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Mental Health Services PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31ST… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1957]

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 DEPARTMENT OF PROVINCIAL SECRETARY
Mental Health Services
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDED
MARCH 3 1st
1956
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Director
of Provincial Mental Health Services for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1956.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
December 7th,1956.
W. D. BLACK,
Provincial Secretary. The Honourable Wesley D. Black,
Provincial Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Pursuant to the provisions of the following Statutes—" Mental Hospitals
Act," " Clinics of Psychological Medicine Act," " Schools for Mental Defectives Act,"
and " Provincial Child Guidance Clinics Act "—I have the honour to submit the Annual
Report of the Provincial Mental Health Services for the twelve months ended March 31st,
1956, being the Eighty-fourth Annual Report.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
R. A. PENNINGTON,
Deputy Provincial Secretary.
Deputy Provincial Secretary's Office,
December 5th, 1956. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Officers and Staff, List of  11
PART I.—HEADQUARTERS
Report—Director of Mental Health Services  15
Tables—
Comparative Summary of Increases and Decreases in Resident Population by
Major Divisions of Provincial Mental Health Services  34
Comparative Summary of Total Patients under Care for Major Divisions of
Provincial Mental Health Services  34
Movement of Population in Individual Institutions of Mental Health Services 35
Report—Business Manager  36
Financial Tables—
Table A.—Average Number in Residence, Maintenance, and per Capita Cost
at Individual Institutions for Past Ten Years  40
Table B.—Summary of Gross and Net per Capita Cost of Patients in All
Mental Health Services Institutions  42
Table C.—Expense Statement, The Woodlands School, New Westminster  43
Table D.—Expense Statement, Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale  43
Table E.—Expense Statement, Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz  44
Table F.—Expense Statement, Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam  44
Table G.—Expense Statement, Home for the Aged, Vernon  45
Table H.—Expense Statement, Home for the Aged, Terrace  45
Table I.—Expense Statement, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine, Essondale  46
Expenditures under Federal Health Grants  47
Report—Personnel Officer  48
PART II.—CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Report of Crease Clinic—Dr. A. E. Davidson  53
Report of Mental Hospital—Dr. T. G. Caunt  55
Report of Treatment Services—Dr. F. E. McNair  61
Report of Laboratory—Dr. G. A. Nicolson  71
Report of Department of Neurology—Dr. W. P. Fister  76
Report of Department of Radiology—Dr. J. M. Jackson  76
Report of Department of Physical Medicine—Dr. F. E. McNair  78
Report of Dental Department—Dr. H. O. Johnsen  79
Report of Optical Department—H. H. Woodbridge  80
Report of Dietary Department—Mrs. M. E. Marr  80
Report of Department of Nursing, Women's Division—Miss E. M. Pullan  81
Report of Department of Nursing, Men's Division—R. H. Strong  82
Report of School of Psychiatric Nursing—Miss O. J. Smith  83
Report of Psychology Department—J. W. Borthwick  85
Report of Social Service Department—Miss A. K. Carroll  86
Report of Occupational Therapy Department, Women's Division—Mrs. K. Feltham 94
Report of Occupational Therapy Department, Men's Division—R. Herring  95
Report of Chaplain—J. F. O'Neil  97
Report of Recreational Therapy Department—R. L. Ramsay  99
Report of Audio-Visual Department—G. H. Walker  101
Report of Library—Miss H. M. Walsh  104 Q 6 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Page
Report of Rehabilitation Service, Women's Division—Dr. F. E. McNair  105
Report of Rehabilitation Service, Men's Division—J. D. Addison  106
Report of School-teacher—Mrs. E. R. Loland  107
Statistical Tables—
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine—
Table 1.—Movement of Population  109
Table 2.—Summary of Operations since Inception  109
Table 3.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of Residence and Sex    110
Table 4.—First Admissions and Readmissions by Method of Admission,
Age-group, and Sex  111
Table 5.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  112
Table 6.—Readmissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  114
Table 7.—First Admissions by Marital Status, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex 116
Table 8.—Readmissions by Marital Status, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex  117
Table 9.—First Admissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and
Sex      117
Table 10.—Readmissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and
Sex  117
Table 11.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  117
Table 12.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  117
Table 13.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  117
Table 14.—Live Discharges by Condition on Discharge, Disposition to,
and Sex  118
Table 15.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Disposition to, and Sex 118
Table 16.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  119
Table 17.—Live Discharges by Length of Stay, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex 121
Table 18.—Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  122
Table 19.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  122
Provincial Mental Hospital—
Table 1.—Movement of Population  123
Table 2.—Summary of Operations since Inception  124
Table 3.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of Residence and Sex  126
Table 4.—First Admissions and Readmissions by Method of Admission,
Age-group, and Sex  127
Table 5.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex   128
Table 6.—Readmissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  130
Table 7.—First Admissions by Marital Status, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex 132
Table 8.—Readmissions by Marital Status, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex  133
Table 9.—-First Admissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and
Sex  134
Table 10.—Readmissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and
Sex  134
Table 11.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  134
Table 12.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  134
Table 13.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  134
Table 14.—Resident Population by Diagnosis, Sex, and Age-group  135
Table 15.—Resident Population by Number of Previous Admissions and
Diagnosis  136
Table 16.—Resident Population under 25 Years of Age by Diagnosis and
Length of Stay  138 TABLE OF CONTENTS Q 7
Page
Statistical Tables—Continued
Provincial Mental Hospital-—Continued
Table 17.—Resident Population 25 to 50 Years of Age by Diagnosis and
Length of Stay  139
Table 18.—Resident Population 51 Years of Age and Over by Diagnosis
and Length of Stay  141
Table 19.—Resident Population,  Age Not  Stated,  by Diagnosis  and
Length of Stay  143
Table 20.—Live Discharges by Condition on Discharge, Disposition to,
and Sex  143
Table 21.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge, and Sex  144
Table 22.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  145
Table 23.—Live Discharges by Length of Stay, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex 147
Table 24.—Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  148
Table 25.—Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Length of Stay, and Sex  149
Table 26.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  150
Table 27.—Deaths by Length of Stay, Cause of Death, and Sex  151
PART III.—THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER
Report of Medical Superintendent—Dr. C. E. Benwell  153
Report of Education Department—Mrs. H. M. Davy  156
Report of Laboratory—Dr. G. A. Nicolson  158
Report of Radiology Department—Dr. J. M. Jackson  160
Report of Physiotherapy Department—O. H. Lowenberg  160
Report of Dental Department—Dr. H. T. Davidson  160
Report of Department of Dietetics—Miss J. Ing  161
Report of Department of Nursing, Women's Division—Miss V. M. Sanders  162
Report of Department of Nursing, Men's Division—J. N. Elliot  162
Report of Department of Psychology—Dr. T. T. Coulter  162
Report of Social Service Department—Miss A. K. Carroll  163
Report of Occupational Therapy Department, Girls' Division—Miss F. M. Robertson 167
Report of Occupational Therapy Department, Boys' Division—H. Mercer  168
Report of Recreational Therapy Department—J. A. Lynes  168
Statistical Tables—
Table 1.—Movement of Population  170
Table 2.—Summary of Operation since Inception.^  170
Table 3.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of Residence
and Sex .1 1  170
Table 4.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  171
Table 5.—First Admissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex _ 171
Table 6.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex — 171
Table 7.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  171
Table 8.—First Admissions by Previous Occupations and Sex  171
Table 9.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge, and
Sex  171
Table 10.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and
Sex _:  172
Table 11.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Length of Stay,
and Sex  173
Table 12.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  174
Table 13.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Length of Stay, and Sex  175 Q 8 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
PART IV.—PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME, COLQUITZ
Page
Report of Medical Superintendent—Dr. L. G. C. d'Easum  176
Report of Dental Department—Dr. W. G. Dempsey  177
Report of Department of Nursing Service—P. T. McLeod  177
Report of Occupational Therapy Department—H. Helander  178
Statistical Tables—
Table 1.—Movement of Population  179
Table 2.—Transfers by Health Unit and School District of Residence  179
Table 3.—Transfers by Mental Diagnosis and Age-group  180
Table 4.—Transfers by Mental Diagnosis and Marital Status  180
Table 5.—Transfers by Years of Schooling and Mental Diagnosis  180
Table 6.—Transfers by Citizenship and Age-group  180
Table 7.—Transfers by Religion  180
Table 8.—Transfers by Previous Occupation  180
Table 9.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis and Condition on Discharge  181
Table 10.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis and Age-group 181
Table 11.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis and Length of
Stay  181
Table 12.—Deaths by Cause of Death and Age-group  182
Table 13.—Deaths by Cause of Death and Length of Stay  182
PART V.—GERIATRIC DIVISION
Report of Medical Superintendent—Dr. B. F. Bryson  183
Statistical Tables—
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam—
Table 1.—Movement of Population  193
Table 2.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of Residence and Sex  193
Table 3.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  194
Table 4.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Marital Status, and Sex 194
Table 5.—First Admissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and
Sex   194
Table 6.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  194
Table 7.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  194
Table 8.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  194
Table 9.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge,
and Sex  195
Table 10.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group,
and Sex  195
Table 11.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Length of
Stay, and Sex  196
Table 12.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  197
Table 13.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Length of Stay, and Sex  198
Home for the Aged, Vernon—
Table 1.—Movement of Population  199
Table 2.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of Residence and Sex  199
Table 3.—First Admissions by Method of Admission, Age-group, and Sex 199
Table 4.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  200
Table 5.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Marital Status, and Sex 200 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Q 9
Page
Statistical Tables—Continued
Home for the Aged, Vernon—Continued
Table 6.—First Admissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and
Sex  200
Table 7.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  200
Table 8.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  200
Table 9.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  200
Table 10.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge,
and Sex	
Table 11.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group,
and Sex	
Table 12.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Length of
Stay, and Sex	
Table 13.—Live Discharges by Condition on Discharge, Disposition to,
and Sex	
Table 14.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex 	
Table 15.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Length of Stay, and Sex...
Home for the Aged, Terrace—
Table 1.—Movement of Population..
201
201
202
202
202
203
204
204
Table 2.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of Residence	
Table 3.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis and Age-group  205
Table 4.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis and Marital Status  205
205
205
205
205
206
206
206
207
Table 13.—Deaths by Cause of Death and Length of Stay___ _ 207
Table 5.—First Admissions by Years of Schooling and Mental Diagnosis...
Table 6.—First Admissions by Citizenship and Age-group	
Table 7.—First Admissions by Religion	
Table 8.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation	
Table 9.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis and Age-
group.
Table 10.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis and Length
of stay	
Table 11.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis and Condition on Discharge	
Table 12.—Deaths by Cause of Death and Age-group	
PART VI.—CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS
Report of Director—Dr. U. P. Byrne	
Report of Social Service Department—D. B. Ricketts	
Report of Psychology Department—Miss M. Munro	
208
217
221
PART VII.—COLONY FARM
Report of Business Manager—F. A. Matheson	
225  OFFICERS AND STAFF
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
Department of the Provincial Secretary
Hon. W. D. Black, Provincial Secretary.
R. A. Pennington, O.B.E., F.C.I.S., Deputy Provincial Secretary.
HEADQUARTERS STAFF
A. M. Gee, M.D., CM., F.A.P.A., Director of Mental Health Services.
A. E. Davidson, B.A., M.D., F.A.P.A., Deputy Director of Mental Health Services.
F. A. Matheson, Business Manager.
C. B. Watson, M.A., Administrative Assistant.
J. Dowling, Administrative Assistant (Personnel).
Miss A. K. Carroll, B.A., M.S.W., Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work.
Miss E. M. Pullan, R.N., B.A.Sc, Director of Nursing.
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL AND CREASE CLINIC OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE, ESSONDALE
T. G. Caunt, M.D., F.A.P.A., Medical Superintendent.
F. E. McNair, B.A., M.D., CM., Clinical Director.
J. M. Jackson, M.D., Director of Radiology.
G. A. Nicolson, B.A., M.D., Director of Laboratories.
W. P. Fister, M.D., M.R.CP.(Edin.), F.R.C.P.(C), Director of Neurology.
W. E. Powles, B.A., M.D., CM., Assistant Clinical Director.
N. L. Richardson, M.D., CM., Assistant Clinical Director.
J. Walsh, M.B., B.Ch., D.P.M., Assistant Clinical Director.
R. Halliday, M.B., B.Ch., D.P.M., Assistant Clinical Director.
I. S. Kenning, B.Sc., M.D., CM., Assistant Clinical Director.
E. E. Leyland, M.B., B.S., Assistant Clinical Director.
F. M. Richards, B.Sc, M.D.
H. O. Johnsen, D.D.S.
G. D. Campbell, D.D.S.
C E. Derkson, M.D., CM.
F. G. Tucker, M.B., B.S.
M. O. Calverley, B.Sc., M.D.
F. H. G. Mills, M.D.
R. R. McLeod, B.A., M.D.
I. Tischler, M.D.
W. Lazorko, M.D.
R. Just, M.B., Ch.B.
A. W. Lawler, M.D.
E. J. Emanuels, M.D.
N. M. Thornton, B.A., M.D.
R. K. Karlsson, M.D.
R. Parkinson, B.A., M.D.
R. W. Harrington, B.A., M.D.
R. C. Arkowsmith, B.A., M.D.
R. L. Skwarok, B.Sc., M.D.
N. L. Mason-Browne, M.A., M.B., Ch.B.
J. S. Petriw, M.D.
P. F. Dubois, M.D.
J. W. Borthwick, B.A., Psychologist.
R. L. Ramsay, B.Sc, Director of Recreation.
K. Woolcock, Pharmacist.
G. H. Walker, Audio-Visual Department.
R. Strong, Chief Male Psychiatric Nurse.
Miss O. J. Smith, B.A., R.N., Instructor of
Nursing.
Miss C L. Neighbor, B.Sc.(H.Ec), Chief Dietician.
Mrs. K. Feltham, B.A., O.T.Reg., Supervisor,
Occupational Therapy (Women's Division).
R. Herring, Supervisor, Occupational Therapy
(Men's Division).
J. D. Addison, Rehabilitation Officer (Men's Division ).
Miss H. Walsh, B.A., B.L.Sc, Librarian.
Miss A. D. Dingle, Senior Stenographer.
Consultant Staff:
F. A. Turnbull, B.A., M.D., Neurosurgery.
James W. Wilson, M.D., CM., F.R.CS.(Can.), M.S.(Minn.), General Surgery.
George T. Wilson, B.A., M.D., CM., General Surgery.
R. E. Outerbridge, M.D., F.R.CS.(C), F.A.C.S., Orthopa-dicSurgery.
Business:
J. G. Anderson, Assistant Business Manager. W. Gueho, Cashier.
G. A. Grieve, Cost Accountant. R. Boulter, Steward.
Miss K. Schwarz, Business Stenographer.
Chaplains:
Rev. John F. O'Neil, Protestant. Rev. Father J. P. Kane, Roman Catholic.
Colony Farm:
W. B. Richardson, B.Sc(AgricuIture), Superintendent.
11 Q 12 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER
C. E. Benwell, M.B., Medical Superintendent.
A. P. Hughes, B.Sc, M.D., Deputy Medical Superintendent.
A. Gallinger, M.D., CM. Miss M. C. Hardy, Supervisor, Psychiatric Social
M. C. Ellis, B.Sc, M.D., CM. Work.
B. Tischler, M.D. H. Mercer, Industrial Arts Instructor.
H. T. Davidson, D.D.S. J. Lynes, Recreational Instructor.
Miss V. M. Sanders, R.N., Superintendent of          Miss F. Robertson, Occupational Therapist.
Nurses. J. Elliot, Chief Male Psychiatric Nurse.
Miss J. Ing, B.Sc(H.Ec), Dietician. R. Nash, Instructor, Male Psychiatric Nurses.
Mrs. H. M. Davy, School Principal. Mrs. J. Cliffe, Clerk-Stenographer.
Business:
W. O. Booth, Deputy Business Manager.
Chaplains:
Rev. P. C. McCrae, Protestant. Rev. Father D. J. McIntosh, Roman Catholic.
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME, COLQUITZ
L. G. C. d'Easum, M.B., Medical Superintendent.
H. C Yardley, Deputy Business Manager. P. T. McLeod, Chief Male Psychiatric Nurse.
GERIATRIC DIVISION
B. F. Bryson, B.A., M.D., CM., F.A.P.A., Medical Superintendent.
L. W. Fox, Supervisor, Vernon. W. E. Skillicorn, Supervisor, Terrace.
CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS
U. P. Byrne, M.D., D.P.H., D.I.H., F.A.P.H.A., F.A.P.A., Director.
G. M. Kirkpatrick, B.A., M.D., Psychiatrist. Miss   E.   Mackenzie,   L.CS.T.(Eng.),   Speech
W. L. Valens, M.D., CM., Psychiatrist. Therapist.
Miss M. Munro, B.A., M.A., Supervisor, Psy- D. B. Ricketts, B.A., A.M., Supervisor, Social
chology. Work.
Mrs. M. Harvey, B.A.Sc, R.N., Supervisor, Public Health Nursing.
Miss J. Maza, Senior Stenographer.   REPORT OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
For the Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1956
PART I.—HEADQUARTERS
REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
R. A. Pennington, Esq., O.B.E., F.C.I.S.,
Deputy Provincial Secretary,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In compliance with the " Mental Hospitals Act," the Eighty-fourth Annual
Report of the British Columbia Mental Health Services is submitted herewith.
INTRODUCTION
The magnitude of the problem of maintaining mental health throughout our community cannot be stressed too frequently. Mental health is everybody's business and
should have everyone's interest. Every individual has some natural concern about his
physical well-being. Physical illnesses are reasonably well understood. It should be
equally understood that emotional and mental illnesses are just as common as physical
illnesses. Fortunately most emotional illnesses are resolved with a minimum of discomfort and treatment. More severe illnesses will require varying periods of hospitalization
in special facilities which have been provided to meet special needs. These special
facilities, in general, parallel those which have for many years been provided for the
care of physical ailments.
Thus we have established schools for the residential treatment and education of
those children who have been born with mental defects, the mentally retarded children.
Similarly at the other end of the life-span, special provision has been made for the care
and treatment of those persons suffering from degenerative disorders of the brain and
nervous system, the aged population who have mental illness associated with their
advanced years. The third group constitutes those persons who are in need of more
active treatment for emotional and mental illnesses of numerous types. Here again a
variety of treatment facilities is required to meet their special needs. Day hospital and
out-patient care should be provided for those persons having minor symptoms, or those
convalescing from more serious disorders. Short-stay " in residence" facilities and
longer-term " in residence " hospitals have been provided. The preventive and educational aspects of our programme have not been overlooked. The Child Guidance
Clinics give service to normal children showing behaviour difficulties in the home or
school settings. A rehabilitation service is required to re-establish the recovered patient
in the community. There is every indication that prevention and rehabilitation will play
an increasingly important part in our services.
The success of any service of this nature is directly dependent upon the educational
activities that accompany it. Particularly important are education within the institutions
and education within the community. Education within the institutions includes a
graduate educational programme in connection with all professional disciplines and
more particularly with the medical staff. It means a complete educational programme
for nurses, both graduate and undergraduate. Mental-health education within the community has in recent years received great impetus through the formation of a Provincial
branch of the Canadian Mental Health Association.
15 Q 16
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Closely associated with an educational programme and equally essential is an
organized research programme.
The cost of the operation of these departments, with the exception of the voluntary
agency mentioned above, is absorbed in the general over-all cost of patient-care.
This, then, in brief form is the special business of your Mental Health Services.
During the year, 2,855 patients were admitted to the various institutions for " in residence " treatment. In spite of this heavy treatment load we were able to conclude the
year's activity with a slight increase of twenty-six patients in residence. This is the
smallest increment recorded for many years and is due in large part to the active treatment programme which has been carried out.
At the close of the year, 6,357 patients were in residence in all institutions.
Tables I and II provide comparative data.
Table I.—Showing Patients in Residence in the Various Institutions of the Provincial
Mental Health Services, April 1st, 1955, and March 31st, 1956, together with
Increase or Decrease.
Institution
In Residence, Apr
1, 1955
In Residence, Mar.
31, 1956
Increase (+)
Men
Women
Total
Men
Women
Total
Decrease (—)
121
1,852
288
706
139
99
285
146
1,672
502
396
125
267
3,524
288
1,208
535
224
285
110
1,846
281
719
144
102
289
147
1,687
508
396
128
257
3,533
281
1,227
540
230
289
— 10
Mental Hospital, Essondale  _	
+9
—7
The Woodlands School 	
+19
+5
Home for the Aged, Vernon.__ 	
Home for the Aged, Terrace _ _
+6
+4
Totals
3,490
2,841
6,331
3,491
2,866
6,357
+26
Table II.—Showing in Summary the Admissions and Population Increase of the Provincial Mental Health Services for the Ten-year Period April 1st, 1946, to March
31st, 1956.
Year
Total
Admissions
Admissions
65 Years
and Over
Admissions
under
15 Years
Voluntary
Admissions
Population
Increase
Index of
Increase1
1946-47      	
1947-48
880
1,111
1,260
1,415
1,811
2,175
2,518
2,437
2,492
2,855
207
225
270
230
262
306
357
347
348
392
52
69
63
72
148
97
179
169
71
58
40
91
165
297
504
637
768
834
884
1,153
140
316
354
306
235
285
290
215
88
26
15.91
28.44
1948^19- 	
1949-50 	
1950-51                   	
28.09
21.62
12.98
1951-52   _
1952-53   ., 	
1953-54               	
13.05
11.54
8.82
1954-55 	
1955-56                       	
3.53
0.91
Totals  	
18,954
2,944
978
5,373
2,255
1 Percentage ratio of increase in population to admissions.
The total expenses for the year's operation were $10,293,638.
The following is the cost of a patient-day of care in the various branches of our
service:—
Crease Clinic   $9.91
Provincial Mental Hospital   4.18
The Woodlands School  4.55
Homes for the Aged  3.93
Average all Mental Health Services  4.44 HEADQUARTERS Q 17
To provide the necessary treatment for the 6,300 patients under care and the other
services mentioned above required a total of 2,465 personnel, including students. Great
difficulty has been experienced in maintaining a stabilized staff throughout the year.
The percentage turnover for the entire staff was 30.15 per cent. We have not been
able to recruit replacements in the departments of social service, psychology, and occupational therapy. It has not been possible to recruit specialists in psychiatry to meet our
expanding demands. These deficiencies greatly impede the treatment programme and
increase patient hospital-days.
I would draw your attention also to the fact that there is an increasing dilution of
trained nursing staff. In the Essondale area 55.2 per cent of the male nursing staff is
trained but only 36.6 per cent of the female nursing staff is trained. In The Woodlands
School 43.8 per cent of the male staff is trained and 41.6 per cent of the female staff.
These percentages will deteriorate further with the opening of the new unit at the School
next year.
STATISTICAL COMMENTS
The Division of Vital Statistics, Health Branch, Department of Health and Welfare,
has been responsible for the preparation of our statistical tables.
Table I indicates that we were able to conclude the year's treatment activities with
a small increase of twenty-six patients. Particularly remarkable is the fact that in the
Mental Hospitals division there was only an increase of two patients. Great credit goes
to the staff in this area, who, through an activated treatment programme, have been able
to show such remarkable results.
An increase of nineteen patients was recorded for The Woodlands School. This does
not indicate the increasing pressure for admission to this division. No new accommodation was opened during the year, and accordingly few additional pupils could be accommodated.   At the end of the year 309 applications for admission had been deferred.
In the Homes for Aged division, an additional fifteen patients were in residence at
the end of the year. Here again the demand for admission exceeds the accommodation,
and at the year-end 114 applications for admission were deferred.
Reference to Table II reveals that once again there has been a significant increase
in the total admissions to the Provincial Mental Health Services. Specifically we have
admitted to care 2,855 persons, an increase of 363 over the previous year. Most of the
increase has been to the Crease Clinic, where 266 more persons sought early active
treatment than in 1954-55.
Admissions in the over-65-years group were higher than recorded in previous years.
Admissions under 15 years of age were restricted due to lack of accommodation in The
Woodlands School. The rapid increase in voluntary admissions indicates an improved
treatment service, a more enlightened public, and less reluctance on the part of the patient
to seek early treatment.
STATISTICAL STUDIES ON SCHIZOPHRENIA
We have during the year carried on a series of statistical studies on schizophrenic patients treated
in the Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic. The valuable assistance of the Division of Vital
Statistics of the Health Branch in these studies is acknowledged.
The material to follow is a summary of these studies, but before presenting the findings we have
provided a statement on the general nature of schizophrenia together with an outline of the newer
treatment methods that have made possible the reduction of the period of hospital residence for the
illness.
The Nature of Schizophrenia.—Schizophrenia is the name applied to a group of mental disorders
which have in common a kind of personality damage in which the sick person sees circumstances about
him in a distorted fashion and reacts by isolating himself from his fellows or by acts of retaliation.
Though it does not shorten life, it is the most disabling of all diseases. Unchecked, it obliterates the
richness and variety of feeling and activities of which the personality is capable. As a consequence, it
lowers its victim's ability to use his intellect and blunts his motivation.   Socially, he becomes a misfit. Q 18 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
In his occupation he loses efficiency and may become unemployable. If his behaviour cannot be
tolerated in his own community, he may spend long periods of time confined to a mental hospital.
Trends in Treatment.—Up until this century, society's reaction to this disorder has been predominantly one of fear and rejection. In the name of humanity, large institutions were able to give care
and supervision to the sufferers, but the contribution these asylums could make to their residents was
blighted by a general feeling of hopelessness.
In this century the asylums have been converted into mental hospitals, where a new view-point has
taken hold. Some aspects of schizophrenia are now understood, and a treatment programme has been
formulated in accordance with greater knowledge, which has improved the outlook for recovery from
this disease. In this respect, schizophrenia is not remarkably different from a number of other medical
disorders, such as Bright's disease or diabetes, which are not yet fully understood, yet for which
methods of treatment and management have been devised, which are effective and which make it
possible for the afflicted individual to look forward to restoration of his health.
Schizophrenic patients are poor competitors, they do not socialize well, and they react poorly to
frustrations, hence occupational and recreational therapy are provided to promote a sense of accomplishment and relaxation within a social group. Schizophrenia may have certain constitutional features,
on which light is being thrown by further research, but it is also a product of a tangled emotional life.
The patient is now accorded opportunities to discuss his problem with his physician, his nurse and his
social caseworker, in ward meetings, group psychotherapy sessions, and individual psychotherapy
appointments.
Physical Treatments.—The introduction of physical methods of treatment has provided a major
break-through which has made possible the application of the social and personal methods of treatment
referred to above. Insulin coma therapy is still the most reliable and effective method of submerging
the major symptoms of schizophrenic illness in a short period of time. The electrical therapies have
contributed to reduce the number of hours a patient needs to spend secluded from the rest of the ward
because his behaviour is agitated or violent. Severe cases of the disorder, which have not responded to
any other measures, have been brought back into the social environment of the hospital for further
therapeutic activity by the use of the lobotomy operation. More recently, new drugs called " tranquillizers," which quieten the patient and relax him without putting him to sleep, have offered a further
avenue for providing comfort and relief from severe tensions, anxiety, and agitation, which so frequently mark schizophrenia in its acute phase. Good facilities and, more important, good staff make
a treatment programme successful and rehabilitate more patients to the community.
Returning the Patient to the Community.—For the recently sick, it is imperative that community
ties be maintained during the period of their hospital care. For those long sick, much effort must be
expended in restoring opportunities for normal community life. In this way, the patient, once free of
his illness, is able to adapt to life outside the hospital.
Incidence of Schizophrenia. — The incidence of schizophrenia in British Columbia cannot be
accurately measured by the experience of the Provincial Mental Health Services alone since there are
other public and private psychiatric facilities available to people suffering from this illness. It is
known, however, that 97 per cent of the average daily in-patient population of the Province is cared
for in Provincial Mental Health Services institutions.* It is therefore apparent that the experience of
the Provincial Mental Health Services should vary slightly from the over-all Provincial experience for
most diagnostic groups of mental disorders.
The combined first admissions to the Crease Clinic and Provincial Mental Hospital totalled 1,994
in 1955-56; 1,471 of these were in the age-group 15 to 59 years. Of the total first admissions to these
institutions, 512 patients were diagnosed schizophrenia, and 494 of the schizophrenic patients fell into
the age-group 15 to 59 years. Thus one of three first admissions to the Crease Clinic and Provincial
Mental Hospital in the age-group 15 to 59 years suffers from schizophrenia.
It was estimated that in 1955 there were in British Columbia 732,300 persons in the age-group 15
to 59 years. Thus the ratio of first admissions (1,994) to the Crease Clinic and Provincial Mental
Hospital to the total population in the 15-59 age-group was 1 to 500. The ratio for first-admission
schizophrenic patients (494) to the total population in the 15-59 age-group was found to be 1 to 1,480.
It may add emphasis to this ratio to state that in 1955-56 one adult out of 1,480 in the Province
became known to the Provincial Mental Health Services as a person suffering from schizophrenia.
On December 31st, 1955, a census of the patients in residence in the Provincial Mental Hospital
was taken. It was found that the total population of the hospital was 3,745, of whom 2,383 or 64 per
cent were schizophrenic patients.
It was noted that 2,308 or 97 per cent of the schizophrenic patients were over 25 years of age.
The Provincial population over 25 years of age in 1955 was estimated to total 769,900. Thus there
was one hospitalized schizophrenic patient to every 330 people over the age of 25 living in British
Columbia.
• " Mental Health Statistics," Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, 1954, p. 149. HEADQUARTERS
Q  19
The figures of December 31st, 1955, represent only a portion of the schizophrenic patients receiving treatment during 1955-56. When all schizophrenic patients under care of the Mental Health
Services in 1955-56 are considered, it is found that the ratio of schizophrenic patients aged 25 or more
to the general population in the same age-group drops to approximately 1 to 250.
Trends in the Duration of Hospital Residence of Schizophrenic Patients.—From the data presented
above it is evident that schizophrenia is the mental disorder that is contributing most to the problems
associated with providing sufficient accommodation for the care and treatment of mentally ill patients
in Provincial hospitals.
In order that the modern treatment philosophy and techniques already discussed might be evaluated, a study of the duration of hospital residence of schizophrenic patients was undertaken.
The years 1933 and 1934 were taken as representative of the late " custody " era in mental hospitals before the physical and social therapies were introduced. This period was designated the " pre-
treatment period" in the study. The years 1948 and 1949 were selected to represent the "treatment
period."
Random samples of first admissions who were diagnosed schizophrenia were taken for each
period. The patients in the samples were followed for five years, and their histories of death, escape,
discharges, and readmission were recorded.
Table A shows the age-sex distribution of the patients included in the two samples. There was a
shift in the sex ratio of first admissions between the two periods that made the comparison between the
female patients biased. The age distribution of admissions, on the other hand, showed relatively little
change.
The change in sex ratio is difficult to assess quantitatively. It is thought, however, that in the
" treatment period " the public was more inclined to arrange for the care and treatment of female
schizophrenic patients in mental hospitals. This change, of course, would result in patients coming to
treatment earlier in the course of the illness, when the prognosis is more favourable. However, it
would be extremely unlikely that any reduction in the length of time female patients were required to
remain in hospital could be attributed solely to this factor.
Table A.—First-admission Schizophrenic Patients Admitted to Mental Hospitals according to Age and
Sex, Provincial Mental Health Services, British Columbia, 1933-34 and 1948-49
Age
1933-34
1948-49
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
0 to 24 years	
25 to 49 years	
50 years and over      —
15
53
19
3
32
6
18
85
25
23
46
15
11
55
12
34
101
27
Totals                              	
87
41
128
84
78
162
In addition to the change in the sex ratio of patients between the two periods, there was also a
change in the death rate. Of the 128 patients in the 1933-34 group, 17 or 13 per cent died within five
years.   Tuberculosis was the cause of death in nine of these patients.
In the 1948-49 period only eleven patients (7 per cent of the group) died, and none of these
deaths was from tuberculosis.
Although there was a reduction over time in the ratio of deaths, it is not statistically significant.
On the other hand, it is however very significant that deaths from tuberculosis dropped from nine in
the first period to none in the second period. This decline in the mortality rate for tuberculosis
parallels the reduced mortality from tuberculosis experienced in the general population since 1947.
There was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of patients discharged within five
years of admission in the second or treatment-period group. Chart 1, which shows the cumulative
percentage distribution of patients discharged in less than the periods of time shown on the horizontal
axis, displays the reduction in the length of stay.
After six months 10.3 per cent of the patients in the early period had been discharged, as
compared to 20.1 per cent in the later period.
At the end of four years 74.0 per cent of the 1948-49 first admissions had been discharged alive,
whereas only 51.9 per cent of the 1933-34 first admissions had been discharged.
While it is not possible to say that the reduction in the length of time in hospital was entirely due
to improved treatment, it is known that the only major changes in patient-care between the two periods
was the introduction of physical treatments and an increasing emphasis upon social therapies. It can
therefore be assumed that the change in treatment was the major factor in producing the reduction in
the period of hospital residence. Q 20
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Chart 1.—Length of Stay of First-admission Schizophrenic Patients in Mental Hospitals
of Provincial Mental Health Services, British Columbia, 1933-34 Compared to
1948^9.
6 MONTHS       1 YEAR 2 YEARS 3 YEARS
LENGTH OF STAY LESS THAN
4 YEARS
5 YEARS HEADQUARTERS
Q 21
Chart 2.—Length of Stay of First-admission Schizophrenic Patients in Mental Hospitals
of Provincial Mental Health Services by Sex, British Columbia, 1933—34 Compared
to 1948^49.
6 MONTHS        1 YEAR
2 YEARS 3 YEARS
LENGTH OF STAY LESS THAN
4 YEARS
5 YEARS Q 22
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Chart 2 depicts the changing pattern in the length of stay of schizophrenic patients according to
sex. The greatest reduction in length of stay was for women. This change was commented upon
above, but it is considered that increase of 34.3 per cent in the discharges within five years of
admission is principally attributable to changes in the treatment programme.
In 1951 the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine was opened to provide short-term care for
cases of acute mental illness. This altered the type of schizophrenic patient that was thereafter
admitted to the Provincial Mental Hospital.
In 1955-56 the Mental Health Services received a total of 512 first-admission schizophrenic
patients. The Crease Clinic received 410 of the total and discharged them in four months or less.
Many of the patients who require more extended treatment than that provided in the Crease Clinic are
subsequently admitted to the Mental Hospital. Thus the Crease Clinic acts as a screening centre for
the more difficult cases. A follow-up study of the first-admission patients to the Mental Hospital in
1952 reveals this situation.
In 1952 there were 165 first-admission schizophrenic patients received in the Provincial Mental
Hospital. Six died within the 4I/2-year study period. It was found that 54 or 33 per cent of the 165
patients had previously received treatment in the Crease Clinic, and that only 19 or 35 per cent of
these 54 were discharged during the 4'/i-year study period. Of the remaining 105 first admissions who
lived, 58 patients or 55 per cent were discharged within the 4Vi-year period.
The difference in the percentage of patients discharged within the 4J/i-year study period who had
and who had not had previous treatment in the Crease Clinic is statistically significant. It is strong
evidence in favour of the statement that the Crease Clinic serves as a screening centre for some of the
schizophrenic patients who do not respond quickly to treatment. Over all, only 48 per cent of the 165
first-admission schizophrenic patients were discharged within the 4Vi-year study period. Thus it is
apparent that patients with this diagnosis tend to accumulate in the Mental Hospital.
Our studies show that approximately one-third of patients admitted to the Provincial Mental
Hospital are diagnosed schizophrenia. It is also known that two-thirds of the patients resident in the
Hospital on December 31st, 1955, were suffering from schizophrenia. It is therefore evident that
future requirements for an increase in bed capacity will be largely influenced by the schizophrenic
patients in the hospital population.
Some indication of future needs is derived from Table B, which shows that the schizophrenic
population in the Mental Hospital has been increasing since 1952-53 at an over-all rate of 60.5 patients
per year. The decreases in schizophrenic population of the Mental Hospital for 1950-51 and 1951-52
reflect the movement of long-time hospital residents to newly opened accommodation in the Homes for
the Aged where special care for the senile psychotic was available.
Table B.—Annual Net Increase or Decrease of Schizophrenic Patients in the
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, 1951-56 Fiscal Years
Year
Admissions
Separations
Net Increase (+)
or Decrease (—)
1950-51       _      _      ...   ...  .        _ _   - -
1951-52    ..         _ 	
1952-53..„__ - - - 	
1953-54    _ ..       	
413
304
461
364
354
402
477
401
377
323
297
342
—64
-97
+84
+41
1954-55                                       -
+57
+60
1955-56    .   .   -       -
BUILDING PROGRAMME
The construction of the North Lawn Building at the Mental Hospital was completed
during the year. This building was let to contract on May 5th, 1953, and was turned
over from the Kennett Construction Company on February 7th, 1955. The building will
provide accommodation for 230 patients, and will be utilized for the treatment of mental
patients throughout the entire service who are suffering from all forms of tuberculosis.
In addition, the lower floor will provide a group of small wards for the early isolation of
acute infectious conditions.
The official opening of this unit was held on the afternoon of May 4th, 1955. The
Deputy Provincial Secretary, Mr. R. A. Pennington, acted as chairman. Government
representatives included the Provincial Secretary, the Honourable Wesley D. Black, and
the Minister of Public Works, the Honourable W. N. Chant. In addition, the platform
party included the Rev. J. F. O'Neil and Father J. P. Kane, hospital chaplains; Mr. A. F. HEADQUARTERS
Q 23
Official opening of North Lawn Building, May 4th, 1955.
M.;;;
V       V-
Mliliftss
fglslMl
..&.-. --C ;;i:;rt>-v:-»# "^■■11
Public reception at opening of North Lawn Building. Q 24 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Kennett, president of the Kennett Construction Company; and Mr. Clive Campbell,
Deputy Minister of Public Works. Following the official ceremony, the building was
opened for inspection and tea was served in the spacious dining-rooms. Some 600 people
availed themselves of the opportunity to see the new unit.
The building was occupied by the first group of patients on May 10th, 1955.
Tenders were called during the year for a new public service building, to be centrally
located in the grounds and to serve as a bus depot. This building houses the post office,
the Credit Union office, a central office for the volunteers, and a tuck-shop and coffee-bar
to be operated by the Canadian National Institute for the Blind. In addition, public
washrooms are provided. Construction was commenced on April 6th, and the building
was opened in September, 1955. The building presents a very handsome appearance and
adds much to the convenience of the patients and staff, as well as those visitors who are
arriving and departing by bus.
Tenders were called for the construction of a new Child Guidance Clinic and Mental
Health Centre in Burnaby on June 19th, 1954. Construction was started on August 18th,
1954. The Child Guidance Clinic has for years been operating in very overcrowded
quarters, and the work, as a result, has been greatly handicapped. The Mental Health
Centre will provide an entirely new type of service and will function as an out-patient
department and as a day-hospital. The construction was completed in November, 1955.
The Child Guidance Clinic moved into its new quarters in December, 1955. The opening
of the Mental Health Centre has been delayed, as this is a new service and has to be
organized and additional staff obtained before it can function. The project covering the
purchase of furniture and equipment under Federal health grants has been approved, and
the Purchasing Department is now in the process of receiving tenders.
Tenders were called for the construction of a new large unit at The Woodlands
School in October, 1954, and the contract was let to Dawson & Hall Limited. Excavation
was started on December 20th, 1954. Construction is progressing according to schedule,
and the building will be ready for occupancy by January 1st, 1957.
Plans are in the final stages for a gymnasium-auditorium building to be constructed
at The Woodlands School. This building should be ready for tender early in the new
fiscal year.
Tenders were called for a new 300-bed unit in connection with the Home for the
Aged, Port Coquitlam, on February 16th, 1956. The contract was let to the Beaver
construction Company, and excavation was started on March 15th, 1956. This unit will
provide for an admission service and a large infirmary area for both men and women.
Plans have been completed for the construction of a new Nurses' Home and Training
Centre to be located at Essondale. This building will provide accommodation to house
an additional 100 student-nurses, and will also provide adequate space to house the
School of Psychiatric Nursing. The School has been handicapped over the years by
carrying out its activities in attics and basements. Tenders for this building were called
in March, 1956, and it is anticipated that the contract will be let early in the coming
fiscal year.
The general maintenance of a plant of this magnitude requires a great deal of work
and expenditure. During the past year the Public Works Department has accomplished
a great deal. I would refer you elsewhere in this Report for details of work completed.
The department is still handicapped by understaffing, and, as a result, the general maintenance is falling behind in many areas.
GENERAL COMMENTS
The twenty-fourth graduation ceremony of the School of Psychiatric Nursing was
held on April 21st, 1955. The exercises were held in the New Westminster Junior High
School auditorium, and a capacity audience of 1,200 people was on hand.   Mr. R. A. HEADQUARTERS
Q 25
New tuck-shop at Essondale, opened September, 1955.
New Essondale post office, opened September, 1955. Q 26 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Pennington, Deputy Provincial Secretary, acted as chairman. The Honourable Wesley D.
Black, Provincial Secretary, brought greetings to the class from the Government. The
guest speaker was Dr. L. E. Ranta, Assistant Director of the Vancouver General Hospital.
As usual the arrangements were carried out efficiently by a well-organized staff. Refreshments were served at the conclusion of the exercises.
Mental Health Week was held during the first week of May, as has been the practice
during the past few years. This week is observed throughout Canada and the United
States as an opportunity to focus the public attention on matters pertaining to mental
health. The responsibility for planning the week's activities was undertaken by the educational committee of the Canadian Mental Health Association, British Columbia Division. This year's educational effort during Mental Health Week was thought to be one
of the most successful efforts yet undertaken. Large public meetings were held in Vancouver, Victoria, Nanaimo, and Kelowna. The attendance at all of these meetings was
very good. Members of our service participated in all meetings. Dr. Valens was very
active in the Nanaimo group and Dr. McNair in the Kelowna activities. In addition,
many radio announcements and broadcasts were made. A great deal of attention was
focused on the volunteer programme in a special radio broadcast in which Mrs. R. B. Kerr
and Mrs. Rex Eaton were interviewed. I was privileged to appear on a televised interview
programme over CBUT. The Mental Health Services put on a display which was located
in the Hudson's Bay Store. The official opening of the North Lawn Building was
scheduled as a feature of Mental Health Week.
The annual sports day is an event of great importance in the life of our patient
population. This year's event at Essondale was held on August 19th. The weather
turned out to be very fine, and some 1,500 patients spent the full day on the grounds
enjoying the activities. A group of volunteers gave assistance to the Recreational Department, and the grounds took on a carnival aspect due to the addition of many new concessions, with games of skill and chance being operated by volunteer workers. This
greatly increased the scope of the activities and allowed for a much greater patient
participation. The Vancouver Firemen's Band, as usual, provided music throughout the
day. A large lunch-counter was set up under the trees, where hot-dogs, ice-cream,
cookies, and soft drinks were served. The Honourable Lyle Wicks, Minister of Labour,
visited the grounds and later toured the North Lawn Building.
Increasing efforts are being made at The Woodlands School to integrate the programme of the School with community activities. To this end I am very pleased to report
