Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare For the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1957

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0349113.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0349113.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0349113-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0349113-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0349113-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0349113-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0349113-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0349113-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0349113-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0349113.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of  the  Department  of
Health and Welfare
For rhe Year Ended March 31st
1956
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  Victoria, B.C., November 26th, 1956.
To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The jAnnual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and
Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1956, is herewith respectfully submitted.
E. C. F. MARTIN,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 26th, 1956.
The Honourable E. C. F. Martin,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1956.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. R. RICKINSON,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 26th, 1956.
E. R. Rickinson, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I am pleased to submit herewith the Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1956.
J. A. SADLER,
Director of Welfare. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND WELFARE
(SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH)
Hon. E. F. C. Martin Minister of Health and Welfare.
SENIOR ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
E. R. Rickinson Deputy Minister.
J. A. Sadler Director of Welfare.
Miss Amy Leigh Assistant Director.
Miss Marie Riddell Provincial Supervisor, Family Division.
Miss Ruby McKay Superintendent of Child Welfare.
E. W. Berry Chairman,   Old-age  Assistance  and  Blind
Persons' and Disabled Persons' A llowances
Boards, and Cost-of-living Bonus.
Dr. J. C. Moscovich Director of Medical Services.
Mrs. E. L. Page Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions.
Miss E. S. Wyness Provincial Supervisor, Social Service Department, Divisions of Tuberculosis Control
and Venereal Disease Control.
F. G. Hassard Superintendent, Brannen Lake School for
Boys.
Miss W. M. Urquhart Superintendent, Girls' Industrial School.
J. M. Shilland Superintendent, Provincial Home.
E. L. Rimmer Administrator, Region I.
R. Talbot Administrator, Region II.
R. I. Stringer Administrator, Region III.
J. W. Smith Administrator, Region IV.
V. H. Dallamore Administrator, Region V.
Miss Mary K. King Administrator, Region VI.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part I.—General and Regional Administration— pAGe
General  9
Assistant Director of Welfare  11
Regional Administration—
Region I  14
Region II  16
Region III  20
Region IV  24
Region V  28
Region VI  30
Part II.—Divisional Administration—
Family Division—
Social Allowances  33
Mothers' Allowances  38
Family Service  45
Child Welfare Division  49
Old-age Assistance, Blind Persons' Allowances, and Disabled Persons' Allowances Boards, and Cost-of-living Bonus  61
Medical Services Division  81
Part III.—Institutions—
Industrial School for Boys  88
Industrial School for Girls  92
Provincial Home, Kamloops  97
Welfare Institutions Board  100
Part IV.—Medical Social Work Services—
Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control  110
Social Service Department, Division of Venereal Disease Control  114  Report of the Social Welfare Branch
PART I.—GENERAL AND REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
GENERAL
The population of British Columbia in 1955-56 continued to grow, and the estimated population is now 1,353,000. The number of individuals helped by the Social
Welfare Branch also showed an increase. The following table covers the years 1954,
1955, and 1956. It is apparent from these figures that although the case load increased
in certain categories, a decrease took place in other groups.
Table I.—Numerical and Percentage Comparison of Case Load1 by Major Categories of
Service as at March 31st for the Years 1954, 1955, and 1956
Category of Service
1954
1955
1956
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
60,468
1,545
10,779
439
10,062
31,638
4,945
1,060
100.00
2.55
17.82
0.72
16.64 } »
52.32 \
8.17
1.75
61,506
1,728
11,692
440
9,240
31,797
147
5,337
1,125
100.00
2.80
19.00
0.71
15.02 ) s
51.70 J
0.23
8.67
1.82
62,764
1,640
11,610
451
8,853
32,494
959
5,669
1,088
100.00
2.61
18.47
Blind Persons' Allowance	
Old-age Assistance- 	
Old Age Security bonus and health services
Disabled Persons' Allowance	
Child Welfare	
0.72
14.04 } 3
51.77 J
1.53
9.03
1.73
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
2 Social Assistance is the total of Mothers* Allowance and Social Allowance services.
3 Combined percentage of:  1954, 68.96; 1955, 66.72; 1956, 65.81.
4 Health and institutional is the total of TB., Psychiatric, Collections, Hospital Clearance, Provincial Home, Provincial Infirmary, and Welfare Institutions Services.
It is interesting to note that the case loads have neither increased nor decreased to a
marked degree during the three-year period compared. In 1954, however, 68.96 per cent
of the case load was in the old-age categories, and this figure decreased in 1955 to 66.72
per cent and again decreased in 1956 to 65.81 per cent of the case load. This decrease
was not only percentage-wise, but in the number of actual cases in the Old-age Assistance
group, although a slight increase occurred in the number of individuals in the Old Age
Security bonus group. Although the population of the Province is ageing, evidently the
majority of the people reaching the ages of 65 and 70 have resources of one kind or
another on which to draw, and thus do not need to turn to public sources for assistance.
Nevertheless, the older members in communities do face many problems, such as loneliness, their feeling of lack of being needed, and their inability to use constructively their
experience and talents which they have developed throughout their lifetimes. The whole
field of geriatrics is one which must be studied constructively, so that senior citizens may
take their rightful place in the social and productive life of the Province.
The " Disabled Persons' Allowances Act " was not in effect in 1954, and thus the
table does not show a case load for that year. The Act became effective in 1955, and the
notable increase in the number of Disabled Persons' Allowances in 1956 is the direct
result of the implementation of the Act.
The balance of the figures in the table are self-explanatory, although the constant
increase in Child Welfare can be attributed to the continuing increase in the population
of the Province. T 10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The meetings of the Planning Council and regional administrators were used to full
advantage throughout the year. Problems of policy and operation were discussed and
recommendations made to administration for more efficient operation of services. One of
the main items brought under consideration was the statistical-return method, and this
study is already proving its worth.
The pages of this Report will highlight the efforts made by the members of the Social
Welfare Branch to give sound generic casework service to all citizens whether or not we
may categorize them as children, middle-aged or senior citizens. It is apparent that,
whether or not an individual is a child or an adult, at some point in his life he may need
assitance in resolving his own difficulties, and the members of the Social Welfare Branch
are making every effort to help him in this need. In the case of children, the attempt is
made to alleviate the condition under which the child may be adversely affected; and
with the adult, the policy is to assist him to become a self-supporting and integrated member of the community. Both with children and with adults the social workers' efforts are
based on alleviation of suffering and assisting the individual to become, or to remain, a
self-supporting member of his community. The Branch emphasis is on preventive work
both with young and old. The programme, of course, depends upon staff, and staff
matters are elaborated on in the report of the Assistant Director of Welfare.
The municipal welfare administrators have continued their utmost co-operation in
the over-all programme. In fact, some municipalities have made notable strides in
arranging care for the aged and in carrying out policies whereby all citizens in areas of
need receive every welfare service municipalities are able to provide.
Every effort has been made to continue the programme of organization of the Civil
Defence welfare service on a local basis. Staff members have continued to take Civil
Defence courses, but the programme has been one of development of local groups, with
the social worker taking his proper role in group effort.
Two extremely important changes in the personnel of the Social Welfare Branch
took place due to the passing of the late Mr. C. W. Lundy, Deputy Minister of Welfare,
and the late Mr. J. H. Creighton, Chairman of the Old-age Assistance Board. Mr. E. R.
Rickinson was appointed Deputy Minister of Welfare and Mr. E. W. Berry was appointed
Chairman of the Old-age Assistance Board.
In the passing of Mr. Lundy and Mr. Creighton, the Branch suffered two grievous
losses.
Mr. Lundy, who died on December 28th, 1955, at the age of 61, had been with the
Provincial Government for twenty-two years and had been Deputy Minister of Welfare
for fourteen months. He was born in Ontario and grew up in Salmon Arm, British
Columbia. He served in the First World War and began work with the Provincial
Government as relief investigator, and worked through the ranks until he became Director
of Welfare in 1943. Mr Lundy was loved by all for his extremely humanitarian approach
in his dealings with people. In his interpretation of social welfare legislation, he always
saw the phrase " to help the needy " in its fullest context and gained high regard and the
respect of all for his quiet, kindly leadership.
Mr. Creighton died on November 18th, 1955, aged 58 years. He was a native of
Quebec Province and came to Vancouver as a boy of 12. He gained his Master of Arts
degree at the University of British Columbia and did graduate work at Columbia University, New York. He taught in Vancouver schools until he gave up teaching for a
social welfare post in Victoria, and in 1943 was appointed Chairman of the Old-age
Assistance Board. He is sadly missed by his colleagues and many associates across
Canada, who held him and his unselfish and untiring efforts in high regard. His loss is
also keenly felt by many old-age pensioners who experienced his kind and sympathetic
attention.
J. A. Sadler,
Director of Welfare REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 11
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE
I beg to submit the following report of my activities in the fiscal year 1955-56.
The bulk of the work entailed in the office of the Assistant Director consists of
maintaining the staff of the Branch. The standards of service the Branch gives are
dependent upon the quality of the people it employs and upon their knowledge, understanding, and skills. The remedial intent of the legislation administered and the extent
and complexity of the human problems treated require the utmost knowledge, understanding, and skill, and require, too, the utmost devotion. Provision of the means to
increase knowledge and understanding, to perfect skills, and to sustain devotion are,
among many other things, implied by the term " maintaining the staff of the Branch."
Activities here relate more specifically to the established Branch practices in staff development and personnel.    Each will be reviewed under these headings later in this report.
The " maintenance of staff " does not stop with the social workers employed.
Indispensable to their everyday work and to the standards of service are the clerical staff
who assist them. Similarly indispensable to the institutions administered by the Branch—
the Boys' and the Girls' Schools and the Provincial Men's Home—are the counsellors, and
programme directors, the orderlies and nurses, the cooks, gardeners, and maintenance
staff. All have a direct influence on standards of service. Each is known to the Assistant
Director with respect to his or her terms of employment, and with respect to'his or her
value to the total operation.
Knowing and respecting the " terms of employment " for all staff—some 556
people—entails a voluminous amount of detailed administrative work. The confidential
personnel record maintained in the Assistant Director's office on each staff member
employed accounts for the employee's discharge of each of the many terms of employment—processed application forms, letters of reference, health reports, salary classifications, evaluations, rating forms, record of holidays, sick-leaves, transfers, advancements,
termination, and any individual matter requiring that exceptions be made to the usual
order of employment. As the staff is located in all parts of the Province, correspondence
on all these matters adds to the volume of this work. The well-being of each individual
member of the staff and the interests of the Branch demand that this work be meticulously
done.
Upon the staff's sense of well-being depends its stability, its loyalty and willingness
to extend the best effort of which it is capable. Regional Administrators and supervisors
do most to keep their staff working as a team to achieve the purposes of the Branch. The
general administration, although it is geographically removed from the field practice,
nevertheless must keep in close touch with the total operation, and must also appreciate
the pressures under which staffs work. This cannot be done solely by correspondence.
Periodic visits to the field and divisions have always been considered desirable. The
Assistant Director of Welfare this year attended the regional staff meeting in Prince
George, and she visited the Provincial Home at Kamloops. Also, she attended staff
meetings in Region I and in the Child Welfare Division. Her activities in other matters
have this year made it difficult to meet and talk with the many other staffs in their local
offices. Next year this will be done. In this way the field staff will appreciate that the
total Branch is a team, and the administration a strong partner in the total effort.
STAFF
The following tables reveal the numbers of all staff employed, the areas in which they
work, and the qualifications of the social workers. No table could depict the quality of
services each individual staff member gives. That quality of service is widely known and
respected in the communities of this Province, which is the highest tribute one could pay
to its staff. T  12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following table shows the number of all staff (clerical, professional, and technical) employed by location as at March 31st, 1956: —
Office of Deputy Minister of Welfare       2
Director of Welfare       4
Field service  325
Medical Services Division     11
Child Welfare Division      20
Provincial Home     31
Brannen Lake School      65
Girls' Industrial School     29
Old-age Assistance Board     63
Family Division       6
Total staff  556
The following table gives the total professional staff employed and comparative
figures of university and in-service trained men and women at the end of the fiscal years
1955 and 1956, as well as the numbers receiving formal training, joining, and (or)
resigning from the Branch during the past fiscal year:—
Men
Women
University
Trained
In-service
Trained
University
Trained
In-service
Trained
Total
Total staff, March 31st, 1955	
51
+4
44
—4
105
+3
55
-3
_ 52
15
16
51
255
Number receiving formal training during fiscal year	
Staff appointed, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956	
Resignations, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956	
Total staff, March 31st, 1956     ~             	
55
7
7
55
40
11
8
43
108
26
35
99
59
66
248
The following table gives a breakdown of total professional staff according to their
training as at March 31st, 1956:—
Men
Women
Total
20
4
2
21
3
5
43
98
26
1
1
40
23
5
1
2
51
46
5
3
61
26
10
1
2
94
150
248
STAFF DEVELOPMENT
In the past fiscal year the programme of staff development has proceeded as in
former years. It has a progressive effect. It does not obtrude upon the work that is
done, for the means by which it is carried out are already established.
Supervision is the most important means. Supervisors have heavy responsibilities
in administrative matters, and added to these are the responsibility of teaching in-service
classes and in deepening the understanding and skills of all staff. These latter responsibilities are ably carried out. To help the supervisors gain in skills of supervision,
both administrative and teaching, the annual institute for supervisors was again held.
This week-long meeting provided not only an excellent learning experience, but the REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 13
chance for supervisors to talk together about their mutual problems, and to talk to the
administration of the complexities of their work.
Staff meetings are necessary to the operation of the district offices, and these, in
the past year, have been more consciously used for staff development or teaching and
learning purposes. The library has been used to a greater extent than ever before.
The introduction of the new Disabled Persons' Allowance programme opens up new
fields of inquiry in regard to casework or rehabilitation services, especially in respect
to mental deficiency.   Study of these aspects of the generalized programme is proceeding.
The Training Division was augmented by the appointment of an assistant to the
Training Supervisor, which permitted more thought and activity in regard to staff development of the whole staff. At the same time, fifty-seven people were given training by
this Division in three introductory and four final group sessions.
Throughout the year, 236 staff members have resigned and 251 appointments
have been made. However, these numbers include casual full-time or part-time
employees, many of whom work in institutions on a relief basis. Thirty-seven transfers
from one office to another have taken place. This activity is indicative of one of the
gravest problems facing social agencies to-day. Shortage of qualified people is the most
serious probably, but next is that of the high turnover of staff. The resulting disruption
of services holds back the attainment of goals worked out with and for each client;
resumption of the service by another social worker means that services are given at
a different level of competence.
A principal effort in personnel work becomes that of holding staff on the job.
This means knowing the individual staff member well—his potential and his present
value—and of helping him to see that his own goals for himself may, with help, be
realized in this Branch. A dignity associates with a career in the public service. Opportunities exist for advancement and specialization. By providing good conditions of
employment, the Branch can hope to hold people in this important work.
OTHER ACTIVITIES
Throughout the year the Assistant Director has chaired a committee appointed
by the Minister to study and to recommend plans for a new Girls' Industrial School.
This committee has met twenty-two times and, in collaboration with the Provincial
Architect, submitted its report to the Minister in December, 1955. This committee
activity has involved consultation with other similar institutions by correspondence and
personal inspection, recommendation of suitable location for the new building, and
consideration of future staff needs.
During the year under review, eight social workers have attended Civil Defence
courses. Representatives also attended the Northwest Regional Conference, Child
Welfare League of America; Canadian Welfare Council Annual Meeting; Family
Service Association of America Regional Institute; and the American Public Welfare
Association Conference in Sacramento. At the latter the Assistant Director of Welfare
took part in a panel discussion and was responsible for the introduction of speakers at
the Conference luncheon.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare. T  14
BRITISH COLUMBIA
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
REGION I
I beg to submit the annual report for the fiscal year 1955-56, which outlines statistical information on welfare case loads by categories in this region, together with
population in the organized area. A resume is also given of the activities of the Branch
in Region I, which comprises Vancouver Island, near-by islands, and a northern strip
of the Mainland.
It is estimated there are 245,000 persons within the boundary of the region, with
about half of these people concentrated in the southerly part—the Victoria-Saanich-
Gulf Islands areas.
The major industries of lumber, pulp, paper, and coal are to be found generally
in all parts of the area, as are the secondary industries—fishing, dairy-farming, and
agriculture. The tourist trade also plays a large part in the economy of the region, and
during the year immediately past this trade was reasonably good, extending to the end
of October.
The month of November brought disaster by heavy rainfall to many parts of the
Province, but Vancouver Island escaped with lighter damage. Many areas were inundated with the steady rainfall and the heavy run-off of melting snow from the mountains.
November 11th to 16th brought Victoria the coldest weather in the past fifty-six years.
These conditions caused a cessation of industrial activity, which resulted in a greater
reduction in employment and an increase in expenditure of public funds to care for
those persons unemployed.
The regional Social Welfare staff, as last year, comprised thirty-one social workers
and four supervisors. On March 31st, 1956, they carried a case load of 11,202. As last
year, there were seven administrative offices (five Provincial and two municipal).
Table I shows the distribution of the case load by category of services among the seven
offices.
Table /.-
-Analysis of Case Load1 by Major Categories of Services in the District
Administrative Offices of Region I as at March 31st, 1956
Category
Alberni
Courtenay
Duncan
Nanaimo
Saanich
Victoria
City
Victoria
District
Total
38
1
115
2
103
309
6
99
17
78
1
186
5
146
537
25
212
44
24
1
151
7
155
474
7
148
38
70
5
356
14
250
1,039
28
243
37
3
150
9
137
988
16
27
1
18
516
31
411
2,161
35
78
48
230
11
175
1,003
21
113
49
259
29
1,704
Blind Persons' Allowance—	
Old-age Assistance — 	
Old Age Security	
Disabled Persons' Allowance  -
Child Welfare - _	
79
1,377
6,511
138
815
290
Totals. 	
690
1,234
1,005
2,042
1,330
3,251
1,650
11,202
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
As in past years, the elderly-citizen group commanded a big share of social-worker
time in processing applications for Old-age Assistance, B.C. bonus and health services
for Old Age Security cases, and assisting in securing sheltered care. Applications for
financial aid continued quite actively from the unemployable persons and the unemployed employable group, including transients. During the year Provincial and municipal
governments in this region expended a sum of $1,125,272.84 in direct financial aid to
destitute families and single individuals, with the Provincial Government paying 80 per
cent of the costs for municipal cases and 100 per cent for Provincial responsibilities,
as determined under the " Residence and Responsibility Act." REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 15
Requests for services under child welfare legislation and for family services were
relatively high, and within this group were found the most complex and time-consuming
problems, in dealing with the unmarried mothers, the placing of children for adoption,
completing adoption reports on adopting parents, finding foster homes for children, and
dealing with children as under the " Protection of Children Act."
It is indeed pleasing to report that bed accommodation for elderly persons needing
sheltered care was increased during the year. Reference is made to Glacier Home at
Comox. This very fine home was made possible through contributions from persons
in the community in the whole northern section of the Island. Not only was financial
aid supplied, but also a great number of man-days of volunteer labour. The Provincial
Government also contributed.   This home is now operated by the City of Courtenay.
It is gratifying to report that communities in the region which have not as yet any
established homes for elderly persons, or low-cost housing units, have, over the past few
years, become conscious that long-time residents of their communities, for lack of suitable
accommodation, must leave the area to get the accommodation where it is available.
This consciousness has brought local groups together, anxious to assist in meeting the
need on a local level. At this time two new projects are under way which, when completed, will provide domiciliary care accommodation for 120 elderly persons. Reference
is made to a private hospital being established in Comox and a nursing home at Colwood.
The residents of the Alberni Valley are well on their way to establishing a low-cost
housing unit. A committee, known as the "Alberni Valley Senior Citizens' Committee,"
has been formed under the " Societies Act," and this Committee has raised, or has been
pledged, the sum of over $10,000 from citizens in the community for this purpose. The
people of Nanaimo, also Qualicum, Coombs, and Parksville area, are in the organizational stage. The Act passed in March, 1955, respecting housing for elderly citizens,
whereby financial aid is available to non-profit organizations, certainly has given encouragement to committees.
Social workers over the past year have constantly found the problem of an elderly
person unable to care for himself physically and financially and in need of custodial care.
The problems of the aged encompass many fields with which the social worker has to
cope: (a) The fear of the pensioner to change of domicile; (b) possibility of estrangement from relatives, friends, and environment; and (c) loss of independence financially
and loss of social activities. These the social worker strives to overcome. Generally
speaking, once the move is made the pensioner finds himself in an atmosphere of comfort and companionable association and later he realizes " security in care " is his.
During the year the Provincial and municipal governments paid over $300,000 in
this region for care of persons in nursing and boarding homes. As at March 31st, 1956,
there were 481 persons located in these types of homes for whom the Branch contributed
toward maintenance costs.
In this region there are twenty-three municipalities (eight cities, five district municipalities, and ten villages). The population in the organized areas, according to the 1951
Census, totals 146,108. There has been no change in the administration of welfare services within these organized areas. Victoria City and the Municipality of Saanich operate
amalgamated social welfare offices. The two governments, Provincial and municipal,
share equally in the costs of social workers' salaries, while the remaining twenty-one
municipalities pay the Provincial Social Welfare Branch 15 cents per capita for the
carrying-out of the welfare programme within the individual municipalities. Seven villages are exempt from payment for welfare services, due to small land-tax revenue. Table
II shows the status of the areas in the region (under the " Social Assistance Act" regarding social welfare administration and also figures on population) and welfare case loads
in the area:— T 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Analysis of Case Loads1 in the Municipalities of Region I as Related to the
Administrative Plan (Section 6 of the Regulations under the " Social Assistance
Act "), as at March 31st, 1956.
Population,
1951 Census
Welfare Services
Area
Per
Capita
Plan
Amalgamated
Plan
Welfare
Case Load
1,986
971
2,553
7,845
3,323
7,196
2,094
6,665
2,784
1,628
771
10,153
2,069
11,960
28,481
51,331
638
714
882
1,035
302
444
283
I|1||I||i i |xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
X
X
74
43
123
City of Port Alberni    ...                                              	
233
148
City of Nanaimo   	
817
92
297
173
49
15
229
Municipality of Central Saanich...	
90
275
1,330
3,251
7,239
3,963
—
11,202
1 Case loads are the total of family units and shared services.
As in the past, the social worker operating with Government Welfare boat (a
40-foot craft) M.V. " Shiely " has continued to give social welfare services to persons
residing in the difficult-to-reach areas in the northern section of the region. Every effort
has been made to give residents living in these isolated areas coverage for welfare services.
However, with such a widely scattered area, only quantity coverage could be given. The
skipper and social worker travelled some 6,000 nautical miles in journeying to these
outside areas. Records show there were approximately 300 families or individuals listed
for services in these areas. In common with more populated areas, the welfare problems
were identical, such as applications for Old-age Assistance and Old Age Security bonus,
care of the aged, adoption of children, protection of children, etc.
During the year the Branch has received the utmost co-operation from all municipalities. The staffs of each administrative office have been loyal to the Branch and understanding of the problems of the persons needing services.
I do wish to conclude this report with a comment of appreciation to the clerical
staff, clerks, clerk-stenographers, and senior stenographers, who have given yeoman
service during the past year.
Respectfully submitted. R L Rimmer>
Regional Administrator.
REGION II
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region II for the fiscal year 1955-56:—
The population increase in this region has continued during the fiscal year, with the
largest increases shown in the metropolitan area of Greater Vancouver.   There were no REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 17
changes in the regional boundaries during the year, but office space was made available
to the social worker in the Sechelt area by the courtesy of the Health Branch in that area.
This has enabled the worker to provide a better service to that district.
Following is a comparison of total case loads for the region by categories as administered by the divisions of the Branch as at March 31st, 1955, and March 31st, 1956: —
Comparison of Case Load1 by Categories as at March 31st
for the Years 1955 and 1956
Category of Service Mar. 31, 1955 Mar. 31,1956
Family Division—
Family Service   303 312
Mothers' Allowance   225 185
Social Allowance  5,956 4,543
Divisional totals     6,484 5,040
Old-age Division—
Old-age Assistance and Blind
Persons' Allowance      4,063 3,913
Old Age Security bonus  13,724 14,303
Disability Allowance  20 378
Divisional totals   17,807 18,594
Child Welfare Division—
Adoption homes pending  130 140
Adoption homes approved .._ 68 69
Children in adoption homes.. 190 187
Children in care  229 236
Foster homes pending  62 71
Foster homes approved  158 172
Protection of children  51 65
Unmarried parents, children
of  254 261
Special services   8 6
Divisional totals       1,150 1,207
Other divisions—Tuberculosis, Child Guidance Clinic, Crease Clinic, Provincial
Mental Hospital, Welfare Institutions       166 168
Regional totals _. ._ 25,607 25,009
1 Case load is the number of family units.
It is to be noted that there was a notable decrease in total case load throughout
the region and that the decrease is chiefly in the categories of Family Service, Mothers'
Allowance, and Social Allowance. Increases are shown in the Old-age Division and
Child Welfare Division cases. The decreases can be accounted for in part by the
workers' careful screening of the case loads in the categories noted. This was made
possible by the division of case loads in some of the larger municipal and district offices,
giving the workers carrying the social assistance categories adequate time to carefully
assess applications and to carry through adequate follow-up while allowances were in
pay. The reduction in actual numbers of cases does not mean that the workers' case
loads have been lessened. There has been a noticeable trend in all offices, both municipal and district, in the demand for more casework services in all categories.    This T 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
involves workers' time, and the total volume of work has actually increased rather than
decreased.
The largest categorical case load in the region is in the Old-age Division, which
has increased 787 during the year. It is felt that the senior citizens require help with
their many problems, and special workers who deal entirely with the old-age categories
have been appointed in the majority of district and municipal offices throughout the
region. The following summaries of cases dealing with problems of senior citizens are
submitted to illustrate services being given:—
(a) Mrs. X., a pensioner, 75 years of age, was deserted by her husband and
left to look after herself. She was able to manage for several years on
her own, but eventually had to move in with her son and his family.
This disrupted the family household in that Mrs. X. was demanding of
attention and was failing in health. The social worker helped the son
with arrangements for admission to a boarding home. Mrs. X. stayed
in the boarding home for three months and returned on her own initiative to her son's home. The younger children in the home bothered
Mrs. X., and family relationships deteriorated to the extent that immediate plans for Mrs. X.'s removal had to be made. The social worker was
able to place Mrs. X. temporarily with a friend, pending screening of her
application to another boarding home. During this interval the social
worker visited Mrs. X. several times and discussed with her the new
boarding home. She was able to interest Mrs. X. to the extent that she
agreed to move to the boarding home, where she has remained for the
past eighteen months.
(b) Mr. and Mrs. Y. are both in receipt of Old Age Security. Mr. Y. is deaf
and Mrs. Y. is bothered with arthritis. The couple were having difficulty
in looking after themselves, yet both were fearful of giving up their home
and entering a boarding home. The social worker, with a knowledge
of the community resources, was able to arrange for friends to take turns
in assisting with the housework. The local Boy Scout troop took over
the responsibility of keeping the wood-box filled for the couple. The
social worker was able to arrange for a part-time housekeeper to go into
the home three hours a day to do the heavy household chores and to
prepare dinner for the couple. The married children were encouraged
to meet the expense of the housekeeper. The worker visits regularly and,
in co-operation with the district nurse, is continuing to watch the situation
in case the health of either partner deteriorates further. This service to
date has saved the Government the expense of boarding- and nursing-
home care and, what is more important, has enabled this couple to remain
in their own home and district.
(c) Mrs. M. was widowed at age 74. Prior to her marriage she had been
a nurse. She was still in good health and able to look after herself.
Following her husband's death she became despondent and her health
failed to the extent that she had to be hospitalized. She maintained she
was too old to be of any use to society and that the sooner she passed
away, the better it would be. The community asked the social worker to
visit. The worker, over a period of several weeks, encouraged Mrs. M.
to consider her nursing skills. People in the community were encouraged
to consult Mrs. M. with their minor ailments. The local doctor became
interested in the case through referral of the social worker. He agreed
to use Mrs. M. on any case he considered her capable of handling.
Mrs. M. is now back in her own home and has found that she can be of
service to her neighbours.   Because of her part-time earnings her bonus REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 19
was reduced, but she knows that when her earnings cease she will be
eligible for full bonus again. In the meantime she is happy and contented
and is a useful member of society.
The above examples were used specifically because they illustrate casework services
with senior citizens that do not deal with financial eligibility. Too often it is assumed
that the only service the public agency has to offer is in the financial category. This type
of case also illustrates the time social workers are prepared to spend in dealing with the
problems of the aged.
Medical science, through research, is steadily increasing the life-span of the human
species. Social work must be equally alert to this increase in the life-span of people and
be ready with adequate services and programmes to make elderly people's lives happy
and useful ones. Public welfare agencies must take the initiative in establishing such
programmes in all communities.
During the fiscal year fourteen hearings before a Board of Review were held in this
region, at the request of the Director of Welfare, to deal with applicants for Social
Allowance who had requested a hearing. Appreciation for the time given is hereby
acknowledged to the Board members; Dr. Stewart Murray, Medical Health Officer,
Vancouver City; and the respective member appointed at each hearing to represent
Vancouver City.
On October 13th and 14th, 1956, a regional staff meeting was held in the City of
Vancouver. Present for the official opening was Alderman Mrs. Anna E. Sprott, of the
City of Vancouver. The theme of the meeting was "Financial Assistance in Public
Welfare." Mr. A. Abrahamson, B.A., M.S.W., of the School of Social Work, was the
discussion leader. All who attended felt this opportunity of discussing common problems
was of great value in meeting the day-to-day problems that are faced by social worker,
district supervisor, and welfare administrator.
The Regional Administrator acted as a Provincial Government apointed board
member on the following private agencies during the year: Alcoholism Foundation of
British Columbia, Canadian National Institute for the Blind (British Columbia Division),
the Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, and the Disaster Committee of
the Canadian Red Cross Society. This opportunity of working closely with these agencies
helped considerably in dealing with similar problems met in the day-to-day work of the
public welfare agency. In addition, as a member of the Board of the Old-age Assistance
Division, the Regional Administrator attended the twice-monthly meetings of the Board
and acted as Chairman of the Board prior to the appointment of a new Chairman.
