and that no changes which might materially
increase the removals from the stocks should be made until the effect of the 1954 increase
was determined. For practical reasons it was recommending a relocation of the boundary-
line between Areas 3a and 3b and some minor changes in the fishing seasons.
The halibut regulations recommended for 1955 were approved by the Governor-
General in Council on March 8th and by the President of the United States on March 18th
and became effective on the latter date.
The regulations in 1955 divided convention waters in five regulatory areas: Area Ia,
the waters off the Northern California and Southern Oregon coasts, south of Heceta
Head, Oregon; Area 1b, the waters off the Oregon and Washington coasts between
Heceta Head and Willapa Bay, Washington; Area 2, the waters between Willapa Bay
and Cape Spencer, Alaska; Area 3a, from Cape Spencer to a line running south-east
one-half east from Kupreanof Point near Shumagin Islands; Area 3b, all convention
waters west of Area 3a, including those of the Bering Sea.
Catch-limits of 26,500,000 pounds for the first season in Area 2 and of 28,000,000
pounds for the first season in Area 3a were continued in the regulations. Control of
fishing in other areas and for other seasons, in which the total catch of halibut is comparatively small, was again accomplished by limiting the lengths of the fishing seasons.
Closed nursery areas, minimum size-limits, prohibition of the use of nets for the capture
of halibut, and provision for the landing of a limited amount of halibut caught incidentally
by set-line vessels in areas closed to halibut-fishing were also continued without significant
change.
Fishing began in all areas on May 12th. The first season in Areas 1b and 2 was
closed on June 5th, and the first season in Areas 3a and 3b closed on August 4th, at
which dates it was deemed that the catch-limits set for Areas 2 and 3a respectively would
be attained. Second seasons of seven days in Areas 1b and 2 and of nine days in Areas
3a and 3b commenced on August 14th. A third season of twenty-three days in Area 3b
commenced on August 29th. Area 1a was closed to halibut-fishing on September 21st,
with the termination of the third season in Area 3b.
Landings from Areas 1a and 1b together totalled about two-thirds of a million
pounds, as in 1954. K  110 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The catch from Area 2 in 1955 totalled 28,700,000 pounds, approximately 8,000,000
pounds less than during 1954, when the catch reached a forty-year high. Bad weather
during the last five days of the twenty-four-day first fishing season, when it was too late
to change the date of closure, reduced the catch to about 22,500,000 pounds, 4,000,000
pounds less than the catch-limit. Bad weather, unfavourable tides, and a reduction in the
number of vessels fishing reduced the catch during the seven-day second season to
5,300,000 pounds, almost 4,000,000 pounds below the catch during the corresponding
season in 1954. Halibut caught incidentally during the fishing for other species under
permit after the area was closed to halibut-fishing accounted for more than 1,000,000
pounds of the 1955 total.
The catch from Areas 3a and 3b combined amounted to 29,800,000 pounds,
compared to 33,800,000 pounds in 1954. In the first season of eighty-four days the
catch was 27,500,000 pounds, one-half million pounds below the catch-limit and more
than 2,000,000 pounds less than the corresponding catch in 1954. In the second season
of nine days the catch was 1,500,000 pounds, almost 2,000,000 pounds below the catch
during the corresponding season in 1954. Bad weather and a reduction in the number
of vessels fishing during the second season contributed to the deficits.
Little fishing was done in Area 3b during the first and second seasons in 1955, but
the catch during the third season of twenty-three days was almost 1,000,000 pounds,
approximately one-third million more than in the preceding year. Some of the 1955
catch was taken in Bering Sea.
Landings of halibut from all areas and all seasons in 1955 amounted to 59,100,000
pounds, a sharp drop from the 71,200,000 pounds of 1954. The reduction resulted
mainly from bad weather and from conditions which caused many vessels to leave the
fishery for other seasonal activities.
Investigation of the fishery and of life and habits of the halibut were continued to
provide information required for regulation. After July, when United States funds were
increased to match those made available by Canada, a beginning was made upon a
broader and more intense, long-range research programme designed to ascertain the
conditions necessary for attainment of maximum sustainable yield.
New tagging experiments were begun on some grounds to determine what changes
in availability and utilization had taken place there as a result of the adoption of multiple
fishing seasons.
The United States halibut vessel " Eclipse " was chartered for approximately three
months in late summer and early autumn. A total of six trips were made between the
northern end of Vancouver Island off British Columbia and Coronation Island off Southeastern Alaska. A total of 8,526 halibut, weighing approximately 162,000 pounds, were
tagged. Fish unsuitable for tagging provided materials for age, length, sex, and maturity
studies.
The Canadian halibut vessel "Aleutian Queen " was chartered for about two months
in November and December for tagging on the spawning-grounds in the eastern part of
the Gulf of Alaska. Although the operation was seriously handicapped by bad weather,
1,242 fish, weighing 51,300 pounds, were tagged.
Recoveries of tagged halibut by fishermen in 1955 numbered 783, compared to
1,584 in 1954. Those from Area 2 decreased from 1,379 in 1954 to 559, which was not
unexpected in view of the normal year-to-year decline which results from removals by the
fishery and natural mortality and in view of the decrease in the total Area 2 catch
mentioned earlier. Recoveries from Area 3a increased from 205 to 224 in spite of
a decrease in the total catch due to extensive tagging in the area during 1954.
The availability of halibut, as measured by tag recoveries per unit of fishing effort,
was somewhat lower in 1955 than in 1954 on the productive grounds between the north
end of Vancouver Island and Dixon Entrance. This was particularly noticeable on Goose
Island ground and in southern Hecate Strait.   In middle Hecate Strait, on the other hand, REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 111
availability was higher. These differences occurred in both the May-June and August
seasons.
In Area 2 during the May-June season the catch per unit of effort was generally
lower than in 1954, particularly on the Cape Scott, Goose Island, and Icy Straits grounds.
On the grounds in Hecate Strait, and notably in the middle portion, the catch per unit
of effort showed some increase over 1954.
In the May-August season in Area 3a the over-all catch per unit of effort was
somewhat lower than in 1954, particularly in the heavily fished section between Cape
St. Elias and Trinity Islands. On the grounds between Cape Spencer and Cape St. Elias
the catch per unit of effort was about the same as in 1954, and on the grounds between
Trinity Islands and the Shumagin Islands there was some increase over 1954.
During the second fishing seasons in Areas 2 and 3a the catch per unit of effort was
also generally lower than in 1954, and the variation from one section of the coast to
another was similar to what prevailed during the first season.
In Area 3b, west of Shumagin Islands, the catch per unit of effort during the August-
September season of twenty-three days was higher than during the 1952 to 1954 seasons
in spite of unfavourable weather during most of the period.
Studies of changes in the length and age composition of important Area 2 stocks both
in the first and second seasons showed a generally lower abundance of the important
age-groups, reflecting the lower availability of fish in 1955. There was, however, a
pronounced increase in the showing of fish 7 years old and younger, which augured well
for the future supply of fish.
In Area 3a the fishery continued to be dependent upon the 11- to 16-year-olds, as
it had since 1952. The abundant 1944 brood class was the strongest group numerically,
as in 1954.   In 1955 it became also the largest contributor to the catch by weight.
Studies of the growth of the halibut under different stock and environmental conditions were begun late in the year to fill gaps in present knowledge of this factor, which
plays an important role in the productivity of each stock.
To increase knowledge of the factors that determine recruitment of young into the
commercial stock, investigations of the life and habits of young halibut were also initiated.
These will cover the period between the time the young begin life on the ocean bottom
and the time when they appear in the commercial catch five to seven years later.
The latter studies will cover the distribution of the sub-commercial sizes, the nature
and probable extent of their habitat, their food and the species which compete with them,
the species that prey upon them, and their growth rate. It is hoped that they will show
whether limitations are placed upon recruitment by the space available for young halibut,
by any unusual abundance of other species, or by great abundance of commercial-sized
halibut.
As a first step in these investigations planned for the next several years, the Canadian
otter trawler " Phyllis Carlyle " was chartered for a twenty-day exploratory operation in
British Columbia waters late in 1955. Immediate objectives were to secure information
regarding the types of gear to be used and the operational problems involved, and to
acquire as much information as possible on the geographical and depth distribution of the
small halibut.
This preliminary investigation showed that small halibut of the 0-year and 1-year
groups can be caught on trawlable bottom and gave some indication of their depth
distribution in the autumn and of their location in the area sampled. It also indicated
a need for modification of the trawl gear used, the desirability of developing gear that can
be used on rough bottom, and ways of improving operational procedures.
A summary report upon the regulation of the fishery and upon investigations during
1954 was published and distributed. K 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1955
GENERAL
Foreword.—Developments or trends of special interest associated with the 1955
salmon migration and spawning escapement include:—
1. Outstanding feature was the failure of the chum run to almost every section of
the coast. Immediately evidence of this condition could be perceived, drastic conservation measures by special and early close-down of net-fishing operations were applied.
