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Department of Agriculture FIFTIETH ANNUAL REPORT 1955 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1956

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FIFTIETH
ANNUAL REPORT
1955
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit for your consideration the Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year 1955.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., March 2nd, 1956.  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF,  1955
Minister of Agriculture-
Honourable W. K. Kiernan.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss P. Hetherington.
Deputy Minister:
Wm. MacGillivray.
Administrative:
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Markets and Statistics:
*M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
G. H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
J. B. Moen, B.A., Economist, Victoria, B.C.
Horticulture:
*R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*A. E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, BC.
*J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
*G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster, B.C.
*M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
*R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Seed Production), 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver 1, B.C.
*W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Horticulturist (Greenhouse and Nursery Crops), Abbotsford, B.C.
*E. M. King, B.S.A., M.S.A, Horticulturist (Vegetables), Kelowna, BC.
Apiary:
I. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, R.R. 6, New Westminster, B.C.
Plant Pathology:
*W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
Live Stock:
*W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector.
A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Assistant to the Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary
Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
T. Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria, B.C.
T. I. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola, B.C.
A. I. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
A. P. Newhouse, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.
5 HH 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
P. G. Lawrence, Beef Grading Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
S. Munro, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton, B.C.
J. J. Carney, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
R. L. Lancaster, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
W. R. LeGrow, D.V.M., V.S., M.S., Ph.D., Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
J. Mustard, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
K. H. Thompson, D.V-M., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George, B.C.
J. A. Mace, Superintendent, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
H. Iohnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Dairy:
*F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
*G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
C. Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*D. D. Wilson, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Poultry:
*W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
N. J. Supeene, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Abbotsford, B.C.
C. W. Wood, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
Field Crops:
*N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster, B.C.
*J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Soil Analyst, Victoria, B.C.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Soil Survey:
*C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*C. C. Brownlee, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
A. B. Dawson, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*W. D. Holland, B.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*A. L. Van Ryswyk, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
Agricultural Development and Extension:
*G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Director, Victoria, B.C.
*J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.
*G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson, B.C.
*J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
*R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon, B.C.
*R. L. Bradshaw, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Cloverdale, B.C.
*R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
*G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
*J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
*D. C. Crossfield, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
: Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 7
Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued
*G. Cruikshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C.
*P. E. Ewart, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission, B.C.
*R. C. Fry, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
*K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
*A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, B.C.
*Miss E. L. R. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria, B.C.
K. E. May, B.S.A., Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
*G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cloverdale, B.C.
*J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
*S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
*J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*A. R. Tarves, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
*M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
*R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
H. Barber, Accountant, Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Service, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent, Land-clearing Division, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Report of Deputy Minister	
Report of Markets and Statistics Branch.
Report of Horticultural Branch	
Report of Plant Pathology Branch	
Report of Provincial Entomologist	
Report of Apiary Branch	
Report of Live Stock Branch	
Report of Dairy Branch	
Report of Poultry Branch	
Report of Field Crops Branch	
Report of Farmers' Institutes	
Report of Women's Institutes	
Report of Soil Survey Branch	
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch	
Appendices—■
No. 1. Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Distributing Dairy Products during 1955	
Page
11
15
21
42
45
48
51
68
72
82
89
93
97
102
124
No. 2. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock, December 1st, 1954, to December
31st, 1955  126
No. 3. Beef Carcasses Graded in British Columbia, December 1st, 1954, to
December 31st, 1955  127
No. 4. Average Prices for Cattle, December 1st, 1954, to December 31st,
1955  128
No. 5. Average Prices for Hogs, December 1st, 1954, to December 31st, 1955  128
No. 6. Average Prices for Lambs, December 1st, 1954, to December 31st,
1955  129
No. 7. Cattle Sales—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show	
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Cattle Sales (Two)__
130
130
Eighteenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Cattle Show and Sale 130
Williams Lake Fall Sale  131
Twelfth Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale  131
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale  131
No. 8. List of Licensees (Recorder of Brands)  132
No. 9. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1955  137
No. 10. Yearly Statement of Slaughter, November 30th, 1954, to December
31st, 1955  137 HH  10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Appendices—Continued page
No. 11. Shipments of Butcher Cattle to Vancouver Island Disease-control
Area  138
No. 12. Summary of Blood-testing and Mastitis Examinations by Veterinary
Inspectors  138
No. 13.
No. 14.
No. 15.
No. 16.
No. 17.
No. 18.
No. 19.
No. 20.
No. 21.
Calf hood Vaccinations in Disease-free Areas.
139
Dairy Herds and Premises Inspected and Graded under the " Milk
Act" from January 1st, 1953, to December 31st, 1955  140
List of Provincial Dairy Herd Improvement Associations  141
Breed Averages for 1954  141
Dairy-cattle Placement Programme (Three Tables)  142
Poultry-flock Approval by Month  143
Turkey-flock Approval by Month  143
Vaccine Distribution by Month  143
Summary of Grain Screenings from British  Columbia  Merchants,
January 1st to December 31st, 1955  144
No. 22. Summary of Movement of Screenings from British Columbia Elevators, January 1st to December 31st, 1955  145 Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to present herewith the Fiftieth Annual Report of the
Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1955.
The Report contains a review of the work of each of the branches of the Department
during the past year. These, while of necessity brief and fairly general in nature, outline
adequately the broad field of Departmental activities. There are on file reports from
branch and division heads, and from each member of the field staff, which contain
pertinent material outlining in detail operations involved in carrying out responsibilities
to each phase of agriculture. These individual reports are invaluable in that they enable
the Department to maintain a continuous record of the contribution made to the development of agriculture over the years.
Weather conditions in 1955 were not favourable to maximum production of quality
agricultural commodities, and are dealt with in greater detail throughout the branch
reports contained herein. While it is evident the losses experienced in horticultural crops,
particularly strawberries and nursery stocks, are extremely serious, a full appraisal of the
over-all losses will not be possible for several months.
The advent of severe weather in early November required stockmen throughout the
Province to commence feeding on a winter scale at least two months earlier than usual.
Snowfall at Interior points is heavier than normal. Consequently, if conditions during
the next few months are not favourable, a shortage of hay and other roughage could
materialize.
The reports from various branches in your Department deal with production and
marketing for the past year in every phase of agriculture. Conditions in some of these
were highly unsatisfactory, resulting in much lower returns to producers; for example,
strawberry and raspberry growers in the Lower Mainland and potato and vegetable
growers generally.
In the over-all picture, British Columbia farm cash income from the sale of agricultural commodities in 1955 is estimated at $108,997,000, an increase of 3.4 per cent from
1954 and the second highest ever recorded in the Province. In contrast the estimated
farm cash income for Canada showed a reduction of 2.3 per cent.
I regret to report that the increased cash farm income is not reflected in the net cash
earnings of agricultural producers. Higher costs of goods and services necessary to farm
operation, coupled with drastically lower returns for some commodities, have resulted,
unfortunately, in reduced net income. The large volume of United States fruit and
vegetables and potatoes offered on our markets at prices frequently below our costs of
production contributed substantially to this condition. The situation can be corrected
materially only when an equitable tariff structure prevails.
The tremendous industrial activity now evident throughout the Province has had
strong influences on agriculture. The highest level of employment on record, increased
payrolls, and greater purchasing power have all contributed to heavy consumer demand
for most of the commodities grown in British Columbia. Farmers and ranchers have,
however, found it extremely difficult to obtain sufficient labour.   The wages offered by
11 HH 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
industry cannot be met in agriculture at present relative economic levels. Insufficient
man-power adds further to costs of production.
It is increasingly evident that individual farmers and farm groups recognize more
fully the value of the services available from your Department. Reports of Extension
workers and specialists particularly reflect greater requests for consultation and practical
assistance in developing farm enterprises on a sound basis. Farmers generally realize
that if their operations are to have any hope of success, they must be based on a thorough
knowledge of all of the factors affecting production and marketing in the area concerned.
No one is better equipped to provide guidance and information than the District Agriculturist and the District Horticulturist. A significantly larger number of farmers are
apparently becoming aware that every phase of the entire farm operation must be
evaluated as a unit and as part of the whole to determine whether it is an asset or a
liability. Developments such as these are bringing increased responsibilities to your staff.
I am pleased to report these are being met.
It is evident that present conditions in agriculture on this continent and on a world
scale present a challenge to departments of agriculture which may require a reappraisal
of outlooks and policies. The importance of agriculture to the Provincial and to the
National economy may be overlooked when industrial development is at its present level.
Under these conditions, departments such as ours have increased responsibilities, the
adequate discharge of which will be reflected beyond the confines of the industry itself.
The integration of effort between the staffs of the Canada Department of Agriculture,
the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of British Columbia, and of this Department
was never at a higher level. We feel, in assuring that the technical knowledge and the
practical experience of the trained personnel of the various agencies mentioned and of
others have been co-ordinated to the fullest possible extent in the best interests of agriculture generally, we are following a most sensible plan which cannot be other than
helpful to the industry. There is no better way in which to make Governmental policies
effective instruments.
CONFERENCE OF PROVINCIAL MINISTERS AND
DEPUTY MINISTERS
The sixth annual conference of Provincial Ministers of Agriculture and their Deputy
Ministers was held in the Province of New Brunswick at the invitation of the Honourable
C. B. Sherwood, Minister of Agriculture for New Brunswick. The dates of the meetings
were August 8th and 9th, 1955.
Those in attendance were the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture,
British Columbia; the Honourable L. C. Halmrast, Minister of Agriculture, Alberta;
R. M. Putnam, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Alberta; the Honourable I. C. Nollet,
Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan; W. H. Horner, Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
Saskatchewan; J. R. Bell, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Manitoba; the Honourable
Fletcher Thomas, Minister of Agriculture, Ontario; C. D. Graham, Deputy Minister of
Agriculture, Ontario; the Honourable Laurent Barre, Minister of Agriculture, Quebec;
Dr. Rene Trepanier, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Quebec; Donat Noiseaux, Quebec;
the Honourable C. B. Sherwood, Minister of Agriculture, New Brunswick; E. M. Taylor,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, New Brunswick; the Honourable Colin M. Chisholm,
Minister of Agriculture, Nova Scotia; Dr. F. W. Walsh, Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
Nova Scotia; the Honourable Eugene Cullen, Minister of Agriculture, Prince Edward
Island; Stewart Wright, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Prince Edward Island; and
A. C. Badcock, Director of Agriculture, Newfoundland. The Honourable R. D. Robertson, Minister of Agriculture for Manitoba, was not able to attend.
The meeting was held at Fredericton, N.B., where the Government of that Province
proved an admirable host. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955 HH 13
As in previous years, many matters of mutual concern to the Ministers and Deputy
Ministers were discussed thoroughly. The value of the conference was evident to all who
participated.   Detailed minutes are on file.
LEGISLATION
New legislation dealing with agriculture as passed at the Third Session of the
Twenty-fourth Parliament of British Columbia consisted of an Act to amend the
"Trespass Act" and an Act to amend the "Noxious Weeds Act."
STAFF CHANGES
The following appointments and resignations were effective during the year:—
Appointments
Miss G. M. Ginn, Stenographer, January 1st.
Mrs. M. E. Case, Clerk, January 19th.
Mrs. L. R. Hogan, Stenographer, February 23rd.
Miss S. M. Knight, Stenographer, March 3rd.
Mrs. J. Keiler, Stenographer, March 8th.
Mrs. S. M. Collis, Stenographer, March 15th.
Mrs. H. Wardle, Stenographer, March 25th.
Miss P. V. Taylor, Stenographer, April 1st.
Miss M. R. Smith, Stenographer, April 1st.
C. E. Parker, Clerk, April 26th.
Mrs. M. M. Gowan, Stenographer, April 28th.
Miss F. Lebitschnig, Stenographer, May 1st.
Miss J. M. Hawn, Stenographer, May 1st.
J. B. Moen, Economist, May 16th.
C. Rive, Dairy Inspector, June 10th.
Miss M. V. Thompson, Stenographer, June 21st.
Miss J. L. Brain, Stenographer, July 1st.
Mrs. S. Seronik, Stenographer, July 1st.
Miss R. C. Stewart, Stenographer, July 11th.
Mrs. S. Jackson, Stenographer, July 28th.
Miss T. Gabriel, Stenographer, July 29th.
Miss P. M. Jackson, Stenographer, August 1st.
Miss B. Walton, Stenographer, August 5th.
Mrs. M. L. Campbell, Stenographer, September 1st.
Mrs. S. David, Stenographer, September 6th.
R. R. Owen, Milk Board Inspector, September 8th.
Mrs. A. M. Lakes, Stenographer, September 20th.
Miss I. S. Wilkinson, Stenographer, September 26th.
A. B. Dawson, Soil Surveyor, November 1st.
Transfers
Mrs. L. W. Howe, Stenographer, February 18th.
Miss I. M. Chisholm, Stenographer, March 11th.
Mrs. M. M. Gowan, Stenographer, July 1st.
Mrs. M. T. McAloney, Stenographer, September 19th.
Miss A. E. Hill, Stenographer, November 1st.
Miss J. M. Wilkinson, Stenographer, November 14th.
Miss P. V. Taylor, Stenographer, December 1st. HH 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Resignations
Miss M. V. Neale, Stenographer, January 21st.
D. Thompson, Dairy Inspector, January 31st.
Miss S. B. Neglowich, Stenographer, February 7th.
Miss V. L. Matte, Stenographer, March 15th.
Miss M. T. Hay, Stenographer, March 18th.
Mrs. J. Keiler, Stenographer, March 25th.
Mrs. G. Perreten, Stenographer, March 31st.
A. G. Green, Soil Surveyor, March 31st.
Mrs. M. J. McAlpine, Stenographer, April 25th.
G. Beatty, Clerk, May 4th.
Mrs. M. F. Ritson, Stenographer, May 11th.
Mrs. S. M. Collis, Stenographer, May 13th.
G. Garry, Soil Surveyor, May 17th.
Mrs. L. V. Peters, Stenographer, May 31st.
Miss I. Sparks, Stenographer, June 30th.
Mrs. J. Unrau (nee Hawn), Stenographer, July 15th.
A. E. Webb, Milk Board Inspector, July 19th.
Miss D. M. Woolfrey, Stenographer, July 27th.
Mrs. H. E. Champoux, Stenographer, July 31st.
Mrs. A. J. Kaines, Stenographer, July 31st.
Mrs. M. L. Harvey, Stenographer, July 31st.
Mrs. R. M. Dyke, Stenographer, August 15th.
Dr. E. W. Gilchrist, Veterinary Inspector, August 16th.
I. C. McSwan, Assistant Plant Pathologist, August 24th.
Mrs. J. T. Tully, Stenographer, August 31st.
Miss R. C. Stewart, Stenographer, August 31st.
Mrs. C. Lauret, Stenographer, September 2nd.
Mrs. S. Jackson, Stenographer, October 14th.
Miss I. S. Wilkinson, Stenographer, November 10th.
Miss P. M. Jackson, Stenographer, December 9th.
Mrs. M. J. Tower, Stenographer, December 19th.
Superannuation
Miss E. L. Clarke, Stenographer, November 1st.
PUBLICATIONS
The following is a list of new and revised publications printed in 1954:—
Agricultural Statistics.
Climate of British Columbia.
Bulletins and Circulars
Exhibition Standards of Perfection	
 C. 50
U.B.C. Feed Formulas for Poultry	
 P.C. 37
Strawberry Root Weevil..                  -     ...
 E.C. 14
Poultry leaflets—
Dry Litter—Nest Clean Eggs.
Egg Shell Quality.
Poultry Brooding.
Range Reared Pullets.
Charts
Vegetable and Field Crops Spray Calendar. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 15
CONCLUSION
Miss E. L. Clarke, who retired on superannuation this year, had discharged very
capably her responsibilities as secretary to succeeding Provincial Horticulturists for thirty-
six years.   She has the best wishes of all her colleagues in the Service.
I wish to express my sincere thanks to the staff members who have loyally and efficiently served the Department and the people of British Columbia during the year.
It is a pleasure to indicate my grateful appreciation of the unfailing co-operation
and assistance we have received in the past year from officials of the Canada Department
of Agriculture, from those of other departments of the Provincial Government, and from
the Dean and staff of the Faculty of Agriculture at the University of British Columbia.
Throughout the year it has been necessary to work closely with farm organizations,
with groups of farmers and others, and with various individuals within and without the
Province. Again I wish to express to all of them my sincere thanks for assistance to the
Department in many forms.
W. MacGILLIVRAY,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
REPORT OF MARKETS AND STATISTICS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
SYNOPSIS
A remarkably steady market tone was an important feature of British Columbia's
farm economy in 1955. While there were marked fluctuations, some seasonal, in a
number of commodity groups, the over-all picture presented was one of basic stability.
The farm prices index reflected this stability, showing a slight increase over the
preceding year's average of 251.4 (1935-39=100).
Preliminary estimates place the total farm cash income at close to $109,000,000 for
the year, a gain of more than 3 per cent over the 1954 total. This figure is the second
highest ever recorded in British Columbia agriculture, being exceeded only by the record
high of $109,600,000 established in 1951.
In the five-year period 1951 to 1955, inclusive, farm cash income in British Columbia has kept within a comparatively narrow range, varying only slightly from an average
of $106,000,000 annually. This serves to point up the comparative stability of the agricultural industry in this Province.
Providing a firm basis for this year's cash income structure was a continuing good
demand for dairy products, coupled with a firm egg market during the latter months. In
other lines some declines were felt through the generally unfavourable weather conditions
which prevailed throughout much of the year. These were offset by gains in other lines,
largely the result of increased production.
Severe freezing conditions throughout the entire Province in early November caused
heavy damage to small-fruit plantings, nursery stock, and a quantity of late vegetables.
Actual losses will not be fully evident until next year, but already they are known to be
considerable.
FEED-GRAIN MOVEMENTS
Declines in both cattle and poultry numbers in 1955, coupled with improved pasture
conditions, were reflected in sharply reduced importations of feed-grains into the Province
under provisions of the Federal Freight Assistance Policy. Total shipments amounted to
167,694 tons, a decline of 30 per cent from the 1954 total. HH 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
From the time of its inception as a war-time measure in 1941, the Federal Treasury
paid the entire freight charges on grains moving to British Columbia points from Calgary
or Edmonton.
By the end of 1954, Treasury payments had reached a grand total of more than
$23,000,000 on shipments totalling 3,250,000 tons of feed-grains. This represented a
subsidy of over $2,000,000 annually in recent years to British Columbia live-stock and
poultry feeders.
In an unexpected move early in January, this subsidy was reduced by $5 per ton on
all shipments, effective February 1st. This means that the assistance on shipments to
Vancouver, for example, was reduced from $10.80 to $5.80 per ton.
FEEDS
Prices for all grain feedstuffs increased in February as a result of the reduction in
freight assistance. By mid-year, however, prices for the basic feed-grains had softened
somewhat. At the year's end, wheat and barley were back to January levels, while oats
was $5 to $7 per ton lower.
On the other hand, feed screenings increased in price during the year, and for the
final six months were priced at $6 per ton above January quotations.
Prepared feeds remained largely unchanged following the general February price
rise, although dairy feeds rose slightly during the spring and summer months.
Hay prices were for the most part steady throughout the year. Prices in the cattle-
raising areas were firm early in the year under conditions of short supply, but eased as
range grazing became available. The unseasonably cold weather in mid-November again
produced a sharp increase in demand, with a return to firmer price levels. Production
was up from the previous year by approximately 50,000 tons.
FRUIT
For the second successive year the tree-fruits industry of the Province's commercial
production areas was affected by unseasonable weather. This year the principal factor
was lateness of maturity rather than actual tree or fruit damage.
Peaches, normally considered a "warm weather" crop, provide a typical example
of the late harvests this year. Close to 50 per cent of the 1955 crop was shipped after
September 10th, a full two weeks later than normal for this crop.
Returns to growers of tree-fruit crops were influenced to a much greater degree than
usual by outside competition this year. This was particularly evident in the movement of
the apple, peach, and apricot crops. Apple sales in Eastern Canada were materially
reduced by the severe competition offered by heavy supplies of both local and United
States origin, which drove prices to ruinous levels in that market.
Sales on the Prairies were also down from last year, due to heavier than usual imports
from other sources and to reduced consumer purchasing power. The same conditions
applied to the peach movement on that market.
Apple sales were down only slightly when all markets were covered, however.
A continued good demand in thirty of the United States and in the United Kingdom
helped to offset declines on the Canadian market.
The 1955 apricot deal was hampered at the outset by a breakdown in the price
structure on Washington apricots. The market firmed later at more realistic prices.
In other tree-fruits a promising cherry-crop was reduced sharply by hail and rain
damage, though quality of the bulk shipped to the fresh market was excellent. Pears and
prunes were both up in volume and movements were satisfactory. The trade continues to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH  17
display little interest in pears other than Bartlett and Anjou varieties. Prunes showed a
generally superior quality, as did the plum-crop. Nearly all of the latter was packed this
year in the 6-quart basket for the first time. Over-all prices were below average, largely
because of later than usual market arrivals.
Rain and cool temperatures during harvesting materially reduced what had been a
promising strawberry-crop to a very disappointing one, about 40 per cent of pre-season
estimates. To a lesser extent, the raspberry-crop also suffered from the same cause. The
resulting short supplies, particularly of the former, produced a firm market tone throughout.   Prices for jam strawberries ranged around 20 cents per pound.
For the second successive year, canners and processors were obliged to import
strawberries to fill market commitments. A total of nearly 400 tons was shipped in from
foreign sources.
Table 1.—A Comparative Table of Actual Fruit Production for 1954, with Estimated
Production for 1955
Kind
Unit
Actual
Production,
1954
Estimated
Production,
1955
Boxes
Boxes
Boxes
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Crates
Lb.
Lb.
6,522,000
129,800
663,200
99,400
600,100
678,300
294,500
226,000
767,400
769,300
58,700
34,400
3,600
5,300
4,050
1,774,000
1,036,000
7,137,000
106,400
711,000
Crab-apples   -	
96,900
661,100
1,471,100
543,900
356,100
Strawberries    	
546,300
688,800
85,000
46,700
3,500
6,100
4,100
1,690,000
900,000
Gooseberries    	
FIELD CROPS AND VEGETABLES
Heavy imports of United States potatoes at unusually low levels cut heavily into sales
of both early and late British Columbia production this year. Earlies dropped to $30
per ton at Vancouver, a record low for the post-war period. A depressed market continued through most of the late-potato deal, but by December No. 1 Netted Gems had
risen to over $50 per ton.
Imports from near-by United States growing areas continue to exert a pronounced
effect upon sales of British Columbia potatoes, and give every indication of increasing in
volume as this Province continues to expand in population. Accessibility of the Vancouver market to major United States sources plus improved trucking facilities provide
sharp competitive conditions to be met by the British Columbia grower.
Once again the Interior field-tomato crop was reduced by unfavourable weather conditions. A promising crop in the North Okanagan was severely damaged by frost, which
hit the area at the commencement of the harvest in mid-September. While prices were
relatively firm, growers suffered sharply reduced returns as a result.
Vegetables generally held to firmer price levels than those realized in 1954.
The canning-pea crop in the Lower Fraser Valley brought contract prices equivalent
to those set in the preceding year. Quality was generally good, but net yields were down
somewhat because of uneven maturity in many plantings. HH 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 2.—November Estimate of the 1955 Production of Principal Field Crops in
British Columbia, Compared with Latest Estimates for 1954
Crop
Area
1954
1955
Yield per Acre
1954
1955
Production
1954
1955
Spring Wheat-
Oats for grain-
Barley  _.
Fall rye-
Flax-seed	
Mixed grains..
Potatoes_
Tame hay	
Fodder-corn..
Acres
70,000
84,400
75,400
5,000
10,000
2,900
10,200
304,000
2,400
Acres
66,000
83,000
77,000
3,200
13,000
3,200
9,400
325,000
2,000
Bu.
25.0
47.0
31.0
20.0
10.0
43.0
282.0
2.4
14.0
Bu.
19.0
44.0
24.0
20.0
8.0
42.0
275.0
2.4
14.7
Bu.
1,750,000
3,967,000
2,337,000
100,000
100,000
125,000
2,876,000
730,000
33,600
Bu.
1,254,000
3,652,000
1,848,000
64,000
104,000
134,000
2,585,000
780,000
29,400
Table 3.—Actual Production and Values of Principal Vegetable-crops in British
Columbia for 1954, with Estimated Production and Values for 1955
Kind
Year
Planted
Area
Average
Yield per
Acre
Total
Production
Average
Price per
Pound
Total Value
Asparagus	
Beans (green)..
Beets	
Cabbage-
Carrots.—
Cauliflower-
Celery	
Corn 	
Cucumbers (field).
Cucumbers (hothouse)..
Lettuce 	
Mushrooms..
Onions	
Parsnips	
Peas (green)..
Spinach	
Squash, pumpkin, etc..
Tomatoes (field)	
Tomatoes (hothouse)..
Turnips 	
Zucca melons.-
Totals..
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
Acres
410
460
1,470
1,380
340
340
530
540
870
760
410
400
560
520
2,160
2,120
530
460
16,110
15,590
Lb.
1,680
1,500
6,623
7,200
13,600
14,700
12,981
23,200
14,861
19,200
7,441
9,600
6,151
7,100
5,088
4,900
9,484
10,000
690
12,304
650
11,100
780
16,881
560
19,800
110
7,686
80
8,600
4,540
3,286
4,470
3,400
390
5,592
350
7,000
280
12,534
230
10,700
1,770
8,674
1,910
10,200
270
15,128
360
18,000
Lb.
688,900
690,000
9,736,500
9,936,000
4,624,200
4,998,000
6,880,300
12,528,000
12,929,000
14,592,000
3,051,000
3,840,000
3,444,800
3,692,000
10,990,200
10,388,000
5,027,000
4,600,000
727,000
728,000
8,489,900
7,215,000
1,047,100
953,000
13,167,100
11,088.000
845,500
688,000
14,920,700
15,198,000
2,181,200
2,450,000
3,509,600
2,461,000
15,353,700
19,482,000
3,283,900
2,783,000
4,084,700
6,480,000
309,119
1,120,000
125,291,419
135,910,000
Cents
18.00
19.60
4.31
4.90
3.84
3,00
2.89
3.10
2.55
3.00
8.06
8.00
3.60
3.40
1.77
2.20
4.92
4.50
15.00
20.70
3.10
3.10
43.00
43.60
1.42
3.50
4.77
4.90
4.72
4.60
4.62
4.40
2.43
3.00
3.53
3.50
20.31
19.60
2.34
2.52
1.00
1.15
124,120
135,000
520,230
487,000
177,790
150,000
199,080
388,000
330,480
438,000
246,100
307,000
124,030
126,000
194,690
229,000
247,370
207,000
109,710
151,000
263,150
224,000
449,950
416,000
187,650
388,000
40,340
34,000
705,200
699,000
100,890
108,000
85,240
74,000
543,030
682,000
667,010
546,000
95,530
163,000
3,090
13,000
5,414,680
5,965,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955
HH 19
LIVE STOCK
Prices for most classes of live stock were relatively steady throughout the year, at
levels slightly below those realized in 1954.
A feature of this year's beef market was the price differential established between
dry-fed and grass-fed steers and heifers, the former bringing an average of $2 per hundredweight more.
Prices during the shipping season ranged between $16 and $18 for steers, 1,000
pounds and under. Good to choice feeder steers were generally $15 to $17, while heifers
averaged $13 to $15.   On balance, prices were down about $1.50 from 1954 levels.
A total of close to 56,000 cattle were received at stockyards and plants from British
Columbia points during the year, an increase of 5,000 head over the 1954 total. Total
receipts of calves were down by some 1,200 head, at 9,392 from the same sources.
Receipts of sheep and lambs were unchanged, at just over 25,000 head for the year.
Prices were down about $1 per hundredweight from average 1954 levels.
Hog gradings showed a surprising increase to some 40,000, a gain of 30 per cent
over the preceding year's total. Prices were well below 1954 levels, averaging $4 to $5
less for most of the year.
Table 4.—Estimated Numbers of Live Stock on Farms in British Columbia
at June 1st, Years 1954 and 1955
Kind
Cattle—
Bulls 1 year old or older	
Milk cows and heifers 2 years old or
older	
Beef cows and heifers 2 years old or
older	
Yearling heifers for milk	
Yearling heifers for beef	
Steers 1 year old or older	
All calves under 1 year old	
June 1, 1954
(Number)
June 1, 1955
(Number)
6,200
6,000
100,000
102,000
86,000
27,000
31,000
40,800
86,000
82,000
26,500
31,000
37,500
89,000
Total cattle and calves  377,000
374,000
Sheep and lambs—
Rams 1 year old or older.
       1,700
Ewes 1 year old or older       40,700
Lambs under 1 year old     40,600
Total sheep and lambs     83,000
1,600
41,000
42,400
85,000
Hogs—
Hogs over 6  months  old  (including
sows)     16,000
Hogs under 6 months old     31,000
Total hogs
Total horses	
47,000
31,000
16,000
39,000
55,000
29,000 HH 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
POULTRY AND EGGS
The early months of the year found egg prices depressed, with a weighted average
producer price of only 33 cents per dozen. As a result, flocks were culled heavily and
chick hatchings were reduced across the country.
By midsummer the weighted average price had climbed to 45 cents, 5 cents above
the comparable 1954 average.
Autumn saw shortages develop, driving prices farther upward to an average of 53.4
cents, as eggs were imported from points as distant as California to close the gap between
supply and demand.
The volume moving through registered grading-stations was down about 14 per
cent for the year.
Poultry-meat production increased 30 per cent over the 1954 total, but prices
remained practically unchanged.
Table 5.—Poultry Population at June 1st, Years 1954 and 1955
June 1, 1954 June 1, 1955
Kind (Number) (Number)
Hens and chickens  4,130,000 3,900,000
Turkeys      320,000 328,000
Geese         14,000 14,000
Ducks         24,000 20,000
Totals  4,488,000        4,262,000
DAIRYING
The Province's dairy-cow population continued its steady rate of increase, reaching
a new high of 102,000 head by mid-year. Production was also up by an estimated
1,500,000 pounds.
Creamery-butter production showed a decrease of 14 per cent from the record high
output of over 7,000,000 pounds reported for 1954.
Ice-cream manufacture, on the other hand, reached an all-time record of 3,216,000
gallons.
A feature of the dairy industry's market in 1955 was the strong demand for powdered
milk. Improved production techniques introduced during the year resulted in ready consumer acceptance of this popular by-product.
MISCELLANEOUS
A moderate increase in sheep and lamb numbers was reflected in a gain of 7,000
pounds in the annual wool-clip, to a total of 348,000 pounds.
Unfavourable weather conditions effectively reduced the 1955 honey-crop by about
250,000 pounds from the preceding year's total of 1,054,000 pounds. The Province's
yield of hops was also down from the same cause at 1,367,000 pounds, as compared with
1,586,000 pounds in 1954.
Fur prices continued firm at Vancouver, with December auctions bringing spirited
bidding on most offerings of mink. The quality of furs offered at these sales in recent
years has established Vancouver as a major fur market.
MARKETING BOARDS
A plebiscite held among the registered growers operating in the Interior on the question of continuance of the British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Scheme produced a two to one affirmative vote. By actual count the balloting was: For, 308;
against, 153. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955
HH 21
By Order in Council approved in October, the system of election of officers to the
British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board was changed from three-, two-,
and one-year terms to one-year terms for all. The Board for 1956 was elected under
this revised system at the annual meeting in December.
PUBLICATIONS
Publication of the weekly Markets Bulletin was discontinued with the November
2nd edition. However, a condensed markets report will be issued among Departmental
personnel on a weekly basis, commencing in 1956.
PERSONNEL
As a part of the Departmental reorganization programme during the year, staff and
facilities of the Markets and Statistics Branches were merged under the name of Markets
and Statistics Branch.
Activities of this newly formed branch were expanded at mid-year with the appointment of Mr. J. B. Moen as Economist, and later when Mr. G. P. Sinnott was engaged
as an assistant. The work of these two men was centred largely upon economic
research and analysis of the dairy industry at the Coast and of the freight-rates structure
affecting the transportation of feed-grains into British Columbia from Prairie points.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The year 1955 followed the generally unfavourable weather pattern that has existed
since 1949. The season was later than usual, with a cold, backward, and wet spring
and early summer. In March a general cold spell throughout the Province did considerable damage to strawberry-crowns and loganberry-buds on the Lower Mainland, as
well as bud damage to tree-fruits in the Okanagan. Cool, wet weather in late June and
early July was responsible for possibly the worst apple-scab year the Kootenay District
has ever experienced, and losses have been unusually high, with the bulk of the crop
only fit for processing. This same wet spell caused losses to the strawberry-crop on the
Lower Mainland of around 40 per cent. Vancouver Island escaped most of the wet
weather and harvested a crop about 20 per cent larger than 1954. Usually the Island
crop is shipped to the fresh-fruit market, but this season, because of the weather, the
bulk of the crop was processed and only three cars and a few scattered L.C.L. shipments
were sold on the fresh market.
What promised to be a much larger crop of sweet cherries in the Okanagan was
badly damaged by rain, and shipments were only a little larger than 1954.
The apricot-crop was roughly twice the size of the 1954 crop—542,600 crates as
compared to 293,400. This crop met very stiff competition from imported apricots and
sold at relatively low prices. The quality and superior pack of the British Columbia
apricots were responsible for moving the crop and still return something to the grower.
During the movement of the early peaches, weather conditions improved and the
Okanagan enjoyed some very warm weather. These peaches were of excellent quality
and were well received on the market. In the case of later peaches the opposite was
true and complaints were general because of condition. This year peaches were harvested as late as October, an all-time record for this crop. HH 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The pear-crop was only slightly larger and of better quality than in 1954, though
Bartletts had a tendency to run to small sizes. The crop was well received and sold at
fair prices. It is becoming more apparent each year that the pear-crop should be confined to the two main varieties—Bartlett and Anjou—with the elimination of Cee grade
and an increase in the size of Bartletts if our pears are to meet the competition of
imported fruit.
The prune-crop was approximately that of last year. Again the lateness of the
season interfered with the movement. By September 5th only 7,000 crates had been
sold, whereas in an ordinary season there would be a strong movement at this date.
Strong competition from imported prunes at very low prices depressed sales of British
Columbia prunes, with consequent very low returns to the growers.
The apple-crop is expected to reach 6,761,000 boxes, an increase of 700,000 boxes
over the 1954 crop of 6,054,000. The general quality was very much better, especially
Mcintosh. However, hail in the Okanagan and scab in the Kootenay meant larger than
usual quantities diverted from the fresh market to the processing plants, at lower prices
than the fresh market would return. With the increased production of Mcintosh in
Eastern Canada, this Province is finding it more difficult each year to sell this variety
east of Winnipeg. The export market has taken a larger proportion this year than for
years past, and for the first time since before the war, shipments are going to Germany.
An acute shortage of orchard help during the season and a strike of the packinghouse workers in the Okanagan at the peak of the peach season contributed further to
the difficulties of the growers. During the strike, growers and their families took over
the packing-houses and, with the help of those houses not unionized, moved the crop
without loss. Fortunately the strike was settled before the apple-crop was ready. With
the shortage of help and the lateness of the season, it looked for a time at least part of
the crop would be caught by cold weather; however, high-school students and townspeople turned out, and the crop was under cover before the disastrous cold snap of
November 11th struck.
This cold snap that lasted for approximately a week has done a tremendous amount
of damage; how much will not be known until growth starts in the spring. All horticultural crops have been affected, and the monetary losses will be very heavy. Unlike
the usual cold snap that would usually strike one area, this freeze has been Province-
wide. The only area to escape with a minimum of damage has been the Saanich Peninsula. The heaviest losses have been suffered by the small-fruit growers and nurserymen.
Of the small fruits, strawberries have been hardest hit; an estimated 2,000 acres have
been killed outright and the balance damaged. With no replacement stock of British
Sovereign or Northwest available in any quantity, it will be at least three years before
these two varieties will be ready to produce commercial quantities of fruit. Since most
of the planting stock available in the Province has been lost, such plants as are available
will be used for propagating purposes. In the meantime it is quite likely varieties not
too suitable for this Province will be brought in as a stop-gap until such time as British
Sovereign and Northwest are again obtainable.
Loganberries on the Lower Mainland have been killed to the ground, and on
Southern Vancouver Island, although not quite so severe, injury to the canes where they
looped above the snow is serious and a considerable reduction in crop is anticipated.
Blueberries, currants, gooseberries, and blackberries show little or no injury at this time.
Young plantings of cranberries show some damage from heaving, but the older plantings
are apparently in good shape.
The holly-crop was cut to about 50 per cent of estimates and escaped with less
injury than was first expected. Since a lot of holly ready for cutting was left on the
trees because of injury, it will be necessary to prune this wood out before spring, to
keep the trees in a proper bearing balance. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 23
Tree-fruits show considerable spur damage at the base of the buds, especially in
such varieties as Delicious, Newtown, Winesap, Rome Beauty, and, in some areas,
Mcintosh. Sweet cherries and prunes show considerable bud damage, and next year's
crop could be reduced by 50 per cent. Apricots and peaches show some injury, but
there are plenty of buds left for a normal crop, provided, of course, the weather does
not turn too cold.
Nursery stock, except the hardiest, has been very badly hit. Much of the ornamental stock has been either killed outright or has been so severely damaged as to
render it unsaleable.
Tree-fruit stock caught in the freeze is badly damaged and much of it will be
unsaleable, also budded stock for the 1956 crop will have to be rebudded or replaced
with fresh root-stocks.
Just prior to the freeze of November 11th, heavy rains for several days made fields
so wet it was impossible to get on the land to harvest such crops as carrots, potatoes,
cabbage, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, celery, turnips, etc. Had the weather remained
dry, a good deal of the tonnage lost would have been harvested before the freeze
occurred.
Stecklings for the sugar-beet- and turnip-seed crop for 1956 have been badly
damaged, and it is doubtful at this time if any seed of these two crops will be harvested
in 1956.
The following table, submitted by D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist, Oliver,
showing blossoming dates for the Oliver district for the past five years, indicates the
lateness of the 1955 season:—
Fruit
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Apr. 15
Apr. 24
Apr. 25
May   1
Apr. 30
May   7
Apr. 16
Apr. 21
Apr. 23
Apr. 25
Apr. 26
May   2
Apr.   2
Apr. 22
Apr. 19
Apr. 23
Apr. 25
May   4
Apr. 18
Apr. 25
Apr. 24
May   3
May   4
May   7
Apr. 29
Cherries  	
Peaches 	
Pears	
May   5
May   7
May 10
May 12
Apples   - 	
May 19
CROP REPORTS
Although figures on acreages, yields, and values for fruits and vegetables are
obtained by the Horticultural Branch, they are turned over to the Statistician and will
be found in his report.
SEED PRODUCTION
J. L. Webster reports:—
" While the total values of vegetable seeds for 1955 may be slightly higher than
1954, the increase will be almost entirely due to the larger quantity of peas. Actually,
the total volume and value of a number of the lesser vegetable-seed items has declined
slightly, and it is expected that this trend will be more noticeable in the future unless
seed-growers show a revival of interest in growing these crops."
L HH 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following table shows the trend in seed production for the years 1953 to 1955
(final compilation of 1955 figures will not be available until February, 1956):—
Kind
1953
1955
Asparagus 	
Beans (broad)	
Beans (pole or dwarf)..
B eets 	
Cabbage	
Carrots  	
Cauliflower.- —	
Corn (sweet)	
Cucumbers 	
Leeks.. _ 	
Lettuce.   	
Muskmelons —
Onions _ 	
Onion sets and multipliers-
Parsley	
Parsnips  _	
Peas	
Peppers — ...
Pumpkins 	
Radishes. 	
Spinach	
Squash — _. _.	
Tomatoes.- 	
Turnips (swede)	
Vegetable marrows..
Totals	
Lb.
160
9,000
103,800
3,300
550
12,800
400
15,300
600
250
15,460
20
20,200
38,000
30
725
,159,877
100
150
8,400
77
64
470
56,933
750
3,447,416
Lb.
200
8,000
148,400
2,400
84
24,500
500
3,800
125
6,300
7,900
200,000
5,500
4,213,858
75
400
10,000
1,818
400
12,700
800
4,647,760
As a result of continued low prices, a number of former seed-growers have become
discouraged and turned to other crops. Since most of the flower- and vegetable-seed
producers are operating small acreages that do not lend themselves to mechanization,
growers of these crops are losing interest because of the scarcity and the high price of
hand-labour, making it difficult to compete with areas where these seeds are produced
on a mechanized basis. Production of peas and various field crops, such as turnips,
sugar-beets, alfalfa, timothy, etc., where the operation is largely mechanized, show no
decline and could easily be increased if the demand warranted such expansion.
VEGETABLES
The acreage devoted to vegetable production in the Okanagan continued the downward trend—only 5,300 acres in 1955 as compared to 5,604 in 1954 and 9,292 acres
in 1949. Of the twenty major vegetable-crops grown in the Okanagan, fourteen were
decidedly down in acerage from 1954. Four kinds showed neither an upward or downward trend, and only one commodity showed a distinct increase—asparagus. A loss
of acreage from previous years was shown by onions, cucumbers, carrots, cantaloupes,
and squash.    Green beans remain about the same.
The acreage of vegetables on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island shows
only a very slight increase over last year. At the present time, imports of vegetables
readily grown in these two areas indicate the acreage could be increased considerably,
but with a lack of good storage and a very loosely organized industry any increase will
be slow. Here again the small grower, depending largely on hand-labour, has to compete on a highly competitive market with the grower with enough acreage to mechanize
and operate with a minimum of high-priced and scarce hand-labour. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 25
British Columbia Vegetable Acreages, 1954 and 1955
Crop 1954 Acreages 1955 Acreages
1. Asparagus   440.00 462.50
2. Beans (green)   1,270.00 1,377.00
3. Beans (dried)   90.00 140.00
4. Beets   330.00 338.00
5. Broccoli   71.42 71.42
6. Cabbage   590.00 539.00
7. Carrots   860.00 757.00
8. Cauliflower  410.00 393.00
9. Celery  560.00 524.00
10. Corn  2,140.00 2,124.00
11. Cucumbers (field)   527.00 457.00
12. Lettuce (field)   650.00 647.00
13. Onions   790.00 564.00
14. Parsnips   110.00 84.00
15. Peas (green)   4,240.00 4,471.00
16. Peas (dried)   2,410.00 2,850.00
17. Potatoes   10,888.00 9,960.00
18. Spinach   370.00 344.80
19. Squash, pumpkins, etc.   278.00 229.00
20. Tomatoes (field)   1,800.00 1,907.00
21. Turnips   300.00 356.00
22. Zucca melons  15.50 28.00
23. Other vegetables   1,557.00 1,546.00
Totals   3C,696.92 30,169.72
Tomatoes were set out later than usual and, except in Osoyoos and Kamloops, made
very little growth because of cool weather until the middle of June. This set the crop
back about two weeks, and most of the canning crop was lost by frost.
Again this year a large number of plants were imported from Nevada and were
generally unsatisfactory. Many growers considered them not worth planting. This
meant a rush for locally grown plants, and, since the supply was short, had a bearing
on the lower acreage this year.
One of the disturbing features of tomato product on is the quantity left in the field
each year, caught by frost. Early-maturing varieties that look promising are being tried
both by this Department and the Experimental Farms, as well as the larger processors,
such as Heinz and Campbell. At the present time, cne or two varieties show definite
promise, and these tests are being continued.
Onions.—Spring-seeded onions sown about mid-April in very dry, cool weather
showed poor germination and consequent patchy stands. Bulbing commenced toward the
end of July, a full two weeks later than usual. Harvesting commenced toward the end of
August and continued into October; the late season, shortage of help and poor management, and lack of harvesting equipment, all contributed to the delay. Early-harvested
onions were of good quality and were well received. The late-harvested onions showed
considerable loss from "neck-rot" and went out mostlv as No. 3 grade.
At the present time the Horticultural Branch, with the help of the engineering staff,
is trying to design a low-priced machine for lifting and windrowing the onions in order
to speed up and lower the cost of pulling. It is expected an experimental machine will
be in operation for the 1956 crop.
Asparagus.—About two-thirds of the crop went to the canners, and they report it.
was the best quality in years. HH 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cucumbers and Peppers.—In spite of the season, these two crops enjoyed a good
season—the market was receptive and the quality of both crops good.
Root Crops.—Carrots, turnips, beets, and parsnips in the Okanagan have now declined to a point where they no longer constitute an important part of the industry. In the
coastal areas, however, they are on the increase, but have come nowhere near the point
where they take care of local needs. Lack of suitable storage is holding up any rapid
increase of these crops. Trials are under way with non-ventilated storage-pits on the
farms, and polythene bags in cold storages after the produce has been washed and graded.
The future for both methods looks very promising.
NURSERIES AND GREENHOUSES
The summer inspection of all 1-year-old nursery stock for trueness to variety was
carried out in all nurseries selling tree-fruit stocks this past season, as well as clonal stocks
lined out for budding, and also the stool-beds. In all 2,002 mixtures were marked in the
fifteen nurseries inspected.
This service is not only of benefit to the nurserymen, but also to the purchasers. The
nurserymen, through the British Columbia division of the Canadian Association of Nurserymen, have expressed their appreciation of this service.
Inspections at digging-time for such conditions as root-gall, hairy-root, root-borers,
scale, etc., was well under way until digging operations were held up by the November
freeze.   No stock has been dug since.
For the first time in the history of this Branch, a survey has been undertaken to find
out the kinds of stock grown, acreage, and the number of people employed by this
industry. The following tables are a summary of the survey conducted by W. D.
Christie:—
Table 1.—British Columbia Nursery-stock Production
Fraser Valley
Interior
Vancouver Island
B.C.
Total
Kind of Stock
Number
of Plants
Value
Number
of Plants
Value
Number
of Plants
Value
Number
of Plants
Value
24,635
85,110
42,815
127,925
160,400
237,600
97,150
$
24,100
47,195
41,807
134,910
67,190
49,805
19,820
703
475
35
1,056
20
230
$
1,943
154
27
504
18
42
6,750
22,400
19,200
26,000
40,850
24,100
30,700
$
7,200
12,580
26,450
26,075
19,400
5,045
1,000
32,088
107,985
62,050
154,981
201,270
261,930
127,850
$
33,243
Deciduous shrubs
B.L. evergreens	
Conifers   	
Roses 	
Heathers, alpines, perennials	
59,929
68,284
161,489
80,408
54,892
21,020
Total ornamentals
775,635
384,827
2,519
2,688
170,000
97,750
948,154
485,265
58,636
16,005
13,650
5,480
950
7,850
1,800
43,818
12,685
10,885
3,868
613
5,680
2,200
125,861
49,575
25,443
26,105
13,885
8,487
1,078
101,357
31,521
18,872
20,013
10,204
6,106
69
12,800
4,450
2,850
2,600
1,515
1,550
600
9,385
3,435
1,875
1,450
760
925
205
197,297
70,030
41,943
34,185
16,350
17,887
3,478
154,560
Pear. 	
Cherry  	
47,641
31,632
25,331
Apricot—  	
Plums and prunes	
Miscellaneous 	
11,574
12,761
2,474
Total fruits 	
104,371
79,749
250,434
188,142
26,365
18,085
381,170
285,446
21,000
3,290
26,046
1,527
5,084
61
15,000
3,000
	