During the year the Assistant Regional Administrator, in co-operation with the
Medical Services Division, screened sixty-two applications for admission to the Western
Society for Rehabilitation and the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society. These
were cases in which the Provincial Government assumes the total cost of remedial training
or shared on the 80-20 basis with the responsible municipality. The Assistant Regional
Administrator also acted as a member of the Welfare Institutions Board. In addition, he
also acted as chairman of the several tribunals held during the year at the request of the
Old-age Assistance Board to establish the age of applicants without sufficient documentary
proof of age. The time spent on each tribunal, hearing the applicant's story and sorting
the details into a pattern to assist the person establish age, is again indicative of the
service that the Branch gives to assist senior citizens. Many of the applicants need an
interpreter, but every piece of evidence that can assist the client is given careful
consideration.
Nursing-home cases continued to be a problem in this area. The demands for this
service always seems to exceed the supply. Some forty-three extra nursing-home beds
were made available during the fiscal year, but more are needed. Plans for two more
private nursing homes were under way at the end of the fiscal year. T 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The unemployment situation continues to be a problem in this area. The continued
building boom in the Greater Vancouver area attracts many single men who arrive in the
city, work for two or three months, and then find themselves unemployed. The Vancouver City Social Service Department must screen all such applicants, which upsets the
regular routine of that office. Meetings to discuss this problem are scheduled for the
summer months, and it is hoped that a solution can be evolved to meet the problem and
to allow the regular progress of other work.
Acknowledgment is given to the co-operation always so willingly given by the
municipal and private agencies. Local organizations throughout the region have assisted
in many cases where immediate emergencies have to be met. Public health personnel
are always readily available to assist in the health problems in the many cases throughout
the districts. Social workers are appreciative of the co-operation of the local public
health nurses.
Constant staff changes continue to be a major problem in this region. Ways and
means, as it is being done at top level, must be explored at the local level to encourage
staff to remain on the job so that an uninterrupted service of a high calibre can be
maintained in the Branch.
Respectfully submitted.
R. Talbot,
Regional Administrator.
REGION III
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region III for the fiscal year 1955-56:—
As reported last year, there was a continued increase in population. There were no
changes in the regional boundaries during the year, no new offices opened, and no additional staff appointed.
This year annual reports detailing the work of the Social Welfare Branch in each
local area were presented to thirteen of the fourteen cities, municipalities, and villages
for whom the Social Welfare Branch provides public welfare services at a cost of 15
cents per capita. These reports were delivered at the Council or Commission meetings
by the Regional Administrator and the district supervisor and social worker concerned.
Considerable interest in public welfare and the various services given in each area was
shown by the various authorities.
Following is a comparison of total case loads in the region as at March 31st, 1955,
and March 31st, 1956:— REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 21
Comparison of Case Load1 by Categories for Fiscal Years 1955 and 1956
and Percentage of Increase or Decrease in Region III
Category of Service
Mar. 31,1955
Mar. 31, 1956
Percentage
Increase (+) or
Decrease C —)
305
27
1,161
  1,188
70
982
3,067
21
  4,140
101
97
129
324
71
217
33
100
3
  1,075
36
11
16
30
22
1
28
      144
6,852
313
15
1,233
  1,248
62
992
3.153
130
  4,337
112
100
103
344
85
214
30
93
9
  1.090
30
13
16
18
3
20
2
1
35
 138
7,126
+2.6
—44.4
+6.2
+5.1
Old-age Assistance..     	
Disabled Persons' Allowance   	
+4.8
Children in adoption homes... —    	
Special services        	
+ 1.4
—4.2
+4.0
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
As can be seen from the above, there was a total increase of 274 cases of all
categories during the year. This represents a 4-per-cent increase in total case load and
compares with a 3.9-per-cent increase the previous fiscal year. During the past two years
there has been an increase in the total case load of 531 cases, an amount equal to the
average case loads of two social workers, although there has been no increase in staff.
The increased work has been handled partly by careful rearrangement of case loads, and
an additional social worker is required to carry the balance. A further indication of the
greater amount of work completed is found in the fact that there were 3,578 new,
reopened, and transferred-in cases, and 3,304 closed and transferred-out cases, an increase
of 18.1 per cent over the previous year.
It will be noted that there is an increase of 6.2 per cent in Social Allowance. This
increase would appear to be in line with the over-all increase in population. It was less
than one-half the increase which occurred during the previous fiscal year, but would have
been greater because of grants to unemployed employables except for the fact that a
number of Social Allowance cases were transferred to Disabled Persons' Allowance.
There was considerably more assistance granted to unemployed employable persons
during the winter months than there was in the previous year. In March of 1955,
twenty-four families and seven single persons received assistance in the total amount
of $1,282.50. During March of 1956, twenty-two families and seventy-two single persons
received assistance in the total amount of $2,333.05. Although there was little change
in the amount of grants in the rest of the region between March, 1955, and March, 1956,
Kamloops City grants were greatly increased. During March, 1956, eight families and
sixty-nine single men received assistance in Kamloops in the total amount of $1,420.
The above figures reflect the picture as it existed throughout the winter months,
during which time a large proportion of the total grants to unemployed employables in T 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the region were made in Kamloops City. This was principally because Kamloops was
the main hiring centre for the region and attracted men seeking employment from the
large centres at the Coast. As these job-seekers had frequently been subsisting on a
meal-ticket and bed basis before coming to Kamloops, their funds were completely
exhausted when they arrived, and they required temporary assistance until they were
employed. Of 240 single men who received temporary assistance during the winter
months, 75.5 per cent received only one grant which averaged $9.57, and 83.7 per cent
had been in Kamloops less than one month, although 96.3 per cent had been in British
Columbia more than one year. It was interesting to note that 83.8 per cent of the men
were born in Canada, 9.1 per cent in the United Kingdom or United States, 5 per cent
in European countries, and 2.1 per cent did not give their birthplace.
The increase in the blind and old-age categories is also in line with the general
increase in population.
It is noted that the child welfare cases, which are largely protective and preventive,
did not increase proportionately to the other major categories. It has previously been
noted that as the pressure of work increases, there is a natural tendency to provide services to the direct assistance categories at the expense of the protective and preventive
services.
There was a decrease in service to the institutions, and it is believed this was largely
because more information was being obtained on admission by institutional staff.
During the year an increased interest, on the part of communities, in services to
the aged was noted and encouraged at every opportunity by the Social Welfare Branch
staff. In Kamloops the senior citizens' low-rental housing programme has made
progress. Necessary funds were obtained, the location chosen, and building of the units
commenced. The local Social Welfare Branch will be submitting lists of the names of
couples who would benefit and be suitable for such housing. This often involves a considerable amount of work for the social worker because, although the couple would have
more comforts, a properly constructed home with no heating problem, and would be
nearer medical and hospital attention, it is often difficult for them to make the change.
The routine of their own home, though often tiring, is familiar to them and not easily
given up for greater physical comforts.
In Vernon the Kiwanis Club has been working on a project for a senior citizens'
village. This will consist of five units which will provide low-cost rental accommodation
for pensioners. Each unit will accommodate four couples, and further units for single
persons are included in the plans. Each couple will have a living-room, bedroom,
kitchen, and bathroom. Each unit will have a laundry for the four couples in the unit.
The proposed rental is $25 a month. The Vernon City social worker is on the selection
committee for those applying for accommodation in this project.
There are two licensed boarding homes for senior citizens in Kelowna, and they are
both filled to capacity. There are no nursing homes in the Kelowna area, and the usual
practice in this region has been followed; that is, placing people requiring more than
boarding-home care in ordinary homes and paying a higher rate. Both the Provincial
and municipal social workers have been active in using private welfare organizations and
service clubs as resources for providing materially and socially acceptable services to old
people. Kelowna has the only visiting home-maker service in the area, and it is frequently made use of by the Social Welfare Branch for those needing the service.
In Penticton there are two boarding homes—one with a capacity of seventy-five
persons and one with a capacity of seven persons—and as a result the boarding-home
needs are well looked after in that area.
The main development in service to the aged in the Oliver area was the incorporation of the Senior Citizens' Home Group Society on December 22nd, 1955. A $62,000
building is planned to accommodate twenty-five elderly people. The Social Welfare
Branch personnel acted as welfare consultants. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 23
In general throughout the region, the social workers have been able to assist in the
planning of community projects to provide services to old people and have been able to
assist in and give thought to the remedial aspects of the Social Welfare Branch services
to old people.
It is pleasing to report that during 1955-56 community resources have continued to
develop throughout the region, and have received all possible encouragement from the
Social Welfare Branch staff.
In Kamloops a group which was formed specifically for the distribution of Christmas
hampers decided to continue its activities and assist families receiving Social Allowance,
the aged group, and border-line families. This assistance was in the form of material
goods, such as groceries, fuel, bedding, clothing, and particularly children's shoes. It was
recognized that families receiving Social Allowance do exist at a minimum level, and if
they have been on allowance for a number of years, their home furnishings and clothing
supplies are depleted. This group recognized this problem, and with much enthusiasm
they gave a great deal of practical help to families. They were most co-operative in
accepting guidance in respect to the casework problems involved.
It is regretted that there are still no boarding homes or nursing homes in the Kamloops district. The need for foster homes there steadily increased. Because of the time
involved in travelling, most of the children are placed in Kamloops or immediate vicinity.
It is hoped that if and when the staff have the time, they will be able to develop foster
homes in areas farther away from the district office.
In February, 1956, Youth Guidance Committees were established in Armstrong
and Vernon. These Committees are in addition to those now operating in Kamloops,
Kelowna, Penticton, and Oliver. The Committees consisted of representatives of the
Public Health Department, Social Welfare Branch, the Probation Officer, the school guidance counsellors, and school principals.
The purposes of the Committees were to present for consideration and discussion
the problems of any child with whom any member of the Committee was working, and
on which any member might wish the thinking and help of the other members. It was
thought that the direction of these Committees would be preventive in that by co-ordinating the resources and knowledge of the various agencies a unified approach could be
developed to assist with the problems of any particular child.
At first the cases brought before the Committees were boys and girls in higher school
grades with outstanding behaviour problems. However, there appeared later a tendency
to consider those in lower grades who showed some problems but as yet had not come
to the attention of all the agencies. Much benefit will be gained from these meetings from
the point of view of organizing community resources to meet the needs of children. They
also provide an opportunity for interpreting casework services and obtaining a greater
understanding of the services of other agencies.
The Social Welfare Branch in Vernon has been actively participating in the Association for Retarded Children, which has been operating a day-school since September,
1955, with approximately twelve children in attendance. This is a new and very
important resource in this area, and several children of families receiving Social Allowance
have been in attendance.
In the early part of the year a series of four informative lectures for approved
adopting parents awaiting placement of children were given by the Vernon Social Welfare
Branch. These lectures covered in a broad sense the needs and development of the child.
The first two lectures were on the " Emotional Development of Children " and " Problems
Concerning Adoption," and these were given by a social worker. The last two lectures
were given by public health nurses and were on the " Physical Development of the Child "
and "Care and Feeding of Babies and the Pre-school Child." Six adopting couples
awaiting placement attended these lectures, and many favourable comments have been
received. T 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In last year's report, mention was made of Miss B. who received help to attend
a vocational training course. Prior to starting the course, she had been given considerable
counselling services by this office to prepare her for retraining. The Regional Administrator is now pleased to report that she started training in June, 1955, and finished in
March, 1956. She then obtained employment and is now very satisfied and happy in her
job and personal life. While she was taking her course, the staff had continuing contacts
with her for the purpose of encouraging and supporting her in her course and helping her
with her plans upon discharge. The investment of time and money in this case would
appear well justified, as Miss B. has become self-supporting and a happy member of
society.
Another typical rehabilitation case was a young man who attended business college
under Schedule R. Prior to being accepted for training, he had received treatment from
the Western Society for Rehabilitation as he was physically handicapped. While he was
taking his business course, social assistance was granted to him for comforts allowance,
as the grant under Schedule R had not included anything for comforts. He also required
assistance in obtaining clothing. Upon completion of his course, in which he had made
good progress, he experienced great difficulty in obtaining employment, as prospective
employers were reluctant to consider him because of his disability. He was granted
assistance for two months until he was able to obtain employment, and during this time
and his period of training he was given encouragement and support by the staff in his
plans to be self-supporting.   He is now working and is earning $140 a month.
In closing I would like to thank all those persons, both lay and professional, who
have made possible a brighter future for many of the valley's citizens and particularly
those good neighbours who have concerned themselves with the problems of ageing and
have helped senior citizens to help themselves.
Respectfully submitted.
R. I. Stringer,
Regional Administrator.
REGION IV
I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare
Branch in Region IV for the fiscal year 1955—56.
The geographical boundaries of the region remain the same and no new Provincial
offices have been opened. Trail City has undertaken its own welfare administration as
of March 15th, and was successful in finding a qualified worker to administer its social
services. The case load in the city is fairly heavy and very active, so the city is looking
ahead to the possibility in the future that an additional worker may be needed. The
effect on the region has been that for the present the Trail district office social-work staff
has been reduced by one, but the increased population in the whole area has created more
work for all concerned.
The census taken this year will no doubt show an increase in the whole region, with
the result that offices will be giving services to more people. This increase will also
affect some of the villages, and next year it is anticipated that one or two will become
responsible for their share of welfare costs.
In the earlier months of the year the economic situation was not too bright, but as
the year progressed it improved, and the fall and winter months were better than the
previous year. At the end of the fiscal year, conditions were quite good; employment
was at a high level, and it was hoped this would continue for some time. It is anticipated
that for the coming winter the number of unemployed employables will be less.
In the Grand Forks-Greenwood area there is hope that the exploratory and development work being done by three or four large mining companies will result in the reopening
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 25
of the Phoenix area. Greenwood is experiencing a house-building boom, as at the present
time most of the people engaged in this work are living in Greenwood. Expectations are
high for increased population, increased business activity, and increased stability in
employment.
On June 20th, 1955, a disastrous flood at Sandon and neighbouring area did a great
deal of damage. The Canadian Pacific Railway which runs from Nakusp to New Denver
and then on to Kaslo was washed out in places. In Sandon itself many of the buildings
were destroyed, and at the present time there is no indication they will be replaced, as
mining activity in that area has lessened. The railway company considered abandoning
this line, and the matter, through local Boards of Trade, was referred to the Board of
Railway Commissioners. At the present time there is no service from New Denver to
Kaslo.
The British Columbia Power Commission has extended its services south from
Nakusp to New Denver, which has been of real benefit to local lumbering industries and
others. The West Kootenay Power Company is considering extending its services in the
lower part of the valley, and by the end of the year unemployment was practically
non-existent in the Slocan Valley. At times there was a shortage of workers in the
valley, but with few exceptions all labour requirements were met.
At Trail, employment is at a good level due to the Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company, with its usual high output.
The Nelson district in the earlier months of the year was hit through lack of
employment opportunities, due partly to weather conditions, but this cleared up later
when the demand for workers increased.
The same applied to the East Kootenay, where opportunities and the chances for
jobs increased as the whole economy of the area improved. At first the mines at Fernie,
Natal, and Michel worked fewer shifts each week, but by the end of the year production
showed that the annual average number of tons produced was fairly normal. Practically
the whole economy of the Fernie area depends on the activity of the Crow's Nest Pass
Coal Company, even though there are other activities, such as logging, lumbering, and
some dairying. Like all other areas of the region, the East Kootenay was a bit late in
moving, but as the year progressed, the activity increased greatly. The Consolidated
Mining and Smelting Company at Kimberley maintained a good level of employment,
and the city, when the present census returns are in, will no doubt show an increase
in population. The company closed its fertilizer plant at Kimberley, affecting 200
employees, some of whom were changed to other jobs.
The whole outlook at present for the region is promising, and it is hoped these
indications will prove to be reality.
On April 1st, 1955, the total case load was 5,145, and as of March 31st, 1956, it
was 5,111, showing a small decrease of thirty-four cases.
The largest percentage of the case load consists of Old-age Assistance, Old Age
Security with bonus, Blind Assistance, with a few Disabled Persons' Allowance. This
covers approximately 60 per cent of the whole load, and it is a very time-consuming one.
As the population becomes more of an ageing one, due to life expectancy increasing,
etc., the old-age case load increases. In the Kootenays the processing of the applications
of Doukhobors, practically none of whom have birth certificates and of whom many do
not speak English, makes the services of an interpreter more often necessary than not.
This region has tried both the specialized worker doing old-age cases only and workers
carrying the generalized load (all categories inclusive of old-age cases). The practice
of using a specialized worker has both advantages and disadvantages, but further experience will show whether the advantages outweigh the disadvantages.
This old-age group is an increasing responsibility. The need for nursing- and
boarding-home care is growing, as well as the need of housing for them. As far as
nursing-home care is concerned, the Branch is fortunate in having Mount St. Francis in T 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Nelson, which cares for an average of ninety-eight people throughout the year. The
Nelson Hostel for the Aged Men, with a capacity of eleven men, gives good care, and the
patients also receive additional care from such organizations as the I.O.D.E., service
clubs, etc., which adds greatly to their enjoyment. There is, too, the odd private boarding
home throughout the region. In last year's report, mention was made that the Board of
Mount St. Francis was considering adding another story to the building, but to date
nothing definite has been done, although it is certain every consideration will be given
to it.
With regard to housing, Cranbrook is making a drive to establish a housing project
for this group, built in memory of the late Dr. Green, and it is hoped they will be successful. Trail also has given much thought to a housing project, and it is hoped they will
be able to finalize their plans. Kimberley plans to enlarge its Pioneers' Home. It has
given its residents excellent accommodation for some years, but is not large enough.
Nelson also has an active committee working to this end. A housing project is more
feasible in large centres of population. In smaller areas with fewer people and fewer
resources, such a project is difficult to carry through as it places a heavy burden on
the few.
However, the work with older citizens is a very rewarding one. As an example of
this, the staff wishes to cite the following:—
(1) This case concerns an old man, aged 81, living in his own home, who has
been in receipt of $60 a month pension and cost-of-living bonus. He has
received this form of help since February, 1952. The client has suffered
from arthritis for a number of years, and as early as September, 1954, it
was noticed that his condition was such that he managed with difficulty.
The client has one married daughter living approximately 50 miles away,
but the relationship has not been a warm one. The daughter has been
willing to help financially, but he has been difficult to get along with and
has refused either to live with the daughter or to leave his own place.
In October, 1954, he was referred by the doctor, and the worker
went out to visit him. He was living in a house that was in a deplorable
state, and he was short of fuel. It was thought by the worker that the old
man should move to either a boarding home or to a nursing home, but
this the client steadfastly refused to do. He also refused to go and live
with his daughter, and said that he wished to stay in his own home. The
worker saw several of the neighbours, who kindly agreed to help the old
fellow with wood and to keep an eye on him. Several weeks later the
worker also arranged with the daughter and son-in-law for a visit to the
two institutions in Nelson that care for old people. It was thought that
if he actually saw the places, some of his fear of giving up his independence
to enter a home might diminish. It has been necessary repeatedly to
interpret to the small community and to the relatives that the Branch is
unable to force people to move. It has been difficult to interpret the
social worker's acceptance of the older person's own desires, when it is so
obvious that physicaUy the client would be better in some institution.
At the end of October the office received a complaint from the neighbours
that the client had been wandering the previous evening and seemed to be
out of his mind. The following day the worker called and found that the
old chap had fallen and hurt his head the previous evening, but that he
was now lucid and more determined than ever to remain in his home.
Much time was spent talking to the old man, and an arrangement was
eventually made, agreeable to him, for him to stay in a small hotel. This
lasted several months, but he later returned home. There had been many
calls since that time by the neighbours, who were concerned over his REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 27
plight and who several times called the Royal Canadian Mounted Police,
who had also been to see him. The staff have maintained a close contact
and have also been in touch with his daughter numerous times. Early in
April the client asked someone to contact his social worker, since he felt
ill. The social worker went out and, after some discussion, encouraged
the old fellow to come to town in the worker's car and see a doctor.
After he was examined, the doctor hospitalized him, and he is now
agreeable to entering a nursing home when he is ready to leave hospital.
Throughout this difficult case the worker has withstood considerable
community pressure, but has always been patient with the client and
respected his desire to remain independent in his own home. The client
has sensed the worker's helpful attitude and has gradually gained a liking
for him. He is thus gradually acquiring sufficient respect for the worker
and his opinion, and to accept his suggestion that he enter a nursing home.
Had the worker tried to force the issue sooner, it would have only stiffened
the client's resistance.
(2) This is the case of a man who is 67 years of age. He is a widower with
a 10-year-old step-daughter. This man had always been active and
managed to work for a large electrical company as a carpenter's helper
for a year or so past his retirement age by not disclosing his actual age.
This illustrates this man's keen desire to avoid retirement and to go on
working—a desire heightened by his wish to provide the 10-year-old
step-daughter with a good standard of living. In considering the casework
necessary to bring service to this case, it is also necessary to explain that
this man had a bitterness toward welfare authorities due to some rather
harrowing experiences he had with welfare agencies in his earlier years.
He was retired in May of 1955, much against his wishes, and, although
he was old enough to apply for Old-age Assistance and had discussed this
with the office several times, he could not bring himself to accept dependency. However, this client reached the end of his own resources in June
and at this time he was issued Social Allowance for himself as well as his
step-daughter. He still resided in a rather old home, which he owned,
three or four blocks from the city centre. It was not necessary to continue
this assistance because he obtained work as a part-time janitor and was
able to continue at this occupation for several months. However, he very
suddenly suffered a severe heart attack. It was then necessary for him
to enter hospital, where he was in an oxygen tent for nearly a month.
He has had a grave fear that the 10-year-old step-daughter would be
taken into care by the Branch. The social worker in this particular
instance was able to locate a housekeeper, who was paid to look after the
client's step-daughter whilst the old gentleman was in hospital. Upon
discharge, the housekeeper was paid to look after both the client and
step-daughter. In addition to this, Social Allowance has been paid to the
family while an application for Old-age Assistance is being finalized after
considerable difficulty clarifying residence and proof of age, both of which
have been difficult in this case because no birth certificate was obtainable
and also because the man had moved around the country considerably.
It has been possible, through the worker's recognizing the client's independence and fear of welfare help and being sympathetic toward him, to
bring the service necessary to this family, at the same time strengthening
the regard with which the client views the Branch, so that it has been
much easier on the client to receive the help necessary. Without a worker
who understood the client's hopes and fears, it would have been impossible T 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to obtain the necessary details to complete the Old-age Assistance application and the client's life might have been endangered because the heart
condition was such that any emotional upset tended to aggravate it.   By
arranging for a housekeeper in this home, it has been possible to maintain
the family as a unit, and this fact is really appreciated by the client.
In March, plans were finalized for the Department of Education to take over
administration of the Doukhobor children in custody of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare at New Denver.   Since that time two new buildings have been added, and the
accommodation at the present time appears satisfactory and adequate.
These children remain wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, and the social
worker appears only as the Superintendent's representative when releases are presented
to the Court.
Throughout the year the Branch has had the fullest co-operation from Federal,
Provincial, and municipal groups. Service clubs, churches, and other organizations in
all districts have been of great help. Through all this co-operation and support, the
whole region has benefited. Their assistance and understanding are hereby gratefully
acknowledged.
Respectfully submitted.
J. W. Smith,
Regional Administrator.
REGION V
I beg to submit the following annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare
Branch in Region V for the fiscal year 1955-56.
Economic growth and population increase in the area continued unabated. The
lumbering industry enjoyed an unprecedented level of activity, and construction in most
parts of the region increased likewise. This induced an influx of casual labour and
strained the housing facilities even more than heretofore. The need and demand for
social services naturally increased proportionately.
The following comparison of case loads for the region by categories, as of March,
1955, and March, 1956, gives a picture of the increase in services during the year:—
Comparison of Case Load1 by Categories of Region V, as at March 31st
for the Years 1955 and 1956
Category of Service Mar. 31, 1955 Mar. 31, 1956
Family Service  323               330
Mothers' Allowance         7 9
Social Allowance  1,015 1,230
  1,022  1,239
Blind Persons' Allowance        67 95
Old-age Assistance      532 522
Old Age Security Bonus  1,407 1,403
  2,006  2,020
Disabled Persons  1 34
Carried forward   3,352 3,623
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 29
Category of Service
Mar. 31, 1955
Mar. 31, 1956
Brought forward   3,352
Adoption homes pending  106
Adoption homes approved  38
Children in adoption homes  115
Children in care  224
Foster homes pending  58
Foster homes approved  141
3,623
Protection of children	
Unmarried parents, children of
Special services	
50
86
2
108
34
134
318
74
191
72
99
8
820
1,038
Tuberculosis Division -
Child Guidance Clinic
Crease Clinic	
Provincial Mental Hospital
The Woodlands School	
Collections	
Hospital clearance	
Provincial Home	
Provincial Infirmary	
Welfare institutions	
50
4
9
13
3
27
5
6
4
15
41
6
4
13
7
37
4
12
4
17
136
145
Totals
.4,308
4,806
It will be noted from the foregoing table that case loads in the region increased by
498 during the year. This increase was largest in the Child Welfare Services, in which
it amounted to 218 cases, an increase of 26.6 per cent over the previous year. Cases
requiring financial assistance through Mothers' Allowances and Social Allowances increased by 217, or 21.2 per cent over last year. It is interesting to note that Old-age
Assistance cases only increased by 14, or 0.7 per cent. These three categories of cases,
which made up 50.5 per cent of the case load two years ago and 46.6 per cent last year,
now comprise only 42.0 per cent of the regional case load.
Communities generally exhibited more and more interest in the problems of the
aged. Attached to their homes and the places in which they have lived—no matter how
remote and isolated—old people resist the idea of moving away, and frequently insist on
remaining where they are, even though the medical care and attention they need are quite
unavailable to them. If provision for nursing-home and boarding-home accommodation
was made for them in some of the larger northern communities, many who would not
move farther away would accept accommodation close by. Several service clubs have
undertaken to plan for the accommodation of these people in the North, and some special
housing projects will be completed next year.
Services were given to a total of 7,905 cases during the year, there being 4,308
cases open at the beginning of the year and 3,597 new cases added during that period.
Of this total, 3,099 services were completed, leaving 4,806 cases open on March 31st,
1956. To meet this demand, the social-work staff was increased to eighteen and an
additional district supervisor was appointed. With four supervisors in the region, the
administration of services was improved in the far northern area particularly, and no
supervisor was responsible for more than two district offices. Reorganization of supervision also included the transfer of the district supervisor from Williams Lake to Quesnel. T 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Staff turnover is a perennial problem, and seven of the eighteen social workers on
staff at March 31st, 1956, were appointees of the previous twelve months. This pattern
was even more pronounced in clerical and stenographic staff. This accentuated the
difficulties of keeping services at a satisfactory standard and created inordinate pressure
of work. Nevertheless, all members of staff responded magnificently and managed to
maintain for their clients a reasonable standard of service.
The annual staff meeting for the region was held in Prince George on November
16th, 17th, and 18th. Two main topics, entitled "The Implications of Present Case
Loads " and " Improving Practices in Adoptions," were considered. Individual social
workers presented papers which served as the bases for discussion in small groups, under
the able guidance of the Assistant Director of Welfare and the Superintendent of Child
Welfare. The value of the meeting in increasing the social workers' knowledge and
ability to help their clients to better effect was acknowledged by all.
Respectfully submitted.
V. H. Dallamore,
Regional Administrator.
REGION VI
I beg to submit the annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region VI for the fiscal year 1955-56.
The region continued to serve the area which included the Fraser Valley on both
sides of the Fraser River, east of Pattullo Bridge and the Pitt River, and extended to
Lytton and the summit of the Hope-Princeton Highway. The region included fast-
growing urban areas such as Whalley and Maple Ridge in the western end as well as
sparsely populated areas in the eastern portion. In March, 1956, one social worker was
required to carry the case load of 260 families who had requested services in that part
of the region east of the Township of Chilliwhack and extending to Lytton and the
summit, while in the Municipality of Surrey seven social workers were required in March
to give service to 2,984 individuals and families, nearly one-third of the total regional
case load. This is an indication of the fact that while there was steady economic and
population growth throughout the region, the spectacular growth has taken place in the
western end, which is adjacent to the large urban areas.
Because of this growth it became necessary for the Surrey Social Welfare Department to decentralize, and offices were opened in Whalley and White Rock in addition to
the main office at Cloverdale. It was also necessary for two social workers to be added
to the regional staff—one at Haney and one at Abbotsford.
A picture of the case loads in each administrative office in the region is given in
Table I. The numerical and percentage growth in case loads over the past five years
is given in Table II.   Tables I and II appear on subsequent pages.
It will be noted in Table II that the regional case load increased by 1,616 cases in
the past four years. In looking at the category percentages it is seen that Social Allowance and Mothers' Allowance cases at the end of March, 1956, were 18 per cent of the
total case load, as against 15 per cent in 1952, and Old-age Assistance and Blind Persons'
Allowance cases had decreased 5 per cent. Despite this latter decrease, services to the
aged and blind continued to account for nearly two-thirds of the total services. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 31
Table I.—Case-load1 Statistics, according to Major Categories, by Administrative
Office, in Region VI, as at March 31st, 1956
Administrative
Office
Family
Service
Social
Allowance
and
Mothers'
Allowance
Old-age
Assistance
and
Blind
Persons'
Allowance
Disabled
Persons'
Allowance
Child
Welfare
Mental
Health
Other
Total
25
42
64
24
32
57
309
137
182
157
121
615
1,095
473
445
480
617
2,000
43
18
15
22
14
49
151
108
116
137
156
208
10
5
5
2
5
3
25
6
17
21
3
52
1,658
Chilliwack'.. 	
Chilliwhack4	
Haney5 	
789
844
843
948
Surrey' 	
2,984
Total for region8....
244
1,521
5,110
161
876
30
124
8,066
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
2 Abbotsford district office has one district supervisor and 4Vi social wor-kers serving five per capita municipalities,
Village of Abbotsford, and unorganized territory.
3 Chilliwack district office has one district supervisor and three social workers serving three per capita municipalities
and unorganized territory.
4 Chilliwhack Social Service Department is an amalgamated municipal office and receives supervision from Chilliwack district.   It has one municipal administrator and one social worker.
5 Haney district office receives supervision from Chilliwack district.    It has V/i  social workers  serving two per
capita municipalities and unorganized territory.
6 Langley Social Service Department is an amalgamated municipal office and receives supervision from Abbotsford
district.    It has one municipal administrator and two social workers.
7 Surrey Social Welfare Department is an amalgamated municipal office.    It has one municipal administrator, one
district supervisor, and seven social workers.