The run proved to be not more than one-third of normal and definitely was the lightest
return in the history of the fishery. Despite the drastic regulatory restrictions, the escapement for reproduction purposes was, with few exceptions, exceedingly light, and with
present information the situation definitely will require special conservation measures
four years hence in an effort to rehabilitate this particular cycle. The spawning escapement of the cycle-year 1951 was such that a normal run was to be expected, and because
of its coastwide character it can only be assumed that the failure was the result of very
unfavourable survival conditions either in the fresh water or later during existence in the
ocean of the progeny of the 1951 brood-year.
2. On the favourable side of the ledger was the excellent return of pinks to the
Skeena area and to the Fraser system. These runs yielded the predominant portion of
the near-record pack of pinks.
3. A serious reverse in the past ten-year Fraser sockeye rehabilitation programme
by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission was the " block " of early-run
sockeye, destined primarily for the Stuart Lake spawning-grounds, at Lower Fraser
Canyon just above Yale. Unusually late high-water conditions stemming from the late
spring run-off seemingly brought about a " block " condition at this point, not dissimilar
to that experienced at Hells Gate prior to the construction of the fishways in 1945, and
it is estimated that 95 per cent of the early run, which under the rehabilitation measures
of recent years had reached a substantial volume, was delayed and subsequently lost for
reproduction.
4. Another occurrence which will likely have serious effect was the heavy destruction of pink and early-run chum spawn in the lower reaches of the Fraser as well as in
streams of the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island opposite. As much as 6 inches
of rain fell in twenty-four hours in some areas, and a number of heavily seeded spawning-
grounds suffered almost entire destruction, and losses up to 90 per cent in the spawn
deposition are estimated. Other spawning areas suffered lesser loss, but there is every
reason to believe that the over-all result cannot be other than a much-reduced return from
these particular spawning stocks.
5. There was general expectation that the sockeye return to the Skeena would be
of reduced proportions, reflecting the destruction caused to the spawning stocks of 1951
by the Babine rock-slide. Actually the run proved to be even smaller; it amounted to
slightly more than 300,000 fish, the smallest on record. Special regulatory measures
enabled slightly more than one-half of this quantity to reach the spawning-grounds, two-
thirds of which passed through the Babine counting-fence en route to the Babine
spawning areas. The Babine spawning stock reached its destination in good condition,
indicating no difficulty or delay at the point of the 1951 slide or elsewhere.
6. Further advances in effectiveness and efficiency in fishing effort and techniques
were again recorded. They necessarily must be taken into consideration in our future
administration requirements. These included fairly general installation of power block
gear for handling salmon-seines, a tremendous addition in seining efficiency; further trend
in use of drum seines; further trend to improve the size and capability of gill-net fishing
units, bringing about wider range of operations and further tending to displacement of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K 113
small inside-type gill-net units;  doubling the production of gill-net units on the Skeena
in river pink-fishing by the use of fine-thread gill-nets (spider web).
7. Important aids to salmon-spawning migration were brought into effect at several
points during the year. Concrete and steel fishways were built at Stamp Falls to assure
passage of important spawning runs of the Somass system. At Skutz Falls in Cowichan
River, construction of a new ladder had progressed sufficiently to enable passage of
excellent runs of cohoe and spring salmon, and since then the structures have been fully
completed. Chum salmon were successful in passing Skutz Falls for the first time. At
Kajusdis Creek in Bella Bella area, fishway facilities commenced late last year were
completed early this summer in time to permit passage of good runs of sockeye and
cohoe.   A point of difficult passage is now entirely eliminated.
8. The problem of protection and preservation of our salmon-fisheries in association with the Province's current great industrial expansion and multiple water-use
demands is becoming increasingly acute. More and more attention by the Department's
forces generally and its technical personnel in particular—fishery engineers and biologists—in collaboration with technical staffs of Fisheries Research Board and the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission is being required and is being given to
this phase of the Department's responsibilities.
Sockeye.—It is noteworthy that the runs of sockeye to all the principal spawning
areas were composed of fish of smaller size than usual; also aggregate volume was below
normal in all sections with the exception of Smith Inlet area and the Chilco River,
tributary to the Fraser system.
An unforeseen seasonal condition which contributed to reducing the number of
spawners was a late high-water " block " in the Lower Fraser Canyon near Yale, which
extended into the migration period of the early-run Fraser sockeye. It is estimated that
95 per cent of the early Stuart run and 50 per cent of the run to the Bowron system
failed to effectively reproduce on account of the extended hold-up at this point. With
the exception of the Chilco, Cultus Lake, and Weaver Creek systems, supplies in all other
sections of the Fraser were below brood-year levels.
Mainly as a result of the rock-slide in the Babine River in 1951, which resulted in
the destruction of two-thirds of the escapement to the Babine system or the equivalent
of 50 per cent of the entire Skeena supply, the return to the Skeena, as expected, was
much below normal.
The run of sockeye to the Rivers Inlet area did not equal expectations, notwithstanding substantial spawnings in this sub-district in 1950 and 1951. The returns from
these brood-years were disappointing, and the escapement, although very good in some
individual streams, was generally light to medium. In the Smith Inlet area, spawning
was heavy, while at Bella Coola, although the escapement in numbers was about normal,
65 per cent of the spawners were jacks.
On Vancouver Island the escapement to the Nimpkish system was below average,
while in the Somass system the supplies were light.
Springs.—Spawning stocks of this species over the Province were well maintained.
The escapement to the Fraser watershed was up to average in the Quesnel, Kamloops,
Chilliwack, and Harrison areas, but somewhat below normal at Tete Jaune in the
Fraser, as well as in the Nechako. Spawning in District No. 2 was also satisfactory,
moderate to heavy in all spawning areas, including the Owekano system at Rivers Inlet.
Along the east coast of Vancouver Island and the Mainland opposite, all spring-salmon
streams were generally well supplied, with the exception of Salmon River flowing into
Johnstone Strait, where spawning was light, and in Cowichan River, where stocks were
fair. On the west coast of Vancouver Island, the Barkley Sound and Quatsino area
streams were lightly supplied, while stocks in the Nootka area were fairly satisfactory.
Cohoe.—Supplies of this species were generally satisfactory in all sections north of
the Seymour Narrows, with the exception of the Butedale area, which showed marked K 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA
decline. In the other coastal areas south of Seymour Narrows and along the west coast
of Vancouver Island, supplies were generally fairly light, exceptions being Cowichan and
Kyuquot areas, which were well supplied, and Pender Harbour sub-district, where stocks
were satisfactory.
In District No. 2, spawning in the Bella Coola area was heavy; in the Queen
Charlotte Islands areas, moderate to heavy; and in all other areas, with the exception
of the Butedale area, moderately good. In the Butedale area there was generally marked
decline, exceptions being the Laredo and Aristazabal sections. In District No. 3, spawning in the Seymour Inlet area was excellent; supplies to the Alert Bay area were above
average; the best for some years in the Cowichan River; satisfactory in the Pender
Harbour area; and heavy in the Kyuquot sub-district. Stocks in the Quathiaski and
Comox sub-districts were fairly good, and very light in the Nanaimo-Ladysmith, Nootka,
and Quatsino areas. Barkley Sound streams were lightly supplied, with the exception of
Toquart and Maggie Rivers.
In the Fraser River system, marked increases over the brood-year were noted in
the Kamloops, Yale-Merritt, Mission-Harrison, and Chilliwack areas. In the Lower
Fraser area, although the escapement was fairly good, flood damage to early spawning as
a result of the storm at the beginning of November was heavy. Supplies in the Squamish
area, estimated at 16,000, were about 25 per cent of the heavy escapement in 1952, and
it is estimated that 30 per cent of spawn deposited was lost in the November floods.
Pinks.—With the exception of the Fraser and Skeena systems as well as Mainland
portions of the Bella Bella, Alert Bay, and Quathiaski sub-districts, spawning supplies
were comparatively light and very similar to the escapement in the brood-year 1953.
The combined catch of pink salmon bound for the Fraser system by Canadian and
American fishermen was some 1,000,000 pinks less than the 10,500,000 pink-catch of
1953. A feature was a further increase in supplies passing through Hells Gate fishways
to upper spawning-grounds. These included stocks estimated between 150,000 and
200,000 observed spawning in the Thompson River between Thompson Rapids and
Kamloops Lake, also larger stocks noted in the Nicola system. Stocks in the Seton system
were estimated to be in excess of 75,000. Supplies escaping to the Lower Fraser area
compared favourably with the brood-year spawning, exception being the Harrison River,
where the seeding was down by 50 per cent. The pink-salmon spawning in Lower
Fraser and Lower Mainland sections was drastically reduced as a result of floods and
erosion on November 2nd and 3rd following record rainfall. Saving factor is that a
larger percentage than usual of this year's Fraser spawning escapement reached points
above Hells Gate Canyon outside the range of the storm effects.
There was an excellent escapement to the Skeena watershed. Noteworthy is the
continuing expansion of the aggregate number of pinks passing through the fishway at
Moricetown Falls into the Bulkley system. Spawning in the Bella Bella area was
moderately heavy and in the Nass area generally light, with the exception of Ikginik,
Tseax, and Dogfish Creeks, where supplies were good. In all other principal pink-
spawning areas supplies were light, comparable to the brood-year.
