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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1956 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1957]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. G. WILLISTON, Minister DR. C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 3 1st
1956
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1957  Victoria, B.C., February, 1957.
To the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C., LL.D.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of
the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1956.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Lands and Forests. The Honourable R. G. Williston,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1956.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
J CONTENTS
Item Page
. 1. Introductory  9
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  15
Introduction  15
Forest Surveys  15
Forest Inventory  15
Forest Sampling  16
Forest Classification  27
Production of Forest-cover Maps  27
Compilation and Summary  27
Forest-resources Bulletins and Other Publications  27
Inventory Applications ■  28
Timber-sale and Taxation Surveys  28
Forest-survey Standards  29
Liaison Work  29
3. Forest Research  30
Cowichan Lake Experiment Station  30
Aleza Lake Experiment Station  30
Field Programme  31
Co-operation  33
Tabulation of Active Research Projects, 1956  34
Research Publications  34
4. Reforestation .-.  35
Forest Nurseries '.  3 5
Seed Collections  35
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  36
Planting 1  36
Preparation of Planting Areas  36
Plantations  36
Plantation Improvement  37
5. Parks and Recreation  38
Administration  38
Research '_  38
Reconnaissance and Inventory  38
Planning _■_  39
Engineering and Draughting  39
Wildlife Management  39
Vancouver Island Parks  40
Mainland Parks  40
Changes in Park List  41
Park List, 1956  41
Recreation Land Reserves  42
Park Attendance  43
6. Working Plans  45
Sustained-yield Units „  45 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
7. Public Relations and Education  47
Photography and Motion Pictures  47
Film Library  47
Publications and Printing  47
Radio and Television  48
Commercial Theatres  48
Press Liaison  48
Roadway and Roadside Signs  48
Exhibits  49
Library  49
Co-operation  50
8. Forest Management  51
General  51
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  52
Lumber Prices  52
Log Prices  52
Stumpage Prices  52
Time Studies  53
Administration of Managed Units  53
Silviculture Vote  53
9. Grazing  55
Introduction  55
Administration  55
Grazing and Hay Permits  55
Grazing and Hay-cutting fees  56
Live-stock Counts  5 6
Trespass  56
Range Management  56
Range Surveys  57
Range-readiness Studies   57
Range Improvements  57
Plant Collections   58
Range Research  58
Co-operation :  59
General Conditions  59
Markets and Prices  60
Live-stock Losses   60
Diseases of Live Stock   60
10. Engineering Services   61
Engineering Section  61
Road Reconnaissance  61
Road Location   61
Road Construction and Maintenance  62
General Engineering  64
Mechanical Section  65
Equipment Selection   65
General Supervision  66
Structural Design and Building Construction  67 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
Item Page
10. Engineering Services—Continued
Forest Service Marine Station  69
Marine Work  69
Pref abrication  69
Machine-shop  70
General Plant Maintenance    70
Radio Section  70
11. Forest Protection  74
Weather  74
Fires  74
Occurrences and Causes  74
Cost of Fire-fighting  74
Damage  75
Fire-control Planning and Research  75
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  75
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  75
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles  75
Miscellaneous  75
Fire-weather Records and Investigations   75
Fire-suppression Crews   76
Aircraft r  76
Roads and Trails  77
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  77
Fire-law Enforcement  77
Forest Closures  77
Co-operation—Other Agencies  78
12. Forest-insect Investigations  79
Forest-insect Survey  79
Research Projects  83
Personnel and Facilities  84
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Forest-disease Investigations  8 5
Forest-disease Survey  85
Nursery, Seed, and Ornamental-tree Diseases  87
Diseases of Immature Forests .  89
Diseases of Mature Forests  89
Forest Ranger School  91
Extra Courses  92
Acknowledgments  92
Forest Accounts ,  93
Personnel  94
Organization  94
Services  94
Communications and Training  94
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover  95
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  96
Youth Training Programme  97
Personnel Directory, 1957  98
Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  105  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
Introduction and Legislation
Through the courtesy of the Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada
Department of Agriculture, this Report again contains submissions from the Victoria units
of that organization on forest-insect and forest-disease conditions in British Columbia.
Legislation affecting the " Forest Act" and its administration was all of a minor
nature. Section 17 was amended to establish a different basis for using part of the
revenue from timber for silvicultural purposes, to the basis which previously applied.
A minor change established that logs once scaled need not be scaled again. Other
changes were incorporated, correcting existing errors in phrasing and providing regulations governing roads. Orders in Council were passed setting up scaling regulations
and governing the picking of cones for seed extraction.
Forest Surveys and Inventory
The sixth year of work on forest-inventory compilation in co-operation with the
Canadian Government under the Canada Forest Act was completed. Forest surveys
covered 64,245,000 acres, employing crews utilizing every available form of transport—
including helicopters—engaged in forest classification, conventional sampling, volume
and decay analysis, and double sampling by the establishment of ground plots coincident
with photo- or prism-measured plots.
To date the Division has measured 24,900 trees for volume analysis and 23,020
for decay analysis. Loss-factor studies—for example, losses due to breakage in felling
and extraction operation—were continued and a preliminary table is included in the
report. Forest classification was completed for most of the Province north of the
56th parallel. Work commenced on a library of stereograms. Extensive production
of forest-cover and other maps was accomplished. Development of compilation systems
by electronic punch cards was continued.
Fifteen forest-resources bulletins were completed, together with a number of other
publications. Progress was made in the development and application of inventory techniques and forest survey standards. Fifteen timber-sale surveys were made and six
areas examined for the Surveyor of Taxes.
Forest Research
At the two experiment stations new construction and maintenance were carried out
for the station staffs, supplemented during the months of July and August by Youth
Training Programme enrollees. The Cowichan Station was visited by a number of
individuals and organizations for whom field-trips were arranged.
At the Aleza Lake Station, two timber sales were completed and two more prepared
and put up for auction. All seedlings from the nursery at this station were transplanted
in the spring. Four trial plantations were established in the area. There was a heavy
spruce cone-crop in the region, and 350 bushels of cones were collected throughout
various Ranger districts.
Twenty permanent growth-and-yield plots were remeasured; thirty-three thinning
plots remeasured; four thinning plots established; and a series of nine climatic stations
were established at elevations from 1,700 to 5,050 feet to facilitate an ecological study on
the conditions which determine the altitudinal distribution of native conifers. Studies
were continued on rodent-control and direct seeding of Douglas fir. 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A new seed registration system was introduced. Progress was made in the development of a Douglas fir seed-orchard and the study of suitable grafting techniques. Seed
collections were made for a provenance trial of Douglas fir seeds.
Other studies included the effects of slash-burning on soil productivity; examination of the health and vigour of exotic plantations comprising eighty introduced species;
of factors affecting reproduction of Interior species; and the classification of several
lodgepole pine stands.
Altogether the Division is engaged on forty active research projects. Five publications were produced during the year.
Reforestation
The unseasonably cold weather of the previous November continued to affect operations of the Division adversely. Frost and snow killed both 1-0 and 2-0 stock at the
three Coast nurseries, in proportions ranging from 25 to 90 per cent. The East Kootenay
nursery fared better.
Seed-beds were sown in the spring for 7,000,000 seedlings in 1958, but cold and
rain in June resulted in poor germination and high weeding costs on the Coast. Thirty
thousand Douglas fir and spruce seedlings were shipped to the Prince George Forest
District for experimental planting by the Research Division.
The Douglas fir cone-crop on the Coast was good at low altitudes but poor at higher
levels. A small quantity of western hemlock cones was collected. In the East Kootenays
the cone-crop of all species was a failure. A seed-orchard was established at Duncan
on land adjoining the nursery purchased for the purpose.
Total plantings by both Government and industry during the year totalled 2,799,200
trees on 5,846 acres. Projects at Great Central Lake and Salmon River were completed
after several years' work. Examinations showed good survival on 1955 spring-planted
areas on Vancouver Island but poor survival of fall plantings. In the Interior, 1,955
plantings were below average survival.
A residence for the superintendent was built on the Kootenay nursery. A two-
story seed-extraction plant was built- at the Duncan nursery. Six miles of abandoned
logging-railway grades were converted to truck-roads and 123 miles of road maintained.
Snags were felled on 4,040 acres in four different areas.
Parks and Recreation
Increase in camping interest and camp use outpaced facilities available in many
areas.    Estimated park attendance during the year totalled 1,900,000 camper-days.
Field work comprised assessment of new park areas, shore-line reconnaissances,
studies of the effect of developments in highways and land use on existing parks, recreational use of forest management licences and forest reserves, as well as other studies.
Major efforts during the year were centred on Champion Lakes and Okanagan Lake
Parks. Accommodation at the latter point is planned for eighty camping parties and
1,500 picnickers. A park-site at Scotch Creek on Shuswap Lake was acquired to provide
facilities urgently needed in that area. Matheson Lake Park was established near
Victoria. Enrollees under the Youth Training Programme were employed on many
projects throughout the park system.
At the end of the year there were 112 Provincial parks with a total area of
8,132,237 acres.
Working Plans
The primary function of the Division is to study proposals for sustained-yield
forest-management units of all types of tenure and to make recommendations based on
those studies. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
11
The awarding of forest management licences was in abeyance throughout the year
pending the submission of the report of the Royal Commission on Foresty. New applications received during the period bring the total pending to 136.
Fourteen new sustained-yield units were established and cut ledgers set up. Four
additional tree-farms were certified, and this form of forest management now numbers
nineteen.    Eight new farm wOod-lot licences brought the total of these to thirty-seven.
Public Relations and Education
As funds for this phase of Forest Service functions continued limited, no new major
project was undertaken. Newspaper advertising was again omitted. An accelerated
programme of motion-picture production and photographic work was possible with the
addition of one continuing casual employee to the staff. The film-lending library showed
an audience increase of over 30,000 compared to the previous year.
Approximately the same volume of editing and publication production was accomplished, but a steadily increasing demand kept stocks at low ebb and necessitated
numerous reprintings.
The radio broadcasting programme was unchanged, but there was increased use
of Service-produced films on television.
Highway protection signs were increased by about 15 per cent, and other types of
signs also increased. Camping was featured in the Service exhibit at the Pacific National
Exhibition.
Good progress was made in establishing reference libraries in the district offices,
with Prince Rupert and Nelson Districts being organized during the year. The work
load in the Victoria library nevertheless continued to increase. The lecture programme
in the schools was extended.
Forest Management
The aggregate cut increased by 34,753,708 cubic feet to a new record of
1,068,733,441 cubic feet, but estimated values of production declined by slightly over
$3,000,000 due to lower unit values for lumber. Increased pulp and paper, plywood,
and pole and piling production was insufficient to offset the drop on lumber. Lumber
exports to the United Kingdom and other continental markets continued to decline.
Seventy-four per cent of the cut was derived from Crown lands, with 66 per cent of that
total originating on timber sales.
Douglas fir was the leading species cut, at 413,313,593 cubic feet (39 per cent),
followed by hemlock, 213,655,797 cubic feet (20 per cent); spruce, 152,169,071 cubic
feet, (14 per cent); and cedar, 145,738,047 cubic feet (also 14 per cent). It will be
noted that the spruce-cut has, for the first time, outstripped that of cedar.
Timber sales cruised numbered 3,089, comprising over 1,000,000 acres and 1V&
billion cubic feet. Timber sales awarded numbered 2,859, with a record footage of
800,000,000 cubic feet. At the year's end 8,738 sales were extant, covering 3,218,820
acres, with guarantee deposits amounting to over $14,000,000.
Lumber prices in the Interior were high at the outset of the year but dropped in
the later months. Log prices on the Coast remained high throughout. Average of
stumpage prices during the year was above those of 1955.
The cut on forest management licences was 104,000,000 cubic feet, and on Crown
forest under sustained-yield management by the Forest Service, 188,000,000 cubic feet.
Funds from the Silviculture Vote were expended on stand treatment of 78,500 acres
of timber sales, slash-disposal on 528 acres, and numerous other projects. 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Grazing
The Forest Service has been responsible for the administration of Crown range for
thirty-eight years, and the demand for range forage in 1956 was higher than in any
previous year. Regulation and control of Crown range in the Peace River area was
initiated and increased and attention given to ranges near Quesnel.
Permits for grazing and hay reached a record total of 1,776, and the number of
stock under permit was also a record. Grazing fees were down about 8 per cent due
to lower live-stock prices.    Fee collections were excellent.
Grazing surveys covered 782,761 acres, bringing the total acreage surveyed since
1945 to nearly 8,000,000 acres. Expenditures of the Division on range improvements
were $35,000, in addition to projects financed by the stockmen. Increased range seeding was a major feature of the year's work. Chemical and biological control of goat-
weed was continued. An intensive programme of wild-horse control was undertaken
in the winter of 1955-56, 446 unwanted animals being eliminated.
There are forty-nine local range-livestock associations operating under the " Grazing
Act," and they held 136 meetings during the year.    Forest officers attended 118 of these.
The winter of 1955-56 was extremely long and severe, and feeding conditions were
difficult. This resulted in stock being in poor condition in the spring and pressure for
early turnout. Forage and haying conditions during the year were generally good to
excellent. Ranch labour is becoming increasingly scarce, and many small ranches are
amalgamating to form larger units, while some marginal ranches have been abandoned.
Cattle prices declined during the year to less than half of the record 1951 figures.
Despite this, shipments were heavy due to the necessity of reducing inventories and
meeting financial commitments.   Lamb prices declined slightly, but wool prices advanced.
Engineering Services
The work of the Engineering Section of the Division was highlighted by the effort
made to increase the rate of road construction and thereby alleviate the pressing need
for forest-development roads in a number of public working circles. Funds available
amounted to more than $2,000,000, or approximately twice the record figure of the
previous year. It was, therefore, possible to award four contracts, involving a total of
41.5 miles of new construction, in addition to work previously contracted on the Naver
road (10.23 miles), and the continued employment of two construction crews. Unfortunately, the contractors did not construct at the rate hoped for, due to other commitments, and more than half of the 30 miles of road built during the year was by the
Department's own crews.
Activities of the Mechanical, Structural, Marine, and Radio Sections remained at
a high level, but with no outstanding events to report. Equipment purchases added
forty-six units to the Department's fleet of 772 vehicles of all types at the beginning of
the year. Other purchases included twelve heavy earth-moving units and 168 fire-pumps,
outboard motors, and similar pieces of motorized equipment. The building programme
of the Structural Section ranged from float renewals at Thurston Bay and Alert Bay to
a seed-extraction plant at the Duncan nursery. Included were twelve contracts for offices,
warehouses, and residences on Ranger stations. Although a heavy load of boat-repair
work, including thirty-eight complete launch overhauls, restricted new boat construction
somewhat, the 34-foot Assistant Ranger launch " Pacific Yew " was completed, a sister
ship 95 per cent completed, and a new type of 40-foot Ranger launch was framed by the
Marine Station. The construction of nine 30-foot portable offices and bunk-houses of
new design by the prefabricating subsection of the station is also worthy of note. These
buildings are to be used in place of conventional trailers. The attention of the Radio
Section continued largely on surveys conducted for the purpose of establishing a very
high-frequency radio network which will reduce the load and, ultimately, largely replace REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,   1956 13
present installations. Increasing interference on the medium frequencies, due to heavy
traffic and adverse weather conditions together with changes in Department of Transport
regulations, necessitates a modernization programme which will extend over the next five
years at least.
Forest Protection
After three years with fire-hazards below average, 1956 was an extremely bad year,
with the highest number of fires, 2,850, ever recorded. Conditions were moderately
severe in the three southern districts and poor in Prince Rupert and Prince George, particularly at the beginning of the season. Service fire-fighting costs amounted to $469,116,
and the area burned was 469,648 acres. Railways operating caused 39 per cent and
lightning 18 per cent of all fires.
Two crews secured photographs for seven lookouts, and sixty-six potential lookout
points were mapped for visibility. Field work for protection planning was done on three
public working circles. Twenty miles of new protection access road was built and 13
miles of prior work improved.
Records and investigations of fire weather were continued with expansion of the
fire-weather reporting network and the distribution of 591 sets of fuel-moisture indicator
sticks, 391 to industrial operators. The "build-up" index tested in the Vancouver
District showed promise.
Sixteen suppression crews fought 181 fires and held 91 per cent of those to 5 acres
or less. Honorary Fire Wardens numbered 919, and 1,313 Fire Prevention Officers in
industrial employ were appointed.
The acreage logged in the Vancouver District was the largest on record, and slash-
burning was hampered by unsuitable weather. Snag-falling by Protection and Reforestation Divisions combined cleared 7,437 acres.
There were 105 prosecutions, the majority for infraction of forest closures. In all,
twelve closures were proclaimed for varying periods throughout the year. Seven aircraft
were used for a total of 2,478 hours under contract during the year.
Forest-insect Investigations
An informal committee, representing the Canadian and British Columbia Governments and industry, was formed to deal with the black-headed budworm outbreak on
Vancouver Island. Currently this constitutes a major threat to the forests, covering about
3,000 square miles.   Control by spraying is almost completely effective.
One-year-cycle spruce budworm now has infested 450 square miles around Lillooet,
but intensity of defoliation and egg population has decreased. The two-year-cycle spruce
budworm has heavily defoliated spruce-balsam stands on about 1,000 square miles
around Babine Lake.
Other important insect enemies now active are the Douglas fir beetle, mountain pine
beetle, spruce bark-beetle, pine-needle scale on ponderosa pine, ambrosia-beetle, and
Douglas fir needle-miner.
Forest-disease Investigations
Greater awareness of the pathological problems affecting second growth prompted
increasing survey activities in plantations and young forests. Collections of diseased
material submitted for examination numbered 5,074. There was a marked reduction in
the incidence of foliage diseases. The severity of the previous winter caused foliage
mortality, particularly to yellow pine.
There are indications that the use of older seed with reduced viability and slower
emergence results in increased pre-emergence damping off. Yellow laminated root-rot
of Douglas fir was investigated, and indications are that root deterioration may reach an
advanced stage before symptoms appear in the crown.   Analyses following root excava- 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
tions of western white pine show severe reduction of absorptive root systems and considerable destruction of structural elements where pole-blight symptoms are evident in
the crowns.
Studies were commenced of die-back in young Douglas fir on Vancouver Island and
the adjacent Mainland. The frequency and importance of decay in injuries caused by
logging were studied in the Prince George region. Further studies were made of winter-
damaged fir near Lac la Hache. Other projects included investigation of rate and nature
of deterioration in spruce and balsam in the Prince George area, and in the Douglas fir-
yellow pine type in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts; a reanalysis of data on
decay in balsam and hemlock in the Kitimat area; and a study of hemlock forests on the
west coast of Vancouver Island.
Forest Ranger School
The eighth class in attendance at the School completed the course in April, and the
ninth class commenced their studies in September. The number of enrollees was increased
from twenty or twenty-one to thirty. This change necessitated adjustments in times
allotted to courses and in instructional personnel. As a trial, a course in typewriting has
been added to the curriculum and several courses further revised. Twenty lookoutmen
were given a five-day course in the spring.
The Service's Ranger School was established in January, 1946, to provide better
grounding in basic procedures and enhance the knowledge of forestry essential in the
light of more complex and intensive practice. Originally giving six-month courses, the
programme now has been expanded to a nine-month course.
Forest Accounts
The volume and value of business exceeded any previous year with revenue totalling
over $30,000,000. Timber-sale stumpage showed the greatest increase due to higher
average prices and a record cut. Softer markets and credit restrictions toward the end of
the year introduced a downward trend in stumpage rates and selling prices, requiring
adjustments of sfiding-scale stumpage rates. Centralizing of expenditure accounting was
completed by April 1st.
Personnel
The year under review was an exceedingly busy one, with a high proportion of the
Division's efforts being expended on salary negotiations, reclassifications, grievances, and
kindred matters. The Personnel Officer visited offices in four of the five forest districts
and the Ranger School in the course of his duties and attended a number of Forest Service
meetings and conferences in addition to some outside conventions on personnel and office
management.   Two new Ranger districts were created.
Three senior employees were selected for the Executive Development Training Plan
sponsored by the Government, and a number of others attended special short training
sessions.
The permanent establishment of the Service was increased by fifty-six persons: 204
received Civil Service appointments and 125 permanent employees left the Service. Permanent staff turnover during the year averaged 14.3 per cent, with turnover of clerical
and draughting staff in the Prince George District reaching 48.1 per cent.
Adjustments were accomplished in the classifications and salaries of many subordinate positions, particularly in the technical field, which resulted in some inconsistencies
in senior salary ranges.
There were 649 applications received for enrolment in the Youth Training Programme,
and funds permitted the employment of 239 of these youths in twenty-two crews scattered
throughout the Province. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,   1956 15
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
INTRODUCTION
The Division completed the sixth year of work, during which financial assistance
from the Canadian Government aided the forest-resources survey according to the specifications of the Agreement for Inventory implemented under the Canada Forest Act. This
was made possible by an extension of the original Agreement for a further five-year period.
Both the initial inventory phase and maintenance of inventory were included in the Agreement. To date, the main emphasis in field and office work has been on initial inventory,
but the necessity for maintaining the inventory on an up-to-date basis has always been
recognized. Completion of the initial inventory phase will mark the beginning of inventory maintenance, which is an essential, continuous process of comprehensive forest
inventory, based on the use of high-quality air photographs, forest classification, and
a definitive sampling plan. This maintenance process is designed to provide reliable
annual estimates of standing forest volumes, forest growth, and forest depletion. The
first two years of the extended Agreement will be utilized to complete the initial phase
of forest inventory and the remaining three years to start the task of inventory maintenance. A feature of the extended Agreement is that, on expiry, it is subject to renewal
on terms and conditions then to be determined.
Since the inception of the original Agreement, air photography, interim maps, and
the required field work have been accomplished for most areas in the Province. Continued
forest mapping and sampling work in 1957 will fill in the remaining data necessary for
the forest-resources presentation to be made in 1958 on completion of the initial phase
of the Provincial inventory.
Forest Surveys
In the 1956 field season, 341 persons were employed on the work which, when
compilations are completed, will provide maps and forest data of the following areas:—
Acres
Liard drainage (Liard, Kechika, Fort Nelson)  30,723,000
Peace drainage (Peace, Pine, Parsnip, Omineca, Finlay,
Halfway, Beatton, Kiskatinaw)   29,152,000
Fraser drainage (Takla Lake)        881,000
Other coastal drainages (Skeena, Sustut, Stikine)     3,404,000
Special cruises (timber sales, taxation) .  85,000
Total  64,245,000
Forest Inventory
The year proved to be a very successful one in regard to work accomplished in
Provincial inventory and special projects. Forester supervisors, operating from field
headquarters in each forest district, controlled the various phases of field work. A network of seventy S.P.F. portable radios kept field crews in operational contact with the
field headquarters, which were equipped with L.R.T. sets. On the Coast, three launches
equipped with M.R.T. sets were in touch with field crews using S.P.F. portables. The
Victoria headquarters radio, operating on a daily schedule with the Kamloops and Green
Timbers L.R.T. sets, was in continual contact with all phases of field operations and work
progress in the Province.
Field crews were transported by car, boat, aeroplane, and helicopter to expedite the
work. The nature of field work was diverse, as in previous years, and included forest
classification, conventional sampling, volume and decay analysis, and double sampling by
the establishment of ground plots coincident with photo- or prism-measured plots. 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Flying-time during the year totalled 1,017 hours. This total resulted from 403 hours
used in forest classification, 240 hours of helicopter flying used in forest-sampling work
in the Northern Interior, and 374 hours used for routine transportation of field crews in
various parts of the Province.
The co-operation of the Topographic Division in providing air transportation for
field crews in some areas of the Northern Interior materially assisted inventory progress.
FOREST SAMPLING
During the year, 16,520 sample plots were established. Of this total, 6,200 plots
were in the Prince George region, and approximately one-half of these were established
north of the 55th parallel of latitude. The total number of sample plots now on hand,
for the estimation of volume and other forest values in the Province, is 127,000. Of this
total, approximately 1,000 plots are from other agencies.
Particularly noteworthy was the proven usefulness of the helicopter for shuttling
sampling crews throughout forest areas in the Northern Interior that were otherwise
extremely difficult of access. Use of this aircraft resulted in significant savings in time
and money, and facilitated a very satisfactory scattering of samples in the regions
concerned.
The helicopter was invaluable in forest sampling operations in remote areas.
Sampling by the measurement of photo plots on air photographs, at a scale of
1:15,840, was continued during the year, and in nine different areas a total of 6,235
photo volume plots were measured, and 450 double-sample ground plots were established. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
17
Analysis of these data is now being carried out, and the preliminary results indicate that
photo volume sampling is applicable to a wide range of forest conditions. Studies will
be continued in this regard.
In continuation of the volume-table and loss-factor studies essential in Provincial
inventory, during the year 3,320 trees were felled and measured for volume analysis and
4,620 trees were felled and measured for decay analysis. The numbers of trees measured
for volume and decay analysis by this Division since 1953 now total 24,900 and 23,020
respectively. The majority of the trees felled were measured for both volume and decay
analysis; hence these are not independent totals. Data for an additional 5,500 trees,
made available by other agencies, have also been analysed since the inception of the study.
During the year the 1955 interim cubic-foot volume tables were extended to provide
suitable tables for the needs of special cruises carried out by the Division. The resulting
multiple cubic-foot volume tables present gross volumes to close utilization standards suitable for cruising by 2-inch d.b.h. and 10-foot height classes. Butt-taper tables were made
for Interior Douglas fir and lodgepole pine at the request of management officers. These
tables are for use in stump cruising and related activities. Similar tables are under construction for all Interior species.
Growth plots were established in various parts of the Province as part of the plan
for providing growth estimates by sub-zones, zones, and Province.
General Location of Loss Factor Sampling
in th^Forest Inventory Zones
of British   Columbia
legend.
Zone Number	
Location of Samples #"
(Each dot represents
a group of Samples.) 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In 1956, loss-factor studies, including preliminary field studies of losses due to
breakage in felling and extraction operations and wastage of sound wood resulting from
current sawlog utilization practices, were continued for the requirements of Provincial
inventory.
Prior to 1956, volume estimates were obtained by the application of broad, regional
loss factors which were derived from preliminary sampling. These flat factors were not
considered to be sufficiently reliable due to the great variation in losses between individual
trees and between forest stands. In 1956, to meet the need for initial Provincial inventory
statements and survey-unit net-volume estimates, loss factors were developed for application on the basis of tree species, pathological class, and d.b.h. class. It is considered that
these loss factors, which are being applied in Provincial inventory and survey units,
provide a more adequate control of the variation in local stand losses. Interim diameter-
class loss factors for the coniferous-tree species are presented in tables included in this
Report. The general location of loss-factor sampling to 1956 is shown in the diagrammatic map preceding these tables. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,   1956
19
Careful measurement and recording of sampling areas are a key-note of forest inventory. 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
INTERIM DIAMETER-CLASS NET VOLUME FACTORS1 APPLICABLE TO
PROVINCIAL INVENTORY GROSS CUBIC-FOOT VOLUME SUMMARIES2
FOR THE CONIFEROUS TREE SPECIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Forest Surveys and Inventory Division:i
British Columbia Forest Service, 1957
1 Net-volume factors indicate the percentage of gross cubic-foot volume recoverable, minor forest products excluded,
when allowances are made for the losses shown. These factors have been derived as averages for all stand ages 81 years
and over, and for all sites and stand conditions sampled.
2 Net factors are applicable to gross cubic-foot volume summaries compiled on the basis of close, intermediate, or
rough utilization standards.
3 Derived from loss-factor studies carried out by Forest Surveys and Inventory Division in the Coast and Interior
regions in the period 1953-55.
NOTES APPLICABLE TO TABLES ON FOLLOWING PAGES
Coast:   All factors under this heading are applicable to Zones 1 and 2.
Interior:   All factors under this heading are applicable to Zones 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9.
Decay:   These factors provide allowance for the actual volume of decayed wood only.
Decay, Waste, and Breakage: These factors provide allowance for actual decay losses plus the sound-wood waste
resulting from the arbitrary culling of logs greater than 66 per cent defective and trees greater than -50 per cent defective
based on a minimum log length of 16 feet, plus primary falling breakage.
T.C. 1:   These factors are applicable to trees in Tree Class 1;   that is, trees bearing no visible signs of decay.
T.C. 2: These factors are applicable to trees in Tree Class 2; that is, trees bearing one or more of the following
visible signs of decay—conks, scars, fork, pronounced crook, frost crack, mistletoe trunk infections, rotten branches,
dead or broken top.
The data for yellow cedar are incomplete. However, for practical purposes the factors shown for western red cedar
are considered applicable to yellow cedar. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
Douglas Fir
:i
D.B.H. Class
COAST
(Basis: 610 Trees)
INTERIOR
(Basis: 2,220 Trees)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4  	
6 	
8. .               	
.99
.99
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.97
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.94
.94
.94
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.94
.94
.94
.94
.94
.93
.93
.93
.92
.91
.91
.89
.89
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.83
.83
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.77
.77
.77
.75
.73
.73
.71
.69
.67
.67
.66
.64
.62
.60
.60
.58
.56
1.00
1.00
.99
.99
.99
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.98
.96
.96
.95
.95
.95
.95
.94
.94
.93
.92
.92
.92
.92
.93
.95
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.96
.90
.90
.89
.89
.89
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.87
.83
.83
.81
.81
.81
.81
.79
.79
.77
.75
.75
.75
.75
.77
.81
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
10.......	
12	
14	
16.
18    .
20	
22                    ....
24..... 	
26	
28  	
30	
32	
34	
36
38 	
40	
.90                  .83
42...	
.89
.88
.88
.87
.86
.85
.84
.84
.83
.82
.83
.83
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.79
.79
.79
44  ....
46
48  _	
50    ...
52    	
54
56 ... 	
58	
60  	 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Western Red Cedar
D.B.H. Class
COAST
(Basis: 769 Trees)
INTERIOR
(Basis:  1,447 Trees)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4    ..          	
.98
.98
.98
.97
.97
.97
.97
.96
.96
.96
.95
.95
.95
.95
.95
.94
.94
.94
.94
.93
.93
.93
.92
.92
.92
.92
.91
.94
.93
.91
.90
.89
.83
.81
.80
.80
.82
.87
.89
.90
.91
.91
.90
.90
.89
.87
.86
.84
.82
.82
.80
.79
.78
.77
.87
.87
.87
.85
.85
.85
.85
.83
.83
.83
.81
.81
.81
.81
.81
.79
.79
.79
.79
.77
.77
.77
.75
.75
.75
.75
.73
.73
.73
.79
.77
.73
.71
.69
.58
.55
.53
.53
.56
.66
.69
.71
.73
.73
.71
.71
.69
.66
.64
.60
.56
.56
.53
.51
.49
.48
.46
.44
.96
.96
.95
.95
.94
.93
.91
.90
.87
.84
.80
.78
.75
.74
.72
.71
.70
.68
.67
.67
.66
.65
.64
.64
.63
.62
.62
.61
.61
.93
.89
.86
.83
.80
.78
.75
.72
.70
.68
.66
.64
.63
.61
.60
.59
.58
.57
.55
.54
.54
.52
.51
.50
.49
.48
.46
.45
.45
.83
.83
.81
.81
.79
.77
.73
.71
.66
.60
.53
.49
.44
.42
.39
.37
.36
.32
.31
.31    •
.29
.27
.26
.26
.24
.23
.23
.21
.21
.77
.69
.64
.58
.53
.49
.44
.39
.36
.32
.29
.26
.24
.21
.20
.18
.17
.15
.12
.11
.11
.08
.07
.06
.05
.04
.02
.01
.01
6            	
8 	
10       	
12
14 .....,..-
16	
18.	