8 Regional office is in Chilliwack and is the headquarters of the Regional Administrator.
Table II.—Numerical and Percentage Comparison of Regional Case-load1 Statistics, by
Major Category, for the Fiscal Years 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, and 1956, as at
March 31st.
Category
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
212
3.0
218
3.0
276
4.0
333
4.0
244
3.0
Social and Mothers'
949
15.0
1,009
15.0
1,223
17.0
1,470
18.0
1.521
18.0
Old-age  Assistance
and Blind Persons'
Allowance...	
4,443    1      69.0
4,731
69.0
4,838
66.0
5,010
63.0
5,110
64.0
Disabled Persons' Al
lowance —	
37
0.4
161
2.0
Child Welfare.. 	
640
10.0
675
10.0
787
11.0
916
12.0
876
11.0
Mental Health	
93
1.0
86
1.0
40
0.5
46
0.6
30
0.5
Other 	
113
2.0
109
2.0
122
1.5
153
2.0
124
1.5
Totals 	
6,450    |    100.0
6,828
100.0
7,286    |    100.0
7,965
100.0
8,066
100.0
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
The services that were given to these old and sometimes handicapped people ranged
from help in the establishment of their eligibility for financial assistance to help with
their physical and emotional needs. One old gentleman in his eighties now calls the
social worker "his good friend." This came about after he had battled every attempt
that was made and finally accomplished to move him from his uninhabitable living-
quarters into a private hospital, where he recovered from malnutrition, and finally back
into a more liveable shack where he was happy and giving himself better care under the
watchful eye of "his good friend." Many such stories could be told despite the fact that
meeting legislative requirements leaves the social worker too little time for the social
aspects of the services required.
The development of senior-citizen organizations in all of the larger centres was a
positive and healthy trend, which indicated that the majority of old folk were able and
willing to plan for themselves and to help one another through united effort.    Service T 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
clubs played their part, too, as was indicated by the establishment of a Chat-a-way Club
for senior citizens in Chilliwack through the efforts of the Soroptomist Club, and the
organization, by a local group of women in Abbotsford, of a bargain centre from which
good used clothing was sold at a minimum charge.
In the interest of the old folk whom the staff served, there was an evident need for
a further working together of community groups and professional social workers, but
time and staff limitations made this very difficult. There was a need, too, for further
development of boarding-home and private-hospital facilities throughout the region.
As at March, 1956, there were six private hospitals, with 173 beds, in the region. A 33-
bed private hospital will soon be open for use in Surrey Municipality, but no other
private hospitals are being planned as far as it is known. There was an increase in
boarding-home facilities during the year of seven homes and 41 beds, making a total of
twenty-one homes and 231 beds. Further development of these resources, especially
the private home accommodating one or two persons, depends upon staff time available
as the finding and studying of these homes is a time-consuming process, but a very
necessary one.
It can be seen from Table II that there was an increase of only 101 in the case load
as at March 31st, 1956, as compared with the case load at the same time last year.
However, 706 more cases were served during the year than in the previous year. This
indicated that in many cases the services were completed in a shorter time, probably due
to the fact that there was greater stability of staff during the year. Adequate and stable
staff undoubtedly produced greater efficiency and economy in service, and every effort
was made to use the staff available in a way that produced the best service possible to
those seeking help and the most work satisfaction to the social workers giving the help.
In reviewing the child welfare services given during the year, it was found that 525
children were given foster-home care, fifty more than in the previous year. However, the
number of children in adoption homes dropped from 241 to 233, and the total child
welfare services did not show as large an increase as did the financial services. This was
true also of the services given to families and individuals around their personal problems
not related to financial stress. This could indicate the staffs were able to meet the needs
of those requesting financial service, but were not able to give a preventive service to
those cases when the need was less concrete and apparent than financial. Being able to
help a mother and father resolve their marital difficulty or have a better understanding
of the needs of their children may prevent the need for financial assistance to a deserted
wife or the expense of foster-home care for the children. This preventive service is
time-consuming but is one which justifies itself through the ultimate saving of dollars
and cents to the community.
As in the past, the total staff—clerical and social work—responded well and to the
utmost of their ability to the heavy demands made upon them by a constantly growing
case load. While all recognized that there were many unmet needs in the community,
they believed that with the unstinting help of other community resources, such as the
public health department, the schools, the police and Juvenile Courts, and many service
organizations, they were able to give a helpful service in the communities in which they
have worked.
The working relationships with the municipalities who shared responsibility with
the Branch were both pleasant and constructive. While it was not possible for the
Regional Administrator to present annual reports to the Councils of the per capita
municipalities the region served, with the exception of one, she hopes to be able to
submit reports to all of these during the coming year.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Mary K. King,
Regional Administrator. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
PART II.—DIVISIONAL ADMINISTRATION
T 33
FAMILY DIVISION
I wish to present the report of the Family Division, which is concerned with the
services rendered to families and individuals by the Social Welfare Branch under the
provisions of the " Social Assistance Act," the " Mothers' Allowances Act," and the
Family Service programme, for the fiscal year April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956.
SOCIAL ALLOWANCES SECTION
It is interesting to note that following the end of the previous fiscal year the number
of recipients continued to rise for another two months to a new maximum. After May,
1955, the total dropped sharply to the end of November, 1955, and then rose again each
month to the end of the fiscal year under review. It is the first year, however, since the
implementation of the Old-age Assistance programme that the total number of recipients
in the final month of the fiscal year was less than the total in the first month.
The implementation of the " Disabled Persons' Allowances Act" has most likely
accounted in part for this, plus the high employment level of the past year.
Another interesting point to note in the comparative figures given below for March,
1954, 1955, and 1956, is that, although the number of heads of families and dependents
increased, the total of single recipients had decreased by over a thousand, or nearly 14
per cent.
Case Load
The comparative statement for the month of March for the past three years is as
follows:—
Table I.—Case Load and Total Number of Recipients
Mar., 1954
Mar., 1955
Mar., 1956
3,327
8,252
5,908
3,688
9,475
7,372
3,730
9,761
6,346
Single recipients    - 	
9,235
8,252
11,060
9,475
10,076
9,761
Dependents  — 	
17,487
20,535
19,837
Table II.—Case Load and Total Number of Recipients on a Monthly Basis
Heads of
Families
Dependents
Single
Recipients
Total
April, 1955..
May, 1955...
June, 1955-
July, 1955-
August, 1955...	
September, 1955..
October, 1955	
November, 1955-
December, 1955—
January, 1956	
February, 1956.—
March, 1956	
3,756
3,789
3,690
3,501
3,329
3.256
3,158
3,230
3,521
3,627
3,664
3,730
9,634
9,655
9,376
8,733
8,381
8,160
8,006
8,160
9,287
9,445
9,599
9,761
7,514
7,627
7,263
6,810
5,986
5,796
5,750
5,974
6,218
6,400
6,345
6,346
20,904
21,071
20,329
19,044
17,696
17,212
16,914
17,364
19,026
19,472
19,608
19,837
Of the total number of recipients of assistance in the Province in March, 1956-
namely, 19,837—the totals according to regions are as follows:— T 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Regional Totals of Individuals in Receipt of Assistance
in March, 1956
Provincial District Office
Region I—
Alberni       _.._  71
Courtenay     358
Duncan     —    114
Nanaimo   —    402
Victoria — —  235
Organized Territory (Municipal)
44
        26
 -       41
Central  Saanich  ._	
25
        19
..       30
Esquimalt	
       71
22
        13
Nanaimo	
North   Cowichan    	
Oak Bay     	
      205
       107
        17
        83
Qualicum Beach  	
         1
-     159
Victoria    	
      615
1,180
1,478
2,658
Region II—
New Westminster
Vancouver    	
Westview  — —
43
166
53
—.     585
..     221
Delta       ...
      119
New Westminster  	
North Vancouver City   .
North Vancouver District
Port Coquitlam  	
539
.     155
143
56
43
Powell River	
8
.. ..     237
  4,437
West Vancouver	
65
262
6,608
6,870
Region III—
Kamloops .....
Kelowna   —
Penticton   	
Salmon Arm
Vernon 	
442               Armstrong     — 14
329               Coldstream     -  23
250               Enderby   —  18
99              Glenmore  —- -  18
355                 Kamloops    -   275
Kelowna          124
Merritt  30
North   Kamloops       46
Oliver      22
Peachland       13
Penticton      189
Princeton       34
Revelstoke        14
Salmon Arm City   — 21
Salmon Arm District   67
Spallumcheen    38
Summerland  42
Vernon    —   77
1,475
1,065
2,540
Region IV—
Cranbrook
Creston   __
Fernie   —
Grand Forks
Nelson  	
New Denver
Trail    -	
350
232
40
90
661
138
129
Castlegar 	
Cranbrook	
Creston Village
Fernie   	
Grand Forks 	
Greenwood   	
Kaslo  	
Kimberley  	
Nelson   	
Rossland 	
Slocan   	
Trail  	
Warfield    	
28
108
53
42
28
28
4
55
145
37
18
122
10
1,640
678
2,318 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 35
Table III.—Regional Totals of Individuals in Receipt of Assistance
in March, 1956—Continued
Provincial District Office
Region V—
Pouce  Coupe  .
Prince George
Prince Rupert .
Quesnel   	
Smithers 	
Terrace 	
Williams Lake 	
Region VI—
Abbotsford
Chilliwack
Haney 	
425
503
103
53
191
204
97
1,576
70
169
239
Organized Territory (Municipal)
Dawson Creek Village
Fort St. John  	
Prince George  	
Prince Rupert  	
Quesnel   — -	
Smithers     —
Williams Lake 	
148
37
213
252
86
39
15
790
2,366
Chilliwack   City -     100
Chilliwhack Township  -     365
56
         12
   -     200
        43
      247
.._      265
      138
        66
36
        91
    1,227
Hope
Kent
Langley  ....	
Langley City
Maple Ridge
Matsqui
Mission District
Mission Village
Pitt Meadows ....
Sumas    	
Surrey     	
2,846
3,085
19,837
The following are the approximate percentages of the total case load by regions:
Region I, 13 per cent; Region II, 35 per cent; Region III, 13 per cent; Region IV,
12 per cent; Region V, 12 per cent; and Region VI, 15 per cent.
The distribution of recipient case load between organized and unorganized areas
indicates a change this year, with 67.9 per cent living in municipal territory and 32.1
per cent living in Provincial territory, as against 70.4 per cent and 29.6 per cent
respectively in March, 1955.
When compared on the basis of legal residence determined under the "Residence
and Responsibility Act," the distribution is as follows:—
Table IV.—Legal Residence of Social Allowance Recipients
Mar., 1954
Mar., 1955
Mar., 1956
Municipal responsibilities..	
10,131
7.356
11,790
8.745
10,882
8,955
TntaK
17,487
20,535
19,837
Table V.—Comparative Table (Percentages) of Social Allowance Recipients
Based on Legal Residence
Mar., 1954
Mar., 1955
Mar., 1956
57.93
42.07
57.41
42.59
54.86
Provincial responsibilities                       	
45.14
A study of the above tables shows that the proportion of the total recipient case load
who are Provincial responsibilities, and for whom the Province pays 100 per cent of the
cost of Social Allowance, has risen by over 2.5 per cent over last year. The percentage
of municipal responsibilities has decreased accordingly. T 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Following is a statement of expenditures made by the Social Welfare Branch during
the fiscal year under review for Social Allowances, medical services, and other charges:—
Table VI.—Expenditures by the Province for Social Allowances, Medical Services, etc.
Fiscal Year
1953-54
Fiscal Year
1954-55
Fiscal Year
1955-56
1. Cases who are the responsibility of a municipality (80 per cent
paid by the Province) 	
2. Cases who are the sole responsibility of the Province (100 per
cent paid by the Province)   	
3. Repatriation, transportation within the Province, nursing- and
boarding-home care (other than tuberculosis), special allowances and grants    	
4. Emergency payments, such as where a family may lose its home
by fire or similar circumstances	
5. Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis, boarding-, nursing-, and private-home cases...
(b) Transportation of tuberculosis cases
(c) Comforts allowances for tuberculosis cases..
6. Hospitalization of social assistance cases1 	
$1,959,600.06
1,615,348.10
1,102,455.93
39,009.41
376,412.30
3,464.24
19,729.00
Hospitalization of social assistance cases1 — —	
Administration and operation of project and pavilion for Japanese at New Denver  	
Medical services and drugs	
Totals       — 	
$5,116,019.04
3,883,070.37
44,556.58
1,707,339.76
$10,750,985.75
$2,588,455.80
2,241,850.58
1,262,185.21
39,048.25
444,882.01
4,341.91
16,025.30
$2,626,760.81
2,350,451.69
1,420,208.51
I
52,891.24
402,850.12
2,638.57
11,991.16
19,319.36
$6,596,789.06
20,597.31
53,816.85
1,947,832.23
8,619,035.45
$6,887,111.46
38,600.41
2,208,252.70
$9,133,964.57
1 Effective April 1st, 1954, hospitalization costs (including co-insurance) for Social Allowance cases paid by British
Columbia Hospital Insurance Service. Expenditures under above heading include only short-stay costs for Social Allowance cases, Provincial Government share of hospitalization costs for immigrants, and children's hospital pilot plan.
Effective April 1st, 1955, these hospitalization costs paid from Social Allowance Vote.
In connection with this statement of expenditures, it is also reported that under the
terms of the Federal-Provincial agreement regarding unemployment assistance, which
became effective July 1st, 1955, the Province has received from the Federal Government
since that date to March 31st, 1956, a total of $1,721,339.28.
Some of the developments during the year in the Social Allowance programme have
been as follows:—
(1) Effective April 1st, 1955, the new schedule of exemptions and deductions
relating to earnings and other income became effective April 1st, 1955.
It was anticipated that this would be uniformly implemented throughout
the Province by municipal and Provincial welfare offices. This schedule
was devised in the belief that the basic consideration of any such schedule
should be the encouragement of individual and family independence
wherever possible, and that recognition should be given to individual
efforts toward self-support. It was also considered that the basic principles
regarding exemptions and deductions should not merely be a means of
compensation for any assistance, but should be applicable whatever rates
of allowance were established. This schedule also recognized degrees of
responsibility as between the head of a family and working children.
(2) Effective April 1st, 1955, too, the dental-care programme was extended
to include children under 11 years of age.
(3) The annual Christmas bonus was paid to recipients of Social Allowance
or Mothers' Allowance, amounting to $5 for each family and $2 for each
single person.
(4) During this fiscal year, notification was received that, effective from the
beginning of the next fiscal year (April 1st, 1956), Social Allowance and
Mothers' Allowance rates were to be increased.   This announcement was REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 37
welcomed by everyone, in consideration of the families in receipt of social
assistance whose attempts to budget on minimum income were being
defeated by the rising cost of living.
Rehabilitation
During the fiscal year under review, the number of resident trainees in the Western
Rehabilitation Centre for whom the Province assumed the total cost of remedial training
or shared with the responsible municipalities totalled forty-four. Of this number, fourteen were arthritic patients and the remaining thirty were paraplegic patients or otherwise
orthopccdically disabled.    Included in this total are three readmissions.
Added to these were some thirty persons who received out-patient care. Of these
out-patients, fifteen had been former resident trainees while fifteen received out-patient
care only.
Of this latter fifteen and the forty-four resident trainees, twenty-nine were municipal
responsibilities and thirty were Provincial responsibilities.
" Social Assistance Act "
During the year one district municipality and three village municipalities were
incorporated, but two villages were incorporated into the new district municipality,
leaving the following total municipalities: Cities, 36; districts, 30; and villages, 50.
Of this total of 116 municipalities, eighty-one participate in the administration of social
assistance under the provisions of the " Social Assistance Act." The remainder are
village municipalities whose current tax revenue for general purposes is below $12,500,
and thus they are not liable for social assistance costs.
Those who have established their own social welfare departments under section 6,
subsection (b), of the regulations to the Act total eighteen, and the remaining sixty-three
purchase the service from the Province under the provisions of the same section.
Also during this year twenty Boards of Review were established on request of a
recipient of or applicant for social assistance, as provided in section 13 of the regulations to the Act.
The only amendment made during the year was to section 13 of the regulations.
This changed the procedure for establishing a Board of Review where the person requesting the Board resides in unorganized territory. Formerly under these circumstances
the Board had to be convened in Victoria, but the revision provides that the Board
shall be established in the local area in which the person lives.
General Comments
With the implementation of the Federal-Provincial agreements relating to unemployment assistance, it is anticipated that a major revision will take place in the existing
informal interprovincial agreement accepted by most Provinces and relating to the
granting of Social Allowances to non-residents in each Province. Under this previous
so-called interprovincial agreement, persons who lived for one year or more in a Province without receiving public assistance gained residence in that Province, although not
necessarily in a local area under Provincial residence and responsibility legislation.
When non-residents in a Province required public assistance, each case was considered
on its individual merits and on the basis of need and in terms of ultimate planning.
For some the plan is repatriation to the Province of residence, which plan is worked
out with the co-operation of the other Province concerned and for others where possible
reimbursement is obtained from the responsible Province. Generally speaking, this
agreement has eliminated numerous problems of interprovincial residence, but it is not
always possible to obtain unanimity of opinion on residence. It has, therefore, been
necessary for British Columbia, and no doubt for other Provinces as well, to accept T 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
responsibility for some cases who are not residents of British Columbia but for whom
no residence can be proved or accepted by the Province of seeming responsibility.
The agreement signed by each Province with the Federal Government may or may
not contain a saving clause that the assistance may be granted without regard for
residence.
It is too early to forecast, however, what the final revision of the existing interprovincial agreement will be or in what way Branch policy relating to the granting of
social assistance to non-residents will be affected or altered.
In conclusion and once again it should be emphasized that the granting of financial assistance should not be merely the giving of a cheque. Primarily, the purpose of
financial assistance is supportive while the need exists, but it should also be rehabilitative, and, therefore, it cannot be given without regard or thought for the recipient and
his capabilities, potentialities, and resources.
Too often when the person does make some effort toward independence, it is his
feeling that he is penalized by a reduction in his cheque. Rather, the emphasis should
be on what he is able to do himself toward meeting his own financial needs, with the
assurance that if this is not sufficient, public assistance is there to supplement his own
efforts within the limits of Branch policy.
Service to recipients of financial assistance should not be resolved into a checking
for eligibility, but should be casework at its highest level of skill to know all members
of the family and be ready to help with their problems and encourage them wherever
possible toward the goal of independence. For those where the goal cannot be that of
financial independence, there is still much that can be achieved through casework to
strengthen the family or restore the self-esteem of individual persons. Financial assistance is only a tool in such a plan of service.
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES SECTION
The Mothers' Allowance case load continued to decrease and has dropped nearly
18 per cent in the fiscal year under review to a total of 323.
This trend has been evident since 1940, when the highest case load—namely,
1,778—was reached. During the war years it was considered the drop in the case load
reflected the increase in employment opportunities for women and disabled husbands
who, under other circumstances, might not have been able to find employment. With
the end of the war, however, came the passage of the " Social Assistance Act" in 1945,
which offered a more flexible means of granting assistance to mothers and families in
need, and Social Allowance became the preferable form of assistance.
The provision of Mothers' Allowance, therefore, was and continued to be used less
and less, except where legal residence was a factor, because Mothers' Allowance, with
its supplementation from Social Allowance funds, is a 100-per-cent Provincial charge,
whereas Social Allowance is shareable with the municipality of legal residence on the
usual basis. Another exception was where local municipal regulations of eligibility for
Social Allowance required that there be no eligibility for assistance from any other
source.
In spite of this factor, some municipalities have indicated willingness to grant Social
Allowance without regard for eligibility for Mothers' Allowance, and their concurrence
in consideration being given to having the " Mothers' Allowances Act" repealed.
Between 1940 and 1945 the case load decreased by 47 per cent to 940.
The following table will indicate to what extent the case load has fallen since
1946:— REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 39
Table I.—Comparative Statement of Case Load
As at March, 1946  905
As at March, 1947  863
As at March, 1948  751
As at March, 1949  681
As at March, 1950  643
As at March, 1951  569
As at March, 1952  503
As at March, 1953  470
As at March, 1954  426
As at March, 1955  393
As at March, 1956  323
From these figures it will be noted that the case load has fallen by approximately
64 per cent in the last ten years.
On a monthly basis the case-load figures for this fiscal year are as follows:—
Table II.—Monthly Case Load, April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Number of
Allowances
in Pay
Number of Persons
Mothers
Children
Incapacitated
Husbands
April, 1955..
May, 1955...
June, 1955...
July, 1955...
August, 1955.
September, 1955-
October, 1955	
November, 1955-
December, 1955—
January, 1956	
February, 1956	
March, 1956	
389
384
380
367
361
352
342
330
328
326
328
323
389
384
380
367
361
352
342
330
328
326
328
323
890
879
872
840
826
801
774
759
757
745
756
742
68
66
65
58
56
51
49
49
47
47
44
46
The volume of applications and reapplications has fallen, and the following table
indicates how these have been dealt with:—
Table III.—Statement of Applications Considered and Decisions Made
Applications pending as at April 1st, 1955.
New applications received during year	
Reapplications received during year	
13
61
24
Total.
98
Decisions—
Grants
66
Refusals   12
Withdrawn      8
86
Applications pending as at March 31st, 1956  12
Total  9 8 T 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Statement of Applications Considered and Decisions Made—Continued
Reasons for refusals—
Mother's earnings in excess  2
Husband discharged from the Mental Hospital  2
Property assessed value in excess—assets in excess  1
Property in excess  1
Application not proceeded with—assets in excess  1
Not legally separated  2
Not a British subject  2
Mother unable to qualify under section 7 of the " Mothers'
Allowances Act"  1
Total  12
Reasons for applications pending—
Documents and medical report required  6
Awaiting information re assets  1
Decision pending  1
First investigation report not received  2
Awaiting information re citizenship  1
Awaiting further information  1
Total  12
Reasons for cancellation of the allowances—
Social Allowance preferable form of assistance  1
Mother remarried  22
Left British Columbia  3
Mother in hospital indefinitely   1
Mother earning in excess  35
Mother separated from husband   1
Husband not totally disabled   10
Husband released from Penitentiary  5
Child not in mother's care  1
Only child 18 years of age  9
Only child under 16 left school  3
Only child under 18 left school  11
Only child drowned  1
Older children maintaining  16
Assets in excess  4
Unearned income in excess  5
Withdrawn   7
Property not being used as home  1
Total   136 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 41
A comparative study of volume and activity in the Mothers' Allowance case loads
for the past ten years is shown in the following table:—
Table IV.—Movement in Case Loads, 1946 to 1956
Volume
Activity
Year
Held Over
from Previous Year
New Applications and
Reapplications
Total
Grants
Refusals
Withdrawn
Cancellations
1946	
1947	
19481	
14
10
40
15
30
14
7
18
16
19
13
205
199
143
176
141
102
143
163
114
94
85
219
209
183
191
171
116
150
181
130
113
98
162
150
93
118
127
83
103
118
79
77
66=
43
47
59
29
18
20
26
39
29
22
122
4
6
16
14
12
6
3
8
3
1
82
197
202
205
1949   .  .   	
188
1950	
165
1951	
157
1952  	
169
1953	
151
1954	
123
1955	
110
1956	
136
1 Corrected figure.
2 In addition there are twelve pending applications as at March 31st, 1956 (see Table III).
A study of the reasons for refusals between the years 1946 and 1956 shows that
almost 50 per cent were based on earnings, assets, or other income. The next largest
group, over 20 per cent, were because of the legal status of the mother—namely, that
there was no legal marriage or ineligibility under the qualifications relating to divorce,
separation, or desertion. The third largest group, also over 20 per cent, comprised those
where the husband was not considered totally disabled in the light of medical findings.
The balance of refusals were based on sundry qualifications of eligibility defined in the
Act, such as citizenship, residence, etc.
A study of the cancellations for the past ten years from 1946 to 1956 shows that
over 35 per cent were related to earnings, other income, or assets. The next largest group,
about 30 per cent, of cancellations were because the children had become over age, left
school, or left the home and care of the mother. Remarriage of the mother accounted for
about 15 per cent of the cancellations. The other major groups of cancelled cases, about
12 per cent, were those in which the husband's health improved to the extent that he was
no longer totally disabled. The balance of the cancellations showed sundry reasons, such
as the fact that the mother was no longer in the home, or in the Province, or her whereabouts were unknown, or the husband had been released from the Penitentiary, etc.
Of the cancelled cases in the fiscal year 1955-56—namely, 136—the length of time
each family had been in receipt of Mothers' Allowance is as follows:—
Years-...  1     2     3     4     5   6   7   8     9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17
Cases.._._35   19   16   13   11   9   4   5   11      1     2     1      1     2     4     1      1
Total cases, 136.   Average length of time on allowance, 4.61 years.
A review of the last ten years shows that the average length of time on allowance
has decreased from 5.96 years in 1946 to 4.61 years in 1956, as above. It is apparent
that while there are still some families which remain on the allowance for many years, an
increasing proportion remain on the allowance for less than the average time. In 1946
approximately 53 per cent remained on the allowance less than the average length of
time, while in 1956 the proportion has risen to approximately 61 per cent.
Many factors may account for this. The continued increase in employment opportunities for women since the war has been one and the change in public thought about
employment of mothers with children is another. At the present time the balance appears
to be midway between the idea that the mother must always remain in the home whatever
her capabilities and training may be even though this means a continuation of public T 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
assistance at a minimum standard of living, and the idea that financial independence for
the family, if circumstances permit the mother to work, is preferable from the standpoint
of family morale and individual self-esteem. There is the expressed concern, too, that
unless assistance-giving is part of a casework service, the effect on the family can be
limiting in terms of opportunity and a weakening of the natural drive for independence if
the assistance continues over many years.
There is also the factor that Mothers' Allowance is no longer regarded by most
persons as a pension to continue as long as there is a child under 18 years of age in the
home. It is as the name should imply—an allowance to meet a situation of need as long
as that need exists, but only until the family with their own resources and capabilities are
able to make their own plans for independence.
The term " status " in the following table relates to the specific sections of the
" Mothers' Allowances Act " or regulations under which the mother has qualified for the
allowance.
Table V.—Status and Number of Mothers and Dependents in Receipt
of Allowance as at March, 1956
Status of Mother in Accordance with Eligibility
Number of Children
Qualifications Set by the Act
1              2
3
4
5
6
7
Total
Widows	
61
1
3
4
2
6
5
6
1
76
5
3
8
3
5
8
11
38
2
1
4
4
3
1
4
4
32
2
2
2
1
1
5
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
211
10
9
19
Incapacitated husbands away   .....
Incapacitated  husbands   O.A.S.,   O.A.A.,   B.P.,  and
D.P.A-  	
11
16
2
18
Deserted    	
26
1
89
119
61
45
5
1
3
323
From the above table the following figures are derived:—
Table VI.—Number of Individuals for Whom Allowance Granted
Mothers        323
Husbands         191
Children       742
1,084
1 This figure applies only to those incapacitated husbands who reside in the home and who are included in the
Mothers' Allowance payment. In addition, it will be noted that there is a total of thirty-six incapacitated husbands
in the mental hospital, out of the home, or in receipt of Old Age Security, Old-age Assistance, Blind Persons' Allowance,
or Disabled Persons' Allowance.
Costs of Mothers' Allowances
As the case load has decreased, the statutory Mothers' Allowance and supplementary
Social Allowance expenditures have decreased accordingly. As the basic rate of Mothers'
Allowance is set by legislation, which has never been changed since the Act was implemented, supplementation is necessary from the Social Allowance Vote, to make the
maximum allowance payable to recipients of Mothers' Allowance equal to the maximum
payable under Social Allowance. This supplementary Social Allowance is 100 per cent
chargeable to the Province, as is the statutory Mothers' Allowance.
It is necessary because of the payments from two votes to present two financial
statements to cover total costs. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 43
Table VII.—Mothers' Allowance Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Amount of allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowance
April, 1955   $17,975.86
May, 1955   17,620.59
June, 1955   16,995.14
July, 1955  15,896.68
August, 1955  15,138.11
September, 1955  15,725.69
October, 1955  13,776.72
November, 1955   14,849.74
December, 1955   14,026.44
January, 1956  13,967.97
February, 1956  14,551.62
March, 1956   14,163.24
  $184,687.80
Reconciliation with Ledger Account in Controlling and
Audit Branch: Amount advanced by Minister of
Finance   $ 184,687.80
The books and records of the Director of Welfare respecting Mothers' Allowances for the fiscal year ended March
31st, 1956, have been examined under my direction.
C. J. ferber,
Comptroller-General.
Table VIII.—Financial Statement of Supplementary Social Allowances Paid to Recipients
of Mothers' Allowance (Vote 184) for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1955, to March
31st, 1956.
Amount of allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowance
April, 1955  $13,927.00
May, 1955   13,786.55
June, 1955   13,398.60
July, 1955  12,881.80
August, 1955   12,524.40
September, 1955  12,341.30
October, 1955  10,993.52
November, 1955   11,876.47
December, 1955   11,169.63
Christmas bonus   1,645.00
January, 1956  10,863.59
February, 1956  11,479.65
March, 1956  11,115.07
  $148,002.58
Reconciliation with Ledger Account in Controlling and
Audit Branch: Amount advanced by Minister of
Finance   $148,002.58
The books and records of the Director of Welfare respecting Supplementary Social Allowances paid to recipients of
Mothers' Allowance for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1956, have been examined under my direction.
C. J. FERBER,
Comptroller-General.
. T 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IX.—Statement Showing per Capita Cost to the Province
Fiscal Year
Total
Expenditures
Population
at June of
Each Year
Per Capita
Cost to the
Province
1953 54	
$387,919.17
401,442.76
332,690.38
1,230,000
1,266,000
1,305,000
$0.32
1QS4-S5
.32
1955-56   .
.25
General Comments
No amendments were made to the " Mothers' Allowances Act " or regulations
during the year under review.
One can only comment again that it becomes increasingly evident that this form
of categorical assistance has become ineffective and superfluous. Its purpose has long
since been negated by the wider provisions and equal benefits of the " Social Assistance
Act."
The " Mothers' Allowances Act " as it is written is restrictive and prohibitive and
reflects to some extent current thinking some two or three decades ago regarding indigency, " worthiness " or " unworthiness," family breakdown and morality. These
restrictions and prohibitions have made it more and more difficult to administer the
Act equitably and in conformity with modern social welfare programmes.
That it is a resource used almost entirely by and in municipal areas is evident from
the following table.   The reasons for this have been stated elsewhere in this report.