62,046
1,527
11,374
Miscellaneous  root-
61
Total root-stocks-
21,000
3,290
27,573
5,145
15,000
3,000
63,543
11,435
Grand totals	
901,006
467,866
280,526
195,975
211,365
118,835
1,392,897
782,676 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 27
Table 2.—Plants Imported as Lining-out Stock
Fraser Valley
Interior
Vancouver Island
B.C.
Total
Kind of Stock
Number
of Plants
Value
Number
of Plants
Value
Number
of Plants
Value
Number
of Plants
Value
50
37,900
38,950
58,095
18,100
750
200
$
25
5,695
8,250
9,509
534
80
20
173
$
120
2,378
993
2,940
8,330
5,000
10,500
2,225
$
804
870
1,642
2,280
700
350
700
2,601
38,893
41,890
66,594
23,360
11,250
2,425
$
949
6,565
9,892
Conifers 	
Roses  	
Heathers, alpines, per-
169
260
338
130
12,127
1,364
430
720
Total ornamentals
154,045
24,113
602    |            588
32,366    |       7,346
187,013
32,047
Apple stocks	
Pear stocks. __	
47,650
7,950
11,270
3,835
480
571
322,540    |       11,268
40.303             1.717
3,500
1,250
6,000
400
62
370
373,690
49,503
54,340
2,196
1,140
10,350
7,550
15,503
2,259
37,070
2,196
1,140
1,950
6,550
1,893
1,289
684
185
270
2,834
1,289
5,000
684
Plum and prune stocks
Miscellaneous _	
3,400
1,000
165
45
250
600
315
Total fruits _	
71,270
5,096
411,749    |      17,306
15,750    |        1,082
498,769
23,484
Grand totals	
225,315
29,209
412,351     |      17,894
1
48,116    |        8,428
!
685,782
55,531
Tab I
e 3.—Nursery Acreages
Fraser Valley
Interior
Vancouver
Island
B.C. Total
41
457'/_
2161/_
7
149
72
9
163V_
77
58
Total acreage _ 	
Acreage in crop—.   _   	
770
365V-
Tablt
• 4.—Nursery Personnel
Fraser Valley
Interior
Vancouver
Island
B.C. Total
Number of full-time em
Highest seasonal emplo
Number of man-hours a
100
171
269.606
30
75
R3.950
27
57
65.540
157
303
319,096
Nursery Licences.—In 1955, 184 licences were issued, as against 199 in 1954.
HOPS
The marketing outlook continues poor, and, while the industry is maintaining its
present acreage, no new plantings are contemplated.
Poor growing conditions were experienced in the early part of the season, but the
warm weather in August saved the crop, so that reasonable yields, averaging 1,400 pounds
per acre, were harvested.
HOLLY
Considerable interest is being shown in holly-growing, especially on the Saanich
Peninsula. New plantings are being set out to named varieties or selected unnamed types
rather than the hit or miss methods of a few years ago.
The holly-crop showed every promise of being up to estimates and was of excellent
quality, but was severely damaged by the November freeze, and only about 50 per cent
or 20 tons were harvested. HH 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The small-package deal started last season was very well received by the trade, and
it was expected that some 60,000 packages would have been shipped this year had there
been a normal crop.
FILBERTS
Cold weather during March is blamed for a slightly reduced tonnage this season.
The estimated yield for 1955 was 550,000 pounds, as compared to 600,000 pounds in
1954. Bad weather made harvesting difficult, but the general quality of the nuts is
reported to be satisfactory.
Prices to the grower have steadily increased as marketing outlets continue to improve
or new markets are developed. Prices in 1953 were 2W2 cents, in 1954 were 25 cents,
and are expected to reach 30 cents for the 1955 crop.
So far the only pest necessitating control measures has been the leaf-roller, which
has been confined to the East Chilliwack area.
TOBACCO
Tobacco-growing has been confined to a few experienced growers in the Sumas area.
This season some 85 acres, as compared to 95 acres in 1954, produced slightly more than
100,000 pounds of dried leaf. All the tobacco is shipped to Eastern Canada for
processing.
SURVEYS AND INSPECTION WORK
In addition to the surveys and inspections listed below, a nematode survey was also
conducted in the Okanagan, but because of its length has been reported separately. This
is the first general survey of any area in the Province, though spot checks have been made
in the coastal areas in previous years. The field work was done by members of the Horticultural Branch and the root samples forwarded to Victoria for determination. Four
hundred and forty-eight composite samples were forwarded, and represented the area
from Salmon Arm to Osoyoos. The determinations and detailed report of the findings
was very ably carried out by R. J. Hastings, formerly of Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture.
British Columbia Bulb Survey, 1955
Totals for British Columbia
Approximate
Variety Acreage Quantity
Narcissus   278.33 16,160,000
Tulips   86.47 8,646,200
Hyacinths   4.92 196,833
Gladioli  78.57 7,856,333
Iris (bulbous)   19.25 2,888,000
Iris (others)   8.08 60,625
Lilies   5.60 140,500
Dahlias   28.00 112,000
Peonies   11.28 67,700
Other bulbs  2.23 446,000
Totals  522.73 	
The acreage is down some 47 acres from the previous survey. The bulk of the bulb
acreage is centred on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island. Improved production
methods, more attention to the quality of planting-stock, and improved control of narcissus bulb-fly are showing results in better-quality bulbs.
To successfully meet the competition from imported bulbs, the present quality at
least will have to be maintained and a larger number of selected varieties grown. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 29
The following table gives an estimated value of the bulb industry in this Province:—
Estimated Value of Marketable Bulb Production in British Columbia, 1955
Narcissus—
278.33 acres  X  80,000=22,266,400 planted
Marketable output, 15% =3,339,960 @ $45 per M=$150,298.20
Tulips—
86.47 acres  X  100,000=8,647,000 planted
Marketable output, 25% =2,161,750 @ $25 per M= $54,043.75
Iris (bulbous) —
19.25 acres  X  150,000=2,887,500 planted
Marketable output, 30% =   866,250 @ $30 per M= $25,987.50
Gladiolus—
78.57 acres  X  100,000=7,857,000 planted
Marketable output, 30% =2,357,100 @ $20 per M= $47,142.00
Miscellaneous  (peonies, dahlias, lilies, grape hyacinths,
scilla, chionodoxa, crocuses)—
60.11 acres X $1,000 per acre  $60,110.00
Total (522.73 acres) $337,581.45
Greenhouse Survey, 1955
According to the greenhouse survey in 1953, there was a total of 4,725,288 square
feet of glass, and in 1955 there was 4,803,642 square feet, an increase of 78,354 square
feet. All districts show an increase, with the Lower Mainland leading with 51,433 square
feet. Of the Provincial footage, 2,366,068 square feet, or just slightly under 50 per cent
of the total, is on Vancouver Island, as shown in the following table:—
1953
1955
District
Number of
Growers
Area in
Square Feet
Number of
Growers
Area in
Square Feet
273                 1,819,012
210               2,359,668
184                 511,989
12                     34,619
273
210
186
13
1,870,445
2,366,068
526,445
40,684
Kootenay __  	
Totals  	
679          1        4.7.5 9RR
682
4,803,642
'
Orchard Surveys
The quinquennial orchard survey for the Okanagan and Kootenay areas has been
completed. A somewhat different form was used for this survey, and was designed to
give more complete information than was possible with the form used for past surveys.
From this survey it is learned there are 92,269.6 acres of farm lands in the Okanagan
with fruit-growing as part or all of the operation. The acreage may be broken down as
follows:— HH 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Total farm  92,269.6
Orchard  34,502.4
Unplanted fruit land     7,962.1
Waste land  18,528.4
Mixed—
Pasture   21,905.5
Farming     5,240.0
Vegetables     1,386.4
Irrigated—
Sprinkler   22,185.5
Furrow   11,049.1
This survey shows the unplanted fruit land comprises 18.75 per cent of the total
acreage in the present tree-fruit area that would allow for considerable expansion if conditions ever warrant it.
Of the acreage planted to orchards, 64.3 per cent is irrigated by sprinkler, 32.0 per
cent by furrows, and 3.7 per cent is dry-farmed.
All orchards were given a rating as to condition, and a summary shows 2.1 per cent
rate excellent, 53.7 per cent rate good, 38.9 per cent rate fair, and 5.3 per cent rate poor.
The total acreage of the various tree-fruits of all ages is as follows: Apples, 20,959.7
acres; crab-apples, 208.6 acres; pears, 3,750.16 acres; peaches, 3,320.63 acres; apricots,
1,937.01 acres; sweet cherries, 2,875.6 acres; sour cherries, 268.3 acres; plums, 91.12
acres; and prunes, 1,645.12 acres.
The area surveyed in the Okanagan extends from Lillooet to Osoyoos and comprises
3,921 properties, or an average of 9.02 acres of orchard per farm.
The Kootenay District includes Grand Forks, Arrow and Kootenay Lakes, and
Creston, and shows a total acreage for the area concerned at 2,555.13 acres of orchard,
planted as follows: Apples, 1,772.6 acres; crab-apples, 8.16 acres; pears, 143.57 acres;
peaches, 47.99 acres; prunes, 111.53 acres; apricots, 11 acres; cherries, 435.84 acres;
and plums, 24.44 acres.
Nursery Inspections
All nurseries selling tree-fruit nursery stock were inspected at digging-time, with the
following results:—
Trees
Number
Inspected
Number
Passed
Number
Condemned
Apples and crab-apples 	
115,991
20,849
10,872
26,439
45,361
17,626
1,000
114,014
20,261
8,307
23,636
36,163
13,969
964
1,977
588
2,565
2,803
9,198
3,657
36
238,138
217,314
20,824 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 31
The usual fire-blight inspections were carried out during the dormant period in the
tree-fruit areas.   The results are as follows:—
District
Total Acres
Inspected
Passed
(Acres)
Not Passed
(Acres)
96
3,500
772
350
132
341
700
22
50
95
3,465
772
350
132
341
700
22
50
1
35
Totals  -	
5,963
5,927
36
DEMONSTRATION WORK
Strawberry Plots
Yields of strawberries in this Province have been on the decline for several years,
and on checking over the situation it was found there were several causes responsible:
(1) Small acreages that made a rotation of crops difficult; (2) poor cultural methods;
(3) poor planting-stock.
Since the underlying cause of the poor yields could be summed up as poor farming
generally, it was decided to set out plots in the various small-fruit sections of the Province to demonstrate what could be done. Accordingly, eight plots of one-half acre in
area were set out in the spring of 1955 as follows: Two on Vancouver Island, four on
the Lower Mainland, and one each at Salmon Arm and Creston, on a three-year agreement with the land-owner. Briefly, the arrangements were: The Department rented
the land for three years and supplied the plants and the fertilizer. The owner agreed to
do the necessary work, such as planting, cultivating, spraying, picking, and the keeping
of crop records, the crop to go to the use of the owner. Certified plants of British
Sovereign were set out on seven of the plots and one of Northwest. British Sovereign
was stressed, since it was felt this variety had served the industry over the years better
than any other variety that had ever been grown. Unfortunately, the November freeze
killed out all but one plot, and the work will have to be started over again as soon as
suitable plants are available. The remaining plot is looking very well, and so far has
demonstrated what good farming and good plants will do. The owner is very pleased
with the results, and growers in the district are showing a good deal of interest.
Although it is discouraging to have to replant the other seven plots, the final results, it
is felt, will be worth the effort.
Strawberry Selection.—In order to build up a stock of British Sovereign stock of
known vigour and production, it was decided to select runners from plants showing
these characteristics and have them grown where the individual selections could be
evaluated, and the selected plants propagated for distribution to reliable plant-growers.
Through the co-operation of the University of British Columbia an area was set
aside for propagating the selections made by the Horticultural Branch. During the
summer G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist, had selected runners from a great
many desirable-type plants for planting in 1956, but this work was lost in the November
freeze. It is intended to carry on with this project as soon as there is sufficient producing acreage of the British Sovereign variety to make the necessary selections.
Raspberries
Three varieties of raspberries were distributed for trial this season, namely Puyal-
lup, Canby, and No. 151. HH 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Puyallup is a new variety recently introduced by the Western Washington Experiment Station. It has been given so much publicity that it was felt it should be given a
trial under commercial conditions in the raspberry-growing districts of this Province.
Plants have been set out on Vancouver Island, Creston, the Lower Mainland, and the
Okanagan.
No. 151 is a raspberry being grown commercially in the Creston district and giving
better satisfaction than any other variety that district has ever grown. No one knows
its origin or how it got to be numbered 151. Plants have been set out on Vancouver
Island, the Lower Mainland, and the Okanagan.
Canby, a variety introduced in Oregon, shows considerable promise as a fair
quality, easily picked, good colour, and good yielding variety, but will not tolerate wet
conditions during the dormant period. Hence it is useless for our coastal areas. Since
none of the commercial varieties have done too well in the Okanagan, a small planting
of Canby was set out at Salmon Arm.
All the plantings grew well during the summer, but it will not be until growth
starts in the spring to learn how well they withstood the November freeze.
Grapes
In an endeavour to get a grape of good quality and early enough to ripen with a
high sugar content, five varieties of grapes introduced by the Geneva Experiment Station
were purchased in 1952 and distributed throughout the Okanagan.
This season all five varieties carried a few grapes, and although it was not a favourable season, two—Himrod and Bath—appear to have considerable merit. A planting
of these varieties at Kelowna was examined some time after the November freeze and
have apparently come through with a minimum of injury.
Tomatoes
The tomato demonstration test-plots at Kelowna and Kamloops were continued
this year. Kamloops plots have served no useful purpose and have now been abandoned. The Kelowna plot was well maintained, and the results were quite favourable
considering the season.
E. M. King reports as follows:—
" The plants, an early selection of Wisconsin 55, were set out May 27th. Growth
during June was slow but picked up during July. The field was kept in excellent condition throughout the season. First picking of tomatoes was made on August 8th.
Picking continued until October 5th. Total harvested yield was 8.6 tons, up 3 tons
from the previous year. An estimate of the unharvested yield indicated that upwards
of 12 tons of tomatoes were left in the field."
To demonstrate the value of well-grown tomato plants, trials were continued with
banding and spacing of plants in flats. The following figures and comments submitted
by E. M. King should be of particular interest to any tomato-grower:—
Type of Plants
Early Yield
up to
Aug. 31
Total
Harvested
Yield
(Oct. 5)
Total
Unharvested
Yield
(Estimated)
Total
Harvested and
Unharvested
Yield
Lb. per Ac.
2,492
4,880
5,136
Lb. per Ac.
14,672
26,480
26,916
Lb. per Ac.
25.250
22,410
21,600
Lb. per Ac.
39,922
48,890
48,516
" It is readily apparent from the above figures that the 2" x 2" plants were inferior
in both early and total yields.    The unharvested yield was highest in the case of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 33
2" x 2" plants, almost three-quarters of the fruit being so late maturing that it was left
in the field.
" The difference in early yield between the 3" x 3" banded and 3" x 3" unbanded
plants was slight, the banded plants producing only 256 pounds per acre more than the
unbanded plants. This difference in total harvested yield (436 pounds), when calculated on an acreage basis, did not justify the extra cost of banding. At present prices
of $50 per thousand for 3" x 3" unbanded and $60 per thousand for 3" x 3" banded
plants, the additional per acre cost of banded plants is $27.22. The additional return
from the use of banded plants did not approach this figure.
" In the light of two years' results comparing the yields from 2" x 2" plants with
those from 3" x 3" plants, there appears to be little justification for the continued use
of tomato plants grown 2" x 2" in the flat."
Asparagus
With the increase in acreage of this crop in the Okanagan, fertilizer trials are being
continued at Vernon, Armstrong, and Salmon Arm.
Salmon Arm Fertilizer Trials
The trials at Salmon Arm, under the direction of R. M. Wilson, were set up on a
1954 planting of Mary Washington. The plots are 620 feet long and five rows wide,
five plots in all.
Plot No. 1:  80 pounds of 33-0-0.
Plot No. 2:  80 pounds of 33-0-0 plus 150 pounds of 0-19-0.
Plot No. 3:  80 pounds of 33-0-0 plus 50 pounds of 0-0-60.
Plot No. 4: Check.
Plot No. 5:  80 pounds of 33-0-0 plus 150 pounds of 0-19-0 plus 50 pounds
of 0-0-60.
Results:  The only noticeable feature observed in July and August was that the four
nitrogen-treated plots showed greater vigour and darker green colour.
Vernon District Fertilizer Trials
W. T. Baverstock reports on the fertilizer trials with asparagus at Vernon and Armstrong—one plot is under sprinklers and the other is grown without irrigation.
Okanagan Landing.—Object: Comparison of various commercial fertilizers at
various rates on yields.
Location:  A. Woodcock, Okanagan Landing, B.C.
Procedure: Fertilizer was applied as follows: First application in early spring and
a summer application immediately after the cutting season was over. Fertilizer was
broadcast by hand and cultivated in.    This experiment is under sprinkler irrigation.
Observation: First picking was made on May 11th; last picking on June 29th.
A total of fifty days picking compared with forty-six days picking in 1954.
Size of plots:   One-twentieth acre.
Fertilizer
Plot
1953 Yield
1954 Yield
1955 Yield
Material
Rate
Lb. per Acre
Lb. per Acre
Lb. per Acre
Lb. per Acre
No. 1     —	
33-0-0
500
3,225
4,570
4,165
No. 2    	
33-0-0
1,000
3,455
4,370
4,225
No. 3	
16-20-0
500
2,450
4,200
4,045
No. 4  	
16-20-0
1,000
3,755
4,525
4,470
No. 5         —	
6-10-10
700
3,780
4,080
4,150
No. 6   	
6-10-10
1,200
3,480
4,425
4,455
No. 7      . 	
Check
3,010
3,375
3,920 HH 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Conclusion: It is noted in this experiment that the higher application of fertilizer
in every instance this season has given higher yields under sprinkler irrigation. It is the
intention to carry out the experiment again during 1956.
Armstrong.—Object: Comparison of various commercial fertilizers at various rates
on yields.
Location:   W. Johnson, Armstrong, B.C.
Procedure: Fertilizer was applied as follows: First application in early spring and
a summer application immediately after the cutting season was over. Fertilizer was
broadcast by hand and cultivated in.   This experiment is not under irrigation.
Observation: First picking was made on May 11th; last picking on June 27th.
A total of forty-one days' picking compared with thirty-nine days' picking in 1954.
Size of plots:  One-twentieth acre.
Plot
Fertilizer
1953 Yield
1954 Yield
1955 Yield
Material
Rate
No. 1 _	
No. 2 _	
No. 3   	
No. 4	
No. 5    	
No. 6... _  ...
No. 7     	
33-0-0
33-0-0
16-20-0
16-20-0
6-10-10
6-10-10
Check
Lb. per Acre
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
Lb. per Acre
4,095
3,660
3,615
3,475
3,600
3,240
3,615
Lb. per Acre
4,770
3,795
3,880
3,630
4,095
3,540
3,795
Lb. per Acre
4,560
4,185
4,275
4,080
4,425
4,230
4,380
Conclusion: Once again the higher applications are not justified, as in most cases
these actually gave a lower yield. It is the intention to carry on this experiment again
during 1956.
PRUNING DEMONSTRATIONS
Seventeen pruning demonstrations were held at various points throughout the
Province during the year, with a total attendance of 403.
MINERAL DEFICIENCIES
Further work on treating a magnesium deficiency in greenhouse tomatoes was
carried on by A. E. Littler in 1955.   He reports as follows:—
"As indicated in the 1954 Report, magnesium deficiency was a problem in many
greenhouses; therefore, magnesium carbonate at 15 pounds per 1,000 square feet was
applied in the greenhouse of Young-Day Company, which was 5 pounds higher than the
year previous. An application of magnesium sulphate at 2 pounds per 10 gallons of
water was also applied as a spray in another greenhouse of the same firm when slight
yellowing was apparent.
" Results: The plants in the greenhouse to which magnesium carbonate had been
applied to the soil remained relatively green in comparison to the plants in the balance
of the house. There was, however, a little yellowing, indicating that either the magnesium level should be increased or else applied earlier to obtain maximum solubility. In
the greenhouse containing the sprayed plants, these regained their green colour and
remained so throughout the balance of the season.
"Conclusions: It is evident from the above results that magnesium as a minor
element is essential in some, if not all, of the greenhouse soils in this area."
TREE-FRUITS
Prune Fertilizer Plots
In an attempt to produce a larger and better-quality prune, fertilizer plots were set
up in 1949 at Keremeos, Penticton, and Naramata. The plots in three locations received
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 35
the same treatment, except the Harris plots, which received barnyard manure at the rate
of 10 tons per acre per annum.
M. P. D. Trumpour reports on the results to date as follows:—
"Object: To continue the prune fertilizer trials set up in 1949 in an effort to determine whether nitrogenous fertilizer alone or in combination with phosphorus, potash, or
sawdust produce different results.
" Locations: G. Barker orchard, Keremeos, and W. Orr orchard, Naramata. (Note.
—Trials on J. Harris orchard, Penticton, were discontinued due to tree-removal and
renovations in the prune block.)
"Procedure: Plot treatments are indicated in the tables under Results. All fertilizers and sawdust were applied in the late fall. Soil samples were taken from the Barker
orchard in October and were analysed by the Field Crops Branch. Yields were recorded
at harvest-time.
"Observation: Prunes from the Barker orchard were small and of poor quality.
Prunes from the Orr orchard were of medium size and of fair to good quality.
" Yield results for the past six years in the Barker orchard are shown in the following table:—
Plot
Materials and Rates (per Tree)
Average Yield per Tree (Lb.)
19501
1951
1952
19532
1954
1955
No 1
138
185
174
174
204
182
170
207
185
190
217
159
167
184
128
250
260
252
216
261
244=
197
No. 2
259
No. 3
226
No 4
170
No. 5
234
No. 6
Check                        ..  „	
2143
1 No crop in Plots 1, 2, and 3 due to winter injury.
2 No crop harvested due to excessive fruit damage from spring frosts.
3 Grower applied fertilizer to those trees due to declining tree vigour and yields.
Yield results for the past six years in the Orr orchard are shown in the following
table:—
Materials and Rates (per Tree)
Average Yield
per Tree (Lb.)
1950
1951
1952
19531
1954
1955
No. 1
239
172
213
203
234
196
135
80
120
184
215
180
134
113
228
185
302
260
95
59
81
106
115
86
230
151
204
245
215
165
199
No. 2
84
No. 3
170
No. 4
189
No. 5
187
No. 6
Check.	
165
1 Crop reduced by excessive shrivel.
"Conclusions: Results from the soil analysis in the Barker orchard show, except in
a few cases, that there are higher concentrations of nutrients in the topsoil as compared to
the subsoil. This gives rise to several questions, but rather than attempt to answer these,
it is felt that soil-sampling should be repeated, but at a different time of the year.
" The plots receiving 6 pounds of ammonium sulphate plus a dressing of sawdust
continue to produce relatively good yields in both the Barker and Orr orchards. Apart
from this, however, the yield results fail to show a consistent pattern. For example, the
plot in the Orr orchard receiving 16-20-0 plus potassium sulphate has produced relatively
good yields, whereas that in the Barker orchard has produced the poorest yields. A similar example, but in reverse order, are the plots receiving 6 pounds of ammonium sulphate. HH 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
"As for the yields in the plot in the Orr orchard receiving 8 pounds of ammonium
sulphate, the trees have remained small and have not responded to the addition of the
fertilizer.
" It appears, at this time, that fertilizers are not the governing factor in obtaining
satisfactory prune yields in these orchards. Accordingly, it is felt that this project should
be continued, but with additional investigations. Such investigations would include more
emphasis on soil analysis and an exploration for the presence of nematodes."
Fertilizer trials in the Butler orchard, Blocks No. 1 and No. 2, Kelowna, are reported
on in some detail by W. F. Morton. The plot in Block No. 1, started in 1928, received
only nitrogen in amounts varying from 4 to 8 pounds of ammonium nitrate per tree, and,
as will be seen from the following tabulation, there is no discernible difference over
the years:—
A verage Yield in Loose Boxes per Tree
Plot
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Average
No. 1-
22.4
21.8
22.3
26.2
16.4
28.0
26.5
24.8
23.4
25.5
19.6
21.0
18.6
13.8
15.0
22.8
21.2
17.4
17.4
24.3
28.5
29.4
20.6
16.0
18.7
18.6
17.8
18.0
18.2
24.3
23 31
No. 2	
No. 3	
No. 4. .           _	
22.95
20.28
19.16
No. 5 	
20.70
On Block No. 2, this test was started in 1934 to compare nitrogen with nitrogen
and phosphorus and a complete fertilizer. From the records since 1941 the differences
in yield continue to be erratic, with a possible trend toward higher yields from the trees
receiving nitrogen and phosphorus.
Average Yield in Loose Boxes per Tree
Plot
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Average
No. 1 —
25.2
26.7
20.8
25.5
19.8
23.0
25.8
15.0
19.3
26.3
23.2
24.3
21.8
24.2
27.6
18.7
18.3
25.2
15.2
24.3
20.88
No. 2 _	
No. 3  _	
No. 4  -	
25.08
22.52
21.56
Apple-scab Control
Extensive work was carried out in the Creston and Sunshine Bay districts of the
Kootenay District by J. E. Swales in co-operation with Drs. Marshall and Mcintosh of
the Summerland research centre. Since this work is reported elsewhere in the Departmental Report, it is not repeated here.
In the Salmon Arm district, R. M. Wilson, in co-operation with Dr. Mcintosh of
the Plant Pathology Laboratory, studied the value of an eradicant spray for scab. Mr.
Wilson's report in part is given below:—
" Object: To test further the eradicant value of Phygon XL and its protective fungicidal properties for control of apple-scab.
" Location: The plots were located in a block of Mcintosh trees in the W. R. Calver
orchard in South Broadview.
" Procedure: In the eradicant plot a tankful of spray at the rate of 3 pounds per
acre was applied to mature trees seventy-two hours after the start of an infection period
up to the calyx stage. Two sprays were applied. For later control, Crag 341 at 1 gallon
per acre was applied in the first, second, and third cover sprays. Materials were put on
by the grower with a concentrate-spray machine. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 37
" In the protective plots, Phygon XL was applied at 2 pounds per acre in the pre-
pink, pink, and calyx stages, and the first two cover sprays consisted of Crag 341 at
1 gallon per acre.
" Conclusions: Apparently Phygon XL as an eradicant spray gave fairly good control of apple-scab and would serve to check infection in the early stages from pink to
calyx where protective sprays were omitted.
"As a protective spray, Phygon XL gave just about as good control at 1-pound rate
as at 2 pounds per acre. Phygon XL was superior to lime-sulphur for scab-control.
No harmful effects were observed from the use of Phygon sprays.
" On the basis of this work and that done in the Kootenay District, Phygon is again
placed on the spray calendar for 1956."
BLOSSOM-THINNING
Thinning of the various tree-fruits by either mechanical removal of blossoms or
with chemicals is now standard practice in the major tree-fruit areas. It has been found
to be much cheaper and a great time-saver over the old method of removal by hand.
So far no satisfactory method except hand-thinning has been successful with pears.
Apples and prunes are now generally sprayed with one of the dinitro-cresol compounds, with good results, while apricots are thinned by tapping the branches just after
the husks have fallen from the fruit or the blossoms brushed off with a handful of twigs.
Peaches are usually brushed off in the same way. In order to find some chemical
to remove peach blooms by spraying and thus cut down the labour cost, A. W. Watt
has been working with chemical thinning of peaches as follows:—
"Chemical Thinning of Peaches with Elgetol 318
" Object: The work was done to test the practicability of using Elgetol 318 applied
in a concentrate sprayer as a thinning agent for peaches.
" Location: N. O. Solly was interested in trying this method, as it had been given
some publicity at the Chautauqua meetings. He volunteered the help of his equipment
and staff. Accordingly, the work was carried out in one of the older peach blocks on
the Solly orchard.
" Materials:  Elgetol 318, 36%, triethanolamine salt of dinitro-secbutylphenol.
"Procedure: A block of twenty-eight Valiant and Vedette trees was selected for
this test. The trees were about 20 years old. The material was applied with a Turbo-
mist sprayer on the afternoon of May 12th. The rate of application was 7 pints per
acre. The weather was mild with a light drift from the south-east. Two rows of
unsprayed trees were left as checks. These lay to the south of the sprayed trees. On the
evening of May 13th a heavy rain fell, lasting for several hours, and the trees remained
damp until the following morning.
" Observations: During the week following application the trees showed severe
petal injury, some blasting of complete flowers, and moderate foliage injury consisting
of withering and drying of the weaker shoots.
" Results: Hand-thinning of the sprayed plot was reduced to trimming up clusters
of fruit not touched by the spray. Amount of thinning (chemical) achieved varied
between trees, but in general was more than adequate.
" Conclusions: Judging from the amount of damage suffered to the foliage and
young twigs and the general tendency to overthinning in the sprayed plot, the risk entailed
in applying this spray did not justify the results. Although no serious damage or loss
of crop resulted, it could easily have occurred had there been a slight worsening of climatic conditions at or just after the test." HH 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
WEED-CONTROL
Chemical Weed-control in Cranberries
Chemical weed-control work was carried out by G. R. Thorpe on cranberries and
he reports as follows:—
" Observations were made at the Northern Peat Company in Richmond on several
weed-control tests run in a cranberry-bog. The prime reason for this study was to determine the effect of herbicides on the cranberries. The summary of the results are recorded
in the following table:—
Treatment
Weed-control
Effect on Cranberries
2,4-D amine.  	
Shell No. 1 plus stove oil
Iron sulphate.....	
Iron sulphate and salt	
DN general (55%). 	
T.C.A 	
1 pt./Ac	
2 pt./Ac.	
1-9, 80 gal./Ac.
20 lb./sq. rod-
1-9..
C.M.U..
I.P.C.—
1 pt./100gal..
1 qt./lOO gal..
200 lb./Ac	
1501b./Ac	
lOOIb./Ac	
3 lb./Ac —
5-6 lb./Ac	
6 lb./Ac.
Copper sulphate..
20 lb./lOO gal..
15 1b./100gal..
Nil	
Nil	
Good-
Fair to good for
sheep's sorrel
Good 	
Poor 	
Poor	
Good 	
Good. 	
Good	
Retarded ___
Retarded 	
Poor	
Moss, good	
Moss, good	
Nil.
Nil.
Spring and fall applications,
nil;    summer    applications
caused damage.
Damaged young plants.
Heavy kill, used as spot treatment for sheep's sorrel.
Serious damage.
100% defoliation.
Heavy damage.
Heavy damage.
Delayed growth 3-4 weeks.
Defoliated.
Killed.
Nil.
Defoliated.
Light defoliation."
Chemical Weed-control in Strawberries
Several large acreages of strawberries were sprayed by G. R. Thorpe during early
January of 1955 for weed-control.   He reports as follows:—
" The strawberries were not considered to be truly dormant and the weeds concerned were mainly rye-grass and chickweed. In most patches the grass was 6 inches or
more in height.
" The following table records the materials used, the amounts, the weed-control, and
the effect on the strawberries:—
Treatment
Amount
Weed-control
Effect on Strawberry
I.P.C	
9 lb./ac.—50 gal. at 70 lb. pressure 	
8 lb./ac—80 gal. at 200 lb. pressure
6 lb. plus 3 lb.—50 gal. at 70 lb. pressure...
6 lb. plus 3 lb.—50 gal. at 70 lb. pressure...
8 lb. plus 3 lb.—80 gal. at 200 lb. pressure
Fair	
Good 	
Fair	
Good	
Good 	
I.P.C. _  	
I.P.C. plus DN amine	
I.P.C. plus DN amine	
I.P.C. plus DN amine—	
Nil; weeds heavy.
7v7/; weeds light.
Damage; weeds heavy.
"Results: Where grass and chickweed are the main weed problem, I.P.C. alone
appears to be sufficient. The combination of I.P.C. and DN amine may be required
where other broad-leaved weeds are a problem, but there appears to be more danger of
strawberry injury with this control.
" If the fall is mild, weed-growth by January is very heavy. Weed-control treatments would be more effective if they could be applied earlier. Tests must be run to
determine how early in the winter or late fall these may be applied without causing injury
to the strawberry.
" One trial was applied this fall, on November 1st, 1955, on British Sovereign and
Marshall strawberries. I.P.C. at 6 pounds per acre was used. No results will be available,
since the November 11th freeze has destroyed both crop and weeds." department of agriculture, 1955 hh 39
Weed-control in Asparagus
The weed-control plots in asparagus were continued this season. These plots are
under the care of M. G. Oswell, of the Vernon office, and a progress report of his work
is as follows:—
" For the past two seasons the British Columbia Department of Agriculture has been
carrying out tests with various herbicides on controlling annual weeds in asparagus. To
date the results have been encouraging but not final.
" The weed-control plots were set out in April, 1954, as a result of requests from
growers for a satisfactory herbicide to control weeds in asparagus. The two annual weeds
red-rooted pigweed (Amaranthus rectroflexus) and lamb's-quarter (Chenopodium album)
are the most troublesome. These weeds, if left unchecked, will develop to 12 or more
inches in height, making picking extremely difficult. Canada thistle, milkweed, and
grasses appear in some fields. Our tests, however, are concerned with the annual weeds,
which are troublesome in all fields.
" These tests have been carried out during the past two seasons on two different
locations. A total of nine herbicides have been tested, replicated three times in plots
of 400 square feet.   In both cases established plantings of Mary Washington were used.
" The materials were applied as pre-emergence sprays, with the exception of Aero-
cyanamid and High Test Cyanamid which were applied in dust form. The land was
cultivated immediately before treatment and no weeds or asparagus shoots were showing.
Materials were applied with a knapsack sprayer applying approximately 2 imperial gallons
per 100 square feet.
" Results: Visual checks were made at weekly intervals during the picking season.
Various methods of assessing the plots were tried, and finally this year it was decided to
score the plots on a basis of points, a score of 5 designating excellent control and 0 no
control. When assessing the plots it was found that although many weeds grew to a
height of 2 or 3 inches and were stunted and deformed, this did not interfere with the
picking.   In such cases reasonable weed-control was obtained from the herbicide involved.
" In the 1954 tests Alanap-1 showed up as the best material, followed closely by
2,4-D (Amine) and Crag Herbicide-1. This past season Aero-cyanamid, High Test
Cyanamid, and Alanap-3 gave the best control. No yield records were kept on the plots,
but the growers did not report any damage to the plants or visual effect on yields.
" The results obtained this year seem to be a complete reversal from that obtained
last year. The action of Aero-cyanamid can be explained by the increased amount used.
The reaction of the other materials is hard to understand in view of the fact that rates
had been increased because of a heavier soil type. Weather conditions could be part of
the answer. After application of the materials, no rain fell for a three-week period and
the ground became extremely dry. Weed-growth started a week or ten days later. Last
year considerable moisture fell during April and May. This year's dry weather is possibly
the exception, as in a normal year rainfall can be expected during those months. Another
possibility has been raised by the fact that the Alanap-1 was 3-year-old material. It has
been suggested that the material may break down after a year or so. This possibility was
checked with the representatives of the company involved, who claimed that the material
would still be effective in three years.
" Further tests will have to be undertaken before any firm recommendations can be
made. Limited trials by growers using either formulation or Alanap will be carried out
next season. HH 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Results obtained in 1954 and 1955 are as follows:—
Material 1954 1955
Aero-cyanamid (special grade)      0 4+
Alanap-1      4+ 0
Alanap-3   4+
Crag Herbicide-1     3 0
Karmex 80% CMU     3
Dow MCP (amine)      1
DNBP (amine)      2 0
2,4-D (amine)      3+ 2
High Test Cyanamid—
(a)  1
(6)  1
(c)  2
(d)  3
(*)  4
Check      0 0
"Note.—0 designates no control;   1 designates poor control;   2 designates fair control;   3 designates fairly good
control;   4 designates good control;   5 designates complete control."
Hoary Cress
Other weed-control work started in 1954 is being continued for the control of
hoary cress, a weed that is becoming quite a serious pest in the Okanagan Valley. Some
interesting controls are reported by E. M. King and W. F. Morton, of Kelowna, and also
by W. T. Baverstock and M. G. Oswell, of the Vernon office, and using the following
four materials. These trials also include orchard lands to determine the effect of the
weedicides on fruit-trees.
(1) DB Spray (59.5% B2Os plus 7% 2,4-D).
(2) DB Granular (40.9% B203 plus 7% 2,4-D).
(3) Polybor Chlorate (49% B2Oa plus 25% NaCL03).
(4) Borascu (61.5% B203).
Method: Twelve plots, each measuring 100 square feet, were set out and materials
were applied on October 26th, 1954. All materials except DB Granular were applied as
sprays.   Rates of application were as follows:— Amount per Plot
Lb. Lb. Lb.
DB Spray  1 2 3
DB Granular  1 2 3
Polybor Chlorate  2 3 4
Concentrated Borascu  5 6 7
Results: (1) DB Spray gave 100 per cent control of hoary cress at all concentrations used. Grasses survived the treatment at the 1-pound rate, but not at higher
concentrations.
(2) DB Granular gave 100 per cent control at the 3-pound rate. A few plants of
hoary cress survived at the 1- and 2-pound rates.   Grass survival was good at all rates.
(3) Polybor Chlorate gave only fair control at all rates used. The hoary cress was
greatly stunted and weakened, but there was 40 per cent survival at the 4-pound rate,
55 per cent survival at the 3-pound rate, and 60 per cent survival at the 2-pound rate.
(4) Borascu failed to control hoary cress at any of the concentrations used. Weeds
were only slightly weakened by these treatments. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 41
Couch-grass
Trials for the control of couch-grass in orchards are being carried out by A. W. Watt
and M. G. Oswell, using Dalapan and amino triazole. So far the results are rather
encouraging, but further work is necessary before any conclusions can be arrived at.
NON-VENTILATED STORAGE-PITS
There is a pressing need for a cheap and simple method of storing such root-crops
as carrots, parsnips, beets, and turnips on the farm. At the present time there is a
tendency to ship this type of produce before the cold weather sets in, quite often resulting
in a glut and later on a shortage to be filled by imported produce. To overcome this
situation, trials with non-ventilated pits have been started by J. L. Webster and G. R.
Thorpe, with the following results to date. The work was done on the farm of H. Kelly,
East Delta, Ladner, who kindly provided the material and did the pitting.
Procedure: This grower pitted approximately 20 tons of Nantes carrots commencing
November 2nd. He also pitted a small tonnage of parsnips. The roots were placed on
top of the ground to a depth of 14 inches (a section was pitted to a depth of 10 inches).
The pits ran north and south and were lightly covered with soil about November 8th.
A soil thermometer was set in the pit and readings were taken each day and during the
record November freeze.   The soil was a silty clay loam.
Object: The object was to keep the roots until February or March and to evaluate
different depths of roots and different depths of soil coverage. The record freeze of
November 11th to 14th spoiled the experiment.
Observation: Thirty to forty per cent of the carrots on the east side of the pit were
frozen during the record weather which prevailed November 11th to 14th. The east side
of the pits were affected because of the 30-mile-per-hour wind from that direction. The
grower opened the pit on December 10th and sorted and salvaged the remainder of the
carrots.
Some parsnips on the east side of the pit were also frozen, but their percentage was
not as high as with carrots.
Three more pits for parsnips were constructed from December 5th to 10th. They
were constructed running east and west, and were covered with about 4 inches of soil.
Conclusion: That more soil—up to 4 inches at least—should be applied to pits
immediately there is any danger of a sudden freeze.
Mr. Kelly reported that the carrots taken from the pits washed well, and were well
received on the market. Parsnips also washed well, and it is therefore hoped that the
tonnage of parsnips he now has in the pits will keep well and wash cleanly when put on
the market in January and February.
NEWS LETTER, BROADCASTS, CROP REPORTS
The Horticultural News Letter is issued bi-monthly from May through September.
All the horticultural offices co-operate in reporting conditions, fruit- and vegetable-crop
estimates, etc. The News Letter is compiled in the Kelowna office, under the direction
of the Supervising Horticulturist.
The annual series of growers' meetings was held as usual at thirty-four points in the
Okanagan with 1,973 growers attending.
Fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates and final production figures were compiled and
forwarded to the Statistics Branch.
Through the co-operation of B.C. Tree Fruits, the British Columbia Fruit Growers'
Association, and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, excellent radio coverage is
given the fruit-growers on such problems as spraying, irrigation, maturity, and harvesting HH 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
during the season.    Broadcasts are made over the three Okanagan stations and the
regular farm broadcast each Thursday over the C.B.C. network.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Your Horticulturist wishes to acknowledge with deep appreciation the help and
co-operation of the Horticultural Branch staff, the other Department members, the Canada
Department of Agriculture, the University of British Columbia, and the various growers'
organizations throughout the Province.
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc.
In general the loss from plant diseases was slight. It was much less than it has been
for many years. The following diseases caused severe losses in some localities: Apple-
scab and little-cherry in the Kootenays, Arrow Lakes, and Creston, and powdery mildew
of cherry in a few orchards in the Southern Okanagan; moderate damage was caused by
such diseases as club-root of crucifers in the Lower Fraser Valley, red-stele of strawberries
at the Coast, root-lesion nematodes in strawberries in the Fraser Valley, and angular
leaf-spot of cucumbers in the Westbank and Osoyoos areas; verticillium wilt of stone
fruits appeared to be much less than in the previous three or four years; snow-mould of
wheat and grasses caused practically no damage in the Cariboo—much less than it has
for a considerable number of years.
Karathane appears to be the most promising of the newer fungicides in the control
of powdery mildew in the Jonathan variety of apples. Zineb (Dithane Z-78) continues
to appear to give good control of downy mildew of onions.
SCAB OF APPLES
Okanagan
The amount of apple-scab in the Okanagan was slight, less than there has been for
a considerable number of years and much less than in 1954. The clean fruit-crop was due
to a thorough spray programme and improved weather conditions during August and
September.
Kootenays, Arrow Lakes, and Creston
The amount of apple-scab in the Kootenays was high. It was favoured by the wet
weather in the spring and early summer. The amount of this disease was greater than in
the previous year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 43
The recommended spray schedule for 1956 in the worst areas for apple-scab—the
Kootenays, Arrow Lakes, and Creston—is as follows:—
Materials to Use
(For new materials see Note 3.)
Amount to Use
Time to Spray
(See Note 1.)
Dilute Spray
(per 100
Gal.)
Concentrate
Spray
(per Acre)
2 gal.
2 gal.
2 gal.
lib.
3 1b.
lib.
31b.
lib.
8 gal.
Pink	
8 gal.
8 gal.
Calyx    	
51b.
15 lb.
51b.
Wettable sulphur 	
Ziram.— _	
15 1b.
51b.
Notes.—1. The above spray schedule will provide good control of apple-scab during a season of normal weather
conditions.   However, additional sprays may be required under the following conditions:—
(a) If cool, wet weather previous to or during bloom prolongs the interval between sprays beyond seven days.
(_*) If the spray deposit is reduced by heavy washing rains,
(c) If a prolonged rainy period is forecast.
A delayed dormant (green tip)  spray and  (or)  a third cover spray also may be necessary.    If these sprays are
considered necessary, notification will be given by radio and press release.
2. Before using lime-sulphur, be sure to test the clear liquid with a hydrometer and then refer to a lime-sulphur
dilution table for amount to use.
3. Maneb has given superior apple-scab control on Mcintosh and Delicious in the Kootenays during the past three
years. Maneb may be used in combination with wettable sulphur as a substitute for and at the same rate as Ferbam or
Ziram in the above schedule or may be used alone at the rate of 10 pounds per acre in concentrate sprays or 2 pounds
per 100 gallons in dilute sprays. Maneb, if applied several times, will control all orchard mites except the clover mite.
(Caution.—Maneb has caused severe leaf-scorching when applied to Rome Beauty, Wagener, and Cox's Orange.)
Plots at Creston
A demonstration to evaluate some of the newer fungicides in preventing apple-scab
was carried out by J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist, Creston, in co-operation with
Dr. D. L. Mcintosh, Canada Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Summerland. There were
eight applications made in the different stages at the following rates:—
Materials Applied
1. Check (no treatment).
Pounds per
Acre
2. Maneb .
3. Manam
4. Maneb .
5. Phygon XL (first four sprays)_
  10
  7
  7
  2}
Maneb (three cover sprays)  7(
6. Maneb  5
7. Maneb plus Triton B1956  5
8. Maneb   5}
Wettable sulphur  15^
Percentage of
Scabby Fruit
100.0
38.2
65.7
43.4
56.3
59.4
59.9
40.8
Maneb at 10 pounds per acre and Maneb at 5 pounds plus wettable sulphur at 15
pounds per acre gave the best control.
Plots at Sunshine Bay
For the second year a demonstration has been carried on by J. E. Swales, District
Horticulturist, Creston, in co-operation with the Canada Entomological Laboratory,
Summerland, to determine the effect of adding non-ionic surfactants to fungicides in the
prevention of apple-scab. These sprays were applied with a Turbo-mist automatic concentrate sprayer in two orchards at Sunshine Bay in the following stages: (1) Early
pre-pink, (2) pink, (3) 10 to 50 per cent of the bloom, (4) calyx, and (5) first, second,
and third cover. HH 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The results shown in the following table indicate that the addition of non-ionic
surfactants to concentrate fungicidal sprays increases their efficiency in controlling apple-
scab. The non-ionic surfactant appears to have greater effect upon the sprays as the rate
of spray application is reduced; for example, at the 75-gallon-per-acre rate, the addition
of a surfactant improved scab-control by an average of 8 per cent, while at the 50-gallon-
per-acre rate, scab-control improved by an average of 28 per cent.
The fungicides used were the same for all of the sprayed plots, and were applied to
all sprayed plots as follows:—
Rate per
Fungicide Acre Time of Application
Lime-sulphur     8 gal. Early pre-pink, pink, 10%-50%
bloom, late calyx.
Ferbam     5 lb.) First and second cover sprays.
Plus wettable sulphur   15 lb. \
Ziram      5 lb.   Third cover.
The effect of adding a non-ionic surfactant, at the rate of 50 and 75 gallons per acre,
on the percentage of apple-scab in the two orchards at Sunshine Bay, was as follows:—
Rate
per Acre Percentage of
Treatment (Gal.) Scabby Fruit
Check (no spray)  100.00
Fungicide   75 31.00
Fungicide plus Triton B1956  75 23.00
Fungicide   50 54.00
Fungicide plus Triton B1956  50 26.00
BACTERIAL RING-ROT OF POTATOES
The Province continues to have only a slight amount of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes.
This disease was detected in slight amounts in the crops of twelve growers—four from the
1954 crop and eight from the 1955 crop. Two potato-crops entered for certification were
also rejected due to ring-rot. In May a trace of this disease was found in certified Warbas
at Armstrong.
The inspection of approximately 9,500 tons of potatoes imported into the Fraser
Valley revealed about 71 tons with a trace of ring-rot. Twenty-four tons out of the
71 tons were returned to the place of origin.
The source of infection of most of the ring-rot in British Columbia this year was
traced back to imported certified seed. Imported certified seed has been responsible for
introducing more ring-rot into British Columbia than any other source of infection.
Ring-rot was also found in the potatoes of one gardener who had planted eyes from
certified seed imported from Manitoba.
NEMATODES
Plant parasitic nematodes are apparently becoming increasingly important in this
Province. Root-lesion nematodes have been found in a number of strawberry-fields
at the Coast.
A new regulation for strawberry certification was inaugurated. Plants must now be
apparently free of parasitic nematodes.
STRAWBERRY-PLANT CERTIFICATION
This project is carried out with the co-operation of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising
Horticulturist, Abbotsford, and A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist, Victoria. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 45
Approximately 2,500,000 British Sovereign strawberry plants were certified, and
300,000 Northwest strawberry plants were approved. The demand for certified plants
was greater than the supply.
Certified plants are now inspected for apparent freedom from parasitic nematodes.
CALIFORNIA SEED-POTATO TEST-PLOTS
The value of the California seed-potato tests was evident again this year. The tests
gave advance notice that one of the main certified-seed growing areas had far too much
leaf-roll. Fortunately, many in this district took advantage of this early warning and
made a concerted effort to reduce this threat to their seed industry.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST
C. L. Neilson, M.S., Entomologist, Vernon
The year 1955 was not unlike 1954 in that there were no major insect outbreaks.
However, insects continued to be sufficiently numerous that preventive or control measures
were necessary on many crops, products, and animals in every section of British Columbia.
Highlights in economic entomology in British Columbia during the year were as
follows:—
(1) Severe damage to some strawberry acreage on Vancouver Island by
aphids, and general increase in mites on both strawberries and cane-
fruits, particularly raspberries.
(2) Increased resistance to organic phosphates by certain mites on fruit-trees
in the Okanagan.
(3) Evidence of continued failure of soil insecticides on high organic-content
soils.
(4) Removal of the Dominion Biological Insect Control Laboratory from the
University of British Columbia to Belleville, Ont., and the establishment
of a Vegetable Insect Laboratory at the University of British Columbia
with Dr. H. R. McCarthy as head.
(5) Revision of the Small-fruit Insect Calendar.
(6) The establishment of the spinose ear-tick as a pest of cattle in British
Columbia.
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Field-crop and vegetable insect infestations were about normal. As forecast, grasshopper infestations continued their downward trend, and were generally at a low ebb.
Grasshopper-control zones were in force, but very little control was needed. Cutworms
were a problem in local areas in the spring, with perhaps the heaviest infestation in
watermelon seedlings near Armstrong on the Grandview Flats. Control of tuber flea-
beetle was continued throughout both coastal British Columbia and the Interior. Aphids
on potatoes were not as serious in 1955 as in 1954. However, aphid populations were
sufficiently high in peas and celery in the Fraser Valley to warrant continued treatment
throughout the season. The green peach-aphid was again present on pole beans in the
Kelowna-Vernon area but reduced from 1954, with a consequent reduction in the loss
from bean mosaic. Carrot rust-fly damage was confined largely to that caused by second-
generation flies, hence many of the early crops escaped infestation. Onion thrip and
maggot infestations were normal, with an ever-decreasing loss from maggot due to wider
application of proper controls.   Brown wheat-mite damaged onions in the Kelowna area. HH 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Damage from turnip-maggot continued, particularly in the Fraser Valley on peaty soils,
where recommended treatments are not giving satisfaction. However, on Vancouver
Island and in the Interior of British Columbia present controls are adequate and are
encouraging the growing of turnips again. Root-maggots on other brassica. were unusually
abundant in coastal areas. The imported cabbage-worm caused considerable trouble in
both coastal areas and the Okanagan. Other vegetable pests, such as flea-beetles, worms,
and caterpillars, required normal treatment. Wireworms continue to be one of our pests
which require additional attention. This is particularly true in potato areas such as
Ladner, Lulu Island, and other areas in the Fraser Valley, Central British Columbia, and
in grain in the Peace River. Wheat-midge damage was again present in the North
Okanagan, and a report of a heavy infestation came from Revelstoke. Several species of
slugs were particularly abundant in the Fraser Valley, where they damaged corn, pasture,
and vegetables. Other inquiries included tomato fruit-worm, roundworms, hawk-moths,
corn ear-worm, white grubs, pea-weevil, Collembola, and nematodes.
ORCHARD INSECTS
Orchard insects required the usual attention. Of particular interest was a noticeable
increase of European red-mite on all varieties of tree-fruit. Its resistance to organic
phosphates appears to have increased, and the area reporting this resistance also has
increased during 1955.   The following pests were of concern in the degree noted:—
(a) The same level as 1954: Apple-aphid, rosy apple-aphid, fruit-tree leaf-
roller, peach twig-borer, peach tree-borer, California pear-slug, buffalo
tree-hopper, lygus, woolly aphids, pear leaf-worm, tent-caterpillars, cherry
fruit-fly (Vancouver Island).
(Z.) Less than in 1954: Clover-mite in trees, yellow spider-mite, black cherry-
aphid, green peach-aphid, European earwig, grasshoppers, pear-psylla,
San Jose scale, cherry fruit-worm, European fruit-scale,
(c) More prevalent than in 1954: Codling-moth, European red-mite, clover-
mite on grasses, two-spotted mite, Pacific mite, rust-mite, pear-leaf blister-
mite, eye-spotted bud-moth, mealy plum-aphid, cutworms, oyster-shell
scale, soft scales, cherry fruit-fly (Creston), thrips, yellow-necked caterpillar.
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
There was a normal incidence of insects attacking small fruits throughout the Province. Root-weevils continued as one of the major pests of strawberries, but they also
attacked cane-fruit and cranberries. Two-spotted mites were generally more numerous
on strawberries and raspberries. A control test was started at Salmon Arm to compare
Aramite and Malathion on clipped and undipped plants. Aphids, likely the " shallot
aphid," severely damaged strawberry plantings in Saanich, but were present in lesser
numbers over most of Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley. Infestations of cane-
borer, root-borer, and raspberry fruit-worm were normal. The leaf-hopper Macropsis
fusculata, in addition to being present on Lulu Island on loganberries, was recorded for
the first time from Southern Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of Coquitlam. The
black-headed fire-worm on cranberries on Lulu Island required treatment. The gooseberry sawfly occurred in numbers from the Fraser Valley to Cranbrook, and currant-
aphids were abundant in backyard plantings.
FLOWERS AND SHRUBS
The following pests were reported as causing economic damage: Narcissus bulb-fly,
aphids, weevils, azalea leaf-miner, two-spotted mites, holly leaf-miner, holly bud-moth,
orange tortrix on holly.    Other local infestations were reported as follows:   Lecanium
I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 47
scale on juniper, cedar, and rose; two-spotted mite on cypress, violets, and primula;
thrips on primula and chysanthemum; rose leaf-hoppers, rose-weevils, tulip aphids, Virginia creeper leaf-hoppers, juniper scale, pine-needle scale, spruce gall-aphids; aphids on
many trees and flowers; lygus, dew-worms (lawns), ants, pea willow-gall, poplar leaf-
miner, and satin-moth.
LIVE-STOCK PESTS
Warbles continued as one of the major pests of cattle in the Fraser Valley, Interior
British Columbia, and the south-eastern section of the Province. Range cattle constitute
the main problem owing to the difficulty of adequate spray treatment. The paralysis
tick was more prevalent in the Kamloops and Merritt districts than during past years,
and necessitated treatments of many cattle and sheep. The spinose ear-tick was proven
as the causative agent in the death of cattle near Adams Lake. A joint survey between
the Dominion Veterinary Insect Laboratory, Kamloops, and the Provincial Game Department was undertaken to determine the degree of incidence of this tick in wild animals.
Initial reports indicate a wide distribution and a fairly high incidence of occurrence in
deer and elk. A blackfly-control programme was carried out in the Cherryville district.
Repeated stream treatments were necessary due to reinfestation from untreated portions
of streams which were not readily accessible on foot. A mosquito-control school was
conducted jointly with the Dominion Livestock Insect Laboratory, Kamloops. Twenty-
four attended and represented communities and National parks from Prince George to
the International Boundary to Alberta. Miscellaneous inquiries included lice, sheep-ked,
poultry-mites, fleas, cuterbrids, winter ticks, myiasis maggots, house and stable flies.
HOUSEHOLD PESTS
The two main household pests continue to be carpet-beetles and clothes moths. The
incidence of termite infestations in older buildings appears to be increasing in coastal
British Columbia. Other inquiries included bedbugs, bat-bugs, larder-beetles, ants, lesser
house-fly, mosquitoes, earwigs, wasps, hornets, flat-headed borer in flooring, Australian
spider-beetle, Coast tick, paralysis tick, carpenter-ants, clover-mites, granary-weevil, and
saw-tooth grain-beetle.
EXTENSION AND PUBLICATIONS
Radio broadcasts were made over CKOV, CJIB, C.B.C. farm broadcasts, and CBUT
television. Newspaper articles were released to Vernon News and Country Life. The
following publications were prepared for release:—
(1) Pine Needle Scale Control, jointly with M. D. Proverbs.
(2) Livestock Pests, jointly with J. D. Gregson.
(3) Holly Insects, jointly with H. Andison.
(4) Handbook of the Economic Insects of British Columbia—Part II.
(5) Insects of the Season of British Columbia.
Talks on insect-control were given at Hey wood Corner, Mount Ida, Kamloops (two),
Vernon (three), Cherryville, British Columbia Agronomy Conference, Sidney, Parksville,
Cloverdale, Abbotsford, Vancouver, Kelowna, Grand Forks, Salmon Arm, and Summer-
land.
The following conferences were attended: Pacific Northwest Vegetable Insect Conference, Entomological Society of British Columbia, British Columbia Agronomy Conference, H.E.P.P., Kamloops Fat Stock Show, Western Co-operative Spray Project, and
Potato Field-day at Boundary.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The excellent co-operation of other Provincial departments of agriculture is hereby
acknowledged, as is the co-operation of all officers of the Canada Department of Agriculture, Entomology Division, especially those in British Columbia. HH 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon
Honey production, like most agricultural crops, is dependent on weather. Weather
conditions and prevailing temperatures have a profound effect on colony development
during winter, spring, summer, and fall.
The winter of 1954-55 was very mild until March. Abnormal quantities of stores
were consumed, and brood-rearing was commenced at a time when colonies should have
been resting. March turned very cold, and feeding colonies in need of stores was impossible. A cold, backward spring and early summer, together with the short hot period
during late July and August, had a detrimental effect on pollination and reduced nectar
secretion in most honey plants. Altogether the effects of weather during 1955 resulted
in a 15-per-cent mortality of overwintered colonies as well as a 20-per-cent reduction in
the average honey-crop for British Columbia of 1,100,000 pounds.
Total honey-crop for 1955 was 970,138 pounds. The average colony production
was below normal in most of the Province.
A shortage of pollen was noted in some areas, particularly where alfalfa was the
main source of food. As a result, some work is being done with a beekeeper co-operator
in the Armstrong district. One group of colonies will be fed collected pollen and soya
flour; another group will receive a formula consisting of soya flour and brewers' yeast;
and the third will be a check group.
Swarming was no problem. Failing queens were noted in many areas, no doubt
due to cool weather conditions which prevailed during the mating season.
MARKETING
Marketing conditions have never been better. Packing plants in British Columbia
are offering between 16V_; cents and 16% cents per pound in their containers. Many
of the commercial beekeepers in British Columbia still prefer to market their own honey,
and prices continue to vary from 21 cents to 35 cents in small containers. Commercial
beekeepers are showing a great deal of interest in creamed honey, and there is at present
a variety of equipment being used to prepare this product. The liquid pack, which has
always been favoured by British Columbia honey-producers, is losing in favour to
creamed honey.
INSPECTION
Inspection during 1955 was concentrated on Penticton, Vancouver Island, Fraser
Valley, the Kootenay and Grand Forks district. Routine inspection was carried out in
most other districts. Additional inspection work must be done in Kelowna, Westbank,
Penticton, and in the area from Grand Forks to Nelson . The inspection staff consisted
of V. E. Thorgeirson, G. V. Wilkinson, J. Baynes, and, to a lesser extent, H. Boone,
J. Drinkwater, and I. Holder.
Old Diseased Beekeeping Equipment Located and Destroyed by Burning
District
Supers
Burned
Value
of Each
Drawn
Combs
Burned
Value
of Each
Total
Value
Scorched
Supers
Bottoms
Tops
12
181
13
4
15
88
580
150
1,200
280
1,670
140
68
20
177
863
$0.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
.30
$174.00
45.00
360.00
84.00
501.00
42.00
20.40
6.00
53.10
258.90
28
3
120
28
2
66
34
7
2
30
7
1
16
30
7
$1.00
2
30
7
Penticton  	
1.00
1.00
Kelowna  „ 	
1
Vancouver	
1.00
1.00
1.00
17
13
Totals	
313
$313.00
5,148    |	
$1,544.40
281
93
77 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 49
Value of Live Colonies Infected with American Foul-brood and Which Were
Burned in Accordance with the "Apiaries Act"
Total colonies burned  139
Average value per hive         $20.00
Total value  $2,780.00
DISEASE-CONTROL
This office received fifty-six samples of brood comb and smears. These were
analysed and forty-nine showed positive infection by American foul-brood {Bacillus
larva:). Two samples were forwarded to the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa for
analysis of European foul-brood {Bacillus alvei, Bacillus pluton).
Field tests with the dusting and spraying of drugs (sulphadiazine, sulphathiazole,
and sulphamethazine) are being carried out at Vernon.
Type of Disease
A.F.B.
E.F.B.
Nosema
Others
7
1
6
53
3
2
6
29
32
(2)
O)
(l)
V1)
f1)
South Okanagan    	
Similkameen  	
	