20	
22 	
24            	
26	
28	
30    	
32         	
34.	
36	
38	
40	
42  	
44	
46	
48      - _
S0_. --	
52
54	
56	
58	
60	
.91
.91
.76
.75 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
Western Hemlock
23
D.B.H. Class
COAST
(Basis:  1,875 Trees)
INTERIOR
(Basis:  1,676 Trees)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4    	
.99
.99
.99
.99
.98
.98
.97
.96
.94
.93
.91
.90
.89
.88
.88
.87
.87
.86
.86
.86
.86
.86
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.85
.96
.95
.94
.94
.93
.92
.91
.89
.87
.85
.84
.83
.82
.81
.80
.79
.78
.77
.77
.76
.76
.76
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.89
.89
.89
.89
.87
.87
.85
.83
.79
.77
.73
.71
.69
.67
.67
.66
.66
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.62
.83
.81
.79
.79
.77
.75
.73
.69
.66
.62
.60
.58
.56
.55
.53
.51
.49
.48
.48
.46
.46
.46
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.99
.99
.98
.98
.97
.96
.95
.94
.93
.92
.91
.90
.90
.89
.88
.88
.88
.88
.87
.87
.87
.87
.86
.86
.86
.86
.86
.86
.86
.97
.95
.94
.92
.90
.89
.87
.86
.84
.83
.82
.80
.79
.78
.89
.89
.87
.87
.85
.83
.81
.79
.77
.75
.73
.71
.71
.69
.85
.81
.79
.75
.71
.69
.66
.64
.60
.58
.56
.53
.51
.49
.48
.46
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
.44
6_	
8	
10	
12...   ......  	
14
16	
18	
20
22 	
24	
26
28  ....
30	
32  	
34	
.77                  .67
.76        1        .67
36	
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.67
.67
.66
.66
.66
.66
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64
.64
38 	
40	
42      ...
44.. .
46	
48 	
50 	
52  	
54....
56
58	
60. v- 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Balsam
D.B.H. Class
COAST
(Basis: 522 Trees)
INTERIOR
(Basis: 2,678 Trees)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4   	
1.00
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.98
.98
.97
.96
.96
.96
.95
.95
.95
.95
.94
.94
.94
.94
.94
.94
.94
.93
.93
.93
.93
.93
.98
.90
.87
.85
.85
.83
.83
.83
.81
.79
.75
.73
.69
.66
.62
.60
.58
.56
.55
.53
.51
.51
.49
.49
.49
.49
.48
.48
.48
.48
.48
.92
.91
.90
.89
.87
.85
.82
.80
.74
.73
.72
.71
.70
.70
.70
.70
.70
.70
.70
.89
.87
.85
.82
.80
.78
.77
.76
.74
.73
.72
.71
.70
.70
.70
.70
.70
.70
.70
.75
.73
.71
.69
.66
.62
.56
.53
.42
.41
.39
.37
.36
.36
.36
.36
.36
.36
.36
.69
.66
.62
.56
.53
.49
.48
.46
.42
.41
.39
.37
.36
.36
.36
.36
.36
.36
.36
6  ..
.97
.97
.96
.96
.96
.95
.94
.92
.91
.89
.87
.85
.84
.83
.82
.81
.80
.79
.79
.78
.78
.78
.78
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
.89
.89
.89
.89
.89
.89
.87
.87
.85
.83
.83
.83
.81
.81
.81
.81
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.79
.77
.77
.77
.77
.77
8	
10
12	
14
16	
18	
20 	
22 	
24	
26
28 	
30	
32	
34    	
36	
38    .
40.	
42      	
44	
46	
48	
50.....  	
52 .          .. '	
54  	
56--.	
58	
60..—	 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
Spruce
25
COAST
INTERIOR
D.B.H. Class
(Basis:  351 Trees)
(Basis:  2,695 Trees)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. I
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4	
.99
.99
.99
.99
.98
.98
.98
.97
.89
.89
.89
.89
•87.
.87
.87
.85
.99
.99
.98
.98
.94
.93
.93
.92
.89
.89
.87
.87
.79
.77
.77
.75
6	
8	
10	
12	
.99
.97
.89
.85
.97
.91
.85
.73
14...    .
.99
.97
.89
.85
.97
.90
.85
.71
16 —	
.99
.96
.89
.83
.96
.89
.83
.69
18	
.99
.96
.89
.83
.96
.88
.83
.67
20	
.99
.95
.89
.81
.95
.87
.81
.66
22	
.99
.95
.89
.81
.94
.85
.79
.62
24.               	
.99
.99
.99
.95
.94
.94
.89
.89
.89
.81
.79
.79
.94
.93
.93
.84
.83
.82
.79
.77
.77
.60
.58
.56
26	
28 	
30 	
.99
.93
.89
.77
.92
.80
.75
.53
32 	
.99
.93
.89
.77
.91
.79
.73
.51
34  	
.99
.92
.89
.75
.91
.78
.73
.49
36.	
.99
.92
.89
.75
.90
.77
.71
.48
38	
.99
.92
.89
.75
.90
.76
.71
.46
40.	
.99
.99
.99
.92
.92
.92
.89
.89
.89
.75
.75
.75
.89
.89
.89
.75
.74
.73
.69
.69
.69
.44
.42
.41
42.
44	
46 ...
.99
.92
.89
.75
.88
.73
.67
.37
48	
.99
.99
.93
.93
.89
.89
.77
.77
.88
.87
.71
.71
.67
.66
.37
.37
50	
52	
.99
.93
.89
.77
54	
.99
.99
.99
.99
.93
.94
.94
.94
.89
.89
.89
.89
.77
.79
.79
.79
....
—
....
56.	
58	
60.
I- 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
White Pine
(Basis:  157 Trees)
Lodgepole Pine
(Basis:  1,727 Trees)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
D.B.H. Class
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4 	
.98
.98
.87
.87
6 ....	
.98
.97
.87
.85
8..  	
.98
.97
.87
.85
10	
.98
.98
.96
.95
.87
.87
.83
.81
12.	
14.	
.98
.94
.87
.79
16	
.98
.93
.87
.77
18	
.98
.91
.87
.73
20	
.98
.89
.87
.69
22	
.98
.87
.87
.66
24 	
.98
.85
.87
.62
26	
.98
.83
.87
.58
28	
.98
.82
.87
.56
30	
.98
.80
.87
.53
32 	
.98
.79
.87
.51
34	
.98
.78
.87
.49
36 	
.98
.77
.87
.48
38            ...
.98
.98
.76
.76
.87
.87
.46
.46
40 	
D.B.H. Class
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
T.C. 1       T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4	
1
.98               .95
.87
.85
.81
.79
6-	
.97
.94
8  _
.96
.93
.83
.77
10   ..	
.95
.92
.81
.75
12 	
.93
.91
.77
.73
14  	
.92
.89
.75
.69
16 	
.91
.88
.73
.67
18	
.90
.86
.71
.64
20.	
.89
.85
.69
.62
22	
.88
.84
.67
.60
24.—	
.87
.82
.66
.56
26 	
.87
.81
.66
.55
28	
.86
.80
.64
.53
30._	
.86              .80
!
.64
.53
Yellow Pine
(Basis: 501 Trees)
Larch
(Basis: 466 Trees)
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
D.B.H. Class
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4 	
1.00
.99
.90
.89
6 	
1.00
.98
.90
.87
8
1.00
.99
.96
.95
.90
.89
.83
.81
10	
12	
.99
.95
.89
.81
14	
.99
.96
.89
.83
16	
.98
.98
.97
.97
.87
.87
.85
.85
18.	
20 	
.98
.97
.87
.85
22	
.98
.97
.87
.85
24
.97
.97
.96
.95
.85
.85
.83
.81
26-	
28 	
.97
.94
.85
.79
30   	
.96
.96
.96
.96
.92
.91
.89
.86
.83
.83
.83
.83
.75
.73
.69
.64
32
34
36.  -
38	
.95
.95
.84
.81
.81
.81
.60
.55
40	
Decay
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
D.B.H. Class
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
T.C. 1
T.C. 2
4   ...
.98
.95
.87
.81
6  	
.98
.95
.87
.81
8 	
.98
.98
.94
.93
.87
.87
.79
.77
10   ......	
12 	
.98
.92
.87
.75
14	
.98
.91
.87
.73
16	
.98
.89
.87
.69
18	
.98
.88
.87
.67
20 	
.98
.87
.87
.66
22	
.98
.86
.87
.64
24 	
.98
.85
.87
.62
26 	
.98
.83
.87
.58
28 	
.97
.82
.85             .56
30	
.97
.81
.85
.55
32 	
.96
.80
.83
.53
34 	
.96
.79
.83
.51
36	
.95
.95
.78
.78
.81
.81
.49
.49
38	
40	
.94
.78
.79
.49  Water
Swamp
Region boundary
Compartment boundary
Scale, 1:126,720 or 2 miles to 1 inch. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 27
FOREST CLASSIFICATION
In 1956, forest classification by aerial observation and ground checking was completed for most of the Province north of the 56th parallel. Classification work is now
practically complete in all parts of the Province for the current phase of the inventory.
Forest-cover maps are in the process of construction for all areas where maps are not
presently available.
Work was commenced on a library of stereograms which will provide a valuable
aid to forest-type identification on air photographs and ensure a high standard of type
mapping. In this project, forest types, positively identified on air photographs and on
the ground, were listed for a total area of 5,446,000 acres. The objective is to produce
one or more stereogram pairs of vertical air photographs of each identified forest type,
accompanied by a statement of all observed, measured, and derived data concerning
the type.
PRODUCTION OF FOREST-COVER MAPS
During the year, 345 compartment base linen tracings were made and 770 compartment interim forest-cover maps were completed and distributed. Accompanying this
Report is a key-map indicating areas for which compartment interim forest-cover maps
at one-half mile to the inch and summaries are now available, areas for which these
maps and summaries are in the course of preparation, and areas for which interim forest-
cover maps at 1 mile to the inch and summaries are being prepared. Thirty-eight lithographed half-letter maps of the interim forest-cover index series were completed and
distributed, and work was carried out toward the completion of fifty others. Included
with this Report is a key-map showing areas for which lithographed interim forest-cover
maps at 2 miles to the inch are now available and areas for which these maps are in
the course of preparation. A sample portion of one lithographed map-sheet is also
included.
For purposes of future inventory revision, 8,322 timber-sale, fire, management
timber-inspection reports, and scale-and-royalty accounts were processed and the information filed.
The Division was instructed to make a nominal charge for all maps supplied, effective May 15th, 1956. Since this date, all cash and other types of remittances for the
sale of maps have been handled directly by the Division and collections have been
deposited to the Treasury daily.
COMPILATION AND SUMMARY
In 1956 there was continued development of systems for compiling sample-plot
records mechanically, by the use of electronic punch cards, to predetermined specifications as a prerequisite to the mechanical presentation of areas and volumes in any
desired survey unit. A backlog of sample plots was compiled mechanically and added
to existing records. During the year, tabular statements of area and volume were made
for 750 compartments, together with statements for survey units containing these
compartments.
FOREST-RESOURCES BULLETINS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Fifteen forest-resources bulletins, containing forest-cover maps, area and volume
summaries, and forest descriptions, were completed and made available for distribution
during the year.   These were:—
No.   9—Naver Block Cruise Report.
No. 10—Willow Block Cruise Report.
No. 11—Morice Block Cruise Report.
No. 15—Broughton Forest Unit Survey Report. 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
No. 18—Chilliwack Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 19—Fraser Canyon Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 30—Purden Lake Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 31— Willow River Forest Unit Survey Report.  .
No. 32—Naver Creek Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 33—Cottonwood Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 34—Williams Lake Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 35—Kettle Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 36—Arrowhead Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 37—Edgewood Forest Unit Survey Report.
No. 43—Morice Forest Unit Survey Report.
..,   Compilations were completed on another twenty-three reports which are to be
published as forest-resources bulletins.
A " Consolidated Forest Survey Manual," describing methods of classification,
sampling, and tabulation, was produced and is available for distribution. A survey note
describing procedures in Provincial inventory and other forest surveys also was completed
during the year.
INVENTORY APPLICATIONS
Through the medium of a co-ordinating work committee, invaluable assistance was
received and recommendations were made concerning desirable specifications, relative
priorities, and cost estimates of special projects. In addition, requests for information,
which involved standard applications of inventory data, were received and acted upon.
These included presentations of data in the form of cutting-priority ratings and preliminary net-growth estimates in forest units. One such application of inventory data, a
preliminary local growth estimate, is shown in the table below.
Naver Forest Unit—Mean Annual Increment in Net Cubic Feet per Acre per Year,
to Close Utilization Standards, Presented by Age-class
D.B.H.
Limit
M.A.I.
n Net Cubic Feet per Acre per Year
Forest Types
15
Years
30
Years
50
Years
70
Years
90
Years
110
Years
140
Years
Fir alone or fir with balsam, spruce, lodge-
pole pine, and (or) deciduous species
In.
r 3.1+
-j. 9.1 +
|n.i+
12
30
50
8
8
53
26
21
47
38
32
41
37
33
32
29
26
Spruce and balsam alone or with lodgepole
pine and (or) deciduous species _	
r 3.1+
i   9.1 +
1 H-1 +
11
32
3
3
40
15
12
35
24
19
32
27
22
29
27
25
Lodgepole   pine   alone  or   with  deciduous
r 3.1+
,   9.1 +
[11.1+
2
33
2
43
14
10
47
28
20
44
36
25
39
34
26
31
27
24
Other applications of inventory data, in the course of preparation, include the production of statistics and maps concerning site classification, hazard rating, reforestation
possibilities, stand development, depletion, and related inventory aspects which contribute to the inventory component of management plans in forest units. These statistics
and maps, presented as supplements to Unit Survey Reports, facilitate the analysis of
technical data and assist other agencies in preparing the remaining components.
TIMBER-SALE AND TAXATION SURVEYS
In 1956 fifteen timber-sale surveys were completed on a total of 80,800 acres,
including a volume in excess of 270,000,000 cubic feet in trees 11.1 inches d.b.h. and
J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
29
over. Six of the surveys were in the Prince Rupert Forest District and nine in the
Vancouver Forest District. Six separate forest areas totalling 4,765 acres in area and
containing 7,347,000 cubic feet in trees 7.1 inches d.b.h. and over were examined at
the request of the Surveyor of Taxes. Five of the areas were timber licences in the
vicinity of Princeton, and the sixth was a timber berth at Harrison Lake.
FOREST-SURVEY STANDARDS
Continued study was made on desirable forest-survey standards, and appropriate
revisions, modifications, and additions were made to the existing field-survey manuals.
Work was carried out on the production of an office survey manual detailing all office
procedures from clerical routine to complex technical methods as, for example, those
relating to statistical calculations in volume and decay analyses.
LIAISON WORK
Forest-survey personnel provided in-service assistance to management officers and
other staff, in the interpretation and application of forest-survey methods and results,
at meetings in all forest district offices. Over fifty special requests from forest districts
and divisions were received and acted upon. These requests involved recompilation and
resummation of existing maps and data in areas totalling over 6,000,000 acres and containing over 9 billion net cubic feet in trees 9.1 inches d.b.h. and above. Assistance was
provided at the Ranger School in outlining forest-survey procedures and cruising methods,
by field and office exercises, to the current class. Other technical advisory services were
provided where required. The Division co-operated in the production of a Forest Service
film depicting Forest Surveys and Inventory work. This film is valuable in the recruiting
and training of new staff.
Close co-operation was also maintained with the Dominion Science Service, particularly in regard to the development of loss factors and methods of estimating forest
depletion. A staff forester visited the Canada Forestry Branch offices in Ottawa to study
procedures and developments in forest-inventory research, and to establish liaison with
the staff there in connection with application problems.
Liaison services were also provided to forest industry and consulting foresters
engaged in inventory and related projects. 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RESEARCH
During the year the first issue of an annual review of current research work was
compiled. This publication is to serve as a supplement to this brief administrative report
and contains technical details and results of the various projects.
The experiment stations were active during 1956, with research programmes and
improvement work being carried out. A start has been made on developing facilities
for a tree-breeding programme. Thirteen field parties were occupied throughout the
Province, working on some thirty-eight projects. One man was on special assignment
to the Management Division.
COWICHAN LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
At the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, maintenance called for work on forest-
extraction routes, amelioration of the planting-site in connection with the genetic programme, and thinnings and prunings of experimental areas. A start was made on a new
office and warehouse building and a garage was rebuilt. The work reached its peak when
ten boys were employed under the Youth Training Programme supplementing station
personnel.
Visitors to the Experiment Station included members of a field meeting of the Forest
Soils Committee of the Douglas fir region; a Russian forestry delegation and their British
Columbia hosts; an advanced silviculture class from the University of British Columbia;
and a field meeting of the Vancouver Island Section of the Canadian Institute of Forestry,
at which members of the Division of Forest Biology, Science Service, Canada Department
of Agriculture, explained their activities.
Another visitor was Mr. W. G. E. Brown, Forest Branch, Canada Department of
Northern Affairs and National Resources, who spent several days in the field with research
personnel discussing forest-site classification methods.
The seeds of a few hardwood exotics were sown at the Duncan nursery, to be eventually outplanted at the experiment station. Species included Quercus spp., Castanea sativa,
AZsculus hippocastanum, Acer pseudoplatanus, Fraxinus excelsior, and Nothofagus spp.
ALEZA LAKE EXPERIMENT STATION
The camp at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station, east of Prince George, was open
from the middle of May to the end of October. The number of men in camp varied from
twelve to thirty. A Youth Training Programme crew of ten high-school boys was employed
during the months of July and August. They were engaged in cone-collecting and in
cribbing the road-cuts in the vicinity of the camp. They also provided assistance in
research projects.
Under the supervision of the Engineering Services Division, considerable ditching
and additional gravelling to the whole length of the access road was done. A survey of
the proposed West Loup Lake branch road was undertaken, and 1 mile of right-of-way for
the branch road was cleared in conjunction with the logging on Timber Sale X70021.
Logging was completed on two timber sales during the year. Timber Sale X58443
constituted a regeneration felling, approximately one-half the total merchantable volume
being removed, while Timber Sale X70021 constituted a heavy volume cut with reservation of an adequate residual stand.
Two further sales were prepared and put up for auction. Both were laid out for
clear cutting in alternate strips. On one the cut strips were scarified, using a T.D. 6 with
brush-blade prior to logging.
In the nursery all seedlings were transplanted in the spring. The Experimental Farm
of the Canada Department of Agriculture in Prince George made a small plot of land
available to us to accommodate the overflow of seedlings from the Aleza Lake nursery. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 31
Four small trial plantations were established in the district. Stock used in these
plantations was Engelmann spruce and Douglas fir raised in the Cranbrook nursery, plus
5,000 2-1 white spruce seedlings raised at Aleza Lake. The areas selected were representative of difficult planting conditions. At Giscome, 15 acres in an area heavily burned
in 1938 and now regenerated naturally to aspen and birch were underplanted. At Pinchi
Lake, an area was burned following logging in 1942. No natural regeneration occurred,
and so some 9 acres of shaly clay soil were planted. The McCulloch planting auger was
used here successfully. At Summit Lake, an area logged to a 12-inch d.b.h. limit was
planted. Heavy slash, windfall, and brush growth made planting extremely difficult. At
Aleza Lake, a fourth area of 15 acres was selected. This area also had a heavy cover of
slash, windfall, and brush, but, prior to planting, strips were cleared by a T.D. 9 tractor
with blade. Planting was stopped by snow but will be resumed in the spring. A small
spring planting of Betula verrucosa was a complete failure due to sun scorch.
Two small nurseries on the access road were prepared during the summer. The first
is a small " bush nursery "; the second was prepared on an area already clear of trees
and stumps.
During the year there was a heavy spruce cone-crop. This crop was general over
the Prince George District and was reported as being heaviest in the Peace River region.
Through the co-operation of the Rangers throughout the district, a total of 350 bushels of
cones were collected. The seed was extracted at Aleza Lake and shipped to the Duncan
nursery for cleaning and storage.
Scarification trials were initiated during the summer. The primary objective was to
test the various pieces of equipment considered suitable for the work. Equipment tried
included a modification of the Ontario bush-plough, a Rome disk plough, a brush-blade,
a 'dozer blade, and a special blade for the station T.D. 9 with attachable ripper teeth.
A Swedish forest cultivator was ordered but did not arrive in time for use during the
summer.
A number of research projects were carried out at the station and are reported later
in the text. In addition, the establishment of permanent growth-plots was completed
during the summer for maintaining a recurring inventory.
The Pathology Section of the Forest Biology Division, Canada Department of Agriculture, continued its study on logging-scar damage. A balsam milling study in conjunction with Timber Sale X70021 was carried out by the Canada Forest Products Laboratory.
FIELD PROGRAMME
Twenty permanent growth-and-yield plots on the Queen Charlotte Islands were
remeasured. In addition, thirty-three thinning plots at Cowichan Lake were remeasured
and a second cleaning to prescribed densities undertaken in an 18-year-old plantation.
Four thinning plots were established near Gold River, Vancouver Island.
An ecological study was initiated on the climatic conditions which determine the
altitudinal distribution of our native conifers. A series of nine climatic stations was established from 1,700 to 5,050 feet elevation on a south exposure and up to 3,700 feet on
a northern exposure. Weather records will be obtained for a number of years, and these
will be analysed in terms of the adjacent forest types.
Studies were continued on rodent-control and direct seeding of Douglas fir. At the
present time the effectiveness of a repellent called " Endrin " is being tested. A number
of tests are now under observation, and these include broadcast seeding, aerial seeding,
seed spotting with a new seeding implement, and seeding with cover-crops. These
studies are being carried out in co-operation with the United States Fish and Wildlife
Service and various companies in the forest industry.
In the field of genetics the main emphasis has been on the development of a
Douglas fir seed-orchard and suitable grafting techniques.    Further collections of seed 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
for a provenance trial of strains of Douglas fir from the Pacific Northwest were made
by company co-operators. In collaboration with the Reforestation Division, a new
seed registration system is being introduced. It will include all pertinent details relative
to the collection of the cones up to the final planting out of the seedlings. The purpose
is eventually to maintain a complete record of all seed collections in the Province.
Example of type of Douglas fir from which cones are collected. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 33
Further work on the effects of slash-burning on soil productivity was undertaken.
The test area has now been burned and initial soil sampling completed. Biological
analyses will be made this winter and preliminary tests on erosion conducted.
In recent years there has been considerable interest in exotic trees and, as a result,
a wide variety of species have been introduced as seed or seedlings for testing by a
number of companies. In order to co-ordinate the information derived from these
tests, the Research Division and the Canada Forest Biology Division are recording the
history and examining the health and vigour of all exotic plantations. To date eighty
introduced species have been recorded.
The annual record of cone production on Vancouver Island was continued. Similar
records are now being kept for Interior species in the Prince George, Kamloops, and
Nelson forest districts.
Factors affecting reproduction of Interior Douglas fir, spruce, ponderosa pine,
hemlock, and cedar are being studied in the three Interior districts. In addition to
records of cone production, seed-traps are being used to determine distance and direction of seed dissemination. Other studies deal with the influences of seed-beds and
aspect in addition to rodents upon germination and survival.
A study of spruce-alpine fir stands was initiated with the objective of defining a
classification which reflects the influences of site type, age, stand structure, species composition, and vigour. The purpose is to provide a uniform basis for use in describing
stands.
Another study was aimed at (a) the establishment of a useful method of survey
for appraisals of stocking and (b) the definition of standards of stocking for spruce-
alpine fir stands. A multi-sized quadrat was employed to provide measures of the silvi-
culturally distinctive vertical layers of these stands (regeneration, poles, and merchantable-
sized trees), as well as of the conventional area-wise distribution of growing stock.
A preliminary study of the classification of lodgepole pine stands was undertaken
in the Kamloops District. Emphasis was placed on ecological factors rather than on
empirical methods.
A series of case-histories are under annual review to determine wind-throw and
regeneration patterns occurring over the years following logging by various methods
in the spruce-alpine fir region of the Kamloops Forest District.
In the Nelson District another partial cutting experiment in an 80-year-old Douglas
fir, hemlock, cedar, and white pine stand was laid out to replace the previous study in
which the stand was destroyed by an abnormal wind-storm. The area has yet to be
logged.
CO-OPERATION
A considerable number of inquiries on statistical analysis and inventory methods
from industrial and government foresters were dealt with. Technical advice and field
assistance were given private foresters relative to thinning practices. Technical advice
was also given in the planning of a high-altitude seed plantation.
This year there have been an unusual number of requests for seed, pollen, and
cuttings. Efforts were made to procure seed for three different provenance trials dealing
with Engelmann spruce, white pine, and ponderosa pine, but success was limited as
cone-crops were poor. 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TABULATION OF ACTIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 1956
Experimental
Plot No.
Region
226
274
343
368
370
371
387
418
428
436
438
458
459
460
461
463
466
467
468
470
472
474
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
485
486
487
488
489
492
494
495
496
Seed production, immature stands, Cowichan Lake___	
Seed production, mature stand, Elk Falls  	
Thinning experiments in pure even-aged red alder stands..
The adaptability of tree species to forest sites— 	
Partial cutting study, Interior wet-belt forest type.	
Cutting methods in overmature spruce-alpine fir stands-
Factors affecting reproduction of species in the Boreal forest region..
Thinning experiment in pure even-aged plantation of Douglas fir	
Survival of spruce transplants.. _ _. 	
Cone stimulation study, Douglas fir    	
Effect of slash burning on soil productivity 	
Seed production under various stand conditions-
Selection of seed trees by morphological characteristics-
Seed production in relation to climate _	
Direct seeding and rodent control, Caycuse Creek	
Seedfall and regeneration study, Stevens Creek-
Exploratory direct seeding studies on ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, and Engelmann
spruce      __  	
Regeneration studies in spruce-alpine fir types (case-histories)   _	
Annual record of cone crops   __   _ _____
Direct seeding with cover crops and rodent control-
Exploratory direct seeding studies   _
Inbreeding experiments with Douglas fir-
Study of site and environment in relation to cone collections..
Phenotypic selection in an open-grown Douglas fir stand.-	
Development of seed orchard, Duncan.—
Co-operative seed provenance study-
Trial of new seeding implement, Bear Creek  __   __ __._.
| A study of climatic conditions in relation to the altitudinal distribution of native
coastal conifers    __	
Record of plantations of exotic species throughout British Columbia-
Preliminary classification of lodgepole pine sites-
| Development of stocked-quadrat survey method for application to  certain survey
problems in Interior spruce types.   	
Seed dispersal study from single trees and marginal stands of Interior Douglas fir	
Composting sawdust, Duncan nursery-
Stand condition classification for spruce-alpine fir stands..
Thinning in a mixed Douglas fir stand, Gold Creek 	
Trial of four rodent control treatments, Caycuse Creek —
Seed spotting, Bear Creek    	
Aerial seeding trial, Nitinat Creek-  	
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Slocan Lake.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Nelson.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Bear Creek.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Interior.
Kamloops.
Vancouver Island.
Interior.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Annual Review of Forest Research, 1955.
Orr-Ewing, A. L.: Controlled Pollination Techniques for the Douglas fir. Technical
Publication T. 44, Forest Science, Vol. 2, 4:   251-257.
Stewart, M.: Cost Study of Partial Cutting Treatments in Interior Wet Belt of British
Columbia.    B.C. Forest Service Research Note No. 32, 1956.
Warrack, G. C.: The Management of Hardwood Timber Stands. Pacific Coast Hardwoods, July and December issues, 1956. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 35
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
The effect of the unseasonable cold weather in November, 1955, continued as the
dominant factor in the 1956 reforestation programme. The Campbell River nursery
suffered least in respect to its 2-0 seedlings, with a loss of only 25 per cent. The 1—0
stock, which was growing on a newly broken field, did not fare so well. Although initial
damage did not appear to be high, subsequent repeated freezing and thawing caused
severe frost-heaving and a loss of 90 per cent of the seedlings.
The Duncan nursery, although losses in 2-0 stock were slightly heavier at 35 per
cent, suffered least in the over-all picture. The 1-0 stock was able to recover very well
from the additional damage caused by a late spring frost in early May, so that an estimated 60 per cent of this stock was available for planting in the fall of 1956 and spring
of 1957.
The Green Timbers nursery appears to have been hit hardest, due to the unseasonably warm nights of October and early November, 1955, which prevented the seedlings from hardening off. The loss there amounts to nearly 75 per cent, as only some
45,000 of the 1,500,000 2-0 seedlings remaining in the nursery appear to be salvable
as 3-0 stock.    Losses in the 1-0 stock will be close to 70 per cent.
The net effect of all these losses has been to reduce the planting stock available
at the three Coast nurseries for the fall of 1956 and spring of 1957 from 6,000,000 to
about 2,000,000.
At the East Kootenay nursery, damage due to the November, 1955, cold snap was
not severe. Spreading a fine layer of sand on the seed-beds caused the snow to melt
much quicker than normally, so that lifting could be commenced in the spring some two
weeks earlier than is usual. A three-bedroom residence for the nursery superintendent
was completed just before the end of the year. A parcel of land adjoining the nursery
was purchased during the autumn. This will provide an additional 15 acres suitable for
nursery production. Clearing is well advanced and cultivation will commence as soon
as possible.
Seed-beds were sown to provide 6,000,000 seedlings on the Coast and 1,000,000
in the East Kootenay. An unusually cold, wet June on the Coast resulted in a poor
germination pattern and high weeding costs. At Cranbrook, however, only 5 inches of
rainfall were recorded during the entire year.
The pelleting of Douglas fir seed with 2 ounces of Arasan per pound of seed gave
no control of damping-off at the Coast nurseries but resulted in an average increase of
50 per cent in seedling stands at the East Kootenay nursery. The beneficial effect of
cold soaking and naked stratification on ponderosa pine seed was also demonstrated by
a 50-per-cent increase in seedling stands.
Testing of various types of seedlings and planting methods was continued both on
the Coast and in the East Kootenay. Douglas fir and spruce totalling 30,000 seedlings
were shipped to the Prince George Forest District for planting trials carried out by the
Research Division.
SEED COLLECTIONS
A two-story seed-extraction plant was completed at the Duncan nursery early in the
year. Extraction equipment is currently being installed. It is expected that this plant
will be able to handle Reforestation Division cone collections on the Coast as well as the
cleaning of seed extracted from cones collected in other districts.
The 1956 cone-crop on Vancouver Island was better than average at low elevations
but poor above 1,000 feet. A total of 1,079 bushels of Douglas fir cones were harvested
below 1,000 feet and 610 bushels between 1,000 and 1,500 feet.   Extraction of the seed 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
has not yet been completed, but seed counts made during picking would indicate a good
yield. Collections of western hemlock at the 600-foot elevation yielded 24 bushels
of cones.
A 5-acre tract of land adjoining the Duncan nursery was purchased for the establishment of a seed-orchard. The purpose of this orchard is to increase the supply of
scarce, high-elevation Douglas fir seed, and ensure that the seedlings being used to replant
barren, logged-off areas at these elevations are of the best genetic quality. A gene bank
will also be established to hold scions from superior specimens of coastal Douglas fir.
Eventually, seed produced from this material will provide superior strains of seedlings,
even though the parent trees may have been lost through fire or logging.