Table X.—Proportion of Applications and Grants in Organized Territory
Total applications and reapplications received     85
Applicants residing in organized territory     82
Applicants having legal residence in organized territory    81
Total grants made during year     66
Recipients residing in organized territory     63
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory    64
Alowances in pay as at March 31st, 1956  323
Recipients having legal residence in unorganized territory      27
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory 296
From these figures it will be noted that approximately 95 per cent of all applicants
for the allowance had legal residence in organized (municipal) territory, while approximately 98 per cent of all recipients of Mothers' Allowances as at March 31st, 1956, also
had legal residence in organized territory.
The present effectiveness and future need of this form of categorical assistance
becomes more and more a matter requiring serious consideration. In giving this consideration, four main factors must be taken into account. These are, although not necessarily listed in order of importance, namely, the effect on municipal costs for social
assistance if the Act were repealed, public acceptance of any such plan, the effect on the
recipients of Mothers' Allowances, and the possible elimination of duplicate administration procedures.
The first is a matter of Provincial-municipal relationships and would require negotiation with an acceptance by the municipalities. There is reason to believe that this
would not be lacking from the municipalities most concerned.
Explanation to the general public is more difficult and complicated as there may
still be many who regard Mothers' Allowance as the preferable and more beneficial form
of assistance. It therefore rests with the Branch to continue in its efforts to interpret
wherever and whenever the opportunity arises that this belief is no longer valid, and that REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 45
a far larger percentage of mothers and their dependent children are deriving equal
financial and social benefits while in receipt of Social Allowance, which is the alternative
form of assistance.
In earnest consideration of the welfare of the present recipients of Mothers' Allowance, which is of primary importance, it is sincerely believed that a transfer from Mothers'
Allowance to Social Allowance should cause little disruption and no disadvantage to them.
Finally, from a Branch point of view, it would eliminate duplication of administration
of assistance throughout the Province.
It is known that one Province in Canada has already repealed its Mothers' Allowances Act and incorporated its provisions into its general social assistance programme.
It is suggested that British Columbia might well consider taking similar action without
disadvantage or harm to the recipients or any detriment or limitation of effectiveness to
its social assistance programme.
FAMILY SERVICE SECTION
Family Service, as the title implies, is a service to families. The family is the primary
and most important unit of society, and social work has always as its goal the preservation
and strengthening of that unit, because whenever the family or its members suffer disruption, the community also suffers. Service to families, therefore, is the basic service
in any welfare programme and is present whatever other service may be provided. Its
purpose is to try to save marriages threatening to dissolve, to help when separation
seemingly becomes inevitable, to encourage and support parents whose conduct or way
of life might otherwise lead to loss of guardianship of their children, to work with the
teen-ager in conflict with society or the older person who is doubtful of his or her place
in the family unit.
Financial assistance may never be needed because economic security does not always
eliminate or solve problems of personality and behaviour. What is needed is the skill of
the social worker, based on a special technical knowledge of human behaviour and motivation and a comprehensive knowledge of social resources and how to use them.
As has been said many times, no monetary value can be placed on services to the
family; they can only be measured in terms of human welfare and happiness.
During the year under review the case load in the Family Service category has
remained fairly level. Figures alone do not indicate the work and time or the skill and
problems involved, but the following table gives the monthly case load as carried by the
field service outside the greater metropolitan areas served by private family service
agencies.
Table I.—Total of Family Service Cases from April 1st, 1955,
to March 31st, 1956
April,  1955   1,691
May, 1955   1,685
June, 1955   1,691
July, 1955   1,642
August, 1955   1,643
September, 1955   1,630
October, 1955   1,654
November, 1955   1,637
December, 1955  1,633
January, 1956  1,666
February, 1956  1,653
March, 1956  1,640 T 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Other Services
Family Allowances
By arrangement with the Department of National Health and Welfare, this Division
acts as the channel for requests from the Family Allowances Division for British Columbia
for inquiries regarding the use of or eligibility for Family Allowances in some instances,
or for recommendations concerning a suitable payee.
Table II.—Requests Received from Family Allowances Division,
April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Pending as at April 1st, 1955       3
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1955, to March 31st,
1956, by months—
April, 1955   6
May, 1955   8
June, 1955   8
July, 1955  10
August, 1955   11
September, 1955   8
October, 1955  9
November, 1955   10
December, 1955   9
January, 1956   9
February, 1956  5
March, 1956   8
— 101
Total requests received  104
Requests completed within fiscal year  102
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1956       2
These requests for reports were directed as follows:—
Table III.—Referrals to District Offices and Other Agencies
Referrals pending as at April 1st, 1955     28
Requests forwarded during fiscal year April 1st, 1955, to
March 31st, 1956, by regions—
Region I1   36
Region II1   20
Region III  10
Region IV  10
Region V   21
Region VI     6
— 103
Total number of requests referred  1312
1 Includes referrals to private agencies in Victoria and Vancouver.
2 The difference in this total as compared with requests is accounted for by the fact that one request from the
Family Allowances Division may require two or more separate reports from different offices or agencies. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Table IV.—Referrals Completed within Fiscal Year, by Regions
T 47
Region I                                           _________
37
Region II _ _     	
     20
Region III                                 . .
     10
Region IV
._    __                 9
Region V           	
     17
Region VI                                 .        	
       9
Total      __    	
  102
Total number of requests referred	
Referrals Dendins as at ADril 1st. 1956	
  131
     29
Third-party Administration of Family Allowances
During the year two cases were recommended and accepted for third-party administration, and this remained in effect at March 31st, 1956.
Old Age Security
Requests are also received from the Old Age Security Division in British Columbia
of the Department of National Health and Welfare for assistance to persons who are
completing applications for Old Age Security. This assistance usually comprises help
with correspondence, or securing necessary documents, or sometimes financial assistance
in the form of Social Allowance until a decision on the application can be made by the
Old Age Security Division.
Table V.—Requests Received from Old Age Security Division
from April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956
Pending as at April 1st, 1955     8
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1955, to March 31st,
1956, by months—
April, 1955 	
May,  1955 	
June, 1955 	
July, 1955 	
August, 1955	
September, 1955 	
October, 1955	
2
1
November, 1955      1
December, 1955
January, 1956
     1
     1
February, 1956 __       1
March, 1956 	
—    7
Total case load  15
Cases completed within fiscal year  14
Cases pending as at April 1st, 1956
1 T 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VI.—Requests to District Offices
Pending as at April 1st, 1955
Requests forwarded during fiscal year April 1st, 1955, to
March 31st, 1956, by regions—
Region I 	
Region II     1
Region III     1
Region IV     2
Region V	
Region VI     3
—    7
Total number of requests   15
Table VII.—Reports Completed by Regions
Region I   2
Region II   2
Region III  1
Region IV  2
Region V   1
Region VI  6
Total   14
Total number of requests  15
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1956     1
Tribunals
During the fiscal year under review no requests for the establishment of tribunals
were received from the Department of National Health and Welfare, Old Age Security
Division.
Conclusion
For the help and co-operation of the social workers, district supervisors, and
Regional Administrators, the Division is, as always, appreciative and grateful. Without
this help the common purpose of Field Service and Division—namely, service to people—
could not be achieved.
This appreciation goes in equal measure, too, to municipal welfare departments,
other departments of government, and private agencies for their co-operation and advice
whenever it is sought.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Marie Riddell,
Provincial Supervisor, Family Division. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 49
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION
I beg to present herewith the annual report of the Child Welfare Division for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1956.
As at April 1st, 1955, there were 1,691 children in the care of the Superintendent
of Child Welfare. During the fiscal year, 853 were admitted, 650 discharged, and, as at
March 31st, 1956, 1,894 remain in care.   Their legal status is: —
Children in Care
Legal Status as at Mar. 31, 1956
Wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare under the
" Protection of Children Act "  1,215
Before Court under the " Protection of Children Act "  141
Wards of a Children's Aid Society  132
Wards of other Provinces  37
Committed to Superintendent of Child Welfare under " Juvenile Delinquency Act "  54
In care by parental request  315
1,894
There are also eighty-five children in care whose parents, as Sons of Freedom Douk-
hobors, refused to send them to school. They were apprehended by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, and are in care by Court order under the " Protection of Children Act"
by reason of habitual truancy. These children are attending the local school, and their
progress is reported to be satisfactory. As a group they live in dormitory quarters, and
this project will be operated by the District School Board as a regular school dormitory as
of April 1st, 1956. Forty-eight were discharged from the dormitory to their parents
during the year, and twenty-four were newly apprehended by the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police, leaving a total of eighty-five in residence as at March 31st, 1956, as compared with
109 at the beginning of the fiscal year. Their general health has been good, although a
high percentage have required extensive dental care.
AGE AND LEGAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN CARE
The age-groups and legal status of the 1,894 children (exclusive of the Sons of
Freedom children) in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare as at March 31st,
1956, is shown below in Table I.
Table I.—Age and Legal Status of Children in Care of the Superintendent of
Child Welfare as at March 31st, 1956
0-5
Months
6-11
Months
1-2
Years
3-5
Years
6-11
Years
12-13
Years
14-17
Years
18-21
Years
Total
Wards under " Protection of Children Act"—
Before the Court under the " Protection of
3
5
24
3
17
13
17
12
104
22
35
20
158
32
38
13
1
378
41
76
3
23
5
158
9
22
13
10
5
281
19
72
23
26
21
116
31
15
25
5
1,215
141
315
Committed   under   " Juvenile   Delinquency
54
Wards   of  Children's  Aid  Societies  under
132
37
Totals  	
35
59
181
242
526
217
442
192
1,894 T 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FEW WARDS UNDER 6 MONTHS OF AGE IN FOSTER HOMES
Last year the Division reported there were only six wards of the Superintendent of
Child Welfare under the age of 6 months in foster-home care. This year the Division
proudly points to the fact that there are but three in this age-group. The Division is also
pleased to draw attention to the relatively few wards between the ages of 6 months and
1 year.
SOCIAL HANDICAPS DELAY PERMANENT PLACEMENT
Of the 262 wards aged 1 to 6 years shown in Table I, eight are grossly physically
handicapped and two are in The Woodlands School for the retarded child. Many of the
remaining 252 in this age-group are children of mixed racial origin. Permanent planning
through adoption for them is difficult because prejudice and intolerance persist. Each
year the number placed with adoptive parents is higher, but many months of babyhood
and sometimes years of childhood are spent by some in foster-home care, who otherwise
could use the greater security of adoption placement. Geraldine, a ward, is one of these.
She is now 5 and her bright, engaging manner, good physique and intellect have not yet
sufficed to overcome the social handicap of her part-negro background.
1,617 CHILDREN IN FOSTER HOMES IN SIX REGIONS
Much has been accomplished by the Social Welfare Branch during the past ten years
in building up placement resources throughout this far-flung and mountainous Province,
and seldom is a child now placed outside the region in which he was admitted to care.
This in itself is a remarkable achievement, but, as will be seen in Table II, each region has
a rapidly expanding foster-home programme with which to cope.
Table II.-
-Location and Legal Status of Children in Care of the Superintendent
of Child Welfare as at March 31st, 1956
P.C.A.
Wards
J.D.A.
Wards
C.A.S.
Wards
O.P.
Wards
Before
the Court
Parental
Request
Total
S.W.B. regions-
106
150
256
152
187
192
14
6
6
6
6
10
23
16
13
10
9
38
3
4
4
1
3
9
5
28
10
6
70
18
37
44
49
18
43
65
188
248
338
193
Region V 	
318
332
Totals  --.
1,043
48
109
24
137
256
1,617
Placed with a C.A.S.—
59
20
18
1
1
1
3
9
1
1
1
21
14
19
85
C.C.A.S., Vancouver	
44
40
97
3
......
13
2
54
169
In institutions—
3
10
14
9
1
	
1
1
3
10
B.I.S. and G.I.S.                           	
16
Oakalla	
10
36
1
       1      —
1
1
39
28
11
__
2
15
8
	
1
1
3
45
24
1,215
54
132
37
141
315
1,894
The 1,617 children in foster homes throughout Social Welfare Branch regions
include infants, small children, adolescents, and young adults. Among them are boys
and girls with a wide range of needs and problems, and their social worker represents
the only bulwark they have against fear of the future. One young girl expressed this
when she wrote the Superintendent to acknowledge a graduation gift:   " I am the hap- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 51
piest person in the world to have my R.N. degree, and it has been possible only because
my social worker helped me believe in myself and others. Just think, I was termed an
' incorrigible ' eight years ago! "
FOSTER-CHILDREN MAKE A " CASE LOAD " SPECIAL
To reach this goal with a child who has not her own parents to confide in or turn
to for comfort and guidance, a social worker assumes a heavy burden of responsibility.
Distance, weather, the demands and emergencies which arise daily in other categories
of service, all impinge upon and impede the worker trying to help a child " find her way."
Case loads in numbers alone can never tell of the thought and planning or the interviewing hours—in and after a regular day's work—which go to make up the true content of " case loads " which include boys and girls entrusted to the Superintendent.
The adult in want, the aged and infirm must receive care and protection. For
many, however, their needs in the main can be met through social services and the
establishment of a regular and reasonable monthly income. Seldom are they alone
with their problems in the same overwhelming sense as is the child. For the child, a
change of worker, a difficulty in the replacement of staff, or even an unavoidable delay
in a visit to a foster home may spell disaster. As the population of British Columbia
increases, the Branch can expect the number of dependent children to increase, and it
would seem from the concern for children expressed by workers in the division and
field alike that some modification in the present assigning and assessing of case loads
is indicated. Good use could be made of new or expanded placement resources and,
in particular, of some treatment facility for the sick and disturbed child.
650 CHILDREN DISCHARGED FROM CARE
The time, thought, and planning required to help children can be gauged in part
by a review of the reasons why 650 children were discharged from care during the past
twelve months. Adoption was finalized by Supreme Court order for forty. Their average
age was 2Yz years, and for each a worker and sometimes several workers in different
parts of the Province gave serious thought to their needs and searched far to find the
right adopting parents for them. For one little 3-year-old girl the Division went as far
afield as Montreal and, with the help of a social agency in that city, found parents of a
similar racial origin who are now proud to call her " daughter." From a financial standpoint, thousands of dollars of taxpayers' money have been saved in this one adoption
placement alone. No price can be placed, however, upon the savings in human values
which resulted from the effort and joint planning of the several workers involved for a
child who, to them, had a right to parents of her own.
Thirty boys and girls reached legal adulthood, and eleven between 17 and 21 years
of age married. It is difficult to assess what agency care meant to these forty-one young
people. Some had been committed to care as incorrigibles, and others because their
parents had failed to care for and protect them adequately. Whatever the reasons and
circumstances, their growing-up years apart from their own family were not without
difficulties. Many hours of various workers' time are to be accounted for in what these
young people achieved. Almost without exception, they are now law-abiding responsible
citizens.
Guardianship of four wards was transferred to a Children's Aid Society in the
interests of the child, as provided for under the " Protection of Children Act." Orders
of committal involving thirty-one children from sixteen families were rescinded, and the
children returned to their parents because the conditions which led to their removal had
been remedied. One hundred and fifteen children, involving fifty-eight families, who
had been apprehended under the " Protection of Children Act " were also reunited with
their parents when home conditions improved before it became necessary to ask the
Court for a committal order. T 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Six boys in care under the " Juvenile Delinquency Act" became involved in a
further delinquency and were committed to the Brannen Lake School for Boys. Workers
will continue to try to help these six young people and their families, but more and
more often it is to be observed that neither the Social Welfare Branch nor probation
staff are able to devote the working-time required to do a truly rehabilitative job with
the delinquent and young offender.
Five children died this year, and the circumstances in each instance were particularly distressing to both foster-parents and workers. Two children under 2 years of age
had been removed from deplorable home conditions and, despite constant medical care,
were unable to survive the physical and emotional malnourishment to which they had
been subjected. A third boy, awaiting adoption placement, died as a result of a household accident. No blame whatsoever could be attached to the foster-parents, nor could
any child's own parents have felt a greater sense of loss at the death of a son than they.
A swimming accident claimed the life of another ward, a promising boy aged 18 years.
The fifth deceased child, a boy aged 17 years, was found by jury to have died by misadventure. For a long time he had been disturbed and difficult beyond the point where
available treatment facilities could help, and this made his tragic death doubly distressing to those who knew him.
The death of any child is saddening, but social workers and foster-parents share a
particular sorrow when the child is one apart from his own parents and entrusted to
their care.
Of the remaining 408 children discharged, 338 had been in care at parents' request,
sixty-four were wards of a Children's Aid Society, and six were wards of another Province. Seventy-three of these children were placed for adoption and nineteen were legally
adopted. Two hundred and forty-one were returned to their own families when the
crisis which led to the family breakdown was resolved. Twenty-eight reached their
majority and became self-supporting. Two married and two whom we were unable to
help enough were committed to an industrial school. One suffered a severe mental
breakdown and was admitted to the Provincial Mental Hospital. Forty-two were returned
to the agency holding guardianship for further care.
Of the total 650 children discharged from care during the past twelve-month fiscal
period, similar time, thought, and planning were required for the 408 children (non-
wards) while they were in care, and while they were being prepared for their discharge,
as were required for the 242 wards discharged from care. The workers who planned
with these 650 children discharged from care and the 853 admitted to care during the
same period many times had to ponder the question raised centuries ago out of the
concern for the boy:   " Is it well with the child? "
FOSTER-CHILDREN PLAN THEIR FUTURE
There continues to be a good percentage of boys and girls completing high school
and professional and vocational courses. Hairdressing, business and nurses' training
each attracted a number of girls this year, and several others are preparing themselves
for teachers' training following completion of this term's school studies. Six boys
enlisted in the services, and each has reported satisfaction. Several others are persisting
toward their goal of university professional training, and their efforts to help themselves
through employment, bursary and scholarship qualification indicate the response they
have made to a worker's support and encouragement and augurs well for future success
in their chosen field of endeavour.
THE SPECIALLY GIFTED CHILD IN CARE
The specially gifted child is to be found as often among children in care as among
other children in a community, and the staffs are grateful to teachers, art and music
groups, and to numerous service clubs for the unstinting support given in assessing and REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 53
developing a child's particular talent. Some have received high recognition in drama
and musical festivals. Artists in various fields have auditioned and advised about abilities and courses, and the foster-parents of these happily endowed young people seem
for ever able to inspire through their resourcefulness and appreciation. A piano was
moved over in one home this year to make room for an organ newly purchased by
foster-parents so that two children could pursue special musical interests.
The accordion and violin are played by foster-children in the Cariboo, Kootenays,
and Fraser Valley. Local dance and ballet groups throughout the Province know them,
and several church and community choirs are the better because foster-parents listened
and heard clear, true notes in the voices of boys and girls brought to them by social
workers for care away from their own homes.
Family Allowances are used by many of the children to pay for music and other
art lessons, and this has been a tremendous resource to workers in encouraging them to
continue their special artistic interests. Few may reach fame as artists, but for children
not with their own parents there is particular need for self-expression, and their lives
and the lives around them will be enriched for all time by the pleasures given and received
through their creative spirits.
FAMILY ALLOWANCES FOR FOSTER-CHILDREN
During the year $46,642.87 was paid to the Superintendent in Family Allowances
on behalf of children in care—$41,173.73 was disbursed and $5,469.14 deposited in
trust. As of December 31st, 1955 (fiscal year of the Department of National Health
and Welfare), the balance accumulated over the past eleven years in the Family Allowance Trust Account was $39,153.42.
LOW PERCENTAGE OF WARDS IN CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS
It is always with regret the Superintendent reports on wards in correctional institutions, even though the number has never been disproportionately high in comparison
with the total number of children in care. Out of 1,894 children in the care of the
Superintendent of Child Welfare as at March 31st, 1956, there are only twenty-six in
such serious trouble, and throughout the years preceding, the percentage has never been
above a fraction of 1 per cent. Nevertheless, there is a sense of failure in the realization that the Branch has been unable to provide even these few with more effective help.
Wards who get into trouble with the law usually have come from homes of separation, stress, and irresponsibility and have known years of hurt and neglect. Throughout
the time they are in care, because they are so upset, they, too, often move from one
foster home to another. Finally, and it seems inevitably, they commit an act which
results in their committal to a correctional institution.
TREATMENT FOR THE PRE-DELINQUENT AND
PRE-PSYCHOTIC YOUNG CHILD NEEDED
Some of these disturbed adolescents will benefit from the programmes offered in
the various correctional institutions, and will leave them better able to cope with their
own and their family's problems. For some, however, there is not this hope. Usually
these boys and girls are not diagnosed psychotic, but their behaviour is none the less
bizarre, uncontrolled, and uncontrollable. Not medically eligible for existent mental
hospital services, they present a most pressing problem of discipline and safe-keeping
to other institutional staffs and in even a greater degree to the field staff, when, as a
last resource, foster-home placement is tried. These young people require care as provided in a properly structured treatment centre, and this facility is not available in British
Columbia at this time. T 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
EARLY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT ESSENTIAL
There are always a certain number of children in care of pre-school and school age
who are sick and disturbed to the point where they can be readily recognized as potential candidates for institutional care of one kind or another. They are too upset to
respond to foster-home care, and no attempt at treatment can be made by the field staff
with the limited amount of supervision time available to them. Untreated, these are
children who, as adolescents and young adults, break as psychotics and enter a mental
hospital or, because of their neurosis or character disorder, break laws or live crippled,
unhappy lives in communities. When either occurs, the cost in terms of the custodial
care they will need throughout their lives—to say nothing of the loss in human resources
—mounts to a staggering figure. Treated appropriately when treatment could still be
of help, many would be saved for useful, constructive citizenship. Treatment facilities
of this nature are most urgently needed in British Columbia.
CHILDREN IN CARE OF THE THREE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETIES
The three Children's Aid Societies together cared for 2,762 children during the year,
and as at March 31st, 1956, 2,055 remain in their care. Their ages are shown in
Table III.
Table III.—Number of Children, by Age-grouping, in Care of the Three Children's
Aid Societies as at March 31st, 1956
Agency
Under 2
Years
3-5
Years
6-11
Years
12-18
Years
19-21
Years
Total
177
124
39
162
82
21
300
178
63
452
159
89
96
92
21
1,187
635
233
Totals	
340
265
541
700
71)9        !    7.055
The whereabouts of the children in care of Children's Aid Societies is shown in
Table IV.
Table IV.—Location of Children in Care of Children's Aid Societies
as at March 31st, 1956
Agency
Foster
Home
Special
Institutions
Woodlands
School
Provincial
Mental
Hospital
Correctional
Institution
Total
1,126
549
222
22
63
5
5
12
1
10
2
5
24
9
....
1,187
Catholic Children's Aid Society	
635
233
Totals    	
1.8971
90=
18
17                33
2,055
1 Of the 1,897 children in foster homes, 169 are children in care at the request of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare.
- Of the ninety children in special institutions, four are children in care at the request of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare and are placed with the Catholic Children's Aid Society. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 55
COST OF MAINTAINING CHILDREN
The cost to the Provincial Government of maintaining children for the fiscal year
was as follows:—
Gross cost of maintenance of children in Child Welfare Division foster homes      $617,504.24
Gross cost to Provincial Government of maintenance
of children with Provincial residence in care of
Children's Aid Societies        509,006.35
Gross cost to Provincial Government of maintenance
of children with municipal residence in care of
Children's Aid Societies (this represents 80 per
cent of total cost)        469,144.15
Gross cost of transportation of children in care of
Superintendent   7,156.39
Gross cost of hospitalization of new-born infants
being permanently planned for by Superintendent   22,792.00
Grants to sundry homes  1,300.00
Gross expenditure   $1,626,903.13
Less collections and refunds        196,133.78
Net cost to Provincial Government  $1,430,769.35
FOSTER AND ADOPTION HOMES FOR ROMAN CATHOLIC
CHILDREN URGENTLY NEEDED
The number of children shown in special institutions in Table IV is high in relation
to the number of children in the Catholic Children's Aid Society and is the result of this
agency's inability to establish sufficient foster- and adoption-home placement facilities for
new-born babies. Our Lady of Mercy Home in Vancouver cares for thirty to thirty-five
babies a month, and sometimes they remain in the institution several months before a
permanent home becomes available for them. Child Welfare Division continues to accept
as many as possible from the society for adoption placement throughout the Province, but
the response to pleas made to Roman Catholic communities in all parts of the Province
for homes for children still lags behind that of families of other religious denominations.
Institutional care for babies and small children has long since been considered detrimental
to their healthy growth and development. It is the hope of the Superintendent and of the
Catholic Children's Aid Society that the plans now under way for wide publicity next year
and in the years following about the needs of children will open up facilities which will
make it possible for that agency to move more rapidly toward its stated goal of eliminating
this type of care for children whose urgent and only need is parents to rear them.
THE PROMISE IN ADOPTION
"Adopted child " is a term heard more and more often with pride and satisfaction
in every strata of society. Acquiring a family denied in marriage through adoption,
to-day, receives the highest approval and commendation of society, law, and church. For
the child, through the love and understanding of adopting parents and kindred, it holds
promise of rightful opportunity for healthy development—physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually.
The miracle of enduring family affection and respect through adoption is not
wrought by the simple process of bringing together a childless couple and a child. Each
must be right for the other, and since the child is usually too small to speak and choose
for himself, the social worker must be watchful and discerning on his behalf.    Both T 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
husband and wife must be equally willing to accept the limitations imposed by child-
rearing upon personal freedom, and each must possess in good measure the attributes of
a good parent.
ADOPTING PARENTS MUST BOTH DESIRE CHILDREN
Sometimes prospective adopting parents refuse to accept a worker's estimate that
their request for a child is not a true and joint desire for a family. This year the Division
was asked to help plan for a little girl who had fraudulently been taken from British
Columbia to the United States by an American couple. The Division learned later that
they had been rejected by an adoption agency in one of the Southern States, came to
Canada briefly seven years ago, inserted an advertisement in a newspaper, and by this
means obtained a baby from her parents. When crossing the border, they stated the child
was adopted, but no legal steps had in fact been taken. Four years later the adopting
parents' marriage ended in divorce, and the adopting father was in peniteniary on a
serious federal offence. The child's legal and social position at age 7 years, with her
adopting parents, the community, and in both Canada and the United States, was not
one to enhance her chances of future satisfactory development. The adoption agency
which in the first instance rejected their application for a child was prophetically accurate
in their assessment of this couple's capacity for parenthood. It is this kind of careful
assessment and an equally careful evaluation of the child's individual needs which makes
of adoption placement a sound and desirable plan for both parents and child.
WIDE CHOICE OF ADOPTION HOMES NEEDED
To do a truly selective job of choice of home according to the needs of the child,
it is essential that a sufficient number of approved adoption homes be available to the
agency. During this year it has become evident that, because of the demands of other
more imminently emergent services, workers have been unable to devote the time required
to applicants seeking children to adopt. As a result, the number of approved homes
awaiting placement of a child is alarmingly low throughout the Province. In time this
situation can but have a serious effect upon permanent planning for new-born children
as well as for those in foster-home care who need adopting parents.
Table V.—Ages of Children Placed for Adoption throughout the Social Welfare
Branch Regions during the Fiscal Year
Region
Under 2
Weeks
Under 1
Month
1-2
Months
3-5
Months
6-11
Months
1-2
Years
3-4
Years
5-8
Years
Total
20
30
26
20
6
10
16
17
14
11
7
7
11
16
9
7
8
13
5
10
6
7
4
2
5
7
4
5
5
1
1
2
4
1
2
2
1
1
1
4
1
1
64
83
65
50
33
Region VI 	
35
Totals                 	
112
72
64
34
27
10
5
6
330
Table VI.—Religion of Children Placed for Adoption throughout the Social Welfare
Branch Regions during the Fiscal Year
Region
Region I	
Region II 	
Region III 	
Region IV	
Region V.	
Region VI	
Totals-
Roman
Catholic
10
5
10
Protestant
54
78
55
41
26
31
44 285
I
Other
Total
64
83
65
50
33
35
~330~ REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 57
As will be seen in Table V, the largest single group of children placed for adoption
this year were under the age of 2 weeks. These children went to their adopting parents
directly from hospital. The next largest group were aged 2 weeks to 2 months. They
required varying periods in foster homes before their adoption placement could be
finalized, but their stay in pay-care was still short. A fair number between 6 months and
2 years were placed also. Most had needed foster-home care up to the day of their
adoption placement. The eleven placed between the age of 3 and 8 years had been
with foster-parents most of their lives. These were children termed " hard to place,"
not because they lacked promise, but in the main because of race, colour, or creed.
A glance back to Table I reveals that there is still a high number of children in this same
age-group in foster-home care. However, thirty-four foster homes became adoption
homes this year. Many need adopting parents, and it is evident from the experience
in placing these eleven children this year that more of them could gain the greater security
of adoption if workers throughout the Province were able to do a more concentrated job
of adoption-home finding for special children, and of evaluating the needs of those presently in foster homes who could benefit by adoption placement. A thousand dollars a
year per child could be saved, and the chances of each knowing health and happiness
throughout its growing years would be increased a hundredfold.
EVERY CHILD'S NEEDS ARE INDIVIDUAL
The staff of the Adoption Placement Section of the Division was increased to two
this year, and the Division looks forward to there being a third member next year. That
a higher number of children will be placed for adoption with three workers will not
necessarily be so, because each child relinquished for adoption has different needs and
his problems are individual. If he is beyond babyhood, as a good number of the children
placed this year were, he will set his own pace as to when he reaches out to go to his new
parents. This he must be allowed to do for his own and their future happiness. The
actual number of placements may not be higher with an increased staff, but there will be
more workers' time in the Division to devote to children now in foster homes whose need
for parents of their own is urgent and calls for slow and careful planning.
Ordinarily a baby is placed with his adopting parents with a minimum of difficulty,
but it still takes time. If he has been accepted from a Children's Aid Society in Vancouver
for placement in a Child Welfare Division adoption home, as many babies are, the
Divisional worker sees him, arranges to have him examined by a doctor, and takes the
adopting parents to meet him when they arrive from the district office. If medical consultation is indicated, this appointment is also arranged by the Divisional worker, and it
is she who brings the baby with the prospective adopting parents for the examination and
conference. Several hours of a worker's time are spent completing the placement of
a happy, healthy infant even when there are no legal complications involved in his
relinquishment by his parents.
