BC Sessional Papers

Lode Metals CONTENTS British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1957

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 Lode Metals
CONTENTS
Page
General Review      6
Notes on Metal Mines—
Rainy Hollow—
Maid of Erin (St. Eugene Mining Corporation Limited)     7
Atlin—
Cracker Creek—
Purple Rose and Fisher     7
McDame—
Horseranch Range—
Cassiar Beryl _•_     9
Cassiar—
Graham  10
Contact, Silver Queen (Telmac Mines Limited)  10
Needlepoint Mountain—
Low Grade  11
Taku River—
Big Bull, Tulsequah Chief (Tulsequah Mines, Limited)  11
Stikine—
Callison Copper (Brikon Explorations Limited)  13
Unuk River—
Granduc (Granduc Mines, Limited)  14
Portland Canal—
Bear River—
Ben Bolt, Jumbo, Prosperity, Porter Idaho, Silverado (Cassiar Consolidated Mines Limited)  17
Salmon River—
Silbak Premier Mines Limited  17
American Creek—
Skeena, American Belle, Ricadonna, A.B., R.J. (Great North Mining
Company Ltd.)  17
Maple Bay—
Maple Bay (Maple Bay Copper Mines Limited)  18
Alice Arm—
Toric (Torbrit Silver Mines Limited)  19
Boulder (Torbrit Silver Mines Limited)  20
Kinskuch, Reina Blanca (Northwestern Explorations, Limited)  20
Observatory Inlet—
Any ox (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)  21
Porcher Island—
Star (Utah Co. of the Americas)  21
Usk—
Nicholson Creek Mining Corporation  21
Hazelton—
Silver Standard (Silver Standard Mines Limited)  22
Three Hills  24
1 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
TOPLEY— Page
Topley Richfield (Silver Standard Mines Limited)  25
Decker Lake—
Kerr Copper  25
Whitesail Lake—
Harrison (Deer Horn Mines Limited)  25
Chikamin  27
Fraser Lake—
Abe, Babs, Ike, Pat, Zeke  28
Omineca—
Babine Lake—
McDonald Island  29
Granite Creek—
Lonnie  29
Nazko—
Manganese  30
Cariboo—
Wells-Barkerville—
The Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company Limited
Quesnel—
Yanks Peak—
Jim	
Clinton—
Empire Valley Gold Mines Ltd	
Lillooet—
Bridge River—
31
31
31
Bralorne Mines Limited  32
Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C. Limited	
Chalco	
Tyaughton Creek—
Silver Quick	
Lytton—
Orlean	
Rosyd	
Highland Valley—
Bethlehem Copper Corporation Ltd	
Transvaal Copper (Jackson Basin Mining Co. Ltd.).
Trojan (Trojan Exploration Limited)	
Anuwon Uranium Mines Limited	
Beaverlodge Uranium Mines Limited and Farwest Tungsten Copper Mines
Limited	
Victor (Skeena Silver Mines Ltd.)
Meadow Creek—
32
33
33
33
34
34
36
36
37
37
37
Dunmore Mines Ltd  3 7
Kamloops—
Makaoo Development Company Limited.
Commercial Minerals Limited	
Birch Island—
Rexspar Uranium & Metals Mining Co. Limited.
Adams Plateau—
Plateau Metals Limited	
38
38
38
39 LODE METALS
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
Tulameen River—
Summit Camp—
Silver Hill Mines Ltd._
Similkameen River—
Red Star	
Page
39
. 39
. 40
Copper Mountain—
Copper Mountain (The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power
Company Limited)	
Hedley—
Nickel Plate and French (Kelowna Mines Hedley Limited)  41
Olalla—
Olalla Nos. 1 to 8  42
Fairview Camp—
Fairview (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)  44
Oliver—
Belair Mining Corporation Ltd  44
Beaverdell—
Highland-Bell (Highland-Bell Limited)  44
Lightning Peak—
Waterloo (Paycheck Mining and Development Company Limited)  45
Greenwood—
Providence  45
Motherlode (Surety Oils and Minerals Limited)  45
Salmo Prince Mines Limited  46
Copper Queen  46
Phoenix—
Phoenix (The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power Company
Limited)  46
Eholt—
Noranda Exploration Company, Limited  47
Rossland—
Velvet (Mid-West Copper & Uranium Mines Ltd.)  47
Snowdrop (Snowdrop Mining Company Ltd.).
Annie Fraction	
Comstock	
Castlegar—
Gibson Creek Gold Mine Nos. 1 to 7.
Nelson—
Deer Horn	
Queen Victoria	
Ymir—
Sunny	
Salmo—
Iron Mountain—
Emerald, Jersey, Dodger, Feeney (Canadian Exploration Limited)._
Aspen Creek—
H.B. (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)	
Lost Creek—
Tungsten King	
47
48
48
50
50
50
51
51
52
53 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
Nelway—
Reeves MacDonald Mines Limited	
Boundary Lake—
Canada Belle No. 1 and No. 2	
South Kootenay Lake—
Sanca—
Valparaiso (Akokli Tungsten Mine Ltd.)	
North Kootenay Lake—
Riondel—
Bluebell   (The  Consolidated Mining  and  Smelting  Company
Page
. 53
. 54
54
of
Canada, Limited)  55
Ainsworth—
Highlander, etc. (Yale Lead & Zinc Mines Limited)  56
Kootenay Florence (Western Mines Limited)  58
Hercules (Pataha) (Triumph Mines Limited)  58
Star  59
Woodbury Creek—
Can-Amer Mining & Milling Company Ltd  59
Woodbury  59
Keen Creek—
Silver Bear  59
Paddy Peak—
Utica  60
Retallack-Three Forks—
Jackson (Jackson Basin Mining Co. Ltd.)  60
Keystone Charleston (Slocan Charleston Mining Company Limited)  61
Caledonia  61
Sandon—
Silversmith, etc. (Carnegie Mines of British Columbia, Ltd.)  61
Noble Five, etc. (Cody-Reco Mines Limited)  61
Shady Fraction  62
Victor (Violamac Mines Limited)  62
Lone Bachelor (Lone Bachelor Mines Limited)  63
Hinckley  63
Wonderful (Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited)  63
Slocan Lake—
Mammoth, Standard, Enterprise, Monarch (Western Exploration Company Limited)  63
Van Roi, Hewitt (Slocan Van Roi Mines Limited)  64
Bosun (New Santiago Mines Limited)  64
  64
  64
  65
  65
  65
  65
Galena Farm
Noonday	
V & M	
Try Again.
Lower Arrow Lake-
Chieftain	
Renata	
Mountain Chief (Renata Copper Company Limited)  66
North Lardeau—
Spider, Eclipse (Sunshine Lardeau Mines Limited)  66
Beatrice (Beatrice Mining Co. Ltd.)  67
Molly Mac (Mollie Mac Mines Limited)  67
Broadview, True Fissure  67
Bannockburn, Wagner  67 LODE METALS 5
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
South Lardeau— page
J.G  68
Creston—
Creston Hill (Bon Ton Syndicate)  68
Moyie River—
Cariboo  68
St. Mary River—
Boy Scout (Thomas Consolidated Mines Incorporated)  68
Kimberley—
Sullivan (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)  68
Wasa—
Estella (United Estella Mines Ltd.)  70
Windermere—
Paradise (Sheep Creek Gold Mines Limited)  70
Mineral King (Sheep Creek Gold Mines Limited)  70
Ptarmigan  71
Spillimacheen—
Silver Giant (Giant Mascot Mines Limited)  72
Lead Mountain (Giant Mascot Mines Limited)  73
Skagit River—
A.M. (Canam Copper Co. Ltd.)  73
Mammoth, B .B., Defiance  74
Cheam Range—
Lucky Four (Rico Copper Mines Limited)  74
Agassiz—
Kelowna Mines Hedley Limited  74
Howe Sound—
Britannia Mining and Smelting Co. Limited  74
Texada Island—
Prescott, Paxton, Lake (Texada Mines Ltd.)  75
Vancouver Island—
Nimpkish Lake—
Iron Crown, Rhoda  76
Quatsino—
Yreka (Noranda Exploration Company, Limited)  76
Amai (Deep) Inlet—
Fil  78
Tahsis Inlet-
Star of the West (Rosea Copper Mines Ltd.)  78
Tofino Inlet-
Foremost Copper (Taiga Mines Ltd.)  78
Upper Quinsam Lake—
Iron Hill (Argonaut Mine)  78
Cowichan Lake—
Blue Grouse (Cowichan Copper Co. Ltd.)  79
Lorry  79
Jordan River—
Gabbro (Noranda Exploration Company, Limited)  79 6 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
GENERAL REVIEW
Table XV lists the production of individual properties and gives the name and
address of the owner or agent of each producing property. Before 1951 the production of individual properties was incorporated in the property descriptions.
In 1955 the average prices of all principal metals were higher than in 1954. The net
price of gold increased fractionally as the Canadian dollar approached parity with the
United States dollar. The New York price of silver rose from 85 cents per ounce to
a peak of 92 cents in the latter part of the year, and averaged 5 cents per ounce higher
than in 1954. The United States price of export copper averaged 9 cents per pound
higher in 1955 than in 1954, and reached a peak of 45 cents per pound at the end of the
year. New York lead increased from 15 to 16 cents a pound, and St. Louis zinc rose
from 11.5 cents to 13 cents a pound.
Gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc produced at British Columbia lode mines in
1955 had a gross value of $129,455,122. Miscellaneous metals, including iron ore,
tungsten, tin, and minor metals recovered at the Trail smelter had a gross value of
$12,935,887. The total quantity of ore mined at all lode mines amounted to 9,126,902
tons and came from fifty-three mines, of which thirty-four produced 100 tons or more.
The average number employed in the lode-mining industry in 1955, including mines,
concentrators, and smelters, was 9,512.
In 1955 twenty-six mills, including two magnetic concentrators, were operated.
Of these mills, twenty were in production throughout the year. The H.B. operated for
the first time and the Nickel Plate closed. The Reeves MacDonald resumed operation.
Two mills at Sandon and the Can-Amer at Ainsworth operated briefly. Custom ore was
accepted at four mills, of which the Western Exploration mill at Silverton operated
steadily on that basis.
The Trail smelter recorded custom receipts of 685 tons of crude ore, 1,235 tons of
lead concentrates, and 11,880 tons of zinc concentrates from properties in British
Columbia. Totals of 35,061 tons of lead concentrates and 61,706 tons of zinc concentrates were shipped out of the country for smelting. Copper concentrates and ores, and
dross from the Trail smelter were shipped to the Tacoma smelter. Concentrated iron ore
was shipped to Japan and Germany. Tungsten concentrates were sold under government
contract.
The Nickel Plate mine closed on September 23rd, 1955, after twenty years of
continuous operations, and all equipment and installations were removed. Since 1904
the ore zones on Nickel Plate Mountain produced more than 1,500,000 ounces of gold
and paid a total of just over $7,500,000, principally from the Nickel Plate mine.
Amongst silver-lead-zinc mines the H.B. was brought into production in May, after
lying fully equipped but idle for two years, and a milling rate of 1,200 tons per day was
reached by December. The Reeves MacDonald resumed production late in 1955, after
a two-year shut-down. Work was resumed at the Van Roi following a company reorganization. New ore was found in the Monarch section between the Standard and Mammoth
mines at Silverton. At the Highland-Bell the projected ore zone was reached from the
new 2900 adit.
At the Granduc copper property sufficient ore was established to warrant plans for
deep development by shaft, with a view to ultimate production. At Highland Valley
extensive sampling resulted in the start of a programme of diamond drilling by a major
company to test large low-grade copper zones.
Throughout the Province the increased price of copper directed attention to almost
every known copper-bearing deposit, including former producing mines. There was
much blanket staking, and a good deal of exploratory drilling and sampling were done. LODE METALS 7
NOTES ON METAL MINES
RAINY HOLLOW*
Copper-Silver
(59° 136° N.W.) Company office, Suite 401-5, 402 West Pen-
Maid of Erin der Street, Vancouver. Alex. Smith, director. Capital: 3,000,000
(St. Eugene Mining shares, $1 par value.   The St. Eugene Mining Corporation owns
Corporation the Maid of Erin claim together with thirteen other Crown-granted
Limited) claims and four full and two fractional recorded claims.   The prop
erty is on the southwestern slope of Mineral Mountain, 3 miles
west of the hairpin bend in the Haines road at Rainy Hollow. This area, in the extreme
northwest corner of the Province, is accessible from the Alaska Highway via the Haines
cut-off road 100 miles west of Whitehorse, or from the south via Haines, Alaska.
It is the intention of the company to develop the showings on the Maid of Erin
claims where there is a flat-lying bornite-chalcopyrite deposit associated with skarn and
marble. The claim was originally located in 1903 and was Crown-granted in 1910.
Development work was done at intervals from 1907 to 1928 and the showings were
explored by an incline, several open-cuts, a vertical shaft, two short adits, and four
diamond-drill holes. Sorted ore totalling 157 tons was shipped in the years between
1911 and 1922.
Work done this year was confined to road-building. A crew averaging five men
was employed under C. M. Campbell, Jr., from July 20th to October 15th on the construction of a road from Mile 53 on the Haines road to the property, a distance of about
4 miles.   Approximately 3 miles of road was built but still requires gravel.
[Reference: Watson, K. de P.: The Squaw Creek-Rainy Hollow Area, Northern
British Columbia, B.C. Dept. of Mines, Bull. 25, pp. 42-47 (1948).]
ATLlNf
Cracker Creek (59° 133° N.E.)
Uranium
The Purple Rose and Fisher groups were located in July and
Purple Rose        August of 1954 to cover uranium showings discovered by Ole
and Fisher Olsen and Norman Fisher, of Atlin, while prospecting for K. J.
Springer, of Toronto.   The claims lie between elevations of 5,000
and 6,000 feet.    The Purple Rose is at the head of Cracker Creek and the Fisher is
between the heads of Boulder and Ruby Creeks; all creeks flow into Surprise Lake, east
of Atlin.
During the summer of 1955 Barymin Company Limited, with Charles J. Brown in
charge, did surface stripping on showings on both groups. A tent camp was established
at the head of the west branch of Cracker Creek, about 4 miles by trail from the head
of the road on Ruby Creek; a second tent camp, used while working on the Fisher group,
was near the head of Ruby Creek, about AV2 miles by trail from the head of the Ruby
Creek road, which is 22 miles from Atlin.
The purple Rose claims are, for the most part, underlain by rusty-weathering granite
or alaskite characterized by a very small percentage of dark minerals and a high percentage of smoky quartz. This rock, at the very head of the west branch of Cracker Creek,
intrudes quartzite, greenstone, and limestone of the Cache Creek group. At one place
on the contact, at an elevation of 6,000 feet, the limestone is metamorphosed to a
tremolite-garnet skarn containing a few small lenses of magnetite and showing copper
stain along minor fractures.
* By A. R. C James.
t By S. S. Holland. REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The uranium showings lie within the intrusion between elevations of 5,500 and
6,000 feet on the steep headwall of the cirque at the head of the west branch of Cracker
Creek.
The secondary uranium minerals zeunerite (copper uranium arsenate) and meta-
zeunerite (hydrous copper uranium arsenate) were identified in August, 1954, by E. W.
Nuffield, of the University of Toronto, in material from the Purple Rose showings. This
is the first record of zeunerite in British Columbia.
One showing at an elevation of about 6,000 feet was discovered by the presence
of zeunerite in float in thick granite talus on the steep south side of the cirque. A considerable amount of work was done in the talus, attempting to reach bedrock through
the permanently frozen material that lies just below the surface. Bedrock was reached
in only one trench about 12 feet long. The trench exposes strongly kaolinized granite
cut by a shear striking about north 10 degrees east and dipping 55 degrees west. The
kaolinization appears to spread outward from the shear and extends across the full width
of the trench. The strongly kaolinized granite in and near the shear in some places has
a pale apple-green stain or incrustation which has been identified as zeunerite and meta-
zeunerite. Examination with a Geiger counter indicates that the highest counts are
obtained on the footwall side of the shear. A selected sample of kaolinized granite
containing zeunerite assayed: Uranium oxide, 0.088 per cent; thorium oxide, 0.011
per cent. Company assays from the same cut showed small amounts of silver and some
lead and copper.
This showing could not be traced along strike because of the depth of permanently
frozen talus.
A second showing lies about 1,600 feet to the west at about 5,500 feet elevation,
on the southwest headwall of the cirque. There a shear 1 to 2 feet wide striking west
and almost vertical cuts a grey porphyritic phase of the intrusion. In places the shear
is occupied by a few inches of vuggy quartz which is erratically mineralized with arseno-
pyrite, tetrahedrite, and some pyrite. Examination with a Geiger counter showed only
a slight increase over background count. A selected sample well mineralized with arseno-
pyrite assayed:  Uranium oxide equivalent, 0.003 per cent; copper, 1.06 per cent.
A third showing, at 4,800 feet elevation, is on the southwest wall of the cirque.
Kaolinization extends about 10 feet on each side of a shear striking north 20 degrees
west and dipping 60 degrees southwest and exposed for a length of about 75 feet. Narrow fluorite stringers extend outward from the shear into the hangingwall. Spots of
zeunerite mineralization appear in the kaolinized zone, and a selected sample assayed:
Uranium oxide, 0.059 per cent; thorium oxide, 0.042 per cent.
Several other minor occurrences of zeunerite on the Purple Rose were seen, but
examination with a Geiger counter indicated that the uranium content is low.
The Fisher group is underlain by rusty-weathering granite or alaskite similar to the
intrusion at the Purple Rose. The showings are about AVi miles west of those on the
Purple Rose. They are at an elevation of about 6,200 feet on the southeast side of
Mount Leonard, on the slope into the head of the west fork of Boulder Creek. The
slope is covered to a considerable depth with talus which immediately below the surface
is permanently frozen, and consequently trenching is extremely difficult. However, two
northeasterly striking mineralized zones appear to be present. One, about 100 feet
between terminal trenches, is a 6-inch kaolinized width in a porphyritic phase of the
intrusion. It is mineralized with wolframite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, and tetrahedrite.
Examination with a Geiger counter indicates a count only slightly higher than background, and no zeunerite was positively identified. A sample of selected mineralization
assayed:  Uranium oxide equivalent, 0.006 per cent; copper, 0.30 per cent.
The second zone shows an indeterminate width of kaolinized granite in a single
open-cut.   A 6-inch width mineralized with wolframite, arsenopyrite, and some zeunerite LODE METALS 9
had a low count when examined with a Geiger counter. A selected sample assayed:
Uranium oxide, 0.076 per cent; thorium oxide, 0.005 per cent; copper, 0.66 per cent.
Company assays from both these zones indicate a low silver and gold content.
No primary uranium mineral has been identified in these occurrences. The occurrence of the secondary mineral, zeunerite, within the zone of permafrost means that its
deposition must have taken place in pre-Glacial rather than in post-Glacial time.
McDAME*
Horseranch Range (59° 128° S.W.)
Beryllium
Twenty-six claims, the Cassiar Beryl Nos. 1 to 26, were located in
Cassiar Beryl July and August, 1955, by Einar Hagen and Fred Hasselberg, of
Watson Lake, and Russel Morgan and J. Stewart, of Mile 624,
Alaska Highway, to cover occurrences of beryl in pegmatite in the central part of the
Horseranch Range. The claims lie between 5,000 and 6,000 feet elevation on the western
side of the crest of the range and about 3Vi miles northwest of the highest peak in the
range, elevation 7,300 feet. From Tom Harvey Lake, the nearest suitable lake for aircraft landing, the main trail from Lower Post runs southward to the old Dease River
crossing, from there an Indian hunting trail climbs up on to the range, a total distance of
18 miles from Tom Harvey Lake.
The claims are underlain by sedimentary and foliated metamorphic rocks of the
Horseranch group. Quartzite, biotite-muscovite gneiss, and quartz muscovite schist are
common rock types which, in a zone about 2,500 feet wide and at least 3 miles long, are
intruded by pegmatite dykes ranging in widfh from a few inches to a few tens of feet.
The pegmatites, for the most part, are parallel to the foliation, which strikes between west
and northwest.
The pegmatites are composed of feldspar, quartz, muscovite, subordinate amounts
of black tourmaline and pink to pale-brown garnet, and minor amounts of pale-green
beryl. Some of the narrower pegmatites are distinctly banded, some having coarse mica
and tourmaline along their margins and largely quartz in the centre, and others having
layers that are coarse-grained and composed dominantly of mica. One 12-inch dyke was
seen to have a 2-inch marginal zone largely of muscovite, a 2-inch intermediate zone rich
in tourmaline and garnet, and a 4-inch centre of coarsely crystalline feldspar and quartz
containing a few small beryl crystals. In general, however, the pegmatites are not zoned,
and beryl was not seen to occupy any preferred position within them.
Beryllium was first detected in 1949 by the British Columbia Department of Mines
through spectographic analysis of pegmatite samples from the Horseranch Range. Beryl
crystals were first found by Einar Hagen in 1953, and subsequent discoveries over a
larger area were made in 1954.
Numerous samples of pegmatite containing beryl crystals have been obtained by
Einar Hagen from talus slopes at the heads of three west-flowing creeks, locally known
as Moosehorn, Camp, and Mica Creeks. On examination, pegmatites outcropping on
bluffs at the heads of the talus slopes were found to contain beryl and presumably are the
source of the beryl found in the talus. Although most pegmatites on close examination
have been found to contain beryl, most samples so far have come from talus below them.
Most beryl seen occurs as hexagonal prisms one-quarter to three-eighths of an inch across
and one-half to three-quarters of an inch long. The largest beryl crystal found is three-
quarters of an inch across and about 1XA inches long. The beryl shows only slight colour
variation, most being a pale watery green.
During four days spent examining the various beryl occurrences, close attention was
paid to the distribution of beryl in pegmatite and in talus.   No one pegmatite was seen to
* By S. S. Holland, except as noted. 10 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
contain beryl equivalent to a grade of 1 per cent beryllium oxide. Most beryl was seen
in talus slides on the south side of the head of Camp Creek. The average beryllium
content of pegmatite, based on the amount of beryl seen, is estimated to be less than
0.1 per cent beryllium oxide.
Cassiar (59° 129° S.W.)
Silver-Lead
The Graham group of six mineral claims, first located in Septem-
Graham ber, 1941, covers occurrences of galena at an elevation of about
5,000 feet near the head of Marble Creek. The showings are on
and between the two forks of Marble Creek and may be reached by 2Vi miles of truck-
road which crosses to the south side of Troutline Creek about 3 miles east of Cassiar.
In 1955 the claims were under option to Silver Standard Mines Limited and
exploration was under the supervision of W. S. Dunn.
The claims are underlain by grey limestone and marble of the Lower and Middle
Cambrian Atan group. The rocks strike about north 20 degrees west and dip 45 degrees
northeast, and lie 1 Vi miles east of the contact with the Cassiar intrusions.
Bulldozer stripping done in 1954 discloses the presence of two areas of mineralization. The easternmost showings are on the east branch of Marble Creek and consist
of four irregularly mineralized areas. The mineralization, very largely magnetite and
galena with minor amounts of sphalerite and pyrite, is a replacement of limestone along
a line that appears to cut across the bedding and to strike almost due west. Dolomitiza-
tion surrounds the magnetite-galena lenses and extends outward along bedding planes to
make a total width of possibly 20 feet. There does not appear to be any continuity
between the four small individual lenses of the east showing.
The main showing crosses the west branch of Marble Creek at an elevation of 5,000
feet. It terminates against a bed of hornfels on the east side of the creek and extends
westward for a length of about 350 feet. One cut shows a 5-foot width mineralized with
galena and magnetite, but the maximum width is obscure in a large area of bulldozer
stripping on the west side of the creek. The mineralization lies along a west-striking
fracture and is accompanied by an indefinite envelope of dolomitization. Small strippings
along strike appear to extend the zone to the top of the ridge 500 feet higher in elevation
and 1,000 feet farther west.   However, there is very little galena there.
In 1954 a shipment of TIV2 tons of cobbed ore was made to Kellogg, Idaho. It
assayed: Gold, 0.065 oz. per ton; silver, 53.6 oz. per ton; lead, 69.1 per cent; zinc,
1.5 per cent. Diamond drilling by Silver Standard in 1955 was done to test continuity
and values in the main showing. Drilling operations were suspended in September after
the completion of nine holes totalling 1,728 feet.
Company office, 202 Barry Building,  Edmonton, Alta.    W. J.
Contact, Tellington, president; J. Mclntyre, engineer.   The Contact group
Silver Queen       of eleven claims is 2 miles north of Cassiar, and the Silver Queen
(Telmac Mines     group of sixteen claims is 3 miles south of Cassiar.    The Contact
Limited)* claims are held under a purchase agreement and the Silver Queen
claims under option.    The present company began work about
the middle of July and continued until the middle of October.   A crew averaging fourteen
was employed.   The Silver Queen group was opened up by a rough bulldozed road and
some stripping was done, but it is reported that in general the results of this work were
not encouraging.   The main activity was centred on the Contact group, north of Cassiar.
A road was made from the Cassiar road to the lower showings.   A chute was erected for
the transportation of ore from the upper showings to the end of the road, a distance of
about 800 feet.    A 14- by 20-foot ore-sorting building was erected at the lower end
of the chute, and a 16- by 20-foot office and cook-house was built on the property.
By A. R. C. James. LODE METALS 11
A magnetometer survey was carried out, and one diamond-drill hole was drilled to
a depth of 45 feet. Great difficulty was experienced in drilling due to the fissured and
broken nature of the rock, but further drilling with more suitable equipment is planned
for 1956. At the upper showing, it is reported that a vein about 5 feet wide, carrying
high values in silver and lead, has been exposed over a distance of 130 feet. Over 30
tons of ore was mined from this vein and was shipped by road to Dawson Creek (a
distance of 720 miles), from where it was sent by rail to the American Smelting and
Refining Company's smelter at East Helena, Mont.
It is further reported that Telmac Mines Limited has turned over the operation of
this property to the Nevada Canadian Mining Company, and that the latter company
plans to do further work in 1956.
_     „. Needlepoint Mountain (59° 129° S.W.)
Beryllium
Three claims, the Low Grade Nos. 2, 3, and 4, were located in June,
Low Grade 1954, by J. J. McDougall, of St. Eugene Mining Corporation Lim
ited, to cover an occurrence of beryllium-bearing skarn. The claims
are at an elevation of about 5,000 feet on the southwest slope of Needlepoint Mountain,
about 2 miles northeast of the junction of Bass Creek and Cottonwood River.
The claims cover a short length of the contact between rather coarse-grained pink
granitic rocks of the Cassiar batholith and hornfels, marble, and skarn of the Lower and
Middle Cambrian Atan group.
In many places along the contact, bands of brown garnet and green diopside are
developed in otherwise grey limestone. Occasional large areas and masses of garnetite
have been formed. On the Low Grade No. 2 in a right-angled embayment in the granite
a lenticular body of black skarn extends southeastward along the contact and close to it.
The lens has a length of about 300 feet, a maximum width of 35 feet, and appears to
strike about north 65 degrees west and dip 60 degrees northeast. The skarn terminates
against granite on the northwest and to the southeast narrows and is covered with overburden. The skarn is composed of magnetite, dark-green chlorite, dark reddish-brown
garnet, and small irregular areas and layers of pale fluorite and quartz.
The beryllium content of the rock was discovered by the British Columbia Department of Mines as a result of routine spectrographic analysis of a specimen submitted for
tin assay by Gerald Davis, of McDame Lake and Christina Lake. The beryllium occurs
in helvite, a manganese, iron, beryllium sulphide-silicate mineral. The helvite is cinnamon to reddish-brown in colour and occurs as small individual grains or clusters as
much as one-half inch across. It is accompanied by a few small grains of native bismuth.
It appears to be localized in a massive magnetite-rich core in the centre of the widest part
of the skarn lens at its northwest end.
The beryllium oxide content of helvite is about 14 per cent, and consequently if any
rock were to contain 1 per cent beryllium oxide, it would have to contain about 7 per cent
helvite. A visual examination of the skarn indicates that the beryllium content is low,
considerably less than 1 per cent.
[Reference: " Beryllium and Tungsten Deposits of Iron Mountain District, New
Mexico," by R. H. Jahns, U.S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 945-C, 1944.]
TAKU RIVER*
Gold-Silver-Copper-Lead-Zinc
(58° 133° N.W.)   Company office, Trail; mine office, Tulsequah.
Big Bull, Tulsequah J. J. McKay, property superintendent;   H. R. Hammond, mine
Chief (Tulsequah   superintendent; R. Cory, mill superintendent.   Capital:  3,000,000
Mines, Limited)     shares, $1 par value.   In 1955 this company, a subsidiary of The
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited,
* By A. R. C. James. 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
operated the Big Bull and Tulsequah Chief mines. Ore from both mines is treated at
the Polaris Taku concentrator, which is operated under lease. The mines are situated
a few miles from the confluence of the Taku and Tulsequah Rivers, 5 miles from the
International Boundary and 50 miles east of Juneau, Alaska. The Tulsequah Chief mine,
the mill, and the camp are in the Tulsequah River valley, and the Big Bull mine is in the
Taku Valley. Access to the property for personnel and light freight is by charter aircraft from Juneau. All heavy freight and outgoing concentrates are transported on the
Taku River by shallow-draught barges plying between the company wharf and tide-water,
about 30 miles downstream.   River freighting is only possible during the summer months.
Production, ore milled: Tulsequah Chief, 118,138 tons; Big Bull, 78,562 tons;
total, 196,700 tons. Concentrates totalling 36,250 dry tons were shipped to the Tacoma
and Trail smelters. The concentrator has, throughout the year, been milling over 530
tons per day of gold-silver-copper-lead-zinc ores produced from the two mines. Separate
copper, lead, and zinc concentrates are produced by selective flotation based on the
primary bulk flotation of the copper and lead followed by conventional zinc flotation.
The primary bulk copper-lead concentrate, after two stages of cleaning, is refloated, with
depression of the copper minerals by cyanide additions. All concentrates produced after
the end of the Taku River navigation season in September are stockpiled at the camp until
the following May.
The Tulsequah Chief mine was brought into production in 1951. The orebodies
are mainly pyritic sulphide stringer lodes and replacement bodies. The principal economic minerals are galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and tennantite-tetrahedrite, with
appreciable amounts of gold and silver; the gold occurs partly in association with the
copper mineralization, and the silver occurs mainly with the tetrahedrite. The orebodies
so far developed are known respectively as the Upper orebody and the A, B, C, and D
orebodies. The original discovery and early development was at the outcrop of the
Upper orebody above the present 6500 adit level at an elevation of 1,600 feet on
the steep rocky slopes of Mount Eaton on the east side of the Tulsequah River valley.
This orebody extends about 700 feet vertically below the surface and finally narrows out
above the present 5900 level. The A, B, C, and D orebodies occur several hundred feet
deeper and, so far as is known, do not outcrop on the surface. These latter orebodies
have been developed from the 5400 level. The general method of mining all the ore-
bodies is by shrinkage stopes. Most of the 1955 production was from stopes in the
Upper orebody.
The mine is at present developed from nine levels—the 6500, 6400, 6200, 6100,
5900, 5700, 5500, 5400, and 5200 levels. All broken ore from the upper levels is
passed down to the 5400 adit level, which is the main haulage level of the mine. An
internal two-compartment vertical shaft, 1,017 feet long, serves all levels from the 5400
to the 6400 adit level. The 5200 level is an important new development; the 5200
crosscut adit was collared on May 2nd, 1955, and by the year end had been driven 2,841
feet from the portal in a northeasterly direction, broadly parallel with the other adit
levels at higher elevations. It is expected that the A, B, C, and D orebodies will be mined
from this level.
The following is a summary of development work completed at the Tulsequah Chief
mine in 1955: Drifting, 1,251 feet; crosscutting, 3,772 feet; subdrifting, 547 feet;
raising, 3,792 feet; underground diamond drilling, 10,161 feet; blast-hole diamond
drilling, 1,962 feet.
The power-house at the 5400 level portal was enlarged during the year, and a
156-kva. diesel-driven alternator and a 660-cubic-foot-per-minute-capacity diesel-driven
air-compressor unit was installed, these machines having been transferred from the Big
Bull mine. A new switchboard was wired in for the power-house itself, and additional
main switches were added to the distribution panel to cover the requirements of the new
5200 level.    At the 5400 level change-house building a 14- by 18-foot extension was LODE METALS 13
added to provide an improved shifters' office and change-room; a new 15- by 14-foot
furnace-room was also added. At the 5200 level a new 120-ton two-compartment ore-
bin was constructed on a pile foundation on the river bar about 180 feet from the portal.
A trestle 172 feet long was erected to carry the haulage track to the bin. Two new
battery-charging stations, each complete with a 15-horsepower motor generator set,
control panel, and battery racks, were set up in the 5200 and 5400 level adits about
800 feet from the portals. These stations are for charging the Titan S^-ton battery
locomotives.
The Big Bull mine was brought into production in 1951. The orebodies are similar
in mineral content to those of the Tulsequah Chief and occur as steep west-dipping
sulphide stringer lodes in a zone of altered rocks adjacent to a north-trending fault. The
oreshoots lie in a shallow zone which does not extend more than 300 feet below the
surface. The mine has been developed from an open pit and three underground levels—
the 5000 adit level, the 4850, and the 4700 levels. In 1955 mining was confined to the
open pit and to stopes above the 5000 level. Operations at the open pit ceased on
March 31st; since November, 1953, a total production of 102,227 tons of ore was
mined from this pit by power-shovel. By the end of 1955, underground mining operations had also ceased, although some broken ore may be drawn next spring. It is intended
to abandon the mine after the broken ore has been drawn. The total ore milled from
the Big Bull mine from 1951 to the end of 1955 was 382,237 tons. Development work
done in 1955 was as follows: Drifting, 115 feet; crosscutting, 11 feet; subdrifting, 632
feet; raising, 1,645 feet; underground diamond drilling, 6,366 feet; surface diamond
drilling, 2,226 feet; blast-hole diamond drilling, 965 feet.
Additions to the main camp included a 92- by 12-foot extension to the Giegerich
Recreation Hall to house two bowling alleys and a 9- by 15-foot extension to the office
building with installation of a new furnace.
The total crew (including staff) employed in December was as follows: Tulsequah
Chief mine, 79; Big Bull mine, 26; mill, 31; other surface, 94; total, 230. A total of
twenty-four lost-time accidents occurred in 1955, two of which were classified as serious.
A full-time safety engineer is employed, and a safety committee meets regularly and
carries out inspections of the property. In general a high standard of safety consciousness
is maintained throughout all operations, and the rather high rate of serious accidents this
year is unusual. A resident doctor is available at the camp to give immediate attention
in case of injuries or illness, and serious cases are usually evacuated by air to hospitals
at Juneau or Vancouver.
The annual " Tulsequah flood," a remarkable feature of this locality caused by the
sudden draining of Tulsequah Lake through a channel in the glacier ice, began on
September 4th and ended on September 7th. After the flood, 368 feet of bridging had
to be rebuilt.
The two-month-long Union Steamships strike in July and August caused considerable difficulties, inasmuch as freight deliveries by sea to the property were held up
until September.
STIKINE*
Copper
(58°  131° S.W.)    Company office, 532 Burrard Street, Van-
Callison Copper    couver; mine office, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory.   J. D. Mason,
(Brikon Explora-    president.   Capital:   100,000 shares, $1 par value.   This property
tions Limited)      consists of eight claims held by Brikon Explorations Limited under
option agreement with F. C. Callison, and thirty-two adjoining
claims located by Brikon Explorations Limited.    It is on Copper Creek near the Telegraph Creek trail, 28 miles in a straight line northwest of Telegraph Creek settlement.
* By A. R. C. James. 14 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The property is reached by charter float-plane to Kennicott Lake near the headwaters
of Hackett River, 25 miles northwest of Telegraph Creek, and from that point by a
5-mile pack-horse trail to the camp.
The showings are reported to consist of disseminated chalcopyrite mineralization in
shattered basic volcanics. According to information supplied by the company, the
mineralized outcrop measures 50 by 100 feet.
Work was begun on September 1st and was suspended on October 30th. The
following was accomplished: 1 mile of switchback trail to connect the property with the
Telegraph Creek trail, a limited amount of trenching and mapping, a drill camp set up
on the north bank of Hackett River, and two diamond-drill holes totalling 204 feet.
A. Allan was the engineer in charge of the work.
All equipment was left on the property in the charge of a watchman, and a programme of mapping, trenching, and drilling is planned for 1956.
UNUK RIVER*
Copper
(56° 130° S.E.) Company office, Room 507, 1111 West Georgia
Granduc (Granduc Street, Vancouver; mine office, Stewart. President, L. T. Postle;
Mines, Limited) manager, J. J. A. Crowhurst; assistant manager, J. M. Parker.