In District No. 3 the escapement to the Mainland streams of the Alert Bay and
Quathiaski sub-district was good. This was the off-year for pink salmon in the Vancouver
Island section of these areas. In the Comox area, supplies, although fairly substantial,
were below brood-year levels. Spawning in the Pender Harbour sub-district, which was
30 per cent lighter than the moderate to heavy spawning in 1953, was drastically reduced
as a result of the November flash flood.
Chums.—With minor exceptions, the spawning of chums was the lightest on record,
notwithstanding special conservation measures in the way of much earlier seasonal
closing dates. In District No. 2, Naden Harbour supplies were satisfactory, while the
stocks in the Bella Bella area were light to medium.   In all other sections the supplies REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K  115
were very light and much below brood-year levels. In District No. 3, spawning in the
Alert Bay sub-district was light, somewhat less than in 1951. Supplies to the Nimpkish
were satisfactory. In the Cowichan sub-district, spawning was fairly good, but below
brood-year levels. Elsewhere supplies were generally light to very light and much below
those of the brood-year. In the Fraser area the escapement from the early runs was good
in practically all sections. The late run, however, was light and disappointing. Here
again flood damage resulting from the storm of November 2nd and 3rd caused extensive
damage to the early spawning. Some damage also resulted to the moderately good
supplies in the Squamish system.
IN DETAIL
Masset Inlet and North Coast of Graham Island Area
The usual small run of creek sockeye was somewhat lighter than for several seasons.
The escapement of cohoe generally was mediocre, with the exception of Naden River,
which had an excellent seeding. This was the off-year for pinks in Masset Inlet and
Naden Harbour. Hiellen River, flowing into Dixon Entrance, however, was moderately seeded. Chum-supplies were generally light in Masset Inlet, with the exception
of Awun River, which had approximately 10,000 spawners. Stocks of this species in
Naden Harbour were very satisfactory. Fishway construction at the falls in Naden River
to assist salmon in reaching available spawning-grounds located above this obstacle was
commenced, and it is expected that this project will be completed before the 1956
migration commences.
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham-Moresby Islands Area
Medium to heavy runs of cohoe spawned in Copper and Tlell Rivers as well as in all
Skidegate Inlet spawning areas. Streams on the west coast of Graham and Moresby
Islands received only a light seeding. The off-year runs of pinks to the Copper and Tlell
systems were exceptionally good, but very light to Skidegate Inlet and Rennell Sound
streams. Returns of chums throughout the area were disappointing. Deena, Slatechuck,
Long Arm, and North Arm Creeks in the Skidegate Inlet area had the best showing.
On the west coasts of Graham and Moresby Islands the escapement was light to negligible
in all streams.
East Coast of Moresby Island and South Queen Charlotte Islands Area
Cohoe-supplies were very light, comparing unfavourably with the moderate to heavy
brood-year spawning. This was an off-year for pinks. Mathers and Pallant Creeks,
Salmon River, and Atli Inlet streams, however, received vey light seedings. The escapement of chum salmon was negligible in Selwyn Inlet and very light for the remainder of
the area, many streams having only 50 to 100 spawners, where up to ten times this
number appeared in previous years.
Nass Area
Notwithstanding the satisfactory escapements of sockeye to the Nass area in brood-
years 1950 and 1951, supplies to the Meziadin system, the principal producer of this
species, were again light for the third consecutive year, and spawnings in all other sockeye
areas were also light, with the exception of Gingit River, which had a near-adequate
seeding. Generally a light to medium spawning of spring salmon occurred, with moderately satisfactory stocks being found on the Meziadin grounds. There was a good medium
escapement of cohoe over the entire area, showing satisfactory improvement over the
brood-year 1952. Stocks of pinks were generally light and somewhat less than the
inadequate supplies in brood-year 1953. The Ikginik, Tseax, and Dogfish Bay Creeks,
however, experienced good seedings and appeared to supply most of the season's commer- K 116 BRITISH COLUMBIA
cial catch. A completely inadequate escapement of chums occurred over the entire area,
with even the ever-prolific Toon River having few spawners. This very light escapement
contrasted sharply with the heavy seedings of this species in 1951 and 1952.
Skeena Area
Babine-Morice Area.—The anticipated below-normal run of sockeye to the Skeena
River from the light seeding in 1951 in the Babine system, the principal producer, resulting from the " block " in the Babine River that fall caused by the large rock-slide,
materialized. The escapement to this watershed was correspondingly light, being about
20 per cent of that in normal years. Fifteen Mile, Pierre, Twin, and Sockeye Creeks,
which receive early runs, had light to medium seedings, but in all other streams of the
system the numbers of sockeye were small. Total unrevised figures of salmon passing
through the counting-fence established just below the outlet of Babine Lake for 1955 were
as follows:   Sockeye, 101,976; springs, 3,528; pinks, 2,151; cohoe, 8,947; chums, 3.
Spring-salmon supplies were generally larger than in 1951. Babine River received
a fair seeding. The cohoe run was very good, and all spawning areas received good
seedings.
Numbers of sockeye in the Bear Lake area were small and much the same as the
the cycle-year. The spring-salmon spawning in Bear River was good and compared
favourably with the cycle-year, with an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 of this species noted
on the grounds. The pink escapement to the Bear River was light but showed some
improvement over the brood-year. Cohoe were seen at the mouths of streams flowing
into Bear Lake, but while not on the spawning-grounds at the time of inspection, it was
considered that sufficient numbers were present to assure a good spawning of this species.
The sockeye escapement to the Nanika River, estimated at 3,500, is one of the lightest
on record. This very light escapement contrasts sharply with the 1951 brood-year
escapement, which was estimated at 55,000. Spring-salmon supplies in the Morice and
Upper Bulkley Rivers, estimated at 8,000, although showing improvement over the brood-
year, was considered light. The escapement of cohoe was about average. Noteworthy
is the expansion in volume of pinks passing through the fishway at Moricetown Falls to
spawning-grounds in the Upper Bulkley watershed. Dead pinks were recovered at many
points along the Bulkley River and Morice River from Moricetown Falls to Owen Creek,
located some 16 miles up Morice River.
Skeena-Lakelse Area
Sockeye stocks were generally light, all spawning areas showing a decrease from the
1951 brood-year. Supplies in Allistair Lake were slightly less than those of brood-year
1951, while the Kispiox, Kitsumgallum, and Lakelse Rivers showed definite decreases.
The over-all spring-salmon escapement was good. There was a better than average
showing in Kitsumgallum and Copper Rivers, while a run of about 10,000 spawned in
the Kispiox River. The run of cohoe was average over the area. About 10,000 of this
species spawned in the Kispiox River. Good numbers were present in all other streams.
Pink-supplies were heavy compared to brood-year 1953. Lakelse and Kitwanga Rivers
and smaller streams accounted for about 380,000 spawners, while roughly three-quarters
of a million were scattered over the lower 70 miles of the Kispiox River. The chum run
was light in all areas. Supplies were estimated at less than 25 per cent of those of the
brood-year.
Lower Skeena Area
The sockeye-seeding in Diana, Shawatlans, and Ecstall Rivers in the Lower Skeena
area was fair, but not as good as that of the cycle-year, 1951. The spring-salmon spawning was good and equal to the seeding of cycle-years. The escapement of cohoe to all
streams was satisfactory and showed improvement over brood-year 1952.   Pink-supplies REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K  117
were good and somewhat greater than those of 1953. The run of chum salmon to the
spawning-grounds in this area was light, considerably lighter than that in the parent year,
1951.
Grenville-Principe Area
The seeding of sockeye in the majority of the streams and lake systems was light and
about on a par with that of the cycle-year, 1951. Numbers in the major producers, such
as the Mink Trap, Mikado, Bonilla, and Lowe Inlet systems, were particularly light and
disappointing, while the supplies in the Endhill, Quinstonsta, Curtis, and Lewis systems
were moderate. The cohoe escapement to the majority of the streams was medium and
generally better than in 1952. Good runs occurred in Quinstonsta Creek and Endhill
Creek on Banks Island, as well as in the Lowe Lake system. Supplies of pinks were
generally light and similar to that of brood-year 1953. As in the parent year, the
seeding in the northern portion of the area, including Kitkatla Inlet, Ogden Channel, and
West Principe Channel, was better than the spawning in the southern part of the area,
such as streams on Gil Island and in East Principe Channel and East Grenville Channel.
The chum run was almost a complete failure. Of forty-two chum-producing streams,
twenty-five had seedings less than those of the parent year, four had spawnings similar to
those of 1951, while four streams showed some increase. The commercial catch of
18,180 chums was the smallest for the area since 1931, and only 22 per cent of that
taken in the cycle-year, 1951.
Butedale Area
Sockeye-supplies were light, considerably less than those of the brood-year. Runs
to Douglas Channel, Kitimat Arm, and Gardner Canal all showed a decline, especially
the run to Kitlope River, the main sockeye-producer. Laredo Channel and Aristazabal
Island received similar or improved escapements compared with 1951. The over-all
escapement of cohoe was light to medium in the Mainland rivers, although the runs were
not excessively fished due to special conservation measures. Spawnings did not exceed
those of the brood-year, and in many rivers showed a marked decline. The only streams
in the area which had increased spawning stocks were those on Aristazabal Island and in
Laredo Channel. The pink-spawning was again very light and unsatisfactory in spite of
early closures to the northern portion of the area. The escapements to Douglas Channel,
Kitimat Arm, Kildala Arm, Devastation Channel, and Gardner Canal were extremely
light and similar to those of the brood-year. Even in other portions of the area from
which the major portion of the pink-catch was taken, the escapement was below that of
the parent year and showed some increase only in several Aristazabal Island streams.
