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Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols For the Year Ended March 31st, 1956 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1957

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Annual Report
of the
Inspector of Gaols
For the Year Ended
March 31st, 1956
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Inspector of
Gaols for the year ended March 31st, 1956.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., December 3rd, 1956.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pace
Introduction  7
Oakalla Prison Farm—
Men's Section  8
Women's Section  11
Young Offenders' Unit  16
WestgateUnit  20
Haney Work Project  24
Medical Report  26
Report of Psychologist  37
Report of Protestant Chaplain  40
Report of Roman Catholic Chaplain    43
Report of Librarian  45
Staff Training School '  47
Nelson Gaol  48
Kamloops Gaol  50
Prince George Men's Gaol  52
Prince George Women's Gaol  54
Probation Branch  56
Appendix—Statistics of Institutions .  58  Report of the Inspector of Gaols, 1955-56
Honourable Robert W. Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I submit with pleasure the Annual Report covering the Provincial Gaols and
Probation Branch for the year ended March 31st, 1956. By way of introduction I would
offer some comments on some of the more important developments made in our correctional system during the year.
Warden Christie's report of the continued success of the comparatively new programme developments at Oakalla Prison Farm is particularly gratifying. The Young
Offenders' Unit, Westgate, the Women's Gaol, the Haney work camp, and the programme
of observation and classification, all are fascinating developments which have lifted
Oakalla from the position of a backward centre of mere detention to that of an institution
where are being carried out programmes as modern as any in Canada.
Our Medical Officer, Dr. R. G. E. Richmond, has given us once again an extremely
interesting report. From the doctor's account of progress made during the year in
medical treatment of inmates, it is evident that, in spite of handicaps of physical
plant, much has been accomplished. We are all eagerly looking forward to the day when
adequate hospital facilities will be available.
The Wardens of Kamloops and Nelson continue to report progress. With very little
to work with in the way of either buildings or land, they and their staffs are accomplishing
good results, and they deserve high praise for their conscientious efforts toward constructive programmes for the rehabilitation of those inmates in their care.
We have herein our first report on the new Prince George Men's Gaol. As this
institution had been operating only seven months at the time of reporting, little had been
accomplished in the way of a training programme, although the majority of the inmate
population have been given the benefit of a constructive work programme at all times.
There have been difficulties due to inexperienced staff, and also unforeseen changes have
had to be made in the new building. These difficulties are being rapidly overcome. Consistent, intelligent staff training is fast countering inexperience, and except for the fact that
we are already facing a problem of overcrowing because of the tremendous development
in this part of our Province, we are beginning to make some real progress in Prince
George. I am confident that next year's Report will contain an interesting account of
accomplishment there.
Consistent reports of worth-while programmes again come from the Matron in
charge of the Prince George Women's Gaol. In spite of handicaps of physical plant,
Mrs. McKenzie and her staff are doing a fine job.
As in other years, we have interesting reports from out Chaplains, Psychologist,
Librarian, and from Professor E. K. Nelson, our training officer. There have been certain
new developments in the staff-training programme during the year. Results have been
extremely gratifying, and I am hopeful of expansion of this phase of our correctional
programme in another year.
Activities of the Probation Branch are reported. Some staff changes are noted and
extensions of the service indicated. Year by year the volume of work of this Branch continues to show a steady increase. I cannot but feel a sense of personal pride in this
development.
In closing I would once again express my thanks to all our many friends who have
assisted us in our efforts to make British Columbia's penal programme a constructive one.
Thanks are extended to the John Howard Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, and the
Salvation Army for their after-care work; to the press for sympathetic interpretation of
7 O 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
our policies; to officials of other departments of all levels of government for their cooperation; and to all others who believe, as we do, that constructive programmes toward
rehabilitation are the mark of an intelligent democratic society.
The Wardens, senior staff, guards, matrons, and clerical staff of all our gaols, the
staff of the Corrections Branch, and Probation Officers are once again to be commended
on their loyalty and conscientious application to the tasks before them.
Finally I submit the following recommendations for your consideration:—
(1) It is becoming increasingly evident that the gaol facilities at Kamloops are
entirely inadequate. A similar situation exists at Nelson. I sincerely urge
that early consideration be given to the construction of a modern gaol
similer to the new Men's Gaol at Prince George, but with an added
capacity, situated in a location somewhere between Kamloops and Nelson,
and that these two Interior institutions be closed. Once again I would
urge that in selecting the location for this new institution, a large tract of
land should also be available.
(2) It is gratifying to know that it appears now that a suitable site for a new
Women's Gaol has been located, and there should be no change in our
plan to construct this institution just as soon as possible.
(3) Early attention should be given to increasing facilities for admission,
observation, and classification of prisoners at Oakalla. This is especially
important in the light of the part this institution will play in the classification process once the new gaol at Haney is opened.
(4) The expansion of the Probation Branch throughout the past few years is
a gratifying development. We still feel that we are in the forefront in this
dominion in regard to the use of probation in our Courts, and I strongly
urge that, if anything, we should redouble our efforts to strengthen the
service as it now exists and to extend it where the need in other areas
seems apparent.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E.  G.  B.  STEVENS,
Inspector of Gaols and Provincial Probation Officer.
OAKALLA PRISON FARM
Men's Section
E.G.B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Oakalla Prison Farm for
the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1956.
The reports from the various units of the institution again indicate a year which has
shown some progress. The degree of success, though not spectacular, has been steady
and is most apparent in the Women's Unit, Westgate, the Young Offenders' Unit, and the
Classification and Hospital Units. The West Wing, which holds prisoners awaiting trial,
appeal, and transfer to the Penitentiary;, the East Wing, which contains our habitual
delinquents and drug addicts; and the Records and Bursar's sections of the administration REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 9
have been so swamped by the increase in population that their greatest achievement has
been to hold the line. They have done so without an increase of staff or equipment to
handle their greatly increased problems.
My general comment concering the Women's Unit is to acknowledge the outstanding
success Miss Maybee and her staff have achieved in maintaining the highest possible
standard of discipline and control at the same time that they have achieved a degree of
harmony and thereapeutic atmosphere unprecedented in this institution.
The Young Offenders' Unit has continued its very successful method of operation to
the point where its security record of no runaways within the year, a good standard of
control and discipline without coercion, and its high percentage of inmates rehabilitated
are almost unnoticed and taken for granted. The fact that such a completely different
method of programme, allowing different privileges and liberties than other units, can be
operated in close proximity to more limiting methods is not only an achievement, which
would not have been considered possible some years ago, but is also a tribute to the
mature attitude and teamwork of all staff, including those in the other units on the grounds.
The efforts of their staffs to obtain an education, while working full time at the
institution, may be an indication that the time has come for us to follow the lead of other
departments, who have allowed selected staff to attend university on part salary, on the
understanding that they will return to benefit the service, and thus reward initiative and
reduce the heavy grind which takes place when a staff member it attempting, particularly
when he is married, a full-time job along with his university courses.
The Westgate Unit's experiment in selecting 400 of our most hopeful inmates and
subjecting them to a programme of hard work and hard play has continued to be successful for this more adult group. Although this unit has operated an active work and play
programme, which kept all shops and recreational and educational facilities going from
start of programme at 7 a.m. until lights out at 10.15 p.m., they have maintained a high
level of security, discipline, and morale.
This group does more work per man than any other unit at Oakalla. They have
shown the best response to charitable undertakings, such as their turnout to the Red Cross
blood clinics and the production of toys for crippled children, etc., and have had no
breaches of custody during the whole year.
This programme, although not intensive in the therapy provided and, therefore,
unable to handle emotional problems of any great depth, shows great promise as an
economical method of developing wholesome work and living habits and appears to
produce a high standard of success in rehabilitating the non-professional delinquents.
The South Wing Classification Unit was set up to screen all admissions to the institution, in order that proper segregation could be attained. This unit, although it only sets
up the machinery at this stage of development, already gives a superficial assessment of
physical conditions, work potential, intelligence and aptitude, the degree of security risk,
and the type of unit and programme which would ensure the minimum of contamination
and a maximum of benefit.
The West Wing was built over 40 years ago to house the average offender. To-day
it attempts to hold, though unsuitably designed for the job, men awaiting life imprisonment or possible execution and such a number and variety of difficult and upset cases,
including those bordering on mental illness and those on withdrawal from drugs, that the
problem in this setting must be considered insoluble. During the year professional
criminals on two occasions, through a series of well-planned gambles, took advantage of
inexperienced staff and the inadequate physical resources. More of these incidents might
have occurred during the year but for the daily strategy and, indeed, the almost sixth sense
and alertness of the experienced senior staff of this unit.
The time is long overdue for the setting-up of a proper unit for inmates awaiting
trial and appeal, either in a secure central building in the metropolitan area, as found in O  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
some large cities, attached to their courts and other public safety offices, or in an
adequately constructed building equipped to handle the job at Oakalla. Due to the
pressures of work in this area being too great, the staff in this wing must be rotated too
rapidly to maintain good continuity. Although they never complain, it is not right to
expose staff to such dangers unnecessarily, as they take each incident as a personal insult
to their reputations.
The Administration Section, which in its records office handles roughly 7,000 admissions a year, as against the 4,000 of less than six years ago, is taxed far beyond its
capabilities. New quarters, additional staff, and the use of such assisting equipment as
an inspectorscope and other scientific aids for detecting smuggled weapons, contraband,
etc., to replace the impossible job of hand-searching this number of admissions will have
to be considered soon.
The Bursar's Office and Stores have had the advantage of help and advice from the
Department during the year, and though they have been swamped with the extra paperwork involved, in stores handling, accounting, and the checking of personal effects and
cash for the larger population, they may, as a result of authority from the Department,
stream-line some procedures to enable them to turn in a measure of performance for the
coming year more in keeping with their fine reputation in the past.
The hospital, as a result of the increased number of admissions and the high incidence
of addiction, with its resultant treatment for withdrawal and the diseases which accompany
malnutrition, has been very overworked.
The large number of prisoners requiring transportation to and from the General
Hospital has been alleviated to some extent by Dr. Richmond's attempt to carry out minor
surgery and a far greater amount of treatment than in the past in the prison hospital.
This has required staff training and has resulted in a heavy load for the prison Medical
Officer.
While the problems in this unit have been so great as to be a cause for pessimism,
the record of successful treatment and the phenomenal amount of work being accomplished by one prison doctor and the staff trained by him is an achievement which demands
recognition.
The Haney camp, which has provided not only a useful treatment device, but also
an opportunity for inmates anticipating release to build up a few dollars to tide them over
until their first pay-cheque, is a project which should have further consideration. Its
continuation would not only assist the programme at Oakalla, but, furthermore, it, in
itself, can be considered as a therapeutic unit, which can stand on its own merits. It
could be re-established at a distance from Haney, though still within travelling distance
of Oakalla, and I would strongly recommend that a new site be chosen for the continuation
of this project in the coming year.
In conclusion I would like to acknowledge, with thanks, not only the quiet but
consistent loyalty of staff in the face of aggravation and encouragement to do otherwise,
but also the contribution of the people, the press, and the social agencies throughout the
Province who have given praise to the various units of the institution where it has been
due, thus contributing substantially to the success of this work.
The co-operation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the city police
forces throughout the year has been very much appreciated.
The support and encouragement received from your office and the Government
toward more progressive correctional work is reflected in the following reports.
Respectfully submitted.
Hugh G. Christie,
Warden. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O  11
Women's Section
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—I beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Women's Gaol for
the year ended March 31st, 1956.
Staff
Personnel have shown a distinct improvement in interest, morale, and participation.
Better working conditions, hours, wages, and a feeling of security have aided in the selecting and retaining of a very satisfactory staff. A large percentage of the matrons now have
valuable experience, education, and training, factors which have made the successful
operation of the programme possible. The particular experience of each member in the
practice of safe custody, homemaking, catering, business administration, teaching, case
work, hobby-craft, medical and psychiatric nursing, guidance, counselling, and vocational
skills has been used to full advantage.
The staff has acquired more awareness of the aims of programme and the value, to
the inmate, of social and vocational education. Although we may be far from our ultimate
goal, we feel, at this point, that we have succeeded in teaching good work habits and
acceptable group living.
Population
During the year we have admitted a total of 575 women, a number which represents
a wide variety of types and sentences.
There has been a sharp increase in the very short sentences of from five to ten days.
Very little can be accomplished with a confused and disturbed inmate on a five-day
sentence, except the tedious and time-consuming routines of admission, medical and
nursing cares, and protective custody. Frequently the alcoholic is not competent enough
for release at the end of her sentence, and it is with a feeling of inadequacy and grave
doubts that these people are discharged to care for themselves.
There has also been a noticeable increase in recidivism among the older addict group
who have been drawing longer sentences, typically twenty months. As their years of
prison record have accumulated, they have assumed more of an air of bitterness, resentment, and hopelessness. This has been especially true of the addicts who have made one
or two attempts to cure themselves of the habit. As a result, discipline and safe custody
have been made increasingly difficult by the attitude of the inmate who feels she has
nothing to lose, so why conform.
It is a tribute to the general policies of Oakalla that adequate routines have been
designed to keep this type active and controlled at work and recreation.
There has also been a trend to sentence more first offenders to gaol, in spite of the
increasingly large number on probation. A good deal of attention has been focused on
this group, with encouraging results. First offenders who are not alcoholics or addicts
have not been returning to gaol.
Facilities
Tensions, resulting from overcrowded facilities, placed demands on individuals,
necessitating continuous and considerable adjustment to irritating conditions. Careful
placement was necessary if fights and minor riots were to be avoided. The average
inmate was surprisingly congenial in adjusting quickly to a programme which caused
sufficient strain without the added necessity of working and living in congested areas.
The small cottages continued to fill an urgent need for the first offender, and the
apparent beginnings of a pattern of results have been encouraging. It has been exceedingly difficult to measure the success of these units, but results have shown that it can O  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
now be considered well beyond the experimental stage.    Cottages have not only helped
to avoid contamination, but have made re-education and treatment possible.
These units have demonstrated quite clearly that people reform people, and that the
quality of staff supervising the group or the team is the important factor.
Socialization Programme
Principles of Group Therapy as Practised.—Every girl was placed in one of seven
groups for custodial treatment purposes. A matron was put in charge of each group.
With regard to custody, it was demonstrated that generally one matron can more adequately supervise a small group than can two matrons supervise a large one.
On the treatment side, the group system has been adopted because of several underlying principles of group therapy. The inmate population is made up of people who have
had difficulty getting along in society, at least to the extent that they have broken the law.
Many of the inmates have personal difficulties in adjusting to authority, in getting along
with others, in understanding the meaning of privilege and responsibility, and in respecting
the rights of others. We understand these characteristics as found in the mature person.
Normally a person develops and matures within the family group. If an individual comes
from a broken or disturbed family group, that person may never fully mature. It is
believed that some of the personality development that takes place within the family may
also occur within other groups. With this principle in mind, the group system was evolved.
Either by counselling, encouragement, or pressure, the group members learn to get
along with each other, if only at a superficial level. In regard to the activities and programme, it is the policy of the institution that the groups take part as a whole. Thus a
group must reach some sort of agreement among themselves, if only to refuse to participate. In practice, we find that the group's ability to co-operate among themselves, and
to reach decisions on a group basis, has greatly improved since the introduction of the
group system three years ago. Certain individuals who have difficulty in adjusting to
group situations receive assistance from their matron.
One of the characteristics that develops from the group formation is a feeling of
belonging. Individuals become proud of their group, and of being a member, and resent
their group as having a bad name, etc. It is believed that this sense of belonging, even
though it may begin in an institutional setting, is very important in the fostering of personality development.
Recreation.—Interest and enthusiasm for programme planning has increased considerably. Attitude has changed toward the group system. Individuals now feel it is a
privilege to be grouped. They have realized that through their committee they can help
plan their own recreational programme.
All take interest in nominations and voting for offices of president, secretary, and
treasurer. They have realized that new ideas for programme will be given consideration,
and that differences arising within groups and with staff will be given a hearing through
this channel. Whereas formerly inmates had to be coaxed into being respresentatives
for their group, now it is considered quite an honour to be chosen.
Various groups of outside entertainers come in once a month during the winter.
Our two best inmate groups were entertained by the C.G.I.T. at Crescent Beach last
summer. At Christmas time they were entertained at a house party in Vancouver by the
same girls.
Department of Education supplied us with educational films once a week. Full-
featured films were shown in holiday season. A religious film, with discussion following,
was shown twice a month.
Hobbies.—A new hobby of making costume jewellery was introduced by a volunteer
worker to two groups.   General interest in hobbies has been wavering as the girls have REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 13
become more concerned with making something for their sports fund that will sell; also,
many have been using their spare time to take correspondence courses. We have three
taking Bible courses, six taking sewing, and two taking arts. Groups have a tendency to
work on some project together rather than on separate hobbies. Some took to gardening,
while others sports. Interest in copper work has been renewed since two staff members
have been learning to do this hobby. During the winter months, some of the groups
worked at pottery, two two-hour periods per week for two months. Many mentioned
that working with clay helped to relax nerves after a trying day.
Sports.—Outdoor recreation consisted of walks, badminton, swimming, and soft-
ball. The latter was by far the most popular, as outside teams from the Vancouver Business Women's League came in once a week during the season playing ten games in all.
The Oakettes (our all-star team) have shown marked improvement under their coach's
weekly instruction.
During the winter months, groups went to the gymnasium once a week, where they
were coached in basketball and volleyball.
Bowling was a favourite with the various age-groups and was played during the
winter and rainy summer days. Inmates competed in teams and for top single scores.
All bowling equipment was bought from their own sports fund.
Inmates put on concerts consisting of one-act plays, pantomimes, dance numbers,
solos, choruses, and recitations. Some favourite forms of entertainment for a social
evening were truth and consequences, panel discussions, square dancing, whist, and
community singing.
Inmates planned events and appointed committees to run their own field-day. All
social events were planned at their weekly meetings, and groups offered to work on various
committees in connection with whatever programme was planned.