Total                    	
139
1 Nosema present but not severe.
2 E.F.B. was not as severe in the Peace River District this year.   One case located in Vanderhoof.
INSECTICIDE AND HERBICIDE POISONING
There were a few reports of insecticide poisoning of honeybees. Seven samples of
dead adult honeybee workers were received at the office for analysis. The analysing of
such samples is a complicated process, and, among other things, it is of the utmost importance to mail at least 100 bees, and to state what specific poison is suspected of causing
the colony mortality.   This analysis is done at Science Service laboratories at Ottawa.
POLLINATION
Rental of Colonies by Growers for Pollination
District
Crop
Colonies
Employed,
No Rental
Fee
Indicated
Colonies
Employed,
Rental
Fee
Rental
Charged
per Colony
Total
30
250
162
27
50
39
30
16
650
8
15
32
17
$2.00
5.00
6.00
3.00
$16.00
75 00
192 00
51 00
Fruit (small)  	
Tomatoes, cucumbers, bitter melon
Fruit	
Shuswap  	
Peace River  	
Sweet clover, alfalfa, altaswede...	
Totals	
1,254
72
$334.00 HH 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Survey of Cucumber Pollination, Greater Victoria, 1955
No.
Number
of Greenhouses
Size
Number
of Hives
Used
Estimated
Crop,1955
Are Bees
Used for
Other Crops?
Total
Number
of Hives
in Use
1      	
2  	
i 1
1
2
2
3
2
2
2
(2)
30 x 140
30 x 100
30 x 140
30 x 200
30 x 200
30 x 200
30 x 150
30 x 150
30x150
1
1
2
2
4
2
1
2
5
Doz.
(.-)
600
5,000
O)
4,000
1,600
1,800
1,300
(!)
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Bitter melon
Bitter melon
5
2
3 _ 	
4   	
5  _  _ _	
2
7
4
6  	
7 _	
8 _ _ „.	
2
5
7
9    _	
5
1 No estimate.
- Interspersed with tomatoes.
BULLETINS AND PUBLICATIONS
Circular No. 10, entitled "Beehive Construction for Beginners," was revised and
reprinted. Two circulars are at present in the hands of the printers. These are: Circular
No. 11, "Wintering Bees in British Columbia," and Circular No. 13, "The Use of Drugs
and Antibiotics in Controlling Bee Diseases."
Circular No. 12, "Package Bees," is nearly completed, and a publication on "Beekeeping in British Columbia " is being written. The Agricultural Engineering Division
has continued work on honey-house plans.
It is much more economical and practical to revise and reprint small publications
in the form of circulars. Publications dealing entirely with specific subjects are being
written as time permits.
Four issues of Bee Wise were published and distributed.
EXTENSION
All beekeepers are anxious to learn more about the most modern techniques in
beekeeping. Short courses consisting of four evenings of lectures were held in Victoria,
New Westminster, and Abbotsford. A one-day meeting was held at the latter point.
The Supervising Agriculturist and District Agriculturists attended from Vancouver Island
and the Fraser Valley. A beemasters' course on beekeeping was held at the University
of British Columbia, and twenty-six beekeepers attended. Twenty-three wrote the
beemasters' examination, and twenty were successful and have been presented with
certificates.
A continuous-flow extracting, heating, and straining unit is being installed in the
honey-house of L. Fuhr in Vernon, and certain experimental work is being carried out
there. This will provide assistance to all commercial beekeepers by demonstrating
methods and techniques, as well as the operating efficiency of new types of honey-house
equipment.
Office correspondence over the year has consisted of 1,518 letters in and 2,707
letters out.
MEETINGS
Members of the Apiary Branch attended a total of thirty-seven beekeepers' meetings
throughout the year, including fourteen field-days, at which lectures and demonstrations
were given by members of the Branch. Honey judges were provided for two exhibits and
five fairs.   Seven radio broadcasts on beekeeping were given.   There was a large volume DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 51
of telephone calls and a steady volume of visitors from all parts of the Province and
Canada, as well as the United States.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I wish to thank all Supervising and District Agriculturists for their co-operation, and
also Dr. Blythe Eagles, of the Faculty of Agriculture, and Dr. J. K. Friesen, Director of
the Department of University Extension, for their assistance in making our beemasters'
short course such a success.
HONEY-CROP
REPORT,
1955
District
Beekeepers
Colonies
Crop
Average
Vancouver  _	
150
154
257
445
843
59
382
437
1,001
1,477
6,453
3,000
Lb.
6,876
10,051
44,044
42,833
503,334
363,000
18
23
44
29
78
120
Totals.          	
1,908
12,750
970,138
Value to producers of 970,138 pounds of honey at 21 cents per pound (wholesale), $203,728.98;   9,800 pounds of
beeswax at 50 cents per pound, $4,900.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH
Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinary Inspector
HORSES
The situation within this branch of the live-stock industry has not changed.   Stallion
enrolments for the year 1955, compared with 1953 and 1954, were as follows:—
1953
1954
1955
A, 1; B, 3; C, 0; D, 3; E, 26; F, 3; total, 36.
A, 4;  B, 2;  C, 1;  D, 1;  E, 21;  F, 11;  total, 40.
A, 4; B, 1;  C, 1;  D, 2;  E, 19;  F, 14;  total, 41.
BEEF CATTLE
For inspected slaughterings of cattle and calves, see Appendix No. 2. For beef
carcasses graded in British Columbia, see Appendix No. 3. For average prices of cattle,
see Appendix No. 4.
BULL-TESTING
Bull-testing was restricted to the completion of field tests at the Dominion Range
Station, Kamloops.
An all-Canada conference was held in Regina on October 4th and 5th to discuss the
whole matter of sire-testing.   In all likelihood a long-term plan will be developed.
BULL-CONTROL AREAS
This very excellent policy is accomplishing much for the improvement of the beef-
cattle industry.   New areas are coming in and more are due shortly. HH 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SALES AND SHOW RESULTS
The summarized reports of sales in British Columbia during the year 1955 are shown
in Appendix No. 7.
PROVINCIAL BULL SALE AND FAT STOCK SHOW,
MARCH 7th TO 10th, 1955
Total head, 366.
Car-lot of fifteen steers, heavy class:   Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Car-lot of fifteen steers, light class:   Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Champion car-lot:  Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Reserve champion car-lot:   Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Group of five steers, heavy class:  Earlscourt Farms Limited, Lytton.
Group of five steers, light class:  Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Champion group of five steers:  Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Reserve champion group of five steers:  Earlscourt Farms Limited, Lytton.
Single steer or heifer, 1,120 to 1,060 pounds:  Earlscourt Farms Limited, Lytton.
Single steer or heifer, 1,050 to 1,030 pounds:  Len Wood & Son, Armstrong.
Single steer or heifer, 970 to 950 pounds:  L. V. Shannon, Knutsford.
Single steer or heifer, 930 to 770 pounds:  Cliff D. Clement, Kelowna.
Single steer or heifer, 740 to 600 pounds:  Oliver N. Wells, Sardis.
Champion animal of the open singles:  Len Wood & Son, Armstrong.
Reserve champion animal of the open singles:   L. V. Shannon, Knutsford.
Boys' and girls' competition, single steer or heifer, heavy class: Dennis Lyster, Armstrong.
Boys' and girls' competition, single steer or heifer, light class: Patsy Hall, Kamloops.
New exhibitors drawn from above two classes:  Bill Freding, Princeton.
Champion animal of the boys' and girls' competition:  Dennis Lyster, Armstrong.
Reserve champion animal of the boys' and girls' competition: Katie Davidson,
Kamloops.
Grand champion animal of the show:  Len Wood & Son, Armstrong.
Reserve grand champion animal of the show:   L. V. Shannon, Knutsford.
DAIRY CATTLE AND DAIRYING
The quality of the dairy cattle in the Province continues to improve. The influence
of our dairy-herd improvement work is apparent.
Dairy calf and heifer placements continue to be made into the Interior. This young
stock has high production backing and is disease-free. Most of this stock comes from
D.H.I.A. herds.
DAIRY-HERD IMPROVEMENT
The following is the report of J. A. Mace, Superintendent of Dairy Herd Improvement Services:—
" The demand for this service continues at a high rate. Two new routes were put
into operation during the year—one at Agassiz on January 1st, as a second route to the
Dewdney-Deroche Association, and one at Salmon Arm on October 1st, as a second route
to the Salmon Arm-North Okanagan Association. This makes twenty-three routes in
fourteen associations, with 14,000 cows under test in 530 herds. All routes have a full
complement of members and are operating efficiently. A waiting-list of approximately
fifty herds would indicate the desirability of some further expansion during 1956.
Attached in appendix form is a list of associations, with the names of the respective
secretaries and supervisors. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 53
"Production details for 1955 will not be available until April, 1956. However,
11,033 milking periods were completed during 1954, a further increase of 15 per cent.
Average production showed a slight drop as predicted, being 9,477 pounds of milk and
398 pounds of fat, with an average test of 4.20 per cent. A summarized report showing
average production by breeds is attached in Appendix No. 16.
"The following changes or transfers of supervisors took place during the year:
N. W. Daykin to Chilliwack (Route 3); S. A. Blabey to Chilliwack (Route 4); J. W.
Stephenson to Dewdney-Deroche (Route 2); H. Clair to Langley (Route 1); A. Colly
to Salmon Arm-North Okanagan (Route 1) from Langley (Route 1); H. Bylama to
Sumas (Route 2) from Chilliwack (Route 3); R. E. Chapman resigned to go auctioneering; M. Shymkowich resigned to join the Navy; and B. Hall is no longer employed as
a supervisor.
"For the first time in years we had sufficient applicants to hold a short course
without resorting to advertising, and three were successful in passing the necessary
examinations."
CALF-TAGGING
During the past year 3,250 tags have been issued to supervisors. This represents
an increase of 250 over 1954, which was the highest year to that date. Emphasis is
continually placed on the desirability of supervisors tagging all eligible calves possible.
DEPARTMENTAL SUBSIDIES
Grants to twenty-three D.H.I.A. routes amounted to $43,179.59 during 1955, an
increase of $2,505.59.
R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. COMBINED SERVICE
Sixty herds are now using this service, the largest number to date. The project has
continued to operate smoothly, but it is becoming apparent that some change in the
eligibility rules would be beneficial, to avoid present duplication. There are differences
of opinion as to the method to be adopted to avoid this duplication which will require
discussion.
FIELD WORK
During the year 59 visits to supervisors were made, 16 to secretaries of associations
and 74 to members of Dairy Herd Improvement Associations. In addition to this, Mr.
Johnson reports 52 contacts with supervisors and 324 visits to secretaries and members,
for a total of 525 calls during the year, including herds tested during relief period. This
should be regarded as an absolute minimum, and the appointment of an additional
Inspector should make it possible to contact annually and bring up to date the herd books
of nearly all of the present membership. Part of the value of this work is the opportunity
for extension offered in these personal contacts.
In addition to the above, annual meetings of all fourteen Dairy Herd Improvement
Associations were attended and spoken at. Sixteen other meetings were attended during
the year, including the Lower Mainland Technical Advisory Committee meetings at
Abbotsford, and policy meetings with artificial insemination units, bull selection committees, and the newly formed Artificial Insemination Bull Selection Policy Committee.
OFFICE ROUTINE
As already noted, increases in all phases of this work continue. Correspondence
is up; a 15-per-cent increase in D.H.I, record receipts took place in 1954, and a further
increase will undoubtedly be shown in 1955. R.O.P. records show an increase, with
approximately 4,800 received during the year. HH 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL DAIRY SIRE LISTS
We were only able to publish one sire list in 1955. This was the twenty-third list
of Jersey sires, containing information as to the performance of 280 Jersey bulls.
ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION CLUBS
A close contact has again been maintained with both artificial insemination clubs.
Their annual meetings have been attended, as well as some meetings with Bull Selection
Committees.
Reports on the performance of all bulls with the minimum of ten daughters have
again been issued, and if the use of I.B.M. machines, now under consideration, proves
practical, these reports will be given on a monthly basis, as requested by the clubs.
The writer has been appointed to a committee to study the best means of securing
and proving bulls suitable for this important phase of the dairying industry.
It is again necessary to comment with regard to the lack of tagging being done to
identify heifer calves. If it were not for the identification being done with D.O.T. ear-
tags by supervisors in herds on test, there would not be sufficient information available
to prove more than half a dozen A.I. bulls. This is the biggest problem to be overcome
by the clubs at the present time.
Reports on daughters of all A.I. bulls are now being given out on the basis of the
breed-class average and the bulls' average rating expressed as a percentage of the average
for the breed concerned.
PARENTAL PRODUCTION SUMMARIES
Complete reports have been prepared on nine prospective herd sires for interested
members.
LIFETIME PRODUCTION
Emphasis is still being placed on this phase of profitable dairying. That it is receiving the attention of D.H.I, members is shown by the yearly increase in both " ton-of-fat"
cows and herds eligible for the ton-of-fat competition.
This year shows 57 herds eligible (up 10) for the competition and 1,312 (up 96)
cows which have produced a minimum of 1 ton of butter-fat so far in their lifetime.
PUBLICATIONS
H.I.C. No. 76, Sixteenth Annual List of Long-distance Production Records.
H.I.C. No. 77, Twenty-third List of Jersey Sires, containing reports on 280 sires.
GENERAL
During the last session of the House the Government approved a measure to bring
D.H.I, supervisors under the " Civil Service Superannuation Act." This culminates several years of effort, and should prove to be a major factor in holding good men in our
work.
Necessary changes have now been made in stationery, etc., to switch all of our
records from a mature equivalent basis to the breed-class average system of record evaluation. This step is in keeping with changes adopted by the breed associations, and is
considered superior to the old method.
For some years, efforts have been made to secure the official recognition of British
Columbia's D.H.I, records. The writer feels that this would be a serious error and could
lead to unexpected difficulties and complications. At the present time we are attempting to secure sufficient recognition for our records to enable members to register bull
calves on the strength of the dam's D.H.I, production.   It is felt that such recognition is DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 55
all that is necessary, and that if granted much of the present duplication of testing in
pure-bred herds between D.H.I.A. and R.O.P. could be eliminated.
Despite the increases already noted and with the exception of sire lists, the work
of this Branch is in the best condition for many years. It gives a good deal of satisfaction
to be able to make such a statement.
SUMMARY OF TRANSACTIONS UNDER PURE-BRED SIRES
FOR FARMERS' INSTITUTES POLICY
Sire purchases for the year 1955 were as follows (1954 figures in parentheses):
Nine (twelve) pure-bred sires were purchased during the year at a cost of $3,025
($4,450), with the Department paying transportation charges amounting to $283.89
($359.43); these included five Hereford, one Shorthorn, one Aberdeen-Angus, one Galloway, and one Guernsey. The institutes receiving these sires were as follows: Bella
Coola, Kersley, Westbridge, Wardner, Grand Forks, and Graham Island East Coast.
Total payments received from farmers under this policy amounted to $3,960.67
($2,653.85) during the year. Final payments were received on ten bulls, including three
Hereford, five Shorthorn, one Ayrshire, and one Guernsey, with the registration of same
being transferred from the Live Stock Commissioner to the new owners.
LIVE-STOCK IMPROVEMENT POLICY
This is a new policy whereby farmers are enabled to secure top-quality boars and
rams for use in areas where the freight charges might dissuade the producers from bringing
in such animals.
During the year six Yorkshire boars were purchased for $555 and one Oxford ram
for $35. Freight charges paid to date amount to $93.84. All animals were shipped
into the Peace River District.
ROYAL AGRICULTURAL WINTER FAIR, TORONTO,
NOVEMBER 11th TO 19th,  1955
The live-stock exhibit this year consisted of twenty-eight Guernsey cattle and eleven
Arabian horses. The Guernsey exhibit was under the supervision of Murray Davie, of
Ladner, and the Arabian exhibit was under the supervision of Mrs. Margaret Trethewey,
of Haney. Both exhibits were showing at the Royal for the first time, and the results
were very gratifying.
In the Guernsey dairy cattle the ribbons achieved consisted of three firsts, one second, three thirds, six fourths, two fifths, five sixths, and several other lesser ribbons.
In the Arabian light-horse improvement division the ribbons achieved consisted
of two firsts, one third, three fourths, and three fifths.
A. C. Stewart, of Abbotsford, forwarded a fine fleece-wool exhibit and along with
one championship ribbon had two firsts, a second, and a fifth.
PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, PORTLAND, ORE.,
OCTOBER 15th TO 22nd, 1955
In view of the fact that Portland is reasonably close, once again this year a large
cattle exhibit was sponsored by the following three organizations: British Columbia
branch of the Holstein-Friesian Association of Canada, British Columbia Ayrshire
Breeders' Club, and British Columbia Jersey Breeders.
Many of our prominent cattle-breeders showed at this exposition, and in all there
were some 110 head of cattle exhibited. The numerous ribbons won is truly gratifying
and drives home the fact that the quality of British Columbia dairy stock is of such high HH 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
calibre to be outstanding in one of the top agricultural expositions in Western United
States.
SHEEP
This section of the live-stock industry has made some progress in the last few years,
but there is room for much greater development. See Appendix No. 6 for average prices
for lambs.
Compensation Paid under the " Sheep Protection Act
" from the Dog Tax Fund
Year
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1951	
1
2
2
$18.00
70.00
43.00
114
120
60
173
103
$1,728.00
2,168.00
1,115.30
3,157.00
1,850.50
401
376
883
282
208
$673.80
195?                                       _    _
697.43
1953   _  	
1954  — .
1,096.90
460.65
1955  	
871.26
SWINE
Swine-raising has changed but little in the last several years. The Peace River
Block is our chief swine-raising district. Garbage feeding of feeder hogs in the areas
adjacent to the larger urban centres continues to follow the usual pattern. For inspected
slaughterings of hogs, see Appendix No. 2. For average prices of hogs, see Appendix
No. 5.
APPROVED HERDS
This policy is a specialized one, intended to support and supplement the work of
dairy-herd improvement. The policy is intended for dairy cattlemen who wish to extend
their breeding work into a more complete and well-rounded effort.
The following dairymen are listed under the policy: G. R. Rotluff, R.R. 1, Matsqui;
C. A. Higginson, R.R. 2, Sardis; J. S. Reid, R.R. 1, Matsqui; Fred J. Zink, R.R. 3,
Sardis; H. B. Fraser, R.R. 2, Chilliwack; J. Vonesch, R.R. 2, Abbotsford; and John
Walsh, Cedar, Vancouver Island. The herds of C. A. Higginson and G. R. Rotluff are
the two approved herds in the list, with others moving for full approval.
DISEASE
Generally speaking, British Columbia live-stock producers are more disease conscious than most stockmen. Credit for this must go to continued educational work and
to sound practical policies.
SPECIFIC DISEASES
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—In its most common form it is known as " shipping
fever."   Considerable educational work is done regularly in the control of this condition.
Coccidiosis.—This disease entity is not so prevalent as at one time but still makes
its appearance where conditions are favourable.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—No cases were reported in the Province.
Caseous Lymphadenitis.—The picture has not changed. The disease is being kept
under control.
Keratitis (Pinkeye).—This disease is quite well established and is becoming more
widely distributed.
Carcinoma of the Eye.—The stimulating effect of conditions like keratitis contributes to the development of eye cancer. It is thought that there perhaps is an inheritance
factor present in some instances. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955 HH 57
Foot-rot in Cattle.—This condition is becoming of increasing importance. Some
work was commenced in an effort to bring this complex problem under control.
Foot-rot in Sheep.—A reportable disease under the " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act." The disease still exists in sheep flocks, but routine inspections continue to
keep it under reasonable control.
Liver A bscess.—This appears more frequently where foot-rot in cattle is prevalent.
Actinomyces necrophorus is the organism responsible for both these infections.
Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis.—These may appear singly or in combination.
Swine Erysipelas.—This disease condition is very widely distributed and offers an
excellent example of what may happen where the primary importance of disease-control
is overlooked.
Swine Rhinitis.—The same might be said here as was said regarding swine erysipelas.
Complex Swine Diseases.—The picture here changes but little. The problem of
swine production is a very complex one. In order to bring about a near-satisfactory
solution, definite changes will have to be made in many policies.
Johne's Disease.—This disease is fast becoming one of ever-increasing importance
and one which if neglected much longer will impose a serious problem. We have one
large sheep flock under quarantine.   A clean-up has not yet been made.
Infectious Abortion Other than Brucella Infection.—These include abortions due
to the protozoan Trichamonas foetus and the organisms Vibrio foetus and Leptospira
pomona. Trichomoniasis, if present, is to a very limited extent. A small break a few
years ago was promptly brought under control. As our work in brucellosis eradication
proceeded, vibriosis was discovered, and work has commenced in the control of this
important disease.    So far no definite cases of leptospirosis have been uncovered.
Mastitis.—The incidence has been increasing in extent and in virulence.
VESICULAR DISEASES
Rabies.—The control of this disease is under the control of the Federal Health of
Animals Division, but our Department continues to assist.
BRUCELLOSIS-CONTROL
The work in the control and eradication of this greatest of cattle diseases, which
can also affect swine and which is of first importance as a public health problem, has
gone forward most satisfactorily. At the present time there are twenty-one fully gazetted areas and one smaller control area. Of these, eleven areas are brucellosis-free over
complete blood test of all cattle and goats. Two of these areas have been fully retested
after some five years since the initial complete test. It is most gratifying to be able to
report that not a single reactor was uncovered on the retest. This is a compliment to
the soundness of the policy and the completeness of the work and the controls. Petitions
have just arrived in the Live Stock Branch office from the Greater Kamloops-Revelstoke-
North Okanagan area. This, when gazetted, will take in all of the Province from approximately Macalister south to the United States border, east to the Alberta border, and all
of the area to the Pacific Coast, including Vancouver Island and all of the Gulf Islands
with the exception of the Greater Fraser Valley. One area includes from the Alberta
boundary west beyond McBride. Petitions are moving to bring in Central British
Columbia and the Peace River Block. This will bring all of British Columbia under
control except the Fraser Valley. There are indications that something will shortly be
done in this territory.   For summary of vaccinations, see Appendix No. 13.
Calfhood Vaccination
Total calves vaccinated under the Provincial policy during the period from July
31st, 1941, to July 14th, 1950, were 83,730 head. This figure includes 14,121 calves
vaccinated under the area programme by Provincial Veterinary Inspectors. HH 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Calf hood Vaccination under Joint Policy of Federal-Provincial Brucellosis-control
Area Vaccinations
by Provincial Total
Veterinarians Vaccinations
July 15th, 1950, to June 30th, 1951  8,798 18,929
July 1st, 1951, to June 30th, 1952  11,324 24,178
July 1st, 1952, to June 30th, 1953  14,820 29,605
July 1st, 1953, to June 30th, 1954  19,321 34,152
July 1st, 1954, to June 30th, 1955  22,977 36,815
Totals  77,240 143,679
On the date of July 14th, 1950, the programme became a joint Federal-Provincial
policy, in which the Federal Department of Agriculture (Health of Animals Division)
furnished to the Provincial Department vaccine free for distribution according to an
agreed-upon plan.  The Province is required to direct and administer the policy.
PROVINCIAL WARBLE-FLY AND TICK CONTROL
The British Columbia organized area policy was the first of its kind in Canada,
beginning over twenty-five years ago. In the beginning it was not uncommon to find an
incidence of over fifty warbles on a considerable percentage of the cattle in some sections.
In most of these areas the incidence is either very very low or non-existent. The economic
importance of this work has perhaps been overlooked.
"MILK ACT" ADMINISTRATION, DAIRY-HERD INSPECTION,
AND DAIRY-FARM GRADING
The report of the work in this particular field will be presented in conjunction with
the personal reports of the Veterinary Inspectors, and see Appendix No. 14.
FUR-FARMING AND "FUR-FARM ACT" ADMINISTRATION
A review of the disease outbreaks for the year shows eleven ranches were quarantined for distemper.
The following is a summary of activities within the industry: 1955 licences issued,
490 (Nos. 3001g to 3490g), as against 432 last year; 96 new licences (including 3
transfers) (55 mink, 40 chinchilla, and 1 nutria) were issued; and 41 ranches ceased
operations (29 mink, 11 chinchilla, and 1 racoon). Revenue totalled $5,335 ($4,640 in
1954). Eleven ranches were quarantined for distemper. Forty-eight permits to vaccinate
were issued—fifteen for killed tissue, five for Connaught's new modified live virus vaccine
for spray application, and the balance for modified live virus vaccine.
Statistics (1953) released by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics in May, 1955:—
1953
1952
1950
1948
Ranch-produced pelts sold (number)..
Value of pelts-
Value of breeding stock at December 31st, 1953„
90,362
$1,531,577
$1,848,000
82,839
$1,347,718
$1,619,561
65,659
$1,147,321
$1,473,988
46,627
$638,612
$1,099,710 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955
HH 59
The following table indicates the distribution of fur-farm transportation permits
issued during the period December 1st, 1954, to December 31st, 1955 (figures for 1954
shown in parentheses):—
Kind and Number of Permits
Mink
Chinchilla
Fox
Nutria
Export, 144 (114)—
1,081 (   317)
221 (   219)
21 (     11)
- - (       6)
 ( )
-  (       4)
  ( )
97 (158)
 (    8)
_.._. ( 15)
12 (-..-)
4 ( )
8 (- )
16 (—)
  ( )
 ( )
- ( )
~~ (-1)
_ ( )
 ( )
  ( )
— (. )
Sweden   	
...... (__. )
. (__...)
. ( )
 (    ..)
1,323 (   557)
137 (181)
__ (-.-)
--   (.._..)
Import, 124 (83)—
3,153 (1,030)
326 (   330)
  ( )
253 ( 59)
125 (137)
 ( )
.... (—)
 (—)
 ( „..)
6 (    6)
United States _   _   	
3 (. )
8 ( )
3,479 (1,360)
378 (196)
— (._„)
17 (    6)
Move, 60 (55)    .                                              -	
547 (   281)
140 ( 73)
— (    1)
....   (      )
The large number of mink imported from other Canadian Provinces is due primarily
to the movement to British Columbia from Alberta of eleven ranchers and their stock,
totalling 2,146 animals. In addition to those listed in the above table, permits were issued
to cover movement of mink to shows at Milwaukee, Seattle, New Westminster, Edmonton,
Toronto, and Regina, and for chinchilla to shows at Nanaimo and Victoria.
ANIMAL PATHOLOGICAL SERVICES
E. A. Bruce, B.V.Sc, V.S., in charge part time of the Victoria Branch Animal
Pathology Laboratory, reports as follows:—
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1954, to
December 31st, 1955
Diseases Due to—
M
-J
CO
l-i
O
n
rt
0
Q1
a
<_>
53
CQ
a
o
0
u
c
'$
>s
U
H
o
A.
g
So
o
Q
1   CQ
is c
25
Remarks
Total
A. Bacteria
i
i
13,795
1
1
5
1
2
83
5
z
1
1
1
2
40
1
1
4
1
1
10
37
2
2
9
1
28
3
9
3
1
4
4
1
4
1
1
1
23
1
1
1
3
1
-
1
Brucellosis  —
Dysentery ._	
13,233 negative, 170 suspicious, 433 positive
Vibrionic	
13,836
1
19
37
Gastroenteritis 	
Hae moglobinuri a 	
Hemorrhagic septicemia	
	