Capital: 4,000,000 shares, $1 par value. This company holds by
record 171 claims at the head of Leduc River. The property is 25 miles north 35 degrees
west of Stewart, and the outcrops of the orebodies are at elevations between 3,260 and
4,800 feet on the mountain slope on the north side of the Leduc Glacier. The deposits
at present being developed, consisting of two extensive copper orebodies, are in the
Coast Mountains near the eastern contact of the Coast Range batholith. The surrounding rocks are metamorphosed sediments and the mineralization is mainly chalcopyrite,
pyrrhotite, and pyrite.
In spite of the difficult terrain, impressive progress has been made this year in the
development of this important property. The underground development comprises two
adits driven in a northerly direction parallel to the strike of the orebodies. The lower
(main) adit, at 3,250 feet elevation, has been extended 1,020 feet to a total length of
2,800 feet. The upper adit, at 3,750 feet elevation, was collared in April, 1955, and has
been driven a total distance of 1,600 feet. Drill-hole offsets have been made at 100-foot
intervals along both adit levels, and on the 3250 adit level crosscuts had been driven into
the orebodies at 400-foot intervals. A total of 3,120 feet of drifting and 1,632 feet of
crosscutting was completed in 1955. An extensive diamond-drilling programme was
carried out, resulting in the completion of 30,011 feet of underground drilling and 6,552
feet of surface drilling. Underground, horizontal holes were drilled at 100-foot intervals;
inclined holes at plus and minus 35 degrees were drilled at 200-foot intervals, and a
complete ring of holes was drilled at 400-foot intervals; the maximum length of most
holes was 800 feet. The surface drilling, done with a Joy HD 22 diamond drill, has
included holes drilled down to 2,000 feet elevation with the object of intersecting the
orebodies at depth.
This development and exploratory work has very considerably enlarged the indicated
tonnage of ore on the property. Two main orebodies have so far been outlined at
Granduc, known respectively as the A (or West) orebody and the B (or East) orebody.
Both orebodies strike slightly east of north and dip westward at 65 degrees to nearly
vertical. At the 3250 level the A orebody is from 25 to 50 feet wide and the B orebody
is from 50 to 150 feet wide, the average grade of the ore being a little over 1.6 per cent
copper.   Near the main adit portal the two orebodies are over 400 feet apart, but this
* By A. R. C. James. LODE METALS
15
Camp and snowmobile on upper Salmon Glacier.
Aeroplane at head of south fork of Leduc Glacier. 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1955
distance soon narrows in a northerly direction to 150 feet and less. At approximately
1,700 feet from the portal the two orebodies merge. At the 3250 level the A orebody
has so far been proved to extend over a horizontal distance of 2,800 feet and the B ore-
body for 1,700 feet (up to the point of merging with the A orebody); however, in these
horizontal lengths there are several relatively barren areas, totalling about 600 feet in
strike length, in which the mineral is below ore grade. The persistence of the ore at depth
has been indicated by a long drill-hole from the surface which intersected the A orebody
1,200 feet and the B orebody 1,500 feet below the 3250 level.
Underground drilling and drifting was on a two-shift basis. Mucking at the faces
of the drifts and crosscuts was done by means of Eimco 12B Rockershovels, the muck
being loaded into 3-ton side-dump cars and transported out of the mine by Eimco 401
air locos or Mancha trammers. Compressed air is generated by one Joy-Sullivan and
three Gardner-Denver diesel-driven compressors. The 3250 level tunnel is ventilated
by a Joy 1000 Axivane fan powered by a 15-horsepower electric motor, and the 3750
level tunnel by a Joy Axivane fan powered by a 5-horsepower electric motor. Fifteen-
inch metal duct and " Mineair " vent tube is used to conduct the air to the faces.
A crew averaging forty men (reaching a maximum of sixty-two in the middle of
the summer) was employed. The men are housed in a small camp consisting of prefabricated plywood buildings on the north side of the Leduc Glacier. Owing to the
danger of snowslides, the camp has to be established out on the glacier ice for the winter
months, and in the summer is moved back onto the side-hill near the 3250 level portal.
In 1955 the camp was moved to the side-hill in June and back onto the glacier in
November. The camp was considerably enlarged during the year by the addition of the
following buildings: Eight 12- by 24-foot bunk-houses, one 20- by 28-foot cook-house,
one 16- by 16-foot kitchen, one 12- by 25-foot dry-house, and three 8- by 20-foot
cabooses. A deep-freeze chest and an R.C.A. Victor 16-mm. film projector were among
other additions to the amenities of the camp.
The problem of transporting heavy equipment to a large property like Granduc is
exceptionally difficult, situated as it is in a region of changeable and often severe climatic
conditions and surrounded on all sides by rugged mountains, glaciers, and snowfields.
Last winter the company obtained the services of the Patricia Transportation Company,
a firm with much experience in tractor transportation over snow and ice. Between
December, 1954, and March, 1955, this company transported 1,000 tons of equipment
and supplies to the property. The materials were taken by road for a distance of 11
miles from Stewart to a point near the foot of the Salmon Glacier, where they were
transferred to sleighs and hauled by tractors up the Salmon Glacier and over the high
glaciers and snowfields to the property. The following equipment was used for this
operation: Four D8 tractors, three D6 tractors, two muskeg tractors, one Tucker Sno-cat,
and twenty sets of sleighs.
Routine servicing of the property and transportation of personnel was carried out
by aeroplane. A Super Cub and a Fairchild 82 are used for this purpose, and two
experienced pilots are employed on a full-time basis. In winter and spring the Super
Cub is operated with a ski landing-gear and lands on the snow-covered glacier. In
summer it is necessary to use an airstrip, and an airstrip approximately 1,200 feet long
was built on the northwest flank of Granduc Mountain in 1955. A total of about 100
tons of light freight was taken in by aeroplane during the year.
The mine office is at present established in Stewart, and communication with the
camp is maintained by two-way radio.
Working conditions were found to be satisfactory considering the location of the
property.   Eight compensable accidents were reported, none of which was serious.
, LODE METALS 17
PORTLAND CANAL*
Bear River (55° 129° N.W.)
Silver-Lead-Zinc-Gold
Company office, 209 Credit Foncier Building, 850 West Hastings
Ben Bolt, Jumbo,   Street, Vancouver.   Capital:   3,000,000 shares, 50 cents par value.
Prosperity, Porter   W. R. Wheeler, president.    This company holds the Prosperity,
Idaho, Silverado    Porter Idaho, and Silverado groups of claims on Mount Rainey,
(Cassiar Consoli-    and the Jumbo and Ben Bolt groups on the south fork of Glacier
dated Mines       Creek.   It also holds an option on forty-one Crown-granted claims
Limited) of Portal Mining Company Limited in the Glacier Creek area.
All these properties are on the east side of the Bear River valley.
Commencing in June, 1954, the company reopened and cleaned out the Portland Canal
adit tunnel.   This work was completed by February, 1955, and since that date the adit
has been surveyed and the various mineralized zones have been sampled.   The portal is
5% miles by road from Stewart at an elevation of 254 feet on the east side of the Bear
River valley, immediately south of Glacier Creek.    The adit was originally driven in
1914, and is 3,671 feet long in an easterly direction.   The face of the adit underlies the
Mosquito claim and is about 630 feet below the surface.   A total of 1,600 feet of drifting
was done by the original owners on four separate mineralized zones, known respectively
as the Lucky Boy, Melba, Richard, and Mosquito.
The company's consulting engineer, A. C. Skerl, surveyed and sampled the Glacier
Creek adit on the north side of Glacier Creek and adjacent workings and surface showings. He also surveyed and sampled the Ben Bolt and Jumbo properties and made an
examination of the Prosperity, Porter Idaho, and Silverado groups.
Salmon River (56° 130° S.E.)
Gold-Silver-Lead-Zinc
Company office, 907 Birks Building, Vancouver.    A. E. Bryant,
Silbak Premier     president and managing director.    Capital:   3,000,000 shares, $1
Mines Limited      par value.   Production at this well-known property was suspended
in 1953.   In 1955 an exploration programme was under the direction of Henry L. Hill, consulting engineer.    A crew of twelve men was employed from
May to September under the supervision of W. N. Plumb.  Geological work was carried out
on the Northern Light claim (Premier Border).   The Premier Border shaft was unwatered
and nine diamond-drill holes were drilled, totalling 2,752 feet.   A geological study was
also made of the old Silbak workings, with particular reference to ore reserves.   A geophysical survey was carried out by A. R. Clark on the Mist claim.   An anomaly revealed
by this survey was diamond-drilled with five holes totalling 518 feet.    There was some
minor rehabilitation of some of the camp buildings.
American Creek (56° 129° S.W.)
Company office, 416 Bank of Nova Scotia Building, West Hast-
Skeena, American  ings Street, Vancouver.    Elmore Meredith, president;   B. W. W.
Belle, Ricadonna,   McDougall, secretary.    Capital:   5,000,000 shares, $1 par value.
A.B., R.J. (Great   This company holds by record twenty-nine claims and three frac-
North Mining      tions at the head of American Creek, 24 miles due north of Stewart.
Company Ltd.)     The property is at an elevation of 4,000 feet on the bare slopes,
bluffs, and benches above the steeply sloping west side of the creek
valley.   Access is by road as far as the confluence of Bear River and American Creek,
and then by an 18-mile pack-horse trail up the valley of American Creek to the property.
* By A. R. C. James. 18 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The formations of the locality consist of sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the
Hazelton group. Dark argillites outcrop on the lower slopes to about 500 feet above the
valley floor. The volcanics at the higher elevations comprise tuffaceous rocks and greenstones. A shear zone with siliceous replacement and quartz veins and stringers occurs in
the volcanics, and some of these structures are reported to be mineralized with galena,
sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and pyrite, and to carry values in gold and silver.
The property was explored intermittently by trenching, open-cutting, and drilling from
1930 to 1932 by Northwestern Aerial Prospectors Limited, and from 1937 to 1940 by
Napco Gold Mines Limited.
The present company began work in July and finished on October 6th, when a heavy
fall of snow blanketed the property. A crew of from four to eight men was employed
under the supervision of J. McBeth. A helicopter was used for transporting heavy freight
to the property, and pack-horses were used for the lighter equipment. There was considerable delay in starting work on the property due to adverse weather conditions and
mechanical trouble with the helicopter. However, the following was accomplished:
1,000 feet of new trail was made at the upper end of the valley, and the remainder of the
trail was improved; a new cable crossing was installed across American Creek south of
the Pimple; a log cabin was erected at the half-way point along the trail, 9 miles from
the mouth of American Creek; a cabin was erected at the property; 700 feet of X-ray
diamond drilling was done, of which some was on the " Moonlight" vein and some on the
main shear zone; and 150 feet of open-cutting was completed, using a Pjonjar gasoline
drill.   Further work on this property is planned for 1956.
[Reference:  Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1937, pp. B 20-24.]
Maple Bay (55° 130° S.E.)
Copper
Head office, Room 906, 357 Bay Street, Toronto; British Columbia
Maple Bay        office, 315 Credit Foncier Building, 850 West Hastings Street,
(Maple Bay Copper Vancouver.   W. J. Lawson, president.   Capital:  3,500,000 shares,
Mines Limited)     $1  par value.    The company holds twenty-two Crown-granted
claims,  twenty-four recorded  claims,  and  sixteen fractions  near
Maple Bay on the east side of Portland Canal, 37 miles south of Stewart.   The principal
showings are at an elevation of 2,400 feet and upwards and comprise a series of quartz
veins mineralized with chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite.   Access to the property is by charter
boat from Stewart to Maple Bay, or arrangements may be made with Pacific Western
Airlines for their scheduled flight to call at Maple Bay.   The camp is reached by a 3-mile
pack-horse trail from the beach.
Some drilling and development work have been done on the Maple Bay group in
previous years, particularly by The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power
Company Limited. On the Eagle and May Queen claims a large vein was diamond
drilled. On the Star claim a 700-foot adit was driven, and in 1916, 4,000 tons of copper
ore was shipped. On the neighbouring Outsider group a copper-bearing quartz vein was
mined from 1906 to 1907 and from 1922 to 1926;  138,854 tons of ore was produced.
Work by the present company began in the middle of June, 1955, and continued
until the end of November. A crew of nine men was employed under the supervision of
R. E. Renshaw. The 3-mile trail from the beach to the camp-site at 2,400 feet elevation
was reopened, and a temporary camp was set up. Surface stripping and diamond drilling
were done on the Princess and Anaconda veins. Ten holes were drilled, totalling just
over 3,000 feet. The results of drilling are reported to be encouraging, and an extensive
programme is planned for 1956. The work is under the general direction of F. J.
Hemsworth, consulting engineer.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1921, p. 59; Geol. Surv.,
Canada, Mem. 175, p. 100.] LODE METALS
19
ALICE ARM*
Silver-Lead
(55° 129° N.W.) Registered office, 309 Royal Bank Building,
Toric (Torbrit Silver Vancouver; executive office, 44 King Street West, Toronto; mine
Mines Limited) office, Alice Arm. R. W. Burton, manager; A. M. Cormie, mine
superintendent; A. R. Johnson, mill superintendent. Capital:
3,000,000 shares, $1 par value. The Torbrit mine camp and mill are at an elevation of
1,000 feet on the west side of the Kitsault River, 17 miles by road from Alice Arm. The
portal of the 1,000-foot or main haulage level of the mine is on the opposite side of the
river, half a mile north of the mill. The mine and the mill are connected by an extension
of the mine haulage system. Five miles farther up the Kitsault River valley, near the
mouth of Clearwater Creek, the company operates a hydro-electric power plant of
1,600-horsepower capacity.
Production: Ore milled, 151,863 tons. Flotation concentrates amounting to 1,655
tons were shipped to the East Helena smelter, and additional silver amounting to 358,995
ounces was sold as bullion. Gross contents of concentrates and bullion shipped:
1,819,593 ounces of silver and 1,128,833 pounds of lead. The greater part of the silver
is recovered with the galena as a bulk concentrate, which is shipped to the lead plant at
Trail. The native silver is recovered by cyanidation of the flotation tailings and is refined
and shipped as bullion.   The milling capacity is between 400 and 450 tons per day.
The ore occurs in shoots in a quartz-barite-hematite-jasper replacement deposit
within a country rock consisting of agglomerates and tuffs of the Hazelton group. The
important ore minerals are galena, ruby silver, and native silver. Most production is at
present obtained from three levels in the mine at 1,000, 900, and 800 feet elevation
respectively; in 1955, 26 per cent of the total ore production was from the 1000 level,
60 per cent from the 900 level, and 14 per cent from the 800 level. The method of
mining is by long blast-hole and conventional shrinkage stopes. The 1,000-foot level
is the main haulage level. A vertical shaft driven from the surface provides access to
the lower levels. Further reserves of ore lie below the 800 level, and the development of
this section was begun toward the end of 1955. Ventilation of the mine is mainly
natural, but assistance in ventilation of the lower workings is provided at the 800 level by
a Canadian Sirocco Vanaxial fan powered by a 15-horsepower electric motor; this fan
circulates approximately 30,000 cubic feet of air per minute.
A crew averaging 118 was employed. A mine safety committee carries out regular
inspections of the mine and mill and holds monthly meetings. Seventeen compensable
accidents occurred in 1955, thirteen of which took place in the mine, two in the mill,
and two on other surface operations.   None of these accidents was classified as serious.
There were no important additions to the camp buildings or surface plant in 1955.
The Kitsault suspension bridge was severely damaged by a slide on May 31st, but was
repaired and reopened by July 25th.
* By A. R. C. James. 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The following is a summary of the work done underground:—-
Work Done
Advance
Ore
Waste
Drifting—
Ft.
205
601
88
Tons
Tons
951
800 level	
3,153
109
1,494
inn level 	
501
894
3,262
2,946
Stope drifting—
800 level _	
335
37
763
203
420
900 level	
372
966
420
Stope raising—
800 level
1,691
612
14
3,192
1,316
41
2,350
900 level     ___ 	
734
1000 level 	
2,317
4,549
3,084
Stoping—
800 level __.	
83,701
49,971
1,162
900 level _    	
1000 level   	
Totals 	
134,834
Loading-pockets—
700 level (including 38 feet of winze)   	
38
366
Diamond drilling—
800 level     	
7,782
183
3,082
1,475
4,222
900 level	
1000 level	
1150 level    .....    	
Surface           	
16,744
Exploration work was done on the Moose and Lamb claims of the Toric group on
the east side of the Kitsault River. A number of open-cuts, contemporary with the
original work on the Toric claims, were examined, and further prospecting located
continuations of the silver-bearing veins. Twenty diamond-drill holes totalling 2,387
feet were drilled in this area, and the management reports that the results are of sufficient
interest to warrant further investigation in 1956.
Copper
Boulder (Torbrit
Silver Mines
Limited)
(55° 129° N.W.) This property is on the east side of Kitsault
River, 3 miles south of the Toric mine, and comprises eleven
claims located between March and June, 1955, by Torbrit Silver
Mines Limited. The property is characterized by the presence of
a number of very large mineralized boulders, the existence of
which has been known locally for a good many years. Some of the boulders are
extremely large, containing many hundreds of tons of mineralized volcanic rock.
Mineralization of the boulders is erratic, ranging from fairly massive patches of chalcopyrite to areas of practically no sulphides a few feet farther along the face of a boulder.
Most of the showings are on two claims, the Torbrit Nos. 2 and 4. A geophysical
(resistivity) survey was carried out for the company by A. R. Clark early in the summer
in an attempt to locate the source of the mineralized boulders. Later in the year 670
feet of diamond drilling was done to test one of the anomalies indicated by the geophysical
survey.   Further work is planned for 1956.
(55° 129° N.W.) Company office, 402 West Pender Street, Vancouver. Capital: 5,000 shares, $100 par value. This property,
consisting of eighteen recorded claims and fractions, is south and
east of the south end of Kinskuch Lake, approximately 15 miles in
a direct line north-northeast of Alice Arm. Kinskuch Lake is at
3,700 feet elevation in mountainous country east of the Kitsault
Kinskuch, Reina
Blanca (Northwestern Explorations,
Limited) LODE METALS 21
River, and its waters drain into the Nass River system via the Kinskuch River. The
Kinskuch group was located by Gunn Fiva, of Alice Arm, and the Reina Blanca group
by E. Samuelson and W. McLean. It is reported that low-grade copper mineralization
is associated with a large pyritic zone in shattered volcanic rock. Northwestern Explorations, Limited, purchased both groups in September, and in October a crew of three men
supervised by C. S. Ney did 500 feet of sample drilling with a packsack drill. More work
is planned for 1956.
Transportation was provided by a Norseman aircraft operated by Queen Charlotte
Airlines, ferrying from Alice Arm direct to the camp at the shore of Kinskuch Lake.
At the present time there is no direct access to the property by trail.
OBSERVATORY INLET*
Copper
Anyox (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited).
—(55° 129° S.W.) A geological party of five men carried out geological and geophysical work in the vicinity of the old Hidden Creek mine over a period of five months.
D. W. Heddle was in charge.
PORCHER ISLAND*
Iron
(54°  130° S.E.)    Company office, Room 1502, 736 Granville
Star (Utah Co. of   Street, Vancouver.  A. D. Christensen, president.  Capital: 250,000
the Americas)      shares, no par value.   This property consists of ten Crown-granted
claims recently transferred to the Utah Co.  of the Americas,
together with another claim and several fractions held by record.   It is on the northeast
coast of Porcher Island opposite Chismore Passage, 22 miles by sea from Prince Rupert.
Numerous outcrops of magnetite occur along the coast to a distance of about 1,000 feet
from the shore; the surrounding rocks consist of limestones, metasediments, and granitic
intrusives.   The magnetite deposits have apparently been known for many years, but no
previous work has been done on them.    A crew of five men under the supervision of
J. Lafranier established a camp on the property at the end of October.    Five holes
totalling 1,000 feet were diamond drilled.   It is planned to continue this work in 1956.
USK*
Copper
(54° 128° N.E.) Mine office, Usk. J. Bell, manager. Capital:
Nicholson Creek 5,000,000 shares, no par value. This property is 2 miles by road
Mining Corporation northeast of Usk, a small settlement on the Canadian National
Railway about 14 miles northeast of Terrace. The present operations are mainly on the Orion claim and consist of approximately 1,200 feet of drifts and
crosscuts and a number of surface trenches and open-cuts. The Orion portal is at 620
feet elevation. The mineralization occurs in shear zones in altered volcanic rocks, the
principal ore minerals being chalcopyrite and bornite. A crew of four men was employed
on underground work throughout the year, and a total of 622 feet of drifting, 90 feet of
crosscutting, and 270 feet of diamond drilling was done. Some trenching and open-
cutting was done in the summer, three men being employed at this work.
* By A. R. C. James. 22 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
HAZELTON*
Silver-Lead-Zinc-Cadmium
(55°  127° S.W.)    Company office, 602 West Hastings Street,
Silver Standard     Vancouver; mine office, New Hazelton.   R. W. Wilson, managing
(Silver Standard    director; H. B. Gilleland, manager; W. S. Dunn, general superin-
Mines Limited)     tendent;   A. Ritchie, mill superintendent.    Capital:    3,500,000
shares, 50 cents par value.    The property is on Glen Mountain,
SV2 miles north of Hazelton, the mill and camp being located on the northwest side of
the mountain at an elevation of 1,300 feet.   In 1955 the mine was in operation 279 days
and 9,561 man-shifts were worked underground.   Total ore production was 14,504 tons.
The mill was in operation for nine months on a 44-hour-week basis.   A total of 10,048
tons of ore was treated by selective flotation, the remainder being sorted out as waste.
The indicated mill recovery was 95.5 per cent.   The mill capacity is from 60 to 70 tons
per day.
The ore occurs in shoots in a series of parallel quartz veins. The veins range in
width from a fraction of a foot to 12 feet. Most of them strike northeast and dip from
40 to 80 degrees southwest. Sixteen quartz veins are known on the property, named
respectively the Discovery vein, Nos. 00, 0, and 1 to 12 veins; in addition, an unnamed
blind vein was recently discovered. The distance between No. 00 vein and No. 12 vein
is about 1 mile. The country rock consists mainly of tuffaceous sandstones of the
Hazelton group. A small granitic intrusion cuts the Hazelton group about 900 feet south
of the mine portals and lies just to the south of most of the major oreshoots. On the east
side of the property a post-vein fault which dips 40 degrees to the west divides the property into an east and a west block. This fault extends for a known distance of 2,000 feet
and has an indicated normal dip slip of 250 feet.
The mine has been developed by two crosscut adits driven southeastward on the
1500 and 1300 levels, cutting Nos. 4 to 11 veins and Nos. 1 to 8 veins respectively, and
by a 510-foot vertical three-compartment shaft from the 1300 level with crosscuts on the
1150, 1000, and 850 levels. Nos. 1, 4, and 6 veins have been worked from these lower
levels.   The method of mining is mainly shrinkage st oping.
* By A. R. C. James, except as noted. LODE METALS 23
The following is a summary of work performed underground:—
Work Done
Advance
Ore Broken
Drifting—
1900 level    	
Ft.
217
406
1,263
384
40
Tons
1700 level.  	
1500 level  	
1300 level   	
1200 level ~     .	
Total	
.2,310
Raising—■
85
149
407
313
307
187
1900 level.  ' 	
1700 level    .                       	
1500 level                      	
1200 level  	
850 level	
Total	
1,448
Subdrifting-^
85
108
365
41
1800 level  	
1100 level....   ...    .   .       . 	
1000 level             .   _     -..
Total.. .                      	
599
Crosscutting—
1500 level ~  '■ .  ....    .
469
1,384
1300 level..  	
Total         •	
1,853
Stbping—
248
No. 1 vein        	
1,488
2,913
73
No. 5 vein        .  .	
2,428
1,530
860
794
2,870
1,286
Total.. --  :.....       :.	
14,490
A considerable amount of exploration and development was done during the year
in an effort to find additional ore reserves.
The ore found in 1954 in the Discovery vein was developed by raises and subdrifts,
but was found to extend only a few feet below the surface.
The raise on No. 1 vein from the 850 level was completed to the 1200 level, and 365
feet of subdrifting was driven on the 1100 level. Although the vein is strong and fairly
well mineralized, no new oreshoots were found.
The 1300 crosscut was driven 1,384 feet and was still being driven at the end of
1955 toward the blind vein found on the 1500 level. In this distance the crosscut passed
through No. 8 vein above the fault and through the fault itself, so that it is now in the
east block. A length of 80 feet of ore was opened up on the 1300 level, where No. 9
footwall vein and No. 8 vein intersect.
The 1500 crosscut was continued to No. 1*1 vein, and the vein was opened up for
about 400 feet. Only one short oreshoot was found in this distance, and drilling indicated
that this shoot does not persist below the 1500 level. The 45-degree raise started in 1954
from the 1500 level to intersect No. 11 vein at 1,750 feet elevation was completed, and
a drift 406 feet long was driven on the 1750 level. A raise was then driven from this
drift to the 1900 adit level. The only ore encountered was immediately below the 1900
level. A high-grade oreshoot 60 feet long was opened up in the footwall of No. 11 vein
at the 1900 level and mined out above the level.
Two drill-holes, which were drilled to intersect No. 9 vein at 1,500 feet elevation,
encountered high-grade ore in a blind vein south of Nos. 9 and 11 veins.   A crosscut was 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
driven south from the 1500 level to intersect this vein, and by the end of 1955 the new
vein had been opened up to a length of 100 feet showing sections of good mineralization
but narrow widths.
Approximately 10,000 feet of surface stripping was done with bulldozers. Half of
this was in a single trench the same distance south of the intrusions as the major oreshoots
are north.   Nothing of importance was found.
A geophysical (resistivity) survey was carried out by A. R. Clark over an area of
approximately 470 acres. This survey was extended in all directions beyond the mine
workings and beyond any previous surface stripping. A large number of anomalies was
found which were systematically investigated. They were found to include minor veins,
known veins, shears containing pyrite, and beds of argillite. No new orebodies were
found.
Twenty-four diamond-drill holes were drilled from the suface, totalling 6,588 feet.
Forty-one holes were drilled underground, totalling 8,061 feet. This drilling yielded
useful information, but apart from the two holes which produced high-grade intersections,
no new orebodies were indicated.
Three prospecting parties were employed during the summer months. One, based
at Hazelton, examined the following areas: Kisgegas, Kispiox Valley, Kitwanga Lake,
and north of Kitsumkalum Lake. A second party spent the summer in south Cassiar, and
the third prospected the country around Dall and Cry Lakes between Dease Lake and
Kechika River. Examinations were carried out on approximately twenty-four properties.
The following five properties were optioned: Marble Creek, Topley Richfield, Big Four,
Three Hills, and Torger. Work done on these properties is described elsewhere in this
Report.
[Reference:   Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1950, pp. 87-95.]
Copper
(55° 127° S.W.)    This property consists of six claims located first
Three Hills* by Alfred LeToile in 1951 and relocated by LeToile, D. R. Wille-
mar, and E. H. Harbottle in 1955. The claims, Three Hills Nos.
1 to 6, are between South Hazelton and Skeena Crossing on the east side of the highway,
2% miles south of Seeley Lake.
The showings are about 1,000 feet southeast of the highway at about the same
elevation (1,100 feet). The terrain is flat and drift-covered, except for a number of rock
drumlins on which the showings are found. The main showing consists of a small rock
drumlin about 120 feet wide and about two or three times as long that rises some 25 feet
above the adjacent drift-covered area. The drumlin has been largely cleared of moss and
overburden, and a shallow rock trench has been cut across its centre. The trench strikes
north 30 degrees west and is approximately at right angles with the trend of the drumlin.
Other showings occur on adjacent, larger rock drumlins, but they have been less extensively exposed or developed.
The rocks are hornfelsic argillite and feldspar porphyry of the Hazelton group. They
strike north 35 degrees east parallel to the trend of the drumlins and on the southeast dip
40 degrees northwest; elsewhere dip is obscure. The rocks are fractured by many small
joints striking north 75 to 90 degrees east and dipping about 60 degrees north. Some
joints are filled by small stringers of quartz and chalcopyrite. Two chip samples, each
taken over 10 feet in the centre, or better looking part, of the trench assayed as follows:
(1) Gold, trace; silver, 0.3 per cent; copper, 0.06 per cent; and (2) gold, trace; silver,
trace; copper, 0.61 per cent.
During the year the property was under option to Silver Standard Mines Limited,
which drilled one diamond-drill hole to a depth of 268 feet.
* By A. Sutherland Brown. LODE METALS
25
TOPLEY*
Gold-Silver
Topley Richfield
(Silver Standard
Mines Limited)
(54° 126° N.E.) Company office, 602 West Hastings Street, Vancouver. This group of eighteen claims was optioned in 1955. The
property is about 7 miles north of Topley, a small settlement on
the Canadian National Railway between Burns Lake and Smithers.
A considerable amount of development work was done on the Red
Top group (part of the Topley Richfield property) in 1926 and 1927, and work has been
done intermittently since that time.
Two diamond-drill holes were started in 1955, but difficulties in drilling stopped the
first hole at 293 feet and the second at 243 feet.   It is reported that further attempts to
drill this ground will be made with suitable equipment in 1956.
[Reference:   Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1926, pp. 138-143;   1927, pp.
140-147;  1937, pp. C 26-27.]
DECKER LAKE*
Copper
(54° 125° S.W.)    This property, consisting of about thirty-five
Kerr Copper       claims and fractions, is on Gerow Creek, 1 mile south of Decker
Lake.   The property is reached from the village of Decker Lake
by boat across the lake and by trail from the south shore of the lake.   The group was
optioned in 1955 by Trico Explorations Ltd. and Moneta Porcupine Mines, Limited,
from A. B. Goodridge and Cyril Keyes.
Some work consisting of open-cuts and short adits was done on the property many
years ago. In 1955, previous to the option being taken, Goodridge and Keyes diamond-
drilled seven holes totalling 386 feet. This drilling, together with the surface showings,
indicated a zone of sheared and altered volcanics partly mineralized over a length of 120
feet with chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. The zone appears to strike about north
60 degrees west and to dip 40 degrees or less southwestward. The surrounding rocks
are andesitic volcanics of the Hazelton group.
Trico Explorations Ltd. and Moneta Porcupine Mines, Limited, began drilling
additional holes on August 1st and continued until the end of September. Six holes
totalling 1,000 feet were drilled, but these deeper holes did not cut mineralization
comparable to the shallower holes, and the option was dropped. R. H. Seraphim was
in charge of the exploration work with a crew averaging seven men.
WHITESAIL LAKEf
Gold-Silver-Tungsten
(53° 127° S.E.) Head office, 44 King Street West, Toronto.
President, W. H. Bouck; mine manager, W. Tattrie. The property
consists of thirty Crown-granted claims and fractional claims and
eight claims held by record. The Harrison group is north of
Lindquist Lake, 85 miles southwest of Burns Lake.    The claims
are in Tweedsmuir Park and also in the hydro-electric power reserve granted Aluminum
Company of Canada Limited.
Fuel and mining equipment are transported by barge from Kenney Dam to the
western end of Whitesail Lake, a distance of approximately 140 miles, thence by 5.7 miles
of tractor-road to the mine camp at an elevation of 4,150 feet.   The camp consists of
cook-house, bunk-house, dry, engineering and assay offices.
* By A. R. C. James.
t By A. R. C. James, except as noted.
t By W. R. Bacon.
4
Harrison (Deer
Horn Mines
Limited)! 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES.  1955
In 1943 scheelite showings were discovered on the north slope of Lindquist Lake
by the Harrison brothers, of Wistaria, and in 1944 Franc Joubin discovered gold-bearing
quartz veins in the same vicinity. Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C. Limited optioned the
property in 1944. This company explored the showings by extensive trenching and
13,093 feet of diamond drilling before dropping its option in the fall of 1946.
Deer Horn Mines Limited was incorporated in 1950 and bought the Harrison group
outright. Road-building was commenced in the summer of 1953, the camp was erected
in 1954, and an intensive exploration programme was initiated. An adit is being driven
at an elevation of 4,260 feet.
The property was examined by the writer in June, 1955.
The Deer Horn showings are on the eastern border of the Coast Mountains.
Granitic rocks underlie the southern part of the property. The predominant type is a
pinkish-weathering granite which is characterized by abundant quartz and random
phenocrysts of potash feldspar as much as 2 inches in length. In the vicinity of the
showings the rock is a grey medium-grained quartz diorite.
The granitic rock intrudes the Hazelton group, which is locally represented by slates,
sandy and silty greywackes, argillite, and tuff. Close to the contact the slates have been
converted to andalusite schists.
The layered rocks strike east-west and dip 50 to 75 degrees southward, approximately parallel to the northern margin of the quartz diorite. The contact zone is marked
by intense shearing and alteration. Silicification occurs in varying degree, mainly in the
layered rocks, across widths as great as 400 feet.
Exploration to date has been concentrated on:—
(1) Gold-silver-bearing quartz veins in the quartz diorite. Because exploration has shown that these veins are probably faulted segments or branches
of a single vein structure, they are referred to collectively as the Main Vein.
(2) Gold-silver-bearing quartz stringers and veins in the silicified contact zone.
The mineralogy of the Main Vein is similar to that of certain veins and stringers in
the silicified contact zone. The quartz is generally milky white in colour and as a rule
comprises at least 85 per cent of the vein material. The metallic minerals include pyrite,
pyrrhotite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, magnetite, scheelite, and tellurides. The tellu-
rides have been identified as tetradymite, hessite, tellurbismuth, and altaite by Taplin,*
who found fine grains of gold within tetradymite and galena, and narrow veinlets of gold in
hessite. Taplin also noted minute amounts of cosalite and arsenopyrite and tentatively
identified argentite in polished sections of vein material.
There are numerous westward-striking, southward-dipping quartz stringers and veins
in the silicified contact zone. Some are gold-bearing. Underground the east-west drift is
entirely within the silicified contact zone; it follows a persistent vein which dips southward
at 50 to 70 degrees and is generally within 50 feet of the northern margin of the silicified
contact zone.   In the drift the average width of this vein is about 8 inches.
The apparent length of the Main Vein is 2,600 feet. It has been explored on the
surface for a distance of 1,220 feet. According to information supplied by the company,
the vein for 1,075 feet of this length averaged 0.255 ounce of gold and 6.34 ounces of
silver per ton across an average width of 9.5 feet. At the surface the Main Vein dips 30
to 50 degrees northward, but diamond drilling appears to indicate that the dip flattens
rapidly with depth and that the Main Vein terminates in a series of horsetails against the
narrow vein in the east-west drift. If so, the slope depth of the Main Vein appears to be
rather limited, ranging from 130 to 250 feet in the interval explored.
No attempt has been made to develop the scheelite showings that first attracted
attention to the property. Scheelite is present in slide rock shown at the western border
of Figure 1.    The mineral is apparently derived from otherwise barren quartz veins and
* Taplin, A. C.:   A Report on the Mineralogy of the Harrison Group, Lindquist Lake, B.C.   Unpublished report,
Department of Geology, University of British Columbia, 1950. LODE METALS
27
stringers in rocks of the Hazelton group. The company reports that it intends to investigate the surface showings by continuing the west drift into the area beneath them.
Work was suspended in November, 1955, and according to information supplied by
the company the following development work had been done in 1954 and 1955: 1,822
feet of drifting, 113 feet of raising, 3,705 feet of underground diamond drilling, and 2,997
feet of surface diamond drilling.
LEGEND
Greywacke, slate, argillite, tuff
|+   +  +| Granite, quartz diorite
^M Silicified  zone
500 0 500
I'Scheelite' slide
— —•• Main vein
— Tractor road
Sea I <
1000
_   Feet
Figure 1. Deer Horn Mines Limited—principal showings.
Silver-Lead
(53° 127° S.E.)    This group of eight claims is held by a private
Chikamin company, the principal shareholders of which are F. R. Joubin, of
Toronto, and C. V. Harrison, of Burns Lake. The property is on
the northeast side of Chikamin Mountain, south of Whitesail Lake, and may be reached
by air from Burns Lake or by boat from Wistaria on Ootsa Lake. A crew of four men
was employed under C. V. Harrison from August 1st to September 27th on preliminary
work to open up the property. The following was accomplished: 3 miles of trail was
brushed out and repaired and the landing was cleared so that pack-horses and equipment
could be put ashore, an old cabin was repaired, and food was stored for the winter so that 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
an early start can be made in 1956.   A total of eighteen open-cuts was made to bedrock,
and eleven of them were sampled.