Religious Programme.—There appeared to be more interest shown in religion than in
former years. Attendance at Protestant and Catholic service was higher. The bi-monthly
discussion groups might account for the renewed interest. The Catholic group was conducted by Father Corcoran and the Legion of Mary ladies, while Reverend Hollingworth
held discussion groups with Protestants.
The contact with outsiders other than staff arouses and stimulates interest of inmates.
Several girls have been working on the British Columbia Department of Education Bible
course; one has received "A" grade on five papers.
Library.—Our library has been moved to a larger room with extra shelves. The
book count has gone from 1,313 to 1,388. Since the library has been reclassified, circulation has improved. It is much easier to find the type of book an inmate may request.
The majority of books are light and standard novels. We received 100 new books,
discarded 14, lost 11; now have on hand 1,388.
Work Programme
Kitchen, Laundry, Sewing, Mending, Maintenance, and Painting.—There has been
little change in the work programme. Supervision and control have improved as the
matrons have gained in experience. Although we cannot claim that this approximates a
vocational training programme, individual instruction in work methods was given and
learning took place. We can, however, claim an improved climate or atmosphere within
each team.   Each worker has taken more pride and shown more responsibility in her job.
A report on the progress of each worker has been required of every matron. It has
been found that once the matron has adequately described an inmate and her progress,
she is much more capable of coping with the individual and her problems as they develop. O  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Following is a summary of production for the year: —
Kitchen—Meals served during the year .___ 77,928
Laundry—
Articles laundered during the year  54,470
Articles mended in the laundry  199
Sewing-room—New articles made during the year  4,591
Mending-room—
Articles mended for men's quarters  35,322
Articles mended for women's quarters  1,872
Articles mended for New Haven  1,938
Articles mended for Young Offenders' Unit  5,441
Total  44,573
Painting.—During the year the halls, dayrooms, laundry, and a few individual rooms
have all been painted. A great deal of this has been done by the women themselves.
General Maintenance.—The general housekeeping has been excellent. This, combined with the brightness of the freshly painted rooms, has added to the cheerful atmosphere of the whole building.
It is our aim to establish a power-sewing course and a school of hairdressing.
Correspondence Courses
Following is the report of the matron in charge of the correspondence courses. We
feel that much has been accomplished in this department and a precedent set which will
be a challenge to maintain. Although the number in class at any one time is small, the
total number of students for the year constitutes a full class.
Thirty girls submitted papers to the High School Correspondence Branch during the
past year, one of whom, in company with five others, submitted papers from the afternoon programme, studying apart from the organized classes of the morning. This
represented a total of thirty-five girls who submitted papers. Seven hundred and eighty-
two papers were submitted during the term representing an average of approximately
sixty-six papers a month, with an average attendance of nine.
During March, courses were commenced, with the assistance of the Canadian
National Institute for the Blind, to enable one nearly blind inmate to learn how to read
and write in Braille and to type. A representative from the Institute came out once every
two weeks to offer assistance and guidance.
One student during the year was registered with the Elementary Branch for the
course in Grade VII spelling.
The following courses were completed within this institution and credits obtained: —
Typewriting 10   11
Typewriting 20      3
Record-keeping 11      3
Health and Personal Development 20     1
Composition 10      2
Composition 20      1
The following courses were also studied during the year:—
Art 20     1
Art 10     1
English Literature 10 ..     1
English Literature 20     3
Shorthand 21      3
Health and Personal Development 10     2
Health and Personal Development 30     1
Bible Literature 10     7 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 15
Book-keeping 34     3
Business Fundamentals 24     1
Social Studies 20     1
Spelling was taken by all the students regardless of grade.
We were pleased to have a visit from the Director of the High School Correspondence
Branch of the Department of Education, Dr. Edith Lucas, in July, and were grateful for
the suggestions submitted and also for the splendid co-operation from her department.
We were issued some of the renovated typing-desks, discarded from the Hospital
Insurance offices, and these added to the appearance and working conditions of the
classroom.
Discipline and co-operation among the students have been good.
Occupational Therapy
Both production and quality of handicrafts improved during the year. There was a
greater need for this department as there has been an increase in the number of recently
cured tuberculosis cases as well as women on extremely long sentences awaiting transfer
to Kingston Penitentiary.
Articles completed during the year were as follows:—
Leathercraft  177
Coppercraft   144
Woodburning      32
Plastic upholstery       7
Loom weaving     14
Knitting and crocheting  210
Flowercraft     62
Carpentry      15
Shellcraft      18
Fibrecraft      87
Painting        7
Embroidery      41
Sewing     75
Projects from scraps  104
Total  993
Clinic
The clinic has acquired considerable new equipment and instruments and has been
generally brought up to the standard of a hospital dressing-room able to handle emergencies and minor surgery.
This department filled a vital need, as very few women are admitted who do not
need clinical care of some kind. The nurse has received the utmost in co-operation from
the Vancouver Chest Clinic, the Cancer Clinic, Venereal Disease Control, and the Outpatient Department of the Vancouver General Hospital. The services of the Women's
Clinic in pre-natal care and gynaecology was especially valuable.
We have been fortunate in avoiding epidemics and the spread of infection and tuberculosis. We attributed this to the excellent equipment in each room, the individual toilets
and wash-basins, and a good supply of hot water, along with a careful supervision of
cleanliness.
In closing, I would like to express my appreciation to you and your senior officers
for the co-operation and assistance you have given me as matron in charge of the Women's
Building.
B. E. Maybee,
Matron in Charge. O 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Young Offenders'
Unit for the year ended March 31st, 1956.
Administration
During the fiscal year our method of dual administration for senior staff has been
continued with good success. The unit received a total of 150 inmates, thirteen of whom
were transferred from the Boys' Industrial School because of continuous absconding.
Despite the great variety of problems these inmates presented, with the exception of six
boys who were returned to the Main Unit as unable to use our resources, the staff suceeded
in integrating the group into a useful programme. During the year ninety-one inmates
were released on parole, and of that number slightly over 90 per cent finished their parole
without becoming involved in further difficulties.
Particularly gratifying was the degree of integration of the many disciplines used
(such as group work, case work, vocational training, and custody) into a harmonious
process. The Young Offenders' Unit has now completed five years of operation, and the
degree to which treatment and custody have become integrated constitutes real progress
in the corrections field. Despite the fact that the unit has had a high percentage of very
disturbed inmates, the combined treatment and custodial staff have been able to help
individuals find a meaningful experience and attain a more stable and socially acceptable
outlook on life.
Staff
The challenge of the work and the satisfactions in being involved in helping people
have continued to attract a good quality of staff.
During the year our Chief Custodial Officer left to take over the position of Deputy
Warden at the Prince George Gaol. Four members of the staff at the Young Offenders'
Unit were transferred to various units in the main institution, one to take over the senior
treatment officer's position at the Westgate Unit. Two further officers were transferred
to the forestry project under Mr. Rocksborough Smith of New Haven. One member of
the staff returned to University to complete his master's degree in social work. In all, only
three officers left the services to take up employment outside the corrections field.
Despite the above-mentioned turnover among key staff positions, the fact that all
vacancies were able to be filled, either by promotion of members within the unit or by
recruitment from the Main Gaol, helped maintain continuity of operation. The need for
a psychiatric case worker still remains, however, and while attempts at recruitment were
made during the year, we were unsuccessful.
Continued interest has been shown toward the furthering of education and vocational
skills among the staff of the unit to a degree that is most encouraging. Two staff members
have completed first-year social-work training and another his first year in teacher's
training while continuing their shift work at the institution. Apart from this, staff have
benefited from the basic training courses conducted at the main unit.
Programme
The unit, reflecting the needs of this particular age-group, continues to emphasize
basic areas of programme:—
(1) To help individuals learn the skills of living with their peers as a member
of a group. To learn socially acceptable ways of dealing with problems
that arise out of working, playing, and living together, and to learn to
accept the authority of an understanding adult. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O  17
(2) To learn good work habits and make a beginning at learning the rudiments
of a trade that has the possibility of enabling them to earn a living in this
community.
Socialization Report
During the past year the general pattern of programme in the area of socialization
has remained much the same as in the previous year.
As usual, sport has played a major role in the programme. Participation has been
fully encouraged and maintained at a keen level of competition and interest. The chief
summer recreation was softball. An extensive inter-unit league was initiated. Floor-
hockey and dodgeball were principally played as supplementary activities during the
winter months when indoor confinement due to inclement weather became frequent.
The construction of the new gymnasium has afforded the inmates an opportunity to
play basketball and volleyball under standard conditions, but the general response to
these games has not been as enthusiastic as could be expected. The reason for this seems
to lie in the lack of other forms of activity requiring gymnasium equipment, and also in
the fact that an appropriate degree of skill is possessed by only a minority of inmates, a
condition which might be resolved by qualified instruction.
The representative teams in both softball and in soccer played games on outside
parks as well as with visiting teams on the Young Offenders' Unit field. Competition
among individual players to earn a place on these teams has raised the standard of inter-
unit games. The best players are chosen in terms of sportsmanship as well as ability, in
keeping with the general aim of the socialization programme.
Hobbies have operated well under the continued policy of the previous year. The
policy that each inmate could take home some item of leather, copper, or other craft, but
that all other articles would become the property of the institution and thus be sold for
the benefit of all, has indeed assisted inmates to give as well as receive, and has increased
the therapeutic values of the hobby programme.
As in the previous year, a notable feature of the socialization programme was the
emphasis placed upon the inmates to assume more responsibility in formulating and in
carrying out new programme. An Inmate Programme Fund was established, to which
the inmates contribute. After the advisability of any considered programme and the
effort made by the inmates themselves was weighed, an appropriate amount of money
from the institutional Welfare Fund, which is made up of donations and profits from the
sale of handicrafts, was added to the Inmate Programme Fund, thereby facilitating programme and encouraging their initiative and participation. Inmates have also been
allowed at intervals to purchase additional films, not provided for by the budget, through
their own contributions.
Staff presentation of reports, both written and verbal, to the British Columbia Parole
Board regarding inmates appearing before that body has served to strengthen the relationship between the staff member and the inmate, and has represented a real contribution of
the staff member to release planning.
Interest programmes, wherein those having a common interest, centred around some
worth-while activity, gather together with the help of a qualified staff member in order to
cultivate this interest, have been included on an experimental scale into the general programme. These interest programmes are a new departure from the former policy of
adherence only to total unit-group involvement in activities. The response of these
interest groups has been very promising. In the first-aid group over twenty-five inmates
have completed their course of study, and at least five have reached the stage at which
the prison Medical Officer has been asked to examine them in their senior St. John certify
cate. Several educational interest groups were also formed, with instruction provided by
teachers coming in on a voluntary basis. O  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
It is hoped that the future will bring more utilization of accredited volunteers, drawn
from the public and functioning as instructors, visitors, speakers, or coaches. These
volunteers will serve to form a beneficial and necessary bond with the community, which
must eventually exist, of course, if the inmate is to be rehabilitated.
Vocational
During the past twelve months there have been two major changes in vocational
work. The bookbindery was transferred to the Westgate Unit, and the school and radio
classes gained sufficient volume to be broken into two units under separate instructors.
A partition was built into the lower Quonset hut, cutting the hut in half, one half for radio
and the other as a classroom for academic schooling. Apart from these moves, the vocational programme has continued with little variation from last year's programme.
Our average population in classes was 75.33 out of a possible total of 78. An average
of four variations in class placement had to be made for each student during the year,
indicating the lack of direction which exists in the lives of these people prior to their
rehabilitation.
Additional shop space is needed, as the advantages of vocational training as a factor
in the re-establishment of these lads is increasingly obvious. We are grateful for the shop
addition which has been authorized for the coming year, as, apart from its completed
value, it will be a very instructional project for the inmates who are employed in its
construction.
School
Separating the school from radio represented an improvement, and has allowed a
larger group to be placed for academic studies. Some difficulty was experienced in the
delay of courses being received, but this has now been rectified. The greatest difficulty
has been in the obtaining of fully qualified instructors.
A large number of our inmates have had a poor grounding in one or more subjects
of their last academic grade, and it is felt that with the help of an experienced teacher the
inmate would be able to have his personal case reviewed, his lack in specific studies rectified, and assistance given toward his advancement to the next grade. At present it is
necessary to do this entirely through the use of correspondence courses, a method which,
though of great help, is felt to be too impersonal for many of the students found in an
institution such as the Young Offenders' Unit.
Correspondence courses, effective as they can be, still demand a quality that is
generally still lacking in the delinquent. Indeed, a great many of the younger offenders
have failed academically because of deep personality problems. They require skilful
personal attention and encouragement with their studies if progress is to be expected.
The basic needs of the delinquent are multiple in nature and often unknown, but it can
safely be said that the greatest need rests in the area of personal relationships. The
problem, therefore, must be solved with the help of people as much as courses.
Radio
The separation of the school and radio classes has shown a marked benefit to this
group also. Mr. Wright, the instructor in the radio class, completed his credits at University Summer School during the year and is at present enrolled in the Department of
Education course at night-school for teacher-training for industrial arts and vocational
instructors. He has given a more intensive training in radio than in previous years, with
very gratifying results, not only in the work turned out, but in the following-up of this line
of vocation by several of our inmates on release.
Motor Mechanics
The class of work turned out by this group during the past year illustrates the benefit
of having well-trained instructors and good supervision.   This shop has not done as much REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O  19
work in volume of parts as last year, due mostly to the shorter work-week granted Civil
Servants. The quality of work and training in this shop has been excellent. Mr. Fisk,
the motor mechanics shop supervisor, enrolled during the year in the Department of
Education teacher-training course at night-school and completed a further course given
by the Sun Equipment Company in motor analysis. (I cannot help but very strongly
commend both Mr. Fisk and Mr. Wright. As a result of the study and courses taken,
their instruction, methods of shop organization, and the work turned out has shown a
general improvement, as also has the conduct and interest of the inmates in these shops.)
A new overhead-valve Ford unit, complete with automatic transmission, was received
from Ford of Canada, on loan for instructional purposes. This gave the instructor a good
opportunity to include practical demonstration of the latest in all phases of the automotive
engine and transmission in his instructions. We are very much indebted to the Ford
Motor Company for this assistance and for their help in the past.
Woodwork
The class of work turned out by this shop in the past year has continued to show
marked improvement. Those inmates who have shown possibilities or aptitudes for this
particular vocation, and have been in this class for a sufficient period of time, appear to
have definitely benefited from the training given, as shown by their attitude, their finished
work, and in their performance after release.
During the latter part of the year, Mr. Hall and Mr. Thompson, of Hallcrafts
Limited, were kind enough to give this group four night demonstrations in the methods
of fibre-glassing in clear, in colour, and also under cellophane; these demonstrations
created a very keen interest among the group and proved to be very worth while. Members of staff who were present at the demonstration also benefited from the knowledge
gained.
Upholstery
The upholstery shop has kept up a fairly active programme. Improvement has been
shown in the quality of work completed, but there is still room for concern regarding the
amount and general method of instruction given and the organization of the shop on a
vocational-training basis.
Kitchen
Some further changes with regard to hours and organization have been put into
effect in this area. A closer co-operation, both in the method of obtaining supplies and
in the layout of menus between the supervisor-instructor and the Chief Steward from the
Main Gaol, has resulted in a big improvement in the general conduct of our kitchen and
in the actual meals served. Chief Steward Johnston's co-operation in this connection has
been most helpful and appreciated.
Custody and Controls
During the past year the unit has maintained an excellent security record. Although
a number of attempts were made, there were no escapes or serious breaches of discipline
during the year.
Buildings and Grounds
Many improvements were made to the grounds during the year. The problem of
drainage has been troublesome over the years, but as a result of ditches being placed more
strategically and enlarged and cinders spread across the playing-fields, the grounds are in
excellent condition despite an extremely wet winter and spring. A root-house, at the east
end of the unit, has been built. In this same area a parking-lot with a stone retaining-wall
has been built. The interior of the unit was painted and redecorated to serve as a combination training and leisure-room area. All of this work was done by the inmates under
the supervision of staff, and the appearance and quality of the work has been excellent. O 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary
One of the great needs of the unit is for a skilled person to give individual therapy
to approximately 10 per cent of the population. This disturbed group continues to be
the most difficult to help without this specialized service, and it is hoped that such a staff
member will be available shortly.
This particular small group also poses a problem on release, and while the efforts
of the Probation Department, National Employment Service, and child welfare and family
agencies have been very successful in placing most inmates, there is still need for some
type of residential care for these more dependent and maladjusted boys, for it is largely
from this group that our recidivists are drawn.
In conclusion, Sir, I would like to thank you and your administrative staff for the
continuous support and encouragement you have given us during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
A. L. Montpellier,
Director.
WESTGATE UNIT
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—Following is a report of the operation of the Westgate Unit for the year ended
March 31st, 1956.
When Westgate opened two years ago, the programme was built around a work-all-
day emphasis and a recreation programme during the evening. All the inmates worked,
but because of limited facilities and staff the evening programme was restricted.
During this past year, however, many changes have been inaugurated to make West-
gate a more effective centre for rehabilitation. Better workshops and recreational facilities
have been installed to accommodate the total population.
The inmates' day starts at 7 a.m. and closes at 9 p.m. During those fourteen hours
all the equipment, facilities, and staff are in maximum use. The programme emphasis is
on extensive work-and-play activities—in total called " socialization."
Classification
The inmates were initially screened by a classification panel in the Main Gaol, but
further classification was carried on in the unit itself. Each inmate is interviewed for the
purpose of suitable work, play, and group-living placement, and in the process we are also
able to deal with individual requirements in such areas as academic and vocational needs,
plus referrals to various agencies or resources which may have been indicated.
The inmate starts half-time in a labour group and the other half-time in a specialized
group, more or less on an apprenticeship basis. Later, through the use of routine reports
and records, the inmate may be reclassified for full-time placement in a specialized work
group, but only as the result of individual needs supported by a continuous and productive
personal effort.