4
1
9
2
2
4
2
84
Meningitis.—  	
3
9
Pleurisy ____  	
3
1
1
51
Septicaemia   	
Staphylococcosis	
Swine erysipelas- 	
4
Mink, Canada goose..	
2
10
3
5 HH 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1954, to
December 31st, 1955—Continued
Diseases Due to—
m
u
tfi
o
tn
D.
0)
4)
6
w
rt
O
0
c
h
s
o
tt.
Cfl
Eg
g
!. rt
-0
o
Q
V_
"rt
a J
5 3
S<:
1    Ul
SI
Remarks
Total
B. Protozoa
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
138
1
21
1
18
5
2
11
31
7
2
3
1
1
1
1
8
1
1
24
4
300
1
15
4
1
8
1
3
2
1
11
5
6
3
1
3
3
2
-
12
3
2
1
1
1
i
l
i
i
Rabbits, pheasants. 	
Goose  	
Chukkars   	
158
1
24
1
C. Metazoa
Chukkars	
Deer (C. tenuicollis)	
2
1
1
30
1
1
D. Virus
5
C R.D.                             	
2
11
31
7
E. Miscellaneous
11
Bloat                   - 	
Rabbit—   	
Chinchillas —
1
3
2
2
3
3
11
1
6
6
3
4
9
1
1
1
24
4
Plants _     	
Actaea arguta   	
Baneberry, cyanide	
Beef     	
1
4
2
3
2
300
1
17
Totals -          	
6
13,905
2
9
2
43
10
1
693
23
95
1
1
25
4
14,791
29
Totals.. -
6
13,903
7
43
9
670
94  1     1
25
4
14,762
1 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 61
J. C. Bankier, D.V.M., V.S., Vancouver, in charge of the Branch Laboratory on the
campus of the University of British Columbia, reports as follows: —
Specimens Examined in Vancouver Laboratory, December 1st, 1954, to
December 31.<>t, 1955
Diseases Due to—
CO
a
&
M
u
U
>>
a>
M
i-i
(2
U
c.
u
O
K
o,
U
-a
>
Vk
M
.'   H
t3 rt
1    Cfl
u w
Cfl   «
S3
Remarks
Total
A. Bacteria
Abscess 	
28
5
8
8
31
47
38
4
1
41
4
97
45
17
12
16
108
32
1
6
69
11
13
65
18
20
15
9
2
i
24
14
12
-
....
1
6
8
32
23
12
5
3
1
4
1
5
1
1
574
8
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
4
1
1
2
1
6
2
13
1
4
1
5
24
1
5
1
i
15
1
3
1
2
12
1
1
1
1
2
1
Deer	
1 cat, 2 dogs, 12 Java birds
3
52
1
6
1
534 negative, 11 positive, 29
suspicious	
574
5
9
Dog, pigeon, goose 	
38
1
18
8
3
1 ] ....
3  1 —
2 1 ....
1  ! ....
1
Goat 	
51
2
1
1
7
2
1
1
4
1
2
2
I
48
Cat, duck.„_	
55
2 positive, 2 negative 	
4
Pyelonephritis _
1
Ducks.  	
18
9
3
.... | ....
.... 1 ....
52
4
B. Virus
106
Dog   „ .	
25
45
17
12
16
108
11
2
C. Protozoa
Coccidiosis—
45
.... 1 ....
90
2
Rabbits                  	
5
30
1
5
3
D. Helminthes
20
1
15
Goat  	
4
2
D. Fungi
Aspergillosis	
Non-specific fungus infection -
Parrots 	
2
1
13
Pneumonomycosis 	
1
Goose. .  	
4
4 HH 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Specimens Examined in Vancouver Laboratory, December 1st, 1954, to
December 31st, 1955—Continued
Diseases Due to—
Cfl
a
Hi
M
o
3
0
Cfl
S?
■g
rt
U
Cfl
4>
Cfl
Wl
0
X
o,
o
o
a
o
a
"S
5
fa rt
Ph-E
J.8
Cfl W
S.2
Remarks
Total
E. Nutrition
2
18
7
50
2
70
9
4
1
1
4
85
243
40
5
1
3
1
2
1
1
56
1
4
356
10
7
1
38
i
i
35
16
2
9
2
2
14
45
1
9
1
1
1
1
1
1
10
1
11
1
1
1
4
28
25
1
1
5
....
1
1
1
1
-
1
4
7
4
2
3
1
15
1
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
3
2
4
Avitaminosis "A"   	
	