The escapement of chums was extremely light, considered to be one of the lightest the
area has ever experienced, notwithstanding early closures of fishing taken in an effort to
conserve spawning supplies. An indication of the size of the run is obtained from the
fact that the catch was only 10 per cent of that in the cycle-year, 1951. The seeding of
spring salmon in the area was average.
Bella Bella Area
Sockeye-supplies were moderate and somewhat better than that in 1951. Good
supplies were observed in the Tinkey River system, while in Kajusdis River the largest
spawning of this species ever reported occurred. There was a medium spawning of
cohoe, which compared favourably with the parent year. Kajusdis River, the main
producer, had an excellent spawning. The new fishway completed at the falls near the
mouth of this stream eliminated any hold-up of spawners at that previously difficult point.
The smaller streams realized fair to good escapements. The seeding of pinks was medium
heavy and showed an increase over the cycle-year, 1953. The run to the area in
1955 was good and the catch twice that of 1953.    Kainet River, the largest pro- K  118 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ducer, had some 110,000 spawners, while other streams in the district had fair to good
seedings. Chum-supplies were light to medium but showed an increase over 1951.
Kainet River had some 60,000 spawners, twice as many as in the brood-year, while
Neekas River had medium to heavy supplies. Good supplies were noted in Howyet,
Kwakusdis, Noota, and Gullchuck streams, and other smaller streams in the district had
good seedings.
Namu-Bella Coola Area
The sockeye-spawning in the Bella Coola-Atnarko system, the principal producer,
was heavy in numbers, but some 65 per cent of the spawners were runts. Supplies in
Kimsquit River were medium, and light to moderate in the smaller sockeye-streams.
Generally the cohoe-spawning was heavy. Supplies to the Bella Coola-Atnarko system
and the larger streams were much better than those of the brood-year. Pink-spawning
was light and less than that of the parent year, notwithstanding special conservation
measures at the peak of the run. The escapement to Bella Coola system, the main
producer, was poor, while Kwatna and Koeye Rivers had fair spawnings. Stocks in the
smaller streams were mostly light. The over-all seeding of chums was light. The runs
to the area were light and far below those of the brood-year 1951, in spite of the fact that
an early closure was applied on salmon net-fishing. The spring-salmon run to the Bella
Coola-Atnarko system was heavy.
Rivers Inlet Area
The over-all sockeye-spawning in the Owekano system was light to medium.
Supplies in the Dallac showed an increase over the 1950 and 1951 brood-years, while
good signs were noted on Whonock Flats at the outlet of Owekano Lake. Stocks in the
Quap and Waukwash Rivers were similar to those of the 1950 parent year but below
those of 1951. In the Indian and Gennesse Rivers, the supplies were less than those of
the parent years, as was the case in the Nookins and Asklum Rivers. There were signs
of a fair escapement to the Shumahalt and Markwell Rivers, but the run to Cheo River
was light. In the Rivers Inlet area, where a special effort was made to evaluate the
important spring escapement, sufficient spawned-out springs were seen to indicate that
the ratio of spawning springs to the known catch could be considered satisfactory, compared with the same ratio existing for other varieties on other spawning-grounds. Supplies
of cohoe were light, similar to the brood-year. Pink-supplies were light and down slightly
from 1953. The escapement of chums from both the early and late runs was light and
down markedly in all streams from that of the cycle-year, 1951.
Smith Inlet Area
The sockeye escapement to the Long Lake system was heavy. The Delebah and
Geluck Rivers, which comprise the principal spawning-grounds, were both heavily supplied. Stocks of springs to Docee River were heavy. Cohoe-supplies were medium.
Heaviest spawning was in the Wyclees Lagoon streams. There was a medium heavy
escapement of pinks. Nekite River was heavily seeded. The chum run was light and
below that of the brood-year in all streams.
Alert Bay Area
Stocks of sockeye were again generally below average throughout the sub-district
and were comparable to the below average seedings in 1954. This was the case in the
Nahwitti, Shushartie, Quatse, Adam, Fulmore, and Kakweiken Rivers. In Mackenzie
River the numbers on the spawning-grounds were very satisfactory. There was also a
satisfactory abundance of this species in the Klinaklini River. Stocks throughout the
Nimpkish system were practically negligible, except in Woss Lake, where they were
comparable to previous years.   The run of spring salmon to Nimpkish River was very REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K  119
satisfactory, and Klinaklini and Kingcome Rivers were again well stocked. Cohoe
returned to the sub-district in above average numbers considerably greater than those of
the parent year, 1952. A good run appeared in Nimpkish River, while seedings in Quatse
and Keogh Rivers were very satisfactory. Salmon River in Seymour Inlet and Tsulton
River in Beaver Cove supported excellent returns. In spite of generally poor pink-seedings
in the cycle-year 1953, the return this year was very good. In the Mainland streams,
returns were satisfactory, and in Glendale River pinks were present in outstanding
abundance. Kakweiken, Waterfall, and Wakeman Rivers also supported heavy runs,
while the return to Embley River, in spite of having been good for the past several years,
was very poor this season. In Vancouver Island streams, where the off-year applied,
seedings were generally light, with the exceptions of Keogh, Tsitika, and Adam Rivers,
where medium returns occurred. The seeding of chums was light and somewhat less than
that of 1951; however, medium returns were recorded in Quatse and Keogh Rivers of
Vancouver Island and Kakweiken and Wakeman Rivers on the Mainland. With the
exception of Salmon River, returns to Seymour and Belize Inlets were well below average.
The Nimpkish River spawning was satisfactory.
Quathiaski Area
The sockeye escapement to Phillips River was considerably less than that of the
brood-year, and in Hayden Bay Creek a very sharp decline occurred, though some
increase over the past few years has been realized. The return of spring salmon to
Campbell River was very good and slightly greater than that of the parent year. Salmon
River, on the other hand, had a very light seeding. In Orford River the escapement was
only fair, substantially less than that of 1950, but equalled that of 1951. In Phillips River
the spawning was also only fair, better than that of 1950 but below that of 1951. The
escapements of cohoe to the spawning-grounds were all below comparatively heavy
supplies of the brood-year, with the exceptions of Apple River and Eva Creek, where
slight increases were recorded. While a decrease was evident in Campbell River, it did
compare favourably to the past two years. This was an off-year for pinks in Vancouver
Island streams. However, on the Mainland the seedings in Phillips and Quatum Rivers
were very good, with tremendous increases over the brood-year. Seedings in Cumsack
Creek, Stafford River, and Homathko River were very light and less than those of 1953.
Numbers of spawners in Apple River and Eva Creek were generally good, and fair in
Orford River. Without exception, every stream in the sub-district showed a substantial
decrease in the numbers of chums reaching the spawning-grounds compared to those of
the brood-year, and the seeding in every stream was exceptionally light.
Comox Area
The run of springs to Little Qualicum River was five times that of 1951, when only
300 of this species spawned in that stream. The escapement to Big Qualicum River was
also good and triple that of 1951. The run to Puntledge River was about equal to that
of the parent year, with 6,000 springs on the spawning-grounds. Construction of the
power project of the British Columbia Power Commission on Puntledge River continues,
and close liaison is being maintained with Commission representatives to assure that the
fisheries aspects are fully protected. The run of cohoe to all streams in the area, with the
exception of four, was well below that of the brood-year, and in many cases was only
25 per cent of that experienced in 1952. The escapement to Oyster River was estimated
at 13,000, compared to 25,000 in 1952, while the run to Big Qualicum River was 3,500,
compared to 5,000 in 1952. This year's run of pinks to Tsolum River was about equal
to that of 1953, when 40,000 spawned in this stream. There were about 16,000 spawners
in the Puntledge, compared to 10,000 in the cycle-year. The run to Oyster River was
about one-third that of 1953, when 12,000 of this species were found on the spawning- K 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA
grounds. Light runs to Englishman, Little Qualicum, and Tsable Rivers were slightly
greater than those of the parent year. The run to other pink-streams in the sub-district
was poor. Generally the escapement of chums was below that of 1951, with supplies in
the two main producers, the Big and Little Qualicum Rivers, being very short. The
seeding in the Puntledge River was just short of that of the brood-year. A heavy late run
entered this stream. Baynes Sound streams, Englishman River, and Oyster River were
lightly stocked, while Nile Creek showed some slight improvement over the brood-year.