that a Boy Scout group and a Cub group have been organized. This has been made
possible through the initiative and work of two staff members, Mr. McKenzie and
Mr. Webb. A good deal of credit goes to these employees in starting these two activities.
The inaugural ceremonies were carried out on June 9th, 1956, under the direction of
Dr. A. L. Cornish, District Scout Commissioner, and Mrs. D. Johnstone, Assistant Divisional Cubmaster. The colours were dedicated and presented by the Rev. G. Stegens.
The groups have been provided with suitable meeting quarters and uniforms. The usual
scouting and cub activities have been carried out through the year, and the boys are very
enthusiastic. The first outdoor activity was held on August 30th, when fifteen boys were
transported to the Scout Camp at Haney for their first experience in camping. Five tents
were pitched, and the Scouts were instructed in the various activities required for the
tenderfoot tests.
Other community activities for the pupils of The Woodlands School have been started
by the New Westminster Association for Handicapped Children. This group is an affiliated chapter of the Association for Retarded Children of British Columbia. The local
association has recently organized a sheltered workshop in a clubroom in the Wosk Building in the city. This clubroom is supervised by the association and is available to the
pupils of the School who have the privilege of going to the city.   Six boys are presently HEADQUARTERS
Q 27
employed in the shop and work each Tuesday and Friday afternoon. The products of
their labour are sold, and the proceeds are given in part to the boys. The remainder is
used in furthering the work of the shop.
I am pleased to report that the Committee on Approval of Hospitals of the Royal
College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada has approved the Crease Clinic for
advanced graduate training in general surgery. This approval is designated for the
training of one trainee for one year. The approval has been obtained as a result of
representations made by the University of British Columbia, Department of Surgery.
One resident Grade 2 position will be held for this purpose. The appointee will be
selected by the University. This will improve our surgical service, inasmuch as we will
always be able to have a senior resident in surgery available. It further enhances the
stature of the Crease Clinic with the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons. We still
have only one year's provisional approval for the training of psychiatrists, but it is hoped
that a satisfactory curriculum may be worked out with the University which will be
acceptable to the Royal College for a three- or four-year training programme.
Dr. McNair and I had the privilege of appearing before the Legislative Standing
Committee on Social Welfare and Education during the session of the Legislative
Assembly. An effort was made to interpret to the members the general nature and
function of the different divisions of the Mental Health Services and, more particularly,
the changed attitudes in treatment within the mental hospital areas.
Canadian Mental Health Association volunteers meet to discuss the programme
of the day with the staff co-ordinator.
I am pleased to report that the Canadian Mental Health Association headquarters
is taking a more active part in surveying mental hospital needs in Canada and in setting
forth matters of policy for the guidance of Provincial developments. I attended the
annual meeting of the Scientific Planning Council held in Toronto on February 24th and
25th. A great deal of work was done during the year by a committee who conducted a
survey of needs and who presented a draft report to the Council.   The association will
_ Q 28
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
be making recommendations whereby mental hospital planning in the future will be
around the provision of small regional hospitals to be located in the areas which they
will serve and preferably to be closely associated with already existing medical and
university facilities. It will be recommended that the mental hospital of the future should
be ideally a unit with a capacity of 300 patients and not to exceed 600 patients. This
Tyhurst Report will be available in a few months.
The British Columbia Division of the Canadian Mental Health Association has been
very active during the year. The programme as carried out by the association has benefited the Mental Health Services indirectly through its general educational activities and
directly through the activities of the volunteer group and the apparel-shop. The annual
meeting, held on January 24th, 1956, was well attended. The president for 1956 is
Mrs. Gordon Selman. Senior staff members of our services are in close touch with the
association. In addition, the British Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association has given
valuable assistance.   The work of the association is carried out by standing committees.
A general view of the apparel-shop for women operated by volunteers of the
Canadian Mental Health Association.
The volunteer programme as developed by the association continues to be of great
benefit to our patients in the Crease Clinic, the Mental Hospital, and the Port Coquitlam
Home for the Aged. The volunteer group now has seventy-five men and women actively
engaged in these activities. During the year the volunteers undertook to open and operate
an apparel-shop for women. An area was set aside in the East Lawn Building and a
typical ladies' apparel-shop was designed and equipped. Women of the association collected a better class of clothing of all types, as well as accessories. The shop was formally
opened on November 3rd. The opening was preceded by a very fine fashion show, which
was held in Pennington Hall. The show was professionally staged by professional models
who donated their services. The event was organized by the Canadian Mental Health
Association and under the direction of Mrs. Winnifred Mather, fashion editor of the
Vancouver Daily Province.   This was one of the outstanding events of the year from the HEADQUARTERS
Q 29
patients' point of view, and a capacity audience attended. The shop operated two days
a week during the early stages of development, but this was soon found insufficient to
meet the demands. Twenty-three volunteers have been assigned to its operation. During
the first month of operation, 128 women were completely outfitted. The response from
the public in donating a better class of clothing articles has greatly exceeded expectations.
The shop was planned to serve those patients who are being readied for discharge and
patients who have ground freedom privileges. However, supplies have been such that
many other patients have been outfitted. In addition to clothing, the shop carries a wide
selection of hats, shoes, costume jewellery, and cosmetics.
It is planned to open a similar shop for the men in the near future. It is further
planned by the association to initiate a gift programme for patients for next Christmas.
A great deal of the work of collecting Christmas gifts and clothing is being carried out
by the newly formed branches of the association. During the year, branches have been
formed in Victoria, Nanaimo, Kelowna, and Trail.
The work of the association has been financially assisted by a grant from the British
Columbia Government, and it is strongly urged that this financial support be continued.
I am pleased to report that the Association for Retarded Children of British Columbia has had a very successful year. The work of this association is expanding, and, at the
time of writing, twenty-one chapters throughout the Province have been affiliated with
the parent body.    Twenty community schools for retarded children are in operation.
The annual meeting of the association was held on May 13th, 1955. Dr. C. G.
McNeill, of North Vancouver, was elected as president. Government advisers were
named as follows: Department of Education, Mr. F. P. Levirs; Mental Health Services,
Dr. A. M. Gee; Department of Health, Dr. G. R. F. Elliot; Department of Welfare,
Miss A. K. Carroll and Mr. J. A. Sadler.
The organization formally advised the Department of Education that the Association
for Retarded Children of British Columbia had been incorporated and financial aid on
a planned scale was requested for private schools operating for retarded children under
the approval of the association. Arrangements were later made for a meeting of representatives of the association with the advisory panel and officials of the Department of
Education. A suitable formula was worked out whereby the Department accepted financial responsibilities for the community education of the retarded child. This arrangement
has greatly enhanced the work of the various chapters.
It is hoped that the work of this organization will do much to alleviate the pressure
for admission to The Woodlands School. Continued Government assistance is recommended.
The mental-health training programme under the direction of the Vancouver School
Board will be concluding its first year of training in June, 1956. The project is under the
direction of Mr. Russell McKenzie, whose salary is provided by a Mental Health Grant;
otherwise the programme is financed by the Vancouver School Board. Seven teacher-
counsellors from the Vancouver School District and one from the Municipality of Richmond are enrolled.
The training experience is designed to acquaint the teacher-counsellors with the
mental-health implications of child development, of community and family living, and of
the educational process. The aims of the programme are to provide an experience which
will give insight into the developmental needs of the child and provide the counsellor
with knowledge of techniques which will assist in the promotion of positive mental health
throughout the school system.
Working within the community of schools, the Counselling Co-ordinator will act as
a liaison between the schools and the various social and mental-health agencies. He will
have complete knowledge of the community assets, and will be able to interpret the work
of the various agencies to the school.   It is felt that this programme is very worth while, Q 30 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
and that the Vancouver School Board is to be commended for initiating this important
training aspect of mental health.
The Alcoholism Foundation of British Columbia concluded its first year of operation
in Vancouver. The annual meeting was held on April 28th, 1955. This year of operation
has seen the foundation develop into an active therapeutic agency which is expanding
rapidly. The Mental Health Services are represented on the board of trustees by Dr.
W. E. Powles.
The Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia came into being during the
year. The organization follows the pattern recommended by the Community Chest.
A small pilot treatment centre is planned for the reception and treatment of a selected
group of addicts. Dr. A. E. Davidson represents the Mental Health Services on the
board of directors.
The National Advisory Committee on Mental Health of the Department of National
Health and Welfare meets annually and does much to shape policy matters relative to the
mental-health programme of Canada. A Sub-committee on Training has been dealing
during the past three years with the development of a psychiatric nurses' training programme which would be acceptable to all Provinces. Recent meetings have been attended
by representatives from the Canadian Registered Nurses' Association and the Psychiatric
Nurses' Association. A core committee is exploring a suitable curriculum of training and
studying the administrative arrangements which would be necessary to establish a combined training programme whereby students might graduate with both psychiatric and
general nursing qualifications. Those students desiring to qualify only in psychiatric
nursing would still be allowed to do so in the present two-year period. Those wishing
dual qualifications would be required to enrol in a four-year course. This should raise
the standard of our own training programme, and should provide for a better integration
of psychiatric nursing into general nursing. It is hoped that it will stimulate the recruitment of a good quality of students. It was the hope of the central committee that a pilot
training project might be initiated in British Columbia. The core committee referred to
above is chaired by the Director of the School of Nursing at the University of British
Columbia. To date the following decisions have been reached:—
(1) That the University of British Columbia should be asked to assume the
responsibility for the training programme. If this is accepted by the
University, it would mean that both the combined course and the psychiatric nurses' training course would be the responsibility of the University,
and that graduation would be by university diploma or certificate.
(2) That the Royal Columbian Hospital should be asked to participate in the
training programme.
(3) That a task committee be appointed to formulate the psychiatric nursing
portion of both courses. This committee has been working on the curriculum aspects for some time. When this work is completed, the whole
matter will again be referred to the Sub-committee on Training and for
final approval of the National Advisory Committee. In this manner it
is hoped that a training programme will be developed which will be a
standard pattern acceptable to all training-schools in Canada.
MENTAL HEALTH GRANT
The Government of Canada for the eighth year made a Mental Health Grant available to this Province. The grant is administered by the Department of National Health
and Welfare. We continue to enjoy cordial relations with the officials of the Federal
Department, and particular mention should be made of their understanding of the needs
of our newer services, such as the Mental Health Centre. HEADQUARTERS
Q 31
In 1955-56 the total grant available to British Columbia was $606,628. Projects
totalling $606,025 or 99.9 per cent of the grant were prepared by us and approved in
Ottawa. Claims totalling $499,927 or 82.4 per cent of the grant were made up to the
end of the fiscal year.
The major areas of expenditure this year are as noted hereunder.
PROFESSIONAL TRAINING
Bursaries for postgraduate training of key members of the psychiatric treatment team were
provided for staff members, as follows:—
Dr. Ian S. Kenning completed one year of postgraduate study in psychiatry at McGill University
in August, 1955.
Dr. G. A. Nicolson completed one year of postgraduate study in pathology at the University of
Toronto in July, 1955.
Mr. J. W. Borthwick concluded his studies in clinical psychology at the University of Washington
in September, 1955.
Mrs. G. Ripley completed the course in supervision in psychiatric nursing at the University of
British Columbia on May 1st, 1955.
Mr. D. Ricketts completed his postgraduate course in social work in the New York School of
Social Work in May, 1955.
Dr. T. G. Caunt, Mr. F. A. Matheson, and Mr. C. B. Watson attended the Seventh Mental
Hospital Institute of the American Psychiatric Association, held in Washington, D.C., in October.
Mrs. Margaret Harvey attended a postgraduate course in mental health for public health nurses
at the University of Minnesota in March and April, 1955.
Dr. M. O. Calverley attended the course in practical psychiatry at the University of Washington
in July.
Miss Dorothy Janishewski and Mr. George Kenwood, of the nursing staff and School of Psychiatric Nursing respectively, attended the Laboratory on Group Development at Lake Quinault, Wash., in
August.
Miss C. L. Neighbor, Chief Dietician, attended the American Hospital Association Institute on
Hospital Dietary Department Administration at Seattle in November.
Dr. F. G. Tucker commenced a year of postgraduate study in psychiatry at McGill University,
Montreal, in September.
Mr. R. A. Baker commenced a year of postgraduate study in biochemistry at the University of
British Columbia in September.
Mrs. M. L. McKay commenced a one-year course in supervision in psychiatric nursing at the
School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, in September.
Three bursaries were awarded to social workers to enable them to enrol in the M.S.W. course at
the University of British Columbia.
EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale.—The following equipment has been provided:—
The complete equipment required to establish an occupational therapy department in the
North Lawn Building.
Two Gomco suction pumps for infirmary wards.
One 18-inch sterilizer for the newly established coma insulin ward.
Four charting-desks (capacity, thirty charts each) for installation in nurses' stations.
A double-unit addition to the mortuary refrigerator.
Machinery, equipment, and tools to the value of $18,000 to replace those lost in the fire in
the occupational and industrial therapy shops on May 5th.
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine.—The following equipment has been supplied:—
One hydraulic stretcher for the operating-room.
One metal locator for the operating-room, costing $850.
Instruments for urological surgery to the value of $600.
New Child Guidance Clinic in Burnaby.—The following equipment was provided:—
Audio-visual equipment for the auditorium and projection-room, including 100 theatre chairs,
16-mm. projector, microphones, amplifiers, record-players, speakers, screens, etc.;
microphones, amplifiers, tape recorders, record-players, and loud-speakers for the playrooms, observation-rooms, psychologists' offices, and speech-therapy suite.
Playground apparatus, such as swings, jungle gym, slides, etc., for the outdoor play-yard.
Equipment for the group therapy centre, including radio, phonograph, piano, chairs, tables,
chesterfield suite.
Complete surgical and diagnostic equipment for three examining-rooms.
Furniture for four play therapy rooms.
The total value of the equipment supplied to the Child Guidance Clinic approximates $9,000. Q 32 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam.—The following equipment was supplied:—
One iceless oxygen machine (oxygen tent).
One chair-type weighing-scale.
The Woodlands School, New Westminster.—The following equipment was provided:—
Equipment to establish a weaving section in the occupational therapy departments.
A Gomco portable suction pump for the sick and infirm wards.
Two oxygen tents complete with regulators.
Four junior adjustable walkers.
One dental X-ray machine.
One dental sterilizer.
Miscellaneous dental instruments.
Mental Health Centre, Burnaby.—The following equipment was authorized, but only a small part
of it had been purchased by the end of the fiscal year:—
Complete office equipment, such as desks, chairs, typewriters, filing-cabinets.
Complete medical and surgical equipment for the 12-bed treatment unit.
Complete equipment, including an eight-channel electroencephalograph machine, to permit
the establishment of a department of electroencephalography.
Complete instruments and equipment for a small clinical laboratory.
A wide range of equipment and supplies to set up departments of occupational therapy and
physiotherapy, and to furnish the areas to be used for group therapy and recreational
therapy.
The total value of equipment approved for the Mental Health Centre approximates $70,000.
COMMUNITY MENTAL-HEALTH PROGRAMMES
The grant providing assistance to the British Columbia Division of the Canadian Mental Health
Association was continued.
The programme of the Mental Hygiene Division of the Metropolitan Health Committee of
Greater Vancouver continued to receive assistance by the provision of salaries for one psychiatrist, two
social workers, two psychologists, and clerical assistants.
A new project commenced this year provided the salary for the training co-ordinator and chief
instructor in a course in mental hygiene for the senior school counsellors of the Vancouver schools.
This programme includes eight teachers this year.
PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES IN GENERAL HOSPITALS
The psychiatric services of the Vancouver General Hospital continued to receive assistance. This
year the salaries of a full-time psychiatric social worker and medical stenographer were provided, as
well as the salary for a half-time occupational therapist. Also one-half the cost of replacing the
electronarcosis instrument accidentally destroyed by fire was provided.
The psychiatric service of the Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, was granted the salary of a
part-time occupational therapist. Assistance was also given in the purchase of occupational-therapy
equipment.
STAFF INCREASES
The stipends for our consultants in general surgery, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery are
provided by a Mental Health Grant project. These surgical consultants continue to provide a very
satisfactory service to our patients.
The Rehabilitation Department continues to be assisted by a project which provides the salary and
travel allowance for the Rehabilitation Officer.
Several projects provide assistance to our institutions for the payment of salaries to key professional personnel, such as psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers, psychiatric
nurses and aides, laboratory technicians, dieticians, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists. An
adequate supply of trained personnel makes possible the success that has attended our active treatment
programme.
RESEARCH PROJECTS
Several major research projects receive support from the Mental Health Grant. Our agent in the
research programme is the Department of Neurological Research at the University of British Columbia. The following projects received assistance this year: Human Lobotomy Studies, Capillary
Nail Bed Studies, Experimental Lobotomy Studies, Studies in Electroencephalograph Patterns and
Psychopathology.
The Survey of Factors Contributing to Drug Addiction in British Columbia was also financed by
a Mental Health Grant. HEADQUARTERS
Q 33
COUNCIL OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSES
The 1955 annual meeting of the council was held at Essondale on April 27th. The
usual routine business was transacted. Mr. R. A. Pennington reported that the 1955
session of the Legislative Assembly passed a Bill amending the " Psychiatric Nurses Act"
whereby the representation of the British Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association on
the council was increased from four to five members. The chairman requested the British
Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association to name a new council member.
The registrar reported that on December 31st, 1955, there were 941 psychiatric
nurses licensed to practise in the Province. This is an increase of five over the previous
year. It would appear that the School of Psychiatric Nursing is barely able to keep pace
with the attrition in psychiatric nursing.
STAFF CHANGES
I am sorry to report the resignation of Dr. G. H. Stephenson. Dr. Stephenson joined
the service on October 1st, 1947. He was certified in psychiatry, and his resignation has
been a severe loss to our treatment services, where he acted as Assistant Clinical Director.
The following staff members terminated service by superannuation: Mr. D. Kelly,
sculleryman, Essondale; Mr. A. Mowat, laundry-helper, Essondale; Mr. L. H. P. Burow,
chief nurse, Colquitz; Mr. S. H. G. Meadows, psychiatric aide, Essondale; Mr. E. H.
Devlin, charge nurse, The Woodlands School; Mr. B. F. Hatfield, kitchen-helper, The
Woodlands School; Mr. A. Fraser, supervisor of stores, Essondale; Mr. J. Churchill,
charge nurse, Essondale; Mr. G. McNiven, chief nurse, Essondale; Mr. W. H. Anderson,
laundryman, Essondale; and Mr. A. Talbot, psychiatric male nurse.
It is with regret that I advise you of the following deaths which occurred among
staff members: Mr. L. E. Bailey, psychiatric aide, Essondale, and Miss C. E. Peterson,
student psychiatric nurse, Essondale.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the many community associations
and social agencies which have worked closely with us in extending the work of our
services into the community. Our debt of gratitude is so widespread that it becomes
impossible to name groups or individuals.
There are very few departments of Government with which we do not find ourselves
associated during the course of the year. I am appreciative of the splendid degree of
co-operation from the officials of these departments. In our responsibility to the Department of the Provincial Secretary we have been fortunate to keep close contact with the
Minister and Deputy Minister by frequent visits to their offices. They, on their part, have
visited all branches of our services on many occasions.
Our relationships within our own service have been most congenial. I would express
my sincere thanks to all members of our staff whose services have made it possible for
us to develop a high-class treatment programme.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
A. M. Gee, M.D., CM.,
Director of Mental Health Services. Q 34
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
COMPARATIVE SUMMARY OF INCREASES AND DECREASES IN RESIDENT
POPULATION BY MAJOR DIVISIONS OF PROVINCIAL MENTAL
HEALTH SERVICES, 1952-53 TO 1955-56.
Institution
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
Provincial Mental Hospitals-
The Woodlands School	
Homes for the Aged	
Crease Clinic  	
-64
+277
+49
+28
+62
+ 104
+50
-1
+44
+ 19
0
+25
Totals.
+290
+215
+ 88
+2
+19
+ 15
-10
+26
COMPARATIVE SUMMARY OF TOTAL PATIENTS UNDER CARE FOR MAJOR
DIVISIONS OF PROVINCIAL MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES BY FISCAL
YEARS, 1952-53 TO 1955-56.
Institution
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
5,227
1,130
1,202
1,436
5,040
1,278
1,255
1,499
5,051
1,263
1,292
1,606
5,247
The Woodlands School...-	
1,278
1,330
1,894
Totals   _ ■
8,995
9,072
9,212
9,749 HEADQUARTERS
Q 35
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H|| Q 36 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
BUSINESS MANAGER'S REPORT
F. A. Matheson, Business Manager
Herewith my report on the business operations together with relative financial tables
and statements covering the various units of the Provincial Mental Health Services for
the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1956.
Table A shows the daily average patient population as 6,327.69, an increase of
only 26.50 over the fiscal year 1955-56. Maintenance expenditure increased from
$9,221,893.33 to $10,293,638.92 and the daily per capita cost from $4.01 to $4.44 or
9.68 per cent. This increase is explained in part by the general salary increases which
became effective on April 1st, 1955, together with rising commodity costs, particularly
applied to dietary supplies. Also the intensive use of new treatment drugs such as
Largactil has increased expenditures considerably under the Medical Care Section.
The apparent decrease in Public Works maintenance can be attributed in part td the
capitalization of projects which formerly were a direct charge against the upkeep of the
buildings and grounds.   These figures are not reflected in our statements.
Purchases of dairy produce, meat, fruits, and vegetables from Colony Farm to a
value in excess of $480,000 were made during the year.
The extremely valuable and important assistance from the Federal Government in
the form of Federal health grants contributed a total of $499,927.70 to our programme
this year. These funds provided equipment, personnel, and staff training, and particulars
of these expenditures are given in a statement included in this report.
The official opening of the new North Lawn Building was held on May 4th, 1955,
during Mental Health Week. This building was opened by the Honourable Wesley D.
Black, Provincial Secretary. The building was occupied by the transfer of patients
suffering from tuberculosis on May 10th, 1955.
The new Tuck-shop and Credit Union Building was completed and put into operation in September, 1955. This building provides space for the tuck-shop operated by
the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, space for the Credit Union, post office, and
quarters for the Canadian Mental Health Association volunteers.
The new Child Guidance Clinic and Mental Health Centre Building in Burnaby was
completed, and our Child Guidance Clinics transferred to their new quarters in this
building on December 28th, 1955. It is not anticipated that the Mental Health Centre
will be in operation until late in 1956 or early in 1957 owing to difficulties in recruiting
staff for this operation.
I am pleased to advise that the contract was let by the Department of Public Works
for the new 300-bed unit at the Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam, in the amount of
$1,897,000.   The contractor started work on this new building on March 15th, 1956.
Tenders were called for the new 100-bed Nurses' Home and Training Centre here
at Essondale during March of 1956.
During this year twelve additional television sets were purchased from the Patients'
Comfort Fund and installed in various wards throughout the Essondale hospital.
I regret to advise that the Industrial Therapy Shops Building, housing the printing-
shop, metal-shop, machine-shop, shoe-shop, upholstery-shop, cabinet-shop, mattress
and canvas shop, and tailor-shop, was completely demolished by fire on the evening of
May 5th, 1955. The loss amounted to approximately $150,000 for the building, tools,
equipment, and stock. As most of the departments housed in this building are absolutely
necessary in the operation of the Hospital, arrangements were made to provide them
with temporary quarters here at Essondale and at The Woodlands School. New equipment and supplies needed for the operation of these departments were ordered immediately, and due to the co-operation received from all departments concerned and from the
suppliers, they were all back in at least partial operation in less than two weeks. HEADQUARTERS Q 37
The Department of Public Works is presently working on plans for a new Industrial
Therapy Building. It is hoped that this building will be completed during the next fiscal
year.
A second major catastrophe suffered here at Essondale during November, 1955,
was due to very heavy rains. The Coquitlam River topped the dyke at Colony Farm
and flooded the whole of the farm area. Fortunately patients' buildings and barns are
located on comparatively high ground, and it was not necessary to evacuate either the
patients or the stock.
A further complication to the flood situation was caused by the water-main from
the Port Coquitlam Lake breaking, and, as a result, the water-pressure throughout the
whole Essondale area dropped to a very low point, and it was necessary for us to make
arrangements to operate the laundry on a night shift. Fortunately this situation did not
continue too long, and we were able to put the laundry operation back on day shift within
the week.
All the buildings in the Essondale area were troubled more or less by this heavy rain,
but not seriously. Some of the elevators were temporarily out of operation due to the
elevator pits being flooded, and water was in nearly all the basements and ground-floor
areas.
The Woodlands School also experienced some difficulty due to these heavy rains.
The boiler-house floor had about 3 inches of water, but fortunately it was not necessary
to put out the fire in the boilers. In addition, the steam-main to the new building that
had just been covered in was washed out, but with no damage to the line.
I would, at this time, like to commend the efforts of the staff and patients in meeting
this emergency. Everyone called upon to assist co-operated, and a large number of the
staff worked for two nights and a day without let-up.
I am pleased to be able again to report that during this fiscal year a large number of
improvements and additions to our buildings and equipment were made. Some of the
main items in this regard are as follows:—
CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL, ESSONDALE, AND
HOME FOR THE AGED, PORT COQUITLAM
Doctors' houses were converted to oil heat.
Staff cottages were converted to steam heat.
The new diet kitchen in the East Lawn Building was completed and is now in operation.
Plans are under way for the addition to the surgical suite in the Crease Clinic.
The old Shops Building at Essondale was demolished, and this area is being made into a
parking-lot.
Additional toilet facilities were installed on Ward H-5 in the East Lawn Building.
Plans are being prepared for the renovation of the old Boys' Industrial School Building, which
has been turned over to us.
Preliminary plans have been started for the new South Lawn Building.
Traffic signs have been erected throughout the grounds.
The apparel-shop in the East Lawn Building was completed, and this shop is now being operated
by the Canadian Mental Health Association volunteers.
Ward F-4 has been converted into an infirmary ward.
Ward A-l, West Lawn Building, was renovated and converted to an infirmary ward.
Ward B-l in the West Lawn Building was renovated and converted into occupational-therapy
shops.
A new staff loungeroom in the East Lawn Building was completed.
Additional parking facilities have been installed at various locations throughout the grounds.
The new dispensary in the East Lawn Building has been completed and is now in operation.
Ward H-2 dayrooms were completely refurnished.
The coffee-shop at Pennington Hall was air-conditioned.
The West Lawn kitchen renovations were completed, except for the new swill-house.
Contract was let for the installation of the new 12-inch water-main and 8-inch loop.
A new aerial truck with a 100-foot ladder has been ordered for the Fire Department.
New snow-removal equipment was purchased.
A new eight-passenger station wagon was purchased.
Dial telephones were installed and put into operation on January 18th.
Contract was let for the construction of two new swill-houses at the Home for the Aged. Q 38 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
Good progress is being made on the new 300-bed unit by the contractor.
The old shops building and auditorium at The Woodlands School was demolished to make way
for the new auditorium.
Cedar Cottage was stuccoed.
Tenders were called for a new equipment-shed and root-storage house.
Work was started on a new playground.
Plans for the new auditorium were completed, and the contract for this building will be let early
in the next fiscal year.
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME, COLQUITZ
Contract was let for a new sewage-disposal plant.
The stores department was moved to newly renovated quarters in the old boiler-room area.
The Hospital roads were all black-topped.
Work was started on the new piggery at the Austin Farm.
Work was started on converting the old stores area to shops to accommodate the shoe-shop, tailor-
shop, and inside occupational-therapy shop.
The old tailor-shop is being made into a working patients' lounge.
HOME FOR THE AGED, VERNON
A new washing-machine and a second-hand extractor were installed in the laundry.
A stock and work room was constructed in the boiler-house.
HOME FOR THE AGED, TERRACE
The new sewage-disposal system was completed and is now in operation.
The exterior of all institutional buildings except the main hospital building was painted. Work is
also progressing on the complete interior redecorating of all buildings.
A new drier was installed in the laundry.
The new water-storage tank was completed and is now in operation.
An experimental well was dug at the foot of the hill below the institution. It is hoped that this
well will eliminate our water-shortage difficulties.
STAFF
Mr. H. C. Yardley was appointed Deputy Business Manager of the Provincial Mental Home,
Colquitz, on April 1st, 1955.
Mr. L. W. Fox was appointed Supervisor of the Home for the Aged, Vernon, on April 1st, 1955.
Mr. G. T. Nolan was appointed Supervisor of Transportation on July 1st, 1955.
Mr. D. Murray was appointed Foreman of Works, Department of Public Works, Essondale, on
July 18th, 1955.    Mr. Murray replaces Mr. T. Lamb, who retired on superannuation.
Dr. C. E. Benwell, Medical Superintendent of The Woodlands School, was retired on December
31st, 1955, but agreed to carry on as Medical Superintendent until such time as a successor was
appointed.
Mr. S. R. H. Evans was appointed Supervisor of Building Service Workers on January 1st, 1956.
I regret to again have to report that in spite of the large number of improvements
and major additions to our plant mentioned above that our ordinary maintenance work
is still not keeping pace with our demands. This is particularly true again this year in
so far as painting and carpentry are concerned, and a great many of our wards are still
very badly in need of redecorating, additional cupboard facilities, etc.
A separate report has been prepared to cover the operation of Colony Farm.
In closing, I would like to express my appreciation of the many courtesies shown
and the close co-operation that has been maintained between the various departments of
the Government and the Provincial Mental Health Services at all times. HEADQUARTERS
Q 39
Dry-cleaning plant.
Spotting-bench in dry-cleaning plant. Q 40
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
FINANCIAL TABLES
Table A.—Showing the Average Number of Patients in Residence Each Year,
the Total Amounts Spent for Maintenance, and the Gross Yearly and
Daily per Capita Cost, 1946-47 to 1955-56.
Institution
Average
Number in
Residence
Maintenance
Expenditure
Yearly
per Capita
Cost
Daily
per Capita
Cost
1946-47
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster	
626.29
3,217.03
286.48
202.44
$497,945.37
2,117,563.62
231,894.65
138,802.91
$795.07
658.24
809.46
685.65
$2.18
1.80
2.22
1 88
4,332.24
$2,986,206.55
$689.30
$1.89
1947-48
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster	
628.00
3,275.41
290.31
326.75
$662,357.80
2,622,349.15
298,773.55
243,861.27
$1,054.70
800.62
1,029.15
746.33
$2.88
2 19
2 81
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam 	
2.04
Totals for the year. 	
4,520.47
$3,827,341.77
$846.67
$2.31
1948-49
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster   . _
631.75
3,394.08
287.76
372.03
119.68
$800,776.92
3,162,819.02
356,110.21
339,606.91
150,706.50
$1,267.55
931.86
1,237.52
912.85
1,259.24
$3.47
2.55
3.39
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam	
2.50
3.45
4,805.30
$4,810,019.56
$1,000.98
$2.74
1949-50
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster	
650.83
3,556.78
287.02
380.15
202.57
$891,944.27
3,500,902.41
384,874.24
374,093.25
215,009.96
$1,370.55
984.29
1,340.93
984.07
1,061.41
$3.75
2.70
3.67
2.70
2.91
5,077.35
$5,366,824.13
$1,057.01
$2.90
1950-51
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster	
763.81
3,425.98
286.82
384.74
231.42
74.07
192.52
$1,081,062.76
3,419,312.37
388,744.44
437,282.20
244,853.02
139,016.27
525,256.87
$1,415.35
998.05
1,355.36
1,136.56
1,058.05
1,876.82
2,728.32
$3.88
2.73
3.71
3.11
2.90
5.14
7.47
5,359.36
$6,235,527.93
$1,163.48
$3.19
1951-52
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster   ..
799.47
3,485.14
282.68
381.03
216.43
208.97
188.82
$1,284,649.25
4,021,001.69
407,123.16
504,668.17
309,649.05
265,697.50
689,466.11
$1,606.88
1,153.75
1,440.23
1,324.48
1,430.71
1,271.46
3,640.85
$4.39
3.15
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz	
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam	
Home for the Aged, Vernon 	
3.94
3.62
3.91
3.47
9.95
5,562.54
$7,482,254.93
$1,345.11
$3.68
1952-53
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster..—
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale.- 	
949.24
3,440.34
284.79
442.94
224.18
292.07
230.77
$1,590,703.00
4,441,278.38
433,108.50
617,445.55
384,971.73
325,842.57
759,406.04
$1,675.76
1,290.94
1,520.80
1,393.97
1,717.24
1,115.63'
3,290.75
$4.59
3.54
4.17
3.82
Home for the Aged, Vernon	
4.70
3.06
Crease Clinic 	
9.02
5,864.33
$8,552,755.77
$1,458.44
$4.00 HEADQUARTERS
Q 41
Table A.—Showing the Average Number of Patients in Residence Each Year,
the Total Amounts Spent for Maintenance, and the Gross Yearly and
Daily per Capita Cost, 1946-47 to 1955-56—Continued.
Institution
Average
Number in
Residence
Maintenance
Expenditure
Yearly
per Capita
Cost
Daily
per Capita
Cost
1953-54
The Woodlands School	
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale _
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz	
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam	
Home for the Aged, Vernon 	
Home for the Aged, Terrace	
Crease Clinic 	
Totals for the year	
1954-55
The Woodlands School	
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale -
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz	
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam	
Home for the Aged, Vernon	
Home for the Aged, Terrace 	
Crease Clinic	
Totals for the year..
1955-56
The Woodlands School, New Westminster-
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale	
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz	
Home for the Aged, Port CoquiUam. _.
Home for the Aged, Vernon	
Home for the Aged, Terrace	
Crease Clinic	
Totals for the year„
1,150.76
3,491.15
285.28
469.13
228.26
293.19
235.16
6,152.93
1,204.60
3,517.75
285.74
527.33
230.72
296.42
238.63
6,301.19
1,219.45
3,508.79
285.30
539.27
229.62
287.30
257.96
6,327.69
$1,768,922.31
4,393,682.65
421,622.61
683,511.48
378,006.20
330,968.40
788,302.36
$8,765,016.01
$1,811,848.81
4,685,444.76
426,786.04
739,859.92
368,726.10
328,553.97
860,673.73
$9,22l7893;33~
$2,032,263.32
5,377,708.34
428,248.27
797,392.10
371,438.14
351,087.68
935,501.07
$10,293,638.92
$1,537.18
1,258.52
1,477.93
1,456.98
1,656.03
1,128.85
3,352.20
$1,424.53
$1,504.11
1,331.94
1,493.62
1,403.03
1,598.15
1,108.41
3.606.73
$1,666.54
1,532.64
1,501.05
1,478.65
1,617.62
1,222.02
3,626.54
$1,626.76
$4.21
3.45
4.05
3.99
4.54
3.09
9.18
$3.90
$4.12
3.65
4.09
3.84
4.38
3.04
9.88
$1,463.52 $4.01
$4.55
4.19
4.10
4.04
4.42
3.34
9.91
$4.44 Q 42 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Table B.—Summary Statement Showing the Gross and Net per Capita Cost
of Patients in All Mental Health Services Institutions for the Year
Ended March 31st, 1956.
Gross operating costs—
The Woodlands School, New Westminster  $2,032,263.32
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale  5,377,708.34
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz  428,248.27
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam  797,392.10
Home for the Aged, Vernon  3 71,43 8.14
Home for the Aged, Terrace  351,087.68
Crease Clinic   935,501.07
Gross cost for all institutions  $10,293,638.92
Less collections remitted to Treasury       1,358,708.26
Net cost for all institutions     $8,934,930.66
Daily average population  6,327.69
Gross per capita cost, one year  $1,626.76
Gross per capita cost', one day  $4.44
Net per capita cost, one year  $1,412.04
Net per capita cost, one day  $3.86
Revenue (Patients' Maintenance Collections) of the Mental Health
Services for the Past Ten Years
1946-47  $388,682.36                 1951-52  $928,398.83
1947-48  434,098.27                1952-53  1,147,831.65
1948-49  613,710.03                1953-54  1,300,056.89
1949-50  730,442.02                1954-55  1,343,848.02
1950-51  763,884.12                 1955-56  1,358,708.26 HEADQUARTERS
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MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Table I.—Expense Statement of the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine,
Essondale, for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1956
Salaries, Supplies, and Operating Expenses
Net
Vouchered
Expenditure
as Per
Public
Accounts
Service and Supplies from
Other Departments
Headquarters
Public
Works
Department
Actual
Cost of
Operations
Yearly
per Capita
Cost
Office, stores, and generals
Medical care	
Nursing and ward supplies-
Dietary-
Light, water, heat, and power.-
Laundry  	
Cars and trucking
Occupational and recreational therapy	
Incidentals and contingencies	
Buildings, grounds, and general maintenance —
Totals	
$5,060.50
115,657.17
536,483.27
182,390.53
21,300.00
7,200.00
1,800.00
16,045.91
12,527.51
$4,065.33
179.87
(   $32,790.98
$9,125.83
115,657.17
536,483.27
182,390.53
21,300.00
7,200.00
1,800.00
16,045.91
12,707.38
32,790.98
$898,464.89  |    $4,245.20
 I	
$32,790.98
$935,501.07
$35.38
448.35
2,079.72
707.05
82.57
27.91
6.98
62.20
49.26
127.12
$3,626.54
Shipping area, Essondale central stores.   Supplies ready for distribution to the wards. 	
HEADQUARTERS Q 47
Expenditures Made under Federal Health Grants for Province of
British Columbia, Year Ended March 31st, 1956
Crease Clinic—
Equipment        $ 1,224.12
Staff and personnel training       87,971.95
■     $89,196.07
Mental Hospital, Essondale—
Equipment      $57,889.02
Staff and personnel training     116,034.73
The Woodlands School, New Westminister—
Equipment       $2,264.46
Staff and personnel training       72,286.01
173,923.75
74,550.47
Mental Home, Colquitz—Staff and personnel training.           8,016.00
Child Guidance Clinic, Day Hospital, North Burnaby—
Equipment        $ 1,699.41
Staff and personnel training         2,780.00
         4,479.41
Assistance to Mental Health Centre, Burnaby—Equipment         1,642.00
Neurophysiological Research Unit at University of British
Columbia—
Survey of factors contributing to narcotic addiction in
B.C.      $23,861.14
Human lobotomy studies        12,440.81
E.E.G. and psychopathology studies       12,352.28
Capillary nail bed studies         3,853.42
Experimental lobotomy studies       11,374.29
Course of training in mental hygiene for senior school
counsellors          5,155.50
       70,037.44
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam—
Equipment   $812.89
Staff and personnel training        2,256.00
3,068.89
Medical Film Library    _        2,915.36
Rehabilitation Department        4,682.62
Vancouver General Hospital           8,029.28
City of Vancouver mental-hygiene programme       25,666.00
Jubilee Hospital, Victoria           1,826.13
Consultants in surgery       12,000.00
Aid to Canadian Mental Health Association         2,499.96
General personnel training—
Personnel training  $899.75
Short courses in mental health         2,312.06
Postgraduate training in clinical psychology         1,199.75
Training of psychiatric social workers  96.16
Training in supervision in psychiatric nursing         1,755.50
Postgraduate training in psychiatric social work         5,614.32
Postgraduate training in psychiatry            3,617.30
Postgraduate training in laboratory technology         1,899.48
17,394.32
Total      $499,927.70 Q 48 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
PERSONNEL REPORT
J. Dowling, Personnel Officer
The Personnel Department became reasonably well established during the fiscal year.
Basic records were developed and organizational charts were made.
In February, 1955, the Civil Service Commission established survey teams for the
following purpose: " To survey Departmental operations with a view to securing maximum efficiency in operation of the Government's executive machinery and to achieve
economy in cost and labour."
To conduct the survey of the Provincial Mental Health Services, a committee was
appointed, comprised of the following: S. B. Williscroft, Personnel Officer, Civil Service
Commission, Chairman; G. L. Tomalty, Personnel Officer, Civil Service Commission;
C. B. Watson, Administrative Assistant, Mental Health Services; and J. Dowling, Administrative Assistant, Mental Health Services.
The Departmental members of the committee were seconded to the Civil Service
Commission for purposes of the survey. The committee examined several departments
of the Mental Health Services in the Essondale area and submitted reports and recommendations covering the following divisions:—
(1) Dietary.
(2) Laundry.
(3) Industrial Therapy.
(4) Occupational Therapy.
(5) Psychology.
(6) Audio-Visual.
(7) Pharmacy.
(8) Admitting and Discharge Sections, extending into Medical Records.
(9) Colony Farm organization.
During the year the following reviews of some importance were undertaken by the
Personnel Office and reports made:—
(1) A thorough review of the Personnel establishment files and a comparison
with similar records in the office of the Civil Service Commission.
(2) A review of divisional methods of staff reporting to the Personnel and Pay
Office for the purpose of clarification and simplification of paper flow to
the Personnel and Pay Office. A fair degree of uniformity has been
achieved.
(3) Analysis of stenographic production in connection with a proposal to install
dictating equipment.
(4) A review of the establishment and organization of the Stores Department.
(5) A review of establishment in connection with the reorganization of the
Centre Lawn coma-insulin ward.
(6) A reorganization of the Nursing Divisions of the Home for the Aged,
Vernon, and a study of the establishment of the entire unit.
(7) A superficial organizational review of the Psychiatric Social Service Division for the purpose of transferring this Division from the Department of
Health and Welfare to the Department of the Provincial Secretary, effective April 1st, 1956.
(8) An analysis of absenteeism in the Essondale area for the calendar year
1955.
The following projects were undertaken but were incomplete at the close of the
fiscal year:—
(1) A study to determine organization and establishment for the North Lawn
Tuberculosis Unit. HEADQUARTERS
Q 49
(2) A survey of the psychiatric nursing staffs of all divisions of the Mental
Health Services to determine the minimum number of staff required to
implement a five-day work-week for psychiatric nurses and aides.
(3) A study of the establishment and organization of the Female Nursing
Division in the Essondale area.
The excellent co-operation of senior officials in the various divisions has greatly
facilitated the personnel function.
Increases in staff were occasioned by the opening of the North Lawn Tuberculosis
Unit in May, 1955. Pending a thorough review of the organization and staffing of this
unit, fifty-four new positions are being carried on a casual basis.
The following tables are intended to provide a fairly complete picture of staff changes
during the fiscal year:—
Table A.—Showing a Breakdown by Classification of Recruitment and Separation Activity for All Branches of the Provincial Mental Health Services
Recruited
_    15
Physicians	
Medical interns  8
Registered nurses  21
Female psychiatric nurses  94
Male psychiatric nurses  8
Female student-nurses  118
Male student-nurses  31
Female psychiatric aides  199
Male psychiatric aides  150
Teachers  4
Occupational therapists  12
Recreational therapists  1
Industrial therapists  1
Psychologists  4
Dieticians  3
Cooks  7
Kitchen-helpers  35
Clerks  23
Stenographers  37
Trades  8
Laundry-workers  8
Miscellaneous professional  8
Miscellaneous technical  12
Miscellaneous  3 2
Farm labour  3 3
Separated
14
8
13
89
40
48
8
181
108
4
9
1
2
9
2
9
28
27
41
6
7
6
11
27
29
Over all
Male psychiatric nurses
Female psychiatric nurses
Percentage Turnover
873
727
30.15
9.52
27.38
Psychiatric student-nurses  27.1c
L Q 50
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
General view of the personnel office at Essondale.
Table B.—Staff Comparison by Division, 1954-55 and
1955-56
Vote
Positions
Provided in
Estimates,
1954-55
Positions
Provided in
Estimates,
1955-56
Number
on Staff as
of Mar.
31, 1955
Number
of C.S.C.
Approved
Positions
Number
on Staff as
of Mar.
31,1956
60
7
64
9
53
7
56
8
52
Colquitz Farm
8
67                 73
60
64
60
31
34
31
35
29
28
29
33
27
33
280
1,044
559
81
283
1,255
561
78
265
1,059
490
76
270
1,001
491
77
253
1,003
465
76
1,964             2,177
1,890
1,839
1,797
192               205
77                 78
63                 63
182
75
55
189
76
59
180
77
Home for the Aged, Terrace    _	
52
332               346
312
324
309
Totals
2,428
2,662
2.3191
2,290
2,226
239
	