2
1
19
7
1
7
F. Metabolic Disorders
50
4
4
70
9
G. Miscellaneous
Crop impaction  ~	
Cystic calculi	
Dog  	
5
Cystitis   	
Monkey ,,.	
2
4
Moose 	
138
261
3
Gizzard abscess  	
Goose -    	
Duck  _	
1
1
Haemoglobin determination and W.B.C
Hemorrhagic disease —
Impaction. 	
1 guinea-hen, 2 flamingoes
8
13
1
Negative findings  — _
1  goat  (24 faecal samples),
103
Omphalitis   	
6
Poultry blood for special diagnosis	
2
1
9
6
1
47
Totals
1,686
284
650
61
10
16
111    !   55
2,873
There are many items of interest in Dr. Bankier's report. Besides providing diagnostic service at the laboratory, attending meetings, participating in short courses, and
making field visits, the following excerpts from Dr. Bankier's report contain much food
for thought:—
" The personnel and facilities of the laboratory place a degree of limitation on the
type of laboratory services rendered. Therefore, owing to the complex nature of some
disease problems, assistance from other laboratories has been obtained from time to time
for the purpose of clarifying the nature of the causative agent in such problems. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 63
" In this regard, splendid co-operation has been received from Connaught Medical
Research Laboratories, Toronto; Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ont.; Federal
Division of Animal Pathology on the University of British Columbia campus; and the
Animal Diseases Research Institute, Hull, Que., all of which is hereby gratefully
acknowledged.
" Splendid co-operation has also been received when required from Poultry Inspectors of the Provincial and Federal Departments of Agriculture, District Agriculturists,
Veterinary Inspectors, and field-service men from various feed companies in the liaison
work between the Animal Pathology Laboratory and the farmer. Such liaison is a most
important aspect in the work of agricultural extension respecting disease prevention and
control.
" There is considerable economic wastage resulting from disease which could be
largely overcome by the correct application of known control measures by the farmer
himself. To accomplish this ideal, there is a constant challenge to the diagnostician and
extension worker.
" With the increasing knowledge respecting the nature of certain disease problems
and the development of newer and somewhat complex techniques, the demand is arising
for greater diversification of our laboratory services and additional laboratory staff."
ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION
General improvement in the results being obtained in this field can be reported. The
matter of the use of frozen semen was given some preliminary consideration.
MEAT INSPECTION
Essential machinery built around the regulations under the " Meat Inspection Act "
has been set up. Several plants have inquired with respect to the adoption of a meat-
inspection service. Only one plant is fully ready for operation. One plant is moving for
early operation. Most of the other plants require much yet to be done {see Appendix
No. 10).
At least one municipality has moved to require sale of all meats within the municipality to be fully inspected under a Federal or Provincial service. There is much yet to
be done in order to get this service operating to any great extent. The next move is up
to the industry itself and to municipal bodies.
The following summarized report of P. G. Lawrence, Brand Inspector, on beef-
grading supervision reviews the work done:—
" The Provincial ' Beef Grading Act' in its scope applies only to the Greater Vancouver area, North and West Vancouver, Burnaby, and New Westminster. In carrying
out the provisions of this Act, our Inspector, P. G. Lawrence, made a total of 995 visits
to retail establishments. This work has markedly improved the authentic display and
sale of meats, according to grade.
" Mr. Lawrence has spent considerable time on the slink-veal situation.
"During the year 19,317 calves were inspected by the Vancouver Health Department and 1,308 or 6.77 per cent were condemned as unfit for human consumption."
The following summarized report of F. C. Clark, Live Stock Inspector, also covers
this section of the service:—
" From the report of our Live Stock Inspector, F. C. Clark, it becomes increasingly
evident that the dairy-cattle placement programme is of great value to the dairy industry
of the Province. Appendix No. 17 provides a complete summary of all cattle placements since the inception of the programme in 1950. It is interesting to note that
during that time 600 head of dairy stock have been selected from D.H.I.A. herds in the
Fraser Valley and shipped to the Interior. HH 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
"As outlined in Appendix No. 17, 81 head of dairy cattle have been placed during
1955, including 5 bulls, 22 heifer calves, and 54 head of mature females. Of these, 10
head were registered animals. In previous years the demand has been largely for heifer
calves. A change in this pattern was noted in 1954 when demand for sound milking cows
almost equalled those for heifer calves. In 1955 twice as many head of mature stock,
milking cows, and bred heifers were shipped as compared to calves.
" This policy ties in together several Live Stock Branch programmes—disease-control
areas, the use of registered sires, and the Dairy Herd Improvement Services programme
with its production data."
SHIPMENTS OF BUTCHER CATTLE TO THE VANCOUVER ISLAND
DISEASE-CONTROL AREA
All veal calves and butcher cattle bought at Gibson's Auction Barn, Langley, for
shipment to the Vancouver Island Disease-control Area have been identified by ear-
tagging which began on April 14th, 1955. Transportation permits (Form V. 14 for
immediate slaughter) were issued at the auction to cover these cattle in transit. Copies
of these permits were forwarded to the Victoria office to cross-check the ear-tags turned
in to that office following slaughter of animals. This programme was inaugurated to
facilitate the movement of butcher cattle to Vancouver Island, along with keeping adequate control of such stock moving in to the disease-control area. Data on numbers of
cattle shipped to Vancouver Island from April 14th to December 31st, 1955, under this
programme are presented in Appendix No. 11 and show that 348 cattle were transported
for immediate slaughter.
BRAND INSPECTION
The following is a report by the Recorder of Brands, Thomas Moore:—
Shipments
Shipments of cattle in British Columbia were 77,311 head, compared to 79,634 head
in 1954. This shows a decrease of 2,323 head. Cattle shipped from the Interior of
British Columbia to the United States in 1955 were 2,013, compared to 3,207 head in
1954, a decrease of 1,194 head. Shipments of cattle from the Cariboo were 17,061 head,
compared with 22,684 head in 1954, a decrease of 5,623 head. Kamloops-Nicola
shipped 29,312 head in 1954, compared with 28,953 in 1955, a decrease of 359 head.
Shipments of hides were 18,576, as compared to 18,233 in 1954, an increase in the
number of hides of 343.   Horses shipped in 1955 were 5,798 head, as against 5,328 in
1954, an increase of 470 head..    Shipments of cattle to the Prairies were 9,920 head in
1955, compared to 7,849 in 1954, an increase of 2,071 head.
Inspection Service
Brand inspection was carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at seventy
shipping-points in the following districts:-—
Cariboo: Williams Lake, Alexis Creek, Quesnel, Bella Coola, Clinton, 100
Mile House, Lillooet, Bralorne, and Wells.
Kamloops-Nicola: Kamloops, Chase, Blue River, Salmon Arm, Merritt, Ashcroft, Lytton, Spences Bridge, Hope, Flood, and Boston Bar.
Okanagan and Similkameen: Vernon, Lumby, Armstrong, Enderby, Kelowna,
Penticton, Summerland, Oliver, Osoyoos, Falkland, Sicamous, Princeton,
Copper Mountain, Keremeos, Grand Forks, and Greenwood.
South-eastern British Columbia: Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Crescent
Valley, Nelson, Kaslo, Salmo, Creston, New Denver, Radium Hot Springs,
Cranbrook, Kimberley, Fernie, Natal, Invermere, Golden, Revelstoke,
Nakusp, Field, and Brisco. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 65
Central British Columbia and Peace River:  Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace, Burns
Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, Red Pass, Fort St. James,
Dawson Creek, Fort St. John, Atlin, and Fort Nelson.
Inspectors paid by the Department attended to the work at fifteen shipping-points,
as follows: Bridge Lake, Clinton, Copper Creek, Dawson Creek, Endako, Graham Siding,
Houston, 100 Mile House, Kamloops, Kitwanga, Lac la Hache, Merritt, Pavilion, Williams Lake, and Lone Butte.
Staff
Appointments
Roy Doll, Deputy Brand Inspector, appointed March 7th, 1955, for Kitwanga.
A. G. Hay, Pavilion, appointed September 6th, 1955, as a Deputy Brand Inspector.
Resignations
Thomas E. Moore, Deputy Brand Inspector, Kitwanga, resigned owing to ill health
on January 7th, 1955.
John Moss, Deputy Brand Inspector, Pavilion, resigned May 23rd, 1955.
J. I. Snider, Deputy Brand Inspector, Brisco, resigned August 31st, 1955.
Brand Commissioners
Appreciation is expressed to the Brand Commissioners for their assistance and
co-operation during the year.
Lectures to Royal Canadian Mounted Police on " Stock-brands Act "
Lectures given by the Chief Inspector of Brands during the year were held at Penticton, Vernon, Kamloops, Nelson, Grand Forks, Cranbrook, Prince George, and Dawson
Creek. Subjects dealt with were three Provincial Statutes—the " Stock-brands Act," the
" Horned Cattle Purchases Act," and the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act."
These lectures were well attended by members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police,
Brand Inspectors, and Deputy Brand Inspectors. Practical demonstrations of brand
inspection were carried out at the various places where live stock was available. At
Kamloops, Dr. L. P. Guichon, Brand Commissioner, and A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector,
assisted in a demonstration of brand inspection of hides.
Stockmen's Meetings and Cattle Sales
A number of meetings and cattle sales were attended by the Recorder of Brands.
National Livestock Brand Conference
This Conference was held at Portland, Ore., on June 20th, 21st, and 22nd, 1955,
and was attended by your Recorder of Brands and Dr. L. P. Guichon, Brand Commissioner.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Co-operation
Appreciation is expressed to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for their
co-operation throughout the Province in the enforcement of the " Stock-brands Act,"
the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act," and the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act."
A number of convictions for cattle-stealing were obtained this year. It is particularly commendable to members of the force carrying out investigations of this difficult
nature to have secured sufficient evidence to bring these cases to a successful conclusion.
R.C.M.P. detachments, Brand Inspectors, and Deputy Brand Inspectors were
visited throughout the Province, and matters pertaining to the enforcement of the
above-mentioned Acts were discussed.
3 HH 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Brand-book
The 1954 Supplement No. 2 to the brand-book, showing all brands renewed, transferred, reissued, and new brands, was published and distributed to the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police, Brand Inspectors, Deputy Brand Inspectors, etc. The issuance of the
Annual Supplement No. 3 to the brand-book, showing all brands issued in 1955, is due
at the end of the year. It is anticipated to have this brand-book completed so that it
can be in the hands of the printers soon after the first of the new year.
Brands
New Brand Applications.—Approximately 363 new brands were issued this year.
Brand Renewals.—Nine hundred renewal applications were sent out from this office
in 1955.
Brands Renewed.—A total of 922 brands were renewed in 1955.
Brands Transferred.—One hundred and twenty brands were transferred in 1955.
Brand Reissues.—Eighty-five brands were reissued in 1955.
Licenses Issued
1954 1955
Slaughter-house  83 80
Hide-dealers   74 73
Stock-dealers   137 137
Beef-peddlers   10 15
Horse-slaughterers   18 18
Horse-meat dealers (animal-food)   8 9
Horse-meat dealers (human consumption)   2 1
Permit to transport horses for working purposes.— 50 58
Permit to transport stallions for breeding purposes 1 1
A complete list of the licencees is attached {see Appendix No. 8).
Flood Check-point
Figures shown below are for the years 1954 and 1955, and show inspections carried
out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at Flood in the checking of all five stock,
hides, and dressed beef through this check-point:— 1954 1955
Number of cattle  6,781 6,090
Number of horses  1,015 901
Number of hides  3,872 3,512
Dressed beef (quarters)         89 22
Number of trucks checked  1,080 1,020
Prosecutions and Convictions under the " Stock-brands Act "
Section 26 (1) (operating slaughter-house without licence):  New Westminster, 1.
Section 27 (1) (slaughtering horses for animal-food without a licence):  Merritt, 1.
Section 34 (1) (not having stock-dealer's licence): Cloverdale, 1; Invermere, 1;
Kimberley, 1.
Section 35 (1) (transporting stock without inspection by Brand Inspector): Fernie,
1; Kimberley, 3.
Section 37 (1) (carrying stock without brand inspection certificate): Greenwood,
1; Princeton, 1; Williams Lake, 1.
Section 41 (failing to produce brand inspection certificate):  Castlegar, 1; Flood, 1.
Section 46 (a) (impressing stock with unregistered brand):  Kamloops, 1. department of agriculture, 1955 hh 67
Convictions under the Criminal Code of Canada re Cattle
Section 280 {a) (theft of cattle):  Osoyoos, 2; Clinton, 4.
Section 284 (la) (appropriating calf):   Quesnel, 1.
Section 369 (theft of cattle):  Delta, 4; Penticton, 2.
Section 510 {b) (ii) (mischief in maiming a young bull):   Kamloops, 1.
REPORTS OF VETERINARY INSPECTORS
In reviewing the annual reports of our Veterinary Inspectors, there are four new
developments that have occurred, and these are outlined as follows:—
(1) The use of bulk storage-tanks for milk on the farms in the Fraser Valley
is becoming very widespread. Regulations were introduced under the
" Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act" specifying requirements for
the installation of farm holding-tanks and also requiring that a permit be
issued by the Dairy Branch before the tank is installed. The Dairy Branch
Inspectors and the Live Stock Branch Inspectors have co-operated, with
the result all tanks have been installed in accordance with regulations.
At the end of the year, seventy-two permits to install farm holding-tanks
were issued.
(2) Following the findings of the Royal Commission on Milk, lay Inspectors
have been appointed to facilitate inspection of dairy-farms in the Fraser
Valley and on Vancouver Island. A Dairy-farm Inspector's Short Course
was held for these men at Acadia Camp at the University of British
Columbia.
(3) During the year the outbreak of vibriosis in cattle at Grasmere in the
Kootenays caused several problems and required considerable time of our
Veterinary Inspectors for the area. The disease has been known to exist
sporadically throughout the Province, but the Grasmere break is our first
known bad break in range cattle.
(4) In the Ootsa Lake and Smithers areas there have been several fatalities in
calves during the past few years. It is likely that this disease is a ha_mor-
rhagic entero-toxa_mia caused by the bacteria Clostridium perfringens,
Type C. A vaccine is now available for this disease, and cattle-owners
have thus been advised to vaccinate their cows before calving-time in
order that the calves can be born with immunity, or at least partial
immunity.
BLOOD-TESTING AND MASTITIS EXAMINATIONS
For a complete summary of blood-testing and mastitis examinations carried out by
our Veterinary Inspectors during 1955, see Appendix No. 12.
The brucellosis blood-test totals and results by our Veterinary Inspectors show
11,729 animals blood-tested, with 406 or 3.4 per cent reacting as positive and 144 or
1.2 per cent reacting as suspicious. These totals of positives and suspicious do not
differentiate between true reactions due to infection or reactions as a result of calfhood
vaccination.
Of the 10,955 cows examined for mastitis, 838 or 7.6 per cent showed clinical signs
of mastitis. Of the 838 diagnosed cases, recommendations were given that 162 cows,
representing 19.3 per cent of the actual cases, should be removed from the milking-line
for slaughter. These would be the chronic cases of which the Inspector found chronic
mastitis, there being no hope of cure in these cases. HH 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner
Indications are that the total milk production for 1955 will be much the same as
in 1954, when 769,219,000 pounds were produced.
VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
As prices have remained steady, with fluid sales slightly increased, and butter and
cheese production a little lower, the over-all value of dairy production during 1955 will
be much the same as that of 1954, when farm value of milk production was estimated
at $30,537,000 and the value of dairy products at factories or milk plants as
$40,293,000.
UTILIZATION OF MILK IN PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
MILK PRODUCTION (1954)  STATISTICS
Per Cent
Fluid sales, milk and cream  55.17
Creamery butter   24.60
Factory cheese   1.75
Concentrated milk and ice-cream   7.73
Dairy butter   2.56
Used on farms and for other purposes   8.19
100.00
Creamery-butter and Cheddar-cheese production decreased approximately 14 and
8 per cent respectively, ice-cream production showed an increase of 5 per cent, cottage-
cheese production increased slightly over the 3,662,000 pounds produced in 1954,
powdered milk showed a decrease, and evaporated-milk production increased considerably over 1954.
DAIRY PLANTS
There were 101 milk processing and manufacturing plants operating in the Province during the year. Thirteen plants produced creamery butter, two produced Cheddar
cheese, and thirty-four made ice-cream (only four being strictly ice-cream plants, the
others being creameries and milk-processing plants); approximately 300 counter
freezers were in operation, two factories made powdered milk, one made evaporated
milk, and three plants in isolated areas were granted permits to make reconstituted milk.
CREAMERIES
The thirteen creameries produced just over 6,100,000 pounds of butter. This is
14 per cent less than the 7,067,000 pounds which were produced in 1954, an all-time
high for British Columbia. The former highest year for creamery-butter production
was 1945, when 6,205,000 pounds were made.
CHEESE-FACTORIES
Two Cheddar-cheese factories have been in operation during 1955—one located
at Salmon Arm and the other at Armstrong. The total production of Cheddar cheese
is less than 1,000,000 pounds, a decrease of 8 per cent from 1954. K. E. Andersen
and A. Jacobson, proprietors of the Egeskov Cheese Factory at Creston, have made
several thousand pounds of blue-vein cheese. This has turned out to be a very satisfactory product.   The making of blue-vein cheese is a new industry in this Province and r
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 69
one that should be encouraged.   Several thousand pounds of farm cheese were made in
a farm factory near Nanaimo.
ICE-CREAM
The total ice-cream production for the year amounted to 3,216,658 gallons, which
is an increase of approximately 5 per cent over 1954.
CONCENTRATED MILK PRODUCTS
The production of powdered milk is slightly down and evaporated-milk production
considerably increased over last year.
IMPORTS
The value of dairy products imported in 1953 amounted to $16,212,814. This
was made up chiefly of creamery butter, cheese, evaporated and powdered milk. During the last two years, imports have decreased considerably, due chiefly to oleomargarine replacing butter consumption. In other words the per capita consumption of
butter since the introduction of oleomargarine in 1949 has decreased from 28 pounds
to less than 20 pounds, and the per capita consumption of oleomargarine has, during the
same period, increased from zero to over 13 pounds per person. Butter imports
dropped from near 20,000,000 pounds in 1952 to around 17,000,000 pounds in 1954.
EXPORTS
Exports of dairy products (mainly evaporated and powdered milk) from British
Columbia have never been very great, averaging annually about a half-million dollars.
SHORT COURSE IN DAIRYING
Due to an apparent lack of interest which resulted in only ten applications, no
short course in dairying was held in 1955.
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
The following licences and certificates of proficiency were issued during 1955:
Creamery or Dairy Licences, 103; Milk-testers' Licences, 147; Combined Milk-testers'
and Cream-graders' Licences, 37; single Cream-graders' Licences, 3; Certificates of
Proficiency, 17; Milk-graders' Licences, 64; making a total of 371, being an increase
of 79 licences and a decrease of 5 certificates of proficiency. This is the first year that
Milk-graders' Licences have been issued. Eight examinations were given for Milk-
testers' Licences and sixty-four examinations for Milk-graders' Licences. For list of
licensed dairy plants, see Appendix No. 1.
OLEOMARGARINE LICENCES
Four firms were issued licences to manufacture oleomargarine in 1955. These
were Canada Packers Limited, Kraft Foods Limited, Nova Margarine Limited, all of
Vancouver, and Westminster Foods Limited, New Westminster. Twenty licences were
issued to wholesalers of oleomargarine, being one less manufacturer's licence and three
less wholesalers' licences than in 1954.
INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES
Following are excerpts taken from the Inspectors' annual reports.
George Patchett, Senior Dairy Inspector, Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands:—
" For the second successive year a late, cold spring had its influence on dairying on
the Island.   Temperatures were high enough to promote good growth of grass but too
I HH 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
low to encourage consumption of ice-cream. A surplus of milk was produced in May,
which was the coldest May on record. This surplus continued through June and then
seemed to level off due to a better demand for milk and ice-cream. Soon after that it
was necessary to increase the supply of milk coming from the Mainland. The Island as
a whole suffered from unseasonable weather throughout the year. Haying operations
were hampered, causing many farmers to put their crops into trench and upright silos
in an attempt to save them. Many others, of course, had adopted the system of cutting
grass for silage as a regular practice and were fortunate in that they had built extra silos.
" Grade standards were established for milk to be pasteurized for fluid consumption. These and amended regulations came into force on October 1st and involved the
licensing of milk-graders.
" Summing up the picture for the past year, I would say it has been a year of
intense activity, showing great progress in the industry. The quality of milk is improving, and with the advent of milk-grading it is possible to assess the ability of the farmers
to produce a first-class product."
D. D. Wilson, Dairy Inspector and laboratory technician, Victoria:—
"A major portion of the work this year has been to assist the dairy industry on
Vancouver Island to prepare for the new milk-grading regulations. Routine work of
plant visits and inspections, butter-fat check testing, quality testing of milk, and educational work were carried on. The laboratory work was expanded this year, and an
intensive inspection programme of producers' milk-cans was also carried out.
" The introduction of compulsory grading of milk for fluid use is, in my opinion,
one of the most important single steps that the industry has taken. The threat facing
the fluid-milk industry to-day from the easily reconstituted and conveniently packaged
dried milks can only be met with a fluid product of highest quality at the closest competitive price. The high cost of servicing the home with fluid milk will have to be
reduced, and in order to do this a raw-milk supply of top quality will be imperative.
The Resazurin test will indicate where improvement is necessary, and from here we can
progress.
" The gradual addition of equipment to the laboratory has made it possible to
carry out bacteriological work. Raw-milk samples have been analysed, and sterility
tests on dairy-plant equipment have been conducted. Through the laboratory service,
three plants which had trouble with high bacterial counts were able to trace their problem to the presence of large numbers of thermoduric organisms in their raw-milk
supply."
G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Okanagan, Cariboo, Central British Columbia,
and Peace River:—
" The year 1955 has brought about a number of beneficial changes in the dairy
industry throughout British Columbia. The Royal Commission on Milk, while not
directly concerned with the Interior, has done much to bring about greater efficiency in
the production, processing, and distribution of fluid-milk products. With the advent of
compulsory grading of milk at the dairy plants, effective October 1st, 1955, and the
preparation made to carry out this legislation since early May, a great improvement has
been noted in the quality of raw and processed products. These two factors have also
tended to maintain a steady price to the producer, and in some areas have caused a
raising or lowering of fluid prices to a more realistic level to the consumer. In this
connection, retail milk has been reduced on the Prince Rupert market from 29 to 27
cents, whereas in the Kelowna area it has been raised from 20 to 22 cents to conform
with prices in the rest of the Okanagan.
"During the year 1955, dairy-industry promotional work was carried out in the
Okanagan, Similkameen, Cariboo, Central British Columbia, and the Peace River Districts.   Such work included plant inspection, instruction in all phases to plant personnel, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 71
planning of new dairies and changes to existing plants, meetings and informative talks
to public organizations, visits and assistance to dairy-farmers, preparation for and installation of milk-grading, and interviews in all phases of the dairy industry and its allied
workers.
" In preparation for milk-grading, two four-day courses were carried out—one at
Salmon Arm for the Okanagan area and one at Prince George for the Cariboo, Central
British Columbia, and Peace River areas. A total of eighteen plant personnel attended
these courses and were licensed as milk-graders under the ' Creameries and Dairies
Regulation Act.'"
N. H. Ingledew, Dairy Inspector, East and West Kootenays:—
" In the Kootenay area this year has been one of achievement due to the fact that very
close co-operation has been effected between all government agencies connected with
the production and handling of milk. Several important discussions have been held with
the Public Health, Live Stock, and Dairy Branches, which has resulted in very close
collaboration and has, as a result, eliminated considerable overlapping of work.
" Milk production on the whole has remained reasonably constant. While some
shippers for various reasons have gone out of business, others have increased the size
and efficiency of their herds and taken up the slack. I can visualize in the next couple
of years considerably more of this reallocation of production where the poorer shippers
will go out of business and the better producers will increase in number.
" The Creston area is the only one where production is greater due to an increase
in the number of shippers. The Co-operative Association is gradually improving the
dairy production picture in the Creston Valley, and the farmers there have had one
of their best years. A large portion of their production has gone to the fluid market,
and through the blue-vein cheese factory they have received a good price for their surplus
milk. This picture looks even brighter now that the Co-operative has purchased the
Enterprise Dairy in Kimberley. They can now control their own sales picture of this
underdeveloped market.
" The sale of cartoned milk from Alberta still presents a problem in the East Kootenay. This will continue as a problem until such time as we are able to convince a local
operator on the advisability of installing a carton machine and utilizing local supplies.
" Bottled raw milk still constitutes approximately 25 per cent of all fluid-milk sales
in the Trail-Nelson area. Until such time as we drastically tighten up on regulations
and inspections, this raw-milk trade will continue to be not only unfair competition for
our pasteurizing plants, but will continue to be a public health hazard.
" With the additional sales volume which could result from the increased industrial
activity in the area on the one hand and the estimated decrease in production caused by
the expansion of disease-free areas with the resultant culling of herds on the other,
I would suggest that during the coming year milk-producers in the Kootenays will be
hard-pressed to maintain sufficient local supplies to satisfy the demand."
K. G. Savage and Charles Rive, Dairy Inspectors, Lower Fraser Valley and West
Coast:—
" With the start, on October 1st, 1955, of compulsory milk-grading in all plants in
British Columbia buying milk for use in the pasteurized fluid trade, a great deal of time
was spent during the summer on the licensing of milk-graders, supervising establishment
of proper laboratory facilities for carrying out bacterial tests, and arranging proper grading procedures, notices, and record-keeping. This has led to a much greater number of
Resazurin tests being carried out under the observation and supervision of the Dairy
Inspectors in the Vancouver area. At the year's end the programme of milk-grading is
operating reasonably satisfactorily with the co-operation of all dairy plants.
" In 1955 a considerable number of farm holding-tanks were installed. Regulations
covering the installation of these holding-tanks were approved in April and served to HH 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
control a situation that was rapidly getting out of hand. These regulations require a
permit to be issued prior to use of the holding-tanks, and after a very great amount of
basic liaison work was carried out between firms selling farm tanks, farmer organizations,
calibration firms, etc., a sound workable programme was evolved. At the year's end
seventy-two permits have been issued for use of farm holding-tanks, and four permits
for use of tank-trucks. In addition, after a short course at the University of British
Columbia, and subsequent examination, special certificates have been issued to the operators of the tank-trucks.
"During 1955 the Inspectors from the Vancouver area, in addition to their more
routine work, assisted in planning of dairy plants, interpreted regulations for the general
public, attended, as witnesses, the Royal Commission on milk, held meetings with public
health officials, Live Stock Inspectors, equipment-manufacturers, staff of the Dairy Department at the University of British Columbia, and others.
" The year 1956 will probably continue the marked degree of changes within the
dairy industry shown in 1955. It is anticipated that the number of farm holding-tanks
will increase considerably. The introduction of systematic farm-grading, coupled with
the milk-grading programme, should advantageously affect the quality of milk in the
Vancouver area."
SUMMARY OF PLANT INSPECTIONS, TESTS MADE, AND
MEETINGS ATTENDED
Dairy-plant inspections      854
Farm visits      698
Butter-fat check tests  3,553
Resazurin, sediment, and temperature tests  6,218
Whiteside tests       674
Lactometer and cryoscope tests      270
Verification tests  3
Reports and test cards sent to milk and cream producers  2,948
Milk-cans condemned      952
Examinations for milk-graders' licences        64
Plate counts and laboratory pasteurized counts      350
Meetings attended      154
SUMMARY
New grade standards for milk effective October 1st, 1955, have helped to raise the
quality of raw milk for pasteurizing.
The outstanding feature of the year in respect to dairying was Justice J. V. Clyne's
report, published in November, confirming the need for a new Milk Industry Act, which
is now in the process of being drawn up.
The industrial development now taking place within the Province and the consequent increase in population would indicate a continual demand for milk and milk
products at a fair price.
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH
W. H. Pope, P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
The small but continued surplus of eggs during 1954 resulted in reduced Canadian
production in 1955. British Columbia, being more sensitive to depressed producer egg
prices because of higher production costs, suffered a greater cut-back than other pro- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 73
ducing areas.    The results of laying-flock reduction in British Columbia started to be
felt in early March, and production declined steadily to reach a seasonal low in July.
British Columbia usually contributes approximately 10 per cent of the Canadian
total of commercial eggs. In 1955, however, British Columbia produced only 8.25 per
cent of Canada's total. For many years British Columbia's seasonal production has
closely paralleled Canada's. Producers seem reluctant to take advantage of the consistently higher prices that exist between May and November. While in 1955 production was not typical, still Fig. 1 illustrates the close relationship between seasonal production in British Columbia and the rest of Canada.
MARCH
JUNE
SEPTEMBER
DECEMBER
Weighted Price
Canada
Weighted Price
B.C.
THROUGH  REGISTERED  STATIONS
■CANADA  PRODUCTION  IN  '000  CASES
BRITISH COLUMBIA PRODUCTION  IN  '00 CASES
(POULTRY PRODUCTS MARKET  REPORT)
Fig. 1. Commercial egg production, 1955.
While British Columbia produced less than its normal amount of eggs in 1955, its
position in the production of poultry-meat improved. British Columbia's poultrymen
produced 8 per cent of the Canadian supplies going through registered grading stations
in 1955, as compared to 6.5 per cent in 1954. The value of poultry-meat in 1954 for
the first time substantially exceeded that of all eggs. In view of the higher prices received
by the producers throughout 1955, it is inevitable that poultry-meat production will
greatly surpass eggs in total value.
MARKETS
British Columbia provided an active market throughout the year, not only for all
poultry products produced here, but also for produce from other Provinces and the
United States. Since September, 1955, 12,439 cases of United States eggs were imported
to help supply the demand. These eggs were marked in accordance with the " Eggs
Marks Act."
Receipts through Registered British Columbia Egg-grading Stations
Year
1953
1954
1955
Cases
Weighted
Producer Price
per Dozen
434,279
A6.14
538,490
37.5<*
461,367
A2.U HH 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Inspected Imports and Exports
Exports  Cases        Imports  Cases
Alaska  750 United States  12,439
Miscellaneous (ships' Interprovincial (Government-
stores, etc.)  896 inspected shipments only)  71,283
United States  400
Total   2,046 Total   83,722
Two weekly market comments deserve mention here:—
February 2nd, 1955, Weekly Egg and Poultry Market Report: "Egg price levels
changed here this week, Grade A Large dropping 2 cents and Smalls moving up 1 cent.
This will permit storing of surplus under Price Support." This sharp break was occasioned by the disposal of unprocessed floor surpluses from Manitoba and Saskatchewan
on the Vancouver market by the Special Products Board. This ill-considered move
resulted in a direct loss of revenue to British Columbia producers of in excess of $20,000
in the two-week period it took to dispose of these eggs.
September 14th, 1955, Weekly Egg and Poultry Market Report: "Chain stores
are featuring oil-processed eggs at 7 cents below fresh prices." While the price of oil-
processed eggs at eastern points has been tied closely to the Board price, this is the first
time a differential has been made in British Columbia. It is interesting to note that oil-
processed eggs had been on this market since June. Prices generally have advanced
steadily during the year. Heavy marketings during the first half (low-price period) of
the year resulted in a weighted producer price of 42.1 cents per dozen, as compared to
37.6 in 1954 and 48.3 in 1953.
Regulations affecting poultry products are administered by officials of the Canada
Department of Agriculture by appointment under Provincial regulations. District Inspector Dave Browne submits the following breakdown of his staff's activities within the
Province of British Columbia during 1955:—
Activities of British Columbia Poultry Products Inspection Staff during 1955
Registration of egg-grading stations  67
Registered egg-grading station check inspections  316
Registration  of  poultry-grading,   processing,  producer-
grader, and evisceration stations  65
Registered poultry-station check inspections  537
Retail-store check inspections—eggs and poultry  1,049
Frozen-egg plant inspections  76
Total pounds of eggs broken  418,626
Samples drilled  52
Samples analysed  181
Registration of frozen-egg plants  3
Producer-vendor farm visits   70
Inspections on imported eggs and poultry—
Eggs (cases)   12.439
Poultry (lb.)   1,129,670
In addition to the foregoing brief outline of activities, officials of the Canada
Department of Agriculture have co-operated in all matters designed to promote the
welfare of the industry in British Columbia.
Poultry-meat has enjoyed a particularly active market throughout the year. Storage stocks have been heavily drawn upon to meet the demand. Increasing processing
and distribution costs have absorbed most of the increased retail prices. Returns to
producers have been only fractionally higher than 1954. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
Poultry Marketings through Registered Stations
HH 75
Year
Chicken
Fowl
Turkey
Duck
Geese
Total
Under 4 Lb.
Over 4 Lb
1953   	
1954 	
1955 	
Lb.
3,326,498
3,009,849
4,458,887
Lb.
1,007,615
1,095,231
1,069,684
Lb.
3,809,958
4,053,550
4,862,194
Lb.
2,876,295
3,632,919
4,906,854
Lb.
62,789
138,601
140,060
Lb.
23,027
18,255
56,782
Lb.
11,106,182
11,948,405
15,494,461
Movement of Dressed Poultry
Product
Inspected
Imports,
U.S.A.
Inspected
Imports,
Interprovincial
Inspected
Exports,
Interprovincial
Lb.
22.618
480
1,084,535
22,037
Lb.
173,626
92,002
557,554
2,995
79,646
Lb.
10,617
9,118
102,446
Duck      	
854
Totals           	
1,129,670
925,823
123,035
FLOCK-APPROVAL POLICY
On August 1st a meeting of all interested segments of the industry was held in the
Court-house, Vancouver, to revise and rewrite the Flock Approval Rules and Regulations and to draft the new Advanced Turkey Approval Policy.
Only minor changes were made to the Flock Approval Rules and Regulations.
These were designed to simplify the procedure of issuing Flock Approval Certificates
and to provide for a more effective method of collecting blood-test fees.
Inspector Gasperdone supervised flock-approval field work in the Fraser Valley and
Vancouver Island, and reports as follows:—
" Poultry-flock approval has been one of the major projects of the New Westminster office. Scheduling, record-keeping, collection of accounts, issuing of permits, tabulating of statistical data, and ordering of supplies were all part of the approval programme carried out."
The field approval work was performed by Inspectors N. J. Supeene, F. Wilkinson,
H. K. Arnould, A. Kyle, and, to a lesser extent, C. W. Wood and H. Gasperdone.
Inspectors Supeene and Wilkinson have done all the approval in turkey flocks. The
testers employed were R. C. Britt, W. Brookes, H. Hamre, S. R. McAninch, N. F.
McDonald, A. Mufford, and J. W. English. Reinspection of the breeding flocks was
carried out by Messrs. Gasperdone, Supeene, and Wood. The technical aspects of
pullorum testing were supervised by Dr. J. C. Bankier.
During the year two general meetings of the staff engaged in this programme were
held—the first on August 8th at the University of British Columbia, at which the technical aspects of this work were reviewed, and the second on December 29th at the
Court-house in New Westminster, at which the Poultry Commissioner discussed the
changes for 1956 in the administration of the policy.
Because of the year-round operation of many hatcheries, chiefly for broiler production, flock approval has now become a year-round project. During the first six months
of the year 52,982, or one-sixth, of the year's total birds were tested. The total number
of poultry approved (291,998) {see table below) compares favourably with past years
and would indicate that there should be no great shortage of hatching-eggs this coming
season. HH 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Flock Approval, 1951-55
Year
Number of
Flocks
Approved
Number of
Birds
Pullorum-tested
Percentage of
Reactors
1951    .. ._        	
1952  .     —	
398
453
636
328
254
300,000
234,602
276,521
351,507
291.998
0.022
0.001
1953       _	
1954
0.28
0.20
1955—     	
0.0075
Twenty-two chickens, or 0.0075 per cent, reacted positive to the R.W.B. field test
{see above table). Of these, four were sent to the pathology laboratory for confirmation: two were positive, one negative, and for one the results, at this date, were not
available.
A total of 254 flocks were approved as breeding flocks in 1955. This is a definite
decrease in flock numbers but indicates the number of birds per farm per year has
increased. This is partially due to the fact that many of the breeders, being used for
production of broiler chicks, are being completely replaced about every six months.
Poultry-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
January to
June
July to
December
Total
29,821
12,459
2,394
3,834
75
1,973
1,113
88,741
93,590
19,387
15,687
8,778
6,292
2,351
2,645
1,529
16
118,562
S.C White Leghorn             .	
106,049
Whit.   Plymouth Pnrlf
21,781
19,521
8,853
8,265
3,464
2,645
Hampbar     	
A.O.V.2          	
929
384
2,458
400
Totals
52,982
239,016
291,998
1 Mainly for the production of broiler chicks.
2 Bameveld, Black Minorca, Columbian Plymouth Rock, and Jersey Black Giants.
Flock approval by breed as shown in the above table does not indicate a true picture
of the popularity of the various breeds. A large number of the New Hampshires and most
of the White Rocks and Cross-breds are being used mainly for the production of broiler
chicks. The Cross-breds include many of the synthetic breeds chiefly originating on the
breeding plants in the United States. In the past year the Leghorn has gained in
popularity in commercial egg-production flocks.
Turkey Approval
The Advanced Turkey Approval Policy was designed to improve the uniformity
of the birds selected for breeding stock. Participation in this programme is voluntary,
and the rules and operating regulations are to be determined at general meetings by the
flock-owners. It is anticipated that by this method a greater degree of selection pressure
may be applied than by the establishment of minimum standards. This type of selection
is more costly as a number of repeat calls are necessary to complete the selection of
different age-groups.   Turkey-flock approval under the regulations is still available. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955
HH 77
Turkey Flocks Pullorum-tested and Approved
Year
Flocks
Birds
1951	
   53
28,220
1952	
  55
17,631
1953	
44
18,764
19,775
28,228!
1954    	
34
1955	
     _                          43
1 This figure is for the full calendar year.   July to December total, 21,534.
A total of 28,228 turkeys were approved during 1955. This represents a sizeable
increase over the three preceding years. It will be noted that 21,534 of these were tested
in the latter part of the year. These birds, in addition to those tested in early 1956, will
be used as breeders this coming hatching season. The figure of 21,534 in itself is an
increase over the number of turkeys approved during the past three years.
This work recommenced in September. While there are no past records for comparison, this was an extremely early start and can be attributed to the age qualification for
approval under the new policty.
Turkey-flock Approval by Breed
Breed
January
to June
July to
December
Total
6,002
455
20,406
681
308
118
21
26,408
Beltsville Small Whites..	
681
455
Jersey Buff    „   	
308
White Holland. .     _	
91
121
25
209
142
25
Total    	
6,694
21,534
28,228
From the above table it is interesting to note that 26,408 of the total turkeys
approved were Broad Breasted Bronze.
Arrangements were concluded in December for the Department to assume responsibility for the pullorum testing of the approved flocks. As of January 1st, 1956, all
testers formerly engaged by the Poultry Testing Fund will be employed by the Department of Agriculture on a temporary basis.
VACCINE DISTRIBUTION
As in the past, the distribution of vaccine has been handled from the New Westminster office. A total of thirty-four veterinarians and pharmacists were supplied with
their requirements of vaccine.
Summary of Vaccine Distribution
Brand
Newcastle
Infectious
Bronchitis
Combined
Newcastle-
Infectious
Bronchitis
Lederle (ocular type)	
Lederle (dust type)	
Connaught (spray type)..
Vineland (water type).....
Salsbury's (water type) —
Total distribution..
(Doses)
936,100
43,500
540,500
43,000
33,000
1,596,000
(Doses)
40,000
4,000
44,000
(Doses)
67,000
397,000
65,500
27,000
556,500 HH 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The above table summarizes the distribution of vaccine according to brand, type, and
vaccine. Two new types and brands were made available during the past year. In May,
Lederle dust-type; October, Vineland water type; and November, Salsbury's water-type
vaccines were distributed.
In all, 5,135 units or a total of 2,196,600 doses of vaccine were distributed. The
greatest single month's distribution was in March—280,450 doses or 789 units. The
cost of vaccine to producers was sharply reduced during the year.
HATCHERY OPERATIONS
A. J. Darby, Canada Department of Agriculture, reports as follows:—
" Eighty-two hatcheries were registered and produced baby chicks during 1955,
while a further twenty-five were registered as turkey-hatcheries. However, there is some
overlapping in these cases, and the total would be approximately 100 hatcheries in
operation rather than the 107 that these figures total.
" Some 325 inspections were made during the course of the year, although actually
this number was exceeded as some visits were made and regular inspection reports not
completed.
"Approximately twenty of the above-mentioned hatcheries have operated practically on a year-round basis—that is, this number have operated for ten to twelve
months of the year—and it will be understood, of course, that a fair number of hatcheries only operate for perhaps two months during the spring months. In the case of
these hatcheries, perhaps only one or two inspections were made, while concerns in
steady operation are visited six or more times per year."
Production and Distribution of Chicks Hatched, 1951-55
Year
Hatched
Exported
Imported
Destroyed
Sold in Province
1951...      . 	
6,234,426
5,852,539
7,018,569
7,181,710
7,165,881
750,991
522,746
346,669
603,580
315,078
117,684
155,340
180,382
595,950
841,368
792,812
1,268.426
1,284,000
5,005 169
1952 	
1953	
1954
4,643,765
6,059,470
4,965,212
19551	
220,000
5,566,710
1 Figures for 1955 show that 9,977,655 eggs had been incubated with a hatchability of 72 per cent.    This is an
increase of 1.9 per cent in hatchability.
Chicks Hatched by Breeds
Breed
1953
1954
1955 to
June 30th
2,370,843
1,173,690
1,372,997
67,771
100,382
2,873,631
1,475,404
2,144,518
182,295
131,813
102,498
289,551
1,799,012
1,412,152
1,691,949
141,325
132,115
83,108
106,965
200,967
Production and Distribution of Poults
20,000 destroyed.
Year
Hatched
Exported
Imported
Sold in
Province
1951                                                                  _
356,069
464,202
345,519
506,605
496.3281
50,237
156,252
165,716
161,140
73,335
305 832
1952                          	
6,600
17,560
113,825
314,550
1953     -   	
1954            	
197,363
459,290 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
DISTRICT OFFICES AND STAFF PLACEMENTS
HH 79
Two new district offices were opened in 1955 and a position for a Poultry Inspector
on Vancouver Island was established.
Inspector Wood's office was moved from Vernon to a temporary location in Kelowna
in February, and to permanent quarters in the Provincial Building upon its completion
in August. This move was made in anticipation of increased poultry production in the
southern portion of the Okanagan Valley.
Inspector Supeene was moved from New Westminster to Abbotsford in April, when
a new office was opened for that area. This new office has been well used by the industry
in the upper portion of the valley, and there have been requests for a still further extension
of the service.
Inspector Gasperdone was moved from Vernon to New Westminster. It was anticipated that the establishment of the Abbotsford office would lessen the demands on New
Westminster, but to date there is no evidence of this happening.
The position of Poultry Inspector—Grade 2 at Nanaimo is being advertised for the
second time.
Kelowna Office
Emphasis has been placed on extension in the Okanagan, and Inspector Wood's
reports show 751 visits to farms and 176 visits to killing plants, hatcheries, grading-
stations, and feed companies.   He reports in part as follows:—
"Aside from the Okanagan Valley and Kamloops districts, some attempt was made
to give assistance to poultrymen in other sections of the Interior. Two trips were made
to the East and West Kootenays, although the latter trip was largely taken up with flock-
approval work. One trip was made through the Arrow Lakes district and the Slocan area.
Two trips were made to Revelstoke. One trip was made to the Peace River, at which time
some service was given to the Quesnel and Williams Lake districts.
" The West Kootenay and Peace River areas of British Columbia are particularly
fertile fields for poultry extension. Both of these districts are low-producing areas and
do not supply 50 per cent of the local markets, although in these areas low-cost feed-grains
are available locally.
" Interest in the poultry industry generally and in the production of eggs in particular
among farmers throughout the district is becoming more widespread. Probably the
greatest increase in numbers of poultry on farms is occurring in the southern sections of
the district on small fruit-farms, where the fruit-grower is looking for an agricultural
enterprise that can be readily combined with fruit-growing. Many more of the new
poultry enterprises are the result of retired people, particularly from the Prairie Provinces,
looking for some form of supplementary income as well as a profitable means of utilizing
time."
The bulk of the egg sales are on a producer-wholesaler basis. A small spring and
early summer surplus depresses prices out of proportion to its size. A satisfactory method
of disposing of these reoccuring surpluses would greatly improve market conditions.
Turkey production increased greatly in 1955, with in excess of 10,000 market birds
grown and marketed locally. This figure excludes 21,000 turkeys raised at Princeton
and marketed on the Coast.
Flock-approval operations in the Okanagan and in the West Kootenay were supervised by the Kelowna office. HH 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Interior Flock Approval
Year
Total
Birds
Approved
Average
Number of
Approved
Birds per
Flock
Males Banded
Females Banded
R.O.P.
Approved
Hens
Pullets
1951-52   	
1952-53.   _
1953-54 _	
1954-55.    .....
1955-561  	
32,543
26,335
31,745
27,965
21,821
374
351
412
336
389
1,180
1,006
1,407
925
1,241
628
453
230
407
311
3,950
3,229
3,994
3,966
1,934
26,785
21,667
26,114
22,667
18,335
1 Complete to December 31st, 1955.  Approximately six flocks and 1,500 birds still to be tested.
Five-year Summary of Approval by Breeds
Breed
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-561
S.C. White Leghorn   .                -    	
14,653
10,780
1,025
1,269
240
2,954
335
77
1,210
10,964
8,162
1,637
1,517
1,781
192
98
2,004
12,777
8,462
3,438
3,857
378
702
216
295
1,620
11,058
7,675
2,446
5,199
782
503
200
75
619
8,219
New Hampshire      —
6,147
3,520
2,884
White Plymouth Rock                 	
422
466
137
11
Miscellaneous  	
15
Totals                                            	
32,543
26,335
31,745
27,965
21,821
1 Complete to December 31st, 1955.   Approximately six flocks and 1,500 birds still to be tested.
Abbotsford Office
The placement of a Poultry Inspector in Abbotsford has been welcomed by the
producers in the Upper Fraser Valley. In addition to being responsible for the field
approval of the majority of the turkeys entered under the policy, Inspector Supeene has
made 284 calls on producers from Aldergrove to Hope since July 1st. The general shift
of the concentration of poultry from the municipalities adjacent to Vancouver toward the
upper valley will place a greater load on this office.
New Westminster
Since the first of the year this office has assumed increased responsibility for flock
approval and vaccine distribution, and, being located close to large-consumption areas, is
in closer contact with processing and distribution problems than are the other offices.
Inspector Gasperdone has done excellent work in supervising the field work in connection
with flock approval, and since July 1st has made 240 calls on producers in the Lower
Fraser Valley.
POULTRY RESEARCH
1. Biologic Assay of Commercial Poultry-feeds.—For the second year the Department of Poultry Science, University of British Columbia, has carried out a programme of
determining in terms of growth units the biologic value of certain classes of commercial
poultry-feeds. This work is comparable to that routinely used in some areas of the
Eastern United States and by the Bureau of Standards for the Union of South Africa.
2. Turkey Research.—A study designed to provide information and illustrative
material relative to the incubation of turkey eggs was undertaken by Dr. A. Hicks, Assistant Professor, Department of Poultry Science, University of British Columbia.
3. Bacterial Spoilage of Commercial Eggs.—This study is in its third year at the
British Columbia Research Council.   The work done by Dr. Paul Trussel and his associ-
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 81
ates has yielded much information on the causes of egg spoilage.   The present phase of
the study is designed to determine practical methods of eliminating spoilage factors.
BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY INDUSTRIES COUNCIL
Under its Chairman, Professor J. Biely, this organization has been actively engaged
in attempting to arrive at the solution of many problems confronting British Columbia's
poultry industry. The Council is composed of representatives from all phases of the
industry, with the single exception of the produce trade. Being so constituted, the Council's opinions are representative of the major portion of the poultry industry.
POULTRY TESTING FUND
From 1937 until January 1st, 1956, all operations connected with the pullorum
testing of poultry blood samples have been carried on by the Fund. Since 1951 to the
present time the Fund has also assumed financial responsibility for the distribution of
certain poultry vaccines. The distribution of these vaccines also contributed to a small
annual surplus in the Fund.
Substantial grants for the purpose of poultry research, additional laboratory facilities,
and other projects, as well as small grants to different organizations carrying out undertakings considered to be of value to the industry as a whole, have been made from the
surplus that has accumulated.
Arrangements have been finalized to establish a board of trustees composed of
representative members of the poultry industry to administrate this Fund.
SHORT COURSES
Poultry Servicemen's Short Course.—In January a two-day short course was designed
to bring to those persons engaged in poultry-service work the latest information consistent
with sound management practices. Members of the feed, pharmaceutical, and supply
industries were invited to attend. While it was originally intended to limit attendance to
twenty-four, advance enrolments were so much in excess of that number that different
arrangements had to be made. Speakers included J. Miller, Dr. C. Hamilton, and Carl
Svinth, from Washington State, and Dr. John Crawley, from Ontario, in addition to
officials of the Provincial and Canada Departments of Agriculture and the University of
British Columbia.
Broiler Short Course.—In co-operation with the Department of Extension and the
Department of Poultry Science, University of British Columbia, a practical broiler-
producers' short course was held in November. Unfortunately the unseasonably cold
weather at that time made it impossible for many of the growers to leave their farms.
Attendance, therefore, was below that anticipated.
POULTRY SHOWS, FIELD-DAYS, CONVENTIONS, AND MEETINGS
Members of the Poultry Branch staff actively participated in five major poultry
shows and numerous local fairs and field-days. Inspectors Supeene and Gasperdone
attended the Breeders' Round Table Conference in Pullman, Wash. W. H. Pope, Poultry Commissioner, represented the Department at the Hatchery Convention in Regina
in September and the Poultry Branch at the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture
Convention in Vernon. Many meetings of poultry organizations, show committees,
Poultry Industries Council, and 4-H Clubs were attended throughout the year.
GRADE Al EGGS
At least two larger egg-grading stations have made a determined effort to place
Canada's premium grade of eggs on the local market.   It was anticipated that a premium HH 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of not less than 5 cents per dozen could be received from consumers. Additional production and handling costs reduces this premium to about 1 cent extra return to the
producer. With the relatively high prices during the second half of 1955, few producers
have found this premium sufficiently attractive to make the necessary capital expenditures.
FEED-GRAINS
Due entirely to the high cost of feed-grains from terminals, a substantial number
of producers had grain trucked from Creston and the Peace River. It was possible for
these men to pay $30to$35a ton for No. 3 and No. 4 grade wheat on the farm, trucking
charges of $12.50 per ton (from Creston), and still make a very considerable saving.
The supply of feed-grains has remained good throughout the year, but the high price
to domestic users was partially responsible for the 9-per-cent cut-back in British Columbia's laying flocks. Reduced domestic feed-grain prices would assure maintenance of
at least the present relationship between production and demand.
CONCLUSION
While the effects of production surplus to immediate demand in 1954 had a depressing effect on the British Columbia poultry industry during the first half of 1955, the
strengthening markets from July on brought returns to the producers up to a reasonable
level.
The Poultry Branch is investigating a number of potential avenues by which new
information and new methods can be demonstrated to producers. A programme to determine ways and methods of taking fuller advantage of the geographic location of the
existing markets and producing areas is being studied.
Appendices Nos. 18, 19, and 20 give further interesting statistics dealing with the
poultry industry.
REPORT OF FIELD  CROPS  BRANCH
CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
Total production of cereal-crops will be down this year. The Peace River District
experienced dry weather in May and June which severely reduced yields below average.
A severe hail-storm also caused damage to 15,000 acres in the Dawson Creek area.
Elsewhere in the Province the cool, late spring delayed seeding, followed by dry May
and June, which reduced yields. Acreage in wheat continued to decline with an increase
in coarse grains. There was a sharp increase in acreage seeded to Durum wheat in the
Creston Flats. Fall wheat in the North Okanagan was well below average, while spring-
seeded cereals were about average. Throughout the Central Interior, production of
cereals was generally below average. Favourable harvesting weather prevailed in most
areas so that quality of grain was good.
Congested storage-space in elevators has seriously curtailed marketing in the two
Wheat Board designated areas, and most of the grain is still stored on the farm. There
has been some movement of grain by truck from the two areas to farms in other parts
of the Province for feeding.
Hay and Pasture
The cool, late spring delayed growth of grass and legumes so that pastures were
two to three weeks later than normal, but good rains in June and July carried these well DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 83
into the summer. During August dry-land pastures declined in production, particularly
at the Coast. Likewise, first cutting of hay was delayed, and then rainy weather set in
so that tonnage was good, but quality of most was reduced. Second-cut hay-crops were
lighter, particularly alfalfa in the Okanagan, but quality is good.
The preservation of first-cut grass as silage continues to increase, and this year,
particularly where first cut was removed early as silage, a good second cut of hay was
put up under favourable curing conditions. There are generally adequate supplies of
feed on the farm. However, because of the early fall in all areas the feeding period will
undoubtedly be longer this year.
Grassland Clubs continued to function in the Province this year and have played
an important part in the general improvement in forage production, including grass mixtures, fertility, and management.
Production of Registered and Certified Seed
The inspection and certification of cereal- and forage-crop seeds are carried out by
the Plant Products Division, Canada Department of Agriculture, under the regulations
of the " Seeds Act." The following table lists the number of acres and the estimated
production of varieties inspected in British Columbia in 1955, the largest acreage being
located in the Peace River Block:—
Variety
Barley—
Gateway
Olli	
Vantage	
Wolfe	
Oats—
Abegweit____
Ajax	
Eagle	
Rodney	
Victory	
Wheat—
Kharkov	
Saunders	
Selkirk	
Thatcher	
Flax-
Marine	
Redwing	
Redwood ___
Victory	
Alfalfa-
Grimm	
Ladak	
Rhizoma	
Brome-grass.
Duraturf creeping red fescue	
Creeping red fescue  2,764.0
Crested wheat-grass	
Sweet clover	
LaSalle red clover	
Acres
Estimated
Production
(Bu.)
0.5
25
237.0
9,270
19.0
800
18.0
385
41.5
2,410
3.0
110
6.0
320
12.0
2,400
78.0
3,620
12.0
360
130.0
4,045
37.0
1,260
108.0
2,760
9.0
250
158.0
1,650
86.5
1,650
6.0
72
77.0
55.0
660.0
250.0
24,200
11.0
3,000
764.0
464,350
20.0
4,000
40.0
12,000
5.0
500 HH 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Forage-crop Seed
Unfavourable weather conditions drastically reduced the yield of alfalfa-seed in
the Peace River. Poor harvesting conditions in the Fraser Valley were mainly responsible
for low yields of double-cut red clover. In general, other grass- and legume-seed production is about normal. The production of LaSalle red clover has increased considerably this year.
The following table gives in summary the estimated forage-seed production for
1955 and production for 1954:— Estimated
Production, Production,
1954 1955
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Alfalfa  150,000 50,000
Red clover (single)  105,000
Red clover (double)     36,000
LaSalle red clover      2,850
Alsike clover  400,000
Sweet clover  375,000
Timothy  279,000
Timothy-alsike mixture  116,000
Brome  112,500
Creeping red fescue  700,000
Reed canary-grass      5,500
Orchard-grass       2,600
Red-top     23,000
Spring vetch       8,000
Fall vetch       3,300
Intermediate wheat-grass         700
Merion blue-grass    	
Russian wild rye    	
365,000
150,000
13,000
400,000
650,000
200,000
150,000
50,000
750,000
1,000
1,500
35,000
1,050
1,000
Seed Improvement
Foundation-stock seeds produced by the Agronomy Department of the University
of British Columbia and distributed to growers through this Branch included: Victory
oats, 1,850 pounds; Vantage barley, 1,300 pounds; Dawson's golden chaff wheat, 550
pounds; and Storm rye, 1,100 pounds.
Cereal Variety Trials
Cereal variety tests were conducted in the Edgewood district on the farm of K.
Edgell in co-operation with the District Agriculturist and the Agassiz Experimental Farm.
The following is the summary of results at the conclusion of the three years under
test:—
Results of Spring Wheat Variety Trials
(Yields in bushels per acre.)
Variety
1953
1954
1955
3-year
Average
Redman-
Thatcher...
Saunders _
Lee	
Garnet	
Regent	
Cascade...
Red Bobs
Marquis....
55.4
58.9
54.3
47.0
46.9
46.0
37.7
40.0
24.0
34.7
27.3
30.3
31.5
31.5
29.3
32.4
27.1
24.6
21.1
21.7
20.1
20.7
16.7
15.7
20.7
13.7
14.1
37.06
35.96
34.90
33.06
31.70
30.33
30.26
26.93
20.93 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 85
Yield results only are given here. In using the weight per bushel, total pound yields
per acre for the varieties are in the same order as above. No lodging occurred except
in 1953, and there was not too much indication of differences in straw strength of the
first three varieties. Redman, Thatcher, and Saunders are the varieties now recommended for the district.
Results of Oat Variety Trials
(Yields in bushels per acre.)
Variety
1953
1954
1955
3-year
Average
Eagle. —
Victory	
Abegweit..
Ajax	
151.1
146.1
133.51
138.6
74.6
74.3
75.3
68.2
76.1
71.3
73.7
65.8
100.6
97.2
94.2
90.8
i Yield on one replicate only.
There was not much difference in yields from oat varieties tested. The variety
Eagle gave the highest yields and is recommended for the district. Ajax is slightly earlier
in maturity.
Results of Barley Variety Trials
(Yields in bushels per
acre.)
Variety
1953
1954
1955
3-year
Average
96.9
85.3
52.4
52.7
38.1
42.1
35.5
34.9
39.1
62.5
60.0
OUi  	
64.3
47.9
49.2
52.3
43.5
43.6
Husky.       	
39.U
i Husky tested for one year only.
Vantage and Trebi are the varieties recommended for the district.
Results of Rate
of Seeding Trials with Oats
Rate
1953
1954
1955
3-year
Average
Average,
1954-55
138.4
129.3
81.6
92.1
88.4
70.6
78.7
73.3
96.9
97.0
76.1
85.4
80.8
Over three years of testing, no difference in yield was obtained between the 60-pound
and 120-pound rate of seeding. Over two years of testing, the 90-pound rate was superior
to the 60-pound and 120-pound. The 90-pound to 100-pound rate of seeding of oats
for grain is recommended for the district.
Fertilizer trials were also conducted on wheat over the three-year period. There
was no significant difference in yields obtained as a result of fertilizer applied.
Potatoes
Only 9,400 acres of commercial potatoes were planted this year, about 8 per cent
less than in 1954. Late blight in the Coast areas was fairly severe, particularly where
preventive chemicals were not used, and caused reduction in marketable yield. The early
fall frost also caused some losses. Strong competition from imported United States
potatoes seriously affected returns to the grower, particularly in summer and early fall. HH 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Acreage in seed-potatoes increased slightly this year.   The following list of varieties
and inspected acreage is supplied through the Federal Seed Potato Inspection Service:—
Variety Acreage Variety                                   Acreage
Bliss Triumph     0.50 Kennebec         25.90
Canus     4.35 Netted Gem  1,507.43
Columbia Russet     4.35 Pontiac         30.25
Early Epicure  47.97 Red Warba  0.25
Early Rose  15.00 Sebago  3.00
Gold Coin  16.10 Warba       100.80
Green Mountain  46.50 Wee McGregor  0.30
Irish Cobbler     5.00 White Rose      129.43
Katahdin   21.50 	
Keswick      1.50 Total  1,960.13
The main areas of production are also given, with approximate acreage inspected in
1955 (1954 acreage in parentheses): Vancouver Island, 114 (150); Lower Mainland,
713 (627); Pemberton, 214 (202); Okanagan, 188 (213); Cariboo, 85 (117);
Central British Columbia, 26 (20); Boundary District, 478 (310); East and West
Kootenays, 141 (84).
Oceanside Test-plots
Seed-potato samples were again assembled by this Branch, treated, and shipped to
the Oceanside plots. One hundred and nine samples of 200 seed-pieces each were sent
in by eighty-three growers. The samples were planted at the Oceanside testing-ground
on November 19th and 20th. Disease readings will be taken in February so results can
be given wide publicity to growers and buyers of seed-potatoes before planting-time.
Field Peas
There was a large increase of dried field peas in the Okanagan and Creston areas,
with an estimated production of 1,300 and 2,100 tons respectively. There is a firm
demand for disease-free pea-seed in the English market.
Field Crop Union
Membership in the Field Crop Union was forty-five this year, with thirty-five tests
distributed. Changes were made this year in procedure of distributing tests to the grower,
whereby the members could get larger quantities of selected seeds of cereals and forage
mixtures.
SOIL AND SOIL FERTILITY
General fertilizer demonstration-plots were again laid down in several districts in
co-operation with District Agriculturists. In addition, some special fertilizer plots were
conducted with major and minor elements, including copper, zinc, iron, and molybdenum
deficiencies in oats, magnesium deficiency in early potatoes, and fertilizer ratio tests on
grasslands.
In co-operation with the Extension Branch and the Agricultural Engineering
Division, tillage trials were continued in the Duncan area. Yield data have been obtained
for 1954 only and cost data are available on two years' work.
Another demonstration strip-cropping field is laid out in the Bridesville area in
combination with a terracing project by the Engineering Division. The rotation will be
completed in the spring of 1956, and progress reports are available as information is
completed. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955
HH 87
Soil and Forage Analyses
The Soil Analyst reports as follows:—
" There were 2,575 soil samples analysed in 1955. Analyses are made for available
nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and calcium by the Spurway rapid-test method. pH readings and, in some cases, conductivity readings are also made. A large number of greenhouse samples were tested in 1955 and results forwarded to W. D. Christie. Results of
all farm samples are reported back through the district agricultural office concerned.
"There were 276 forage samples analysed in 1954-55. Analyses were made for
crude protein and moisture on samples of grain, hay, and silage of farm samples submitted
by District Agriculturists. pH determinations were also made on silage. A summary
report of the 1954-55 analyses was prepared for distribution. In the 1955-56 season
it is anticipated approximately 300 samples will be analysed. The majority of these will
be farm samples of silage submitted by the District Agriculturists. The information
obtained from the forage analyses is proving most interesting and informative."
Agricultural Lime
Tonnage of agricultural lime used for soil-amendment purposes was about the same
as last year. In 1955, 25,857 tons were distributed under the Federal-Provincial Lime
Subsidy Policy.
The following is a five-year summary of movement of agricultural lime and subvention paid:—
Table 1
Fiscal Year
Total Number
of Applications
Approved
Total Amount
of Subsidy
Recommended
Total Tonnage
Used
1950-51     _ .
1951-52                       _      .                     -	
1,810
1,827
2,243
1,590
1,450
$42,589.93
55,387.51
69,974.18
52,458.01
48,503.42
26,235.06
31,154.17
1952 53                                                              . — .
38,917.55
1953-54    _	
1954-55- —   _ 	
28,239.24
24,702.45
Table 2
Fiscal Year
Ground
Limestone
Hydrated
Lime
Marl
Carbide
Residue
Gypsum
Oyster-
shell
Total
Tonnage
1950-51
Tons             Tons
8,412.20    |      42.50
6,125.40    |    131.17
8,595.22          117.42
8.837.63     1       52.50
Tons
17,746.11
22,051.05
27,926.15
18,584.02
18,300.86
Tons
Tons
34.25
Tons
59.0
68.0
3.5
78.0
26,235.06
31,154.17
38,917.55
28,325.15
1951-52..   	
1952-53  	
1953-54
2,637.0
2,020.5
732.0
1,125.0
150.55
190.25
115.50
408.50
1954-55      	
4,717.85
72.25
24,702.45
Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board
One meeting of the Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board was held with the
trade to approve the mixes for the year. These include: 0-12-20, 2-15-15, 2-16-6,
4-10-10, 6-8-6 (organic), 6-30-15, 8-10-5, and 10-20-10.
The Board also made certain recommendations to the Federal Department of Agriculture in respect to proposed changes in the Fertilizer Act. The Board also discussed
with the trade the present fertilizer ratio mixes and instigated further work on suggested
new fertilizers to replace some of the present mixes; included were 5-25-25, 15-15-10,
and 10-20-20. HH 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
WEED-CONTROL
During the past season three Weed Inspectors were appointed—two in the Peace
River and one in the Pemberton District. The Department of Highways increased the
roadside spraying for weed and brush control. In some districts, pressure of other work
prevented highway-maintenance crews from doing as much spraying as was proposed or
spraying was done late. The Maintenance Engineer, Department of Highways, reports
that 1,250 miles of road was treated this year, amounting to over 2,000 acres of right-of-
way. One of the major projects in the Pemberton area this year was control of weeds
on roadsides.   The Weed Inspectors in the Peace River report as follows:—■
"The Department of Highways sprayed more than 135 miles on both sides of the
roads (north of the Peace River), and they did it at the right time and used the proper
amount of chemical to get a good kill of weeds." On the south side of the Peace River,
" the Department of Highways has done an excellent job in keeping the road allowance
sprayed. They have sprayed approximately 300 miles. All roads reported were immediately sprayed by them."
Most of the treatments reported were sprays containing 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T, but some
burning was done and some small patches of roadside weeds were treated with soil
sterilants.   In addition, 92 miles of highway shoulders were treated with a CMU product.
In most areas, particularly in the grain-growing sections, the use of weed chemicals
is increasing for weed-control, with an estimated 100,000 acres treated.
Federal-Provincial Weed Survey
The weed survey of the major agricultural areas of Vancouver Island was completed
this year. This survey is a joint project with the Botany Division, Science Service, Canada
Department of Agriculture. An infestation of tansy ragwort in the Nanaimo area was
carefully mapped and recorded.   Other weeds common to the district were recorded.
The weed-control calendar was revised this year to bring it up to date in accordance
with newer information compiled over the past few years.
Weed-control Trials
We have continued trial work with the newer weed-control chemicals, testing some
over wider conditions, while some of the chemicals are relatively new. This year we had
several such trials on Vancouver Island, Fraser Valley, North Okanagan, and Peace River.
These chemicals include 2,4-D, MCP, dinitro compounds, TCA, IPC, and CIPC, CMU,
PCP, borates, chlorates, and borate-chlorate mixtures, Alanap, Dalapon, Cyanamid.
Many of these trials are preliminary and must be repeated before definite control
practices can be recommended. As more information is proven, practical recommendations are passed on to the farmer.
GRAIN SCREENINGS
In the period January 1st to December 31st, twelve permits for removal of screenings
were issued. During the same period twenty-eight feeders' permits have been issued.
The use of screenings for devitalization remains fairly steady {see Appendix No. 21).
Appendix No. 22 gives in summary the movement of screenings from British
Columbia elevators for the period January 1st to December 31st.
PRIZE-WINNERS AT THE TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
Again this year, exhibits from British Columbia growers won high awards at the
Toronto Royal Winter Fair.
Bert Young, of Koksilah, placed first in the six-rowed barley class and was reserve
champion.   D. Galbraith, Ladner, was reserve champion in the forage-seed class; Francis DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 89
S. Pincosy, Salmon Arm, was reserve champion in the potato class and champion in the
potato-chips special class; Alfred L. Needoba, Salmon Arm, was reserve champion in the
latter class.
First four places in the Netted Gem seed-potato class were taken by British Columbia
growers.
Others placing well up in the various classes were B.C. Pea Growers, Sunset Seed
Company Limited, Alfred L. Needoba, and Francis S. Pincosy, of Salmon Arm; D. Galbraith, R. B. Coleman, and R. Reynolds, of Ladner; K. Dodds, Fort St. John; and J. O.
Decker and Ross Brothers, Pemberton.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
During the year 1955 two new Institutes were incorporated—Roe Lake in District
"H " on March 28th and Mayne Island in District "A" on September 15th—bringing the
total number of Institutes in the Province to 185. However, fifteen Institutes have been
inactive for some considerable time. This is due mainly to the fact that most of the
members are working at the more profitable occupation of lumbering and only go home
to their farms on week-ends.
The latest annual returns from Institutes on file in the Department show that even
with a decrease in membership the active Institutes are continuing to increase their
operations on behalf of their members.
Figures showing receipts, expenditures, assets, and liabilities for the years 1952,
1953, and 1954 are as follows:—
1952
1953
1954
Receipts	
Expenditures-
Assets 	
Liabilities	
$1,191,159.50
1,053,618.41
429,613.67
83,256.17
$1,197,941.19
1,054,250.94
504,147.24
83,165.02
$1,267,447.20
1,105,306.71
547,359.41
100,361.17
The purchase of commodities on behalf of members continues to increase. Stump-
ing-powder increased by $1,389.95, being $74,563.32 for the year. Other commodities,
including feed, seed, fertilizers, gasoline, oil, hardware, etc., increased by $200,319.91,
being $1,052,243.14 for the year.
In eight of the ten districts the Departmental grants to Institutes were paid to the
District Institutes, while in the other two districts—namely, " B " and " D "—the grants
were made payable to the individual Institutes direct.
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
All districts, with the exception of District "H," held annual meetings, with the
Superintendent in attendance at each. District " H " cancelled its meeting because of
floods. HH 90
The
president,
BRITISH COLUMBIA
place and dates of these meetings, together with the names of the elected
secretary, and Advisory Board member, respectively, were as follows:-—■
District
Place
Date
Officers Elected
"A"	
" B "	
Nanaimo 	
Houston	
September 24 	
June 21 and 22	
W.   H.   Dunn,   Cowichan   Station;    J.   T.   Neen,   R.R.   3,
Nanaimo;   Brian Hoole, R.R. 2, Royal Oak.
Emil Widen, Telkwa;   A. Shelford, Wistaria;   A. Shelford,
" C "	
June 24 and 25	
October 14 	
January 21	
Wistaria.
" D "	
T. E. Gerhardi, Fort Fraser.
W. J. Charlton, Pritchard;   G. W. Humphrey, Chase;   L.
Johnson, Heffley Creek.
T. Kuhn, Cloverdale;   J. C. MacKenzie, New Westminster;
Ben Greer, R.R. 3, Aldergrove.
" E "_	
"P"    _	
New Westminster.	
" G "      	
May 27	
Wallace, Boswell.
" H "..-_ __.__
burn, Salmon Arm.
" I "  .
June 1 	
June 17    - -
Canim Lake.
'* J "	
Aye, Jaffray.
Henderson, Rolla.
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The Advisory Board met in Victoria on February 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th, at the call
of the Minister of Agriculture.
One hundred and seven resolutions were considered by the Board, seventy-six being
carried, twenty-one lost, seven withdrawn, and three tabled.
Eight resolutions — dealing with such subjects as increased appropriations for
agriculture, Farmers' Institutes and the Department of Agriculture, Forage Analysis
Laboratory, grazing-lands control, river-bank erosion, working out taxes, rural electrification, and school taxes—were presented to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, and the following is this Committee's report to the Legislative Assembly:—
Legislative Committee Room, March 10th, 1955.
Mr. Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
Your Committee met the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes and heard the presentation
of a list of resolutions as submitted by them.   Careful consideration was given to these resolutions,
and:—
(1) Your Committee recommends that an investigation be made to ascertain if any
farm services are being curtailed due to lack of appropriations to the Department
of Agriculture:
(2) Your Committee recommends that the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes spend
more time visiting the various Institutes to encourage and stimulate interest so that
the organization will grow and expand:
(3) It is felt that some misunderstanding exists regarding the Forage Analysis Laboratory, in that this service is available to the individual farmer, whereas it was set up
as a service to be used by the District Agriculturists in co-operation with the
farmers so as to get a test of the general area, not a specific piece of land. However, your Committee recommends the expansion of this service under the Field
Crops Branch:
(4) After careful consideration by this Committee, it is felt in the best interests of this
Province that grazing lands remain under the Department of Lands and Forests,
where it is at the present time:
(5) It is felt that every effort should be made to control erosion of our agricultural
land, and realizing that the cost of preventing this erosion is prohibitive to the
individual land-owner, this Committee urges that the department of Government
involved continue to work toward a concrete policy and press the Federal Government for participation in this type of control work under the section of the " Prairie
Farms Rehabilitation Act" and the "Conservation Act" of 1953: DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955 HH 91
(6) Where, due to physical or financial difficulties, certain farmers find it impossible to
pay the taxes on their lands, or where the side-roads are not receiving adequate
maintenance, your Committee recommends that farmers needing to work out their
taxes be allowed to do so at the discretion of the Engineer or Minister concerned;
that the Minister examine the possible economies to be obtained by using local
farmers, loggers, or contractors on some types of road maintenance:
(7) It is generally agreed that if we are to retain the services of the younger generation
on the farms, and in agriculture, it is necessary that increased efforts be put forward
by all power companies and the British Columbia Power Commission to extend
rural electrification, and this Committee recommends that the British Columbia
Power Commission do its utmost to electrify the rural areas:
(8) As the results of equalization of assessments and the new school formula have not
as yet been fully realized, this Committee feels it unwise to make any recommendation on the resolution dealing with school taxes on land.
Respectfully submitted.
L. H. Shantz, Chairman.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
The year 1955 saw the fall fairs held in the Province decrease by two from the
previous year, there being one Class A and three Class B exhibitions and sixty-nine fall
fairs.
These exhibitions and fairs, exclusive of the Pacific National Exhibition, paid out
approximately $64,000 in prize-money.
The places and dates of these exhibitions and fairs were as follows:-—■
Exhibitions
Chilliwack August 15 to 17.
Vancouver August 24 to September 5.
Duncan September 8 to 10.
Armstrong September 13 to 15.
Fall Fairs
Vancouver Island
Mayne Island August 17.
Coombs.__ August 26 and 27.
Luxton August 27.
Courtenay September 1 to 3.
Saanichton September 3 and 5.
Cobble Hill September 7.
Alberni September 8 to 10.
Sooke September 10.
Lasqueti September 14.
Nanaimo September 15 to 17.
Ladysmith September 21 and 22.
Fraser Valley
Haney August 18 to 20.
Gibsons August 19 and 20.
Squamish September 5.
Port Coquitlam September 5.
Abbotsford September 7 to 9.
Langley September 9 and 10.
Hope September 10.
North Delta September 14 and 15. HH 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Agassiz September 16.
North Burnaby September 16 and 17.
Cloverdale September 16 and 17.
Mission September 17.
Powell River September 22 to 24.
Aldergrove September 2 3.
South Burnaby September 23 and 24.
Ladner September 23 and 24.
Vancouver September 30 and October 1.
Okanagan-North Thompson
Penticton August 19 and 20.
Peachland August 26.
Cawston September 1.
Westbank September 2.
Sicamous September 3.
Chase September 5.
Louis Creek September 5.
Merritt September 5.
Revelstoke September 5.
Westwold September 5.
East Kelowna September 7.
Kelowna September 8 to 10.
Oliver September 9 and 10.
Grand Forks September 10.
Lillooet September 15 and 16.
Rock Creek September 21.
Salmon Arm September 22 and 23.
East and West Kootenays
Invermere August 26 and 27.
Natal September 2 and 3.
Arrow Park September 3.
Edgewood September 4 and 5.
Fruitvale September 5.
Rossland September 7 to 9.
Crawford B ay September 14.
Nelson September 15 to 17.
Castlegar September 23 and 24.
Creston September 23 and 24.
Central British Columbia and Peace River
Sunset Prairie August 10.
North Pine August 17.
Dawson Creek August 18 to 20.
Williams Lake August 25 and 26.
Fort Fraser August 27.
Smithers August 27.
McBride August 30 and 31.
Burns Lake September 2 and 3.
Prince George September 2, 3, and 5.
Bridge Lake September 3.
Bella Coola September 5. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 93
QuesneL
Terrace__
..September 9 and 10.
-September 9 and 10.
Watch Lake September 10.
POUND DISTRICTS
Only five unorganized areas of the Province were constituted as pound districts
during the year, namely:—
Name of Pound
District
Date
South Taylor Pound District       	
The boundaries of three pound districts were extended, and fourteen pound-keepers
were appointed this year.
GRASSHOPPER-CONTROL AREAS
The Department advanced moneys to seven Grasshopper-control Committees for
the purpose of carrying out control measures, but due to the very slight infestations this
year four Committees returned all of their advance, and the expenditures of the other
three Committees were quite light.
Control Area Advanced
Clinton    $ 1,000.00
Nicola	
Oliver-Osoyoos	
Princeton	
South Riske Creek-
Thompson Valleys_
Westbank	
20,000.00
1,000.00
2,000.00
2,000.00
3,000.00
300.00
Refunded
$1,000.00
20,000.00
1,000.00
1,600.00
1,778.37
3,000.00
166.10
Totals  $29,300.00 $28,544.47
MISCELLANEOUS
During the year your Superintendent addressed the Canadian Pharmaceutical Association's annual convention and met with the British Columbia Pharmaceutical Council
on a number of occasions regarding the sale of poisons and drugs used exclusively in
agriculture.
Your Superintendent also addressed the Vancouver Gyro Club, opened several fall
fairs, and attended and addressed a number of Farmers' Institutes and Fall Fair Association meetings.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent
Two new Institutes have been organized during the year—Lakeview Heights in the
South Okanagan and Campbell River in the North Vancouver Island District—making the
total 238 in the Province. Terrace has been inactive for some years and has now been
taken off the roll, while Burns Lake seems to have difficulty in continuing.   On the other HH 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
hand, Langford has reorganized successfully and has renovated its hall for use. A new
district has been formed—the Kettle River District—made up of the western part of
the West Kootenay, which makes sixteen districts in all. This tends to enable more and
more women to attend the district meetings, which give inspiration and fresh interest.
Reports received from 230 Women's Institutes for 1954 showed their total receipts
$149,951.35 and their expenditures $103,096.16, with a membership of 5,400. Grant
cheques for $10 each were sent to these Institutes.
GENERAL PROGRESS AND SPECIAL PROIECTS
The general picture of Women's Institute work is good, with a steady increase.
Their community work is reflected in the higher standard of living conditions and better
services in the rural areas. No problem of public interest is too large or too small for
their attention, and the improvements as a result of their quiet campaigning for whatever
their local need appears to be is noteworthy.
The South Vancouver Island District, spurred by Craigflower Women's Institute,
raised funds to donate a De Lorme exercising-table to the lubilee Hospital at Victoria,
the first to be installed to aid patients who have been victims of polio. The North Vancouver Island's project of a home for the aged at Courtenay has now been completed.
The home has been opened and is making a valuable contribution to the welfare of the
older citizens in that area. The Cariboo District combined in support of the new hospital
at Quesnel, which was recently opened.
The Provincial project under UNESCO was a demonstration centre for a village in
Ceylon. This was sponsored by the Associated Country Women of the World in co-operation with the Women's Institutes of Ceylon. Each demonstration centre is equipped
with sewing-machines, pressure-cookers, and modern cooking-utensils to help the Ceylon
village women to raise their standard of living. Two other sewing-machines were also
sent to Mysore, India, where the women and girls of India will receive instruction under
the capable direction of Mrs. Kupperswamy, who was present at the Toronto conference
in 1953.
PROVINCIAL BOARD
A meeting of the Provincial Board was held in October with all members present—
Mrs. A. A. Shaw, president; Mrs. E. J. Roylance, vice-president; Mrs. T. Windt, Mrs.
J. Decker, and Mrs. P. Douglas, directors; and Mrs. R. Doe, secretary-treasurer. The
latter reported that the finances of the Institute are in a healthy state. The Othoa Scott
Trust Fund, which is $10,000 invested in bonds, has a balance of $687 on hand from
interest, and this is to be held to furnish a room or ward in the Queen Alexandra
Solarium's new building which is to be erected this year. The sum of $15,000 is
invested in Canadian bonds in the Women's Institute Memorial Fund and another $1,428
cash is on hand. The Home Economics scholarship of $250 was awarded this year to
Edwina Aten, of Salmon Arm, and the $100 bursary in Agriculture was awarded this
year for the first time and went to Tom Windt, of Alexandria.
Plans were made for the biennial convention to be held at the University of British
Columbia on May 29th, 30th, and 31st. This will coincide with the first across-Canada
visit of Mrs. A. M. Berry, of Australia, president of the Associated Country Women of
the World. Mrs. A. A. Shaw was appointed delegate to the conference of that group
to be held in Ceylon during 1956, and Mrs. S. E. Gummow was appointed a second
delegate.
A highlight of the meeting was a visit by Miss Gwynedd Lloyd, lady-in-waiting to
the Princess Royal and president of the Shropshire Women's Institutes.
The Board visited the Queen Alexandra Solarium as guests of the Solarium Board. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955 HH 95
DISTRICT MEETINGS
Fifteen district meetings were attended during the year, and these were outstanding
in attendance and interest. A number of valuable resolutions were discussed and passed.
These concerned roads, education, health services, clothing standards, rural electrification,
telephones, etc. The dates of these meetings, with the names of president and secretary
elected, are as follows:—
April 1st, North Vancouver Island at Denman Island:  Mrs. J. Smith, R.R. 1,
Comox; Mrs. A. MacMillan, R.R. 1, Qualicum Beach.
April 4th, Hopeline District at Hope:   Mrs. O. France, Chilliwack;  Mrs. R.
Harrington, Abbotsford.
April 5th, North Fraser at Mission:   Mrs. M. Strachan, Mission; Mrs. O. E.
Leaf, Whonock.
April 6th, Douglas at White Rock:  Mrs. D. McDougal, Fort Langley; Mrs. S.
Holding, Langley Prairie.
May 5th, North Thompson at Little Fort:  Mrs. A. Stevens, Barriere; Mrs. B.
Hansen, Little Fort.
May 7th, North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Salmon Arm:  Mrs. R. lones,
Westwold; Mrs. A. C. Thompson, Westwold.
May 10th, South Okanagan at Kelowna:  Mrs. I. Bowen-Colthurst, Penticton;
Mrs. Gordon Ritchie, West Summerland.
May 14th, Arrow Lakes at Burton:  Mrs. I. T. Kirkpatrick, Needles; Mrs. J.
Lee, Arrow Park.
May 17th, East Kootenay at Cranbrook:  Mrs. E. Black, Flagstone;  Mrs. G.
Andestad, Wynndel.
May 20th, West Kootenay at Grand Forks:  Mrs. C. B. White, R.R. 1, Nelson;
Mrs. W. L. Wright, Robson.
lune 22nd, Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Houston:   Mrs. L. Spencer, Perow;  Mrs.
F. Barnett, Houston,
lune 24th, Central Interior at Vanderhoof:   Mrs. M. McLaren, Prince George;
Mrs. G. Snell, Vanderhoof.
June 28th, Cariboo at Horsefly (washed out because of floods;  postponed
meeting held July 14th at Dragon Lake):  Mrs. M. Booth, Bouchie Lake;
Mrs. A. Trudeau, Quesnel.
July 5th, Peace River at Dawson Creek:   Mrs. Gene Forster, Fort St. John;
Mrs. Lyle Braden, Dawson Creek.
September 23rd, South Vancouver Island at Colwood:   Mrs. H. K. Emery,
Colwood; Mrs. M. Cowan, Victoria.
Floods in the Cariboo and washed-out roads prevented attendance at the district
meeting planned for Horsefly.   A partial meeting was held, with only those near by attending.   A postponed meeting at Dragon Lake had present only those from the Northern
Cariboo.   However, the officers elected at Dragon Lake will carry on for the year.
FEDERATED WOMEN'S INSTITUTES OF CANADA
The meeting of the Federated Women's Institutes at Winnipeg from June 9th to 16th
was attended. One of the highlights was a pilgrimage to the Peace Garden, where a picnic
nook in memory of Mrs. Alfred Watt was dedicated. Your Superintendent had the
honour of giving the tribute to Mrs. Watt as a member of the British Columbia Women's
Institutes.
Plans were made at this meeting for the first National convention to be held in 1957,
and also for delegates to the Associated Country Women of the World in Ceylon in
December, 1956. A cross-Canada tour for Mrs. Berry, president, was arranged to start
in British Columbia in May, 1956. HH 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Federated Women's Institutes of Canada won the Henry Marshall Tory award
for outstanding work in adult education, and this was presented at the meeting.
INDIVIDUAL VISITS
A number of Institutes were visited during the year, and these were Saltair, Brentwood, South Saanich, Strawberry Vale, Ridgedale, Wells, Fort St. John (with Baldonnel
and Nor' Pioneer attending), Beatton River (with Montney, Pine View, and North Pine
present), Doe River and Shearer Dale, Pouce Coupe, Quesnel View, Bouchie Lake,
Langford for a reorganization meeting, Point Grey, Atchelitz (with Cannor attending),
Chilliwack and East Chilliwack, Promontory Heights, and Vedder.
WASHINGTON STATE HOMEMAKERS' COUNCIL
In company with Mrs. Shaw and Mrs. R. Doe, your Superintendent attended the
Washington State Homemakers' Council at Bellingham. This was their third State meeting and their first since becoming a constituent society of the Associated Country Women
of the World. Border meetings were discussed, and plans were made for four border
meetings this year at Sullivan Lake in the Kootenay, at Osoyoos in the Okanagan, at the
Peace Arch, and at Victoria.
RURAL HOUSING COMMITTEE
The work of this Committee has been finally finished, and one meeting was held
early in the year to arrange for distribution of booklets, with Farmhouse Plans, Principles
of Farm House Design, and Farmstead Planning and Layout still available in quantity.
ADULT EDUCATION
Two meetings of the Adult Education Conference were attended. The first was held
in May, and your Superintendent was called upon to work on the planning committee.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
The Women's Institute exhibit in the Home Arts Building was most encouraging this
year, with thirty-three Women's Institutes competing for the challenge cup, which went to
Penticton, the first time it has gone to the Interior of the Province.
FARM RADIO FORUM
A meeting of persons from interested agencies was held at the University in December. Women's Institutes are being encouraged to add more listening groups, with the
hope of arousing greater interest.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTE NEWS LETTER
Approximately 485 copies of the News Letter have been sent out each month except
July and August to the Institute secretaries, as well as to District and Provincial Boards,
conveners, and to others who especially asked for it. Another thousand copies of the
handbook have been printed.
APPRECIATION FOR CO-OPERATION AND INTEREST
This programme would not have been possible without the co-operation, interest,
and encouragement of the Minister, Deputy Minister, and staff and field members of the
Department of Agriculture. To them and to the president, officers, and conveners of the
Provincial Women's Institutes may I express my most grateful thanks.
) r
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 97
REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
A detailed soil survey of the Westbank Irrigation District was undertaken, the area
mapped amounting to 1,548 acres.
The major work of the field season consisted of progress with the reconnaissance
soil survey of the Kettle River valley, where about 70,000 acres were classified.
Progress was made with the arrangement of a report for publication covering a
reconnaissance soil survey of the Upper Columbia River valley.
Minor undertakings consisted of three meetings of the Reclamation Committee,
laboratory soil-testing in connection with soil classification and farm soil problems, and
some extension work.
The operation in 1955 was handicapped by the resignations of two experienced
technical men. At the present time there is considerable difficulty in finding replacements
that have academic qualifications. One of the positions was filled in the latter part of the
season, and the other was still vacant at the end of the year.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE WESTBANK IRRIGATION DISTRICT
A detailed soil survey of the Westbank Irrigation District was undertaken in May
and June in co-operation with the Water Rights Branch, Department of Lands and
Forests. The purpose of the combined soil and engineering survey was to redesign a
worn-out irrigation system built in 1921.
Local opinion is that the needs of the district would be served to the best advantage
by piped water, permitting sprinkler irrigation throughout the area without pumping.
The alternative plans were (1) renewal of the present system with enlargement of capacity
to include an additional 200 acres, and (2) a distribution system covering the present
district and 700 additional acres.
The soils have been mapped as a means of identifying their nature and locating and
calculating the acreage of the several soil types. Inasmuch as different soil types require
different amounts of irrigation-water, the soils information permits calculation of the total
water requirement of the district and the amounts to be delivered to each soil type. Such
information is useful in connection with the amount of water that must be stored and
pipe diameters in different parts of the system.
In the latter part of the season a map showing soil conditions was delivered to the
Water Rights Branch, and a meeting of the Reclamation Committee was held for the
purpose of estimating the water requirements of the area.
SOIL SURVEY OF THE UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER VALLEY
The classified section of the Upper Columbia River valley covers the bottom of the
Rocky Mountain Trench in the area between Canal Flats and Bluewater Creek, about
25 miles north of Golden. In this area the mapped soils amount to about 267,000
acres, approximately 103,000 acres being potentially irrigable. Not more than 2,700
acres are irrigated at the present time.
The irrigation land has a variation of soil texture and climate responsible for a
range of farm delivery requirement of water that lies between 16 and 44 acre-inches for
the irrigation season. The total irrigation-water requirement for the classified area
amounts to about 243,000 acre-feet with delivery between May and September.
The survey was completed in 1954, and progress was made with the preparation
of soil maps and a report during 1955. A draft for editing will be completed by April,
1956.   The report will be published by the Canada Department of Agriculture. HH 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOIL SURVEY OF THE KETTLE RIVER VALLEY
The reconnaissance soil and water-requirement survey begun in 1954 was continued
in summer and fall. About 70,000 acres were differentiated into thirty-five soil series
and five miscellaneous land types. The classified area includes about 95 miles of river-
valleys extending from Midway to Westbridge, up the Christian Valley to Damfino Creek,
and from Westbridge up the Westkettle to Cookson Flats, about 23 miles north of Carmi.
In addition, about 8 miles of the plateau centring around Bridesville was classified.
The area presently classified is divisible physiographically into two regions. One
is a segment of the Interior Plateau located between Rock Creek and Osoyoos, with
elevations between 2,500 and 4,200 feet. The other consists of the valleys of the Kettle
and Westkettle Rivers, which join at Westbridge and cross the American border at
Midway. These valleys are from one-half to a mile wide, and the range of valley-bottom
elevation is from 1,925 to 3,000 feet above sea-level.
The Interior Plateau section is surfaced with till, coarse-textured glacial outwash,
and glacio-lacustrine fine sandy deposits. The stratified fine sands are observable at a
considerable range of elevation between Myncaster and Nine Mile Creek. Some lacustrine remnants were also found in the Kettle River valley west of Midway and up-stream
from Rock Creek, but these are Kettle River deposits from a different source. Most of
these sediments appear to have accumulated in ice-margin ponds and lakes.
Throughout its length the Kettle River valley was subjected to vigorous glaciation.
Pre-existing superficial deposits and spurs were cleared away, leaving a typical U-shaped
trough. Subsequently the valley has been refilled in places to the point where the river
grade is flattened. In other places the river is still down-cutting in the debris left by
glacial retreat.
The soils derived from the glacial and post-glacial deposits are mainly sandy and
gravelly, and they developed in a fairly wide range of climate. Identified soil groups
consist of Dark Brown and Black grassland soils, and Brown Wooded, Grey Wooded,
and Brown Podzolic-Grey Wooded forest soils. In addition to these, Azonal soils occur
on second bottoms of the river.
In the southern section certain soil types occur on each side of the International
Boundary. In order to obtain uniformity of classification, contact was made with the
State College of Washington and the Division of Soil Surveys, United States Department
of Agriculture. A preliminary field-trip with American officials was made in July to get
acquainted with the problem of correlation. A further field-trip in 1956 will finalize
the classification on both sides of the border.
In the plateau region, dry farming is practised for the purpose of growing winter
feed for range cattle. In most of this area there is little water available for irrigation,
and it may be desirable to achieve a balance between farming and the grazing capacity
of the range.
In the Kettle and Westkettle River valleys, water is available for irrigation of the
terraces, and the soils were graded according to their suitability for irrigation. Irrigated
mixed farming, practised to a minor extent at present, is capable of considerable expansion.
SOIL CONSERVATION
Extension work in soils was reduced to a minimum during the past year. This was
due to the resignation of the official formerly in charge. The work was limited to the
training of a replacement, who was also an assistant soil surveyor during the field season.
Advisory assistance in connection with drainage problems amounted to twenty farm
visits in spring and fall. Two drainage plans were completed, and a total of 1,108 feet
of drains were installed. Investigations of ten drainage proposals were put forward for
attention in 1956, owing to an unusually severe winter. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 99
Soil-testing for alkalis is carried on as a service to farmers and others in co-operation
with the extension branches of this Department in the Okanagan Valley. Wherever
submission of soil samples is found to be a symptom of alkali accumulations, poor drainage, erosion, or some other factor causing infertility of soils, a farm visit is made by a
district official or one from this Branch to ascertain the cause of the trouble. Field
observations are a necessary part of effective soil-testing technique.
A total of 325 farm soil samples and fifteen water samples were tested for alkali
content. About 10 per cent of the soil samples contained excessive amounts of alkali
carbonates, requiring gypsum application, and about 9 per cent contained harmful
accumulations of neutral salts, for which drainage is required.
It is hoped that soil-conservation work will be returned to normal output in 1956.
In summer, when office work is at a minimum, the stenographer is utilized as a laboratory
assistant, particularly in connection with soil-testing.
RECLAMATION COMMITTEE
There were three meetings of the Reclamation Committee in 1955. The first of
these was held at Ladner on January 24th to consider the Richmond and Delta irrigation proposals, surveyed in 1954.
The Committee heard the case for irrigation and made recommendations in regard
to the two proposals. The information derived from the meeting and a description of
the soil types in both areas were reported in Proceedings of the Reclamation Committee,
Brief 30, which was distributed in September.
The second meeting of the Committee was held at Creston on October 6th to consider a proposal made by the Duck Lake Dyking District. The proposal was to reclaim
1,125 acres of Crown land which includes a portion of the southern part of Duck Lake.
There was a hearing as to the case for reclamation, opposed by the case for use of
the area as a resting and feeding ground for wild-fowl. The Committee made certain
recommendations that would apply if reclamation is permitted by the Government. This
meeting was reported in Reclamation Committee Brief 31, December, 1955.
The final meeting of the year was held at Kelowna on November 22nd in regard to
reconstruction of the distribution system of the Westbank Irrigation District. Water
requirements of soil types and other factors that would have a bearing on the design of
the system were considered. The meeting will be reported in Reclamation Committee
Brief 32, January, 1956.
All briefs of the Reclamation Committee are kept available for distribution.
LABORATORY
Progress was made with the establishment of a soils laboratory, when space was
made available in the new Court-house at Kelowna. The development of a laboratory
must be spread over several years, owing to delays in obtaining equipment for special
purposes.
The purpose of the laboratory is (1) to undertake physical analyses for the determination of consumptive use of water, (2) to obtain physical and chemical data as
required in the publication of standard soil-survey reports, and (3) to operate a soil-
testing service in connection with farm soil problems.
The determination of the consumptive use of water refers to the duty of water of
classified soil types that have never been irrigated. The primary demand for such information has reference to the water requirements of classified soils in the valleys of streams
entering the United States. In these valleys the total water requirement of the irrigation-
land resource should be known and reserved for eventual Canadian use. Similar information is required in connection with irrigation proposals on virgin lands in other parts
of the Province that lie outside of the Okanagan region. HH 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A soil-survey report is made ready for publication every three years. In the past
the amount of physical and chemical data published have been below standard, and
delays of publication have occurred while awaiting limited laboratory information from
other sources. The laboratory is designed to secure information as needed, and the
work will be performed by those who undertook the surveys, and who understand the
requirements.
SOIL SURVEY IN PEACE RIVER DISTRICT, 1955
The following is a report received from L. Farstad, Senior Pedologist, Experimental
Farms Service:—
" During the 1955 field season the soil survey of the Peace River was continued.
Due to numerous oil-exploration trails and roads it was possible to traverse many isolated
areas and to re-examine areas previously surveyed on a broad reconnaissance basis.
" Specifically the areas re-examined include Townships 84 to 88 in Ranges 13, 14,
15, 16, and 17. In addition, the Upper Halfway and Cameron River valleys were surveyed on a broad reconnaissance basis. Approximately 400,000 acres were covered.
" Soils
" The geological materials from which soils are derived in the area covered include
materials believed to be deposits of the Keewatin and Cordilleran ice-sheets. Well-sorted
sediments of alluvial or lacustrine origin are of smaller extent that the glacial till.
" In the north-east portion of the map-sheet (Boundary Lake) the glacial-till deposits
are shallow and have been derived from the underlying saline Smoky River shales. In
the north-western section the soils appear to have developed from calcareous deposits
presumably brought down by a Cordilleran ice-sheet occupying the Upper Halfway Valley
and adjacent mountain-slopes.
" Six kinds of profiles, occupying well-drained positions, were mapped. They
include Alluvial, Brown Wooded, Grey Wooded, Podzolized Grey Wooded, Brown
Podzolic, and Podzol soils. Associated with the poorly drained sites, ' Bluff,' Podzol,
Meadow, Peat, and Muck soils were encountered.
" The characteristics, use limitations, and vegetative cover of these types of profiles
have been described in previous Reports and will not be reviewed here.
" Chemical and Physical Analyses
" Chemical and physical analyses are now being carried out to further characterize
the important mapped types. The chemical analyses include soil reaction, organic matter,
total calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as silicon, iron, and
aluminium. In addition, the cation exchange capacity and exchangeable ions are being
determined. The physical analyses being carried out include particle-size distribution,
bulk density, and pore-size distribution."
NATIONAL SOIL SURVEY COMMITTEE
The National Soil Survey Committee held a five-day conference in Saskatoon from
October 31st to November 5th, 1955. The programme was devoted largely to consideration and revision of sub-committee reports dealing with certain aspects of soil-survey
work or with matters arising out of such work.
The National Soil Survey Committee has ten sub-committees. Each section held a
separate meeting and prepared separate reports, which were presented to the conference.
The reports of these sub-committees, as revised by the conference, will be mimeographed
and made available at a later date.
The following list of sub-committees will indicate the scope of the conference:
Chemical Analyses, Physical Analyses, Drainage Classes, Landscape Features, Publica- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 101
tions (Maps and Reports), Soil Classification, Soil Horizon Designations, Soil Ratings
for Agricultural Crops, Soil Map of Canada, and Structure and Consistence.
A few of the major accomplishments of the Saskatoon conference of the National
Soil Survey Committee are briefly discussed below.
1. Soil Classification.—A system for the classification of Canadian soils based on
their morphological features was adopted. This system consists of six categories, which
will group our hundreds of soil types into progressively broader categories, until at
Category 6 all our soils will have been grouped into seven classes. This is a major step
in soil classification, in that more attention will now be paid to the task of grouping soils
on the basis of their similarities. Such groupings are essential if we are to synthesize our
knowledge about soils.
2. Publications.—The Sub-committee on Publications brought in some radical suggestions regarding the form and context of the soil-survey reports. These and other
suggestions, if adopted, will result in an improvement of soil-survey publications from the
view-point of the reader.
3. Soil Map of Canada.—The National Committee is sponsoring a new soil map of
Canada, which will appear in the new Canadian Atlas on a scale of 1:10,000,000. The
existing soil map of British Columbia has been revised and submitted to the National
Committee for approval.
4. Apart from the formal business, the conference served a useful purpose in bringing all the leaders of soil survey together for discussion of mutual problems.
SOIL MAP OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
The first soil map of British Columbia was prepared in 1948. This map and
accompanying report was published in the report of the Second Resources Conference,
Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C., 1949. A revised map and report is
now being prepared for the Ninth British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, to
be held in February, 1956.
The soils are classified genetically and the map units are dominant Great Soil Groups
or associations of Great Soil Groups. Symbols used to aid in the interpretation of the
map indicate (1) Dominant Great Soil Group or association of Groups, (2) terrain type,
and (3) parent material. In order to accommodate some parts of the Province which
could not be classified according to established Great Soil Groups, it was necessary to
introduce substitutes for the Great Soil Group symbol; for example, a symbol for rough
mountainous land.
VANCOUVER ISLAND
During the past season further studies were carried out on the Vancouver Island
soils, particularly the Alberni and Fairbridge series. X-ray analyses and electron micrographs indicate the clay minerals are largely chlorite, and chemical analyses suggest also
that the clay is a silicate of iron, possibly with some aluminium and magnesium.
This information, together with other analyses, assists in the characterization of these
Reddish Brown Forested soils. Iron determinations indicate that from 25 to 30 per cent
of the total iron is in the form of iron oxides or free iron. It is highly possible that phosphorus fixation may be closely linked with this condition. HH 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
AND EXTENSION BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ac, Director
The year 1955 proved very wet in many parts of the Province, creating unfavourable
crop conditions, although generally harvesting conditions were better than in 1954.
Economic conditions were less favourable and net financial returns to producers
generally were lower. Farmers in British Columbia, as elsewhere in Canada and the
United States, were caught in a cost-price squeeze.
The work of the Extension staff continued to expand during the year and is outlined
in the following report.
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
A feature of the extension programme for 1955 was the first full conference since
1948, held in Victoria and Vancouver April 19th to 22nd. In attendance were the Supervisors, District Agriculturists, Assistant District Agriculturists, and specialists in the
Department of Agriculture.
The programme included panel presentations on poultry, live stock, field crops and
weeds, plant diseases, insect problems, 4-H Clubs, land-clearing, agricultural engineering,
planned programmes, etc.
C. A. Svinth, Associate Director of Extension, Washington State College, was a
feature speaker on planned programmes and extension methods, and greatly contributed
to the success of the conference.
The Extension staff highly appreciated the opportunity to meet together, and feel
such conferences should be held annually if possible.
Regional conferences were also held during November at Kamloops, Prince George,
and Abbotsford. They were excellent meetings dealing with problems of extension. Dr.
J. K. Friesen, Director of Extension, University of British Columbia, was a feature
speaker at the Abbotsford conference.
Coupled with the meetings at Kamloops and Prince George were the meetings of the
co-ordinating committees, which have done so much to promote uniform recommendations to farmers on problems in agriculture.
Membership of the 4-H Clubs continues to expand slowly and improvement is
apparent each year. The 4-H programme is a most valuable means to promote better
farming and is a valuable factor in the extension plans of each district.
The economics of production and marketing of agricultural commodities have been
recognized as the basis of our extension programme. The District Agriculturist operates
on the belief that an efficient farm must be a sound economic unit.
Planned programmes are emphasizing the importance of cash crops, increased livestock production in some areas, reduced costs of production through efficient use of
labour and machinery, development of local markets, etc.
Short courses on farm management, income tax, agronomic production, long-range
planning, etc., are being held and will be expanded where desired.
All divisions of the Branch had a very active year and co-operated fully in the overall programme of extension.
Short sections from the reports of district officials are included in the report this year
which emphasize the important projects in each district. Space does not permit the
inclusion of every full report.
The activities of the Extension Agricultural Engineering Division are outlined later
in this report.
Land-clearing was greatly expanded with the inclusion of the Peace River area in
the field of operation. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955 HH 103
CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, NORTH CARIBOO, AND
PEACE RIVER
(S. G. Preston, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
The over-all economic expansion in 1955 for Central and Northern British Columbia
and the Peace River was the greatest in a number of years. Farmers, however, did not
share directly in this progress. For the third year in succession a combination of unfavourable growing seasons, restricted sales of cereals, and lower prices for beef have not
only reduced returns to the producer, but resulted in a depressed attitude on the part of
the farmer. The picture for dairying and poultry was brighter than for other phases of
agriculture, but the latter industry is yet relatively small, and even dairying has a series
of marketing problems. A number of farmers have been able to supplement incomes
through employment with oil-exploration projects, pipe-lines, railroad construction, and
the lumber industry. It is anticipated this supplementary employment will be available to
them to an even greater degree in 1956. Thus while the producers will be in a position,
in many cases, to make a reasonable income through a combination of farming and outside employment, this may result in neglect of the farm meantime, and certainly will not
encourage increased live-stock production. Much of the income earned will not, no
doubt, be used for capital expansion on farm holdings.
Extension Activities
Returns indicate a greater use is being made of the district offices. These showed an
average of 1,200 callers for the year, with by far the greatest number making use of the
Dawson Creek office.
Regular monthly news bulletins are published at Prince George and at Smithers, and
every two months for the Nechako Valley and Lakes District. The Prince George newsletter has a circulation of approximately 500; Smithers, 350; and Nechako Valley and
Lakes District, 250. District Agriculturists Zacharias, Jameson, and Pelter, who are
responsible for these publications, have made a special effort to see that the material is
specific, concise, and readable to the average farmer. A good deal of credit is due to
these men for this excellent work. The prestige of the Department is higher, and increased
use is made of the agricultural services available since the bulletins have been resumed.
Radio has played an important part in publicizing services and as a regular extension
medium in the Peace River and at Prince George. In the latter district a co-operative
effort between the Experimental Station, Provincial Department of Agriculture, and radio
station CKPG is most successful. Weekly fifteen-minute talks are broadcast at 9.45 each
Tuesday, with the exception that the third Tuesday is a half-hour discussion forum.
While the downward trend of the farm economy, no doubt, has some bearing on the
greater use of agricultural services, much of the credit must go to the District Agriculturists themselves. Through their ability and experience, as well as publicity through
newspaper articles, radio, news-letters, circulars, etc., they have developed the confidence
of the farmers in the services available.
The Regional Co-ordinating Committee on Agriculture met officially at Prince
George in November at the time of the regional meeting of District Agriculturists. Sizes
of economic farm units were discussed and recommendations on grain-crops and fertilizers were revised. There was insufficient time to come to agreement on live-stock and
forage-crop recommendations, and a further meeting is proposed for February.
The writer, as secretary of the Co-ordinating Committee, has had the chief responsibility of organizing and editing the work. The effort of the group in publishing the recommendations is considered well worth while. The recommendations established for various
farm practices act as a guide and education to the agriculturists and achieve the objective
of co-ordination.   Basic minimum economic farm units agreed upon at the November HH 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
meeting were: Beef cattle, 50 to 60 cows; dairy-farm, 20 cows; sheep, 200 to 250 ewes;
and poultry, 2,000 to 3,000 laying hens. It was agreed that the average farm would
require the following minimum developed acreage: Nechako Valley, 200 acres; Prince
George and McBride, 130 acres; and Bulkley Valley and North Cariboo, 100 to 150 acres.
Assistance and advice on miscellaneous veterinary problems continue to draw on a
significant portion of a District Agriculturist's time. This situation has been somewhat
eased in the Peace River since a resident veterinarian was established in the area.
Adjustment of the farm programme to meet the developments in transportation, oil,
gas, lumber, and industry, as well as the increase in the population, will require a stepped-
up extension programme with careful planning. The first step will be a matter of publicity, to enlighten the producer and business-men on the developments already under way
and the manner in which it will not only affect them, but how they can best take advantage
of opportunities offered. Another important step is to show how live-stock and poultry
production can be increased and markets developed, and, thirdly, to assess the types and
volume of farm products that can be economically produced and marketed in Central
British Columbia and the Peace River.
While the districts as a whole have prospered during the past year and the future is
very bright, still agriculture is not faring too well at present. Encouragement toward
live-stock and poultry production is recommended and the growing of commodities such
as vegetables and small fruits adapted to the area.
The writer would like to take this opportunity to thank all officials for assistance and
co-operation rendered during the past season.
The quarterly meeting of supervisors and senior officials is particularly appreciated,
and through this medium alone a far greater degree of interdepartmental co-ordination
may be expected.
North Cariboo District
(A. R. Tarves, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this district featured weekly farm columns in local newspapers,
4-H Club projects, production problems with crops and live stock, and an extensive land-
clearing programme. Settlement on farms in this area is increasing rapidly and will
continue as more land is cleared and brought under cultivation.
Prince George District
(J. V. Zacharias, P.Ag.)
The extension programme in this area featured grass silage, development of an agricultural programme for a rapidly expanding area, 4-H Club projects, monthly news-letter
to 425 farmers, radio broadcasts, and a heavy land-clearing programme.
Smithers District
(K. R. Jameson, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this area featured assistance on marketing problems to the
Bulkley Valley Co-operative Milk Producers' Association, Kitsumkalum Farmers' Insti-
ture, Houston Co-operative Marketing Association, Houston Egg-grading Station, and the
Smithers Farmers' Institute; 4-H Club projects; problems of rural living, etc. The development of the dairy industry in relation to expanding markets is receiving considerable
attention.
Nechako Valley and Lakes District
(J. A. Pelter, P.Ag.)
Extension activities of this area included investigation of live-stock losses in cooperation with Dr. K. Thompson of the Live Stock Branch, 4-H Club projects, farm
news-letters, egg-grading in Vanderhoof, etc. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 105
North Peace River
(R. W. Brown, P.Ag.)
The agricultural programme for this area is concerned with a rapid increase in livestock production due to grain-marketing problems. The extension activities included
assistance on milk-marketing, seed production and seed shows, 4-H Club projects, livestock promotion, newspaper articles, and land-clearing.
South Peace River
(A. M. Johnson, P.Ag.)
The programme for the South Peace River is similar to that for the North Peace
River, and extension activities included live-stock promotion, organization of a community pasture and grazing association, organizing the Dawson Creek Dairy Producers'
Association, poultry promotion, 4-H Clubs, an advisory service which incidentally has
increased 300 per cent since 1952, and land-clearing.
SOUTH CARIBOO, KAMLOOPS, SHUSWAP, NORTH OKANAGAN,
KOOTENAY, AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS
(G. A. Luyat, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
The gloom which has been cast over the beef-cattle industry arises perhaps from
the price discrimination practised this year more than previously between grass-fed and
dry-fed steers and heifers, and not from a general downward trend of prices in the cattle
industry. Prices for dry-fed steers maintained a more uniform level throughout the year
than in 1954. Cows, on the other hand, have, with very minor fluctuations, followed
the price pattern of 1954. The feeder-calf market has been strong, with prices rising
sharply. The huge surplus of grain in the Prairie Provinces, which finds no market as
such, is affecting our industry in this Province by being marketed through cattle where
the grain is available and cheap. The growing availability of dry-fed cattle on the
Prairies in 1955 has made our buyers "choosey," and consequently they have offered
$2 per hundredweight less for grass-fed cattle, and even so have not shown the usual
interest in absorbing our offerings with a somewhat similar degree of fleshing. Buyers
have also discriminated against grass-finished steers of heavy weight such as 1,100-pound
2-year-olds, all because there is an available supply of handy light-weight dry-fed yearlings on offer in the West. It would appear that all this is a passing phase in the
industry, and a return to more normal conditions will follow in the wake of the disappearance of the huge stocks of grain in the West. Large surpluses of foodstuffs have
been known before to vanish overnight.
Prices prevailing during the shipping season were: Steers, 1,000 pounds and under,
$16 to $18; heifers, $13 to $15; light cows, $9 to $12; steer calves, $15 to $18;
heifer calves, $11 to $14;  and feeder steers, $15 to $17.
The feeder sales were again held in Williams Lake, the one on October 6th with
1,821 head and the other on November 3rd with 1,872 head. The first sale, comprised
of material in better flesh, commanded prices higher than the second but in keeping
with the slightly downward trend of the market. At Kamloops two calf and feeder sales
were held, and the first on November 9th was highly successful when the steer calves
sold up to $19.50. The second sale of over 500 head, held on December 15th, was
down considerably in price, with steer calves averaging from $14 to $15. Two fat-
stock shows were held in Kamloops during the year, one under the auspices of the Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show in March and the other the Christmas Fat Stock
Show and Sale in December. In March the car-lots and groups of five averaged $19.44
and the singles $24.39.   In the December sale the car-lots and groups averaged $20.63 HH 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and $20.22 and singles $21.96. This event is the achievement-day for the 4-H Beef
Calf Clubs of the Southern Interior, where the year's work is finalized and awards made
for every branch of work in the programme. The agriculturists of this region and
Mr. Carmichael, of Grand Forks, play a very vital part in making this an outstanding
4-H Club day of the Province.
Two bull sales were held at Kamloops in March and at Williams Lake in October.
A total of 146 head of the three breeds, an increase of 25 head over 1954, were sold at
Kamloops, with averages for each breed as follows: Herefords, $508; Shorthorns,
$366; and Angus, $415—all lower than 1954. There were 25 Hereford bulls from
Alberta breeders. The Cariboo Bull Sale sold 52 bulls at a general average of $395.
A gloomy atmosphere persisted over the whole of the sale and bidding was very
" sticky." Bulls at both sales were graded and classified on the individual merits of the
individual and bidding conformed to the classification.
It is clear that performance testing will have to be undertaken on beef-producing
ranches and farms to provide maximum efficiency of production to meet the " squeeze "
consistently manifested in greater force. This will mean a departure somewhat from
the old show-ring standards, but the adage " the scale is mightier than the eye " will
have to be more closely observed in the future.
By the year's end it was strongly suspected hay-supplies would not be adequate to
meet requirements, but this would depend on the weather. Winter set in fully two
months earlier than usual, heavy snow handicapping the rustling ability of cattle to a
very pronounced degree over the whole of the range country. A few well-favoured
areas, such as those along the slopes of the Fraser River from Williams Lake to Big Bar
Creek, are still able to provide forage for winter grazing. R. L. Wilkinson, District
Agriculturist, Kamloops, reports that because of wet hay put up in 1954 and the winter
of 1955 prolonged into late spring, cases of Vitamin A deficiency were suspected in the
1955 spring season. In the Cariboo many unaccountable losses have occurred at
calving-time. Generally speaking, despite the hardships of a late season, cattle were
later in finishing but came off the ranges in good flesh.
Assistance similar to that formerly given for many years to the Sullivan Valley
Livestock Association has been given by the Kamloops office to a voluntary system of
culling range bulls for the Tranquille Livestock Association. This practice is usually a
forerunner to the request for a bull-control area.
Dairy Cattle
A large part of the dairying over the area consists of cream production, which does
not demand the same exacting regulations as fluid milk but does not, however, return as
high a net income. In order to make up this difference, many of these operators seek
work off the farm during the summer months. The Extension Branch is desirous of
introducing other projects to overcome the necessity of seeking outside work.
Three Insemination Clubs operate successfully. These are located at Kelowna,
Armstrong, and Salmon Arm. Some decrease in the service is attributed to the incidence of vaginitis and vibriosis.
No calves were introduced from the Fraser Valley into any of the dairying areas
in 1955.
Sheep
The sheep industry is undergoing a further slight decline in numbers, especially in
the range bands. Another band is likely to be dispersed by the year's end. It is
increasingly hard to find packers and herders for the utilization of mountain ranges.
The predator problem has been solved by the 1080 poisoning campaign conducted a
few years ago, but poisonous weeds are a constant problem under poor or inexperienced
herding.   Farm flock units are slowly increasing.    Extension personnel feel this phase
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 107
of the industry should expand to utilize land not adapted to profitable cultivation and to
control weeds. Increased production from irrigated pastures could be obtained by running one sheep to every cow to the advantage of both. The Interior needs more farm
flocks in order to raise the income per farm, and experience elsewhere indicates most
certainly sheep are complementary to dairy-farming.
Alpine grazing was delayed in 1955 until almost July 15th by the backward spring
season. Growth was then rapid and lambs made fast gains. The first shipments in
early August realized prices of $22 to $23, with a 52-per-cent dressing guarantee off
cars in Vancouver. September and October prices declined to $20 off cars, until by the
end of the year $17 was being offered at the shipping-point.
Swine and Poultry
J. C. Ryder, District Agriculturist at Salmon Arm, reports a 10-per-cent increase in
egg production over 1954 in his district. Two large turkey flocks are maintained in the
area of Kamloops office—one at Rayleigh with 3,400 and one at Princeton with 12,000
birds. District offices maintain close touch with the Poultry Inspector of the area and
visits are made to producers with him. Problems are directed and funnelled through the
local office to the Inspector.
Lower pork prices during the summer caused a severe downward trend in pig production. Throughout the area, hogs are not of economic importance. The grain consumption is too high for economical hog production in this region.
Field Crops
Silage
Despite the progress which has been made over the last three years, grass silage was
produced in much less volume than the bad weather experienced in June each year
warrants. Mr. Ryder reports, however, that there has been a 100-per-cent increase in
Salmon Arm. Ranchers in the range areas have been reluctant to ensile their first crop.
Winter feeding problems may have been badly distorted, and there is not the determination to overcome them by new methods; consequently, they continue to put up a bad-
quality first-cut hay-crop and deplete their next cuttings.
The second annual silage tour conducted by the Extension group in January in the
North Okanagan and Salmon Arm has produced good results and permitted a free
exchange of ideas and techniques on silage-making. Samples of silages have been taken
by the agriculturists during the winter for protein determination, and this has kept the
operators alert to the value of good-quality silage. The above-ground horizontal
" bunker " type silo is gaining in popularity. One silage field-day was held in Armstrong
with silage-harvesting equipment at work, and another was held under the auspices of the
Illustration Station at Revelstoke.
Irrigated Pastures and Range
By the pasture season of 1955 over approximately 3,000 acres of new pasture had
been established. Extension workers concentrated on devising means for more efficient
use and higher returns from pasture. It was felt that some sheep production on these
pastures might provide the answer in part.
The Green Pastures Programme organization held its annual field-day on September
1st, visiting three farms in the North Okanagan—one with dairy cattle, one with sheep,
and one with beef cattle. W. J. Bulman, of Bulman Ranch Limited, Kelowna, a beef
enterprise, was declared the official " Grassman of the Year " for North Okanagan,
Salmon Arm, Kamloops, Nicola and Princeton. The standing and distribution of the top
five contestants were as follows: W. T. J. Bulman, Kelowna; C G. Bryson, Merritt; Don
MacEwan, Grindrod; W. L. Bryson, Heffley Creek;  and J. Thompson, Princeton. HH 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In 1955 the participants in the Green Pastures Programme were invited to enter the
" Grassman of the Year " contest rather than visit and score each pasture in order to
achieve the same end.
The ranges of the Interior were slow in developing growth and did not come into full
bearing until mid-June and made the grazing season rather short. Likewise, the deferred
pastures were only used a short period when a cover of snow made them difficult or
useless.
East Kootenay District
(J. W. Awmack, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this area featured cattle production and marketing problems;
the issuance of the farmers' bulletin six times during the year; short courses on beef production, feeding of live stock, farm management, small fruits and vegetables and field
crops, bull-control areas and live-stock disease control; and a control project on Columbia
ground-squirrels in co-operation with the Game Commission.
West Kootenay District
(A. J. Allan, P.Ag.)
The headquarters was moved in July from Creston to Nelson for more efficient
operation. Extension activities included cereal variety and forage tests, soil-conservation
control on Goat River, 4-H Club projects including trip to the Montana State 4-H Conservation Camp in July with two club members from Arrow Park, etc.
Boundary District
(J. F. Carmichael, P.Ag.)
The extension programme included 4-H Club projects which this year featured visits
to Washington State by club members and parents, live-stock promotion, short courses,
silage promotion, field-crop forage and fertilizer tests, weekly press releases, seed-potato
production, vegetable production, forage-crop and vegetable seed production, etc.
North Okanagan District
(R. C. Bailey, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this area featured 4-H Club projects, as this is one of the
leading areas in 4-H programmes, including a 4-H Club Council. An exchange tour was
arranged with 4-H Club members in Stevens County of Washington State. Other activities
included newspaper releases, radio programmes, silage promotion, live stock promotion,
planned programmes with an Advisory Council, land-clearing, etc.
Shuswap-Mainline District
(J. C. Ryder, P.Ag.)
The extension programme in this area included field-days, land-clearing, silage promotion including the Green Pastures Programme, extensive 4-H Club projects including
4-H Leaders' Council, Agricultural Advisory Council, radio broadcasts, local newspaper
releases, etc.
South Cariboo District
(M. J. Walsh, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this area feature live-stock problems, particularly beef cattle,
including range management, feeding, marketing, cattle sales, farm meetings, grasshopper-
control in the Clinton and South Riske Creek zones, etc. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 109
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND LOWER FRASER VALLEY REGION
(J. S. Allin, P.Ag., Supervising Agriculturist)
The production, harvesting, preservation, and feeding of forage-crops (hay, pasture,
and silage) received major consideration in all districts of the region. Extension activities
in this regard include participation in Grassland Clubs, meetings, field-days, tours and
farm feeding trials, all intended to promote high-quality forage and economical production
of milk, beef, lambs, etc. Several field-trips and tours for producers were arranged by
each District Agriculturist both within his own district and to near-by districts. In addition, new interest was obtained by reviewing grassland methods and dairy efficiency by
making organized tours of grassland farms in Clallam and Whatcom Counties in the State
of Washington.
Three District Agriculturists and myself were fortunate in being able to attend special
functions either in Alberta or in the State of Washington. Two of these events concerned
4-H Club camps—Whidbey Island and Pullman, Wash.—at each of which one District
Agriculturist accompanied 4-H Club representatives; one District Agriculturist represented this Department at the Western Farm Radio Forum Workshop. The writer
expresses appreciation of his opportunity to attend the Biennial Conference of Agricultural Sciences at the State College of Pullman, Washington, in January of 1955.
" Programme Planning " was the theme of the regional meeting of District Agriculturists at Abbotsford from November 22nd to 24th. Guest speaker was Dr. John
Friesen, Director of Extension, University of British Columbia, who supplied valuable
information concerning problems of rural sociology and programme planning. As a result
of this conference, each District Agriculturist is presently concerned with the organization
of farmer groups within his district who will eventually develop, with himself, a joint
extension programme based on the recognized problems and needs of the community.
The second annual " Calendar Review " for dealers of agricultural supplies was
held on Vancouver Island with gratifying results. This feature of our extension programme is of mutual benefit to dealers and extension workers. At the request of the
trade representatives, a Dealers' Workshop will be conducted at two locations in the
Fraser Valley early in 1956. These meetings provide an opportunity for agricultural
extension workers and research workers to meet with dealers of agricultural commodities
such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides, and weedicides so that each group may
become better acquainted regarding the various recommended practices.
Co-ordinating committees continue to function on Vancouver Island and in the
Lower Fraser Valley, thus bringing about a closer liaison between research and extension
workers. These committees serve as a clearing-house for agricultural production problems, while at the same time providing a means by which up-to-date information can be
conveyed through the extension worker to the farm.
Visual aids have definitely proven themselves to be of great value in assisting the
District Agriculturist with his extension programme. Each and every District Agriculturist in this region has been active in taking his own 35-mm. colour transparencies, and,
by so doing, develop a library of 2 x 2 slides of local importance, and a valuable tool
in the extension programme. During the year the Department was able to purchase from
the District Agriculturists slightly over 100 colour transparencies. Slides, when approved
for purchase, are returned to the District Agriculturist for his own use as lecture or demonstration material. Copies are made of the slides which are of outstanding merit in
so far as subject-matter is concerned.   These slides will be maintained in a central library.
Vancouver Island (Courtenay Office)
(S. B. Peterson, P.Ag.)
Extension activities in this area featured forage-crop production using fertilizers and
irrigation, silage production, field-days, 4-H Club projects, programme planning, and HH 110
BRITISH COLUMBIA
farm radio forums.   Mr. Peterson represented the British Columbia Department of Agriculture at the Workshop on Farm Radio Forums in October at Banff, Alta.
Vancouver Island (Duncan Office)
(J. D. Hazlette, P.Ag., and D. C. Crossfield, P.Ag.)
This district has many extension activities in progress, including grass silage, production problems on crops, silage production, soil tillage, field-days, pasture management,
4-H Club projects, and land-clearing. The staff organized a field-day in September to
Clallam County, Washington State, to observe grassland-management methods.
Cloverdale Office
(G. A. Muirhead, P.Ag., and R. L. Bradshaw, P.Ag.)
This office directs extension programmes in Langley, Surrey, Delta, and Richmond,
and features 4-H Club projects, grass silage, silage-quality studies, feeding of dairy cattle
for most economical milk production, pasture management, etc.
Mission Office
(P. E. Ewert, P.Ag.)
Extension activities featured grassland projects, forage-crop production, silage production, live-stock production, 4-H Club projects, etc. Mr. Ewert covers Pitt Meadows,
Maple Ridge, Mission, and Matsqui areas.
Chilliwack Office
(George Cruickshank, P.Ag.)
Mr. Cruickshank covers Agassiz and Chilliwack areas and his extension activities
feature 4-H Club projects, silage production, grassland and pasture programmes, field-
days, radio broadcasts, newspaper articles, live-stock production, etc.
4-H CLUB DIVISION
(Miss Echo Lidster, P.Ag., Supervisor)
Following is a table indicating the 4-H Club enrolment for British Columbia this
year:—
Enrolment
Project
Clubs
Members
1954
1955
1954
1955
Beef Calf     _                   	
20
13
11
55
14
6
1
4
20
1
5
6
3
17
27
18
10
51
14
1
6
1
3
20
1
8
7
3
22
209
178
190
630
169
83
12
45
202
12
48
52
36
145
310
Clothing     	
259
129
Dairy Calf	
568
152
Goat  _      -
9
96
12
Potato  _	
33
191
11
89
Swine-      -   — -	
63
35
141
Totals. .    -  	
179
192
2,073
2,111 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 111
Pr°pVS ST t0 ^ati°Val 4"H Club Week, 1955, from Dairy
Project—Ted Beery, Langley, and John McFaul, Chilliwack
llllllll
p,. ^ovincial delegates to National 4-H Club Week   KHs   f.„
KstryoPnrg°,eCt~Betty AnderS°n' Abb°tsf°S andWLeoern'e 2£*g HH 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The T. Eaton Agricultural Scholarship
This scholarship for the fifth year by the T. Eaton Company was awarded this year
to the Alberta candidate, Park Smiley Letts, of Westlock, Alta.
The British Columbia candidate, Helmut Fandrich, of Vernon, was the only applicant in the Province this year. The scholarship entitles the winner to a four-year course
at an agricultural college. Teachers have been asked why so increasingly few of their
students are interested in applying for the scholarship in this Province. The main reason
given by the students is that they would be interested if it were for some course other than
Agriculture, their main objection to Agriculture being that professions in this field command such low salaries compared to those available in other technical fields.
Eaton Watches
This was the fifth year that the T. Eaton Company has awarded gold watches to the
high-scoring individuals in each project in the Provincial elimination competitions in
British Columbia, and 1955 winners were as follows: Beef—Louisa Gollitz, Armstrong;
Clothing—Evelyn Dunne, Armstrong; Dairy—John McFaul, Sardis; Garden—Tom
Spraggs, Armstrong; Grain—Dorene Schobert, Doe River; Poultry—Lome McConnell,
Armstrong; Swine—Wayne Smith, Armstrong.
Provincial Elimination Competitions
Two innovations in connection with these contests were introduced this year. First,
competitors were selected at the local level partly on their complete club record of
achievement over a period of years instead of on judging ability only as previously, and,
second, a rule passed by the annual meeting of the Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs permitted the selection of the two highest individuals in a project rather than the two highest
from any one club to represent the provinces at National 4-H Club Week.
Beef (eight members competing): Louisa Gollitz, Armstrong, and Brian Lee,
Midway.
Clothing (six members competing): Norma Northgraves, Chilliwack, and Evelyn
Fraser, Chilliwack.
Dairy (twenty members competing): John McFaul, Sardis, and Ted Barry, Langley.
Garden (two members competing): Tom Spraggs, Armstrong, and Ken Ramsey,
Armstrong.
Grain (six members competing): Dorene Schobert, Doe River, and Jack Suchy,
Doe River.
Poultry (four members competing): Lome McConnell, Armstrong, and Betty
Anderson, Abbotsford.
Swine (seven members competing): Wayne Smith, Armstrong, and Marlene Bartels,
Quesnel.
National 4-H Club Week
This Province, for the second time, was able to send a full complement of seven
teams to National 4-H Club Week, held in Toronto in conjunction with the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair, November 11th to 19th, 1955.
There were 118 delegates registered. The nine cups were distributed among five
Provinces—none to British Columbia. British Columbia standings in National contests
were as follows: Beef, sixth (eight teams competing); Clothing, fifth, (nine teams competing); Dairy, eighth (eight teams competing); Grain, seventh (seven teams competing);
Garden, fourth (seven teams competing); Poultry, third (five teams competing); Swine,
fourth (five teams competing).
John McFaul, the British Columbia representative on the Junior Council for National 4-H Club Week, was elected president of the group. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 113
Provincial delegates to National 4-H Club Week, 1955, from Swine
Project—Marlene Bartels, Quesnel, and Wayne Smith, Armstrong.
Provincial delegates to National 4-H Club Week, 1955, from Clothing
Project—Evelyn Fraser and Norma Northgraves, Chilliwack. HH 114
BRITISH COLUMBIA
llilifll
Provincial delegates to National 4-H Club Week, 1955, from Beef
Project—Louisa Gollits, Armstrong, and Brian Lee, Midway.
Provincial delegates to National 4-H Club Week, 1955, from Garden
Project—Tom Spraggs and Ken Ramsey, Armstrong. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955 HH 115
Provincial Advisory Council of 4-H Club Leaders
On February 15th and 16th, 1955, this Council, with a full membership of seven
members, met in Victoria, the following attending: Peace River—Clarence Veiner,
Dawson Creek; Central British Columbia—Fred Bartels, Quesnel; Kamloops—Clarence
Bryson, Merritt; Okanagan—Hilliard McCallan, Armstrong; East Kootenay—Alfred
Wellspring, Creston; Fraser Valley—Cornelius Froese, Chilliwack; Vancouver Island—
Pearl Standen, Duncan.
Public Speaking Competitions
There were no public speaking finals held this year, as only four out of seven
districts indicated any interest in it.
University of British Columbia
The British Columbia Agrologists Scholarship was won by Kenneth Robert Smith,
Ladner (a former 4-H Club member), and the Sperry Phillips Memorial Scholarship by
Sheila Ann Reynolds, of Fulford Harbor.
The president of the first-year agricultural class for 1955 was Miss Marina Parker,
Armstrong, a former 4-H Club member.
There were thirty-nine students registered in the Faculty of Agriculture for the first
time who are from British Columbia.   Of these, thirteen are former 4-H Club members.
Out-of-Province 4-H Club Trips
1. Four club members from the Fraser Valley attended the Washington State 4-H
Club camp at Pullman, Wash., June 13th to 18th, 1955, comprising Evelyn Fraser,
Chilliwack; Allan McFee, Sumas; Shirley Savage, Ladner; and Bert Tyerman, Cobble
Hill.   George Cruickshank, District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, accompanied the members.
2. Four club members from Vancouver Island attended the Whidbey Island 4-H
Club county camp in Washington State, July 11th to 14th, 1955. They were Roberta
Adcock, Sooke; Betty Callender, Saanich; Joanna Ross, Courtenay; and Albert
Stamme, Courtenay. They were accompanied by D. C. Crossfield, Assistant District
Agriculturist, Duncan.
3. Two club members attended Montana 4-H Club conservation camp at Bitter
Root, Mont., July 11th to 15th, 1955. They were Douglas Irving, East Arrow Park,
and Beryl Mole, East Arrow Park, and were accompanied by A. J. Allan, District
Agriculturist, Nelson.
4. Two club members from the Peace River area, Dick Dilworth, Sunrise Prairie,
and Pat Ryan, Landry, attended Fairview Farm Week at Fairview School of Agriculture
in Alberta.
5. An exchange visit of three days' duration was arranged between ten North
Okanagan club members and Stevens County members in Washington State. They were
Lyle Ringland and Walter Winterhalder from Salmon Arm; Shirley Brown, Dick Collis,
Betty Fowler, Kay Marshall, Joan McKechnie, Gordon Preston, and Frank Smith from
Armstrong; and Walter Hardy from Kelowna. R. C. Bailey, District Agriculturist,
Vernon, accompanied the club members. On July 18th nine 4-H Club members from
Colville returned the visit under the direction of Ed Reeves, County Agent, Stevens
County. This valuable interchange of visits was made possible by the grant of $200
received from the former British Columbia Dairymen's Association.
6. Sixty club members from the Fraser Valley, with leaders and District Agriculturists, attended Lynden Fair on August 20th, 1955. HH 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA
'■/■■ -.'.:■■ ;■;.;
Provincial delegates to National 4-H Club Week, 1955, from Grain Project
—Dorene Schobert, Doe River, and lack Suchy, Shearer Dale.
Helmut Fandrich, Vernon, British Columbia Eaton Scholarship candidate,
1955, receiving gold watch from Mr. Eaton, Toronto, Ont. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 117
Provincial 4-H Club Conference
The first Provincial 4-H Club Conference was held in Chilliwack on the week-end
of October 21st to 23rd. The programme included a dance on Friday evening, discussions and a banquet on Saturday, and a tour and church service on Sunday. Eighty-
three delegates attended, from Vancouver Island, Rock Creek, Bridesville, Enderby,
Armstrong, and Kamloops, as well as from all parts of the Fraser Valley. The British
Columbia representatives to National contests were present. All were billeted at homes
in Chilliwack. The Junior Club Council in Chilliwack was in charge of arrangements,
and financed the Conference by a registration fee of $2 per delegate plus a commission
for selling tickets for Chilliwack Fair.
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale
There were 200 head of 4-H beef animals and 75 lambs exihibted and sold at this
show in 1955, plus 22 head of beef shown by club members in the open singles.
The 4-H champion, also the grand champion of the show, owned by Gary Hook,
of Barriere, was bought by Canada Packers for $1.20 a pound.
Additional Activities
During the year your Supervisor attended, as British Columbia director, the annual
meeting of the Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs in Toronto, Ont. Various 4-H Clubs
throughout the Province were visited, but time did not permit visits to Central and
North Vancouver Island, Westview, Gibsons Landing, Salmon Arm, and the Kootenays.
During November I accompanied, with J. F. Carmichael, District Agriculturist,
Grand Forks, the teams attending National 4-H Club Week, where part of my duties for
the sixth year included acting as a counsellor to the Junior Council of ten members.
For the third and final year, duties have included acting as Chairman of the
National Committee on 4-H Club Leadership.
Leaders' Certificates Awarded in 1955
Certificates were awarded by the Canadian Council on 4-H Clubs as a recognition
for five years or more of 4-H Club leadership in their communities to the following
leaders: Mrs. Ada Attridge, Mission, ten years; R. K. Bradley, Westview, ten years;
Mrs. Gladys Caldwell, Salmon Arm, ten years; J. E. Dayton, Abbotsford, five years;
C. A. Froese, Chilliwack, five years; Alex. Hall, Victoria, ten years; H. Johanes, Langley, five years; J. G. Lyster, Armstrong, five years; Les McKinnon, Alberni, five years;
J. A. Patston, Victoria, five years; Mrs. R. L. Redmond, Canoe, five years; Mrs. Doris
Van Beem, Pemberton, five years; T. P. Wilson, Vinsulla, five years; and Mrs. W. J.
Wilson, Vinsulla, five years.
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(G. L. Calver, Extension Agricultural Engineer)
The work carried out by this Division will be discussed under the four main headings of Machinery, Soil and Water, Farm Structures, and Rural Electrification. Many
new problems have been handled in each of these fields, yet it has been necessary to
limit the services supplied regarding many problems and in other cases let work fall by
the wayside due to the lack of personnel and added duties.
Farm Machinery
Farm machinery field-days increased slightly this year, a total of seventeen being
held.    Subjects covered included Tillage Demonstrations, Choice and Adjustment of
6 HH 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Silage Harvesting Machinery, and Tractor Maintenance and Operation.    These field-days
were held in almost every area of the Province and interest was generally good.
A series of farm-machinery meetings was held in Northern British Columbia to
determine the value of lectures supported by slide and film material in improving knowledge of the operation and maintenance of farm machinery. While these were relatively
successful, opinion indicated they should be developed on a more practical level and
might actually go so far as to include on-the-spot overhaul of some equipment. In four
other talks to farm groups on farm machinery, emphasis was placed on forage-harvesting machinery of various types with minor emphasis on tractor safety. The staff of the
Division was responsible for, and assisted in, the presentation of the Agricultural Engineering Committee report to the British Columbia Agronomists' Association Conference.
The report dealt primarily with spraying and dusting equipment. Organization and
judging assistance was provided for four tractor-driving competitions. Mr. May carried
out all arrangements for the Pacific National Exhibition tractor-driving competition,
which was won by Steve Hrusick, Chilliwack F.F.C. The other competitions were held
at Saanich, Chase, and Kelowna.
Demonstration Projects
Tillage demonstration work, a joint project between the Field Crops Branch and
the Agricultural Engineering Division, now in the second year, is being carried out at
the farm of Stan Owens, Duncan. Results to date indicate the value of carrying this
project to completion. It is providing useful information on costs for individual operations and casts some doubts on beliefs which have been held regarding tillage practices.
At least one more year of the trial will be required before sufficient information is on
hand for publication of a report.
A second project deals with revision of the information on silage-harvesting costs.
Approximately 500 questionnaires were distributed to obtain more recent and complete
information on actual harvesting operations throughout the Province. Although returns
have been extremely limited, sufficient data are available to permit bringing up to date
our bulletin on silage-harvesting costs. In the course of carrying out this project
approximately forty-one farm visits were made, and a large number of slides were
obtained to show equipment and operations of special interest. As a direct result of
these field visits, Plan No. 15.402, " Selfloading and Unloading Trailer Attachment for
Hay and Silage," has been completed and distributed. Consideration was also given to
machinery used for feeding out of silage. A start has been made on organizing a short
course on tractor maintenance and repair in conjunction with the Agricultural Engineering Department and Extension Department of the University of British Columbia, this
course to be held in early 1956. Some preliminary work has been done on a tractor-
safety demonstration.
Farm Structures
A definite increase will be noted in the requests for plans of farm buildings. Part of
this increase was due to the arrival of the first set of plans developed by the Canada Farm
Plan Service. Nine hundred and eleven copies of the plans listed in the catalogue " Beef
Cattle Housing and Equipment" have been distributed. In addition, distribution was
made of 1,522 plans developed by this Division or obtained through the Midwest Plan
Service, bringing the total number of plans distributed to 2,433.
Information received from the Chairman of the National Advisory Committee on
Agricultural Engineering indicates that at least one more set of plans should be ready for
distribution in the coming year. This set will cover fruit and vegetable storage, and
work is progressing satisfactorily on plans for sheep housing and equipment, dairy-cattle
housing and equipment, and hog housing and equipment. New plans developed and
distributed by the Division include the following:  Portable Bunker Silo Wall Sections, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH  119
Plan No. 76.101; Poultry Brooder House—Coastal Areas, Plan No. 48.313; Poultry
Brooder House—Northern Areas, Plan No. 48.314; Roll-away Community Nest, Plan
No. 48.311; Range Shelter for 125 Birds, Plan No. 48.312; and Milk House for Holding
Tank (Bulk Storage). Preliminary work has also been carried out on two plans for
honey-processing houses and on two plans for corrals approval by British Columbia
ranchers. These should be completed early in the new year.
By way of direct service to individuals, seventeen farm visits were made, dealing
primarily with advice on farm-building construction. Detailed plans were drawn up for
four individuals.
Silo construction and related costs formed the main topic for two meetings, and loose
housing was outlined and compared to stall barns in two lectures to the Dairy-barn
Inspectors' class held in December at the University of British Columbia. Also, on a
group basis, three field-days dealt in part with farm structures, either silo construction
or loose housing.
Demonstration Projects
Fence-post trials were set out at three locations in the Province—at the University
of British Columbia, at Cranbrook, and at Vanderhoof. Although the importance of
wood-preservative materials in farm construction work has been proven, it was felt that
actual demonstrations showing materials applied on the farm would have merit in promoting this practice. Progress reports will be submitted from time to time. Worth-while
extension material consisting of slides and a detailed report is now available.
Soil and Water
Much of the time spent on this type of work has dealt with land development by way
of land-clearing and domestic water-supply development; however, some assistance has
been given on problems falling in the other sections of this subject.
Drainage
Field-days demonstrating safe and effective use of ditching-dynamite for drainage
were held in three areas. In addition, drainage formed part of the demonstration and
discussion at two other days. Several farm visits were made regarding drainage problems,
as a result of which four detailed farm drainage plans were drawn up and forwarded to
the farm operators. Approximately 315 acres were involved in these projects. Other
extension work on drainage included answers to some fifteen letters of inquiry and the
preparation, in conjunction with N. Griffin, CKWX farm broadcasts, of three radio tapes
on the principles of drainage as related to one specific project.
Irrigation
An extremely short dry season during the summer of 1955 reduced considerably the
number of requests for assistance in the design of irrigation systems. Five sprinkler-
system designs were sent out and survey work carried out for two others. Approximately
four requests are on hand for assistance in the design of systems for next year. A one-day
meeting on irrigation problems was attended at the University of British Columbia.
A brief meeting of this type is of assistance in keeping up to date in recent developments
and problems in the field of irrigation.
Water Storage
Some assistance has been offered in the development of domestic water-supplies
through the Farmers' Domestic Water Development. In order to supply the necessary
data on suitable construction, a new bulletin entitled "Dugouts for Domestic Water
Supply " has been published. Following this and publicity regarding the proposed development, assistance was provided in the actual construction of eight dugouts in the Fort HH  120 BRITISH COLUMBIA
St. John area and one in the Dawson Creek area. Several other requests were on hand;
however, it was impossible to obtain suitable machinery at the time desired, and the early
winter caused a shut-down, which made it impossible to complete all construction requested. Engineering assistance was provided on all of these structures, and financial
assistance similar to that provided under the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act"
was also given to those farmers carrying out construction. Although only nine dugouts
were actually completed, this involved over twenty-two farm visits. In some cases locations were not suitable for the construction of water-storage facilities, and in several other
instances the alternate possibility of developing ground-water sources appeared to offer
a better solution to the water-supply problem.
Soil Conservation
Following up the field demonstration work carried out on the farm of Mr. Bostock,
Rock Creek, two years ago, two farmers in the general area proceeded with some terracing
of their fields. In one case terraces were actually laid out and construction work supervised by the staff of this Division, and in the second case some suggestions were offered
as to final completion of the work. Very little promotion was carried out on this work
during the past summer, and return calls would undoubtedly have meant additional
assistance to some operators. In connection with this problem of conservation, a complete review was made of erosion-control legislation in other Provinces of Canada and a
separate report submitted to the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture. Other work in
this field included attendance at a ground-water meeting and answers to four letters of
inquiry on conservation practices.
Development
This subject of land development will deal primarily with the land-clearing operations as reported separately in the Director's report. The responsibility of this Division
in connection with land-clearing entails supervision of the operations of Government-
owned equipment, assistance with personnel problems, and investigation of claims. The
other main section deals with the local arrangements with contractors carrying out clearing for the Department and checking on work conducted to maintain suitable standards.
It also includes preparation of operational reports and assistance in preparing estimates
and special reports. Information on the operation of the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act " has been supplied in answer to all requests of this nature.
Rural Electrification
In the past this field of rural electrification was felt to be the responsibility of power
companies; however, due to the number of requests received regarding this subject, a
start has been made to supply some of the answers. One talk was presented on " The
Orderly Approach to Electrification on the Farm." In order to present readily available
information to those interested in rural electrification, a review of all publications on
this subject is well under way, and at the present time a bibliography of the most suitable
publications is in the process of printing and will be distributed early in the new year.
This start in the rural electrification problems will be followed up in the coming year if
interest is maintained.
LAND-CLEARING OPERATIONS
Equipment carrying out land-clearing in 1955 can be divided into Government-
owned equipment and contractors' equipment. The Land Clearing Division operated
two outfits during 1955. The outfit composed of three Caterpillar D-7's, under foreman
A. L. Peterson, cleared land in the North Okanagan-Mainline area, then moved to the
Similkameen Valley until winter shut-down. The other outfit, composed of three Caterpillar D-8's, under foreman A. A. Cameron, cleared land in the Sooke, Metchosin, and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 121
Saanich areas of Vancouver Island, then finished the season on Saltspring Island. The
two units operated a total of 7,212 pay-hours, which amounted to $92,558.79.
All other equipment used in the land-clearing operations was obtained through private contractors. Agreements were signed with twenty-four contractors who were located
in various areas, thereby extending assistance to almost every area of the Province with
the exception of the Fraser Valley. This was the first year that assistance was offered
in the Peace River Block of British Columbia, where the demand was in excess of the
amount of work which available machines could complete. Only sixteen contractors
operated fairly steadily. The remaining eight were either hired for one or two isolated
jobs or failed to carry out any clearing. Total volume of work completed by contractors
was $128,663.51.
No experimental work was conducted during the past year. Cutting and piling
blades were investigated with a view to fabricating equipment suited to the area if Government-owned machines were moved into the Peace River Block. A new skeleton-
type blade was purchased for trial on Vancouver Island but could not be used due to
late arrival. The disk-type breaking equipment has been well accepted, with the result
that some contractors have purchased this type of machine for their clearing operations.
Clearing costs in the Peace River Block indicated that fairly heavy cover is encountered on land still to be cleared, and that tractors having 80 to 100 horse-power are
required if costs are to be kept at a reasonable figure.
Summary of Land-clearing, 1955
District
Number
of
Contracts
Acreage
Cleared
Average
Cost per
Acre
Arrangements
102
9
47
22
1
19
1
528.0
171.0
324.5
336.0
137.0
12.0
278.0
20.0
$78.00
43.77
75.55
Similkameen  ,. 	
Government machines.
2         I          48.5
	