The cone-crop in the East Kootenay was a failure on all species, due mainly to the
November, 1955, cold snap. Twenty bushels of ponderosa pine cones were collected,
which yielded 7 pounds of seed.   No collection was attempted on other species.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
One detailed regeneration survey covering 2,000 acres was completed on Vancouver
Island. In the East Kootenay, survey work was confined to a reconnaissance of the
Upper Moyie River valley and the Yahk River valley.
PLANTING
The Division conducted only one planting project on the Coast during the spring.
Snow delayed commencement of planting until April 10th; thereafter, the weather was
sunny and warm until well after planting ceased on May 12th. Some 700,000 trees
were planted on 1,200 acres. During the same period, nine different companies planted
some 1,140,000 trees supplied by the Division on 2,800 acres. In the autumn the Division planted an additional 525 acres and two companies planted 720 acres.
Extremely dry conditions in the East Kootenay limited planting to 335 acres in
the spring. In the Okanagan the S. M. Simpson Company Limited planted an additional
152 acres on Forest Management Licence No. 9.
Total planting throughout the Province amounted to 2,799,200 trees on 5,846
acres.    {See page 110 of Appendix for statistics of planting over the past ten years.)
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS
The Great Central Lake and Salmon River projects were completed during the
year. The camp buildings and landing-craft at Great Central were sold to the British
Columbia Power Commission. Sectional buildings at the Salmon River project were
dismantled and stored at Campbell River for future use.
Road crews were employed in the Sayward area and at Garibaldi Park. Six miles
of old logging-grades were converted for truck use and 123 miles of existing road was
maintained. Sixty lengths of corrugated steel pipe were purchased to replace old wooden
culverts.
Snag-falling was carried on at Campbell River, Garibaldi Park, Pender Harbour,
and Manning Park. Reforestation crews were employed on this work, and 4,040 acres
were cleared of snags.
In the East Kootenay the Moyie access road was extended for another mile, and
a further 3.5 miles of this road was improved. Snag-falling in this region covered 691
acres in the vicinity of Moyie River.
PLANTATIONS
Re-examination of plots in the 1955 spring plantations on Vancouver Island indicates a survival of 87 per cent, which is well above average.    Fall planting, however,
J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
37
suffered considerably from the November cold snap, which did so much damage in the
nurseries. Survival was reduced to 32 per cent. The 1955 spring planting of ponderosa
pine in the East Kootenay has a survival of 47 per cent after one year, which is lower
than average. Preliminary trials with spruce in the Moyie River valley indicate that
very good survival can be expected from this species.
PLANTATION IMPROVEMENT
At the Green Timbers Forestry Station, Scots pine was planted on several areas
where exotic plantations had failed and which were subsequently cleared of brush. In
September, Reforestation Division personnel, in co-operation with the Research Division,
cleaned and weeded a 31-year-old exotic plantation in Garibaldi Park. Although most
of the species in this plantation are doing well, none are exceeding in growth the native,
naturally regenerated Douglas fir and hemlock on the same site.
In the East Kootenay 38 acres of overstocked ponderosa pine were thinned and
pruned, to bring the total area of this project to 231 acres. .
38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PARKS AND RECREATION
Despite an intensive programme of park development, the continued upsurge of
recreation-seekers outpaced facilities in many regions. Camping, in particular, increases
in popularity from year to year. Studies showed that all camp-sites on Vancouver
Island and on the Lower Mainland operated at over capacity for some part of the
summer. Better roads and more leisure time, coupled with various publicity media,
have brought Provincial parks into public focus as never before. More and more people
plan their holidays around available park facilities. When these are missing in popular
holiday regions, it is in the public interest to make provision through purchase of suitable
land. For example, a 192-acre park with excellent beach frontage on Shuswap Lake
was bought during the year. Other sites, particularly on the southern end of Vancouver
Island and in the Kootenays, are under study.
The main projects this year centred on Champion Lakes and Okanagan Lake Parks.
The latter effort employed the bulk of Divisional personnel and machinery.
The Division's quota under the Youth Training Programme had an enrolment of 135.
Work was divided into maintenance projects in established parks and cleaning-up operations in several new ones under development.
ADMINISTRATION
The Planning Section was supplemented by one graduate forester and the Recon-
naisance and Inventory Section by a mapping assistant. For the first time in its history,
Tweedsmuir Park received special attention when a supervisor and biologist were stationed there for the summer season. A regional supervisor assumed charge of the
Vancouver Island parks.
RESEARCH
Visitor-studies were conducted at Mount Seymour, Cultus Lake, and Manning Parks.
Through intensive sampling it was possible to determine recreational preferences and also
estimate the probable future demand for number, location, and composition of park areas.
It is important to know the number of park visitors, and for this purpose new and
more accurate methods were introduced. The public-recreation survey of the past five
years is being unified and expanded. A yachting survey to provide basic data on the
problems of marine parks was organized. Western Surveys-Research Limited was
engaged to conduct a study into the use of park areas. Its Vancouver City sampling
showed that 38 per cent of the population visited a Provincial park during 1956.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY
The component parks of the Greater Victoria metropolitan park system were
reported on for the Capital Region Improvement Commission. A regional study of the
Shuswap Lake district resulted in acquisition of an important park-site at Scotch Creek
to meet current recreation-land needs. An acquisition was also completed at Matheson
Lake on Southern Vancouver Island. In co-operation with the British Columbia Power
Commission, areas for special treatment to enhance the recreational values of the Buttle
Lake reservoir were selected on Buttle and Upper Campbell Lakes.
Some sixty-four widely scattered field projects were undertaken in the past year.
These included assessment of new park proposals, shoreline reconnaissances, the study
of new developments in highways and land-use affecting existing parks and reserves,
evaluation of changes in the extent of public recreational use in certain management
licences and forest reserves so that provision can be made to accommodate this use, and
continuation of necessary field work on certain park proposals under study prior to 1956. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
39
•:>':;■ aMHH
JHtMBIflMMilllllMfP*
Every region of the Province is being methodically examined and key areas reserved.
PLANNING
Public demand for more facilities in popular areas required further camp-site plans
for Little Qualicum Falls, Englishman River, Cultus Lake, and Emory Creek Parks. Two
new parks—Matheson Lake and Shuswap Lake—were mapped and are being designed
for early development. Another park receiving attention was Manning, where studies
were made of picknicking, and camping potential in alpine terrain. Extensive topographic
mapping also was undertaken in the Cambie Camp-site-Lightning Lake area to guide
potential camping layout and help in assessing the value of a proposed dam. Further
planning surveys were made at Chasm and Garibaldi Parks.
ENGINEERING AND DRAUGHTING
The development of lake- and ocean-side parks resulted in the supervision of five
contracts for toilet and change-house buildings. In addition, two water systems and two
residences were designed and the major share finished by contract. Other projects were
the paving of roads and parking-lots by contract in Ivy Green and Manning Parks.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
Wildlife management continued to provide unusually liberal hunting regulations
in Wells Gray Park and to encourage greater use of fish resources in Manning Park.
A biologist spent the summer in Tweedsmuir Park carrying out extensive reconnaissance
studies. Studies in environmental requirements and the compatability of wildlife with
various forms of land use were continued with moose, caribou, and grizzly bear. 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
QKANAQAN   LAKE PARK
FAMILY   PICNIC  AREAS
I   1 0*1*. «.c.
J O20S3I2 M.P. M.f>.        j T«S©'
The final aspect of planning is the detailed design of a park.
VANCOUVER ISLAND PARKS
Intensive maintenance programmes were carried out in all parks under direction of
the regional supervisor. Visitor use continued to outpace facilities, particularly in the
camping aspect. The implementation of new layout plans saw the completion of a thirty-
unit camp-site in Little Qualicum Falls Park and over one-half mile of camp-site road-
clearing in Englishman River Park. The Langford workshop employed two extra personnel during the summer months and increased the production of tables and fireplaces
to 389 and 267 respectively.   In addition, over 450 carved signs were made.
MAINLAND PARKS
Champion Lakes Park.—The main access road, 6 miles in length, was completed
and gravelled. The 2-mile continuation, leading to a potential campground, beach, and
dam-site, was 50 per cent finished. A plan was prepared for a large camp area. The 2
miles of road called for in the plan has been brushed out, giving a total of 3 V% miles of
road-clearing for the year. A total of 40,000 yards of crushed material was provided for
this project by contract.
Manning Park.—Four youth crews spent a major part of their time on the growing
duties of camp-site maintenance. The jeep-road protection system was extended by a
further 5 miles of new construction. Three hundred acres in the big burn were snagged
and 30,000 trees planted. Extensive planning and engineering programmes were undertaken for the formulating of plans for greatly increased public park use. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
41
Mount Seymour Park.—Maintenance of roads, trails, ski hills, and buildings made
up the bulk of the work programme. Two youth crews looked after the picnic-sites and
improved a number of trails.   A new slalom run was started.
Okanagan Lake Park.—With the aim of complete development in a one-year period,
an intensified work programme started in May. Rented machinery bolstered Divisional
equipment in the impressive projects of building roads, parking-lots, and shaping a steep
mountain-side into a series of wide terraces suitable for camp units. In all, 234,700
cubic yards of material was moved. In addition, some 18,000 cubic yards of topsoil was
dug up and spread to facilitate the landscaping. Of the 2,700 trees to be used, 300 were
planted before fall frosts.   An irrigation system will service all the landscaping.
The picnic area provides parking for 385 cars and facilities for 1,500 picknickers
adjacent to a fine swimming-beach. The camping area has eighty individual sites, which
are expected to accommodate some 400 persons. Boat-launching facilities are provided
near by.
Park administration and maintenance will be centred in a residence and basic-service
buildings. The residence is now under construction on a contract basis, as are a change-
house and four toilet buildings.
Silver Star Park.—A further V/z miles of road was completed, with clearing and
grubbing continuing for another mile.
Tweedsmuir Park.—A park supervisor and biologist spent the summer in reconnaissance and inventory work in the southern portion of the park. Their recommendations led to a revision of park boundaries.
Wells Gray Park.—A total of seventeen fires were recorded, but no more than 15
acres were damaged. The clean-up of slash on the " Cat." trail to Helmcken Falls was
let under contract. A youth crew helped in trail maintenance. Two hunter-shelters were
erected to aid the moose harvest.
CHANGES IN PARK LIST,  1955
Boundary amendments were made to nine parks. King George VI Park was reclassified from Class "C" to Class "A," and Mara Recreation Park was cancelled.
A total of thirty-eight Class "A" parks were created, the major share being " Land Act"
reserves already developed and in use as wayside camp-sites. Some of the more important
of the additions are as follows: Rosewall Creek Park, 156 acres; Shuswap Lake Park,
179.5 acres; and Matheson Lake Park, 401 acres.
The boundaries of Tweedsmuir Park were amended to include an additional 124,900
acres. This accounts for the major change in the Class " B " park total.
PARK LIST, DECEMBER 31sr,  1956
Classification Number Acreage
Class "A"  76 1,439,368.01
Class "B"  5 6,159,140.00
Class "C"  30 3,808.75
Special Act  1 529,920.00
Totals  112 8,132,236.76 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
RECREATION LAND RESERVES, DECEMBER 31st, 1956
Areas reserved under the " Land Act" ^
Departmental map reserves... 114
Designated recreational areas within forest reserves    50
Totals.
Reservations for potential Class "A" parks if included in the above totals)	
195
1 The greater portion of the
Total
352
478
194
1,024
21
total tad -serves,77'M9R03VacrerseSaerreVesoaCer,::s8eed ^fota, "* '?* 7**? tWs «*•«». ««-*. 55,006 40     Of the
grand total of recreation land reserves is 823 358 23 lores ^^ U"der reServe in 1956 was 66,5« 06 acres   The
Mi
Wide modern roads are necessary for the safety and convenience of
growing numbers of park visitors. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
43
PARK ATTENDANCE,  1956
Park attendance figures are computed on the basis of " park-day " use. Two campers
staying in a park for three days are totalled as six " park-days " use.
Vancouver Island Parks
Day
Miracle Beach  142,220
Little Qualicum Falls  71,113
Ivy Green—
(a) Twin Firs1  7,000
(b) Ivy Green  52,000
Elk Falls  94,800
MacMillan   66,568
Stamp Falls  44,981
Englishman River Falls  59,059
John Dean  22,950
McDonald   	
Cameron Lake1   11,500
Petroglyph   2,000
Totals  574,191
Lower Mainland Parks
Day
Cultus Lake   127,860
Mount Seymour  295,136
Peace Arch  156,300
Manning Park1   36,000
Totals  614,296
District Sites
Overnight
43,020
9,292
5,994
6,067
2,184
2,773
5,209
Overnight
28,574
29,500
Total
185,240
80,405
64,994
100,867
66,568
47,165
61,832
22,950
5,209
11,500
2,000
74,539   648,730
Total
156,434
295,136
156,300
65,500
Kamloops District1 	
Nelson District1	
Prince George District1
Prince Rupert District1
57,074        671,370
303,000
106,000
50,000
25,000
Total      484,000
Other Parks
Wells Gray1 ..___.
Mount Robson1
Garibaldi1 	
Tweedsmuir1  .
All other areas1 .
Total .
4,000
40,000
18,700
9,500
31,700
95,900
Grand total  1,900,000
1 Estimated. 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Park attendance at Vancouver Island parks increased 30 per cent in 1956 without
any increase in facilities. Ideal summer weather and an ever-increasing proportion of
campers accounted for this growth. Campers were largely from British Columbia points.
This group made up 80 per cent, visitors from the United States 15.5 per cent, and from
the rest of Canada 4.5 per cent.
At Lower Mainland parks there was a sharp rise in attendance. Increased camping
pressure was particularly noticed at Cultus Lake, where there was an increase of 90 per
cent over last year. Camping facilities at Manning Park were used heavily during the
summer months.
At both Cultus Lake and Manning Parks, parties from British Columbia camping
for the first season accounted for 26 per cent of all British Columbia campers. This
represents a substantial increase in the number of campers and partly accounts for the
heavy use at all camp-sites during the summer of 1956. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 45
WORKING PLANS
The Working Plans Division is essentially a planning body with only limited administrative functions. The primary purpose of the Division is to study all proposals for
sustained-yield forest management and to make recommendations based on a study of
these proposals.
Its responsibilities include the review of all forest management licence, farm wood-lot
licence, and tree-farm applications. It is directly concerned with the establishment of
public working circles.
The award of forest management licences was suspended in 1955, pending receipt
of the report of the Royal Commission on Forestry. However, a considerable number
of new applications have been received since that time, and the total number on hand
now stands at 136. In addition, a number of operators have signified their intent to
submit formal applications at a later date.
Although forest management licence applications have been in a state of abeyance
during the past year, further gains have been made in bringing the Province's forest lands
under sustained-yield management. Fourteen new management units, comprising approximately 11,000,000 acres, were placed in operation. These are referred to simply as
sustained-yield units. Cutting ledgers have been established to ensure that these areas
will not be overcut. No decision will be made as to the final disposition of these lands
during this interim period. In some cases there are forest management licence applications covering areas lying within their boundaries, which cannot be processed until forest
management licence policy is clarified.
SUSTAINED-YIELD UNITS
The following management units, lying within the Prince George, Kamloops, and
Nelson Forest Districts, were approved during the year. Cutting-control ledgers have
been set up. „   .   ..
r Productive Annual
Forest District and Name of Area Allowable Cut
Sustained-yield Unit (Acres) (MC.F.)
Prince George Forest District—
1. Big Valley   353,179 6,000
2. Bowron   376,247 8,000
3. Carp Lake  1,237,385 6,100
4. Longworth   149,828 2,300
5. Parsnip    1,034,333 3,500
Kamloops Forest District—
1. Big Bar   1,488,311 12,000
2. Botanie Creek  462,852 4,600
3. LaclaHache  1,413,238 12,000
4. Nicola Lake   323,963 3,900
5. Stum Lake   994,430 3,000
6. Taseko River  2,006,885 4,200
7. Yalakom   425,515 3,000
Nelson Forest District—
1. Creston         568,018 6,000
2. Windermere          503,073 4,500
Totals  11,337,257 79,100
The regulation of cut on these areas became a matter of urgency due to the excessive
increase of logging and sawmilling activity in some sections of the Province, notably in 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the Cariboo region of the Kamloops Forest District. Without some control the forest
resource would have been seriously depleted, with the resultant damaging effect to the
economy of a number of thriving communities.
Smaller in size, but also important to our forest economy, are the tree-farms and
farm wood-lots. Four tree-farms were certified in 1956, bringing the total to nineteen,
with a combined forest area of 461,000 acres. All tree-farms certified to date lie within
the Vancouver Forest District.
Eight farm wood-lot licences were awarded during the year. There are now thirty-
seven such licences in operation. Activity in this field is expected to increase in the
Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland areas as a result of the increasing demand for
pulpwood supplies. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 47
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
As funds available for the Division's work remained, for all practical purposes,
unchanged from the previous year, no new project of importance was undertaken. There
were, however, expansions in certain phases of the work where additional expenditures
could be kept at a minimum.
Senior officers of the Division made a concerted effort to spend more time in the
districts than in recent years. It continues to be evident that the Division's work is
seriously curtailed by the lack of public relations staff in the various districts. With
public contact with the Service becoming more and more frequent and complex, the
increasing public relations load on already fully occupied district personnel is now a
serious problem and one that should be faced in the near future.
The lack of funds for a forestry and forest-protection campaign in the form of press
advertising continued to militate against the effectiveness of the Service's public education
campaign.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
This Section's activities and production volume were, in general, well above the
previous year, particularly in the matter of 16-mm. film production. Over 11,000 feet of
motion-picture film was obtained during the summer months, with the main production
being concentrated in the Prince Rupert and Prince George Districts, where footage was
taken of forest-survey crews, forest-engineering projects, and stand-treatment techniques.
Simultaneously, footage was obtained in the southern districts on park developments,
youth-crew operations, and forest-protection work. By the end of the year, a 1,000-foot
training film entitled " Forest Inventory " had been completed, produced primarily for
the use of the Surveys and Inventory Division.
In the still-photography field, a total of 8,479 photographic prints were made; 160
rolls and 123 pieces of cut film were developed; 55 copy negatives were made; 310 negatives were taken by the Section's staff; and 996 new negatives were added to the files.
Various other photographic jobs of a specialized nature were carried out.
Film Library
The public continued to utilize the facilities of the film library, which showed its
highest audience total since 1952 and an increase of 30,738 persons over 1955. The
1956 total was 218,275 persons, which includes the attendances at schools serviced by
the two Division lecturers. It does not, however, include circulation on prints of five
Forest Service productions lodged with British Columbia House in London, England.
The library started the year with seventy-one subjects; three were withdrawn during the
year and ten new subjects added, making a total of seventy-eight subjects available at
the year's end. All subjects were in circulation during the year. (See Table 65 of
Appendix.) Twelve films were previewed during the year with a view to purchase for
inclusion in the library. Seven of these were productions of the United States Department of Agriculture, one of the National Film Board, and four were productions of
commercial concerns.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The Annual Report of the Service for 1955 was edited, synopsized, printing supervised, and distributed. The production of the 1957 annual Forest Service calendar
entailed a run of 26,790 copies, the largest volume on record for this item. A fourth
booklet, " The Principal Commercial Trees of British Columbia," was added to the
popular Illustrated Forest Activities series and two of the previous issues of the series
were reprinted during the year. .
48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A new development in publications saw the production of two school-scribbler
designs during the year (10,000 copies of each were printed) featuring coloured covers—
one of forest protection and the other of forest management—with a descriptive story
printed inside. These were designed to be distributed direct to local schools by the
Ranger staff.
Publication service to other divisions included the editing, supervision of printing,
and distribution of one technical bulletin, two research notes, three protection bulletins,
two special Parks and Recreation Division pamphlets, one radio-telephone operators'
manual, and " Forestry in B.C.," the submission of this Service to the Seventh British
Commonwealth Forestry Conference to be held in Australia and New Zealand in 1957.
In addition, eight publications were reprinted with or without revision, and 120,000
blotters (10,000 each of twelve different designs) for school distribution were reprinted,
along with display posters and protection decal transfers.
RADIO AND TELEVISION
All commercial radio stations throughout the Province were again utilized for
informing the public on forestry matters. This consisted of thirty-two flash and sixteen
spot announcements over an eight-week period. The experiment tried last year for the
first time, when local citizens were used to record these flashes in the Kamloops and
Nelson Districts, was expanded to take in all districts. Indications again are that the
introduction of local voices adds considerably to the impact of the messages.
Various television outlets throughout Canada showed interest in using our film
productions for transmission. Both British Columbia's television stations—namely,
CBUT, Vancouver, and CHEK-TV, Victoria—ran Forest Service films during the year.
All radio stations continued to show a high interest in forestry matters and contributed a generous amount of free time to this end. Television was also most co-operative, and as this medium expands additional public service ventures may be expected.
COMMERCIAL THEATRES
A revised edition of the 35-mm. forest-protection trailer used in 1955 was circulated
through both the Odeon and Paramount theatre chains in the Province. The trailer was
shown for one week in each of seventy-five theatres during July and August to a total
estimated audience of 800,000.
PRESS LIAISON
In addition to the usual volume of press releases and special articles prepared for
the daily and weekly press and trade journals, two visits by members of the press to
Forest Service operations in the Prince George District were carried out with satisfactory
results. A Division officer accompanied the press representatives, and it is felt that this
pattern should be followed and the number of such trips increased in the future.
ROADWAY AND ROADSIDE SIGNS
The placement and repainting of the " Keep B.C. Green—Use Your Ashtray " signs
on the paved main highways of the Province was continued. Through the Southern
Mainland and on Vancouver Island, 144 signs at locations previously established were
repainted by the special crew and 31 signs were laid during the summer at new sites, to
bring the total number throughout the Province to 175. The cost per sign amounted to
$34.33.
The Scotchlite " Prevent Forest Fires " sign continued to be in popular demand from
the districts. During the spring of the year twenty-five of these units were supplied to the
field.   One standard Ranger station sign was supplied to the Smithers Station, which REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 49
brings the total Ranger units with these distinctive markers to sixty-seven.   Numerous
requests for the smaller directional Scotchlite signs were filled during the year.
Plans and specifications were completed for a new series of district boundary signs
and fire-hazard rating signs, but production had to be postponed due to a shortage of
funds and an overload of work at the Forest Service Marine Station.
EXHIBITS
The permanent Service exhibit in the British Columbia Building, Pacific National
Exhibition, Vancouver, featured a model camp-site unit in addition to the model protection lookout featured last year. A special pamphlet, "Let's Go Camping," was
distributed along with other Service literature. The exhibit was staffed by Division
personnel each day during the two weeks of the exhibition.
Some financial assistance was given to district displays throughout the Province. It
is felt more should be done to support these efforts on the Ranger level as the local effect
can be most beneficial.
LIBRARY
Progress was made this year in setting up district libraries. During the summer the
librarian visited the Prince Rupert District office, where excellent facilities were provided
to house the publications on hand. About 300 items were catalogued and shelved, a card
index provided, and a clerk trained to take care of the library routine. In October a visit
was made to the Nelson District office. Again, ample room was made available for the
shelving of library material. Through the co-operation of the Nelson District Forester
and the Forester in Charge of the Research Division, the part-time services of the District
Research Officer have been made available for the supervision of the library which is set
up in his own office. District office clerks handle the necessary typing and filing. This
arrangement appears to be a good basis for efficient management of the library. Additional text-books, magazines, and Experiment Station publications have been ordered.
Nelson District thus becomes independent of the Victoria library resources, except for
specialized requests and occasional supervision from the Victoria librarian.
A start was made on classifying the numerous publications held in the Working Plans
Division, including a separate collection maintained in the Farm Wood-lots Section.
This work was suspended until the Division obtains sufficient room to shelve all its
publications together.
In spite of the gradual decentralization of library service, borrowings continued at a
high level in the Victoria library. At the present time 275 monthly accession lists are
distributed throughout the Province. There has been a significant increase in the use of
these lists by Ranger staff. A clerk in the continuing casual category was added to the
library staff early in the year, and the staff of three have been fully occupied, absence of
the librarian on field-trips necessitating some redistribution of the work load.
A complete overhaul of the main catalogue was begun toward the end of the year,
and several months' work remains to be done on this project. In order to improve
foreign-language representation in library stocks, exchange of publications has been
requested with German forestry institutions, and subscriptions obtained for two German
periodicals. The Russian forestry delegation which visited British Columbia during the
year was also approached on the subject of publication exchanges, and the suggestion was
favourably received. The librarian complied with a request from the librarian of the
Alice Holt Research Station in England to provide information on early forestry books.
It was found that the Forest Service is the owner or custodian of seven such volumes, the
first published in 1636, the last in 1836. 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CO-OPERATION
The Division continued its lecture programme throughout the public schools of the
Province with the co-operation of the Department of Education and the Canadian Forestry Association. The two lecturers from the Division gave 468 programmes, in 271
schools, to a total school audience of pupils and teachers of 73,693, an increase of 17,000
over the previous year. The lecturers also put on ten non-school showings to an additional audience of 1,662 persons.
The demand for literature from schools both in British Columbia and elsewhere
throughout the world reached a new high during the year. In many cases our stocks of
publications proved inadequate. Also, in order to meet the demand, suitable publications
from outside sources were often included in the material distributed from the Division.
Senior members of the Division delivered addresses to a wide variety of audiences
interested in forestry and participated in panel discussions on the subject. An apparent
increase in interest in forestry as a career resulted in much greater demand for speakers on
that subject at the vocational guidance conferences staged by the high schools. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1956 51
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
The total estimated value of all products for the year amounted to $628,586,963.
This represents a decrease of only $3,112,599 under that of 1955, which was the record
year. The value of lumber was less, due to unit values being lower by approximately $2
per M f.b.m. than the previous year. On the other hand, increases were shown in pulp
and paper, plywood, and poles and piling production. Noteworthy is the drop in lumber
being used for the manufacture of boxes due to paper cartons replacing the wooden boxes.
The industry on the whole had a good year, but during the latter part, what with credit
restrictions, higher freight rates, and dwindling markets, there were definite signs of more
difficult times ahead.
Water-borne shipments for 1956 were 989,664 M f.b.m. This was a loss of 423,396
M f.b.m., a continuation of the trend which started in 1955, and was the greatest single
decrease in any one year. The greatest loss was in the United Kingdom and Continental
market, which dropped from 611,451 M f.b.m. in 1955 to 320,293 M f.b.m. in 1956.
The total log exports amounted to 47,010.513 board-feet, which was well below the
ten-year average of 113,922,513 board-feet. Of the total, 41,595,347 board-feet came
from old Crown grants carrying export privileges, leaving 5,414,879 board-feet from
other areas exported under permit. The value of minor products marketed outside the
Province amounted to $8,501,409.
The total cut for the Province amounted to 1,068,733,441 cubic feet. This is an
increase of 34,753,708 cubic feet over the previous year and is the highest cut recorded
to date in any one year. For the second year in a row all forest districts except Vancouver
participated in the increased cut. The latter district suffered a loss of 15,526,356 cubic
feet. Regionally, the total cut for the Province is broken down in Table 6B, and it will
be noted that the cut for the Interior of the Province is steadily increasing and now stands
at 38 per cent of the total.
On the basis of forest tenures, 792,049,715 cubic feet or 74 per cent originated
from Crown lands, and of this total 519,769,436 cubic feet or 66 per cent originated from
timber sales, as compared with 73 per cent and 62 per cent during 1955. Old Crown
grants accounted for 169,526,965 cubic feet.
Of the 1,068,733,441 cubic feet, Douglas fir maintained its leading position with
413,313,593 cubic feet or 39 per cent of the total. Other important species in order of
output were 213,655,797 cubic feet or 20 per cent hemlock, 152,169,071 cubic feet or
14 per cent spruce, 145,738,047 cubic feet or 14 per cent cedar, as compared with 20,
13, and 15 per cent respectively during 1955. Noteworthy is the fact that spruce is now
ahead of cedar, due to the increased cut of this species in the Prince George Forest
District.
Timber sales to the number of 3,089 were cruised, covering an area of 1,095,150
acres and an approximate volume of 1,273,970,000 cubic feet. This represents a
decrease of 265 in number but an increase of 17,165 acres and 142,449,000 cubic feet
in volume.   Next to 1952 this was the highest volume cruised in one year.
The actual volume and value of timber sold for cutting under timber-sale contract
soared to an unprecedented level in 1956. The number of timber sales awarded was
2,859, and the total volume included in these sales was 800,000,000 cubic feet, an
increase of 5 per cent over the 1955 record, and approximately four times the volume
sold in 1949. The total stumpage value of this timber was $56,000,000 or just about
ten times the 1949 value of sales. These figures do not include the value of timber cut
from twenty-three existing forest management licences. 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
At the end of the year there were 8,738 timber sales in existence, as compared with
8,371 at the end of 1955. The total area held under timber sale is 3,218,820 acres, and
money held as guarantee deposits amounted to $14,008,994.30.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Lumber Prices
Lumber-price figures are voluntarily supplied to the Forest Service by lumber-
shippers in the Interior of the Province. From these figures the Forest Service compiles
the average net prices received for dressed lumber f.o.b. railway car. For this purpose
the Interior is divided into six zones, for which separate prices are compiled. The
resultant averages over three-month periods are used in calculating the stumpage value
of standing timber being sold and in adjusting stumpage rates on a large number of
timber-sale contracts under a sliding-scale stumpage formula.
These lumber-price records indicate that the high demand experienced in the latter
part of 1955 continued through the first half of 1956 and, as a result, average prices
received for spruce and Douglas fir lumber rose to the highest point since the brief high-
demand period in the spring of 1951. However, in the middle of the summer, demand
for lumber products declined as a result of a curtailment of housing construction in the
United States and Eastern Canada. The situation was aggravated by new railway regulations in the United States requiring specified routing of transit shipments, which
temporarily resulted in some sales of carloads in transit at distress prices. This marked
the beginning of a decline in prices.
By fall Douglas fir prices had dropped about $10 per thousand board-feet below
their summer peak, but optimism concerning the 1957 business outlook temporarily
stabilized prices at that level, which was about $5 below that of the previous fall. Spruce
prices followed a similar pattern, though the price changes were considerably smaller.
Log Prices
Log prices remained at a high level on the Lower Coast throughout 1956. Log
inventories were generally slightly below normal, and this resulted in a firm demand,
with prices increasing gradually during the first part of the year. But in the later months
there was a small drop in prices, reflecting the reduction in lumber prices in the United
States as well as the effect of the international situation on lumber purchases by the
United Kingdom.
Stumpage Prices
Before timber is advertised for sale, the stumpage value is appraised by the Forest
Service. This appraised price constitutes a fair value for the timber at the time, and the
timber is offered for sale at this price. But, in order to ensure that everyone has an equal
opportunity to purchase the timber, it is disposed of to the highest bidder by public
competition. The form of competition may be either sealed bids or public auction. In
1956, 75 per cent of the timber sold under timber sales was disposed of at the appraised
prices.
The two factors which have the greatest influence on the appraisal of the value of
the timber are the anticipated costs of extraction and the value of the products. The
sale value of the products must cover all extraction and processing costs, including stumpage, and a reasonable profit. Therefore, it follows that, after provision has been made
for anticipated costs and a reasonable profit, the remaining portion of the sale value is
the indicated or appraised stumpage value. For this purpose, the stumpage value of
each particular tract of timber being sold is appraised on its individual merits.
