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Report of the Lands Service containing the reports of the Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch, and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1956

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Full Text

 PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT  OF  LANDS  AND  FORESTS
Hon. R. E. Sommers, Minister E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the Lands Service
containing the reports of the
Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch,
and Water Rights Branch
together with the
Dyking Commissioner, Southern Okanagan Lands Project,
and University Endowment Lands
Year Ended December 31st
1955
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  British Columbia Air Survey Photograph
DAWSON CREEK, B.C.
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Vertical view of Dawson Creek and airstrip.    Junction of John Hart and Alaska Highways.    Agricultural
lands provide an interesting pattern.    Altitude, 20,000 feet above sea-level, June 12th,  1955.  Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1956.
To the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia
Lands Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December 31st,
1955.
R. E. SOMMERS,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1956.
The Honourable R. E. Sommers,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended December
31st, 1955.
E. W. BASSETT,
Deputy Minister of Lands.  CONTENTS
1. Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands.—.
2. Lands Branch—
Page
9
(a) Lands Branch     13
(b) Land Inspection Division.
3. Surveys and Mapping Branch	
(a) Legal Surveys Division	
(b) Topographic Division	
(c) Geographic Division	
(d) Air Division	
4. Water Rights Branch	
5. Dyking Commissioner	
6. Southern Okanagan Lands Project.
7. University Endowment Lands	
8. Land Settlement Board	
9. Personnel Office	
10. Mail and File Room	
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 "Sgl .fl .f . ."5 . REPORT OF THE
BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDS SERVICE
E. W. Bassett, Deputy Minister of Lands
The people of British Columbia had their busiest year in history during 1955, and
the volume and variety of land and water surveys, mapping, and alienations carried out
by or transacted through the British Columbia Lands Service is incontrovertible truth of
the record business accomplished. Activity was sustained throughout the year, and the
tempo of development will not slacken but probably quicken again during 1956, judging
by the number of requests for land and water examinations awaiting attention when the
1956 field-season arrives.
Three years ago the Surveys and Mapping Branch embarked on a programme of
establishing ground control over 25,000 square miles of muskeg in the north-eastern part
of the Province. It is a pleasure to report that this arduous work has been completed on
schedule. The value of this control to British Columbia is immense, for it means that
legally correct recording of oil, natural gas, and associated locations can be established
from the Peace River District to the northern boundary of the Province. Further to this
topographic achievement, it is interesting to record that the last gap of 66 miles has been
completed in that section of the northern boundary of British Columbia east of Teslin
Lake.
The Air Division in 1955 contributed a record total of basic data toward fundamental investigations in a variety of resource-development projects. Its air-photo production was for such major practical matters as forest public working circles, more intensive
forest inventory survey, and new forest road locations. Greatly increased multiplex
mapping services were extended to many agencies, such as the British Columbia Power
Commission, the Water Rights Branch, the Fraser River Board, and the Forest Engineering Division. The production of interim base maps reached 43,000 square miles; such
mapping is invaluable for any and all development studies in the initial stages.
The record of the Legal Surveys Division is noted as a yardstick for measuring current Provincial development activity. Photostats of plans and other documents jumped
97 per cent over the previous year. Land examination sketches totalled 2,000, representing a 60-per-cent increase over 1954. Legal survey of 72 miles of completed new
highway right-of-way and of 335 parcels of Crown land for alienation and reserve further
pin-point the surge of development all over the Province.
During 1955 the Geographic Division concentrated on the production and lithography of the new 2-miles-to-l-inch maps. A total of ten of these detailed maps are now
published or in various stages of completion. They show the contouring, land status,
buildings, and other improvements from the Okanagan to the Fraser Valley section of
British Columbia. The Kelowna and Penticton sheets in this series were in press at the
end of the year.
The Lands Administration Branch recorded an 11-per-cent increase for 1955 over
1954 in applications to purchase land, and a 21-per-cent increase in applications to lease.
Preparation of major and complicated easements required much and detailed attention.
Rights-of-way for the Westcoast Transmission pipe-line and for both the British Columbia
Power Commission and the British Columbia Electric Company are cases in point. In
the Lower Mainland region particularly, there was heavy demand for foreshore leases
due to industrial activity and increased settlement. The sale of town lots nearly doubled,
from approximately $70,000 in 1954 to nearly $130,000 in 1955. Almost 3,000 land
inspections were made, and the duties of the Land Inspectors, who are stationed at key X 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
centres throughout the Province, were expanded in the fields of arbitration, evaluation,
and foreshore lease rentals. Continuing the policy of selecting suitable areas for the use
and recreation of the public, alienation has been withheld and reservations made throughout the Province of lands found suitable for this purpose.
Because water is a fundamental consideration in the development and use of all
natural resources, and because this development and use occupies the centre of the stage
at this historic period in the growth of British Columbia, it is to be expected that the
Water Rights Branch of the Service will be called upon to make even greater contribution
toward the expanding of this resource.
Outstanding, perhaps, in the hydro field, was an important hearing of the objections
to the application of the Northwest Power Industries Limited to divert and use the waters
of the Yukon River, Teslin Lake, and Taku River for a proposed hydro-power development of enormous potential. This hearing was held in Atlin during August, 1955, and
was followed by an inspection of the general area by air, boat, and rail.