32
22
10
6
176.5
f    425.01
j     173.02
148.0
13.0
f 5,315.5i
|    434.02
Prince George   -  .  .
21.70
8.70
32.06
98.96
12.15
9.52
) Contractor.
1
i Cleared. - Broken.
Total, 7,932.5 acres.
DOMESTIC WATER DEVELOPMENT
(R. W. Brown, Fort St. John)
Eight dugouts were constructed of the required size (150 by 60 by 12 to 14 feet
deep), at a total cost of $2,131 (average $264). Dugouts were very difficult to sell to
the farmers. It would appear they would rather spend $100 for bulldozer work patching
up some old scoop-out. This year a large number of farmers were short of water. Many
were forced to sell off all live stock at the beginning of winter. Many more curtailed,
their plans for feeding live stock over winter. It is hoped these large dugouts will speak
for themselves and show the farmers the value of a dependable water-supply. Also, it
is hoped that a few may be persuaded to put in a filter well for their house supply.
Valued assistance was given by F. Mertens, who was appointed Land-clearing Assistant late in the summer. Judging by the work this year and the number of unfinished
contracts, interest will be high again next year. HH  122
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Other land-clearing operations, not Government sponsored, would run between
1,500 and 2,000 acres.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FARM LABOUR SERVICE
A very fine relationship existed between the Provincial Department of Agriculture
and National Employment Services during 1955 in the operations of the Federal-
Provincial Farm Labour Service.
Eleven temporary Farm Placement Officers were engaged at various periods and
located at strategic points throughout the Province. Nine National Employment Service
officers also carried out full farm-labour activities.
Weather conditions during the year interfered with the efficient placing of farm
labour, particularly small-fruit pickers and tree-fruit pickers. Approximately 180 girls
and women were brought in from the Prairie Provinces for small-fruit picking in the
Fraser Valley.
High-school pupils were recruited in Chilliwack, Vernon, and other strategic points
during September to assist with harvesting of beans, tomatoes, apples, etc., and did a
very fine job.   Excellent co-operation was received from local School Boards.
Considerable radio and newspaper advertising and publicity was used during the
year when labour shortages arose.
Total placements for 1955 and previous years are shown on the following table:—
Year
Dairy-
farms
Berry and Orchard
Other Work
Total
Male
Female
Male
Female
1952                             ... -	
23,000
1953                               —_
29,035
41,361
1954                 - _	
1,060
1955                         	
11,793
24,926
2,313
2,102
42,209
Fruit-growers in the Okanagan will have to provide better living accommodation
in many places if pickers are to be provided.
The industrial activity in the Province is such that farm labour is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain, and the situation may be acute in 1956.
Great credit is due the Farm Placement Officers and National Employment Service
officers in handling very difficult situations which developed from time to time.
Excellent co-operation was received from fruit-growers' committees, Municipal
Councils, School Boards, etc., in working with officials of the Farm Labour Service both
at headquarters and locally.
I wish to express my appreciation for the co-operation from B. G. White, Employment Officer for Primary Industries in National Employment Service.
CANADIAN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION COUNCIL
A meeting of the Canadian Agricultural Extension Council was held in Toronto in
March just prior to the annual meeting of the Canadian Council of 4-H Clubs. The
meeting was attended by Directors of Agricultural Extension from across Canada, also
Directors of Home Economics.
A number of important matters were discussed, and emphasis was placed on establishing short courses, undergraduate courses, and postgraduate courses in agricultural
extension in Canada. r
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
BIENNIAL CONFERENCE IN WASHINGTON STATE
HH  123
J. S. Allin, Supervisor, and G. L. Landon, Director of Agricultural Development
and Extension, attended the biennial conference of the extension staff, research staff,
and teaching staff held at Washington State College in January. This conference proved
most educational and instructive.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Your Director of Agricultural Development and Extension continued to represent
the Department of Agriculture on the board of governors of Pacific National Exhibition.
This organization is very active in promoting interest in agriculture in British Columbia.
BRITISH COLUMBIA BUILDING AT PACIFIC NATIONAL
EXHIBITION
Improvements were made in the Department of Agriculture exhibit in the British
Columbia Building at the Pacific National Exhibition. Your Director of Extension
continued to act as chairman of the committee responsible for this exhibit. The exhibit
is open to the public several days per week and is attracting increasing attention.
WORLD'S POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
Your Director continues as one of three representatives from Canada for the
council of this association.
SUBMISSIONS ON BRITISH COLUMBIA AGRICULTURE
The Extension Branch, particularly the Director and Supervisor J. S. Allin, was
very busy during the year working with other Departmental officials preparing data for
submission on behalf of the agricultural industry. Mr. Allin worked on the preparation
of material to present to the British Columbia Resources Conference to be held in
Victoria in February.
Your Director was responsible for the preparation of the submission on " Land
Use in British Columbia " to the Government, a brief on the development of agriculture
in the Columbia River basin for the joint international engineering group, and two briefs
for presentation to the Gordon Commission.
CONCLUSION
The Extension Branch co-operated with municipal, Federal, and Provincial authorities in matters pertaining to the development of agriculture in the Province.
I wish to express my appreciation to all members of the Extension staff for their
co-operation and assistance during the year, and also to other members of the staff of
the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, Veterans' Land Act Administration, Washington State Extension Service, and other agencies
for their co-operation during the year. HH 124
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
APPENDIX No.  1
Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Distributing Dairy Products during 1955
Acme Dairy Ltd., 130 West Hastings Street, Vancouver 3.
Arlada Dairy (Mrs. W. G. Millar), Edgewood.
Armstrong Cheese Co-operation Association,
Armstrong.
Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association, 156
Victoria Street, Kamloops.
Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association, 64
Nanaimo Avenue, Penticton.
Arrowsmith Farms (Nicholson Ltd.), Hilliers.
Avalon Dairy Ltd., 5805 Wales Road, Vancouver 16.
Baby's Own Dairy (H. Armishaw), 600 Albert
Street, Nanaimo.
Brooksbank Farms Ltd., 804 River Road, Lulu
Island, Vancouver 14.
Bulkley Valley Creamery (Paulsen & Kinney),
Telkwa.
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association, Box
176, Quesnel.
Central Creameries (B.C.) Ltd., 325 Railway
Street, Vancouver 4.
Chilliwack Dairy Ltd., Box 274, Chilliwack.
City Dairy Farm (Barrett & Morrison), Cranbrook.
Comox Co-operative Creamery Association, Box
460, Courtenay.
Crawley & McCracken Co. Ltd. (Kemano), 1111
West Georgia Street, Vancouver.
Creamland Crescent Dairy Ltd., 1335 Howe
Street, Vancouver 1.
Creamland Ice Cream Ltd., 1335 Howe Street,
Vancouver 1.
Creston Co-operative Milk Producers' Association, Creston.
Dairy Queen Mixco (J. C. Mulvey), P.O. Box
55, Vancouver.
DeClark's Dairy (J. DeClark), Ladysmith.
Delta Dairies Ltd., King Edward Street, Ladner.
Diamond Dairy (H. H. Trerise), Box 442, Haney.
Dominion Dairy (Gordon Milum), Box 186,
Golden.
Drake's Dairy Ltd., 441 Sixth Street, New Westminster.
Dutch Dairy Farms Ltd., 21 Tranquille Road,
North Kamloops.
Edgewater Dairy (D. A. Bowers), Edgewater.
Egeskov Cheese Factory (K. E. Andersen and A.
Jacobson), Box 570, Creston.
Elk Valley Co-operative Dairy Association, Natal.
Enterprise Dairy (W. Pighin), Box 379, Kimberley.
Fernie Dairy (S. Barrett and W. H. Runions),
Fernie.
Frasea Farms Ltd., Postal Station " L," Vancouver.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, 425
West Eighth Avenue, Vancouver 10.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, 1166
Hornby Street, Vancouver 1.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Sardis.
Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Abbotsford.
Glenburn Dairy Ltd., 3695 East Hastings Street,
Vancouver 6.
Hazelwood Creamery Ltd., 441 Keefer Street,
Vancouver 4.
Hillside Farm Dairy (Wm. Crawford), R.R. 4,
Cloverdale.
Hudson's Bay Co., Ocean Falls.
Island Farms Dairies Co-operative Association,
608 Broughton Street, Victoria (now at 2220
Blanshard Street).
I.X.L. Dairy Ltd., 145 Terminal Avenue, Nanaimo.
Jersey Dairy (Jack Taylor), 130 Young Road
South, Chilliwack.
Jersey Farms Ltd., 2256 West Broadway, Vancouver 9.
Kelowna Creamery Ltd., 1474 Pendozi Street,
Kelowna.
Kootenay Valley Co-operative Milk Products
Association, 609 Railway Street, Nelson.
Lakelse Dairy Products Ltd., Kitimat (head
office, 2194 West Thirty-third Avenue, Vancouver).
Lewis & Sons' Dairy (E. R. Lewis), Box 162,
Powell River.
Little Mountain Dairy Ltd., Box 396, Abbotsford.
Lucerne Milk Co., 995 Mainland, Vancouver 3.
Maple Ridge Dairy (Herbert Vogel), 661 Main
Street, Mission City.
Medo-land Farm Dairy Ltd., Port Coquitlam.
Mission Dairy Ltd., Main Street, Mission City.
Modern Dairy (D. M. Macaulay and R. H. Du-
charme), Box 70, Marysville.
Modern Dairy (K. F. Sharpies), Box 265, Castlegar.
Nanaimo Dairy Co. Ltd., 535 Franklyn Street,
Nanaimo.
National Dairies Ltd., 1132 East Hastings Street,
Vancouver 6.
Nechako Valley Dairy Co. Ltd., Vanderhoof.
Northern Alberta Dairy Pool Ltd., Dawson Creek.
Northern Dairies Ltd., Prince George.
Northland Dairy Ltd., 401 Third Avenue, Prince
Rupert.
Northwestern Creamery Ltd., 1015 Yates Street,
Victoria.
Odermatt's Dairy (Paul Odermatt), Box 252, Fort
St. John.
Oliver Dairy (Henry Hettinga), Box 601, Oliver.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Kamloops.
Palm Dairies Ltd., 685 Baker Street, Nelson.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Box 2115, Trail.
Palm Dairies Ltd., 3333 Main Street, Vancouver
10. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 125
Palm Dairies Ltd., 930 North Park Street, Victoria.
Peerless Dairy (John Lancaster), Box 456, Cranbrook.
Penticton Dairy and Ice Cream Co. Ltd., 45-67
Front Street, Penticton.
Peter's Ice Cream Co. Ltd., 3204 West Broadway,
Vancouver 8.
Pinelawn Dairy (Mrs. Dulcie Hamilton), R.R. 1,
Back Road, Comox.
Primrose Dairy (L. R. Singlehurst), Box 353,
Williams Lake.
Princeton Dairy (Sidney D. Atkinson), Box 286,
Princeton.
Regal Ice Cream Co. (now Colfax Ice Cream
Co.),  1520 West Sixth Avenue, Vancouver 9.
Richmond Milk Producers' Co-operative Association, 3277 Cambie Street, Vancouver 9.
Rivers' Dairyland (J. P. Rivers), Palmer Street,
Salmon Arm.
Riverside Dairy (Alan V. Frear), McBride.
Rose's Ice Cream Ltd., Drawer 70, Prince George.
Royal City Dairies Ltd., 309 Sixth Street, New
Westminster.
Salt Spring Island Creamery Co. Ltd., Ganges.
Seal-Kap Dairy Ltd., R.R. 1, Langley Prairie.
Shannon Dairies Ltd., 8584 Granville Street, Vancouver 14.
Shepherd's Dairy Ltd., 1645 Fort Street, Victoria.
Shirley Farm (H. G. Morson), 5711 Kittson
Road, R.R. 1, New Westminster.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Enderby.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, 1136 Richter Street, Kelowna.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Salmon Arm.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Vernon.
Silver Rill Dairy (Stanley H. S. Fox), Saanichton P.O.
Standard Dairy (Mrs. D. McKinnon), Box 655,
Revelstoke.
Stanhope Dairy Farm (R. Rendle), 3578 Richmond Avenue, Victoria.
Sunny Brae Dairy Ltd., Queens Road, Duncan.
Sunnybrook Dairy (Hay Bros. Farms Ltd.), 1598
South-east Marine Drive, Vancouver 15.
Sunshine Valley Dairy Ltd., Box 74, Grand Forks.
Surrey Dairy (Mrs. F. R. Lipsey), 10410 Scott
Road, R.R. 7, New Westminster.
Tip Top Dairy Ltd., Box 804, Westview.
Turner's Dairy (Mrs. R. J. Turner), 416 King
Edward Street, Ladner.
United Dairies Ltd., 1601 Second Avenue, Trail.
Valley Dairy (Albert Doratti), Box 527, Rossland.
Willow Dairy Farm (Theo Buursma), Parksville.
Wood's Dairy (J. P. Wood), Creston. HH 126
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 2
Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock, December 1st, 1954, to December 31st, 1955
Date
British Columbia
Cattle Calves
Hogs
Sheep
Alberta
Cattle
Calves
Hogs
Sheep
Totals for Canada
Cattle
Calves
Hogs
Sheep
December 4...
December 11..
December 1 S.December 25-
December 31-
January 8	
January 15	
January 22	
January 29	
February 5	
February 12 ...
February 19—.
February 26__
March 5	
March 12	
March 19 1
March 26	
April 2	
April 9 	
April 16	
April 23	
April 30	
May 7_	
May 14	
May 21	
May 28.	
June 4	
June 11	
June 18	
June 25.	
July 2... 	
July 9_	
July 16 _
July 23	
July 30 	
August 6	
August 13	
August 20	
August 27	
September S.September 10.
September 17.
September 24.
October 1	
October 8	
October 15	
October 22.—.
October 29	
November S.November 12.
November 19.
November 26.
December 3	
December 10.
December 17..
December 24-
December 31-
2,222
2,265
1,994
1,410
1,760
2,294
2,343
2,383
1,927
2,004
1,950
1,963
2,046
2,185
1,901
2,231
2,207
1,954
1,681
1,861
2,060
2,165
2,157
2,134
2,310
1,852
2,182
2,433
1,685
2,274
1,873
2,440
2,524
2,298
2,168
2,346
2,255
1,968
2,499
2,321
1,940
2,681
2,396
2,312
2,324
2,052
2,550
2,540
2,687
1,931
2,652
2,852
2,315
2,213
2,145
1,707
1,502
656
756
392
236
102
307
381
284
240
253
316
315
288
222
229
339
428
421
269
259
349
176
232
580
401
304
5021
438
528
497
330
536
506
559
402
522
550
358
538
576
347
496
500
483
389
414
507
596
484
751
794
541
591
565
410
315
161
9,279
8,356
7,889
7,884
3,945
6,466
8,069
6,556
7,962
7,860
6,671
6,902
5,857
6,070 j
8,7271
8,584|
6,499
6,874
6,305
7,212
7,981
7,137
7,467
9,418
8,634
6,166
7,882
7,122
7,513
7,416
5,652
6,784
5,222
5,928
5,428
5,863
5,286
6,126
5,029
5,904
4,251
5,899
4,972
7,223
6,662
4,033
6,354
8,372
6,225
7,015
8,232
7,532
8,028
8,216
6,920
6,287
4,379
1,609
1,589
1,014
904
650
849
2,113
2,421
1,651
1,363
1,819
1,147
1,255
1,332
1,731
2,130
1,634
1,314
1,105
1,035
6,272
487
731
896
814
747
959
1,137
1,498
785
966
1,220
1,637
1,319
1,396
1,064
753
1,636
1,655
1,454
2,075
1,982
1,280
1,936
1,369
1,876
2,185
1,912
2,104
2,074
1,981
1,679
1,272
1,452
1,495
1,761
862
5,426
4,974
4,769
4,101
4,149
5,590
6,266
6,317
6,273
6,072
4,770
5,287
5,059
5,323
5,321
6,005
6,098
5,510
4,394
5,080
5,381
5,184
5,4771
6,283
5,806
5,404
6,721
5,905
5,580
5,158
4,641
6,617
6,064
5,452
5,510
5,498
6,679
6,339
6,365
5,738
4,685
6,717
6,342
6,258
5,371
4,359
6,435
6,954
6,662
6,776
6,790
7,356
7,426
6,727
4,976
5,316
4,349
1,734
1,490
1,273
633
540
1,328
1,421
1,434
1,065
1,275
1,006
1,241
1,080
1,384
1,436
1,311
817
1,504
675
1,032
856
711
1,296
1,926
937
908
1,420
1,543
1,590
1,423
1,165
1,293
1,373
1,272
1,389
1,476
1,680
1,796
1,749
1,485
1,135
1,685
1,608
2,071
1,787
944
2,061
2,310
2,537
2,793
2,476
2,473
1,935
1,708
847
1,245
692
30,982
31,925
33,780
30,900
15,454
29,583
28,495
30,638
30,841
27,938
24,757
25,922
18,372
23,546
26,989
26,289
21,459
26,811
23,038
27,434
26,697
24,608
28,440
36,363
27,201
23,807
28,079
27,448
24,947
25,865
20,436
24,891
22,165
21,967
20,839
18,062
19,854
19,302
16,474
17,496
16,261
16,615
15,697
22,900
15,734
13,849
23,800
28,805
25,291
31,867
24,571
28,337
28,732
29,372
19,888
32,647
12,979
1,664
1,700
1,125
1,226
625
932
1,450
1,591
1,424
1,151
1,504
1,284
1,453
1,165
1,084
1,633
853
1,257
749
1,232
833
688
675
683
524
779
470
687
600
786
457
721
721
1,101
910
956
1,289
1,503
1,584
1,577
1,332
1,577
1,727
1,916
2,069
987
1,821
2,209
2,137
2,024
1,707
1,886
1,780
1,905
1,162
1,503
682
34,984
32,259
28,152
23,508
25,059
31,881
34,534
34,059
33,255
30,815
27,348
28,856
28,787
27,971
27,461
30,902
32,381
30,241
26,382
28,592
31,411
33,152
32,402
33,932
32,226
28,412
34,671
32,816
31,975
29,270
26,616
33,185
34,387
31,820
30,934
29,027
35,882
35,485
35,498
35,034
30,336
40,032
38,132
36,263
34,313
29,080
38,180
40,947
39,222
39,202
39,395
39,716
39,582
36,870
29,932
25,636
23,669
13,139
11,833
10,884
7,929
5,511
9,894
11,384
10,670
9,112
9,742
10,049
10,183
10,798
11,491
12,215
15,913
18,931|
20,917|
26,5221
22,285
27,770
29,706
27,543
24,314
22,280
19,733
20,803
19,552
18,748
16,476
15,503
16,992
17,491
16,562
14,228
14,191
15,377
16,560
15,950
15,634
13,424
16,726
16,732
16,948
13,730
10,700
16,255
17,213
15,423
16,498
14,543
14,244
12,708
12,688
10,167
9,192
5,948
119,627
118,320
134,552
99,769
71,739
110,874
113,424
111,095
119,665
105,524
105,321
101,934
95,722
100,973
109,799
115,051
96,855
113,027
99,204
114,301
115,068
111,227
111,495
120,942
107,616
100,387
103,697
101,963
102,853
101,960
86,409
99,645
90,499
89,737
85,325
81,345
85,957
88,399
87,737
87,876
85,992
94,643
98,679
115,247
105,551
94,661
121,253
137,048
129,348
137,179
128,561
132,786
131,273
140,188
108,371
124,599
85,502
15,515
13,563
10,947
7,635
4,756
6,734
10,813
10,323
9,211
7,629
7,222
6,828
6,341
5,175
5,901
6,932
5,842
6,021
5,047
5,266
4,897
3,703
3,423
3,671
3,555
3,572
3,911
4,140
5,318
4,858
5,619
6,884
8,221
9,989
9,738
10,252
11,187
16,319
17,597
17,422
14,741
21,115
23,672
24,730
19,438
16,654
24,692
30,892
31,279
31,178
22,591
19,452
15,197
13,783
9,801
7,848
4,942 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 127
APPENDIX No. 3
Beef Carcasses Graded in British Columbia, December 1st, 1954, to December 31st, 1955
Date
Total
Kill
B
Di
D2    D3
M
December 4....
December 11-
December 18-
December 25-
December 31-
January 8	
January 15	
January 22	
January 29	
February 5 .—
February 12—
February 19....
February 26	
March 5	
March 12.	
March 19	
March 26—	
April 2—- -
April 9	
April 16	
April 23	
April 30-	
May 7	
May 14	
May 21	
May 28 __
June 4	
June 11—	
June 18	
June 25 	
July 2-	
July 9.	
July 16	
July 23.	
July 30.
August 6	
August 13	
August 20	
August 27 -
September 3—
September 10-
September 17..
September 24-
October 1„ -
October 8	
October 15	
October 22	
October 29	
November 5.	
November 12..
November 19...
November 26...
December 3 ._
December 10...
December 17—
December 24—
December 31...
,222
,265
702
,132
330
294
,343
,383
,927
.004
.950
963
046
185
901
231
207
954
681
861
,060
165
157
,134
,310
852
182
433
.685
274
873
440
524
298
168
346
255
968
499
321
940
681
396
312
324
252
550
540
687
931
652
852
315
213
145
552
657
667
687
290
253
1,100
1,004
822
922
774
744
831
830
819
1,021
729
1,060
1,031
818
708
767
968
1,162
1,075
862
962
1,048
1,013
1,197
674
1,109
868
1,087
1,113
1,042
936
1,096
1,120
715
1,125
1,077
890
1,252
953
881
899
716
950
870
993
739
832
810
667
908
544
646
787
285
343
223
143
395
319
276
290
252
294
366
252
315
375
324
314
342
370
296
294
300
273
295
349
314
267
321
380
212
329
280
367
367
315
278
300
290
235
317
252
200
309
384
364
274
228
366
473
355
308
439
510
429
243
148
244
218
395
454
419
187
417
405
484
431
357
400
291
353
430
336
295
334
294
332
241
308
330
297
352
371
385
206
336
279
183
287
236
373
362
386
368
400
334
448
449
348
334
382
427
420
427
350
452
496
476
315
488
596
442
369
401
267
310
72
75
80
41
57
55
104
66
70
61
66
80
62
77
67
72
84
77
47
78
80
82
89
100
88
44
109
94
82
83
73
131
102
117
117
74
88
101
143
75
64
100
94
112
130
87
117
95
85
48
131
120
96
86
113
29
63
209
161
148
98
109
257
160
249
180
209
136
152
137
145
140
147
94
83
97
109
105
43
87
94
157
39
61
115
121
116
71
96
161
97
122
166
165
127
163
153
101
153
89
118
142
222
171
168
236
98
126
224
134
129
149
101
104
106
95
83
38
43
61
74
95
47
71
52
61
45
73
76
66
60
61
80
63
77
54
42
56
80
56
79
81
86
84
61
84
79
67
76
52
42
69
46
77
45
127
107
95
95
114
93
92
125
87
125
70
134
104
144
36
32
349
375
340
253
130
130
281
205
143
143
135
184
179
116
204
160
218
151
160
187
139
193
156
173
222
128
159
199
233
188
206
199
269
176
168
162
152
218
151
187
194
275
207
238
235
270
337
260
351
251
435
440
336
329
578
203
125
139
75
119
119
79
63
142
125
104
82
73
51
59
42
66
78
84
62
52
55
61
61
61
129
102
64
104
88
94
78
78
103
71
98
103
96
64
55
105
152
112
83
135
84
122
265
64
86
66
85
76
82
77
45
68
26
18 HH  128
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 4
Average Prices for Cattle, December 1st, 1954, to December 3 1st, 1955
Date
Vancouver
Good
Steers
Veal
Calves
Cal
gary
Good
Veal
Steers
Calves
$19.61
$15.28
18.09
14.74
18.78
15.23
19.00
16.88
18.71
20.25
18.54
18.61
18.65
20.48
18.74
20.49
18.73
20.71
18.38
20.74
17.78
20.70
17.54
20.51
17.09
21.38
16.67
21.60
16.87
21.38
16.81
21.56
17.42
20.75
17.94
24.84
18.07
24.19
17.92
24.69
18.53
26.84
18.22
25.25
18.19
22.75
17.90
22.07
18.17
22.89
18.43
23.34
18.40
24.81
18.21
23.07
18.20
23.45
Date
Vancouver
Good
Steers
Veal
Calves
Calgary
Good
Steers
Veal
Calves
December 4	
December 11—
December 18—
December 25...
December 31—
January 8	
January 15	
January 22	
January 29	
February 5	
February 12	
February 19	
February 26.	
March 5	
March 12	
March 19. _
March 26	
April 2	
April 9. 	
April 16-	
April 23 —
April 30 -	
May 7	
May 14 	
May 21	
May 28	
June 4	
June 11— -
June 18	
$18.60
18.50
19.05
18.00
19.00
19.05
18.55
19.30
19.00
18.70
18.95
18.65
18.50
18.75
18.65
18.55
18.00
18.50
18.65
18.45
17.50
18.40
18.10
19.00
$17.45
17.65
17.75
18.00
17.00
17.15
18.40
20.25
20.90
20.75
23.25
22.50
22.15
22.50
23.00
22.40
19.50
22.50
20.25
24.15
23.40
22.50
24.40
24.50
22.25
June 25	
July 2	
July 9	
July 16	
July 23	
July 30	
August 6.	
August 13	
August 20	
August 27	
September 3—
September 10
September 17.
September 24.
October 1	
October 8	
October 15	
October 22	
October 29	
November 5...
November 12.
November 19.
November 26.
December 3....
December 10..
December 17..
December 24-
December 31..
$18.55
18.65
19.00
18.15
18.50
19.00
19.25
18.90
18.65
18.05
18.25
18.40
18.50
17.85
18.65
18.00
18.80
18.60
18.75
18.00
17.90
17.00
17.25
18.75
$21.90
21.50
21.50
21.50
20.75
17.75
17.05
17.45
17.00
16.75
17.50
16.55
16.65
19.25
16.13
16.95
16.40
18.50
17.00
17.50
$17.76
18.20
19.03
19.74
18.64
19.26
18.78
19.03
19.08
19.01
18.73
18.63
18.33
18.70
18.30
18.36
18.42
18.10
18.08
18.52
18.57
18.65
18.31
18.05
17.35
17.72
17.39
17.00
$21.23
23.17
22.50
22.30
23.05
24.23
18.72
21.26
20.08
19.11
18.11
18.31
16.95
16.97
16.64
16.36
16.89
16.95
16.79
16.74
16.64
16.94
16.65
16.96
17.34
16.99
17.55
17.47
APPENDIX No. 5
Average Prices for Hogs, December 1st, 1954, to December 31st, 1955
Date
Vancouver
Calgary
Date
Vancouver
Calgary
$23.05
24.00
24.10
22.50
23.25
22.50
21.70
22.80
22.80
22.05
22.25
21.05
20.30
20.50
20.30
20.05
20.15
20.50
20.66
21.13
21.46
20.80
20.80
20.90
21.53
22.56
23.68
24.42
25.32
June 25.	
$26.90
$26.19
July 2     	
24.35
$26.15
July 9 	
July 16 	
	