Work
Westgate is responsible for the total management of the farm, as well as institutional
maintenance and construction projects in such areas as motor mechanics, blacksmithing,
carpentry, painting, shoe-repairing, plumbing, electricity, and the boiler-house. All told,
the daily population in this unit has been assigned to work in fourteen shop and trade
groups and seventeen farm and labour groups. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 21
Recreation and Informal Education
Early in the year the new gymnasium building was opened, which afforded an
opportunity to promote a more highly organized and detailed programme, and, by combining the use of the gymnasium centre and the sports field, inmates were required to
participate nine hours per week in compulsory activities—four and one-half hours in
sports and four and one-half hours in interest groups. The field was used for team games
in softball, volleyball, and soccer. The gymnasium made it possible for the inmates to
participate in basketball and volleyball games, elementary gymnastics, and broomball, and
inter-tier leagues were organized in most of the team games.
The sixteen classrooms located in the gymnasium basement were used to capacity in
support of interest groups in first aid, elementary motor mechanics, barber-school, leather-
work, copperwork, wood-carving, and correspondence education courses.
Formal Education
Through the co-operation of the Provincial Normal School, a group of ten teachers-
in-training taught two nights a week for a seven-week period in a programme called
" Night College." The inmates participating registered for one or more courses in mathematics, English and literature, Spanish and French languages, public speaking, art, and
gymnastics.
The programme was very successful, both from the standpoint of the inmates and
the teachers, and proved beyond doubt that voluntary leadership can be used to advantage
in a gaol setting, provided, of course, that there is adequate screening and supervision of
this leadership.
Representative Athletic Teams
A junior team participated in community softball and soccer leagues. During the
latter part of the softball season, permission was also granted by the Department to allow
a senior team to participate in a community league. A limited number of exhibition
games with outside teams was allowed. At all times, emphasis was on the importance of
an inmate's work record, deportment, and sportsmanship rather than on the score-board.
Good reports in all three areas were a prerequisite to team membership.
Significantly enough, although our teams did not make score-board history, they
were invariably commended for their team spirit throughout the playing season and for
their good conduct both on and off the field.
Films
Through the co-operation of the Provincial Visual Education Department, weekly
educational films were shown on many interesting subjects. The average attendance
was 275.
Library Services
Although the number of books in the unit library was extremely limited, many
inmates availed themselves of the service. Late in the year, however, a new library was
installed in the new gymnasium building, and, through the excellent efforts of the New
Westminster Kiwanis Club, some 1,500 educational and trade text-books were donated.
The library has subsequently assumed a more effective role, and holds much promise for
the future.
Parole
The most notable change in parole cases is a more active participation of staff in
release planning. The officer most intimately associated with the inmate presents a verbal
report to the Parole Board. This particular development in programme technique has
enhanced the status of the officer in the eyes of the inmate population and increases our
general contribution to release planning. O 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
With the added number of definite and indefinite sentences, method and procedure
were improved to deal with these cases appearing before the Parole Board at the end of
the definite sentence. Each inmate's programme is evaluated by the work officer and
group officer by means of reports and written statements. These, in turn, with a report
prepared by the senior treatment staff, are presented to the Board. The final decision
involves the Parole Board, Probation Branch, and Westgate staff, as well as the inmate
himself.
Visits
Westgate conducted bi-monthly Sunday visits in the unit itself, and later in the new
gymnasium building. Relatives and friends of the inmates were allowed supervised
" table " visits, and the reduction in tension possible under such conditions, in sharp
contrast to the inadequate facilities available in the Main Gaol, was much more conducive
to the therapeutic atmosphere so essential in a treatment programme.
Christmas was chosen as a most appropriate time to experiment further in family
visiting. On this occasion it was a " chair " visit, with inmate and family sitting together
as a family unit. During the visit, refreshments, provided from funds raised by inmate
donations, were served by the inmate to his visitors. An orientation and screening job
was done to prepare for the occasion, the results being beyond all expectation. In many
ways it was the highlight of the year.
Inmates' Inter-tier Council
Regular meetings were held with elected inmate representatives from each tier. The
function of this council was to share in programme planning on an advisory basis. It also
presented an opportunity for the tier groupings to air their grievances and needs in a
positive manner. A democratic group in action, meetings were supervised by the Senior
Treatment Officer but conducted by officers they themselves elected from the representative body.
Special Events
1. During the Christmas and New Year season, a special holiday programme was
scheduled, which included feature films, bridge tournaments, volleyball, and basketball
tournaments. Christmas hampers were given to all inmates, supplied by the Salvation
Army. Through the help of the Jim Peters Fund, a large number of inmates who were
not receiving parcels from home were given Christmas parcels. The same organization
delivered parcels to inmates' families and children who were in need of help.
2. Two successful voluntary blood clinics were conducted, sponsored by the Canadian Red Cross, and well over 500 pints of blood were given by the inmate population.
3. The world-famous Harlem Globetrotters basketball team played an exhibition
game, to the enjoyment of all in attendance.
4. A group of sixteen inmates visited the R.C.A.F. cadet camp at Abbotsford for a
softball game. During the visit the group was lectured by the Commanding Officer on
cadet training.
5. A referees' basketball school was held for interested inmates. Ten lectures and
practical experience were given.   The same group refereed the inter-tier games.
6. The gymnasium auditorium was the scene of concert and stage groups, presented
by both outside and inmate talent, with some 300 inmates in attendance at each show.
7. Twelve group teams, with a total of 108 contestants, participated in a Dominion
Day track and field event. It was a new type of sports day, inasmuch as every team
member was required to compete in seven events to help his team make the highest score
possible. The day proved to be most successful, and again represented group work in
action.
8. The carpenter-shop group assisted the Cerebral Palsy Association by building a
number of articles required to train and rehabilitate the unfortunate children in need of REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 23
treatment.   The expense of materials was borne by the Alpha Delta Pi sorority group.
All in all, it was a very worth-while effort.
Alcoholics Anonymous and Alcoholism Foundation
Under the sponsorship of the prison Chaplain and the assistance of Westgate staff,
a most successful A.A. programme was conducted, with an average attendance of fifteen
inmates at the weekly meetings.   A number of prominent businessmen appeared as guests.
The new community organization known as " The Alcoholism Foundation and
Research Council " was given full support and co-operation. The outcome was the
founding of an Alcoholism Foundation group, which met weekly with a professional
representative of the Council.   Pre-release care and after-care services were inaugurated.
Religious Emphasis
The Protestant and Roman Catholic Chaplains worked closely with staff in encouraging inmates to attend regular Sunday church services. The Legion of Mary group,
sponsored by the Roman Catholic Chaplain, met weekly with some fifteen or more
inmates to take part in religious instruction.
Counselling and Guidance
It is very difficult to report specifically on the number of inmates who received
counselling and guidance, as all work and group officers participated in this aspect of
programme. However, the senior treatment staff dealt with many cases pertaining to
inmates' concerns and problems — family and marriage, finances, employment, etc.
Referrals were made to the Warden, Deputies, Medical Officer, Psychologist, and community agencies such as the John Howard Society, Salvation Army, and National
Employment Service.
Staff
In-service training and the continued growth of experience has improved the quality
of staff, as evidenced by their performance in practically every area of programme. We
have come a long way, and have a long way to go.
In addition to classes conducted by the regular staff-training officer, daily sessions
were held in Westgate itself and dealt with:—
(a) Group work methods:
(b) Good custody is good treatment:
(c) Discipline practices:
(d) Parole and probation:
(e) Reports and records:
(/)  Programme planning:
(g) Skills for the job; and
(h)  Individualization.
In conclusion, we would like to thank your administrative staff for their help and
co-operation, and you for your leadership during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
J. Scott,
Senior Correctional Officer.
G. Watt,
Senior Correctional Officer. O 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HANEY WORK PROJECT
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit a progress report on the Haney work project for
the period from April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956.
As indicated in our report for the previous year, the camp programme is based on
a constructive work routine in an attempt to develop good work habits and to help inmates
become physically and psychologically prepared to accept employment on release after
incarceration. It also provides another means of segregation, and the camp environment,
as compared to the prison, is far more conducive to the healthy state of mind so necessary
for successful rehabilitation.
Inmate Population
During the year the inmate population fluctuated between forty-five and seventy.
Administratively, the camp is only equipped to handle sixty inmates, but during the period
from January until March, when Oakalla was overcrowded, it was necessary to increase
the Haney count.
The three large marquee tents that formerly housed the inmate population were
replaced by bunk-houses constructed from lumber that had been milled on the camp-site.
There are now five of these bunk-houses, each housing a maximum of twelve inmates.
The selection of inmates for the programme is based on the individual's ability to
use the experience constructively. The ages range from 18 to approximately 50 years,
although the greatest number are in their twenties and thirties. The Classification Committee tends to select those who are first or second offenders, but many have been chosen
as worthy candidates for the scheme in spite of their many previous offences. As before,
most of the inmates have spent the greatest portion of their sentence in the main prison
and have been sent to the camp during the last few weeks of sentence. It is thus a prerelease project and provides a period of transition from prison life to the community.
We are convinced that a few weeks of steady work under supervision makes a man far
better prepared both physically and psychologically to assume his responsibilities of
citizenship on his return to the community.
Employment of Prisoners
The road-construction project, as described in our previous report, was completed
during September of 1955. This is the road that now joins the new correctional institution to Twenty-first Avenue in the Municipality of Maple Ridge. It is almost a mile in
length and was constructed over very rough terrain, including several hundred yards of
swampy area. A number of discarded Public Works trucks were renovated and kept
going by inmate mechanic-drivers employed in this construction. They hauled more than
50,000 cubic yards of gravel fill. The work was done entirely by prison labour under the
direction of a representative of the Department of Public Works, and a saving of roughly
$10,000 to the Government resulted.
The Garibaldi Park project, which includes the clearing of the right-of-way for a
park-development road from the Municipality of Maple Ridge to Alouette Lake, has gone
ahead very well. The right-of-way has been cleared to a width of 100 feet for approximately 8 miles. All the debris has been burned, and a British Columbia Forest Service
crew has blown the stumps in preparation for clearing and laying the actual road-bed.
The representatives of the Parks Division of the British Columbia Forest Service have
expressed their satisfaction with the work our men have done, and have expressed the
hope that circumstances will be such that it will be possible for us to continue on with
other park-development projects. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 25
The makeshift sawmill on the prison property was rebuilt, and modifications to ensure
maximum safety were made to the edger and cut-off saw. The cost of upkeep is kept
to a minimum by doing such work ourselves as filing, hammering saws, babbiting bearings,
etc. The mill has a capacity to cut 4,000 or more board-feet of lumber a day. However,
because of inexperienced help, and for safety reasons, we have kept production down to
approximately 2,000 feet each day the mill is operated. At the present time there are
between 80,000 and 90,000 board-feet stock-piled in the camp yard. The lumber turned
out is unplaned, but of a first-grade quality. Newly admitted inmates are employed cutting and clearing the timber from the prison property and rights-of-way being cleared for
the Forest Service, and with a small donkey-engine, bulldozer, and a horse are able to
yard the logs to the mill.
The mill and logging operations have been of particular value to the total programme. A number of inmates have been taught the techniques of sawing lumber and
other forestry skills, and have thus been better prepared to take employment on release.
The camp has been able to provide its own needs as far as lumber is concerned, and we
have been able to provide several thousands of board-feet to the Gold Creek camp project
on Alouette Lake. Many thousands of feet of lumber have been shipped to Oakalla for
various construction projects there.
A qualified officer-mechanic is on the camp staff. He is well equipped with tools
and has been able to maintain our vehicles, caterpillar tractors, donkey-engine, etc.
Inmate mechanics-in-training work along with him, and this, too, has proven to be a
valuable educational feature of the programme.
During the year several short-term projects have been completed successfully. A ball
field and recreational grounds have been cleared near the camp-site, and assistance has
been given to the Gold Creek project in setting up its camp. During the spring months,
groups of inmates volunteered to work on the Garibaldi Park boys' camp that is operated
by the New Westminster Y.M.C.A. This camp programme accommodates several hundred children each summer. The inmates cleared the grounds, reconditioned the buildings, refinished the swimming-pool, and completed various other clean-up jobs. The
Allco Infirmary is situated within half a mile of our camp, and, at times, parties of
prisoners have been taken over to the Infirmary to perform various chores.
Inmates work eight hours each day, and as far as possible we attempt to approximate
the conditions that these people will find on their release to jobs in the community. We
insist that each inmate does his share of work and that there is no idleness. All in all,
the work programme has been very successful and the camp has been self-supporting to
a greater extent than is usually possible in prison work.
Discipline
Discipline and morale, which are closely related, have remained at a high level
throughout the year. By the end of the fiscal year, over 700 men had been transferred
from Oakalla Prison to the Haney camp, and of these, none have made any attempt to
escape our custody. From time to time, disciplinary problems occur, such as malingering,
neglect to carry out orders, and other misdemeanors. Most of these have been handled
in the camp setting, although occasionally an inmate is transferred back to Warden's
court at the Oakalla main building. Since the camp programme opened in 1954 there
have been no incidents involving the people of Haney or Maple Ridge, even though our
camp is situated within half a mile of a populated area. We attribute the satisfactory
discipline to the fact that we have an active programme wherein each inmate is made to
feel that he is pursuing a productive life, is increasing his skills, and is kept busy and
under considerate but continuous supervision at all times. O 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Conclusion
With the new correctional institution at Haney nearing completion, it would appear
that our camp must be moved from its present location. We hope that another camp-site
will be chosen, and that we shall be able to continue the operation. We would certainly
recommend the continuance of the scheme. We are more than ever convinced of the
usefulness of this type of pre-release minimum security programme for the type of inmate
that can make productive use of the opportunity. Our experience at Haney has shown
that a large percentage of the inmates in the main prison do not require the expensive
security measures that are now in use, particularly during the pre-release portion of their
sentences. It therefore seems far more economical and more profitable in terms of human
rehabilitation to maintain selected offenders in a minimum security programme where
there is scope for constructive employment and other rehabilitative services.
In concluding, I wish to express my appreciation to you for the guidance and support
that you have given me in my position as Senior Officer of the Haney camp. I wish also
to draw your attention to the good work of all our staff members during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
T. H. Tobiasson,
Senior Officer, Haney Camp Project.
MEDICAL REPORT
E.G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual medical report for the year ended
March 31st, 1956.
The year under review shows slow but continued expansion in the medical services
in the institutions under your authority. This report does not cover medical services in
the gaols at Prince George, Nelson, and Kamloops. The medical report for New Haven
has already been submitted to you.
This submission pertains to medical aspects of the work undertaken at Oakalla Prison
Farm, both men and women, the Young Offenders' Unit, the Westgate Unit, the satellite
prison camp at Haney, and the commencement of both the forestry camp at Garibaldi
Park and the narcotic addiction units, for men and women, located on the grounds of
Oakalla Prison Farm.
Increasing population and evolution of the correctional field have, of necessity, made
increasing demands on medical services. We look forward to the appointment of additional medical help in the spring of this year. The progress of medical treatment generally
reflects itself in the calls which are made on the prison medical departments. Basic clinical requirements now necessitate a rising standard of preventive medicine, of physical
treatment, and of heightened care and knowledge from the physician and the nursing staff.
The major difficulty of this project lies in the obtaining of postgraduate training for
the physicians, in in-service training for the nursing staff, especially in the area of operating-room procedure, and sterile techniques on the whole.
So far we have been most fortunate in avoiding undue infection from the staphylcoc-
cal conditions which are so prevalent in many hospitals at the present time. Bearing in
mind the primitive and inadequate ablution equipment in the Prison Hospital for the men,
it is greatly to the credit of the nursing staff that no serious epidemic has arisen.
None of the male medical prison officers has been trained in any general hospital,
although some have had training in mental hospitals.   Competence of the medical staff is REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 27
becoming increasingly essential, as we are attempting to limit the number of patients sent
to the Vancouver General Hospital for in-patient and out-patient treatment. As the
number rises in the prison population, an intolerable strain is placed on the Gaol transportation system and the number of staff required for escort and guard duty.
With the fullest co-operation from yourself and your Department, as well as from
the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm, we shall very soon be in a position to carry out
major surgical operations performed by visiting specialists. This should considerably
lessen the load at the Vancouver General Hospital, as far as our patients are concerned.
With small additional expense we should also be able to treat, in the Prison Hospital,
most inmates requiring orthopaedic attention. It is interesting to note that the highest proportion of male inmates sent to the Vancouver General Hospital for out-patient treatment
are those who attend the Orthopaedic Department. There will, of course, be a small number of patients who will need extensive surgical operations beyond the scope of our operating-room, as set up during the next three or four years.
In every purchase of medical and surgical equipment, careful consideration is given
as to its transference to a new hospital, when one is established. All the equipment
obtained so far will be usable in the new hospital. We greatly appreciate the policy which
your Department has recently instituted concerning the procedure of requisitioning supplies and equipment. It is very helpful to the prison medical officers to know that their
requisitions will be receiving the expert attention of the Deputy Minister of Health, Dr.
Amyot.
Main Gaol Hospital
During the year under consideration no major alteration has been possible, except
by the conversion of a section of the Tubercular Wing to an X-ray room, darkroom,
dental surgery, and staff toilet.
It is proposed shortly to extend the Observation Ward for more serious cases so that
its capacity will be doubled. This involves the removal of a portion of a wall of the
room presently accommodating inmate orderlies. We shall have to consider the accommodation for patients recovering from general anaesthesia. We are greatly in need of
bed-pan sluicing equipment. One bathtub continues to serve some forty inmates. This
inadequacy of bathing facilities meets with disapproval from the health authorities. More
toilets are also required.
The inadequacies of the Prison Hospital resources are a matter of grave concern.
Rising population, with absence of an isolation area, and such basic needs as sinks, washbasins, and toilets of insufficient quantity render the prevention of infection difficult, if
not impossible. It is appreciated that transfer to another building is contemplated within
a matter of two or three years, but in the meantime thought should be given to more
urgent requirements.
The quality of medical service is largely dependent on the staff of the various medical
departments. John MacLeod, as Senior Administrative Officer in the hospital, has given
us another year of most efficient and conscientious service. I am also greatly indebted
to the officers, and their reliefs, who run the various medical departments, such as the
Pharmacy, Tuberculosis Control, the Dental Clinic, and the X-ray Section, and also to all
the officers in the hospital carrying out the nursing supervisory duties.