In conjunction with the Fraser River Board, studies were continued by the Water
Rights Branch to determine the potentialities of the Fraser River. A second research
programme was followed for the Columbia River basin to obtain facts which would assist
the British Columbia Government to formulate policy concerning the future use of these
waters.
A master-plan survey of the University Endowment Lands was initiated in July,
when Dr. D. B. Turner, Director of Conservation, was appointed to co-ordinate studies
and prepare a plan for these lands. His terms of reference are twofold: (1) To devise
a plan whereby the greatest possible endowment will accrue to the University of British
Columbia, and (2) to so plan the development of the University Endowment Lands that
the beauty and other high values of this unmatched site be retained permanently, in
keeping with the prestige and dignity of a university setting. The report will be submitted
to the Government of British Columbia during 1956.
Personnel numbers in the British Columbia Lands Service during the year 1955
showed little fluctuation. Change was perhaps most noticeable in the Geographic Division, where the record reveals that W. H. Hutchinson, after thirty-five years in service,
retired as Chief, to be succeeded by W. R. Young, and a great loss was suffered in the
death of W. G. Thorpe, Map Editor and member of the staff for thirty-five years.  Notel
THE LANDS BRANCH
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years 254
pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer of real
estate and provide for the registration of titles, the "Land Registry Act" was passed in 1860.
The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-estate business in
a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that constitutes British
Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for land
quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants passed, cities came
into being, and companies became established.   Land was at the core of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation of
a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of
Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests exercises control of more than 90 per
cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia Lands
Service of to-day? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is charged with so
administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare, present and future, of
the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is
directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs
the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural, industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the " Land Act," the " Mineral Act,"
and the " Taxation Act."
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe lines,
etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use  and
enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites, cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites,  booming-
grounds,  canneries,   oyster  and   other  mollusc  fisheries,   and   for  boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft bases.
To  perform  these  and  other  functions  efficiently,  the  Lands  Branch  works  in  close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations,
town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Branches of Water Rights
and Surveys and Mapping within the British Columbia Lands Service, and all the departments
in the Government of the Province, notably Public Works, Education, and Attorney-General.
Outside   the   Provincial  departments   there  is   much   business   transacted   with   Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement Act
administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department
of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch and
this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this prime
duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many cases are the
only ones in British Columbia showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.—
Reprinted from 1952 Report. LANDS BRANCH X 13
LANDS BRANCH
R. E. Burns, Superintendent of Lands
The continual development of British Columbia's natural resources during 1955
and the high general level of prosperity are reflected in the work of the Lands Branch,
which has shown an appreciable increase during the past year.
Industrial activity has had an effect in the disposition of Crown lands in view of the
fact that in various parts of the Province country lands have been changed to the category
of urban and residential properties. This necessitates, in many cases, the cancellation of
the plans of subdivision and a resubdivision of the lands into suitable lots of smaller areas.
The varied and extensive development in the forest industry has increased the
demand for suitable foreshore for wharf-sites, booming, and log storage. These requirements and the operations of other industries have resulted in keen competition for the
most favourable sites.   Especially is this the case in the lower coastal area.
In the programme of expansion by the Department of Highways and Railways and
the proposed hydro-electric development, various areas of Crown lands have been placed
under reserve in addition to sites set apart for the Federal Departments of Transport,
Public Works, etc.
Continuing the policy of selecting suitable areas for the use and recreation of the
public, alienation is withheld and reservations made of lands found suitable for this
purpose in all parts of the Province.
While all Crown lands disposed of require beneficial use of the same, lands disposed
of under agreement for sale require the purchaser to carry out permanent improvements
to a necessary value before title may be obtained.
By the maintenance of valuable records, an important service is given the public in
research and status covering the alienation and titles of lands, especially in the matter of
accretion and the beds of rivers and the change in their channels.
During the year, at the request of the Branch, an appraisal was carried out by the
office of the Surveyor of Taxes of property comprised in the Industrial Reserve, Victoria
City, within which leases are granted by this Branch. It is proposed to set lease rentals
in accordance with the up-to-date valuations furnished. The co-operation of the Surveyor
of Taxes in this matter is much appreciated.
The tables on the following pages indicate in detail the work carried out by the
Administration Division of this Branch. The report of the Inspection Division is presented
separately by the Chief Land Inspector.
Most sections of the Administration Division of the Lands Branch have shown an
increase in the volume of work during the past year. A brief outline of each section
follows:—
Purchase Section.—A total of 1,918 applications to purchase were received during the past year, an increase of 11 per cent over 1954. Sixteen public
auction sales of Crown lands were held in 1955, as compared to eleven
the previous year. The present staff of the Purchase Section is severely
taxed to handle the increased volume of work, which shows no sign of
decreasing. The situation has been kept in hand by additional temporary
assistance.
Lease Section.—Eight hundred and forty-one applications to lease were received
during the past year, an increase of 21 per cent over 1954. The number
of leases issued is 454, an increase of forty-one over the previous year.
There has been a marked increase in the number of contentious foreshore
lease applications that are most time-consuming in adjudication. X 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Crown Grant Section.—A total of 1,498 Crown grants were prepared during
1955, an increase of 17 per cent over the previous year, and 1,196 certificates of purchase were prepared, an increase of 18 per cent over the
previous year.   There has been a marked increase in the number of Crown
grants issued for mineral claims during 1955, which require more time in
preparation than do grants issued under the " Land Act."