23.50
22.95
July 23 _ _
22.75
July 30	
22.70
August 6    	
August 13 — -	
22.78
23.90
25.15
24.45
August 20- 	
24.70
February 5 	
February 12 	
August 27 -
	
25.30
25.87
24.50
September 17  	
September 24  	
October 1- 	
October 8  	
26.30
23.65
24.66
March 5 	
25.00
21.67
19.50
21.90
22.65
22.90
23.15
22.22
22.70
23.90
24.15
October 15  	
19.63
April 2
October 22  -	
20.25
October 29 -     -	
19.75
April 16 -	
November 5 	
November 12	
21.40
17.00
20.30
19.70
April 23
19.25
April 30
November 19  .
19.25
November 26	
December 3   	
December 10 	
19.00
19.63
May 21
19.38
May 28
December 17- _	
20.15
18.67
June 4  —
December 24  - „
December 31-	
19.00
18.67
June 18 — DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
APPENDIX No. 6
Average Prices for Lambs, December 1st, 1954, to December 3 1st, 1955
HH 129
Date
Vancouver
Calgary
Date
Vancouver
Calgary
$18.00
18.00
18.50
19.00
$17.44
17.59
17.46
17.65
17.44
17.64
17.61
17.84
18.26
17.89
18.26
18.20
17.84
18.22
18.07
17.87
17.91
18.06
18.25
18.82
18.25
18.10
18.56
18.46
18.83
19.26
18.13
20.47
19.00
June 25	
$19.57
July 2	
22.56
July 9	
$20.25
22.00
July 16                	
21.41
July 23            	
20.87
July 30. -   	
19.12
20.85
20.84
18.75
August 6-— 	
19.47
18.76
18.55
18.50
20.75
19.50
18.50
18.50
19.50
17.75
September 3 	
17.65
17.60
17.50
16.67
March 12           	
October 1 - 	
October 8„	
15.90
March 19
15.90
October 15	
18.95
19.00
17.50
18.00
17.50
18.00
17.00
15.97
April 2 	
April 9 -	
April 16
	