Auxiliary Lighting
This is very necessary in the event of a power breakdown during surgical operations.
Tubercular Wing
This wing continues to be a source of anxiety.   It has become increasingly necessary
to supply cellular accommodation for each tubercular patient.   Beds in the general living
areas take up too much space, and it is found that the patients do not obtain the necessary rest periods.   There is a nucleus of some four or five of the tubercular patients who O 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
display persistent agitation and psychopathic behaviour. All tubercular inmates need
standards of medical efficiency and nursing care far beyond our present resources. We
work closely with the Tuberculosis Control organization, and their recommendations are
carried out concerning treatment. An increasing number of tubercular inmates have been
transferred on ticket of leave to Provincial tuberculosis hospitals, but there are some
inmates whom no hospital can contain, with the result that the present prison tuberculosis
unit is responsible for them, sometimes for periods of two years.
Owing to serious misbehaviour of certain of these patients, it was found expedient
to restrict what had become a considerable increase of privileges allowed them. Although
longer confinement to their cells had become necessary, with consequent risk of morbidity
to their mental state, it was observed that they were obtaining more rest. It is, however,
not a satisfactory state of affairs, and we look forward to much more considerable
resources being made available in a new gaol hospital, or in its vicinity.
Mental Observation Wing
This contains those inmates requiring maximum custody, as well as those who are
mentally ill. The number of cells for mental observation cases have become increasingly
inadequate. We need a battery of cells, insulated against noise and injury, with special
plumbing and fuller means of observation. We have frequent instances of epileptics
bruising themselves because there are no protective areas for such patients. Also we lack
an isolation area for infectious cases.
Tower
This section of the Prison Hospital remains as in our last report, and it is mainly
devoted to chronic and senile patients.
Operating-room
As already mentioned, a steady increase in the equipment for this room is in effect.
There will be means of giving all types of anaesthesia, and it is anticipated that there will
be no shortage of equipment needed for a large number of major surgical operations.
We have a willing offer of help from a general surgeon, Dr. I. Barwell-Clarke,
F.R.C.S., and Dr. J. J. Carroll, a specialist in anaesthesia. This team has already
performed one operation this year.
As the number and degree of surgical operations increase, it is very evident that we
shall require a graduate nurse, skilled in operating-room procedure, to act as supervisor.
It is proposed to request the necessary authority to employ a graduate nurse from the
Women's Building for this purpose. She could readily be detached from her duties there
for short periods.
X-ray Department
The X-ray equipment, donated by the Provincial Tuberculosis Control authority, is
performing remarkably good service. A Prison Hospital officer completed his training
in the X-ray Department at Essondale during the year and most effectively carries out his
duties as a responsible officer for this department. He is also in charge of the Dental
Surgery.
The purchase of a more powerful machine is inevitable sooner or later. It is
suggested that the present apparatus be transferred to the correctional institute at Haney,
and that a new machine be installed in the Central Gaol Hospital at Oakalla, but this will
not be required in the ensuing fiscal year.
Figures in the Appendix will show the number of X-rays carried out during the year.
Laboratory
This has become an essential unit in the Prison Hospital. Its resources have almost
been tripled during this year, and it is hoped that one of the Prison Hospital officers will REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 29
be able to take over the duties of laboratory technician before long.   So far we have relied
on the services of an inmate who is a highly experienced laboratory technician.
A few specimens have been sent to the Provincial and Vancouver General Hospital
laboratories, owing to the complexity of the work required. We are most grateful to the
Director of the Provincial Laboratory for the loan of an incubator. This means that we
can now perform our own cultures of organisms.
Kitchen
This serves food from the Main Gaol kitchen and also prepares diets for diabetics
and gastric and duodenal ulcer cases in the hospital. We are constantly in need of a
fully equipped diet kitchen, wherever it can be set up in the prison.
Pharmacy
The officer in charge shoulders an ever-increasing amount of dispensing. As in the
case of all specialist staff, the system of four days on duty and two days off renders the
maintenance of efficiency most difficult to achieve. A great deal depends on the capacity
of those relieving the specialist officers.
Plastic Surgery
Dr. Edward Lewison continues to give most generously of his dedicated services in
the carrying-out of plastic nose operations and tonsillectomies. Not only has Dr. Lewison
examined throats and noses, but he has also been good enough to see a large number of
inmates complaining of ear conditions. Twenty-seven rhinoplasty operations and nine
tonsillectomies were performed by Dr. Lewison during the year.
Optometrist
Dr. George Milne has continued to visit almost weekly throughout the year. So far
only a very small proportion of those requiring glasses can be served at public expense.
The Welfare Fund has contributed to some, and glasses have been supplied at public
expense to certain of those in the younger age-groups. Used and cast-off glasses have
been generously supplied by private benefactors and the Vancouver General Hospital.
This allows some of the older men and women to read, but the system is unsatisfactory
because each individual needs an especially prescribed pair. It is felt that there should
be some means of supplying impecunious inmates with glasses at public expense.
Dental Clinic
Dr. L. Gilroy and Dr. J. Alexander have attended as dental surgeons throughout
the year. The three days of each week available for dental treatment do not cover the
amount of basic dental treatment required. However, conditions have improved a great
deal, and both these gentlemen see as many patients as is reasonably possible. Under
the pressure of necessity, much of the dental work is extractions, whereas, of course, if
there were more time, many of the teeth could be saved.
Tuberculosis Control
The prison unit, working in collaboration with the Tuberculosis Control authority
of the Provincial Government, undertakes an increasing number of survey films and
diagnostic plates. With the co-operation of the Chest Clinics in Vancouver and New
Westminister, and also with the Medical Branch of the Department of Indian Affairs,
diagnosis has been speeded up, as well as treatment. Documentation is fuller, and more
information is given on each case to the authority concerned. •
A larger proportion of tubercular patients have been sent to the tuberculosis sanatorium, and also to the Surgical Clinic at Willow Street. We are most grateful to Dr.
A. Hakstian, the Director of the Tuberculosis Control in New Westminister, and to O 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Miss W. Neen, the liaison social worker from the City Hall in Vancouver. They have
both given unstinted service, and have always been most ready to visit in consultation
whenever requested. The work of this unit has been greatly assisted by the removal of
the Dental Clinic to the hospital. This means that there is less disruption of its functions,
and the room is now only shared by the Venereal Disease Control Clinic.
Venereal Disease Control
Throughout the year there has been continuous services rendered by the Venereal
Disease Control authority in Vancouver. The number of clinics has now been increased
to four a week, with the result that there is no delay in an inmate being examined by the
clinic. Within the last few weeks an arrangement has been made that the physician
attends once a week, though if at any time he is required, he makes a special visit.
Psychiatric Services
Dr. J. C. Thomas has continued to make his conscientious contribution to the
psychiatric requirements of the Courts. We have also called him in consultation over
inmates under consideration for committal to the Provincial Mental Hospital and the
Crease Clinic.
Concerning psychiatric services after conviction, the Prison Medical Officer has
interviewed over 250 psychiatrically. These interviews are usually at the request of the
inmate, the prison staff, Probation Officers, or relatives. A psychiatric assessment is
prepared, and a memorandum submitted to the Deputy Warden, on the treatment side.
Unfortunately time does not allow for psychiatric treatment, so to all intent and
purposes there has been no psychotherapy carried out. We have again worked without
the help of the electro-convulsive therapy apparatus. In the case of one woman inmate
only, an electro-convulsive therapy was given by Dr. Thomas in Ward R of the Vancouver
General Hospital. Further observations in relation to this will be seen under the heading
of " Doukhobors," in the women's section. Dr. Thomas has also commenced to give
two lectures to the in-training service course.
Dr. W. P. Fister, F.R.C.P. (C), Director of Neurology at the Crease Clinic, has
most kindly continued to accept up to three inmates a week for E.E.G. These services
have especially been of value during the last few weeks; E.E.G. examinations have been
completed for the narcotic addiction research team, and it has already been found that
the readings are significant.
We have found the drug Chloropromazine of great assistance in the treatment of
disturbed inmates. It is felt that with increasing skill of the staff, and with increasing
medical knowledge as to the use of the more recently introduced relaxent drugs of a non-
barbiturate nature, psychotic episodes in prison should be reduced to an absolute
minimum.
Narcotic Research
This year marks the closing of the excellent work done by the narcotic research
team headed by Dr. G. Stevenson. We shall be sorry to lose him and his colleagues, and
we wait in eagerness for the publication of their findings.
It was with deep regret that we heard of the grave illness of Mr. Lingley, the
psychologist on this team, though in spite of him being almost totally incapacitated
physically, he is abundantly engaged in the final preparation of his research thesis.
On March 1st of this year the Provincial Government achieved the opening of two
centres within the Gaol precincts for the experimental treatment of twelve male and
twelve female narcotic addicts. Up to the time of writing this report, few of the appointments to these units have been filled. The treatment teams have been formed consisting
of a psychiatrist with psycho-analytic bias, a psychiatric case worker, a school-teacher,
and three specially selected supervisors. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 31
Apart from the psychiatrist, physician, and specialist in internal medicine, it is
proposed to have a separate team for the women to that of the men. It is too early as
yet to submit a report as to the type of programme that is to be offered, but it is hoped
that by the end of the financial year the hut for the male patients will be in operation.
The main problem which faces us at the moment is that of selecting suitable inmates for
treatment.
This project is still in the embryonic stage at the close of the year under survey, but
it is hoped that by March 31st, next, we shall have gained much experience and information which can be summarized in the next Annual Report.
Bathroom and Reception Area
The pressure on this department increases almost monthly. The accommodation
is inadequate, ventilation poor, bathing facilities primitive, facilities for storage of
clothing cramped, and the apparatus for fumigation of contaminated clothing ineffectual.
The staff has been making every effort to minimize the deficiency, but several times during
the year it has not been possible to change the inmates underclothes for two weeks. The
health authorities from Burnaby have prepared a report on this department, which
concurs with these observations.   A new Reception Wing is of prime importance.
West Wing
The establishment of this wing as a centre for those awaiting trial was completed
during the year. There has been need for increasing psychiatric investigation of inmates
awaiting trial; fuller facilities are required for observing them. Doubtless in time there
will be sections specifically designed for observing and protecting inmates under mental
observation awaiting psychiatric reports to the Court. There is also need for segregation
of categories of inmates awaiting trial; for example, in relationship to age, gravity of
delinquency, length of sentence, and whilst appealing.
South Wing
This wing has become the Classification Centre. As far as has been possible, the
inmates are medically examined before classification. The Medical Officer continues to
attend the classification sessions as frequently as possible, but until there is more medical
assistance, the time he spends there can only be minimal. Those inmates sentenced to
definite or indefinite sentences are classified during appointed sessions with the Medical
Officer in attendance.
The medical contribution to classification consists of a brief summary of the inmate's
physical condition with any medical remarks included on the medical sheet which is
completed during the admission examination.
When another Medical Officer is appointed, it is hoped that a classification committee
will be assisted by fuller information from the medical view-point. The classification
operations are now under review, and undoubtedly there will be a progressive improvement. As more units become established in the correctional system, the classification
procedure assumes more and more importance and demands more detailed techniques,
longer observation, and constructive activities for those under classification.
It has not yet been possible to remove the condemned cells from the classification
area. The new classification organization should include a section fully equipped in the
detailed observation of disturbed individuals.
East Wing
This wing has seen the inception of a fuller work and recreation programme during
the year. Containing, as it does, the narcotic addicts and those who have been found to
be unable to share in the programmes of other rehabilitative units, the problem remains O 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of considerable intensity.   The number of those complaining sick and declining to work
is far in excess of those from other units.
Kitchen
This new building has been of very great assistance to the general welfare of the
inmates. Certain of the facilities are not satisfactory, in the instance of the dish-washing
machine, which is reported to be too small, but by and large there have been no other
complaints. The drainage of the floors has given rise to difficulty owing to lack of fall of
some of the drains. This has been drawn to the attention of the administration, and has
been reported upon by the Inspector of the health authority. An excellent standard of
cooking has been maintained, and there is much credit due to the staff in regard to the
palatable and expeditious serving of food to the various units.
Stores
Great improvement has resulted in the setting-up of the stores in the Nisson hut,
which has included the construction of an additional floor.
Garbage-disposal
Constant attention has been needed concerning this. The sites on which garbage-cans
are placed for collection are entirely insanitary, and requests have been submitted for
the construction of concrete emplacements. Coverage and levelling of the main garbage-
dump has been proceeding more satisfactorily than in previous years. The rat problem
has been controlled considerably, and the Burnaby health authorities have visited frequently to inspect and supervise the technique of rat destruction. However, there are
still too many rats around the grounds and in the vicinity of the farm buildings, and
continuous attention must be given to this problem.
The Dairy
Pasteurization has been efficiently carried out. It is gratifying to note that bacterial
counts in the milk have been well below required minimum. The change of working
programme threw a heavy burden on the operation of the farm dairy. Under this scheme
there is a change of officers and inmates twice during the extended working-hours. Also
the four days of duty and the two days off duty which now compose the curriculum of the
staff require an ample supply of skilled reliefs. It is greatly to the credit of the staff
concerned that the frequent change-over of staff and inmates has not caused a contamination of milk-supply. It is reported that the same success does not apply to the milking
of the cows. A request has been submitted that a milking-machine should be purchased,
and on medical grounds this is highly recommended.
Isolation Cells
The basement of the cow-barn has been reconstructed and adapted for use as an
isolation area for disturbed inmates and those under dietary punishment. In spite of its
location it is a distinct improvement on the present isolation cells in the old gaol. However, except in summer weather it is not habitable at present as there is no heating and
the dampness requires additional ventilation. It is understood that heating will be
installed before long, and with facilities for changes of air it should be a secure and
relatively hygienic environment for those who are located there. Plumbing facilities
have also been added.
Shops
No medical comment concerning these except with regard to the licence-plate shop.
During the year one inmate lost three and a half fingers of his right hand in one of the
machines. There were protective devices, but for some reason, which is somewhat
obscure in this particular instance, there was this serious accident.   Since then additional REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 33
precautions have been taken and additional safety devices installed. Shortly there will
be opened a new licence-plate shop with the most modern machinery in use. Hazards,
for instance from paint fumes, will no longer be present, owing to the newest method
of spraying in the segregated area.
Sewage
It is feared that the present Imhoff tank is utterly inadequate for the numbers present
in Oakalla. It is understood that the appropriate authorities are aware of this and that
action is contemplated. What is urgently needed is some means of pulverizing foreign
bodies that are inserted into the sewage channels and destroy the bacteriolytic action in
the tank. It is suggested that this problem of sewage-disposal is one of the most urgent
tasks facing the present administration at the present time, involving, as it does, the health
of not only the Gaol community but that of others. The report of the Medical Health
Officer in Burnaby, Dr. W. F. Sunderland, asserts that present sewage is inadequately
treated, and he recommends that a survey be made to ascertain the capacity of the present
system, and that effluent be chlorinated before disposal in Deer Lake, including the
laundry waste and drainage from farm buildings.
In-service Training
The Medical Officer has continued to give two lectures of one hour apiece to each
training course. These cover the basic requirements for the maintenance of life and
health of the inmates in a prison setting, also referring to the needs for observing the
behaviour of inmates under custody and a short interpretation of personality types and
signs of mental illness. Dr. Joseph C. Thomas, the consulting psychiatrist, gives one
lecture to each course on mental observation reports and psychiatric illness.
Parole Board
The function of the British Columbia Parole Board continues to expand as regards
number of inmates before it. The service rendered by its three members to the community in all aspects of parole is very considerable, and the number of sessions is increasing
almost monthly. It has now become traditional for the Medical Officer to attend each
sitting, and a medical report is submitted on each inmate appearing before the Board.
This entails many medical interviews and examinations during each month. It is felt that
however difficult it may become to fulfil these requirements, such a service should be
maintained in order that the Parole Board may be given all possible medical information,
including a brief description of each candidate.
Young Offenders' Unit
This unit continues to fulfil an indispensable mission in the attempted rehabilitation
of the young delinquents whose sentence or personality is such that maximum security is
required whilst accommodated with those of a similar age-group.
In the absence of a caseworker it has not been possible to offer skilled counselling
on a psycho-therapeutic basis, but it is hoped that one will be appointed in order to
conduct very necessary explorations and to work in close co-operation with those in
charge of groups. It has been found that many seriously disturbed boys, however, in
spite of the absence of a caseworker, respond well to vocational training and group work.
It is also greatly to the credit of the staff that it is only rarely necessary for a boy to be
removed from the unit, and it speaks well of the skill of the staff there.
Without being a clinic for grossly psychopathic behaviour, such as was established
by August Aichorn, whilst using sanctions to preserve a reasonable amount of discipline,
there are resources in this unit which can greatly relieve hostility and turn it to more
creative and therapeutic account.    It is only in small specialized and self-contained O 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
establishments of this nature that that measure of resilience in handling critical individual
situations can be made possible.
The Medical Officer has continued to visit the unit on a weekly basis for interviews
and four times a week for the purpose of seeing those complaining sick. The hygiene
remains relatively satisfactory and the dietary has improved. It is probable that the food
would be better prepared in the Main Gaol kitchen, but the value of training boys in the
kitchen belonging to this unit offsets many disadvantages. Constant supervision is
is required as regards cleanliness in this kitchen.
Westgate Unit
The year under review has seen the Westgate Unit expanding in population and the
departure of the Doukhobor women.
Medically speaking, it remains a problem as regards ventilation and heating. The
grills which have been inserted at the end of each section have improved the ventilation
to a slight extent. To achieve a more effective means of air change, it would be necessary
to raise the roof lights in order to allow vents for the rising of expended air. The fan
system for heating is not adequate in really cold weather. The cement flooring shows its
usual tendency to powder and is not helpful to those with allergies or chronic lung
infections.   One tier is usually devoted to unemployable senile alcoholics.