FRASER LAKE*
Uranium
(53° 124° N.W.)    The Abe group of four claims located by Joe
Abe, Babs, Ike,     Pataji in March, 1952, and the Babs, Pat, Ike, and Zeke groups,
Pat, Zeke totalling twenty-two claims, located in June and July, 1955, by
C. S. Powney, E. A. Floyd, and partners, of Fort St. James, cover
a uranium-bearing deposit about 6 miles south of Fraser Lake.   The claims are at an
elevation of 3,500 feet on the northern slope of Nithi Mountain.   They are reached by
about 9 miles of road from Fraser Lake P.O.   In December, 1955, the claims were under
option to American Standard Mines Limited.
The claims, as well as the area around Nithi Mountain, are underlain by a rather
coarse pink granite which is part of a fairly extensive outcrop of the Topley intrusion.
In the vicinity of the uranium showings the granite is intruded by a miarolitic rhyolite
porphyry dyke that has a length of at least 600 feet and a width of at least 100 feet.
The dyke has a general northerly strike, and its western contact against granite is sharp
and well defined. The dyke is dark grey and has smoky quartz phenocrysts. In many
instances, alteration of the rock to a paler brown-grey can be seen extending outward
from fractures and hair-line cracks along which there are trains of tiny pyrite grains.
In addition, there are some small crystals of pyrite widely disseminated through the rock.
The rhyolite porphyry is miarolitic, and the cavities, seldom more than one-quarter inch
wide and 1 inch long, are lined with minute quartz crystals.
The dyke is broken by sets of closely spaced steep joints striking north 80 degrees
west, about at right angles to the trend of the dyke and cut by a few narrow vuggy quartz
veinlets.
The uranium mineralization is confined to the dyke and consists very largely of the
secondary hydrous aluminum uranium phosphate, sabugalite (HA1(U02)4 .16H20).f
The sabugalite appears as small, pale lemon-yellow tabular crystals or as incrustations
on joint and fracture surfaces or within miarolitic cavities and vugs. Its field determination is facilitated by its brilliant greenish-yellow fluorescence under ultra-violet light.
A small amount of bright-green metatorbernite is also present.
Uranium mineralization is present in four short, shallow trenches spaced for about
225 feet along the western edge of the rhyolite dyke. The longest trench is about 30 feet
in length, and in it sabugalite extends for a length of 25 feet. A fifth trench 300 feet
to the north of the group of four, also on the western margin of the rhyolite dyke, shows
only a very small amount of sabugalite and was put in earlier to investigate an occurrence of molybdenite. The visible distribution of sabugalite suggests that it is associated
with the westerly striking cross-fractures in areas where the alteration of the rhyolite
porphyry is most intense.
A sample of dyke well mineralized with sabugalite assayed: Uranium oxide, 0.16
per cent.
Small areas within the rhyolite porphyry contain a peppering of a minute black
radioactive mineral which as yet has not been identified.
* By S. S. Holland.
f Determination by Professor R. M. Thompson, University of British Columbia. LODE METALS
29
OMINECA*
Babine Lake (54° 126° N.E.)
Copper
This island, also known as Copper Island, is in the northern sec-
McDonald Island tion of Babine Lake at the mouth of Hagan Arm. Low-grade
copper mineralization was discovered here in the early years of
the century, and prospecting and exploration have been carried on intermittently since
then, especially in 1929 when The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, took an option on the property and did some diamond drilling. Mineralization is reported to consist of chalcopyrite and bornite disseminated and in fractures
in volcanic rocks.
In 1955 The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power Company Limited
examined the showings on the island. A small crew supervised by K. C. Farhni drilled
eight diamond-drill holes totalling 2,213 feet. Further work on the property is planned
for 1956.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1913, pp. 113-114; 1927, pp.
149-150;   1929, pp. 180-181;   1940, p. 78;   1946, p. 89.]
Granite Creek (55° 124° N.E.)
Niobium
The Lonnie group of eight claims, located by C. S. Powney, E. A.
Lonniet Floyd, and partners, of Fort St. James, in  1954, is owned by
Northwestern Explorations, Limited. The claims are on the southeast side of Granite Creek, a tributary of Manson River, and are about 1 Vi miles from
the Fort St. James-Manson Creek road.
In 1955 a small crew under the supervision of K. C. Campbell built a jeep-road
up the hill to the showings and explored the mineralized zone by a series of bulldozed
trenches and by hydraulic stripping. The zone is now exposed in fifteen trenches extending from Granite Creek for about 1,200 feet to the southeast and rising to a height of
about 450 feet above creek-level. Generally each trench from southwest to northeast
exposes hornblende gneiss, marble, and syenite. The mineralization of present interest
consists of niobium and uranium-bearing minerals, ilmenorutile, columbite, and uranian
pyrochlore in a marble zone of uncommon mineralogy.
The claims are underlain for the most part by schists and gneisses of the Wolverine
complex. Immediately to the south of the marble zone is a hornblende gneiss in which
the amphibole is the soda variety, crossite (near riebekite), and the pyroxene is the
soda variety near acmite. Most of the trenches terminate in this sodic hornblende gneiss,
which is assumed to be the footwall of the marble zone. Throughout the 1,200-foot
exposed length, the strike of the rocks is about north 60 degrees west and the dip steep
to the south.
On the north side of this gneiss and conformable with it is a band of coarsely crystalline white marble containing individual crystals and crystal aggregates of the soda
amphibole, crossite, and the soda pyroxene, acmite. In addition, the marble contains
microcline, some of which is a pale honey-yellow in colour, small rounded grains of white
apatite, and chocolate-brown octahedral crystals of uranian pyrochlore. The marble
varies in width from a few feet to a few tens of feet. Marble layers a few inches thick
interlaminated with the hornblende gneiss indicate that the marble probably was bedded
limestone.
In several of the trenches, layering within the marble is involved in small dragfolds
plunging from 15 to 40 degrees southeast.   The few dragfolds seen indicate there is some
* By A. R. C. James, except as noted.
t By S. S. Holland.
4 30
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
folding within the rocks, and this could account for the different widths of marble in
adjacent trenches.    The amphibole and pyroxene in the marble show no lineation.
Adjoining the marble on the north side is a syenite having three distinct phases;
the relation of the three is not apparent. The syenite directly in contact with the marble
is of medium grain and white, being devoid of amphibole and pyroxene. Under the
microscope the white syenite is seen to be composed essentially of microcline, orthoclase,
and some oligoclase, and may contain as much as about 25 per cent calcite. It contains
as much as 10 per cent zircon and is peppered with finely disseminated ilmenorutile.
An unusual syenite exposed only in one trench is a rather coarse-grained grey rock containing orthoclase, yellow microcline, biotite and acmite, and at least 10 per cent
cinnamon-coloured zircon. The syenite invariably exposed on the northern side of the
zone is grey and consists of orthoclase, microcline, oligoclase, biotite, some calcite, and
a very small amount of pyrite.
Some trenches expose a streaky blue-grey marble on the north side of the syenite.
Rocks farther north are Wolverine gneisses.
Niobium is present in the minerals ilmenorutile and columbite, which seem to be
very largely confined to the white syenite, or in pyrochlore which was observed only in
the marble. The highest assay of 0.79 per cent niobium pentoxide was from a selected
sample of white syenite.   The niobium content of the marble is low.
The combined width of marble and syenite ranges from 25 feet to a maximum of
almost 100 feet.
A very large number of samples was taken for assay by the company when the
surface stripping of the zone had been completed in the autumn of 1955.
NAZKO*  (53° 123° S.W.)
Manganese
An occurrence of black manganese oxide a little more than a mile north of Nazko
was examined in July, 1940, by John S. Stevenson. The essential data from Stevenson's
notes are recorded in the following paragraphs.
Black oxide had been exposed in six pits in an area of 1.3 acres within Lot 2144.
The area is presumed to lie within the Rainbow mineral claim recorded June 22nd, 1953,
and held by W. M. Libengood, of Wieside, Nebraska. The manganese oxide lies below
2 inches to 3 feet of soil that is dark with admixed black oxide, and is underlain by soil,
sand, or gravel, some of which is stained with limonite. In one pit, tufa 6 inches thick
immediately overlies the manganese oxide.
The area tested is near Redwater Creek, at the foot of a bench that stands some 70
feet above the area in which the test-pits were sunk. Argillaceous cherts underlie the
bench.
Assays of samples taken by Stevenson indicated the manganese content of the layer
of powdery black oxide and of the soil that contains a substantial amount of black oxide.
The assays are tabulated below.
Pit No.
Depth
Thickness
Manganese
Iron
Remarks
1 ...   	
1
In.
0-16
20-24
6-26
26-34
26-32
0- 8
8-17
6-42
0-10
16-42
In.
16
4
20
8
6
8
4-9
36
10
26
Per Cent
20.3
38.2
53.1
40.0
16.8
18.0
16.0
11.6
33.9
19.1
Per Cent
6.5
2.9
0.3
0.3
17.7
16.1
23.3
29.0
9.4
4.1
Brown to black soil.
Black powdery oxide.
2    	
2 	
Contains some grey sand.
3 	
4  ___.  ...
4.   .   .                	
5                  	
6  ......  -	
6    	
Overlain by tufa 6 in. thick.
* From field notes of John S. Stevenson. LODE METALS 31
CARIBOO*
Weixs-Barkerville (53° 121° S.W.)
Gold
Company office,  1007 Royal Bank Building, Vancouver;   mine
The Cariboo Gold   office, Wells.   W. B. Burnett, president; A. Shaak, general man-
Quartz Mining     ager; M. Guiguet, general superintendent; J. Stone, mill superin-
Company Limited   tendent.   Capital:   2,000,000 shares, $1 par value.   The Cariboo
Gold Quartz and Aurum mines presently being operated by this
company are adjacent to the town of Wells, which is 51 miles by road from Quesnel on
the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
Underground development at the two mines comprised 3,020 feet of drifting, 2,877
feet of crosscutting, 1,770 feet of raising, and 13,173 feet of diamond drilling.
The diamond drilling was done to outline the bottom of Jack of Clubs Lake directly
over 19-172R stope in the Cariboo Gold Quartz mine.
Most of the production was obtained from the No. 1, Tailings, and Rainbow zones
of the Cariboo Gold Quartz mine and from the 1000-IE block of the Aurum mine.
The average number of men employed was 228, of which 169 were employed underground.   Production:  Ore milled, 108,652 tons.
QUESNEL*
Yanks Peak (52° 121° N.E.)
Gold
F. H. M. Codville, of Duncan, and two partners, W. F. Edwards
Jim and G. Burgleman, did 180 feet of crosscutting on the Jim group
near Yanks Peak, about 11 miles by road from Keithley Creek P.O.
The Main vein was intersected and two new veins, the A and B, were discovered by this
crosscutting. Two bridges on the Keithley Creek road, damaged by spring flooding, were
repaired.
[Reference: B.C. Dept. of Mines, Bull. 34, 1954, pp. 65-68.]
CLINTON*
Gold
(51°  122° S.E.)    Company office, Chilliwack.    G. H. Clarke,
Empire Valley      president; J. C. Cooper, manager.   This company holds by record
Gold Mines Ltd.    twelve mineral claims and six placer leases on Porcupine (Black
Dome) Mountain near the headwaters of the north fork of Lone
Cabin Creek.   Access to these properties is by 29 miles of road from the Churn Creek
bridge, which spans the Fraser River about 1 mile north of the mouth of Churn Creek.
Between April 15th and October 28th a total of 200 feet of drifting was done—150
feet on the Giant vein and 50 feet on the Red Bird vein. The adits on these veins are at
about 5,800 and 6,500 feet elevation respectively.   Stripping was done on the Black Shear
and Honey veins.   In addition, a short aircraft landing-strip was constructed at 6,500
feet elevation.   Four men were employed.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1954, pp. 98-100.]
* By J. W. Patterson. 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
LILLOOET*
Bridge River
Gold
(50°   122° N.W.)    Company office, 555 Burrard Street, Van-
Bralorne Mines     couver; mine office, Bralorne.    A. C. Taylor, president;  M. M.
Limited O'Brien, vice-president and managing director;  D. N. Matheson,
general manager;  C. M. Manning, general superintendent;  C. D.
Musser, mill superintendent.   Capital:   1,250,000 shares, no par value.   The Bralorne
mine is on Cadwallader Creek, a tributary of Bridge River, and is 75 miles by road from
Lillooet on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
Development comprised 7,825 feet of drifting, 2,865 feet of crosscutting, 1,463 feet
of raising, 5,852 feet of diamond drilling, and 259 feet of shaft-sinking.
The development was directed primarily toward the exploration of the 77 and 79
veins from the Queen shaft below the 2600 level. Some drifting was done below the
workings of the King mine on the 77 vein at the 2000 and 2600 levels, and on the 79
vein at the 2500 level.
Diamond drilling was done to test known veins on horizons not otherwise developed
and to test the walls of productive veins for possible parallel structures.
Sinking in the Queen shaft continued on a single-shift basis, lateral development
being done on the other two shifts. The Queen shaft is now 3 feet below the 3300 level.
Loading-pockets were excavated below the 3100 and 3200 levels and a sinking-hoistroom
completed on the 3200 level. Below the 3200 level an additional 3- by 5-foot compartment was added to the south end of the shaft to allow the original manway to be used for
sinking purposes. Excavation of a hoistroom and a rope raise was started on the 2600
level. A new 58- by 72-inch double-drum electric hoist will be installed in this hoistroom
to service the Queen shaft.
The average number of men employed was 396, of which 288 were employed
underground.
Production: Ore mined, 153,555 tons; waste mined, 35,621 tons; ore milled,
166,831 tons.
Through the co-operation of the Bridge River mining companies and the Department
of Highways, a road was constructed along Bridge River between the Moha and Bridge
River roads, thus providing direct access to Lillooet.
(50° 122° N.W.) Company office, 711 Yorkshire Building, 525
Pioneer Gold Mines Seymour Street, Vancouver; mine office, Pioneer Mine. Victor
of B.C. Limited Spencer, president; H. T. James, managing director; W. B. Montgomery, mine manager; J. C. Moore, mine superintendent; T.
Bevister, mill superintendent. Capital: 2,500,000 shares, $1 par value. The Pioneer
mine is on Cadwallader Creek, a tributary of Bridge River, and is about 78 miles by road
from Lillooet on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The property adjoins that of Bralorne
on the east.
Development comprised 3,103 feet of drifting, 1,909 feet of crosscutting, 1,036 feet
of raising, and 8,228 feet of diamond drilling.
This development was concentrated mainly on the 27 vein on the 2700, 2800, and
2900 levels, on which 2,431 feet of drifting and 1,009 feet of raising were done. The 92
vein, discovered in 1954 on the 2000 level, was followed for an additional 421 feet on
this level. Also on the 2000 level, 943 feet of crosscut was driven. The diamond drilling
was directed primarily to ascertain the width of the 27 vein on the lower levels and to
test the walls of the 92 vein on the 2000 level.
A permanent sump was excavated just below the 2900 level and is now being used.
A station was cut on the 2500 level at No. 2 shaft and was connected by a crosscut to the
* By J. W. Patterson. LODE METALS
33
main haulageway at No. 3 shaft. This station and crosscut are used to transfer equipment
from the No. 2 shaft via the main haulageway to No. 5 shaft.
Installation of 1,500 feet of 19-inch galvanized pipe and an 8,000-cubic-feet-per-
minute fan followed by a 20-inch Ventube improved the ventilation in the 2000 level
East drive.
Due to excessive wear of steel pipes by sandfill, 2,500 feet of steel pipe in No. 3 shaft
was replaced by 3-inch rubber-lined pipe.
The average number of men employed was 256, of which 145 were employed
underground.
Production: Ore mined, 97,814 tons; waste mined, 17,705 tons; ore milled (after
sorting), 89,063 tons.
Under the direction of B. C. Murray, the safety programme, started in 1954, was
continued with some modifications and additions. The accident-frequency rate was reduced by 33 per cent from that of the previous year, representing a possible saving in
direct costs of about $20,000. A total of forty-six persons were trained in first aid and
twenty-one supervisors in job safety and job instruction.
Tungsten-Copper
(50° 122° N.W.)   The Chalco is owned by Mrs. D. C. Noel of
Chalco Bralorne and Vancouver.    The thirteen claims in this group are
adjacent to Piebiter Creek, about 7 miles southeast of the Pioneer
mine.   The camp is 1 mile from the Cadwallader Creek road.
Between June 10th and October 8th Mrs. Noel and one employee prospected and
stripped several ore occurrences and constructed trails to these occurrences. Three-
quarters of a mile of tractor-road was constructed by contract from the Cadwallader
Creek road up Piebiter Creek.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1948, pp. 97-102; 1954, pp.
102-103.]
TYAUGHTON CREEK*
Mercury
(51° 122° S.W.)   W. Sevrens, of Vancouver, holds by record the
Silver Quick       Silver Quick group of four mineral claims, located on an unnamed
creek flowing north into Tyaughton Creek about 18 miles by road
from the Bridge River road.   The claims are reached by about 4 miles of trail from the
Tyaughton Creek road.
One flask of mercury was produced with the use of a small retort. The rock was
crushed manually to approximately 2 inches in diameter and then roasted for six hours.
The mercury was purchased by Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C. Limited for gold amalgamation purposes.   The retort was transported to the property by pack-horse.
LYTTONf
Uranium
(50° 121° S.W.) In August, 1955, the Orlean group of mineral
Orlean claims was located by Francois Paquet to cover the occurrences of
uranium-bearing material exposed in a rock cut on the roadside
7.3 miles from Lytton on the Lytton-Lillooet road. Subsequently a total of fifty-five
claims was located, but the only known uranium mineralization is in the road cut. In a
shear striking north 50 degrees west and dipping 50 degrees northeast, V/i feet of black
slate lies between walls of massive reddish sandstone. The slate is exposed for a length
of about 6 feet. It has films of malachite and azurite along the fracture surfaces, and with
the Geiger counter a maximum count of three times background may be obtained.   No
* By J. W. Patterson.
t By S. S. Holland. 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
uranium minerals are to be seen, and a sample of selected material showing copper staining assayed:   Uranium oxide equivalent, 0.0045 per cent.
(50° 121° S.W.)   The Rosyd group of claims was located in April,
Rosyd 1955, by S. Baker, of Lytton, to cover an occurrence of uranium-
bearing material found on the east bank of the Thompson River
about 1 mile north of Lytton. The claims are on both sides of the Thompson River, and
subsequently a large number of additional claims were located to the northwest and southeast to cover presumed extensions in those directions.
The showing is just above high-water level on the east bank of the Thompson River
in a band of sheared and altered limestone about 150 feet wide that lies within grey biotite
granite. The zone of shearing lies within the limestone band and strikes north 50 degrees
west and dips 75 degrees southwest. A maximum count is obtained about 35 feet from
the south side of the zone, and at that point Rose Mining Corporation Ltd., of Vancouver, drove an adit 40 feet to the southeast to provide access for diamond drilling. The
limestone in the vicinity of the adit is intersected by narrow ankeritic carbonate stringers
and contains small reddish-brown areas of hematite, but no uranium minerals were seen.
The highest of three samples, selected on the basis of their representing the highest count
obtained with a Geiger counter, assayed: Uranium oxide, 0.062 per cent; thorium oxide,
0.001 per cent.
HIGHLAND VALLEY*
Copper
(50° 120° S.W.)   Bethlehem Copper Corporation Ltd. holds about
Bethlehem 100 claims on the southeast side of Forge Mountain and on the
Coppert north side of Witches Brook, about 30 miles by road south-east
of Ashcroft.    The claims cover copper showings on the former
Snowstorm, Iona, Jersey, and Guernsey mineral claims, once part of the Snowstorm
group.
The copper showings were discovered prior to 1900 and were first explored between
1907 and 1915. In 1919 eight diamond-drill holes totalling 5,452 feet were drilled by
the British Columbia Department of Mines to explore the Snowstorm vein, and from
1919 to 1921 a large number of surface pits were dug on the Iona claim and a 280-foot
adit was driven to explore a large area of disseminated copper mineralization.
In 1942 the property was under option to Ventures Limited, which drilled four holes
totalling 2,359 feet beneath the Iona showing and one 419-foot hole beneath the Moly
shaft on the Jersey claim.
In 1952 a small amount of bulldozer trenching was done on the Iona and Jersey
claims by Newmont Corporation.
The claims lapsed and the ground was relocated in November and December, 1954,
by H. H. Huestis and associates, who formed the Bethlehem Copper Corporation. This
company did a very large amount of surface stripping by bulldozer in 1955 in order to
obtain exposures for bulk sampling.
In midsummer of 1955 the Bethlehem company entered into an agreement with
American Smelting and Refining Company, and since October 1st, 1955, all exploration
has been under that company's direction.
Several new showings were found and opened up during 1955, and now showings
are known at various elevations from the valley bottom at 4,000 feet to the ridge top at
5,300 feet. So far, however, the Iona and Jersey showings have received most attention.
They are between 4,900 and 5,300 feet elevation on Forge Mountain ridge.
Exploratory work was begun in June, 1955, by Bethlehem Copper Corporation.
Two D-8 bulldozers with 13-foot blades were used to construct access roads and to trench
* By E. R. Hughes, except as noted.
t By S. S. Holland. LODE METALS
IHHir       WBSSBBSSSM
35
■Hi
Highland Valley region, looking up Witches Brook on the left to Quiltanton Lake to right of
centre. Pukaist Creek valley near right margin. lunction of Thompson and Nicola Rivers in
centre distance.
jpfl&wr
Highland Valley region, looking north past Pimainus Lake to Quiltanton Lake.    Forge Mountain
on centre line of photo.    Kamloops at upper right distance. 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
the showings. The work accomplished comprised 6,900 lineal feet of trenching, involving
the removal of 27,460 cubic yards of overburden and 27,060 cubic yards of weathered
rock. The Iona adit was rehabilitated and its sides slashed in order to provide bulk
samples for assay.
A 5- by 6-inch jaw crusher and a triplex Jones type sampler-splitter were set up on
the dump at the Iona adit. Bulk samples from the Iona adit were crushed and reduced in
size, as were samples taken from 20-foot lengths in all bulldozer cuts. In the bulldozed
trenches 1 cubic foot of broken rock was taken from each foot of length.
Technical direction of the work was done by W. H. White, R. M. Thompson, and
K. C. McTaggart, of the University of British Columbia, who in addition made a detailed
geological examination of the property.
The claims are underlain by quartz diorite of the Guichon Creek batholith, which
outcrops in an elliptical area about 40 miles long and 16 miles wide. The quartz diorite,
particularly in the vicinity of the Iona and Jersey showings, is intruded by a complex of
diverse rocks, including several variations of quartz diorite, and several porphyries. In
addition, the Iona adit and the trenches on the Iona showing expose a breccia which has
a length of about 1,200 feet in a northerly direction and is about 800 feet wide. The
breccia is light coloured and composed of rock fragments of the younger complex ranging
in size up to 6 inches across that are set in a fine-grained lithified matrix. This rock is
considerably altered and is the host rock of the mineralization at the Iona showing.
The rocks are crossed by a conspicuous set of joints striking about north 20 degrees
east and vertical or dipping steeply east.   Joints of this set commonly are mineralized.
The one large fault so far known runs through the Jersey zone striking about north
20 degrees east.   The rocks are sheeted and fractured across a width of about 400 feet.
The mineralization consists of chalcopyrite, bornite, specular hematite, and molybdenite, which occur along the northerly joint planes and are finely disseminated through
the rock. Malachite is conspicuous in exposures in the Iona zone and somewhat less so in
the Jersey zone.
The bulldozer trenching undertaken by the Bethlehem company was devoted very
largely to exploration of the Iona and Jersey zones. As a result, the company has made
public the statement that in the Iona zone there is ore indicated to the extent of 113,000
tons per vertical foot containing 0.49 per cent copper, and in the Jersey zone indicated
ore of 53,000 tons per vertical foot containing about 1 per cent copper.
Since October 1st, 1955, all exploration has been done by American Smelting and
Refining Company under the supervision of G. A. Dirom, resident engineer, and C. J.
Coveney, engineer in charge on the property. Open-cutting and trenching by bulldozer
was continued, and diamond drilling from surface was begun. At the end of 1955 the
diamond-drill footage amounted to 1,816 feet.
(50°   121°  N.E.)    Company  office,  Suite  303,  413   Granville
Transvaal Copper   Street, Vancouver.    A. J. McClellan, president.    This company
(Jackson Basin     has forty-two claims in the Highland Valley area, including the old
Mining Co. Ltd.)    Transvaal group, which is 5 miles northwest of the Snowstorm
group and 28 miles by road southeast from Ashcroft.    The old
Transvaal shaft was rehabilitated and some work was done in cleaning up the 100- and
200-foot levels.   A camp was erected and a diamond-drilling programme was started.
On October 20th five men were employed underground and seventeen on the surface.
A reorganization in December resulted in the name of the company being changed to
Jackson Mines Limited.
(50°   121°  N.E.)    Company  office,  Suite  303,  413  Granville
Trojan Street, Vancouver.    A. J. McLellan, president.    This company
(Trojan Explora-    acquired a group of claims between the Transvaal and Lodge
tion Limited)       groups, about 2 miles from the Jackson Basin camp.    Some surface stripping and trenching was done during the fall and winter LODE METALS
37
Beaverlodge
Uranium Mines
Limited and
Farwest Tungsten
Copper Mines
Limited
months.    In December control of the company and its Highland Valley property was
acquired by Chimo Gold Mines Limited.
(50°   121°  N.E.)    Company  office,  Suite  303,  413  Granville
Anuwon Uranium   Street, Vancouver.    A. J. McLellan, president.    J. S. Ives, resi-
Mines Limited      dent engineer.    This company has ten claims held by record in
the Highland Valley area adjoining the Jackson Basin property,
as well as the Black Diamond group of nineteen claims 3 miles west of Merritt.    The
latter group is held under option from W. T. Curnow.    Work at these two properties
was started in December and was still in progress at the end of the year.    At the Highland Valley property a bulldozer was used to do approximately 900 feet of surface trenching.   On the Black Diamond group the old workings were reopened and examined, and
a total of 1,066 feet of diamond drilling was done.   In addition to the diamond drillers,
two surface workers were employed.
(50° 120° N.W. and 121° N.E.) Company office, Suite 206,
1178 West Pender Street, Vancouver. James Mackee, chairman
of the board; Donald F. Farris, president; John S. Davidson,
vice-president; J. D. Thomas, secretary; these officers represent
both companies. James Soles, field manager, Ashcroft. Farwest
Tungsten Copper Mines Limited was incorporated in August, 1955,
and acquired the assets and liabilities of Western Tungsten Copper
Mines Limited. Beaverlodge Uranium Mines Limited and Farwest
Tungsten Copper Mines Limited held 187 mineral claims in this area under joint ownership. Thirty-four of the claims, known as the Lodge group, adjoin the north boundary
of the Bethlehem property and have been since sold to the North Lodge Copper Company Limited. The remainder of the claims are generally centralized in the Highland
Valley area, but some extend easterly and westerly therefrom.
Development work was concentrated on the Krain Copper claim, which was jointly
optioned by the two companies. The Krain camp-site is north of the Jackson Basin
camp, and a jeep and truck road 1 mile long was built to connect the two camps. A cookhouse, bunk-house, and office were built. Diamond drilling totalled 700 feet. Initial
work was undertaken on May 27th and operations continued at the end of 1955.
(50°   121°   S.E.)    Company  office,   411,   850  West  Hastings
Victor (Skeena      Street, Vancouver  1.    S.  S. Parker, president;   C.  Rutherford,
Silver Mines Ltd.)   director and consulting engineer.   This company has under option
twenty claims held by record, 2J/i miles southeast of Quiltanton
(Divide) Lake on the old forestry trail to Gnawed Mountain in the southeast part of
Highland Valley.   This property is a relocation of ground formerly covered by the Victor
group.   Old work on this property includes a crosscut adit 110 feet long, a winze sunk
30 feet on an incline of about 30 degrees at the face of the adit, and a shaft 20 feet deep.
New work included the building of 2Vi miles of road, bulldozing out the mouth of the
old portal, scaling and cleaning out the old adit, and unwatering the winze.   Other work
included 300 lineal feet of bulldozer trenching to a maximum depth of 12 feet.    Work
on the building of a camp was started in mid-December.    Six men were employed from
October 10th.
MEADOW CREEK*
Copper
(50° 120° S.W.) Company office, 1686 West Sixty-ninth Avenue, Vancouver. Thomas Moore, manager. This property of
fifteen claims is in the Meadow Creek area, 35 miles from Kamloops, 45 miles from Merritt, and VA miles south of the Mamit
Lake-Kamloops road.    It includes ground formerly covered in part by the Bertha and
Dunmore Mines
Ltd.
* By E. R. Hughes. 38 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Molly claims. A D-8 bulldozer was used to do surface stripping around the top of an
old caved-in shaft. Work started in the fall and was discontinued for the winter early
in December.   Three men were employed.
[Reference:   Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1930, p. 195.]
KAMLOOPS*
Copper
(50° 120° N.E.)    Head office, 1208 Vancouver Block, Vancou-
Makaoo Develop-   ver; mine office, P.O. Box 273, Kamloops.   President and general
ment Company     manager, W. I. Nelson, Kamloops. This is a new company holding
Limited sixty-eight mineral claims about 6 miles southwest of Kamloops.
Five of the claims are Crown-granted and sixty-three are held by
record. The property is immediately south and east of the Iron Mask, and includes the
Python group, which was among the earliest locations on Coal Hill; some of the claims
were located in 1896. In 1899 the Python produced 30 tons of ore containing 4,800
pounds of copper. There are two old shafts, one of which is reported to be 123 feet deep
and the other 75 feet. The old adit, which was 525 feet long, was extensively caved near
the portal, and in September rehabilitation of it was started by removing the debris from
the portal and retimbering. When this work was completed, the adit was 460 feet long.
New track, and air and water lines were laid to the face.
About 2,000 feet of new road was constructed. Surface work in 1955 was done on
the Python, Python No. 2, Python No. 3, Python No. 4, Python No. 6, Noonday, and
Copperhead claims and included twenty-seven trenches and open-cuts totalling 4,040 feet
in length. At the end of the year geophysical prospecting was in progress as part of the
programme for completing a grid of the entire area of the claims, with readings to be
taken every 50 feet along lines spaced 100 feet apart. Equipment and supplies had
been obtained in readiness for starting underground exploration by drifting and diamond
drilling. A bunk-house, cook-house, and a compressor building were erected. Nine men
were employed during the last four months of the year.
(50° 120° N.E.)    Head office, Suite 2, National Trust Building,
Commercial 10072 Jasper Avenue, Edmonton, Alta.    Mine office, Kamloops.
Minerals Limited   M. J.  Pritchard,  manager.   This company controls ninety-seven
mineral claims in an area 3 miles south of Knutsford on the
Kamloops-Merritt Highway. There are two old adits on the property, each about 50 feet
long, driven on a flat shear. Work was started in September, and a 16- by 20-foot cabin
was built at the mine. Most of the crew live in Kamloops. A diamond-drilling programme was started, and short vertical holes were drilled on a grid at 50-foot centres; the
work was still in progress at the end of the year.   Six men were employed.
BIRCH ISLAND*
Fluorite-Celestite-Uranium
(51° 119° N.W.)   John W. Scott, manager. This company's prop-
Rexspar Uranium   erty is in the Red Ridge area, 2 to 3 miles in a straight line south-
& Metals Mining   easterly from Birch Island on the Canadian National Railway, 81
Co. Limited        miles by rail or 90 miles by road north of Kamloops. The company
holds 109 claims in an area which for many years has been known
to contain celestite, fluorite, silver-lead, manganese, and, more recently, uranium.   A road
7 miles long passes through the camp and connects the workings with the railway at Birch
Island. The camp, consisting chiefly of three bunk-houses, office, and a cook-house, is 6
miles by road from Birch Island, 1 mile north of the Black Diamond zone, and 1 Yi miles
north of the "A" zone.   In addition, in the "A" zone area there are a change-house,
compressor-house, and fuse-house.   A powder magazine is situated on the "A" zone road.
* By E. R. Hughes. LODE METALS
39
The underground work started on the "A" zone in December, 1954, was continued;
the main adit was driven 388 feet north 30 degrees west, drifting was done east and west
on the vein, and a raise was driven to the surface to provide a second exit and ventilation
outlet. Underground work was completed on June 1st. Total development in 1955 consisted of 176 feet of drifting, 530 feet of crosscutting, 405 feet of raising, and 10,486 feet
of diamond drilling. One ton of ore was shipped for test purposes. Sixteen men were
employed during the spring and summer, and nine men during the fall and winter.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1954, pp. 108-111.]
ADAMS PLATEAU*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(51° 119° S.W.)    Head office, 711, 525 Seymour Street, Vancou-
Plateau Metals     ver.   Field office, Celista.   C. Riley, president.  This company has
Limited sixty-five claims on Adams Plateau, 22 miles by road northerly
from Squilax.   Six men were employed from July 1st to November
in prospecting, and surface stripping with a bulldozer.  The men lived in tents.
TULAMEEN RIVER*
Summit Camp (49° 121° S.E.)
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Company office, 104, 435 West Pender Street, Vancouver.   Ralph
Silver Hill J. Pronger, president; Edward L. Borup, vice-president and man-
Mines Ltd. aging director.  This property is in the Summit camp, 21 miles by
road southwest of Tulameen. The property includes the old Dorn-
berg mine (also known as the Mary E or Silver King), as well as the old Jensen mine.
Twenty-four claims are held, of which eight are Crown-granted.
Underground work in 1955 consisted chiefly of the formation of a sublevel between
Nos. 2 and 3 levels in the Dornberg mine. The sublevel was started 150 feet below the
No. 2 level, in the ventilation raise between the Nos. 2 and 3 levels. From the sublevel
station, drifts were driven east and west on the vein. The east drift was driven 40 feet,
and from the face a raise was driven to connect with the No. 2 level. The west drift was
driven 50 feet and a raise was driven 12 feet. Other underground work included rehabilitating and retimbering 800 feet in No. 2 level and 200 feet in No. 3 level. No ore was
mined. Further work was done on preparing the mill for production. Thirty men were
employed from July to late in December, when operations were suspended for the
winter months.
SIMILKAMEEN RIVER*
Gold-Silver-Copper-Zinc
(49° 120° S.W.) The Red Star group of mineral claims on the
Red Star Hope-Princeton Highway, 32 miles south of Princeton, consists
of six claims, of which the Red Star and Anaconda are Crown-
granted. The owner, Roy A. Tower, Sr., entered into an agreement with Woodbury
Mines Limited, and in September, 1955, open-cut work was started in the area adjacent
to No. 1 adit. A Caterpillar D-7 bulldozer was used to do the surface stripping. Four
men were employed.
* By E. R. Hughes. 40
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
COPPER MOUNTAIN*
Copper
Copper Mountain
(The Granby Consolidated Mining
Smelting and
Power Company
Limited)
(49° 120° S.W.) Head office, 1111 West Georgia Street, Vancouver 5. L. T. Postle, president, Vancouver; J. A. C. Ross, general manager, Copper Mountain. D. W. Pringle, mine superintendent. This company operates the Copper Mountain mine at
Copper Mountain, 12 miles south of Princeton. The company's
17,500-kw. steam-electric power plant in Princeton supplies power
to the mine and to the concentrator at Allenby, 3V2 miles south
of Princeton. A branch line of the Kettle Valley Railway from
Princeton serves the power plant, mine, and concentrator.
The main development of the mine is from No. 6 adit level, No. 1 and No. 2 vertical shafts, No. 3 inclined shaft, 4-260 service raise, and an auxiliary raise. No. 1 shaft
is a service shaft that extends from the surface at the mine camp to the No. 6 or main
haulage level. No. 2 is used to service No. 7 and No. 8 levels, and is an internal shaft
with the hoist on No. 5 level. An auxiliary raise connects Nos. 3, 4, 5, and 6 levels with
the surface at a point 350 feet southwest of the collar of No. 1 shaft. This auxiliary
raise is equipped with a manway and skipway and is used chiefly as a means of entrance
into the mine for the electric cables and compressed-air pipes. No. 3 shaft is inclined
at 45 degrees and extends for 1,026 feet from No. 6 level to the surface near the camp
mess-house, and is used as a ventilation airway and auxiliary exit. The 4-260 raise
extends from No. 6 level to the surface at an elevation of 4,130 feet and provides an
aircourse and manway to the east and north ends of the mine workings.