With this system of appraisal a small change in the selling price of the product has
a substantial effect on the stumpage value;  stumpage prices follow the trends in log and REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 53
lumber realization prices. Appraised stumpage prices, therefore, rose considerably in the
early part of 1956, following the upsurge in log and lumber prices, but at the close of the
year had begun to decline. Due to the time required to collect and compile the three-
month average lumber-price data and the statutory requirements in terms of advertising
timber for sale, fluctuations in appraised stumpage prices tend to lag behind market
conditions by three or four months.
Over the years it has been observed that there is a definite annual cycle or seasonal
fluctuation in lumber prices which is distinct from changes in market conditions from
time to time. During the past year a method has been determined to correct the average
prices so that the effect of this seasonal fluctuation will be eliminated. Prior to the
introduction of these corrections, appraised stumpage prices tended to vary at different
times of the year even though actual market prices over a full twelve-month period remain
constant.
Average of stumpage prices bid for all species on timber sales in the Province during
1956 was $6.87 per hundred cubic feet, in comparison with $5.07 for 1955. The weighted
average for the Coast was $7.50 and for the Interior $6.51. Further details of average
stumpage prices bid and paid are given in Tables 21 and 22 of this Report.
Time Studies
In order to make equitable appraisals of the stumpage value of various tracts of
timber, with due regard for the relative costs and difficulties likely to be encountered in
logging, it is necessary for the appraisers to have information concerning the effect various
factors may have on operating costs. To gain information on the many varied phases of
logging, a party of three men has been engaged in the Northern Interior to carry out
production time studies. Studies of felling and skidding were carried out at eleven
operations in 1955 and at seven operations in 1956.
ADMINISTRATION OF MANAGED UNITS
The twenty-three forest management licences awarded to date were operating under
regulation, with 109 cutting permits being .issued, and this resulted in a cut of about
104,000,000 cubic feet.
No new public working circles were established. However, in order to limit the
alienation by timber sales in certain areas to the annual yield, it was necessary to bring in
temporary control measures. Fourteen areas in the Interior were set up as sustained-yield
units, and an annual allowable cut was approved for each. During 1956 the annual
allowable cut was fully committed in 75 per cent of the established publicly managed
units. The cut from timber sales within the approved public working circles and
sustained-yield units amounted to about 188,455,411 cubic feet in 1956.
SILVICULTURE VOTE
The programme implemented during 1956 through moneys from the Silviculture
Vote included stand treatment, silvicultural studies, planning in working circles, slash-
disposal projects, road location in working circles, and co-operative studies with the
Forest Pathology Unit, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. The following is a summary of work accomplished in the four Interior forest districts—Prince
Rupert, Prince George, Kamloops, and Nelson.
The main effort during the year has been centred on stand treatment. In the four
districts a total of 363 sales were treated, involving 78,500 acres. Considerable improvement has been effected in the actual techniques of individual tree selection as a result of
a systematized training programme. There has also been a considerable improvement in
the various types of equipment used by the stand-treatment crews, which has, in turn, been 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
reflected by an improvement in work performance. Particularly noteworthy in this regard
are the new four-man crew-trailers.
All of the Interior districts continued to make progress in the field of planning in
public working circles, and crews were actively engaged in timber-sale layout work.
Slash-disposal by silviculture crews was confined to the Kamloops Forest District,
where some 528 acres were treated, in addition to 30 miles of old road either repaired
or rebuilt.
As in the past, a free exchange of information concerning insect outbreaks was
carried on between the Forest Service and the Forest Zoology Unit, Science Service,
Canada Department of Agriculture. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 55
GRAZING DIVISION
INTRODUCTION
The range-livestock industry of this Province has experienced periods of both prosperity and adversity during the nearly 100 years of its existence. The forces of nature
itself have both smiled and frowned upon the efforts of the rancher. Markets have waxed
and waned, first with the flow and ebb of such local activities as the gold-rush and railway
construction, and, later, as transportation facilities developed, according to more general
economic conditions. In view of the wave of prosperity now being enjoyed, it is ironical
that the industry is experiencing one of its most difficult times as a result of drastically
reduced returns to the stockman, combined with spiralling costs.
However, in prosperity or adversity, and in spite of many technological developments, the foundation of the industry is still the range, as it was in the beginning. Skilful
management of this resource, to secure maximum forage production, is vital to the
industry at all times.
Administration of the Crown range, over 80 per cent of which is forested, has been
the responsibility of the Forest Service for the past thirty-eight years. The performance
of the wide variety of activities necessary to discharge this duty in 1956 are outlined
herein.
ADMINISTRATION
Range-administration duties continued to increase during 1956. The demand for
range forage was higher than at any time in history. Not only were more permits issued,
but each application required more careful consideration as the ranges became stocked
to capacity. Correlation of the increased grazing use with other forest-land uses, which
also increased, became more difficult.
In the Peace River area, live-stock numbers have increased to the point where
regulation and control of the Crown range is now necessary. Preliminary steps were
taken toward commencing the administration of the " Grazing Act " and regulations on
selected ranges in this area. Also, increased attention was given to ranges in the vicinity
of Quesnel.
Efforts were continued during the year to reduce further the conflict between logging and grazing on forest ranges. Considerable progress was made, and it now appears
that these two forest-land uses are fairly well co-ordinated. Clauses are inserted in
timber-sale contracts which are designed to protect grazing interests and range improvements and, in addition, a much higher degree of understanding and co-operation is
developing between the logger and the rancher.
To cope with the increased administrative load, an additional agrologist was added
to the Grazing Division staff and a general reallocation of duties was made. District
office procedures and forms were also revised in an effort to keep up with the work.
However, there is still a great need for more range supervision at the local level. The
multitude of duties the Ranger is called upon to perform make it impossible for him to
give adequate attention to range matters.
Grazing and Hay Permits
Annual grazing permits are issued to resident stock-owners whose ranch properties
are dependent on use of the Crown range. In 1956, 1,776 permits were issued, an
increase over the 1955 total, and a new high. The number of stock climbed over 1955's
all-time high, a total of 127,182 cattle, 3,667 horses, and 22,310 sheep and goats being
grazed on Crown ranges under permit. As nearly all of the open grassland ranges are,
and have been, stocked to capacity in the past, this increase represents greater use of
the timbered range land.   For the second year, sheep numbers were down slightly. 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The tabulation on page 149 shows a breakdown of the above figures by forest
districts, and a comparison with those for the past ten years.
A total of 204 hay-cutting permits were issued, authorizing the cutting of 2,324
tons of meadow-hay and 38 tons of rushes. This was an increase in tonnage cut over
1955, and was due to a favorable haying season. However, the tendency is now for the
rancher to develop tame-hay lands rather than to depend upon intermittent use of such
unreliable sources of winter feed as wild-hay meadows.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees are on a sliding scale, related to live-stock prices. Rates in 1956 were
down approximately 8 per cent from those of 1955, and reflect the lower prices received
by producers in that year. The fees per head per month for 1956 were 12 cents for
cattle, 2% cents for sheep, and 15 cents for horses. Hay-cutting fees, which are not on
a sliding scale, remained at $ 1 per ton for wild hay, and 70 cents per ton for rushes cut
for mulching.
Total billings for grazing and hay-cutting fees remained approximately the same as
in 1955, in spite of lower rates. This was due to the greater number of stock under
permit. Grazing-fee collections were excellent, particularly in view of the poor economic
situation in the industry. Recourse to Court action to collect fees was necessary in only
a few cases. At the end of the year, outstanding grazing fees were lower than at the
end of 1955.
A summary of fees billed and collected for the past ten years may be found on
page 149 of this Report.
Live-stock Counts
During the year, live-stock counts were carried out in several areas to ensure that
stock turned on the range did not exceed permitted numbers. This is time-consuming
work but is necessary as a check, particularly where permit numbers are restricted owing
to crowded range conditions.
Trespass
In general, excellent co-operation is received from permittees in complying with
grazing-permit conditions and grazing regulations. However, violations do occur and,
in fairness to the majority and to protect the Crown range, such violations must be
corrected.
A number of trespass cases occurred during the year. For the most part, these
were corrected promptly when brought to the attention of the owners of the stock concerned. However, it was necessary to lay two charges under the trespass regulations.
One of these was successfully prosecuted, and the second is still pending at the end of
the year. In two other cases it was necessary to seize stock grazing in trespass under
the provisions of section 17 of the " Grazing Act." This is the first time that it has been
necessary to use this legislation.
RANGE MANAGEMENT
Careful management is necessary to secure maximum sustained forage returns from
the range without jeopardy to other land uses. To this end, management plans are
worked out for each range unit in co-operation with the range-users, and the necessary
conditions to implement these plans are incorporated in grazing permits. Management
plans are amended from time to time, according to the requirements of the range. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 57
Range Surveys
An accurate inventory is a prerequisite of good range management. To determine
the extent and quality of the Crown range, primary grazing surveys are carried out each
year.   In 1956 the following areas were surveyed:— Acres
Big Lake Stock Range  233,000
Jamieson Creek Stock Range (part)     78,720
Okanagan Falls Stock Range (part)  135,000
Tranquille Stock Range (part)  182,400
Upper Kootenay Stock Range (part)     33,641
Windermere Stock Range (completion)  120,000
Total  782,761
This brings the total area covered by range surveys, from 1945 to 1956, inclusive,
to 7,673,171 acres.
The 1956 programme required 227 man-days of field work, and approximately
twice this amount of time will be necessary to work up the maps and develop suitable
management programmes for each of the ranges covered. In addition to the above
surveys, a number of extensive reconnaissances were also carried out, particularly in the
Prince George District. Also, a considerable number of range inspections were made to
determine the effectiveness of existing range-management plans.
Range-readiness Studies
Premature grazing is one of the most damaging factors to the range. It is, therefore,
essential to determine as accurately as possible when ranges are properly ready for grazing
use. Studies to this end were continued during 1956 on a number of permanent plots. As
information becomes available, any adjustments necessary in approved turnout dates
can be made.
Range Improvements
Practically all Crown ranges require improvements of one form or another before
they may be properly managed. Necessary improvements are paid for from the Range
Improvement Fund, set up under the provisions of section 14 of the "Grazing Act."
During 1956, $35,000.97 was spent from the Fund on range-improvement work, as
follows:—■
Three stock-bridges      $548.33
Eleven cattle-guards     3,756.33
Nineteen drift-fences     3,772.11
Two experimental plots         170.15
One hazard-removal        200.00
One holding-ground         152.88
One meadow improvement  75.00
Four mudhole-fences        814.41
Thirty-eight range-seedings     3,434.57
Twenty-four stock-trails     6,245.48
Seven water developments        688.00
One weed-control  85.00
Wild-horse disposal     2,382.41
Machinery and equipment (purchase)        146.19
Maintenance and operation of equipment .     993.06
Materials purchased but not assigned to projects  63.01
Supervision, surveys and technical studies 11,484.04 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In addition to the above projects, authority was extended to stockmen to construct,
at their own expense, the following improvements: Two breeding-pastures, three corrals,
seven drift-fences, one grazing-enclosure, two horse-pastures, one stock-trail, and one
water development.
In accordance with usual practice, most of the projects listed were constructed under
contract by live-stock associations or individual ranchers. In some cases, full costs were
charged to the Range Improvement Fund, while in others, costs were shared by the benefiting stockmen. Some work was also done by stand-by fire-suppression crews during
non-hazardous periods, at no cost to the Range Improvement Fund.
As has been the case in the last several years, considerably more work was planned
for 1956 than could be completed. This was due largely to the difficulty experienced by
stockmen in obtaining labour.
Increased range-seeding was a major feature of the 1956 range-improvement programme, practically twice as much seeding being done as in 1955. Most of the seeding
done was on logged-over or otherwise disturbed forest land. Excellent results have been
obtained from this type of seeding, and forage values have been materially increased on
a number of ranges. The above-noted cost covers the purchase price of seed only. All
of the labour necessary to apply the seed was supplied by co-operating stockmen and
Grazing Division personnel. Preliminary surveys and site selection, supervision, and
necessary continuing studies were carried out by Grazing personnel, with costs being
included under the general heading for this item.
The weed-control project, noted above, is a continuation of the goatweed (Hypericum perforatum) control project reported on in previous years, along with a minor
amount of work on Dalmatian toadflax and leafy spurge. Chemical control work on goat-
weed was limited to the use of 2,4-D on infestations considered particularly dangerous
as a source of further infection. Biological control studies on goatweed were continued
by the Forest Zoology Unit, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, with
the Forest Service co-operating. Although the Chrysolina spp. beetles being used in
this study continue to show some increase in numbers, they are still not proving a successful control agent in this Province. Several new beetle releases were made with beetles
collected from earlier plantings.
During the winter of 1955-56 all of the Kamloops and Nelson Grazing Districts
were closed to horses. Wild, useless, and unwanted horses remaining on the Crown
range during the closed periods were disposed of by rounding up and shipment for
slaughter wherever possible. Shooting was confined to those situations where round-up
and shipment was not practical. A total of seventy-seven horse-disposal licences were
issued. Horses cleared for shipment numbered 283, and 163 were shot on the range.
A bounty, or subsidy, of $5 on mares and geldings and $7.50 on stallions is offered on
horses shot or rounded up and shipped for slaughter. The cost of this work, noted earlier
in this Report, includes only the bounties and subsidies claimed, the cost of supervising
the programme being included under the general heading for this item.
Plant Collections
Additional specimens were added to the plant collections in the Kamloops and
Nelson offices during the year. These collections are a valuable aid in plant indentifica-
tion. A guide-book to the important range plants found in the Kamloops and Nelson
Districts, which has been in use for some time, was revised.
Range Research
All basic range research in this Province is carried out by the Canada Range Experiment Station at Kamloops. Considerable assistance was obtained from this station during
the year in dealing with various range-management problems.   During the year the station
J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 59
commenced carrying-capacity studies on certain range types, which will, in time, yield
extremely valuable information applicable to the Crown range.
CO-OPERATION
There are now forty-nine local range-livestock associations approved under the
" Grazing Act " and regulations. Preliminary steps have been taken toward the approval
of three additional groups, two of which are in the Peace River area, and only minor
details remain to be concluded at the year's end. The two parent organizations, the
British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep
Breeders' Association, and the several intermediate organizations remained active. Close
contact was maintained with all of these associations, and the spirit of co-operation displayed during the year was helpful in dealing with a wide variety of local and industrywide problems. Of a total of 136 association meetings reported, 118 were attended by
Forest Officers.
Close contact was maintained with various other agencies, amongst which were the
Range Experiment Station at Kamloops in connection with numerous technical problems,
the Game Commission regarding game-livestock relationships on the range, and the Live
Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture in connection with live-stock management
and disease problems. Indian Superintendents were helpful in dealing with the problem
of regulating Crown-range use by Indians.
Grazing personnel assisted in organizing and participated in the annual meeting of
the Pacific Northwest Section of the American Society of Range Management held at
Penticton in November. This international meeting was well attended by range technicians and ranchers from both sides of the border.
GENERAL CONDITIONS
As a result of severe weather conditions during the previous winter and a continuing
decline in cattle prices, 1956 was a difficult year for the range-livestock producer.
As indicated in our Report for 1955, the winter of 1955-56 commenced unusually
early and with extreme severity early in November. Winter feeding was required almost
immediately. Spring break-up did not occur until the usual time in 1956, thus resulting
in an extremely long feeding period. Hay was in short supply and, in spite of a considerable amount of supplementary feeding, stock were in generally poor condition at time of
turnout. Further, the sudden and early onset of severe weather conditions killed or
weakened many of the native forage plants, a very unusual situation. Many exposed
spring ranges did not yield their normal harvest of forage on this account. As a result
of the shortage of hay, there was a strong demand that stock be turned out before the
ranges were properly ready for use.
In general, spring ranges were ready for use at the normal time. Unusually warm
and dry weather during April and May resulted in early and rapid growth on early ranges,
but the yield was somewhat reduced due to a lack of moisture. Forested ranges were
not adversely affected by the early drought conditions, and wet weather during June
resulted in a lush growth of forage on the summer ranges. Dry conditions during the
latter part of the summer did not adversely affect forest-range production.
Although severe winter weather also caused considerable damage to cultivated hay
lands, hay yields were generally fair. Dry summer weather resulted in excellent haying
conditions, and the crop was generally of high quality.
Weather conditions during the fall of 1956 were favourable, with only the more
northerly areas experiencing appreciable quantities of snow before December. Fall
grazing conditions were, therefore, good and winter feeding commenced at about the
normal time. 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Stock, which came out of the previous winter in poor condition, in many cases took
until mid-July to regain condition. However, the excellent forage conditions prevailing
on summer ranges resulted in stock coming off the range in fair condition.
Grasshoppers were not a problem on the range in 1956. Such outbreaks as did
occur were controlled by the use of insecticides by the grasshopper-control zones.
Farm and ranch labour was extremely difficult to acquire. This resulted from the
competition of expanding industrialization in the Interior. Ranchers met the problem
by increasing mechanization wherever possible. However, many ranches cannot be
properly maintained under the present difficult conditions, and the rancher is not able
to give sufficient attention to range and live-stock management. The problem is further
intensified by the fact that declining cattle prices and rising costs are forcing many small
operators to seek supplementary employment in order to make a living. The labour
input into ranch and range management is further reduced thereby.
As a result of difficult economic conditions in the industry, many small ranches are
being amalgamated to form larger units. A few small marginal ranches have been
abandoned.
Markets and Prices
Cattle shipments were extremely heavy in 1956, being up .approximately 26 per
cent over the previous two years. Cattle prices showed a further decline and are now
considerably less than half of what they were in 1951. The heavy cattle shipments were
due partly to the necessity of reducing inventories, which had been increasing during
the last two years and, in many cases, owing to the necessity of meeting outstanding
obligations.
The British Columbia market continued to show a preference for grain-finished beef.
Owing to limited grain production in British Columbia, it is difficult for local ranchers to
compete with beef produced on the Prairies, where a grain surplus exists.
Lamb prices declined only slightly in 1956, and sheep and lamb shipments were
a little higher than in the previous year.   Wool prices advanced to a small extent.
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock on the range appeared to be about normal during the year, although
bears were particularly troublesome. Many reports of killings and damage by bears
were received. Theft of stock on the range continued to be a problem, but appears to
be kept within reasonable bounds through the vigilance of the ranchers and the police.
Diseases of Live Stock
There were no serious new outbreaks of disease necessitating extensive adjustments
in range allocation or management plans. However, it was necessary to continue to
make provision for a few herds to be grazed under quarantine conditions. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
6 1
ENGINEERING SERVICES
ENGINEERING SECTION
Engineering works were carried out on the Crown lands throughout all forest districts, primarily within public working circles. These included 92 miles of route reconnaissance, 62 miles of road location, 30 miles of new road construction, and general
maintenance work on roads previously constructed under the forest-development roads
programme. The following table shows the work accomplished to date under this
programme: —
Forest-development Road Programme in Public Working Circles, 1950—56
Provincial Forest or Public
Working Circle
Forest District
Class of
Road
Reconnaissance
Location
Survey
Constructed
5
3
4
5
2
3
4
2
3
5
6
3
2
3
4
5
3
4
5
4
3
5
3
5
4
5
5
Miles
23
17
10
4
29
8
15
26
16
5
8
12
29
22
15
5
14
21
20
25
20
7
25
20
13
10
20
Miles
21.2
12.1
8.9
3.9
29.0
7.5
14.9
26.0
16.0
3.9
5.0
22.8
18.9
6.4
14.0
7.0
16.0
10.4
18.0
8.1
Miles
10.1
12.1
Fort George	
Prince Rupert  	
24.0
9.5
26.0
Willow                      -	
Fort George  -
Nelson	
12.8
11 0
Vancouver 	
Vancouver  	
439
270.0
109.5
.
Road Reconnaissance
Feasible routes for access roads into eight stands of timber having a volume of
180,000,000 cubic feet and covering an area 167,000 acres in extent were established as
the result of field examination. In the Vancouver Forest District, reconnaissance was
completed on roads required adjacent to Clowham Lake and through the Soo River
valley. Five surveys were completed in the Nelson District, namely, Quartz Creek, Line
Creek, Monument Creek, Goat River, and Stirling Creek. A road was reconnoitred in the
Kwoiek Creek valley of the Kamloops District.
Road Location
During the year, roads were located and designed for the following public working
circles and sustained-yield units;.—
(1) Willow River—13.6 miles of main and secondary roads. The main road
system, which will service approximately 150,000 acres, has now been
located for 43 miles. 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
Cottonwood—10.4 miles of the Swift River Forest Development Road.
This is a start on the 50 miles required.
Chilliwack—20 miles of high-standard road designed for recreational and
logging traffic was located along the Chilliwack River.
Morice—8.7 miles of secondary road.
Similkameen—8 miles of the Lawless Creek Road.
Adams Lake—2 miles of the Finn Creek Forest Development Road.
: .,:>■
Heavy machinery employed in construction of Stone Creek
forest-development road.
Road Construction and Maintenance
Operating conditions were generally favourable throughout the summer months,
and the following projects progressed very satisfactorily:—
1. Morice Public Working Circle.—The Service's own forces constructed the Morice
Forest Development Road from Mile 17 to Mile 26. This work involved clearing 120
acres of right-of-way, excavating approximately 200,000 cubic yards of common material,
excavating 2,200 cubic yards of solid rock, placing 50,000 tons of surfacing, and installing
1,900 lineal feet of wood-stave culvert.
2. Willow River Public Working Circle.—(a) The Service's own forces completed
the 12.8 miles of high-speed road to the Willow River. This construction involved excavating 120,000 cubic yards of common material, excavating 1,000 cubic yards of solid
rock, placing 45,000 tons of surfacing material, and installing 1,100 lineal feet of culvert
pipe.
(b) Forest Development Road Contract No. 4 was let for construction of 10.3 miles
of main road southerly along the west bank of the Willow River. The contractor has
cleared 60 acres and partially cleared the remainder of the right-of-way. Limited grading
between Mile 12.8 and Mile 15.5 required the excavation of 9,000 cubic yards of common
material and 1,300 cubic yards of solid rock.
3. Cottonwood Public Working Circle.-—Operations began in July with the award
of a number of hand-clearing contracts. By the end of the year, clearing had been completed on 64 acres from Mile 0 to Mile 6. Grading equipment of the Service's own forces
was moved on to this project in September, and grade construction proceeded from Mile
0 to Mile 4. Grading required excavating 97,000 cubic yards of common material,
placing 6,000 tons of gravel, and installing 800 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
4. Naver Public Working Circle.—(a) Road construction by the contractor continued from Mile 12.2 to Mile 20.   During the year, right-of-way clearing and 5 miles of REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
63
Logging and road construction on Willow River forest-development road.
Bridge over the Naver River on a forest-development road. 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
subgrade were completed. This work involved clearing 43 acres, excavating 140,000
cubic yards of common material, removing 1,000 cubic yards of solid rock, placing
47,000 tons of gravel, and installing 1,200 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
(b) A bridge over Naver Creek was constructed under contract. The contract for
this single-lane creosoted-wood bridge, with an over-all length of 128 feet, was awarded
in 1955, but construction was delayed by weather conditions until June, 1956. Construction was completed in August, and the bridge was used by heavy equipment during the
latter part of the season.
5. Niskonlith Public Working Circle.—A contract was awarded in August for an
extension of 7.1 miles to the McGillivray Lake Forest Development Road. Clearing
operations were started and 22 acres were cleared between Mile 12 and Mile 16.
6. Salmon Arm Public Working Circle.—A contract for extending the Fly Hills
Forest Development Road from Mile 10.1 to Mile 13.7 was awarded in August. The
1956 operations were confined to clearing and grubbing. At the end of the year, 12 acres
of clearing and 6 acres of grubbing had been completed on the first Wi miles of the
contract.
7. The Upper Kootenay Public Working Circle.—A contract for the construction
of 20.5 miles of the White River Forest Development Road was awarded in June.
Clearing and grubbing progressed from Mile 0 to the vicinity of Mile 11. Clearing was
completed on 115 acres, 100,000 cubic yards of common material was excavated, 20,000
cubic yards of solid rock was removed, 10,000 tons of gravel was placed on the road, and
2,000 lineal feet of concrete culvert was installed.
8. Road Maintenance. — Maintenance work included snow-ploughing, clearing
frozen culverts, cleaning ditches, and improving drainage. This latter function is particularly important as drainage patterns are often changed by logging subsequent to road
construction. Repairs to road surfaces and routine grading continued. Maintenance
required 50,000 tons of road material and 300 lineal feet of culvert pipe.
General Engineering
Advice and consultation were provided for the various divisions of the Forest Service, particularly those concerned with timber sales, projects, structures, water systems,
boats, and small roads. Plans and specifications were prepared for two permanent bridges
in the Willow River and Cottonwood Public Working Circles. Design work continued
for bridges in the Morice, Chilliwack, and Willow River Public Working Circles. Soil
testing and identification continued throughout the Province. A field laboratory was
maintained at Prince George to assist Forest Service construction crews in that area.
Draughting services were continued as an aid to road location and construction. Various
plans for roads, small structures, and bridges were distributed.
J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
MECHANICAL SECTION
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
65
Type
Total Units,
Jan. 1, 1956
Removed
from Service
New
Purchases
Total Units.
Dec. 31, 1956
Sedans, coaches, and coupes _ —	
111
60
30
31
25
141
20
211
67
55
15
5
1
43
18
4
2
307
606
341
62
33
1
20
8
85
79
8
5
1
1
1
20
6
5
23
10
7
11
7
28
14
27
18
1
2
19
46
20
1
5
10
20
3
6
18
80
2
10
18
11
7
6
5
3
1
2
1
32
29
39
22
31
1
18
25
2
1
7
1
3
98
70
26
26
36
193
22
207
%-ton and 1-ton pick-ups    -	
14,000-22,000 G.V.W. trucks, 2- and 3-ton  	
25,000-40,000 G.V.W. trucks (H.D.)	
58
48
9?
11
1
47
19
5
4
1
320
589
360
83
64
Snow-sedan—propeller-driven    	
1
16
8
103
104
10
5
2
1
1
20
13
Cement-mixers  	
6
3
Equipment Selection
The total number of transport units has increased from 772 in 1955 to 818 in 1956
and, in addition, there are now some 145 private vehicles operating on mileage allowance
in general service, plus 119 cars used by official scalers on mileage. Although the total
number of units increases year by year, the number of strictly passenger-type vehicles
shows a decrease as more sedan deliveries, panel deliveries, station wagons, and other
combination passenger- and load-carrying types are put into service. The most marked
increase is to be noted in the number of four-wheel-drive %- or 1-ton pick-ups which are
gradually displacing the conventional Vi-\.on light deliveries as general-purpose Ranger
and Assistant Ranger vehicles. Lighting plants or electric generating sets continue to
increase in number despite the fact that power is reaching more and more Ranger stations.
Additional Ranger and Assistant Ranger stations, plus the advent of small generators for
trailers and for the operation of power-tools, account for a large percentage of the increase.
The Parks and Recreation Division opened up two park-access road projects which
required a good deal of additional heavy equipment. A 1-yard power-shovel, four tractors (two of 66 horse-power and two of 125 horse-power), a 7-9-yard pull scraper, and
a 100-horse-power grader were purchased. Equipment for two separate repair-shops had
to be obtained, with an 8-kilowatt electric generator for each location. Heavy- and
medium-weight trucks, air-compressors, and other road-building equipment were added.
Engineering Services Division added a 3/4-yard diesel power-shovel, a 2^-yard loader,
and a 7-yard powered scraper to its heavy-duty equipment. 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Muskeg-tractor with additional side-boards used by road-location party.
Outboard-motor horse-power ratings continued to increase, and whereas 22 horsepower was the highest rating used for many years, the present equivalent is now 30
horse-power. There is more and more demand for larger-size outboards in order to take
advantage of the additional speed they offer, but considerable concern is felt inasmuch
as there now appears a definite tendency to overpower, with a consequent increase in the
danger from striking a hidden object or overturning. The choice of the correct motor for
any particular hull is becoming increasingly controversial. Some tests were carried out
at the Forest Service Marine Station this year to demonstrate the wisdom of using a 15-
horsepower motor rather than a 3 0-horsepower under certain conditions, and it is felt that
the 15-horsepower motor is large enough for all but exceptional cases.
Purchase of fire-pumps remains stabilized around two Canadian-made pumps of
approximately 80 gallons per minute free flow or 300 pounds per square inch maximum
pressure, and one light-weight pump of 10 gallons per minute capacity with a capability
of 300 pounds per square inch maximum.
The muskeg-tractor purchased in 1955 and used during 1956 has proved successful
in muskeg, swamp, and mud. The success of its performance in snow is still somewhat
questionable, depending entirely upon the state of the snow—a factor that can vary considerably. Purchase of another one or two such units is contemplated for the northern
districts. The best type of machine for travel on snow is still subject to much discussion.
Several varieties are available, but it is doubtful if any one type will ever be effective over
all types of terrain and under all snow conditions.
An interesting product now on the market is the so-called no-spin differential. While
this is not a new idea, it does appear to be receiving renewed attention. One or two such
units have been put into operation in the hope that they will bridge the gap between the
on-highway and off-highway type of operation without going to the expense of four-wheel
drive. The greatest danger for mechanical failure would appear to come from expecting
the unit to emulate four-wheel drive.
General Supervision
The primary function of the Mechanical Section is to keep the many types of equipment used by Forest Service personnel in operation by preventive maintenance.  There REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
67
are two phases to this work. Firstly, regular periodic inspection of all units to uncover
dangerous conditions resulting from worn parts, and, secondly, analysis of the condition,
type of use, and previous history of each unit to decide the replacement point. The second
phase of the work is probably of greater importance. It involves the examination of
operators for the purpose of determining their capabilities, and general instructional work.
In this regard a two-week course in the operation and maintenance of mechanical
equipment has been a part of the curriculum of the Ranger School since the School was
organized.   Instructors are obtained from the staff of the Mechanical Section.
In addition to the Ranger School mechanical course, the Section organized a series
of two-day schools covering the operation and maintenance of four-wheel-drive vehicles,
particularly for the benefit of survey personnel. This course included such items as the
techniques of winching out of mud-holes and up extremely steep slopes. A total of fifty-
six persons received this training, and results have been so favourable that a significant
increase in the number attending the second series of courses in 1957 is expected.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION
This was the first in a number of years that tenders were turned down on a number
of building projects due to prices that were considered too high. This condition can be
attributed to a number of reasons. The primary one is the fact that the contractors are
very busy in the various cities and towns throughout the Province. In all cases except one
where tenders were not accepted, only a single bid was received. The above condition
pertains notwithstanding the fact that the residential field, both speculative and owner-
built, has been restricted due to lack of mortgage money in the last four months of 1956.
The other contributory factor is a perennial one, resulting from the remote location of
many Ranger stations. Despite remoteness, it has been possible in the past to attract at
least three bidders and, as a result, obtain a good cross-section of prices, with the lowest
within the estimate.
In an effort to arrive at. a satisfactory solution to the problem of high building costs,
simplification of design and details has received considerable attention. For instance, the
suitability of pole frame construction for some types of buildings is being investigated,
and the design of a four-car garage in this form will be completed shortly. Also, the use
of steel buildings for warehouses, etc., has been considered, but found to be more expensive than their wooden counterparts, at least in the vicinity of Vancouver. However,
there is a possibility that they may be justifiable for use in remoter locations.
The use of portable buildings was further developed, with three types now in production—caboose, bunk-house, and office. A further development in this line is the
proposed portable Assistant Ranger residence, which, it is felt, would prove more economical and flexible than either permanent houses or trailers. The accommodation is
similar to that found in a 32-foot trailer, and they are acclimatized for both temperature
extremes.