Pre-emption and Reserve Section.—The actual number of applications for
reserves and pre-emption has decreased by 11 per cent during the present
year.   However, this has been offset by an increase in the complexity of
reserves being requested, especially from the Department of Highways.
Right-of-way Section.—During the past year 101 applications for easement of
right-of-way were received, and thirty-four applications allowed.   Many of
these applications are rather simple in nature; however, other applications
for transmission-line rights-of-way and natural-gas line rights-of-way take
many months to complete and require meticulous checking.
Status Section. — The present Status Section, comprising two men, has been
functioning quite satisfactorily for the past year.    During that time they
statused 4,914 acreage parcels and 8,489 town lots, in addition to carrying out 185 special status jobs of a more complicated nature;  also they
made 4,972 register entries.
The increase in work load of this Branch is also well illustrated by the number of
letters received and handled.    In 1955, 18,615 letters were received, as compared to
17,113 letters received in 1954, an increase of 9 per cent.   During the past year approximately 4,010 members of the general public and other Government branches were accommodated at the counter in connection with general or specific land inquiries.    The time
spent on each inquiry varies greatly between five minutes and several hours, with the
average being about twenty-five minutes.   It can thus be seen that approximately 1,700
hours are spent on counter work.   This represents the full-time services of one clerk for
the entire year.
In addition to the actual increase in the number of applications received by this
Branch, it is noted that there is a marked increase in the number of contentious applications and complex adjudications required. The amount of time spent on cases of this
nature is much greater than on routine applications and requires the personal attention
of the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent.
It became evident early in the year that the permanent staff would have difficulty in
keeping abreast of the work. Temporary assistance to assist in the Purchase Section was
therefore obtained, and two senior clerks from the Surveys and Mapping Branch were
loaned to this Branch on a full-time basis for four months and on a half-time basis for
the last four months of the year. The co-operation extended by the Surveys and Mapping
Branch and the services rendered by these men are much appreciated. LANDS BRANCH
STATISTICAL TABLES
Collections
Table 1.—Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1955
"Land Act"—
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc  $425,595.79
X 15
Land sales	
Sale of maps and aerial photos....
Water rentals and recording fees.
605,460.22
46,061.57
849,980.00
$1,927,097.58
Soldiers'Land Act"—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project.
Houses, South Vancouver	
$91,095.71
360.00
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act".
Refunds—advances and votes	
91,455.71
214,486.97
15,252.90
Total collections  $2,248,293.16 X 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CHART I. SOURCES OF COLLECTIONS, 1955
SEE TABLE  1  FOR DETAILS
Table 2.—Summary of Total Collections for Ten-year Period
jg46-55, Inclusive
$992,201.70
1,770,413.49
975,772.41
1,045,969.03
1,159,988.86
1,692,737.85
2,761,152.78
3,705,480.02
2,065,181.52
2,248,293.16
Total   $18,417,190.82
Ten-year average, $1,841,719.08. LANDS BRANCH
X 17
Table 3.—Sundry Revenue for the Year Ended December 31st, 1955
Collections under " Land Act"—
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc  $311,308.91
Crown-grant fees	
Occupational rental	
Improvements 	
Royalty 	
Reverted mineral claims.
Survey fees	
Sundry	
Total..
20,695.00
6,259.30
215.00
10,736.42
16,242.87
6,377.30
53,760.99
$425,595.79
Table 4.—Summary of Sundry Revenue Collections for Ten-year
Period 1946—55, Inclusive
1952
1953
1954
1955
Total
$207
262
288
322
387
916
1,694
1,608
330
425
,696.63
,760.93
,901.91
683.92
,435.19
338.98
,073.93
,773.65
397.09
595.79
Ten-year average, $644,465.80.
$6,444,658.02
Table 5.—Miscellaneous Collections, 1955
Collections under " Houses, South Vancouver "—
Principal    	
Interest  $3 60.00
Administration     	
Taxes    	
Insurance
Refunds—advances and votes.
Total	
$360.00
15,252.90
$15,612.90 X 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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X 19
Table 7.—Country Land Sales, 1955
Surveyed  Acres
First class     3,256.94
Second class  24,532.32
Third class   30,341.34
Unsurveyed
Total.
58,130.60
7,947.98
66,078.58
Table 8.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1955
Land Recording District
Alberni       	
Number of Sales
        26
Atlin
        15
Cranbrook           _.               _   .        ____ ..
___     _____    _____   _       19
Fernie
___                    6
Fort Fraser          . _         .
___           _„_           49
Fort George
185
Golden      ._.              ...              _._
____        ____   _       14
Kamloops
___                    56
Kaslo     ._ _.     _______         .     	
___                      10
Lillooet    ....             . .       _   	
___               126
Nanaimo     	
        30
Nelson       ...       _ _       ...      	
14
New Westminster .            	
24
Osoyoos   _-.      	
        29
Peace River                   _ _.
           133
Prince Rupert
___       ___                      36
Quesnel      ..         _ _.       .   .___   	
101
Revelstoke      .         __ ___. 	