Open-pit operations were further expanded, with seven pits in various stages of
development. The pits are on the north, south, and east sides of the mine workings,
within 1 mile of the company's office. Most of the pits are in orebodies also mined
underground, and some are extensions of former glory-holes. The pits were operated
continuously throughout the year, No. 2 being the largest producer. All trucking and
shovelling in open pits is done by independent contractors. Early in the summer a
fourth shovel was added to the contractors' equipment so that production could be
increased. The new shovel was used almost entirely in mining the No. 2 level waste
dump, which is estimated to contain approximately 1,000,000 tons of low-grade material
which may be milled at a very modest profit at present-day copper prices. Drilling at
the open pits is done from the top of 20-foot benches, and short-period blasting-caps are
used in blasting. A CD-48 Dupont electric blasting-machine, capable of firing 1,000
shots, is used. Additions to open-pit equipment included three Gardner-Denver D-99
wagon drills, one Gardner-Denver Airtrac self-propelled wagon drill, and one IOV2-
cubic-yard Euclid dump truck.
After two years of doing only the minimum amount of exploratory work, underground exploration was resumed under the impetus of higher copper prices. This new
work included driving the 2,000-foot-long No. 4-310 drift on No. 4 level to explore the
area below the No. 2 open pit, and driving the 1,000-foot-long No. 6-300 drift at the
south end of No. 6 level. The 200-foot-long No. 7-10 drift was completed and the
9-4 ore block was rehabilitated. Development was completed in the 1-13 ore block.
Total underground development consisted of 3,287 feet of drifting and 5,240 feet of
raising.
Core drilling amounted to 26,484 feet, of which 2,578 feet was for underground
exploration and 23,906 feet for surface exploration. A total of 18,804 feet of drilling
was done with percussion machines underground to delimit orebodies. The sludge is
assayed, and this type of development drilling has been found to be considerably cheaper
than diamond drilling.   A total of 107,104 feet of blast-hole diamond drilling was done.
; By E. R. Hughes. LODE METALS
41
Percussive blast-hole drilling was done with Canadian Ingersoll-Rand DA-35 drifters,
using threaded rods and 4-wing tungsten carbide detachable bits.
Five new grizzlies and six new chutes were built. Concrete was used to line 51 feet
of drifts and raises. Rock bolting was used in 646 feet of drifts and raises, and 1,201
bolts were used in this work.
The mine is ventilated by mechanical means, with very little change from that
recorded in the past several years, except for the incidental changes of auxiliary fans to
provide newly installed scraper units with fresh air. At the time tests were made in
October, it was found that the average dust concentration in the mine, exclusive of drilling
locations, was 322 particles per cubic centimetre of air. This compares favourably with
the 398 particles per cubic centimetre found in similar tests in 1954. In addition to the
main power plant, one Canadian Ingersoll-Rand 500-cubic-feet-per-minute compressor
and one Jager 210-cubic-feet-per-minute compressor are used in isolated open-pit
locations.
All ore mined at Copper Mountain, both from the surface and underground, is
passed to No. 6 level and taken from the mine in Granby-type cars hauled by electric-
trolley locomotives. After it is crushed in the coarse crushing plant on the surface near
the portal of No. 6 level, the ore is hauled 8 miles by rail to the concentrator at Allenby.
Ore produced during the year totalled 1,966,999 tons, again an all-time yearly production
record. The average tonnage milled was 5,389 tons per calendar day, with an average
copper content of 0.721 per cent. The ore from the open pits was 42.5 per cent of the
total production.
Safety committees make regular tours of inspection of all surface and underground
workings, and the company employs a safety engineer. The competitive bonus system,
now in use for four years, whereby shiftbosses are awarded merits or demerits on their
records of safety and efficiency, has played an important part in the continued lessening
of the accident rate. In 1955 the frequency rating for accidents involving more than six
shifts of lost time was 0.05 per 1,000 man-shifts worked. During 1955, 310 men were
hired and 282 either quit or were laid off. The total number of persons employed at
Copper Mountain at the end of the year was 346, of which 246 were employed underground. In addition, fifty-two men were employed by contractors in the open pits as
truck-drivers, padmen, and shovel operators. The total number of men employed in all
operations at Copper Mountain, Allenby, and Princeton at the end of the year was 563.
An emergency hospital is maintained at the camp, and a trained nurse and industrial
first-aid attendants are available at all times. First-aid classes are held, and in conjunction therewith twenty industrial first-aid certificates were awarded, as well as forty-eight
senior and twenty-seven junior St. John Ambulance Association awards. Aluminium-
dust therapy is available for employees. A doctor visits the Copper Mountain camp
twice a week and is available in emergencies. An ambulance is maintained for transporting sick or injured persons to the Princeton General Hospital, 12 miles from the
mine. A local first-aid competition was held at Allenby in the spring for company
employees and their families, and trained teams competed in the mine-rescue and first-
aid field-day held in Princeton on June 4th. Mine-rescue teams from Copper Mountain
also competed at Cumberland on May 28th and at Fernie on June 18th. The team
captained by Luke Kirby won the Cumberland competition.
HEDLEY*
Gold
Nickel Plate and French (Kelowna Mines Hedley Limited).—(49° 120° S.E.)
Company office, Room 2630, 630 Fifth Avenue, New York 20, N.Y.; British Columbia
office, 821 Hall Building, 789 West Pender Street, Vancouver;   mine office, Hedley.
* By E. R. Hughes. 42 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
George L. Mill, manager; L. D. Smillie, mill superintendent; J. Biggs, mechanical superintendent. This is a private company operating the Nickel Plate mine and the French
mine at Hedley.
Nickel Plate Mine.—C. T. Williams, mine superintendent. P. C. B. Emery, chief
engineer; R. E. C. Richards, mine captain. Full descriptions of the operation have
appeared in previous Annual Reports. Exploratory and development work was discontinued and the remaining broken ore was taken out of the mine. Operations ceased on
September 23rd, 1955. The machinery and equipment were removed from the mine and
all the portals and surface openings were fenced. All the buildings and surface equipment
at the mine were sold. The ore milled from the Nickel Plate mine in 1955 amounted to
90,572 tons, which yielded 36,303 ounces of gold. The average grade of the ore during
the period 1934 to 1955 was 0.39354 ounce of gold per ton, and 1,566,956 tons of ore
was produced.
The Nickel Plate is one of the oldest mines in the Province. The mine had operated
from 1904 to 1930 and, after a period of shut-down, from 1935 to 1955. In the first
period the Yale Mining Company and Daly Reduction Company operated for six years
and Hedley Gold Mining Company for twenty-one. In the second period the mine was
revived by the Kelowna Exploration Company Limited, whose name was changed to that
of the present company in 1951.
The Nickel Plate Mountain ore zone was largely mined through the Nickel Plate
workings, but Hedley Mascot Gold Mines Limited mined about 680,000 tons of the zone
from the Mascot Fraction, from 1936 to 1949. The total ore mined, from the Nickel
Plate property and the Mascot Fraction, has amounted to 3,967,350 tons with a gross
content in ore and concentrates of 1,556,749 ounces of gold, 188,139 ounces of silver,
and 4,077,305 pounds of copper. The total dividends paid by all companies has been
$7,533,744.
French Mine.—Brian T. Stephens, mine foreman. This mine is on the Oregon
mineral claim, about 8 miles by road from Hedley and IY2 miles east of the Hedley-
Nickel Plate road. The mine has been developed from two adit levels at an elevation of
approximately 3,900 feet. The adits are about 300 feet apart and are connected. Two
stopes were developed above the adits. Mining was continued below the elevation of the
second adit; the broken ore was scraped up the stope floor from the face to the level,
where it was loaded into cars and taken out of the mine. This property was optioned
from F. H. French and associates, and in 1949 some exploratory drilling was done.
Production was commenced in 1950 and the purchase was completed. The mine has
been closed each year during the winter season and reopened in the spring, the ore being
trucked to the company's mill at Hedley. All broken ore was removed and the mine was
closed on September 3rd. Production in 1955 was 3,250 tons. During the six years of
operation, 32,463 tons of ore was shipped, which yielded 25,284 ounces of gold and
averaged 0.804 ounce of gold per ton.
OLALLA*
Manganese
(49° 119° S.W.) The deposit of manganese-bearing chert de-
Olalla Nos. 1 to 8   scribed in this report is on the south side of the ridge separating
Olalla Creek from its south fork. In 1951 the showings were
reached by a trail that follows the north side of Olalla Creek about 2Y2 miles, crosses the
creek just above its junction with the south fork, and climbs the south side of the ridge
between the two creeks. The showings are at an elevation of about 5,000 feet almost a
mile west of the creek junction.
* By J. T. Fyles.
L LODE METALS
43
The deposit was located on May 6th, 1949, by S. J. Fairclough, of Chilliwack, as
the Iron King No. 1 and Iron King No. 2 claims. It was located on June 11th, 1950,
by Thomas McQuillan, of Vancouver. On October 14th, 1955, the showings were
located by W. W. Geminder, of Vancouver, as a group of eight claims called Olalla No. 1
to Olalla No. 8, inclusive.
The deposit was described in the Annual Report for 1949 (p. 132) as the Iron King.
The writer visited the showings at the end of August, 1951.
The 1949 Report describes the geology as follows:—
" The principal types of rock exposed on the claims include both finely laminated and
massive beds of chert and some beds of pebble conglomerate, of which both pebbles and
matrix appear to be chert. The beds are black, red, white, or mottled. Old cuts, which
have been partly cleaned out recently, prospect a bedded deposit of manganiferous chert
on the Iron King No. 2 claim. The beds strike north 30 degrees west and dip about 65
degrees northeastward. In a horizontal distance of 380 feet and a vertical range of 200
feet, seven cuts prospect this bedded zone. Drift obscures the immediate extensions of
the zone, and it is not exposed in the chert bluffs 2,000 feet northwest of the cuts. In the
380-foot length explored in the cuts, the zone is offset a few feet to the right at each of
several northeasterly striking faults.
" The zone consists of bright-red chert traversed by a network of minute veins containing rhodonite, which merge laterally into zones of hard black siliceous manganese ore
containing small irregular masses of rhodonite and chert. The red chert zone is about
30 feet wide, but the zones containing manganese in fair amount range in width from 12
inches to about 10 feet. The assays of seven channel samples and one specimen are given
below. The samples were taken from the most heavily mineralized parts and are not
representative of the zone as a whole."
Location
Width
Manganese
Silica
No. 1 cut—
Ft.   In.
2     2
5      0
1      7
1    11
5 0
C1)
6 4
5      0
Per Cent
16.8
13.8
34.2
48.3
18.5
49.2
,7.1
18.5
Per Cent
53.5
57.4
21.4
15.3
55.3
14.5
No. 7 cut—45 feet northwesterly—
68.0
55.5
1 Specimen.
North of the series of cuts the hillside is gentle, and there are no outcrops for more
than 1,000 feet along the strike of the mineralized zone. South of the cuts the hillside is
steep, talus is common, but outcrops are fairly numerous. No manganese was seen for
more than 1,000 feet south.
The primary manganese minerals in the cuts are mainly silicates. Near the surface
they have been oxidized to black manganese oxides, and manganese may have been
concentrated in the oxidized zone. In the lowest cut a zone that is dominantly oxides
extends to a depth of 1 to 3 feet and grades downward into a zone containing manganese
silicates with oxides along fractures. In most of the other cuts, manganese oxides occur
as masses a few inches thick along fractures in rocks that are mainly manganese silicates
or red jasper. Locally, massive hard black rocks containing a high proportion of black
oxides occur in these cuts. For a few tens of feet west of the zone exposed in the cuts,
red jasper is coated with films of manganese oxides and no primary silicates were seen. 44 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
FAIRVIEW CAMP*
Silica-Gold
(49° 119° S.W.)    G. S. Ogilvie, property superintendent.   This
Fairview (The Con- mine is about 5 miles west of Oliver.   The mine was closed from
solidated Mining   January 4th, 1954, until May 2nd, 1955. The ground is difficult to
and Smelting       hold in shrinkage-stope mining unless adequate supports are left.
Company of        During the sixteen months' shut-down some caving occurred and
Canada, Limited)   some of the formerly developed stopes had to be abandoned.
Drifting on No. 3 level and raising from the inside end of No. 6
level was the main development in 1955.  This work, which had not been completed at
the end of the year, will open up new ground and provide another auxiliary exit and
ventilation opening. Total development consisted of 652 feet of drifting and 536 feet of
raising.   Electrical power is obtained from the West Kootenay Power and Light Company
Limited.   Quartz is mined and shipped to Trail for use as flux in the smelter.  The quartz
contains a small amount of gold and other metals.   Seventeen men were employed underground and six on the surface.   Operations were continuous from May, and the quartz
shipped amounted to 28,269 tons.
OLIVER*
Gold-Lead-Zinc
(49° 119° S.W.)    Registered office, Suite 204, 717 West Pender
Belair Mining      Street, Vancouver 1.   William P. Watson, president; Allen Joslyn,
Corporation Ltd.    secretary.    This property consists of the Lone Pine group of four
claims and one fractional claim held by record, and is IY2 miles
north of Oliver.    The claims were located by Joe Lawrence and later acquired by the
company.   Development work included the building of 1 mile of road to the property and
the stripping of overburden from a 2- to 6-foot quartz vein which contained some values
in gold, lead, and zinc.   An adit level was driven on the vein 60 feet in a southerly
direction.   One truck-load of ore was shipped to the Trail smelter and about 300 tons
is stored at the mine. Work started on August 20th and ceased on December 3rd. A crew
of two to three men was employed.
BEAVERDELL*
Silver-Lead-Zinc-Cadmium
(49° 119° S.E.)    Company office, 604, 789 West Pender Street,
Highland-Bell      Vancouver;   mine office, Beaverdell.    K. J. Springer, president,
(Highland-Bell     Toronto; O. S. Perry, manager; J. DeYaeger, mine foreman; Wm.
Limited) Makinen, mill superintendent. The property consists of twenty-nine
Crown-granted claims, one Crown-granted claim held by option,
and ten claims held by record.   The No. 4 adit is at 3,974 feet elevation on Wallace
Mountain, east of the main camp at Beaverdell, and is the main haulage level for the
upper workings.   For the past ten years, ore has been mined from the Highland Lass and
Idaho claims. The ore zone, which is intensively faulted, has an over-all southerly dip of
30 degrees, and converges on a major fault, locally known as the east terminal fault. This
fault dips 65 degrees to the east and has a vertical displacement of 800 feet.   Late in 1954
the company undertook an extensive development programme and started a new lower
adit on the 2900 level, about 1 Yz miles by road northeasterly from the office at Beaverdell.
The 2900 adit is 5,640 feet long and was completed in July, 1955.   It is 700 feet
lower in elevation than the No. 10 level in the upper workings and was driven for the
purpose of exploring the hangingwall of the east terminal fault.   At the end of 1955 a
raise was put up to the 3,000-foot level and a sublevel was established.   Ore similar to
* By E. R. Hughes. LODE METALS
45
the Highland Lass ore was opened up in several places. A Sturtevant fan, size No. 45,
belt-driven from a 25-horsepower electric motor, is used to ventilate the new workings.
The fan is located at the portal and the air is conducted to the adit face through 20-inch
pipe. An Eimco 12-B mucking-machine is used to load the cars, which are hauled by an
18-brake-horsepower Ruston diesel locomotive. Production has not yet started from
the new adit.
The ore from the upper workings is trucked to the mill, which is adjacent to a spur
of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Beaverdell. Development in all parts of the property
consisted of 399 feet of drifting, 4,500 feet of crosscutting, 174 feet of raising, 2,521 feet
of diamond drilling, and 300 feet of road construction. The total ore milled was 13,229
tons. At the end of the year forty-seven men were employed, of which twenty-three were
underground.
LIGHTNING PEAK*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49° 118° N.W.)    Company office, P.O. Box 72, Nelson.   L. N.
Waterloo (Paycheck Renwick, general manager.    Capital:   4,000,000 shares, no par
Mining and value.    This private company controls the principal mineral dis-
Development Com- coveries in the Lightning Peak area, including such old groups as
pany Limited) the Waterloo, Dictator, Rampalo, and Pay Day. Most of the
claims lie between the headwaters of Rendell Creek and Granby
River on a plateau terrain with an average elevation of 5,900 feet. A poor road, ISY2
miles long, connects the area with Inonoaklin Crossing, a point on the Monashee Highway 20 miles from Needles. Work previous to 1955 had been concentrated at the
Waterloo, where a small mill had been erected. In 1955 no underground work was
done, but a surface diamond-drilling programme was started in an effort to trace the
showings on the Pay Check claims. Four men completed over 1,200 feet of drilling
before a heavy snowfall forced cessation of activities.
The mill was inactive. Most of the lead concentrates recovered in 1954 were
shipped to the Trail smelter in that year and the zinc concentrates remained on site.
GREENWOODf
Gold-Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49° 118° S.W.) W. Madden, owner. This mine is lYz miles
Providence north of Greenwood and has been worked intermittently for more
than fifty years. The property was leased to S. Downham, G.
Jones, and M. F. Madden. From the bottom of the 60-foot-deep No. 3 shaft, 100 feet
of crosscutting and 200 feet of diamond drilling were done in an attempt to find the
Providence vein. Where found, the vein was too narrow and insufficiently mineralized
to be commercial. A shaft was sunk 15 feet at a point 150 feet north of the No. 3 shaft.
The work was discontinued in November and had not been resumed at the end of the
year.
Copper-Gold-Silver
Mother Lode
(Surety Oils and
Minerals Limited)
(49° 118° S.W.)    Head office, 1024, 85 Richmond Street West,
Toronto.    W. R. Quinn, engineer, Greenwood.    This company
secured an option from J. W. James and associates on the Mother
Lode property, which consists of eight claims, including the Mother
Lode, Sunset, Crown Silver, Primrose, C.O.D., and Jack Fraction
Crown-granted mineral claims, and two claims held by record.   The Mother Lode property was at one time owned by the Canada Copper Corporation and was the chief source
of ore for the Greenwood smelter, which ceased operation in November., 1918.
* By J. W. Peck.
t By E. R. Hughes. 46 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Exploratory work was started during the summer and was being continued at the
end of the year. Exploratory surface diamond drilling was done on the Mother Lode
and C.O.D. claims, and fifteen holes were drilled, totalling 3,577 feet. The old Mother
Lode No. 2 level was cleaned out and retimbered for a length of 60 feet at the portal.
Eleven men were employed.
(49° 118° S.W.)    Head office, 108, 413 Granville Street, Van-
Salmo Prince       couver 2.    Robert T. Blackmore, president;   B. I. Nesbitt, man-
Mines Limited      aging director.    This company controls thirty-one claims, including the Greyhound Crown-granted claim, in the Deadwood camp
area, 2Y2 miles by road west of Greenwood.    A surface diamond-drilling programme
was started in November with two drills at work.   Eight men were employed, and 5,000
feet of diamond drilling was done.
Copper-Gold-Silver
(49° 118° S.W.) This property in the Copper camp area, 7
Copper Queen miles by road west of Greenwood, consists of sixteen claims, including the Copper Queen and King Solomon Crown-granted
claims, seven other Crown-granted claims, and seven recorded claims that were optioned
by W. E. McArthur and associates to The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company
of Canada, Limited, in July. On October 1st this company started a diamond-drilling
programme, and at the end of the year four holes totalling 2,016 feet had been completed.
Other work included 20 cubic yards of open-cutting on the Princess May, 5,430 cubic
yards of stripping on the May Alice, and some geological mapping. A small tent camp
was erected. The diamond drilling was done by T. Connors Diamond Drilling Company
Limited. Eight men were employed on this work. The diamond drilling was completed
on December 7th and the camp closed on December 13th. The option agreement gave
Mr. McArthur the right to mine and remove oxidized material found on the property.
Two men were employed in this work, and three carloads, totalling 162 tons of ore averaging 4.9 per cent copper, was mined and shipped to the Tacoma smelter. The ore was
mined from the lower adit on the Copper Queen claim. On November 24th the face of
this new adit had been driven 40 feet from the portal.
PHOENIX*
Copper-Gold-Silver
(49° 118° S.W.)    Head office, 1111 West Georgia Street, Van-
Phoenix (The       couver 5.    Field office, Grand Forks.    L. T. Postle, president;
Granby Consoli-    J. A. C. Ross, general manager;  J. H. Parliament, chief engineer.
dated Mining       The Granby company operated its Phoenx mine from 1900 to
Smelting and       1919 and produced over 13,000,000 tons of ore which averaged
Power Company    1.314 per cent copper, 0.049 oz. gold per ton, and 0.303 oz. silver
Limited) per ton.    The property was later purchased by W. E. McArthur,
who operated the property on a small scale for several years. In
1951 the property was optioned by Attwood Copper Mines Limited, and for three seasons a crew was employed in geological mapping, geophysical surveying, geochemical
prospecting, and diamond drilling. This work was discontinued late in the summer of
1953.
In 1955 the property was obtained from Mr. McArthur by The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power Company Limited, and on October 1st a surface
diamond-drilling programme was started. Twenty-six holes were drilled, totalling 2,267
feet. Twenty holes were drilled in the Snowshoe railway pillar, and six holes in the
vicinity of the Old Ironsides  glory-hole.    Granby's  renewed interest in its former
; By E. R. Hughes. LODE METALS
47
property was prompted by the possibilities of open-pit mining, stimulated by the current
high price of copper. The work was being continued at the end of the year. Eight men
were employed.
Copper
Noranda Exploration Company,
Limited
Eight men were employed.
Gold-Copper
EHOLT*
(49° 118° S.W.) Head office, 44 King Street West, Toronto.
This company optioned fifty claims from W. E. McArthur and
associates in the Eholt area, and late in the year a start was made
on cutting grid lines for a magnetometer survey. A D-7 bulldozer was used for three weeks to do some surface stripping.
ROSSLAND f
Velvet (Mid-West
Copper & Uranium
Mines Ltd.)
(49°  117°  S.W.)    Company office,  1002,  850 West Hastings
Street, Vancouver; mine office, Rossland.   A. G. Pentland, consulting   geologist;   R.   Lefevre,   mine   superintendent.     Capital:
4,000,000 shares, 50 cents par value.  This company optioned this
old gold-copper producer from H. F. Kenward, of Vancouver, and
W. W. Sweet, of Seattle, Wash., and purchased the lease of J. C. Urquhart, H. W. Lefevre,
R. Lefevre, and B. W. Price, who had operated the mine since 1952.  The mine plant is
on the Rossland-Cascade Highway 13 miles west of Rossland.
The mine is developed by a vertical shaft serving six levels and by two adits connected to the shaft workings. The lowest or No. 8 adit was rehabilitated for its full length
of 1,700 feet. At the face and near the bottom of a raise which extends to No. 6 level,
the bottom shaft level, 47 feet of drifting was done in a southerly direction on a vein.
Mineralization was negligible except for a length of 10 feet, over which the vein pinched
out when it was stoped up a few feet. At 1,400 feet from the portal a crosscut was driven
160 feet in a northeasterly direction to investigate a vein discovered by diamond drilling,
but this crosscut was stopped short of its objective to allow further diamond drilling to
be done. On No. 7 level, which is a sublevel off the raise to No. 6 level, a crosscut was
driven to explore the same or a parallel vein. The vein was encountered, and, when seen
in November, a drift 10 feet long exposed 2 to 3 feet of massive chalcopyrite. Development work on No. 3 level consisted of crosscutting and drifting on a vein which parallels
the stoped-out main vein.
On the surface a new cook-house was built and compressors of larger capacity were
installed. The small mill used by the lessees was taken over by the present company but
was not operated. The crew was increased to fifteen by the end of 1955.
(49° 117° S.W.) Company office, P.O. Box 659, Rossland. G.
Erickson, president; Warren Crowe, director. Capital: 1,000
shares, $10 par value. This private company was formed in 1954
to develop the Snowdrop, Gold King, and Concordia Crown-
granted claims previously owned by Warren Crowe, of Waneta.
The main workings are on the Snowdrop, which is astride the Rossland-Cascade Highway
1 mile west of Rossland.
A narrow quartz vein reported to carry low gold values has been developed in the
past by two short connecting adits and a small amount of stoping. The vein strikes northeast and dips from 25 to 45 degrees southeast. The workings are mainly in fine-grained
massive volcanic rocks ranging in colour from grey to green, and brown. The volcanic
rocks are cut by three dark fine-grained dykes.   One dyke, 4 feet wide, and a number of
Snowdrop (Snowdrop Mining
Company Ltd4
* By E. R. Hughes.
t By J. W. Peck, except as noted
t By J. W. Peck and C. G. Hewlett. 48 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
steeply dipping north-striking faults cut the vein.   Some of the faults displace the vein a
few feet.
High-grade pockets of gold have been encountered in seams in the altered volcanic
wallrock near the vein. One such pocket was about 100 feet from the portal of the upper
adit. The free gold is of a muddy appearance, and the first shipment to the Trail smelter
of 70 pounds of sorted ore assayed over 1,600 ounces per ton. Later shipments were
lower in value. Three men were employed. Production: Ore shipped, 2.36 tons.
Gross content:   Gold, 135 oz.; silver, 25 oz.
(49° 117° S.W.) This Crown-granted claim is at the junction of
Annie Fraction     the Rossland-Cascade and Rossland-Paterson Highways just west
of Rossland. It is owned by J. A. Henderson, of Rossland, who
has been working intermittently over the past two years doing exploratory surface work
in an effort to locate vein extensions of the near-by Annie and Josie mines. One shaft
has been sunk 40 feet with a few feet of crosscut at the bottom. The second shaft had
been sunk 20 feet by September. No veins had been encountered, and only minor
mineralization of pyrite and chalcopyrite was observed in the altered sediments through
which the shafts were sunk.
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49°   117°  S.W.)     This group of six recorded mineral claims
Comstock* includes the Comstock Nos. 1 to 5 owned by S. M. Penney and the
Comstock Lode owned by F. C. Singer, both of Rossland. The
main workings are between 1 and IY2 miles due north of Paterson and about three-
quarters of a mile east of the Paterson-Rossland Highway. They are at the eastern edge
of the broad valley of Little Sheep Creek in a thickly wooded area with few outcrops.
The property is an old one. During the summer old cuts were cleaned out and
sampled, a few new trenches were made, and some trees and brush were cleared.
The workings are on the east side of an abandoned railway grade, and the main
rock types are exposed in cuts along the grade. The rocks are breccias intruded by dark-
green and by siliceous dykes. The breccias are greyish-green and are composed of angular
and rounded fragments of volcanic rock, chert, jasper, and minor limestone measuring a
fraction of an inch to several inches across. The dark-green dykes are a few feet thick and
strike northwestward. They are cut by vitreous, light-grey siliceous dykes several tens of
feet thick which strike northward; one such dyke was seen to dip 50 degrees eastward.
An old shaft about 90 feet east of the railway grade exposes finely disseminated
pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and galena in a greyish-green altered part of a siliceous dyke.
The shaft is about 12 feet deep; three sides of it are in solid rock, and the fourth is made
up of rusty dump material that forms a small pile on the west side of the shaft. A sample
taken across a horizontal width of 4 feet on the east wall near the bottom of the shaft
assayed: Gold, 0.01 oz. per ton; silver, 4.44 oz. per ton; copper, 0.23 per cent; lead,
1.34 per cent; zinc, 0.1 per cent. Another sample taken on the north wall across a
horizontal width of 6 feet assayed: Gold, 0.7 oz. per ton; silver, nil; copper, 0.08 per
cent; lead, 0.28 per cent; zinc, 0.08 per cent.
Forty feet north and 120 feet east of the shaft an old cut has been made in the steep
western side of a low outcrop of a siliceous dyke. Minor amounts of finely disseminated
galena and pyrite occur in the walls of the cut, and a sample taken across a horizontal
width of 10 feet on the south side of the cut assayed: Gold, nil; silver, 0.2 oz. per ton;
lead, 0.12 per cent; zinc, 0.03 per cent. About 40 feet southeast of this cut a new trench
has been made on the east side of the same siliceous dyke. A grab sample taken in this
cut assayed: Gold, nil; silver, nil; copper, less than 0.01 per cent; lead, 0.15 per cent;
zinc, 0.16 per cent.
* By J. T. Fyles. LODE METALS
Highland-Bell, Beaverdell   fr^m *u
Reeves MacDonald mine and camp, looking
north. 50
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Tests made with a Geiger counter made on outcrops of the siliceous dykes gave
counts of about double background. Laboratory tests of the three samples taken in the
shaft and the old cut indicate a radioactivity equivalent to 0.006 per cent uranium oxide,
and tests of the sample taken in the new trench indicate a radioactivity equivalent to 0.007
per cent uranium oxide.
CASTLEGAR*
Gold-Tungsten-Uranium
(49° 117° S.W.)   This is a group of seven recorded claims situated
Gibson Creek Gold on the ridge summit between the two forks of Gibson Creek, a
Mine Nos. 1 to 7   southwesterly flowing tributary of Norns (Pass) Creek.   They are
owned by John Sawchenko and associates, of Castlegar. The main
showings are reached by AY2 miles of road from the Nelson-Castlegar Highway plus IY2
miles of steep trail. Elevations of the workings range from 3,900 to 4,500 feet. Intermittent work has been done since 1942. At that time several open-cuts were put in on
irregular vein-like masses of quartz which are fairly common in the coarse granitic country
rock. Gold assays were reported to be low. In recent years six open-cuts have been made
at irregular intervals on granite exposures in search of tungsten. Samples were taken in
four of the cuts. These all assayed nil in tungstic oxide. On the highest part of the claims
another granitic exposure gave abnormally high readings on the Geiger counter, and it
was here that most of the 1955 work was done. The area was stripped and a pit was sunk
at the place of the highest readings. Feldspar and quartz were the most noticeable
minerals exposed and an erratically distributed unidentified black mineral. Two channel
samples were taken in the pit 8 feet apart.   These assayed as follows:—
Location of Sample
South end of pit...
North end of pit .
Width of
Sample
Ft.
1.2
2.0
Chemical Assays
Uranium
Oxide
Per Cent
0.03
0.11
Thorium
Oxide
Per Cent
0.008
0.021
NELSON*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49° 117° S.E.)    The Deer Horn, Snowflake, Mercury, Mildred
Deer Horn Fraction, and Arthur Fraction are recorded claims held by Fred
Arnot, of Nelson. They lie astride the Nelson-Salmo Highway 4
miles south of Nelson. The showings are on the Deer Horn claim, which covers in part
an old Crown-granted claim, the Bartlet, Lot 9183. Old workings, consisting of shallow
inclines sunk on gently dipping quartz veins in granite, are situated east of the highway
and of the right-of-way of the Great Northern Railway. This is an old gold prospect, but
there is no record of production. West of the highway, on a former road location, lead-
zinc mineralization in limy schist has recently been discovered. A small amount of
stripping has been done, and in the best section a sample taken across 3 feet assayed:
Gold, 0.02 oz. per ton; silver, trace; lead, trace; zinc, 2.7 per cent.
The property was sold in the latter part of 1955 to L. Haycock, of Lumby, but no
further work was done.
Copper
Queen Victoria
(49° 117° S.E.) J. Norville, of Toronto, owns a large group of
claims near Beasley, including the Queen Victoria. The last major
shipments from this old copper mine were made forty years ago.
* By J. W. Peck. LODE METALS
51
A road 1 Yi miles long leads to the property from a point on the Trail-Nelson Highway
about 7 miles south of Nelson. A contact metamorphic deposit has been developed in
the past chiefly by a large open pit. In 1955 the area back of the open pit was tested by
twelve diamond-drill holes. These ranged in depth from 119 to 402 feet and totalled
2,000 feet. This drilling was carried out from January to April under direction of
P. E. Olson.
YMIR*
Lead-Zinc
(49° 117° S.E.)    The Sunny group of sixteen recorded claims is
Sunny near the head of Seeman Creek, about 13 miles northeast of Ymir.
The claims are owned by The Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company of Canada, Limited, and were recorded in the autumn of 1954. During the
summer of 1955 the old trail from the end of the Ymir Creek road over the pass to the
head of Seeman Creek was repaired for use by horses, and a new trail was built from
the head of Seeman Creek to a tent camp on the north fork of Seeman Creek. Little
work was done on the showings of lead and zinc covered by the claims.
Lead-Zinc-Tungsten
SALMO f
Iron Mountain (49° 117° S.E.)
Emerald, Jersey,
Dodger, Feeney
(Canadian Exploration Limited)
Head office, Royal Bank Building, Vancouver; mine office, Salmo.
G. A. Gordon, general manager; J. D. Little, general superintendent; D. N. Hogarth, mine superintendent, lead-zinc operations;
H. V. Maxwell, mine superintendent, tungsten operations; E. A.
Erickson, superintendent, lead-zinc concentrator; R. MacLeod,
superintendent, tungsten concentrator. This company is a wholly
owned subsidiary of Placer Development Limited. The Emerald, Feeney, Dodger, and
Jersey mines, the tungsten concentrator, and the main camp are located on the summit
between Sheep Creek and Lost Creek. The property is reached by two roads which
leave the Nelson-Nelway Highway 4 and 5Yi miles respectively south of Salmo. The
lead-zinc concentrator is on the Nelson-Nelway Highway and is served from the mine
by a series of surface and underground conveyors. The labour force increased slightly
to an average of 345 employees.
Emerald.—As in previous years, this tungsten mine continued to produce most of
the ore for the tungsten concentrator, but at a lesser proportional rate. From the large
open pits along the outcrop down to the 3800 or lowest adit, the locating and mining of
ore remnants became more difficult. In November production started from the winze
area, where an interior 32-degree inclined 3-compartment shaft has been sunk during
the past two years to a slope depth of 1,390 feet below the 3800 level. Six levels have
been established at 100-foot vertical intervals. The orebody in the winze area appears
to be smaller but of higher grade than that mined above the 3800 level. It is troughlike, with a plunge similar to the dip of the shaft. Ore is mined up the limbs of the
trough until it pinches out.
Feeney.—This tungsten mine is located to the north of the Emerald workings but
is not connected to them. It is served by one adit, from which the ore is trucked to the
concentrator at the Emerald mine. It was idle for the greater part of 1955, after most
of the known ore had been removed.
Dodger.—The Dodger 4400 tungsten mine is a 14- by 15-foot adit driven south
1,050 feet at a portal elevation of 4,405 feet. A section above this adit has now been
stoped out, and the only activity was the removal of broken ore by diesel loaders and
trucks.
* By J. T. Fyles.
t By J. W. Peck. 52 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The Dodger 4200 tungsten mine is about 5,000 feet southwest of the Dodger 4400
mine. A 14- by 15-foot crosscut adit at a portal elevation of 4,125 feet has been driven
east for 2,500 feet. During 1955 the 8- by 8-foot drift, driven north 1,950 feet from
the end of this crosscut, was enlarged to 14- by 15-foot size to allow diesel trucks to
haul direct from ore and waste chutes. At the end of this drift a raise was driven and
the 4300 level established. This sublevel was driven north for about 1,200 feet, and a
raise connection was then made to the Dodger 4400 mine. A considerable amount of
diamond drilling was done, but no new large orebodies were located. Above the 4200
drift two previously located orebodies were mined by open stoping, and the ore was
removed by scraping to draw points. The orebodies are flat-lying troughs with a slight
rise to the north. They are irregular in shape, and this involves considerable prospecting
with raises on the limbs of the trough. During 1955 production from this area was much
increased over that of 1954. All ore was trucked to the top of a raise just outside the
portal. This raise leads to the underground crusher on the 3800 level of the Emerald
mine.
Tungsten Concentrator.—This mill is near the 3800 portal of the Emerald mine.
It can receive ore by track haulage from the Emerald mine, by conveyor from the underground crusher on the Emerald 3800 level, or by truck from outside sources. The milling rate averaged 12,500 tons per month, an increase over 1954. There were no major
additions to the mill circuit, but steady research by the metallurgical staff was necessary
to keep impurities out of the concentrates. All tungsten concentrates continued to be
sold to the United States Government under contract.
Jersey.—This lead-zinc mine extends like the fingers of a hand through Iron Mountain in a northerly direction from the Lost Creek slope. The orebodies occur close to
one another in folded dolomitized beds which rise gently to the north. Since 1953 all
production has been by " trackless mining " through the 4200 Jersey adit. Mining was
by room-and-pillar method, with the ore removed by diesel trucks and shovels. The
"A" orebody on the western limit was fully developed, and this fact necessitated opening
the thinner " C " and " D " orebodies to maintain production. Connections were made
(1) in the "A" zone to the old Emerald lead-zinc mine, (2) in the "D" zone to the
Dodger 4200 crosscut, and (3) and (4) in the "A" and "C" zones to the Jersey
track mine. This improved the ventilation so that over 100,000 cubic feet per minute
of air was entering the mine, a quantity more than sufficient to reduce the concentration
of exhaust gases of diesel equipment to well below the permissible amount. A large
underground shop was constructed, making it unnecessary to remove equipment from
the mine for servicing.