As far as medical services are concerned, the Westgate Unit has not been adequately
attended. For a population of 350 an officer medically trained, specifically assigned to
such duties, should be on duty on each shift, except for the night shift. As the administration was unable to supply an additional officer for these duties, the officer normally
stationed in the out-patient dispensary in the Main Gaol has been attending to Westgate
from noon to 1 p.m. and then has been retained to lecture in first aid until 4 p.m., which
has meant that an additional burden has been thrust on the Prison Hospital as regards the
treatment of those who would, under the previous arrangements have been treated in
the out-patient dispensary during the afternoon. It has has been found most difficult to
ensure that medications are properly distributed, for example, during the 3 to 11 shift
of duty; however, it is hoped that the duties of the officers medically employed will be
reviewed shortly, and recommendations will be made concerning the improvement of
medical care in the Westgate Unit.
The Medical Officer conducts sick parades twice a week at the unit, and we appreciate the construction of a medical examination room and a small dispensary situated in
one of the gymnasiums.
On July 31st, 1955, there was a sudden death in Westgate, and there had been no
warning of this event and no record of his having reported sick to any of the staff.
We observed with interest the steady evolution of skills on the part of those planning
and carrying out the active programme in the unit.
It is greatly to the credit of those concerned that a number of highly disturbed
inmates have successfully completed their sentences without undue incidents. Considering the grave personality disorders of so many in Westgate, the instances of those reported
to the Warden for disciplinary action have been surprisingly few. This reflects credit
on the entire staff there.
The education of the junior staff in reporting on behaviour and personality characteristics is an inevitably slow and tedious task, especially handicapped in many instances
by lack of adequate education. Such members, in addition, have had no previous
vocational experiences of this nature, and they need to be helped to acquire an interest
in individuals whom heretofore they would not have understood or wished to attempt
to rehabilitate. But the quality of these reports has been showing progress, as evidenced
by the knowledge of their charges, made personally to the Parole Board by the tier
supervisors. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 35
Even when joining the prison service, the anticipation of the type of duty required
is almost solely that of a custodial nature, and considerable adjustment is required as the
diversity of obligations becomes more apparent.
The experiment of the curriculum aimed to assist in socialization has no doubt been
fully described in the Warden's annual report, and there is very little which touches on
medical ground. However, in so far as mental and physical health is concerned, it is
evident that a large proportion of the inmates undergoing the training must profit in some
degree, and it is hoped that statistics of rehabiliation will be encouraging.
There are impressions which a medical person can gain from his observations, and
those are that perhaps for an intensive programme more detailed classification is necessary within the unit itself, so that the greater concentration of staff can be focused on a
smaller number of inmates who are considered to be more profitable projects.
Haney Camp
This camp has continued to supply a much-needed requirement in the way of pre-
discharge unit, with the added opportunity for inmates to earn a dollar a day whilst there
at the camp, which greatly assists the men on discharge.
The number at the camp has varied from approximately twenty-eight to fifty-two
inmates. We were able to give medical approval to accommodate fifty, owing to the
additions which have been made in the kitchen area and the showers. Additional huts
were constructed, resulting in abolition of the marquees.
Again we were troubled earlier in the year by a slight outbreak of Salmonella
infection, but not nearly so serious as the previous year, and rapidly responded to
improvement in camp hygiene.
There was more accomplished in fly-proof buildings, but this was difficult due to the
shrinkage of the lumber, leaving gaps which were hard to obliterate. However, the staff
are constantly co-operative in their efforts to maintain the health of the inmates, which
has been generally good. The improvement shown in both physical and emotional calibre
of the inmates after their transfer to the camp is most gratifying. The number of them
returning for sickness has been negligible.
There is a danger to safety in the use of inadequate guards for the machinery, but
the Warden has had this brought to his attention and has recommended new preventive
measures to guard the machinery.
Women's Gaol
The general health of the inmates in this institution has been satisfactory. The
medical department is indebted to the Venereal Disease Control for the regular attendance
of its physician, Dr. Warnock, who has been most willing to advise us in gynaecological
matters, as well as those more specifically concerned with venereal disease.
Visits have been paid by the optometrist, Dr. Milne, and dental treatment has also
been obtained.
There has also been the utmost co-operation from the Vancouver General Hospital,
and we are especially indebted to the authorities in charge of the gynaecological and
maternity departments for their close attention to our inmates.
The medical staff has been augmented by the appointment of one more registered
nurse, included owing to the pressure of medical demands of an increasing population in
this building. Unless there is one registered nurse available on each shift, a great many
functions legally allotted to qualified staff must inevitably be performed by non-certificated
workers. The material equipment has been increased and certain minor structural alterations to the medical rooms have been planned.
It is understood that the new wing to the Women's Building will be erected shortly,
and this has been planned with a view to its use as an isolation and tuberculosis wing when O 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the new Women's Gaol has been built.    In the meanwhile this addition will be of great
assistance to the programme and accommodation in the present Women's Gaol.
Owing to the closer attention which it is possible to give women inmates, we have
been able to explore the use of certain of the newer drugs, such as those belonging to the
Chloropromazine group, and those derived from Rauwolfia products, such as Serpesil.
We have found that Largactil and Sparine are of value in the withdrawal from narcotics
and in many cases obtain fuller relaxation without the effects resulting from the use of
barbiturates. Before any general use of these drugs for the purpose of withdrawal, we
will continue to observe the reaction of the patients to them.
Kitchen
The kitchen has shown little change throughout the year as regards design. Some
additional equipment has been obtained and garbage-disposal is more satisfactory. An
incinerator has been added.   The quality of diets in the Women's Building is excellent.
Laundry
It is well known that this is too small for the number of inmates in this building, and
we are led to believe that a new laundry will be installed in the wing shortly to be
constructed. The whole building is, of course, overcrowded and will inevitably remain
so until the new Women's Gaol is in use.
Huts
The huts continue to contribute greatly to the programme of the women's section.
Experience shows that a system which caters for small residential groups of twelve to
thirteen at the most are by far the most profitable in many aspects—economy in structure
of building, facility of classification, and resources for personal relationship with the unit
supervisors, together with a feeling of group and family security. There are defects in
construction of the huts which are in use at present; for example, the heating apparatus
is not satisfactory and some of the top-tier bunks are directly against the windows.
The school hut is providing abundant service under the matron who is teaching, and,
as in the case of the men, it is difficult to express adequately the invaluable contribution
toward rehabilitation which is made by Dr. E. E. Lucas, the Director of High School Correspondence Instruction, in providing correspondence courses for so large a number of
Oakalla inmates of both sexes and wide scatter of age and capacity.
The correctional services as far as the women are concerned are becoming increasingly dynamic and are finding their present location more and more limiting, owing to
the demands for expansion in accommodation and in programme. The area is necessarily
rigidly circumscribed, with the result that movement for the women outside their own
small area is becoming more difficult. It is with pleasure that we learn of the probability
that a new Women's Gaol will be considered in the near future.
Doukhobors
The year under consideration saw at its close the departure of the last Doukhobor
inmate. There has been a steady trickle of discharges of these women on parole during
the twelve months. Their general health continued to be satisfactory on the whole, though
there was the undue proportion of neurotic illness, constipation, gastric disorder, and
haemorrhoids for example. It was noticeable, however, during their last year of confinement on this occasion there was less agitation, and medical complaints became fewer.
During that time in Oakalla four were admitted to the Vancouver General Hospital as
in-patients, and one of these inmates was admitted to the psychiatric ward of the Vancouver General Hospital and three occasions for administrations of E.C.T. Her release
came through during one of her psychotic episodes, but she improved sufficiently to go
to her home under escort. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 37
One Doukhobor inmate died shortly after her discharge from Oakalla from a heart
condition. It is greatly to the credit of the staff of the Women's Gaol that none of the
women Doukhobor inmates had to be committed to the Provincial Mental Hospital, in
spite of the fact that many of them were potentially psychotic, and with less skilled supervision they would rapidly become unmanageable owing to psychiatric illness.
Summary
Thus it is encouraging, Sir, to record the steady evolution of the establishment under
your direction, as observed from the medical view-point, and to be aware of future
projects.
In summary of the more immediate needs medically, it is submitted that a new
admission wing at Oakalla Prison Farm is of primary importance, certain additions to
the present hospital and its staff at Oakalla, additional facilities for sewage-disposal there,
increased and better accommodation for the tuberculosis patients, and special accommodations and a segregated clinical area for psychiatrically disturbed inmates.
It is with keen appreciation of the co-operation and endeavour of yourself and your
department, together with that of the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm, that the above
report is respectfully submitted.
R. G. E. Richmond, M.D.,
Medical Officer.
REPORT OF PSYCHOLOGIST
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is the report of the Provincial Gaol Service Psychologist for the
fiscal year April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956.
Tests Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Male Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  13
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  14
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  1
Henmon-Nelson, Form A (elementary school)  55
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (elementary
school)  43
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (high school) 35
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (high school) 1
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia  297
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  5
Otis Quick-scoring Mental Ability Test, Alpha A  4
Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test (AA)  8
Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test  2
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (Intermediate)  261
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational) (C.H.)  6
Personality Inventory, Form Pd  4
Tests Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Female Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I .  1
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  2
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  2 <) 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Tests Administered in New Haven to Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  14
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  21
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  14
Mental Health Analysis (adult)  48
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory  28
Tests Administered in Oakalla Prison Farm to Staff
O.P.F. officers—
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  48
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  57
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  4
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia  48
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  36
Revised Beta Examination  1
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  40
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale  17
Ishihara Colour Vision Test  1
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form A  65
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form B  54
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational) (C.H.)  18
Kuder Preference Record (Personal) (A.H.)  43
O.P.F. officer applicants—
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  5
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia  4
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  17
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  20
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale  1
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form A  10
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form B  7
O.P.F. matrons—
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  7
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II :  3
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  2
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia  3
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  3
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form A  2
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form B  1
Kuder Preference Record (Personal) (A.H.)  3
Kuder Preference Record (Vocational) (C.H.)  1
Stenographers—
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  2
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  l
Matron applicants—
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  2
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form A  1
O.P.F. switchboard-operator applicants (female)—
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  2
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  2
Stenographer applicants—Otis Employment Test, Form 1b  2 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 39
Officers from Prince George Gaol—
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia     12
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale       2
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale       4
Kuder Preference Record (Personal) (A.H.)     12
Officers from Kamloops Gaol—
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia       5
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale       1
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale       2
Kuder Preference Record (Personal) (A.H.)       5
Officers from Nelson Gaol—
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia       6
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b       1
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale       1
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale       5
Kuder Preference Record (Personal) (A.H.)       8
Supervisors from New Haven—
Otis Employment Test, Form Ia     11
Otis Employment Test, Form 1b.__.       4
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale       l
Shipley-Hartford Vocabulary Scale     10
Kuder Preference Record (Personal) (A.H.)     15
The work of the Gaol Service Psychologist has continued to be concentrated over
the past year in the three main areas of (a) individual and group testing of inmates,
(b) individual and group testing of prison personnel, and (c) participation on the
Oakalla Prison Farm Classification Committee. However, the emphasis given to each
of the three areas changed as the year progressed. Whereas in the previous year most
time was given to inmate testing, followed by testing of prison personnel and then work
on the Classification Committee, this last year has seen major emphasis placed on testing
of personnel, followed by inmate testing and, lastly, time devoted to inmate classification.
This change was brought about by two main influences: (1) The request of the Warden
of Oakalla Prison Farm for more psychological test reports on his personnel, and (2)
the increased use of testing in the staff-training school.
As of February, 1956, a psychologist, R. Downey, was appointed to the staff of
Oakalla Prison Farm, and his advent has resulted in a further change in the work of
the Gaol Service Psychologist. In a memorandum dated February 24th, 1956, the
Inspector of Gaols outlined what this work should be. Briefly, it was to the effect that
the Gaol Service Psychologist " will be directly responsible to the Inspector of Gaols
for the supervision of inmate classification and the review of applications for warrants
of transfer."
Up to the end of the period covered by this report, it had not been finally decided
just how this supervisory function should be carried on. However, it was generally
recognized that, because of the increasing number of quite specialized correctional institutions, each dependent to some considerable extent for its efficiency upon proper
classification of inmates, there should be some person on the Inspector of Gaols' staff
who would have responsibility for the supervision of the classification process. It was
felt that the Gaol Service Psychologist, once relieved of the burden of work in Oakalla,
could logically include this supervisory service as a part of his duties.
Respectfully submitted.
R. V. McAllister,
Provincial Gaol Service Psychologist. O 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF PROTESTANT CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Protestant Chaplain,
Provincial Gaol Services, for the year ended March 31st, 1956.
It is generally admitted by students in the field of corrections that religion has
played no small part in the development of the contemporary programme for the correction and treatment of the delinquent and the criminal offender. With the advent of
specialized and qualified workers in the various spheres of social service, libraries,
education, recreation, etc., the chaplain has gradually been freed to devote more of his
time to his own specific field of endeavour, " the cure of souls."
To recognize the place of religion in the prison programme, we must agree with
the contention that religion is primarily a way of life. It offers a faith to live by—a faith
that human life has meaning and purpose, that there is a power greater than ourselves
who desires only good for his children, that through Christ is offered forgiveness and
the opportunity of a fresh start. The Christian teaching, further, is that we realize our
creative powers when we accept this forgiveness and attune ourselves to the Creator,
and that it is then we receive new power and a new purpose in living.
Finally, Christianity not only seeks to set us in proper relation to God and to ourselves, but also to our fellow-men. It teaches us that the only relationship which makes
for peace and harmonious living is that which is built upon a mutual respect for the
dignity of personality, upon justice, fair play, and unselfishness in our dealings with
others.
It is obvious that this conception of Christianity has apparently made no impression
upon the criminal offender, otherwise he would not be the person he is.
The failure to acquire a wholesome religious attitude toward life and its responsibilities may properly be regarded as a major factor in anti-social behaviour.
Thus when a chaplain seeks to overtake his responsibility for " the cure of souls,"
it must be recognized that, religiously, he has very little to build on in the thinking of
his " institutional parishioners." Despite the claims of some to have had past church
connections or Sunday School training, it is evident that none of these have made any
noticeable impact upon his personality or his attitudes.
Because we believe that the successful adjustment of any individual to society
depends upon the relationship he establishes with God, himself, and his fellows, and
because the criminal offender has failed in one or more of these relationships, the task
of the chaplain in the correctional process is to plan the religious programme to seek to
establish successfully these three relationships on the part of the inmate.
His ministry, while varied, consists basically of three types of religious activity:
(1) Public worship, (2) religious education, and (3) pastoral counselling.
1. Worship
The purposes of public worship in a correctional institution are identical with the
purposes of any worship service—to bring the assembled congregation to a keener
awareness of God, of the forgiveness which He offers, and of their need of God in their
daily life. The Chaplain plans these services so that they may be conducted in a dignified manner and in a setting conducive to worship, as far as possible.
As in previous year, the Chaplain conducts all services at New Haven Borstal
Institution on Sundays at 9 a.m. Rev. H. Berry, a retired Anglican clergyman, assumes
responsibility for an Anglican service on the fourth Sunday of each month. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 41
At the Women's Gaol the Chaplain has taken all services at 2.15 p.m. on Sundays,
with the exception of the first Sunday of each month, when Salvation Army representatives are in charge.
At Oakalla Prison Farm and at the Young Offenders' Unit, services are planned
by the Chaplain but are conducted by representatives of the major Protestant denominations; the Salvation Army, the Church of England, the United Church, and the Baptist and Presbyterian Churches all assist regularly. The Union Gospel Mission, a laymen's group, is in charge on the fourth Sunday of each month.
The attendances at all services are quite satisfactory. The Oakalla Prison Farm
service has an average attendance of 265 men.
The continued interest shown in these services would indicate that there is no
evidence of careless planning on the part of visiting church groups, but rather an
endeavour to relate the Christian message to the needs of the inmate congregation.
Special services were held on the major Christian festivals and on Remembrance
Day.
Four hundred and five inmates packed the chapel at Oakalla Prison Farm on
Christmas afternoon for a special service.
Major the Rev. Stanley Higgs, assisted by the Chaplain, conducted a Remembrance
Day service on November 11th which was very well attended, and was well received
by all present.
On Good Friday a special service was held at New Haven and holy communion
administered at Oakalla Prison Farm to seven inmates.
Two musical services were held by the Salvation Army Citadel Band—on September 11th, 1955, when 439 inmates were present in the gymnasium, and on January 1st,
1956, when the chapel was again crowded.
On October 30th, 1955, Bishop Godfrey P. Gower, Bishop of the Diocese of New
Westminster, was special guest at the dedication of the new gymnasium at Oakalla
Prison Farm. With few exceptions, the entire inmate population was in attendance
and took part in what proved to be an impressive service.
On January 22nd, 1956, Bishop Gower was present at the New Haven Borstal
Institution and consecrated a new chapel built, decorated, and furnished by the lads of
the institution. St. George's Chapel, as it is now designated, provides an attractive
setting for public worship.
2. Religious Education
The variation in ages, background, and education of the inmate population necessitate an equally varied programme of religious education. Methods and techniques are
adapted as far as possible to the individual group.
At New Haven a series of sound films on the life of St. Paul, presented each week
for thirteen weeks, proved to be most valuable in sending lads to their Bibles to read
further accounts, thus increasing their ability to use the Bible. The discussions which
followed the film, together with reports received from supervisors as to the further discussions in dormitories, indicate that such films do have a vital impact on these young
men.
A religious discussion group of a voluntary nature was held every Wednesday
evening at New Haven by the Chaplain. The average attendance was twelve, and lively
discussions on religious problems ensued.
A religious film programme followed by discussion was also presented in the Young
Offenders' Unit each Thursday evening, and in the Women's Gaol on the second and
fourth Monday evenings. This programme was especially well received at the Women's
Gaol. O 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
At the Young Offenders' Unit during the Christmas season the inmates' quarters
were tastefully decorated, and Unit 6 in particular had, of their own volition, made the
religious aspect of Christmas the dominant note in their decorations.
At Oakalla Prison Farm the Chaplain has, at the request of the Warden, sponsored
the Alcoholics Anonymous group. This organization has devised a most effective programme for the rehabilitation of the alcoholic. Meetings are held for members of the
Westgate group each Tuesday evening. Twice monthly two visitors from the Vancouver
Central Committee of Alcoholics Anonymous visit the Westgate group and aid in the
discussion of the Alcoholics Anonymous programme. The average attendance is
eighteen.