	
	
	
2,465
1 Total includes 192 student-nurses. HEADQUARTERS
Q 51
Table C.—Summary Showing Over-all Staff Totals in Relation
to Separation and Recruitment
Total staff including students, as of March 31st, 1956	
Total staff including students, as of March 31st, 1955	
Total increase
2,465
2,319
146
Number of staff recruited, including students      873
Number of staff separated, including students      727
Increase
146
Psychiatric students enrolled as of March 31st, 1956      239
Psychiatric students enrolled as of March 31st, 1955      192
Student increase
Number of staff excluding students as of March 31st, 1956_
Number of staff excluding students as of March 31st, 1955_
Net increase	
2,226
2,127
47
99
Total increase
146
Monthly staff average, excluding students-
Monthly average of students	
2,205
206
2,411
The number of positions approved and deleted by Order in Council during the
fiscal year are as follows:  Approved, 76; deleted, 15.
Promotional and disciplinary panels held during the year are as follows:—
Promotional—
Number of interviews   323
Number of competitions     67
Disciplinary—
Number of panels     13
Number of cases reviewed     36 Q 52 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table D. — Showing Composition of the Nursing Staffs in The Woodlands
School and Essondale Area, Including Crease Clinic, Provincial Mental
Hospital, and Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam, as of March 31st, 1956.
Crease Clinic, Provincial Mental Hospital, and Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam
Position Number Per Cent
Male—
Psychiatric nurses  267 55.2
Psychiatric aides  151 31.3
Students   65 13.5
483 100.0
Female—
Registered nurses  52 6.6
Psychiatric graduates  236 30.0
Psychiatric aides  312 39.7
Students   158 20.2
Housekeepers   27 3.4
Nursing counsellor  1 .1
786 100.0
The Woodlands School
Position                                                                                Number Per Cent
Male-—
Psychiatric nurses     85 43.8
Psychiatric aides  109 56.2
194 100.0
Female—
Registered nurses       5 2.4
Psychiatric graduates     81 39.2
Psychiatric aides  111 53.6
Home housekeepers     10 4.8
207 100.0 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 53
PART II.—CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
REPORT OF THE CREASE CLINIC OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
A. E. Davidson, Deputy Director of Mental Health Services
The Crease Clinic has been in operation since 1951, and the general procedures
have become fairly well stabilized. No outstanding development or change has taken
place in the Clinic during this year.
The following table gives a summary of the movement of population for the year:—
Male
Female
Total
Total in residence, March 31st, 1955	
Total admissions during year 1955-56-
First admissions	
Readmissions	
Number of voluntary admissions-
First admissions 	
Readmissions	
Discharges during year 	
To community _
To Provincial Mental Hospital and other institutions-
Deaths during year -
In residence, March 31st, 1956-
121
625
530
95
324
272
52
635
571
64
1
110
146
1,002
799
203
552
440
112
997
936
61
4
147
267
1,627
1,329
298
876
712
164
1,632
1,507
125
5
257
It is of interest to compare the operational load of the Clinic this year with that of
the first year of operation five years ago. In the fiscal year ended 1952, our admission
rate to the Clinic was 963, as compared with 1,627 admitted to the Clinic during this
year. Thus we note that the rate of admissions has increased approximately 81 per cent
during this five-year period. The proportion of voluntary admissions has likewise shown
a very marked increase. In 1952, 357 patients or 37 per cent of admissions were admitted
on a voluntary basis. In 1956, 876 patients or 53 per cent of admissions were admitted in
this manner. These figures give some indication of the very marked increase in the work
performed at the Crease Clinic.
Regarding our separations, we had 918 patients separated from the Clinic in 1952,
as compared with 1,632 in 1956. Of these, in 1952, a total of 114 or 12.7 per cent were
discharged to be readmitted to the Provincial Mental Hospital, while in 1956 only 125
or 7.2 per cent required further hospitalization in the Provincial Mental Hospital at the
time of their separation from the Crease Clinic.
The work of the Clinic has proceeded fairly effectively and efficiently. There has
been difficulty in securing staff, particularly in the areas of the Female Occupational
Therapy Department, Physiotherapy Department, Social Service Department, and Psychology Department. These shortages have handicapped us in the carrying-out of our
full programme. The operation of each department can be noted in the separate reports
submitted by the various department heads.
In the treatment area the tranquillizing drugs have been used fairly extensively in
many of the acutely disturbed and distressed patients with very satisfying results. The
addition of any such procedures to our therapeutic armamentarium greatly enhances the
therapeutic outlook of our institution.
The work in our Surgical Department has continued to increase. This Department
serves all branches of the Provincial Mental Health Services. At times the limited
capacity of the surgical suite has tended to interfere with the functioning of this Depart- Q 54 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
ment. An extension of the surgical suite has been planned for some considerable time,
and the addition of the planned 20 beds would certainly facilitate the operation of this
service.
Our educational programme has continued much as in the past years. Our main
educational programme is directed toward our own medical staff, to the fourth-year
medical students of the University of British Columbia, and other groups coming from
the University, such as psychologists, public health nurses, educational groups, etc. In
addition, this year we had an opportunity to take part in the training programme organized
for the Mental Health Co-ordinators by the Vancouver School Board.
The research programme being carried out by Drs. Kennard and Fister, in which a
study was being made of the relationship of certain personality disorders to changes found
in the electroencephalogram, has now been completed. Reports of these findings are
now being compiled and will be published in due course.
■J CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 55
REPORTS OF THE PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL,
ESSONDALE
REPORT OF THE MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT
T. G. Caunt, Medical Superintendent
The past fiscal year has been an eventful one at the Provincial Mental Hospital,
There have been many advances made in the care and treatment of patients. It will be
noted that there has been greater activity in all departments. All the regularly accepted
types of treatment are being used in the treatment of patients. Increased use is being
made of the new tranquillizing drugs, either by themselves or in conjunction with other
forms of therapy. We are gradually increasing the number of open wards. There are
now nine open wards, involving approximately 800 patients. The doors of these wards
are open all during the day, and the patients in these areas are at liberty to go out on the
Hospital grounds or visit occupational or recreational areas. In addition to those patients
enjoying open-ward privileges, there are several hundred patients from non-open wards
who are enjoying grounds privileges. This increased freedom of movement about the
grounds is especially noted at such times as our annual field and sports day, when over
1,500 patients attend and enjoy freedom of the grounds.
Movement of Population
The following table gives a summary of the movement of population of the Provincial Mental Hospital for the past fiscal year:—
Men
Women
Total
Total in residence, April 1st, 1955-
Admissions during the year	
Discharges during the year	
Deaths during the year 	
Total separations 	
In residence, March 31st, 1956	
In residence, April 1st, 1955—
Men 	
Women  	
1,852
690
1,672
563
3,524
1,253
Remaining on probation-
Remaining on escape	
Total on books, April 1st, 1955-
Admissions from April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956„
Total under treatment for year- 	
Admissions—
Ordinary   	
Urgency-
592
79
424
57
1,016
136
671
481
1,152
1,846
1,687
3,533
	
	
1,852
1,672
160
1
	
3,685
1,253
	
4,938
Voluntary 	
Yukon	
Warrant   	
Order in Council.
British Columbia Penitentiary
Transferred from The Woodlands School.	
Transferred from Provincial Mental Home-
Total a dmi s sions 	
i
419
12        |
205
11
26
1
5
11
690
452
11
93
1
563
871
23
298
12
30
1
7
11
1,253
The gradual increase in admissions to the Mental Hospital is taxing most departments to the limit, and in certain areas increased hospital accommodation and further
treatment time would be desirable.
The percentage of patients recovered or improved, as compared to admissions, was
58.9 per cent. The percentage of deaths to the number under treatment was 2.75 per
cent; the percentage of discharges to admissions (exclusive of deaths) was 83.48 per
cent.   The daily average population was 3,508.79. Q 56 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
On March 31st, 1956, we had in this Hospital the following Federal cases still
requiring treatment:—
British Columbia Penitentary patients       3
Yukon Territory patients     30
Department of Indian Affairs patients     80
Department of Veterans' Affairs patients  273
Total Federal cases  386
Clinical Services
The admission rate of 100 patients a month experienced this year has taxed the
treatment services to capacity. The patient discharge rate has remained quite high.
Many changes about the Hospital are noted on account of this increased patient treatment and mobility. Greater numbers of patients are becoming interested in occupational
and recreational activities. As an increasing number of patients become activated, more
ward dayroom space is required for each patient. Also more storage space is required
for patients' apparel and personal possessions.
Health of Patients
The physical health of our patients has generally been very good considering the
relatively short period when patients were able to be out on the grounds. Much of our
weather was wet, dull, or overcast and was not suitable for outside recreational or
occupational activities. Very few notifiable infections were reported. There were a
few cases of lobar pneumonia, chicken-pox, measles, and cancer. We did have twenty
cases of staphylococcal infection; then in November we had a total of eighteen men
patients and eighteen women patients with staphylococcus aureus. This organism was
not sensitive to penicillin but was sensitive to erythromycin or Chloromycetin. These
patients responded satisfactorily to treatment. There were a number of upper respiratory
infections, but these were within normal limits and responded well to treatment.
Hospital Visiting
Evening visiting was instituted this year and is held on Tuesday evenings between
the hours of 7 and 8 o'clock. This is in addition to afternoon visiting when relatives and
friends may visit the Hospital between 2 and 4 o'clock. Those patients on the critically
ill list may, of course, be visited whenever relatives desire. The evening visiting has
proven to be very popular with relatives, especially with those who are unable to visit
during the afternoon. With the increased transportation facilities, greater numbers of
of visitors are coming to the Hospital, and this is being encouraged. In addition to our
women's volunteer group, which was organized by the British Columbia Division of the
Canadian Mental Health Association, the women's auxiliaries of the Canadian Legion,
Empire Service League, the Army, Navy and Air Force Veterans' Association, the
forty-eighth Battalion, and many other interested groups visit the Hospital. Several
hundred patients visit the community with relatives over holiday seasons, such as
Christmas. This is encouraged as a means to assisting the patients to adjust in the
community with a view to their ultimate discharge. Many outings, school trips, and
hikes were arranged by our school for the teen-age group.
Gifts to the Hospital
During the year much assistance has been received from the community by various
departments of our Hospital. The Hospital apparel-shop has received many donations
of clothing and accessories from Hospital volunteer workers and other interested groups. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 57
More interest is being taken in the Hospital by the community, and hundreds of
complimentary tickets were received by patients for the circus, the Pacific National
Exhibition, and other interesting outings. Patients were invited to attend the Coquitlam
Horse Show and Gymkhana. A large volume of patients' comforts, such as candy, fruit,
and smoking materials, were received during the year from ex-service organizations and
the various women's auxiliaries. We also received donations of framed pictures and
television sets. Many of these gifts were donated as an expression of appreciation by
interested relatives of patients.
Typical ward in the North Lawn Building.
Patients' Housing
With the increasing number of admissions to the Provincial Mental Health Services,
our housing facilities are constantly taxed to the limit. There is much overcrowding of
patients. This is especially marked in the East Lawn Building (1,450 patients) and in
the West Lawn Building (910 patients). There is also overcrowding in the Colony
Farm Cottage and the Centre Lawn Building to a lesser degree. This overcrowding
tends to be accentuated by the increased treatment activity. Treatment and mobilizing
of patients make their accommodations inadequate, inasmuch as active patients require
greater dormitory and dayroom area than bed patients. The mobilized patient also
requires more room for additional comforts, clothing, activities, and visiting.
New Building and Maintenance
I will list a few of the alterations and changes which have occurred during the year.
The North Lawn Building for infectious diseases was opened on May 4th, 1955. This
splendid building is admirably located on high land. It is a 230-bed unit of three stories
and six wards. In this building we care for the tubercular patients. Facilities are being
completed for isolation and treatment of other infectious diseases on the ground floor of
this unit. Q 58
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Prescription area in the new pharmacy.
C3
A bulk-storage bay in the new pharmacy.   The staff are assembling
the orders for the wards. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 59
A maintenance survey completed by the Business Manager and the Medical
Superintendent revealed there is a large quantity of work to be done, especially painting
and decorating. Much new curbing has been installed about the driveways and lawns
planted about the North Lawn Building. Parking signs have been installed about the
grounds, and further parking areas have been developed. More parking areas are
required, since we have a vastly increased number of staff cars and visitors with their own
transportation. The Colony Farm Cottage fire-escape has been reconditioned and painted.
Four new offices have been provided on Ward D-5 in the Centre Lawn Building for
the Social Service Department. Ward F-4 of the Women's Division and Ward A-l of
the Men's Division were redecorated, and various alterations were made following the
evacuation of their tubercular patients. The East Lawn Building and the Centre Lawn
Building were nearly completely painted and redecorated. The new pharmacy was completely equipped and ready for occupancy in lanuary, 1956. It contains adequate room
for storage purposes and adequate facilities for dispensing. Ward A-l in the West Lawn
Building was reopened for patients on March 1st, 1956, when it was possible to move
forty-one patients from Ward C-4. The West Lawn Dietary Department has been markedly improved with new equipment and a dietician's office.
Department of Nursing Service
Full reports by the Director of Nursing, Women's Division, and the Chief Male
Psychiatric Nurse, Men's Division, give the activities of this division in detail. A gradually increasing percentage of psychiatric aides is being used on our wards. Owing to the
number of psychiatric nurses resigning, there is considerable difficulty in having all wards
adequately covered by trained personnel. The School of Psychiatric Nursing is making
a very valuable contribution to the Provincial Mental Health Services. The difficulties
they are experiencing will be greatly reduced when the Nurses' Education Centre is
completed.
General Comments
On May 4th, 1955, during Mental Health Week, the North Lawn Building was
formally opened by the Honourable Wesley D. Black, Provincial Secretary.
On May 5th, 1955, the Industrial Therapy Building was completely destroyed by
fire. Temporary accommodation for the various shops was provided by crowding into
other service areas, such as the new garage. Part of the basement of the North Lawn
Building was assigned to industrial therapy until a new industrial-therapy unit is built.
During the latter part of June up until July 3rd, 1955, the Fraser River was in
flood, and our dykes had to be patrolled constantly. Fortunately the dykes held, and no
farm property was flooded. From November 2nd to 5th, however, there was a flash
flood in the Coquitlam River, which passes through the Hospital property. This high
water, in conjunction with high tides, flooded much of the Farm property. The Colony
Farm buildings were isolated, with the exception of communication by the dyke or by
boat. It was not necessary for patients to be evacuated. The 15-foot tides, heavy rain,
and flash flood, however, did seriously affect the Hospital water-supply, damaging one
pipe-line and seriously reducing the water-pressure. This necessitated a rigid water-
control from November 4th to 11th, and also made it necessary for the Hospital laundry
to be closed during the the day and to operate on night shift.
During the year, locked mail-boxes have been installed in some of the open wards.
This enables patients to seal and mail their outgoing letters at will.
The Dietary Department deserves much credit for the efficient way in which it
handled the preparation and serving of the food for our large population of patients and
staff. Christmas dinner was especially worthy of mention, and all the patients received
their turkey dinner with the usual appointments and all dining areas were appropriately
decorated. In the North Lawn Building, men and women patients eat together. This
plan is working out quite successfully and is occasionally used in the Crease Clinic. Q 60 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
We have made many more demands this year on our Transportation Department.
Many more patients have required transportation service, travelling between buildings
for treatments or to the community and also on various outings and entertainments. The
Transportation Department has been most co-operative at all times, and the Department
is working most efficiently.
With the increased freedom of patients being permitted about the Hospital and
grounds and with the increased treatment programme, it is noted that physical destruction
of Hospital property and clothing is markedly reduced. It would appear there is more
activity expended along useful or non-destructive lines.
The annual meeting of the Neuropsychiatric Section of the Vancouver Medical
Association was held at the Crease Clinic on April 25th, 1955. This was a very successful and interesting meeting. Forty doctors attended, and following the business meetings
there were interesting discussions and presentations. The programme subjects included
largactil therapy, open-ward care of patients, and finger-painting of psychotic patients.
A Hospital Disaster Committee was established to co-ordinate the activities of
department heads in the event of emergencies. The Medical Superintendent is Chairman
of the Disaster Committee and also serves as Civil Defence Co-ordinator for the area.
Our Hospital laundry dry-cleaning service is contributing a very valuable service to
our patients. This service and the beauticians' service are especially helpful to our
patients in the Women's Division.
The voluntary admission of men alcoholic patients has shown some increase this
year. We have, however, been able to accommodate all referred cases suitable for
admission. We have so far placed no limitation on the number of voluntary women
alcoholic patients admitted. There has been some increase this year in the number of
women alcoholics, and if this continues, it may become necessary to limit the number
of these admissions.
There continues to be a considerable demand for the admission of senile patients.
Those acutely psychotic patients who will likely respond to treatment and who can
subsequently be discharged from Hospital can usually be admitted to the Hospital with
little delay. There are, however, many chronic senile patients that we are not able to
admit to the Provincial Mental Hospital until accommodation becomes available for them
in the Geriatric Division of the Provincial Mental Health Services.
Recommendations
With our increased patient admission rate and greater number of patients receiving
various forms of treatment, there has been a general increase in activity in all departments
of the Provincial Mental Hospital. Our greatest need at this time is an increase in trained
medical, nursing, psychological, social service, and clerical personnel. In addition to the
great need for more trained personnel, there is also a great need for further hospital
accommodation in order to reduce the present overcrowding. Some hospital overcrowding may be prevented by markedly increasing all patient treatment services. This would
reduce the number of days it would be necessary for a patient to remain in hospital and
further increase the patient discharge rate. The development of a new admitting and
treatment centre elsewhere in this Province would partially relieve the pressure of new
admissions here. It might also then be possible to transfer some patients from this
Hospital to that area.
Acknowledgments
I wish to express my appreciation of the close co-operation which I have received
from the staff members of all departments of the Provincial Mental Health Services.
I value very highly the assistance I have received from Mr. R. A. Pennington, Deputy
Provincial Secretary, and the Honourable Wesley D. Black, Provincial Secretary, in
dealing with the problems encountered in the administration of this Hospital. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 61
TREATMENT SERVICES
F. E. McNair, Clinical Director
" Just as a tree bears year after year the same fruit, and yet fruit
which is each year new, so must all permanently valuable ideas be
continually born again in thought."—" Out of My Life and Thought,"
by Dr. Albert Schweitzer.
This has been a year of both achievement and frustration. To mention some of the
highlights: we have discharged more patients to the community than ever before; public
understanding and acceptance of mental illness is improving; new drugs provide short
cuts, both by reducing the severity of symptoms of the mentally ill and by reducing the
number of hospital-days for discharged patients; 830 patients now live on nine open
wards.
Noteworthy difficulties we have had to face are these: an increased number of
patients admitted for treatment; a total lack of female physiotherapists for five months;
a shortage of personnel in the Departments of Occupational Therapy, Psychology, and
Medical Records; the uncertainty of tenure of the medical specialists, culminating in the
resignations of Dr. Stephenson in December and Dr. Walsh in May. Further, there have
not been enough Social Service staff to settle in the community all of those patients no
longer requiring Mental Hospital care.
Increasing numbers of the sickest, most-withdrawn patients are being reactivated
into ward activities. Eccentric patients with distorted views of reality are being drawn
into more productive Hospital life, and more responsible patients enjoy the freedom of
open wards and work in Hospital industry, looking forward to rehabilitation. Nowadays
the relatively easier job is the removal of gross symptoms of mental illness. The somato-
therapies, including the much-advertised new drugs, have almost brought that problem
under control, but after symptoms are gone, the hospitalized patient must learn to live
with other people, to deal effectively with his significant problems, to apply himself with
persistence to supporting himself. We already have the answer to this problem, but it
is not to be found in a wonder drug; it can only be met by supplying the patient with
healthy associations with people, many of whom must have special training to offer the
patient direction. The trained staff, of course, are psychiatrists, social workers, group
workers, nurses, occupational and recreational therapists, and their work is now augmented by the freely given extra service of the volunteer workers.
There is a need to evaluate the treatment methods being used to assess how each
method is contributing to the welfare of the patient. Referring to the treatment resources
available in the first mental hospitals on this continent, Dr. Earl D. Bond reported to the
American Psychiatric Association in 1956:—
" These early therapeutic forces are just as necessary to-day as ever. It is only when
they can be applied that the full benefits of the promising new therapies will be felt.
The public and the legislature will be culpable if they let the new ' wonder therapies'
serve as excuses for neglecting the therapeutic forces that have been known for 100 years."
He lists these forces:—
"(1) Space, or a proper proportion between physical space, physicians, attendants, and employees.
"(2) Classification.
"(3) Promotion.
"(4) Occupational therapy with recreation, music, lectures, libraries, school
classes.
"(5)  Tolerance of unusual behaviour.
"(6)  'Moral treatment'—individualized, respectful, kindly." Q 62
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
A group of ladies enjoying games on the playing-field.
A corn roast completes a day in the Hospital picnic-grounds. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 63
The happiest solution to the space problem is the use of the beautiful out of doors
to the fullest extent possible. Patients on open wards can get outside, and it has been
recommended that a pavilion be constructed so that weather conditions will not conspire
to deny patients their freedom. We have set out on a course from which there is no
turning back—to minimize the custodial aspects of hospital care and establish in its
place a therapeutic community. We believe the patient himself is the strongest force to
be employed in his eventual recovery. Measures which reinforce his personal pride and
dignity, his sense of worth and belonging, help to renew his motivation to get well. He
need not always eat the crust of humility. His voice is now heard at ward council meetings on many of the open wards; the Hospital paper, The Leader, has patients on its
editorial and contributing staff; the volunteers give a personal touch of friendliness and
material gifts such as clothing, all of which contributions strengthen this intangible yet
essential quality.
We have been emphasizing the importance of group methods of treatment, so that
the therapeutic community we speak about can become a reality. We have offered opportunities for current staff to familiarize themselves with new methods and thereby improve
their effectiveness and get more satisfaction from their work. There has been instruction
in the classroom on the importance of group methods of treatment, and there have been
in-service training lectures on recent developments in psychiatric nursing. Charge nurses
of open wards have met bi-weekly to discuss problems and to determine policies for
dealing with patients under the new conditions which open wards confer. Group psychotherapy continues to have a position of importance, and this year has been buttressed by
social group work. The group worker has contributed to the development of the adolescent treatment group, as well as to two of the open wards.
We have made changes, but change does not necessarily mean progress unless certain
principles are being followed and developed into a logical treatment programme. One
principle we have found to be of prime importance is that people behave as we expect
them to behave, and that violent and disturbed behaviour will be short-lived unless, by
our own actions, we do something to provoke its continuation.
" Just as the force of an explosive charge depends on its chemical instability and
the degree of compression to which it is subjected, so also do instability and constraint
determine the violence of human reactions. It is largely because they are unstable that
mentally sick persons come for treatment and mental defectives have to be placed under
care: unsoundness of mind and a deficiency in mother wit are not in themselves grounds
for medical or legal action. Hence, all mental hospitals contain potentially explosive
material, and one certainly cannot expect minor individual outbursts to be less common
in them than in the community outside. But they will not act as detonators for a major
explosion unless the main charge has been unduly constrained.
" There are two historical reasons for the constraint of the mentally sick (who, of
all people, are least able to tolerate it): first, the public demand for protection from
something fearful and unintelligible, and secondly the belief that self-discipline could be
instilled by force. Modern ' open door ' methods of treatment have done a great deal to
reduce tension and the chances of violence, but where they have been most successful
they have consisted in much more than the unlocking of doors. Freedom to do nothing
is not worth having; but so many patients have been inactive for most of their lives that
to fit them for a measure of liberty is really hard work, of which the nurses bear the brunt.
The custodial attitude of the mental attendant is deeply rooted and to alter it requires
both imagination and courage. In its early stages, so radical a change imposes considerable strain on the nurses, and these, feeling insecure, may be tempted to deal with the
inevitable set-backs by resuming restrictive and even punitive measures. But there is
ample evidence that, once this stage is passed, the new liberty to be occupied, backed by
the means to live a more active life, relieves the very ills for which restraint was imposed."
—From the editorial in The Lancet, February 18th, 1956. Q 64
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
The psychiatrist meets a group of patients for group psychotherapy.
The ward council meeting, one aspect of patient self-government. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 65
Three principles were affirmed in last year's Annual Report as the true measures of
advance in psychiatric services—humanitarian care, good hospitals, and close relations
with the community.   We are still in the van of progress.
Table 1.—Cases Treated by Coma Insulin, by Sex, Diagnosis, Result, and Disposal,
Provincial Mental Hospital
(a) FEMALES
(b) MALES
Hm
O
Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
QJ
8
>
0
u
s
A
QJ
>
o
u
a
|
a
u
a
s
QJ
>
o
a
|
T3
OJ
>
O
§
a
o
QJ —I
MC
£ 3
JE
« S
.So
QU
"rt
•S'l
la
■a
s
Affective Disorders
i
i
—
—
1
1
—
1
1
<">thprs
Totals                      ■
2
__
—
2
—
1
1
..
Schizophrenia
8
6
7
29
2
4
10
1
2
4
—
1
1
2
2
6
16
2
2
7
1
2
2
6
4
1
12
1
3
~~2
2
4
10
1
1
3
1
1
6
6
3
18
1
3
7
2
3
i
i
Childhood
Other -    	
	