A 5-YEAR-OLD BOY FINDS SECURITY
If the child is 5 years old and has known a series of placements made by mother and
several relatives, as did Allan, he will regard the worker and all adults warily and will
need great reassurance during each step of the way to his adoptive home.
The parents chosen for Allan came from a long distance to meet him. They understood when they saw his too-anxious little face that they must let him get to know them
slowly if they were to finally have him as their son. Despite the travelling involved, they
came back to Vancouver at their own expense not once, but several times, to visit with
him. They sent him pictures of their house, dog, neighbour's children, and the farm
animals, and they spent time between each visit talking to their district worker about
things they could do to help Allan understand he was going to be safe with them. Finally,
the Divisional worker and the boy went to spend a week-end with the prospective adopting T 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
parents. When they returned to the foster home, Allan packed his possessions, and when
next the adopting parents came to see him, he was ready to go with them " for keeps."
Jimmie and Roy, aged 2Vi and 3 years, had similar but even greater social handicaps
than Allan. Their adoption placement had been delayed because none for a long time
had applied to adopt either a half-Japanese or a part-American Indian little boy. Both
children were intellectually bright, handsome, and lovable. After many months of searching, adopting parents were found for each this year. Neither adopting family is of the
same racial origin as Jim or Roy, but this has not lessened their acceptance of their child
or detracted from their satisfaction in being parents by adoption. Jim's adopting parents
write: "The Little Chief does fine. So do we." Roy's warm responsiveness has
endeared him to a wide adopted family circle, who have made his future security their
goal and happiness.
These are the special children an extra worker will enable us to plan for better.
They are time-consuming placements, but, when accomplished, are gratifying beyond any
point of measurement.
665 CHILDREN PLACED FOR ADOPTION THIS YEAR BY CHILD
WELFARE DIVISION AND CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETIES
Three hundred and thirty children, including two sets of twins, were placed in
adoption homes by Child Welfare Division this year, and thirty-four, originally placed on
a foster-home basis, changed status in the same home and will be legally adopted in due
course by their foster-parents. In the same period the three Children's Aid Societies
made 301 adoption placements. Six hundred and sixty-five children in total were placed
by child welfare agencies in adoption homes, where they will receive every reasonable
opportunity for healthy growth of body, mind, and spirit.
MOST ADOPTED CHILDREN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
PLACED BY AGENCIES
Ten years ago the majority of adoption orders granted by Supreme Court in this
Province involved children who had been placed by unauthorized persons. To-day the
picture is completely reversed. As is shown in Table VII, in a total of 1,167 adoptions
this year, 340 involved children adopted by blood relatives, and of the 827 remaining,
only 114 of the placements had been arranged by other than a recognized child welfare
agency.
Table VII.—Legally Completed Adoptions, throughout the Province, according to the
Type of Placement during the Fiscal Year
Area
Region I     - —
Region II 	
Region III  	
Region IV_ _ 	
Region V—   	
Region VI   	
Vancouver Children's Aid Society -	
Catholic Children's Aid Society  _
Victoria Children's Aid Society —	
Child placed in Province, but order granted elsewhere
Totals  -   —	
Agency
63
93
85
53
32i
481
Blood
Relative
31
581
19
29
261
38
Unauthorized
Person
14
28
8
3
12
11
340
1 Figures include orders pending.  The total number of orders pending is seven.
Total
108
179
112
85
70
97
374
201
76
651
1991
65
71
92 i
10
36
27
4
5
318
79
112
335
138
36
509
4
1
2
7
1,167
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 59
"ADOPTION ACT" AMENDED
The amendment made this year to the "Adoption Act" whereby the adopted child's
right to inherit from his natural parent was removed severs the one remaining legal tie
between him and his natural family. He may still be named in will by them, but the
adoption order now places the adopted child in the same position and relationship to his
adopting parents and kindred as if he had been born to them. This is in line with progressive child welfare and legal thinking, and safeguards fully the status and rights of the
increasing number of persons who will grow into adulthood as members of an adopted
family.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE "CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED
PARENTS ACT"
Sixty new agreements, twenty Court orders, and eleven settlements were obtained
during the year under the "Children of Unmarried Parents Act," and a total of
$67,574.66 was collected. This is $8,715.01 more than last year. Some of this increase
is undoubtedly due to the continuing trend to be observed in work with unmarried parents
toward their both desiring a settlement instead of the long-term financial undertaking of
an agreement or order. Socially and economically this seems sound and in the best
interests of all concerned.
JEWISH OVERSEAS CHILDREN
The last Jewish overseas child was discharged from care this year. To the Vancouver Children's Aid Society and the Jewish communities in Vancouver and throughout
Canada the Division expresses its appreciation of a task superbly done.
OTHER PHASES OF DIVISION'S WORK ACTIVE
Ten applications to legitimate a birth were processed this year for the Director of
Vital Statistics. Sixty-three requests from Judges of the Supreme Court for reports with
respect to custody of children were received. A total of ninety-two such reports were
submitted to Court, and twenty-two are still pending completion. Eighty-nine applications
to bring children to British Columbia from other countries were investigated for the
Canadian Department of Immigration, and eighteen of these are still to be finalized.
Arrangements to repatriate fifty-four children to or from British Columbia were worked
on, and three had not been finalized at the end of the year. The majority of these are
adolescents who have run away from home, and their return is planned through the public
welfare department and local child welfare agency of the appropriate Province, who
undertake to give the child and his family what help they can to stabilize the home
situation upon the child's return.
Two hundred and sixty-six, with seventy-four still unfinished, sundry interprovincial
referrals were handled in the past twelve months. These are usually short-contact matters
involving notices of Court hearings or inquiries about a parent's plan for his children.
Each is important to the agency working with a family and must be dealt with quickly
and with care.
Investigations and reports in these five categories of service are made as frequently
on the Division's behalf by a Children's Aid Society as they are by Social Welfare Branch
staff. The societies do not receive payment for this work, and the Branch is indeed
grateful for the prompt and thoughtful manner in which the various reports are prepared.
PARTICIPATION IN NATIONAL, INTERPROVINCIAL, AND LOCAL
CHILD WELFARE PLANNING
The Superintendent again attended a meeting of the Provincial Directors of Child
Welfare, held this year at Windsor, Ont. Six out of ten Provinces were represented, and
while the Directors' conference is as yet not officially incorporated, it has, in the past four T 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
years, been instrumental in bringing about improved interprovincial understanding and
practice in many phases of child welfare. Throughout the past two years the Directors
have been working closely with the Research Division of the Department of National
Health and Welfare in its efforts to develop a method of reporting statistics which will
give a more accurate picture of the numbers and reasons why children are in agency care.
Another project the Directors are interested in is the achievement of more uniform
adoption legislation throughout Canada. At present many differences exist in the various
Acts in such major points as status and inheritance rights of the child. As the numbers
of persons who will reach adulthood with the status of " adopted member of a family " is
increasing yearly, it is imperative that their rights in all respects be protected, regardless
of where they may reside or hold interests.
The Superintendent has continued participation in the Canadian Welfare Council
and, as a member of a committee of the Council which has studied available services to
unmarried mothers, shared in the satisfaction of a published pamphlet which sets forth
clearly and concisely what these services should be and, in particular, how they must be
extended to the non-resident unmarried mother if she and her child are to be protected.
A second committee of the Council, on which the Superintendent has served for
some time, completed an extensive adoption legislation study. The completed report has
received wide notice and should do much to stimulate an interest in the adopted child's
needs and rights.
Locally, the Superintendent has been active with a committee of the Vancouver
Community Chest and Council, which hopes to submit to the Legislature next year a
newly drawn British Columbia Adoption Act.
The new fiscal year in the Child Welfare Division is to be one in which the Superintendent hopes to consolidate the services to children and to redefine goals and methods
of achieving them. With the continued help and support of field staff, Children's Aid
Societies, and other agencies, the Child Welfare Division will have contributions to make
in this direction to the end that children dependent upon social-work agencies for care
will be better served.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 61
OLD-AGE ASSISTANCE, BLIND PERSONS' ALLOWANCES, AND
DISABLED PERSONS' ALLOWANCES BOARDS
GENERAL
The volume of work during the year under review was particularly heavy. The main
causes of this were the coming into operation of " The Disabled Persons Act" as from
April 1st, 1955, the amending of " The Blind Persons Act," which became effective in
British Columbia as from January 1st, 1956, and the special attention given by the
workers to the completion of the yearly field service reports, As a result, it was not
possible to keep up with the volume of work, and to make matters worse the Board was
troubled by a serious staff shortage.
It is interesting to note that the trend in both the receipt of Old-age Assistance
applications and the number on payroll is still downward. A total of 2,281 were received,
as compared with 2,728 the previous year, and the number on payroll, including transfers
from other Provinces, stood at 7,441 on March 31st, 1956, compared with 7,869 on
March 31st, 1955. Unlike Old-age Assistance, the number of applications received for
Blind Allowance increased from sixty in the fiscal year 1954-55 to seventy-one in the
current fiscal year. The total on the payroll, however, only increased by one (from 474
to 475) between March 31st, 1955, and March 31st, 1956. Since this is the first report
to include information on Disabled Persons' Allowances, a separate section has been
prepared to cover this group.
The figures relative to the cost-of-living bonus for persons 70 years of age and over
also show a decline in the number of new applications received and the total on the
payroll. There were 1,599 new applications received during the fiscal year ended March
31st, 1956, whereas 1,764 made application the previous year. As at the same date,
there were 27,028 bonus recipients on payroll, including transfers from Alberta and
Saskatchewan, as compared with 27,351 as at March 31st, 1955.
An analysis of the financial statement at the end of this report shows that the total
expenditure on cost-of-living bonuses is slightly less than it was during the previous fiscal
year. Although all categories show a decrease, the biggest drop, approximately $84,000,
took place in the Old Age Security bonus group, which indicates that many of the original
old-age pensioners are dying off at a greater rate than new ones are coming on. To offset
this decrease, however, approximately $85,000 was paid in bonus to recipients of
Disabled Persons' Allowance, which appears in the statement for the first time.
Since free health services are provided in addition to the bonus for all recipients of
Old-age Assistance, Blind Persons' Allowance, Disabled Persons' Allowance, and Old
Age Security bonus who can qualify, it means that the total amount paid by the Province
in providing for the welfare of our elderly citizens is several million dollars a year.
CHANGES IN THE ACTS AND REGULATIONS
Although no changes took place during the year under review in " The Old Age
Assistance Act," two significant revisions occurred in " The Blind Persons Act." The
important differences, which became effective in British Columbia on January 1st, 1956,
are as follows:—
(1) The age limit was changed. The Blind Persons' Allowance can now be
paid to any recipient who has attained the age of 18 years at the date of
the proposed commencement of the allowance. Formerly the required
age in order to be eligible was 21 years.
(2) The annual maximum allowable income limits were raised. The categories
defined with their new annual income ceilings are as follows:—
(a)  An unmarried person with no dependents was raised from $840
to $960 a year, inclusive of the allowance. T 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(b) An unmarried person with a dependent child or children was
raised from $1,040 to $1,160 a year, inclusive of the allowance.
(c) A married person living with his spouse was raised from $1,320
to $1,560 a year, inclusive of the allowance.
(d) A married person living with a blind spouse was raised from
$1,440 to $1,680 a year, inclusive of the allowance.
It is of particular significance to note that although the Federal " Blind Persons Act "
had certain sections repealed and new sections substituted, no corresponding changes were
made in " The Old Age Assistance Act" or " The Disabled Persons Act" to coincide
with the revised income ceilings in " The Blind Persons Act." Presumably these discrepancies will be rectified the next time a revision is made of " The Old Age Assistance Act"
and " The Disabled Persons Act."
The annual maximum allowable income ceilings as set out in the cost-of-living bonus
regulations were amended to correspond with the changes in " The Blind Persons Act."
Any recipient of Blind Persons' Allowance continues to receive the full cost-of-living
bonus if otherwise eligible.
" The Disabled Persons Act" became effective in British Columbia on April 1st,
1955.   This Act is dealt with in this report under a separate section.
DISABLED PERSONS' ALLOWANCES
In March, 1955, an agreement was finalized between the Provincial Government
and the Federal Government to provide allowances to totally and permanently disabled
persons, 18 years of age or over, who have resided in Canada ten years immediately
prior to the effective date of the allowance, and who, if single, have an income of less
than $720 a year, or, if married, have an income of less than $1,200 a year. This
Federal " Disabled Persons Act" and also the Provincial enabling " Disabled Persons'
Allowances Act" became effective April 1st, 1955, in this Province. "The Disabled
Persons Act" provides for an allowance up to a maximum of $40 a month, payment
of which is shared equally between the Federal and Provincial Governments. The
primary purpose of the Act is to provide a measure of income maintenance for those
permanently and totally disabled persons for whom rehabilitation or other forms of
therapy offer no solution.
Administration of " The Disabled Persons Act" and regulations follows the same
pattern as set for " The Old Age Assistance Act " and " The Blind Persons Act," except
that, in addition to the administrative Board, provision is made for a Medical Advisory
Committee consisting of a Provincial medical representative, a Federal medical representative, and a medical social worker. This Committee, on examination of the medical
report of an applicant and a comprehensive social report, recommends to the Board
whether or not the applicant should be considered as being totally and permanently
disabled within the meaning of the regulations.
The initial medical report is completed by the applicant's own physician, and the
cost of this service is borne by the applicant, except when the applicant is in receipt of
Social Allowance. Payment in the latter case is made to the physician through the
office of the Director of Medical Services.
The social report is prepared by the social worker. In many cases the medical
report alone is not sufficient to establish total disability under the regulations, and the
additional social investigation is required to furnish practical data regarding the applicant's ability to get along in his normal environment. The social report usually shows
the severity of present limitations as they actually affect everyday life and the extent to
which the applicant has overcome past limitations. For these reasons, a considerable
degree of responsibility rests upon the social worker to report each situation adequately,
a task which requires a fairly complete knowledge and understanding of social evaluation. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 63
In some instances where the original evidence is not adequate for the Committee
to arrive at a decision, it is necessary for further medical examinations to be completed
by specialists. These examinations may entail consultations with specialists, X-ray
examinations, laboratory tests, or even diagnostic procedures in a hospital. Provision
is made for payment of these special medical examinations with their related transportation costs.
The regulations require that the Provincial authority shall, at least once in each
year, cause an investigation to be made into the circumstances of the recipient to determine whether such recipient continues to be eligible and a further medical review or
investigation to be made as the nature of the recipient's disability may require. To conform to these regulations, the Board, periodically, asks the district office to complete
the annual investigation form on each recipient in its area.
Examination of the statistical tables indicates that the greatest number of Disabled
Persons' Allowances was granted to comparatively young mentally defective single persons, living at home, without any assets or income. In the majority of these cases it
was found necessary to appoint the parent as trustee to administer the allowance on
behalf of the recipient. Actually, therefore, the issuance of the allowance has relieved
parents, in a great number of cases, of the financial burden of their handicapped sons
or daughters.
To supplement the allowance the Provincial Government extended the cost-of-
living bonus regulations to provide payment of a full cost-of-living bonus to any recipient
of Disabled Persons' Allowance who had completed three years' continuous residence in
British Columbia immediately prior to the date of commencement of the allowance.
Health services, also, were extended to include any recipient of the allowance who
had completed one year's continuous residence in British Columbia immediately prior
to the date of commencement of the allowance.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING THE PERIOD FROM
JANUARY 1st, 1952, TO MARCH 31st, 1956
Following will be found a graphic presentation of the various aspects of Old-age
Assistance since the coming into force of " The Old Age Assistance Act" in January,
1952.
It will be noted that the various line graphs are drawing closer together. This
indicates that the Board is gradually moving toward a stabilized case load; namely,
when the number of applications received, granted, and transferred to Old Age Security
are more or less the same for each month.
The line graph denoting cost of Old-age Assistance shows a gradual decrease,
which also indicates a decrease in the case load. The chief factor contributing to this
trend at present is that all Old-age Assistance recipients are transferred to Old Age
Security at age 70. The line graph showing the number of applications received gives
an initial case load of over 7,000. The graph further indicates that only about half as
many applications were received per annum in subsequent years. As all of the original
7,000 cases will have been transferred to Old Age Security by December 31st, 1956,
and as the yearly number of new applications received since 1952 has gradually decreased,
it is evident that the case load and cost will continue to decline if the present trend
continues.
MISCELLANEOUS COMMENTS
Table II portrays a parallel movement of recipients between British Columbia
and other Provinces. It shows that approximately 65 per cent of British Columbia
recipients going to other Provinces return to this Province and 60 per cent of " other
Province " recipients coming to British Columbia return to their Province of origin. T 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
7,032
4,500
4,200
OL
D AGE ASSISTANCE
--BRITISH   COLUMBIA--
UARY 1,   1952 TO MARCH 31,   1956
3,900
1
1        1
\
J.AN
3,600
1       1
1       1
1      1
1     1
\
Cost of Assistance                                                             -
150,000
units per sq
iare
1    1
1    1
1   1
ll
Number of Applications Granted
Number of Applications Refused
3,300
	
300 units per square
3,000
II
Is
ll
R
ecipie
nts Tr
ansfer
red tc
Old A
ge Sec
—
300
units
ler sq
jare
2,700
\
2,400
■
2,100
i
1,800
\
i
i
^--~-
-^
1,500
\
1
m"^"
1,200
\ j
A
V
\
\
900
,'    /
/ \
\
\
600
i/1
300
ll
—■   <M
'^^H—
 —
^■■■^
—:
'■*■-.-.-.
as*45
^~-
■—_
	
■^•"•-Zjl
*>x-—i
X*
a^f>
0
1'
—•^^
■^
	
	
	
—
—i
K       *n m <n
Os Os os Os
gj Os Os as Os Os Os
& mm mm
9f u   «  S
m   «
tn   cU
S2
2S REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 65
However, the net result is that there are over twice as many recipients from other Provinces who continue to live in British Columbia as there are British Columbia recipients
who continue to live in other Provinces.
This table also shows that the number of deaths between ages 65 and 70 is 325,
which is 4.5 per cent of the total recipients. In other words, one out of every 22.3
persons in receipt of Old-age Assistance does not reach the age of 70.
A comparison of the number of reinstates to suspensions indicates that 41.4 per
cent of the suspended cases are reinstated.
Table III outlines the reasons for not granting assistance. It will be noted that
more than one-third of the refusals is because of excess income. The total of rejected
cases is approximately 21 per cent of the total applications received.
An examination of Table V indicates that approximately 60 per cent of the recipients are of single status. Table X shows that approximately the same percentage do
not own their own home, and Table XI shows that about the same number do not possess
any real or personal property of value. Since only 40 per cent own their own homes,
this indicates quite clearly that there is a definite need for other types of low-cost housing accommodation for older people. Also, the figures shown make it obvious that
when constructing housing units for them greater emphasis should be placed on single
units.
STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st,  1956
Old-age Assistance
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received  2,281
Number of applications granted  2,079 1
Number of  applications not granted   (refused,   withdrawn,
etc.)        482
' Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous
(a) British Columbia—
Number of recipients returned to British Columbia        43
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted      150
Number of B.C. recipients who have died      325
Number of B.C. recipients suspended      362
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to other Provinces          66
Number   of   B.C.   recipients   transferred   to   Old   Age
Security   1,942
Total number of B.C. recipients on payroll at end of
fiscal year  7,250
(b) Other Province—
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred to
British Columbia       129
Number of " other Province " recipients reinstated  3
Number of " other Province " recipients suspended  8
Number of " other Province " recipients who have died 4
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred out
of British Columbia         77
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred to
Old Age Security         65
(c) Total number of recipients (B.C. and " other Province ") on
payroll at end of fiscal year  7,441
3 T 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number
Not of age      114
Unable to prove age	
Not sufficient residence	
Income in excess	
Unable to prove residence	
Transfer of property	
Receiving War Veterans' Allowance
Information refused	
Applications withdrawn 	
Applicants died before grant	
Whereabouts unknown 	
Eligible for Old Age Security 	
Miscellaneous  	
Total
18
9
161
3
3
25
73
36
15
23
2
"482
Per Cent
23.65
3.73
1.87
33.40
0.62
0.62
5.19
15.14
7.47
3.12
4.77
0.42
100.00
Table IV.—Sex of New Recipients
Number
Male        993
Female   .  1,08 6
Total  2,079
Per Cent
47.76
52.24
100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Recipients
Number
Married   814
Single   283
Widows   473
Widowers     144
Separated    327
Divorced         3 8
Total  2,079
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Recipients
Number
British Columbia  139
Other parts of Canada  450
British Isles  585
Other parts of British Empire  18
United States of America  260
Other foreign countries  627
Total  2,079
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of Assistance
Number
Age 65   1,113
Age 66   319
Age 67   264
Age 68   197
Age 69   186
Total  2,079
Per Cent
39.15
13.61
22.75
6.93
15.73
1.83
100.00
Per Cent
6.69
21.65
28.14
0.86
12.50
30.16
100.00
Per Cent
53.54
15.34
12.69
9.48
8.95
100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 67
Table VIII.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 65         33 10.15
Age 66         42 12.92
Age 67         66 20.31
Age 68        99 30.46
Age 69         85 26.16
Total      325 100.00
Table IX.—With Whom New Recipients Live
Number Per Cent
Living alone      740 35.59
Living with spouse      640 30.78
Living with spouse and children      159 7.65
Living with children       296 14.24
Living with other relatives      111 5.34
Living with others        85 4.09
Living in public institutions        29 1.40
Living in private institutions         19 0.91
Total  2,079 100.00
Table X.—Where New Recipients Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house      823 39.59
In rented house      252 12.12
In children's home      289 13.90
In home of other relatives        51 2.45
Boarding         66 3.17
In boarding home        12 0.58
In housekeeping room      310 14.91
In single room (eating out)         89 4.28
In rented suite       139 6.69
In institutions        48 2.31
Total  2,079 100.00
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Recipients
(a) Holding real property of value—■                        Number Percent
$0    1,273 61.22
$1 to $250        26 1.25
$251 to $500        59 2.84
$501 to $750        92 4.43
$751 to $1,000      101 4.86
$1,001 to $1,500      249 11.98
$1,501 to $2,000      118 5.68
$2,001 and up      161 7.74
Total  2,079 100.00 T 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(b)  Holding personal property of value— Number Per Cent
$0    1,031 49.58
$1 to $250  570 27.41
$251 to $500  173 8.32
$501 to $750  112 5.39
$751 to $1,000  71 3.43
$1,001 to $1,500  66 3.18
$1,501 to $2,000  30 1.44
$2,001 and up  26 1.25
Total  2,079 100.00
Table XII.—Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces as at March
31st, 1956, Whose Assistance Is Paid by British Columbia
Granted by Granted by
British Columbia Other Provinces
Alberta    36 10
Saskatchewan        5 18
Manitoba    11 8
Ontario    11 14
Quebec      1 4
New Brunswick  „__
Nova Scotia     1 1
Prince Edward Island      1
Newfoundland    	
Northwest Territories  ._
Yukon Territory   	
Total  66 55
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Recipients according to the Amount
of Assistance Received (Basic Assistance, $40)
Amount of Assistance Per Cent
$40   82.99
$35 to $39.99  3.98
$30 to $34.99  3.86
$25 to $29.99  2.76
$20 to $24.99  1.88
Less than $19.99  4.53
Total   100.00
Blind Persons' Allowances
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received  71
Number of applications granted  56a
Number of applications refused, withdrawn, etc.    142
1 Includes some left over from previous year.
- Number still pending not included. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 69
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. recipients suspended  22
Number of B.C. recipients reinstated  11
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to other Provinces  4
Number of B.C. recipients returned to British Columbia  3
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to Old Age Security  23
Number of deaths of B.C. recipients  10
Number of deaths of " other Province " recipients  3
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred to British
Columbia  .  3
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred out of British Columbia or suspended  10
Number of " other Province " recipients reinstated  2
Total on payroll at end of fiscal year—
British Columbia  455
Other Province      20
  475
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number Per Cent
Not blind within the meaning of the Act     3 21.43
Income in excess     4 28.57
Applications withdrawn  	
Eligible for Old Age Security  	
Died before grant     3 21.43
Receiving War Veterans' Allowance  ____ 	
Information refused      3 21.43
Assistance from private sources     1 7.14
Total  14 100.00
Table IV.—Sex of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
Male  30 53.57
Female   26 46.43
Total  56 100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
Married   21 37.50
Single   22 39.29
Widows      4 7.14
Widowers      2 3.57
Separated _.                                                              7 12.50
Divorced T 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
British Columbia  22 39.28
Other parts of Canada  14 25.00
British Isles     7 12.50
Other parts of British Empire    	
United States of America     1 1.79
Other foreign countries L  12 21.43
Total  56 100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of Allowance
Number Per Cent
Age 21   11 19.64
Ages 22 to 30     5 8.93
Ages 31 to 40     5 8.93
Ages 41 to 50     6 10.72
Ages 51 to 60  11 19.64
Ages 61 to 69  18 32.14
Total  56 100.00
Table VIII.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 21   	
Ages 22 to 30     1 10.00
Ages 31 to 40     1 10.00
Ages 41 to 50  	
Ages 51 to 60     2 20.00
Ages 61 to 69     6 60.00
Total  10 100.00
Table IX.—With Whom New Recipients Live
Number Per Cent
Living with parents     8 14.29
Living alone     8 14.29
Living with spouse  13 23.21
Living with spouse and children     7 12.50
Living with children     3 5.36
Living with other relatives     9 16.06
Living with others     6 10.72
Living in public institutions     2 3.57
Living in private institutions  	
Total  56 100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 71
Table X.—Where New Recipients Are Living
Number Per Cent
In parents' home   12 21.43
In own home  10 17.85
In rented house     7 12.50
In rented suite     6 10.72
In children's home     2 3.57
In other relatives' homes     7 12.50
Boarding      5 8.93
In housekeeping room     3 5.36
In boarding home    	
In institutions     2 3.57
In single room (eating out)     2 3.57
Total  56 100.00
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Recipients
(a)  Holding real property of value—                         Number PerCent
$0  44 78.57
$1 to $250  	
$251 to $500  	
$501 to $750     3 5.36
$751 to $1,000     2 3.57
$1,001 to $1,500     4 7.14
$1,501 to $2,000     3 5.36
$2,001 and up  	
Total  56 100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value—
$0   35 62.50
$1 to $250  8 14.29
$251 to $500  2 3.56
$501 to $750  5 8.93
$751 to $1,000  	
$1,001 to $1,500  1 1.79
$1,501 to $2,000  1 1.79
$2,001 and up  4 7.14
Total  56 100.00 T 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XII.—Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces as at March 31st, 1956,
Whose Allowances Are Paid by This Province
Granted by Granted by
British Columbia      Other Provinces
Alberta  3
Saskatchewan   2
Manitoba   	
Ontario    ____
Quebec  ___.
New Brunswick  _.. 1
Nova Scotia     1
Prince Edward Island  ....
Newfoundland  ____
Northwest Territories  .—
Yukon Territory  	
Total     1 8
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Recipients according to the Amount of Allowance
Received (Basic Allowance, $40)
Per Cent
$40 ..  94.06
$35 to $39.99  3.52
$30 to $34.99  .88
$25 to $29.99  .22
$20 to $24.99  .66
$19.99 and less  .66
Total  100.00
Disabled Persons' Allowances
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received  1,326
Number of applications granted  725
Number of applications refused, withdrawn, etc.  308
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. recipients suspended  14
Number of B.C. recipients reinstated      	
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to other Provinces  3
Number of B.C. recipients returned to British Columbia      	
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to Old Age Security      	
Number of deaths of B.C. recipients  12
Number of deaths of " other Province " recipients  1
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred to British
Columbia  11
Number of " other Province" recipients transferred out of
British Columbia or suspended  1
Number of " other Province " recipients reinstated      	
Total on payroll at end of fiscal year—
British Columbia  696
Other Province  9 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 73
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number Per Cent
Not 18 years of age       2 0.65
Unable to prove age    	
Not sufficient residence    	
Unable to prove residence    	
Too much income     23 7.45
Transfer of property  	
Refused information        5 1.64
Whereabouts unknown        1 .32
Allowance under "Blind Persons Act"       1 .32
Assistance under "Old-age Assistance Act"  	
Allowance under "War Veterans' Allowance
Act"   	
Pension under " Old Age Security Act"  	
Mothers' Allowance       1 .32
Unable to meet medical test  200 64.94
Referred for rehabilitation     32 10.39
Tuberculosis sanatorium    	
Mental hospital       4 1.30
Home for the aged  	
Infirmary  	
Institution for incurables    	
Hospital        7 2.27
Nursing home       4 1.30
Other institutions       5 1.64
Application withdrawn     16 5.19
Died before grant       7 2.27
Total  308 100.00
Table IV.—Primary Causes of Disability on Accepted Cases
Per Cent
Infective and parasitic diseases  4.76
Neoplasms    1.51
Allergic, endocrine system, metabolic, and nutritional diseases 3.94
Diseases of blood and blood-forming organs  0.23
Mental, psychoneurotic, and personality disorders  37.82
Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs  34.68
Diseases of the circulatory system  4.76
Diseases of the respiratory system  0.81
Diseases of the digestive system    	
Diseases of genito-urinary system  0.23
Diseases of the skin and cellular tissue  0.12
Diseases of the bones and organs of movement  7.77
Congenital malformations  1.28
Symptoms, senility, and ill-defined conditions    	
Accidents, poisoning, and violence (nature of injury)  2.09
Total  100.00 T 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Sex of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
Male  371 51.17
Female   354 48.83
Total  725 100.00
Table VI.—Marital Status of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
Married ___.     77 10.62
Single   583 80.41
Widow  27 3.72
Widower       6 0.83
Separated      22 3.04
Divorced      10 1.38
Total  725 100.00
Table VII.—Birthplace of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
British Columbia   289 39.86
Other parts of Canada  284 39.17
British Isles     87 12.00
Other parts of British Empire       4 0.55
United States of America     25 3.46
Other foreign countries      36 4.96
Total   725 100.00
Table VIII.—Ages at Granting of Allowance
Number Per Cent
Ages 18 to 19     42 5.79
Ages 20 to 24  105 14.48
Ages 25 to 29     88 12.14
Ages 30 to 34     86 11.86
Ages 35 to 39     84 11.59
Ages 40 to 44     74 10.20
Ages 45 to 49     52 7.17
Ages 50 to 54     59 8.14
Ages 55 to 59     55 7.59
Ages 60 to 64     77 10.62
Ages 65 to 69  	 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 75
Table IX.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number
Ages 18 to 19	
Ages 20 to 24       2
Ages 25 to 29	
Ages 30 to 34       3
Ages 35 to 39       1
Ages 40 to 44       1
Ages 45 to 49       1
Ages 50 to 54       2
Ages 55 to 59 .	