Lead-Zinc Concentrator.—This mill operated at about half capacity, or 30,000 tons
per month. As in 1954, the lead and zinc concentrates were snipped respectively to
smelters at Kellogg, Idaho, and Black Eagle, Montana. In the first quarter of 1955 some
zinc concentrates were shipped to the Trail smelter.
During the summer a system for ponding tailings was developed on the gravel flats
close to the Salmo River.
Aspen Creek (49° 117° S.E.)
Silver-Lead-Zinc
J. C. MacLean, property superintendent;   H. G. Barker, mine
H.B. (The Consoli-   superintendent; H. Chalmers, mill superintendent. The H.B. mine
dated Mining and    (named after the discoverers, P. F. Horton and J. A. Bensen) is on
Smelting Company  the west side of Aspen Creek, with the main camp located on the
of Canada, Limited) north side of Sheep Creek, 7 miles by road from Salmo.   Operations recommenced in April after a shut-down of two years.  Two
zinc-lead dolomite replacement orebodies were developed previous to the shut-down in
1953.   The main haulage, known as the No. 8 or 2800 level, was driven, and a vertical LODE METALS
53
interior shaft raised more than 700 feet to the No. 4 or 3500 adit level. The 3300 level
was driven and two ore-passes were raised from the 2800 level to the ore zones above
3300 level, together with wing connections to slusher drifts. The orebodies lie to the south
of the old Oxide mine along the north-south strike. They are roughly parallel to each
other about 150 feet apart, are nearly vertical, and have a rake to the south of about 20
degrees. The walls are not easy to define but have been outlined from assays of diamond-
drill cores. The No. 1 or East orebody is about 60 feet wide and 350 feet high. The No.
2 or West orebody is about 70 feet wide and 200 feet high. The southern limits have not
been determined but are being explored. When stoping got under way in 1955, it was
concentrated in the No. 1 orebody, which was developed over a stoping length of 540
feet. Shrinkage stoping was done at the north end. One such stope was unique in that
it was mined 350 feet high, 60 feet wide, and 75 feet long. The remainder of the stoping
length was mined by long-hole percussion and diamond drilling. The holes were drilled
from sublevels and then blasted to slots and undercuts. The ore was removed by slusher
drifts to wings out of the main ore-passes. All ore was trammed on the 2800 level by
two diesel locomotives.
The mill started in May, and by December had reached a daily rate of 1,200 tons
per day.  At the end of 1955 there were 135 employees.
LOST CREEK*
Tungsten
Tungsten King
(49° 117° S.E.) This group of eighteen Crown-granted claims
is on Lost Creek, south of the Canadian Exploration Limited
holdings. This company optioned the claims from the owners, R.
Oscarson and E. Oscarson, of Spokane, Wash., and L. R. Clubine, of Salmo. The main
workings consist of open-cuts and bulldozer strippings. They are near the Lost Creek
road about 2V_. miles from its junction with the Nelson-Nelway Highway. In 1955 work
was restricted to three short diamond-drill holes and a small amount of road construction.
The option was dropped early in 1956.
NELWAY*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Reeves MacDonald
Mines Limited
(49° 117° S.E.) Company office, 413 Granville Street, Vancouver; mine office, Remac. W. L. Zeigler, Metaline Falls, Wash.,
general manager; L. M. Kinney, Metaline Falls, Wash., general
superintendent; J. B. Shannon, superintendent; H. Shuttleworth,
mine superintendent; J. S. Steele, mill superintendent. Capital: 3,000,000 shares, $1
par value. This company owns the Reeves MacDonald mine on the Pend d'Oreille River,
on the Nelway-Waneta road 4 miles west of Nelway. A zinc-lead limestone replacement
orebody has been developed by two connected adits 766 feet apart vertically. The mine
was closed in 1953, but operations started again late in 1955. The main orebody, serviced
by the interior shaft raise, was put into production quickly, and by December 1,000 tons
per day was being mined and milled. The ends of the ore zone were not mined, and as
these were of lower grade than the central part, the grade of ore recovered was considerably higher than when the mine was last worked. The orebody, which has a dip of 55
degrees, has been undercut 40 to 80 feet wide on every level across the width of the ore-
body. Pillars are left at 100-foot intervals. Slot raises are driven adjacent to these pillars
from undercut to undercut. Conventional leyner machines, mounted on long crossbars
and using sectional steel, are used to drill vertical down holes which, when blasted, break
into the slot raises. Three to four machines can supply the mill tonnage by this method.
On the 1900 level, the lowest adit, development was started in the O'Donnell orebody,
* By J. W. Peck. 54 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
which is about 7,000 feet from the portal.   A raise started in 1953 was continued, with
the objective of connecting with the old O'Donnell adit 450 feet above.
The stockpile of 5,100 tons of zinc concentrates, stored since 1953, was sold in
1955. The recently produced lead and zinc concentrates were shipped respectively to
smelters at Kellogg, Idaho, and Black Eagle, Montana. The crew was increased to about
130 by the end of 1955.
BOUNDARY LAKE*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49° 116° S.W.)    These claims are on the west flank of North
Canada Belle       Star Mountain, 24 miles by good logging-road west of Porthill,
No. 1 and No. 2    Idaho.  They are owned by Harry J. Yerbury, of Creston.  A series
of northerly striking quartz veins in dolomite have been exposed
in open-cuts through a range in elevation of 4,700 to 5,000 feet.    The veins are
conformable with the nearly vertical bedding of the dolomite.   The quartz ranges from
0 to 2 feet wide and is sparsely mineralized with barite, galena, sphalerite, and pyrite.
The best showing is at 5,000 feet elevation, where a vein has been stripped for 50 feet
along the strike.   This work probably encountered one or more lenses of galena, of which
a few pounds are in evidence, but mineralization exposed in place is negligible.
SOUTH KOOTENAY LAKEf
Sanca(49° 116° S.W.)
Tungsten-Gold-Silver-Lead
Mine office, Boswell.   N. E. Willson, president and manager.   This
Valparaiso private company holds two Crown-granted and fifteen recorded
(Akokli Tungsten   claims on the east side of Kootenay Lake near Akokli (Goat)
Mine Ltd.) Creek.    The mine is at an elevation of 4,240 feet and is reached
by a 41/i-mile truck-road which leaves the Creston-Kootenay Bay
Highway 1 mile south of Akokli Creek.    Since 1900 this property has been operated
successively by Valparaiso Gold Mining Company Limited, Associated Mining & Milling
Company Limited, Sanca Mines Limited, and the present company.
Development work has been confined chiefly to the examination of the Valparaiso-
Government vein, outcrops of which have been traced along the mountainside for several
thousand feet. The vein is a well-defined quartz-filled fissure in the granite of the Nelson
batholith. It strikes north 20 degrees west and dips eastward at 40 degrees into the
mountain. It is from 5 to 6 feet wide. A lamprophyre dyke accompanies the vein, which
it frequently crosses, and locally passes into and returns from the granite walls. The ore
is composed of quartz mineralized with pyrite, arsenopyrite, wolframite, secondary
tungsten minerals, occasional disseminations of galena, and in one instance a 14-inch-
wide vein of galena. It also contains gold and silver. Wolframite has been observed in
the granite walls where local shearing has occurred. In the numerous open-cuts and in
the underground workings the minerals are extensively oxidized. Parallel to this vein
and higher on the hillside east of it, surface stripping has exposed vein outcrops of
similar mineralization. Additional work on these outcrops is necessary to determine their
extent and value.
In 1955 the inclined shaft on the Government claim was reopened to a depth of
130 feet. It was enlarged to dimensions of 9 feet by 14 feet and contains a manway and
a hoisting compartment. The north drift was begun 80 feet below the shaft collar and
was driven a distance of 433 feet. The entire drift required timbering. The face of the
drift is 240 feet south of and 60 feet below the face of the Valparaiso south drift.   At a
* By J. W. Peck.
t By J. E. Merrett. LODE METALS
55
point 280 feet north of the shaft a raise was driven up the vein footwall a distance of 80
feet to the surface. Five hundred feet of exploratory long-hole drilling was done from
various points along the drift.   A total of 1,300 tons of ore was mined.
A truss-constructed mill building was built in five levels covering an area of 3,000
square feet.
From a 60-ton fine-ore bin the V\ -inch crushed ore passes through a Denver Duplex
jig. The drillings from the jig are ground in a ball mill and passed over four Wilfley
tables. The table concentrate and the jig concentrate are ground in a rod mill and passed
through six flotation cells to make a pyrite and a tungsten concentrate. The mill was
operated intermittently and 553 tons of ore was treated, from which 11,200 pounds of
concentrates was produced. The wolframite concentrate requires retreatment to remove
magnetite, and the pyrite concentrate requires retreatment to remove wolframite.
A 16- by 30-foot frame-constructed assay office was built. The colorometric assay
method is used to determine the tungsten content for mine and mill control.
The operation was suspended by cold weather in November, when the 13,800-foot
water pipe-line was frozen.
The average number of men employed was fourteen, of which six were employed
underground.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1900, p. 885; 1926, p. 285;
1927, p. 320;  1932, p. 195;  1933, p. 239;  1953, p. 121;  1954, p. 129.]
NORTH KOOTENAY LAKE*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Riondel (49° 116° N.W.)
Bluebell (The Consolidated Mining
and Smelting
Company of
Canada, Limited)!
This mine is at Riondel on a small peninsula on the east shore
of Kootenay Lake, 6 miles by road north of the ferry-landing at
Kootenay Bay. The ore deposits are sulphide replacement bodies
in a limestone band that crosses the peninsula and dips westward
under the lake. The Bluebell ore zone is in the central part, the
Comfort near the north, and the Kootenay Chief ore zone is at the
south end of the peninsula. The early history of the property was
given in the Annual Report for 1949, in which year extension development was begun.
The Bluebell shaft was reopened in 1949, and from it drifts were driven on the 225
level, to investigate both the Comfort and Kootenay Chief ore zones. The drift to the
Comfort zone was hampered by difficult mining conditions, but the drift to the Kootenay
Chief zone indicated an orebody approximately equivalent in size and grade to the Bluebell zone. As a result of these investigations, a new camp, complete mine plant, and a
concentrator of 500 tons daily capacity were constructed. The concentrator began milling ore in April, 1952. A 3-compartment shaft 8 by 23 feet in over-all dimensions and
inclined to the west at 30 degrees was sunk from the surface to the 375 level. The shaft
was located between the Bluebell and Kootenay Chief ore zones. Subsequent development work has extended the shaft to a total slope length of 1,800 feet, a vertical depth of
843 feet. At this depth the shaft bottom is 783 feet below the level of Kootenay Lake.
Shaft stations have been established at 150-foot intervals from the 75 level to the 825
level.
Development work completed in 1955 was as follows: 1,820 feet of drifting, 1,100
feet of crosscutting, 4,180 feet of raising, 110 feet of shaft-sinking, and 15,130 feet of
exploratory diamond drilling. Most of this work was done in the Kootenay Chief ore
zone. A northerly directed drift to the Comfort ore zone was begun on the 525 level.
The main shaft was deepened from below the 675 level to the 825 level.   Stope mining
* By J. W. Peck, except as noted,
t By J. E. Merrett. 56 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
was done by conventional open stoping methods and the ore scraped to draw points.
A total of 29,000 cubic yards of backfill material was placed in empty stopes. This
material was principally gravel, together with a minor amount of mine waste rock.
As underground workings have extended, increasing inflows of water have been
encountered. Most of the water is apparently from local drainage, probably by way of
fissures directly from Kootenay Lake. In addition, large continuous flows of water of
higher temperature as much as 78° F. and heavily charged with carbon dioxide issue from
some fissures and cavities. It is believed that the origin of this water is more remote and
deeper seated than that of the local drainage. In December, 1955, the quantity of water
pumped from the mine amounted to 1,550 gallons per minute. To meet the increased
pumping requirements, a 150-horsepower 500-gallons-per-minute pump was added to
the equipment at the 525 level pumping station.
The ventilation of the mine was by both natural and mechanical means. The
approximate volume of air discharged from the Kootenay Chief workings was 60,000
cubic feet per minute and from the Comfort workings, 20,000 cubic feet per minute.
A 66,000-6,900 volt 1,500-kva. unit substation was erected on the surface near the
No. 1 shaft hoistroom, and a transformer-substation was installed underground on the
525 level.
Surface construction consisted of the building of a recreation hall, fuse-house, and
additions to the doctor's office, hospital, and core-shed. A 750-pound air-hammer was
added to the blacksmith's shop equipment. Some of the original concentrating-plant
buildings were demolished.
A new ambulance boat was purchased for the transportation of patients across
Kootenay Lake en route to hospitals at Kaslo or Nelson.
A well-organized safety programme was successful in keeping the accident-frequency
rate at 0.13 and the severity rate at 3.2 shifts lost, per thousand shifts worked. In the
first-aid classes held, forty-four people passed examinations. Nine men were trained and
received certificates of competency in mine-rescue work. Bluebell teams competed in
the Department of Mines first-aid and mine-rescue competitions at Nelson.
The average number of persons employed was 289, of which 152 were employed
underground.
The concentrator milled 241,788 tons of ore, and the concentrates were shipped to
the Trail smelter. Past production, from 1895 to 1955, inclusive, has amounted to
1,134,575 tons of ore.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Repts., 1908, pp. 95-97; 1949, pp.
176-178;  1952, pp. 154-155.]
Ainsworth (49° 116° N.W.)
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Company office, 525 Seymour Street, Vancouver;   mine office,
Highlander, etc.    Ainsworth.   H. W. Knight, president;  H. D. Forman, managing
(Yale Lead & Zinc  director; P. E. Olson, mine manager; L. N. Garland, mill super-
Mines Limited)     intendent.    Capital:   5,000,000 shares, $1 par value.    This company controls most of the claims lying between Coffee and Cedar
Creeks in the Ainsworth camp.   The new crushing plant, new haulage adit, and the mill
are below, and the mine plant and old Highlander adit are above the Nelson-Kaslo
Highway, about three-quarters of a mile south of Ainsworth.   Production was increased
from an average of 4,500 tons per month to over 5,000 tons per month in the last quarter of 1955.   In 1954 the outside properties produced 20 per cent of the mill-feed, but
the steady decline of this production in 1955 necessitated increased production from
the Highlander.
The Highlander mine is serviced by the old Highlander or 2150 level adit, and by
the new haulage adit or 1900 level, completed in 1955, 200 feet below.   The 2150 level LODE METALS
57
explores for several thousand feet the 7-foot-wide Highlander ore-bearing shear which
strikes north-south and dips 45 degrees west. Two orebodies, the Albion and Banker,
have been developed by raises to the 2600 Albion adit and the 2500 Banker adit respectively. Sublevels have been developed off these raises, the longest being the 2400 level,
which connects between the main raises, a distance of 1,250 feet. Open stope methods
of mining are used, but the hangingwall requires considerable support by pillars, timber,
and roof bolts. By the end of 1955 the Albion orebody was worked out above the 2150
level, except for the recovery of a few pillars. In 1955 the 1900 level was extended
below the orebody and a raise connection made with the 2150 level. A sublevel was
driven off this raise about 60 feet above the 1900 level at what appeared to be the bottom
of the orebody. Stopes exposing a better than average grade of mine ore were quickly
developed off this sublevel. They were producing 50 per cent of the mill-feed by the
end of 1955.
At the Krao a vein, conformable with the north-striking limestone beds, has been
developed in the past by a 75-degree shaft and three short levels at 35, 100, and 200 feet.
Previous mining had been concentrated above the 100-foot level, but in 1955 the 200-
foot level was rehabilitated. Stoping above this lower level was carried out by three
men under a contract arrangement.
At the Eden and Crescent the mine was worked only during the first half of 1955.
A vein about 5 feet wide and dipping 45 degrees had been developed in the past by about
500 feet of adit crosscut and a raise driven on the vein to surface. Production prior to
1955 has been from a stope serviced by this raise. During 1955 a winze was sunk 120
feet on the vein from a point immediately below the raise. A sublevel was established
at the bottom of the winze and a stope raise driven to the adit level above. Very little
ore was encountered, an unexpected condition as good mineralization is exposed on
the sides of the winze.   Three men operated this property under a contract arrangement.
At the Danira a vein conformable with the limestone bedding was developed at one
time by a shaft sunk 25 feet on the dip of 45 degrees. During 1955 a crosscut adit, collared 180 feet south, was driven westward to intersect the vein at 75 feet from the portal.
A drift was driven to the north for 175 feet, and from the end of this drift a raise was
driven to connect with the bottom of the old shaft. Half-way along the drift a second
raise was driven on the vein to surface. In all this work the only worth-while mineralization encountered was in the shaft raise near the bottom of the shaft.
At the Hector, which with the Danira was part of the Ainsworth Syndicate holdings
prior to 1954 (see Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1951, p. 159), R. Golac, of
Nelson, completed a development contract. The Hector adit is 950 feet east of the
Danira workings and lower in elevation. It had been driven 630 feet south westward
with 100 feet of drifting on a shear at 570 feet from the portal. In 1955 a raise was
driven to surface from this drift. The adit was also driven nearly due west to a distance
of about 1,200 feet from the portal. Most of this work was disappointing. A flow of
warm water encountered in the extension of the adit raised the underground air temperature 10 degrees.
Shaft-sinking was started at the Firebrand, but at a depth of 30 feet work ceased
because of winter conditions. 58 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The total ore milled from all sources is tabulated as follows:—■
Tons
Highlander   51,449
Eden and Crescent  2,563
Krao  1,916
Danira      313
Trinket         47
Tariff        12
McCune dump       125
Tariff dump         47
Little Phil dump         58
 5,081
Total, Yale properties  56,530
In addition, 27 tons was purchased from the Star mine. The grade of Yale ore
milled averaged over 5Yi per cent lead and \Yz per cent zinc.
A new crushing plant was completed adjacent to the mill. This consisted of a
300-ton coarse-ore bin, 13- by 24-inch Telsmith jaw crusher, 6-foot by 30-inch Dillon
screen, 22-inch Symons cone crusher, and a 160-foot conveyor to a 250-ton fine-ore
bin. The mill was enlarged by the addition of an Allis-Chalmers 5- by 6-foot ball mill
and extra flotation cells. The new machinery has increased the daily capacity to 300
tons.
Development: Raising, 2,248 feet; crosscutting, 847 feet; drifting, 2,248 feet.
The number of Yale employees averaged eighty-five.
Company office, 850 West Hastings Street, Vancouver; mine office,
Kootenay Florence Ainsworth.   H. M. Wright, president.   Capital:  2,500,000 shares,
(Western Mines    $1 par value.    This company owns a large group of claims lying
Limited) south of Lendrum Creek and astride Princess Creek.    The mine
plant and mill are on the Nelson-Kaslo Highway, 2 miles north
of Ainsworth, and have been kept intact since the shut-down in 1953. In 1954 The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, made an agreement for
eventual control. Geological and geophysical surveys were carried out in 1954, and
this work was followed by a diamond-drilling programme still in progress at the end of
1955. A gentle arc in the beds of limestone which strike roughly north-south was
investigated south and west of the old Lakeshore shaft. The limestone dips to the west,
and to investigate it three rows of holes were planned, the rows being 400 to 600 feet
apart from east to west. The holes were drilled north 60 degrees east and down at 55
degrees. In the first row the holes averaged 380 feet deep and were spaced 100 feet
apart on strike. These holes were collared in the overlying greywacke which extended
for 80 feet; then limestone was encountered for 300 feet, with the bottom of the holes
in quartz mica schist. Two mineralized bands were reported to be encountered in the
limestone, the upper band being as much as 35 feet wide. The second row of holes
encountered similar mineralized bands but at greater depth from surface, which in this
area is relatively flat. By the end of December the total footage drilled amounted to
11,000 feet, and a start had been made on the third row of holes. Closer drilling will
be required before the drill intersections can be correlated.
Company office, 355 Burrard Street, Vancouver.    S. A. Liening,
Hercules (Pataha)   Seattle, Wash., president; C. Lind, manager.   Capital:   3,000,000
(Triumph Mines    shares, $1 par value.   This company owns the Hercules, Sullivan,
Limited) and Noranda recorded claims, which are respectively the former
Pataha, Ellen, and Bugaboo cancelled Crown-granted claims.   In
1955 the holdings were enlarged by the acquisition of several adjoining Crown-granted LODE METALS
59
claims. Since 1954 a small but continuous development programme has been carried
out, mainly on the Hercules claim, 2.7 miles by road from the Kootenay Florence camp.
One fissure vein has been developed by about 400 feet of drifting and crosscutting and
two raises to surface. A small block of lead-zinc ore as much as 3 feet wide has been
outlined. An estimated 500 tons of ore obtained from development work has been stored
at the portal. A second fissure vein about 500 feet south of the first was explored in 1955.
A new adit was collared below the outcrop and followed the vein for 130 feet. Surface
diamond drilling done along the strike of the first vein totalled 400 feet in three holes.
All this work was considered sufficiently encouraging to warrant exploration at greater
depth, and to this end a road 1 mile long was built to an old adit situated on the Silver
Glance claim on the south bank of Lendrum Creek. This adit, which follows a narrow
quartz vein, was rehabilitated and enlarged throughout its length of 270 feet. It is
planned to extend this adit about 1,000 feet to get beneath the main Hercules adit 380
feet vertically above. Five tons of sorted ore was obtained from the clean-up of the
Silver Glance adit and was trucked to the Trail smelter.
A small mining plant is on site. H. Fowler, a Vancouver consultant, conducted
a survey during the summer. C. Lind was in charge of the development work with two
men employed.   The crew was transported daily from Kaslo.
The Star mine, owned by D. H. Norcross, of Nelson, is 6 miles by
Star road west of Ainsworth at an elevation of 3,700 feet.   It has been
idle since 1952. A vein has been developed by an adit 300 feet
long and stope raises to surface 65 feet above. Replacement ore occurs at intervals in the
limestone. In 1955 the owner, assisted by one man, enlarged the surface break-throughs
in the vicinity of old shaft workings. About 200 tons of ore was obtained from this work;
27 tons was sold to Yale Lead & Zinc Mines Limited, about 150 tons was delivered to the
Can-Amer mill, and the remainder was trucked to the Trail smelter.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1952, pp. 166-168.]
Woodbury Creek
(49°  116° N.W.)    Company office, 459 Baker Street, Nelson.
Can-Amer Mining L. N. Martini, Kennewick, Wash., president;   L.  D.  Besecker,
& Milling Ainsworth, manager.   Capital:  400 snares, $500 par value.  This
Company Ltd.      company erected a custom mill in 1953 at the mouth of Woodbury
Creek.   It has since operated intermittently on small shipments of
custom ore.  The following tonnage was treated in 1955: Caledonia, 103 tons; Dixie, 109
tons; Star, 50 tons.   About 100 tons of Star ore remained frozen in the ore-bin at the
end of 1955.   Milling charges were $6 per ton.
(49° 116° N.W.) L. D. Besecker, of Ainsworth, owns the Wood-
Woodbury bury group of claims at the mouth of Woodbury Creek. The
Nelson-Kaslo Highway crosses the property. The only claim
worked in 1955 was the Dixie Fraction. A new adit, started in 1954 on a fissure vein,
was extended. Production amounted to 109 tons which was treated at the Can-Amer
mill. The ore assayed 7.4 per cent lead and 3.7 per cent zinc. Only a lead concentrate
was made, which was shipped to the Trail smelter.
KEEN CREEK*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49° 117° N.E.) This Crown-granted claim is on the southeast
Silver Bear        side of Keen Creek, 14 miles by road from Kaslo.   In 1955 Miss
Naomi E. Cloggie, of Edmonton, obtained the property from the
bankrupt Abacot Mines Limited. No work was done at the mine, but a small shipment
of ore previously mined was made to the Trail smelter by A. V. Fiala, of Ainsworth.
* By J. W. Peck. 60
Silver-Lead-Zinc
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
PADDY PEAK4
(49° 117° N.E.) The Utica mine is at the head of Twelve Mile
Utica Creek, about 15 miles by road from Kaslo.   It is owned by Utica
Mines (1937) Limited, and has been under lease since 1953 to
J. A. Cooper, of Kaslo. The main level is the No. 7 adit, which is connected by raise to
the No. 4 adit. A sublevel, the No. 5, has been driven from the raise to develop two
parallel veins known as the East and West veins. As in 1954, all production in 1955
was from the East vein. The stope started in 1954 on No. 7 level produced most of the
ore, but in October a stope on No. 5 level, last mined in 1950, was put into production.
Mining was by cut-and-fill methods. The nearly vertical vein contained from 1 to 6
inches of galena with a high silver content. Ore was removed by horse haulage via the
No. 7 level. Air for drilling was supplied by the old water-driven compressor, but this
was supplemented in the winter by a Le Roi 210-cubic-feet-per-minute compressor. Four
men were engaged at this operation. Production: Ore shipped, 115 tons. Gross content:
Silver, 16,260 oz.; lead, 32,909 lb.; zinc, 38,165 lb.
RETALLACK-THREE FORKS*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Jackson (Jackson
Basin Mining Co.
Ltd.)
(50° 117° S.E.) Company office, 303, 403 Granville Street, Vancouver; mine office, Kaslo. B. I. Nesbitt, managing director; D.
McLean, manager; J. Ives, superintendent. Capital: 3,000,000
shares, no par value. This company owns the Jackson mine on
Stenson (Jackson) Creek, 5.7 miles from Retallack. The main
workings are on the Northern Belle claim, where the Jackson lode has been developed by
five adits and a 45-degree inclined shaft. No. 5, the lowest adit, intersects the shaft 80
feet below the collar at a point 200 feet from the adit portal. The shaft extends to No. 6
level, about 150 feet vertically below No. 5 level. There is a raise on the lode to
No. 5 level from a point on No. 6 level 80 feet northeast of the shaft. A sublevel 70
feet long is driven from this raise; both faces of the sublevel are well mineralized. In
1955 No. 6 level was driven southwest and northeast on the lode to points 125 and 250
feet respectively from the shaft. Five exploratory raises were driven a short distance
above No. 6 level. Two of these, near each side of the shaft, contained ore and the others
were in waste. The best showing on No. 6 level is at the southwest face, where 2 feet of
massive sphalerite is exposed. Three diamond-drill holes were drilled from No. 6 level
to a total of 129 feet, but the results were negative. On No. 5 level a raise was driven 90
feet from a point 430 feet southwest of the shaft. The only worth-while mineralization
exposed was in the first 20 feet. A few hundred tons of ore was salvaged from development work and was trucked to the Western Exploration mill at Silverton.
On the surface the Ore Bin vein, which was discovered in 1954 near the ore-bin at
No. 5 portal, was tested by diamond drilling. A hole 121 feet long was drilled at minus
45 degrees. Scattered sphalerite mineralization was reported to occur throughout the
length of the core, but not in sufficient concentrations to be of ore grade.
On the Kootenay Star claim across Jackson Creek there is an old adit which apparently was driven to test the extension of the Jackson lode. This was rehabilitated and
mapped.   No ore mineralization was found in these workings.
On the Sunset-Trade Dollar and Bell group, which lies 1 mile south of Jackson mine
at the head of Jackson Creek, the No. 4 level of the Bell workings was rehabilitated.
A diamond-drill station was established at the face of the south crosscut. Four holes were
drilled to a total of 1,178 feet to test the downward extension of the Sunset-Trade Dollar
vein.   Results were reported to be unsatisfactory.
* By J. W. Peck. LODE METALS
61
Keystone Charleston (Slocan
Charleston Mining
Company Limited)
On the Morning Star claim, which lies north of the Jackson mine, an old drift was
opened up and examined. This drift extends for a distance of 79 feet and was driven on
a quartz-galena vein 2 to 3 inches wide. An inclined winze 15 feet from the portal could
not be examined, but it is estimated to be about 50 feet deep.
In November all operations ceased at the Jackson mine and most of the equipment
was removed. Up to fifteen men were employed when the property was operating.
Production: Ore shipped, 595 tons. Gross content: Silver, 614 oz.; lead, 11,660 lb.;
zinc, 147,326 lb.
(50° 117° S.E.) Company office, 609 Baker Street, Nelson. Ray
McDonald, Seattle, Wash., president. Capital: 1,000,000 shares,
$1 par value. This company acquired the Keystone-Charleston
group of claims in 1946 but has been inactive since 1950. The
mine camp is on the west side of Whitewater Creek, 2.2 miles by
road north of Retallack. All work in 1955 was in the Keystone
mine. A steeply dipping lode has been developed by two adits, the upper being 170 feet
long and the lower 430 feet. In 1950 a raise connection was made between the two adits
and ore was mined at that time from near the top of the raise. In 1955 this ore was mined
nearly to surface above the upper adit over a length of 60 feet. The lode maintained a
width of 4 feet with an average grade of 3 per cent lead and 5 per cent zinc. The hanging-
wall was very smooth and required support. The ore was trucked to the Carnegie mill at
Sandon. J. Vlahovich was in charge with four men employed. The property was closed
in November.   Production:   Ore milled, 602 tons.
(50° 117° S.E.)   The Caledonia mine is east of Rossiter Creek,
a southerly flowing tributary of Kaslo River.  A short access road
leads to the workings from Blaylock.    It is worked intermittently
by the owner, G. E. McCready, of Retallack.    Production:   Ore milled at Can-Amer
mill, 103 tons; ore shipped, 8 tons.
Caledonia
SANDON*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Silversmith, etc.
(Carnegie Mines
of British
Columbia, Ltd.)
(49° 117° N.E.) Head office, 1160 Peel Street, Montreal; mine
office, Sandon. A. E. Sinclair, president; T. R. Buckham, mine
manager. Capital: 10,000 shares, $1 par value. This company
owns the Silversmith, Slocan Star, Richmond-Eureka, Ruth Hope,
and Slocan King mines on Sandon Creek, south of Sandon. A
truck-road extends to all mines from the mill on the western outskirts of Sandon. In 1955 work was restricted to the No. 10 level of the Silversmith.
About 3,200 feet from the portal a crosscut was started into the hangingwall to investigate the projection of parallel vein systems determined by previous geological mapping.
About 200 feet of a possible 1,800-foot drive had been completed by December.
The mill operated briefly, treating 602 tons of Keystone Charleston ore.  About six
men were employed at irregular intervals.
(49° 117° N.E.) Head office, 721 Eastern Avenue, Toronto.
James A. Taylor, president; D. M. Kline, consultant; R. E. Miller,
manager. Capital: 3,000,000 shares, $1 par value. This company owns a group of claims north of Cody, including old mines
such as the Noble Five, Slocan Sovereign, Last Chance, American
A road extends from the mill at Cody to all principal workings.
The mill can also be served by tram-line from the lower portals of the Noble Five and
Slocan Sovereign mines.
All work in 1955 was in the Noble Five mine.   This mine is serviced by a long adit
crosscut (No. 18 level) and a 1,000-foot, vertical, interior, 4-compartment shaft extend-
Noble Five, etc.
(Cody-Reco Mines
Limited)
Boy, and Deadman.
*ByJ. W. Peck. 62
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
ing from this adit to No. 8 adit. Another raise connection was made on the Noble Five
vein from No. 18 to No. 16 level, making between these levels a total of three raises on
this vein and one on the Spur vein. In most of these raises the mineralization exposed
was disappointing. In the 18-24 raise, which does not carry through to No. 16 level, a
short section of well-mineralized vein 2 feet wide was encountered. A sublevel was
established about 100 feet vertically above No. 18 level and driven for 230 feet. Exploratory raises were driven off the sublevel, but none of this work revealed mineralization
of ore grade. On No. 16 level two exploratory raises were driven on the Noble Five vein.
The longest of these was driven for 500 feet at about 45 degrees, and from it Nos. 15 and
14 sublevels were driven 100 feet and 200 feet respectively vertically above No. 16 level.
No. 15 level was driven for 120 feet. Zincy mineralization was exposed in this work but
was erratic in distribution. No. 18 level, the main adit crosscut, was extended to a point
350 feet northwest of the shaft. At 140 feet from the shaft a drift was driven to the
northeast for 100 feet on a slightly mineralized shear. Also on No. 18 level, the Spur
vein (also called Cody) was followed by a drift to a point 450 feet west of the main adit
crosscut. From the end of this drift a crosscut was driven 350 feet north, where a vein
0 to 6 inches wide was intersected. This was believed to be the downward projection of
the American Boy vein. It was followed by a drift for 200 feet, and exploratory box
holes were put up, but the mineralization exposed by December was negligible.
The mill was started May 24th after being closed since 1952. It operated until June
23rd, when a flash flood disrupted operations. Ore was obtained from the stockpile that
had been built up at the mill over the past three years from development work. About
1,500 tons was milled. The mill-heads assayed less than 4 per cent combined lead and
zinc. The concentrates, including zinc concentrates that had been on site since 1952,
were trucked to rail-head at Sandon.
R. E. Miller severed his connection with the company in October. W. Hall was then
in charge. The crew varied from five to twenty.
(49° 117° N.E.)    This is a recorded claim situated astride Car-
Shady Fraction     penter Creek,  one-half mile east of Cody.    It is bounded on
the west by the Crown-granted Wellington claim. The owner, N.
Sibilleau, of New Denver, made a small shipment of float material to the Trail smelter.
Production:   1.5 tons.   Gross content:  Silver, 121 oz.; lead, 2,080 lb.
(49° 117° N.E.)    Head office, 67 Yonge Street, Toronto; mine
Victor (Violamac    office, New Denver.   Mrs. Viola R. MacMillan, president;  J. C.
Mines Limited)     Black, mine manager.   Capital:   5,000,000 shares, $1 par value.
This company owns the Victor mine, 2Y2 miles by road northwest
of Sandon, or 2Yz miles by road southeast of Three Forks. The nearly vertical Victor
vein has been developed by several adits, the lowest being No. 9. Most of the ore has
come from stopes between No. 7 and No. 5 levels. The stoping area has a length of 900
feet, in which the vein ranges in width from a crack to as much as 6 feet. Cut-and-fill
stoping methods are used with close timbering. During 1955 a winze was sunk from No.
7 level to connect with No. 9 level at a point 2,100 feet from No. 9 portal. A sublevel
was established in this winze at the bottom of the ore zone. Very little ore is exposed on
No. 9 level, but a new ore section was discovered in a raise put up from near the inner
end of this level. No. 7 level was driven ahead to connect with this raise and then was
continued to investigate further ore possibilities. A sublevel was established in the raise.
On the surface a vein was exposed in 1953 near the compressor-house at the portal
of No. 9 adit. In 1955 a similar vein and possibly the same one was exposed 160 feet
lower and 300 feet northeast. A road was built to the latter showing and 200 feet of adit
had been driven by December.
Sorted ore which assayed over 70 per cent lead and 100 ounces of silver to the ton
continued to be shipped to the Trail smelter. The remainder had a milling grade of over
20 per cent combined lead and zinc and over 20 ounces of silver to the ton.   It was LODE METALS
63
Lone Bachelor
(Lone Bachelor
Mines Limited)
trucked to the Western Exploration mill at Silverton at an average of over 1,800 tons per
month. The number of men employed averaged sixty-eight.
(49° 117° N.E.)   This company is controlled by Violamac Mines
Limited, which owns the adjoining Victor mine. The main haulage
adit is the No. 4 level, which is connected by raises via a sublevel
to the old No. 3 adit.   In 1955 the sublevel was driven 200 feet to
a full length of 650 feet.   A narrow vein which contained small
lenses of galena was followed.   Some drifting and raising was done on the same vein
on No. 4 level.   All services were supplied from the Violamac camp.  Two men were
employed.
(49° 117° N.E.)    The Hinkley is an old Crown-granted claim
Hinckley situated east of the Victor claim about half-way along the Sandon-
Victor mine road. It is owned by W. D. Pengelly and associates,
of New Denver and Silverton. In 1954 a short access road was built to an old adit and
some drifting done on a narrow lode containing small lenses of galena. This work was
continued in 1955. Sorted ore was trucked to the Trail smelter. The remainder was
stored for future milling at a custom mill. A road was built to a site below this stockpile
to allow it to be handled by a chute. A building was erected for housing the small
compressor.   Two men were engaged in this work.
Wonderful (Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited).—(49° 117° N.E.) Company office, 373 Baker Street, Nelson. Harry F. Magnuson, Wallace, Idaho, president;
J. R. Kenney, managing director. Capital: 5,000,000 shares, 50 cents par value. This
company owns a large group of claims southwest of Sandon, including the Wonderful.
The property has been idle since 1953 but the plant has been kept intact. In 1955 two
men were employed doing surface exploration.