___    .     .     _       10
Similkameen  ____       _
    __       61
Smithers         	
          70
Teleeranh Creek      __
Vancouver  _                      _
___                        51
Victoria              - _
___    _ ___         _             19
Total	
  1,084 X 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1955
Town
Alberni _ 	
Lots
70
Alice Arm	
                2
Anaconda    	
               4
Athalmer	
             1
Atlin     	
28
Barriere _ __                  	
4
Beaverdell  _ _   	
             2
Bella Coola     	
„    _               2
Blue River       __ 	
           11
Carmi   __ _               _   __
26
Clinton   	
        37
Coalmont _   __           	
              2
Cranbrook       .
          2
Cumberland 	
          2
Endako                _
4
Esquimalt   	
          2
Fernie   ______    _ _ _
1
Finmore           	
_                 2
Fort Fraser
8
Fruitvale       ___          . _ _
6
Golden   	
          5
Hazelton
45
Hope             —        __ _ _
18
Hosmer     _                     _____
_   ___                  1
Houston
4
Invermere
1
Kaleden
3
Ladysmith             _ 	
          2
Lone Butte
____   __           2
Masset                _
          6
Merri ft      _             . 	
                 2
Midway   _          _   __ _   	
Moyie                  _                   _ _
6
           4
Nakusp              _           _    __   _
          3
Nanaimo
3
Naramata                    -
          8
Nelson
          1
New Hazelton             __
        63
Olalla                                	
             1
Port Edward       - _        ~ _   .
             1
Port Hammond
          1
Port Hardy	
          3
Pouce Coupe      	
          3
Prince George    _        	
      344
Prince Rupert
          6
Princeton
          9
Queen Charlotte              — _
          3
Quesnel              _   	
          4
Shawnigan Lake	
Sidney 	
          4
          4
Value
$785.00
100.00
100.00
35.00
1,970.00
160.00
60.00
200.00
1,750.00
340.00
3,160.00
100.00
50.00
225.00
100.00
900.00
75.00
40.00
300.00
5.00
120.00
440.00
4,010.00
25.00
225.00
190.00
175.00
700.00
100.00
150.00
100.00
220.00
300.00
425.00
150.00
200.00
600.00
320.00
25.00
175.00
10.95
500.00
265.00
90,101.00
5,520.00
265.00
105.00
700.00
100.00
160.00 Table 9.-
Town
Skidegate	
Smithers
LANDS BRANCH
—Town Lots Sold, 1955—Continued
Lots                                  Value
          2                      $50.00
             145                    3.370.00
South Wellington
Stewart           _   _ _
        12
650.00
            12
240.00
Taylor 	
Telegraph Creek
          2
150.00
1
50.00
Telkwa 	
Topley 	
Trail    .      	
        28
                            14
220.00
195.00
                      2
460.00
Tulameen      _   	
               28
1,395.00
Vananda   	
        10
745.00
Vancouver	
          1
175.00
Vanderhoof   	
          1
135.00
Victoria       __ _ 	
               1
2,010.00
Walhachin     	
__                              3
180.00
Wells      _
  M            l
150.00
Wilmer 	
Yahk
          4
__                     5
60.00
75.00
Yale    __-      	
__                        1
150.00
Youbou 	
Miscellaneous 	
          1
        90
255.00
2,426.00
Totals
  1,140
$129,972.95
X 21
Table 10.—Land-sales Collections, 1955 (Collections under
"Land Act" (Principal and Interest))
Country lands—
Reverted   $156,637.71
Crown      295,878.74
Town lots 	
Surface rights of mineral claims.
Pre-empted lands 	
Indian reserve cut-off	
$452,516.45
139,293.55
1,204.15
655.27
11,800.00
Total.
$605,469.42 X 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CHART 2. SOURCES OF LAND SALES COLLECTIONS,  1955
SEE TABLE   10 FOR DETAILS
Table 11.—Summary of Land Sales for Ten-year Period
1946-55, Inclusive
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
$368,088.19
811,752.23
379,650.48
375,254.88
366,458.62
382,256.61
619,263.14
594,004.08
488,303.49
605,469.42
Total  $4,990,501.14
Ten-year average, $499,050.11. LANDS BRANCH
X 23
Leases
Table 12.—New Leases Issued, 1955
Number
Hay and grazing  158
Agriculture  20
Quarrying, sand, gravel, etc  16
Home-site  7
Booming and log storage  39
Oyster, clam, and shell-fish  13
Cannery 	
Fish-trap—salmon-fishing station	
Foreshore—miscellaneous 	
Miscellaneous	
Totals_
24
34
311
Acreage
56,136.44
6,392.42
2,651.06
105.50
804.67
373.88
165.97
565.28
67,195.22
Table 13.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1955
Number  62
Acreage  3,625.3 8
Number
Acreage
Table 14.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1955
25
88.58
Number
Table 15.—Licences of Occupation Issued, 1955
U
Acreage   201.69
Table 16.—Assignments Approved, 1955
189
Table 17.-
Foreshore—
Electric-power lines
Sewer outlet 	
-Easements Granted, 1955
Number                  Miles
7               2.322
     1              0.144
Acres
9.702
0.28
Totals 	
     8              2.466
9.982
Land—
Electric-power lines
Oil pipe-lines	
9            57.307
     1              0.008
1,281.043
0.005
Telephone-lines 	
     2              1.130
3.987
Access road	
     1            22.600
Water pipe-line	
     1              0.025
0.090
Totals	
  14            81.070
1,284.125
Grand totals	
  22            83.536
1,294.107 X 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 18.—Sundry Lease Collections ("Land Act")
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc._
Occupational rentals 	
Royalty 	
Total.