Ages 60 to 64 '.       I
Ages 65 to 69	
Ages over 70       1
Total      12
Per Cent
16.67
25.01
8.33
8.33
8.33
16.67
8.33
8.33
100.00
Table X.—With Whom Recipients Live
Number
473
Living with parents 	
Living alone     43
Living with spouse     50
Living with spouse and children     26
Living with children     22
Living with other relatives     93
Living with others     18
Living in public institution	
Living in private institution  	
Per Cent
65.24
5.93
6.90
3.59
3.03
12.82
2.49
Total   725
100.00
Table XI.—Where New Recipients Are Living
Number
In parents' home  455
In own house     61
In rented house     23
In rented suite     40
In children's home     25
In other relatives' home     86
Boarding      12
In housekeeping room     18
In boarding home	
In institutions	
In single room (eating out)        5
Per Cent
62.76
8.41
3.17
5.52
3.45
11.86
1.66
2.48
0.69
Total
_ 725
100.00 T 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XII.—Economic Status of New Recipients
(a) Holding real property of value—                        Number PerCent
$0   655 90.34
$1 to $250       2 0.28
$251 to $500       4 0.55
$501 to $750       4 0.55
$751 to $1,000       9 1.24
$1,001 to $1,500     22 3.04
$1,501 to $2,000     10 1.38
$2,001 and up     19 2.62
Total   725 100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value—                   '
$0   575 79.30
$1 to $250     99 13.65
$251 to $500     22 3.03
$501 to $750       7 0.97
$751 to $1,000       2 0.28
$1,001 to $1,500       7 0.97
$1,501 to $2,000       1 0.14
$2,001 and up     12 1.66
Total   725 100.00
Table XIII.—Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces as at
March 31st, 1956, Whose Allowances Are Paid by This Province
Granted by Granted by
British Columbia   Other Provinces
Alberta  1
Saskatchewan   __ 4
Manitoba     1
Ontario     1
Quebec  _
New Brunswick  	
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island	
Newfoundland  	
Total      2 5
Table XIV.—Distribution of British Columbia Recipients according to the
Amount of Allowance Received (Basic Allowance, $40)
Per Cent
$40  93.89
$35 to $39.99  0.87
$30 to $34.99  2.04
$25 to $29.99  0.87
$20 to $24.99    0.29
$19.99 and less  2.04
Total   100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
COST-OF-LIVING BONUS AND HEALTH SERVICES
New Applications
Number received  1,599
T 77
Number granted bonus and health services  700
Number granted bonus only ( 2
Number granted health services only  67
Number who died before application was granted  20
Number of applications withdrawn  53
Number of applicants ineligible  154
Number of applications pending  603
Total   1,599
General Information
Former old-age pensioners still receiving cost-of-living bonus
on March 31st, 1956   15,511
Old-age Assistance recipients transferred to Old Age Security
receiving cost-of-living bonus on March 31st, 1956     5,492
New Old Age Security pensioners receiving cost-of-living
bonus on March 31st, 1956     4,232
Blind persons in receipt of Old Age Security receiving cost-
of-living bonus on March 31st, 1956        221
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
" The Old Age Assistance Act," Year Ended March 3 1st, 1956
Cost-of-living
Assistance Bonus Total
Total amount paid recipients in British
Columbia   $3,602,743.68 $1,140,685.79 $4,743,429.47
Less amount of refunds from recipients-
Overpayments refunded  	
Miscellaneous refunds	
Totals
$19,291.41
354.30
$19,645.71
$2,623.74
135.00
$21,915.15
489.30
$2,758.74  $22,404.45
Net amount paid to recipients in British
Columbia   $3,583,097.97 $1,137,927.05 $4,721,025.02
Add amount paid other Provinces on account of recipients for whom British
Columbia is responsible  29,245.81 5,167.25 34,413.06
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of recipients for whom
other Provinces are responsible  63,316.90 12,290.31 75,607.21
Less amount refunded by the  Federal
Government      1,794,789.30        1,794,789.30
Total amount paid by British
Columbia   $1,754,237.58 $1,130,803.99 $2,885,041.57 T 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The Blind Persons Act," Year Ended March 31st, 1956
Cost-of-living
Allowances Bonus Total
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia $222,817.22 $75,090.46 $297,907.68
Less amount of refunds from recipients—Overpayments refunded  426.98 165.00 591.98
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia    $222,390.24 $74,925.46 $297,315.70
Add amount paid other Provinces on account
of recipients for whom British Columbia is.
responsible          1,028.84 165.00        1,193.84
Less amount received by British Columbia on
account of recipients for whom other Provinces are responsible         2,862.90      2,474.00        5,336.90
Less amount refunded by the Federal Government      166,775.68      166,775.68
Total amount paid by British Columbia      $53,780.50 $72,616.46 $126,396.96
" The Disabled Persons Act," Year Ended March 31st, 1956
Cost-of-living
Allowances Bonus
Total
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia $231,180.56 $85,566.11 $316,746.67
Less amount of refunds from recipients-—
Overpayments refunded  98.80           30.00 128.80
Miscellaneous refunds  40.00           15.00 55.00
Totals
$138.80
$45.00
$183.80
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia   $231,041.76 $85,521.11  $316,562.87
Add amount paid other Provinces on account
of recipients for whom British Columbia is
responsible          1,254.00   1,254.00
Less amount received by British Columbia on
account of recipients for whom other Provinces are responsible         2,768.30          2,768.30
Less amount refunded by the Federal Government      115,520.91      115,520.91
Total amount paid by British Columbia  $114,006.55 $85,521.11  $199,527.66 report of the social welfare branch t 79
Old Age Security Pensioners—Cost-of-living Bonus,
Year Ended March 3 1st, 1956
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia  $4,460,099.74
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Overpayments refunded  14,097.78
Miscellaneous refunds   329.55
Total         $ 14,427.3 3
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia -- $4,445,672.41
Add amount paid other Provinces on account of
recipients for whom British Columbia is responsible   39,792.01
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of recipients for whom other Provinces
are responsible        190,552.84
Total amount paid by British Columbia   - $4,294,911.58
" The Old Age Pensions Act," Year Ended March 31st, 1956
Amount of refunds from pensioners and estates—      pensions        'OSBonusm8 Total
From estates  $11,570.58    $120.00    $11,690.58
Less amount refunded to the Federal Government      8,677.90              8,677.90
Total net refunds received by British
Columbia       $2,892,681 $120.00!    $3,012.68!
1 Credit.
Administration Expense
Salaries and special services  $165,415.28
Office expense  43,491.93
Travelling expense   444.12
Incidentals and contingencies   463.33
Equipment and furniture  547.96
Medical examinations   1,470.12
Total   $211,832.74
Summary
Cost-of-living Bonus
" Old-age Pension Act " (Credit) $120.00
" Old-age Assistance Act "  1,130,803.99
" Blind Persons' Allowances Act "  72,616.46
" Disabled Persons' Allowances Act "  85,521.11
Universal Old Age Security  4,294,911.58
As per Public Accounts  $5,583,733.14 T 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Administration and Assistance
Administration   $211,832.74
" Old-age Pension Act " (Credit) 2,892.68
" Old-age Assistance Act "  1,754,237.58
" Blind Persons' Allowances Act "  53,780.50
" Disabled Persons' Allowances Act "  114,006.55
As per Public Accounts  $2,130,964.69
MEMBERS OF BOARD
The following are the members of the Old-age Assistance Board of the Province
of British Columbia:—
Chairman:  Mr. E. W. Berry.
Members:   Mr. J. A. Sadler, Director of Welfare;  Mr. R. Talbot, Administrator, Region II, Social Welfare Branch.
CONCLUSION
In concluding this report the Board wishes to express its sincere appreciation for
the loyal and efficient work of the staff and the field service throughout a difficult year,
and for assistance so willingly given by other departments of government and various
outside agencies.
Respectfully submitted.
E. W. Berry,
Chairman. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 81
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION
I dislike writing annual reports. I realize they are a necessity created by the need
to tell of the activities under my direction, but I still dislike them. I have tried to analyse
the reason for my attitude. Surely it is not the work of compiling statistics. No, they are
there for the asking. Certainly it is not the effort of dictating this. The actual typing of
the report is not a problem to the writer. Well, what is the reason? It is the knowledge
that a report of the Medical Division cannot begin to portray to the reader the heart-break
and the heart-balm. It does not show the daily problems the staff have to face. It cannot
convey to the reader, unless he is directly associated with this work, the limitations, the
difficulties, the frustrations, and the satisfaction of a job well done. It is too cold. "As
every noble deed dieth, if suppressed in silence " (Pindar), I beg to report:—■
The two governments (Provincial and municipal) have paid $1,518,274.51 to the
British Columbia Division of the Canadian Medical Association for services to Provincial
welfare cases. By means of this the doctor received 54 per cent of his assessed submitted
accounts. In spite of the fact that this large sum of money was spent by the governments,
the doctors performing these services contributed nearly an equivalent amount (46 per
cent). Nowhere can one find a comparable example of charity in its true sense for any
professional group. One records with pleasure the splendid relationship that exists
between the association and the Division. The assistance and co-operation given freely
and generously by their executive secretary and executive council are most sincerely
appreciated.
The citizens of this Province are indeed fortunate in that the spirit of yEsculapius still
flourishes. Administrators of the Branch are most grateful to the doctors. They feel
certain that the Medical Association has the thanks and blessings of all applicants, their
patients.
Table I.—Categorial Breakdown of Medical Coverage, 1954-55 and 1955-56
Category
1954-55
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Apr. 1,
1954, to
June 30,
1954
Number
Covered
Monthly,
July 1,
1954, to
Sept. 30,
1954
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Oct. 1,
1954,to
Dec. 31,
1954
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Jan. 1,
1955,to
Mar. 31,
1955
1955-56
Number
Number
Covered
Covered
Monthly,
Monthly,
Apr. 1,
July 1,
1955,to
1955,to
June 30,
Sept. 30,
1955
1955
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Oct. 1,
1955,to
Dec. 31,
1955
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Jan. 1,
1955,to
Mar. 31,
1956
Mothers* Allowances	
Social Allowances- 	
Child Welfare Division.. 	
Old  Age   Security   bonus   and
Blind Persons' Allowances	
Old-age Assistance 	
Disabled Persons' Allowances	
Average  monthly  coverage  on
quarterly basis  	
1,466
17,332
3,135
37,446
8,860
68,239
1,431
17,416
3,190
37,266
8,936
1,371
17,910
3,267
37,308
8,853
1,371
18,704
3,276
37,209
8,720
1,347
18,728
3,301
36,965
8,612
136
1,246
17,850
3,354
36,787
8,546
381
1,174
17,565
3,279
36,698
8,429
577
1,135
18,047
3,284
36,475
8,204
716
68,239
68,709
69,280
69,089
68,164
67,722
67,861
Average monthly coverage on yearly basis:   1954-55, 68,513;  1955-56, 68,209.
Per capita cost on yearly basis:   1954-55, $20;   1955-56, $22.50.
Total yearly cost:   1954-55, $1,359,212.98;  1955-56, $1,518,274.51.
The Branch has spent $896,889.68 for drugs and medicine for the year; $823,002.90
was paid to the druggists and $73,886.78 was spent through the Provincial Pharmacy.
What does one gather from these figures? Does one read here the normal desire of
humans to stay well and young? Does one see the ever-recurring number of demands
created by inactivity, illness, or social change manifested by psychosomatic symptoms
requiring expensive tranquillizers? Can one deduce from these figures how much was
spent to alleviate pain, or how much was spent to put the ever-rotating brain to rest and T 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sleep? Can any deduction be drawn how much was spent for organic disease, or how
much was spent to try to whip up an appetite for an individual with a limited income?
No, they are just figures. " In the ills of men, there is none sorer than necessity "
(Sophocles).
However, here the Branch faces a most trying and delicate situation. The practice
of dispensing has changed over the years. The day in which the majority of drug-stores
dispensed chiefly items indicated by their profession is gone. They have converted to or
are in the process of changing into miniature department stores. Only a few years ago 80
per cent of prescriptions were compounded by the pharmacist and 20 per cent were
prepared by manufacturing companies to be dispensed by the pharmacist. This has
practically reversed in that 80 per cent are prepared by the manufacturing companies and
20 per cent are compounded by the pharmacist. The cost of drugs and medicines has
risen to such heights that makes comparisons odious. Yet the Branch must supply
required medicines, otherwise the doctor is like a mechanic without tools. There are definite reasons for this rise. It has been influenced by the rapid advances in science and
social and economic factors too numerous to enumerate here. However, this rise has
created so many problems both to the druggist and to the public that it will most likely
have to be attacked and dealt with in an heroic fashion or crash by its own weight. With
the executive of the British Columbia Pharmaceutical Association, the Medical Director
is in the process of examining the situation.
Table II.—Medicines Supplied through Drug-stores, 1955—56
Total number of prescriptions  399,367
Average charge per prescription  $2,135
Average number of prescriptions per applicant  5.85
Cost of medicines through drug-stores.___ $823,002.90
Cost  of  medicines   through   Provincial
Pharmacy      $73,886.78
Total cost of drugs  $896,889.68
Average charge per prescription according to type of medicine:—
Analgesic   $1,745
Cardiac    2.662
Digestive   1.809
Eye, ear, nose, and throat  1.539
Hormones   2.095
Respiratory   2.287
Skin  1.437
Vitamins   3.009
Miscellaneous   2.483 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 83
Fig. 1. Percentage utilization of drugs (according to type of medicine).
The item " eye services " comprises:—
(a) Eye examination:—
(i)  Examination and refraction by eye doctors:
(ii) Refraction by optometrists:
(b) Treatment (medical and surgical) performed by ophthalmologists (eye
doctors).
The major cost of this is included in the over-all agreement with the British Columbia
Division of the Canadian Medical Association. The Branch has an arrangement with
the British Columbia Optometric Association to perform refractions at the request of
the family doctor. In the past year the Director has met with the executive of the
British Columbia Optometric Association to discuss the agreement with them. No
radical changes were possible, but several small irritations were ironed out. One
observes that the Branch has spent $39,245.86 for glasses and has paid $9,096.05 to
the optometrists, but does one gather that refractions are just part of the eye services?
Is the rate of examination high? No. Eye pathology is more prone to occur in the
senior age-group. Sight changes are bound to take place more frequently and at a
more rapid pace. Surely the cost is greater for this age-group—the figures show that—
but do they show the added comforts provided to those whose recreational facilities are
limited? Do they show the improved morale produced by supplying an artificial eye to
one who has lost his or her eye through disease?
Dental Services, $119,512.74.—It is with satisfaction that the Director reports
$15,385.80 of this sum was spent on prophylactic dentistry. This increasing amount
is a step in the right direction. It should eventually pay dividends in good health and
perhaps decrease the demands on replacements (dentures). The over-all picture of
last year is still grossly disproportionate. Perhaps the Division is impatient, but it is
its aim and hope to spend more for dental education and prophylaxis and less for dentures. The Director has attempted on several occasions to arrive at a more satisfactory
arrangement to provide a complete dental service on a Provincial basis with the British
Columbia Dental Association comparable to the medical plan, but he is sorry to report T 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
he has been unsuccessful. Does the reader grasp that dental service is limited by the
definite shortage of dentists throughout the Province? Does he feel the still-existing
profession's scepticism of governments and politicians? Does a report indicate the
difficulties in providing this service to such a volume of people spread thinly throughout
such a large area?
Transportation, $22,504.83. — The transportation charges for cancer patients
($3,539.82) remain reasonably constant. This money is spent to bring the applicant
to the closest centre for diagnosis and treatment or follow-up examination. For the first
contact this means usually to Vancouver. However, for the follow-up examinations the
Branch collaborates with the British Columbia Cancer Institute, which has a travelling
clinic of specialists who visit during the year different centres throughout the Province,
and patients to be seen in that area are brought into the centre for examination. This
has proven most successful and is the most economical method of dealing with the
problem. The Branch has received the utmost co-operation from this clinic. Since the
establishment of the British Columbia Cancer Institute nursing home, its work has been
facilitated, but there still remains too long a waiting period for cases due to shortage of
beds. It is impossible for the reader to appreciate the psychology of a patient waiting
for an appointment at a cancer institute. It is one of anxiousness and dread; the longer
the waiting period, the more anxious he or she becomes.
It has come to the Division's attention that a growing problem is the care of the
terminal case. It is most obvious some suitable arrangement will have to be made for
these cases because of the great amount of care these people can require of a specialized
type and often of a trying nature. The present method of handling of cases in this
latter category could be given as a good example of " man's inhumanity to man," but
" Time as he grows old teaches many lessons " (vEschylus).
One will observe that the item " general transportation " is substantial. This is
no surprise, and the Director feels it will continue to increase. It is readily understandable because of the recent rapid advance in medicine; the increased thinking and leaning
toward rehabilitation and correction of deformities; the greater utilization of the Branch
medical scheme; and the increase in the ageing population of the Province. These all
add to the picture. One of the features that should be brought to the attention of general administration is the number of cases during the past year whose illnesses have
been so serious, requiring escorts, which trebles the transportation costs of a case.
Disabled Persons' Allowances.—In Table I will be noted the appearance of a new
subdivision in medical coverage, Disabled Persons' Allowances. This allowance was
brought into being April 1st, 1955, when the Federal Government and the Provincial
Government agreed to pay $40 per month on a shareable basis to those applicants
qualifying for this form of assistance. In addition to the pension, the Provincial Government allows a cost-of-living bonus and pays for medical services (under the medical
coverage agreement) and all ancillary services. During the year 725 cases were granted
the allowance, and of these, 716 received the cost-of-living bonus and medical benefits.
It is of interest to note that of the 725 cases, 333 were formerly covered through some
form of social assistance plus medical services (for this group the Branch paid the costs
of the initial medical examination which initiated the application for this allowance),
and 392 were new cases. There is no doubt that to the latter group (392) the provision
of medical services is a blessing. One important accomplishment in the introduction of
this Act is that, through the review of the applications, many who have borne their
affliction in hopeless silence as incurable will be found, and no doubt will be made more
comfortable or even improved through the rehabilitation facilities sponsored by the
Government.
Rehabilitation.—Rehabilitation in its widest interpretation is being carried out daily
by the worker in the field. The Division is being informed of such situations and works
with the social worker in the interest of the applicant.    There were during the year
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 85
forty-one cases dealt with of special note. As the Branch is aware, there is in Vancouver
the Western Society for Rehabilitation, located at 900 West Twenty-seventh Avenue.
This was started by a group of energetic citizens a number of years ago. The institution was utilized chiefly in the rehabilitation of polio victims, but has recently widened
its scope. All applications for care in the institution that are to be sponsored by the
Government are considered by a special committee consisting of the Assistant Regional
Administrator of Region II, the medical social worker of the Division, and the Medical
Director. Forty-one cases were admitted, with an average of 3.2 months' residence
and 3.3 months' outdoor care. The following table shows these cases according to their
diagnosis:—
Number
Diagnosis of Cases
Polio   7
Paraplegia   8
Hajmiplegia  -  7
Cerebral palsy  2
Miscellaneous group (arthritis, etc.)   17
Total   41
Travelling Clinics.—There are specialized medical groups, as listed below, which
travel throughout the Province bringing to the areas they visit medical assistance which
is only available in larger centres (such as in Vancouver). The Branch collaborated
with these clinical groups in the interest of its cases located in the regions covered. The
following table lists the clinics by name and number and the location of the treatment
centres:—
Travelling and Consultative Clinics, 1955-56
Number of
Name of Clinic and Treatment Centre Clinics
British Columbia Cancer Institute—
Cranbrook  6
Kamloops   5
Kelowna   12
Nanaimo   12
Nelson  6
Penticton  12
Prince George  3
Prince Rupert  2
Trail   6
Vernon   12
— 76 T 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Name of Clinic and Treatment Centre
Number of
Clinics
Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society (British Columbia Division) —
Campbell River
Courtenay   2
Cranbrook  2
Creston  2
Dawson Creek  1
Fort St. John  1
Kelowna   1
Kimberley   2
Nanaimo   1
Nelson  2
Penticton   1
Port Alberni  2
Prince George  1
Prince Rupert   1
Sardis 	
Trail	
Vanderhoof _
Vernon 	
Powell River
1
2
1
1
1
— 27
Children's Hospital—
Okanagan  2
Kootenays   2
Peace River  1
Prince George  1
The Division has received information that steps are being taken to
travelling clinic covering eye, ear, nose, and throat in the immediate future.
organize a
Table III.—Comparative Breakdown of Expenditures for Fiscal Years
1954-55 and 1955-56
1954-55
1955-56
Expenditure
Municipalities and
Other
Sources
Provincial
Government
Expenditure
Municipalities and
Other
Sources
Provincial
Government
Suspense.. .„ -	
Medical—■
$3,623.59
1,359,212.98
1,257.63
2,457.60
702,090.43
9,090.55
38,983.79
14,017.99
7,845.05
90,855.99
4,492.46
114.07
19,285.22
9,561.52
269.70
51,741.07
$3,282.34
230,753.60
614.36
$341.25
1,128,459.38
643.27
2,457.60
$3,979.19
1,518,274.51
701.89
4,682.00
823,002.90
9,096.05
39,245.86
15,385.80
8,570.90
95,556.04
3,539.82
516.31
18,448.70
8,649.43
105.10
73,886.78
$4,199.45
255,106.93
224.89
87.27
$220.26*
1,263,167.58
477.00
4,594.73
128,568.19
621,596.58
149,185.79
722,159.02
Dental—
14,017.99
7,813.65
88,773.79
4,293.37
114.07
18.786.81
9,406.70
269.70
50,858.07
25.00
14.60
2,020.37
152.70
102.84
706.17
29.77
15,360.80
31.40
2,082.20
199.09
8,556.30
Dentures      	
Transportation—
93,535.67
3,387.12
413 47
Other 	
498.41
154.82
17,742.53
8,619.66
105 10
883.00
3,532.80
70,353.98
Totals     -	
$2,314,899.64
$367,067.41
$1,947,832.23
$2,623,641.28
$415,388.58
$2,208,252.70
1 Credit.
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 87
The Medical Director wishes to record with pleasure the continued good relationship
existing between the Division and the various organizations with whom it is in constant
contact during the year.
My personal thanks to the senior officials in the Government for their sustaining
inspiration and faith, and to the staff for their efforts on behalf of those the Division serves.
In submitting this report, I do so with the hymn—
Precious Lord
Take our hand,
Lead us on.
Respectfully submitted.
J. C. Moscovich, M.D.,
Director. BRITISH COLUMBIA
PART III.—INSTITUTIONS
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS
I beg to submit the annual report for the Brannen Lake School for Boys for the
period ended March 31st, 1956.
Fiscal Year
TT
ov
oo
H3-
1
r~
TT
ov
-
OS
t
oo
o
J
OH
TT
OH
m
in
o\
<N
1
in
Ov
I*}
1
IN
In
OH
TT
ITJ
1
CJ
in
o\
if.
IH-J
4
in
Os
Id
in
]
m
in
OV
76
10
4
2
691
88
2
1
56
53.3
19,456
(3)
(3)
56
2
1
129
29
158
18.4
119
7
3
3
95
74.6
27,295
5.5
(3)
95
7
3
3
102
23
125
18.4
126
14
1
3
89
86
31,408
8
(3)
89
14
1
3
86
25
111
22.5
126
13
79
81.7
29,808
10
(3)
79
13
130
26
156
16.7
128
15
1
104
82
30,011
(3)
(3)
104
15
1
121
31
152
20.4
146
19
3
104
84.3
30,865
(3)
(3)
104
19
3
118
23
141
16.3
155
4
2
1
4
101
100.6
36,721
9
281
101
4
2
1
4
105
17
122
13.9
119
15
2
2
96
102.4
37,383
9.5
432
96
15
2
2
171
32
203
15.8
126
9
19
33
131
101.9
37,198
(3)
239
131
Number A.W.O.L., April 1st	
Number in Crease Clinic, April 1st	
9
19
Number on extended leave, April 1st
Number of new admissions 	
33
143
24
167
14.4
212
Number A.W.O.L., March 31st	
1
Number in Crease Clinic, March 31st-
Number in Oalcalla, March 31st, .   .
Number on extended leave, March
31st   	
(2)
17
129
Average daily population 	
137.6
50,371
Average length of stay in months
Total A.W.O.L.'s during the fiscal
8.3
124
1 Recidivists included.    A parole system was used whereby boys were returned to the School without affecting
admissions.
2 The former practice of transferring boys to Oakalla was discontinued.
3 Not recorded.
During the fiscal year there were 143 admissions and 24 readmissions, making a
total of 167 admitted to the School. There was a 14.4-per-cent rate of recidivism. Two
of the twenty-four readmissions were committed for the third time. One hundred and
twelve of the total number of boys admitted were Protestant, fifty-four Roman Catholic,
and one of other religion. Of the group admitted, 135 were white and enfranchised
Indian status, thirty were of native Indian status, one of negro and one of East Indian
extraction.
Range of Age on Admission
Age in Years
10 years
11     „
12
;
13
j
14
s
15
5
16
J
17
3
Number
of Boys
„ 2
. 3
. 5
. 27
_ 29
_ 46
. 40
. 15
The average age on admission was 14.7 years. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 89
Legal Status of Boys Admitted
Number
of Boys
_. 28
Ward 	
Parents, guardians  90
Mother, guardian  30
Father, guardian  12
Other guardian  5
Unknown   1
No legal guardian  1
One-quarter of all the wards admitted to the School during the fiscal year were
recidivists, while one-eighth of non-wards admitted were recidivists.
Supervising Agencies of Boys Admitted
Number
of Boys
_ 29
Social Welfare Branch	
Provincial Probation Branch  51
Social Welfare Branch and Indian Commissioner  12
Provincial Probation Branch and Indian Commissioner  13
Vancouver Juvenile Court  21
Victoria Juvenile Court  14
Children's Aid Society  12
Catholic Children's Aid Society  4
Social Service Department, Burnaby  2
Social Welfare Department, New Westminster  2
Vancouver Juvenile Court and Indian Commissioner  1
None   5
Family and Children's Service  1
Considering the population affected, it is obvious that the Vancouver Juvenile Court
is using its own local services to a greater degree than is the case in other areas of the
Province.
The 167 boys admitted were committed from the following Juvenile Courts:—
Abbotsford  2
Alert Bay  2
Agassiz  1
Bella Coola  4
Boston Bar  2
Burnaby   14
Chilliwack   5
Chase   3
Cloverdale  6
Coquitlam District  3
Colwood  1
Courtenay   2
2
4
1
1
Fort St. James     1
Ganges      3
Hope      3
Creston 	
Dawson Creek
Esquimalt	
Fort Nelson _
Kamloops   3
Kelowna  4
Kimberley   1
Kitimat  1
Langley   2
Lumby   1
Lytton  3
Masset  3
Matsqui Municipality  2
Mission   1
Nanaimo   2
Nelson  2
New Westminster  4
North Vancouver
100 Mile House.__
Ocean Falls	
Oak Bay	
Penticton	
Port Alberni	
3
1
2
1
1
3 T 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Port Coquitlam     1 Squamish     2
Port Moody     3 Sumas Municipality     1
Prince George     2 Terrace     2
Prince Rupert      1 Trail     2
Quesnel      1 Vancouver  28
Richmond      4 Vernon     4
Sechelt      3 Victoria   13
Boys were not in all cases residents of the area served by the Juvenile Court which
committed them to the School.
Of the 167 boys committed to the School during the year, 131 were committed for
offences against property, eight against persons, and twenty-eight for other offences, which
included incorrigibility.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT,  1955-56
Salaries  $ 196,012.54
Less refund of overpayment  88.76
  $195,923.78
Office expense  4,815.32
Travelling expense -   2,703.52
Maintenance of building and grounds  8,698.47
Heat, light, power, and water  19,301.48
Medical services  7,062.88
Medical supplies  1,255.29
Provisions and catering  55,472.33
Clothing and uniforms  12,188.37
Laundry and dry-goods  10,640.22
Maintenance and operation of equipment  2,681.84
Transportation   1,929.70
Equipment and machinery  879.66
Incidentals and contingencies  3,465.13
Repairs to furnishings and equipment  415.45
Training programme expense   3,385.56
Less—
Rent collected  $1,410.00
Unemployment insurance deductions   678.28
Meal tickets  3,771.00
Transportation   233.74
Miscellaneous  121.25
Increase in inventory  6,487.20
$330,819.00
12,701.47
$318,117.53
Public Works expenditure       42,914.98
$361,032.51
Less maintenance receipts  422.48
$360,610.03
Per capita cost, $7.17.
The School staff, in conjunction with the local National Employment Service, was
able to place a number of the older boys in employment when they were ready to leave REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 91
the School. These were boys who had an aptitude and learned something about a trade
in the School shops or under supervision of the School supervisors, many of whom were
former tradesmen. All boys of the School, regardless of age, are given an opportunity
of attending academic classes with teachers in attendance in Grades I to VIII, inclusive.
The boys in Grades IX to XII continue their schooling by taking the regular Department of Education correspondence courses. The maintenance work of the School is
undertaken by boys under the various supervisors and Public Works staff, and includes
dining and kitchen work, repairing of their own clothing, and maintenance of the buildings and grounds.
A boy's day is divided into three phases, commencing at 7 a.m. when he arises
and, excluding meal-times, he is either attending academic classes, shops, or is assigned
to work projects until 3 p.m. At 3 p.m. the supervising staff changes shift and the
recreational portion of the programme is in effect until bedtime. This recreational programme consists of all types of sports which vary to some degree with the seasons of
the year, hobby work consisting of woodwork, metalwork, and model-building, as well
as leisure time for letter-writing, reading, etc. Much of the material used for hobby
work was donated by Vancouver Island and Mainland plywood-producers. The sports
include inter-cottage competitions, as well as competitive sports in Nanaimo district
leagues. There is a semi-annual hobby show where boys' work is put on display, judged
by qualified persons of the Nanaimo community and small prizes awarded. This may
be the first time that some of these boys have ever gained any recognition of their abilities, and this can be a real morale-builder. There is an annual boxing tournament in
the School, and during this fiscal year individual awards were made to the boys, the
trophies being donated by interested business-men of Nanaimo. A Port Alberni press
group arranged for press coverage and exhibition bouts in boxing and weight-lifting at
this event. The School held an annual two-day field track-meet, in which all boys of
the School participated in some form of field sports. In the swimming-pool all boys
are given the opportunity to learn to swim, and semi-annual swimming-meets are held.