SLOCAN LAKE*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49° 117° N.E.)  Company office, 38 South Dearborn Street, Chi-
Mammoth, Stand-  cago, 111.;   mine office, Silverton.    M. P. McCullough, Chicago,
ard, Enterprise,     president; A. M. Ham, Silverton, managing director; R. A. Avison,
Monarch (Western mine superintendent.    Capital:   2,000,000 shares, 50 cents par
Exploration value.   This company owns the Mammoth, Monarch, and Standard
Company Limited) mines near Silverton, and the Enterprise mine on Enterprise Creek,
HY2 miles by road south of Silverton.   The Monarch lode, which
lies between the Mammoth and Standard mines, has been developed since 1952 by
several thousand feet of drifting and crosscutting in the Monarch adit (elevation, 5,350
feet).   In 1954 the No. 7 adit level of the Mammoth mine (elevation, 5,040 feet) was
extended to reach under an orebody outlined by diamond drilling below the Monarch
adit.   The drift, called the Hecla, was extended 2,633 feet in 1955 to a total length of
about 4,000 feet.   A mineralized section, about 500 feet long, was encountered in this
drift.   A raise was started toward the orebody lying below the Monarch adit.    It had
reached 160 feet at 62 degrees when all work ceased for the winter months.
The Standard was idle except for leasing operations. C. E. Towgood and J. Nesbitt
obtained 183 tons from the No. 2 level, and this ore was milled at the company's mill.
W. Postlethwaite and J. Kelly obtained 109 tons for milling from a stope on No. 6 level
about 2,000 feet from the portal. W. Nelson mined 174 tons from No. 7 level, and this
was also milled at the company's mill.
The Enterprise mine remained closed, but the camp is intact and a watchman is
employed.
* By J. W. Peck. 64 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The mill operated throughout 1955, treating Violamac ore on a custom basis. In
addition to that mentioned, custom milling was done for the Van Roi and Jackson mines.
The number of men employed averaged thirty-four.
(49° 117° N.E.)    Company office, 532 Burrard Street, Vancou-
Van Roi, Hewitt    ver; mine office, Silverton.   G. W. West, mine manager.   Capital:
(Slocan Van Roi    5,000,000 shares, no par value.   This company is a reorganization
Mines Limited)     of Van Roi Consolidated Mines Ltd., which owned the Van Roi
and  Hewitt  mines  near  Silverton.   Transcontinental  Resources
Limited has directional control.   The Hewitt mine, 6V4 miles by road southeast of Silver-
ton, was reopened in the latter half of 1955.   It had been idle since 1952, except for some
work done by lessees in 1954.   On the lowest or No. 10 level, an orebody about 2,000
feet from the portal has been stoped in the past above the level.   To investigate this ore-
body at depth a drift 430 feet long was driven into the hangingwall and diamond-drilling
stations established.    The drift followed a mineralized brecciated quartz shear for 200
feet.   Diamond drilling was in progress at the end of 1955.   Air for drilling was supplied
by a portable compressor at the portal.   Other services were supplied from the Van Roi
camp.   As many as ten men were employed.
A shipment of 5 tons was made by E. Merrill and H. Lyon, who leased the Hewitt
in 1954.
The Van Roi mine and camp are one-quarter mile by road east of the Hewitt No. 10
portal. Since 1953 the mine has been under lease to M. Slobodzian, J. W. Miller, and
L. Fried. These lessees continued to obtain most of their ore from an underhand stope
in the southwest end of the workings on No. 3 level. This stope was more than 100 feet
deep on a 45-degree incline. The sorted ore was shipped to the Trail smelter and the
remainder was stored in an old ore-pass which extends from No. 5 to No. 3 levels. The
latter ore was trucked to the Western Exploration mill at Silverton whenever milling
facilities became available.   A total of 1,457 tons was milled in 1955.
The Van Roi mill is 1 mile south of Silverton on the Nelson-Nakusp Highway.
Since its shut-down in 1952 the sink-float plant and the power units have been removed.
Late in 1955 power units were again installed and the flotation circuit was improved by
the addition of more cells. It is expected the mill should be able to treat custom and
company ore early in 1956.
(49° 117° N.E.)    Company office, 511, 850 West Hastings Street,
Bosun (New       Vancouver.   Capital:  3,000,000 shares, 50 cents par value.   The
Santiago Mines     Bosun mine is on the east shore of Slocan Lake, YYi miles south
Limited) of New Denver on the Nelson-Nakusp Highway.   The main haul
age, No. 6 adit, is driven beneath the highway from a site 40 feet
above the lake. At 2,730 feet from the portal an inclined winze extends to No. 7 and
No. 8 levels. The mine has been idle since 1953. In 1955 a small crew was engaged
to unwater the winze, but the project was abandoned after a few weeks. J. Zambon was
in charge of this work.
(49° 117° n.E.)   This mine is about 2 miles by road south of Sil-
Galena Farm       verton.   For several years it has been under intermittent lease to
Frank S. Mills, of Silverton.   Only surface work was done in 1955.
An interesting discovery of a lead-silver fissure was made in the vicinity of bulldozer
stripping done in 1954.
(49° 117° N.E.)    The Noonday mine is just east of the Galena
Noonday Farm mine.    It is owned by R. Wilson-Smith and the Bank of
Montreal. M. Arishenkoff, of Shoreacres, who leased the property in 1954, made a 10-ton shipment to the Trail smelter in 1955. LODE METALS 65
Silver-Gold
(49°   117°  N.E.)    This  Crown-granted claim  is  on  Memphis
V & M (Twelve Mile) Creek about \Yi miles east of the Nelson-Nakusp
Highway. It was under lease from the Crown in 1955 by A. Archibald, W. Thicket, and W. Boisvert. A small shipment was made to the Trail smelter.
Production: Ore shipped, 3 tons. Gross content: Gold, 3 oz.; silver, 398 oz.; lead,
51 lb.; zinc, 19 lb.
Lemon Creek (49° 117° N.E.)
Uranium
The Try Again group on Lemon Creek is owned by D. Bain, of
Try Again Trail.   It was consolidated with an adjoining group owned by W.
McLeod, of Silverton, and the combined property was optioned to
Jackson Basin Mining Co. Ltd. This company acquired more claims by location so that
a large area was controlled on both sides of Lemon Creek. The original discovery of
a radioactive mineral was made in 1950 on the Try Again claim on the south bank of
Lemon Creek at a point on the Lemon Creek road 2 miles from its junction with the
Nelson-Nakusp Highway. A quartz-pegmatite dyke in granite gave higher than normal
readings on the Geiger counter, the radioactivity being associated with a black mineral
identified as allanite. Since 1950 D. Bain had driven an adit at the level of the Lemon
Creek road 30 feet on the dyke. In 1955 Jackson Basin Mining Co. Ltd. widened the
adit and extended it to a length of 94 feet. The quartz-pegmatite did not appear to have
any definite strike or dip. It persisted for approximately 70 feet in the adit and then
disappeared. Only minor amounts of the black mineral were exposed. It was reported
that fergusonite had been tentatively identified, but it would appear that allanite was still
responsible for most of the above-normal radioactivity. A sample of selected black
mineral taken at the portal-site in 1950 assayed 0.051 per cent uranium oxide.
On the surface a scintillometer survey was made, chiefly on the Try Again group.
Several anomalies were found to the north of the Try Again claim, and some trenching
was done, but with disappointing results. All work ceased by September, and the options
on the claims owned by Bain and McLeod were dropped.
LOWER ARROW LAKE*
Silver
(50° 117° S.W.)    This Crown-granted claim is west of Burton on
Chieftain the south side of Caribou Creek.   In 1955 it was under lease from
the Crown by Randolph Harding, of Silverton.   A small shipment
of ore salvaged from previous work was made to the Trail smelter.    Production:   Ore
shipped, 3 tons.   Gross content:   Gold, Yx oz.; silver, 72 oz.; lead, 61 lb.; zinc, 34 lb.
Silver-Lead-Zinc-Tungsten
(49°  118° S.E.)   The Renata group of four claims owned by
Renata R. W. Cook, of Castlegar, is on the east side of Dog Creek, 1 mile
by road south of Renata. The claims are adjacent to the old Mountain Chief property and cover ground that at one time was held as the Peggy and Rick-
ward claims. The workings consist of several open-cuts exposing metamorphosed limestone intruded by granite. In 1955 these cuts were deepened and enlarged. The large
open-cut at the north end of the workings now exposes granite for 20 feet, then a 6- to
12-inch band of skarn, then limestone. A sample taken across 6 inches of the skarn
assayed 0.21 per cent tungstic oxide and 0.34 per cent lead. This compares with a sample
taken in 1953 across 1 foot of the same band of skarn but 10 feet higher in elevation,
which assayed 0.2 per cent tungstic oxide.   The limestone is also mineralized with galena
* By J. W. Peck. 66 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
and scheelite, but the mineralization is erratic and difficult to sample. About 15 feet
south of this cut a second cut, which started in limestone, was deepened to reach the
granite. A sample across 3 feet of limestone on the south wall of the cut near the contact
assayed: Lead, 9.55 per cent; tungstic oxide, 0.25 per cent. A second sample, adjacent
to the first sample, across 6 feet, assayed: Lead, 1.09 per cent; tungstic oxide, 0.11 per
cent.
Copper
(49° 118° S.E.)    Company office, 1, 373 Baker Street, Nelson.
Mountain Chief    W. W. Ferguson, president.    Capital:   300,000 shares, $1 per
(Renata Copper    value.   This company owns a group of claims on the east side of
Company Limited) Dog Creek south of Renata.   The main workings are on the Mountain Chief Crown-granted claim.   The property has been idle since
1922.   In 1955 a new road was built from the Dog Creek road, so that these workings
are about 3Vi miles by road from Renata.   An orebody of copper sulphides in silicified
limestone has been developed by an open pit and an inclined shaft 110 feet deep with
a level at 50 feet.   In the latter half of 1955 the property was optioned to United Estella
Mines Ltd.    The shaft was unwatered, and four holes, totalling about 400 feet, were
diamond drilled from the shaft and the 50-foot level.   The work was under the direction
of B. I. Nesbitt.   The option was dropped after this work.
[Reference:  Minister of Mines, B.C. Ann. Rept., 1927, pp. 328-329.]
NORTH LARDEAU*
Gold-Silver-Lead-Zinc
(50° 117°N.W.) Company office, 307,413 Granville Street, Van-
Spider, Eclipse couver; mine office, Beaton. J. Drybrough, president; G. G. Sulli-
(Sunshine Lardeau van, manager; C. Anderson, mine superintendent; E. Hall, mill
Mines Limited) superintendent. Capital: 4,000,000 shares, no par value. Berens
River Mines Limited has operating control. The mine camp and
mill are at the old townsite of Camborne, 6 miles by road northeast of Beaton on the
northeast arm of Upper Arrow Lake. The mine is on Pool Creek, 2 miles by very steep
road from Camborne. The Spider orebody, which was discovered in 1950, has been
developed by several adits, the lowest being No. 10 (elevation, 2,763 feet). The orebody
is vein-like with a northerly strike and a dip to the east of 75 degrees. It is 1 to 4 feet
wide, except at the junction of short branch veins, where the width is as much as 18 feet.
The length of the orebody ranged from 100 feet on No. 5 level to over 400 feet on No.
10 level. By the end of 1955 it had been mined out above No. 10 level, except for
a section between No. 10 and No. 8 levels at the southern extremity. Mining was by
shrinkage stoping. Diamond drilling was being done at the end of the year to probe the
orebody below No. 10 level and determine whether development below this level was
warranted.
Development continued in the Eclipse orebody, which is serviced by a 1,000-foot
crosscut from the No. 10 level of the Spider mine. Drifting on this orebody on No. 10
level totalled 300 feet and exposed an ore section 180 feet long similar to the Spider
orebody. A raise was put up 200 feet and a sublevel established at 110 feet. This sub-
level was driven both ways for a total length of 240 feet, but the ore did not have as great
a length as on No. 10 level. Mineralization pinched out in the raise about 20 feet above
the sublevel.
The Sandy adit, which is at an elevation of 2,730 feet and 2,400 feet west of the
No. 10 portal of the Spider mine, was extended to a total of about 500 feet of workings.
At 300 feet from the portal a branch vein of zincy mineralization 1 foot wide was followed
for 60 feet.   The rest of the work in this adit was disappointing.
* By J. W. Peck. LODE METALS
67
The mill operated at about 2,200 tons per month. The concentrates and crude ore
were transported by truck and Arrow Lakes barge service to rail-head at Nakusp and
then to smelters at Kellogg and Silver King, Idaho. The number of men employed averaged sixty-three.
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Beatrice (Beatrice
Mining Co. Ltd.)
Molly Mac
SMollie Mac Mines
Limited)
(50° 117° N.W.) Company office, 404 Pemberton Building, 744
West Hastings Street, Vancouver. W. J. Scorgie, president and
managing director. Capital: 50,000 shares, $1 par value. This
company owns a group of claims at the head of the east fork of
Mohawk Creek. Included in the group are the Beatrice and Folsom Crown-granted
claims and four recorded claims which cover in part the cancelled Crown-granted Florence
and Silver Crown claims. The main workings are on the Beatrice and are accessible by
4 miles of trail from the Spider mine road. As in 1954, work in 1955 was restricted to
repairing the trail, improving the log cabin living-site, and cleaning out the mine portals.
Some assessment work was also done on surface.
(50° 117° N.E.)   Company office, 850 West Hastings Street, Vancouver.   W. R. Wheeler, president.   Capital: 3,000,000 shares, $1
par value.   This company owns the Molly Mac group of claims on
the northwest side of Gainer Creek valley, 9Y2 miles by road from
Ferguson.   A lead-silver limestone replacement ore zone was partially outlined by adit development in 1954.   No underground work was done in 1955.
A small crew was employed for a few weeks to complete the construction of two substantial log dwellings on the southeast bank of Gainer Creek.
[Reference:  Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1954, pp. 143-144.]
(50° 117° N.E.)    This property on Great Northern Mountain is
Broadview, accessible by 3Yi miles of road which extends north from Ferguson
True Fissure to the True Fissure camp. The Broadview, which is south of the
True Fissure, has had very little work done on it in the last fifty
years. The True Fissure was last active in 1952, when The Granby Consolidated Mining
Smelting and Power Company Limited carried out an underground diamond-drilling programme for the Toronto consulting firm of W. F. James, B. S. W. Buffam, and M. A.
Cooper. In 1955 this consulting firm supervised a surface drilling programme at the
Broadview on behalf of Yellowknife Bear Mines Limited, of Toronto. A tractor-road
1 mile long was built from the True Fissure road to the drilling-sites. Four holes were
drilled to a total of 1,500 feet.
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(50° 117° N.E.)    These groups of claims at the head of Hall
Bannockburn,      Creek were under option in 1955 to The Granby Consolidated
Wagner Mining Smelting and Power Company Limited.   The main work
ings are reached by trail from the Healy Creek road, which leaves
the Lardeau-Gerrard road 3 miles southeast of Gerrard. The Wagner was last worked
in 1950; the Bannockburn has been idle for over fifty years. In 1955 a surface diamond-
drilling programme was carried out on the latter group. A 10- to 30-foot band of mineralized, grey to buff, fine-grained impure limy sediments was tested by short holes 50
feet deep, drilled at close intervals along the strike. This band of sediments strikes
southeast from Hall Creek, across the Bannockburn, Buckeye, Silver Bottom, and
Superior Crown-granted claims, and has an exposed length of over 2,300 feet. The
showings range from 6,100 to 6,650 feet in elevation. Two holes were drilled near the
old Bannockburn adit, which is 400 feet northeast of the band at an elevation of 5,980
feet. Snow conditions forced an early withdrawal in the fall. The option was dropped
at the end of 1955 and the ground reverted to the agent, J. Gallo, of Howser. 68
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
SOUTH LARDEAU*
(50° 116° S.W.)    This group of claims lies northwest of Glacier
J.G. Creek and extends across a mountain ridge to the lower arm of
Duncan Lake.   It is owned by J. Gallo and associates, of Howser,
but was optioned late in 1955 to Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mining and Concentrating
Company, of Kellogg, Idaho.    Only exploratory work could be done before winter
conditions forced cessation of activities.
CRESTON
Copper
Creston Hill (Bon
Ton Syndicate)
surface exploration.
(49° 116° S.E.) This property is 1 mile south of the Creston-
Cranbrook Highway, 2 miles west of Kitchener. Reward Uranium
Ltd., of Edmonton, Alta., optioned the property and began an
investigation of two zones of copper mineralization disclosed by
At a point 500 feet north of and 100 feet higher than the original
portal, a crew of two men, crosscutting in an easterly direction, completed 50 feet of an
estimated 140-foot crosscut to intersect a northerly trending, chalcopyrite-bearing ore
zone. A parallel ore zone containing low-grade secondary copper mineralization is
reported to be at the contact of a diorite sill 400 feet east of the zone being investigated.
MOYIE RIVERf
Lead-Zinc-Tungsten-Uranium
(49° 116° S.E.)    F. H. Giles, of Kimberley, and three associates
Cariboo continued surface stripping on this property astride the Nelson-
Fort Steele Mining Division boundary at the head of North Moyie
Creek. Using a bulldozer, 220 feet of trench was stripped on the east side of the main
mineral outcrops which occur in limestone. The outcrops were exposed further by
ground-sluicing.
ST. MARY RIVERf
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Boy Scout (Thomas Consolidated Mines Incorporated).—(49° 116° N.E.) Company office, 640 Peyton Building, Spokane, Wash.; mine office, Marysville. David E.
Watson, president and manager. This company operates the Warhorse mine on Hell-
roaring Creek, 5 miles by road from St. Mary Lake. The 4500 level adit was extended
793 feet to a total length of 3,794 feet, and 35 feet of crosscutting was done. In addition
to this work, five exploratory diamond-drill holes totalling 390 feet were drilled. Five
men were employed.
KIMBERLEYf
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49° 115° N.W.)    Company office, 215 St. James Street West,
Sullivan (The Con- Montreal; mine and smelter office, Trail.   R. E. Stavert, Montreal,
solidated Mining
and Smelting
Company of
Canada, Limited)
president; R. W. Diamond, Trail, vice-president and general manager. Sullivan mine office, Kimberley. B. E. Hurdle, general
superintendent; J. R. Giegerich, mine superintendent; A. G. Robertson, mill superintendent. Capital: 20,000,000 shares, no par
value. This company owns 678 Crown-granted mineral claims
and fractions in a block in the Kimberley area, covering and surrounding the mine workings from which 68,500,000 tons of ore have been mined since December, 1909, when
the company began work on this property. A comprehensive summary report of the
property was prepared by the staff at the Sullivan mine and published in the May, 1954,
» By J. W. Peck.
t By J. E. Merrett. LODE METALS
69
special issue of the Canadian Mining Journal. The following report, prepared by the
management, is a synopsis of the 1955 operations:—
" The Sullivan mine produced and the concentrator handled the highest production
on record, over 2,800,000 tons, an average of approximately 54,000 tons per week.
Approximately 20 per cent of this came from the Open Pit, where ore pillars are being
removed by quarrying. Pillar recovery accounted for the major portion of the production
from the North, South, and Centre sections of the mine above the 3900 level, which areas
furnished 58 per cent of the mine production. The remainder of the ore was produced
by primary stoping in the area below the 3900 level.
" Long-hole drilling methods, employing diamond and percussion drills with sectional steel, accounted for 94 per cent of the underground production. The remaining
tonnage from underground came from open stopes, using the ordinary bench mining
methods with conventional steel and tungsten carbide bits. The trend to more long-hole
drilling from raises and less from sublevels continued. The diamond-drill method of
sinking winzes, which are used in float filling the completed stopes below 3900 level, was
continued.   Six winzes, averaging 48 feet in length, were drilled and blasted.
" Development footage was slightly less than in 1954, because less exploration and
less ventilation development was required. The large-scale over-all mine ventilation
development was successfully concluded with the sinking of No. 33 shaft, the entrance
to the central intake airway.
" Four surface fans for the main intake and return airways were installed. These
included a 150-horsepower Jeffrey 8HU-84 Aerodyne fan on No. 24 shaft intake, with
202,000 cubic-feet-per-minute capacity; a similar Jeffrey fan on No. 33 shaft intake,
with 175,000 cubic-feet-per-minute capacity; and two 300-horsepower Jeffrey 12A-58
Aerodyne fans on No. 29 shaft exhaust, with 282,000 cubic-feet-per-minute capacity.
These installations completed the over-all mine ventilation scheme that was started in
1952. The total volume of air exhausted from the mine is 730,000 cubic meet per
minute.
" In 1955, 260,000 cubic yards of gravel backfill was placed in mined-out areas
above the 3900 level, and 229,000 cubic yards of float fill, from the concentrator, was
placed in stopes below the 3900 level. Natural caving of waste rock from the hanging-
wall accounted for 1,224,000 cubic yards of backfilling above the 3900 level.
" Communications and safety conditions for underground transportation crews were
improved by the installation of two-way radio trolley phones on six 3900 level haulage
motors and in the dispatcher's control booth. The addition of five remote-controlled
electric track switches at key junctions has increased safety and efficiency.
" The sustained safety programme at the mine and mill was effective in maintaining
the 1954 accident-frequency figure of 0.11 per thousand shifts worked. The severity
figure increased to 8.1 shifts lost per thousand shifts worked. The mill established an
all-time record with only five lost-time accidents for a frequency of 0.04 and a severity
rate of 2.6 per thousand shifts worked. The Open Pit and South section of the mine set
new section safety records by working 884 and 544 days, respectively, without a lost-time
accident.
" Twenty-two employees attended the Underground School of Instruction, making
a total of 1,863 who have received training since 1946. Twelve mine-rescue men were
trained, and forty-two employees took part in mine-rescue competitions. In first aid, a
total of 436 St. John Ambulance certificates were awarded to 234 adults and 202 schoolchildren who had qualified after a course of instruction.
" At the year-end the number of men employed at the mine and concentrator was
1,480, of which 643 were employed underground." 70 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
WASA*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(49° 115° N.W.) Company office, 917 Vancouver Block, Van-
Estella (United couver; mine office, Wasa. G. Annesley, managing director; B. I.
Estella Mines Ltd.) Nesbitt, manager; J. Austin, superintendent. Estella Mines Limited was reorganized in 1955 to form United Estella Mines Ltd.
The mill-site is at Wasa on the Kootenay Central Railway, 9 miles north of Fort Steele.
The mine is at an elevation of 6,000 feet in a basin at the head of Tracy Creek, 18 miles
by road east of Wasa.
Underground exploration, which had been suspended for a two-year period, was
resumed in June, 1955. At the southeast end of the 6100 level, 35 feet of crosscut was
driven but did not disclose additional ore on this level. Most of the work was done on
the 5950 level. This level was extended in a southeasterly direction by 156 feet of drift
and by three crosscuts totalling 109 feet. The drift followed the lode through a fault zone
and exposed approximately 100 feet of disseminated mineralization which had an average
width of 14 feet. As the mineralization did not continue to the drift face, two exploratory
raises, one 20 feet long and the other 60 feet long, were driven upward on ore. Considerable faulting was encountered and the raises were discontinued. To improve
ventilation on the 5950 level, a third raise was driven a distance of 25 feet to connect
with the 75-degree winze from the 6100 level. Two diamond-drill holes totalling 150
feet in length were directed under the mineralized area. A third hole, 100 feet long, was
drilled vertically upward from the east end of the 6250 drift in the Rover adit. When the
work on the 5950 level was completed, the R-14 raise in the Rover workings was
extended 135 feet to a total length of 287 feet. Work was suspended in December
because of winter conditions.   A crew of twelve men was employed.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1951, pp. 186-190; 1953, pp.
150-151.]
WINDERMERE*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(50° 116° S.E.)    Company office, K.W.C. Block, Nelson.    H. E.
Paradise (Sheep    Doelle, managing director;  J. B. Magee, resident manager.    This
Creek Gold Mines  property is at the headwaters of Springs Creek, a tributary of Toby
Limited) Creek.   The mine, at an elevation of 7,800 feet, is 20 miles by road
west of Athalmer. In June, 1955, work began on the repair of the
road between Jackpine Flat on Toby Creek and the mine. In August, after the mine
buildings had been repaired, a crew of seven men, five of which were employed underground, completed the driving of a manway and ore-pass from the 7800 level to the
7860 hangingwall stope. Using square-set mining methods, 694 tons of ore was mined,
of which 534 tons was trucked to the Mineral King concentrator. Operations were
suspended on October 15th because of winter conditions.
(50° 116° S.E.)    Company office, K.W.C. Block, Nelson;  mine
Mineral King      office, Invermere.   H. E. Doelle, managing director; J. B. Magee,
(Sheep Creek Gold resident manager.   This property is on the Toby Creek slope of the
Mines Limited)     ridge between Jumbo and Toby Creeks, 27 miles from Athalmer.
The deposit is a lead-zinc replacement, with barite, in limestone
of the Mount Nelson formation.
In 1898 underground exploration was begun immediately below a mineralized outcrop at an elevation of 5,730 feet. In 1928 the No. 2 or 5,600-foot level was started, and
in 1950 the present company began work. Because of favourable results obtained from
diamond-drill exploration and underground development, the No. 3 or 5,450-foot level
was driven.   Four subparallel orebodies known as the "A," " B," " C," and " D " ore-
! By J. E. Merrett. LODE METALS
71
bodies are known. The first three, from which the entire production to date has been
obtained, appear to dip steeply and to rake flatly to the northwest. The " B " orebody
merges with "A" near the surface and with " C " on the 5450 level. In 1955 diamond-
drill exploration in a northeasterly direction from the " C " orebody on the 5450 level
intersected the " D " orebody. It is reported that the intersection indicated a higher-than-
mine-average zinc content. Development work indicated a continued downward and
northwesterly extension of the "A," " B," and " C " orebodies. To gain access to this
extension at depth, the No. 7 or 4750 level adit was started at the same elevation as the
top of the mill coarse-ore bin. This crosscut, which is to be the main haulage level, was
driven 2,008 feet, 8 by 8 feet in dimension. In addition to this work, underground
development comprised 770 feet of crosscuts and drifts, 466 feet of raises, and 1,439
feet of diamond drilling in nineteen holes.
Mining was by open stoping methods, the ore being drawn to draw points by
scrapers. The ore was transported by train to the surface inclined skipway and lowered
to the mill. The concentrates were trucked to Invermere for rail shipment. The amount
of ore milled was 161,962 tons. This included 534 tons of ore shipped from the
Paradise mine.
Ventilation was by natural air circulation, except in development headings where
fans were used.
The following buildings were erected: School, two dwelling-houses, bunk-house,
and change-house. The heating-plant building was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt,
incorporating a stoker-fed steam heating plant. Volunteer workers erected a curling club
building.
Improvements and relocations were made on the upper 15 miles of road between
the mine and Athalmer.
The average number of men employed was ninety, of which forty were employed
underground.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1898, p. 1039; 1929, p. 293;
1950, p. 157; 1952, pp. 151-154.]
Silver-Copper
(50° 116° N.E.) This property is at an elevation of 8,600 feet, at
Ptarmigan the headwaters of Red Line Creek, a tributary of McDonald Creek,
which in turn is a tributary of Horsethief Creek. The first record
of work done was in 1899, and by the end of 1903 development work in three adits
amounted to at least 2,800 feet of drifts and crosscuts and 148 feet of winzes. Some
raising and stoping were done, but in 1955, because the two upper adits and portions of
the bottom adit were solidly blocked with ice, it was not possible to determine the amount
of this work. In 1906 a small amount of development work was done, and in 1919 and
1920 dump ore was salvaged and shipped to Trail.
In 1955 Heinz K. F. Seel, of Edgewater, optioned the property and, employing a
crew of two men and a bulldozer, 9 miles of the old wagon-road was reopened to the
upper crossing of McDonald Creek at an elevation of 5,000 feet. An additional 4V_t
miles of road, passable only to 4-wheel-drive vehicles, was completed from the crossing
to the mine portal.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1899, p. 667; 1900, p. 106;
1901, p. 1014;  1902, p. 136;  1903, pp. 97, 104;  1915, p. 97;  1919, p. 146.] 72
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
SPILLIMACHEEN*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Silver Giant
(Giant Mascot
Mines Limited)
(50° 116° N.E.) Company office, 908 Royal Bank Building,
Vancouver; mine office, Spillimacheen. B. H. Gunning, managing
director. A management contract is held by H. L. Hill, consulting
mining engineer, Vancouver. L. P. Starck, resident manager; R. J.
Willox, mine superintendent; J. M. McDearmid, mill superintendent. Capital: 3,500,000 shares, $1 par value. The property is on the west slope of
Jubilee Mountain on the northeast side of Spillimacheen River, 8 miles by road from
Spillimacheen station on the Kootenay Central Railway.
The first record of mineral discovery on the Spillimacheen River was in 1883. By
1884 mineral locations extended along the river a distance of 4 miles, and by 1890 a considerable amount of exploration and development work had been done, particularly on
the Spillimacheen, Rothschild, Jumbo, Tiger, and Eureka mineral claims. In the same
year Fred M. Wells located the Giant claim and began driving an exploration adit. By
1907 sufficient ore had been discovered to encourage Golden Giant Mines Limited to
install a mill, using the Elmore vacuum concentrating process, but although concentrates
were shipped to Trail in 1908, the mill process was too expensive. Work on the property
was sporadic until 1926, when Pacific Mines, Petroleum and Development Company
Limited began a two-year programme of development and diamond-drill exploration.
From 1927 to 1947 only minor development work and exploration were done. In
1947 Silver Giant Mines Limited reopened the mine and made shipments of ore to Trail
in that year and in 1948. Siscoe Gold Mines Limited optioned the property between
September, 1948, and March, 1949, and during these months the company did a large
amount of development work and diamond-drill exploration. In 1950 Hedley Mascot
Gold Mines Limited optioned the property and built a mill. In 1951 this company
merged with Silver Giant Mines Limited to form the present operating company, Giant
Mascot Mines Limited.
The ore deposit is in Jubilee limestone in close contact with McKay slate. The mine
structure is a plunging, overturned, anticlinal nose in which slate is wrapped around the
limestone. The plunge of the nose is westerly, and underground development has shown
it to vary from 45 degrees near the surface to flat lying on No. 8 level. In and near the
apex of the nose there has been replacement of limestone and slate inclusions by silica,
and of limestone by barite. In this zone disseminated galena and sphalerite have been
deposited. Ore occurs principally in the anticlinal nose and along the steep footwall or
northern limb.   The flatter hangingwall or southern limb contains a lesser amount of ore.
The following report is based on an outline of the 1955 operations supplied by the
management.
The mine has been developed on Nos. 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 levels and by crosscuts from
No. 1 shaft on Nos. 7, 8, and 9 levels. No. 1 shaft is an internal shaft inclined at 49
degrees.   It is 6 by 18 feet in dimensions and is divided into three compartments.
Development work comprised 237 feet of shaft-sinking, 3,260 feet of drifting and
crosscutting, 2,144 feet of stope-raising, and 3,307 feet of diamond drilling.
Shaft-sinking was done in two periods during the year. In the first period, ending
in May, the shaft was extended from the bottom of No. 8 level sump to a point 100 feet
below No. 9 level. No. 9 level was established 150 feet vertically below No. 8 level.
At the end of 1955 the shaft was being further extended.
The drifting, crosscutting, and raising were done for level development, new stoping
areas, and the removal of stope pillars.
Diamond drilling was of an exploratory nature and was done specifically to outline
the position and shape of the ore zones below No. 9 level.
' By J. E. Merrett. LODE METALS
73
Approximately 70 per cent of the mine production was obtained from the footwall
zone between No. 8 and No. 7 levels. The remainder was obtained throughout the rest
of the mine, including the open pit. The pillars were mined by long-hole stoping methods,
while the stopes were mined by shrinkage and open stoping methods.
In March a change-over was made from company-generated diesel power to hydroelectric power from the British Columbia Power Commission's Spillimacheen substation.
Several mineral claims were located on the north and east boundaries of the property.
The company holdings now cover an area 9 miles long and 2 miles wide. In addition to
the Lead Mountain prospect, exploration has disclosed other base-metal mineral occurrences within this area.
The average number of persons employed was 108, of which fifty-five were employed
underground.   Production:   Ore milled, 169,269 tons.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1923, pp. 195-196; 1927, pp.
261-263; 1930, p. 232; 1949, pp. 200-204; 1954, pp. 148-150.]
Lead-Zinc
Lead Mountain
(Giant Mascot
Mines Limited)
(50° 116° N.E.) This property, comprising twelve claims, is 6
miles northeast of the Giant Mascot mine in the Spillimacheen Valley. The claims include the area formerly covered by the I.X.L.
and Condor claims and later by the Rose group. Development
work has indicated a number of bands or a zone of lead-zinc mineralization in an area of Jubilee dolomite. The dolomite occurs as an oval-shaped area,
2,000 feet long and 200 to 800 feet wide. It is overlain by McKay slate and underlain
by Donald shale and St. Piran quartzite. The mineral occurrence has a northwesterly
strike and dips 75 to 90 degrees southwest. Mineral outcrops occur on the top of the
ridge at an elevation of 4,350 feet and on the steep northeast cliffs between elevations of
4,150 and 4,250 feet. Three adits have intersected a mineralized zone with an apparent
width of about 200 feet. Two diamond-drill holes drilled from the 3930 level also intersected this zone. The mineralization was erratic and widespread, suggesting the possibility
of a large low-grade deposit.
Early exploration consisted of a shaft 10 feet deep on the top of the mountain, a
near-by drift 100 feet long at an elevation of 4,230 feet, a drift 230 feet long at an elevation of 4,130 feet, and several open-cuts on the cliffs.
The 3930 adit crosscut, begun in 1954, was continued in a southwesterly direction
a total distance of 450 feet to the southwest boundary of the mineralized zone. A drift
20 feet from the crosscut face was driven 50 feet to the northwest and 50 feet to the
southeast of the crosscut. Exploratory diamond drilling was started, and when work
was suspended for the winter months, 900 feet of drilling had been completed.
The road from Giant Mascot mine to Lead Mountain was reconstructed to an average
width of 22 feet.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1917, p. 144; 1918, p. 153;
1919, p. 113; 1925, p. 221; 1954, p. 149. Geol. Surv., Canada, Sum. Rept., 1932, Pt.
A II, p. 172.]
SKAGIT RIVER*
Copper
(49° 121° S.E.)    Company office, Hope.   S. A. Perry, Toronto,
A.M. (Canam Cop- president; H. D. Forman, general manager; F. R. Thompson, mine
per Company Ltd.) manager.    The property is on the Hope-Princeton Highway 26
miles southeast of Hope.   In July, 1955, Mogul Mining Company
Limited assumed management to develop the orebody.   Diamond drilling totalling 3,234
feet was done on No. 10 level and on surface, and 209 feet was done at the near-by
By R. B. King. 74
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Invermay mine. On the information thus obtained, a site was cleared at 4,300 feet elevation, about 600 feet below No. 10 level, and mine buildings were erected. A new adit
was started and was driven 1,725 feet by the end of the year. Fifty men were employed.
Mammoth, B.B., Defiance.—(49° 121° S.E.) These claims, held by record by
William H. Robinson, of Hope, were optioned by Foundation Mines, Ltd., Alfred R.
Allen, consulting engineer. The claims are located along the Hope-Princeton Highway
about 20 miles from Hope. Diamond drilling was started and several short holes were
drilled on the Mammoth.   Five men were employed.
CHEAM RANGE*
Copper
Lucky Four (Rico Copper Mines Limited).—(49° 121° S.W.) Company office,
413 Granville Street, Vancouver. T. H. Wilkinson, mine manager. This property is
on the summit of the Cheam Range at the head of Wahleach Creek, about 15 miles from
Laidlaw. From August to November eight men were employed in diamond drilling from
the adit on the Lucky Four No. 4 claim. Three thousand feet of drilling was done. The
operation was serviced by helicopter.
AGASSIZ*
Copper
Kelowna Mines Hedley Limited.—(49° 121° S.W.) This company optioned a
group of thirty-two claims on the east slope of Mount Agassiz about 4 miles west of
Agassiz. Six vertical holes were diamond drilled to test a copper-bearing silicified zone.
A total of 3,500 feet of drilling was done and the option was dropped.
HOWE SOUND*
Copper
Britannia Mining and Smelting Co. Limited.—(49° 123° N.E.) Head office,
730 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y.; mine office, Britannia Beach. H. H. Sharpe, president; E. C. Roper, manager; T. M. Waterland, assistant manager; L. Allan, mine
superintendent. The company owns and operates the Britannia mine and mill at Britannia Beach. The following report, supplied by the management, provides details of the
operation in 1955.
The development work totalled 17,362 feet for all sections of the mine.
Classification by Type
Class
Jane
Mine
No. 8
Mine
Bluff
Mine
Fairview
Mine
Empress
Mine
Victoria
Mine
Total
Drifts	
Ft.
2,423
294
1,226
5
Ft.