$311,308.91
6,259.30
10,736.42
$328,304.63
1946__
1947-
1948-
1949-
1950-
1951 _
1952__
1953-
1954__
1955__
Table 19.—Summary of Home-site Lease Collections
for Ten-year Period, 1946-55, Inclusive
     $2,
       2
       2
       1
Total
109.86
,932.25
,265.74
,926.99
,040.33
,123.65
,398.80
,394.30
,562.60
,267.52
Ten-year average, $1,902.20
$19,022.04
Pre-emptions
Table 20.—Pre-emption Records, 1955
Land Recording District
Pre-emption Records
Allowed
Number
Ten-year
Average
Pre-emption Records
Cancelled
Number
Ten-year
Average
Certificates of Improvements Issued
Number
Ten-year
Average
Alberni.
Atlin.	
Cranbrook.	
Fernie.. _
Fort Fraser...
Fort George-
Golden	
Kamloops.-—
Kaslo -	
Lillooet	
Nanaimo,.	
Nelson	
New Westminster..
Osoyoos— 	
Peace River	
Prince Rupert	
Quesnel	
Revelstoke	
Similkameen	
Smithers	
Telegraph Creek-
Vancouver	
Victoria 	
Totals-
32
5
1
48
0.3
0.3
0.1
4.5
2
13.5
2
2.1
2
3.7
1
13.3
5
0.7
0.2
0.9
1
0.9
79.3
36
0.3
1
16.1
2
1.0
1.6
	
0.6
	
139.4
52
150.0
0.9
	
7.3
2
22.6
2.2
7.6
19.8
4
1.5
0.8
5.8
1.5
1
49.2
32
0.1
21.2
2
5.4
2.1
2.0
0.1
~07
0.1
3.8
9.2
1.5
5.6
0.1
9.0
0.7
0.3
3.1
2.1
40.9
0.6
10.2
1.3
1.8
1.0
~1~2
0.3
93.6 LANDS BRANCH
Table 21.—General Summary of Pre-emption Records
X 25
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Ten Years
Total
Average
Pre-emption records allowed.
Certificate of improvements
issued -	
283
131
284
105
171
108
145
109
141
133
85
92
87
69
53
77
97
71
48
41
1,394
936
139.4
93.6
Crown Grants
Table 22.—Crown Grants Issued, 1955
Purchases (other than town lots)  549
  520
  43
  158
  144
  3
  21
  14
  9
  2
  6
  9
  20
Town lots	
Pre-emptions 	
Mineral claims (other than reverted)
Mineral claims (reverted)	
University Endowment Lands	
" Public Schools Act"	
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act" _____
Home-site leases	
Supplementary timber grants	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Surface rights (" Mineral Act")	
Miscellaneous 	
Total
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 6.
1,498
Table 23.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Total
Ten-year average, 1,824
2,203
2,577
2,063
1,602
1,580
1,740
1,872
1,829
1,276
1,498
18,240 X 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 24.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1955
Acres
Purchases of surveyed Crown land (other than town lots) 44,033.55
Pre-emptions   6,756.12
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  6,070.86
Mineral claims (reverted)  5,860.81
" Public Schools Act"  36.48
Supplementary timber grants  187.00
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  360.21
"Veterans' Land Settlement Act"  1,481.28
Home-site leases  148.50
Surface rights ("Mineral Act")  308.58
Miscellaneous   698.42
Total  65,941.81
Reserves
Table 25.—Reserves Established, 1955
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  206
British  Columbia  Public Works  Department   (rights-of-way,
gravel-pits, warehouses, etc.)  61
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites, etc.)  39
Miscellaneous (Forest Service Ranger stations, road access, reforestation, etc., Game Commission, water-power projects) 86
Total  392
Sundry Collections, 1955
Table 26.—Collections under the "Soldiers' Land Act"—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
Principal  $8,670.85
Interest   1,031.40
Lease rentals  1,176.00
Realizations — 3,636.33
Water rates—
Oliver domestic  $22,536.62
Irrigation      54,044.51
  76,581.13
Total  $91,095.71 LANDS BRANCH
X 27
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►JO Land Inspection Division
Photographs Illustrating Typical Land Examinations Made
Throughout the Province
Summer camp-site at Francois Lake in Central British Columbi.
**
i%» ^
Grazing lease in ranching country near Williams Lake. LANDS BRANCH
X 29
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P.Ag., Chief Land Inspector
In reporting on the various activities of this Division over the past year, it is revealed
once again that the demand for Crown land is keeping pace with the expanding economy
of the Province. Access to the hinterland is being made possible through the network of
new and improved roads. Fresh-water lakes heretofore only visited by the trapper or
prospector are becoming increasingly popular for summer-home sites and recreational
purposes. Access to the rich undeveloped agricultural land in the Peace River Block of
British Columbia is being aided greatly by oil and gas exploration companies. In many
sections of the Province rural electrification is making it possible for the farmer and
industrialist alike to enjoy the conveniences of the city dweller.
The important function that the Land Inspection Division performs was further
recognized this year when several members of the staff were assigned special duties in
addition to land examination work. Several of the more important of these special
assignments included serving on the Board of Arbitration under the "Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act"; evaluating lands, buildings, and services for remunerative purposes in
the area encompassed by the proposed Libby Dam project; research work in co-operation
with the Department of Finance on a formula for computing foreshore lease rentals to
bring them in line with true values; and a survey of alternate booming-grounds in the
Vancouver-Pender Harbour area.