Totals               .
73
___
2
42
29
23
49
i
1
1
1
1
~ l
1
1
	
1
1
1
1
1
Totals                              	
4
1
2
1
1
3
79
l
4
44
30
25
53
i
Affective Disorders
Manic
	
	
	
	
	
__
Totals _  .
_
	
	
     |    	
	
|
Schizophrenia
Simple    -	
6
9
40
2
2
4
1
4
1
2
1
6
~6
24
1
2
2
1
10
~~2
3
3
21
1
2
2
3
6
19
1
2
Catatonic.   	
Childhood	
Other	
	
Totals           -	
63
5
4
41
13
32
31    1
1
	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Mental deficiency (mild) without psychosis	
	
Totals 	
6
1
_...
2
3
1
5    1
69
6
4
43
16
33
36 Q 66
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 2.—Cases Treated by Coma Insulin, by Sex, Diagnosis, Result, and Disposal,
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
(a) FEMALES
o
\m v,
S3 C
M
Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
■o
g
>
O
o
u
(4
>
O
Q,
|
A
CJ
3
s
QJ
>
o
5,
|
■a
QJ
>
o
u
O,
E
S
£3
o
QJ    -
at c
1°
Qu
a
bo
a
'3
Ec
QJ'^J
P5U
13
o   .t;
■a    M
<D ^-  O
QJ urt
«   O   QJ
h£2
T3
QJ
s
Affective Disorders
3
	
—
2
~~1
2
	
1
Depressed , -    -
Others
—
Totals          	
3
__
2
1
2
__
1
.
Schizophrenia
6
4
11
68
14
6
14
1
2
14
5
5
1
11
2
5
3
8
41
7
2
7
1
1
1
~ 2
4
2
5
3
11
67
14
2
12
1
	
1
1
1
4
2
Paranoid-- 	
Acute undifferentiated  	
—
Residual  	
Other                      - -
—
124
26
14
74
10
115
■
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
1
1
1
" 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Psychotic depressive reaction _   . 	
Acute brain syndrome associated with alcohol intoxication —   -
Chronic brain syndrome associated with psy-
—
Tntalf?
6
1
_
4
1
6
„„„
...
133
27
14
80
12
123    |
10
(b) MALES
Affective Disorders
1
1
	
	
	
1
	
	
Totals                         —                  	
1
1
....
—■
—
1    |
Schizophrenia
20
5
3
45
23
17
5
1
1
~8
8
1
6
2
2
2
18
3
3
24
12
12
3
1
1
1
2
7
1
3
20
3
3
37
23
14
5
1
	
2
8
3
1
Catatonic    -     .
Paranoid— — -— 	
	
Childhood _         ..
	
Other                              ..                         	
Totals 	
120
16
13
77
14
106    |         |      14    |	
2
1
1
1
1
	
	
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
	
1
Passive-aggressive personality	
Chronic  brain  syndrome  with  behavioural
	
Alcoholic addiction  	
	
Totals -	
6
__
—
5
1
5    |    ...    111.
127
17
13
82
15
112
	
15     I CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 67
Table 3.-
-Cases Treated by Electro-convulsive Therapy, by Sex, Diagnosis, Result,
and Disposal, Provincial Mental Hospital
(a)  FEMALES
o
S2
il
Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
■a
QJ
QJ
>
o
CJ
QJ
•a
QJ
>
o
a
e
CJ
3
s
•a
QJ
O
Q
E
•a
QJ
>
o
U
o,
E
E
0
0
QJ-K
if
^E
55
e'S.
be O
s a
■S3
T3
s
Affective Disorders
14
19
3
5
l
l
3
1
10
16
1
4
1
2
~ 1
10
7
2
1
4
12
1
4
Totals
41
2
4
31
4
20
21
Schizophrenia
Simple      _	
10
11
15
97
3
18
13
1
5
1
1
2
1
1
1
9
7
9
72
3
12
11
2
2
3
4
22
5
1
1
3
3
4
5
29
1
7
3
1
6
7
10
68
2
11
10
4
	
Catatonic   	
1
Schizo-affective-     	
Childhood                                   -
1
Other        __	
Totals              	
173
1
6
125
41
53
118
2
1
1
1
7
2
1
10
1
1
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
2
1
9
5
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
5
1
8
1
1
9
Psychoneurotic reaction, other 	
Inadequate personality   ,	
	
Mental deficiency with psychotic reaction	
	
Totals
35
1
1
25
8
10
25
249
4
11
181
53
83
164
2 Q 68
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 3.—Cases Treated by Electro-convulsive Therapy, by Sex, Diagnosis, Result,
and Disposal, Provincial Mental Hospital—Continued
(6) MALES
o
l-l  u,
u ~
II
Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
t
QJ
QJ
>
o
CJ
QJ
rt
•o
QJ
>
o
a
E
•8
1
T3
QJ
>
o
IH
a
1
•a
QJ
>
o
w
a
a
'B
0
a -~
11
Is
Qu
3 S.
"-  Cfl
bDO
fw
3 —
13
E B
rtS
QJ
5
Affective Disorders
10
9
3
l
i
9
5
—
3
3
7
6
Involutional psychotic           	
	
Totals
19
3
2
14
—
6
13
Schizophrenia
21
2
24
67
6
12
7
T
2
1
1
1
1
7
1
14
1
18
39
3
7
5
6
" 4
19
2
5
1
3
2
7
21
1
1
2
18
~17
45
5
11
5
i
r.hilHhonri
Other.        	
Totals
139
4
11
87
37
37
101
i
2
2
3
1
1
1
4
2
7
3
1
1
1
	
1
....
1
2
1
3
1
3
1
5
2
1
1
1
_
1
~~2
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
~i
l
6
3
1
1
Totals
29
1
1
20
7
11
18
	
187
8
14
121
44
54
132
i CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 69
Table 4.—Cases Treated by Electro-convulsive Therapy, by Sex, Diagnosis, Result,
and Disposal, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
(a) FEMALES
m
8
«
Pm
<M
O
U
u
.Q
a
1
Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
QJ
QJ
>
o
CJ
QJ
rt
•a
5
1-4
ft
•s
1
•a
QJ
>
o
H
a
|
>
o
u
s
I
o
QJ.-i
IE
c
bo
C
a
m.cj
QJUh
rtu
cd
o   S
°    a
T3      tfl
4)rH   O
S.SW
QJ CJ_
"a .9 2
3 > n
22 B
QJ
s
Affective Disorders
8
16
29
17
4
10
14
6
1
__
3
6
13
11
~~I
8
16
24
14
3
2
2
1
Totals	
70
34
2
33
1
62
3
4
1
Schizophrenia
9
4
13
69
11
4
42
1
1
7
9
3
10
1
__
4
2
6
9
2
4
43
5
3
24
~~1
11
1
1
2
6
2
13
51
8
2
33
1
1
2
2
2
16
3
2
9
Childhood                    .. 	
Other     .                                        . _
Totals
153
31
14
90
18
116
3
32
19
1
4
2
53
2
1
1
1
4
2
1
2
" i
6
3
1
~6
1
14
1
2
2
39
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
"I
_2
1
1
17
1
4
2
49
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
4
1
1
2
Chronic brain syndrome with psychotic re-
Acute brain syndrome associated with alco-
Pre-senile  brain disease with psychotic re-
Psychophysiological gastrointestinal reaction-
	
Totals -  	
91
12
8
64
7
81
7
3
314
77
24
187
26
259
15
39
I Q 70
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Table 4.—Cases Treated by Electro-convulsive Therapy, by Sex, Diagnosis, Result,
and Disposal, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine—Continued
(6) MALES
Diagnosis
Result
Disposal
li
&9
56
Be
QJ--
PhU
Ih   ^-*h
HCL.Z
Affective Disorders
Manic.
Depressed —
Psychotic depressive	
Involutional psychotic.
Totals 	
Simple	
Hebephrenic-,
Catatonic	
Paranoid	
Schizophrenia
Acute undifferentiated ._.„
Chronic undifferentiated-
Schizo-affect-ve 	
Childhood	
Residual	
Other    _
Totals	
Paranoid state —	
Anxiety reaction	
Obsessive compulsive reaction-
Neurotic depressive reaction.—
Schizoid personality
Passive aggress.ve personality	
Chronic brain syndrome with psychotic reaction  ,  	
Chronic brain syndrome with neurotic reaction    	
Acute brain syndrome with psychotic reaction      	
Paranoid personality,   _  -
Phobic reaction   —
Gross stress reaction „   	
Totals -
Grand totals.
10
16
10
3
39
10
4
10
32
6
15
11
3
7
2
10
4
2
4
2
1
2
2
1
18    1
I      15
1
7
1
1
1
4
5
3
10
18
1
4
1
12
1
4
6
	
	
6    |      24    |
50
1
2
1
6
2
2
1
7
	
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
27    |
167    |      29
34
92    |
3
T2~
14
10
3
1
9
23
5
7
128
35    |        1    |        3    |
2
3
1
1
8
1
8
1
2
	
1
1
	
1
	
1
	
1
1
	
2
	
	
	
61     |        2    |      25    |    	
28
J CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 71
Table 5.—Cases Treated by Electronarcosis, by Diagnosis, Result, and Disposal,
Crease Clinic and Provincial Mental Hospital
■Q
Result
Disposal
cd
>
o
•a
3
Diagnosis
■—>  Ih
OH
hi   (fl
QJ   H-
XI 3
E-2
•o
QJ
Ih
Q>
O
CJ
QJ
a
E
X.
cj
3
2
•a
QJ
>
o
Ih
a
E
>
o
tH
a
E
3
s
•a
QJ
bB
hi
0
bo
S —
'a «
If
rtW
•a
5
7
5
2
7
57
4
7
37
9
40
17
Miscellaneous
11
1
1
8
1
9
2
	