As a result of his work with the Oakalla group, the Chaplain was invited to speak
at the Annual Alcoholics Anonymous Provincial Conference held in Vancouver on
March 30th, 1956.
3. Pastoral Counselling
Counselling is, of necessity, on a very limited basis. Where it is possible, at Young
Offenders' Unit, the Women's Gaol, and New Haven, all new admissions are interviewed
by the Chaplain and personal contact made. At Oakalla all those who request interviews
are seen by the Chaplain. With the employment of trained social workers, the number
of interviews by the Chaplain is not as large as in previous years; nevertheless, over 1,500
separate interviews took place during the year.
Intensive counselling has continued as far as time would permit. Where circumstances warrant it, religious literature is distributed and Bibles or New Testaments are
presented to those requesting them. Forty New Testaments and twenty-three Bibles
were issued to individuals.
The Chaplain's library for guided reading of books on the Christian faith is widely
used, and more books should be added to increase its usefulness.
It is the policy at Oakalla Prison Farm to have the Chaplain notify any inmate of
the death of a relative. There were ten such notifications during the past year. Inmates
appear appreciative of this interest shown in their welfare at such a time.
During the past year there were several occupants in the " condemned cells." The
Chaplain made these inmates his special concern and established what appeared to be
a helpful relationship to many of them.
4. Other Duties
The Chaplain took part in the in-service training programme at Oakalla Prison
Farm, speaking to each class on the religious programme and discussing techniques of
the presentation of the Christian message. He also attended senior staff meetings called
by the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm at regular intervals.
Nine addresses to ministerial associations, youth groups, and church organizations
were given during the year. The continued interest of the general public in penal reform
affords the Chaplain a unique opportunity of interpreting his role in the correctional
process to the general public.
5. Conclusion
It is becoming increasingly evident that effective work can best be accomplished
with small groups and with individuals. To accomplish this, the appointment of assistant
or part-time chaplains would be of great assistance. The aid of theological students
might also be obtained. This would prove to be a progressive move, as it would enable
more men to be reached by the discussion-group programme, and would enrich the
experience of the student himself.
The continued support of the Salvation Army, the John Howard Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, the Borstal Association, the Bible Society, and the Vancouver Council
of Churches is again gratefully acknowledged. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 43
The support of the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm, the Director of New Haven,
and the co-operation of the staff of all institutions have materially assisted the Chaplain
in his work from day to day.
In conclusion, I would once again express my sincere thanks to you for your unfailing assistance, understanding, and encouragement during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. D. Grant Hollingworth,
Protestant Chaplain.
REPORT OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Beginning November 23rd, 1955, I assumed the duties of the Catholic Chaplain of the Provincial Gaols. The performance of my duty to fill the spiritual needs of
this institution was graciously accepted by the Wardens, staff, and inmates.
Besides my daily visit to a section of the institution, a weekly spiritual programme is
strenuously followed without exceptions. This is best explained by identifying these
sections. The first section consists of the Main Gaol, Westgate, and the Young Offenders'
Unit;  the second, the Women's Section;  and thirdly, New Haven.
The First Section
The holy sacrifice of the mass is offered for this section at 8.15 o'clock every Sunday
morning. Confessions are heard before mass. During the mass the epistle and gospel
are read, followed by a sermon explaining a part of the reading in the light of the faith
pertaining to the Commandments or the Sacraments. Approximately 200 attend this
mass, and an average of ten inmates receive holy communion every Sunday morning. At
Christmas time twenty-one inmates received holy communion, and on Easter Sunday
thirty-five. The Saturday before these great feast-days, thanks to the efforts of Mr. Clark
and Mr. Watt, every Catholic was contacted and personally interviewed in Westgate and
Young Offenders' Unit. In the Main Gaol all Catholics had the opportunity to be interviewed, but many refused. The attendance at mass on these two great days was very
large, and the chapel was filled to capacity.
On Thursday evenings the Legion of Mary (which has been mentioned and elucidated in previous reports), with the Chaplain, uses two classrooms in the new gymnasium.
The Catholics of Westgate and Young Offenders' Unit who wish to know more of their
faith meet with the Legion of Mary in separate classrooms. The programme begins with
the recitation of the Rosary, led by the Chaplain. Rosaries are given to the inmate who
does not have one by the Legion of Mary. The rosaries are made by the Junior Legion
of Mary. Two members of the Legion distribute prayer books in the chapel every Sunday
morning. The prayer books were supplied by His Grace the Most Rev. William M. Duke,
D.D., Archbishop of Vancouver. After Rosary the class is broken into smaller groups,
which have been previously determined by the Chaplain in a personal interview with the
inmate, into those who do not know anything about their faith, into those who know
something of their faith but have not received their first holy communion or confirmation,
into those who would like to know more about their faith.   Between fifteen to twenty O 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
inmates from Westgate and about five from Young Offenders' Unit attend these classes
every week. This same programme is held in the centre hall at the Main Gaol for the
Catholics of East Wing, the same evening at 8 o'clock. During May a former member of
these classes and a dischargee of Westgate voluntarily made a week-end retreat with the
Augustinian Fathers at Ladner and paid his own way.
The Women's Section
Mass is said in the Women's Section every Sunday at 9.30 a.m. Confessions are
heard every Saturday morning at 9 a.m. A part of the gospel is explained during the
Sunday morning mass. Two members of the women's section of the Legion of Mary also
attend this mass. They distribute rosaries and medals and lead the Rosary. Bi-monthly,
on a Monday night, the Legion of Mary meets in the Women's Section. The programme
begins at 7 o'clock, with the Rosary led by the Chaplain, followed by a talk on the
Commandments, then a period of questions and answers. The remaining time is taken
up with individual conversation between the inmate and the member of the Legion.
When an inmate knows nothing of her faith, she receives individual instructions during
this time, supplemented by the Chaplain during the week. It is doubted whether these
bi-monthly instructions do much good. The great turnover and the long time between
instructions is a major factor. Now, if these could be more often, say weekly, we
would have a greater opportunity to give more religious instructions and become more
acquainted with the inmate. I want to take this opportunity to thank Miss Maybee and
her lovely staff for a word here and there which has helped me tremendously.
New Haven
Mass is said here at 10.30 o'clock every Sunday morning with the reading of the
epistle and gospel, and a sermon, as during the masses at the Main Gaol and Women's
Section. Confessions are heard on Saturday and before mass. Every Friday afternoon
at 3.30 o'clock an hour is allotted to the Chaplain for religious instruction. This is
conducted on the same lines as the periods at Oakalla and the Women's Section, beginning
with the Rosary, instructions on the Commandments, and time for questions and answers.
A longer time is spent on the latter because the boys are very sceptical of most everything,
and every question has to be explained with many examples from everyday life before
they will accept the answers. I would like to spend more time with these boys, but the
demands of Oakalla are so many that it is impossible for me to do so.
At Christmas time a problem presented itself as to how to contact every Catholic in
the institution to prepare them for the great feast-day. No individual list is kept according
to religion. Through the co-operation of Mr. Clark and Mr. Watt, all Catholics were
contacted in the Young Offenders' Unit and Westgate. The wings of the Main Gaol
were more difficult because of the rapid turnover. Easter time presented the same problem. After Easter the problem was solved through the suggestion of Mr. Clark and the
co-operation of the Classification Department from whom I received the name, number,
location, and dismissal date of every Catholic that passes through Classification.
It is suggested that the Chaplain should have a place where he could do his paper
work and to keep his files. Books submitted to the library should be of high quality that
the reader of such would be better after reading them. Philosophical books should be
loaned to those whose previous education would warrant the proper handling of such.
Many thanks are due Warden Christie, Mr. Rocksborough Smith, and their staffs
for their wonderful co-operation, without whose help my work would be to no avail.
Respectfully submitted.
Thomas Francis M. Corcoran, S.P.M.,
Roman Catholic Chaplain. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 45
REPORT OF LIBRARIAN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is the report of the Provincial Gaol Service Librarian for the fiscal
year ended March 31st, 1956.
One of the most widely prevalent fallacies regarding gaol library service is that it
must differ qualitatively—in a way generally assumed to be inferior—from a standard
public library service. Naturally the mechanics of functioning in an institutional setting
impose certain restrictions, but this does not mean that book selection standards should
or can be disregarded.
The assumption that it is the library's function to cater to the lowest common
denominator by building a collection consisting mainly of westerns is as fallacious as
that well-intentioned insistance that the gaol library must consist primarily of inspirational
material (both are needed, and much else beside). The latter conception produces inane
efforts to safeguard the morals of the inmates by censoring any book or periodical article
that smacks of realism and implies that the world is anything but sweetness and light,
while the former seeks to divert them by creating an equally fantastic world of blood
and thunder. Precisely because the institutional library does have a monopoly of reading
material and is not faced with the necessity of competing with other media that might
attract its potential clientele, it has even less justification for making any serious retreats
from long-established standards of book selection. The only valid operating assumption
is that as the gaol population represents a fair cross-section of the population as a whole
in terms of educational and occupational backgrounds, therefore the library must seek to
implement standards as high as those which would be provided by any good public library.
In appraising the gaol library service it is essential to remember that it, in fact, constitutes a library " system " composed of some eight " branches " (some of these are so
small—notably Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince George—that they may more accurately
be described as deposit stations) serviced from a central depot located in Oakalla Main
Gaol. Here the processes of book selection, ordering, cataloguing, and classifying are
carried out, and it is at this point that the bottle-neck in book processing, due to the lack
of a permanent clerk-typist, originates.
Oakalla Main Gaol
Library facilities in the Main Gaol building are inadequate. Located in an L-shaped
partition in the central hall and occupying some 400 square feet, the library presents a
depressing picture of physical facilities so limited as to make normal library functioning
an impossibility. Lacking access to the collection, inmates must list their selections
(made with the aid of mimeographed sheaf catalogues) on order cards which are then
gathered by inmate assistants who fill the requests and carry books to the wings in sacks.
Yet so great is the demand for reading material that despite the lack of an opportunity to browse and see the books at first hand, almost 31,000 volumes were circulated
by the Main Gaol library during the past year.
To determine the effect of a degree of direct access to the books, a book-cart service
was instituted in August, 1955. The cart, which holds some 125 volumes, provides books
for the inmates on Ranges 4 and 5 in the East Wing. As it takes an evening to service
a tier, this means that the cart can visit a tier only twice weekly. In view of this it is
interesting to note that during the eight months from August to March the cart accounted
for a circulation of 2,637 volumes, a figure which is not without significance; projected
forward it indicates clearly that with an open-shelf library and reading-room permitting O 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
inmates to make their choice directly from the shelves, a very substantial increase in
book use might be anticipated.
Young Offenders' Unit
The book collection at the Young Offenders' Unit occupies a corner of the recently
redecorated multi-purpose room. The entire collection has been weeded, and a large
number of ancient, shoddy, and inappropriate volumes have been discarded, leaving a
smaller, but considerably more attractive collection.
The most significant development here has been the very welcome interest in the
library shown by Mr. Hawthorn, Educational and Activities Director. This positive
approach by the staff to the entire question of inmate reading is the essential ingredient
of any genuine improvement in the situation, and there can be no doubt that as this
approach is expressed in practical terms, it will be reflected in a heightened awareness
by the inmates of the importance of books and reading.
Women's Gaol
The Women's Gaol library is one of the few which, because of its longer history,
has a collection that approached the minimum requirements for book-stock. Housed in
an attractive room, its use by the inmates testifies to the valuable role it has played in
the institution.
Interior Institutions
The Interior institutions present a special problem. It is clear that the book budgets
for Nelson and Kamloops, in particular, are so inadequate as to preclude even the possibility of building adequate book-stocks. While Prince George is in a somewhat more
favourable position budgetwise, at our present level of purchases it will take some years
to acquire a basic book collection. It would appear that interchange of books between
the Men's and Women's Gaols will be necessary for some time as one method of helping
to overcome the deficiency.
New Haven
The New Haven collection is used so extensively in its informal free-access type
setting that it has come to be regarded by both inmates and staff as a vital part of the
New Haven programme. Provision will have to be made in the not too distant future
for additional shelf space if further expansion of this valuable resource is to continue
unimpeded.
Staff-training Library
With the establishment of the Staff Training School, new impetus has been given to
the development of staff library facilities. The Director of the School, Mr. Matheson, has
assumed responsibility for the care of the books and has commented on the very healthy
interest shown by staff members in this material, which has been utilized by some 150
officers. It is clear that in this setting the basis has been established for the systematic
acquisition of a specialized collection which will ultimately be of great value to all those
in the correctional field.
Respectfully submitted.
D. Lebofsky,
Librarian. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 47
STAFF TRAINING SCHOOL
Prior to the establishment of a staff-training school, in-service training activities
were carried on in the Corrections Branch on a decentralized basis with lectures being
given to various groups at Oakalla Prison Farm and New Haven Borstal. By the spring
of 1955 the need for more centralized and co-ordinated training had become apparent,
and initial steps were taken toward the establishment of the Staff Training School as a
unit directly under the Inspector of Gaols. Considerable work was done in preparation
for this step by securing information and training materials from agencies operating similar
programmes in Canada and the United States.
E. K. Nelson, as Director of the Staff Training School, is responsible for the over-all
direction and planning of the training programme, with the Staff Training Officer,
M. Matheson, responsible for its day-to-day operation.
Basic Training
The first basic training course commenced on October 17th, 1955, following an
extended period of planning and setting-up of courses. It was a two-week course of
eighty hours' duration for all custodial officers. Instruction was given in the fundamentals of custody, human behaviour, and modern penal practices.
While the Director and Staff Training Officer themselves have offered certain
lectures to basic training classes, the majority of the actual instruction has been given
by staff members selected for their special competence in particular subjects. The Staff
Training Officer has assisted these instructors by gathering training material for them
and making suggestions relative to their instruction to the class. At the close of the
report period there had been nine basic courses given, each of eighty hours' duration.
A total of 110 officers have been processed through the basic training. A breakdown of the units these officers are attached to is as follows: Oakalla Prison Farm, 57;
New Haven, 9; Forestry Camps, 6; Women's Gaol, 3; Kamloops Gaol, 7; Nelson
Gaol, 12; and Prince George Gaol, 16.
Each trainee in the basic training course was assigned certain chapters to read in
the Manual of Correctional Standards, and they were supplied with a copy of the
Manual for the duration of the course, together with a copy of the Gaol Rules and
Regulations, which they were also required to read. In addition, mimeographed material was supplied to them. It is planned that in the future a system of training manuals
will be established. For the meantime each student has been required to complete a
note-book in which he includes the supplied mimeographed pamphlets as well as his
classroom notes.
Extensive use was made of films and other training aids, as well as practice in
self-defence, fire-fighting, firearms and gas, and tours of Oakalla, Young Offenders'
Unit, and New Haven.
A mid-term test and final examination were given to each group of trainees, and
in addition a quiz of ten questions at the end of each training-day. The examination
marks, together with standings on the daily quizzes, and the value assigned to notebooks, make up the final grade. A minimum over-all standing of 60 per cent was
required for successful completion of the course.
At the end of each basic training course an evaluation was made of each trainee by
the Staff Training Officer and sent to his superior officer. This evaluation consisted of
a dictated report covering the following headings:—
(1) Personal Fitness.
(2) Course Achievement.
(3) Co-operation and Responsiveness.
(4) Observation and Alertness.
(5) Work Habits. O 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(6) Powers of Critical Analysis.
(7) Initiative and Capacity for Growth.
(8) Personal Appearance.
(9) Examination Grades.
(10) General Rating.
(11) General Summary of This Student's Possibilities.
Advanced Training
During the past year this was a ten-week course for senior administrative staff,
which operated on a seminar basis under the leadership of the Director of the Staff
Training School. The group met every Wednesday from 4 to 6 p.m. for a total of
twenty hours' instruction. This course covered organization and management, supervision techniques, and fiscal management.
Each trainee was supplied with a copy of the Manual on the Supervision of
Personnel for the duration of this course, which he was required to read.
First Aid
On March 26th and 27th, 1956, a first-aid course was arranged for six forestry
camp staff members. The course ran for eight hours on each of these two days.
A series of filmstrips and practical demonstrations were employed for instructional
purposes.
Seminars
At the request of Mr. Rocksborough Smith, Director of New Haven Borstal, a
series of seminars was arranged for the New Haven staff. These seminars met every
two weeks at New Haven from 3 to 4.30 p.m., with the following topics being
discussed: —
March 8th, 1956:   Mr. Colin Farmer, " Selection for Parole."
March 22nd, 1956:   Dr. Richmond, " The Psychopath."
April 12th, 1956:  Mr. McAllister, "Schizophrenia."
May 3rd, 1956:   Dr. Thomas, " Mental Observation."
May 17th, 1956:  Mr. Nelson, " Group Dynamics."
The Staff Training School is a place within which a variety of training needs can
be met.   The first year of operation has been mainly in the experimental phase, but we
are pleased with the results and hope to broaden the programme still further with the
assistance of Dr. Gibbons from the University of British Columbia, who will be made
available to us this fall.
E. K. Nelson,
Director, Staff Training School.
NELSON GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Nelson Provincial Gaol
for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1956.
Administration
During the past year the number of inmates received and handled at this institution
has been lower than in the last fiscal year. Trusty work at the Gaol is drawn from the
inmate population for various jobs, under the supervision of staff members. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 49
Staff Changes
There have been several staff changes at this institution during the last fiscal year.
Deputy Warden A. Niven, Guard R. G. Thompson, and Guard K. A. Anderson have
resigned from the Gaol Service, and have been replaced by Deputy Warden D. Maddin
(who was transferred from Oakalla Prison Farm), Guard W. Marlow, and Guard H. G.
MacDonald, who were hired locally. Guard S. Playdon and Guard J. D. Mitchell were
hired in April, 1955, due to the establishment being increased to two more guards. Guard
H. G. MacDonald has resigned, and at present I am taking applications to have this
vacancy filled.