Pender Harbour Area
A favourable sockeye-salmon run to Sakinaw Lake developed, with 5,079 spawners
tallied through the Sakinaw Dam fishway, compared to 3,451 in 1951. Toba River and
tributaries received normal quantities of spring salmon, while a medium seeding of this
species occurred in Tzoonie River, Sechelt Inlet. Generally the cohoe escapement was
satisfactory, with Toba Inlet streams and Theodosia River receiving good medium seedings. Medium supplies were also observed in Deserted Bay, Tzoonie River, and Sakinaw
Lake, with light to medium stocks observed elsewhere in the sub-district. The pink-
salmon spawning in Toba Inlet streams was approximately one-third lighter than the
satisfactory pink-seeding in the parent year, 1953. A very light early seeding in Jervis
Inlet streams showed some improvement following a boundary movement there and
a closure in the Johnstone Strait area, and a medium spawning subsequently occurred in
the Squawawka River, with a light to medium seeding observed in Deserted Bay River,
while the escapement to Vancouver Bay River was very favourable. Jervis Inlet pink-
salmon streams received a drastic set-back as a result of the phenomenal floods of early
November, which scoured the stream-beds and did heavy damage to spawn deposition.
The chum escapement was the lightest of the past decade, with the early seedings receiving
a serious set-back due to the early November flash flood referred to previously. Seedings
in later streams, such as Saltery Bay, Sliammon River, and Tzoonie River, escaped the
worst effects of the floods.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith Area
The run of spring salmon to Nanaimo River compared favourably to that of the
brood-year and was slightly better than average. The escapement of cohoe was very
disappointing, with virtually no early-season migrants and late runs not arriving in any
good quantity. Seeding of the main streams was only fair, and escapements to the smaller
creeks poor. The small pink run to Nanaimo River failed to equal that of the brood-year.
The chum-spawning was less than one-third that of the brood-year. There was little or no
early escapement, and subsequent runs did not occur in any appreciable volume. Fair
numbers appearing in the principal rivers early in November were practically decimated
by extreme flood conditions, which also had severe effects on the previous light seedings
in all streams.
Cowichan Area
The cohoe run to the Cowichan and Koksilah systems was the best for some years,
and it is estimated that approximately 70,000 spawned in these systems this year. The
spring-salmon escapement was below average; it is estimated that 6,000 to 8,000 of this
species entered the Cowichan system. The escapement of chums to Cowichan River was
fairly good, though not up to that of the brood-year. A fair escapement of this species
was also noted in the Koksilah River.
Victoria Area
Generally the seeding of cohoe was light. The chum-salmon escapement was very
good to Sooke River, Stoney Creek, and De Mamiel Creek; it is estimated, however, that
75 per cent of the spawn deposition in these streams was destroyed by the November flash
. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K  121
flood.   Supplies were light in Coal and Tugwell Creeks.   The early run to Goldstream
was light and disappointing, though some improvement resulted from later runs.
Alberni-Nitinat Area
The sockeye escapement to the Somass system this year was light and much below
that of the brood-year. The Great Central Lake run was estimated at 8,000 to 10,000,
while that into Sproat Lake was 10,000 to 15,000 fish. Stocks at Anderson Lake were
again very good and slightly larger than those of the parent year. Spawners in Hobarton
Lake were light in number, despite an early closure and an almost negligible commercial
catch. The seeding of spring salmon was, on the whole, light, with runs of this species
to the San Juan, Gordon, Sarita, Toquart, and Effingham Rivers not too satisfactory. The
escapement to Nahmint River was fairly good. Good supplies reached the Somass River.
The cohoe escapement was light to all streams, with the exception of Toquart and Maggie
Rivers, which again had a good supply of this species. The chum escapement was in
general very light, although there was a fair seeding in a few of the smaller streams.
Grappler Creek and Hobarton River were the only two streams in the sub-district with
good escapements of this species.
Clayoquot Area
The escapement of sockeye to the Kennedy Lake system was very fair, much better
than anticipated. Runs of creek sockeye to Megin and Cecilia Lakes were light. The
light spawning of spring salmon throughout the area was about average. The seeding of
cohoe was generally fair. This was an apparent reflection of the good escapement in
1952. It was noted that the average size of these fish was smaller than usual, with a large
number of jacks being present. A few pinks spawned in the Megin River. The spawning
of chums over the area was generally very light. Atleo and Tranquil Rivers had satisfactory escapements of this species.   Supplies to Sidney Inlet were very light.
Nootka Area
The escapement of creek sockeye to the few streams frequented by small runs of
this species was comparable to that of the cycle-year, with a fairly good showing in
Muchalat Lake and the streams feeding and draining that body of water. The spring-
salmon spawning was considered fairly satisfactory and considerably heavier than that for
1954. No pink salmon were observed on spawning-grounds in the area, 1955 being an
off-year for this species. There was generally an extremely light escapement of cohoe.
Stocks of chums were light and well below the brood-year totals. A number of streams
in widely separated localities received a fair seeding from very late runs. The early portion of the chum run, which generally appears in September and October and which is
a major contributor to the commercial fishery, failed to appear in quantity.
Kyuquot Area
Power River and Lake had normal small runs of creek sockeye similar to those of
1951, while supplies in Jansen Lake were lighter than those of the brood-year. Stocks
of spring salmon to local rivers were lighter than usual and slightly less than those of the
brood-year. A very heavy run of cohoe arrived in the sub-district, and in most cases a fair
increase over the parent year was noted, and in some rivers the run was phenomenal.
These fish were smaller than last year's, and the number of jacks was greater than usual.
The seeding in Malksope, Kaoowinch, Jansen, and Amai Rivers was particularly heavy,
and runs to Power Lake, Clanninick River, and Artlich River were very good. The only
failures occurred in two very small streams and in Chamiss River, where the cohoe-run
has never been particularly heavy. The escapement of chum salmon to local spawning-
grounds was very light.   In Tahsish, Chamiss, Malksope, Kaoowinch, and Amai Rivers, K 122
BRITISH COLUMBIA
the seedings were similar to those of the poor years 1951 and 1954. In the streams where
regular spawning of this species is 2,000 to 5,000, the average 1955 spawning was 400
to 800 fish.
Quatsino Area
Generally sockeye-salmon escapement was light, with the exception of Mahatta
River, where fair supplies were present. The run is of little commercial importance.
Spring-salmon stocks were light this year and below those of previous years. The cohoe-
salmon escapement was extremely light, with some streams experiencing no spawning of
this species at all. Notable in the lack of cohoe were Koprino and Ingersoll Rivers and
Dominick Creek. The only known exception was Spruce River, which had approximately
2,500 cohoe salmon on the spawning-grounds. Supplies of chum salmon were extremely
poor, and in some streams a failure. Small escapements occurred in San Josef, Klaskish,
Marble, Rupert, and Koprino Rivers. Spruce River had a fair seeding of this species.
This was an off-year for pinks, and only in the San Josef River were a few observed.
Fraser River-Prince George Area
The number of sockeye reaching the Stuart Lake system was extremely light. This
run was held up by high turbulent water in the lower reaches of the Fraser Canyon near
Yale, caused by the unusual late spring run-off, and the first sockeye did not arrive at
Stuart Lake until August 3rd, about eighteen days later than normal. Thousands died
along the migration route, and it is estimated that only about 5 per cent of the spawning
supply of salmon got through to their spawning-grounds. The late Stuart Lake run
arrived at the lake on September 3rd, almost two weeks later than the arrival time in
1951, but this late run showed increase over the parent year. The total number of sockeye observed spawning in the Stuart Lake system was some 9,780 fish. Of this, 2,160
were early-run fish and 7,620 were late-run salmon. In 1951, the brood-year, the early
run numbered some 61,300 fish and the late run 1,800 sockeye.
Stocks in the Fraser-Francois system totalled some 52,896 sockeye, a decrease from
96,800 in 1951. The run to Stellako River commenced to arrive in Fraser Lake August
29th, the peak period being September 14th to 18th. The spring-salmon run to the Tete
Jaune area of the Fraser River was about 50 per cent of last year's run and estimated to
be from 4,000 to 5,000 fish. Water from the Cheslatta reservoir was again released in
August and September to assist spring salmon in the residual Nechako River above Fort
Fraser. Numbers on the spawning-grounds amounted to somewhat more than 500,
which is less than the brood-years. The run to Stuart River was about equal to that of
the parent year, 1951. Spawning conditions were generally fairly good, although some
streams were below average in water-level.
Fraser River
Quesnel-Chilko Area.—The sockeye runs to the Chilko system, estimated at 128,000,
showed an increase of about 15 per cent over the brood-year of 1951. There was a 20-
per-cent predomination of females, and 8 per cent of the total were jacks. There was an
unusual variation in distribution on the Chilko spawning-grounds this year, with a lighter
concentration in the fast water and a much heavier density of spawners in the more quiet
waters. Returns to Taseko River and Lake showed some increase over the brood-year.
As the Horsefly River was almost barren in 1951, few sockeye were expected this year,
and thirty-five to forty fish were counted on the spawning-grounds. No sockeye were
observed in the Mitchell River this season, the brood-year also being barren. Returns
to the Bowron system, numbering 9,364, were less than half those of the parent year.
This run was also partially blocked in the lower reaches of the Fraser Canyon, and losses
were serious. The peak of the run, however, reached the grounds only several days later
than in 1951.   It was expected, in view of the delayed arrival, that considerable mortality REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K  123
would occur before spawning, but only the usual few unspawned dead fish were found.