Twenty-five boys from the School are active members in the Nanaimo Sea Cadet Group.
All civic groups and service clubs of the Nanaimo district have contributed toward
recreational, musical, and variety entertainment both in the School and in the community by donations of free passes to the School for the use of groups of boys to attend
symphony concerts, sports events, and ice-skating. In return, the boys have worked on
community projects and repaired several hundred broken toys for the Nanaimo Parent-
Teacher Association, which were for distribution to needy families in the community
last Christmas. A Victoria radio station donated several hundred phonograph records
to the radio club and also provided a programme of musical entertainment at the School.
The School programme is operated on the honour system, and boys can earn privileges, and likewise lose them for misdemeanours. Those who misbehave are restricted
from participating in off-ground activities, as well as special privileges within the School.
The School believes that as these boys must some day return to their respective
communities, there is real value in keeping them closely tied in with a community during
the period they are here in the School. In other words, the planned activities, both in
the School and outside, go to make up the rehabilitation programme.
I wish to thank all staff members, clergymen, service clubs and other organizations,
including other departments of government, both municipal and Provincial, private
agencies, and individuals who have shown an interest in the boys of the School by helping the School with its programme of rehabilitation. The School is greatly indebted to
all these persons, and their assistance has been appreciated by the administration of
the School.
Respectfully submitted.
F. G. Hassard,
Superintendent. T 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
The report of the Provincial Industrial School for Girls covering the fiscal year
ended March 31st, 1956, is herewith submitted.
This year started out at the Industrial School for Girls with new senior staff, and
it could be expected that " the new broom would sweep clean." The sweeping has been
done slowly and, as administration looks back over the month and takes stock, it seems
changes have been effected in the general atmosphere and relationships with girls and
staff: also a greater stability in staff now exists. A few minor changes have been made
in the building, but it is still the same old outdated, unattractive place, situated on a
busy city corner, which presents many handicaps in carrying out an up-to-date programme with active teen-agers.
During the first six months of the year there was close to a complete turnover of
staff, mostly among the newer and younger employees, and it has been fortunate that
six with longer service have found satisfaction and sufficient challenge in the work to
carry on and give leadership to new staff. Figures show that in an establishment of
thirty-two, there have been twenty-six resignations and twenty-three new appointments.
It is noted that staff approaching middle age are better suited to this institution than
younger employees. They have the stability, kindly firmness, and objectivity necessary
to handle the girls without favouritism. The School has been fortunate in attracting a
number of employees, including a recreation instructress, who are well experienced in
dealing with teen-agers in other settings where a high degree of discipline was necessary.
At the end of the school term in June, it was agreed that exclusive use of correspondence courses in the classroom was poor and that very few girls had made any real
progress. Therefore, in September the classroom opened with a new teacher and plans
to operate on the basis of a rural ungraded school. Administration applied for an
Inspector, and the Department of Education placed the school under a Provincial
Inspector who, along with the teacher, worked out a well-balanced programme of studies,
and incorporated other staff into the classroom to teach crafts, physical education, and
first aid. The classroom was redecorated, and modern blackboards, new desks, and
lighting installed. With this more attractive programme, there were more girls anxious
to continue with schooling than could be accommodated in one classroom. It was
necessary, therefore, to confine this classroom to the elementary grades up to eight,
which took care of from twelve to sixteen girls. Two other classrooms were opened on
the third floor by tearing out partitions, boarding up holes, and installing proper lighting.
These were used for crafts and high-school correspondence work.
Ten girls received St. John Ambulance first-aid certificates, and at the end of the
fiscal year, it is believed, the majority will pass their grades in June, 1956.
A new hairdresser was employed in July and the beauty-parlour reopened, after
being closed since January, 1955. It has operated to capacity since, with four or five
girls always in training and two prepared to write the Government examinations at each
board. The sewing-room has also operated to capacity all year. It is worth noting
that girls placed in these training centres generally very quickly settle into the School
and soon have a happy, buoyant appearance, as they work toward their release and a
more secure future. With these three centres in full operation, it has not been difficult
to plan for the balance of the girls in work placements during the day. Long winter
evenings continued to present a problem in so far as keeping up an interesting programme and preventing boredom were concerned. A television set presented by the
Council of Women of New Westminster has been a great asset. Community groups
have come in with a programme on an average of three times a month, and, with our
own improved recreation and craft programmes, there is no longer too much spare time.
But even the improved programme has failed to reduce the run-aways and the
occasional window-smashing episode.    The girls who run from the School are gener- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 93
ally those who have formed this definite habit pattern in the years before they came to
the School, some dating back to very early childhood. There is always the odd one the
School seems unable to help in this respect, but the majority, after several months of this
behaviour, suddenly take hold of themselves and make a surprising adjustment. Along
with the established pattern to run, there is the large factor of group pressure, which is
not well understood by those outside the institution and, in the present building, virtually
impossible to control by those on the inside. This is generally also the cause of riotous
behaviour. One girl, in an insidious way, incites the others to action, first by calling them
" chicken " if they will not join her, then with threats of what will happen if they are not
on the side of the girl. At such times, girls whose behaviour is usually good become so
excited and frustrated they are no longer responsible for their actions, especially when
they notice the girl who incited the trouble standing back, taking no part. The strongest
factor in controlling this type of behaviour is a closer relationship between staff and girls.
Much of this pressure should be overcome when, in the new School, girls will be in small
cottage groups and each girl will have her separate room.
Out of a total of 132 girls in the School during the year, seventy-seven girls were
responsible for 232 run-aways.
Number of
Run-aways
One girl had  12
One girl had  11
One girl had     9
One girl had     8
Two girls had     7
Three girls had     6
Three girls had     5
Ten girls had     4
Sixteen girls had     3
Eighteen girls had     2
Twenty-one girls had only     1
Religious services are held on two Sundays each month, and every Sunday small
groups of girls go out to the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the community.
The health of the School population has been at a high level all year; even the
common colds have been few and have not spread. This is no doubt, at least in part,
due to the regular use of disinfectant for all dish-washing and to the conscientious work
of the School nurse. Two girls required major operations. One of these was for a
second-stage lung operation for an old condition, and the School regrets to report that,
while convalescing at home, she developed pneumonia and died. The other was a
ruptured appendix, close to the termination of a pregnancy, and the girl made a good
recovery. In September, Dr. Moscovich, Medical Director of the Branch, was successful
in arranging a new medical plan for the School so that now, in place of having all the
work done by the doctor from the V.D. Clinic, the School has its own private doctor who
holds a clinic at the School once a week. All the general aches and pains which occur
daily are taken care of by the full-time School nurse. Girls are taken, when necessary,
to the out-patients' department of the Vancouver General Hospital for special examinations, and the pregnant girls have attended the prenatal clinic once a week and have
carried out their exercises with the School recreation leader every day. All new admissions are X-rayed for tuberculosis.
Dental work is done at the out-patients' department dental clinic one day every
second week. Sixty-nine girls have received treatment. Thirty-six girls have had eye
examinations.
The social service section has had a busy year looking after the emotional problems
of the girls generally, in relationship to their families.   Much has been done to interpret T 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the function of the School and its place in the total programme of the Social Welfare
Branch and other social agencies in the community. Through this has developed a better
understanding of the need for early social histories and for pre-release planning, with the
result it is possible to have most girls examined at the Child Guidance Clinic within
the first two months of their stay at the School. Both the history and early examination
are valuable in planning for the girl. This year all girls have had an electroencephalogram done at Crease Clinic, which gives the School doctor an early diagnosis of any
epileptic tendency.
This year social workers have been able to request follow-up reports on girls about
six months after release, with a view to gathering research material. Twenty-two replies
were received to twenty-five letters sent out. Of these, twenty-two girls had made a poor
adjustment, nine fair, four good, and three very satisfactory.
The total population of the School has remained unchanged, the year starting and
finishing with sixty-two girls attached to the School. This year there were only three
transfers to other institutions—one to Oakalla and two to Provincial Mental Hospital.
The actual number of girls in the School has never gone above fifty, and during the year
there were seventy admissions and seventy releases. Recidivists accounted for fourteen,
or 20 per cent of the admissions. The age range presents an interesting picture, as does
also the range of charges laid against the girls at the time of committal. These are as
follows:—
Year of Birth Age during This Year   Percentage of Total
1937  18 4.20
1938  17 27.00
1939  16 22.80
1940  15 18.53
1941  14 15.70
1942  13 10.00
1943  12 1.40
The next table shows the percentage distribution of admissions by type of charge:—
Per Cent
Incorrigibility   44.1
Unsatisfactory probation  25.7
Intoxication   12.85
Sexual immorality     7.1
Theft      5.5
Vagrancy      2.85
Breaking and entering     1.4
The two largest in this group—incorrigibility and unsatisfactory probation—are
very general charges and do not give any idea of the actual problem, and could, if an
analysis were possible, be broken down into the other five types.
Of the girls released, the approximate length of time in the School was 8.5 months.
There have been a number of interested and interesting visitors.   The senior staff
have spoken to several women's groups with a total approximate membership of 100.
All these activities help in establishing a healthy and constructive understanding of the
function of the School in the community.
In closing, may I express my sincere thanks to all staff for their co-operation and
hard work during a strenuous year of reorganization;  to the senior administration for
support and encouragement at all times;   and to all organizations and friends of the
School who have given so generously of their time and talents to bring some cheer into
the lives of the girls. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 95
STATISTICAL STATEMENTS
Population of School, March 31st, 1956
On roll, April 1st, 1955  62
Girls admitted during April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956 70
— 132
Officially released   69
Transferred to other institutions with subsequent official
release from Girls' Industrial School     1
— 70
Transferred to other institutions but not officially released
from Girls' Industrial School within the year     3
Total unreleased, March 31st, 1956     62
Expenses and Revenue Statement of School, March 31st, 1956
Total inmate-days from April 1st, 1955, to March 31st, 1956  15,036
Per capita cost, one year       $3,824.92
Per capita cost, one day  $10.45
Operating expenditure by voucher—
Salaries  $94,543.00
Office expense  2,348.48
Travelling expense   730.50
Maintenance of buildings and grounds  2,982.58
Light, power, water, and fuel  7,509.30
Medical services  5,050.60
Medical supplies  -.„ 1,312.76
Provisions and catering  18,008.46
Clothing and uniforms  5,047.63
Maintenance and operation of equipment  1,214.52
Office furniture and equipment  1,535.64
Equipment and machinery  3,174.12
Incidentals and contingencies  1,417.45
Good Conduct Fund  411.55
Vocational and recreational supplies  1,325.60
Transportation of girls  1,250.13
Laundry and dry-goods  2,889.70
Total expenditure for year by voucher  $150,752.02
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department) —
Salaries  $4,178.17
Maintenance of buildings and grounds     6,693.07
  10,871.24
Inventory, April 1st, 1955  3,479.17
Less— $165,102.43
Proceeds from meal tickets      $434.50
Miscellaneous  65.00
$499.50
Inventory, March 31st, 1956     7,467.52
         7,967.02
$157,135.41 T 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Reconciliation
Total expenditure as per Public Accounts  $150,252.52
Add Public Works expenditure       10,871.24
Add inventory as at April 1st, 1955	
Less inventory as at March 31st, 1956.
Expenditure (as above)	
Respectfully submitted.
$161,123.76
3,479.17
$164,602.93
7,467.52
$157,135.41
(Miss) Winifred M. Urquhart,
Superintendent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH T 97
PROVINCIAL HOME, KAMLOOPS
I am pleased to submit herewith the annual report of the Provincial Home for the
Aged and Infirm, Kamloops, for the fiscal year 1955-56.
BUILDINGS
Under the Public Works Department, a major job of renewing heating-radiators
and connecting the distributing system was carried out in the old frame-constructed
portion of the Home.   This will be beneficial in the future.
The recreation-room was renovated and painted, likewise passage-ways of Wards
1 and 2, all of which helps to enhance the appearance and facilitate cleaning.
HEALTH SERVICES
As indicated in previous reports, the general physical and mental conditions of new
admissions consistently declined. The majority appear on admission in need of medical
and or sick-ward care, and some almost immediate hospitalization, resulting in continued
pressure on the Home's sick-ward facilities, which have been expanded to include all
available space in the lower two west wings.
The Irving Clinic continues to supply adequate and efficient medical service to all
requiring attention, including surgery and hospitalized cases.
The demand for ophthalmology and optology services appears to be increasing.
Dental services and dentures are requested more frequently.
ENTERTAINMENT
Throughout the year, divers forms of entertainment are provided, such as weekly
picture shows on Wednesday nights, concerts by the Kamloops High School and the
Elks Bands, and by St. Ann's Academy girls' choir, the Lions Club, and the Elks concert
party. Tea parties are held during the winter months by the Kiwanis Ladies' Auxiliary.
One must not forget the pool table that is in operation practically all the time, plus cards,
checkers, and other small games.
As in years past, the Home has, during the Christmas season, consistently endeavoured to make the institution the show-place of town, decorating the interior and exterior
with coloured lights, Christmas trees, and seasonal festoons. For its efforts in 1955,
the Home was awarded the Shrine Club Cup for institutional establishments.
RELIGIOUS SERVICES
Various religious denominations conduct weekly services. The attendance varies
according to the denomination and enthusiasm of the persons conducting same.
HOW TO HELP OLDER PEOPLE
The last half-century has witnessed a phenomenal increase in life expectancy, from
a modest 45 to 50 years to 70 years or more. Therefore, the ever-increasing problem
of the aged in Canada in general and in British Columbia, with its salubrious climate, in
particular requires—yea, demands—an intensive study not only of geriatrics, but of
sociology pertaining to the older groups.
The Superintendent believes that active participation, in any manner whatsoever,
is the best therapy, and to that end he endeavours to keep the men active and interested
as much as possible in such simple activities as daily walks, feeding birds, checking
temperature thermometer, personal hygiene, garden and farm activity, repair jobs, daily
news (radio and newspaper), sporting events, playing pool, checkers, and card games.
In fact, anything of interest to them is of great importance. To keep these men ambulatory as long as possible and to afford them freedom of action with as few restrictions
as possible, compatible with good order and discipline, are the primary objectives of the
Provincial Home. T 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR APRIL 1st, 1955,
TO MARCH 31st, 1956
Expenditures for the Fiscal Year Ended March 31st, 1956
Salaries	
Expenses—
Office expense	
Maintenance of buildings and grounds
Heat, light, power, and water	
Medical services	
Medical supplies 	
Provisions and catering	
Clothing and uniforms	
Laundry and dry-goods	
Maintenance and operation of equipment
Transportation 	
Equipment and machinery	
Incidentals and contingencies	
Burials	
Less-
Board
Rent _
$87,552.98
1
4
7
3
31
2
6
1
629.57
,370.59
072.87
,917.78
,142.45
,998.46
,038.18
,920.61
374.79
750.69
133.45
988.39
,837.50
$149,726.31
$1,359.00
568.75
1,927.75
$147,798.56
Inmate-days
Inmates in the Home, April 1st, 1955  124
Inmates admitted during the year     61
185
Inmates discharged     34
Inmates deceased     27
61
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1956  124
Total number of inmate-days  44,161
Summary
Provincial Home expenditure  $147,798.56
Public Works expenditure         8,837.91
Total expenditure
$156,636.47
Cost per capita:   $156,636.47-h44,161=$3.54694
Pensions
Pensions paid to Government Agent, Kamloops     $56,469.99 report of the social welfare branch t 99
Reconciliation
Net expenditure as per Public Accounts     $91,701.65
Add maintenance receipts—
Pensions   $56,469.99
Municipalities         7,999.48
Other collections  247.08
       64,716.55
$156,418.20
Add Public Works expenditure         8,837.91
$165,256.11
Less pensioners' comforts     $7,307.32
Less proportion of Tranquille Farm disbursements over receipts       1,312.32
         8,619.64
Total expenditure (as above)  $156,636.47
Respectfully submitted.
J. M. Shilland,
Superintendent. T  100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS BOARD
I herewith submit the annual report of the administration of the " Welfare Institutions
Licensing Act" for the year 1955. As licences are issued on the basis of the calendar
year, this report covers the period from January 1st, 1955, to December 31st, 1955.
LICENCES
The total number of cases worked on in this year was 1,005. Included in this
number were 555 licensed welfare institutions and 450 pending applications. Of the
licensed welfare institutions, eighty-three closed within the year and 344 pending applications were closed or withdrawn. The case load at December 31st was 578, made up of
472 licensed institutions and 106 pending applications. In 1955, licensed welfare
institutions gave service to 30,028 persons.
Welfare institutions licences are issued for the following types of care:—
(1) Full-time boarding care of children under 15 years of age. This includes
the small private boarding home with two children, children's institutions,
and summer camps.
(2) Day-time care of children in kindergartens, nursery schools, and foster
day-care boarding homes.
(3) Homes for older people.
(4) Maternity homes.
(5) Hostels for fifteen or more unemployed employables.
The home and personnel must meet the requirements as set out in the Act and
regulations before a licence is issued.
BOARD MEETINGS
The Welfare Institutions Board met nine times during the year to approve licences
and to deal with other business coming under the jurisdiction of the Act. Mrs. Edith
Pringle, R.N., for many years a valued member of the Board, retired from Government
service, and was replaced on the Board by Mr. F. P. Levirs, Chief Inspector of Schools
for the Department of Education. Best wishes of the Board go to Mrs. Pringle for many
years of health and happiness.
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS FOR CHILDREN
A. Full-time Care of Children
Institutions for Child-care
There are ten licensed institutions for children. However, only two of these accept
children for long-term placement; the other eight institutions offer special services.
The excellent work done by St. Christopher's School in the training of retarded boys
has long been recognized. Rosary Hall, Williams Lake, and Notre Dame, Dawson
Creek, furnish a much-needed boarding-home care programme for children who are
attending public school in these particular areas. These children live in outlying parts
of the Province where there are no schools and would have to get their education by
correspondence if this service were not available. The children usually spend week-ends
and holidays with their families.
The new programme for the training of emotionally disturbed girls instituted at
St. Euphrasia's School, operated by the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, has been in
operation for a year. This school is primarily designed to offer a controlled institutional
setting for the care and treatment of girls with delinquent or pre-delinquent behaviour
problems. In the first year of the new programme it was decided to limit the number of
girls to twenty, ranging in age from 13 to 15 years.    A selective admission policy was REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 101
followed, and only girls who would fit in with the existing group already resident in the
school were accepted. Also, all referrals for admission had to be made through a child-
placing or other welfare agency. The school is staffed by trained and professional people
who understand the needs of this type of girl. The programme has been well organized
and planned, and already much has been accomplished. Requests for admission have
been somewhat disappointing, but this no doubt is due to the high per diem rate which
must be charged for this special service, and also because the programme is not yet well
known to the agencies and other key people in the community.
Number of institutions licensed in 1955  10
Number of children cared for        596
Total days' care  96,264
Private Boarding Homes
Homes where children are boarded privately are required to be licensed under the
"Welfare Institutions Licensing Act." The maximum number of children for which
a licence is issued is five. However, the greater proportion of homes are licensed for no
more than two children. The two Children's Aid Societies in Vancouver and the Family
and Children's Service in Victoria recommend these homes for licence, and also supervise
after being licensed. In the other parts of the Province the social workers of the
Provincial Social Welfare Branch are responsible for this work.
The majority of private boarding homes are located in the Greater Vancouver area
and in Region VI (Fraser Valley). There are very few licensed homes in the other
parts of the Province, and it may be that these homes are not being reported for licence.
The reasons for placement of children in private boarding homes are broken homes,
illness or death, desertion, or both parents have jobs. Where the parent responsible for
the children is reliable and interested, the children usually stay in the private boarding
home until the parent has established a home to which the children can return.
During the year some 200 newspaper advertisements offering to board children were
checked and referred to the agency concerned. The Board appreciates the co-operation
received from the newspapers in referring these advertisements. Not only do the papers
advise the advertiser that a licence is necessary, but also that a visit from a social worker
may be expected. Most of the homes which advertise cannot be licensed because of poor
physical standards or social, economic, or marital problems which may require the
services of a social agency.
The Advisory Committee on Private Placements, under the chairmanship of Dr.
Stewart Murray, Senior Medical Health Officer, Vancouver, meets bi-monthly to study
the private boarding-home situation in Vancouver. Agencies represented on this committee are the Children's Aid Society, Catholic Children's Aid Society, Foster Day Care
Association, Mental Health Services, and welfare institutions. During the past year the
Committee has been concerned about the number of requests for the placement of
retarded children, especially infants, in private boarding homes. The thinking of the
Committee is that there is a great need for carefully selected homes for these children
who, for some reason or other, cannot be looked after in their own homes, and the
problem has been referred to the proper authorities for consideration and planning.
Licensed homes are encouraged to work through a child-placing agency and to
accept for care only children whom the agency refers. Many more parents are coming
to the Children's Aid Societies for help in finding suitable homes for their children.
There were fifty-nine homes licensed during the year.
Number of children's boarding homes licensed in 1955  59
Number of children cared for        189
Total days' care  37,316
L T  102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
B. Day Care of Children
Foster Homes for Day Care
Foster day-care homes are used chiefly by mothers with small children who must
of necessity work to support the family. The Foster Day Care Association, a Community
Chest agency, provides this type of service in Vancouver. This agency has homes in all
districts in the city and refers the mother to the home nearest her home or work. It is
the mother's responsibility to take the child to and from the day-care home. The cost
of this service is moderate, and if the mother cannot pay the full charge, the agency is
ready to help. Homes used for this type of care are moderate in size and furnishings,
and the foster-parents usually have one or two children of their own. Day-care homes
are limited to the care of five children and are under the constant supervision of the
agency. A kindergarten service is provided where the children are of suitable age and
sufficient in number. In other areas of the Province where there is no special agency set
up to provide day care, the homes licensed for this purpose are under the supervision
of a child welfare agency or the Provincial Social Welfare Branch.
There is an increase in the number of requests for day care of children by mothers
who prefer a job outside the home and also those who are needed in industry and business.
The present high cost of living also has forced many mothers back to work. Industry,
business, and the professions at the present time are in need of the skills and experience
of many married women and are encouraging them to return to their former jobs. If it
is to become a permanent part of Canadian culture that married women with young
children are needed as part of the labour force, then a good day-care programme must
be worked out for the care of these children.
Number of foster day-care homes licensed in 1955  32
Number of children cared for        247
Total days' care  20,087
Kindergartens, Play-schools, etc.
The training of the pre-school child still commands great interest in British Columbia,
and many projects of this kind have been set up in all parts of the Province. These
pre-schools have been established by groups of parents, community associations, churches,
and private persons.
In order to provide training for persons who want to work with pre-school children,
a training programme of ten courses, covering the various aspects of pre-school education,
has been set up. These courses are given by the Adult Education Department, Vancouver
School Board, and also by the Victoria College Evening Division in Victoria. For persons
who are unable to attend these courses, the Extension Department of the University of
British Columbia offers a course in pre-school education by correspondence. Persons
registering for the correspondence course are also required to take a three weeks' demonstration and methods course in pre-school education, which is given by the Extension
Department of the University of British Columbia each summer, usually the first three
weeks of July. This course has proven very successful, and as registration is limited to
twenty-five persons, there are always more applications than can be accepted.
During the year, under the joint sponsorship of the three pre-school groups, a two-
day institute was arranged, also workshops and lectures. Representatives from all parts
of the Province attended. The Vancouver pre-school groups also had the privilege of
meeting with Dr. B. Lowenfeld, Superintendent of the California State School for the
Blind, who explained that pre-school blind children have exactly the same need of ever-
widening experiences as sighted children, and in the pre-school years especially a full
recognition of this fact can greatly assist the blind child to make a happy adjustment in
a sighted world.   Many of the pre-school projects include a blind child in the group. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 103
Miss Madeleine Brault, a Vancouver pre-school supervisor, received one of the first
awards of the newly established Queen Elizabeth Scholarship at the Nursery Training
School, Tufts College, Boston, Mass. This scholarship was set up to commemorate the
coronation of Queen Elizabeth II and is given to Canadians only. Miss Brault plans to
return to Vancouver following her year in Boston.
Standards continue to improve, for there are more and better trained supervisors
who see to it that the accommodation and equipment are suitable for the activities and
programmes.
Number of pre-school centres licensed in 1955  222
Number of children registered       8,640
Total days' care  745,563
Schools for Retarded Children
During the past few years great interest has been taken in the training of mentally
retarded children, particularly those children who are not educable in special classes
of the public schools. Schools for these children have been started in many centres by
interested groups, the parents of the children taking the lead. As the work grew, the
groups realized that better results could be obtained by united effort and a Provincial
association called the "Association for Retarded Children of British Columbia " was
formed. Local groups, now called " chapters," have membership in the Provincial
organization. At the end of 1955 there were nine chapters, with a total membership
of 1,750.
For persons interested in teaching mentally retarded children, a six weeks' course
of training may be taken at The Woodlands School, the Provincial Government school
for the mentally retarded. It is desirable that a person have a teaching certificate before
taking this course.   Other courses for teachers are planned for the future.
It is not possible at the present time to give the exact number of retarded children
in this Province, but already seven schools have been licensed, with a total capacity of
125 pupils, and six licences are pending.
MATERNITY HOMES
The number of licensed homes for the care of the unmarried mother still remains
at three. All are located in the Vancouver area. The total accommodation of these
homes is for fifty-eight mothers and fifty-seven infants, which seems adequate to meet
the need.
All homes work very closely with the Children's Aid Societies and other welfare
agencies in making plans for the mother's return to the community and the baby's future.
In cases where the mother wishes it, adoption is planned for the baby, but if she wants
to keep her baby, she is helped to find a suitable foster home or a home where she may
stay with the baby.
While in residence, arrangements are made for the girls to continue their schooling
if they wish to do so. Instruction also is given in arts and crafts. These courses are
arranged by the women's auxiliaries to the homes.
A friendly and kind atmosphere prevails in all homes, and while there are rules
which must be followed, these are neither rigid nor exacting. In two of these homes
registered nurses are in charge, while in the other one a social worker is matron. Other
staff members are well trained and understanding.
These three homes are giving a valuable and much-needed service. More mothers
were admitted to the homes during the year, but there was a decrease in the number
of babies. T 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Number of homes licensed in 1955  3
Number of mothers cared for       271
Number of infants cared for        201
Total days' care (mothers and infants)  26,671
AGED-CARE
Since the turn of this century the average life expectancy at birth has been extended
about twenty years, from age 49 to about age 68. Infant and childhood mortality has
been greatly reduced and fewer people are dying in early maturity, and, as a result,
more men and women live to reach their sixties or seventies, even their eighties or
nineties. Statistics tell us that the man or woman who has reached 50 has an even
chance of living another twenty-five years or more; at 65, another thirteen years; at 75,
another eight years. Moreover, our life-span is still continuing to increase, and some
authorities claim that to-day's child may live to be 100.
Population statistics are not the only ageing challenge. Scientific discoveries and
inventions in the last fifty years have changed the way of living and brought many
changes to which society has not yet become accustomed. Industrialization has greatly
reduced the number of private and independent business-men and farmers and has turned
individuals primarily into a nation of wage-earners. This in turn has led to the concentration of people in cities. This machine age has not only brought about a rise in the
standard of living, but has given more leisure time. Working-hours have been greatly
reduced, and there is every indication that a greater reduction will take place. Labour-
saving devices, factory-made clothing, and prepared foods have shortened the many and
long work-hours of the housewife. Another very fundamental change has taken place
in the family itself. To a great extent the traditional three-generation family has been
replaced by the self-sufficient two-generation unit. The small house or apartment has
become the typical family unit, with little or no room for the " old folks." The old-
fashioned " family homestead," with its round of activities in which grandma and
grandpa could play their part, has largely faded from the picture. All of these factors
have added greatly to the problem of providing adequate care and accommodation for
the increased ageing population.
There is also need for the community to change its attitude toward ageing and aged
persons. If this group in the population is to have sympathetic understanding, there
needs to be a more optimistic attitude toward the later years of life and what can be
accomplished by persons in those years. At present some people have a sentimental
and overprotective attitude for older people, while others show disregard and neglect for
their problems and needs. What is needed is an intelligent and open-minded approach
to the problems which are created by age. Social workers should not only be interested
in helping the people who are already old, but also in preparing everyone to enjoy and
accept a useful and happy old age.
The needs of old people are no different from the rest of the population, but due
to failing physical and mental health, many older people are unable to look after their
needs. One of the most pressing needs is housing. Many old people are able to
manage for themselves in a housekeeping unit, but due to reduced income it is impossible
for them to get decent housing for a rental they can afford to pay. Other older people,
because of age and infirmity, require boarding-home care, while still others need the care
of a nursing home or private hospital.
The Provincial Government has provided for financial assistance to non-profit
organizations planning housing for old people through the " Housing for Elderly Citizens Act," which was passed in 1955. Many low-rental housing projects for older
citizens have been built throughout this Province by churches, service clubs, and other
groups, but many, many more such projects are needed.   To-day, lucky is the old couple REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 105
or elderly single person who is housekeeping in one of these cottages or apartments
where all the comforts of modern living are provided for a rent which can be met from
their Old-age Assistance cheque. Rents in these projects range from $20 per month
for single accommodation to $25 for couples. A member of one of these organizations
which has built many of these projects, when recently discussing this housing development, stated, " Yes, we are pleased with the housing we have provided for older people,
but the important factor is that we have shown that it can be done."
Many new boarding homes, which are licensed under the " Welfare Institutions
Licensing Act," were opened during the year, others are in the process of building, and
some already constructed are planning additions. Glacier View Home, located at
Comox, was one of the new homes this year. It has private-room accommodation for
twenty guests, as well as four double rooms reserved for couples. Many organizations
and individuals, along with industrial and business firms in the area, made the building
and furnishing of this home possible. To Queen Elizabeth Hall, the Canadian National
Institute home for the blind, an addition of forty beds was added. The Corporation of
the District of Mission is presently building a home for its elderly citizens. When completed the home will have twenty private rooms and four double rooms for couples. This
home is ideally situated, with a magnificent view of the Fraser River and Mount Baker.