1,839
296
718
16
Ft.
2,520
181
1,234
1,101
Ft.
196
25
1,813
193
Ft.
138
152
412
Ft.
945
386
1,249
Ft.
8,078
1,334
6,635
16
1,299
Totals     	
3,948
2,869
5,036
2,227
702
2,580
17,362
* By R. B. King. LODE METALS
Classification by Mines
75
Mine
Current
Stope
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Ft.
2,430
2,320
2,613
121
412
1,280
Ft.
1,518
549
2,423
2,106
290
1,300
Ft.
3,948
2,869
5,036
2,227
702
2,580
22.74
No. 8                                          	
16.52
Bluff                            	
29.01
12.83
4.04
14.86
9,176
8,061
17,362
100.00
Ore is mined by caving, shrinkage, and cut-and-fill methods. The tonnage broken in
the various sections of the mine was as follows: Bluff mine, 374,822 tons; Fairview
mine, 90,404 tons; Victoria mine, 98,717 tons; No. 8 mine, 166,855 tons; Jane mine,
60,634 tons; Empress mine, 16,363 tons; development, 12,487 tons; a total of 820,282
tons (dry).   No. 5 mine was inactive.
The consumption of explosives and blasting accessories was as follows: Powder,
16,952 cases; electric blasting-caps, 4,005; No. 6 blasting-caps, 307,465; safety fuse,
2,515,750 feet; primacord, 124,650 feet.
The accident-frequency rate for the mining department showed a slight improvement
over the 1954 rate to 0.52 per thousand shifts worked. The severity rate was 31.44
shifts per thousand shifts worked. The total number of men on the mine payroll at the
end of the year was 574. Total number of shifts worked in the mining department was
152,726.
The total number of full-time employees in all departments at Britannia at the
year-end was 867. The accident-frequency rate for the whole operation was 0.34 per
thousand shifts worked.
Production:  Ore milled, 878,661 dry tons.
TEXADA ISLAND11
Iron
Prescott, Paxton,
Lake (Texada
Mines Ltd.)
(49° 124° N.W.)   Registered office, 626 West Pender Street, Vancouver.   A. D. Christensen, San Francisco, president;  B. L. Alexander, general manager;   J. Kenneth Halley, chief engineer;   J.
Yuill, mine superintendent;   E. Fox, mill superintendent.    The
Prescott, Paxton, and Lake pits were operated during 1955. A new
orebody, known as the Cameron-Yellow Kid, was explored by diamond drilling, and a
pit was developed for mining by surface roads and benches.   This orebody is on Crown-
granted Lots 195 and 267.
Magnetite ore is mined in pits from levels which are established at 20-foot intervals.
Waste rock is stripped where necessary and hauled to waste dumps. Vertical holes are
drilled with Joy and Gardner-Denver rotary drills and wagon drills and are blasted
electrically. The broken ore and waste is loaded by 2Yi -cubic-yard diesel-driven shovels
into 15-ton trucks and transported to stockpiles or to the concentrator.
Stripping and preparation for mining required the removal of 212,314 cubic yards
of waste material. In 1955, 421,936 tons of magnetite ore was treated in the concentrator
and 264,759 tons of concentrate was produced.   Approximately 100 men were employed.
* By R. B. King. 76
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
VANCOUVER ISLAND*
Nimpkish Lake (50° 126° S.W.)
Iron
The Iron Crown (Lot 126) and Rhoda (Lot 919) Crown-granted
Iron Crown, Rhoda mineral claims have been optioned by Nimpkish Iron Mines Ltd.
A. H. Upton, president; J. M. Black, consulting geologist. The
claims are on Nimpkish River about 5 miles from the south end of Nimpkish Lake. In
1954 seven holes were diamond drilled, totalling 1,350 feet. In 1955 exploration of the
iron deposit was continued by surface work and diamond drilling on both lots. Six
inclined and sixty-two vertical holes were drilled, totalling 7,050 feet.
Copper
Quatsino (50° 127° S.W.)
Yreka (Noranda
Exploration Company, Limited) t
British Columbia office, 1403 Royal Bank Building, Vancouver;
mine office, Quatsino Sound. Capital: 20,000 shares, $1 par
value. B. O. Brynelson, field engineer; S. G. Bruce, superintendent. The property consists of sixteen Crown-granted and eleven
recorded claims on the west shore of Neroutsos Inlet about 2 miles
south of Pender Point. Since 1953 J exploration has been confined to testing the bed of
mineralized skarn which overlies the site of No. 6 adit and extends over parts of the
North South Fraction, Ready Cash, and Superior mineral claims.
Eleven vertical and steeply inclined diamond-drill holes were put down along an
irregular line about 400 feet west of the portal of No. 6 adit and about 225 feet higher
in elevation. The line was roughly parallel to the strike of the bedding and extended
about 925 feet northeastward from a point on the Ready Cash claim in the narrow
re-entrant formed by the North South Fraction and Superior claims. The results of the
drilling indicated a copper-bearing sulphide body lying within the skarn bed but with an
apparent attitude at divergence with that of the bedding. The approximate size and
shape of the sulphide body is indicated in Figure 2.
No. 6 adit, an old working extending 80 feet west into the hill, was driven an
additional 225 feet west. At this point it was driven an additional 95 feet at about south
60 degrees west. The adit passed through the sulphide zone between 230 and 300 feet
from the portal. At the first intersection with the sulphide body a branch adit was driven
125 feet at about north 60 degrees west. These distances are as at September 26th, 1955.
The adit is in skarn to the westerly contact of the sulphide zone. Along the southwesterly
branch, west of the sulphide contact, the texture of the rock shows a change to a coarsely
fragmental appearance with irregular patches of skarn separated by a green aphanitic
rock which in thin section has a high proportion of calcite, partly replaced by silicates,
and mixed with tuffaceous material. The change in texture is accompanied by an abrupt
diminution of sulphides. The skarn is cut by several quartz-porphyry dykes and by two
small diorite dykes. The quartz-porphyry dykes show a marked silicification along joint
planes, particularly within the sulphide zone. Two faults were encountered; the first is
160 to 170 feet from the portal and dips about 85 degrees east, and the second crosses
both branches of the adit about 330 feet from the portal, strikes northeastward, and
dips about 70 degrees southeast. On both faults, at least the latest movements are
post-mineral.
The sulphide zone consists of irregular zones of abundant to massive sulphides which
diminish outwards through the skarn. The zone is cut by a quartz-feldspar porphyry
dyke which appears to have been dragfolded against the northeasterly striking fault.
* By R. B. King, except as noted.
t By N. D. McKechnie and R. B. King.
X See Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1953, p. 167. LODE METALS
77
5NGITUDINAL
SECTION
Figure 2. Block diagram of Yreka orebody.
Massive sulphide appears on the footwall side of the northeasterly fault. The attitude of
the sulphide zone was not apparent in the working, owing partly to the small area exposed
and partly to the presence of the fault.
The sulphide zone, as indicated by diamond drilling, appears to be lozenge-shaped,
striking nearly due west at the upper, northerly, end and about north 65 degrees west at
the lower, southerly, end. The dip steepens from 25 degrees south at the upper end to
40 degrees southwest at the lower, giving to the lozenge an over-all plunge to the
southwest.   The axis has in plan the shape of a wide-open " S." 78 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The plunge of the sulphide lens nearly parallels the intersection between the planes
of bedding and of weak shearing which strikes north 25 degrees east and dips 30 degrees
southeast {see 1953 Annual Report). If shearing has localized the lens, it must have
been weak, otherwise the porphyry dykes within the sulphide zone could be expected to
be more intensely mineralized than they are. The southerly steepening of the plunge and
the swing of the strike toward the northwest could be the result of the intersection of the
plane of shearing with bedding which steepens toward the southwest. This suggests
the possible presence of a dragfold; evidence that such a fold may exist is indicated on
cross-sections, prepared by Noranda Exploration, by the traces of a skarn-tuff contact.
To summarize, the suggestion is that the sulphide zone is localized within the skarn bed
on a limb of a dragfold, along the intersection of the skarn with a weak shear which strikes
about north 25 degrees east and dips 30 degrees southeast.
The road to the 1,000-foot elevation was reconstructed, and a slack-line tramway
was built to connect the end of the road to the upper camp-site and to the 1750 and 1900
adits. Underground work on the No. 6 or 1900 adit consisted of 884 feet of drifting and
crosscutting and 1,752 feet of diamond drilling. A lower adit at 1,750 feet elevation was
started and 113 feet of crosscutting was done. The average number of men employed
was twelve.
Amai (Deep) Inlet (50° 127° S.E.)
Gold
This group of claims was leased by Frank Chidley and associates
Fil from J. J. Pugh.   It is on the south side of Amai (Deep) Inlet in
Kyuquot Sound and about 15 miles from Kyuquot.   No. 2 adit at
1,600 feet elevation was rehabilitated, as was the trail leading to it.    A limited amount
of drifting was done.    Hand-picked vein material was concentrated in a small gravity
concentrator.   No shipments were made.
[Reference:  Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1946, pp. 177-178.]
Tahsis Inlet (49° 126° N.W.)
Copper
Hector C. Stone, president; Ralph Liebel, managing director; Fred
Star of the West   Hemsworth, consulting engineer.    Rosea Copper Mines Ltd. has
(Rosea Copper     optioned this group of eight claims.   The claims are near Tahsis
Mines Ltd.)        at the head of Tahsis Inlet.   The workings, at 1,400 feet elevation,
consist mainly of surface cuts.    During 1955 a truck-road was
partly completed to the workings from Tahsis, and open-cuts were cleaned out.   Twenty-
one drill-holes totalling 1,987 feet were drilled to test the horizontal and vertical extension
of the showings.   Four men were employed from May to November, 1955.
Tofino Inlet (49° 125° S.W.)
Frank C. Buckland, president.    This company holds by record
Foremost Copper   twenty-eight full-sized and fractional mineral claims on Tofino
(Taiga Mines Ltd.) Creek.   In 1955 a road was constructed from the mouth of Tofino
Creek at the head of Deer Bay to the property, a distance of 2
miles.   An adit was started at an elevation of about 650 feet and was driven 60 feet.
Work stopped in September but was resumed at the end of the year.
Upper Quinsam Lake (49° 125° N.W.)
Iron
Company office, Campbell River.   A. F. Geiger, general manager;
Iron Hill E. DeMoss, mine superintendent.    During 1955 The Argonaut
(Argonaut Mine)   Mining Co. Ltd. became Argonaut Mine Division, of Utah Co. of
the Americas.    Iron ore mined and milled at the property near LODE METALS
79
Upper Quinsam Lake is trucked 23 miles to the ore-loading dock at Campbell River.
Ore is mined from an open pit in which levels are established at 15- and 30-foot intervals.
Limestone waste is stripped where necessary and hauled to stockpiles.
Vertical holes are drilled by a Quarry Master or by a truck-mounted Joy heavy-duty
drill. The holes are blasted electrically or with primacord. The broken ore is loaded by
2Y2 -cubic-yard diesel-driven Northwest shovels into 22-ton-capacity Euclid trucks and
transported to the concentrator or to stockpiles.
At the concentrator the ore is crushed in stages and magnetite is removed by
magnetic separators after each crushing. Final recovery of the finer sizes is by a process
of wet magnetic separation. The mill heads averaged 38.4 per cent total iron, the
concentrate averaged 56.3 per cent, and the tails averaged 17.3 per cent total iron.
The recovery of magnetic iron averaged more than 96 per cent. The mill operated from
March 21st to December 21st, 1955.
The concentrate is hauled from the mine bunkers to the loading-docks by Mack
and Kenworth diesel-driven tractors with modified trailer units. The average net load
is 45.5 long tons.
In 1955, 225,270 cubic yards of waste was stripped. The concentrator treated
643,032 tons of ore and produced 368,288 tons of concentrate. Of this tonnage, 343,653
tons was shipped.
Copper
Cowichan Lake (48° 124° N.E.)
Blue Grouse
(Cowichan Copper
Co. Ltd.)
Osgood G. MacDonald, president and general manager. The
property is on the south side of Cowichan Lake, about 3 miles
westerly from Honeymoon Bay. The underground workings are
developed from an adit at 1,178 feet elevation and outline ore on
the adit level and in a sublevel at about 1,260 feet elevation.
Diamond drilling was done to test the downward extension of the ore. A lower adit at
approximately 950 feet elevation was started and driven about 800 feet. A large sorting-
shed and bin were constructed at the portal. The total development work done in the
mine included: Raising, 1,170 feet; drifting, 920 feet; crosscutting, 1,880 feet; diamond
drilling, 14,480 feet.
Development ore shipped to Tacoma during 1955 amounted to 3,749 tons, with an
average copper content of  5.635 per cent.   Twenty-seven men were employed.
This group of claims, held by record, is 3 miles south of Mesachie
Lorry Lake P.O.    Copper Ridge Silver Zinc Mines Limited leased the
property, and underground work was carried on under the direction
of W. S. Ellis. An adit at 2,500 feet elevation was driven to trace the downward extension
of a quartz-chalcopyrite showing. The adit was driven in a northeasterly direction for
270 feet, and from it two short raises were driven totalling 80 feet in length. Ten
diamond-drill holes were drilled, totalling 545 feet. During the operating period,
September 15th to December 15th, seven men were employed.
Jordan River (48° 124° S.E.)
Gabbro (Noranda Exploration Company, Limited).—British Columbia office, 1403
Royal Bank Building, Vancouver. B. O. Brynelsen, field engineer; Morris Menzies,
superintendent. The Gabbro property consists of twenty-three Crown-granted claims in
the vicinity of Jordan River. During 1955 an intensive programme of surface exploration
was carried out. A geological survey of the area and soil-testing, electro-magnetic, and
magnetometer surveys were completed. Some surface trenching and approximately 2,000
feet of diamond drilling were done.   Eight men were employed.
J  Placer
CONTENTS
Atlin— Page
Wright Creek
        82
McKee Creek                        _. _ _        _          _   _.
     82
Pine Creek                        _        	
        82
Boulder Creek                       	
        82
Birch Creek                              .   _
        82
Ruby Creek
        82
Slate Creek                              _    	
        82
Omineca—
Manson Creek
        8 2
Germansen River
         83
Kwanika Creek
83
Cariboo—■
Hixon Creek
      83
Willow River
        83
Antler Creek                      _ _
         8 5
Cottonwood River
        85
Lightning Creek
85
Quesnel River Area
      85
Keithley Creek
        86
Fraser River—
Watson Bar Creek
        8 6
Bridge River                      ....
      86
Spillimacheen               ...
  86
ATLIN*
Spruce Creek (59° 133° N.W.)
This underground operation is at the confluence of Dominion
Noland Mines      Creek with Spruce Creek and is 12 miles by road from Atlin.   Five
Limited partners, A. V. Mattson, T. R. Mattson, D. S. Mattson, and R. F.
Smith, with J. D. Ward as manager, continued to operate the mine
under agreement with Noland Mines Limited until November 30th, when the agreement
was terminated and the mine was closed down. The closure of the mine is reported to
be due to failure to locate the extension of the original paystreak in the Tertiary channel
after passing through a grey gravel cross-channel. The average number of men employed
was eighteen. A total of 5,300 cubic yards of gravel was excavated in 1955. Gold
recovery was 2,485 fine ounces.
* By A. R. C James.
XI 82 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Three partners, Clyde Day, Floyd Wilson, and John Acheson,
Enterprise Placers continued to work ground leased from Spruce Creek Placers Limited on Spruce Creek about 1 mile downstream from the Noland
mine. The gravel was mined with a Bucyrus-Erie 54D stripping shovel fitted with a 2-
yard bucket. Below the flume, tailings were stacked with a Northwest Model 8 dragline
with a U/i-yard bucket. A crew averaging six men was employed. A total of 78,404
cubic yards of gravel was sluiced.   Gold recovery was 1,141.05 fine ounces.
Walter Sweet and Joe Baclund worked on two adjoining leases.   A drain 4 feet
square by 150 feet long was constructed, but there was no production.
Wright Creek (59° 133° N.E.)
C. Dorflinger, manager.    This company holds leases on Wright,
Atlin Placers        Otter, Quartz, Union, and Casino Creeks.    Work is at present
Limited confined to Wright and Otter Creeks; these creeks flow north into
Surprise Lake.   A series of Keystone drill test-holes was put down
across the valley of Wright Creek about 2 miles south of Surprise Lake at an elevation of
4,000 feet;   these holes found bedrock at approximately 135 feet in the centre of the
valley and encouraging values near bedrock.    An unsuccessful attempt was made at
the end of 1954 to sink a shaft; this was abandoned at a depth of 36 feet; the ground
around it was bulldozed out and a drain 800 feet long was built to carry away excess
water.   A new shaft was collared, and at the year-end this was reported to be over 100
feet deep.   Showings in this shaft are reported to be encouraging.   On Otter Creek four
test-holes totalling 180 feet were drilled with a Keystone churn drill.    There was no
production in 1955.
McKee Creek (59° 133° S.W.)
Three partners, Joe and Luigi Piccolo and George Watt, hydraulicked about 30,000
cubic yards of gravel on McKee Creek.   Gold recovery was 121.475 fine ounces.
Pine Creek (59° 133° N.E.)
Fred Graham, working alone on the Dot placer-mining lease, sluiced 1,100 cubic
yards of gravel and recovered 2 ounces of gold.
Boulder Creek (59° 133° N.E.)
Three men worked on this creek by permission of Norman S. Fisher, and they
recovered 6 ounces of gold during three months' sniping and prospecting.
Birch Creek (59° 133° N.E.)
Joe Yonaites worked his placer property alone.
Ruby Creek (59° 133° N.E.)
S. R. Craft worked his placer property alone.   Rehabilitation work only was done.
Slate Creek (59° 133° S.E.)
Aubrey L. Stevens staked seven placer-mining leases in the early fall.   Some testing
was done.
OMINECA*
Manson Creek (55° 124° N.W.)
Art Hyndman worked his placer property alone, using a wheelbarrow and sluice-box.
Nat Porter worked alone on his placer property on Kildare Creek at its junction with
Manson Creek.
* By J. W. Patterson. PLACER
83
Germansen River (55° 124° N.W.)
In the pit on G. H. Loper's hydraulic property on the north side of Plughat Creek
about 1 mile from Germansen Landing, A. Pendle and a crew of three men lowered 220
feet of sluice-boxes about 4 feet in bedrock.
Kwanika Creek (55° 125° N.E.)
The Martin Mine Limited.—Registered office, 470 Granville Street, Vancouver;
mine office, Manson Creek P.O. Winifred Tait, president. On its placer property on
Kwanika Creek, this company drilled twelve holes totalling 240 feet. In addition, a small
amount of exploratory work was done on placer properties on Twin and Twenty Mile
Creeks.
CARIBOO*
Hixon Creek (53° 122° S.W.)
Hixon Placers
Inc.
Provincial Exploration (1952) Ltd.
Company office, 2032 Third Avenue, Seattle, Wash.; mine office,
Hixon P.O. H. W. Hargood, president; C. J. Norris, superintendent. The property is 3 miles east by road from Hixon on the
Cariboo Highway. It is held under option from B. Briscoe, of
Vancouver. A crew of four men hydraulicked 40,000 cubic yards of overburden from a
former channel of Hixon Creek, and continued to prepare the right-of-way for a new
pipe-line. This pipe-line will provide water to the placer workings at a pressure of 80
pounds per square inch. In addition, 1 Ya miles of road was gravelled and two bridges
were repaired.
Willow River (53° 121° S.W.)
Mink Gulch.—N. Broswick hydraulicked 2,000 cubic yards of gravel on Mink
Gulch, a tributary of Williams Creek.
Williams Creek.—Walter J. Smith and N. Scott sank a shaft 65 feet on their lease
on Williams Creek at Devlin Point.
Head office, 800 Hall Building, 789 West Pender Street, Vancouver;   mine office, Barkerville.    M. R. Benischke, president and
manager.   The raise started in 1954 at the end of the placer drift
was extended to surface, a distance of 27 feet.   From the raise at
20 feet and 46 feet above the drift elevation, two drifts were each driven 40 feet in
gravels.   Due to flooding, the bridge and flume across Williams Creek had to be replaced
twice.   An average of five men was employed.
This company continued stripping operations on its placer prop-
Kumhila Explora-   erty in Conklin Gulch about 1 mile southeast of Barkerville and
tion Co. Ltd.       one-half mile south of the Cariboo-Hudson road.    Due mainly to
the large amount of maintenance required on the dragline, stripping
of the surface barren gravel was not completed by freeze-up.    The average number of
men employed was fifteen.
Placer Creek.—H. C. Christensen hydraulicked 800 cubic yards of gravel on Placer
Creek at the south end of Jack of Clubs Lake.
Lowhee Creek.—R. E. MacDougall, in partnership with F. Jamieson and O. K.
Nason, continued to hydraulic in the Lowhee pit. Two clean-ups were made. Four men
were employed.
Dramont Mines, Inc.—Company office, 10335 Forty-eighth Avenue N.E., Seattle,
Wash.; mine office, Wells. J. E. Ritchie, president. A. C. Johnston and one miner
operated a monitor for a short period in the Dragon Creek pit.
* By J. W. Patterson. 84
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Placer drilling in the Pundata Creek area, Barkerville.
Kumhila washing plant in Conklin Gulch, Barkerville. PLACER 85
Beaver Pass Gold Placers.—R. Macaulay and D. Bate hydraulicked 3,000 cubic
yards of Gravel on Kee Khan Creek, a tributary of Tregillus Creek.
Hyde Creek.—C. L. MacColm hydraulicked on the Hyde Creek bench lease owned
by O. R. Hougen, of Vancouver.
This company has six placer leases along Pundata Creek and two
Pundata Creek     along Archer Creek.   These leases are reached by about 9 miles
Placers Ltd.        of road from the old Langford camp on the Beaver Pass road.
The road is suitable only for 4-wheel-drive vehicles.   Construction
of this road was completed early in 1955.
The ground adjoining Pundata and Archer Creeks was sampled by several pits
and drill-holes. Nine holes totalling 297 feet were churn-drilled to establish the depth of
gold-bearing gravels. A bunk-house, a cook-house, and a tool-shed were built at Pundata
Creek.   An average of four men was employed.
Cooper Creek.—A. Frankish hydraulicked 1,000 cubic yards of gravel on Cooper
Creek, a tributary of Sugar Creek.
Eight Mile Lake.—M. A. Andersen hydraulicked 1,700 cubic yords of gravel near
Eight Mile Lake.
Nine Mile Creek.—C. W. Piener sluiced 100 cubic yards of gravel on Nine Mile
Creek.
Two Bit Creek.—T. M. Dunlop and H. E. Reid sank a shaft 35 feet in slum to
sample the rim gravels on their lease on Two Bit Creek.
Antler Creek (53° 121° S.E.)
Antler Mountain Gold Ltd.—A. W. Ludditt and three employees hydraulicked
10,000 cubic yards of gravel on Grouse and Quartz Creeks.
Canadian Creek.-—John Holland hydraulicked 5,000 cubic yards of gravel on
Canadian Creek.
A. McGuire sank a shaft 16 feet on his placer property on Canadian Creek.
Cunningham Creek. — D. Jorgenson worked alone on his two properties on
Cunningham Creek.
Cottonwood River (53° 122° S.E.)
Gagen Creek.—G. S. Gagen sluiced 90 cubic yards of gravel on Gagen Creek.
Cottonwood River.—L. J. Martin removed overburden and made several tests of
the gravel on his leases on the Cottonwood and Swift Rivers.
Lightning Creek (53° 121° S.W.)
Channel Placers, Inc.—In the Amador pit, D. H. Wells and seven men lowered the
sluice-boxes and extended them 148 feet. About 40,000 cubic yards of gravel was
hydraulicked. No gold was recovered as early freezing temperatures prevented a clean-up.
Last Chance Creek.—V. McFadden, three partners, and one employee mined 250
cubic yards of gravel from a drift at the bottom of a 90-foot shaft which was sunk in 1948
by the late A. Brown. It is located on Last Chance Creek a short distance from Stanley
on the Quesnel-Barkerville road.
Quesnel River Area (52° 121° N.W.)
Morehead Creek.—R. C. C. Smith, of Victoria, operated a monitor on leases held
by H. C. Weber, of Vancouver. The leases are on Morehead Creek, 2 miles above its
junction with Quesnel River.
Likely.—A. Carbillet sluiced 2,500 cubic yards of gravel on his two bench leases
near Likely. 86 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Cedar Creek.—P. W. Ogden, of Lac la Hache, and two sons operated a monitor
on the north bank of Cedar Creek half a mile above its junction with Quesnel Lake.
Keithley Creek (52° 121° N.E.)
Keithley Creek.—D. J. Sutherland and associates constructed a boomer dam and
ground-sluiced about 7,000 cubic yards of overburden on their ground on Keithley Creek.
Cariboo Falls Placer.—G. A. Goldsmith and a crew of two men hydraulicked
10,000 cubic yards of gravel. In addition, the dam and flume, damaged by spring flooding, were repaired.
FRASER RIVER*
Watson Bar Creek (51° 122° S.E.)
E. H. Rosenau and five men, using a wire-rope-operated scraper and a D-4 bulldozer, moved 30,000 cubic yards of gravel on placer leases on the north fork of Watson
Bar Creek. Some drilling with a 4-inch churn drill was done along half a mile of the
north fork.
BRIDGE RIVER*
McKee and Yalakom Placer Leases.—(50° 122° N.E.) On leases between the
British Columbia Electric Railway Company's diversion dam and Antoine Creek on
Bridge River, Bert S. Thomas and a crew of six men moved and washed 10,000 cubic
yards of gravel with a small shovel dredge. In addition, the bench and river gravels were
extensively sampled by trenches and test-pits.
Hurley River.— (50° 122° N.W.) W. Haylmore and four men sluiced 160 cubic
yards of gravel on Hurley River near Gold Bridge.
SPILLIMACHEENf
(50° 116° N.W.)   St. Eugene Mining Corporation Limited (head
Bugaboo Placers    office, 2810, 25 King Street West, Toronto) holds Special Placer-
mining Lease No. 163 at the head of Bugaboo Creek, about 25
miles by road from Spillimacheen. The lease extends along the creek for 3 miles covering
occurrences of post-Glacial outwash gravels containing uranianpyrochlore derived from
erosion of the Bugaboo granite stocks.
In the summer of 1955 the company shipped a 5-ton sample of gravel for concentrating tests, built a concentrator, and made a pyrochlore concentrate for metallurgical
tests. In addition, the gravel was tested by thirty-three churn-drill holes totalling 976
feet and ranging from 17 to 60 feet deep.
The drilling indicated a depth of about 17 feet of outwash gravel across a width of
550 feet and a length of 3,850 feet. The company estimates that about l1/. million cubic
yards of gravel are indicated in this block. In addition, it is estimated that there are about
3 million cubic yards of gravel not proven by drilling.
* By J. W. Patterson,
t By S. S. Holland. Structural Materials and Industrial Minerals
CONTENTS
Asbestos—
Cassiar Asbestos Corporation Limited	
Barite—-
Mountain Minerals Limited
Building-stone—
Andesite—
Haddington Island Quarry	
Granite—
Vancouver Granite Co. Limited.
Page
90
90
Slate-
  90
Indian River Quarries Limited  91
Gilley Bros. Limited  91
Little Mountain Quarry  91
Valley Granite Products Ltd  91
Kootenay Granite Products Limited  91
McNab Slate Creek Quarry
Clay and Shale—
Bear Creek Brick Company	
Port Haney Brick Company Limited.
Mainland Clay Products Limited	
Clayburn Company Limited	
Richmix Clays Limited..
  92
  92
  92
  92
  92
  93
Fairey & Company Limited  93
Baker Brick & Tile Company Limited  93
Gypsum—
Gypsum Lime and Alabastine, Canada, Limited  93
Columbia Gypsum Ltd  93
Limestone and Cement—
Barr Limestone Quarry  94
The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited  94
Purex Lime Co. Ltd  94
Agassiz Lime Quarry  95
Fraser Valley Lime Supplies  95
Beale Quarries Limited  95
W. S. Beale (1955) Ltd  96
McKay Quarry  96
Gypsum Lime and Alabastine, Canada, Limited (Pacific Lime Division)  96
British Columbia Cement Company Limited  96
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Limited  97
Cobble Hill Lime Products (Bonner's Quarry)  97
Marl—
Cheam Marl Products Limited  97
Popkum Marl Products Limited  97
87 88
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Perlite	
Perlite Mining Corporation Limited.
Sand and Gravel—
Abbotsford Gravel Sales Ltd	
Dueck's Gravel Pit	
Foster's Gravel Pit	
Page
97
     98
     98
     98
Border Sand and Gravel Company     98
Colebrook Sand & Gravel Company Limited     98
Corporation of the District of Surrey     99
Corporation of the Township of Langley     99
Hornby General Machines Company     99
Langley Gravel and Contracting     99
Richmond Bulldozing Co. Ltd     99
S.U.B. Quarries Ltd     99
Cewe's Gravel Pit     99
Gilley Bros. Limited (Maryhill Division)     99
Trouten Pit     99
E. R. Taylor Construction Co. Ltd     99
Deeks-McBride Ltd     99
Coldwater Sand & Gravel Co. Ltd  100
Highland Sand & Gravel Company Limited   100
Lynn Gravel Company Limited  100
Capilano Crushing Co. Ltd  100
Routledge Gravel Ltd  101
Construction Aggregates Ltd  101
Hillside Sand & Gravel Limited  101
Butler Brothers Supplies Ltd  101
Mclntyre and Harding Gravel Company Limited  101
Producers' Sand & Gravel Company (1929) Limited  101
A. V. Richardson Ltd  101
Silica—
Oliver Silica Quarry.
102
Slag—■
Granby Slag Dump  102
Greenwood Slag Dump .  102
Crofton Slag Dump  102
ASBESTOS
Mount McDame (59° 129° S.W.) Head office, 85 Richmond
Street West, Toronto; British Columbia office, Royal Bank Building, Vancouver; mine office, Cassiar. J. D. Christian, general
manager; N. F. Murray, general superintendent; C. Gordon Little,
plant superintendent; J. Berry, mine superintendent; A. C. Beguin,
The property straddles a 6,300-foot spur of the main ridge 2.2
miles northwest of Mount McDame, and the mill and camp are located immediately to
the south of the property in the valley of Troutline Creek at an elevation of 3,540 feet.
A gravelled road approximately 80 miles long connects the mine with the Alaska Highway
near Watson Lake.
Cassiar Asbestos
Corporation
Limited*
mill superintendent.
* By A. R. C. James. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS 89
The orebody, containing chrysotile asbestos, is an elongated lens-shaped body of
serpentine bounded by metamorphosed sedimentary rocks on the west and by inter-
layered metamorphosed sediments and volcanic flows on the east. The series strikes
northward and dips steeply to the east. The main serpentine outcrop extends across a
high ridge for a length of 2,000 feet, the width ranging from 50 to 450 feet. A second
outcrop of serpentine occurs in the floor of a cirque 1,200 feet north of the main showing.
The intervening steep slopes are covered by asbestos fluff and serpentine talus, but the
two orebodies are on strike and appear to be part of a single mass.
The asbestos is mined entirely by open-cut methods, from a series of 15-foot benches.
Due to the frozen ground and the high fibre content of the ore, it has proved impractical
to drill down-holes in the normal manner. Instead, the face is drilled off by a series of
holes, usually four in number, from flat lifters to 45-degree breast-holes. These rows
are drilled from 4 to 5 feet apart along the face, the length of holes being from 8 to 10
feet for the top holes and 15 feet for the lifters. Fifty per cent Dynamex and 20 per cent
stumping-powder are mixed in primary blasting and 40 per cent forcite is used for
secondary blasting. All detonation is by primacord to keep foreign material out of the
ore. Drilling is done by TM400A Joy wagon drills. The ore is handled by Eimco 104
and 105 loaders, International bulldozers, and a %-cubic-yard Northwest shovel. So far
most of the ore from the workings on top of the ridge has been transported down a 37-
degree 2,700-foot chute to a central truck-loading point. This chute, however, will
shortly be replaced by the new aerial tram-line, which was 95 per cent completed in 1955.
In 1955, mining on the "hill" (at the top of the ridge) commenced on June 24th and
ended on November 4th, and mining in the cirque commenced on May 31st and ended
on October 9th. Ore from the cirque was trucked to the mill. Production of ore
amounted to 192,889 tons from the "hill" and 29,987 tons from the cirque, making a
total of 222,876 tons.
The present mill rate is 700 tons a day, and the mill operates the year round. In
general the ore circuit in the mill is as follows: Mine ore is passed through a grizzly
feeding the jaw crusher, then passed over a Dillon screen with the oversize going to a
4-foot cone crusher. The ore is then passed through the drier units and carried by
conveyors to the dry-rock storage shed. The mill-feed from the dry-rock storage is
passed over a Dillon screen, then over a series of gyratory screens with a 3-foot cone
crusher in the primary screen circuit. Milling is by a dry process, the fibre being freed
from the rock by impact method, aspirated from the screens by means of exhaust fans,
and collected and cleaned by cyclone collectors. The discharge of reject fines from the
screens is by gravity through a number of ducts to conveyors which discharge to tailing
storage. The operating staff in the mill totals about fifty-six persons. A total of 172,395
tons of ore was milled in 1955.   Production of fibre was as follows: —
Grade Tons
Crude No. 1  152
AAA  317
AC  954
3K  7,059
4K  8,710
Total fibre produced  17,192
The crew employed on all operations ranged from 208 in January to 545 in August.
The latter figure included a considerable number of construction workers, and when construction work is completed it is expected the normal operating crew will be about 200.
This figure includes salaried staff.
The most important item of new construction is the aerial tram-line, which is 95
per cent completed and is expected to go into operation early in 1956.   This is a Breco 90 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
continuous powered aerial tram almost 3 miles long, designed to carry ore at 100 tons per
hour from the mine at 5,800 feet elevation to the mill at 3,540 feet elevation. The entire
structure is of steel with steel towers incorporating three stations: No. 1 station at the
orebody at the top of the tramway, No. 2 station at an intermediate point half-way up,
and No. 3 station with dumping-yards at the lower end of the terminal. Passenger-carrying conveyances are provided for carrying men to and from the mine. The motive power
is by electric motor and reduction gears installed at the upper stations. It is expected
that the tram-line will solve the difficult transportation problem between the mine workings and the mill, and as a result will extend the length of the mining season.
The following additional construction was completed in 1955: Twelve Panabode
dwellings (five 2-bedroom and seven 3-bedroom), twelve temporary 22-man plywood
bunk-houses, one Perma-steel compressor-house 20 by 36 feet at the mine, one Perma-
steel power-house 20 by 28 feet at the mine, and 2,000 feet of new streets in townsite.
The following construction was partly completed: One Panabode 2-room school,
one Panabode 2-apartment teachers' residence, and one Panabode Protestant church.
In addition, eight employee-built homes were completed under a company-sponsored
assistance plan.
The many Panabode buildings harmonize well with the natural setting of the mountain valley, and in spite of the remote location the company is undoubtedly endeavouring
to provide an attractive camp at Cassiar. Already it begins to have the atmosphere of
a settled community.
BARITE
Brisco (50° 116° N.E.).    Company office, Meech Building, P.O.
Mountain Minerals Box 273, Lethbridge, Alta.    R. A. Thrall, managing director;
Limited* Wm. MacPherson, superintendent.   Capital:   2,000 shares, $100
par value.    This company operates a barite quarry on the west
side of the Windermere Valley, 5 miles by road from Brisco.
During a 9-month period of operation a crew of four men quarried and shipped
11,063 tons of barite to the company processing plant at Lethbridge.
A new quarry face was started on the surface outcrop below the floor of the present
quarry.
BUILDING-STONE
Andesite
(50° 127° N.E.)    Company office, J. A. and C. H. McDonald
Haddington Island Limited, 1571 Main Street, Vancouver; quarry, Haddington Island.
Quarryt Andesite is quarried to obtain dimension stone for building pur
poses. The stone is drilled to size and broken by blasting with black
powder and then moved by derricks to scows, by which is it transported to Vancouver.
Seven men were employed.
Granite
Nelson Island (49° 124° N.E.).   Company office, 744 West Hast-
Vancouver Granite ings Street, Vancouver;  quarry, Nelson Island.   Dimension stone
Co. Limitedt      for building purposes and monuments, jetty-rock, and rubble are
mined at this quarry.   The rock is drilled to size and then wedged
or blasted for removal.   Three 20-ton-capacity wooden derricks are used to move stone
from the quarry face to scows.    The blocks are shipped to Vancouver for cutting and
finishing.   Approximately 1,500 tons of stone was produced from April 5th to October
21st, 1955.   The average number of men employed was eight.