Competitive and contentious applications for Crown land are on the increase. This
can be attributed to the over-all expanding economy of the Province in relationship to
the desirable Crown land available. This type of examination entails more field work
and correspondence than routine inspections to enable the Land Inspector to present all
aspects of the case, thereby assisting in lightening the load of adjudication. In the lower
coastal areas there is keen competition between towing and logging industries for log-
booming grounds and other industrial use of foreshore. Since many of these applications
are within densely populated municipalities, many agencies are involved and it takes
several weeks, or even months in some instances, to arrive at an amicable settlement
satisfactory to all parties concerned.
STAFF
C. T. W. Hyslop, formerly Land Inspector—Grade 2, New Westminster, was
appointed Assistant Chief Land Inspector, effective October 1st, 1955, to replace D.
Borthwick, who had been acting in the capacity of Assistant Superintendent of Lands
since June, 1954, and was appointed Assistant Superintendent of Lands, effective April
1st, 1955. In effect, the Inspection Division headquarters necessarily operated for fifteen
months without the benefit of an Assistant Chief Land Inspector prior to October 1st,
1955.
J. D. F. Kidd, Land Inspector—Grade 1, Vanderhoof, left the service June 24th,
1955, to accept employment with the Federal Government service. Following Mr. Kidd's
resignation, the Vanderhoof office was temporarily closed as there was not sufficient local
work to warrant keeping a full-time Land Inspector in this district. The Vanderhoof
work is now handled from the Prince George Land Inspection Office, and the vacancy
on the staff complement was transferred to Williams Lake, as noted below.
Two Assistant Land Inspectors—namely, K. Berza and D. I. Snider, both university
graduates in agriculture—were employed for four months during the summer to aid
inspection work in the Kootenay and Cariboo areas. D. I. Snider was later appointed
Land Inspector—Grade 1, with headquarters at Williams Lake, effective September 1st,
1955, to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of J. D. F. Kidd. X 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Foreshore lease for booming and log storage in coastal waters.
Pre-emption in the Peace River District. LANDS BRANCH X 31
The Inspection Division followed the usual practice of transferring senior men to
preferred districts when vacancies occurred through promotions or resignations. As the
result of C. T. W. Hyslop's promotion to Assistant Chief Land Inspector, Victoria, four
other Land Inspectors' headquarters were affected; namely, G. H. Wilson was transferred
from Fort St. John to Pouce Coupe, J. S. Gilmore from Pouce Coupe to Clinton, J. S. D.
Smith from Clinton to Nelson, and W. R. Redel from Nelson to New Westminster.
Land Inspectors W. A. Minion, Kamloops, and R. F. Gilmour, Quesnel, were promoted from Grade 1 to Grade 2 Land Inspectors, effective April 1st, 1955, and Land
Inspector W. B. Stewart was promoted from Grade 1 to Grade 2, effective October 1st,
1955, due to a Grade 2 vacancy being created in the establishment through the promotion
of C. T. W. Hyslop. As the result of W. B. Stewart's promotion from Grade 1 to Grade
2 Land Inspector, there exists one Grade 1 Land Inspector vacancy on the staff which
has not been filled to date due to a delay in finding a suitable candidate.
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND INSTRUCTION
A three-day conference was held in Victoria, March 9th to 11th, 1955, to fulfil the
pressing need of instruction and training in policy and procedure to improve the liaison
between the field and administrative level of the Lands Service staff. To emphasize the
wide range of problems encountered by the Land Inspectors during the course of their
duties, papers were presented by E. S. Jones, Deputy Minister of Highways; W. F. Veitch,
Surveyor of Taxes, Department of Finance; R. G. McKee, Assistant Chief Forester; and
other senior Forest Service personnel. In addition to participants from other branches of
the Government service, senior members of the Lands Service presented a wide range
of papers on various functions of the Department. The conference was climaxed by a
timber-cruising field-trip supervised by Forest Service personnel.
The conference was most fruitful in that it provided a thorough discussion on policy
and problems involved in land examination work. The end result has been a higher
standard of efficiency and work performance by the Land Inspection staff.
L X 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LAND INSPECTION
Land inspections carried out during the year 1955 are tabulated as follows:
Purchases—
Agricultural and grazing  463
Home-sites   281
Industrial and commercial  70
Camp-sites and resorts  110
Wood-lots  8
Miscellaneous  8 8
Leases—
Land—■
Agricultural  7 3
Home-sites   24
Industrial and commercial  28
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc.  21
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  158
Miscellaneous  14
1,020
318
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage     96
Industrial and commercial     58
Oyster and shell-fish     10
Miscellaneous     3 3
      197
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc        34
Pre-emptions—•
Applications     51
Annual inspections  231
      282
Subdivisions—
Valuations     48
Survey inspections       3
Plans cancellation       2
        53
Reserves         22
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "        13
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification       4
Valuations       8
        12
Miscellaneous inspections      213
Total  2,164 LANDS BRANCH
X 33
SUMMARY
The number of requests for land examinations remained fairly steady throughout the
Province. There were 2,151 requests for examinations this year, as compared to 2,313
in 1954. The most significant increase in applications for Crown land was in the Howe
Sound, Sechelt Peninsula, and Squamish areas of the Vancouver District. This was
probably due to the highway and Pacific Great Eastern Railway construction programme
in this vicinity.