The year saw completion of the design and the letting of contracts for a seed-
extraction plant for the Reforestation Division at Duncan. When the buildings and
equipment are completed, facilities will be available to handle the receipt of green cones,
the complete processing of them, and the storage of the extracted seed under refrigeration until required for planting.
The ever-present problem of housing Forest Service workers for short or medium
terms has, for the last five years, been met by the use of house-trailers, and this trend
continues to expand into more and more of the Service's activities. During 1956, trailers
were supplied through this Division for the following purposes: Park-improvement crews,
protection road-maintenance crews, tree-marking crews, forest-development road-building
crews, and for temporary accommodation at Ranger stations pending the provision of
permanent buildings.    In at least one of the above applications it has been demonstrated 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
that this type of accommodation has resulted in a reduction of personnel turnover from
40 per cent down to 2 per cent per annum, and it is significant that this trend is being
followed extensively by other Provincial and Federal departments as well as by contractors, to whom specimen plans have been supplied when requested.
The details of the buildings programme are as follows: —
Forest Service Building Programme
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Stage of
Construction
Alert Bay 	
Cranbrook 	
Cranbrook—_	
Duncan—	
Duncan	
Elko  	
Fort Fraser..	
Fort St. James	
Fort St. James.	
Golden 	
Green Timbers
Ranger School-
Kettle Valley	
Lund	
Mesachie Lake-
Mesachie Lake -
Nelson. _	
Nelson.-	
100 Mile House-
100 Mile House .
100 Mile House..
Pemberton	
Quesnel 	
Summit Lake	
Telkwa	
Telkwa	
Float renewal-
Residence	
Vehicle-storage compound .
Seed-extraction plant..
Seed-extraction plant, electrical-
Assistant Ranger residence	
Warehouse -_	
Four-car garage - 	
Wharf replacement. 	
Ranger residence  _	
Addition - 	
Assistant Ranger residence.-
Ranger residence	
Bunk-house	
Office. —	
Air-conditioning _ _	
Heating addition	
Assistant Ranger residence-
Double office  ..—
Ranger residence ....
Garage .
Thurston Bay	
Thurston Bay.	
Valemount 	
Vancouver.. 	
Vancouver 	
Williams Lake	
Office addition and warehouse .
Four-car garage 	
Office and garage	
Ranger residence  _.	
Float renewal.  	
Ranger residence —	
Assistant Ranger residence	
Vehicle-shed    	
Warehouse  —	
Site purchase — —	
Contract  -
Contract	
Forest Service -
Forest Service -
Contract _....
Contract —
Contract	
Contract-
Contract	
Contract	
Forest Service-
Forest Service-
Contract.	
Contract —
Contract	
Contract 	
Contract	
Contract.	
Contract.	
Contract	
Contract _..
Forest Service .
Contract _
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Tenders too high.
Plans in preparation.
Completed.
Plans in preparation.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Plans in preparation.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Tenders too high.
Tenders too high.
Tenders too high.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Tenders called.
Completed.
Under negotiation.
Land Acquisitions and Reserves
Completed Pending
Purchases, private land for administrative sites   11 13
Reserves, Crown land for administrative sites „„ 37 31
Purchases, private land for rights-of-way     8 14
Reserves, Crown land for rights-of-way..  30 17
Totals  86 75
Sites were acquired for new administrative quarters at Blueberry, Little Prairie,
Tofino, Keremeos, Noralee, Sixty Mile, Sucker Creek, Telkwa, and Sayward. Land was
also acquired for extension to the Duncan and East Kootenay forest nurseries.
As other departments and private companies are acquiring sites on mountain-tops
for V.H.F. radio-telephone and radio-microwave units throughout the Province, it has
become necessary to reserve mountain-top areas for the Forest Service so that visibility
from the many established fire-lookouts is not impaired. It is also necessary to make sure
that our essential radio network is not obstructed. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 69
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
Marine Work
With the launching of the " Pacific Yew " and the purchase of the " Forest Cruiser "
(ex " Marine Explorer "), the coastal fleet now totals forty-three vessels. A second 34-
foot Assistant Ranger launch, similar in design to the " Pacific Yew " but engined with
a single diesel rather than twins, is nearing completion. Comparison of the performance
of the two craft should provide some interesting and useful information. A 40-foot
Ranger launch of new design is also being constructed and will be ready for launching
in 1957.
&-Jt|iWi
A new type of river or lake boat, 22 feet long, built by
Forest Service Marine Station.
The marine ways were occupied forty-two times and thirty-eight complete overhauls,
together with twenty-eight minor repairs, to launches were carried out. In addition, some
fifty small craft used by the Surveys and Inventory Division were reconditioned in
varying degree. Between repair jobs the staff found time to construct six 22-foot river-
boats, four 18-foot outboard cruisers, five dinghies, and various minor items such as
draughting-table stands.
Considerable concern has been felt for the safety of personnel using small craft in
Forest Service work. Sometimes persons doing field work have not had a great deal of
experience; hence it is important to provide as many safety features as possible. With
this in view, compartments filled with a light plastic material called " styrofoam " are now
installed for emergency flotation in all open boats and small cruisers. This material has
a buoyancy of 48 pounds per cubic foot and never becomes water-logged, nor does it
deteriorate with age. Another safety feature during the year was the installation of metal
" safety first" tags on all open boats and outboard runabouts. The tags show the maximum capacity in persons or pounds and maximum horse-power outboard motor allowable,
plus instructions that all personnel when using the craft must wear life-jackets at all times.
Prefabrication
The woodworking shop operated at capacity, producing a variety of products needed
by the Service for administrative and fire-protection purposes. Four Assistant Ranger
residences for isolated locations were prefabricated and shipped to various parts of the
Province. Nine 30-foot portable buildings for bunk-houses and field offices were constructed and supplied to the Engineering Section for use on road projects. Twelve sets
of furniture for lookouts and sixty-seven pieces of office furniture for Ranger stations 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
were assembled.    Other miscellaneous items included 125 special boxes and crates for
pumps, outboards, epidiascopes, etc., ten fire-finder stands, and eighty-two pump-carriers.
Machine-shop
Due to a relatively severe fire season, repair jobs on fire-pumps were up 18 per cent
from the previous year. Altogether 412 pumps, outboard motors, chain-saws, and lighting
plants were overhauled. In addition, over 100 units were tested prior to shipment to
the field. Other work accomplished included the manufacture of 263 pieces of equipment
such as fire-finders, hose ring-expander tools, high-pressure relief-valves, foot-valves, and
suction-hose fittings. One hundred and seventy-six hardware fittings for lookout buildings
were machined, as well as many similar items.
The programme for the year not only included the actual manufacture of the items
mentioned above, but, because many of them were new products, patterns necessarily had
to be prepared first. Patterns were turned out for the new hose relief-valve, hose ring-
expander tool, shaft-logs, stuffing-boxes, rudders, struts, lamp-bases, instrument-panels,
and special marine brackets of various kinds. Most of these items are used in new boat
construction.
General Plant Maintenance
General maintenance of the plant is a perennial item of expense in both labour and
money. Instead of painting buildings in 1956, asbestos shingles were applied, using casual
labour supervised by station personnel. It is hoped in this way to reduce painting costs
henceforth. Other maintenance included repairs to marine ways, dredging of boat-basins,
dredging of drainage-ditches, and installation of two new station signs.
The addition of a new 50- by 60-foot warehouse building during the year made
a significant improvement in the facilities for storing materials prior to manufacture and
finished products awaiting shipment. The shell of the building was erected by contract,
but the footings and subsequently the concrete floor were installed under the supervision
of the regular staff.
RADIO SECTION
Radio communication during 1956 continued the trend toward modernization with
very high frequency, frequency modulation equipment, and although the number of new
installations was small, the year was marked by intensive V.H.F. propogation surveys in
four forest districts, aimed at obtaining information for accelerated change-over in the
near future.
On July 1st, 1956, the Department of Transport issued a group of standard specifications which will in future be mandatory for the manufacture of certain classes of radio
transmitters. From the date of issue of each specification, users of such equipment will
be refused licence unless the sets purchased meet the standards of the specification concerned. To date ten specifications have been issued, and three of these affect Forest
Service facilities, as follows: —
Specification No. 103.—Enforces registration of all types not covered by numbered specification.
Specification No. 110.—Affects all marine radio in compulsory-fitted vessels.
Specification No. 112.—Affects all marine radio in voluntarily fitted vessels.
Of the above, No. 103 has no immediate bearing on our system, except that licences
will be refused for any type not registered. Specification No. 112 has been announced
but not actually issued; therefore, in purchasing new marine radio equipment at this time,
it is essential to buy Specification No. 110 approved sets, the latter being sufficiently rigid
to cover No. 112 when that specification comes into force.
Where ships are already fitted with radio equipment, a five-year period of grace is
allowed for replacement. Action to be taken during this period is described in a later
paragraph. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
71
New transmitting sets of all types (A.M. and F.M.) totalled ninety-five for the year,
while twenty-four obsolete sets were written off. Based on 880 units at the end of 1955,
the net total at December 31st, 1956, is 951.
Victoria radio headquarters.
New Radio Units 1956
Portable—Model B    _ 50
Mobile—MBL 25   20
Marine—
MRT 25 (25-watt)   1
MRT 400 (40-watt) approved Specification No. 110  2
Fixed-station sets—
LRT 100 (100-watt)   4
LRT 25 (25-watt)   1
Portable V.H.F., F.M.—two (transistor)   2
Fixed-station V.H.F., F.M.—
140 BR (60-watt)  10
RI43G (25-watt)   3
Mobile—CT43G  2
Total new sets, 1956 l__    95
Written off
24
Net increase during year     71
Total transmitting units, all types   951
Not included are 172 Type LWP fire portables. 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Vancouver District is the most affected by impending Specification No. 112.
While no immediate change is necessary to existing ship installations, two sets purchased
during the summer were of the new approved type, and arrangements have already been
made to write off and replace a percentage of our marine transmitters each year for the
next five years.
The long-expected withdrawal of 3430 kilocycles from our assigned channels took
place during the spring, and the change-over was implemented without undue loss of time
on the air. The new frequency, while subject to interference from United States stations,
has proved usable, though coverage north of Seymour Narrows was reduced during the
summer. To offset this, a new 200-watt transmitter was installed at the Vancouver headquarters station in November and over-all transmission was considerably improved.
In the V.H.F. field, a transmitter-house was built by Radio Section personnel under
the existing cupola at Elk Falls Lookout. In this was installed the third Vancouver
Island F.M. repeater, linking Campbell River and district with the Vancouver F.M. network. In addition, F.M. was supplied to Ganges, Mount Bruce Lookout, the Ranger
launch at Ganges, and, at a later date, to Port Moody. A propagation survey was made
from Squamish to Lund with generally promising results, but no equipment is at present
available for these sites.
The Prince George District, in the course of an early, severe fire season, suffered
almost total loss of communication during the hottest weather of the summer. Strong
sun-spot activity and the unfortunate position of the district frequency sandwiched
between that of Prince Rupert on one side and the Forest Survey and Engineering Division on the other combined to make radio communication completely unreliable. This
condition, to some extent, corrected itself later, but the experience was sufficient to show
that the medium frequency of 3382.5 kilocycles in this locality has ceased to be useful
to us except during winter months. Two radio propagation-survey crews investigated
V.H.F. possibilities for that part of the district south of Fort St. James, and Pilot Mountain was found to supply the necessary repeating for a considerable portion of the Prince
George Forest District. No time was available to investigate each lookout individually,
but it is expected that 90 per cent of these will be suitable for F.M. Equipment is at
present being assembled at Victoria which is expected to replace a large proportion of
the medium-frequency units now in use before the middle of next summer.
The Nelson District, due to the physical obstacles opposing V.H.F. transmission,
has not been investigated by a survey crew to date. A visual check was made to determine repeater-sites from which radio survey crews could operate next year. Moyie,
Thompson, and Red Mountain proved to be the most promising sites. In the medium-
frequency field, sun-spot activity played havoc with communication during the late afternoon throughout most of the summer, as it did in all districts, and conversion to V.H.F.,
where possible, is long overdue in this region.
Since no V.H.F. is in use or contemplated for Prince Rupert in the immediate future
due to the complete absence of suitable power-equipped repeaters, no network changes
took place other than the addition of portable and mobile units. Cross-talk from the
adjacent Prince George channel, which has always been severe, should be alleviated
next year as a result of the projected change to F.M. at Prince George.
The V.H.F. system at Kamloops, established the previous year, functioned satisfactorily until summer temperatures reached 90 degrees and over. In this temperature
range, signal refraction occurred between Silver Star repeater and Dufferin Hill, causing
a complete loss of signal for periods of one to three hours in the afternoon. The Kamloops radio staff made an emergency change of location at Silver Star repeater to a point
2 miles away from and 200 feet lower than the original site, the entire change being
completed in one day. Results from this location proved permanent, and the F.M.
system functioned without incident for the balance of the summer. It has not yet proved
possible to find a repeater-site which will cover both the Okanagan Valley and the Cari- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
73
boo between Cache Creek and 100 Mile. Lolo and Greenstone Mountains were investigated during the summer with inconclusive results, but the advent of a good road on
Greenstone Mountain and power on Timothy Mountain near 100 Mile promise an
expanded F.M. system in the near future. The problem of all-year-round operation of
Silver Star repeater is still unsolved. Failure of the parties interested to agree on the
question of power leaves the Forest Service with a gasoline-driven generator and with
the necessity for closing down during the winter months.
Victoria activities included a two-party radio propagation survey in the Interior
during the summer and a further survey on the Coast during the late autumn. In addition
to maintenance of the Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland F.M. system and the installation of new stations, laboratory work was, as usual, considerably in excess of the time
available. Projects completed included the modification and construction of transmitting
equipment, the design of improved remote receivers, and the assembly of factory stock
into complete V.H.F., F.M. units. It was found possible to effect a considerable saving
by buying chassis stock from the factory and assembling, wiring, and installing these in
standard cabinets, thus eliminating a great deal of expensive factory labour.
The radio-channel situation has resolved itself, and following the loss of 3430 kilocycles no further changes are expected. At the same time it is obvious that all our
medium-frequency channels have had their day, and that our increasing programme of
conversion to V.H.F. is in line with the trend of communication the world over. 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
After three successive seasons with below average fire danger, conditions during
1956 were moderately severe in the Nelson, Kamloops, and Vancouver Forest Districts.
The two northern forest districts, Prince George and Prince Rupert, experienced high
hazard, particularly during the early part of the season.
Near normal temperatures and above normal sunshine in April with below normal
precipitation combined to give an early fire season in spite of heavy winter snowfalls.
Above normal temperatures and sunshine in May and continuing rainfall deficiencies
gave serious build-up conditions throughout the Province and intensified the usual spring
hazard in the two northern districts. By the middle of the month, relative humidities
below 10 per cent and stick moistures below 3 per cent resulted in extreme conditions in
the Prince George Forest District. These conditions were alleviated early in June, with
general rainfall persisting throughout the month. Sunshine and temperatures were below
normal for this month throughout the Province, and rainfall was well above normal,
except in the south-eastern corner of the Province.
Warmer and drier conditions returned early in July and continued into mid-
September. However, several brief rainy periods spaced throughout August prevented
any serious build-up. A brief period of intense drying in the second week of September
was ended when fall rains set in about the middle of the month.
Frequency of lightning-storms appeared to be close to normal, but because of
accompanying rainfall or reduced intensity of storms, there were few serious outbreaks.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
The number of fires was the highest ever recorded. The occurrence by months
deviated somewhat from normal. The percentage of fires occurring in May was over
twice the ten-year average. The percentage of fires in July, March, and April was about
normal and the percentage in the other months was lower.
Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage of
Forest District Period 1947-56 All B.C.
Vancouver  5,020 32.26
Prince Rupert   756 4.86
Prince George  1,615 10.38
Kamloops  4,791 30.78
Nelson  3,380 21.72
Totals   15,562 100.00
The principal cause of fires was railways operating, which accounted for 39 per cent,
followed by lightning with 18 per cent. The actual number of fires from various causes
except railways operating followed the normal ten-year pattern. In the case of railways
operating, the large increase in the number of fires was due largely to more efficient
reporting.   (See Tables 53 and 54 in the Appendix.)
Cost of Fire-fighting
In 1956, fire-fighting costs amounted to $469,116, or $155,058 more than the
ten-year average.   For further tables of costs, see Tables 43, 59, and 61 of the Appendix.
The heaviest costs of suppression were again attributable to fires caused by lightning,
being 34 per cent of the total, although that cause only represented 18 per cent of the
total number of fires. report of forest service, 1956 75
Damage
The total area burned was estimated to be 469,648 acres (see Table 58). This is
\3A times the average annual acreage burned in the last ten years. Of the 413,825 acres
burned in the Prince George Forest District, 323,164 acres were non-commercial cover,
grazing or pasture land, or non-productive sites. Fires in the Peace River area of the
Prince George Forest District accounted for 364,342 acres. The total damage to forest-
cover was approximately 2l/i times the ten-year average. The largest fire, which was
150,000 acres, was in the Peace River Land District.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The work of plotting the current year's fires on the Provincial fire atlas is continuing.
The forest district offices are being supplied with fire statistics and fire-classification data
for district reference purposes.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
The field staff for this work was increased to two two-man crews. Seven lookouts
were photographed—four in the Prince Rupert Forest District, one in the Nelson Forest
District, and two in the Kamloops Forest District. Sixty-six potential lookout points
were visibility mapped—ten in the Vancouver Forest District, twenty-five in the Prince
George Forest District, and thirty-one in the Kamloops Forest District. Of the points
examined, fifteen will be recommended as primary points—two in the Vancouver Forest
District, five in the Prince George Forest District, and eight in the Kamloops Forest
District.
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles
Preliminary field work was carried out in three public working circles this year—
one each in the Prince Rupert, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest Districts. Work in the
Willow Working Circle in the Prince George Forest District was deferred, pending final
location of the proposed highway through the area. Reports are currently being compiled
on the three first-mentioned working circles.
The fire-protection access-road programme was continued this year, extending last
year's construction through the southern boundary of the Spallumcheen Working Circle
on to Moore Lookout in the Kettle Working Circle. Two connections with existing access
roads were made. Approximately 20 miles of new road was constructed, and approximately 13 miles of 1955 construction improved.
Miscellaneous (Air-photo Mosaics)
Coverage has been extended to the eastern part of the Kamloops Forest District and
part of the Nelson Forest District, with twenty-one mosaics completed this year, making
a total of 128 mosaics available for use in the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest
Districts.
All mosaics have been photographed, and the negatives filed in the Protection office.
Prints may be obtained through the Air Photo Library, Department of Lands and Forests,
if desired by the general public.
FIRE-WEATHER RECORDS AND INVESTIGATIONS
The Model 8 burning-index meter developed at Missoula, Montana, was used
exclusively in the Nelson Forest District this season and appears to be usable in that
district without modification. 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The fire-weather reporting network is being slowly expanded throughout the Province, particularly in areas where there has previously been little or no coverage.
The build-up index, using the moisture content of 3-inch logs, was tested in the
Vancouver Forest District and shows considerable promise as a basis for operational
planning. Limited field tests in connection with this study were again carried out in the
vicinity of Langford.
Preliminary plans have been drawn up to have two research teams of the Canada
Forestry Branch conduct fire-weather studies in British Columbia next season with a view
to modifying their Fire Danger Tables for possible use in this Province.
During 1956, 591 sets of fuel-moisture indicator sticks were distributed. Of these,
391 went to industrial operators, an increase of seventy-five sets over 1955.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Sixteen suppression crews, averaging ten men each, were again employed during
the summer for approximately 100 days. They attended 181 fires, of which 91 per cent
were held to a size of 5 acres or less. When not fighting fire or on fire stand-by, the
crews worked on improvements and training.
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities
Size of Fire When Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
lA Acre
or Less
Over V*
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to Vi acre)	
Over 14 acre and up to 1 acre—-
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres —
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres
Over 50 acres  	
Totals  	
115
20
34
. 7
5
106
107
7
19
26
1
1
30
32
AIRCRAFT
Protection flying was continued under contract with Pacific Western Airlines Limited, who supplied six float-planes. A total of 2,478 flying-hours were logged throughout
the Province during the period April 15th to November 15th, as follows: —
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours Flown
Vancouver     ■
Vancouver	
Beaver  , - 	
287
548
Beaver  _ __	
431
Kamloops	
665
547
2,478 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
ROADS AND TRAILS
77
The Service continued to add to the network of roads and trails throughout the
Province as shown in the table below.
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
1
Miles              Miles
11.50              44.75
546.25      |       186.00
Miles
38.50
135.75
Miles
94.75
Road maintenance - - -	
868.00
557.75      |      230.75
174.25
962.75
5.00               51.50
465.00             304.50
17.50
74.00
74.00
Trail maintenance - -	
843.50
470 no     I     isfi.on
91.50
917.50
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
During 1956 the acreage logged in the Vancouver Forest District was the largest on
record. Spring burning was done on a somewhat larger scale due to favourable weather
and actually had to be stopped because of the early spring hazard. No damage to forest-
cover occurred either as a result of spring or fall burning of logging slash.
The weather at fall burning time was very spotty. The hazard resulted in a closure
from September 7th to September 10th, and following this there was not any specific
period during which burning conditions were ideal over the whole district at one time,
although good weather breaks occurred as late as the end of November.
Three snag-falling contracts were awarded by the Protection Division during the
year, comprising a total area of 5,706 acres. The contracts totalled $57,900.25. These
contracts were let in the Campbell River, Pender Harbour, and Chilliwack areas. In addition, the Reforestation Division crews felled snags on 3,660 acres on the Coast and 1,071
acres in the Interior preparatory to planting.
For a further analysis of slash and snags, see Tables 45 to 52, inclusive, in the
Appendix.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
The 105 prosecutions were over double the ten-year average. The largest number
of prosecutions were instigated because of contraventions of forest closures in the Vancouver Forest District. The prosecutions are further analysed in Table 62 of the
Appendix.
FOREST CLOSURES
Twelve regional closures were imposed during the fire season,
closures is shown in the following table.
Forest Closures, 1956
The summary of
Area
Forest District
Type of Closure
Effective
Date
Termination Date
Entire Vancouver District ___	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
May 24
May 31
May 31
July 23
July 26
July 27
July 30
July 30
July 31
Aug. 14
Aug. 14
Sept. .7
Entire Vancouver District ...	
Bella Coola    	
Travel 	
June   4
Vancouver.	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson —	
Nelson _.
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Vancouver	
Aug.   2
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Aug. 28
Aug. 28
Sept.   5
Aug. 30
Aug. 30
Sept. 10
Recreational.	
Recreational	
Recreational	
Recreational	
St. Mary River—	
Blueberry Creek  . - 	
Southern part of Vancouver District....
Recreational	
Restricted industrial and travel 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES
During the 1956 fire season, 919 Honourary Fire Wardens accepted appointment.
These public-spirited citizens take voluntary action on fires which occur in their vicinity,
and their invaluable aid in reporting and fighting fires is acknowledged with appreciation.
In addition, there were 1,313 Forest Fire Prevention Officers appointed under section
123 of the " Forest Act." These men, appointed at the request of their employers, have
the same authority as a Forest Officer on the particular operation with which they are
concerned. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1956 79
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS*
FOREST-INSECT SURVEY
An important development during 1956 was the formation of an informal committee
composed of representatives from the British Columbia Forest Service, several logging
companies (Alaska Pine and Cellulose Limited, Canadian Forest Products Limited,
Powell River Company Limited, MacMillan & Bloedel Limited, and Crown Zellerbach
Canada Limited), and the Forest Biology Division to deal with the black-headed budworm outbreak on the northern half of Vancouver Island. The original objectives of the
committee were to co-ordinate activities between the various agencies concerned with
the problem and to serve as a planning organization for any action considered necessary
to cope with the situation. Toward the end of the year the industrial members of the
group were considering the establishment of a permanent committee and broadening
its scope to cover all forest-insect problems. The committee has functioned effectively
and has several major accomplishments to its credit.
During 1956 the black-headed budworm on the northern part of Vancouver Island
covered a gross land area of about 3,000 square miles. In 990 square miles of this
area, hemlock was severely defoliated. It was anticipated that some control action
might have to be considered for 1957 if the outbreak showed signs of continuing, and
because no previous spraying has been done against this insect, an aerial spraying experiment was carried out in 1956. The objectives were to determine if the standard formulations and dosages of DDT, used against other forest defoliators, would be effective,
and to demonstrate which larval instars were most susceptible to the spray. The experiment was supported financially and with man-power by the member organizations of the
committee and was organized and directed by officers of the Forest Biology Division.
The tests showed that all larval stages from the second to the fifth (last) instar, inclusive,
were susceptible to the spray, which provides a time interval of from four to five weeks
for control operations, and that the application of 1 imperial gallon of fuel-oil containing
1 pound of DDT per acre killed almost 100 per cent of the larvae.
In the fall of 1956, again with the support of the committee, a comprehensive egg
survey was made of the infested areas to predict the trend of the outbreak for 1957. The
survey indicated that about 150,000 acres of hemlock in the Englewood-Port Hardy-
Neroutsos Inlet triangle, which has been heavily defoliated for the last two years, can
expect moderate to severe defoliation in 1957, if natural control factors fail to reduce
the population substantially. This would expose the stands to the danger of tree mortality and extensive top-killing. As the agencies concerned with the management of
these forests consider that this risk cannot be taken, plans are being made to spray these
high-hazard stands in 1957.
The one-year-cycle spruce budworm outbreak in the Lillooet River and Lake area
spread southward, eastward, and northward. The area infested increased to 450 square
miles, but the intensity of defoliation decreased, and there was an over-all reduction in
the egg population, thus indicating a continuation of the downward trend evident in 1956.
The two-year-cycle spruce budworm in the Babine Lake area of Prince Rupert Forest
District heavily defoliated spruce-balsam stands over about 1,000 square miles.
Douglas fir beetle populations declined on the Coast and in the Interior. This
reduction is attributed in part to the high mortality of over-wintering stages during the
severe winter of 1955-56. Around Lac la Hache the number of beetles was reduced
to about one-third of the 1955 population, and the number of trees attacked was correspondingly lower. In the Nimpkish and Lillooet River valleys, new 1956 attacks were
also much lighter than in 1955.
* Prepared by R.  R. Lejeune, Forest Zoology Unit  (Victoria, B.C.), Forest  Biology Division, Science Service,
Canada Department of Agriculture. 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Full-grown larva of the black-headed budworm feeding in a new shoot of western hemlock. ■
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
81
;'3
~—   i-^.-^^teij
•
**    «^
Removing foliage samples from trees to determine percentage of budworms killed by spray treatment. 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The effect of DDT spray for preventing defoliation of western hemlock by black-headed budworm
Branch at left was not sprayed while branch at right was sprayed about mid-June. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
83
m
Larva of parasite emerging from its dead black-headed budworm host.
Small but severe infestations of the phantom hemlock looper developed in Central
Park, Burnaby, and Queen's Park, New Westminster. The Central Park infestation was
sprayed with DDT in early August, with good results.
Other important pests causing damage in localized areas were the mountain-pine
beetle in the Morrison-Babine Lake area; spruce bark-beetles in the Nun, Monk, and
Summit Creek valleys of the Nelson Forest District; and the pine-needle scale on
ponderosa pines bordering fruit-orchards in the Okanagan Valley.
As part of a nation-wide programme by the Forest Biology Division, an effort is
being made to obtain more realistic estimates of losses caused by insects and diseases.
Estimating losses caused by bark-beetles presents difficult problems in developing suitable
techniques and in adequately coyering the areas involved. A solution to these problems
is being sought by intensive studies and observation, particularly in the Interior.
RESEARCH PROJECTS
Research was continued on several phases of the ambrosia-beetle problem. Particular attention was given to determining the effect of time of felling and removal of logs
from the woods on intensity of attack and on distribution of over-wintering beetles in
duff, in several areas. Further work was done on the symbiotic relationship between
fungi and beetles, and in studying changes of internal organs in beetles as related to
their behaviour. Progress was made in the separation and identification of volatile
substances removed from the sapwood of logs attractive and not attractive to ambrosia-
beetles. This project is being carried out at the University of British Columbia in
co-operation with the Forest Biology Division.
A thorough study was made of insects attacking western white pine in the Southern
Interior to see if there was any evidence of association between pole-blight disorder 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
and insect activity. The work was done in co-operation with the Pathology Unit with
assistance from the Forest Service. No evidence was obtained to indicate a connection
between insects and pole-blight.
In the central part of the Province, efforts were made to obtain more information
on attack patterns, brood development, and the effect of parasites, predators, and competition on survival of the Douglas fir beetle. Studies were begun on flight capacity and
flight behaviour of this species.
The Christmas tree industry in Eastern British Columbia has been disturbed by the
heavy defoliation during the past three years caused by infestations of the Douglas fir
needle-miner.    Natural control factors and the biology of this insect are being studied.
Investigations were continued of the hemlock looper, insect diseases, and of the
biology and taxonomy of several forest insects.
PERSONNEL AND FACILITIES
Through the co-operation of the Department of Lands and Forests, a reserve was
placed on a tract of land near Cowichan Lake for ambrosia-beetle research.
Two research officer positions were transferred from Vernon to Victoria during
the year. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 85
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS *
Although major interest was expressed in problems of decay and deterioration in
mature forests, requests received from the Forest Service and industry during the year
demonstrated an awareness of pathological problems affecting second-growth forests.
In recognition of this trend, steps were taken to strengthen forest-disease survey activities
in plantations and young forests generally.
Disease-survey activities were augmented by the submission of specimens and reports
of new and unusual occurrences of disease by Forest Service and industrial collaborators.
The Forest Service assisted further by assigning personnel to various co-operative
activities.
A second trailer, equipped to provide field-office and laboratory facilities, was
purchased during the year and assigned to the Interior region.
Publications pertaining to forest-disease conditions in British Columbia distributed
during 1956 included the following:—
Buckland, D. C, and Wallis, G. W.:   The control of yellow laminated root-rot
of Douglas fir.   For. Chron. 32:14-16.    1956.
McMinn, R. G.:  Studies on the root ecology of healthy and pole-blight affected
white pine.   In Can. Dept. Agr. For. Biol. Div., Bi-monthly Prog. Rept.,
12(6):3.    1956.
Wallis, G. W., and Buckland, D. C:   The effect of trenching on the spread of
yellow laminated root-rot of Douglas fir.    For. Chron.  31:356-359.
1955.
Three reports were prepared for regional distribution and technical reference during
1956.
FOREST-DISEASE SURVEY
During the year, 5,074 collections of diseased material were submitted to the
laboratory for examination. Approximately 90 per cent of these required cultural isolation and study to verify identification. Although many of the submissions duplicated
collections received in previous years, additional information was gained on the occurrence, distribution, and extent of damage associated with important forest diseases.
New records provided important information in regard to the occurrence of native forest
diseases recorded for the first time in British Columbia.
Forest-disease conditions featured a marked reduction in the incidence of infection
by foliage diseases. This trend was particularly well demonstrated by the status of needle
rusts, which were little in evidence in 1956 despite a very high level of infection during
the summer of 1955.
The unusually severe winter of 1955-56 resulted in heavy winter damage in several
regions. Early frost damage to western yellow pine was particularly noteworthy. This
species sustained severe foliage mortality over an extensive area. The severity of attack,
however, varied considerably both in regard to trees and stands. Thus it was not uncommon to find individual trees and groups of trees which showed no evidence of damage,
while adjacent trees and stands were severely attacked. Fifteen sample plots, containing
approximately 500 trees, were established in the Merritt-Princeton area to follow the
progress of affected trees and to determine the extent of subsequent mortality or damage.