Welfare and Recreation
As in the past, the inmates not working on the outside gang are allowed the freedom
of the cell blocks during the day, and, weather permitting, one hour of exercise is allowed
in the morning and afternoon in the exercise yards daily. During this exercise period,
inmates may play catch with a softball or play a game of quoits. In the evenings the
inmates are allowed to play ping-pong or listen to the Gaol radio between 7 and 9 p.m.
every evening. Lights out at the Gaol is still carried out at 9 p.m., as in previous years.
A picture show is shown every Wednesday evening at approximately 6 p.m. by Guard
Potosky and Guard Verkerk, with films and projector which are rented from the Nelson
Film Council. The library is stocked with some very well-named books, which the
inmate population enjoy reading very much.
Population
The population at the Gaol at the beginning of the year was twenty inmates. There
were 282 inmates received and 289 inmates discharged during the year, leaving a total of
13 inmates in Gaol at the beginning of the new fiscal year. The peak of the Gaol population was 29 and the lowest was 7. The daily average for the year was 27.9, as against
40.16 in the previous year, a decrease of 13.7.
Religious Services
There were no changes in the religious service programme during the last fiscal year;
the Salvation Army still conducts its service every Sunday morning at 10 o'clock. The
other denominations hold their services during the rest of the day. All services are held
upstairs in a room which has been set aside for this purpose.
Medical Welfare
The general health of all inmates has been very good during the last fiscal year, with
only a few inmates having to be hospitalized at the local hospital. Tuberculosis X-rays
are still being taken of all inmates who are admitted to the Gaol. Dr. H. H. Smythe is
the new Gaol surgeon attending to the inmates, as Dr. F. M. Auld resigned on July
31st, 1955.
Farm Work
Prison labour in the Gaol garden produced vegetables to an estimated value of
$430.61, a slight decrease over the past fiscal year, which was $497.59.
Discipline
Discipline at the Gaol has been very good, with only eleven breaches of prison regulations, which were only of a minor nature. On a few occasions, warnings have been
issued, which were very effective.
Maintenance and Construction
During the last fiscal year there have been a few minor changes made around the
Gaol.   New stairs have been built leading from the guards' office to the cell-block gates, O 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
new cupboards have been built in the kitchen and laundry, and also a few new lockers
have been added for the use of the staff. A few loads of black-top were obtained from
the Public Works Department, and the exercise yards and sidewalks around the Gaol
were black-topped. Sixty feet of new fence has been constructed by a local contractor,
between the Gaol and the Board of Trade Building; the remaining fences around the Gaol
are in great need of repair, and a new fence should be constructed as soon as possible.
A direct fire-alarm system to the Fire Hall has been installed at the Gaol by a local
contractor, with fire stations and bells situated throughout the building and quarters.
Summary
In closing, I would like to mention the excellent co-operation I have received from
the Deputy Warden and the guards under him.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Tulloch,
Warden.
KAMLOOPS GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Kamloops Provincial
Gaol for the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1956.
Population
1954-55 1955-56
Received (male and female)      1,041 1,060
Transferred to Oakalla Prison Farm   85 116
Total number of days' stay  13,152 13,909
The above excerpts from the summary of annual statistics show an increase from
the previous year both in prisoners received and total number of days' stay. The total
transferred to Oakalla also shows an increase owing to being overcrowded after several
of the statutory holidays.
Maintenance and Construction
The following works projects were completed during the year for the Department,
Department of Public Works, and Department of Health and Welfare:—
1. The Gaol basement was cement plastered and a new double-compartment sink
installed.
2. Peterson Creek's course was altered for approximately 100 yards; this reclaimed
1V_ acres of land and straightened the watercourse, removing the chance of erosion of
our gardens farther down the creek.
3. We removed the topsoil from the small gardens and all of the old tennis-court
on the east side of the Gaol in preparation for the new Highway Building. The soil
was placed on the bottom field.
4. The fencing was removed from around the area deeded to the senior citizens'
project and relocated on the south boundaries of the Gaol property. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 51
5. We excavated and hauled the earth from the rear of the central heating plant,
built forms, and poured a concrete wall 400 feet long, 5 feet high, and 8 inches thick,
and assisted the engineers to build a pipe fence on top of the wall.
6. The Provincial Home cemetery was maintained, new burial plot surveyed, area
seeded in grass, new roads laid out, and the cemetery detail excavated and filled twenty-
two graves during the year.
7. The other Provincial departments within the Gaol area have asked for and
received services during the year. The lawns, gardens, and rockery have been maintained by inmate labour.
Farm and Garden
The farm, under the supervision of the Deputy Warden, J. D. H. Stewart, produced a fair crop of all vegetables with the exception of onions, the orchard gave us a
yield of 180 boxes of apples, our tomato-crop was very good, the alfalfa hay was cut
and stacked, and approximately 30 tons of hay was taken to Tranquille.
Medical Care
The general health of our inmate population was good, with no major operations
or epidemics. The doctors from the Burris Clinic have served as Gaol surgeons during
the year, examining and treating any inmate needing medical care.
Welfare and Recreation
I am pleased to report a radio was installed in December, 1955, and has worked
very satisfactorily, giving the inmates a diversion from the regular routine.
Escapes and Recaptures
I reported that on April 18th, 1955, one inmate escaped lawful custody. He was
apprehended the same day in the downtown area by the Kamloops City Detachment
of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Discipline
Discipline has been well maintained throughout the year, breaches of prison rules
and regulations amounting to five. In all cases, charges were laid before me and all
offenders found guilty and sentenced to periods of time in the confinement cell, with loss
of remission and privileges.
Staff
We lost one member of our staff during the year, when First-class Guard W. King
was promoted and transferred to the Prince George Provincial Gaol. Guard J. A.
Proudfoot was the replacement officer. I take great pleasure in reporting that this Gaol
received the best from its personnel during the year.
Summary
We have had a good year, and taking into consideration the unsuitable locale we
are in, owing to the tremendous expansion taking place within our precincts, we have
had, with vigilance and foresight, only one escape during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. Teal,
Warden. O 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PRINCE GEORGE MEN'S GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Prince George Provincial
Men's Gaol for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1956. I have been employed as Deputy
Warden of Prince George Men's Gaol since January 16th, 1956; therefore, a good deal
of the information contained in the following report has been obtained from sources
outside of my own direct personal knowledge. I have been employed as Acting-Warden
of Prince George Men's Gaol since May 1st, 1956.
Population
Staff and inmates were transferred prematurely on August 9th, 1955, from the Old
Gaol at the rear of the Provincial Government Building, City of Prince George, to the
New Men's Gaol, Airport Hill, Prince George. A fire started in the Old Gaol by a
mentally disturbed inmate necessitated the early transfer. The population at this time
totalled forty-three inmates. Since that time the Gaol count has gradually increased, the
average daily population for the year being 62.15. The greater part of the increase came
during the last few months of the fiscal year.
Maintenance and Construction
The New Gaol is of modern design, being a one-story building of reinforced-concrete
construction. There is a partial basement under the administrative section, which houses
the laundry, tailor-shop, and drying-room, the main floor of the boiler-room, the carpenter-shop, general stores, and the work-parade muster hall. There are four cell blocks, two
with twenty-seven cells each and two with sixteen cells each. An auditorium takes up
the remaining space next to the shorter cell blocks. Facing the entrances to the cell
blocks are two security corridors. The only entrances to the two inmates' washrooms
are off the inner corridor. Two cell blocks have no inner washing facilities whatever, and
this necessitates parading inmates out of an inner security area to the washroom and
return. This is not a desirable situation as it does weaken the security of the Gaol and
keeps the corridor officer busy and at the beck and call of the inmates. Entrances to the
kitchen, hospital, doctor's office, admitting area, and the security section head off of the
outer corridor. The security section has a capacity of eight inmates. One of the inner
walls of this section is constructed of hollow brick and is not suitable for security quarters, so it is at present used as the inmate cook's quarters.
The main building has been constructed with fourteen entrances and (or) exits,
seven of which are closed off by welding and three others that are secured less permanently with strong bars and padlocks.
Th new vehicle garage, capable of holding three vehicles, was completed in the latter
months of 1955. This is an adequate building, with concrete floor, and frame and corri-
gated sheet-metal construction. The only other buildings near the Gaol proper are two
construction sheds, built by the contractors of the New Gaol. These sheds are one-ply
temporary construction and are of limited value in their present state.
During the winter months from six to fifteen inmates were kept busy almost constantly shovelling snow, clearing parking area, driveways, and sidewalks around the Gaol.
During this period, also, 630 14-foot jack-pine posts were cut, peeled, hauled in, and
piled in preparation for the building of our new security fence.
A root-house, 20 by 30 feet, was constructed of jack-pine and spruce logs in an
excavation in the hillside south-west of the Main Gaol building. This building, with some
alteration to the ventilating system, will provide adequate storage for a good portion of
our root-crop, for some years to come. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 53
Administration
Administration for most of the fiscal year was carried out by the following officers:
Warden, four Senior Guards and one Acting Senior Guard, a Chief Engineer, a Chief
Steward, one Guard-Records Clerk, and one Guard-General Office and Accounts Clerk.
On January 10th, 1956, a Deputy Warden was appointed, and joined the staff at this
Gaol on January 16th, 1956. The administrative offices are separated, records office
being at the opposite end of the building from the other administrative offices. This
separation of office staff makes it necessary, when there are a substantial number of
admittances, discharges, movements to Court, etc., in a single day, to assign a custodial
officer to assist the records office.
A confidential custodial diary, instituted by the Deputy Warden and available to
senior staff, has assisted considerably in maintaining good security and control at a
consistent level throughout all the shifts.
Security
Four inmates escaped from Prince George Men's Gaol on August 17th, 1955. They
were recaptured by R.C.M.P. officers on August 19th. This escape came shortly after
staff and inmates were moved from the Old Gaol to the New Gaol prematurely. I believe
that at this time the good security of the Gaol was hampered by the fact that many of
the guards were newly hired and inexperienced and that a majority of the staff were
unfamiliar with the new building and locking systems. Throughout the year considerable
effort has been put forth by the Warden, Deputy Warden, and senior staff to improve the
security of the Gaol. Admitting and outside corridor doors have been strengthened. All
unnecessary exits and entrances have been sealed off. The entire locking system has
been reviewed twice, and many locks have been changed or replaced. Ventilators on the
roof have been padlocked. Small windows have been placed in the solid inner doors so
that guards can be sure who they are admitting from one section to another. An extra
midday count has been instituted. An emergency fire-fighting system has been set up and
inspected regularly. Searches of cells are made often at irregular intervals, and complete
security checks of the entire institution are carried out regularly. An outside inspection
is carried out every hour of the day and night.
Discipline
Discipline has been well maintained throughout the year. Fifty-six inmates were
charged with infractions of gaol rules and regulations.
Training and experience only can bring about and maintain the high level of good
discipline required. Guards are being instructed and trained to deal with disciplinary
problems with a view to eventually becoming disciplinarians in the true sense of the
word, rather than simply reporters of misconduct on the part of the inmates.
Farm and Garden
Approximately 5 acres of land was cultivated at the New Gaol site during the fiscal
year. Most of this was planted in root-crop—potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, and parsnips. After supplying the Gaol kitchen from this garden during the late summer and
fall months, there was still a final yield of approximately 8 tons of vegetables. During
the fall, trees were felled and cleared from about 2 acres of land between the Main Gaol
building and the cultivated garden area.
Welfare and Recreation
Medical attention has been made available to inmates at Prince George Men's Gaol
throughout the year. The Gaol doctor, Dr. McKenzie, or his associate, Dr. Fierheller,
has visited the Gaol once a week and provided the inmates with the necessary medical
attention and advice. Even though there is a shortage of doctors in Prince George, the
few emergency cases we have had during the year have been given prompt attention. O 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Recreation during the year has been limited to exercise periods and football in the
exercise yard, and tier games such as cards and monopoly, etc. In January ping-pong
tables and equipment were made available to inmates in the tiers every second evening.
Films have been shown once a month. Church services have been held in the Gaol auditorium weekly, in turn, by local ministers of the different denominations in Prince George.
Recreation both inside and outside of the Gaol has been limited because of the
shortage of staff members required to supervise an afternoon programme. The afternoon
shift staff complement is one senior guard and three guards. One of these guards is
required to be on duty early in the afternoon, and so completes his daily tour of duty at
9.30 p.m. after the inmates are locked in their cells.
Staff-training
The majority of the staff at Prince George Men's Gaol have had less than two years'
experience and training in prison work.
During the year twelve guards attended the Staff Training School at Oakalla Prison
Farm. Although a majority of these guards returned with a low average class standing,
the general effect of the two-week course at Oakalla upon those that attended appears to
have been highly beneficial. Guards returning from the Staff Training School seem to
have developed more self-confidence and appear to be keener and more definitely interested in the work.
Since the middle of January regular staff meetings have been held, at which the staff
have received lectures and general instruction in the following: Supervision, custody,
personal presentation, movement and control of inmates, and most of the basic do's and
don't's of gaol work. Every second Saturday, weather permitting, guards attend revolver
and rifle practice and instructions at the rifle range on the Gaol property. Gaol officers
have also been receiving from time to time further instruction in the use and care of firearms while moving and guarding inmate work gangs.
Summary
The New Prince George Men's Gaol has been operating less than a year. A number of the staff members have been operating as prison staff members for less than
that length of time. There is much to be accomplished in the way of training of staff and
altering, improving, and expanding of security, work, and recreational programmes.
I hereby wish to thank all the officers of the Department and the loyal and devoted
members of the Gaol staff who have contributed to our progress so far.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. Mulligan,
Acting-Warden.
PRINCE GEORGE WOMEN'S GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I am indeed honoured to submit herewith the annual report for the Prince
George Women's Provincial Gaol for the year 1955-56.    The average count for the
year just gone was 23.05.
The discipline in the Gaol has been well maintained all year. The inmates have
co-operated all the way and have done their work well.
Religious services have been conducted twice monthly all year by the Salvation
Army. When Major Wycliffe Booth and Mrs. Booth visited British Columbia in the
fall, they held a service here and visited with inmates. This was a much-appreciated
visit. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56 O 55
Dr. McKenzie is still Gaol doctor, and visits once a week and when called in. His
work is appreciated. We have had quite a share of sickness during the year, and many
prescriptions have been bought and administered.
Our local Film Board has supplied us with films twice monthly. During Christmas
and the New Year we had two full-length films. These were thoroughly enjoyed. Funds
for these were paid from donations given by the Warden and all members of the staff.
Christmas and the New Year were duly celebrated here. We had gifts of turkey
for both days from the Swift Canadian Company Limited, Edmonton, Alta.; Loyal Order
of Moose Lodge; and the Royal Produce Stores here. There was also fruit, nuts, and
candy from Kelly, Douglas & Company, Malkins Limited, and Slade & Stewart. All
these were thanked, and we all appreciated their goodness.
Again we had a good garden. Inmates from the Men's Gaol did the digging and
planting. Our inmates took care of the rest. Our vegetables and flowers were very,
very nice. Again we competed at the Prince George Fair, and were able to capture some
of the coveted first prizes for vegetables, canning, and flowers, besides a great many firsts
for baking and handicraft.
Occupational-therapy work is very good. We put in a large exhibit at the fair
again, including wood-burning, copperwork, crocheting, and knitting and sewing.
A goodly supply of canning and baking was also displayed, besides fresh vegetables and
flowers. The Gaol booth is always a drawing-card at the fair and thoroughly enjoyed
by the public.
This building is in good repair. Floors are keeping in good shape. The south-east
corner of the foundation needs some repairs, and steps on the south-east wing and southwest wing should be seen to. Roof keeps good and no breaks in it. Matrons maintain
the inside of the building very well. We had some painting done again and the fence
was given another coat.   The back fence was moved in as it was on the street allowance.
Kitchen girls keep busy always. They did a great deal of canning and pickling,
which we have been enjoying during winter and spring. Meals were made three times
daily for the Men's Gaol for approximately two months during the summer. It was a
big job, but the inmates co-operated and worked well. The laundry is always busy.
Men's Gaol blankets and towels were washed weekly until the New Gaol was occupied.
The sewing-room has done a lot of making and mending. We help out with sewing for
the Prince George and District Hospital and have made quilts for the Red Cross.
The prison library is appreciated. We have a nice selection of good reading and
are grateful to the prison librarian for his choice of good reading, which the inmates enjoy.
We have had a show every two weeks from the Film Board, mostly shorts but enjoyable. Warden Trant was good enough to bring films and projectors and do the showing.
During the winter a projector's course was given, and two of my matrons took it and got
their certificates.   Now they can relieve the Warden of that chore.
Warden Trant has always been helpful to me, and I appreciate this very much. He
has always been considerate to both staff and inmates alike. I cannot speak too highly
of his help.
Matrons and guards are doing a good job.
I appreciate, Sir, your help and counsel on your visits to us.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) J. H. McKenzie,
  Matron in Charge.
PROBATION BRANCH
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting to you the annual report of the Provincial Probation Branch for the year commencing April 1st, 1955, and ending March 31st, 1956. O 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Certain staff changes were made during the year under review. In May, R. G. Mc-
Kellar joined the staff, and after a period of training in the Vancouver office was transferred to Prince George in November, where he opened a new Branch office. John Wiebe
joined the staff on June 1 st, and after orientation was moved to Penticton, and Mr. Jackson, who had been at Penticton, returned to the Vancouver office in September. Lloyd
Dewalt was appointed a Probation Officer in July and remained in the Vancouver office.
In January, 1956, the resignation of A. C. Hare was accepted. Following Mr. Hare's
resignation, it was necessary to leave the Prince Rupert office unmanned.
As at March 31st, 1956, the staff of the Provincial Probation Branch consisted of the
following personnel: —
Vancouver Office. — E. G. B. Stevens, Provincial Probation Officer; C. D.
Davidson, Chief Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; O. E. Hollands,
Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; Mildred M. Wright, Assistant
Provincial Probation Officer; H. W. Jackson, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; and Lloyd Dewalt, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
North Vancouver Office. — G. G. Woodhams, Assistant Provincial Probation
Officer.