Plans are well under way for a new Soroptimist House and a home for senior citizens at
Oliver. Additions are planned for Dania Home and St. Jude's Anglican Home, Vancouver, and Menno Home, Clearbrook. Due to the construction of a second bridge to
the North Shore, the board of directors of the Swedish rest home have decided that the
home must be vacated. With the increased traffic and noise, the location is no longer
suitable. This fine home will not be lost, for already plans are in the making for the
construction of another home.
Homes which have recently been built and those under construction have private-
room accommodation with two or three larger rooms which are for married couples.
Most older people are quite happy to go to a boarding home when they know that they
will have a room of their own. All homes have some form of recreation and provide
equipment such as television, radio, reading material, and games. Visit any of the
homes during the day and one will no doubt see a serious game of cribbage or checkers
and most likely a very lively game of bingo. Community groups and organizations give
concerts and other entertainment which are most appreciated by the older people.
Arrangements are also made to hold church services regularly for those persons who
are unable to attend church.
It is hoped that these homes will remain small in population so that they may be
real homes where each guest is an individual, a personality, and is accepted and understood by the others guests and by the staff alike. Homes which are too large become
institutions where personal understanding and family atmosphere is very often replaced
by rigid rules and regulations.
People are fortunate in British Columbia to have so many fine municipal, national,
and church homes which have set and maintained high standards of care and accommodation. At the present time nine municipalities have homes for their senior citizens,
four homes are operated by national groups, six homes are run by non-profit organizations, and twelve homes are under the auspices of church or religious groups. These
homes are a means of improving standards in the privately operated homes.
What to do with the senile or childish older person is still a problem. Many of these
persons remain in a boarding home because there is no other accommodation for them.
Very often this is most disturbing to the other older people and adds to the work and
responsibility of the person in charge of the home.
The regulations to the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" are presently being
reviewed and will be rewritten in the coming year.   There are still many requests from T 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
places in Canada and the United States for information about licensed homes and also
for copies of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act " and regulations.
Number of homes licensed during 1955  167
Number of persons cared for       3,612
Total days' care  724,980
UNEMPLOYED ADULTS
There were no new homes licensed for this type of care during the year. The four
homes already licensed are for girls and women. Two of the homes—namely, the
Residential Club (Roman Catholic) and Bethel Home (Mennonite)—are located in
Vancouver. Rainbow House is in Victoria, and the Salvation Army Lodge for Young
Women is in Prince Rupert.
These homes are for girls who are working and living away from their families.
Here the girls have all the comforts of home along with companions of their own age.
Board rates are moderate, and should a girl become unemployed and unable to pay, she
is not asked to leave. There are no rigid rules or regulations, but there is supervision
and guidance from experienced matrons when required. Each home has its own programme for entertainment and other activities of interest. This type of group living
for the teen-age and adolescent younger woman has proven most successful, and no doubt
would prove just as successful for boys of the same age. Admission is by direct application to the home, and there is usually a waiting-list for admission. Twenty-one more
girls lived in the homes during 1955 than in the previous year.
There has been one most interesting development this year. An application for a
licence has been received from the Alcoholism Foundation of British Columbia to
operate a rehabilitation residence for alcoholics. The home will be limited to men.
The purpose of the home is to give the alcoholic an opportunity to enjoy a clean, healthful, homelike place to live while taking treatments at the out-patient clinic. The home
will be ready for occupancy early in 1956, and information regarding admission can be
obtained from the executive director of the Alcoholism Foundation.
Number of homes licensed during 1955   4
Number of persons cared for        411
Total days' care  17,012
SUMMER CAMPS
Clear, through the gathering dusk, a bugle sounds,
In quick response the campers turn from play;
While through the silent hills the call resounds,
They stand erect to honour close of day.
From western skies the colours slowly die,
The stars above the pines their watches keep.
Another joyous day goes swiftly by,
Another night bestows her gift of sleep.
The sun has gone down and the bugle has sounded taps for the last time to close
the 1955 camping season. The campers have returned home to work and school, but
the memories, experiences, and new friendships will remain for ever. There were fifty-
eight camps licensed, and a total of 15,861 campers attended.
The B.C. Camping Association had done much work and planning to make this
a successful season. A course was arranged for camp administrators, which was well
attended, and an institute for counsellors was held at Camp Elphinstone. This was the
first time that the institute had been given in a camp setting, and it was so successful that
plans are under way for a repeat for next year.   Camp Week, held the first week in May, REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 107
with stores, radio, and newspapers co-operating, has done much to promote camping
throughout the Province.
The first Conservation Workshop, a joint project of the Canadian Forestry Association, University of British Columbia and the B.C. Camping Association, was held at Loon
Lake, the University forest camp near Haney. Most of the camps were represented at
this institute. In charge were outstanding Canadian authorities on forest conservation,
who made this week-end institute an outstanding success. Plans are already on the way
for a similar institute for next year.
A camping directory was published again this year, the Vancouver Community
Chest and Council and the B.C. Camping Association sharing the cost. The directory
gives concise information on summer camps in all areas of the Province. Unfortunately
many camps did not send the required information in time and consequently were not
included in the directory. The B.C. Camping Association also sends out a monthly
letter to its members and others interested. These letters are informative and interesting
and a means of keeping contact with out-of-town members.
The Provincial health department carried out extensive inspections of all summer
camps, and the reports received on these inspections were encouraging, all camps showing
improvements. P.H. 26 health form was again used this year, and the camps report that
this form is most helpful.
All camps report that trained staff, especially trained counsellors, are difficult to
get, and many camps which formerly depended on voluntary help are now finding it
necessary to pay many of their staff members.
More than 300 children in the Vancouver area enjoyed a camp holiday through
the camp referral programme.
Interest and enthusiasm for camping continues, and more persons attended camps
this year than in any previous year.
Number of summer camps licensed in 1955  58
Number of persons cared for     15,861
Total days' care  149,616
CONCLUSION
Sincere thanks and appreciation are extended to all who helped with the administration of this Act. T  108
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Table I.—Showing a Comparative Summary of Information regarding Premises
Licensed under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act"
■
1952
1953
1954
1955
Children—Total Care (Excluding Summer Camps)
Number licensed—
10
37
562
105
613
149
122,139
27,581
3
116
214
221
26,941
110
1,740
2,630
533,660
4
58
455
15,464
146
28
3,993
126
7,401
293
554,173
22,502
33
2,463
9,572
203,234
10
48
549
126
643
166
140,269
30,553
3
116
229
218
25,852
133
1,955
2,874
601,941
4
58
406
15,642
136
29
4,839
183
8,046
324
663,378
26,428
42
2,642
12,626
118,713
10
50
549
146
657
174
129,976
35,053
3
115
219
225
26,240
150
2,222
3,299
664,429
4
58
390
16,825
194
28
5,120
137
8,924
254
712.808
18,201
50
3,369
13,578
122,693
10
58
Capacity—
500
150
Number of children under care—
596
189
Number of days' care—
92,264
37,316
Women—Maternity
3
115
Number of persons under care—
271
201
Number of days' care..—     	
Adults—Infirm and Unemployable
26,671
167
Capacity 	
2,426
3,612
724,980
Adults—Employable
4
69
Number of persons under care —	
411
17,012
Children—Day Care
Number licensed—
222
32
Capacity—
5,295
154
Number of children enrolled—
8,640
247
Number of attendance days—
745,563
20,087
Summer Camps
58
3,765
15,861
149,616 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 109
Table II.—Case Load Showing the Total Number of Licensed Institutions
and Pending Applications, 1955
Licensed, December 31st, 1954
Number licensed in 1955 	
Closed in 1955
Carried from December 31st, 1954
New cases during 1955 	
Closed during 1955	
Licensed
Jan. 1, 1955
Licensed
in 1955
Licensed
Institutions
Closed in
1955
Total Cases
Licensed at
Dec. 31, 1955
Licensed
Children—total care—
45
10
50
179
26
111
30
4
3
14
8
43
6
25
1
8
2
33
4
35
1
51
10
56
Children—day care—
1. Kindergarten   	
189
28
Aged—
101
30
Adults—employable—Institutions   .,  	
Homes—maternity   . .  	
4
3
458
97
83
472
458
97
555
83
472
Pending
Jan. 1,1955
New Cases
in 1955
Closed
in 1955
Total Pending Cases at
Dec. 31, 1955
Pending Licences
Children—total care—
i
1
19
!
10
1
52
13          j
29
2
92
1
14
110
14
90
4
96
14
121
21
88
4
15
2. Institutions   _ 	
1
10
Children—day care—
41
2. Foster day care 	
Aged—
6
31
2. Institutions 	
2
Adults—employable	
Homes—maternity
125
325
344
106
Total Case Load
Licensed
Pending .
._  -  125
  325
    ... 344
To6
 _   472
   106
578
MEMBERS OF BOARD
The following are the members of the Welfare Institutions Board for 1955:—
Chairman:  Mr. J. A. Sadler, Director of Welfare.
Members: Dr. G. Elliot, Assistant Provincial Health Officer, Department of
Health; Mr. F. P. Levirs, Chief Inspector of Schools, Department of
Education; Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent, Child Welfare Division;
and Mr. A. A. Shipp, Assistant Administrator, Region II, Social Welfare
Branch.
Chief Inspector: Mrs. Edna L. Page.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Edna L. Page,
Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions. T  110 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PART IV.—MEDICAL SOCIAL WORK SERVICES
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF
TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control, for the fiscal year 1955-56.
In British Columbia there has been steady progress in the fight against tuberculosis.*
Although at the end of 1955 there were almost 21,000 known cases in the Province, only
3,022 were classified as having active pulmonary disease, and this number may be further
reduced when the active case load has been reclassified as the result of up-to-date medical
examination. During the year there were 1,204 newly reported cases of pulmonary
tuberculosis for the Province, but of this number only 588 were diagnosed as having
active infection. For over half of these patients, their tuberculosis was minimal. The
incidence of tuberculosis among older people was on the increase, with 36 per cent of the
newly diagnosed patients in 1955 being over 50 years of age. Contrary to expectations,
only about 15 per cent of these older patients had far advanced disease, while almost
60 per cent had minimal infection. Although tuberculosis as a children's disease has
been steadily decreasing in British Columbia, in 1955 there were eighty-four cases of
active pulmonary tuberculosis reported in children under 15 years, with the attack rate
higher among the Indian children, with fifty-three cases reported, compared to thirty-one
cases in this age-group in the rest of the population. Deaths among patients in the
tuberculosis hospitals took an upward swing from sixty-seven in 1954 to ninety-five in
1955. However, over one-third of these deaths were due to causes other than tuberculosis. Most of the deaths occurred in the older age-group, with only two deaths reported
of patients under 20 years of age.
Reflecting the changing picture in tuberculosis in British Columbia was the decline
in the number of patient-days' treatment given in the tuberculosis institutions during the
year, and this enabled the Division of Tuberculosis Control to reduce its bed capacity
from 935 to 733 by the end of 1955. One of the buildings at Tranquille Sanatorium was
closed, as well as the Tuberculosis Villa at St. Joseph's Hospital in Victoria. In this same
period, North Lawn, a new hospital of 265 beds, was opened at the Provincial Mental
Hospital for the care of mentally ill patients with tuberculosis. This has greatly improved
the treatment facilities for these patients and has made their segregation more effective.
North Lawn has also provided a proper treatment centre to which patients who become
mentally ill in the tuberculosis hospitals can be transferred and given the kind of supervision that is not possible on the tuberculosis wards.
With the opening of North Lawn there was a slight increase over the previous year
in the number of new admissions to the hospitals of the Division, and here again the
higher proportion of patients in the older age-groups was evident, with almost one-quarter
of the new admissions for the year being people over 60 years of age. Discharges showed
an increase, with 78 per cent of the total patients discharged in 1955 having been in
hospital less than one year. This accelerated treatment does not appear to have adversely
affected the recovery rate, for in the year 82 per cent of the patients leaving hospital had
their disease satisfactorily controlled. This is a steady improvement over the previous
years. Another improvement is the decreasing number of patients leaving hospital without medical approval. In the current year these discharges accounted for about 16 per
cent of the total discharges, as against 18 per cent in 1954. However, in 1955, for a large
number of the patients discharged against medical advice, arrangements were made for
* Statistical information on tuberculosis in British Columbia is from the Annual Report of the Division of Tuberculosis Control for 1955, which covers the period from January 1st to December 31st, 1955. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 111
them to continue their drug therapy as out-patients in the community. This left only
a small number (about 7 per cent of the total discharges) of unco-operative patients who
were discharged for disciplinary reasons or who discontinued their treatment and left
hospital before they were considered medically fit to do so. This group constitutes a hard
core of infection, and they present a serious obstacle to a successful community programme for controlling tuberculosis. These patients are people with many problems.
For the most part, they are not capable of taking responsibility for protecting others
against their disease, and neither are they able on a voluntary basis to come into hospital
and remain until adequate treatment has brought their disease under control. In 1955
nine such patients were committed to hospital for treatment under the authority of the
Deputy Minister of Health as provided in the " Health Act." Such action is a last resort
when the person is a public health menace and all efforts to persuade him to take
prescribed treatment on a voluntary basis have failed. Committed patients who leave
hospital before their medical discharge has been approved by the Deputy Minister of
Health are returned to the hospital under police escort. On the whole, the nine patients
committed in 1955 settled down and could be cared for on the open wards, but for some
this created an extra strain and they had to be segregated. In the hospitals of the Division
there is very limited accommodation for providing this kind of care, and the recalcitrant
patient continues to be a serious problem in ward management.
In addition to patients committed under the " Health Act," the Division received, for
treatment, prisoners under sentence from the Provincial and Federal gaols. Although
these patients can be returned to the prison from which they were admitted if they are
not co-opeartive, they are a special problem on the tuberculosis wards, and will continue
to be so until hospital facilities are provided within the prisons themselves. There is
a high incidence of tuberculosis among the prison population, as indicated by the results
of survey X-rays taken on admission of prisoners to Oakalla. Here the number of cases
of active tuberculosis (new and previously known) discovered in this way in 1955 was
one in 149 X-ray films, as compared to one in 1,604 X-ray examinations carried out on
the general public at the Pacific National Exhibition.
For the Social Service Department of the Division of Tuberculosis Control, the past
year was one of internal reorganization. Two members of the staff resigned and replacements were not available, and toward the end of the year the establishment of the Department was reduced by one social worker. In addition, for nine months during this period
the Provincial supervisor of the Department was engaged on a part-time basis in two
other departments. She was a member of the survey team appointed by the Civil Service
Commission to study the organization and operation of the institutions within the Provincial Department of Health, and she substituted for the medical social-work consultant
of the Branch during a period of extended sick-leave. In this latter capacity she served
as the social worker on the Medical Advisory Committee of the Provincial Disabled
Persons' Allowance Board, and in February, 1956, attended the first conference of
Medical Advisory Committees called by the Federal Disabled Persons' Allowance Board.
As part of its reorganization process, the staff of the Social Service Department
began a series of studies in preparation for the drafting of a statement of the structure
and function of the Department within the Division of Tuberculosis Control, and this
project was still in progress at the end of the year. Heretofore, the social worker's case
load had included all the patients on her wards. With the increasing number of admissions
and discharges in the tuberculosis hospitals, this was an impossible task, and the professional services of the Department had become diffused. As a beginning step in the
defining of structure and function, an analysis was made of day-to-day activities of the
workers in the Social Service Department, and it was found that a disproportionate
amount of the workers' time was being spent in incidental services related to ward
management and hospital administration rather than in direct service to patients. Each
type of incidental service was carefully scrutinized to determine whether or not it was T 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA
appropriate to be given by the Social Service staff, and, as a result, some of these services
were transferred to other departments. For example, instead of the ward social worker
being required to investigate the validity of a patient's request for a day's leave from
hospital, this request, which is medically approved by the ward doctor, now goes direct
from the doctor to the superintendent of the hospital for a decision. Other services
which were time-consuming for the social workers and unproductive in terms of service
to the patients have been established as clerical routines.
With the social workers relieved of some of the incidental services, this permitted
a better focusing of their skills in service to patients having difficulty accepting the treatment routine because of environmental or emotional problems related to their illness
and hospitalization. In spite of the great gains that have been made in the treatment and
control of tuberculosis, it is still a disease that seriously disrupts the whole life plan of the
person who falls a victim to it. It is the rare person for whom a diagnosis of tuberculosis
is not an economic disaster. If it is the bread-winner who is the patient, his illness has
created many problems for his family, and it is hard for him to accept his new dependent
status. Whether it be the bread-winner or the home-maker, this reversal of roles is one
of the most painful aspects of the total treatment of tuberculosis, and it often leaves scars
that are more difficult to heal than the tuberculosis lesion. Although the majority of
patients are discharged from hospital in less than a year, this is still a long time to be
out of circulation. Because for so much of the time the patient is in hospital he neither
feels or looks sick, this creates tensions and frustrations that are hard to bear. For the
person who needs to escape from responsibility, tuberculosis is no longer a refuge because
it is curable. Such patients need help in recognizing that when their disease is under
control they must relinquish the dependent existence that is life in hospital and resume
their responsibilities in the outside world.
To deal with these personal problems and to make available to the patient the
resources in the community that can relieve the practical problems created by tuberculosis
are the main purposes of the Social Service Department in this medical setting, and during
the year the goal of the Department has been to work toward a reorganization that will
enable the workers to make their contribution more effective in the total treatment
programme of the Division. Service to patients by the Social Service Department is now
on a selective basis, and requests come to the ward social worker from various sources
within the hospital, such as doctors, nurses, other professional staff, and from the patients
themselves. Referrals also come from outside the hospital, from the social workers in
the out-patient clinics and other hospitals of the Division, from community agencies, and
from relatives and friends of the patients. Efforts are being made to establish more
effective channels of communication, and referral policies are being defined. This
requires interpretation of the appropriate functions of the social workers in the Division
to the other professional staff. With the main focus of the Division on medical rather
than the social aspects of tuberculosis, such interpretation is a continuing process.
In order to give a more accurate picture of the activities of the Social Service
Department, the statistical procedure was revised, and casework service was specifically
defined and reported separately from incidental services. At the end of the year, the
statistical method was still under revision, with the next step the development of a more
qualitative method of recording casework service. Because of this change in statistics,
the case-load figures for the current year are not comparable with other years. However, the volume of work performed by the Social Service staff compared favourably with
the previous years, with the workers averaging monthly seventy-nine interviews with
patients, five interviews with relatives and friends, fifty-one conferences with medical and
other hospital staff, seventeen conferences with community agencies, as well as other
activities involved in carrying on the work of the Department.
In addition to the regular staff meetings, staff-development projects included attendance by various members of the staff at the following meetings:   Institute for student REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 113
supervisors, given by the University of British Columbia School of Social Work, with Miss
Leontine Young, of the Ohio State University School of Social Work, as guest lecturer;
institute for district and division supervisors of the Social Welfare Branch; annual staff
meeting of Region II; annual institute of the Provincial Department of Public Health.
The TB. Social Service Department was also represented on various committees of the
Branch and of health and welfare agencies in the community.
During the current year the Social Service Department of the Division continued
to participate in educational programmes for professional staff in the fields of health and
welfare, including the Division of Tuberculosis Control's training programme for affiliate
undergraduate nursing students, panel presentation on the organization and operation of
the Division of Tuberculosis Control given to medical students from the University of
British Columbia, panel discussion for the instructors' group of the British Columbia
Registered Nurses' Association, seminar on social work in a medical setting for each
in-service training class conducted by the Social Welfare Branch. Again this year the
School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia placed a first-year student
in the Social Service Department of the Division for field work.
In the past year the staff of this Department has developed a feeling of unity and
purpose, and plans are well formulated for the continuation of its study of the structure
and function of the Department within this Division of the Department of Health.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Enid S. Wyness,
Provincial Supervisor, TB. Social Service. T  114 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF
VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL
I wish to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Section
of the Division of Venereal Disease Control for the fiscal year 1955-56.
The statistics on the venereal-disease notification refer to the calendar year 1955,
while the Social Service statistics refer to the fiscal year 1955-56.
The new notifications of venereal infection in British Columbia in this period
continued to decline. This favourable trend reflects a continuation of the medical and
epidemiologic gains made in the previous years and described in previous Annual
Reports. The over-all rate has now dropped from 228.4 per 100,000 population in 1954
to 210.7 per 100,000 population in 1955.
An analysis of the reported cases of gonorrhoea, however, shows an increase in
cases in the period from July to December, 1955. This appears to reflect a trend which
has been nation-wide, although there has been some variation as to time, place, and
extent of the increase. The implications of the increase for venereal-disease control are
to reaffirm the need for continued use of present control measures.
The contribution of the Social Service Department to the over-all control of
venereal disease included direct counselling service on a casework basis to patients,
consultations with clinic physicians, lectures to student-nurses, and interpretation to
outside agencies on many aspects of venereal disease. The primary and fundamental
activity of this section was in direct casework service to patients. This was directed to
helping patients with environmental and personal difficulties related to their infections.
There were 877 patient interviews conducted by the Vancouver clinic social worker
during eleven months of the fiscal year 1955-56. There was no social-work service for
one month. The results of these interviews are, of course, hard to determine, but it
should be remembered that preventive social-work services of this nature may not be
impressive, but are more economical of the community's resources and return some
dividends in aiding patients to achieve a better level of adjustment.
The social-work interviews were with patients who were referred on a routine basis.
An analysis of these interviews reveals that the majority were with patients in the 15-29-
year age-group. This age-group acquired 56 per cent of the venereal-disease infections
reported in 1955. Many of these patients were not repeater patients, but, rather, young
people who had acquired an infection through a misadventure, experimentation, or more
complicated etiology.
With the patients in this age-group of 15 to 29 years, there was generally a
distinction between their emotional reaction to the infection and their emotional reaction
to their behaviour which had given rise to the infection. In general, they expressed little
concern over their behaviour, and the implication of this seemed to be that many young
people to-day consider sexual experimentation, on a selective basis, as a normal part of
maturation. Whether this reflects a change in sexual mores is not clear, but it is the
opinion of the clinic social worker that the adolescent and young adult of to-day are
faced with a contradictory situation. On the one hand, they are taught to recognize
the normalcy of sexual drives, which they must learn to control, while, on the other
hand, they are exposed to many forms of stimulation, a permissive attitude, and a contradictory sexual code, which place heavy demands on their personal controls. The
implications of this for society as a whole, while needing further evaluation and study,
are vital to the health of future generations.
The patients interviewed by the social worker were evaluated according to criteria
previously outlined in the Annual Report of 1952-53. From this evaluation it was
possible to divide them into three major social groups. This division was made on the
basis of social movement, source of infection, and general adjustment to life. This
portrayal, in Fig. 1, presents pictorially the venereal-disease problem in the Greater REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T 115
Vancouver area from the view-point of the social-work interviews. As a sociological
tool, this pictorial view defines the venereal-disease problem in broad terms, but it is
hoped that it will serve as a useful visual aid to understanding. In addition, this should
eventually help to focus therapeutic efforts and so increase the effectiveness of social-
work services in the venereal-disease problem.
Fig. 1.   A pictorial view of the venereal-disease problem in the Greater Vancouver area in
terms of social-work interviews with 877 patients in the fiscal year 1955-56.
Each circle represents a social group, with arrows showing the direction of social
movement and arrows showing the movement of venereal-disease infection from the inner
group to the outer group. The middle group may be termed " the agents of transmission "
There is no direct contact between the members of the outer group and those of the inner
group, while the members of the middle group move in either direction, or both or
remain in their own group. They may remain as permanent members of this group or
move on a permanent basis to either the inner group or the outer group, depending upon
whether they deteriorate or improve their behaviour. Description of the three social
groups follows:—
(1) Group I, the Inner Circle.—Twenty-three per cent of social-work interviews are with this group. This group is comprised of the deteriorated
people whose behaviour is symptomatic of personality problems, poor
social standards and values, a different concept of morality, and social
irresponsibility. This is the " reservoir of venereal-disease infection "*
in the Vancouver area. As a social group, they seldom move out of a
         specific geographic area or have direct contact with members of the outer
of Pu^HeTh DSe^rberNm4?pte-38206ierVfl'i0"S °" ** %M Epidemiology of Gonorrhea.   Canadian Journal T  116 BRITISH COLUMBIA
circle or stable part of society. They are a rigid, self-centred, and self-
contained group, whose inter-personal relationships appear casual and
disorganized.   Their capacity to use casework help is limited.
(2) Group II, the Middle Circle.—Thirty-three per cent of social-work interviews were with this group. This group is comprised of individuals whose
lives are confused and they lack direction and stability. They are responsible individuals in terms of their work but have few meaningful personal
relationships and are acceptable companions, at times, to the individuals
in both the inner and outer circle. They vacillate in their social relationships. Many are younger people and their instabilities are typical of the
confusion and conflict of adolescence and young adulthood. They may
eventually move in either direction permanently or remain fixed in the
vacillating group. They generally have the potentiality to go either way
and exist on the penumbra of either group. This is a flexible, constantly
changing group, and social-work services are effective to some extent.
(3) Group III, the Outer Circle.—Forty-four per cent of social-work interviews were with this group. This group is composed of the relatively
healthy or potentially healthy members of society who have no direct
contact with the " reservoir of infection " in Group I, but have occasional
contacts with " the agents of transmission " in Group II. If these contacts
result in infections for them, they usually have the capacity to learn from
their experience and do not repeat the experience. This is a large group,
flexible and heterogeneous, but basically stable.
The diagram illustrates the venereal-disease problem in the Vancouver area according to a classification of patients interviewed by the social worker at the Vancouver
clinic. Implicit in this illustration is the fact that the " agents of transmission " are
actually responsible for 77 per cent of the infections present among the patients seen
by the social worker in 1955. These " agents " also represent a group of individuals
whose potentiality for change is greater than the members of the " reservoir of infection."
Therefore, it would seem that social-work therapeutic efforts should be focused on the
" agents of transmission," who actually represent a greater public health threat than
the members of the " reservoir of infection."
As a contrast to the problems of the younger age-groups, patients over 40 years of
age present a different and equally challenging task for social work in the venereal-
disease clinic. There has been a small increase in the syphilis infection discovered in
this over-forty age-group. Most of these infections were late syphilis, either latent or
symptomatic, and were probably acquired many years prior to diagnosis. The emotional
reaction to the diagnosis was often a specific one to some extent, although varying in
degree according to individual strengths and weaknesses. The qualities of the reactions
were compounded of guilt, shame, remorse, fear, depression, etc. Many reacted with
extreme panic and even denied the diagnosis. In most cases, without skilled social-work
help, these patients would have left the Vancouver clinic with many unresolved and
crippling conflicts.
One aspect of casework services with this over-forty age-group involved a rehabilitation focus in those cases where late syphilis with a central nervous-system involvement
had complicated the adjustment for the individuals. A diagnosis of this kind does not
necessarily mean that the patient's ability to function is completely impaired, nor does
it mean that the patient cannot respond to casework and medical therapy.
An example of this was the case of a 56-year-old woman whose initial appearance
at the Vancouver clinic followed an industrial, accident where medical investigation had
revealed the presence of syphilis. The social history showed she was a responsible
person whose adjustment to life had been complicated by her increasing physical and REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
T  117
mental deterioration for a period of at least two years prior to her accident. During
the four weeks' period of her medical treatment she began to show remarkable and even
dramatic improvement both physically and mentally. She was seen frequently by the
social worker for supportive casework services. The dramatic response to medical
therapy was encouraging and was symptomatic of the patient's actual strength and
demonstrated the positive aspect of a team approach. While it was doubtful that she
would ever turn to gainful employment, at least she could maintain herself with ancillary
support through a public welfare agency. Due to social complications, this support was
obtained only after the patient had appealed to the Provincial Board of Review for
clarification of her situation.
Another situation where a team approach proved its value concerned a 54-year-old
man who had been in receipt of Social Allowance for four years. He had been treated
for syphilis at the Vancouver clinic and referred for consideration of Social Allowance
by a private physician, as he was thought to be medically unemployable. After four years
of dependency on public funds, he returned to the clinic for medical reassessment, where
he expressed considerable dissatisfaction with his situation. Apparently he had requested
rehabilitation training through the public welfare department and had been refused
because of his age. Because of the negative implications of the medical diagnosis, it
was felt that careful study should be given to his case to re-examine his potentialities for
retraining. This study took some time and consisted of medical reassessment, psychometric testing through the Youth Counselling Service, consultations with the Rehabilitation
Co-ordinator (Mr. Bradbury), discussions with the patient's family physician, the Vancouver Vocational School, and the agency administering the social assistance. As the
result of these investigations, retraining was recommended, and after three months of
training at the Vancouver Vocational School he commenced active employment.
These cases point out the need for careful study of patients as individuals with
particular and idiosyncratic situations. In the one case there was some evidence of
prejudice on the part of agency personnel because of the nature of the disabling condition.
In the case of the woman, one agency assumed that she was an alcoholic because of her
difficulties in walking, her poor memory, and errors in judgment. All these symptoms
were attributable to her infection, and all were modified to some extent through medical
and casework therapy. This points up the need for integration and understanding of
medical and social information on the part of social workers. It also points up the need
for constant interpretation by the Vancouver Venereal Disease Clinic of the medical,
social, and emotional aspects of venereal disease. Diagnositcally oriented and planned
casework to support medical treatment is essential if social-work skills are to be appropriately used to the benefit of the patient.
In both cases used illustratively in this report there was evidence that gains could
have been made earlier if there had been recognition of the possibilities of using rehabilitative help and casework services. It seems to be a matter of recognizing where strengths
can be supported and crippling conflicts reduced to produce movement and growth. The
primary need was for medical treatment, but without planned and skilled casework
support, the gains which were achieved might not have resulted.
In terms of preventive public health, there seems to be a need for some recreation
resources for the younger age-groups in the Greater Vancouver area, together with
hostel-type boarding homes for the many young people who drift into the Greater Vancouver area from other parts of the Province. Many could benefit from this, at least
until they are able to make more permanent plans of their own. The older age-groups
have many financial, social, and medical needs which are only partially met, and theirs
is a fringe adjustment in a large, complex, and cold environment.
The over-all experience of this period, however, points up the need for clearer
definitions of appropriate sexual behaviour for younger people, adequate education in T 118
BRITISH COLUMBIA
sexual behaviour, and co-ordination of services for adolescents and young adults. The
implications of working with younger people were that social and sexual mores may
be altering, and it would be to the best interests of society if these could be studied
and evaluated.
Respectfully submitted.
Frank Hatcher,
Caseworker, Vancouver Clinic.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956
860-1156-5831  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0349113/manifest

Comment

Related Items