Further steps were taken in regard to the registration of plantations of exotic tree
species. Thirty-three European and other non-indigenous tree species occurring in
twenty plantations on Vancouver Island and the Mainland Coast have been recorded in
laboratory files to date. Included in this number are species native to British Columbia
but planted beyond their normal geographical distribution.    Preliminary surveys to
* Prepared by R. E. Foster, Forest Pathology Unit  (Victoria, B.C.), Forest Biology Division, Science Service,
Canada Department of Agriculture. 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Winter-damaged and healthy western yellow pine in the vicinity of Princeton. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
87
determine the occurrence of disease were initiated in several plantations. Findings to
date have included the presence of a blister-rust disease on Scots pine on the Mainland
Coast. This disease is believed to be new to British Columbia. Examination of a
26-year-old lodgepole pine plantation uncovered severe damage by a number of diseases,
including blister-rust, stem-canker, and root-rot.
NURSERY, SEED, AND ORNAMENTAL-TREE DISEASES
Post-emergence damping-off was very light at the Campbell River and Green
Timbers nurseries and moderate at the Duncan and Cranbrook nurseries. At Cranbrook,
some of the yellow pine seed used was several years old and required a heavy rate of
sowing. Evidence was gained that such seed was more susceptible to pre-emergence
damping-off, probably because of its slower emergence. Some fungicides increased
emergence by 75 and 200 per cent as compared to controls.
Continuing investigations were undertaken on root-rot of ornamental cypress.
Examinations of native species established adjacent to infected nurseries failed to reveal
any evidence of spread of the disease to natural stands.
:%:
>";
as?
Vf;     **%M
Die-back of Douglas fir showing dead leaders and development of the laterals. DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Logging-damaged northern white spruce in the Prince George Forest District. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 89
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS
Investigations of yellow laminated root-rot of Douglas fir demonstrated the presence
of this disease on roots as small as 0.04 inch in diameter and at soil depths of 3 feet.
Active mycelium was encountered on the roots of apparently healthy trees, and it was
evident that root deterioration may proceed to an advanced stage before crown symptoms
become evident. No significant differences were apparent in the development of Poria
weirii in sample plots established in thinned and unthinned stands in 1952.
Excavations of western white pine designed to appraise the condition of roots in
healthy and pole-blight-affected trees were concluded during the year. Twenty-two
additional trees were excavated, bringing the total sample to twenty trees with healthy
crowns and seventeen in varying stages of decline. Analyses completed to date have
shown that trees exhibiting pole-blight symptoms in their crowns had suffered severe
reduction of the absorptive root system and considerable mortality in structural elements.
This deterioration was most severe in trees in a late stage of pole-blight.
Further examinations were made of permanent sample plots established in the
Arrow Lakes region in 1950 and 1951 to study the progress of pole-blight and the effect
of sanitation thinning.
Studies were initiated on a condition of die-back in young Douglas fir reported on
Vancouver Island and the adjacent Lower Mainland. Severe damage was reported in
local areas in the vicinity of Sooke and near Salmon River in the Sayward Forest.
Studies are in progress to determine the causal agent and the conditions which have
contributed to the present outbreak.
Examinations were made of blister-rust disease garden and outplanting areas, but no
further selecting or grafting was undertaken. Five hundred seedlings were imported
from Montana for use in future grafting programmes.
DISEASES OF MATURE FORESTS
A total sample of 399 spruce and 380 balsam was obtained in the Prince George
Forest District to determine sampling criteria in regard to the incidence and importance
of decay in logging-scars following partial cutting. Samples obtained in the vicinity of
Summit Lake, Willow River, Giscome, Upper Fraser, and Stone Creek demonstrated
important differences between tree species.
An examination was made of winter-damaged and bark-beetle-attacked Douglas fir
in the Lac la Hache area. Forty trees were analysed in 4-, 8-, and 16-foot lengths and
in three diameter classes to determine the intensity of sampling required in future studies
of rate of pathological deterioration. Applicability of a tree-ring dating technique was
also tested.
A further examination was made of plots established in wind-thrown spruce and
balsam in the Prince George Forest District. Differences in the rate and nature of
deterioration in these species were apparent.
A total of 1,531 samples were drawn from eighty-four forest-inventory plots
established and felled by the Surveys Division in 1953-54. Major emphasis was placed
on the Douglas fir-yellow pine type in the Interior region. Nineteen areas were examined
in the Kamloops and two in the Nelson Forest Districts. These studies were designed
in part to determine the nature of decay associated with Interior fir and yellow pine and
in part to examine the deterioration that had developed subsequent to felling.
A reanalysis of data pertaining to decay in the Kitimat region was initiated. In this
study statistical treatment was afforded 424 balsam and 496 hemlock previously sampled
in four areas within the Kitsumgallum and Lakelse watersheds.
Field work was terminated on a study of hemlock forests on the west coast of
Vancouver Island. Analysis of data obtained demonstrated that sampling methods
employed were inadequate and that reliable information to assist in the orderly removal
of mature forests requires a broader approach than that initially developed. 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Winter-damaged and bark-beetle-attacked Douglas fir in the Lac la Hache area. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
91
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
The Forest Service Ranger School was established on January 7th, 1946, for the
purpose of training field personnel in Departmental work and responsibilities as well as
more intensive education in forestry generally.
Since the School was established, eight classes of approximately twenty students
each have graduated. The first three classes, comprised mostly of permanent Rangers,
were given six-month courses consisting of three-month spring and fall terms, thus
permitting the students to return to their respective districts for the hazardous summer
months. Commencing with the class which started in January, 1949, the training period
was extended to three three-month periods; that is, January to early April, October
through December, and January to early in April of the succeeding calendar year. The
added term was introduced when experience showed up a need for even better grounding
in basic procedures to compensate for the lack of field experience apparent in the Assistant
Rangers, from which future Ranger replacements and staff additions would be drawn, and
because of the increased complexity of the field work resulting from more intensive forest
management.
The men selected to attend the Ranger School are chosen after a rigid screening
process, consisting of oral and written examination and a review of their previous records
and aptitudes. New men are not eligible to undertake the examinations for attendance
until they have served at least the equivalent of two seasons with the Forest Service and
their services have been found to be satisfactory. Only the most promising men are
selected from the total number eligible. In spite of limited dormitory space, the class
commencing in September, 1956, was increased to thirty.
A programme of permanent building construction was undertaken in 1948, and the
first unit, consisting of an up-to-date combined classroom, workshop, and administration
building, completed. Work also was started on a dormitory to provide living accommodation for twenty-one students, visiting instructors, and kitchen staff. This building was
ready for occupancy in 1949. Provision has been made for increasing the accommodation this year as a result of the increased enrolment. Since 1949, various improvements
have been made, principally in connection with grounds and driveways. This programme
has been a continuing one, with a number of small contract jobs and some work done by
small hired crews each year.
The eighth class, consisting of twenty-one men, graduated in April. The ninth class
of thirty men was enrolled in September and is due to graduate in December, 1957.
The increase in enrolment has made necessary adjustments to the time allotted to
some courses and has required extra instructional assistance, particularly in courses
involving practical skills.
Starting with the ninth class, a course in typewriting was introduced on a trial basis.
The work of revision of several of the courses was continued to bring them up to date
with recent developments in the administrative and technical fields.
Subjects given during the year were as follows:— 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Final Term, Eighth Class, Spring, 1956
Days
Subject Allotted
Management Policy and Procedure  17
Construction Technique   9
Stumpage Appraisal  6
Mechanical—Theory and Field   12
Silviculture   7
Ranger District Organization  8
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips  12
Total days ,  71
First Term, Ninth Class, Fall, 1956
Days
Subject Allotted
Fire Law and Operation Procedure   16
Public Speaking  5
Botany and Dendrology .  9
Pathology  . :  3
Entomology  3
Construction—Roads, Trails, and Telephones  4
Forest Inventory—Mapping  3
Mathematics Review  6
Surveying    12
Examinations, visitors, and field-trips  6
Total days  67
EXTRA COURSES
A five-day course for lookoutmen followed the spring term. Twenty men completed
the course and later were appointed to stations in the Vancouver Forest District.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Thanks are due to lecturers and speakers provided by the following agencies: Forest
Pathology and Forest Entomology Sections, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture; the Canadian Forestry Association; Faculty of Forestry, University of British
Columbia; the Provincial Fire Marshal's Office; the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
(Cloverdale Detachment), and lecturers supplied by other divisions of the Forest Service. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
93
FOREST ACCOUNTS
New peaks again were established by both the volume and value of business handled
by this Division during 1956, details of which can be found in the various financial and
other tables included elsewhere in this Report.
The total revenue collected climbed to an unprecedented $30,088,096. This exceeds
the total for 1955, the previous high, by 30.1 per cent and is over 100 per cent greater
than the ten-year average of $14,689,821, which is striking evidence of the growth taking
place in the last few years. As might be expected, the largest increase was in the principal
source of revenue, timber-sale stumpage, and resulted from higher average stumpage
prices received, coupled with a continued increase in volume of timber cut. Most other
categories of revenue also increased, but it is interesting to note that timber royalty
declined to $2,069,424, the lowest total since 1945. This may be due to various factors,
such as the volume cut from areas involved, types of material being harvested, and the
species and grades available.
The rate of collection continued at a high level up to the year's end, but the outlook
for the future was uncertain. The lumber market in the United Kingdom reportedly
softened during the year, and there were indications that credit restrictions in both the
United States and Canada were beginning to have a detrimental effect on those markets.
Lower stumpage prices were being received on new sales of Crown timber, and fluctuations in selling prices required more frequent adjustments of sliding-scale stumpage rates,
resulting in increased activity in the timber-sale records section.
Centralization of expenditure accounting was completed by April 1 st, and the volume
of this phase of the work was considerably increased as a result of expanded programmes
undertaken by Parks and Recreation and Engineering Services Divisions. Payrolls for
up to 1,800 employees monthly were being originated during the summer months in this
Section, and the extension of unemployment insurance coverage to new categories added
materially to the volume of record-keeping.
The Expenditure section of the Accounting Manual was completed and issued to
all districts and divisions.   Preparation of the various other sections is proceeding.
Continued interest was shown in log salvage permits, and by the end of the year
a total of 477 had been issued. 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL
ORGANIZATION
Two new Ranger districts were established during the year — one at 100 Mile
House in the Kamloops Forest District and one at Quesnel in the Prince George Forest
District. The new districts were created by splitting former overloaded districts. In the
Nelson Forest District a member of the research staff was established with permanent
headquarters, rather than on seasonal transfer as formerly. In the three Victoria headquarters divisions of Research, Public Relations, and Surveys and Inventory, all
permanent-staff salaries were transferred from the Salary Vote to the respective divisional
votes in the same manner as had previously been done for the Engineering Services,
Reforestation, and Parks and Recreation Divisions. At the same time certain accounting
functions, principally to do with the processing of all vouchers and payrolls, were transferred from some of these divisions and centralized under the Victoria Accounts Division.
Numerous changes in office accommodation and location took place in order to
better accommodate the various sections and branches of the Service. Of these, the
most notable took place at Prince Rupert, where the new Forest Service Building was
occupied.
SERVICES
The functions of personnel administration carried out by the Division remained
substantially the same as in the previous year, namely: Employment office for staff
recruitment, selection, placement, and handling of inquiries, correspondence, and documents regarding employment; information bureau for inquiries regarding location or
service of present and former employees; personnel records office; administrative office
dealing with leave, retirement, efficiency ratings, establishment control, work-organization
advice, salary and classification administration; liaison office for resolving Forest Service
personnel matters with the Civil Service Commission and British Columbia Government
Employees' Association; communication centre for instruction, training, and promulgating of personnel policies and information; employee-counselling service and personnel-research centre. As a result of increasing activities and services, it was found
necessary early in the year to reorganize the duties of the Personnel Office staff and to
add a position of clerk-stenographer to the permanent establishment, bringing the total
to five. A much higher proportion of the Personnel Officer's time during the year was
spent in negotiations for salary increases and reclassifications.
During the year, discussions and negotiations were carried on with the Government
Employees' Association in seven matters of grievance, of which six were satisfactorily
settled and one remained unsettled at the end of the year.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
At the beginning of the year there was a considerable backlog of work due to the
time-consuming staff survey of the previous year. This backlog, together with the
excessive amount of time required during the year in negotiating for more equitable
salaries and classifications, reduced to 6 per cent the time spent by the Personnel Officer
in visits throughout the forest districts. This was less than one-third of the time spent
during each of the previous three years. Only four districts and the Ranger School
were visited, with an average of a week and a half in each district. Ranger meetings
were attended at Kamloops and Nelson, and talks were given in two sessions at the
Ranger School. The Personnel Officer also attended the meeting of Forest Management
Officers held in the spring at Green Timbers and gave a talk and led discussion on safety
at the Forest Protection Officers' meeting in Victoria in the fall. A District Foresters'
meeting was not held, but instead the District Forester and his assistant were called from
each district for individual consultations with Victoria divisions.
J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 95
In further efforts to maintain and develop improved communication and understanding within the Forest Service, the Public Relations and Education Division obtained
approval to publish a special Christmas edition of the " Forest Service Newsletter,"
a former monthly publication. One issue of " Personnel Notes " was prepared, and
subscriptions were continued to the publications " Daily Memos for Supervisors," distributed to all Ranger and Scaling Supervisors, and " Just between Office Girls," circulated amongst the various divisional and district office staffs.
In the field of training, three senior members of the Forest Service professional and
clerical staff were selected for the first class of the newly established Executive Development Training Plan, sponsored by the Government through the University of British
Columbia. Arrangements were also made for thirty-two senior executive and supervisory
personnel to attend a one-day course in Human Relations, Man Management, and
Supervision, presented through the British Columbia Safety Council and the University
Extension Department. Seven members of the Vancouver area staff directly connected
with production and training took part in a one-day workshop on " How to Get Results
through People " sponsored by the American Institute of Training Directors. The Personnel Officer attended the eighteenth conference of the Pacific Northwest Personnel
Management Association as the Victoria Chapter president and received instruction in
the Incident Method of supervisory training and in conducting Brain-storming Sessions
for obtaining ideas that work in problem solution.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by the
Legislative Assembly for the fiscal year commencing April 1st, 1956, was 866, with
eleven additional positions provided under the Salary Contingencies Vote, an increase
of fifty-six positions over the previous year. Six of the additional positions, plus two
others not anticipated, were approved by Order in Council and filled during the year.
During 1956, 204 persons received Civil Service appointments and 125 left the permanent service. One twenty-five-year service badge was earned. There were six retirements during the year. Eighty-three transfers of permanent staff took place, almost
double the previous year. Permanent staff turnover for the year averaged 14.3 per
cent, with heaviest losses in the Prince George and Vancouver areas, followed by
Kamloops and Prince Rupert. There was a 7.3-per-cent turnover in permanent technical
staff, a 5.5-per-cent turnover in professional staff, and a 25.9-per-cent turnover of clerical
and draughting staff. Turnover of the latter group in the Prince George area reached
48.1 per cent by the year's end. The loss of fifteen graduate foresters with an aggregate
of over 114 years' experience with the Forest Service was seriously aggravated by extreme
difficulty in recruiting, due primarily to non-competitive salaries offered. Only three
members of the 1956 forestry class from the University of British Columbia were
recruited.
Despite a stepped-up safety consciousness, two fatal accidents occurred during the
year when a seasonal fieldman was drowned on Vancouver Island and a company
fire-fighter on Forest Service payroll was drowned in the Prince George District.
Some 325 applications for employment were handled by correspondence in the
Personnel Office alone, apart from Youth Training Camp applications and many others
handled through divisional and district offices. Written examinations were held for
three promotional positions, and oral examinations at panel interviews were employed in
filling fourteen positions. The Personnel Office also participated in making selections
for 112 other Civil Service positions.
At the annual spring examination for Assistant Rangers, 187 candidates sat, of
whom forty-three passed and thirty-eight accepted employment. As there were sixty-one
vacancies for Assistant Rangers, the remaining positions were filled on an acting basis
by candidates not fully qualified. 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
It was found necessary to establish eight new position classifications. These were
Assistant Superintendent of Construction and a combined grade of Captain and Engineer—Launch in the technical group. In the professional group a fourth grade of
Forester and third grade of Assistant Engineer were created, as well as four grades of
Engineering Assistant. These latter positions were necessitated by the extreme shortage
of professional engineers and make possible the promotion of experienced but sub-
professional men to the equivalent of Project Engineer and Area Supervisor status.
Changes were also made in the position specifications and classification status of the professional groups of Agrologists, Engineers, and Foresters and in the technical groups of
photographic positions, Radio Operators, and Building Construction Section.
Numerous individual position classification reviews were carried out. Of the 156
which were submitted to the Civil Service Commission for approval of reclassification—
over double the previous year—138 were approved and eighteen were rejected. During
the year one merit increase was withheld. One dismissal by Order in Council was
required and there were two demotions.
At the commencement of the fiscal year in .April, the Government announced that
certain funds had been set aside for fairly general salary increases throughout the Civil
Service. Some 75 per cent of the 133 permanent classifications in the Forest Service
benefited by this increase, as allocated by the Civil Service Commission, in amounts
ranging from 3.8 to 14.5 per cent. Prior to April, approval was obtained for a substantial increase in Assistant Ranger salaries and in rates for University Student Assistants, seasonal Forest Survey Assistants, and seasonal Engineering Aides in an effort to
improve recruitment in these categories. Subsequent to the Civil Service revisions,
general revisions were approved affecting the wages of all casual " outside " staffs.
Resulting from the Commission's allocation of increases throughout the Civil Service
staff, some anomalies soon became apparent. This unhappy situation was aggravated
by the continuing substantial wage increases occurring in outside business and industry.
Adjustments were soon made in the classifications of Forest Assistant—Grades 2
and 3, Drivers, Assistant Rangers, Camp Cooks, and Foremen. Later, through the
combined efforts of the Official Scalers' Association, industry, and Forest Service senior
officers, fairly substantial increases were obtained for the scaling field staff, Rangers,
Ranger Supervisors, and Forest Assistants—Grades 4 and 5. Subsequently some adjustments were obtained in the radio classifications, Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent of Construction, Langford Workshop Foreman, Nursery Superintendents, Assistant Forest Agrologist—Grade 3, and in the specifications and salaries pertaining to
stand-treatment and cruising crews. Numerous other representations were made, with
particular reference to the professional staff, mechanical supervisory staff, Marine Station
employees, and other groups. These representations were continuing at the year's end
but were largely rejected or postponed by the Civil Service Commission on the grounds
of insufficient funds.
Effective January 1st, 1956, the Federal Government granted our request for the
extension of unemployment insurance coverage to forestry workers, and agreement was
reached on the details of this extension to all Forest Service non-Civil Service employees,
except casual fire-fighters. During the year the Superannuation Commission advised
that Part I of the " Superannuation Act " would apply in future to any full-time monthly
salaried employee not holding a Civil Service appointment, and contributions of all such
Forest Service employees, including Assistant Rangers and other field staff, were transferred from the Retirement Fund to the Superannuation Fund, with future contributions
being based on the Superannuation Fund scale. Instructions were received prohibiting
the employment of persons with direct relatives in the government service, but these
instructions were later modified for practical purposes to permit such employment in
J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 97
situations where no conflict of interests could arise. It was noted in the Forest Service
that there are many instances in which outstanding service has been rendered by members of the same family devoted to the service of the public in forest administration and
other spheres. Negotiations and discussions were carried on between departments and
the Civil Service Commission with regard.to board and lodging regulations. Letters of
instruction to Protection field staff were revised prior to the field season. Revisions in
the conditions of appointment and salary administration applying to men graduating
from the Forest Ranger School were made, and a form of contract was drawn up intended
to eliminate misunderstanding regarding the responsibilities of the Forest Service and
the student on graduation from the Ranger School.
YOUTH TRAINING PROGRAMME
The efforts of the past several years in operating the Youth Training Programme
have proven to be worth while. The popularity of the training scheme is evidenced by
the fact that applications were received from 649 boys for enrolment in the programme,
forty-three of them from boys under the age requirements. Funds permitted the employment of 239 youths, who were placed in twenty-two crews, of ten to twelve boys each,
distributed throughout the Province. Parks and Recreation Division had twelve crews;
Research Division, two crews; and each of the forest districts, with the exception of
Vancouver, had two crews each. The crews, for the most part, lived in tents with lumber
floors and side-walls, in which small heaters were placed to provide warmth and some
degree of comfort during inclement weather. Each crew was under the immediate
supervision and direction of a foreman, employed specifically for the purpose, who was
responsible to the forester in charge of the district or division concerned. Food was
prepared by a competent cook and was varied and nutritious. Each camp was equipped
with light-delivery trucks of the Vi-ton pick-up model for transportating supplies, both
food and materials, and these were available in cases of emergency. Each crew was
equipped with tools suitable for woods work and rough carpentry work. Also first-aid
equipment and, where necessary, life-preservers were provided. Each camp was equipped
with transmitting-type radios, which permitted constant contact with the district or
division office.
The site for the camp was located at the project to be undertaken. Here the youths
were given instruction on how to use the various tools necessary for woods work—axe,
mattock, saw, shovel, and tools for rough carpentry work. After the instruction period
was completed, the boys were put to work developing camp-sites, picnic-sites, and park
areas. In some cases, trail and light road maintenance and construction were carried
out, but no work beyond the physical capabilities of the youths was attempted.
Educational features were conducted as part of the programme. These included
talks on forest protection, management, and entomology, in addition to lectures by various senior officers on subjects such as a career in the Forest Service at both professional
and practical levels. In some camps, instruction was given in first aid, weather instruments, and lumber-grading. When possible, organized trips were arranged to industrial
operations—logging, milling operations, and underground mines.
For recreation the crews were provided with some light sport equipment, and
competitive games arranged with local teams. Recreational periods made it possible
for the youths to go boating, swimming, and fishing. Reading material and moving
pictures were also provided. 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1957
VICTORIA OFFICE
Dr. C. D. Orchard Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
Hicks, W. V Departmental Comptroller.
MacLeod, D Assistant to Comptroller.
Rhodes, A. E Chief Accountant.
Robertson, D Assistant Accountant.
Cooper, C Forest Counsel.
Williams, W. J Personnel Officer.
McKeever, A. E Assistant Personnel Officer.
F. S. McKinnon Assistant Chief Forester i/c Technical Planning Branch.
Pogue, H. M Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division.
Cliff, H. N Forester.
Highsted, C. J. Assistant Forester (Field Co-ordination).
Malcolm, R. M Assistant Forester (Technical Liaison).
Vaughan, E. G Assistant Forester (Office Co-ordination).
Calder, C. J Assistant Forester (Mapping Co-ordination).
Jones, R. C Assistant Forester (Operations Co-ordination).
Allison, G. W. Assistant Forester (Photogrammetry).
Breadon, R. E.  Assistant Forester (Gross Volumes, Growth).
Browne, J. E Assistant Forester (Net Volumes, Depletion).
Lyons, E. H Assistant Forester (Revision Co-ordination).
Bradshaw, M. W Assistant Forester (Coast Region).
Fligg, D. M  Assistant Forester (West Interior Region).
Horth, A Assistant Forester (Operating and Special Cruises).
McLaren, J. G.  Assistant Forester (East Interior Region).
Small, P Assistant Forester (South Interior Region).
Wright, N. R Assistant Forester (North Interior Region).
Abernethy, G. M Assistant Forester.
Dixon-Nuttall, M. F Assistant Forester.
Finding, S. L Assistant Forester.
Jelinek, J. J Assistant Forester.
Leahy, P. M Assistant Forester.
Macdougall, D Assistant Forester.
McMinn, A. R Assistant Forester.
Robinson, A. B Assistant Forester.
Brahniuk, F Forester-in-training.
Fajrajsl, M Forester-in-training.
Foulger, A Forester-in-training.
Goddard, W. D Forester-in-training.
Kruse, J Forester-in-training.
Raig, H Forester-in-training.
Spriggs, W. M Forester-in-training.
Vyhnanek, J Forester-in-training.
Wood, I Forester-in-training.
Rhodes, C. J. T Chief Draughtsman.
Smith, S Chief Clerk (General Office).
Bailey, W. M Principal Clerk (Automation Planning).
McKibben, A. M Mechanical Supervisor.
Sigler, D. Radio Technician.
Powell, O. J Supervisor of Stores and Housing.
Spilsbury, R. H Forester i/c Research Division.
Fraser, A. R Assistant Forester (Technical Adviser).
Warrack, G. C Assistant Forester (i/c Cowichan Lake Experiment
Station).
Decie, T. P Forester-in-Training  (i/c Aleza Lake Experiment
Station). REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 99
VICTORIA OFFICE—-Continued
Garman, E. H Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Orr-Ewing, A. L. Assistant Forester (Genetics).
Schmidt, R. L Assistant Forester (Ecology).
Finnis, J. M Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Stettler, R Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Illingworth, K Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Arlidge, J. W. C Forester-in-training (Ecology).
Knight, H. A. W Forest Agrologist (Soils).
Prochnau, A Forest Agrologist (Silvics).
Clark, M. B Regional Research Officer (Kamloops).
Stewart, M Regional Research Officer (Nelson).
Roberts, E. A Forest Assistant (Cowichan Lake Experiment Station).
Hellenius, R. A Forest Assistant (Aleza Lake Experiment Station).
Prideaux, D Forest Assistant (Duncan).
Goward, Miss R Clerk.
Silburn, G Forester i/c Reforestation Division.
Bamford, A. H Assistant Forester.
Whiting, E. G Assistant Forester.
Wallinger, D. P Assistant Forester (Cranbrook).
Devitt, W. J. B Forester-in-training (Victoria).
Berg, W. E Nursery Superintendent (Cranbrook).
Long, J. R. Nursery Superintendent (Duncan).
Wells, T Nursery Superintendent (Green Timbers).
Campbell, W. H. Technical Forest Assistant.
Mackenzie, C. G Technical Forest Assistant.
Madsen, E. N Technical Forest Assistant.
Piatt, L. V Technical Forest Assistant.
Hughes, W. G Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
Mason, N. V Forester.
Carey, D. M Assistant Forester (Working Plans Analysis).
Burrows, I. R Assistant Forester (Public Working Circles).
Tannhauser, I. R Assistant Forester (Tree-farms).
Judd, P. H Assistant Forester (Farm Wood-lots).
Elliott, R. J Assistant Forester (General).
Jansen, W. G Clerk.
Owen, J. E Technical Forest Assistant (Farm Wood-lots).
Druce, E Forester i/c Public Relations and Education
Division.
Monk, D. R.  Public Relations Officer.
Golding, R. C. T Photographer.
Jones, T. C Technical Forest Assistant (Lecturer).
Hall, R. F Technical Forest Assistant (Lecturer).
Guthrie, Mrs. I. V Forest Service Library.
Moutray, L. E Clerk (Motion-picture Library).
R. G. McKee Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
Branch.
Stokes, J. S Forester i/c Management Division.
Marling, S. E Forester.
Reid, J. A. K Forester (Appraisals).
Corregan, R. W Assistant Forester.
Borzuchowski, R Assistant Forester.
Bancroft, H. C Assistant Forester.
Payne, J. C Assistant Forester.
Collins, A. E Assistant Forester (Cover Maps).
Glew, D. R Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Axhorn, C. P Chief Clerk (General).
Chisholm, A .....Chief Clerk (Timber Sale Administration). 100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Pendray, W. C Agrologist i/c Grazing Division.
Murray, W. K Assistant Agrologist.
Greggor, R. D Forester i/c Engineering Services Division.
Crowe, A. B  Mechanical Superintendent.
Gilbert, H. F Assistant Mechanical Superintendent.
Playfair, G. A Radio Superintendent
Chorlton, D. J Assistant Radio Superintendent.
Taylor, J. H Superintendent of Construction.
Paynter, J. W Assistant Superintendent of Construction.
Slaney, F. S Chief Engineer.
Hemphill, P. J. J Construction Engineer.
White, R. G Assistant Construction Engineer.
Doyle, P Contracts Engineer.
Williams, C. P Project Engineer (White Swan Lake).
Ehrenholz, E Project Engineer (Willow River).
MacDonald, R. L Project Engineer (Lawless Creek).
Miles-Pickup, H Project Engineer (Chilliwack).
Laitinen, S. M Project Superintendent (Swift River).
Adams, D. J Project Superintendent (Salmon Arm-Chase).
Turner, H. L Project Superintendent (Morice River).
Rieche, K. W Engineering Assistant (Right-of-way Clearing).
Thomas, R. D Surveys Engineer.
Bryant, R. F Survey Supervisor (Northern Area).
Waelti, H Survey Supervisor (Southern Area).
Jacobsen, J. M Reconnaissance Engineer.
Forsberg, R. H Reconnaissance Engineer.
Kelly, R. L Engineering Assistant.
Johnson, E. M Engineering Assistant.
Johnston, C. C Engineering Assistant.
Scarisbrick, R. G Design Engineer.
Nordlund, K. N  ...Assistant Engineer.
Dery, E. I Assistant Engineer.
Robinson, E. L Soils Technician.
Greenwood, A. L. F Office Assistant.
Johnson, F. E Land Titles Officer.
Foxgord, J. E Senior Clerk.
Hill, H. H Superintendent, Forest Service Marine Station.
Shaw, W. H   Clerk, Forest Service Marine Station.
Cameron, I. T Forester i/c Protection Division.
Nelson, F. H Forest Protection Officer.
Henning, W. G    ...Assistant Forester.
Moyes, E. A   Assistant Forester (Research).
Turner, J. A Meteorologist.
Stringer, A Chief Clerk.
Dixon, A. H r Forester i/c Ranger School (New Westminster).
Kirk, A. J . , Assistant to the Forester in Charge.
Finlayson, D. A Clerk.
VANCOUVER DISTRICT
D. B. Taylor   District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B '. Assistant District Forester.
McRae, N.A Forester (Management).
Tuttle, W. F. (Management); Kennon, G.;
Gill, R. G. (Public Working Circles); Williams, F. S. (Forest Management Licences);
Johnston, G. R. (Silviculture)  ..Assistant Foresters.
Holmberg, J. H. (Operations); Owen, D. H.;
Morrison, R. H. (Slash-disposal); Haddon,
C. D. S. (Slash-disposal)  Forest Protection Officers.
Hlady, E.;   Scholefleld, A.;   Rogers, G. A.;
MacLaurin, D.; Rickson, D Foresters-in-training. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956 101
VANCOUVER DISTRICT—Continued
Brewis, D. (Public Working Circles) Technical Forest Assistant.
Tannock, F.; Robinson, J. H.; Wagner, C. J Supervisors.
Evans, C Mechanical Supervisor.
Armstrong,   C.   L.   (Superintendent);    Coles,
H. L.  (Assistant Superintendent);   Agnew,
J. P. (Records and Compiling); Dunn, H. J.
(Tabulating Supervisor) Scalers.
Marriott, G. L.; McNary, E. C; Clutterbuck,
F Inspectors of Licensed Scalers and Export.
Ben well, S. A Administrative Assistant.
McNeil, A. G.; Gillies, D. (Management) Principal Clerks.
Barrett, R. J. (Chilliwack); Ginnever, A. F. W.
(Hope); Wilson, R. (Harrison Lake); Rockwell,   I.   (Mission);   Aylett,   R.  W.   (Port
Moody);    Henderson,   J.   E.   (Squamish);
Chamberlin, L. C.  (Sechelt);   Carr, W. S.