New Westminster Office.—R. J. Clark, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer,
and J. M. Putnam, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Victoria Office.—A. E. Jones, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Nanaimo Office.—E. H. B. McGougan, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer,
and A. A. Byman, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Abbotsford Office.—A. L. Langdale, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Penticton Office.—J. Wiebe, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Vernon Office.—D. Guest, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Nelson Office.—A. W. Garwood, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Cranbrook Office.—L. D. Howarth, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Prince George Office.—R. G. McKellar, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Prince Rupert Office.—Unmanned.
The appended Statistical report indicates the increased volume of referrals made to
the Branch during the year.    Nine hundred and sixty-two persons were placed under
probation supervision, while 965 pre-sentence reports were prepared on cases other than
probation cases.    Both these figures show a marked increase over the previous year.
Thirty-three per cent of the total number placed on probation came from Adult Courts.
This percentage is an increase of 9 per cent over the previous year.    It is hoped this
percentage increase indicates a greater acceptance of the use of probation as a method
of treatment by the Adult Courts of the Province.
Increased office accommodation was made available to our Vancouver office during
the year. This additional space has materially cut down the previous general confusion
and has given the Probation Officers desk space apart from the stenographic staff. While
the office accommodation has been greatly improved, it will be strained and congested as
more officers are added to the staff.
During the year close co-operation has been maintained with the British Columbia
Board of Parole, and a member of the Probation Branch has attended all meetings of
the Board held at both the Young Offenders' Unit and at Oakalla Prison Farm. The
Probation Branch representative advises the Board on the after-care supervision which
will be available to the inmate and also assists the inmate to find employment and living
accommodations. These parole cases are time-consuming and demanding, as there is
constant pressure from both the inmate and the institution to effect the inmate's release as
soon as possible after the release has been authorized. It will be noted there was an
increase in the number of follow-up cases handled over the previous year.
The work of Miss Wright with female offenders has expanded during the year to the
point that consideration should be given to adding another women's worker next year. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56
O 57
In some instances the community resources are not adequate to cope with the need, and
this has made probation supervision more extensive and demanding. The present
institutional facilities, which do not provide adequate segregation between the first offender
and the repeater, often are a factor in the Magistrate's decision to use probation rather
than institutional treatment in particular cases.
The Probation Branch has continued to make steady growth during the year, and it
is felt that further consolidation must be made during the coming year as case loads in
the Branch offices of Victoria and Abbotsford, in particular, are too large.
Grateful thanks are extended to the many agencies and institutions who have been
so helpful through their co-operation with our Branch.
Provincial Probation Branch Statistics
New
Probation
Cases
New
Follow-up
Cases
Presentence
Reports
Total
Cases
Miscellaneous
1942 43 -
1943 44                         —-
63
60
46
105
142
158
276
350
455
591
598
688
831
962
24
56
57
50
61
35
36
28
14
33
46
92
151
186
49
54
31
84
117
122
262
349
461
472
638
736
892
965
136
170
134
239
320
315
574
727
930
1,096
1,282
1,516
1,874
2,113
1944-45                                           	
1945-46                        	
1946-47                       -	
1947-48                  	
1948 49                                           	
1949 50    .                  -	
1950 51                                            	
1951-52    	
1952 53                                                               	
74
178
1953 54                                                               	
151
1954-55    .	
238
1955-56   —   	
263
Total since inception 	
5,325
869
5,232
11,426
924
New Probation Cases
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over 25
Years
Probationers
Married
Single
Total
April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952	
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953	
496
481
527
710
785
49
66
79
65
99
46
51
82
56
78
40
54
83
58
73
551
544
605
773
889
591
598
April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954 	
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955             	
688
831
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956	
962
4,173
708
444
476
4,849
5,325
New Follow-up
Cases
-
Under
20 Years
20-25
Years
Over 25
Years
Follow-up Cases
Married
Parolees
Single
Parolees
Total
April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952	
22
37
70
107
151
11
9
22
41
33
3
2
3
1
2
8
5
30
45
90
143
181
33
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953  	
46
April 1st, 1953, to March 31st, 1954.  	
92
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955	
151
ADril 1st. 1955. to March 31st. 1956    	
186
652
198
19
37
832
869
Respectfully submitted.
C. D. Davidson,
Chief Assistant Provincial Probation Officer. O 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX
ANNUAL REPORT OF GAOLS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st,  1956
Oakalla and
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
1
$1,957,340.25
2,008,451.34
$5,259
5.435
$0,936
.767
6,839
6,623
1
$63,103.08
56,527.25
$6.36
4.07
$0,622
.573
282
451
1                      I
1111               4
2. Total expenditures for gaol maintenance in
B.C.—
Year ended March 31st, 1956	
$46,501.73
46,782.29
$3.34
3.46
$0,589
.576
1,060
1,041
$229,635.43
114,484.84
$7.78
5.525
$1.31
1.36
1,449
1,251
$2,296,580.49
Year ended March 31st, 1955	
3. Average total maintenance cost per day per
prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1956.
2,226,245.72
$5.68
Year ended March 31st, 1955      	
4.62
Average dietary cost per day per prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1956	
$0.86
Year ended March 31st, 1955.
.82
4. Number of prisoners committed—
Year ended March 31st, 1956	
Year ended March 31st, 1955	
9,630
9,366
I. Movement of Population, Year Ended March 3 1st, 1956
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
On register, April 1st, 1955	
Received—
From gaols and lockups .
By transfer..
By recapture „	
By revocation of licence.	
By forfeiture of ticket of leave-
By internal movements	
From bail -	
Totals..
Discharged—
By expiry of sentence..
By ticket of leave	
By deportation 	
By pardon —
By escape-
By death..
By payment of fines _	
By release of Court order (including bail)..
By transfer-
By internal movements..
5,595
34
10
47
1,010
143
7,897
20
278
4
41
1,057
2
1,101
1,390
25
4
1,468
1,168
8,320
65
14
47
1,010
144
"10,768
4,347
175
777
1,152
6,
229
17
7
4
6
99
12
161
101
692
13
16
5
421
23
116
76
982
66
48
1,
229
17
11
6
373
726
636
1,096
Totals	
6,800
289
1,070
1,386
|      9,545
1956	
1,097
1
13
31
82
1,223 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56
II.   COMMITMENTS
O 59
1954-55
1955-56
Decrease
Murder 	
Manslaughter	
Crimes—
Against the person.
Against property.
Against public morals and decency _
Against public order and peace	
Other offences not enumerated below..
Insanity .
Number of prisoners sentenced	
Number of days' stay of prisoners	
Average number of prisoners per month .
Average number of prisoners per day	
Escapes.
Escapes and recaptured .
Death in gaol	
26
25
395
1,940
285
5,295
310
30
7,942
405,946
32,193
1,115
17
13
3
11
13
389
1,970
238
5,472
236
28
7,686
427,572
33,143
1,143
8
15
6
15
12
47
74
2
256
30
177
21,625
950
28
III. Sex
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
5,090
505
i
244               936
10               124
1.181
7.451
Females - - - -	
268               907
5,595
254             1.060
1.449      1      8.358
IV. Educational Status
1
245
3,109
2,100      j
141       |
7
139
104
4
115
738
197
10
192
1,001
253
3
559
4,987
2,654
College or university   	
158
5,595      |
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
V. Nationality
British—
4,486
394
114
225
11
1,002
19
9
1,259
52
6,972
476
123
4,994
236
1,030
1,311
7,571
Foreign—
United States                 	
145
413
32
11
2
12
4
4
24
1
1
33
105
184
Europeans —	
554
33
16
Totals     	
601
18
30
138
787
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
VI. Habits as
to Use of Intoxicants
305
2,733
2,557
13
182
59
16
59
985
11
221
1,217
345
Temperate 	
Intemperate—   	
3,195
4,818
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
VII. Habits as to Use of
Drugs
5,025
570
244
1        io
1,057
3
1,408
41
7,734
624
Addicts	
5,595
254
1
1,060
1,449
8,358 O 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
VIII. Occupations
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
Agricultural   	
Commercial              . ..
108
312
488
2,703
323
126
1,090
176
187
82
11
16
9
136
26
53
	
3
156
139
103
338
4
8
306
3
3
2
35
260
462
2
25
651
12
277
502
Domestic.....	
Labourers. 	
860
3,639
Mechanics	
355
No occupation         	
159
Loggers and miners	
2,100
Fishermen	
176
Seamen 	
193
Professional	
97
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
IX. Racial
White        . -	
4,918
37
584
42
14
226
2
26
595
457
4
4
1,070
379
6,809
39
1,448
46
18
Totals _  	
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
X. Civil State
3,463
1,237
177
558
160
170
63
5
12
4
663
231
54
106
«
1,178
129
33
107
2
5,474
1,660
269
783
Divorced ,  	
172
Totals	
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
XL Ages
656
729
786
1,288
1,023
818
295
29
33
44
63
54
29
2
76
124
157
284
197
161
61
84
202
302
362
276
169
54
845
1,088
25 to 30    „                                                            	
1,289
30 to 40    „                                                  	
1,997
40 to 50    „	
1,550
50 to 60    „      	
1,177
Over 60    „    ..                                                  	
412
Totals          	
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
XII. Creeds
2,095
1,037
717
67
693
152
353
70
43
5
10
9
91
19
234
99
70
12
9
6
22
26
5
5
728
101
70
6
53
11
48
9
25
4
5
875
122
103
2
146
10
146
3
7
35
3,797
1,330
902
75
901
Baptist  	
179
569
82
68
31
10
Buddhist     -	
13
Others           —         -	
103
59
239
Totals	
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1955-56
O 61
XIII. Duration of Sentence
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
2,209
920
459
452
344
185
82
220
105
33
219
33
145
2
1
60
16
26
75
4
2
3
104
31
22
15
5
2
42
1
2
2
23
5
794
114
36
36
37
11
3
9
11
4
2
1
941
190
47
69
74
38
18
12
39
8
1
12
4,048
1,255
564
572
460
234
103
243
105
35
311
33
Young Offenders' Unit  ....	
146
2
1
64
16
28
Dismissed  —
87
27
9
To hang   	
3
To R.C.M.P	
12
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
XIV. Previous Convictions
1,774
731
480
333
266
206
174
143
120
103
87
73
68
64
51
52
47
51
44
53
69
40
33
37
193
128
22
153
144
45
19
12
1
10
4
3
1
2
1
3
2
2
1
4
331
147
97
75
57
40
35
27
17
15
21
17
17
15
11
7
5
6
13
9
8
4
11
3
54
2
10
6
626
197
121
76
52
36
37
35
45
31
30
17
11
10
8
11
12
12
8
6
6
8
5
4
19
2
24
2,875
1,120
1	
2                                                        	
717
3                           	
496
4  	
5    ..        .        .                .                                  	
376
292
6      	
250
7	
208
8                        	
183
9   	
151
10                        	
139
11	
110
12                            	
98
13                         	
89
14                         	
70
15  .                    	
72
16  	
64
17....	
69
18         	
20  	
21.   	
84
23 	
52
24—	
49
26	
27	
49    	
132
60  _.._. 	
Over 60    	
Totals	
5,595
254
1,060
1,449
8,358
68.293
26.53
58.7
68.17 O 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
XV. Offences for which Prisoners were Committed and Sentenced during the Year
Commitments
Sentences
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
(a) Crimes against the person—
Abduction  „	
130
139
6
2
8
12
10
8
26
7
5
1
1
137
144
6
2
8
13
11
8
26
157
154
8
1
5
6
6
6
17
6
4
1
Assault, common   ..—	
Assault, felonious	
163
158
8
Cutting, wounding, and attempting same ...
1
5
Stabbing.	
Manslaughter    	
7
6
6
Rape with assault with intent to rape 	
17
Totals	
341
14
355
360
11
371
(b)  Crimes against property—
10
435
89
78
35
198
59
708
53
19
114
32
1
5
11
6
1
29
1
37
7
3
11
440
100
84
36
227
60
745
53
19
121
35
15
484
83
174
37
495
57
825
118
32
158
33
1
8
9
14
1
76
1
44
10
3
16
492
92
188
38
571
Conspiracy	
Larceny  ■	
58
869
118
Taking auto without owner's consent —_	
32
168
36
1,830
101
1,931
2,511
167
2,678
(c) Crimes against public morals and decency—
Bigamy  	
7
18
20
1
10
1
62
3
1
2
1
1
86
7
18
20
1
10
1
2
63
4
86
1
13
22
19
1
8
1
66
6
1
2
1
2
96
13
22
19
1
8
Inmates and frequenters of houses of ill
1
2
67
Perjury     	
8
96
1
123
90
213
137
101
238
(d) Crimes against public order and peace—
2,351
4
176
295
81
15
41
2
7
1
4
15
425
271
151
269
113
12
145
1
130
9
13
2,620
4
289
295
93
15
186
2
7
1
5
15
555
280
164
3,056
195
426
103
19
1
146
10
8
3
1
14
472
351
173
272
121
20
145
1
1
130
7
14
3,328
Breaches of " Narcotic and Drug Act "
316
426
123
20
1
291
10
8
3
Lunatics and persons unsafe to be at large ..
Obstructing an officer 	
2
15
602
358
187
3,839
692
4,531
4,978
712
5,690
247
10
257
285
11
296
Grand totals of  (a),  (b),  (c),
(<j),and(e)        	
6,380
907
7,288
8,271
1,002
9,273 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1955-56
O 63
XVI. Employment of Prisoners
(Per cent of population.)
Oakalla and Young
Offenders' Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince George
Male
Female
Male
Female
General maintenance	
27.121
3.569
4.968
8.095
18.819
32.297
4.940
46.00
29.00
6.00
29.12
0.42
4.31
12.70
4.99
0.97
82.20
0.55
13.186
35.00
62.00
3.00
16.00
5.133
32.295
15.329
33.248
19.00
47.49
1.25
XVII. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31st, 1956
Oakalla and
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Men's Institutions
Warden 	
Deputy Warden, Custody	
Deputy Warden, Treatment. _	
Bursar, Assistant Deputy Wardens	
Senior Correctional Officers	
Chief Engineer-
Director, Young Offenders' Unit-
Temporary Guards.-
Education-Vocational Officers-
Chief Custodial Officer	
Supervisor Cook	
Supervisors ..
Night Guards	
Building Instructor	
Warden's Secretary (female).
Kitchen Steward	
Senior Guards	
Foreman Instructors 	
Social Work Psychologist-
Assistant Engineers	
Guards, Clerks _	
Guards, Disciplinary	
Stenographers—Grade 2....
Temporary Supervisors	
Dentists 	
Guards, Industrial Shops-
Totals	
Women's Institutions
Matron in Charge-
Matrons 	
Other female employees-
Totals	
Total employees-
1
1
1
4
6
1
1
26
2
1
1
23
1
1
1
1
23
10
1
3
246
3
3
2
363
1
45
46
409
10
12
10
14
12
5
2
20
44
1
11
1
13
57 O 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
XVIII. Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for Year Ended March 31st, 1955
Oakalla
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince George
Total
Men
Women
Men
Women
Expenditure
$1,101,105.70
11,322.18
12,471.42
105,476.26
19,953.16
19,713.96
95,697.68
326,734.65
32,351.67
$140,976.48
1,042.76
564.41
5,000.00
2,405.79
3,210.17
2,300.58
21,962.26
7,274.08
$42,677.29
605.06
4,182.33
5,483.88
543.40
15.00
2,112.30
6,450.13
1,875.67
$34,494.22
374.62
1,329.40
1,746.39
586.58
$89,367.34
1,341.21
3,989.81
11,217.50
$53,447.85
392.74
373.54
5,195.32
$1,462,068.88
Office expense	
15,078.57
22,910.91
Heat, light, power, and
water ... 	
Janitors' supplies	
Laundry  	
Uniforms and clothing —
Provisions (keep of prison-
134,119.35
23,488.93
1,372.22
11,669.30
24,193.23
862.21
480.90
1,037.27
927.58
11,235.98
1,264.20
•   25,348.62
2,189.44
8,201.24
670.32
114,896.88
398,777.49
Medical attention and hospital supplies —-	
44,298.15
480.90
41,525.14
28,709.68
2,000.00
20,242.60
9,828.19
7,018.18
903.98
2,666.28
	
41,525.14
28,709.68
Library 	
Good Conduct Fund
Return transportation
(prisoners) 	
500.00
1,761.95
1,347.68
1,011.42
1.80
850.00
59.71
4.69
847.20
434.42
515.87
2,506.49
348.10
244.60
10.98
220.38
17.62
626.90
669.72
312.53
24,676.75
12,584.32
8,858.00
Office furniture and equip-
189.33
38.99
301.93
1,104.29
Incidentals and contingen-
283.93
383.36
157.70
3,750.64
319.55
Group work programme	
Upkeep of grounds	
Motor-vehicles and acces-
;  3,046.26
3,046.26
243.18
5,371.75
4,359.80
10,488.39
543.81
6,158.74
4,359.80
Equipment and machinery
Printing and publications...
20,899.31
706.48
3,288.16
34,675.86
706.48
$1,862,372.78
70,490.37
164,250.62
$192,929.67
$64,786.74
$51,277.15
583.19
$166,899.20
6,761.89
$76,185.14
$2,414,450.68
Public Works expenditure—
77,835.45
  —
164,250.62
	
Gross expenditure
$2,097,113.77
$192,929.67
$64,786.74
$51,860.34
$173,661.09
$76,185.14
$2,656,536.75
Revenue
$285,637.67
$47,065.52
$31.36
75.25
5,252.00
$332,734.55
Sale of goods, fines,  and
$1,572.85
110.81
1,648.10
$17,704.80
$2,506.00
25,573.61
Totals...	
$285,637.67
$47,065.52
$1,683.66
$5,358.61
$17,704.80
$2,506.00
$359,956.26
$1,811,476.10
$145,864.15
$63,103.08
$46,501.73
$155,956.29
$73,679.14
$2,296,580.49
XIX. Average Cost of Each Prisoner and Miscellaneous
Dietary cost of each prisoner per diem 	
Keep of prisoners (including salaries and all ex
$0,952
$0,756
$0,622
$0,589
$1.06
$1.03
penses) per diem 	
5.278
5.027
6.36
3.34
6.87
8.70
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956
160-1056-5325

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