75
10
8
47
10
56
19
Table 6.—Cases Treated by Lobotomy, by Diagnosis, Result, and Disposal
*T3
©
u
4H   1-
OH
Qj2
.0 3
s|
s«
Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
■a
QJ
IH
QJ
>
o
CJ
QJ
•a
o
>
o
ft
£
■s
3
•a
OJ
>
o
hi
a
E
QJ
o
hH
a
E
a
P
QJ
be
rt
HH
CJ
s
"rt
.S    a
Q0H O
.S3 S
1.93
QJ h,,Z
rto.2
CJ
s
5
5
I
1   i
1
2
3
2
3
5
2
Totals   ...                              . ...
10
2
3
5
3
7
__
DEPARTMENT OF LABORATORIES
G. A. Nicolson, Director
The total number of tests carried out in the laboratories of the Mental Hospital and
Crease Clinic during the fiscal year April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956, was 53,189.
This is an increase of 1,703 over the previous year.
Analysis of the following detailed figures reveals several points of general interest.
The incidence of syphilis continues to show a decrease, now approximating 1 per
cent.   Five years ago it was 4 per cent, and ten years ago 8 per cent.
A marked increase in blood groupings, cross-matchings, and Coombs tests has
occurred, the total number being 744, as compared with 439 for the previous year. This
parallels the increase in the number of major operations carried out by the Department
of Surgery, most of which require transfusion therapy.
There is also a marked increase in biochemical tests for electrolyte disturbances, as
shown by the number of sodium, potassium, and chloride determinations. This, too, can
be attributed to the necessity for performing these tests on patients undergoing major
surgical operations.
There has been a very marked increase in the number of alkaline phosphatase tests
carried out, 947 as compared to 68 for the previous year. This is a complicated, time-
consuming procedure used to control the treatment of patients with such new therapeutic
agents as largactil.
The more thorough investigation of patients with infectious diseases, attributable
to the opening of the North Lawn Building, has resulted in a tremendous increase in the
number of bacteriological investigations necessary to the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The
increased use of antibiotics has doubled the number of sensitivity tests performed on
bacteriological cultures. Q 72 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Increases and replacements in Hospital staff have necessitated the carrying-out of
many more vaccinations and inoculations than in any previous year.
Enumerated below is the report of laboratory tests carried out from April 1st, 1955,
to March 31st, 1956:—
Blood tests—
Kahn, negative  3,337
Kahn, positive  43
Kahn, quantitative  40
Red-blood cells and haemoglobin  1,474
Haemoglobin   3,728
Hematocrit   5
White-blood cells and differential  4,459
Eosinophil count  27
Thorn test  2
Sedimentation rate  1,325
Grouping   210
Cross-matching   49 7
Direct Coombs test  1
Indirect Coombs test  36
Sternal marrow  5
Lupus erythematosus cells  2
Bleeding time  104
Coagulation time  119
Prothrombin activity  140
Platelet count  18
Reticulocyte count  44
Fragility   2
Culture  22
Widal   14
Agglutination for B. abortus  3
Paul Bunnell test  4
Glucose  576
Glucose tolerance  19
Amylase  19
Non-protein nitrogen  270
Urea nitrogen  16
Urea clearance  2
Uric acid  7
Creatinine   3
Carbon dioxide combining power  46
Cholesterol  125
Barbiturate — 12
Bromide  3 0
Chloride  77
Sodium  8 3
Potassium   79
Copper  4
Calcium   30
Phosphorus   13
Alkaline phosphatase  947
Acid phosphatase  38
Icterus index  81 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 73
Blood tests—Continued
Van den Bergh	
Total protein	
Albumin-globulin ratio
Fibrinogen 	
Hanger flocculation	
Thymol turbidity
Bromsulphalein excretion
Alcohol 	
Spinal fluid—
Kahn, negative	
Kahn, positive	
Kahn, quantitative
Colloidal gold	
Cell count	
Total protein	
Glucose 	
Chloride 	
M. tuberculosis	
Urine—
Routine general ____
Acetone 	
Quantitative sugar
Benzidene 	
Bromide 	
Chloride	
Copper
Quantitative albumin
Bence-Jones protein.
Bile 	
Urobilinogen 	
Uroporphyrin	
Phenylpyruvic acid
Diastase  	
Phenolsylphonphthalein excretion
Mosenthal 	
Concentration-dilution test
B arbiturates 	
Salicylates 	
Phosphorus 	
Calcium 	
Total nitrogen	
17-ketosteroids 	
M. tuberculosis (24-hour specimen)
Cystoscopic specimens	
Friedman test	
Smears—
Miscellaneous
Gonococcus __
M. tuberculosis	
Vincent's organisms	
Trichomonas vaginalis
236
56
61
1
813
36
31
4
387
11
8
341
708
700
4
5
1
9,713
2,240
365
478
2,831
4
58
163
1
476
32
3
4
1
1
3
3
1
1
2
1
56
17
7
10
72
1,231
55
37
4
42 Q 74 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Smears—Continued
Diphtheria  1
Fungus   2
Sputum for M. tuberculosis  530
Cultures—
Miscellaneous   537
Antibiotic sensitivity (sets)  392
Diphtheria  6
Gonococcus   4
Monilia   4
Typhoid  L 914
Dysentery  917
Salmonella  2
M. tuberculosis  367
Fungus   5
Water  8
Milk  39
Gastric contents—
Analysis   9
Occult blood  2
Alcohol  1
M. tuberculosis  181
Fasces—
Parasites  65
Occult blood  112
M. tuberculosis  1
Urobilinogen  3
Injections—
Typhoid vaccine  744
Diphtheria toxoid  48
Pollen antigen  18
Skin tests—
Tuberculin   3,922
Schick tests  240
Staphylococcus toxoid sensitivity  2
Smallpox vaccinations  184
Basal metabolism tests  187
Electrocardiograph   380
Fluid for cancer cells  3
Biopsies and surgicals  119
Autopsies   127
Animal autopsies  40
Tissue sections  3,599
Frozen sections  3
Tissue for barbiturate  1
Pleural-fluid routine  3
Water for chlorine content  2
Water for pH  9
Total  53,189 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 75
Patients enjoying the sunshine and fresh air of early summer.
33»g|gg»&gjgg§rara
.: ■
Typical open-ward scene. Q 76 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY
W. P. Fister, Director
During the past year the scope of neurological service was broadened to include the
clinical supervision of acute new admissions whose primary pathology and symptomatology were of a neurological nature.
In addition, a separate ward for chronic neurological patients was opened in the
West Lawn Building, and a similar extension of services is in the stage of active planning
for the East Lawn Building.
The laboratory work was carried on as before, and showed increases as follows:—
Last Year
This Year
Increase
1,331
328
1,435
356
104
28
Forty-nine patients were seen in collaboration with the Neurosurgical Service.
Twenty-three of these required neurosurgical operations and investigations.
Electrocorticography was employed repeatedly as an adjunctive measure in the
surgical removal of epileptogenic lesions. In this connection, one outstanding case is
especially worthy of mention, in which a total hemispherectomy was successfully carried
out on a 22-year-old female patient.
A survey study was carried out on fifty-four inmates of the Girls' Industrial School.
A research project undertaken in conjunction with Dr. Kennard was completed.
In addition, electroencephalographic studies were carried out on patients suffering
from phenylpyruvic oligophrenia, who at present are subject to investigation and treatment
at The Woodlands School.
Lectures on neurological and neurophysiological topics were given to the medical
and nursing staffs.
Clinical demonstrations were given to the first- and third-year students of medicine
and applied psychology of the University of British Columbia.
DEPARTMENT OF RADIOLOGY
J. M. Jackson, Director
The following is a tabulation of the work performed in this department in the twelvemonth period ended March 31st, 1956:—
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
Number of films taken  5,949
Number of patients X-rayed  2,361
Films Patients
Chests   1,876 1,833
Extremities   342 106
Spines  373 108
Skulls   57 22
Pneumoencephalograms    2,300 166
Barium enemas   174 15
Barium meals  531 36
Pyelograms   111 17
Gall-bladders   29 5 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 77
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine—Continued
Barium swallows
            7
2
Abdomens         ...
          28
19
Ribs
          13
6
Pelvis 	
Jaws
            5
_                  5
4
2
Noses                                       _ _   -
          10
4
Sinuses
_               16
4
Mastoids 	
Facial bones .       ,,   	
            6
            7
2
2
Heart fluoroscopies     ~_.    - -   	
           6
3
Ventriculargrams            _
          24
2
Angiogram 	
Myelogram           _      	
          12
          10
1
1
Bronchogram
            7
1
5,949
2,361
Provincial Mental Hospital
Number of films taken
.___ 18,862
Number of patients X-rayed	
Chests   	
__ 10,834
Films
     9,250
Patients
9,047
Extremities
2,498
812
Spines    	
        555
151
Skulls ....            .
        163
66
Pneumoencephalograms
     2,602
183
Barium enemas
        770
71
Barium meals     	
     1,589
97
Pyelograms   	
        306
47
Gall-bladders            	
        149
26
Barium swallows                 - -   	
          57
9
Abdomens      -       	
        233
128
Ribs         	
          90
38
Pelvis - _   ...        __ _    	
          35
24
Jaws 	
        119
          84
          77
30
Sinuses 	
Noses       -.	
20
30
Mastoids          _____ 	
37
9
Facial bones
15
4
Planograms _   	
        148
25
Heart fluoroscopies
__    __         28
7
Bronchograms 	
Cholangiogram	
Thyroid                _                ___
          30
            3
    __           2
4
1
1
Angiogram                      ..
12
1
Ventriculargram __ __   _   	
            5
1
Sternoclavicular joints __     	
            5
2
18,862
10,834 Q 78
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Scene in Radiology Department of the North Lawn Building.
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE
F. E. McNair, Clinical Director
The men's division of this department has continued to make a noteworthy contribution to the treatment services. Unfortunately it has not been possible to secure a
female physiotherapist, and we have been without that treatment aid for five months of
the year. A psychiatric aide has assisted by carrying on hydrotherapy, and we have had
the co-operation of the male staff in carrying out specific remedial exercises in surgical
cases amongst the women patients. We have particularly missed the progressive relaxation treatment which has assumed a considerable importance amongst the women patients
as a substitute for pharmacological agents to produce relaxation.
Following is a report of the treatments given in the Physiotherapy Department of
the Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine from April
1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956:—
Number of
Treatments
Provincial Mental Hospital
Galvano and faradic stimulation  1
Hydrotherapy  527
Infra-red   127
Massage and manipulation  551
Remedial exercises  1,108
Short-wave diathermy  253
Ultra-violet lights  590
Wax baths  48
Total number of treatments.
3,205 _.-_.__
Provincial Mental Hospital—Continued
Total number of natients treated      157
Q 79
Chiropody—
Total number of patients treated
-__ 1,063
Total number of treatments            ___
-    1,623
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
Male
Female
Total
102
31
39
538
28
1,296
263
188
57
30
477
1,071
20
168
64
30
371
1,209
1,467
66
572
667
359
97
359
1,682
30
470
161
91
102
31
39
909
28
2,505
1,730
66
760
667
416
127
836
2,753
50
638
225
121
Short-wave diathermy _.. .	
Wax baths  -  	
4,402
350
7,601
499
12,003
849
DENTAL DEPARTMEN
H. O.Johnsen, Directoj
T
During the year several improvements in the dental services have been effected.
New items of equipment have been added, and the clinic much improved in appearance,
with clean and bright walls and ceilings and comfortable furniture replacing the old
wooden benches in the waiting-room.
A large propane storage-tank has been installed, eliminating the frequent refilling of
the old bottles.
The need for a dental clinic at the North Lawn Building, where tubercular patients
could be treated, was gone into with Dr. Lawler and a suitable location decided upon.
A detailed list of equipment necessary to establish such a clinic was then prepared and
submitted to the Business Manager.
During the year it has become increasingly evident that one technician is not sufficient to handle the amount of work required. The large number of broken dentures in an
institution of this type keeps one technician so busy with repairs that not enough time is
left for other work. Consideration should therefore be given to the employment of a
second technician.
Summary of Work
Examinations 	
Extractions	
Fillings	
Prophylaxis
Treatments .
X-rays
Dentures made ___
Dentures repaired
Dentures refined ..
Bridge repairs	
2,581
1,358
1,269
508
221
707
244
265
57
11 Q 80
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Summary of Work—Continued
Bridges made
Gold inlays.
Plastic crowns	
General anaesthesia.
OPTICAL DEPARTMENT
H. H. Woodbridge, Optometrist
The following is the report of the optical work done at the Provincial Mental Hospital and the Crease Clinic for the fiscal year April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956:-—
Refractions  475
Major repairs  295
Minor repairs and adjustments  100
DIETARY DEPARTMENT
Mrs. M. E. Marr, Dietetics Administrator
During the year 1955-56 the Essondale Dietary Department made considerable
progress toward its reorganization.
The installation of a central butcher-shop afforded the biggest potential factor in
increasing the efficiency of dietary operations. Central butchering, within this period, has
been the instrument whereby there has been a greater utilization of all cuts of meat, with
the result that a greater menu variety has been possible.   This accomplishment, thus far,
„,,J
«*_>iSii. .
Scene in central butcher-shop. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 81
has been indeed gratifying, but it is in reality only the beginning of what is expected in
efficiency.
A special-diet kitchen in the East Lawn Building, under the direction of Mrs. I.
Cowley, dietician, was opened in June, 1955. This diet kitchen renders service for 120
special diets. Mrs. A. Austen, cook in charge of this special-diet kitchen, enjoys the
distinction of being the first female cook to be employed by this department.
With the opening of the North Lawn Building, dietary service for tubercular patients
received special consideration. The menu offered at North Lawn stresses particularly the
body building and repairing foods, which are necessary in the treatment of tuberculosis.
As North Lawn is an infectious unit, special care is exercised in the technique of the
dish-washing operations.
During the summer months of 1955 the Essondale dietary staff, under direction
of the dieticians, Mrs. McLeod and Mrs. Ruxton, conducted an experimental feeding
programme for the Drs. McGeer and Dr. Boulding of the Neurological Research Department of the University of British Columbia. This experiment was done for the purpose
of making it possible for the Department of Neurological Research to examine the abnormal protein metabolism and its effects in schizophrenic patients.
There could have been no progress made within the Dietary Department during
1955-56 had there not been co-operation from other departments. For this co-operation,
the Dietary Department is deeply appreciative.
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING, WOMEN'S DIVISION
E. M. Pullan, Director of Nursing
Progress has been made in improving the nursing care of patients in all areas of this
Department.   The greatest strides of progress are found:—
(1) In the care of the active and inactive tuberculosis patients. With the
opening of the North Lawn Building in May, 1955, these patients were
moved from crowded quarters to the new unit, where modern hospital
facilities were available to aid the nursing staff to provide more adequate
nursing care. Through the improved facilities and increased nursing
personnel, the patients have responded very favourably toward improved
physical and mental health.
(2) In the nursing care of the long-term psychiatric patients. The atmosphere
of the East Lawn Building has changed remarkably through the application of more modern psychiatric nursing procedures. The use of different
methods has been the result of a co-operative effort on the part of the
personnel of all the disciplines, who have been guided and encouraged
by the Assistant Clinical Director of the East Lawn Building, Dr. E. Ley-
land. The atmosphere in this unit is now more quiet and peaceful. The
patients have responded to the improved conditions with enthusiasm.
Educational programmes have continued for all members of nursing staff.    These
programmes are:—
(1) Student psychiatric nurse programme.
(2) Psychiatric aide orientation programme.
(3) Orientation programme for graduate psychiatric nurses and registered
nurses.
(4) In-service programme for graduate nursing personnel.
The problem of staffing the wards improved slightly over last year inasmuch as we
had a few more staff who were adequately trained.   However, the heavy demands which Q 82 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
are being made in order to provide up-to-date treatment emphasize the lack of trained
personnel.
There were some changes in our senior staff. Miss E. Johnstone, R.N., and Miss
B. Mitchell, R.N., returned to the School of Psychiatric Nursing following their trips to
Britain and Europe for educational purposes. Mrs. E. Furnadjieff, R.N., Supervisor of
the North Lawn Building, resigned. Mrs. G. Ripley, R.N., returned to the School of
Psychiatric Nursing following the completion of the course in clinical supervision in
psychiatric nursing at the School of Nursing at the University of British Columbia.
Mrs. M. L. McKay, R.N., was granted leave of absence to attend the course in clinical
supervision in psychiatric nursing at the University of British Columbia.
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING, MEN'S DIVISION
R. H. Strong, Chief Male Psychiatric Nurse
This year saw the opening of the North Lawn Building for tubercular patients in
May. This has been of great advantage to the nursing services and filled a long-felt need
in that it allows for better segregation of this type of patient, and the staff feel more
confident now that they know which patients are so afflicted.
At this time Ward A-l was closed, and after extensive renovation was reopened in
March, 1956, to accommodate fifty bed patients and twenty ambulatory neurological
cases.   The initial group to move were forty-seven bed patients from Ward C-4.
The disastrous fire and complete loss of the main Industrial Therapy Building caused
a little difficulty when temporary occupational-therapy areas were set up because the
majority of the patients working in these areas were required to have grounds privileges,
and this now frequently results in insufficient patient labour for essential shops.
On November 1st, 1955, Ward C-2 became an open ward, bringing the total number
to five male open wards. The staff on these wards have much credit due them for their
hard work and the way in which they have adjusted their philosophy to the management
and care of the patients in the new and different type of nursing situations.
Regular staff conferences with the Clinical Director, social service workers, and
medical and supervisory staff have been very valuable in co-ordinating treatment and
interdepartmental policies, and have given the staff a better appreciation of problems and
objectives of other departments.
The in-service training programme of the School of Psychiatric Nursing this year has
been much appreciated by all the staff concerned, and has partially filled a long-felt need
in the male services. It is hoped that this programme will be continued so that more of
the staff may participate. In addition, two more members of the male nursing staff took
training in operating-room techniques, oxygen therapy, and genito-urinary work at the
Royal Columbian Hospital. One male charge nurse took a one-week course on tubercular
nursing at the Willow Chest Clinic and Pearson Tuberculosis Hospital, Vancouver, in
order that he might be better qualified as a charge nurse of a tubercular ward. Two
other male staff members attended a group discussion of group development at the University of British Columbia, while an instructor attended a similar session in a much more
extensive form at the University of Washington.
With the increased number of open wards, the grounds supervisors' responsibilities
have increased, and the necessity of thinking of the grounds in terms of a large open ward
with a properly set-up staff becomes apparent.
The increased activities of the Recreational Department have contributed greatly to
the patients' happiness. This year the recreational programme has included more activities for deteriorated patients than ever before.    Television sets have been installed in CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 83
seven additional wards this year. The sets have done much to settle disturbed and
restless patients.
Staffing the male services with adequately trained personnel continues to be a problem. The demands on the nursing staff have increased considerably in the past year in
all treatment areas. The staff have met these demands admirably, and much credit is
due them.
Although three new wards were opened during the year, only one more nurse was
on the establishment than last year. The number of psychiatric aides increased by thirty,
thus showing that the number of psychiatric nurses in other areas had to be lessened in
order to open and staff the new areas.
In April there will be nineteen male graduates to receive their diplomas, and as they
join our staff (as their terms become complete), it will help a little to increase the ratio
of the nurses to aides.
Stabilization of staff has been one of our biggest problems this year, and with an
increase in the number of aides the need for an increase in supervisory staff has become
more evident.
SCHOOL OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSING
Miss O. J. Smith, Senior Instructor
Progress of the School of Psychiatric Nursing is marked by the increase in the
number of women and, to a lesser degree, of men applicants. The increase in number
permits better selection. The majority of women applicants have had a Grade XII
education but have either failed to meet University Entrance requirements or have taken
a commercial course.
Presenting psychiatry to recent high-school graduates who have had only brief
contact with patients during an orientation period continues to be a difficulty. Because
of this, a different approach to psychiatric nursing was evolved for the first-term students.
The course was planned to follow the life of the patient from birth through his illness to
his rehabilitation in the community. All subjects were integrated to make the picture
complete. Films and group discussion were used extensively. Valuable assistance was
given by the Recreational and Occupational Therapy Departments in classes designed to
demonstrate to the students how to promote activity on the wards. The students learned
not only to approach the patients with greater ease, but how to be more at ease with one
another.
With the addition of two members to the teaching staff, the assignment of students
to the various wards is again controlled by the School and a more balanced experience
for all students assured.
On-the-ward instruction has also been possible. Instructors have endeavoured to
follow the progress of the students and have discussed their performance and the management of patients with them.   Such instruction has proved to be invaluable.
The clinical instructors have also been responsible for forming and being active on
committees composed of representatives from all nursing groups to investigate nursing
procedures and charting. The response and effort of the members on the committees
have been most gratifying and have resulted in a closer relationship between nurses on
the ward and in the classroom.
During the year the affiliate programme has been extended to include five instead of
four groups of students, each group numbering approximately thirty-two students.
As the number of students increases, the instructor is required to spend more time
in organization of the course and requires assistance to follow the progress of the students
on the wards. Q 84
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
^*^«
I
■•ft frfegj
la
Anatomy lecture, School of Psychiatric Nursing.
Students practise taking the blood-pressure in the Nursing Arts Course. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 85
Crowded offices have increased the difficulties under which the instructors work.
Tutoring of the students has been done in odd corners, and the time required to prepare lectures and mark examination papers has been doubled because of continuous
interruptions.
Enthusiasm and co-operation, however, have been the chief characteristics of the
instructors and their stenographic assistants. They have adapted readily to abrupt changes
necessitated by the increased enrolment of students, increased staff in limited space, and
to changes made in the teaching programme to meet the demands of newer methods of
treatment. They have been graciously assisted in the conduct of the programme by members of every department and take this opportunity to say, most sincerely, thank you.
PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT
J. W. Borthwick, Senior Psychologist
The Psychology Department has had a most unsatisfactory year. For different
reasons, but primarily because of inadequate salaries, there have been several resignations
during the last twelve months. Last year, with eight psychologists, it was pointed out in
the Annual Report that there was an unfavourable ratio of staff to patients. This year
the average number of staff has been less than four. For almost five months there were
only two members, and for a short time the staff was reduced to one. Now, at the end
of the fiscal year, there are four psychologists. This reduced staff must cope with a larger
than ever patient population and admission list.
The shortage of staff has affected the Psychology Department in a number of ways.
The number of patients examined during the year has been sharply reduced. As another
time-saver, the number of tests and time spent in the work-up of the material has been
cut, resulting in more superficial and less useful evaluations. In the past, psychologists
in this Department have relied heavily on Departmental activities, such as ward rounds,
research projects, group therapy, and so on, as a means of interacting with other professional groups in the Hospital. These activities have been reduced or eliminated in order
to keep its functioning centred on a routine of testing with demands greater than it is able
to meet. Recognition by its members of these inadequacies has tended to lower both
morale and professional self-esteem.
The following is a summary of the activities for the year:—
Total number of patients examined  330
Ward rounds  189
Group therapy hours     38
Lectures to psychiatric nursing students     50
Lectures to medical students       6
Evaluation of nursing students and applicants       5
Bender-Gestalt  158
Benjamin Proverbs       2
Differential Aptitude
Dominion Silent Reading
Draw-a-Person	
  1
  1
  132
  9
  1
Lee-Thorpe Occupational Interest Inventory  6
Lowenfeld Mosaic  8
McQuarrie Test of Mechanical Ability  1
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory  2
Goldstein Scheerer Colour Form Sorting.
Goodenough Intelligence Test Q 86 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Otis Tests of Mental Ability  1
Porteus Maze  3
Progressive Matrices  7
Rorschach  242
Rosenzweig Picture Frustration  1
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  41
Symonds Picture Story  1
Szondi  11
Stanford-Binet   4
Thematic Apperception Test  17
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  3
Wechsler-Bellevue Forms I and II  302
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children  5
Wechsler Memory Scale  5
Wide Range Achievement Test  3
Word Association  3
880
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT
Miss A. K. Carroll, Provincial Supervisor
During the year 1955-56 the Department has put forth every effort to make its
structure, functions, and services meet as adequately as the limited number of staff permits, and the great changes which the extension of treatment facilities and the use of
newer treatment methods, especially the new drug therapies, have brought about. These
changes have been observed in the Provincial Mental Hospital during the past five years,
becoming, however, more markedly noticeable to all departments during the last two
years.
In the light of these changes focused on making the Hospital an environment for
greater patient freedom, the social workers have, over the past fiscal year, attempted to
equip themselves with some knowledge of group processes, dynamics, and structure; to
obtain some ability in group leadership and some understanding of group motivation,
interaction, and response.
Social-work Staff, Provincial Mental Hospital
During the fiscal year 1955-56 the establishment for social caseworkers remained
at eight, with the addition of two casework supervisors—one responsible for the supervision of the social workers stationed in East and West Lawn units, the other responsible
for supervision of social workers stationed in Centre Lawn unit. In October, 1955, an
Assistant Chief of Social Work (Supervisor—Grade 1) was appointed to assume responsibility for the over-all organization and administration of the social-work programme in
the Provincial Mental Hospital. Much benefit has accrued from the able work of this
supervisor in the integration and co-ordination of the social-work contribution with the
contributions of all other disciplines working in the Hospital setting. Further gains have
resulted through the supervisor's co-operation with all disciplines in the general planning
of an adequate therapeutic programme. The results of the supervisor's work in planning
with community agencies for services to patients while in hospital, their families, as well
as to patients on discharge, have proven beneficial to patients, hospital, and community.
More adequate use of the limited social-work staff through more effective distribution,
focusing, and acceleration of services has been accomplished. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 87
In October, 1955, social services were set up in Centre Lawn, the admission building
for the Mental Hospital. During the year this staff, comprising a casework supervisor
and four caseworkers, have been working with a selected group of patients and their
families during admissions, treatment, pre-convalescence, and rehabilitation. Centre
Lawn admits over 1,200 patients during the year, and social services have been extended
to 35 per cent of this number.
Over the past two years the Hospital social workers have demonstrated the values
of social work in the treatment and rehabilitation of mental patients. Because of limited
staff, only a percentage of the total group of patients able to use and benefit from social
services could be selected. However, the gains made by the patients selected have been
such that all disciplines are requesting an extension of the service to cover all patients
who can use it. The movement toward making the Hospital an environment for greater
patient freedom has stimulated large numbers of patients to the point of acquiring more
adequate social behaviour and emotional stability, and thus has increased readiness of
patients for social services focused on rehabilitation.
Case-load Details, Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital
Centre Lawn.—-The case load per worker in this unit in any one month of the fiscal
year ranged from fifty to sixty individual clients requiring sustained services. The three
caseworkers in Centre Lawn engaged in sustained services were active with from 150 to
180 individual clients in any one month. The single caseworker in Centre Lawn engaged
in brief services to patients carried a higher case load of from seventy to eighty individual
clients in any one month. On an average of from fifty to fifty-five new cases were opened
per month, and from thirty to thirty-seven cases were closed to service per month.
A staff of one casework supervisor and three caseworkers are covering 28 per cent
of the 1,435 patients hospitalized in this building in social services to both in-patients and
patients on probation. The combined case load of the three social workers comprises
194 individual clients (patients, relatives, or interested collateral) in any one month.
On an average of from thirty to thirty-five new cases were opened per month and twenty-
two cases closed per month in this social service unit.
One social worker is engaged in social services to patients in West Lawn and for
emergency services in the Veterans' Building and the Colony Farm. The maximum
monthly case load carried by this worker averages forty to forty-five patients or seventy
individual clients (patients, relatives, or interested collateral). Seven new cases are
opened per month and eight closed. The interviews and conferences on the case load
number 161 per month. This worker averages nine contacts per patient per month.
On an average monthly case load of forty-three, this involves 387 contacts with patients,
relatives, and co-operating agencies.
Rehabilitation and Discharge Services, Provincial Mental Hospital
A time study undertaken by members of the Social Service Department indicates
that approximately thirteen to sixteen social-work hours are given each patient for whom
help in planning and effecting discharge is requested. This is, of course, representative
of a cross-section of patients in all units of the Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease
Clinic. In the long-term treatment units, and specifically the East and West Lawn
Buildings, where patients have been divorced from community for a number of years
with consequent loss of social and family contacts, as well as a decline in capacity for
employment, the time required for effective discharge is considerably greater. Patients
may be too old to obtain gainful employment, and many have no accommodation resources and may not be sufficiently integrated or sufficiently intelligent to manage without
some supervision. For these and other reasons, most patients referred for social-work
help in arranging discharge have seriously complicated social situations, which, unless Q 88 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
dealt with, present a deterrent to discharge. Such problems are time-consuming and
may require that social service be active for a period of from six months to a year prior
to discharge, with corresponding need for service following return to the community.
Of the 1,016 patients discharged from the Provincial Mental Hospital during the
fiscal year, only 228 (22.3 per cent) could be carried by the social workers for adequate
discharge planning and follow-up supervision. Of these 228 patients, 58 per cent were
supervised on probation by the social workers in the Hospital, 23 per cent by Social
Welfare Branch, 13 per cent by City Social Service, Vancouver, and 6 per cent by the
Alcoholism Foundation.
Social Service Department, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
The year 1955-56 has been one of great challenge to the Social Service Department,
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine. The increase in the numbers of patients
admitted, the acceleration of diagnosis and treatment, and termination of hospitalization
called for changes in Departmental structure to meet the changes in the clinical services.
The Continuing Casework Services Section, or sustained casework, has gradually become
more of a Brief Services Section due to the heavy admission rate and the subsequent
accelerated discharge rate. As a result, social services to patients while in the Clinic
increased to the point where extensive curtailment of social services on discharge was
necessary, since in few instances did the Continuing Service workers have the opportunity
to form the kind of relationships which tend to make a discharge follow-up service possible. The Social Service Department has adapted itself to meet these changing trends in
the Clinic—trends which have precluded the giving, except in rare instances, of a long-
term intensive casework service. While at times there was periodic discouragement
regarding this, the social workers have found reassurance in the knowledge that the situation appears to be a temporary one. The opening of the Mental Health Centre with the
projected services of an out-patient department and day-hospital is keenly anticipated
for the values inherent in it in stabilization of function in all areas in the treatment of the
mentally ill.
Case-load Details, Social Service Department, Crease Clinic
of Psychological Medicine
Table 5 shows a total intake of 742 cases into the Admissions and Brief Services
Section during the fiscal year, compared to an intake of 907 in the previous fiscal year,
a decrease of 18.19 per cent in coverage of patients by social service. Table 6, however,
indicates some increase in direct services to those patients covered (742) during the
period of hospitalization. It shows, also, a decrease in contacts with other community
agencies which had known the patient prior to admission to the Clinic, as well as
indicating a fall-off in the efforts of the social workers to integrate into the patient's
clinical picture the understanding and knowledge these community agencies have of the
patient's social and emotional functioning. Further decline is indicated in contact with
these agencies—a very regrettable fact—because in these agencies are valuable resources
for on-going help to the patient after his discharge from the Clinic.
Social Group Work Services, Provincial Mental Hospital and
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
As a small but salient aspect of the social service contributions, social group work
service has continued to play its part in development of collaborative treatment programmes throughout the current year. In addition to continued activity in three areas
already developed (direct leadership in adolescent treatment, enabling service to female
open-ward programme, and participation in nursing education), a short-term project in
ward organization and government (similar to the female open-ward programme) was CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 89
initiated on a corresponding male open ward in March of 1956. This project, creating
the precedent of female leadership within the long-term male unit, was in its infancy to
the date of this report, but was foreseen as a brief-service parallel to efforts undertaken
on the female open ward during the previous fiscal year.
Adolescent Treatment Group.—This two-part but integrated group approach to
treatment of psychotic, neurotic, and behaviour problem cases in the younger age-group
has continued under dual leadership of social group worker and group psychotherapist.
During the summer of 1955, evaluation of the first sixteen months of operation
gave the leaders additional insight into group needs and processes, resulting in refinement
of methods and techniques.
During the fiscal year the group has operated from April to early June and from
November to March, holding a total of seventy meetings during the two periods and
serving a total of twenty-seven patients, of whom ten (four incomplete) have made
"much relative progress," while eleven (eight incomplete) have shown fair response and
six (five incomplete) have remained unchanged or worse.
F-2 Project.—Continuation of enabling service in development of open-ward programme. Since March, 1955, this programme has continued to grow in strength, proportions, and intensity of patient response, until both individual patient and general ward
improvement show gratifying results.
During May and June the worker assisted the charge nurse to consolidate programming for the summer staff vacation period and (with her staff) to complete a detailed
analysis of the project's strengths and limitations during its first six months of operation.
This evaluation, in addition to providing a factual basis for further planning, assisted the
staff to consolidate and integrate their learning experience with resultant increase in
security, enthusiasm, and competency throughout the staff group. The evaluation also
enabled the charge nurse to move directly into patient-electoral planning at the beginning
of the fall season, with the first truly representative patient ward council emerging as
a result.
A-2 Project.—Initiation of group work services on the corresponding male open
ward commenced in March, 1956, at the request of medical administration, as a culmination of combined interests of the Assistant Clinical Director, the charge nurse, and the
social group and case workers.
Arising directly out of pressure exerted by male patients, after contact with female
open-ward programme, this project was designed to meet a growing demand for help in
mobilizing ward government and programme self-direction. Because of its short-term
nature (demanded by limited availability of the social group worker), the focus, as
originally established, was threefold:—
(1) To help the patients organize representative self-government as a nuclear
structure around which programme could develop.
(2) To assist and support the nursing staff in meeting the growing leadership
functions which patient activity demanded.
(3) To assist in developing channels for interpretation of ward requirements
for effective interdepartmental and interlevel development of the therapeutic community approach.
A significant forward step, accomplished at the outset, was immediate establishment
of a medical-nursing-social service team approach, guaranteed by regular weekly project
meetings of Assistant Clinical Director, ward doctor, nursing department, charge nurse,
social service administrative supervisor, and casework-group work staff directly involved.
This cleared the realistic potential and limitations of service which might be offered, and
greatly facilitated the ward council, staff group, and ward improvement activities which
rapidly developed.
. r
Q 90 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Education.—During the year the social group worker has participated in a total of
twenty-two teaching assignments. These have covered:—
(1) Orientation of student-nurses to objects and methods of progress in operation and ways in which their contribution may be made.
(2) Participation in in-service training programme panels on development of
therapeutic community.
(3) Panel presentation re F-2 project for medical conference.
(4) Participation in University of British Columbia School of Nursing programme.
(5) Participation in University of British Columbia School of Social Work
training programme.
(6) Consultative service to teaching staff of School of Psychiatric Nursing re
development of discussion groups as a teaching medium.
Summary of General Activities of the Social Service Departments, Provincial
Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
1. Staff Development.—The programme of staff development at the Provincial
Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine over the last year has been
planned carefully in relation to changes in Departmental structure, current problems of
operation, and continuing focus on improving the knowledge and skills of social-work staff.
At the Mental Hospital, meetings continued during the summer months of 1955 in
order to keep up on problems resulting from change-over in personnel and staff absences
because of holidays.
In the fall, at the Mental Hospital, a reorganization of meetings took place with the
appointment of a Supervisor of Social Services and the structuring of a separate admission
unit in Centre Lawn. At both the Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic, staff meetings
emphasized professional development, as well as a means through which administrative
policies and plans could be discussed. A number of committees were struck over the
year to study Departmental problems and to advise the Administrator on the basis of
experience in direct services'.
2. Communication with Other Disciplines.—In keeping with the Departmental
emphasis on improving standards of work to patients and relatives, further attempts have
been made to communicate regularly with doctors about individual cases. In Centre and
East Lawn, doctors and social workers have met regularly each week for the interchange
of information and discussion of current social problems related to treatment in individual
cases. In East Lawn a further conference of social workers, the group psychotherapist,
and charge nurse of an open ward has convened weekly to discuss the activity of patients
in group psychotherapy as this influences the work of social workers with the individual
patients. In West Lawn a social caseworker has conducted a rehabilitation group for
patients nearing discharge, together with the charge nurse and in consultation with the
ward doctor. These efforts have tended to expedite work in individual case situations and
improve significantly the standard of our services.
3. Education Activity with Allied Professions.—During the fiscal year the Social
Service Departments have participated with other professional disciplines in the educational programmes of fourth-year medical students, public health nurses, postgraduate
and affiliated nurses, and psychiatric nurses. Conferences with the Director of Education,
School of Psychiatric Nursing, and with the Director of Education, School of Nursing,
University of British Columbia, have resulted in a more purposeful integration. Some
forty hours were spent in nursing education and twelve in medical education.
4. Social-work Education.—Two students from the School of Social Work had
their field-work placement—one in the Provincial Mental Hospital and the second in
the Crease Clinic.   Supervision was undertaken by the social-work staff, who are members CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 91
of the Supervisors' Council of the School of Social Work. As members of such they have
been actively engaged in formulating agency responsibility in relating the field-work
experience in the agency to School's reformulation of social-work education to generic
concepts and principles.
Four groups of in-service trained social workers from the Social Welfare Branch
were oriented to social services in the psychiatric setting and to their contribution and
participation in work with the family and the discharged patient. The social workers in
the Hospital and Clinic consider this latter a very important responsibility and one which
must be increasingly extended.
5. The Goal.—This continues to be centred on the extension of social services to
more patients whose needs for them are becoming increasingly apparent through the
growth of milieu therapy in the hospital itself. Everything possible has been done to
meet these patients' needs through focusing on skills and adequate Departmental
structure.   Further coverage of patients' needs involves increases in staff.
The goal is also concerned with a continuous renewal of belief in the reality that
patients can change, can be healed, can learn to live in a way that has more value and
meaning to them. The goal is based on the conviction that the spirit of all staff, the
spirit within the hospital, has as major a place in the healing art as have techniques.
The social service workers gratefully acknowledge the support of administration
and all departments within the Hospital and Clinic. Particularly they recognize the very
real help received from community health, welfare, and recreational agencies.
Summary
Table 1.—Summary of Services in the Admission and Brief Services Section,
Social Service, Centre Lawn
1955-56 1954-55
Cases brought forward from previous
fiscal year   36 28
New cases      955 999
Cases reopened during fiscal year      162 110
Total intake  1,117 1,109
Total cases   1,153 1,137
Cases closed or referred  1,112 1,101
Cases carried over to next fiscal year 41 36
Table 2.—Casework Activity on Cases Referred to Admission and
Brief Services Section, Centre Lawn
1955-56 1954-55
Casework interviews with patients      522 443
Casework interviews with relatives....     221 150
Total  Casework  interviews  with  or
regarding patients   743 593
Team conferences (ward rounds)        56 88
Consultations with other disciplines      646 296
Consultations with other agencies      165 98
867
482 Q 92 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 3.—Summary of Services in Continuing Casework Section, Social Service, Centre
Lawn, East Lawn and West Lawn, Provincial Mental Hospital
Cases brought forward  186
New Cases   287
Cases reopened from previous fiscal year.  117
Total intake into case load  404
Cases given service in Continuing Services  590
Cases closed or referred  413
Cases carried over to next fiscal year  177
Table 4.—Casework Activity on Cases in Continuing Casework Sections,
Centre Lawn, East Lawn, and West Lawn
1955-56 1954-55
Casework interviews with patients  3,548 2,239
Casework interviews with relatives      877 650
Total casework interviews with and
regarding patients   4,425 2,889
Team conference         37 85
Consultation with other disciplines  2,529 1,962
Consultation with welfare agencies and
employment resources      715 593
Total conferences  and consultations
concerning patients  3,281 2,640
Table 5.—Summary of Services by the Admission and Brief Services Section, Social
Service Department, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
1955-56     1954-55
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year 16        19
New cases  684      731
New cases	
Cases reopened during fiscal year	
Cases reopened from previous fiscal year-
Total intake  758      907
42      149
16 8
Cases given service  758      926
Cases transferred out  348
Cases closed   386 910
       734
Cases carried over to next fiscal year  24        16 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 93
Table 6.—Casework Activity on Cases in Admission and Brief Services Section, Social
Service Department, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
1955-56 1954-55
Casework interviews with patients  1,008 635
Casework interviews with relatives      513 458
1,521 1,093
Consultations with other disciplines  1,639 1,616
Team conferences (ward rounds and
clinics)       228 113
Consultations with other welfare and
employment agencies       570 888
Total number of conferences and consultations concerning patients  2,437 2,617
Table 7.—Summary of Service by the Continuing Casework Services Section, Social
Service Department, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
1955-56 1954-55
Cases brought forward from previous
fiscal year         64 161
New cases      327 249
Total intake   391 410
Cases referred      119
Cases closed       223
Total closed cases  342 346
Cases carried over to next fiscal year 49 64
Table 8.—Summary of Casework Activity, Continuing Casework Services Section, Social
Service Department, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
1955-56 1954-55
Casework interviews with patients  2,655 2,759
Casework interviews with family      684 1,084
  	