(Madeira   Park);    Jones,   R.   W.   (Powell
River); Winslow, J. R. (Lund); McKinnon,
C. G.  (Thurston Bay E.);   Webster, J. B.
(Thurston   Bay   W.);    Greenhouse,   J.   P.
(Chatham  Channel);   Bell,  P.  A.   (Echo
Bay);  Antonelli, M. W. (Alert Bay);  Lor-
rentsen, L. H. (Port Hardy);   Hollinshead,
S. (Campbell River); Silke, S. (Courtenay);
Glassford,  R.   J.   (Parksville);   Haley,  K.
(Nanaimo);    Rawlins,   W.   P.   (Duncan);
Frost, S. C. (Ganges); Mudge, M. H. (Lang-
ford) ;   Morley,  K.  A.   (Lake  Cowichan);
Brooks, F. T. (Alberni);  Ormond, L. D. D.
(Torino); Carradice, J. H. (Campbell River) ....Rangers.
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT
P. Young District Forester.
Bennett, C. E Assistant District Forester.
Selkirk, D. R. (Management); Morton, W. D.
(Management   Cruising);    Schutz,   A.   C.
(Public Working Circles);   Gilmour, J. R.
(Silviculture);   Munro, J. F. (Management
Licences); Grant, D. T. (Management Administration); McDonald, J. A. D. (Operations) Assistant Foresters.
Strimbold, S. T Forest Protection Officer.
Richards, D. P. (Management Administration)  ..Forester-in-training.
Campbell,  W.  H.   (Management-Appraisals);   |   '   :• j   [
Dahlie, C. (Project Supervisor) Technical Forest Assistants.
Whitehouse,  W.  D.   (Coast);   Smith,  D.  R.
(Interior) Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Court,   T.   (Ocean   Falls);    Pavlikis,   N.   A.
(Prince Rupert) Scalers.
MacPherson, A. C.  (Coast);   Antilla, W. A.
(Interior) Ranger Supervisors.
Thompson, H. W  Mechanical Supervisor.
Smith, C. V Chief Clerk.
Mackie, B. A. (Ocean Falls);   Pement, A. R.
(Queen   Charlotte   City);    Brooks,   R.   L.
(Prince Rupert);   Taft, L. G.   (Terrace);
Hamblin, R. A.  (Kitwanga);   Petty, A. P.
(Hazelton);   Mould, J.   (Smithers);   Clay,
W. D.  (Telkwa);   Keefe, J. J.  (Houston);
Kullander,  M.  O.   (Pendleton  Bay);   Hes-
keth, F. G.  (Burns Lake (N.));   Gibson,
C. L. (Burns Lake (S.)); Lindstrom, W. C.
(Southbank) Rangers. 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT
W. C. Phillips District Forester.
Young, W. E. L Assistant District Forester.
Knight, E. (Management); Young, W. (District Silviculturist); Talbot, G. P. (Assistant
District Silviculturist); Bodman, P. (Management Licences); Isenor, M. G. (Protection) ; Sutton, R. C. (Management); Rob-
bins, R. (Public Working Circles) Assistant Foresters.
Ciouston, R. (Management); Armit, D. (Management) Foresters-in-training.
Willington, L. A. (Protection); Cowell, W. C.
(Stand Treatment); Hellenius, R. A. (Research, Aleza Lake); Flynn, D. M. (Cruising)  Forest Assistants.
McKenzie, R. A.; Smith, W. W Supervisors.
Layton, H. R.; Threatful, N.; Rogacz, J Inspectors of Scalers.
Galinis, J Radio Technician.
Watts, M. C Mechanical Supervisor.
Carter, R. B Chief Clerk.
French, C. L. (McBride); Baker, F. M.
(Penny); Kerr, R. D. (Prince George);
Bailey, J. (Prince George); Northrup, K. A.
(Fort St. James); Kuly, A. (Quesnel); Barbour, H. T. (Pouce Coupe); Angly, R. (Aleza
Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vanderhoof);
Cosens, A. S. (Fort St. John); McQueen,
A. L. (Fort Fraser); Irwin, K. (Summit
Lake); Meents, G. E. (Quesnel); Clifford,
R. L. (Prince George); Anderson, O. J.
(Hixon); Mitchell, B. A. (Quesnel); Thornton, S. H. (Quesnel); Mastin, T. (Atlin);
Macalister, J. S. (Quesnel) ... Rangers. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
103
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT
L. F. Swannell	
Johnston, J. R	
Bruce, J. B	
Kerr, M. L. (Management Timber Sales);
Parlow, A. L. (Silviculture); Neighbor,
B. E. (Management Licences and Farm
Wood-lots); Groner, A. (Working Plans);
Clark, M. B. (Regional Research Officer);
Robinson, J. L. (Management); Robson,
P. E. (Management Timber Sales); Boul-
ton, G. B. (Cruising, Management Timber
Sales); Paterson, D. N. (Management Timber Sales) 	
Johnson, I. B.;   Noakes, H. S	
Radford, B.; Pringle, R.; Smith, E. R.; Wallace, M. T. (Grazing)  	
Mayson, H. G. (Operations); Gibbs, T. L.
(Operations, Projects); Huffman, C. H.
(Stand Treatment); Leduc, M. B. (Christmas Trees)
.District Forester.
..Assistant District Forester.
.Forester (Management).
.Assistant Foresters.
Forest Protection Officers.
.Assistant Forest Agrologists.
Charlesworth, E. A.;  Hewlett, R. C;   Robinson, G. T	
Fraser, D. P.; Specht, A. F.;  McGuire, C J...
Stewart, W. J	
Cowan, W. P	
Specht, G. H. (Lumby); McKenna, L. J.
(Birch Island); Noble, J. O. (Barriere);
Petersen, K. N. (Kamloops (N.)); Pa-
quette, O. (Chase); Boydell, L, and Bodman, G. (Salmon Arm); Jones, G. G.
(Sicamous); Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet);
Johnson, M. A. (Vernon); Scott, E. L.
(Penticton); Dearing, J. H. (Princeton);
Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Cawston,
J. B. (Williams Lake); Hamilton, T. J.
(Alexis Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna);
Williams, R. V. (Merritt); Hill, A. F. (Blue
River); Collins, G. B. (Enderby); DeWitt,
D. O. (100 Mile (N.)); Weinard, J. P.
(Kamloops (S.)); Tourond, A. L. (Horsefly); Hammer, H. B. (100 Mile (S.));
Wittner, D. J	
.Technical Forest Assistants.
.Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
.Supervisors.
Mechanical Supervisor.
Chief Clerk.
.Rangers. 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
NELSON DISTRICT
H. B. Forse District Forester.
Robinson, Eric W Assistant District Forester.
Lehrle, L. W. W. (Management); Waldie,
R. A. (Silviculture); Hubbard, T. R.
(Working Circles); Bishop, W. G. (Management Licences); Hough, W. S. (Management); Joyce, F. (Christmas Trees,
Wood-lots); Stewart, M. (Regional Research Officer)  Assistant Foresters.
Couling, H. L Forest Protection Officer.
Gavin, H. (Management, Cruising); Grainger,
W. D. (Silviculture); Bruels, W. (Management)  Foresters-in-training.
Milroy, J. E Assistant Forest Agrologist.
Bawtree, A. H Agrologist-in-training.
Palethorpe, G. A. (Operations); Barnes, J. N.
(Operations, Projects); Fisher, S. F. (Cruising); Hansen, S. H. (Cruising); Chase,
L. A. (Protection); Sandberg, H. G.
(Management, Christmas Trees); Burbidge,
M.   (Stand Treatment) Forest Assistants.
Killough, J. F-; Hill, F. R  Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Christie, R. O.;  MacDonald, J. P.;  Kettleson,
O. J.  Supervisors of Rangers.
Lees, J. Mechanical Superintendent.
Koski, V.  I Chief Clerk.
Hopkins, H. V. (Invermere); Humphrey,
J. L. (Fernie); Connolly, J. E. (Golden);
Gierl, J. B. (Cranbrook (E.)); Ross, A. I.
(Creston); Stilwell, L. E. (Kaslo); Ben-
well, W. G. (Lardeau); Larsen, A. J. (Nelson); Robinson, R. E. (New Denver);
Raven, J. H. (Nakusp); Wood, H. R.
(Castlegar); Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks);
Uphill, W. T. (Kettle Valley); Cartwright,
G. M. (Canal Flats); Old, F. G. (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D. (Edgewood); Jupp,
C. C. (Elko); Reaney, R. J. (Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook (W.));
Ivens, J. H. (Beaverdell); Webster, G. R.
(Slocan City); Jackson, R. C. (Revelstoke);
Pearce, F. (Kettle Valley) Rangers.
Note.—Parks and Recreation Division staff, formerly members of the British Columbia Forest
Service, are now members of the Parks Branch, Department of Conservation and Recreation, and are,
therefore, no longer shown in this directory. APPENDIX  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
107
TABULATED DETAILED  STATEMENTS TO  SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
Table No.
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1956.
CONTENTS
General
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1947-56	
Forest Management
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
Page
109
110
111
111
112
Estimated Value of Production,  Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1947-56	
Paper Production (in Tons), 1947-56   	
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1947-56	
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1955-56,
(A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  113
Species Cut, All Products, 1956, (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  114
Total Scale of All Products,  1956  (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts), (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  115
Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1956 (by Months and Forest Districts)  116
Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and Stumpage,
1948-56, in M Cubic Feet  117
Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working Plans,
1947-56  117
Total Scale of All Products from Managed Lands, 1947-56  118
Logging Inspections, 1956  119
Trespasses, 1956  119
Pre-emption Inspections, 1956  119
Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land
Act," 1956	
Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1956	
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1956	
Timber-sale Record, 1956   	
Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1956	
120
120
120
120
121
122
Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-timber
Cruised on Timber Sales in 1956, per C C.F. Log-scale	
Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
timber Scaled on Forest Management Licences in 1956, per C C.F. Log-
scale  ,   123
Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1956___. _ 124
125
125
126
126
127
127
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1956.
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1956.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1956
Summary for Province, 1956	
Timber Marks Issued, 1947-56	
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1956.
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as Compiled from
Taxation Records	
128 t
108                                       DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Finance
Tablb No.
31. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts	
Page
  128
32. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records  129
33. Forest Revenue  130
34. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1956  131
35. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1955-56  132
36. Forest Revenue,  (A)  Fiscal Year 1955-56,  (B) Fiscal Years 1936-37 to
1955-56   133-134
37. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1955-56  134
38. Scaling Fund   135
39. Silviculture Fund  135
40. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  135
41. Forest Development Fund  136
42. Forest Protection Fund  136
43. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1956
by the Forest Service  137
44. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by Other Agencies,
1956  138
Forest Protection
45. Summary of Snag-falling, 1956, Vancouver Forest District  138
46. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1956, Vancouver Forest District  138
47. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1956, Vancouver Forest District 139
48. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1956, Vancouver Forest District  139
49. Summary of Operations, 1956, Vancouver Forest District  140
50. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1956, Vancouver Forest District... 140
51. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-56  141
52. Recapitulation of Snag-falling, 1940-56  141
53. Fire Occurences by Months, 1956  142
54. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1956  142
55. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  142
56. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1956  143
57. Damage to Property other than Forests, 1956  143
58. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1956 143-144
59. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1956  144
60. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  145
61. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1956  145
62. Prosecutions, 1956 -  146
63. Burning Permits, 1956  146
Ranger School
64. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1956  147
Public Relations
65. Motion-picture Library  148
66. Summary of Programmes by School Lecturers, 1956  148
67. Forest Service Library .,•  149
Grazing
68. Grazing Permits Issued 1  149
69. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected .  149 (1)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1956
Distribution of Personnel, 1956
109
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Chief Forester, Assistant Chief Foresters, and Division
2
11
4
3
27
11
74
49
4
4
5
99
15
37
20
17
3
2
8
1
2
14
2
1
1
3
4
3
30
5
24
5
24
1
1
2
9
3
19
3
3
31
2
4
28
1
33
7
12
3
1
5
2
11
5
2
3
24
3
1
3
34
4
31
48
11
15
1
2
10
2
1
3
24
2
3
9
3
27
36
8
12
3
3
14
2
76
3
23
2
2
7
66
13
87
4
33
135
5
40
2
1
29
13
35
14
2
10
125
10
23
10
14
110
21
75
51
7
82
95
Reforestation, Parks, Research, and Survey Assistants-
89
4
Draughtsmen. __
52
350
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
Station  	
5
41
22
178
52
80
36
Foremen         —    	
14
48
385
131
166
198
148
592
1,620
Seasonally Employed
18
4
34
5
50
4
5
13
5
5
16
1
4
1
24
20
4
5
19
4
3
23
25
1
4
29
10
48
8
6
1
5
10
20
19
10
14
39
12
32
5
6
20
12
3
7
3
3
161
33
311
3
176
214
41
39
Lookoutmen   _ 	
140
35
130
161
8
55
312
5
25
263
303
133
76
83
161
150
914
1,517
518
207
249
359
298
1,506
3,137 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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113
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during
Years 1955 and 1956 in F.B.M.
<6A)
(All products converted to f.t
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Forest District
1955
1956
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
3,595,748,638
335,893,492
3,502,590,505
.387,841,647
51,948,155
93,158,133
Prince Rupert (C.) .	
Totals, Coast 	
3,931,642,130    |    3,890,432,152
         |      41,209,978    |      ..   _	
216,145,984    1       235,923,363
609,359,407            675,328,926
893,391,529         1,004,549,740
458,662,838            501,084,443
19,777,379
65,969,519
111,158,211
42,421,605
	
2,177,559,758    |    2,416,886,472
239,326,714
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6,109,201,888
6,307,318,624
198,116,736
198,116,736
(6B)
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during
Years 1955 and 1956 in Cubic Feet
(Conversion factor: Coast—6 f.b.m. = 1 cu. ft.; Interior—5.75 f.b.m. = 1 cu. ft.)
(All products converted to cubic measure.)
Forest District
1955
1956
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
599,291,440
55,982,248
583,765,084
64,640,275
15,526,356
Prince Rupert (C)
8,658,027
655,273,688
648,405,359
6,868,329
37,590,606
105,975,549
155,372,440
79,767,450
41,030,150
117,448,509
174,704,303
87,145,120
3,439,544
11,472,960
19,331,863
7,377,670
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378,706,045
420,328,082
41,622,037
...
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1,033,979,733
1,068,733,441
34,753,708
34,753,708 114
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2 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
115
(SA)
Total Scale of All Products, 1956, in F.B.M. (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences-
Timber berths.	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases-
Pulp licences	
Hand-loggers' licences...
Farm wood-lots 	
Timber sales._ 	
Pulp-timber sales	
No mark visible _
Management licences..
Miscellaneous	
Sub-totals, Crown lands-
Federal lands  	
Crown grants—
To 1887  	
1887-1906	
1906-1914 	
1914 to date-
Totals	
645,771
61,485.
142,099.
20,471.
8,740.
48.
355.
1,102,357
.101
,291
403
,346
280
,976
,232
,920
I
4,003,305
250,339
7,349,768
5,209,278
15,647,776
108,291
703,818
104,198
125,460.
113,203,
11,897
125
85,
,7911	
,6921 39,
,0001 27,
714,228
305,251
143,820,774
594,379,966
42,529
759,513,863
353,682
309,586
69,621,174
3,566,020
14,055,697
11,055,683
23,916,101
14,733,617
2,231,891,032|353,602,359
39,677,539| 4,960,160
I
966,816,4981 95,683
101,220,117| 3,222,071
40,271,384| 13,107,195
122,713,935| 12,854,179
217,258,307
5,772,946
626,841,114|
201,678
7,350,765
5,339,667
1,578,371
122,939
7,009,416
39,777,086
3,502,590,505|387,841,647
235,923,363
675,328,926
819,063,164
23,357,564
44,459,678
14,499,345
27,648,065
75,521,924
35,857,945
5,590,982
148,582
113,539
314,057,172
53,963,494
3,627,061
698,441,736
82,724,049
142,247,985
46,579,637
54,444,098
153,174
511,300
3,039,843,923
85,305,251
125,460,791
314,113,840
72,188,967
4,662,014,751
75,155,634
1,015,068,060
167,992,987
107,625,732
279,461,460
1,004,549,740 501,084,443 67307;318,624
413,358,775
1,387,425
2,117,830
48,726,837
12,238,907
23,254,669
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Government is shown
under the heading " Federal Lands."
N.B.—For details of material actually scaled in cubic feet and units of measurement other than f.b.m., see Table 9.
Total Scale of All Products, 1956, in Cubic Feet (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
(SB) (Conversion factor:   Coast—6 f.b.m. = l cu. ft;   Interior—5.75 f.b.m. = l cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber I'cences  —
i
107,628,517|       667,218
10,247,549|	
23,683,234| 	
3,411,891|    4,351,381
1,456,7131    7,617,303
8,163 [          17,367
59,2051
183,726,3201 20,952,371
20.910.132     	
43,537
1,278,221
905,962
2,721,352
6,236,164
972,345
25,840
116,759,619
13,941,246
23,709,074
7,763,272
25,012,309
12,108,030
620,177
9,074,016
25,530
103,370,429
7,396
132,089,368
19,746
54,618,639
86,347
Timber sales    	
519,769,436
20,910,132
14,217,542
6,558,947
4,551,598
14,217,542
Management licences (Crown
18,867,282
1,982,833
2.444.469
4.159.322
9,384,955
630,793
53,523,005
1,922,727 [       2,562,368
12,270,496
Sub-totals, Crown lands ...
371,981,839
6,612,923
161,136,083
16,870,019
6,711,897
20,452,323
58,933,727
826,693
15,947
537,012
2,184,533
2,142,363
37,784,053
1,003,991
35,074
1,278,394
928,638
109,015,846
142,445,768
4,062,185
7,732,118
2,521,625
4,808,359
13.134.248
71,888,482
241,291
368,318
8,474,233
2,128,506
4,044,290
792,049,715
12,747,083
Crown grants—
To 1887         	
274,499
21,381
1,219,029
6.917.754
169,526,965
1887-1906	
1906-1914      -
28,459,344
18,330,718
1914 to date          	
47,619,616
Totals -
583.765.084! 64.640.275
41,030,150
117,448,509
174,704,303
87,145,120
1,068,733,441
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Government is shown
under the heading " Federal Lands."
N.B.—For details of material actually scaled in units of measurement other than cubic feet, see Table 9. 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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117
(10)
Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty
and Stumpage, 1948-56, in M Cubic Feet
Year
1948-
1949.
1950.
195L
1952.
Salvage Wood
(MCu. Ft.)
_ 727
_ 549
- 324
___ 420
___ 732
Year
1953 -
1954...
1956.
Total.
Salvage Wood
(MCu. Ft.)
-   1,053
___ 1,888
1955  1,209
1,795
8,697
(ii)
Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working
Plans, 1947-56
Year
Forest Management
Licences
Christmas-tree
Permits
Farm
Wood-lots
Public Working
Circles and Sustained-yield Units1
Total
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Number
Productive
Acres
Acres
1947
1
2
7
10
13
14
19
23
23
82
107
118
129
135
145
163
174
209
221
32,139
40,767
43,778
45,360
47,250
49,986
64,835
68,689
72,603
76,457
3
5
20
25
29
37
24
28
33
47
32,139
1948
795,208
1,081,711
1,668,663
1,953,754
2,071,918
2,158,898
2,788,313
4,685,492
4,680,846
835 975
1949
-
1,125,489
1,714,023
1950
1951. .
452
727
4,571
5,549
6,455
8,320
2,001,456
1952 	
1953 	
1954 	
1955 	
1956 	
5,649,162
7,019,759
9,328,447
21,667,410
2,122,631
7,877,466
9,882,310
14,092,997
26,433,033
1 Approved public working circles and sustained-yield units. 118
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
Logging Inspections, 1956
119
Type of Tenure Operated
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
Totals
Number of
Inspections
1,540
1,203
1,581
2,455
713
1
2
2,227
439
735
1,664
773
3,768
1,644
2,316
4,119
1,486
9,569
1 662
Prince George   	
Kamloops _    	
3,474
2,173
5,160
Totals, 1956-  	
7,492
3
5,838
13,333
22,038
Totals, 1955 	
6,818
3
4,673
11,494
22,355
Totals, 1954  	
5,855
3
4,874
10,732
21,011
Totals, 1953—	
5,851
3
4,859
10,713         |
20,656
Totals, 1952    . ....
5,822
6
5,710
11,538
20,264
Totals, 1951	
5,448
6
4,766
10,220        |
17,754
Totals, 1950	
5,189
6
3,812
9,007        |
16,221
Totals, 1949	
6,405
7
4,440
10,852        |
15,483
Totals, 1948 	
4,847
5
3,982
8,834
15,432
Totals, 1947	
4,428
5
3,190
7,623        |
13,876
Ten-year average, 1947-56
5,815
5
4,614
10,434        [
18,509
(14)
Trespasses, 1956
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189
93
136
137
75
1,105
1,126
2,189
2,300
1,024
2,661,500
903,883
1,016,433
858,782
252,264
40,210
41,720
5,780
271,111
25,410
50
9
1,250
7
970
397
1
4,570|176,999
- — 1       500
14,781
3
$244,909.00
$62,432.37
$84,462.61
3.398
$83,266.90
    6.826
60113.792
2
$13,995.02
Totals, 1956	
630
7,744
5,692,862
	
384,231
1,321
1,367|14,794]177,559|28,573
5 | $489,065.90
Totals, 1955
499
6,098
4,218,705
458,426
1,607
963|14,100| 66,975| 5,607
4 |$212,183.49
Totals, 1954
463
5,910
4,373,368
266,856
270
5,083|14,914|119,364| 9,750
7 |$198,220.15
Totals, 1953	
446|10,188
4,072,874
466,401
230,636
2,917
6,335|16,314|116,368|30,663
4 |$221,000.12
Totals, 1952	
419
5,768
372,788
24,247,327
272,770
1,147
5,237|10,921|227,267| 3,991
13 |$312,774.33
Totals, 1951	
454
5,999
 |24,545,775
159,064
1,779|20,976|28,121|  |13,325
41  |$237,588.00
Totals, 1950...
276
3,072
	
12,753,405
360,190
1,475
1,806] 6.312l 75,309| 7,550
16 | $87,589.23
Totals, 1949 - •
418
4,132
  -120,419,563
244,655
1,298
3,514| 9,022| 34,070| 8,785
28 | $81,923.27
Totals, 1948
312
3,062
11,738,855
470,674
3,569|18,211| 3,711| 11,135[ 4,100
8 | $59,654.37
	
Totals, 1947.
316
5,132
....
17,234,601
659,621
5,599
5,235|15,416|439,554]17,506
15 | $74,761.43
Ten-year average,
1947-56 - -
423
5,711
3,746,119!
15,915,1321
350,712
2,098
1           1
6,873[13,363|126,760
I           1
12,985
14 |$197,476.03
1 Cubic feet—five-year average; feet b.m.—seven-^ear average.
(15)
Pre-emption Inspections, 1956
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
Total 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous
<16> Purposes of the "Land Act," 1956
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Vancouver	
—
	
	
15
13
646
1,282
38
15
919
377
53
28
1,565
1,659
Totals
—
	
	
28
1,928
53
1,296
81
3,224
(17)
Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1956
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-
agricultural
Land
Merchantable
Timber
Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land
Acres
1,565
1,659
Acres
66
110
Acres
1,499
1,549
Acres
151
37
M F.B.M.
2,578
1,064
Prince Rupert—   —	
Totals      	
3.224
176
3,048
188
3,642
(18)
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1956
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes.
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
Saw-
timber
(MCu.
Ft.)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert...
Prince George..
Kamloops _.
Nelson	
Totals, 1956.
Totals, 1955..
Totals, 1954-
Totals, 1953..
Totals, 1952-
Totals, 1951-
Totals, 1950 .
Totals, 1949-
Totals, 1948-
Totals, 1947-
Ten-year average, 1947-56.
923
452
759
705
250
3,354
3,085
2,579
2,340
2,704
2,196
1,638
1,851
1,960
2,480
148,466
93,651
295,399
431,252
126,382
3,089 I 1,095,150
1,077,986
781,665
719,234
1,029,199
934,475
333,435
269,576
346,648
361,834
694,920
66,400
3,133,568
453,683
4,233,971
6,094,234
I
| 13,981,856
2,017
37,625
760
1,600
2,285
44,287
2,543,890
6,577,298
1,777,025
1,355,342
1,817,737
1,481,715
9,885,451
10,532,164
12,887,882
40,005,329
20,674,280
7,388,875
9,599,176
7,603,641
23,015,436
16,819
76,859
12,328
13,405
25,630
24,522
57,002
44,726
50,346
2,592,168!
15,557,409
36,592
4,675
116,107
7,650
128,432
203,000
6,200
224,400
266,449
1,216,461
1,916,510
402,562
144,711
386,741
259,031
80,925
1,273,970
145,525
76,310
141,313
989,144
316,954
123,091
170,475
180,602
299,501
501,820
1,127,346
694,182
518,652
352,440
738,510
1,947,010
1,064,125
257,135 |  929,260
1,131,521
697,421
561,601
1,188,361
I
970,5751
1 M B.M.—six-year average; M cu. ft.—five-year average.
(19)
Timber-sale
Record,
1956
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest Protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver	
727
451
623
590
229
616
427
469
482
259
2,068
1,540
1,730
2,376
1,024
494,259
368,688
556,892
1,211,805
587,176
437,166
349,080
505,579
1,202,092
576,269
$5,253,453.16
1,178,403.01
2,044,740.14
3,766,718.25
Nelson	
1,765,679.74
Totals  	
2,620
239
2,253
8,738
3,218,820
3,070,186
$14,008,994.30
Cash sales 	
2,859
	
	 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1956
121
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report of forest service, 1956
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1956
125
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Vancouver	
295
327
687
788
338
10,098
2,049
6,107
7,025
3,801
62
1,334
87
47
114
41
101
266
270
698
194
585
3
5
11
Kamloops	
Nelson	
1
3
5
42
4
Totals, 1956	
2,435
29,080
66
1,381
390
2,013
8
15
Totals, 1955 	
2,489
28,016
72
1,804
404
2,285
3
19
Totals, 1954	
2,346
25,602
57
1,108
367
2,281
13
22
Totals, 1953	
2,413
23,300
59
1,121
286
2,186
12
47
Totals, 1952. 	
2,223
23,433
59
1,173
332
2,092
24
117
Totals, 1951   	
2,100
21,748
60
1,169
294
1,474
16
78
Totals, 1950 	
1,826
19,143
65
1,234
234
1,462
11
25
Totals, 1949    -
1,671
19,082
61
1,101
314
2,373
17
73
Totals, 1948	
1,671
18,570
68
1,209
179
840
11
51
Totals, 1947	
1,634
17,546
73
1,230
143
754
6
14
Ten-year average, 1947-56.
2,081
22,552
64
1,253
294
1,776
12
46
(25)
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1956
Species
Grade No. 1   Grade No. 2   Grade No. 3    Ungraded       Fuel-logs Total
Fir  	
Totals,
IP'fi
Totals,
19SS
Totals,
1QT4
Totals,
1953                       	
Totals,
195?
Totals,
1951
Totals,
1950     ..       ..             	
Totals,
1949	
Totals,
1948    	
Totals,
1947                -
Ten-year average, 1947-56..
24,529
1,920
156,073
1,337
183,859
906,141
3,948,345
5,341,576
4,732,890
5,901,140
8,659,552
6,392,228
9,380,092
7,156,095
5,260,192
849,175
271,107
22,045
1,757,451
30,564
2,787
2,933,129
7,468,949
1,564,151
1,533,515
115,576
24,143,163
6,763
10,748
59,121
271,720
128,653
12,524,557
4,792
2,969,744
312
192
347,722
211,960
249
300
27,433,037
12,929,722
3,530,479
58,863,477
19,595,544 1    90,691,771
16,974,165 |      4,754,796
17,465,267 I      9,274,995
15,853,076 I    74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
15,944,292 I    84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660
12,229,159 |    51,669,605
10,202,844 |  2,224,693
21,625,295 | 88,031,088
19,210,615
21,382,979 | 103,550,707
14,228,041
31,127,805
21,100,803  [
106,739,296
~52;368Tl52~
16,367,096
7,552,386 |
5,383,070
2,101,183
268,386
26,404,409
12,736,517
38,913
10,748
5,092
61,908
47,010,226i"
8,967,528
140,975,922
120,145,571
124,996,218
82,257,441
137,526,550
145,553,955
163,614,289
,177,436
16,926,103 I    73,829,171
15,230,495
4,455,9212
113,922,513
1 Of this total, 41,595,347 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;   5,414,879
f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
2 Six-year average. 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
(26) Railway-ties, etc., 1956
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver-
Poles ...
Piling .
.lin. ft.
Fence-posts.
Shakes	
Shake-blanks	
Christmas trees.
Prince Rupert—
Poles	
Hewn ties	
Prince George—
Poles	
Hewn ties.
..lin. ft.
..pieces
_lin. ft.
..pieces
Fence-posts  —
Kamloops—
Poles   -  lin. ft.
Poles and piling     ,,
Fence-posts  —  cords
Christmas trees.   pieces
Nelson—
Poles and piling   lin. ft.
Corral-rails    - —    ,,
Mine-timbers     ,,
Mine-props   cords
Cedar shakes.      „
Cordwood      „
Fence-posts	
Hewn ties	
Christmas trees..
Total value, 1956	
Total value, 1955.	
4,202,257
552,900
28,935
20,570,453
4,686
78,131
3,256,710
117,550
324,276
103,796
43,612
4,089,050
1.810,515
2,916
708,950
2,933,905
23,921
360,391
1,397
17
6
4,471
5,326
1,553,320
$1,689,157.17
224,306.11
8,089.80
1,687,376.75
281.16
78,131.00
1,498,086.60
176,325.00
91,380.55
166,133.65
6,541.80
754,413.90
213,870.00
80,910.00
196,588.40
725,040.00
288.00
19,101.00
16,274.00
1,632.00
84.00
143,072.00
9,799.00
714,527.20
$8,501,409.09
3,234,775
86,853
1,200
19,947,068
4,686
78,131
2,367,166
88,250
2,347,240
708,995
672,942
1,861,245
17
6
1,173
1,294,433
931,832
374,474
27,735
889,544
117,550
236,026
103,796
43,612
1,741,810
1,101,520
2,916
36,008
1,072,660
23,921
360,391
1,397
3,298
5,326
258,887
35,650
91,573
623,385
$8,778,455.03
(27)
Summary for Province, 1956
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles - —
Piling	
Poles and piling-
Corral-rails	
Mine-timbers	
Fence-posts	
Mine-props	
Cedar shakes _
Cordwood	
Shakes	
Shake-blanks	
Christmas trees ..
Hewn ties	
Fence-posts	
..lin. ft.
..cords
Total value..
11,872,293
552,900
4,744,420
23,921
360,391
7,387
1,397
17
6
20,570,453
4,686
2,340,401
226,672
72,547
$4,033
224
938
19
223
16
1
1,687..
989
352.