Conditions for spawning in this system were very good, with normal water-levels and
favourable temperatures. While there is no known history of sockeye runs to San Jose
River, a small run arrived there about August 7th. Spawning eventually occurred in this
stream, with a total of 130 fish being counted. The spring-salmon run to the Chilko
River was slightly heavier than that of the brood-year, slightly below average in the
Quesnel system, and normal in the Bowron system.
Kamloops Area.-—In general, sockeye-spawning in all areas of the Kamloops sub-
district showed a marked decrease when compared with the cycle-year. Migrations of
sockeye to the Shuswap Lake area were, for the most part, somewhat lighter than the
brood-year. The Adams River run totalled some 55,000 spawners, of which a very
marked percentage were jacks. Approximately twice this number seeded Adams River
during the brood-year. The Raft River sockeye population, totalling slightly over 5,000,
was considerably lighter than in the brood-year. The Seymour River migration of almost
10,000 fish was also considerably lighter than that of the brood-year. The spawning in
these last-mentioned streams occurred in water conditions which were slightly below
normal. Spring-salmon supplies in the North Thompson River watershed were comparable to those of the brood-year, and inspections indicate that approximately 10,000
spawned in this stream. The run to Upper Shuswap River showed an increase of 100 per
cent over the parent year and numbered approximately 2,000 spawners, and the supplies
to Adams and Little Rivers totalled 1,500 fish, which was about double that of the
cycle-year. The seeding of cohoe was good, showing a sharp increase over that of the
brood-year, particularly to tributaries of the North Thompson River, where an increase
of approximately 50 per cent was recorded. The greatest increase was apparent in Louis
Creek, where over 7,000 cohoe spawned successfully, compared with less than 1,000 in
1952. Runs to the South Thompson and Shuswap Lake area were very similar to the
North Thompson runs in numbers, and in most instances there was a decided increase
over the parent year. The total of all cohoe runs to the area represents an increase of
approximately 40 per cent over 1952. Expansion of the volume of pink salmon passing
through the fishways at Hells Gate to upper spawning areas was again evident. Although
there is no adequate basis for comparison of this year's migration of pinks, a run of considerable proportion spawned in the main channel of the Thompson River from Thompson Rapids to Kamloops Lake, and it is estimated that this run totalled between 150,000
and 200,000 fish. Bonaparte River and Deadman Creek, which were seeded by pinks
in 1953, were, with the exception of a few spawners, virtually barren this year due to low-
water conditions.
Lillooet Area.—The sockeye run in the Birkenhead River this year was small and
is estimated to be approximately one-half of the brood-year. Jack sockeye composed
about 15 per cent of this run. In the Seton-Anderson system, runs were small and
similar to those of the brood-year. Some early Stuart Lake sockeye, held up by high
water in the Lower Fraser Canyon, were observed using Seton Creek. These fish were
in an advanced condition. Stocks of spring salmon in Birkenhead were about average,
the same as the parent year. A small number of this species, estimated at fifty, were
observed in Seton Creek, with the same number on the spawning-grounds in Portage
Creek. A few springs were observed in the Yalakom River during the year. The cohoe
run to Birkenhead was light this year, estimated at 2,000, as compared with 20,000 in
the brood-year. Pinks again spawned in large numbers in Seton Creek, the run there
being estimated in excess of 75,000. Only 500 were observed in Portage Lake, while
in 1953 approximately 10,000 of this species spawned in that stream.
Yale-Merritt Area.—The spring-salmon spawning in the Nicola River and tributaries
was on a par with that of the brood-year, with a slight increase apparent in Coldwater
River. It is estimated that 10,000 adults spawned in the system, with 80 per cent of
this number seeding the Nicola River.   Stocks in the Nahatlatch River were light.   The K 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA
escapement of cohoe salmon showed a marked increase, with numbers in many instances
double and triple those of the parent year. The increase in Coldwater River and Spius
Creek was marked, and in Nicola River, where the spawning has previously taken place
in the section just below the lake, distribution of spawners extended for a distance of
some 30 miles down-stream. The escapement of pink salmon to the sub-district showed
an increase over the brood-year, with approximately 5,000 of this variety in Nicola River.
The distribution of pinks was heavier in sections of the river removed from the unsuitable
area at the river-mouth.
Chilliwack Area.—The sockeye escapement to Cultus Lake was excellent this year,
with 25,500 counted through the fence, in comparison with 13,000 in 1951. Small
numbers were also observed in Chilliwack River and Kawkawa Lake. It is estimated
that 700 springs spawned in Chilliwack River, as well as a few near the mouth of Slesse
Creek. This year's cohoe run to the Chilliwack-Vedder system compared favourably
with that of the brood-year, when an estimated 18,000 to 20,000 spawned in the
Chilliwack River. All smaller streams in the area supported their customary light runs.
An estimated 100,000 pinks spawned in the Chilliwack River and 15,000 in the Vedder
River this year. The run to Sweltzer Creek dropped off sharply, with 6,500 on the
spawning-grounds, compared to 30,000 in 1953 and 60,000 in 1951. There was also
a noticeable decrease in the spawning of this species in Coquihalla River, Silver Creek,
and Succer Creek. This same condition applied in Jones Creek, where only 450 pinks
entered the stream, compared with 3,000 in 1953 and 10,000 in 1951. A severe flash
flood in early November completely changed the course of the Lower Chilliwack and
Vedder Rivers in many sections, destroying much of the spawning-beds. However, pinks
that entered the Vedder after the floods provided a fair seeding in many of the newly
formed side channels, and the estimated over-all loss of pink spawn in the Chilliwack-
Vedder system now stands at 30 per cent. Chum-spawning was disappointing throughout the area. Fifteen thousand of this species entered the Chilliwack-Vedder system, and
this run suffered heavy losses during the November flood but, unlike the pink run, did
not benefit by late seeding in the newly formed channels as the customary late run of
chums was almost non-existent. Four thousand one hundred chums entered Sweltzer
Creek this year, while in 1951 this stream supported 15,000 of this species. The runs
to Succer and Luckakuck Creeks were also below normal.
Mission-Harrison Area.—The most important sockeye run to the area in 1955 was
the very fine run to Weaver Creek, where an estimated 25,000 sockeye spawned, compared with 10,000 in the parent year. However, due to flood damage it is estimated that
half of the spawn depositions were lost. The run of this species to Harrison River was
double that of 1951, which was estimated at 10,000, while in Big Silver River the escapement was very light again this year. Runs to Hatchery and Douglas Creeks were light,
and in other tributaries of Harrison Lake which have supported runs in past years, no
sockeye were observed during the season. The cohoe escapement to the major streams
was similar to or better than the satisfactory supplies of the parent year, while runs to
the smaller streams were very light. It is estimated that 5,000 cohoe entered the Chehalis
this year, which compares favourably with that of 1952. Stocks in Weaver Creek were
good, but down to about 2,000 spawners from a brood-year escapement of over 3,000.
The pink run to Harrison River was estimated at 50,000 spawners, compared with over
100,000 in 1953. Stocks in the Chehalis River were heavy and comparable to those of
the parent year, but it is likely that up to 90 per cent of the redds were destroyed during
the disastrous November floods. An excellent spawning of this species, considerably
larger than that of the brood-year, took place in the Stave River. The runs to Weaver
and Whonock Creeks showed some slight improvement, as did the escapement to Suicide
Creek. The chum run to Chehalis River was good and exceeded that of the brood-year,
but the loss of spawn due to November freshets was probably about 75 per cent. The
escapement to Harrison River was little better than half that of the parent year, with REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955 K  125
the early run being light and the late run poor. Stocks in the Stave River were good and
showed a big improvement over preceding years. Other streams in the area had fair
supplies, except Nicomen Slough, where stocks were very light.
Lower Fraser Area.—The escapement of sockeye to the Upper Pitt system and
Boise Creek arrived toward the end of August and totalled 17,500 fish, down somewhat
from the brood-year escapements of 1950 and 1951, of 42,000 and 38,000, respectively.
The flash flood in early November destroyed an estimated 50 per cent of the Upper Pitt
run and 25 to 30 per cent of the Boise Creek run. The only important spawning of
springs in the area occurs in the Upper Pitt system, where it was estimated that up to
1,500 spawners were observed. Cohoe escapements to the Coquitlam and North and
South Alouette Rivers were fair, but down from the brood-year. The spawning in Upper
Pitt River was fairly good. The runs to the Nicomekel, Serpentine, and Campbell Rivers
were good and compared favourably with those of the parent year. The cohoe-spawning
areas of the Upper Coquitlam were badly scoured during the flood conditions of early
November, and damage to the spawn probably was fairly heavy, while flood damage in
the North and South Alouette Rivers was more moderate. Returns of pinks to the Upper
Pitt River showed a marked drop from the brood-year. From 2,500 to 3,000 pinks
spawned in the North Alouette River and 3,000 to 3,500 in the South Alouette River.