Total casework interviews with and
regarding patients  3,339 3,843
Team conferences (ward rounds)      228 113
Consultations with other disciplines  3,798 3,244
Consultations with other welfare agencies       247 724
Consultations with employment agencies   1 50
Total number of conferences and consultations concerning patients  4,274 4,254 Q 94 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY DEPARTMENT, WOMEN'S DIVISION
Mrs. K. Feltham, Supervisor
There are certain fundamental requirements necessary for an occupational-therapy
programme, namely: Expert medical direction of this phase of treatment, adequately
equipped workshops, and people to administer this programme who have technical
knowledge and have ability to impart instruction. When either or both of the first two
requirements is missing, a poor occupational-therapy programme results, and no true
programme is possible without adequate staff. At this Hospital the occupational-therapy
programme is directed by the medical staff and the workshops are adequately equipped.
Our total occupational-therapy establishment to administer treatment to over 2,100
female patients is thirteen, which provides less than a 40-per-cent coverage. Added to
the problem of an inadequate establishment is the fact that at no time during the year
did we have a full staff. For part of the time there were seven therapists only in this
Department, so that in many areas in the Hospital even the superficial treatment programme we are able to give with a full staff had to be abandoned. The new workshop
in the North Lawn Building was not opened during the year because of the lack of staff.
Again I wish to recommend that our establishment be increased and that a concerted
effort be made to obtain trained staff. Until such time as this is done, I foresee only
a continuation of the present inadequate programme, which is discouraging to staff and
provides little treatment to patients.
Average number of patients registered for treatment during the year was 821.
Number of patients admitted for treatment was 2,039. Number of patients discontinued,
transferred, or discharged during the year was 1,729. Number of treatments given was
141,372, or 20,698 less than the previous year. Total number of hours workshops were
available to patients was 10,021.
Four University of Toronto second-year students and one College of Puget Sound
third-year student received clinical training in the Department for a period of two
months each. Lectures were given throughout the year to the student psychiatric nurses
and affiliated students from the general hospitals.
Special Christmas activities included the annual sale, which contributed $2,493.30
to the Patients' Comfort Fund, making the hospital Christmas cards, making toys for
The Woodlands School, and assisting in judging the ward decorations.
Occupational-therapy exhibits were held at the Coquitlam Women's Institute Flower
Show on August 18th, 1955, and at open house in the North Lawn Building on May
4th, 1955.
The school-teacher's position became vacant in June, 1955, and the Clinical Director
took over supervision of this department when a successor was appointed in October,
1955.
Volunteer workers have been assisting in the Crease Clinic and East Lawn
Departments.
The industrial-therapy departments provide treatment for longer-term patients and
supervise the making of articles used in the Hospital. There are nine industrial therapists
and seamstresses employed in the four departments. The uniform department made
6,688 articles and repaired 5,006, the sewing-room made 61,343 articles, and the
mending department repaired 65,287 articles. Nurses' uniforms are still being sorted
after laundering in one of the industrial-therapy departments. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 95
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY DEPARTMENT, MEN'S DIVISION
R. Herring, Supervisor
Industrial Shops
The Industrial Therapy Department received a severe set-back when its building
was destroyed by fire in May of 1955. By the first of July all shops, with the exception
of the metal-shop, were operating and handling emergent hospital requirements.
The patient population in all departments is below normal because the temporary
working spaces are confined and are spread out to distant areas of the Hospital and The
Woodlands School. Patients requiring supervision to and from the shops are unable to
attend due to transportation and staff requirements for a movement of this magnitude.
The patient employment group is dependent on ground-privilege patients. This
group is small, and many suitable for trade employment are on the active discharge list,
and for this reason are not available for lengthy employment in the shops. The key shop
trade positions are not filled as they would be under one area operation having a large
group of patients participating in the treatment programme.
A staff of ten supervise the industrial-therapy shops in the following locations:—
Cabinet-shop:  Garage at Essondale; staff, 1.
Upholstery-shop:   Garage at Essondale; staff, 1.
Machine-shop:  Garage at Essondale; staff, 1.
Mattress-shop:  Basement, North Lawn Building; staff, 1.
Tailor-shop:  Hillside; staff, 3.
Shoe-shop:  The Woodlands School; staff, 1.
Print-shop:  West Lawn, B-l; staff, 1.
Metal-shop:  West Lawn, B-l; staff, 1.
The Cabinet Section repaired 1,661 pieces of furnishings and manufactured 719
cabinet pieces.
The Upholstery Section repaired 311 pieces of furnishings and manufactured 356
pieces of furnishings.
The Mattress and Canvas Section repaired 1,720 items of heavy goods and manufactured 5,450 mattress and canvas items.
The Tailor Section repaired 7,339 pieces of clothing and manufactured 955 suits
and denim wear.
The Shoe Section repaired 3,591 pair of shoes.
The Printing Section moved to the West Lawn Building on March 25th from the
Crease Clinic Occupational Therapy Section, where it was employed as part of the treatment programme. Space and some new equipment have made it possible to again take
its place in the industrial-therapy programme. From March 25th to May 31st, 1956,
238,000 forms have been printed.
The Hospital magazine, The Leader, was moved from the Crease Clinic Occupational Therapy Department to the West Lawn Building, where a separate editorial room
has been set up headed by patients from the East Lawn and West Lawn Buildings,
supervised by a staff executive board. The printing of the magazine is done in the
print-shop.
The monthly average number of patients given employment therapy was fifty-three.
Occupational-therapy Shops
Crease Clinic Shop.—The number of patients participating in crafts during the year
was as follows: Woodwork, 621; weaving, 301; pottery, 198; metalwork, 110; art, 24;
basketry, 51; leather, 46.   Typing, etc., 91.
The average monthly attendance was 98; average monthly discharge, 28; average
monthly new patients started, 39; average daily attendance, 35. Q 96
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
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Fire in industrial-therapy shops, May 5th, 1955.
Scene of total destruction following the fire. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 97
Rug-weaving and leather and copper tooling are popular crafts on the wards.
During the year, contributions were made to the Hospital in the form of medicine-
trays, television cabinets, file-boxes, signs, ping-pong bats, etc., using a total value in
materials of approximately $215.
Centre Lawn Shop.—Number of treatment-hours was 30,550. Recreational games
were supplied to the wards during the year, including indoor horseshoe pitches, checker
boards, and cribbage boards.
Archery was a popular craft during the year; bows and arrows were made in the
shop. The product was tested by the patients on the archery range one day a week.
Another outdoor activity enjoyed by the patients in the Centre Lawn Building was the
garden and landscape project on the hillside back of the building. This former brush
area has been transformed into a Hospital beauty spot.
West Lawn Shop.—Opened on March 28th with six patients. The daily intake at
present is twenty-five, serving the closed wards of the West Lawn Building, the largest
number coming from Ward A-3. The sedative results from this therapeutic centre are
very encouraging.
Craft mediums used are woodwork, lathe and bench, metal-craft, weaving, and
basketry.
Veterans' Building Shop.—Twenty-two thousand treatment-hours were given, seven
patients discharged, and the daily shop average was twenty patients.
A noteworthy achievement by the patients in the Department was the manufacture
of 1,256 match coin-boxes for the White Cross services.
A large number of small useful articles are produced by the Veterans' Occupational
Therapy Department through the hobby-craft medium of treatment; this form of group
therapy seems best suited for the type of patient attending the shop.
The Child Guidance Clinic received a number of toys for the play-therapy room—
doll trunks, building-blocks, easels, doll beds, paint-racks, etc.
The Recreation Department received Chinese checker boards, disks for shuffle
boards, horseshoe-pitch boxes, and equipment servicing.
The cabinet-shop received chair parts.
The Woodlands School received looms and easels of various sizes. Used paper was
made into 300 Yule logs and sold at the Christmas sale.
The looms produced 180 yards of 30-inch drape material, 112 sets of place-mats,
and 96 yards of tote-bag material.
The industrial-therapy staff express their sincere thanks for the co-operation and
assistance given by all allied departments during their period of readjustment.
CHAPLAIN'S REPORT
J. F. O'Neil, Chaplain
In accordance with the general policy of last year, the main efforts of the Resident
Chaplain have been directed to the providing, as widely as one man can adequately do,
opportunities for the patients to attend and participate in divine worship. The attached
statistics will give some indication as to the extent that this has been accomplished.
Such a policy is, by nature, geared to the major needs of the majority of patients in the
Provincial Mental Hospital and the Home for the Aged, but is not one that meets the
major needs of the patients in the Crease Clinic.
To be fully effective, and at the same time efficient, the Chaplain's field of effort
should cover three major areas, two minor areas, and one definitely secondary area.
The major areas of work are (1) divine worship, (2) interviewing, with a special effort Q 98 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
at reassurance, of all new patients, and (3) visiting and ministering to all dangerously,
seriously, or terminally ill patients. The minor areas are (1) counselling and (2) staff
relationships in the fields of education, co-operation, and support. The secondary area
is that of public relations.
In so far as these areas of work are concerned, only in that of divine worship has
there been an attempt to give adequate coverage as far as the facilities of the Hospital
will permit. The provision of a suitable permanent chapel for the Hospital and the
Crease Clinic would greatly increase the effectiveness and the value of this work. The
other areas of work can only be touched on an emergency basis until an increase in staff,
both professional and stenographic, is made in the Department.
During the year we have stopped having a Protestant communion service in Pennington Hall auditorium on one Monday morning each month, which did not fit smoothly
into the patients' treatment schedules, and now have it twice a month on Sunday evenings.
This has meant an increase in services provided, so that there are now two services in
Pennington Hall every Sunday, at both of which the hall is nearly always about three-
quarters full. Of these services, twice a month the morning service is a Roman Catholic
mass, conducted by the Rev. Father Joseph P. Kane, of Port Coquitlam.
Also during the year the services on the wards were increased by a weekly service
in the North Lawn auditorium for the patients in that building. This is in addition to the
three services a week in the Home for the Aged and the two services a month at Colony
Farm, which have been conducted in previous years. Also, through the use of personally
owned equipment, special music has been provided on Good Friday and on Easter
afternoons in Pennington Hall, and also three times every week on the wards following
the services.   This has proved to be very helpful to the patients.
The musical therapist, Mrs. Suddaby, has averaged about fifteen hours a week
playing the organ for church services and in training and leading the patients' choir, and
through her willing co-operation has shown this part of the work to be an indispensable
adjunct. At present the Women's Occupational Therapy Department is making robes
for the patients' choir, which will greatly improve their appearance at services and aid
their morale. Due to the fact that the patients forming the choir are constantly getting
well and being discharged, the choir never really reaches maturity, but is always having
to be built up.
The three one-hour periods each week that the Audio-Visual Department provides
me on the Hospital wired music system continue to be greatly appreciated by those who
are able to hear them, but there is an urgent need for the system to be extended to reach
the whole of the Hospital.
The co-operation and example that the nursing staff in both the men's and the
women's divisions have shown has been a constant help throughout the year. Without
it the present policy would just simply not be workable.
The urgent needs of the Department to become efficient and as effective as it should
be are, first, the provision of a suitable permanent chapel and, second, the increase of
staff both of clergymen and stenographers.
The following statistics are for the Crease Clinic, the Provincial Mental Hospital,
and the Home for the Aged, all at Essondale, combined, and do not include the twenty-
four services when mass was celebrated for the Roman Catholics by the Rev. Father
Joseph P. Kane:—
Number of public services        249
Number of broadcasts over wired music system        131
Total        380
Total attendance at services (excluding broadcasts)  29,541
Number of services held in Pennington Hall  72
Total attendance in Pennington Hall  24,620 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 99
Number of services on the wards—
Colony Farm      18
Home for the Aged :  125
North Lawn     34
        177
Total attendance on the wards     4,921
Number of communion services  19
Total number that communicated     1,576
Special mid-week services in Pennington Hall  6
Total attendance at special mid-week services     1,842
Average attendance—
Pennington Hall, Sunday mornings        421
Pennington Hall, Sunday evenings        341
Pennington Hall, special mid-week        307
On the wards-
Colony Farm   23]
Home for the Aged  27 J-       28
North Lawn  34J
Average number of communicants  83
Average total weekly attendance        620
Average weekly number of services and broadcasts  8
RECREATIONAL THERAPY DEPARTMENT
R. L. Ramsay, Director
It has been our attempt to provide recreational opportunities to as many patients
as possible. This has materialized in that we have been able to enlarge our services from
an average of eighteen different types of programming to thirty-three during the year,
and it is felt that a great deal more could be done.
However, it is necessary to asknowledge the fact that our development is largely
dependent on our resources. In order to accommodate the needs of the patients to the
fullest possible measure, we must be realistic about recreational resources in terms of
staff, equipment, and training, and be willing to take possibilities into consideration which
would help us to do a better job and lead to greater progress.
During the week of March 5th to 9th the Recreational Therapy Department conducted a course of recreational skills and leadership to the new nursing class. It was
generally felt that this type of thing should be continued, as it did add to recreational
resources.
The Recreational Therapy Department would like to express its sincere thanks to
the staff members who played an important part in making this year's programme possible.
Patients' Recreation
Programmes
Adolescent groups	
Airing-court 	
Badminton 	
Bowling
Concerts (outside talent) 	
Concerts (Christmas, by patients).
iber of
rammes
Attendance
Total
9
46
89
3,768
114
1,116
622
11,399
10
5,119
17
1,845 Q 100
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Patients' Recreation—Continued
Programmes
Number of
Programmes
Conditioning classes (prescribed for West 2
and Alcoholic)   231
Dances and parties, Crease Clinic  61
Dances, Provincial Mental Hospital  52
Dance instruction  32
Gymnasium classes (mixed)  31
Parties, Provincial Mental Hospital  9
Picnics  15
Socials, Colony Farm Cottage  10
Socials, Home for the Aged  19
Socials, veterans  9
Card parties, Crease Clinic  30
Chess  30
Sports day  1
Swimming, Crease Clinic men  45
Swimming, Crease Clinic women  40
Swimming, Provincial Mental Hospital men  50
Swimming, Provincial Mental Hospital women 47
Swimming, ground-privilege men  18
Swimming, ground-privilege women  18
Swim therapy, Ward C-4  19
Swim therapy, Ward H-4  21
Ward programmes, men  748
Ward programmes, women  843
Softball games, men  18
Softball games, women  14
Golf (daily during summer)	
Tennis (daily during summer).
Totals	
Music therapy	
Music appreciation
Individual therapy _.
Church choir	
Glee club	
Variety programmes
Totals.
3,272
35
44
90
33
32
32
266
Attendance
Total
1,779
5,038
17,818
1,965
1,591
756
702
265
304
318
6,608
336
1,500
674
405
1,212
700
172
90
100
225
21,278
36,652
3,325
1,780
2,250
175
126,311
4,700
3,060
720
654
654
2,720
12,508
Bowling	
Badminton _
Swimming ...
Dances 	
Glee club	
Staff Recreation
89
806
31
439
96
3,279
1
850
12
247
Totals      229 5,621
Grand totals  3,767 144,440 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
The following staff activities were conducted in Pennington Hall: —
April 27th, 1955:  Civil Defence meeting.
May 14th, 1955:  Nurses' softball dance.
June 8th, 1955:  Nurses' softball dance.
September 2nd, 1955:   Students' dance.
October 28th, 1955:  Students' dance.
November 3rd, 1955: Fashion show, C.M.H.A. volunteers.
November 8th, 1955:  Blood clinic, B.C.G.EA.
February 17th, 1956:  Student-body dance.
Q 101
Patients enjoying a special dance at Christmas time.
AUDIO-VISUAL DEPARTMENT
G. H. Walker, Supervisor
The 35-mm. movies were terminated on June 15th at The Woodlands School, since
the building was about to be demolished in preparation for the new recreation centre.
Arrangements were made to show 16-mm. films in the gymnasium until the new building
is completed. The Woodlands School now receives from this Department 16-mm. films
three days a week for afternoon and evening shows.
In the spring of the year, recommendations and estimates were submitted for the
conversion of present 35-mm. projection facilities at Pennington Hall to wide-screen
projection. Perhaps the slight drop in attendance to these movies has been occasioned
by the inability to secure first-class movies for non-wide-screen presentation.
The number of 16-mm. recreational films shown is about the same as last year;
here again slightly less attendance is noted. This is due to the shows being given to older
and infirm patients who cannot get to Pennington Hall.   On January 25th, at the request Q 102
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
of Colquitz Mental Home, recreational movies for their Wednesday night shows were
discontinued.   The week-end films are to continue.
Shortly after the opening of the North Lawn Building on May 4th, 16-mm. recreational movies were inaugurated one evening each week in the spacious facilities provided.
A wall-mounting screen and loud-speakers were permanently installed to improve the
over-all performance.
During the year twenty-nine new films were added to the 16-mm. educational film
library, making a total of 225 purchased films. The value of this library and its accessories now exceeds the value of any other asset of the Department. The number of
registered borrowers increased, as did the loans of films and the number of people viewing
them. I believe that the usefulness of the library would be improved if it were possible
to maintain current catalogues for general distribution, and plans are under way to
compile a new catalogue.
Patients assembling for movie in Pennington Hall auditorium.
Previous to this year, the Audio-Visual Department staff operated all of the 16-mm.
projectors from the Department. With ever-increasing demands for this service, it
became necessary to lend the machines. The major borrowers are the School of Psychiatric Nursing, Fire Department, Civil Defence, and Assistant Clinical Director.
The educational record library has been increased to almost 100 disks by the addition of new psychiatric material. A number of purchased disks with a speed of 78
r.p.m. have been converted with our own equipment to the long-playing type for the
convenience of storage and operation.
Great interest has been shown throughout the year in our music record library, so
that the number of loans of 78-r.p.m. records and record-players has more than doubled
over last year. The work involved in this section of the Department reduced the available
time for the playing of recorded music through the four-channel wired music system,
even though some assistance was given by the Mental Health Association volunteers,
which was gratefully received.   May I repeat again that it is most unfortunate that some CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 103
of the buildings containing large populations of patients are not yet connected to the
wired music system, and cannot receive the subtle therapy of soft background music and
other advantages of a controlled sound system.
In the photographic branch of the Department the amount of work done is about
the same as last year, with the exception of a great increase in the number of colour
transparencies made for the Clinical Director and the laboratory. The transparencies for
the Clinical Director show general activity throughout the Clinic and the Mental Hospital,
and have been extremely useful for illustrating lectures to the public. Should the demand
for these transparencies increase, additional slide projector equipment will be required.
During the construction of the Child Guidance Clinic, assistance was given to the
Director of the Clinic in connection with audio-visual plans and recommendations. In
July, to complete these plans and co-ordinate them with the building variations, a final
list of the audio-visual equipment required was submitted.
Summary of Activities
Recreational Motion Pictures
Number
of Shows
35-mm. films at Pennington Hall  140
35-mm. films at The Woodlands School  32
16-mm. films at Provincial Mental Hospital and
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam  418
Total
Attendance
48,760
5,341
33,227
16-mm films shipped to—
The Woodlands School
140
Mental Home, Colquitz  84
Home for the Aged, Vernon  46
Allco Infirmary, Haney  46
Girls' Industrial School  46
Provincial Home, Kamloops   46
Educational Film Library
Number of registered borrowers, 155.
Films loaned, 689;  total attendance, 20,647.
Films projected at Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic, 172; total attendance, 2,805.
Photography
4x5 monochrome negatives exposed  356
3V4 x 4 colour transparencies produced  132
2x2 colour transparencies produced  162
5x7 monochrome prints produced  114
8 x 10 monochrome prints produced  491
Miscellaneous prints produced  87
Photostat monochrome prints produced  25
16-mm. motion-picture film exposed  492 ft.
Music Record Library
Popular 78 r.p.m. records loaned.
Record-players (two) loaned
  5,200
  164 times
Radio programmes through four-channel sound system  5,110 hr.
Recorded music through sound system      695 hr. Q 104
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Educational Record Library
Tape recordings   495 mjn_
Disk recordings  772 mm
Records loaned  34
LIBRARY
Miss H. M. Walsh, Librarian
Considerable effort was expended to make the patients' library more attractive. The
original library of very old books had been shelved in two rows on top of the stacks
Many of them were completely beyond use and were discarded. Others were sent to
wards in the North Lawn Building, and those still in good condition were reshelved.
Attractive signs designating the type of book in each section were placed on the shelves.
Most of the books are now in plastic covers, which enhance their appearance and triple
their life.   The whole collection was checked over and repairs made where necessary.
The reading-room of the patients' library.
Two patients assist part time in the library, and volunteers of the Canadian Mental
Health Association distribute books to the Homes for the Aged and the wards of the
Centre Lawn Building. Otherwise, books are exchanged by inter-hospital mail for those
unable to come to the Library. Magazines are also distributed throughout the institution;
the George Derby Health and Occupational Centre has been very generous in supplying
them.
The Hospital news bulletin, The Leader, continued to be stencilled by the library
staff until March, when it was reorganized to permit patients to take an active part in the CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL Q 105
production, art work, and news-gathering. The stencilling, printing, assembling, and
distribution were then centralized in the West Lawn Occupational Therapy, although the
librarian remained editor-in-chief.
During the year there have been several comments by visiting doctors on the good
collection of basic books in medicine and psychiatry comprising the medical library.
With new additions each year, which are essential if it is to be kept up to date, present
accommodations were taxed, and extra shelving was placed in the vault to house back
copies of journals, old editions of books, and supplies. The library, while concentrating
on current books, also has a few editions of historical interest.
Patients' Library
Book collection  4,996
New books added  334
Donations   94
Total     5,424
Less—
Discards   407
Losses      84
To North Lawn  502
        993
Total     4,431
Current magazine subscriptions  15
Number of books circulated  14,611
Book collection     2,131
New books added  79
New books to nurses' library  73
—       152
Total     2,283
Number of pamphlets  648
Journals, medical and psychiatric  87
Journals currently bound  22
Number of books received on inter-library loan  74
Number of books circulated  692
REHABILITATION SERVICE, WOMEN'S DIVISION
F. E. McNair, Clinical Director
The Vista continues to serve a valuable purpose in the rehabilitation of women
patients. A greater percentage of Mental Hospital patients have made use of this service
during the past year, which is a reflection of the efforts that are being made within the
Mental Hospital to extend the concept of active treatment until it reaches nearly all
patients, however long they have remained in residence. At the same time, patients'
contacts with their families have been resumed in a number of cases, and the family has Q 106 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
been willing to provide assistance at the point of rehabilitation, so that the services of
Vista have not necessarily been required.
The Clinical Director has visited weekly to maintain supervision of the patients and
to see a small group of out-patients who return to Vista for follow-up care after having
been discharged from there. The social workers also continue to see their clients during
the day or in the evening. The supervisor has been working under difficulties for several
months as the housekeeper appointed to assist her resigned and it was not possible to get
a suitable replacement for many weeks.
The development of a men's rehabilitation home, run on similar lines to Vista, is
anticipated as a further step in making more resources available to the dislocated patient
to re-establish himself as a responsible citizen in the community.
Intake
Remaining in residence, March 31st, 1955     5
Number admitted to The Vista from the Crease Clinic  31
Number admitted to The Vista from the Provincial Mental
Hospital   25
— 61
Separations
Number returned to the Crease Clinic     2
Number returned to the Provincial Mental Hospital     5
— 7
Rehabilitated to the community   13
Rehabilitated to own home  10
Rehabilitated to job and lodging  27
Total rehabilitated          50
Remaining in residence, March 31st, 1956  4
REHABILITATION SERVICE, MEN'S DIVISION
J. D. Addison, Rehabilitation Officer
The total number of placements for this fiscal year shows a substantial increase over
the previous year. This is mainly attributable to the very high degree of employment
which was maintained even during the usual slack or seasonal periods.
There are a good many more patients who could be assisted, in time, to adjust
socially and economically in the community if assistance in the form of staff, funds, etc.,
could be given. This Department is still, after six years, a one-man effort, and one person
can only do so much.   There is a vital need for expansion to do an adequate job.
This Department now has a close working relationship with the Federal employment
offices in the area, and they are to be highly praised for their excellent co-operation.
A new system of referral has been worked out between the Provincial Mental Health
Health Services and the National Employment Service, which is working out splendidly.
An Employment Register form is now supplied to the employment office concerned, giving
adequate medical, social, and employment information prior to the patient's release.
This is particularly useful in out-of-town placements, where direct contact cannot be
maintained as readily as with Vancouver and New Westminister employment officials. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q  107
Direct liaison with industry in general, personnel managers, and other business
concerns is being well maintained on the basis of sound placements. Once an employer
has had a happy experience of employing an efficient and useful ex-patient, he is willing
to accept another when a suitable opening occurs.
There have been some steps taken toward obtaining an in-town rehabilitation centre
for this Department, but as yet it is not a reality.
All in all, the year has been a successful one, in spite of many lacks.
This record closes in expressing thanks to all other departments for the close
co-operation, assistance, and teamwork evident throughout the year.
Summary of Activity
Diagnostic Category
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174
5
37
Psychoneurosis  	
6
7
6
Epilepsy  .,.   ...
15
1
1
7
Cerebral atrophy with behaviour pattern	
Adjustment reaction to adolescence 	
3
1
3
4
Reactive depression   	
26
1
Par an oi d person ality	
5
4
4
Neurotic depression 	
2
7
Sociopathic personality	
1
Totals  . 	
19
2
23
21
1
23
28
1
20
1
23
1
22
16
25
24
1
24
768
7
Cases fully rehabilitated.	
Cases assisted by referral and casework™.
11
6
14
9
15
5
14
9
15
12
15
4
11
11
13
9
9
7
13
12
12
11
15
9
157
104
Total active rehabilitation cases...
Monthly   average   of   interviews   (staff,
patients, employers, etc.)	
17
23
20
23
27
19
22
22
16
25
23
24
261
195
REPORT OF SCHOOL-TEACHER
Mrs. E. R. Loland, Teacher
In October, 1955, a definite programme of education was organized at the Provincial
Mental Hospital.   The purpose of this new venture was fivefold:—
(1) To enable school-age children to continue their regular curriculum, which
would otherwise be interrupted by hospitalization.
(2) To increase the general knowledge and improve the fundamental skills,
such as reading and writing, of certain mental defectives.
(3) To give adults the opportunity to complete or further their education.
(4) To help New Canadian patients learn English.
(5) To help adults prepare themselves for employment by offering supervision
in business courses such as typing, shorthand, record-keeping, and business
English. Q 108
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
During the year fifty-three patients received instruction in the school. Ten patients
studied academic high-school subjects. Twenty-seven patients received elementary-grade
instruction; seventeen of these patients were of sufficient mental retardation to hinder
normal progress; eight were children in approximately the correct grades for their age.
Three patients taking elementary education were adults. Eleven patients took advantage
of the business courses.   Three patients attended classes in English language instruction.
In February a trip to the Department of Transport and an aeroplane hangar at Sea
Island was arranged. A small group of students was taken on this tour, which proved
to be interesting and profitable.
School books were purchased from the Department of Education for Grades I to
VIII.   Books were ordered for the high-school students as they were needed.
A schoolroom was built in the basement of the East Lawn Building. The room,
which is furnished with the necessary equipment, was used regularly.
The growing pains of organizing a new department were alleviated by the co-operation received from all departments.
Medical records office in Crease Clinic. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
STATISTICAL TABLES
Q 109
CREASE CLINIC
Table 1.—Movement of Population, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1955,
to March 31st, 1956
Male
Female
Total
121
146
267
Admissions—
495
35
95
759
40
203
1,254
Readmissions from a different institution of Mental Health Services.
75
298
625
1,002
1,627
746
1,148
1,894
Separations—■
635
1
997
4
1,632
5
Died   „ _
636
1,001
1,637
-11
110
+ 1
147
— 10
In residence, March 31st, 1956 	
257
Table 2.—Showing in Summary Form the Operation of the Crease Clinic
since Its Inception
Discharges
T3
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Percentage of
Deaths to
Whole Numbei
under Treatme
Year
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Percentage
Patients Re
and Improv
Admissions
Percentage
Discharges
Admissions
(Deaths Ex
January, February, and
March, 1951.    ■
264
26
38
23
7
	
170
_	
264
24.24
35.61
1951-52	
963
158
496
155
97
12
215
45
1,133
67.91
94.19
1.06
1952-53    .	
1,221
96
727
201
148
21
243
28
1,436
1,499
67.39
94.35
1.46
1953-54 	
1,256
85
814
213
131
14
242
l
71.58
98.96
0.93
1954-55 	
1,364
147
901
284
(*)
7
267
25
1,606
76.09
97.65
0.44
1955-56 	
1,627
265
1144
223
O)
5
257
10
1,894
86.60
100.31
0.26
1 "Without Psychosis" included in three columns of "Discharges" shown. Q 110
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 3.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Health Unit and School
District of Residence and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
East Kootenay, Cranbrook—
Metropolitan Health Committee,
School District No. 1 	
2
2
Vancouver—Continued
, 2.	
1
3
4
 44.  	
14
28
42
„   3	
6
3
9
„   45 _.
3
12
15
, 4 	
2
2
Simon Fraser, New Westminster—
„   5	
5
5
School District No. 40	
30
26
56
„   18 	
 43	
11
13
24
Selkirk, Nelson—
North Fraser Valley, Mission—
School District No. 6   .
1
2
3
School District No. 42	
9
11
20
„   7 	
3
4
7
 75    	
5
7
12
„   8	
„   76.	
4
4
„   10	
1
1
Upper Island, Courtenay—
West Kootenay, Trail—
School District No. 47 	
5
6
11
School District No. 9	
4
5
9
 71   	
2
6
8
„   11	
10
13
23
„   72	
2
5
7
„   12	
1
1
2
Skeena, Prince Rupert—
„   13
3
3
School District No. 50	
1
1
South Okanagan, Kelowna—
, 51     	
1
1
2
2
4
„   52 	
5
6
11
„   15	
7
9
16
 53    	
5
5
10
, 16	
2
2
„   54	
1
2
3
„   17	
1
2
3
Peace River, Dawson Creek—
„   23	
11
13
24
School District No. 59	
2
1
3
„   77	
3
1
4
„   60.  	
1
1
North Okanagan, Vernon—
„   81. 	
1
1
School District No. 19	
2
6
8
Victoria-Esquimalt Union  Board
„   20   	
2
2
4
of Health-
„   21	
2
2
School District No. 61 (part1).	
23
26
49
„   22.. 	
6
17
23
Saanich  and   South  Vancouver
„   78	
2
1
3
Vancouver Island—
South Central, Kamloops—
„   61 (part3)...
5
10
15
School District No. 24	
7
11
18
 ,   62	
2
4
6
„   25	
 63	
3
1
4
„   26	
1
1
2
„   64 	
2
3
5
 29 	
3
4
7
Central  Vancouver  Island,
„   30	
3
3
Nanaimo—
„        .,31
1
1
School District No. 65	
2
5
7
Cariboo, Prince George—
„   66	
6
7
13
School District No. 27__ _
4
4
„   67  	
1
6
7
„   28.	
2
5
1
7
1
„   68  _..
, 69 	
7
1
14
3
21
„   55   .
4
„   56      .
2
3
5
„   70    	
4
9
13
 57	
10
5
15
 ,   79   	
1
1
„   58.-      .     .
2
2
School districts not covered by
Upper Fraser Valley, Chilliwack—
health units—
School District No. 32	
3
1
4
School District No. 46	
1
5
6
„   31
12
7
22
6
34
13
„   48	
„   49 	
1
2
2
2
3
„   34	
4
Boundary, Cloverdale—
„   61 (part3)...
1
3
4
School District No. 35 	
8
11
19
,.   73 	
2
1
3
36
14
34
48
„   74   .
1
1
2
, 37	
3
4
7
 80   	
4
3
7
Metropolitan Health Committee,
Vancouver—
School District No. 38— ,.
1
2
3
5
5
4
20
24
Unknown	
1
	
1
39
192
274
466
„        „   41	
23
50
73
Totals -	
530
799
1,329
1 Includes Victoria and Esquimalt only.
3 Excludes Victoria, Esquimalt, and Oak Bay.
3 Includes Oak Bay only. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL                    QUI
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MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
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MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 7.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Marital Status, Mental
Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Mental Diagnosis
Marital Status
Single
M.
F.
Married
M.
F.
Widowed
M.
F.
Divorced
Separated
M.      F.
M.
Total
M.
Grand
Total
With Psychosis
Schizophrenic disorders-
Manic-depressive reaction	
Involutional melancholia	
Paranoia and paranoid states-
Senile psychosis-
Psychosis with cerebral arteriosclerosis.
Alcoholic psychosis.
Psychosis of other demonstrable etiology.
Other and unspecified psychoses-
Anxiety reaction without mention of
somatic symptoms.
Hysterical reaction without mention of
somatic symptoms  	
Phobic reactions	
Obsessive-compulsive reaction..
Neurotic-depressive reaction.
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms
(somatization reaction) affecting digestive system
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms
(somatization reaction) affecting
other systems
Psychoneurotic disorders, other, mixed,
and unspecified types.
Chronic brain syndrome with neurotic
reaction  	
Syphilis and its sequelas	
Total with psychosis..
Without Psychosis
Pathological personality	
Immature personality	
Alcoholism 	
Other drug addiction-
Primary childhood behaviour disorders
Mental deficiency.
Other and unspecified character behaviour and intelligence disorders	
Chronic brain syndrome with behavioural reaction  	
Chronic brain syndrome, N.O.S—
Epilepsy-
Observation without need for further
medical (psychiatric) care	
Other, unknown, and unspecified conditions	
Total without psychosis..
Grand totals	
138
4
16
11
43
9
7
5
3
3
6
2
14
39
11
1
1
39
150
26
11
10
1
3
3
10
31
16
2
5
104
196 [ 122 |  190 | 474
61  |    32
257 | 154
13
5
39 I    43
229     517
8 |    58 |      8 |    15
1
1
1
2
....
j      4|      2 |
62
10
18
26
191
16
7
5
3
4
16
9
19
63
14
2
2
59
250
42
21
14
2
4
4
13
47
116
25
2
5
139
441
58
28
19
5
8
20
22
66
179
39
4
7
198
15
2
21  |    37 | 423  | 706 | 1,129
3
46
30
2
11
13
2
11
13
1
1
5
4
4
3
2
4
10
4
1
4
1
12
11
4
1
2
6
11  1 107 |    93
76
24
24
1
9
7
14
5
5
23
200
48 I 530     799    1,329 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q  117
Table 8.—Readmissions to Crease Clinic by Marital Status, Mental
Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Marital Status
Mental Diagnosis
Single
Married
Widowed
Divorced
Separated
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
With Psychosis
22
2
2
2
1
2
20
3
1
1
1
1
1
13
7
1
1
1
1
13
1
1
1
1
36
18
4
2
1
15
25
3
26
2
1
2
1
6
1
5
3
6
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
36
12
1
1
1
3
16
1
1
3
1
1
3
63
24
10
1
2
1
18
28
4
~36
2
1
5
99
36
Involutional melancholia.^ 	
Paranoia and paranoid states.—	
Psychosis with cerebral arteriosclerosis-
Psychosis of other demonstrable etiol-
11
2
3
1
Other and unspecified psychoses	
Anxiety reaction without mention of
somatic symptoms	
Hysterical reaction without mention of
somatic symptoms— 	
21
44
5
1
39
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms
(somatization reaction) affecting di-
1
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms
(somatization reaction)   affecting
2
Psychoneurotic disorders, other, mixed,
1
. | ......
2
2
Chronic brain syndrome with neurotic
8
31
28
41
135
1   |    23  |      3  |      2
4 |      7  |    80 |  195
275
Without Psychosis
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
4
1
2
1
1
1
	
1
1
1
	
5
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
5
1
1
1
10
1
1
Primary childhood behaviour disorders
Other and unspecified character beha-
1
1
Chronic   brain   syndrome   with   beha-
1
2
2
Other diseases of central nervous system not associated with psychosis
Observation without need for further
medical (psychiatric) care	
Other, unknown, and unspecified conditions	
2
1
1
7
3
5
3
... |      1  |      1
2 1      1  |    15 |      8
23
38
31
46
138
1   I    24 I       4
2
6
R   1     95   1  903
298
Table 9.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Years of Schooling, Mental
Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 10.—Readmissions to Crease Clinic by Years of Schooling, Mental
Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 11.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Citizenship, Age-group, and
Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 12.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Religion and Sex, April 1st,
1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 13.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Previous Occupation and Sex,
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Detailed information for the above tables may be obtained on request. Q  118
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 14.—Live Discharges from Crease Clinic by Condition on Discharge,
Disposition to, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Condition
Home
Clinic
Agency
General
Hospital
Welfare
Institution
Other
Mental
Hospital
Other
Total
Grand
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
83
96
310
72
179
63
612
75
-
1
1
2
1
1
1
....
1
1
25
38
1
29
33
2
3
2
86
97
338
114
179
64
645
109
265
161
Improved	
983
223
Totals	
561
929
—
2
5
__
—
1
64
63
5
2
635
997
1,632
Table 15.—Live Discharges from Crease Clinic by Mental Diagnosis, Condition
on Discharge, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Mental Diagnosis
Condition on Discharge
Recovered
Much
Improved
M.
Improved
M.
Unimproved
M.
Total
M.
Grand
Total
With Psychosis
Schizophrenic disorders	
Manic-depressive reaction 	
Involutional melancholia 	
Paranoia and paranoid states	
Senile psychosis    _
Presenile psychosis.
Psychosis with cerebral arteriosclerosis .
Alcoholic psychosis-
Psychosis of other demonstrable etiology-
Other and unspecified psychoses	
Psychosis with mental deficiency ...
Anxiety reaction without mention of somatic symptoms -    	
Hysterical reaction without mention of somatic
symptoms   	
Phobic reaction _  	
Obsessive-compulsive reaction _.
Neurotic-depressive reaction.
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms (somatization reaction) 	
Psychoneurotic  disorders,  other,  mixed,  and  unspecified types.
Chronic brain syndrome with neurotic reaction .
Syphilis and its sequelae	
Total with psychosis .
Without Psychosis
Pathological personality-
Immature personality	
Alcoholism. 	
Other drug addiction.
Primary childhood behaviour disorders .
Mental deficiency .
Other  and unspecified  character, behaviour,  and
intelligence disorders
Chronic brain syndrome with behaviour reaction..
Chronic brain syndrome, N.O.S 	
Epilepsy.
Other diseases of the central nervous system not
associated with psychosis
Observation without need for further medical care .
Other, unknown, and unspecified conditions	
Total without psychosis -	
Grand totals..
12
59
28
11
1
5
4
20
20
1
21
11
11
122
8
4
7
2
3
5
2
5
1
63
7
2
3
30
185
36
19
7
2
1
1
2
7
23
104
23
3
6
133
44
13
237
29
8
10
3
3
18
7
15
1
84
11
4
4
51
317
69
31
8
3
2
4
7
15
47
142
33
3
7
174
84 | 174 |    88 |    59 | 274 | 572
55
"
1
1
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32
6
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1
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1
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64
86 | 179       97 |    64     338
I
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98
39
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7
25
22
62
1
226
44
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11
226
11
9
22
2
85 | 501  | 890 | 1,391
57
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14
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1
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3
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10
6
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9
2
14
10
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93
35
26
2
13
5
12
7
11
24
4
5
4
73
645
59
Tl4
24 I 134 I 107
241
109 | 635 | 997 I 1,632 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
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MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 18.—Deaths Occurring in Crease Clinic by Mental Diagnosis, Age-
group, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Age-group (Years)
Mental Diagnosis
0-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and
Over
lotal
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1
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1
1
M.IF.
1
1
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Paranoia and paranoid states. 	
Senile psychosis          	
	
	
1
1
1
1
	
—
~
1
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
—
	
—
—
	
	
Chronic brain syndrome, N.O.S. 	
Totals   ..
1
......
	
—
1
	
1
1
	
~
—
1
1
4
5
Table 19.—Deaths Occurring in Crease Clinic by Cause of Death, Age-group,
and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Age-group (Years)
Cause of Death
0-39
40-^)4
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and
Over
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1
—
—
—
—
—-
1
	
1
1
—
—
	
—
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
Hypertension
1
r
i
Totals   	
'
	
1
—
1
1
	
	
1
1
4
5 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Table 1.—Movement of Population, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Q  123
Male
Female
Total
In residence, April 1st, 1955  	
On probation, carried forward from 1954-55..
On escape, carried forward from 1954-55	
Totals as at April 1st, 1955 	
Admissions—
First admissions  	
Readmissions from a different institution of Mental Health Services
Readmissions from the same institution   	
Total admissions ._    	
Total under care....    	
Separations—
Discharged in full  _	
Died    	
On probation and still out  -—	
Escaped but not discharged    	
Total separations   __ _	
Net increase or decrease    	
In residence, March 31st, 1956 	
1,852
76
1
1,672
1,687
3,524
160
1
1,929
1,756
3,685
376
149
165
241
150
172
617
299
337
690
563
1,253
2,619
2,319
4,938
608
79
86
424
57
146
5
1,032
136
232
5
773
632
1,405
-6
+ 15
+9
3,533
Patients and visitors enjoy refreshments in the coffee-bar in Pennington Hall. Q 124
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Table 2.—Showing in Summary Form the Operations of the Mental
Hospitals since Inception
cn
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Admissions (Deaths
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0J
Year
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22
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16
18
17
13
7
8
10
20
27
36
26
41
52
49
52
44
80
62
64
74
81
101
113
115
121
139
115
123
150
221
230
232
280
332
375
380
402
332
353
371
375
574
489
478
438
447
461
475
494
542
543
602
632
562
635
610
653
679
1
10
4
3
11
4
7
4
5
5
3
4
2
5
10
15
12
14
17
19
17
14
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20
27
31
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30
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46
43
361
48
681
73 2
84
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741
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58
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75
116
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96
91
842
63
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711
631
2
3
3
4
3
1
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1
1
4
6
5
6
5
6
4
10
18
19
11
25
8
13
32
27
20
31
37
26
33
43
43
56
77
82
114
128
146
126
91
96
78
95
221
173
178
167
121
242
240
171
252
294
311
235
299
323
309
349
304
1
5
3
10
5
3
8
8
5
5
2
3
2
5
6
5
3
4
12
20
13
14
19
20
9
14
19
21
29
25
25
26
26
27
28
39
57
40
41
60
76
67
74
89
80
106
132
132
122
114
133
163
138
142
161
147
181
223
191
181
195
200
321
291
16
14
19
32
35
38
36
41
48
48
49
49
51
61
66
77
82
100
117
123
135
133
162
164
171
203
221
234
258
284
311
349
321
348
388
461
507
536
595
690
752
919
1,027
1,090
1,205
1,301
1,347
1,458
1,566
1,649
1,697
1,784
1,884
1,995
2,125
2,269
2,347
2,411
2,550
2,676
2,824
2,960
3,080
3,180
5
13
3
3
5
7
1
2
10
5
11
5
18
17
6
12
29
2
7
32
18
13
24
26
27
38
27
43
73
46
29
48
105
62
167
108
63
2
2
2
28
18
31
26
48
54
49
54
54
58
61
55
57
59
71
88
102
103
123
152
166
175
179
213
224
228
246
285
327
356
377
413
466
480
505
552
666
765
816
896
1,034
1,065
1,264
1,364
1,437
1,527
1,650
1,753
2,025
2,043
2,137
2,180
2,234
2,327
2,434
2,565
2,743
2,914
3,063
3,148
3,214
3,390
3,530
3,721
3,838
5.55
66.66
33.33
10.34
50.00
28.57
43.75
22.22
29.41
38.46
42.85
50.00
20.00
25.00
37.03
41.66
46.15
34.15
32.69
38.77
32.69
31.81
16.25
46.77
35.93
27.03
33.33
30.69
33.63
34.78
24.79
27.34
40.00
33.33
23.03
21.30
28.30
31.00
30.00
19.57
18.90
22.63
14.43
25.00
20.68
23.72
20.00
20.20
14.17
20.08
20.77
18.56
13.66
12.00
15.38
13.28
16.76
19.10
10.60
10.32
6.92
10.00
10.87
9.27
5.55
80.00
33.33
26.89
63.63
78.57
62.50
27.77
29.41
61.54
57.14
62.50
60.00
25.00
59.25
55.55
69.23
46.34
44.23
46.94
51.92
72.72
40.00
64.51
75.00
37.83
49.38
62.37
57.52
52.17
50.41
53.96
62.61
61.78
52.06
41.20
53.90
64.60
59.28
54.42
53.80
62.10
45.77
52.41
47.87
44.74
45.33
58.71
72.60
57.32
59.36
64.20
66.16
62.53
50.00
60.33
71.07
71.26
64.24
63.52
58.42
60.65
64.32
54.05
5.55
16.12
11.53
20.83
9.35
6.12
16.16
1879  ..
1880  	
14.81
8.62
1881	
8.19
1882.	
3.63
1883 	
5.26
1884.
3.33
1885       	
6.94
1886
6.81
1887.	
4.80
1888 	
1889
2.87
3.25
1890
7.64
1891
11.69
1892  ...
1893	
6.95
7.60
1894 	
1895..    	
8.92
8.92
1896..	
1897 	
1898      	
3.94
5.69
6.66
1899	
6.42
1900     -
8.14
1901         .
6.63
1902      	
6.06
1903	
1904 	
5.57
5.42
1905
5 34
1906    	
5.04
1907	
1908         	
5.08
7 44
1909       	
6 40
1910   	
4.57
1911     	
5.83
1912    	
7.02
1913 	
1914
5.30
5 43
1915.     	
6.19
1916      	
115  I
5 24
1917    	
96
46
111
108
83
48
87
100
111
130
144
78
64
139
126
148
136
	