14
,038.22
,306.11
910.00
288.00
.101.00
982.00
274.00
,632.00
84.00
376.75
281.16
,246.60
257.65
631.60
1,501,409.09
47.4396
2.6384
11.0442
0.0034
0.2247
2.6347
0.1914
0.0192
0.0010
19.8482
O.0033
11.6363
4.1435
0.1721
100.0000 (28)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
Timber Marks Issued
127
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
Ten-year
Average,
1947-56
738
191
176
489
75
8
9
18
2,469
32
1
791
156
150
439
82
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
549
169
165
505
69
5
8
32
2,591
33
4
4
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
696
201
204
538
62
8
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
63
3
528
175
160
485
69
1
1
30
2,786
44
1
609
218
171
653
95
2
10
31
3,130
43
6
480
207
172
655
82
6
10
46
2,859
71
1
638
Crown grants, 1887-1906 	
Crown grants, 1906-1914	
185
165
524
80
Pre-emptions under sections 28
5
6
Indian reserves.	
27
2,741
Special marks and rights-of-way
52
2
4,206
4,301
3,763
4,134
5,458
4,428
4.139
4,280
4,968
4,589
4,427
Transfers and changes of marks
655
745
550
752
1,086
983
744
780
867
873
804
(29)                        Forest Service Draughting Office, 1956
Number of Drawings Prepared or Tracings Made
Number of Blue-prints or
Ditto-prints Made from
Draughting Office Drawings
Timber
Sales
Timber
Marks
Examination
Sketches
Miscellaneous
Matters
Total
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
Total
40
40
46
32
32
16
48
40
37
41
42
30
113
233
147
185
171
262
149
101
169
189
114
130
	
81
64
104
74
75
69
63
76
53
64
62
34
234
337
291
291
278
347
260
217
259
294
218
194
850
843
971
897
926
948
540
550
634
841
574
467
2,000
1,880
1,915
1,378
1,300
670
2,330
2,000
1,850
2,020
2,100
1,450
2,850
2,723
2,886
2,275
2,226
1,618
July	
2,870
2,550
2,484
2,861
2,674
December	
1,917
Totals, 1956     	
444     |       1,963
	
819
3,226
9,041
20,893
29,934
Totals, 1955             .....
381     |       2,309    |      	
1,244
3,934
8,694
15,538
24,232
Totals, 1954    ,	
274    |      1,983    |      	
574
2,831
6,275
9,920
16,195
Totals, 1953	
270    |       1.823
382
350
2,825
6,976
6,989
13,965
Totals, 1952. 	
491     |       2,827
1,387
1,068
5,773
18,924
10,320
29,244
Totals, 1951..	
1,008    |      3,196
1,336
1,891
7,431
17,540
19,360
36,900
Totals, 1950.	
828    |      2,050
1,108
805
4,791
13,759
16,599
30,358
Totals, 1949	
514    |      1,547
988
353
3,402
10,184
10,344
20,528
Totals, 1948 	
681    |      2,300
1,247
241
4,469
13,625
12,959
26,584
Totals, 1947.	
500    |      2,223
1,238
290
4,251
12,026
9,844
21,870
Ten-year average, 1947-56.
539
2,222
	
763
4,293
11,704
13,276
24,981 128
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
(30> as Compiled from Taxation Records
\
Acreage
Coast
Interior
Year
Assessed as
Timber
1
Land
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
Acres
Acres
Acres
Acres
1956
723,103
783,517
205,503
221,934
389,396
429,350
64,606
69,822
63,598
1955     	
62,411
1954	
801,983
236,350
429,037
69,416
67,180
1953	
757,516
201,264
444,014
27,692
84,546
1952     	
718,284
203,249
433,496
29,418
52,121
1951 ...       .      .
682,746
191,435
410,037
31,333
49,941
1950  	
631,967
207,308
378,985
8,635
37,039
1949    	
597,790
172,024
340,200
30,625
54,941
1948   .
571,439
158,120
326,738
25,485
61,096
1947	
596,900
153,072
354,207
26,591
63,030
1946  	
601,148
146,331
364,556
23,125
67,136
1945 	
591,082
142,504
357,037
21,536
70,005
1944   .. .... 	
571,308
134,194
345,378
20,816
70,920
1943	
543,044
125,313
325,996
20,205
71,529
1942  	
527,995
112,834
322,306
20,072
72,781
1941     .
543,633
105,541
335,468
26,016
76,608
1940	
549,250
103,486
338,419
24,852
82,493
1939 	
719,111
89,209
338,794
153,032
138,075
1938 	
756,328
106,833
344,858
157,508
147,129
1937
766,413
96,598
363,693
153,566
152,556
(31)
Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts
District Acres
Alberni   18,850
Comox   158,885
Cowichan  165,158
Gulf Islands  1,204
Kamloops  444
Kettle River  445
Lillooet   3,728
Nanaimo   162,562
Nelson-Slocan   88,203
District Acres
Omineca        160
Prince George        800
Prince Rupert  30,962
Princeton         555
Quesnel Forks  40
Revelstoke   33,190
Vancouver      1,725
Vernon        639
Victoria  55,553 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
129
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
<32) as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year Area (Acres)
1956  723,103
1955
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
783,517
801,983
757,516
718,284
682,746
631,967
1949 597,790
1948 571,439
1947 596,900
1946 601,148
1945  591,082
1944 571,308
1943 543,044
1942 527,995
1941   543,632
1940 549,250
1939 719,112
Area (Acres)
. 754,348
Year
1938 	
1937  _ 743,109
1936 515,924
1935 535,918
1934 557,481
1933  567,731
1932 552,007
1931  602,086
1930 629,156
1929  644,011
1928  671,131
1927 690,438
1926 688,372
1925 654,016
1924 654,668
1923  883,344
1922 887,980
1921  845,111 130
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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HHHHHHHHHHH REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
133
(36 A)
Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1955-56
Timber-licence renewal fees  $356,194.64
Timber-licence transfer fees  4,161.16
Timber-licence penalty fees  1,304.50
Hand-logging licence fees      	
Timber-lease rentals  71,631.14
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest.._ 54.80
Timber-sale rentals  345,495.48
Timber-sale stumpage  20,320,948.58
Timber-sale cruising   234,602.97
Timber-sale advertising  43,281.16
Timber royalty  2,270,624.41
Timber tax  9,054.26
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)  10,024.30
Exchange   51.66
Seizure expenses   760.81
General miscellaneous  102,187.67
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees  19,946.47
Interest on timber-berth rentals  13.05
Transfer fees on timber berths  145.99
Grazing fees and interest  77,222.45
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands 	
Taxation collected under authority of
"Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
Belt Land Tax Act"	
Taxation collected on forest land (section
32a, " Taxation Act")	
Taxation collected on tree-farm land
(section 33a, " Taxation Act")	
$23,867,705.50
681,503.26
940,632.271
524,172.012
7,837.993
$26,021,851.03
Ten-year Average
$380,734.89
3,074.97
3,9.07.21
139.05
54,050.64
59.76
141,558.89
8,347,918.24
78,600.45
16,469.07
2,437,111.24
23,834.17
3,717.42
80.46
935.51
42,303.54
18,491.04
27.83
66.89
58,464.91
$11,611,546.18
461,937.30
1 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last six fiscal years.
2 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last two fiscal years.
3 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last three fiscal years. 134
(36B)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Revenue by Fiscal Years
Fiscal Year
Direct Forest
Revenue
Taxation from
Crown-granted
Lands
Taxation Collected under
Sees. 32a and
33a of " Taxation Act"
Taxation Collected under
Authority of
" E. & N. Railway Belt Land
Tax Act"
Total
1955-56.....
1954-55	
1953-54	
1952-53.....
1951-52.....
1950-51.....
1949-50.....
1948-49.-...
1947-48.....
1946-47.....
1945-46.....
1944-45.....
1943-44	
1942-43	
1941-42	
1940-41 	
1939-40...	
1938-39	
1937-38	
1936-37	
$23,867,
19,130.
17,578.
18,016.
13,703.
10,089.
8,331.
7,977.
7,010.
4,i
4,352
4,017
3,703
3,519
4,057
3,549
3,236
2,982
3,257
3,001
,705.50
,835.31
625.58
,025.17
,715.41
,884.69
,497.19
,676.22
,038.77
,232.89
,179.14
,653.53
,703.13
,892.44
.437.86
.931.53
,731.36
,702.42
,525.05
,054.84
$681,503.26
621,527.16
612,865.29
588,821.78
484,475.51
440,213.07
445,632.68
453,980.08
253,345.02
237,506.83
244,980.89
213,912.46
203,457.36
206,146.21
211,410.13
224,652.87
267,290.48
241,109.96
269,285.54
299,992.41
$532,010.00
518,648.74
$940,632.27
879,822.00
863,116.21
418,395.59
972,156.13
345,220.16
S26
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19
19
15
10
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150
054
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,160
875
,777
,431
263
,117
,597
,231
,907
,726
268
774
,504
,223
,526
301
851.03
,833.21
607.08
242.54
347.05
,317.92
,129,87
,656.30
,383.79
,739.72
160.03
,565.99
,160.49
,038.65
847.99
,584.40
,021.84
,812.38
810.59
047.25
(37)
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1955-56
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
$393,399.05
240,165.90
263,959.96
353,087.88
307,081.42
470,892.91
$143,838.46
92,912.35
84,548.71
95,190.02
79,024.40
402,081.75
$537,237.51
333,078.25
348,508.67
Kamloops - — - —
448,277.90
386,105.82
872,974.66
$2,028,587.12
$897,595.69
$2,926,182.81
338,774.92
705,389.93
173,188.78
55,976.54
50,440.23
68,607.41
6,000.00
46,064.94
709,108.21
2,272,297.04
968,889.69
32,807.32
439,211.51
52 000.00
75 944 45
$9,085,336.35
1 With the exception of these items, all figures are net expenditures,
and statements of these funds will be found in this Report.
Items marked are actual gross expenditures (38)
report of forest service, 1956
Scaling Fund
135
Balance for April 1st, 1955 (credit)
Collections, fiscal year 1955-56	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1955-56  $885,179.45
Less refunds  211.28
$124,222.24
622,935.28
$747,157.52
Deficit, March 31st, 1956 (debit)	
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1956
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1956
Balance, December 31st, 1956 (debit)	
884,968.17
$137,810.65
765,104.84
$627,294.19
819,327.86
$192,033.67
<39> Silviculture Fund
Balance forward April 1st, 1955 (credit)       $609,700.63
Collections, fiscal year 1955-56     1,169,204.77
Expenditures, fiscal year 1955-56 ... $1,252,567.65
Less refunds  10,827.80
$1,778,905.40
  1,241,739.85
Balance, March 31st, 1956 (credit)  $537,165.55
Less amount applied to Vote 264, fiscal-year
estimates, 1956-57 (estimated)  300,000.00
Estimated balance, March 31st, 1957 (credit)      $237,165.55
(40) Grazing Range Improvement Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1955 (credit)	
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")
Expenditures, fiscal year 1955-56  $32,807.32
Less refunds  74.00
$30,205.66
40,144.90
$70,350.56
Balance, March 31st, 1956 (credit)	
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")
Expenditures, April 1st, 1956, to December 31st, 1956
Balance, December 31st, 1956 (credit)	
32,733.32
$37,617.24
38,611.23
$76,228.47
29,049.74
$47,178.73 136 department of lands and forests
<41> Forest Development Fund
Amounts borrowed under authority of " Forest Development Fund Loan Act, 1948 "—
Fiscal year 1950-51  $35,000.00
Fiscal year 1951-52  45,000.00
Fiscal year 1952-53 ,  185,000.00
Amounts advanced under authority of the Legislature—
Fiscal year 1953-54  345,104.72
Fiscal year 1954-55  312,207.48
Fiscal year 1955-56  304,162.33
Nine months to December 31st, 1956  825,161.34
Total gross expenditures—
Fiscal year 1950-51  $7,958.84
Fiscal year 1951-52  71,986.26
Fiscal year 1952-53  161,378.25
Fiscal year 1953-54  365,883.00
Fiscal year 1954-55  364,910.47
Fiscal year 1955-56  439,131.51
Nine months to December 31st, 1956- 958,886.70
$2,051,635.87
Less collections (under authority of section
164 (4), "Forest Act") and loan
repayments—
Fiscal year 1952-53--  $10,582.22
Fiscal year 1953-54     20,778.28
Fiscal year 1954-55     52,702.99
Fiscal year 1955-56  134,969.18
Nine months to December 31st, 1956- 133,725.36
$2,370,135.03
352,758.03
     2,017,377.00
Balance, December 31st, 1956 (credit)        $34,258.87
(42> Forest Protection Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1955 (credit)  $800,291.69
Less applied against expenditures, Vote 244, during 1955-56      800,291.69
Balance, March 31st, 1956  Nil REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
137
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
<44> by Other Agencies, 1956
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
$222,070.00
40,797.00
97,000.00
2,000.00
4,660.00
$273,925.00
42,160.00
9,000.00
49,927.00
71,971.00
$374,148.00
20,628.00
56,387.00
12,301.00
40,000.00
$48,900.00
14,808.00
7,000.00
92,100.00
119,873.00
$919,043.00
118,393.00
169,387.00
156,328.00
236,504.00
Totals  	
$366,527.00
$446,983.00
$503,464.00
$282,681.00
$1,599,655.00
$242,712.00
$318,314.00
$255,974.00
$82,222.00
$899,222.00
<45>        Summary of Snag-falling, 1956, Vancouver Forest District
Total area logged, 19561	
Logged in snag-exempted zone2  1,891
Logged in small exempted operations2  3,087
Acres
90,661
4,978
Assessed for non-compliance, less 903 acres subsequently felled  2,995
7,973
Balance logged acres snagged, 1956  82,688
1 Approximate figure only, compiled prior to end of calendar year.
2 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1956, Vancouver
(46) Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1956  90,661
Area covered by full hazard reports  75,568
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-
disposal1      1,891
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from
slash and snag disposal)      3,087
  80,546
Slash created too late to be dealt with in 1956  10,115
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act." REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
139
(47)
Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1956,
Vancouver Forest District
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1956 19561
Broadcast burning     2,946 6,384
Spot burning     9,018        17,941
Total Acres
9,330
26,959
Totals  11,964        24,325        36,289
1956 reports not recommending slash-disposal  39,279
1956 slash examined for snags but exempt from slash-
disposal   1,905
1956 slash in zone completely exempted  1,891
1956 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination  1,182
Total area of slash dealt with, 1956  44,257
Grand total  80,546
1 Above table does not include the estimated 10,115 acres (see Table 46) created too late to be dealt with in 1956.
(48)
Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1956, Vancouver
Forest District
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table 47)   36,289
Acres of Slash
Type of Disposal Prior to 1956 1956 Total Acres
Spring broadcast burning   523        ■ 523
Spring spot burning1   894         894
Fall broadcast burning  1,078 919 1,997
Fall spot burning2   8,307 7,830 16,137
Total burning completed    10,802      8,749
Burned by accidental fires -	
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc.	
Total 	
19,551
2,872
Nil
  22,423
  13,866
         Nil
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1956  10,115
Balance reported slash not yet abated
Slash created, 1956—acres assessed	
Total area of slash carried over to 1957 for disposition   23,981
1 Actual area burned in spring spot burning, 127 acres.
2 Actual area burned in fall spot burning, 1,311 acres.
The above figures do not include 1955 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1955 Annual Report,
2,426 acres. 140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<49> Summary of Operations, 1956, Vancouver Forest District
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District  1,427
Intentional slash-burns  178
Operations on which slash was disposed of by lopping,
scattering, land-clearing, etc.     Nil
Operations on which slash was accidentally burned     43
Operations not required to burn  820
Operations granted total exemption under subsection (3),
section 113, " Forest Act "  350
Operations where compensation assessed or security deposit posted     71
Operations in snag-falling only area     27
Operations pending decision re assessment or further
time for disposal     95
  L5841
1 Difference noted above is accounted for by slash on some operations being disposed of by both accidental and
intentional means and some operators conducting both spring and fall burns.
Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1956,
<50> Vancouver Forest District
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1956  Nil
Net damage to forest-cover  Nil
Net damage to cut products  Nil
Net damage to equipment and property  Nil
Total damage  Nil
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Cost per     Cost per
Total Cost Acres M B.F. Acre
(a) Spring broadcast burning $3,651.70 523 $0.17 $6.98
(b) Spring spot burning     4,255.48 894 0.16 4.77
(c) Fall broadcast burning..    9,636.42 1,997 0.13 4.82
(ci) Fall spot burning  31,099.65 16,137 0.06 1.92
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M b.f. per acre.
(b) and (d) based on volume of 30 M b.f. per acre. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
141
(51)
Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-56
Acres of Slash Burned
Accidentally Intentionally
1956	
1955	
1954	
1953	
1952	
1951	
1950	
1949	
1948  2,215
1947	
1946	
1945	
1944	
1943	
1942	
1941	
1940	
1939   1,930
1938	
1937	
1936	
1935	
1934	
2,872
19,551
199
34,486
225
41,596
17
22,220
3,856
39,064
11,614
10,436
1,700
25,389
1,468
53,543
2,215
30,652
2,663
34,414
2,174
25,498
3,897
46,467
5,121
27,278
2,046
40,013
4,504
80,226
3,385
5,524
2,265
33,034
1,930
51,603
35,071
50,033
3,015
27,516
1,340
7,691
11,783
13,239
4,927
15,935
<52>    Recapitulation of Snag-falling, 1940-56, by Logging Operations
and Forest Service
(Acres totally logged.)
Year
Logging
Operations,
Vancouver
District
(Sec. 113)
Forest
Service by
Protection
Division
Forest
Service by
Reforestation
Division1
Total
1956                                   —.                     	
82,688
78,450
74,332
73,556
67,214
66,120
72,205
47,770
56,778
74,567
57,424
55,508
51,440
49,130
58,097
58,247
40,000
4,069
3,717
1,947
884
541
980
1,500
120
1,500
4,731
7,711
10,387
7,820
9,517
6,583
11,440
12,500
16,843
13,000
16,775
4,181
2,620
21,409
20,960
15,000
5,500
91,488
89,878
86,666
1955      	
1954
1953                                  	
82,260
1952           	
1951    .. ..             	
1950             ..  -   	
1949                                _~                                  	
77,272
73,683
85,145
60,270
1948 „  _
1947                                  -          -                    	
73,741
89,067
1946                                    	
74,199
1945                                   	
59,689
1944
54,060
1943
5,896
341
70,539
1942      ...   	
84,953
1941                                                            - 	
73,588
1940                                                                  	
45,500
1 Includes all areas snagged for planting (Coast and Interior), areas snagged in parks, and A.S.W. work during
war years. 142
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(53)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1956
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver	
17
7
24
14
11
31
12
712
62
121
160
25
12
5
10
19
33
372
49
49
155
107
236
24
29
115
125
68
15
15
82
78
1
6
9
1,424
169
253
575
389
50.68
6.02
9.00
Kamloops -	
Nelson     	
20.46
13.84
24
92
1,080
79
732
529
258
16
2,810
100.00
0.86
3.27
38.43
2.81
26.05
18.83
9.18
0.57
100.00
Ten-year average, 1947-56
12
53
274
190
424
391
187
25
1,556
	
0.77
3.40
17.61
12.21
27.25
25.13
12.02
1.61
100.00
(54)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1956
Forest District
00
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a, a.
20
30
39
168
240
39
25
56
66
28
1,005
22
14
33
16
122
29
12
74
44
52
21
16
15
8
46
1
21
1
4
52
14
43
64
10
1
1
24
1
61
12
49
103
35
26
14
3
27
3
1,424
169
253
575
389
50.68
6.02
9.00
20.46
13.84
Totals    	
497
214
1,090
281
112
73
183
27
260
73
2,810
100.00
Per cent   	
17.69
7.61
38.79
10.00
3.99
2.60
6.51
0.96
9.25
2.60
100.00
Ten-year average, 1947-56....
405
203
297
244
76
21
95
17
160
38
1,556
26.03
13.05
19.09
15.68
4.88
1.35
6.11
1.09
10.28
2.44
100.00
(55)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years
Causes
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
Total
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
597
174
184
171
47
10
83
10
116
28
116
157
118
120
63
11
64
12
82
21
418
195
206
206
47
24
89
15
134
50
497
214
1,090
281
112
73
183
27
260
73
4,054
2,030
2,969
2,438
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) __
Road and power- and telephone-line
764
213
945
167
Miscellaneous (known causes)-   	
1,601
381
Totals              	
1,332
799
1,701
1,515
1,923
1,914
1,420
764
1,384
2,810
15,562 (56)
report of forest service, 1956
Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1956
143
Total Fires
Under Vt Acre
Vt to 10 Acres
Over 10 to 500
Acres
Over 500 Acres
in Extent
Damage
Forest District
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Vancouver -
Prince Rupert
Prince George
Kamloops	
Nelson	
1,424
169
253
575
389
50.68
6.02
9.00
20.46
13.84
1,212
73
90
362
290
85.11
43.19
35.57
62.96
74.55
59.79
3.60
4.44
17.86
14.31
160 11.24
63 37.28
78 30.83
129J22.43
81|20.82
31.31
12.33
15.26
25.25
15.85
47
29
43
72
14
3.30
17.16
17.00
12.52
3.60
22.93
14.15
20.97
35.12
6.83
5
4
42
12
4
0.35
2.37
16.60
2.09
1.03
7.46
5.97
62.69
17.91
5.97
1,382
143
184
497
373
18
16
24
42
8
24
10
45
36
8
Totals
2,8IO|100.00]2,027|. |100.00
511
100.00]   205|  -[100.00
67| [100.00|2,579| 108| 123
Per cent	
100.001 [72.13| | „
18.19|  | | 7.30| |	
2.38| | |91.78|3.84|4.38
Ten-year average, 1947-56
1,556
960
418
1
144
1
34
 |     11,440
1
68J   48
100.00
61.70
26.86
9 ?5
2.19
92.54 4.37
3 09
(57)
Damage to Property Other than Forests, 19561
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscel-
aneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
$141,784.00
29,904.00
6,993.00
28.00
$1,500.00
6,450.00
17,250.00
4,500.00
500.00
$75,951.00
23,450.00
14,800.00
15,000.00
$4,765.00
1,000.00
28,603.00
325.00
$224,000.00
60,804.00
67,646.00
19,853.00
500.00
60.08
16.31
18.14
Kamloops    — -	
5.33
0.14
Totals. - .
$178,709.00
$30,200.00 j $129,201.00
$34,693.00 | $372,803.00
100.00
47.94
8.10 |             34.65
9.31  |           100.00
Ten-year average, 1947-56 —	
$169,377.81
$22,855.80 | $183,060.23
$22,878.50 | $398,172.34 |     	
42.53
5.75
45.97
5.75
100.00
Does not include intentional slash-burns.     (For this item see page 140.)
<58>      Damage to Forest
-COVER
Caused by Forest Fires, 1956—Part I1
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
CD
**
zi2
CU
h-E-o
ra 3 u
Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
CJ
0X1
ra
o.
h-EcS
O 3 q
ra
CJ
H
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o o~
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00
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ra
a
ra
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&
ZU,
Ss
cn 3
0h>
Acres
1,150
3,014
5,864
1,938
1,552
MB.F.
10,431
8,620
15,507
13,902
10,374
MB.F.
7,888
2,045
6,181
8,476
2,796
$
29,975
24,953
92,388
36,222
23,818
Acres
544
MB.F.
1,420
420
470
6
$
3
Acres
1,455
4,518
23,323
12,617
3,112
$
49,827
60,420
24,755
356
2
6,288
11,736
194
311,214
177,486
57,254
Totals _  --   .
13,518 |    58,834
27,386
207,356
25,657
2,316
18,221
45,025
656,201
2.88 |      96.21
46.55
19.59
5.46
3.79
1.72
9.59
61.99
Ten-year average, 1947-56
7,112 |    69,196 |    37,809
131,220
3,472
2,800
9,586
31,646
185,422
2.67
96.11
54.64
32.83
1.31
3.89
2.40
11.90
46.39
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 140.) 144 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(58>     Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1956—Part II1
Forest
District
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
Noncommercial
Cover
Grazing or
Pasture
Land
Nonproductive
Sites
Grand totals
CD
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Acres
2,872
241
5,520
476
3
Acres
512
2
47
10
72
Acres
122
41
31,152
2,951
4
$
6,471
1,341
84,620
18,498
1,378
Acres
2,043
4,373
83,294
2,829
565
$
306
1,090
20,559
4,879
135
Acres
162
1,243
18,688
1,554
37
$
16
67
953
191
4
Acres
2,311
628
221,182
48
2,466
$
363
149
35,255
114
302
Acres
11,171
14,060
413,825
22,779
7,813
MB.F.
11,851
8,620
15,927
14,372
10,380
$
86,961
88,020
551,277
Kamloops  	
249,126
83,085
Totals	
9,112|     643
34,270
112,308
93,104
26,969
21,684
1,231
226,635
36,183
469,648
61,150
1,058,469
1.94|    0.14|    7.30
10.61
19.82
2.551     4.62
0.12
48.251    3.42
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average,
1947-56	
5,791
2,527
20,859
35,011
92,596
24,195
47,274
2,642
54,680 11,627
265,957
71,996
399,703
2.18
0.95
7.84
8.76
34.82
6.05
17.77
0.66
20.56
2.91
100.00
100.00
100.00
Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 140.)
(59)
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and
Total Damage, 1956
Causes
Fire Causes
Area Burned
Forest Service Cost
Total Damage
Number
Per Cent
Acres
Per Cent
Amount
Per Cent
Amount
Per Cent
Lightning-	
497
214
1,090
281
112
73
183
27
260
73
17.69
7.61
38.79
10.00
3.99
2.60
6.51
0.96
9.25
2.60
19,086
344,343
653
2,537
4,368
6,889
3,668
1,794
80,468
5,842
4.06
73.34
0.13
0.54
0.93
1.46
0.78
0.38
17.14
1.24
$158,294.00
51,764.00
5,202.00
20,411.00
8,406.00
4,346.00
40,227.00
9,435.00
98,130.00
72,901.00
33.75
11.03
1.11
4.35
1.79
0.93
8.57
2.01
20.92
15.54
$139,220.00
200,607.00
3,408.00
93,974.00
16,625.00
31,016.00
272,403.00
19,519.00
555,642.00
98,858.00
9.73
14.02
0.24
Smokers —	
Brush-burning (not railway-
6.56
1.16
Road and power- and telephone-line construction	
2.17
19.03
1.36
Miscellaneous (known causes).
38.82
6.91
Totals.             .      	
2,810
100.00
469,648
100.00
$469,116.00
100.00
$1,431,272.00
100.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
145
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report of forest service, 1956
Enrolment at Ranger School, 1956
147
Forest District
Forest
Assistants
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
T°t*>         ^nT-
Vancouver   	
3
1
--
6
5
2
8
5
\
6
5
5
8
5
1
—
Prince George 	
-
Research Division   	
—
Attendance, 19561               	
4
—
26
—
30
Attendance, 19562	
3
18
—
21
21
Attendance, 1955 -	
3
18
—
21
—
Attendance, 1954  	
20
—
20
20
Attendance, 1953	
21
21
-—
Attendance, 1953	
20
20
20
Attendance, 1952
20
20
Attendance, 1951	
3
3
15
—
21
21
Attendance, 1950 __ 	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949	
3
2
16
21
Attendance, 1948	
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947    ...    .
8
12
._.
20
20
Previous attendance	
2
9
9
20
20
1 Class 1956-57 due to graduate December, 1957.
2 Class 1955-56 graduated April, 1956.
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course. 148
(65)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Motion-picture Library
Stock Records
Year
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
Films in library at January 1st	
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
75
9
9
75
76
75
8
7
74
71
74
3
6
77
72
77
3
80
79
80
24
8
64
64
64
2
9
71
70
71
3
New films added during year	
Films in library at December 31st.	
Films used during year	
10
78
80
Circulation Records
Number of loans made during year-
235
436
397
416
461
492
490
422          429
413
Number of film loans during year
(one film loaned one time)	
632
1,122
1,075
1,046
1,057
1,218
1,158
1,474
1,280
1,743
Number of showings during year	
812
1,293
1,505
1,880
2,943
2,764
2,288
2,664
1,998
1,909
Number of audiences—
Adults     	
8,009
21,633
14,568
26,988
13,542
13,655
12,640
12,333
14,353
14,537
Children 	
25,362
20,455
24,031
95,1021
264.2451
157,0852
118,6222
102.0131
131,8441
157,0861
Mixed  	
24,351
42,930
87,506
43,282
26,706
59,182
43,099
54.069
41,340
42,587
Totals	
57,722
85,018
126,105
165.3721
304,493!
234.39621174.367= 168.4151! 187.537i|218.275i
i Including attendances of lecture tour of two school lecturers.
2 Including attendances of lecture tour of three school lecturers.
Loaned and Leased Films, 1956
Title
Number
of
Showings
Number in Audience
Adult      Children      Mixed
Total
' Beaver Valley '
' Olympic Elk ".
302
120
1,025
85
49,976
18,776
41
606
51,042
19,467
(66)
Summary of Programmes by School Lecturers, 1956
Lecturer
Period
Schools
Non-school
Grand Total
Forest
District
Number of
Schools
Number of
Programs
Total
Attendance
Number
Attendance
Number of
Programmes
Total
Attendance
Hall, R. F.
Jones, T. C.
Hall, R. F.
Jones, T. C.
84
104
39
44
141
201
49
77
22,612
35,015
5,731
10,335
2
3
3
2
489
608
230
335
143
204
S7
23,101
35,623
Vancouver
January to June	
October to December
October to December	
Vancouver   ...
79      |  10,670
Totals
271
468
73,693
10
1,662
47R        1  7<S «*: (67)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1956
Forest Service Library
149
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
Ten-year
Average,
1947-56
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
14
231
90
72
1,798
39
123
140
72
3,543
36
100
153
80
2,074
27
62
140
102
1,960
23
109
152
110
2,650
9
122
337
115
2,203
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
62
246
92
124
127
932
55
190
94
136
141
1,090
37
179
170
151
177
1,321
34
185
146
107
1,937
i Previous to 1953 included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
(68)
Grazing Permits Issued
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
Kamloops  ... . 	
1,254
466
56
109,750
14,780
2,652
2,598
893
176
20,343
1,938
29
Totals, 1956....  :	
1,776
127,182
3,667
22,310
Totals, 1955     	
1,705
121,284
3,575
22,560
Totals, 1954   	
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
Totals, 1953       	
1,730
108,894
4,133
23,172
Totals, 1952  ... 	
1,621
104,610
4,040
23,565
Totals, 1951 	
1,561
100,082
4,350
22,282
Totals, 1950   	
1,562
98,484
4,650
23,100
Totals, 1949 	
i   1,496
101,349
5,029
25,842
Totals, 1948                                  	
1,444
110,333
6,644
29,444
Totals, 1947  	
1,322
105,723
5,513
25,289
N.B.—Some of the figures in this table for the years 1947 to 1951, inclusive, have been revised and differ from those
shown in previous Reports. Past tables have shown net figures for some years and gross figures for others. This table
shows the total number of permits issued and the net number of live stock covered for each of the years listed.
(69)
Grazing Fees Billed and Collected
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collectedi
Outstanding
1956
$76,155.51
76,061.32
80,191.97
95,088.64
125,495.09
108,400.14
F0.178.43
27,819.65
28,960.42
28,584.74
$79,247.61
75,250.32
85,043.96
102,460.00
110,731.32
106,161.36
74,305.08
28,299.94
27,089.74
29,203.74
$13,655.07
16,577.24
1955          ....	
1954      .
15,766.24
20,618.23
27,989.59
1953  .   ~ ~        _     	
1952    ... 	
1951
13,225.82
10,986.74
1950
1949          ....      ...  	
1948 	
1947	
5,113.39
5,597.18
3,726.50
i " Fees Collected " column includes statutory penalties.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1957
1,360-357-7075   

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