Some 4,500 of this species were found in Kanaka Creek and 1,500 to 2,000 in the
Coquitlam River. However, heavy damage to these spawning-grounds resulted during the
flood of early November, and in the Coquitlam River it is estimated that as high as a
90 per cent loss of the pink spawn occurred. The early runs of chums which occurred in
late September and early October appeared to be the best in some years, but the later
runs which normally appear in mid-November and during December were very disappointing and in some cases almost non-existent. From 3,000 to 3,500 of this species
were noted in Kanaka Creek and 1,500 to 2,000 in Coquitlam River. Early runs to the
North Alouette and South Alouette Rivers were good, with 2,000 to 2,500 spawners in
each stream. Silver and Nelson Creeks had poor runs, and escapement to the Upper Pitt
was negligible and down considerably from the brood-year. Flood losses through flood
damage were heavy, and the early run to the Coquitlam was all but wiped out.
Squamish Area
The spring-salmon run to the Squamish system was about the same as that of the
cycle-year, when 16,000 were present. The cohoe run was much smaller, and in the
Squamish River was only about one-quarter of the heavy escapement in 1952, and 30 per
cent of that run was affected by the flood in early November. Supplies of pinks to the
Squamish River system, estimated at 120,000, were considerably less than those of 1953,
which were estimated at 200,000. The run to Howe Sound and Gulf of Georgia streams
was abnormally small and much below that of the cycle-year. Stocks of chums were
smaller than the moderately good supplies of the brood-year, and while some of the
early runs to the Upper Squamish may have been affected by the November floods, the
lower portions of the system were seeded later in the month and were therefore unaffected.
In the Squamish and Cheakamus Rivers, numbers on the spawning-grounds were one-
third to one-half those of the parent year.
North Vancouver Area
Escapement of cohoe to the Capilano, Seymour, and Indian Rivers was somewhat
less than the satisfactory supplies present in the brood-year, 1952. The fish-trap facilities
provided by the Greater Vancouver Water Board in the Capilano River below Cleveland
Dam were in operation, and during the season 4,988 cohoe were trapped and trucked to
a point on the river several miles above the dam, where they were released to migrate to
their spawning-grounds.   Stocks of pinks in these streams were for less than in 1953, K 126 BRITISH COLUMBIA
although Indian River was well supplied. Flood damage during November was high in
the Capilano and Seymour Rivers. The return of chums to the area was far below that
of 1951. In Indian River it is estimated up to 5,000 of this species were present, a
considerable decline compared with the parent year. Considerable flood damage also
resulted to the spawn deposits of this species in the Capilano and Seymour Rivers and
Nelson Creek. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1955
STATISTICAL TABLES
K 127
LICENCES ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
FOR THE 1955 SEASON
Number of
Licences
Kind of Licence
Salmon-cannery  20
Herring-cannery   1
Pilchard-cannery      	
Herring-reduction  15
Pilchard-reduction     	
Tierced salmon  5
Fish cold storage  14
Fish-processing   17
Shell-fish cannery  9
Tuna-fish cannery
Fish-offal reduction
Fish-liver reduction
Whale-reduction	
Pickled herring	
Herring dry-saltery .
1
9
4
1
1
Processing aquatic plants	
Harvesting aquatic plants     	
Fish-buyers'  511
Non-tidal fishing  239
Dogfish-reduction  1
General receipts  6
Revenue
$4,000.00
100.00
1,500.00
500.00
1,400.00
17.00
9.00
1.00
9.00
4.00
100.00
100.00
12,775.00
243.50
1.00
25.05
Total  $20,784.55
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON,  1955 SEASON
(Showing the Origin of Salmon Caught in Each District (48-pound Cases))
District
Sockeyes
Springs
Steelheads
Cohoes
Pinks
Chums
Total
103,67814
433
13,6541/2
14,649
50,702?/2
28,864
13,1921/2
19,648
6,843i/2
16
1,028
1,430
813
326
5,534
1,864
269
5
99
9761/2
86
20!/2
63
318'/2
15,910
11,666
9,356
14,192
5,3161/2
l,014i/2
101,349
24,846
2,030
5IIV2
160,18714
548
29,040
86,788
8,658
2,275!4
421,355!/2
122,3711/2
31
7,3501/2
9,420
8,904
5,471i/2
5,588
2,070
40,105
45,950
294,238%
22,088
62,0811/4
123,507
71,164
34,570!/2
581,599
Vancouver Island and adjacent Main-
214 998
2,061
3,991
5
441/2
3,430
Totals	
244,821%
17,85914
1,882
186,1911/2
831,255
128,289
1,410,298%
Note.—10.54414 cases of bluebacks are included with cohoes (Vancouver Island);   also included are 177 cases of
sockeyes fminced), 277 cases of sockeyes (flakes), 5014 cases of cohoes (flakes), and 24714 cases of steelheads (smoked). K 128
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1947 TO 1955, INCLUSIVE
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
Sockeyes	
244,8211
17,8595
128,289
831,255
186,1915
1,882
680,789
14,357
582,1245
337,0625
129,624
3,8975
510,148
13,048J
394,867
795,330
110,164*
3,0305
449,4945
9,279
96,005
679,182
67,438
3,762
428,299
13,698
462,101
736,093
313,674
3,6555
408,0265
9,2335
507,611
446,4565
123,6295
3,2275
259,821
21,184
230,5565
709,987
215,944
2,373
261,2305
16,4455
511,404
321,7211
221,804
5,6635
286,497
10,025
Chums -
Pinks -	
486,6155
600,7875
Cohoes	
Steelheads    	
146,293
3,2602
Totals 	
1,410,2981
1,747,8545
1,826,5881
1.305,1601
1,957,5205
1,498,1845
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,478J
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS
Total Packed by Districts in 1947 to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
294,2381
123,507
71,164
34,5702
62,0815
581,599
239 147
3>91
563,8075
136,500
71,023
23,5485
69,3585
349,5865
529,9725
4,058
496,9365
117,406
148,8855
35,8705
66,5105
671,9815
338,432
566
151,147
221,3065
105,040
43,5625
57,775
245,437
475,066
5,8265
268,233
130,681
148,996
58,022
152,7425
585,240
612,482
1,124
139,7215
97,889
172,1075
52,750
57,961
347,9965
623,609
6,150
189,938
129,027
70,2105
19,083
58,3365
538,3705
431,4985
3,402
104,485
193,4355
72,117
14,675
38,5385
317,572
567,314
30,134
171,3025
79,718
168,9355
Smith Inlet  .
46,172
29,450
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland
Other districts—	
552,9405
456,639
28,321
Grand totals	
1,410,2981
1,747,8545
1,826,5885
1,305,1605
1,957,5205
1,498,1845
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,4785 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FI
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOCB
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH
British Columbia                                 1895— 395,984
SHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955                  K  129
:eye-pack of the fraser river,
the four-year cycle, 1895-1955
1896— 356,984          1897— 860,459            1898— 256,101
72,979                         312,048                           252,000
Washington                          65,143
Total                       461,127
British Columbia         1899— 480,485
429,963
1900— 229,800
228,704
1,172,507
1901— 928,669
1,105,096
508,101
1902— 293,477
339,556
Washington                      499,646
Total                        980,131
British Columbia          1903— 204,809
458,504
1904—   72,688
123,419
2,033,765
1905— 837,489
837,122
633,033
1906— 183,007
182,241
Washington                        167,211
Total                       372,020
196,107
1908—   74,574
170,951
1,674,611
1909— 585,435
1,097,904
365,248
1910— 150,432
248,014
British Columbia          1907—   59,815
Washington                        96,974
Total                        156,789
British Columbia ,         1911—   58,487
245,525
1912— 123,879
184,680
1,683,339
1913— 719,796
1,673,099
398,446
1914— 198,183
335,230
Washington                      127,761
Total _                       186,248
308,559
1916—   32,146
84,637
2,392,895
1917— 148,164
411,538
533,413
1918—    19,697
50,723
British Columbia                      1915—   91,130
Washington                        64,584
Total  -                      155,714
British Columbia- .        1919—    38,854
116,783
1920—    48,399
62,654
550,702
1921—   39,631
102,967
70,420
1922—   51,832
48,566
Washington _ —.                       64,346
Total                       103,200
British Columbia -        1923—   31,655
111,053
1924—   39,743
69,369
142,598
1925—   35,385
112,023
100,398
1926—    85,689
44,673
Washington _. -                       47,402
Total -                       79,057
British Columbia -        1927—   61,393
109,112
1928—   29,299
61,044
147,408
1929—   61,569
111,898
130,362
1930— 103,692
352,194
Washington                         97,594
Total                            158,987
90,343
1932—    65,769
81,188
173,467
1933—   52,465
128,518
455,886
1934— 139,238
352,579
British Columbia         1931—   40,947
Washington                           87,211
Total - -                      128,158
British Columbia            1935—    62,822
146,957
1936— 184,854
59,505
180,983
1937— 100,272
60,259
491,817
1938— 186,794
135,550
322,344
1942— 446,371
263,458
Total                       117,499
British Columbia          .    —          1939—   54,296
244,359
1940—   99,009
63,890
160,531
1941— 171,290
110,605
Washington                                              43,512
Total -                       97,808
British Columbia                               1943—   31,974
162,899
1944—   88,515
37,509
281,895
1945—   79,977
53,055
709,829
1946— 341,957
268,561
Washington                        19,117
Total -                       51,091
British Columbia                        1947—   33,952
126,024
1948—   64,8235
90,441
133,032
1949—   96,159
80,547
610,518
1950— 108,223
116,458
224,681
1954— 497,023
501,496
Washington - -                         6,760
Total - -                       40,712
British Columbia                              1951— 145,321
155,2645
1952— 134,625
114,638
176,706
1953— 191,123
178,323
Washington   -                        118,151
Total         -                     263,472
249,263
369,446
998,519
British Columbia - -         1955— 103,678
Washington                         85,136
Total                       188,814 K 130
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES
Fraser River, 1947
to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
Sockeyes 	
103.678J
6,8435
7,3505
160,1875
15,910
269
497,023
8,298
45,444
17*
11,948
1,077
191,123
5,620
26,921
204,4215
15,480
371
134,625
2,279
8,480
60
5,5002
2022
145,231*
5,719
35,5305
66,673
14,8482
2305
108,223
1,8182
23,3432
72
6,0252
240
96,1592
9,889
6,763
66,626
10,286
214*
64,823*
2,9555
20,209
31
16,102
364
33,9525
1,455
16,4755
113,1362
6,105
178
Chums. 	