* By 1. E. Merrett.
f By R. B. King. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
91
Gilley Bros.
Limited*
Little Mountain
Quarry*
Valley Granite
Products Ltd.*
Granite  Falls  (49°   122°  S.W.).    Company office,   1255  West
Indian River        Pender Street, Vancouver;  quarry office, Granite Falls.   John M.
Quarries Limited* Carsnew, superintendent.    Jetty-rock, riprap, and rubble are produced by this company.    Mining of the high quarry face is being
done by coyote-hole methods.   Broken rock is loaded by a I-cubic-yard diesel-driven
shovel into wire-rope nets of 10-ton capacity.   The net serves as a coarse screen.   These
are transported by a steam-driven derrick and loaded directly onto scows.   Twelve men
were employed.
Pitt River (49° 122° S.W.). Company office, 902 Columbia
Street, New Westminster; quarry office, Pitt River. J. H. Gilley,
general manager; Francis J. MacDonald, superintendent. Quartz
diorite for jetties, dykes, and concrete aggregate is produced by this
company. Rock is broken from a quarry face, which is nearly 100 feet in height, mainly
by the coyote-hole method of mining. Broken rock is loaded by a 2-cubic-yard diesel-
driven shovel into 12-cubic-yard-capacity trucks. The crushing plant consists of a 42-
by 60-inch jaw crusher and a 6-inch grizzly with a conveyor-belt for loading scows.
Undersize material ( — 6-inch) is stockpiled.   Twenty-seven men were employed.
Chilliwack (49° 121° S.W.). This pit is on the north slope of
Mount Shannon and about 1 mile northeast of Chilliwack. It is
operated intermittently by the Fraser Valley Dyking Commission
to obtain rock to repair dykes along the Fraser River. Rock is
broken by coyote-hole methods and is loaded by shovel on to trucks and transported to
the dykes.   In 1955 approximately 17,000 tons of rock was broken.
Cheam View (49° 121° S.W.). Company office, 410 Mayfair
Avenue, Chilliwack; plant, Bridal Falls. The quarry and crushing
plant are 11 miles east of Rosedale. The quarry is mined in two
benches, each about 15 feet high. Vertical blast-holes are drilled
with jackhammers. Broken rock is piled under temporary shelters and dried with open-
flame kerosene burners. The dried rock is loaded into wheelbarrows and transported to
the crushing and screening plant. The plant produces turkey, chicken, and bird grit,
stucco-dash, sand-blasting material, filler for asphalt roofing, and sanding material for
automotive vehicles.   Fourteen men were employed.
Sirdar (49° 116° S.W.). Company office, 603 Eighth Avenue
West, Calgary, Alia.; quarry office, Sirdar. L. B. Hausler, manager. This company operates a quarry and processing plant on the
Creston-Kootenay Bay Highway 2 miles north of Sirdar. At this
newly established operation, granite is mined underground by conventional methods. It
is hand-loaded on to a chain-conveyor feeding to a Traylor 18- by 24-inch jaw crusher.
The discharge feeds by conveyor-belt to a set of 12- by 36-inch Allis-Chalmers rolls. The
product from the rolls is carried by conveyor-belt to the bin-house and discharged on to
a 6-deck 4- by 8-foot Niagara screen. The screened products discharge into seven 19-
ton-capacity steel hoppers which have bagging facilities attached to their discharge outlets.
The plant is designed for a production of 50 tons per hour and produces poultry grit,
stucco-dash, sand-blasting material, filler for asphalt roofing, and sanding material for
automotive vehicles.
A crusher-house, bin-house, and warehouse were built to house the equipment and
for storage space.
The underground workings are ventilated by a 3,000-cubic-feet-per-minute blower.
Dust-exhausting equipment is being installed at the crushers and bagging vents.
Power is obtained from the West Kootenay Power and Light Company.   Compressed
air is produced by a 250-cubic-feet-per-minute Fuller rotary compressor.
* By R. B. King.
t By J. E. Merrett.
Kootenay Granite
Products Limited! 92 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,   1955
The plant operated from May 15th to October 15th. During this period 1,500 tons
of granite was mined and 918 tons was processed by a crew of five men.
Slate
Howe Sound (49° 123° N.E.).   Head office, Richmix Clays Lim-
McNab Creek      ited,  2890 East Twelfth Avenue,  Vancouver;   quarry,  McNab
Slate Quarry*     Creek.   G. W. Richmond, manager.   Slate is mined by drilling and
blasting horizontal holes in 30-foot face.   Broken slate is hand-
loaded into 1-ton cars and dumped directly into scows.    Slate is used for flag-stones,
roofing granules, and filler.   During 1955, 1,731 tons of slate was mined.
CLAY AND SHALE
Surrey (49°   122°  S.W.).    Head office, Victoria Tile & Brick
Bear Creek Brick    Supply  Co.   Ltd.,  Vancouver;   plant,   Archibald  Road,   Surrey
Company* Municipality.    James McBeth, plant manager.    Surface clay is
mined from a small pit adjacent to the plant.   Cars are hand-loaded
and hauled by winch to the plant.   The bricks are formed by a wet-press process and
placed in hacks to be weather-dried.   Wood-fired scove kilns are built for burning bricks.
Haney (49° 122° S.W.).   Company office, 846 Howe Street, Van-
Port Haney Brick    couver;   plant, Haney.    E. G. Baynes, president;   J. Hadgkiss,
Company Limited* plant manager.    This company operates a large plant producing
structural tile, drail-tile, facebrick, common brick, and Roman
brick. A plastic clay is dug by a Yi -cubic-yard gasoline-driven shovel from pit faces about
20 feet high and is transported by truck to a covered air-drying area.   The clay is dried
in a rotary wood-fired kiln and then conveyed to a dry pan for grinding.   Brick and tile
are formed by the stiff-mud extrusion process and dried in a controlled-temperature
drying-room.  The clay products are burned in down-draught beehive kilns. During 1955,
12,941 tons of clay products were produced.   Sixty men were employed.
Barnet (49° 122° S.W.).    Head office, 8699 Angus Drive, Van-
Mainland Clay        couver;   plant, Barnet.    D.  Pitkethly, general manager.    Surface
Products Limited*   clay is mined intermittently from a pit adjacent to the plant and is
transported to a covered air-drying area.   Some fireclay is trucked
from Kilgard.    Dry-pressed common brick, Roman brick, and firebrick are burned in
rectangular coal-fired kilns.
(49° 122° S.E.)   Head office, 302 Credit Foncier Building, Van-
Clayburn Company couver;   plants,  Kilgard  and  Abbotsford.     R.   M.  Hungerford,
Limited* managing director;  P. S. Jagger, plant manager.    Two plants are
operated by this company—one, in which sewer-pipe and flue-
lining are manufactured, is at Kilgard; the other, in which facebrick, refractories, special
refractory shapes, and refractory specialties are made, is at Abbotsford.
In the Kilgard plant, sewer-pipe and flue-lining are extruded through dies, pre-dried,
and burned in oil-fired down-draught beehive kilns. In the Abbotsford plant, bricks are
dry-pressed or extruded through a drier. From the drier the bricks pass into an oil-fired
continuous-tunnel kiln 300 feet long. Some of the clay used in the manufacture of
refractories is precalcined in a 150-foot oil-fired rotary kiln.
Clay is mined from shale members of the Huntingdon formation in Sumas mountain.
Three underground mines and a quarry produce shale for the plant. Room-and-pillar
method of mining is used in the underground mines and extensive use is made of roof-
bolting for ground support. Holes are drilled with tungsten-carbide-tipped augers which
are driven by air-operated drills.    Black powder is used in blasting down the shale.
* By R. B. King. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
93
Richmix Clays
Limited*
Scrapers, operated by 30-horsepower electrically driven hoists, are used to move broken
shale directly to the mine cars.
Clay mined during 1955 totalled 59,560 tons, of which 40,957 tons was used in
production of facebrick and firebrick and 18,603 tons was used for sewer-pipe and flue-
lining.   Twenty men were employed in the mines.
Kilgard (49° 122° S.E.). Office and plant, 2890 East Twelfth
Avenue, Vancouver; quarry, Kilgard. G. W. Richmond, manager.
Stripping and mining of fireclay are being carried on intermittently
at this property. Clay is drilled and blasted, then loaded by a
diesel-driven shovel on to trucks and transported to markets. Low-grade clay is stockpiled.   During 1955, 7,477 tons of fireclay was shipped.   One man was employed.
Fairey & Company Limited.!—Vancouver (49° 123° S.E.). L. T. Fairey, manager. This company produced a variety of fireclay blocks and shapes and high-temperature cements.   Local and imported raw materials were used.
Victoria (48° 123° S.E.). Office and plant, Victoria. J. V. Johnson and D. E. Smith, joint managers. Surface clay is mined by
gas shovel and transported by truck to storage bins. Drain-tile,
hollow-ware, Roman brick, and flower-pots are formed by soft-mud
extrusion process and are dried with waste heat from kilns. Down-draught wood-fired
kilns are used to burn the ware. During 1955, 3,600 tons of clay was mined. Eighteen
men were employed.
GYPSUM
Baker Brick & Tile
Company Limited*
Gypsum Lime and
Alabastine,
Canada, Limited?
Falkland (50° 119° N.W.). Head office, Paris, Ont.; British
Columbia office, 1272 West Pender Street, Vancouver. W. M.
Tulley, British Columbia manager; Robert Thomson, quarry superintendent. This company quarries gypsum at Falkland, 40 miles
east of Kamloops, on the Kamloops-Vernon Highway and on the
Vernon branch of the Canadian National Railway. Gypsum is produced from open
quarries 500 to 1,200 feet above the railway on the steep hillside north of the village.
The production of gypsum averaged approximately 350 tons daily, which was quarried
from the Nos. 2, 7, 10, and 11 quarries and was shipped to the company processing plants
at Port Mann and Calgary. Work was continuous throughout the year, and a crew of
twenty-eight men was employed.
Windermere (50° 115° S.W.).    Company office, 576 West First
Columbia Gypsum   Avenue, Vancouver; quarry office, Athalmer.   A. Portman, super-
Co. Ltd.§ intendent.    This company acquired the gypsum property from
Columbia Gypsum Products,  Inc., early in  1955.    During an
8-month period of operation a crew of thirteen men quarried and crushed 62,080 tons
of gypsum rock at the deposit on Windermere Creek 10 miles from Lake Windermere
station at Athalmer on the Kootenay Central Railway.
Quarrying is done by drilling successive rows of vertical churn-drill holes, 6 inches
in diameter and 158 feet deep, spaced 18 to 20 feet apart, across the quarry face, which
is 200 feet wide and 150 feet high. The bottoms of the holes are loaded with priming
charges of 40 per cent forcite, and the remaining portions of the holes are loaded with
Dynamex spaced by rock-drill cuttings. Millisecond delay blasting-caps are used to
detonate blasts. The broken rock is loaded by a diesel shovel on to trucks and delivered
to the crushing plant at the mouth of the quarry. Here the rock is crushed, screened,
and stockpiled for transport to the railway.
* ByR. B.King.
t By J. W. McCammon.
t By E. R. Hughes.
§ By J. E. Merrett. 94 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
The following equipment was obtained for the quarrying and hauling operations:
A 1-cubic-yard Insley shovel; a Mack side-dumping diesel truck and trailer having a
combined capacity of 22 cubic yards; and a 315-cubic-feet-per-minute portable air compressor. A 200-foot-long loading-ramp and a winch-house were constructed at the railhead to permit dumping directly into the railway cars.
The major portion of the 50,817 tons shipped was sent to the Canada Cement Company, Exshaw, Alta. Shipments were made also to the B.C. Cement Company, Vancouver; Ideal Cement Company, Irvin, Wash.; Lehigh Portland Cement Company, Metaline
Falls, Wash; and Columbia Gypsum Company, Austin, Wash.
LIMESTONE AND CEMENT
Shames (54° 128° S.W.).   Office, 247 East First Avenue, Prince
Barr Limestone     Rupert.   Allan E. Barr, operator. This quarry is at an elevation of
Quarry* 800 feet, one-third of a mile east of Shames River and 1 mile north
of Provincial Highway No. 16.   A road \Yi miles long from the
quarry to the loading-ramp at the Canadian National Railway track crosses Highway No.
16 at a point 17 miles west of Terrace.
A detailed description of the quarry was given in the 1954 Annual Report. In
1955 the quarry was operated continuously from January 19th to November 30th, a
crew averaging eight men being employed. Production totalled 7,914 tons of limestone,
all of which was sold to the Columbia Cellulose Company at Port Edward.
A new sorting plant was built this year, together with 275 feet of chute and 175
feet of branch chute. This facilitates sorting, loading of stone into trucks, and the disposal of waste rock and fines down the slope beyond the access road.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1954, pp. 180-181.]
Fife (49° 118° S.E.).    Head office, Trail;  quarry, Fife.    G. S.
The Consolidated   Ogilvie, property superintendent; Oscar Tedesco, quarry foreman.
Mining and Smelt- The limestone quarried here is shipped to Trail for use as flux in
ing Company of    the smelter.   The quarry is alongside the Kettle Valley branch of
Canada, Limitedt the Canadian Pacific Railway half a mile north of Fife.  The limestone is blasted from the quarry face and is mechanically loaded
into trucks and hauled to a loading-bin at the railway.    Operations were continuous
throughout the year.  The quarry was operated on a 2-shift basis and fifteen men were
employed. The limestone shipped in 1955 amounted to 74,620 tons.
Nelway   (49°   117°  S.E.).    Company office,  Box   168,  Salmo.
Purex Lime O. Bakka, president.   Capital:  200,000 shares, $1 par value.  This
Co. Ltd.t company was formed in 1953 to develop a limestone deposit on
the north half of Lot 9056 near Nelway.   The camp, consisting of
three buildings, is alongside the Nelson-Nelway Highway about IY2 miles northeast of
Nelway. The deposit is a hill situated on Lots 9056 and 9280 and rising about 450 feet
above the valley floor (elevation, 2,550 feet). The hill rises precipitously on its east side
but slopes more gently on the west.   Access to the summit is by a steep road which circles
the hill on the north side.   In 1955 work was restricted to the drilling in January of two
diamond-drill holes.   Hole No. 1 was drilled 488 feet from the top west side of the hill
in an easterly direction at minus 40 degrees.   Hole No. 2 was drilled 600 feet horizontally
from the valley floor on the east side of the hill in a westerly direction.   It is estimated
the bottoms of the holes are on the same horizon about 200 feet apart.
The diamond-drill core was logged and typical samples taken of changes in appearance. The analyses of these samples is shown below. It will be noted that hole No. 1, or
the west hole, bottomed in dolomite.   Dolomite outcrops on the north end of the hill
* By A. R. C James.
t By E. R. Hughes.
t By J. W. Peck and J. T. Fyles.
J STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
95
forming a band in limestone that thickens from a few feet at the northeast corner of the
hill to a few hundred feet a quarter of a mile to the west. The bedding dips gently westward and southward, and it may be inferred that much of the limestone on top of the hill
is underlain by dolomite. This is further borne out by the fact that a vertical hole, drilled
in 1952 by The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power Company Limited to
the southwest of Purex Lime property, encountered dolomite for approximately the first
half of its 1,295-foot depth. Both Purex Lime holes contained good bands of limestone
with low dolomite content. Some bands were high in insoluble matter, but this was presumably clay material as visual observation showed argillaceous rather than siliceous
limestone. Pyrite mineralization was negligible. Further drilling would be required
before the extent of the good bands of limestone can be determined. Selective mining
would probably be necessary to produce a satisfactory product for smelter use or for
burning for quicklime.
Hole No. 1
No. of
Section
Section
Length by
Appearance
Description of Section
Sample
Taken
at—
Analysis of Sample
Acid
Soluble
Calcium
Oxide
Acid Soluble Magnesium
Oxide
Per Cent
Per Cent
49.2
1.2
28.2
2.8
47.1
1.1
46.1
1.6
34.2
2.8
55.6
0.4
52.6
0.9
31.0
21.4
Acid
Insoluble
Matter
Ft.
0- 38
39- 80
81-115
116-139
140-224
225-320
321-390
391-437
438-488
White granular limestone 	
Pale-green greasy argillaceous limestone, some talc
Similar to No. 2 but harder and less greasy 	
Grey limestone ._	
Dark grey limestone   	
White granular limestone   	
Dark-grey limestone    	
Grey limestone	
Dolomite  	
Ft.
35
58
106
139
207
270
354
Per Cent
8.6
38.2
12.2
12.8
28.7
0.6
4.1
448
0.8
Hole No. 2
Ft.
0- 50
51-152
153-300
301-405
406-469
470-600
Overburden and some white granular limestone	
Dark-grey granular limestone, some bands of white..
Dark-grey limy argillite slightly greasy  	
Dark-grey limestone similar to No. 2  	
Argillaceous limestone similar to No. 3     	
Interbedded argillite, limestone, and quartz	
Ft.
Per Cent
Per Cent
85
50.6
2.8
f    190
|    275
14.7
2.8
10.3
3.0
352
47.2
4.8
455
30.1
2.5
f    490
6.8
1.5
J    586
20.2
3.3
Per Cent
3.5
56.3
60.1
4.1
35.9
79.5
50.4
Conversion factors for above are: 1 per cent calcium oxide equivalent to 1.785 per cent calcium carbonate (limestone is 56.0 per cent lime and 44.0 per cent carbon dioxide); 1 per cent magnesium oxide equivalent to 2.092 per cent
magnesium carbonate.
Agassiz (49° 121° S.W.).    Hiram Cutler, owner.    Agricultural
Agassiz Lime       limestone is produced from this quarry.   Limestone is blasted from
Quarry* low quarry faces and is transported by a ^-cubic-yard loader from
the quarry to the crushing plant.    The quarry and plant operated
intermittently during 1955.   One man was employed.
Fraser Valley Lime Supplies.* — Popkum  (49°   121° S.W.).    Arthur Isaacs,
superintendent.   Limestone is blasted from the quarry face, hand-loaded into trucks, and
transported to a crushing plant.    Industrial and agricultural limestone are produced.
During 1955, 3,936 tons of crushed limestone was produced.   Six men were employed.
Vananda  (49°   124° N.W.).    Head office, 744 West Hastings
Beale Quarries      Street,  Vancouver;   quarry  office,  Vananda.    W.  D.  Webster,
Limited* superintendent.    Limestone is quarried to produce pulp rock for
paper-mills, agricultural lime, crushed limestone, and stucco prod-
* By R. B. King. 96
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
ucts. The quarry is being worked on levels with faces about 15 feet high. Wagon drills
are used to drill holes for blasting. Broken rock is loaded with two % -cubic-yard diesel-
driven shovels and transported by truck to a crushing plant. Approximately 140,000
tons of limestone was mined during 1955. Of this, 80,000 tons was shipped as pulp
rock, 46,000 tons was shipped as crushed limestone, 3,500 tons was shipped as agricultural limestone, and 4,500 tons as stucco products. The remaining 6,000 tons was stockpiled.    Forty men were employed in the quarry and plants.
Vananda (49° 124° N.W.). Office and quarry, Vananda. Stan-
W. S. Beale ley Beale, manager. During 1955 this company succeeded W. S.
(1955) Ltd.*       Beale Limited.    Limestone is quarried to produce pulp rock for
paper-mills and smelter flux. The quarry is worked with one face
nearly 80 feet high and sloping at 45 degrees to the horizontal. Air-leg types of drills
are used to drill horizontal holes, parallel to the face, for blasting. Broken rock is loaded
with a Yz -cubic-yard diesel-driven shovel and transported by trucks to a ramp, where
it is dumped on to a heavy-duty vibrating screen which separates pulp rock from finer
material. The pulp rock is loaded on to scows; spalls are stockpiled. Seven men were
employed.   During 1955, 50,000 tons of limestone was produced.
Vananda (49° 124° N.W.). Don McKay, owner. This quarry
McKay Quarry* is on the main road about 2 miles south of Vananda. White limestone is mined and sold for stucco-dash and whiting.    Selective
mining of irregular white masses of limestone in grey limestone is necessary.    During
1955 approximately 6,000 tons of limestone was quarried.
Blubber Bay (49° 124° N.W.).   Head office, Paris, Ont.; British
Gypsum Lime and    Columbia office, 1105 West Pender Street, Vancouver;   quarry,
Alabastine, Canada, Blubber Bay; plants, Blubber Bay and Vancouver.   On April 30th,
Limited (Pacific
Lime Division)"
1955, the Pacific Lime Company Limited was purchased by the
Gypsum Lime and Alabastine, Canada, Limited, and the operation
became known as the Pacific Lime Division.    F. W. Harvie, general manager; E. O. Magnusson, plant manager.   In November, John H. Robinson was
appointed plant manager.
Limestone is quarried nearly 2 miles from the Blubber Bay plant, along the Blubber
Bay—Vananda road. The quarry is worked in levels with faces nearly 25 feet high.
Wagon drills and Gardner-Denver rotary drills are used to drill horizontal and vertical
blast-holes. Broken rock is loaded by a diesel-driven shovel on to 18-cubic-yard-
capacity trucks and hauled to the Blubber Bay plant. The limestone is crushed and
sized and stockpiled. Part of this is burned in kilns at Blubber Bay and part is loaded
on scows and brought to the Vancouver plant for treatment. Limestone which is under
size for lime-burning is shipped to pulp-mills and cement plants and also used for smelter
flux.   Fifty-five men were employed.
Head office, 500 Fort Street, Victoria. N. A. Tomlin, managing
director; R. E. Haskins, general superintendent. Quarries are
operated at Bamberton (48° 123° N.W.) and Cobble Hill (48°
123° N.W.) on Vancouver Island and at Blubber Bay (49° 124°
N.W.) on Texada Island to produce limestone and greenstone,
used in manufacturing cement.
At Blubber Bay the quarry faces range from 70 to 85 feet in height. A Bucyrus-
Erie churn drill is used to drill vertical blast-holes. These holes are spaced at 20-foot
centres, have 25 feet of burden, and are drilled 9 feet below the grade line of the quarry
floor. Broken rock is loaded by diesel-driven shovels into 15-ton-capacity Euclid trucks
and is transported to the crushing plant.    Rock from the crushing plant is stockpiled,
British Columbia
Cement Company
Limited*
' By R. B. King. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
97
and when required is loaded by conveyor-belt to scows for shipment to the cement plant
at Bamberton.    Seventeen men were employed.
At Cobble Hill the quarry face is generally about 70 feet high. A Bucyrus-Erie 27
churn drill is used to drill vertical holes. On lower faces, air-leg types of drills are used
to drill flat blast-holes. Broken rock is loaded by a diesel-driven shovel into 15-ton
trucks and is transported nearly 13 miles to the Bamberton plant. Loading and hauling
of the rock is done by contract.   Seven men were employed at this quarry.
At Bamberton, rock is mined by drilling both vertical and horizontal holes with
wagon drills. Broken rock is loaded by electric and diesel-driven shovels and transported
by trucks to the crushing plant.    Twenty-nine men were employed.
During 1955, 87,304 tons of limestone was quarried at Blubber Bay, 237,542 tons
of limestone was quarried at Cobble Hill, and 171,890 tons was quarried at Bamberton.
Jeune Landing (50° 127° S.W.).   Head office, 1111 West Geor-
Alaska Pine &      gia Street, Vancouver. Nils Erickson, quarry superintendent.  This
Cellulose quarry is on the east shore of Neroutsos Inlet about \Ya miles
Limited* north of Jeune Landing.   Limestone is quarried for pulp rock for
the Port Alice pulp plant.   The quarry is worked by advancing a
low face and using air-leg types of drills for drilling blast-holes.   Broken rock is loaded
with a Y2 -cubic-yard diesel-driven shovel and transported by truck to a ramp, where it
is dumped over a scalping grizzly.    The coarse material is loaded on scows and the fine
material is stockpiled.    During 1955, 16,000 tons of limestone was produced.    Three
men were employed.
Cobble Hill Lime Products (Bonner's Quarry).*—Cobble Hill (48° 123° N.W).
Norman Bonner, owner and operator. Rock is blasted from a 40-foot face, loaded by
hand, and transported to a small crushing plant. The crushed limestone is used mainly
for agricultural purposes. The plant produces about 70 tons a month. One man is
employed.
MARL
Popkum (49° 121° S.W.).   Office, Chilliwack.   A. M. Davidson,
Cheam Marl manager.    Marl is mined from a deposit on the east shore of
Products Limited*    Cheam Lake.   The level of Cheam Lake has been lowered several
feet by a drainage ditch, making more marl available.    Marl is
mined by a diesel-driven dragline and by scrapers.    The marl is sold wet or semi-dry,
or is dried in a rotary kiln.    Three men were employed.
Popkum (49° 121° S.W.).    W. A. Munro, manager.    Marl and
Popkum Marl humus are mined by this company from a deposit on the east
Products Limited*    shore of Cheam Lake.    A %-cubic-yard dragline digs marl and
humus and loads it on to trucks.   Some of the material is dried in
a sawdust-fired rotary kiln. Wet, semi-dry, and dry humus and marl are produced. Three
men were employed during the operating year.
PERLITE
Uncha Lake (53° 125° N.W.).   Company office, 1922, 44 King
Perlite Mining      Street West, Toronto, Ont.    President, W. H. Bouck.    Early in
Corporation 1955 this company acquired control of a group of twenty-five
Limitedt claims,  including the Shiela,  Jimmy,  Randy,  and Perl groups,
located 4 miles south of Uncha Lake.    The showings consist of
perlite layers within a series of rhyolite flows, at an elevation of from 3,200 to 3,700 feet
on the gently sloping northwest flank of Dayeezcha Mountain.   The property is reached
from Southbank on the south side of Francois Lake by 12 miles of road to the south
* By R. B. King.
f By A. R. C. James. 98 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
side of Uncha Lake and from thence by 4 miles of partly improved access road to the
camp near the showings.
The claims were originally located in July, 1953, by C. S. Powney and J. Rasmussen,
of Fort St. James, and others. The present company acquired control early in 1955.
The property is managed by Technical Mine Consultants Limited. In 1955 work was
limited to a period of three and a half months, including one month's work in January
and two and a half month's work between August 1st and October 15th. A crew averaging six men was employed under the supervision of C. A. McLeish. The following
work was accomplished: 1 mile of access road was constructed and 4 miles of access
road was improved; an area 2,500 by 3,500 feet was surveyed and mapped; nineteen
trenches were stripped, crosscutting the formation at approximately 150-foot intervals,
making a total of 11,000 feet of trenching, of which 8,000 feet exposed bedrock; fourteen rock trenches were blasted to an average depth of 2 feet; and thirty-nine 50-pound
samples were cut for examination and testing.
The company reports that the stripping and trenching exposed at least six mineable
perlite layers in a zone 2,800 feet long and 1,600 feet wide. The layers are reported to
be somewhat irregular in width and attitude, lying interbedded in a folded series of
rhyolites striking generally northeast and dipping about 70 degrees to the southeast.
The purity of the perlite changes quite rapidly along the strike, with most impurities
appearing in the narrower sections. It is reported that the maximum exposed width of
at least two layers exceeds 150 feet, and that in some places interbedded rhyolite is
sufficiently narrow to permit practical open-pit mining of two or more layers from one
pit. Increasing depth of overburden to the northeast made further stripping in this
direction impractical. The last trench at the southwest end of the workings exposed
three strong layers of perlite. Evidence indicates that the zone extends several hundred
feet farther to the southwest.
[Reference:   Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1953, p. 194.]
SAND AND GRAVEL*
Abbotsford (49°   122° S.E.).    Donald MacNeil, superintendent.
Abbotsford Gravel    This pit is 7 miles west and 6 miles south of Abbotsford.    Gravel
Sales Ltd. is mined by shovel and scraper from the pit and is either sold as
pit run or is crushed, washed, and sized in an adjacent plant.
A ready-mix plant furnishes concrete for local sales.   Three men were employed.
Clearbrooke  (49°   122°  S.E.).    Dueck Building Supplies Ltd.,
Dueck's Gravel Pit     owner.   This pit is about 1 mile north of Clearbrooke.   Sand and
gravel are washed from a gravel face 15 feet high and are pushed
by a bulldozer to a bucket elevator, by which it is elevated to a washing plant.  A ready-
mix plant furnishes concrete for local sales.   Three men were employed.
Foster's Gravel Pit.—Aldergrove (49° 122° S.E.). C. N. Foster, owner. This
pit is 3 miles south of Aldergrove. Sand and gravel are mined from low faces by a front-
end loader.   Pit-run gravel is sold locally.
White Rock (49° 122° S.W.).   Office and plant, Boundary Road,
Border Sand and    R.R. 4, White Rock.   T. Lapierre, manager.   The gravel pit and
Gravel Company    washing plant were operated intermittently during 1955.    Gravel
is mined by blasting low gravel faces and loading loose gravel with
an overhead loader.   Gravel is washed and sized in a small washing plant.
Colebrook Sand & Gravel Company Limited. — Cloverdale (49° 122° S.W).
Office and plant, R.R. 1, Cloverdale. F. Bray and J. Bray, owners and operators. Sand
and gravel are mined by an overhead loader, loaded on to trucks, and hauled to a small
* By R. B. King. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS
99
semi-portable washing and screening plant.    Sand and gravel for fill, concrete, plaster,
and aggregate are produced.   Two men were employed.
Corporation of the District of Surrey. — Cloverdale (49° 122° S.W). John
Furiak, works superintendent. Several gravel pits are operated within this township for
the purpose of road maintenance and construction. Gravel is mined by diesel-driven
shovels or by scrapers and is crushed in portable crushers.
Corporation  of  the  Township  of   Langley. — Murrayville   (49°   122°   S.W)
W. Merrell, superintendent of works.   Several gravel pits are operated within the township for the purpose of road maintenance and construction. All gravel is mined by diesel-
driven shovels and is transported by trucks to portable crushers.
Hornby General Machinery Company.—Langley Municipality (49° 122° S.W.).
Office, Cloverdale; pit, Gobsell Road. Harry Hornby, owner. Run-of-pit gravel is
mined by a small diesel shovel from low pit faces. Gravel is sold locally. One man was
employed.   During 1955 approximately 15,000 cubic yards of gravel was produced.
Langley Gravel and Contracting.—Langley Prairie (49° 122° S.W.). H. Gibson
Clarke, owner. Gravel is mined from a pit on the southeast corner of Bradshaw and
Berry Roads.   Run-of-pit gravel is sold locally.   One man was employed.
Richmond Bulldozing Co. Ltd.—Port Mann (49° 122° S.W.). Office, 659 No. 4
Road, Lulu Island. S. E. Adernack, owner. This company is operating a pit near Port
Mann. Gravel is mined from a low face by a diesel-driven shovel and is either crushed
and screened to supply sized products or is sold as pit run.   Four men were employed.
Port Mann (49° 122° S.W.).   Office, 611 No. 3 Road, Brighouse.
S.U.B. Quarries Ltd.  The Fraser Valley Lands Ltd. purchased and is operating the
Hassel Pit.   C. H. Sharpe, pit foreman.   Gravel is mined by shovel
and sold as pit run for fill and cement. A crushing plant and ready-mix plant were constructed during the year.   Three men were employed.
Coquitlam (49°  122° S.W.).    Jack Cewe, owner and operator.
Cewe's Gravel Pit   This pit is about 3 miles north of Coquitlam on Pipeline Road.
Gravel is mined from a low gravel face by a %-cubic-yard diesel-
driven shovel and is trucked to a small portable crusher.   Run-of-pit gravel and crushed
products are sold locally or used by an adjacent asphalt road-materials plant.   Four men
were employed.
Coquitlam (49° 122° S.W.). Company office, 902 Columbia
Street, New Westminster. J. H. Gilley, general manager; E.
Johnston, superintendent. Sand, gravel, and crushed products are
produced from this pit and plant on the Fraser River near Coquitlam. Gravel is mined by diesel-driven shovels from 30-foot faces and is trucked by 12-
cubic-yard trucks to the crushing plant.   Thirty-five men were employed.
South Westminster (49°  122° S.W.).    Office and plant,  10987
Trouten Pit        Sandell Road, R.R. 11, New Westminster. William Trouten, owner
and operator.   Gravel is mined from high faces by blasting and
loaded by a small diesel-driven shovel on to trucks.   A small portable crushing unit is
operated intermittently.   Four men were employed.
Burnaby   (49°   122°   S.W.).    Office,  Maplewood.    The  Stride
E. R. Taylor Con-   Avenue pit is operated by this company for the Municipality of
struction Co. Ltd.   Burnaby.   Gravel is mined and loaded with a % -cubic-yard diesel-
driven shovel and two overhead loaders and is transported by
trucks to a portable crushing plant.   In 1955, 50,502 tons of pit-run gravel, 166,413 tons
of IMi-inch crushed gravel, 42,600 cubic yards of fill, and 35,403 cubic yards of sand
were produced.
Company office,  1051  Main Street, Vancouver.    J. W. Sharpe,
Deeks-McBride     general manager.   Two gravel pits, with crushing and screening
Ltd. plants, were operated during 1955 by this company.    One pit is
near Coquitlam (49° 122° S.W.) and the other near the mouth of
Gilley Bros. Limited
(Maryhill Division) 100 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1955
Seymour Creek (49° 123° S.E.). At the Coquitlam pit, gravel is dug with a 1-cubic-
yard-capacity dragline and transported by a conveyor-belt to a jaw crusher and then by
conveyor-belt to the washing plant. During 1955 new steel storage bunkers were erected.
Ten men were employed. At the Seymour Creek plant, gravel is mined by a % -cubic-yard
dragline at the edge of Burrard Inlet. Gravel is transported by a conveyor to the plant.
The plant produces nearly 1,600 cubic yards of crushed, sized, and washed gravel products in a 16-hour work-day.   Twenty-five men were employed.
Coldwater Sand & Gravel Co. Ltd.—Lynn Creek (49° 123° S.E.). Plant, Lynn
Creek. T. R. Burnett, superintendent. Gravel is mined from the bed of Lynn Creek by
a dragline shovel and is transported by truck to a washing and crushing plant. Three
men were employed.
Lynnmour (49° 123° S.E.).   Company office, Lynnmour.   W. J.
Highland Sand and Barrett-Leonard, manager.   This company operated two plants—
Gravel Company    one at Lynnmour and one at 2962 Lambert Road, Langley Munici-
Limited pality.    At the Lynnmour plant, sand, gravel, crushed products,
road materials, concrete blocks, and concrete tiles are produced by
this company.   Material is dug from low gravel faces by a %-cubic-yard diesel-driven
shovel and is transported by truck to a crushing, screening, and washing plant. This plant
has a daily capacity of 800 cubic yards.    Glacial till is mined and prepared for road
material.   During 1955, 105,135 cubic yards of material was produced.   Twenty men
were employed.
The Langley pit was opened this year, and a crushing and washing plant was constructed. Gravel is mined by scraping, using two 1 Yz -cubic-yard crescent scrapers driven
by an electrically powered double-drum donkey-engine. The scrapers alternately bring
gravel to the plant feed-hopper as the haul-back line, running through a tail-block, is
connected to the scrapers.
Pit-run gravel is fed on to No. 1 conveyor and carried to a scalping screen. This
screen is a 4- by 8-foot 2-deck Dillon vibrating screen which gives products of plus 3-
inch, lVi-inch, and 3-inch, and minus lVi-inch material. Plus 3-inch material, passing
through a chute to a 14- by 24-inch jaw crusher, is crushed to 2Yz inches and is passed
to No. 3 conveyor. The middlings, \Yz- to 3-inch, go directly to No. 3 conveyor.
Minus IVi-inch material may go to No. 2 conveyor or to No. 3 conveyor for further
crushing. No. 3 conveyor takes material to a 4- by 6-foot single-deck Niagara vibrating
screen. The undersize is conveyed by No. 5 conveyor to a radial stacker, while the
oversize is carried by No. 4 conveyor to a Symons 3-foot cone crusher, the products of
which drop on to No. 3 conveyor.
Minus lVi-inch material is taken by No. 3 conveyor belt to the opposite side of the
plant. The material is screened by a 4- by 12-foot 3-deck Dillon vibrating screen, where
it is washed and three grades of washed gravel—bird's eye, torpedo, and pea—are produced. Sand and water enter a link-belt 6-foot conical sand separator which discharges
sand to No. 6 conveyor. The washed and screened products are conveyed by belts fitted
with Stephens-Adamson swivel pilers which throw material about 100 feet from the end
of the belts and form piles about 26 feet high.
The plant is constructed entirely of steel, is driven by electric motors, and is operated
by one man through push-button controls located near the centre of the plant. The plant
has a normal capacity of 1,000 cubic yards in eight hours.
Lynn Gravel Company Limited.—Lynnmour (49