Total land examinations required this year, inclusive of annual pre-emntion insr.ec-
tions and carry-over from the previous year, was 2,957, as compared to 3,187 in 1954.
Despite the late spring, wet summer, early snowfall in October, and very cold spell
during the middle of November, 2,164 examinations were completed this year, as
compared to 2,196 in 1954.
Outstanding examinations at November 30th, 1955, were 846, as compared to 631
the previous year. Factors contributing to this year's up-swing in outstanding examinations are the large number of requests sent to the field staff during the latter part of the
year and the back-log of examinations due to poor road conditions as the result of
inclement weather, unfilled vacancy on the staff due to a delay in finding a suitable
replacement, and the transfer of field personnel during the summer working season when
vacancies occurred through promotions or resignations. It is hoped that the Inspection
Division will be in a position to operate this coming season with a full staff in order
to reduce the number of outstanding inspections as well as keep pace with current
examinations.  SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Note 2
THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Because the activities of man are kept orderly through a well-defined system of land
surveys, the Surveys and Mapping Branch is called upon to act as the connecting-link that binds
together many primary operations within departments of government and between government
and the general public.
Specifically, through land surveys, Crown and other lands, including water, are located and
identified accurately on the surface of the Province, and so made ready for alienation in any of
a variety of different ways. Further, a background of suitable maps and survey data is provided
to assist in the intelligent development of lands so acquired, and in the wise administration of
the natural resources associated with them.
In post-war years a great upsurge in the economic development of British Columbia's
natural resources has taken place. Each year shows increased activity in the disposition of
Crown lands for various purposes, ranging from the smallest individual application for a home-
site to industrial requirements involving many square miles of land.
In any of these transactions the Surveys and Mapping Branch plays an important part,
because it has the responsibility of clearing, as to status, all such applications for Crown lands,
whether small or large. This function involves complete record-keeping of all official survey
data by all sources, including a graphic record of all Crown-land alienations, whether surveyed
or unsurveyed.
Equally important, on the other hand, is the responsibility for the establishment, extension,
and recording of mapping control. These basic duties prescribe, among other things, the preparation of basic triangulation networks and aerial photography at suitable scales, the making of
control traverses, the delineation and maintenance of interprovincial boundaries, and the production of standard photo-topographic mapping, interim base-mapping, and cadastral surveys of
Crown lands.   The data are then condensed and presented in lithograph map form.
The main objectives, then, of the Surveys and Mapping Branch are first to provide
complete, accurate, and readily available maps on adequate scales with allied data, for
administrative control of resources and Crown-land transactions, and, secondly, to maintain this information up to date by keeping abreast of continuous cultural development.
A survey inventory of such a standard is obviously of primary advantage in encouraging
the present development of our natural resources, and further developments which seem "just
around the corner."
A brief summary of the functions of the Branch follows, and the breakdown is provided
by Divisions:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four Divisions of the Branch, being
Legal, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of boundaries under
the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British Columbia Boundary and
(£>) British Columbia-Yukon-North west Territories Boundary.
II. Legal Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial Acts, such as
Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to British Columbia
land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check of field-notes and plan
returns of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation and maintenance of
Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and composite (cadastral) maps; clearance by status of all applications concerning Crown lands; field surveys and inspections of
Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions as required; operation of blue-print and photostat sections.
III. Geographic Division.—Map compilation, drawing, editing, and reproduction; map
checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of British Columbia; field and culture
surveys for preparation of lands bulletins and map areas; preparation of legal descriptions for
and delineating administrative boundaries; editing and distribution of annual Lands Report;
trigonometric computation and recording of same; general liaison between this Department
and Federal and other mapping agencies on exchange of survey and mapping data.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field control—namely, triangulation, traverses,
photo-topographic control; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts for standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and multiplex mapping and other special
projects.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of
three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial air-photo library;
compilation of interim aerial base maps, primarily for British Columbia forest inventory; tri-
camera control propagation; multiplex aerial mapping of precise large-scale detail projects;
instrument-shop for repairs, maintenance, and development of technical equipment. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH X 37
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S.,
Director, Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
Activity in the Surveys and Mapping Branch continued unabated during 1955, and
in some phases showed appreciable increase.
The extensive network of triangulation commenced three years ago in North-eastern
British Columbia was completed by the Topographic Division. It was designed to provide
survey control, over some 25,000 square miles of previously unsurveyed lands, for locations under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act." The unusual features of this
programme have been described in previous Reports and are further summarized in the
report of the Topographic Division herewith. Another season of this work is anticipated
to tidy up an unsurveyed tract lying south of the Peace River Block and east of the Rocky
Mountain divide, where interest under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act " is active.