Pinks.	
Cohoes	
Steelheads	
Totals	
294,2381
563,807*
496,3965
151,147
268,233
139,7212
189,938
104,485
Skeena River, 1947
to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
14,649
1,430
5,4715
86,788
14,192
9762
60,817
1,260*
23,1355
39,3245
10,449
1,5135
65,003
1,1745
15,114*
29,884
5,260
970
114,775
2,082
4,638
89,314
8,358
2,1392
61,6945
2,055*
14,778
30,356*
19,9775
1,819
47,4795
1,7582
10,969
26,256
9,781
65,937
2,5075
4,896
33,069*
21,3335
2,5072
101,2675
4,0185
11,863
50,656
22,086*
3,544
32,534
2,113
8,236
13,1905
21,600*
2,044
Springs	
Chums 	
Pinks              	
Totals 	
123,507
136,500
117,406
221,3065
130,681
97,889
129,027
193,4352
79,718
Rivers Inlet, 1947 to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
50,7022
813
5,588
8,658
5,3162
86
50,6392
649
12,3522
2,581*
4,6695
131
132,9255
865*
5,627
7,3042
1,979
184
84,297*
8652
3,7115
12,469*
3,4155
280*
102,5652
937*
11,8422
20,960
12,146
2745
142,710*
6192
10,0142
12,864
5,736
163
39,494*
743
11,819
11,937
5,978
239
37,6652
899*
11,4862
13,491
8,143
4312
140,087
475
13,873
Springs 	
Pinks	
9,025
5,182
2935
Totals  	
71,164
71,023
148,8552
105,040
148,996
172,1075
70,2102
72,117
168,9352
Smith Inlet, 1947 to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
28,864
326
1,0142
2,2755
2,070
205
18,937
1772
868
523
2,992
51
29,947
176
615
1,017
4,015
1002
34,834
367
1,466
6,496
3152
84
49,473
174*
3,259
2,482
2,530
1035
42,435
715
397
5,308
4,4995
39
13,189
159
785
2,533
2,361
56
10,4565
186*
9295
1,481*
1,5212
995
36,800
43
348
Pinks 	
1,054
7,910
21
Totals	
34,5705
23,5482
35,8702
43,5625
58,022
52,750
19,083
14,675
46,172
Nass River,
1947 to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
13,6542
1,028
8,904
29,040
9,356
99
10,285
3982
15,9655
36,448
6,024*
237
18,1625
5275
25,7565
16,635*
5,118
3105
29,429
641
13,1125
13,016
1,223
2905
24,4055
596*
37,742
70,880
18,711
4075
27,2865
798*
14,321
12,582
2,737
236
9,268
1741
7,854
34,324
6,665
51
13,1815
416
7,2722
8,565
8,9545
149
10,849
398
8,925
5,047
4,075
156
Totals 	
62,0815
69,3585
66,510*
57,775
152,742J
57,961
58,3365
38,5385
29,450 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 131
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued
Vancouver Island District and
Adjacent Mainlane
, 1947
to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
Sockeyes 	
Springs 	
Chums	
Pinks	
13,1925
5,534
40,105
421,3552
101,349
63
12,051
1,6495
248,098*
32,913
54,783
915
46,8955
3,1155
124,840
439,173*
57,773
184
24,252*
1,687
24,039
171,812
23,583
635
22,107
3,133
105,458
303,102*
151,3255
114
13,806
3,343
125,833
132,016
72,871
1275
19,486*
6,361*
51,629
361,783*
98,958*
1515
9,9815
6,622
147,227*
43,5745
109,9395
227
14,543
4,9425
99,6792
355,992
77,6842
Steelheads-	
99
Totals	
581,599
349,5865
671,9815
245,437
585,240
347,9965
538,370*
317,572
552,9405
1 Since 1940, bluebacks have been included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1947 to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
433
16
9,420
548
11,666
5
1072
6*
83,8055
105,123
11,289
375
246
15
17,304
811
2,437*
6
635
96
1,712
178,959*
4,168
195
510
89
48
148,669
92,986
9,021
15
20
145
71,287
51,722
4,145
61,696*
3,455
22,579
24,8525
1,550
8,1415
14,096
1,200
392
Cohoes..	
Totals	
22,088
200,369
20,806
185,590
88,2405
250,828
34,544
127,319
15,688
Central Area, 1947 to 1955, Inclusive
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
19,648
1,864
45,950
122,3715
24,846
318*
30,858*
1,645
149,672
118,5385
26,511
5955
25,8455
1,568
175,289
92,517
21,502
9041
26,5835
1,2615
36,605
207,055
17,289
682
22,312
1,082
190,8435
237,559
61,423*
7065
25,997
776
164,884
163,301
17,061
762
16,1405
1,007
116,2925
173,456
44,169
355
23,2465
1,1952
225,686
152,2002
36,816
8502
17,343*
Springs	
Chums.  —
5145
292,6045
101,2415
Cohoes 	
Steelheads _	
28,778
469
Totals	
214,998
327,8205
317,626
289,476
513,9265
372,781
351,420
439,995
440,951 K 132
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1955
Season
Canned
Meal
Oil
1930-31                             	
Cases
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
2,656
Tons
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
Gal.
3,204,058
2,551,914
1931-32                                —.   .
1932 33                    -—	
1,315,864
1933-34    _    	
275,879
1934-35                            	
1,635,123
1935-36 _      --   .
1,634,592
1936-37	
1,217,087
1937-38                                     	
1,707,276
1938-39	
2,195,850
1939-40	
178,305
1940-41                                        	
890,296
1,916,191
1,560,269
1941-42	
1942-43	
1943-44 	
2,238,987
1944-45 	
1,675,090
1945-46	
1,273,329
81,831
1946-47 _	
1947-48.	
12,833
1948-49	
1949-50	
1950-51 	
1951-52	
1952-53 	
—
1953-54	
1954-55	
1955-56	
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1955
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Pickled
Meal
Oil
1935 36	
1936-37                    	
Cases
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
92,719
77,913
56,798
103,928
5,132
66,231
Tons
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons
892
779
502
591
26
100
1292
1
Tons
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
5,525
7,223
18,948
31,340
30,081
31,913
32,777
218
31,740
28,782
47,097
Gal.
328,639
786,742
1937 38                                           	
1,333,245
1938-39	
1939 40                                           	
1,526,117
1,677,736
1940-41
923,137
1941-42                   	
594,684
1942-43                     	
	
323,379
512,516
717,655
1944-45                                               	
1945 46
302
5,807
3,0841
412
3,858
4,418
4,331
5,871
3,910
2,397
249
521,649
1946-47               	
484,937
1947-48                                                    ..   ...
1,526,826
1948-49                   	
2,614,925
1949-50             	
3,823,464
1950-51
3,385,685
3,832,301
1951-52                 	
1952-53	
7,203
1953 54                   	
3,516,106
1954-55 	
3,714,924
1955-56   --
25,508
4,475,536
1 Previously reported as 2,988 tons.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,  1955
K 133
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, VITAMIN A, AND
FERTILIZER PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING
AND PILCHARD, 1947 TO 1955.
From Whales
From Fish-
From Other Sources
Season
Whalebone
and Meal
Fertilizer
Oil
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
Tons
Tons
Gal.
Units1
Tons
Gal.
1947-48       .   .
11,109,063
3.929         1         519.802
1948-49 	
119
324
186,424
10,121,374
1,172
141,098
1949-50.	
921
21
312,055
12,079,015
1,635
175,202
1950-51 	
1,098
393,176
3,578,905
1,717
166,898
1951-52 	
1,981
680,129
5,250,441
3,593
250,777
1952-53 	
2,349
668,408
5,409,264
2,011
192,315
1953-54 	
1,786
5,707,968
5,339,768
2,059
243,819
1954-55.  	
2,502
872,060
4,310,057
2,361
265,405
1955-56..  	
3,411
759,785
4,760,668
1,993
201,690
1 Million U.S.P. units Vitamin A. K 134
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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