October 22	
October 29     -    	
15.93
16.00
18.60
November 5  	
15.81
April 23           	
15.78
April 30  	
November 19-   -	
November 26 -	
December 3  	
16.07
May 7 	
19.25
15.78
16.28
May 21	
16.20
May 28      _            	
16.48
16.48
22.75
16.09
June 18	 HH 130
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 7
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 7th to 10th, 1955
Number and Kind
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
1955
Average
1954
Average
$21.75
21.40
19.70
92.50
$18.20
17.85
17.90
18.90
$19.70
19.87
19.76
23.06
$19.44
19.43
18.83
Open singles and boys' and girls' classes  	
24.39
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Cattle Sale, Okanagan Falls, August 31st, 1955
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total
Price
319
160
85
8
1
32
7
5
$20.25
13.25
15.35
16.50
10.10
17.00
27.00
23.25
$9.75
5.00
10.50
16.50
10.10
15.50
22.50
21.00
$16.77
9.74
13.22
16.50
10.10
15.92
24.66
22.38
291,115
160,395
55,030
7,140
1,175
10,720
6,500
4,220
$48,826.72
Cows 	
Heifers   	
15,616.93
7,275.07
1,178.10
Bulls 	
118.68
Calves   -
1,706.45
1,603.15
Open singles   -	
944.51
Totals            	
617
536,295
$77,269.61
Second Sale, October 26th. 1955
398
196
3
104
49
282
18
4
$17.60
11.35
13.25
14.60
14.00
19.00
13.00
$8.75
3.25
13.25
5.75
13.35
12.75
7.00
$15.32
8.05
13.25
12.68
13.64
16.18
10.41
342,080
201,825
2,650
73,530
30,100
112,985
25,120
$52,401.19
Cows 	
Stags	
Heifers —	
16,237.03
351.13
9,309.07
4,104.74
Calves 	
Bulls  	
18,283.12
2,616.20
1,710.00
Totals                  	
1,054
788,290
$105,012.48
Eighteenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Cattle Show and Sale, Williams Lake,
October 6th, 1955
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total
Price
945
296
16
326
187
6
1
21
22
$21.10
13.00
10.80
15.00
18.10
2.25
15.00
10.60
36.00
$13.50
5.60
10.80
11.90
8.00
2.25
15.00
10.00
18.25
$16.53
9.94
10.80
13.73
16.62
2.25
15.00
10.54
22.91
867,362
304,675
10,127
213,870
62,933
3,221
466
28,949
19,304
$143,354.11
Cows   	
30,284.70
1,093.72
Heifers	
Calves  	
29,364.13
10,462.29
72.47
69.90
Bulls    	
3,051.60
4,421.62
Tfitala
1,820
1,510,907
$222,174.54
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 131
APPENDIX No. 7—Continued
Williams Lake Fall Sale, November 3rd, 1955
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total
Price
809
377
10
399
7
237
30
3
$18.85
13.35
12.38
18.75
16.85
17.85
11.00
5.35
$10.75
5.85
10.25
14.10
16.85
12.10
10.75
5.35
$15.83
8.80
11.90
15.72
16.85
14.29
10.94
5.35
723,756
385,672
5,374
138,263
3,376
164,837
43,125
1,474
$114,576.27
Cows..    	
33,944.36
639.28
21,731.54
568.86
23,549.64
Bulls   	
4,717.90
Miscellaneous   	
78.86
Totals                            	
1,872
1,465,877
$199,806.71
Twelfth Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale, October 18th, 1955
Kind
Head
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Weight
Total
Price
574
152
110
30
25
120
$18.20
11.40
14.10
11.30
12.00
18.40
$9.20
5.70
9.00
10.30
5.75
9.10
$14.92
7.89
12.33
10.83
9.66
15.00
524,185
161,276
78,788
27,750
30,197
46,345
$78,217.94
12,727.13
Heifers   	
9,714.97
3,004.81
Bulls   	
2,915.56
6,951.31
Totals 	
1,011
868,541
$113,531.72
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, December 1st, 1955
Kind
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.1, 1955
Average
Price per
Cwt., 1954
Total
Weight
Total
Price
$22.20
21.70
21.35
100.00
120.00
$19.00
18.85
15.75
16.00
15.00
$20.63
20.17
19.09
22.49
20.89
$22.39
22.29
21.10
23.05
25.27
127,860
96,417
22,782
11,142
243,040
$26,372.62
19,444.75
Spares                       	
Open singles, boys' and girls' entries, and
4,348.29
2,505 57
Open singles and boys' and girls' entries,
cattle   	
51,003.64
726.00
Totals 	
	
501,241
$104,400.87!
1 Plus Lots 285 and 307 donated to Salvation Army for resale, $194.14 and $238.05 respectively ($332.19), making
a grand total of $104,733.06.
1955
Total fat stock
Total Iambs 	
Heifers   	
Head Value
.. 512 $101,169.30
- 115 2,505.57
6 726.00
Total sale    633        $104,733.06
Average price of qualified stock per hundredweight, $20.64.
1954
Total fat stock
Total lambs 	
Head        Value
„ 436        $96,597.85
-    83 1,798.50
Total sale  —. 519        $98,396.35
Average price of qualified stock per hundredweight, $22.76. HH 132
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 8
List of Licensees
Stock-dealers
Allison, Barnett, Keremeos.
Baird & Co. Ltd. (nominees, T. H. Baird and
A. E. McClary), foot of Fraser Street, Vancouver 15.
Baird, lames K., 1156 Cambie Road, Vancouver
14.
Baker, H., & Son (nominees, Horace Baker and
Herbert Baker), 515 East Tenth Avenue, Vancouver 10.
Baker, Roger M., Loon Lake, Clinton.
Baldwin, M. A., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Barry, Douglas T., 9526 Wilson Road, R.R. 7,
New Westminster.
Bickle, Wm, Grassy Plains.
Boulton, Eric D., Gabriola.
B.C. Live Stock Producers' Co-operative Association (nominees, R. Y. Devick and T. A.
Bulman), Exhibition Building, Kamloops.
B.C. Live Stock Producers' Co-operative Association (nominees, R. Hill and K. R. Chowen),
foot of Fraser Street, Vancouver 15.
Bryde, Henry, 12768 Duncan Road, R.R. 11,
New Westminster.
Busch, Wm. E., Ta Ta Creek.
Butterworth, Ernest, Box 15, Kamloops.
Butterworth, Fred, Box 437, Kamloops.
Cameron, O. W., Pincher Creek, Alta.
Campbell, E. D., 141 Third Avenue, Kamloops.
Cariboo Cattlemen's Association (nominees, Carl
Dorin and Norton Olsson), Williams Lake.
Carson, Edward, Bellingham Highway, R.R. 1,
Aldergrove.
Chung, Henry Yow, 350 Island Highway, Victoria.
Circle "S" Cattle Co. Ltd. (nominees, J. P. Syme,
Dog Creek, and V. Spencer, Vancouver), Marine Building, Vancouver, and Dog Creek.
Creasy, Cecil R., Vanderhoof.
Davidoff, Nikolai N., Pincher Creek, Alta.
Davidson, Clifford E., County Line P.O.
Dawson Creek Co-operative Shipping Association
(nominees, Elgin Wilson and Henry McQueen),
Dawson Creek.
Dawson, Robt., R.R. 2, Kelowna.
Diamond "S" Ranch Ltd. (nominee, C. B. Erick-
son, Lytton, and V. Spencer, Vancouver), Marine Building, Vancouver, and Lytton.
Doney, Albert, Saanichton P.O.
Doney, O. T., Cowichan Station, V.I.
Dorin, Carl, Box 249, Williams Lake.
Duncan, George, New Denver.
Eales, Reginald, 1036 Twentieth Avenue, Calgary,
Alta.
Edwards, Lisle G., R.R. 4, Vernon.
Empire Meats Ltd. (nominees, J. and Wilfred
DeLeenheer), R.R. 3, Vernon.
Estrin, Harry, 1825 West Fourteenth Avenue,
Vancouver.
Evans, Frank, Armstrong.
Fainstein, Harry, 3381 Cambie Street, Vancouver 9.
Fisher, Milton D., Glen Lake P.O.
Fitzpatrick, E. F., Alexis Creek.
Flock, Ben, Oroville, Wash., U.S.A.
Frolek, Chas., Box 188, Kamloops.
Frost Auctions Ltd. (nominees, Gowing Frost,
Langley, and Stacy Frost, Abbotsford), Langley and Abbotsford.
Gibson's Auctioneers Ltd. (nominees, los. Gibson
and Jos. B. Gibson), Langley Prairie.
Green, Jas. H., Salmon Arm.
Guichon, John F., Nicola.
Haines, A. E., 16098 Trans-Canada Highway,
R.R. 4, Cloverdale.
Harper, John A., c/o Adams, Wood & Weiller,
Calgary, Alta.
Haslam, John A., R.R. 2, Nanaimo.
Hassen, Mat, & Sons (nominees, Mat and Mat S.
Hassen), Armstrong.
Hogg, Geo. M., Lakes Road, Duncan.
Hogg, Reuben, R.R. 1, Agassiz.
Hogg, W. B., Box 512, Dawson Creek.
Holmes, Harold R., R.R. 3, Nanaimo.
Hook, Reginald, R.R. 1, Kamloops.
Hopkins, Wm. O., Salmon Arm.
Horton, R. L., and Frayn, Carl (trading under the
firm-name of Vancouver Dairy Cattle Sales &
Exchange), 1753 Westminster Highway, Lulu
Island.
Hotzon, Michael, R.R. 2, Duncan.
Hoy, Foster, 545 Johnston Road, R.R. 14, New
Westminster.
Hubbard, Henry Wm., 1242 Cordova Bay Road,
Victoria.
Hunt, Stan I. (Hunt's Auction Mart), P.O. Box
393, Vernon.
Hyndman, Allan W., Box 2018, Skaha Lake, Penticton.
J. Brothers (nominees, John and Joe Azanza),
Berry Road, Langley Prairie.
Jackson, George P., R.R. 2, Salmon Arm.
Jackson, George Paton, R.R. 1, Notch Hill.
Jensen, Karl, Conrich, Alta.
Johnstone, C. C, 47 Wellington Avenue, Chilliwack.
Kamloops Livestock Co. (nominee, L. Turcott),
116 Seymour Street, Kamloops.
Klontz, William, Box 351, Abbotsford.
Kohler, Herman, R.R. 2, Duncan.
Lanyon, Paul, Marsden Road, R.R. 1, Courtenay.
Lidstone, Jas. Raymond, Vernon.
Lock, Arthur, Box 1551, R.R. 4, Victoria.
Lock, John W., Chemainus.
Lock, Wm. Hy., Glen Lake P.O.
Loudon, Frank Richter, Oroville, Wash., U.S.A.
Lynch, Robt. R., Fernie.
McConnell, A. E., 207 Chilliwack Central Road,
Chilliwack.
McFarlane, Jas. B., Dawson Creek.
McGrath, Frank J., 1925 Erskine Lane, Victoria.
McKenzie, J. W., Fort St. John. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 133
APPENDIX No. ^—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Stock-dealers—Continued
Maki, W. O., R.R. 1, Nanaimo.
Marshall, M. W., Box 252, R.R. 2, Kelowna.
Martens, A. A., Box 27, Yarrow.
Meltzer, Nat, 2575 West Eighteenth Avenue,
Vancouver 8.
Merin, Max, 622 East Georgia Street, Vancouver.
Miller, J. D., 169 Lansdowne Street, Kamloops.
Miller, T. A., Williams Lake.
Murphy, W. Pat, Enderby.
Noble, Ernest J., 2401 One "A" Street South-east,
Calgary, Alta.
Nowell, Geo. I., R.R. 1, Agassiz.
Okanogan Livestock Market (nominees, Orval A.
Rubert and Allen Stookey), Okanogan, Wash.,
U.S.A.
Overwaitea Meats Ltd. (nominee, F. A. Johnstone, Box 536, Mission), 2999 Grandview
Highway, Vancouver.
Palmer, T. H., Barriere.
Patterson, Miller J., Hythe, Alta.
Pendergraft, T. W., Osoyoos.
Phillips, T. F., 32, 1490 Laburnum Street, Vancouver.
Placsko, Frank, Creston.
Poplack, Max, 561 West Twenty-sixth Avenue,
Vancouver 9.
Powick, John, P.O. Box 144, Kelowna.
Princeton Brewing Co. Ltd. (nominees, A. L.
McLennan, Vancouver, and G. I. Schisler),
Princeton.
Rabich, Tony, Quesnel.
Roberts, George, Marysville.
Rudosky, Henry, Buffalo Creek.
Rusticus, Yke, 4531 Berry Road, R.R. 2, Langley.
Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co. Ltd. (nominees,
Gordon and R. L. Askew), Box 249, Salmon
Arm.
Saville, Jos. L., R.R. 2, Duncan.
Schamp, Albert, Rayleigh Mountain.
Schneider, H. H. (trading under the firm-name of
Mission Auction Stables), Mission City.
Seed & Pitts Packers Ltd. (nominees, A. F. Pitts,
New Westminster, and J. H. Brisbin, 3842
South-east Marine Drive, South Burnaby), 430
East Eighth Avenue, New Westminster.
Shannon, A. M., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Sheline, A., 2181 West Eighteenth Avenue, Vancouver.
Sheline, Geo., Box 542, Kamloops.
Slomen, Harry, and Bryde, John, 333 East Hastings Street, Vancouver 4.
Smith, Frank E. M., Osoyoos.
Smith, Jas. A. (trading under the firm-name of
Alexander & Smith Cattle Co.), Box 326, Kamloops.
Smith, Jos. H., Matsqui.
Snider, Harry, 3614 Seven "A" Street West, Calgary, Alta.
Staffen, Frank, Berry Road, R.R. 2, Langley
Prairie.
Stein, David, 3216 West Seventh Avenue, Vancouver.
Steiner, Edward, 2599 West Thirty-seventh Avenue, Vancouver 13.
Striegler, Robt., Alexis Creek.
Stuby, R. G., Fort St. John.
Swanton, Geo. C, Duncan Auction Room, Duncan.
Thomas, Daniel, R.R. 1, Saanichton P.O.
Tweddle, Hal T., R.R. 1, Cawston.
Todd, Douglas H., General Delivery, Kelowna.
Watson, Jos. J., Smithers.
Weightman, Harold, Birch Island.
Wellman, J. J. E., R.R. 4, Langley Prairie.
Wiley, Robt. W., Burns Lake.
Williams, Lewis D., 525 McGowan Avenue, North
Kamloops.
Wingerd, Curtis G. (Curts' Cloverdale Auction
Sales), Cloverdale.
Wosk, Bill, c/o Independent Meat Co., 1170
Howe Street (rear), Vancouver.
Wosk, Morris, 722 Trans-Canada Highway West,
Chilliwack.
Wrayton, Arnot, 17041 Old McLellan Road, Cloverdale, Surrey Centre P.O.
Wright, Pat B., Box 432, Princeton.
Zomar, Wm. I., Abbotsford.
Slaughter-house Operators
Adshead, Harold, R.R. 1, Ladysmith.
Alberta Meat Co. Ltd., Box 460, Vancouver 1.
Allertson, Chris, Bella Coola.
Bailey, Mrs. Mary, and Fraitzl, M., Box 44,
Nakusp.
Borsato, Mario, 22958 Trans-Canada Highway,
R.R. 7, Langley Prairie.
Burns & Co. Ltd., foot of Woodland Drive, Vancouver 6.
Butler, E. A., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Canada Packers Ltd., 750 Terminal Avenue, Vancouver 4.
Cariboo Cold Storage Ltd., Williams Lake.
Cariboo Meat Packing Co. Ltd., Prince George.
Carson, Ed, Bellingham Highway, R.R. 1, Alder-
grove.
Circle " S " Cattle Co. Ltd., Dog Creek.
Clappison Packers Ltd., Box 58, Haney.
Crown Market, Box 519, Grand Forks.
Cuthill, E. F., Fort St. John.
Dauncey, W. S. (Wilcock's Market), Courtenay.
Davidson, C. E,, County Line P.O.
Diamond " S " Ranch Ltd., Pavilion.
Doney, Albert, Saanichton P.O.
Doney, O. T., Cowichan Station, V.I.
Duncan, George, New Denver.
Empire Meats Ltd., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Enderby Meat & Lockers Ltd., Enderby. HH 134
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 8—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Slaughter-house Operators—Continued
Ennis, R. S., and Handlen, J. A. (trading under
the firm-name of Ennis & Handlen), 16098
Trans-Canada Highway, R.R. 4, Cloverdale.
Fisher, M. D., Glen Lake P.O.
Ford, Reg F., Quesnel.
Gaven, Richard, R.R. 4, Vernon.
Gordon Meat Market Ltd., 425 Bernard Avenue,
Kelowna.
Haines, Arthur E., 16098 Trans-Canada Highway,
R.R. 4, Cloverdale.
Hanson, Emil, Box 2, Nakusp.
Hill, Lynn L., Box 511, Quesnel.
Hogg, Geo. M., Lakes Road, R.R. 1, Duncan.
Hogrebe, Karl W. (Fleetwood Cold Storage),
9188 Pike Road, R.R. 5, New Westminster.
Hoy, Foster, 545 Johnstone Road, R.R. 14, New
Westminster.
Hubbard, H. W., 1242 Cordova Bay Road, Victoria.
Hunniford, P. C, 9289 Kirkbride Road, R.R. 7,
New Westminster.
J. Brothers, Langley Prairie.
Johnstone, C. C, 47 Wellington Avenue, Chilliwack.
Jones, Edward L., R.R. 4, Langley Prairie.
Kamloops Meat Co., Box 437, Kamloops.
Kingsley, W. J., Box 42, Ladner.
Knowles, Anthony, Sooke.
Kohler, H., R.R. 2, Duncan.
Ladner Meat Co. Ltd., Box 99, Ladner.
Lafond, Jos., Lawrence Meat Market, Dawson
Creek.
Lock, John W., Chemainus.
McGivern, B., 7312 Larimer Road, R.R. 3, Cloverdale.
McGrath, Frank, 1925 Erskine Lane, Victoria.
McLeod's Meats Ltd., R.R. 4, Cloverdale.
Maki, W. O., R.R. 1, Nanaimo.
Marriott, T. W., Kaleden.
Marshall, M. W., R.R. 2, Box 252, Kelowna.
Martens, A. A., 1182 Boundary Road, Box 27,
Yarrow.
Mouat Bros. Ltd., Ganges.
Nelmes, W. B., Rosedale Meat & Lockers Service,
Box 37, Rosedale.
Northern Meats, Dawson Creek.
Pacific Meat Co. Ltd., 8950 Shaughnessy Street,
Vancouver 14.
Powick, John, Box 144, Kelowna.
Pratt, Ernest, Thrums.
Pym, Wm. J., 6589 Pacific Highway, R.R. 4, Cloverdale.
Quesnel Packing Co. Ltd., Box 967, Quesnel.
Quist, Carl, Westholme.
Rutland Lockers Ltd., Rutland.
Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co. Ltd., Box 249,
Salmon Arm.
Saville, Jos. L., R.R. 2, Duncan.
Schulz, Henry H., Black Creek.
Seed & Pitts Packers Ltd., Pitt Meadows.
Shepherd, S., R.R. 2, Cloverdale.
Skov, Sam, South Otter Road, R.R. 3, Alder-
grove.
Smith, D. D., Huntingdon.
Spittal, David, Dawson Creek.
Stuby, R. G., Fort St. John.
Swift Canadian Co. Ltd., New Westminster.
Talarico, A. and G., Grand Forks.
Thibodeau Meats Ltd., Dawson Creek.
Walkley, Mrs. Louise, Box 214, Cranbrook.
Watson, G. H., 325 Wells Road, R.R. 4, Sardis.
Weymouth, A. I., Matsqui.
White, L. F., Box 357, Oliver.
Wrayton, A., Surrey Centre P.O.
Hide-dealers
Adirim, Nathan, Nanaimo.
Allertson, Chris, Bella Coola.
Armstrongs' Department Store Ltd., Box 249,
Merritt.
Bailey, Mrs. Mary, and Fraitzl, M., Box 44,
Nakusp.
Barazzuol, P. (agent for Bissinger & Co..), Box
1005, Vancouver.
Belshaw's Purity Store Ltd., Box 216, Merritt.
Beylund, Miss E., executrix of estate of Wm.
Hochsteiner (Pioneer Meat Market), Osoyoos.
Bissinger & Co., P.O. Box 1005, Vancouver.
Biddlecombe, Geo. I., Meadowbrook, Kimberley.
Bradley, Lewis S., Bradley's Meat Market, 516
Baker Street, Nelson.
Burns & Co. Ltd., foot of Woodland Drive, Vancouver 6.
Butterworth, Fred, Box 437, Kamloops.
Cariboo Cattlemen's Association, Box 249, Williams Lake.
Carr, Geo. H., Creston.
Chung, H. Y., 350 Island Highway, R.R. 1, Victoria.
Compeau, H. E., Howard's Meat Market, Box 36,
Osoyoos.
Creston Valley Co-operative Association (E. Preston, manager), Creston.
Enderby Meat & Lockers Ltd., Enderby.
Falbo, Frank, Frank's Service Station, Golden.
Fisher, M. D., Glen Lake P.O.
Fulton, J. H. (agent for J. E. Love & Sons), P.O.
Box 233, Calgary, Alta.
Gammie, Alex., Lytton.
Gordon, Ben (Gordon Salvage & Trading Co.),
730 Yale Road West, Chilliwack.
Halford Hide & Fur Co. Ltd., 10509 One Hundred and Fifth Avenue, Edmonton, Alta.
Henderson, Richard B. (agent for Martin & Stewart (B.C.) Ltd.), 6010 Fleming Street, Vancouver.
Hendry, E. (Greenwood Meat Market), Box 395,
Greenwood.
) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 135
APPENDIX No. 8—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Hide-dealers—Continued
Henson, R. A. (Creston Valley Lockers), Box
274, Creston.
Inouye, Tomojiro (Vernon Tanning & Manufacturing Co.), Vernon.
Ironside, G. R. (agent for J. E. Love & Sons),
Box 233, Calgary, Alta.
J. Brothers, Langley Prairie.
Janson (Sr.), John, McBride.
Jones, Edward L., R.R. 4, Langley Prairie.
Joy, Robt. (Arrow Lakes Lockers), Nakusp.
Lafond, Jos. T. (Lawrence Meat Market), Dawson Creek.
Laursen, J. (Armstrong Lockers), Box 370, Armstrong.
Leckie, J., Co. Ltd., 220 Cambie Street, Vancouver 3.
Love, J. E., & Sons, 403 Fourth Street East, Calgary, Alta. (Box 233).
McClounie's Department Store Ltd., Falkland.
McLeod's Meats Ltd., R.R. 4, Cloverdale.
McMynn, C. G., Ltd., Midway.
Marshall, M. W., R.R. 2, Box 252, Kelowna.
Martin & Stewart (B.C.) Ltd., 126 West Third
Avenue, Vancouver.
Mead, T. R. (agent for Halford Hide & Fur Co.
Ltd.), 10509 One Hundred and Fifth Avenue,
Edmonton, Alta.
Meehan's Meat Market Ltd., Box 503, Revelstoke.
Miner, Maurice (agent for Bissinger & Co.), Box
1005, Vancouver.
Morrison, Jas. E. (agent for J. E. Love & Sons),
Box 233, Calgary, Alta.
Mouat Bros. Ltd., Ganges.
Northern Meats, Dawson Creek.
Paris Tannery Ltd., 51 West Hastings Street,
Vancouver.
Pinko, Raymond P., Swede Creek Ranch, R.R. 1,
Prince George.
Pratt, Ernest, Thrums.
Quesnel Packing Co. Ltd., Box 967, Quesnel.
Rebagliati, Geo. A., Lytton.
Reber, Ulrich, Reber's Cold Storage, R.R. 13,
New Westminster.
Reinertson, C. W., R.R. 1, Summerland.
Salmon Arm Meat & Produce Co. Ltd., Box 249,
Salmon Arm.
Schulz, Henry H, Black Creek, V.I.
Scott, Robt. (trading under the firm-name of
Union Meat Market), 197 Victoria Street,
Kamloops.
Simpson & Lea, 708 Centre Street, Calgary, Alta.
Sladon, Arthur, Keremeos.
Smith, F. E. M., Box 283, Osoyoos.
Spittal, David (Spittal's Meat Market), Dawson
Creek.
St. Dennis, R. L., Pouce Coupe.
Stuby, R. G., Fort St. John.
Thibodeau Meats Ltd., Dawson Creek.
Uptigrove, R. H., 3911 Grandview Highway,
North Burnaby.
Vernon Locker Service & Meats Ltd., 3011
Twenty-eighth Street, Vernon.
Watson, Jos. J., Smithers.
Wheeler, Owen, Rock Creek.
White, L. F. (Quality Meats & Lockers), Box
357, Oliver.
Wilson, Stanley A., Princeton Meat Market,
Princeton.
Wosk, Morris (Wosk's Sack Co.), 722 Trans-
Canada Highway West, Chilliwack.
Wyman Hide & Fur Co. Ltd., 10529 One Hundred and Fifth Avenue, Edmonton, Alta.
Beef-peddlers
Bailey, Mrs. Mary, and Fraitzl, M., Nakusp.
Cariboo Meat Packing Co. Ltd., Prince George.
Danko, Andrew, Box 245, Natal.
Duncan, Geo., New Denver.
Empire Meats Ltd., R.R. 3, Vernon.
Gaven, Richard, R.R. 4, Vernon.
Hanson, Emil, Box 2, Nakusp.
Jansen (Sr.), John, McBride.
Marriott, T. W., Kaleden.
Petrowitz, Arthur, Box 332, Williams Lake.
Pratt, Ernest, Thrums.
Shoaf, W. B., Parson.
Watson, Jos. J., Smithers.
Weightman, Harold, Birch Island.
Wenger, Adolf, McMurdo, Golden P.O.
Horse-slaughterers
Avis, Harold, Appledale.
Butler, E. A., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Chung, H. Y., 350 Island Highway, R.R. 1, Victoria.
Fuller, Dudley, R.R. 2, Salmon Arm.
Gregory, A. K, 675 Young Street South, Chilliwack.
Hosko, Andy, Box 198, Natal.
Hoy, Foster, 545 Johnstone Road, R.R. 14, New
Westminster (slaughtering at Cloverdale).
Joiner, Chas. Jos., R.R. 2, Sardis.
Jonson, Axel (Dewdney Fur Farm), Dewdney.
Makow, Michael, 915 Happy Valley Road, R.R.
1, Victoria.
Morris, A. W. E., R.R. 1, Winfield.
Reese, R. W., Sorrento P.O.
Rusticus, Yke, 4531 Berry Road, R.R. 2, Langley.
Staffen,   Frank,   R.R.   2,   Berry   Road,   Langley
Prairie.
Turner, Geo. Thos., R.R. 2, Salmon Arm.
Vancouver Rendering Co. Ltd., 1178 River Road,
Vancouver 14.
Yerbury, Fred. Chas., Box 914, Kimberley.
Yerbury, Harry, Lister. HH 136
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No. 8—Continued
List of Licensees—Continued
Horse-meat Dealers (for Animal-food)
Dr. Ballard's Animal Food Products Ltd.,  1178
River Road, Lulu Island, Vancouver 14.
Butler, E. A., R.R. 1, Abbotsford.
Carson, Edward W., Bellingham Highway, R.R.
1, Aldergrove.
Chung, Henry Y., 350 Island Highway, R.R.  1,
Victoria.
Hoy, Foster, 545 Johnston Road, R.R. 14, New
Westminster.
Makow, Michael, 915 Happy Valley Road, R.R.
1, Victoria.
Rusticus, Yke, 4531 Berry Road, R.R. 2, Langley.
Staffen, F., Berry Road, R.R. 2, Langley Prairie.
Uptigrove,   R.   H.,   3911   Grandview   Highway,
North Burnaby.
Horse-meat Dealers (for Human Consumption)
Best-Bi Food Co., 633 East Hastings Street, Vancouver.
Transport of Horses for Working Purposes
Alkali Lake Ranch Ltd., Alkali Lake.
Arkell, Robt., Bridesville.
Baril, M. J., 100 Mile House.
Beckley, W. D., Cranbrook.
Bostock, Brig. W. N., Ned's Creek Ranch, Prit-
chard.
Bostock Ranch Ltd., Monte Creek.
Bowers, Geo. J., Box 242, Kamloops.
Bridge Creek Estate, 100 Mile House.
Burt, E. A., Monte Lake.
Cariboo Land & Cattle Co. Ltd., Chilco Ranch,
Hanceville.
Circle " S " Cattle Co. Ltd., Dog Creek.
Coldstream Ranch Ltd., Vernon.
Coldwell, H. W., Jesmond.
Conner, N. E., Heffley Creek.
Corbould, David, Rayleigh Mount.
Currie, Jas. Douglas, Princeton.
Devick, F. A., Heffley Creek.
Devick, Ralph Y., 828 Columbia Street, Kamloops.
Dorrell, D. C, Clinton.
Douglas Lake Cattle Co. Ltd., Douglas Lake.
Elkhorn Ranch Ltd., Windermere.
Fetterly, V., Okanagan Falls.
Foley, Percy C, Brigade Lake.
Frolek Ranch & Sawmills Ltd., Box 188, Kamloops.
Gottfriedsen, August (Indian), Kamloops I.R.
No. 1, Kamloops.
Guichon Cattle Co. Ltd., The, Quilchena.
Hickling, C. E. L., 100 Mile House.
Hook, Reginald, R.R. 1, Kamloops.
330,
Horn, W., and Eden, D., 70 Mile House.
Howarth, K. C, Merritt.
Hutchinson, Fred, Knutsford.
Hysop, Geo. W. D., Chase.
Kamloops Indian Residential School,  Box
Kamloops.
Kamloops  Livestock Co.,   116  Seymour Street,
Kamloops.
Keer, Warren, Marysville.
Lauder, J. W., Quilchena.
Lawrence, George Vincent, Box 61, Hedley.
Mattey Bros. Ltd., Chase.
Morrison, S. B., Knutsford.
Nicola Lake Stock Farm Ltd., Nicola.
Palmer, W. A., Heffley Creek.
Parke, P. A., Cache Creek.
Pattinson, Jack, Box 175, Cranbrook.
Pendergraft, T. W., Osoyoos.
Pollard, J. H., Clinton.
Richmond Farms (Reg T. Millar), Soda Creek.
Sam, Dennis, Lower Nicola.
Sellers, W. A., Princeton.
Smith, Howard J., Westbridge.
St. Joseph's Mission, Williams Lake.
Steffees, Rubert and James, Merritt.
Sutton, F. N., Williams Lake.
Thompson, Lionel, Edgewater.
Walker, B. J., Oliver.
Watt, Jas. D., Clinton.
Willis, Garnet E., Keremeos.
Wolstenholme, R., Okanagan Falls.
Wotzke, Herbert, Williams Lake.
Transport of Stallions for Breeding Purposes
Lloyd, Walter, Lincoln Road, Port Coquitlam. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1955
HH  137
APPENDIX No. 9
Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1955
District
Cariboo—
Williams Lake
Cattle    Hides
10,093
Alexis Creek, Quesnel, Lac la Hache,
Clinton, 100 Mile House, 150 Mile
House, Graham Siding       5,876
Lillooet, Pavilion, Bridge Lake, Lone
Butte, Bralorne _      1,092
Bella Coola  	
Kamloops, Nicola, etc.—
976
22
16
17,061       1,182
Kamloops, Chase
  13,539
9,318
1,211
446
     5,080
405
. -    1,016
1,201
Similkameen—
Princeton, Keremeos,
28,953
     2,880
....    1,306
3,263
136
833
District
Central British Columbia-
Prince George, Vanderhoof..
Smithers, etc. 	
Burns Lake 	
Okanagan—
Vernon, Lumby
Armstrong, Enderby
Kelowna   _	
Penticton, Summerland
Oliver, Osoyoos 	
South-eastern British Columbia-
Rossland, Crescent Valley	
Nelson,  Creston, etc.  _.
Cranbrook, Fernie, etc	
Invermere,  Golden 	
Peace River—
Fort St. John-
Dawson Creek
Cattle    Hides
1,173
476
362
1,556
25
5
2,011
1,586
4,001
3,267
2,396
681
3,469
1,799
431
2,355
98
1,246
13,814
5,929
304
1,360
4,142
1,203
928
613
522
486
7,009
2,549
303
3,974
421
2,677
4,186
969
4,277      3,098
Totals Compared
District
1955
1954
1953
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
Cattle
Hides
17,061
28,953
18,000
7,009
6,288
1,182
3,263
6,898
2,549
4,684
22,684
29,312
15,687
5,544
6,407
1,569
2,853
6,625
3,153
4,033
16,784
24,653
13,598
4,392
3,992
969
Kamloops and Nicola.. —	
2,443
5,777
3,539
Central British Columbia and Peace River —
4,537
Totals                  -    —	
77,311
18,576
79,634
18,233
63,419
17,265
APPENDIX No.  10
Yearly Statement op Slaughter, November 30th, 1954, to December 31st, 1955,
at Clappison Packers, Haney
Cattle 	
Calves  	
Sheep 	
Lambs	
Swine 	
Number
Per Cent
1,705
28.19
117
1.93
6
0.09
80
1.32
4,139
68.47
Total slaughter   6,047
100.00 HH  138
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  11
Shipments of Butcher Cattle to Vancouver Island Disease-control Area
Date
Calves
Mature Stock
Bulls
Heifers
Heifers
Cows
Bulls
Steers
5
1
6
May	
13
4
8
2
2
29
June 	
26
6
3
9
2
1
47
July. 	
24
3
4
8
3
42
17
1
1
10
29
September  	
28
10
21
16
5
80
October -  	
26
6
17
15
11
75
November	
2
4
4
7
17
December.	
13
	
	
10
23
141
31
r~
64
2
39
348
APPENDIX No.  12
Summary of Blood-testing and Mastitis Examinations by Veterinary Inspectors1
Address
Blood-testing
Mastitis Examinations
Inspector
Number
Negative
Positive
Suspect
Number
Examined
Clinical
Cases
Number to
Treat
Number to
Eliminate
967
588
779
1,120
1,100
2,315
2,539
263
976
1,082
918
551
762
1,049
1,033
2,220
2,412
253
959
1,022
29
35
15
56
40
79
91
5
14
42
20
2
2
15
27
16
36
5
3
18
715
2,059
642
2,464
345
192
2,945
231
218
1,144
133
102
44
82
67
15
277
6
27
85
101
75
36
80
49
13
227
6
25
64
32
Dr. G. M. Clark	
Kamloops	
Penticton 	
27
Dr. I. D. C Clark	
Dr. E. W. Gilchrist2
8
2
Dr. A. Kidd — 	
Victoria	
18
2
Dr. W. R. LeGrow	
Victoria	
New Westminster-
New Westminster	
Prince George	
50
Dr. CF. Morris	
Dr. J. Mustard 	
Dr. K. H. Thompson	
2
21
Totals
11,729
11,179
406
144
10,955
838
676
162
1 Totals from December 1st, 1954, to December 31st, 1955.
2 Totals from December 1st, 1954, to July 31st, 1955, when Dr. Gilchrist resigned from the Live Stock Branch. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 139
APPENDIX No.  13
Calfhood Vaccinations in Disease-free Areas
Area No. and Area
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
170
14
2,206
51
3,614
736
269
504
1,078
30
3,433
530
321
453
148
70
221
1,349
2
24
3,936
667
280
504
197
120
330
39
13
2,637
5
55
3,750
539
414
682
209
51
375
31
15
55
14
1,617
3,503
5
19
4,298
557
473
740
201
43
460
20
18
52
2,074
4,858
881
113
43
4,554
618
703
653
220
63
469
10
9
50
5
2,306
7,116
1,326
1,084
102
39
2. Nicola   	
4,679
4. Alkali Lake-Dog Creek
660
569
6. Savona    	
7. Nehalliston.-   	
792
196
44
9. Princeton 	
10. Powell River	
566
15
11. Burton                     	
12. Squamish   	
13. Gulf Islands -  -	
7
47
14. Saltspring Island  -
15. North-west Kootenay—	
27
2,255
17. Pemberton - .—	
18. Cariboo - —	
19. McBride
19
7,641
1,900
134
22. Kamloops  — -
3,332
32
Totals.- 	
170
2,220
6,252
6,557
8,752
11,315
14,807
19,331
22,954 HH 140
BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  14
Dairy Herds and Premises Inspected and Graded under the " Milk Act " from
January 1st, 1953, to December 31st, 1955
Graded, 1955
Graded prior to 1955
Total
A
B
C
U
A
B
C
U
Cariboo
Coast	
Kamloops	
4
6
4
28
2
29
1
2
5
11
13
1
2
5
6
2
1
12
4
7
16
64
6
Quesnel	
59
Totals 	
10
63
3
29
1
13
2
24
145
Central British
Columbia
2
1
8
14
15
13
1
4
2
1
1
1
2
1
5
5
1
3
3
2
2
20
1
	
27
51
3
27
Totals	
U
42
7
2
4
14      |          5                23
108
Fraser Valley
Chilliwack	
1
1
130
14
7
3
5
42
5
53
6
17
5
36
15
48
8
1
1
4
3
26
6
1
3
10
1
23
1
4
6
5
92
2
1
2
1
1
168
14
47
7
3
5
31
9
196
1
4
2
66
303
79
21
12
2
1
1
34
17
1
353
26
67
Dewdney 	
15
8
Hope	
Kent              	
4
14
84
18
Matsqui	
310
8
Nicomen	
25
13
Richmond	
109
336
Surrey	
224
Totals	
2
386
17
178
7
935                   [        89
1.614
Greater Okanagan
Osoyoos	
10
5
4
96
37
27
3
32
19
16
1
14
7
8
1
163
69
Similkameen	
48
Totals	
19
160
3
67
1
14      1             1        16
280
Kootenay
Cranbrook. 	
Fernie 	
Golden	
Kaslo  	
Nelson	
1
3
7
21
3
5
4
2
81
2
4
5
9
18
9
24
18
44
1
5
1
	
2
15
5
76
62
30
31
40
108
218
Totals	
32
95
20
113
1
6
160
427
Northern British
Columbia
Atlin -	
26
35
	
3
3
17
84
Telegraph Creek	
	
Totals	
26
35
...
3                3               17
84
Vancouver Island
7
21
11
5
37
3
25
20
24
	
2
5
2
8
1
22
10
8
26
5
67
78
56
44
12
171
101
69
57
30
Cowichan	
Nanaimo	
Northern Vancouver
311
222
138
Southern Vancouver
Island	
196
Totals	
81
72
—
17
67
250      |      —      |      410
897
Grand totals
155
844
85
406
81
1,235
10
739
3,555 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 141
APPENDIX No.  15
List of Provincial Dairy Herd Improvement Associations
Dairy-herd Improvement
Association
Secretary
Supervisor
(C)  Chilliwack—
Route 1	
H. C. Clark, 236 Corbould St., Chilliwack-
Ditto 	
J. R. Hannam, 236 Corbould St., Chilliwack.
F. Wiffen, 295 Maple Ave., Sardis.
Route 3	
N. Daykin, 217 Church Ave., Chilliwack.
Route 4
S.  A. Blaby,  816 McElwee Road, R.R.   1,
(X) Comox Valley 	
D. Russell, R.R. 1, Comox _	
Rosedale.
H. de Blieck, 392 Twelfth St. Courtenay.
M. Hansen, P.O. Box 14, Cobble Hill	
D. R. O'Brien, Maple Bay Road, R.M.D. 1,
(E)  Delta—
A. W. Mitchell, R.R. 3, Ladner	
Duncan.
Ditto  	
(N) Dewdney-Deroche—
Route 1
Ditto  	
squi.
J. W. Stephenson, General Delivery, Agassiz.
H. Clair, Lone Rock Farm, R.R. 7, Langley.
(L)  Langley (Route 1)	
(M) Matsqui—
H. L. Davis, Box 103, Milner 	
C. A. Sward, R.R. 1, Matsqui	
V. A. Gill, R.R. 1, Matsqui.
S. P. Harvey, Mount Lehman.
Ditto	
(D) Salmon Arm-North Okanagan—
Route 1 	
J. H. Thompson, R.R. 1, Salmon Arm	
Ditto.. -	
P. Hibbert, R.R. 2, Armstrong.
R. Macgregor, Box 454, Pitt Meadows.
D.  S. Heelas,   1657 West Fifty-ninth Ave.,
Vancouver 14.
C. S. Lillies, Box 392, Abbotsford.
H. Bylsma, No. 5 Road, R.R. 4, Abbotsford
(P)  Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge
and Richmond (Route 2)
(R) Richmond (Route 1)
(A)  Sumas—
Route 1	
Route 2
G. Park, Pitt Meadows  	
G. P. Crosby, 8483 Wiltshire St., Vancouver 14
J. E. Dayton, R.R. 4, Abbotsford. 	
Ditto...—     	
(S)   Surrey (Route 1)	
Surrey    (Route   2)    and
Langley (Route 2)	
(T)  Vancouver Island (Centre)
(V) Vancouver Island (South)—
R. J.  Livingston, 7051  Pacific Highway,
R.R. 4, Cloverdale
Ditto 	
S. Baehr, 17172 Bose Road, R.R. 4, Cloverdale.
T. C. Tryon, R.R. 1, Parksville _ 	
J. Pendray, 4160 Blenkinsop Road, R.R.
4, Victoria
R.R. 1, Langley.
W. T. Calbick, 516 Churchill Ave., Nanaimo.
T. G. M. Clarke, 3449 Cook St., Victoria.
APPENDIX No.  16
Breed Averages for 1954
Breed
Percentage
of Total
Milk
Fat
Fat
Lb.
Per Cent
Lb.
4.1
8,538
4.06
347
20.0
8,347
4.76
397
42.0
11,248
3.66
411
22.7
7,688
5.04
387
11.2
8,836
4.38
387
Ayrshire....
Guernsey-
Holstein	
J ersey	
Unclassified (cross-breds, etc.).. HH 142 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDIX No.  17
Shipments of Dairy Stock under Dairy-cattle Placement Policy
Breed
Males
Females
Totals.
Both
Sexes
Calves
Mature
Total
Calves
Mature
Total
Ayrshire _   	
2
1
1
i
~2
2
1
22
4
50
4
72
6
Holstein   	
74
1
4
i
5
22
54
76
81
Dairy-cattle Placement Programme, Summary, 1950 to 1955, Inclusive
Ayshire
(Number of Head)
Guernsey
(Number of Head)
Holstein
(Number of Head)
Jersey
(Number of Head)
Totals
(Number of Head)
M.
1
F.   1   T.
1
|
M.   1   F.
T.
1          1
M.   1   F.   1   T.
1          1
M.
1
F.   1   T.
M.
I
F.   1   T.
1
1950 	
1951    	
1952- 	
2
1
1
4
12
6
13
2
4
12
8
14
3
1    37
1   |    21
6 |    22
1        25
1 j    12
2 4
37
22
28
26
13
6
9
4
2
30
43
53
45
80
72
30
43
62
45
84
74
2
1
26
33
5
10
4
26
33
7
10
4
1
1
19
2
6
5
97
109
86
93
98
76
97
110
105
1953- .               	
95
1954 	
1955    	
104
81
4
37
41
11  |  121
132
15
323
338
..   1    78
81
33
559
592
M—Male. F.=Female. T.=Total.
Dairy-cattle Placement Programme, Summary, 1950 to 1955, Inclusive, Placement Areas
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Totals
Area
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1
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7
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2
27
1
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3
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2
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4
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177
60
12   1    40
144
2
15
1
17
19
Vancouver Island	
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1 1      1
4 [      6
16
Totals	
35  1    97
40
110
29
105
29  1    95
35   1   104
17
81
186
592
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1955
HH 143
Month
lanuary   ___.
February   _
March 	
April 	
May 	
lune 	
luly 	
August 	
September
October  _.
November
December
APPENDIX No.  18
Poultry-flock Approval by Month
Poultry Approved
— 26,195
7,494
__._ 3,610
— 5,761
..___ 4,645
—_ 5,277
—- 13,272
_ 19,935
_ 17,397
.___. 61,747
-__ 77,877
_ 48,788
Total
291,998
Month
lanuary ..
February
March 	
April 	
May  —
lune -
luly
August 	
September
October _..
November
December
APPENDIX No.  19
Turkey-flock Approval by Month
Turkeys Approved
__      6,557
137
4,522
5,379
5,123
6,510
Total
21,534
APPENDIX No. 20
Vaccine Distribution by Month
Month
Newcastle
Bronchitis        Combined
Units
Total
January—
February-
March	
April—	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September-
October	
November-
December.-
Totals _
162,750
173,050
232,200
154,700
133,750
177,550
112,150
86,000
98,200
72,500
108,100
85,150
1,596,100
1,000
7,000
3,000
500
4,000
11,000
2,250
2,000
250
9,000
4,000
44,000
21,150
38,250
41,250
50,500
64,250
73,000
34,250
28,000
32,750
57,250
50,250
65,500
556,500
485
548
7K9
509
511
583
317
284
259
226
323
301
5,135
185,000
211,300
280,450
208,200
198,500
254,550
157,400
116,250
132,950
130,000
167,350
154,650
2,196,600 HH 144
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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