6.42
1918     	
7.47
Jan. 1,1919, to
March 31,1920
1920-1921
6.51
5.97
1921-1922...	
1922-1923    	
5.33
6.10
1923-1924 	
7.25
1924-1925	
1925-1926 -.
1926-1927	
5.93
5.83
6.27
1927-1928 	
1928-1929	
5.36
6.21
1929-1930	
1930-1931	
1931-1932	
1932-1933	
1933-1934     . -
7.28
6.06
5.63
5.75
5.66
1934-1935	
1935-1936	
120
100
71
5.94
7.58
1 Three not insane.
■ Five not insane.
2 One not insane.
3 Two not insane.
4 Four not insane.
5 Six not insane.
J CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL                   Q  125
Table 2.—Showing in Summary Form the Operations of the Mental
Hospitals since Inception—Continued
Year
Cfl
a
o
1
•3
<
Discharges
Jj
ci
V
a
B
CJ
1   8
A        >H
8 Sfl
* ° M
|0«
Z rt o
OJ
Cfl
CS
OJ
O
S
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ci
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Ih
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Q
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E
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Z-3
CD   <D
O 'ct
o2
O   M    (H
MS
i3  *m"m
*J ca m
O >  cn
u 0J~
chos<:
Percentage of
Discharges to
Admissions (Deaths
Excluded)
Percentage of
Deaths to Whole
Number under
Treatment
V
CD
>
o
o
<D
A
■0
0J
o>
>
O
~ cj
O   QJ
ZoS
1936-1937	
793
783
300
268
3,301
121
4,067
9.96
63.60
6.59
1937-1938	
834
74
330
207
3,487
186
4,255
8.87
67.30
4.86
1938-1939	
827
723
345
208
3,612
125
4,471
8.71
78.72
4.65
1939-1940	
869
111'
455
230
3,710
98
4,713
11.39
88.50
4.88
1940-1941	
864
107°
410
254
3,836
126
4,781
12.38
79.97
5.31
1941-1942	
834
7is
400
255
3,902
66
4,843
8.51
56.46
6.54
1942-1943	
803
91°
443
260
3,925
23
4,919
11.32
66.50
5.31
1943-1944	
840
87
423
309
3,960
35
	
4,965
10.36
61.66
6.02
1944-1945 	
822
9611
377
300
4,019
59
	
4,960
10.46
58.39
6.04
1945-1946	
834
1178
352
240
4,110
91
5,014
14.02
57.43
5.84
1946-1947	
880
971c
496
238
4,151
41
	
5,174
11.02
68.18
4.59
1947-1948	
1,111
12411
560
240
4,269
118
5,447
11.34
63.64
4.40
1948-1949..	
1,260
1371-
748
209
4,355
86
5,758
10.87
76.59
3.63
1949-1950	
1,415
195
787
202
4,602
247
5,999
13.78
69.40
3.37
Discharges
E
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Year
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1
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u
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>
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rt
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Q
Percentage 0
Patients Rec
and Improve
Admissions
Percentage 0
Discharges t
Admissions
(Deaths Excl
Percentage 0
Deaths to W
Number und
Treatment
1950-51               	
1,499
169
421
414
284
223
4,538
64
6,314
6,020
6,035
5,040
39.35
67.04
3.53
1951-52	
1,217
1,332
1,041
138
53
23
301
240
395
438
350
374
252
258
188
188
183
161
4,578
4,791
3,718
40
213
62
36.07
21.99
35.45
92.77
67.64
94.64
3.12
3.03
3.38
1952 53                   	
1953-5413       	
1954-55"
1,139
26
589
313
	
145
3,812
44
	
5,051 |
54.08    |    81.47
2.88
1955-56" 	
1,253
33
705
308
144
3,814
2
5,245 I
58.90    1    83.48
2.75
3 Two not insane.           e Five not insane.           ' Twelve not insane.           8 Ten not insane.           9 Eight not insane.
10 Seven not insane.           « Three not insane;   196 without psychosis.           12 Two not insane;   seventy-eight without
psychosis.            13 Includes Essondale and Colquitz only.             " Includes Essondale a
id Colquitz only;   "Without
Psychosis " included in three columns of " Discharges " shown.
' Q 126
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 3.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by
Health Unit and School District of Residence and Sex, April 1st, 1955,
to March 31st, 1956.
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
East Kootenay, Cranbrook—
School District No. 1.	
„   2          	
„   3. 	
„   4	
„   5	
„   18	
Selkirk, Nelson—
School District No. 6...	
„   7..	
g
1
2
1
1
2
1
4
2
3
4
1
3
2
2
1
8
2
1
4
6
7
2
3
2
3
1
1
6
1
1
7
6
9
14
2
3
200
31
2
1
3
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
6
3
1
8
3
9
3
4
12
5
3
161
23
3
3
1
1
3
2
1
7
3
1
4
7
~2
4
3
3
2
12
2
2
5
1
9
1
9
~~2
4
8
6
1
2
14
1
4
16
9
13
26
7
6
361
54
Metropolitan Health Committee,
Vancouver—Continued
School District No. 44 	
 45	
Simon Fraser, New Westminster—
School District No. 40 	
„   43	
North Fraser Valley, Mission—
School District No. 42- 	
„   75..	
„   76	
11
6
31
12
5
1
1
2
1
6
	
5
1
2
17
11
1
2
7
1
1
5
2
6
2
2
3
4
3
3
3
5
13
13
6
10
10
6
1
6
1
3
4
2
2
15
4
5
2
1
5
2
2
1
1
5
4
2
1
2
24
12
41
22
11
1
2
„   10 	
West Kootenay, Trail—
Upper Island, Courtenay—
School District No. 47-	
 ,   71.	
 72	
Skeena, Prince Rupert—
School District No. 50	
„   51.	
8
2
„   11.	
„   12 	
9
„   13	
South Okanagan, Kelowna—
School District No. 14 	
„   52 	
 53 	
„   54	
9
„   15	
16
3
, 17....	
»                     „   23
Peace River, Dawson Creek—
School District No. 59	
2
„   77 	
North Okanagan, Vernon—
School District No. 19	
„   60	
 81. --.
Victoria-Esquimalt Union Board
of Health—
School District No. 61 (part1)—.
Saanich and South Vancouver
Island—
School District No. 61 (part2)....
„   62.	
2
„   21	
32
„   22 	
„   78. 	
South Central, Kamloops—
15
6
„   25
„   63  .	
4
26
„   64. ...
1
, 29.	
„   30	
Central Vancouver Island,
Nanaimo—
School District No. 65...
„   31
12
Cariboo, Prince George—
School District No. 27	
28
„   66	
1
„   67 	
„   68...	
3
7
„   55	
„   69	
„   70...	
3
„   56
7
„   57
„   79.......	
„   58	
School  districts  not  covered  by
health units—
School District No. 46- 	
„   48..	
„   49 	
Upper Fraser Valley, Chilliwack—
School District No. 32 	
7
„   33	
6
„           „        „   34
3
Boundary, Cloverdale—
 61 (part3).-
„   73	
6
3
„           „        „   36
„   74	
»   37
„   80 	
4
Metropolitan Health Committee,
3
5
School District No. 38	
Ex-province —
Totals  	
15
„           ..       >.   41.   .
525
391
916
1 Includes Victoria and Esquimalt only.
2 Excludes Victoria, Esquimalt, and Oak Bay.
3 Includes Oak Bay only. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q 127
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H O Q 134
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Table 9.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by
Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March
31st, 1956.
Table 10.—Readmissions to Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by Years
of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st,
1956.
Table 11.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by
Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956.
Table 12.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by
Religion and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 13.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by
Previous Occupation and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Detailed information for the above tables may be obtained on request.
;im
Physicians studying in the medical library of the Crease Clinic. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Q  135
Table 14.—Resident Population, Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by
Diagnosis, Sex, and Age-group, December 31st, 1955
Diagnosis
Under
25 Years
25-50
Years
51 Years
and Over
Not
Stated
Total
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
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Acute brain disorders associated with or due to—
1
7
2
5
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
4
1
7
4
7
14
1
2
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6
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1
19
4
11
5
7
37
3
2
9
7
12
1
25
23
48
9
1
2
3
1
8
1
115
42
119
357
4
13
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4
4
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1
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13
4
10
2
7
37
2
2
6
13
2
11
1
1
1
13
29
73
4
11
19
7
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93
46
96
283
5
35
3
71
2
4
1
2
1
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61
40
12
69
23
40
6
3
12
1
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20
4
8
34
19
1
1
65
12
44
346
1
2
28
18
1
4
1
1
7
1
5
29
4
11
1
56
18
50
6
2
1
4
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7
24
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42
30
1
2
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13
43
334
2
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55
11
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3
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3
5
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1
1
1
3
1
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4
51
17
77
67
43
2
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15
1
28
2
1
1
1
27
34
74
13
2
2
3
9
42
20
1
1
188
59
173
722
6
17
1
2
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2
8
1
6
1
42
9
21
4
63
61
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2
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125
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143
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3
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1
C.N.S. syphilis  	
123
13
72
21
140
128
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95
4
33
Personality disorders—
34
5
45
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1
3
1
Adjustment reaction of childhood..	
1
2
1
Mental Deficiencies (familial and idiopathic)—
Mild...	
46
76
185
17
14
Mental deficiencies  with impairment of brain
tissue—
Mild      .
2
3
Psychotic    disorders — Involutional    psychotic
26
Affective reactions—
104
Depressive  	
Other          .	
57
2
6
Schizophrenic reactions—
313
123
316
1,344
3
204
38
1
20
2
1
3
18
3
2
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Psychoneurotic disorders—
Obsessive compulsive 	
Other	
Other diagnosis not classifiable or unknown	
Totals	
70
71
943
921
896
826
16
2
1,925
1,820
3,745 Q 136
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Q  143
Table 19.—Resident Population, Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, Age
Not Stated, by Diagnosis and Length of Stay, as of December 31st, 1955
2 Years
4 Years
5-9 Years
15 Years
and Over
Total
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.        F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Chronic  brain  syndrome—Associated
1
1
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1
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2
4
1
1
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1
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3
5
1
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1
1
3
6
1
1
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2
1
2
....
2
....
10
1
16
2
18
Table 20.—Live Discharges from Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by
Condition on Discharge, Disposition to, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March
31st, 1956.
Home
General
Hospital
Welfare
Institution
Other
Mental
Hospital
Other
Total
Grand
M.
F.
M. | F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
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10
281
44
10
8
246
23
2
1
2
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115
2
96
5
109
15
2
2
31
2
20
10
402
176
12
10
281
121
32
20
683
297
Totals	
350 1 287
3
2
1
—
125
98
129
37
608
424
1,032
1 Includes one case condition not stated. Q 144
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
Table 21.—Live Discharges from Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, by
Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to
March 31st, 1956.
Mental Diagnosis
Condition on Discharge
Recovered
M.
With Psychosis
Schizophrenic disorders	
Manic-depressive reaction	
Involutional melancholia 	
Paranoia and paranoid states	
Senile psychosis  	
Presenile psychosis.
Psychosis with cerebral arteriosclerosis-
Alcoholic psychosis.
Psychosis of other demonstrable etiology..
Other and unspecified psychoses	
Psychosis with mental deficiency..
Anxiety reaction without mention of somatic symptoms- 	
Hysterical   reaction  without  mention  of  somatic
symptoms
Obsessive-compulsive reaction..
Neurotic-depressive reaction .
Psychoneurotic disorders, other, mixed,  and unspecified types  	
Syphilis and its sequela:. 	
Total with psychosis..
Without Psychosis
Pathological personality	
Immature personality 	
Alcoholism   	
Other drug addiction .
Mental deficiency-
Other and unspecified character, behaviour,
intelligence disorders-
and
Chronic brain syndrome with behaviour reaction-
Chronic brain syndrome, N.O.S.	
Epilepsy-
Other diseases of the central nervous system not
associated with psychosis	
Total without psychosis..
Grand totals	
	
6
2
1
1
1
1
	
	
Much
Improved
M.
20 |    11
10
20
12
10
10
Improved
M.      F.
121
14
1
4
3
185
19
2
174
1
217
402
Unimproved1
Total
M.
122
28
2
3
4
3
14
4
2
1
197
21
2
49
2
84
281
33
5
44
29
1
3
1
F.
M.
13
163
2
22
1
1
9
69
47
1
16
36
15
8
1
1
1
3
7
7
2
	
7
8
146
32
3
4
74
1
19
15
5
4
1
11
1
3
4
1
1
Grand
Total
122 | 106 | 334 | 324
11
3
19
12
54
176
15
121
30
5
196
1
15
1
1
11
14
274
608
27
3
51
2
6
100
309
54
4
13
121
1
55
29
13
5
2
18
8
5
11
1
9
658
57
8
247
3
21
3
1
12
19
374
424 | 1,032
1 Includes one male condition not stated. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
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H  THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL Q 153
PART III.—THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER
REPORT OF THE MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT
C. E. Benwell, Medical Superintendent
On April 1st, 1955, our population was 1,208, consisting of 706 males and 502
females. In addition, there were 5 males on probation and 12 females on probation,
making a total population of 1,225. On March 31st, 1956, we had 1,227 patients, consisting of 719 males and 508 females. In addition, there were 5 males on probation and
4 females on probation, making a total population of 1,236.
The waiting-list for admission to The Woodlands School continues to grow. There
are 114 applications under 6 years of age and 195 over 6, making a total of 309 now
seeking admission. Owing to shortage of accommodation, admission continues to be on
an emergency basis. There have been no beds available for adult female pupils and very
few for crib cases over the past year.
The new building now nearing completion, to house mostly crib cases, has a crib
capacity of 292. After accommodating the crib cases at present in The Woodlands School,
numbering 237, there will be left over only 55 cribs to accommodate 114 cases now on
our waiting-list, and this will probably have grown to 150 by the time the building is
ready to occupy. This accommodation will scarcely look after the urgent cases, some of
whom have had applications in for a year or more. There is, at present, considerable
pressure from many agencies throughout the Province to accept this age-group, and this
pressure will be greatly intensified when the new unit is opened.
The adult cases awaiting admission will be fairly adequately accommodated, but
there will be few beds to spare on the male side. In order to make available more beds
for male applications, it is proposed to turn Wards A and B, now occupied by female
patients, into male wards. If this proposal is carried out, and it is the only way we can
obtain the necessary male beds, some minor alterations on Wards A and B will be
necessary.
The health of the institution has again been well maintained. There have been less
serious illnesses this year than in former years and no epidemics. There were reported
only nine cases of measles and fifteen cases of chicken-pox. We were fortunate in the
small number of infectious diseases, as chicken-pox, measles, and mumps were all troublesome at times in the hospital vicinity. There were no cases of whooping-cough, dysentery,
or anterior poliomyelitis.
The number of deaths has again decreased. Most of the deaths were due to constitutional causes plus a terminal infection. As many of the younger children being
admitted suffer from progressive congenital conditions, the number of deaths over the
year is unexpectedly low and speaks well for the medical care given.
The various departments are continuing to give satisfactory service. The Manual
Arts, Shoe Repairing, Upholsterer, and Women's Uniform and Repair Departments all
moved into their new quarters at the beginning of the fiscal year. The brighter atmosphere and pleasanter working conditions are reflected in the improved workmanship and
the happier attitude of the pupils. After the fire at Essondale that destroyed part of the
shops, six men from there have been working in our shoe-repair shop. The new quarters
have accommodated them nicely, and they, with our own group, have turned out a great
deal of work.
The Manual Arts Department is working to capacity, and the articles turned out are
of a higher calibre than formerly. Woodworking is popular with our pupils, and there
are always more wishing to take this form of training than the shop can accommodate. Q 154 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
A collection of work from the men's and women's divisions of Manual Arts was exhibited
this year at the Pacific National Exhibition, for which a bronze medal was awarded.
The recreation and physical instruction of the pupils has been much as usual, with
gymnastic exercises, dances, picture shows, and organized games. Special dances were
also organized for the Hallowe'en, Christmas, and Valentine seasons, and the gymnasium
display was presented in the spring. Efforts were begun toward the fall of the year to
increase recreational activities in the wards. Some success has been achieved, and the
programme will be accelerated by the acquisition of a new member of the recreational
staff.
The need of a playground is still pressing. The site chosen was levelled during the
year, but work was discontinued when the ground became too soft for machinery in the
fall. This work should be resumed as early as possible to take advantage of the dry
weather.
Ward entertainment has been recently improved by the acquisition of a number of
television sets. Four of these were donated by the Hoo Hoo Club of Vancouver, a very
much appreciated gift.
This year, organization of a troop of Boy Scouts and a Cub Pack has been accomplished by two of our psychiatric aides, Mr. Webb and Mr. MacKenzie. The official
inauguration took place on June 9th and the charter presentation on December 8th. This,
I believe, is the second such organization in a school for mental defectives in Canada. It
is amazing what those trained in such activities can bring out in our pupils. It is stimulating both to the pupils taking part and to the members of the staff. There are at present
twenty-two members in each group. A start was made in the organization of Girl Guides
and a Brownie Group. This is progressing satisfactorily, but it will be some time before
it is sufficiently advanced to conduct the inauguration ceremonies.
The auxiliary to The Woodlands School, conducted by the New Westminster Chapter
of the British Columbia Society for Handicapped Children, has continued its activities
during the year. An experimental workshop was organized at the clubroom in New Westminster, where six male pupils went twice weekly to fold papers for florists. The boys
appear to enjoy this outing. The intention is to develop other forms of activity as circumstances permit.
The auxiliary also continued giving groups of our pupils outings to their homes, to
church services, and to parties.
An innovation this year has been the acting of women in the auxiliary as mother
substitutes to some of the patients who have no interested relatives or whose relatives
are unable to visit. They visit them in the School, take them to their homes, and in some
cases have supplied them with clothes and other comforts. This has proven a splendid
morale-builder and has improved the conduct of the pupils both on and off the wards.
Other activities outside the grounds included picnics, entertainments, softball games,
gymkhanas, the Pacific National Exhibition (including the Shrine Circus), and May
Day in New Westminster.
The practice of allowing some of the pupils to take day-time jobs and return to the
School at night has been continued, with very beneficial results.
Quite a number of pupils now enjoy the privilege of going outside the grounds
unsupervised. In this way they are able to do their shopping, attend shows and baseball
games, meet friends, or merely to see the sights. Such activities enable the pupils to
obtain much-needed knowledge of the outside world and give them experience in socialization preparatory to rehabilitation.
The Social Service Department is still working under pressure, and both it and the
School programme in general suffer from not having the services of a psychologist. It
has not been found possible without committing a grave injustice both to the pupils and
the community, to discharge in full many of those on probation at the end of their year. THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL Q 155
At this time they are still much in need of counseling from the Social Service Department,
thus creating additional work.
The Rehabilitation Committee, under the capable chairmanship of Dr. Hughes, has
filled a very useful purpose during the past year. Its chief function is investigating
promising cases for rehabilitation and planning a course of training to fit their individual
needs. In so doing, it stimulates the staff, making them rehabilitation conscious and
giving them a sense of purpose in their work.
Dr. Ellis has continued, with the help of other members of the staff, to conduct
lectures and orientation tours for many outside groups. An innovation this year was the
request to have Dr. Ellis lecture to student-nurses at Essondale.
Dr. H. G. Dunn, Assistant Professor of Paediatrics at the University of British
Columbia, and Dr. B. Tischler, paediatrician at The Woodlands School, continue to work
at classification and card indexing of our younger population. They have also organized
a research project in co-ordination with Dr. W. C. Gibson, Professor of Neurological
Research at the University of British Columbia, on phenylpyruvic acid mental deficiency.
Dr. Dunn is now coming to the School four times weekly to further this programme. Dr.
Tischler also visits the Health Centre for Children in Vancouver each week on her day
off to keep herself informed of the newest advances in paediatrics.
With Dr. Tischler occupied, as she is, with this programme and Dr. Ellis occupied
with lectures and orientation tours, the medical staff at present is quite inadequate to
properly perform the other aspects of treatment in the School. I would like, therefore,
to again draw attention to the advisability of adding another member to the medical staff.
Several members of the staff had the opportunity of attending conferences of the
Northwest Region of the Society for Mental Defectives held in Buckley, Wash., on
April 22nd and 23rd, and at Salem, Ore., on October 14th and 15th. These meetings
deal particularly with the functions of schools for mental defectives, and the meetings
that we attended did more to change the orientation of our senior staff from a rut of dull
routine to one of achievement and a sense of purpose in their work than any event has
done in the last decade. It was a stimulus that has shown no sign of abating. Indeed, it
seems to be growing in momentum as the days go by. The coming conference to be held
at The Woodlands School in the fall of 1956 will further stimulate the staff. I would
recommend that adequate facilities be made available to as many of the staff as is
expedient to enable them to take advantage of any such regional meetings held in the
future.
During the year the old Shops Building was demolished to make room for the new
auditorium. Construction of this addition to our facilities is planned for early in the
coming year.   Its completion is eagerly anticipated.
The changes in staff are reported in detail elsewhere. Here may be noted the
following: Dr. S. Gallagher, dentist, who entered service December 1st, 1954, to fill the
vacancy created by the resignation of Dr. MacCrostie, resigned to begin private practice,
resignation effective June 4th, 1955; Mrs. J. M. Granberg, physiotherapist, who entered
service October 19th, 1953, reigned to take up residence in the United States, resignation
effective September 15th, 1955; and Dr. T. T. Coulter, psychologist, who entered the
service July 16th, 1954, resigned to accept an improved position, resignation effective
November 15th, 1955.
An additional position was created on our recreational staff as recreational instructress. Miss M. von Dehn entered service on March 1st, 1955, to fill this position, and it
appears that she will be a valuable addition to our staff. She was transferred here from
the Girls' Industrial School.
Mr. O. Lowenborg, physiotherapist, joined the staff May 2nd, 1955, and is giving
very satisfactory service in his position. Q  156 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Dr. H. T. Davidson, dentist, entered service August 1st, 1955, to fill the vacancy
created by the resignation of Dr. Gallagher. He is fitting in well and performing his
duties skilfully and satisfactorily.
It is unfortunate that we have been unable to secure a psychologist to fill the vacancy
created by the resignation of Dr. Coulter. The whole School programme is impeded by
the lack of such an assistant.
We are also badly in need of another physiotherapist to fill the vacancy created by
the resignation of Mrs. Granberg. Mr. Lowenborg is performing his duties well, but
there are far too many patients who require physiotherapy to be properly treated by one
physiotherapist. In order for the School to function as it is intended, it must have an
adequate staff, and our staff in the above department is far from adequate.
Dr. Gallinger assumed duties at The Woodlands School on July 1st, 1955, after
spending nine months at Essondale broadening her knowledge on psychiatry.
Dr. Hughes resumed duties here on April 1st, 1955, after an absence of two and
a half years studying for certification in psychiatry. She was successful in her efforts,
certification being obtained in November, 1955. She was then appointed Deputy Medical Superintendent, appointment being effective November 1st, 1955. Since assuming
duties here she has been a great help both in administration and in her new approach
to resolving the emotional difficulties so often present in our pupils. She has at present
four groups of patients on group play therapy, and others on individual play and psychotherapy.   The results of these special treatments so far are very gratifying.
I would like to recommend the following improvements be instituted as soon as
possible.
The parking-lot at present is very rough, and in rainy weather the parking of a car
is difficult. This results in cars being parked on various parts of the grounds, interfering
with traffic. Provision has been arranged to have this area black-topped, but it has been
postponed. I would recommend that the surface be black-topped before the fall rains
set in.
A library is still a pressing need. There should be included in the coming year's
estimates funds to furnish a suitable library and staff reading-quarters. A suitable room
will likely be available when the new building is completed.
I should also again mention the unsuitable quarters housing the dental offices. They
are at present too close to the kitchen, have no waiting area and poor ventilation. More
suitable quarters may be available with the completion of the new unit.
Finally, I would like again to thank the staff of The Woodlands School for their
willing co-operation over the past year, also the various Government departments.
EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Mrs. H. M. Davy, School Principal
During the year four teachers came for several weeks of observation each: Mrs.
Hooper, from Vernon, observed from April 23rd to May 6th; Mrs. Lassen, from Trail,
who has observed on previous occasions, came from July 11th to 22nd; Mrs. Young,
from New Westminster's Beacon School, observed from July 18th to 29th; and Mrs.
Hall, from Kelowna, observed from September 19th to 30th.
There also were about twelve people spending one day at the school. These were
mostly teachers and included Mrs. Toharek, special-class teacher from Richmond; Mrs.
Loland, teacher at Essondale; and Mrs. Jemelita, an occupational therapist from the East.
J THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL Q 157
In addition, student-nurses have spent a number of hours each observing the classroom activities, and many groups, both large and small, have been shown the school's
facilities under the direction of Dr. Ellis or the Social Service Department.
Mrs. Ellis, Mrs. Scharf, and Mr. Mercer applied for leave to attend summer school.
Mrs. Ellis received credits for and completed requirements for her Elementary
Advanced Certificate—Handicapped Children. (I understand that hers is the first to
be granted in British Columbia for the teaching of mentally retarded children.)
Mrs. Scharf, at our request, attended the University of British Columbia's course on
pre-school children in order that we might know of recent developments in equipment
and methods for our pre-school department.
Mr. Mercer's chosen classes were filled before permission for leave was received,
and he therefore did not attend a course, but continued his classes here.
On May Day a large advance party left at 10 a.m. for Queen's Park, with a lunch
packed by the teaching staff. They were followed at 12 noon by the remainder of the
teachers and the seventy-seven pupils who attended the festivities. The purpose of the
early group was to spread themselves upon the bleachers and thus secure room for the
smaller children who followed. This manoeuvre eliminated to some extent the yearly
battle to get seats and will be repeated this coming May Day.
In co-operation with the Occupational Therapy Department, a group of puppeteers
was engaged and two shows were put on in the School gymnasium. A total of 420 pupils
attended.
Lessons on traffic and pedestrian safety were given to the senior classes. This was
particularly for the benefit of those with downtown privileges. The B.C. Electric Company co-operated by sending a lecturer and a film. Seventy-five pupils were present on
this occasion, and thirty-five of these were taken on a bus tour of the city, also courtesy
of the B.C. Electric.
During the summer, under the direction of the Recreation Department, twelve young
pupils were taken to Rocky Point Park.
Picnics on the grounds were held for primary and intermediate groups. Approximately 275 pupils attended these, and about seventy-five pupils attended a senior picnic
held in Queen's Park.
Parties were also held to mark special occasions, such as Hallowe'en, Christmas,
and St. Valentine's Day. Three parties were held for junior and intermediate groups, with
a total attendance of about 300. Senior parties take the form of an evening dance, with
an attendance of approximately 250. The Hallowe'en Dance is always a costume affair,
and this year again the costumes showed a great deal of ingenuity and careful planning.
Santa Claus appeared at the junior and intermediate parties at Christmas and distributed small stockings filled with Cracker-jack and candy.
A number of changes were made in the school classes last fall. A decrease in school
time for those in the lower I.Q. range permitted an increase in daily time at school for
those in the high moron and border-line range of intelligence. Some of these are now
enjoying a five-hour daily programme.
Many more could benefit from increased daily attendance. This could be made
possible by using psychiatric aides under the direction of one teacher to instruct pre-school
children. This would free trained teachers for the benefit of those pupils who are
candidates for rehabilitation.
Domestic Science classes are now receiving training in marketing.
The group whose turn it is to cook the weekly dinner is taken to the local department
or chain store, where they compare the prices of food obtained from the kitchen with
the same weights in the store. The total cost of the dinner is computed, also the cost
of each serving. This not only teaches arithmetic and marketing, but gives the girls the
opportunity to handle money, as the odd item not obtainable from supplies is purchased. Q 158 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
The junior academic room has begun the publication of a school newspaper under
the direction of Mrs. Smith. This has been greeted with enthusiasm, and excellent student
participation has been received.
Gardening classes were again held, with about thirty boys and girls participating.
Owing to the resignation of the teacher and the fact that she was not replaced until
September, most of the gardening supervision fell upon Mr. Ewles, psychiatric aide
attached to the school.
The annual Christmas concert and gymnastic display were held as usual. Parents
of the participating children were invited.
In December, in the School gymnasium, a sale of work disposed of many of the
items made by the handwork classes.
LABORATORY
G. A. Nicolson, Director
The total number of tests performed was 5,997, an increase of 1,822 over the
previous year.
The increase is mainly due to two factors.    One is the increased use of antibiotics
in the treatment of various infections.   This required the performance of 158 sensitivity
tests on bacteriological cultures, as compared with seventy-two for the previous year.
The other factor is the marked increase in the number of phenylpyruvic acid tests, a total
of 1,098, compared with seventy-five for the previous year.
Autopsies performed at The Woodlands School numbered thirteen, and are included
with the Provincial Mental Hospital report.
The laboratory work accomplished is listed below.
Haematology—
White-blood cell count and differential  481
Haemoglobin   625
Bleeding time  6
Reticulocyte count  9
Prothrombin time  2
Red-blood cell count  369
Sedimentation rate  281
Coagulation time   6
Platelet count  7
Clot retraction  2
Eosinophil count  6
Chemistry—
Blood sugar  115
Phosphorus   8
Thymol turbidity   29
Van den Bergh  10
Cholesterol   6
Glucose tolerance  11
Albumin-globulin ratio   20
Calcium   24
Alkaline phosphatase  29
Icterus index  15
Non-protein nitrogen   34
L THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
Q 159
Chemistry—Continued
Hanger flocculation
Insulin tolerance	
Bromsulphalein 	
Serology—
Paul Bunnell	
Cerebrospinal fluid—
Cell count	
Protein 	
Sugar 	
Bacteriology—
Cultures—
73
3
17
6
6
2
Miscellaneous       190
Diphtheria   2
Faeces for typhoid and dysentery      716
Urine 	
Tuberculosis
Fungi 	
Blood 	
Smears—
15
27
29
13
Miscellaneous       210
Skin scrapings for scabies .	
Anal swabs for pin-worms _
Cough plates for H. pertussis
Tuberculosis 	
Vaginal swabs for trichomonas
14
17
1
54
5
Antibiotic sensitivity   158
Faeces—
Parasites   10
Bile   2
Starch   2
Occult blood  7
Fat   2
Eosinophis   1
Urinalysis—
Routine general 	
Bile 	
Urobilinogen 	
P.S.P. renal function test
Phenylpyruvic acid
Sulkowitch test for calcium
Concentration-dilution test _.
Phenylhydrazine test	
1,117
91
2
1
1,098
2
3
1
Total   5,997 Q 160 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
RADIOLOGY DEPARTMENT
J. M. Jackson, Director
The following work was accomplished this year:—
Shoulders 	
              8
Pelvis          	
21
Abdomens  .
                        12
Spines _         .     	
58
Hips _         	
7
Gall-bladders   	
                         2
Mandibles 	
              5
Extremities             	
221
Teeth             ...
          ._.„                     55
Nasal sinuses             	
4
Skulls                              	
108
Noses                                4
Ribs                            7
I.V.P.s  	
                       3
PHYSIOTHERAPY DEPARTMENT
O. H. Lowenberg, Physiotherapist
During the past year the Physiotherapy Department completed 1,995 treatments.
This represented a total of 1,571 males, 352 females, and 72 staff.
We are now in receipt of all equipment ordered, and this equipment is in almost
daily use, either in the Department or on the wards.
A vacancy for additional staff, preferably female, to handle the smaller children
now exists, and it is hoped that it may be filled in the very near future.
DENTAL DEPARTMENT
H. T. Davidson, Dentist
The Woodlands School had the services of a dentist on a full-time basis, except for
the months of June and July.   We also had a competent dental assistant for the year.
The operations completed by Dr. Gallagher from April 1st to June 3rd, 1955, were
as follows:—
Number of patients  353
Prophylaxes      25
Partial dentures       2
Scalings      16
Miscellaneous   119
Periodontal treatments      12
Examinations      12
Fillings  237
Dentures        9
Extractions      45
Repair and reline dentures       4 THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL Q 161
Dr. Davidson commenced duties on August 1st, 1955. During the latter part of
this year, some new Ritter equipment was obtained for the clinic, including dual X-ray
machine, cabinet-model sterilizer, amalgamator, and aspirator.
It is found that on the whole the patients have more periodontal trouble than dental
caries. Rampant dental caries are not as prevalent among the younger patients as they
are in dental practices in the community, probably due to the fact that patients do not get
the same amount of sweets, soft drinks, etc. Better oral hygiene would no doubt help
clear up a lot of the periodonal trouble.
The operations completed in the period from August 1st to March 31st, 1956, are
as follows:—
Number of patients  1,104
Prophylaxes       101
Partial dentures        16
Scalings       136
Miscellaneous      244
X-rays         10
Examinations       202
Fillings       776
Dentures  6
Extractions      216
Repair and reline        24
Periodontal treatments        62
DEPARTMENT OF DIETETICS
Miss J. Ing, Dietician
The year began with the kitchen staff being granted the forty-hour work-week, something which had been happily anticipated. In May, fluorescent lighting was installed in
the steam ventilation hood in the staff cafeteria. This brightened the serving area
considerably, but further improvements are yet to be made.
The plans to organize a Boy Scout Troop and Cub Group here at The Woodlands
School were met with good response and enthusiasm, and presently interested persons
were able to bring about the formation of two such groups. The Boy Scouts held their
inaugural meeting on June 9th, after which refreshments and coffee were served. June
29th brought still another highlight to the scouting group, when approximately twelve
Scouts journeyed to Haney for their first overnight outing. At this point the group had
already acquired a Scout room, complete with small cooking equipment. Thus they
were able to display their own culinary skill on this and future outings. In December
a " parents' night " was held, on which occasion The Woodlands School Scouts and Cubs
were presented with their charter. A large attendance enjoyed both the ceremony and
the delightful refreshments later served.
The cafeteria and dietary office were repainted in pale tones of yellow, beige, and
blue during the autumn months, while the kitchen began the process of a gradual changeover to new stainless-steel cookery and food-containers, as roast-pans and baking-sheets,
etc. Actual food service and preparation on the wards and in the cafeteria are gradually
improving, with every opportunity to employ seasonal products for a varied menu being
used.
At the end of the year the Dietary Department was occupied in ordering the necessary food service equipment for the new unit. Much time was also being spent in laying
the groundwork for a project involving a low phenylalanine diet, which was to begin the
following month. Q  162 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING, WOMEN'S DIVISION
Miss V. M. Sanders, Superintendnt of Nurses
More emphasis has been placed on recreational and play therapy this year. Active
groups have been organized on all the wards, and with some added equipment are now
running fairly smoothly.   This is of benefit to both pupils and staff.
We are endeavouring to increase our in-service education programme. Extra
lectures are being given on mental deficiency for the aides in the evening. The graduate
staff receives special lectures and films when possible during the day.
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING, MEN'S DIVISION
J. N. Elliot, Chief Male Nurse
The male staff shows a continued decrease in the number of trained staff, as of this
date we have 83 psychiatric nurses, 111 aides, 5 student-nurses, 1 instructor of nursing,
and 4 vacancies.   Our staff has been in a constant state of fluctuation this past year.
We have been able to maintain a good standard of ward care. Staff-training has
been accomplished through the willingness of the medical staff and Social Service Department to conduct lectures, by showing selected films and a course of lectures for the
psychiatric aides conducted by our nursing instructor, Mr. Nash.
The rehabilitation programme is introducing many changes in our training programme, also pointing out the need of gradual introduction of our rehabilitable pupils
into the community and the establishing of community life within The Woodlands School.
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
Mrs. T. T. Coulter, Psychologist
Mrs. Thelma T. Coulter, Ph.D., resigned her position as clinical psychologist on
November 15th, 1955, and to date the vacancy has not been filled. However, Dr. Coulter
is continuing on a part-time basis to assist with the research project on phenylpyruvic
oligophrenia, in which the Psychology Department is taking an active part. Six research
conferences were attended in this connection.
The seventeen cases included in the research were first tested in September, 1955,
and retested six months later to obtain the normal rate of progress or deterioration in each
case before the commencement of the diet. The patients will again be tested at intervals
of three months and six months in order that any differences might be demonstrated and
attributed to the diet.
In addition to the research project, referrals for psychological testing were received
from the medical staff, the social service, the nursing staff, and the school.
During the year, 221 patients were examined and a total of 477 tests administered.
A report on each testing period was written for the clinical file of the patient. In addition,
short talks were given to each of twelve groups of students and outside organizations.
Daily conferences were attended on 137 occasions. Weekly staff clinics were attended on
thirteen occasions, and fourteen rehabilitation clinics were attended. Full personality
evaluations of the pupils under review were presented.   Fifty-two therapeutic interviews THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL Q  163
were carried out on two selected patients. Abstracts of seventeen psychological examinations performed at various Child Guidance Clinics were made. There were eight conferences with student-nurses from Essondale to discuss the psychological testing carried
out on patients for their case-history project. Two out-of-town conferences were
attended—one at Buckley, Wash., and one at Salem, Ore. There were forty-nine consultations with various staff members. Two staff members received psychological testing
at their request.
Following is a tabulation of tests used in psychological evaluations of patients in The
Woodlands School:—
Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale       8
California Test of Personality       7
Children's Apperception Test     30
Crawford Small Parts Dexterity       5
Draw-a-Person   126
Goldstein Scheerer       2
Mental Health Analysis       6
Porteus Mazes      37
Progressive Matrices        4
Rorschach Method of Personality Diagnosis     52
Stanford-Binet, Form L     12
Stanford-Binet, Form M     45
Thematic Apperception Test     18
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I     14
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II     54
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children     56
Total  477
It is hoped that in the near future the vacancy for the position of psychologist will be
filled as there is a considerable amount of work accumulating, and this makes it very
difficult for a new staff member taking over the position.
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT
Miss A. K. Carroll, Provincial Supervisor
During the year 1955-56 the Social Service Department has continued to expand
its services and extend its contribution to pupils, parents, other institutional departments
and services and the community. The numbers of cases taken into the Department for
services have increased in all areas. Particularly is this to be noted in the field of community education and community organization. A large section of community already
sees the need for extension of existing health, welfare, and educational services, and the
development of additional services in support of the latter in attaining these adequate
services for all the mentally retarded living in community or resident in institutions.
Every department in The Woodlands School, including Social Service, has been actively
engaged consultatively and educationally in work in this very important field of service.
Staff Changes
The establishment for social workers remains at four—one casework supervisor
and three caseworkers. There were two changes in the staff situation due to the resignation of one member and the transfer of another. As a result, the work of the Department was carried for most of the year by a staff of three.   This created grave pressures Q 164 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
of work. The major reason for resignations continues to be the larger salaries offered
elsewhere and the opportunities for advancement. It is very necessary to do everything
possible to prevent extensive staff turnover if adequate standards of service are to be
maintained.
Department Structure
The sectional structure within which the Department's services are carried continues to prove its effectiveness as it focuses and accelerates the work of helping pupils,
parents, and community to attain the broad objectives in the education and training of
the mentally retarded. These over-all objectives have been defined by progressive
training-schools in the United States and Canada as the development of emotional stability, good health habits, personal adequacy; the learning of social adequacy, wholesome leisure-time activities, useful and purposeful work habits geared to earning a living
wherever possible and, if not, to personal satsfactions and social values. Still another
important objective in the education of the mentally retarded is that of aiding the intellectual development of the individual.
Case loads have continued to increase without any possibility of increase in staff
to handle them in a way which would assure services related to the serious human needs
involved. The staff has attempted to cope with this situation by extending brief services
to the larger numbers seeking help. Brief services employed in such a manner afford
temporary relief only and are offered as a stop-gap until additional staff is available to
give help more related to the serious problems experienced by most people seeking
services from this setting.
Services to pupils and parents during the pre-admission period have increased with
the growth in the numbers of pupils awaiting admission to the School. Parents and
relatives are in need of extensive casework services as they await the admission of the
prospective pupil to the School, and the social worker responsible for this service must
be free to work either directly with the parents or consultatively with other agencies in
the community which are active with the parents.
The intake of pupils in training for casework services has had to be curtailed somewhat to permit more time for casework services to pupils approaching rehabilitation
and to those already placed in working homes for the purpose of gaining socialization
toward healthy social rehabilitation and self-direction. The social workers have continued to be active in the weekly rehabilitation clinics, and their contribution to the
social study of the pupil, his family situation before admission and during his residence
in the School, and likely job resources has proven valuable to the work of the clinic.
The work emphasis of the Social Service Department continues to centre on rehabilitation.   Increasing demands in this area will call for increases in the Social Service staff.
The group work project, focused, as it has been, on demonstration and teaching
of group processes and leadership to all disciplines active with mentally retarded adults
and children in the School, has begun to fulfil its purpose. As a result of this experiment, it is felt that all the professions working in the School have become more adequately oriented to the ward as a group living situation and to the use of recreational
activities in promoting pupil interaction toward more adequate social behaviour. It is
regrettable that the programme has had to be discontinued because of loss of staff, and
the hope is expressed that a reappointment will be made to further assist staff in developing leadership qualities, in understanding motivation, and the skilled use of programme
media.
Case-load Details
Table 1 indicates a total pupil intake of 922 into the Social Service Department
during the fiscal year, an increase of twenty-five cases over the previous fiscal year. In
the total number of cases receiving service, there has been an increase of fifty-eight cases
over those of the previous fiscal year. THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL Q 165
Table 2 shows continuing increases in individual interviews to pupils and parents
during the periods of pre-admission, reception, education and training, and rehabilitation; in all a total of 3,585 interviews were conducted, compared with the total of 3,302
of the previous fiscal year. Some 4,796 conferences and consultations took place
between the social workers and other disciplines in the School. These latter are directed
toward integrated planning for the pupils in residence as well as those approaching
rehabilitation and those pupils who have been rehabilitated. Employers were interviewed
on 521 occasions. The work with community agencies shows a 47-per-cent increase
over the previous fiscal year. Substantial increases are to be observed in every area of
the service.
General Activities of the Social Service Department
(a) Social-work Education.—The Social Service Department participated in the
educational programme for the in-service trained social worker in co-operation with the
Division of Training of the Social Welfare Branch. Four sessions were conducted, during which the functions and services of social workers in the training-school setting were
outlined, together with case presentations illustrative of services at each level of the
pupils' training, education, and rehabilitation.
(b) Education to Allied Professions.—Four groups of affiliate and postgraduate
nurses were oriented to the contribution of social service in the training-school setting.
Others oriented included medical students, psychologists in training, teachers, and social
workers.
(c) Public Interpretation.—Social workers in the Department have co-operated
with other disciplines in the School, and through the medium of panel presentation and
discussion have engaged in interpretation to visiting groups from the Parent-Teacher
Association of Greater Vancouver, New Westminster, Burnaby, and Surrey. School
Inspectors and counsellors from the aforementioned areas have also been introduced
to the training-school programme. The Cerebral Palsy Council from Greater Vancouver
spent considerable time with the School team of professional workers and were introduced to the programme being carried out in education, training, and socialization of
the mentally retarded child. Students from the Department of Sociology, Washington
College, Bellingham, visited for a day and were introduced to the programme.
(d) Public Education.—The social workers have given talks and addresses to Pub-
he Health Nursing Divisions in New Westminster and Port Moody areas; the Y.W.C.A.,
New Westminster; the C.G.I.T., New Westminster; the Tel'em Sorority, Vancouver;
the University Women's Club, New Westminster; the Women's Institute, Surrey; and
the Overseas Wives Club, Vancouver.
(e) Liaison between the School and the Parents' Auxiliary.—The Auxiliary has
had a very active year, and the programme instituted has been both helpful to the School
and progressive in thought and planning. During the year the Auxiliary arranged a
meeting with representatives from the School. This association's work in the development of parents' clinics and sheltered workshops in co-operation with the state training-
school proved of interest to The Woodlands School in its planning for the future.
The Auxiliary opened its first sheltered workshop early in the autumn and initiated
a sheltered workshop project in which six older mentally retarded boys from The Woodlands School participated, under the supervision of an Auxiliary member. This experience has proven a very valuable one for the boys, in the development of sound work
habits, social behaviour, and self-direction. The Auxiliary is to be highly commended
for its interest, dedication, and service in this area. The Auxiliary is now undertaking
extensive development of the workshop project and has been successful in obtaining
more adequate quarters for its operation, located in the Sapperton Youth Centre. Permission to use the Centre was approved by the New Westminster City Council. Q  166 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Members of the Auxiliary are serving as substitute parents to children resident in
the School. Two members have taken an active part in the therapy programme planned
for two adolescent girls resident in the School. As mother figures they have been the
key persons around whom the girls have stabilized, integrated, and grown emotionally
and socially. Through the development of other such services, pupils have enjoyed
hospitality in the homes of members of the Auxiliary, attended church services, shopping
outings, picnics, concerts, and parties. In addition to these valuable services, the clubroom established by members of the Auxiliary last year continues to provide weekly
entertainment to a large and ever-increasing group of residents from the School.
Another valuable service is rendered by members of the Auxiliary through correspondence with parents who have children resident in the School and who, because of
great distances involving expensive travel, or because of illness, are unable to visit regularly. Auxiliary members are able to visit these children, discuss their progress with
the doctor in charge, the nurse, and the social worker, and through correspondence keep
the parents informed. Other members have offered their homes for the accommodation
of visiting parents. All these services are making a valuable contribution to the over-all
programme of the School, in the education, training, and care of mentally retarded
children.
Staff Development
Staff committees in the Social Service Department have continued to study social-
work functions, structures, and services in order to sharpen skills and extend services to
areas of need. During the year fifty-one staff meetings have been held and 129 supervisory sessions have been conducted. The social workers have taken part in eighteen
teaching clinics and have participated in 149 daily team conferences.
The Social Service Department takes this opportunity to acknowledge and thank
community health, welfare, and educational agencies for their helpful co-operation and
support in services to the mentally retarded adult and child. Our thanks go to every
department in the School for the high order of support and co-operation with which they
have purposefully and devotedly worked together for the greater good of the mentally
retarded, both in the School and the community.
Summary
Table 1.—Summary of Cases Given Services by the Social Service Department,
The Woodlands School
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year
1955-56
130
1954-55
97
800
65
32
897
994
864
130
New cases
780
Cases reopened during fiscal year	
Cases reopened from previous fiscal year	
102
40
Total intake into case load	
922
Total number of cases given service	
Cases closed or referred    __    _    _ _   _
1,052
_._     911
Cases carried over____      	
_     141 THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
Q  167
Table 2.—Summary of Social-work Activity in the Social Service Department, The
Woodlands School, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Interviews with or regarding
Pupils and Patients
Consultations regarding Pupils
and Patients
With
Pupils
With
Relatives
Total
With
Other
Disciplines
With
Other
Agencies
With
Employers
Total
1955-56
29
39
765
815
457
235
62
484
367
332
264
101
1,249
1,182
789
775
160
1,971
1,411
479
309
10
303
293
122
264
257
1,084
170
2,274
Rehabilitation—
Pre  	
Post           	
1,968
858
Totals  	
2,105       |      1,480
3,585
4,796
1,037
521
6,354
1954-55
1
1
11       I           164
175
55
776
2,296
198
84
1,113
1,413
130
9
288
277
366
328
20
512
935
35
264
1,361
93
1,401
Rehabilitation (pre and post)	
2,026
Totals	
1,478
1,824
3,302
2,808
704
366
3,848
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY DEPARTMENT, GIRLS' DIVISION
F. M. Robertson, Occupational Therapist
During the year a psychiatric aide and a handicraft instructor have been added to
the staff of the Occupational Therapy Department, the latter at the beginning of January,
1956. The scope of the work has expanded considerably. Between eighty and ninety
pupils are at present on the register of attendance, and numbers are increasing as new
projects develop.
The classes for spastics on Ward K and Ward 2, begun in March, 1955, have been
continued. A number of constructional toys and games have been added to the equipment, and are proving valuable in assisting muscular co-ordination and increasing range
of movement. It appears that the special chairs which it was hoped to obtain would
prove too expensive to manufacture, and working conditions for these pupils are still
not ideal.
A class of boys between the ages of 11 and 16 was started in June, 1955, and is
functioning smoothly. There has been a marked improvement in social relationships
amongst the pupils in this group. During the fall a small exhibition of the boys' work
was held in the Occupational Therapy Department, and was visited by a number of the
medical, administrative, and nursing staff.
An evening hobbies class has recently been inaugurated, a group of six older boys
being selected. These boys, all of whom are in the border-line or high moron range of
intelligence, are receiving instruction in leatherwork and other crafts, which should prove
valuable both as creative and remunerative outlets in the future.
A special morning class for girls on Ward J is now functioning twice weekly. In
addition, two pupils are receiving individual attention on wards, and several girls confined
to bed for a long period are visited regularly.
Two pupils requiring remedial occupational therapy have attended the Department
regularly, and improvement has been noted in both cases. Contact with the Physiotherapy
Department is maintained as far as possible.
Small groups were given simple physical exercises and games for several months
during the year, the physiotherapist's room in the Centre being used for the purpose.
Since the arrival of the new recreational therapist, these have been discontinued. Q 168 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
A number of new items of equipment have been acquired during the year, among
them an upright remedial rug loom and eight lightweight table looms, obtained from
Dryad Handicrafts of Leicester, England. A small firing kiln and tools to start a ceramics
class were asked for, but these have not yet been provided.
A number of hand puppets have been made by the pupils, and a small puppet theatre
is being improvised. Two parties were held in the Occupational Therapy Department
during February—one for girls and one for boys.
In August the Department joined forces with the school, manual arts, and upholstery
sections in providing a display of work. This was shown in the hobbies section of the
Pacific National Exhibition, and The Woodlands School was awarded a bronze medal
for its stall.
The annual sale of work of the school and Occupational Therapy Department was
held at the beginning of December, 1955. During the year a number of blanket slippers
and table runners were made for the wards requiring them.
A lecture on the aims and scope of occupational therapy was given by the therapist
to a group of ward charges (women's side) during 1955. Assistance with suggestions
and materials for starting simple craft activities on the wards was also given to members
of the nursing staff on request. At present a talk on occupational therapy is being
prepared for psychiatric aides on the male and female staff.
During the past year the occupational therapist has been in much closer touch with
the medical and other professional staff, and has attended conferences regularly in the
Medical Superintendent's office in addition to weekly rehabilitation conferences. Much
helpful co-operation has been received from a number of other sections of the School.
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY DEPARTMENT, BOYS' DIVISION
H. Mercer, Industrial Arts Instructor
The tools and equipment have been maintained in excellent condition, with no
repairs required. Supplies have been kept at a working level and used with care and
consideration.
May, 1955, saw the move into the new shop, which has filled the expectations of
the instructor. New counters, cupboards, and benches have been built by the boys.
Lack of ventilation and dust conditions still hamper our operations.
The work of the boys still continues to improve. Our exhibit in the Pacific National
Exhibition won a bronze medal, which speaks for itself.
Much more work is being done by the boys and instructor for every department
within the School. Individual instruction and consideration are still paramount in our
programme.
Numerous visitors have shown real interest and appreciation of our efforts and
achievements.   Other departments have accorded co-operation and help at all times.
RECREATIONAL THERAPY DEPARTMENT
J. A.
Lynes, Chief Instructor
During the past year a larg
e area
of land that was set aside for a playground
was
bulldozed and levelled
Future
plans
call for top surfacing
and seeding of the area to
grass.    Small playing
areas are
being
used, which serve as
a temporary measure
for
playgrounds. THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL Q 169
Ward recreation varies from classes held in the gymnasium in that trainees who do
not attend school or other activities because of their mental capacity are given a special
activated programme in calisthenics and games. Plans are well under way for a complete
coverage of all female wards in an activation programme by Miss Dehn, who has been
recently appointed to the Recreational Therapy Department. Pedal cars, tricycles,
wagons, and games are supplied to wards, which encourage a more active programme by
the nursing staff.
Special events of the year included a picnic to Stanley Park, where over ninety
boys and girls enjoyed games, swimming, and a visit to the zoo. Another outing was
greatly enjoyed by the trainees on the gangs who went to Rocky Point for the day. The
New Year's dance was one of the highlights, when over 200 welcomed in the New Year.
Several small groups were taken to Rocky Point pool for swimming. It is planned
to increase this activity in the coming year. The ninth annual display, which featured
a cross-section of activities carried on by the classes, was well received by over 200
friends and relatives of the pupils.
Over the past years, attendance and participation have steadily increased, and last
year was no exception. Over 300 attended regular classes, which include junior, intermediate, and senior boys and girls. The coming year will see this number further
increased with a programme for ward classes. Q  170 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table 1.—Movement of Population, The Woodlands School,
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Male
Female
In residence, April 1st, 1955 	
On probation, carried forward from 1954-55..
Total as at April 1st, 1955	
Admissions—
First admissions	
Readmissions from a different institution of Mental Health Services..
Readmissions from the same institution   	
Total admissions	
Total under care _	
Separations—
Discharged in full.  	
Died   _.	
On probation and still out —	
Total separations  	
Net increase or decrease ..—	
In residence, March 31st, 1956	
706
5
502
13
+ 13
719
+6
508
1,208
18
711
515
1,226
33
4
1
13
1
46
5
1
.
38
14
52
749
529
1,278
12
13
5
10
7
4
22
20
9
30
21
51
+ 19
1,227
Table 2.—Showing in Summary Form the Operation of The Woodlands School
since April 1st, 1954
Discharges
ca £
c     c
y  i  c
a
o
tfi
si
c
i
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ta
.■=■
rt
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tHttHl
u o
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a
ts
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a
o
ct
a
u
Q
Ih
<U
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o «
si i>
SI'S
sis
OJ £  0J
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u
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&
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a
B
B
D
«JS rt
i-?»-*o
£s§
1954-55	
57
4
11
22
1,208
19
1,263
7.02
26.32
1.74
1955-56...	
52
4
18
20
1,227
19
1,278
7.69
42.31
1.56
Table 3. — First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Health Unit and
School District of Residence and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 3 1st, 1956
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
East Kootenay, Cranbrook—
School District No. 4. .	
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
3
2
1
1
2
1
1
8
I
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
17
3
3
1
1
North Fraser Valley, Mission—
School District No. 42	
„   75	
Upper Island, Courtenay—
School District No. 71	
2
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
1
1
1
2
West Kootenay, Trail—
School District No. 12
1
1
School District No. 20
Skeena, Prince Rupert—
School District No. 53 	
Peace River, Dawson Creek—■
School District No. 59	
„   22	
Cariboo, Prince George—
School District No. 27	
1
1
„   57	
Victoria-Esquimalt Union Board
of Health-
School District No. 61 (part1 ).-
Central Vancouver Island, Nanaimo—
School District No. 68. 	
„   70	
Upper Fraser Valley, Chilliwack—
School District No. 33	
Boundary, Cloverdale—
School District No. 35
2
„   36  	
Metropolitan Health Committee,
Vancouver—
School District No. 39	
2
3
School districts not covered by
health units—
School District No. 80	
„   41
1
„   44.	
2
Simon Fraser, New Westminster—
Totals	
37
14
51
„   43	
Includes Victoria and Esquimalt only.
- THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
Q 171
Table 4.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Mental Diagnosis,
Age-group, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Age-group (Years)
Mental Diagnosis
Under
1
1-3
4-6
7-9
10-141
15-19
20-29
30-39
40 and
Over
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Mental deficiency—
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
4
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
---
3
12
11
6
2
2
1
1
7
2
2
2
4
Imbecility	
2
1
19
13
Border-line intelligence	
Mongolism 	
Mental deficiency with epilepsy
Other and unspecified types	
6
	
-
4
4
1
Totals	
3
4
8
8
7
5
	
5
H    1
1
1
2
_|    1
1
5
37
14
51
1 Excludes one readmission.
The fifty-one cases shown as first admissions to Woodlands were one urgency and fifty by certification under the
" Mental Defectives Act.''   The marital status of all fifty-one was single.
Table 5.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Years of Schooling,
Mental Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 6.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Citizenship, Age-
group, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 3 1st, 1956
Table 7.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Religion and Sex,
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 8.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Previous Occupation
and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Detailed information for the above tables may be obtained upon request.
Table 9.—Live Discharges from The Woodlands School by Mental Diagnosis,
Condition on Discharge, and Sex, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Condition on Discharge
Total
Mental Diagnosis
Improved
Unimproved
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Mental deficiency—
2
1
1
1
3
3
1
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
3
2
4
2
1
1
1
1
5
4
Totals                     	
2
2
10
8
12
10
22 Q 172
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1955-56
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h Q  176 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
PART IV.—PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME,  COLQUITZ
MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT'S REPORT
L. G. C. d'Easum, Medical Superintendent
It is with sincere regret that the death of Dr. George Hall is reported. He died in
September, 1955, after an illness of short duration. Dr. Hall had been the visiting
physician here since 1919. He always took a keen interest in all the activities of the
institutions, was highly respected by all, and his loss is deeply felt.
The vacancy created by the death of Dr. Hall has been filled by the appointment of
Dr. S. S. Avren as visiting physician. Dr. William Dempsey continues to care for the
dental needs of the patients.
Our patient population on April 1st, 1955, was 288, and at the end of the year it was
281. During the year fourteen patients were transferred to this institution from the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, and eleven patients were transferred from this institution to Essondale. Eight of these eleven patients were transferred to the North Lawn
Building to be treated for pulmonary tuberculosis. The other three were cases requiring
surgery.   Two patients were discharged.
There were eight patient deaths during the year. All the patients were elderly and
the commonest cause of death was circulatory failure.
Throughout the year the physical health of the patients has been on the whole satisfactory. We had an epidemic of influenza in March, 1956, when a great number of the
patients were affected, and also several members of the staff. We have a number of
elderly patients whose health in naturally retrogressing with the passing of years. Forty
of our patients are now in receipt of Old Age Security pension.
The Victoria Chest Clinic has been most co-operative throughout the year, and the
mobile unit of the Division of Tuberculosis Control visited the institution three times.
A few new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were reported and, as mentioned above, have
been sent to Essondale for treatment.
During the year it was necessary to hospitalize six patients in St. Joseph's Hospital
for emergency surgery. In some instances the stay in hospital was lengthy, and this
necessitated detailing staff to special duty for a total of 202 eight-hour shifts.
The occupational-therapy facilities, as always, were used to the limit. The conversion work mentioned in last year's report has now been completed, and we have facilities
for occupational therapy in the basement floor of the building. We now await the
arrival of an instructor. A great deal of industrial therapy was done throughout the year
by patients under the supervision of the Maintenance Department.
Along with the usual activities of the patients granted grounds privileges and those
assisting in the various departments, a full programme of recreation, which included
bingo, cards, and table games, and concerts sponsored by interested groups and service
clubs, was well received by those able to attend. Formerly we had two moving-picture
shows a week, but the Wednesday night show has been discontinued because of the
patients' preference to watch boxing on television. The recreation court continues to
prove a great asset and, weather permitting, patients are outdoors both afternoon and
evening.
The annual tour of Greater Victoria on May 24th, when as many as thirty-three
patients are taken, proves to be a very popular event.
The spiritual needs of the patients were cared for by the Salvation Army, Church of
England, and the Roman Catholic Church.
J PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME
Q  177
The percentage of psychiatric aides to the total nursing staff remains practically the
same as last year; that is, 33 per cent.
In conclusion, I would like to express my appreciation for assistance and support
during the year, and to the members of the staff who have visited this institution in a
consulting capacity. I would also like to take this opportunity to compliment the staff
of this institution on their efficiency and co-operation during the year.
DENTAL DEPARTMENT
W. G. Dempsey, Dentist
The following dental work was performed this year:—
Examinations and consultations 	
Extractions	
Restorations 	
Prophylaxis 	
Denture adjustment	
Denture repairs	
Denture relines	
Dentures 	
  119
  146
     35
       9
     14
       5
       1
       6
Impressions taken       6
Bites for dentures taken       6
Try-in of dentures       6
Insertion of dentures       6
Intra-muscular penicillin  12,000,000 units
Members of the staff, as they have become more experienced in dental service, have
served very well during the year.
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING SERVICE
P. T. McLeod, Chief Psychiatric Nurse
During the year five members of the nursing staff (permanent appointments) left
the service for the following reasons: Superannuation,!; health reasons, 2; resigned to
accept other employment, 2.
With the position of instructor being abolished in November, 1955, the established
positions in the Nursing Service were reduced to fifty-eight, with one casual employee
engaged for approximately five months in the summer for holiday relief purposes.
Besides regular ward duties, staff members escorted groups of patients to the Vancouver Island Chest Clinic, Victoria, and others for eye examinations and emergency
dental treatment to the respective doctors' offices in Victoria.
Duties in the recreation field formerly attended to by the instructor are being taken
care of by members of the Nursing Service.
Instruction in the operation of the motion-picture projector has been given to several
members of the staff.
The three-station selective radio installed in March, 1956, with speakers on the
wards and in the recreation court and outside buildings of the various departments, is
a vast improvement over the one replaced. Q  178 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
The Red Cross Society and returned soldiers' organizations, together with the
women's auxiliaries, supplied comforts monthly to the ex-service patients.
The library, the books of which were changed three times during the year, provided
adequate reading material for the use of those interested.
Members of the Nursing Service are to be commended for the manner in which they
performed their duties. The co-operation between the other departments and that of the
Nursing Service was excellent and greatly appreciated.
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY DEPARTMENT
H. Helander,Instructor
In the handicrafts section of the shop, cabinetwork, leathercraft, art metalwork,
wood-carving, and copper-foil work were done and taught to patients. The art of
ceramics was introduced during the past year and should prove popular with patients.
A kiln has been ordered, and a potter's wheel is in the process of being made in the shop.
An exhibit of articles made in the Occupational Therapy Department was set up at
the exhibition held in the curling-rink in May. It attracted considerable attention, and
many favourable comments were expressed.
During the year, maintenance of all buildings was done by our Department, with
the exception of major plumbing and electrical work. One hundred and fifty feet of
concrete steam-pipe duct was put in, this entailing formwork and pouring of concrete,
complete with lids.
The new stores were completed with shelving, cupboards, and office. In the old
stores, several brick partitions and a concrete stairway were removed, old whitewash was
chipped off, and all of it given two coats of paint. A toilet, wash-basin, and sink, plus new
lighting, were installed by the Public Works Department. This part of the building
should now prove satisfactory as a tailor-shop and a new occupational-therapy shop
inside the main building.
The circle around the fountain was cut down in diameter by 12 feet and new concrete curbing put in; part of the main roadway was widened and new curbing installed.
The roadway from the sides of the main building to the front gate was black-topped by
contract.
The totem-pole at the front of the building was dug up, repainted in our shop, a
concrete base poured, and the pole erected again.
Considerable painting was done by the paint crew during the year. The centre
dormitory was redecorated, as well as smaller areas, such as halls, washrooms, and
dining-rooms. The exteriors of the smaller buildings at the back of the main building
were all painted.
In November we made small alterations to the sewage-disposal unit, and when it
went into operation on December 6th, we took over the operating, which includes making
tests, keeping it clean, and checking the machinery.
Quite a number of toys were made during the year, and these were taken to the
Salvation Army before Christmas to be given to needy families.
Building and repair of furniture and repairs to beds have been attended to as needed.
Checks were made regularly to prevent fire-hazards, fire-fighting equipment kept in
good shape, and any suggestions made by the Saanich Fire Chief corrected. Thread on
all 2Vi-inch hose and hydrants was changed to conform to the standard required. PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table 1.—Movement of Population, Provincial Mental
Home, Colquitz, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Number1
In residence, April 1st, 1955 .  288
On probation, carried forward from 1954—55       4
On escape, carried forward from 1954-55       1
Total as at April 1st, 1955 293
Admissions—Transfers      14
Total under care  307
Separations—
Discharged in full  14
Died   8
On probation and still out  3
Escaped but not discharged  1
Total separations     26
Net increase or decrease  —7
In residence, March 31st, 1956     281
This institution cares for male patients only.
Q  179
Table 2.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by Health Unit
and School District of Residence, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Health Unit
West Kootenay, Trail—
School District No. 12.   	
Number
...    1
Health Unit
Saanich and South Vancouver Island—
School District No. 61  (part1)             	
Number
.   2
Cariboo, Prince George—
School District No. 27	
1
1
1
2
1
.    1
Central Vancouver Island, Nanaimo—
School District No. 65	
    2
„    57	
„    68...	
     1
Metropolitan Health Committee, Vancouver—
School District No. 39 	
 41 , „ 	
School districts not covered by health units—
School District No. 61   (part5). 	
Total	
1
   14
School District No. 40 	
„    43                  	
1 Excludes Victoria, Esquimalt, and Oak Bay.
2 Includes Oak Bay only. Q 180
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 3.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by Mental
Diagnosis and Age-group, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Mental Diagnosis
Age-group (Years)
Total
0-24
25-29
1
30-34 1 35-39
1
1            1
40-44 1 45-49 I 50-54
1             1
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and
Over
Schizophrenic disorders—■
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
—
1
2
1
-
1
....
3
1
2
Other and unspecified	
Pathological personality—
Paranoid personality	
Epilepsy 	
Totals...	
2
5
1
1
—
1
3    I    --
....
1
....
14
Table 4.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by Mental
Diagnosis and Marital Status, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Mental Diagnosis
Marital Status
Single
Married
Separated
Total
Schizophrenic disorders...
Pathological personality-
Epilepsy...
Syphilis and its sequelae-
Totals	
10
14
Table 5.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by Years of
Schooling and Mental Diagnosis, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 6.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by Citizenship
and Age-group, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 7.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by Religion,
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Table 8.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by Previous
Occupation, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Detailed information for the above tables may be obtained on request. PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME
Q 181
Table 9.—Live Discharges from the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by
Mental Diagnosis and Condition on Discharge, April 1st, 1955, to March
31st, 1956.
Condition on Discharge
Mental Diagnosis
Recovered
Much
Improved
Improved
Unimproved
Total
Schizophrenic disorders	
1
1
1
10
1
11
1
Psychosis with psychopathic personality	
2
Totals                   ...    .  	
1
1
1          1          11
14
Table 10.—Live Discharges from and Deaths Occurring in the Provincial
Mental Home, Colquitz, by Mental Diagnosis and Age-group, April 1st,
1955, to March 31st, 1956.
Age-group (Years)
0-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-69
70 and
Over
Live Discharges
Schizophrenic disorders—
Simple type	
1
1
1
2
4
1
-
1
2
1
1
2
g
Psychosis—Secondary or due to accidents or violence 	
1
2
Totals             	
1
1
7    |      1
-
1
3
14
Deaths
5
3
S
Totals	
....
.       1    ....
5
3
g
Table 11.—Live Discharges from and Deaths Occurring in the Provincial
Mental Home, Colquitz, by Mental Diagnosis and Length of Stay, April
1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956.
Length of Stay
Mental Diagnosis
Over 1
but under
2 Years
Over 2
but under
3 Years
Over 3
but under
5 Years
Over5
but under
10 Years
10 Years
and Over
Total
Live Discharges
2
1
1
2
7
1
11
1
Other and unspecified psychoses..    .
2
Totals
3
1
_..
2
8
14
Deaths
1        1
1
6
g
Totals 	
1
1
6
g Q 182
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1955-56
Table 12.—Deaths Occurring in the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by
Cause of Death and Age-group, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Cause of Death
Age-group (Years)
Total
0-34
35^14
45-54
55-64
65-69
70 and
Over
....
-
....
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
Vascular lesions affecting the central nervous
1
Arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart-disease
Pneumonia   	
4
1
1
Totals  	
....        |      ....
....
5
3
g
Table 13.—Deaths Occurring in the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz, by
Cause of Death and Length of Stay, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Length of Stay
Cause of Death
Over 2
but under
3 Years
Over 3
but under
5 Years
Over 5
but under
10 Years
10 Years
and Over
Total
1
....
1
1
1
3
1
1
Vascular lesions affecting the central nervous system.... 	
1
4
1
1
Totals  	
1
1
6
g GERIATRIC DIVISION
Q  183
PART V.—GERIATRIC DIVISION
REPORT OF MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT
B. F. Bryson, Medical Superintendent
There continues to be a constant demand for the admission of elderly mentally ill
persons to this Division, and a demand with which the available facilities cannot cope.
In fact, there has been a slight increase in the number of applications received, there being
340 during the past year, compared to 333 for the previous year. This represents an
average of twenty-eight applications a month. In the Terrace and Vernon areas the
requests for direct admission to these units has doubled during the year, with seventy-four
applications received for Vernon, compared to thirty-six the previous year, and twelve for
Terrace, against last year's six applications. In practically all cases it was possible to
accept the applications for Vernon and Terrace immediately, except for those for women
to the Vernon unit, where there is usually a waiting-list of three or four.
The greatest demands come from the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island for
accommodation at the Port Coquitlam unit. Of the 254 applications received from this
area, it was possible to accept only 161, leaving a total of ninety-three to swell the
existing waiting-list. However, this represents a decrease compared to last year, when
291 applications were received, of which 170 were admitted.
The ratio of requests for the admission of men compared to that for women remains
fairly constant.   Applications for men numbered 166; for women, 174.
There continues to be great difficulty in determining and comparing the degree of
urgency of the many applications received, as all cases have definite need for the type of
care offered by the three Home for the Aged units. As the available accommodation is
insufficient to accommodate all who apply, there is, of necessity, a waiting-list of some
proportion. However, as in previous years, many requests for admission have been very
urgent and, after careful evaluation, have been accepted for admission on an emergency
basis immediately or very shortly after receipt of the application, even though others have
been waiting longer. The policy has continued to be one of utilizing available beds to the
best advantage by ac