Prevalence of cloudy weather reduced the 1955 harvest of basic high-altitude airphoto cover, but the Air Division drew from its store of photography garnered in years of
more benign weather for a record production of interim maps, covering some 43,000
square miles. Low-altitude photography for special engineering projects, less fastidious
in weather requirements, reached an all-time high in small sporadic areas over the
Province. The basic-cover air-photo programme is now progressing into the northern
third of the Province, between the 56th and 60 parallels of north latitude. The importance of obtaining good air-photo cover of this region for resources inventories and
development planning will be appreciated. A serious handicap is the non-existence there
of landing-strips for the photo aircraft. This large tract of country, comprising the watersheds of the Stikine and Finlay Rivers and the headwaters of the Nass and Skeena Rivers,
some 54,000 square miles, is in its entirety farther than 100 miles from any standard air
base. This situation adds materially to the cost and danger of air-photo operations from
airfields along the Alaska Highway to the north and east, or from those along the Canadian
National Railway to the south. Possibilities of building a preliminary airstrip long enough
for the Anson V aircraft at the south end of Dease Lake are being investigated. Such a
strip would mitigate the difficulty considerably in the west, but would still leave a large
void centred on the Upper Finlay River area.
The Geographic Division, performing a wide variety of services, had a busy and
productive year. The Computing Section has not only kept pace with preliminary and
final adjustment of the Topographic Division's accelerated triangulation returns, but has
computed precise geographic co-ordinates for a large number of permit corner specifications under section 34 (2) of the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act." The publication of
Map Ik, Southwest British Columbia, second in the series of six sheets, at 10-miles-per-
inch scale, has been favourably received by all map-users. Map distribution to the public
reached an all-time high during 1955.
The Legal Surveys Division showed a pronounced increase in most of its activities
during the year. Demand for blue-print services was up 40 per cent over 1954, and
photostats were practically doubled. Clearances for purchase and lease of Crown lands
increased by 14 and 56 per cent respectively, and output of land examination sketches
was up by 60 per cent. The new regulation under section 80 of the " Land Registry Act"
providing for inspection of surveys and plans became effective early in the year. Two
field inspections and thirty-one plan examinations were made, most of which showed that
the requests for this service were well conceived.
Field work under the authority of the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories
Boundary Commission was carried out by a party under the direction of W. N. Papove,
B.C.L.S., D.L.S., ALS. This party successfully closed a 66-mile gap in the north boundary of British Columbia between Astrofix F 1 on the Beaver River, 30 miles west of the X 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Liard River, and Astrofix N 6 at Smith River where this stream crosses the 60th parallel
of north latitude. By virtue of special efforts made in 1953 to tie in the east and west
terminals of the gap to the triangulation structure, and further work on the latter during
1954, it was possible to compute predicted chords and bearings for the new boundary,
such that the usual practice of having to first run a trial line over the gap between the
terminal points was eliminated. Advantage was taken, however, of the availability of a
helicopter for a week at the beginning of the 1955 season to carry through an azimuth
check along the proximity of the projected line by instrumental observations from high
ground propitiously situated. This check indicated a small correction of some 13 seconds
of arc to the predicted over-all azimuth. The final closure achieved at the west end after
the boundary was run on this basis was less than 3 feet in a total distance of 66 miles, a
remarkable result which confirmed the value of triangulation structures progressively
being established in the Province, the intelligent use of them for a specific case such as
this, and the high quality of the survey done by Mr. Papove and his party, under difficult
and arduous circumstances.
Remaining work to be done on the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary is a retrace-
ment survey of the section from Teslin Lake west to the Tatshenshini River, a distance of
some 160 miles, which may take three or four seasons by a single party. This section was
originally surveyed shortly after the Klondyke gold-rush some fifty years ago. The accuracy, the condition of the monuments, and the growth of timber on the old line all indicate
the necessity for resurvey to meet present-day standards. By the time this retracement is
completed, a decision may be in order whether to tackle the furthermost westerly 80 miles,
beyond the Tatshenshini River, which has never been surveyed, due to extreme inaccessibility, and to the prevalence of high, ice-burdened mountains in that region.
Field surveys to complete the establishment of the Alberta-British Columbia
Boundary along the northern part of the 120th meridian were commenced in 1950 and
concluded in lanuary, 1953. Field inspection, preparation of twelve final map-sheets,
and the Commission's report followed. Early in 1955 the necessary legislation to accept
the boundary as surveyed and established was prepared for and was enacted by the two
Provincial Legislatures, following which the boundary was duly confirmed by Act of the
Parliament of Canada. This boundary divides an enormous tract of country, until recent
years considered an abject wilderness but now believed to contain a high potential of
petroleum and natural-gas resources, between the two Provinces. It will also serve as a
strong member of survey control on which tenures for exploration and extraction of
hydrocarbon resources may be tied. It is noteworthy that the triangulation scheme recently completed on the British Columbia side of this boundary has tied in to the boundary
monuments at several points, and in particular to the terminal point at the 60th parallel,
marking the north-east corner of British Columbia and the north-west corner of Alberta.
Preliminary computations of the 1955 triangulation indicate that this end point is some
153 feet north and 58 feet east of the true intersection of the geodetic meridian and
parallel, based on the 1927 North American Datum. It should be explained that both
the 120th meridian and 60th parallel in the original instance for boundary purposes
were by necessity fixed by astronomic positions, which are subject to anomalies sufficiently
large to contain the theoretic closure quoted above. Then, too, the triangulation tie itself
is subject to a certain residual probable error, but of appreciably less magnitude than
that of the astrofixes.
ADMINISTRATION
Although satisfaction is felt that the Branch as a whole has met the challenge of
work and problems expected of it during the past year with a degree of success, it is
necessary to report that this has been achieved in the face of difficulties, and at the cost
of having to leave some important activities in abeyance, to a degree approaching neglect
in some instances. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH X 39
The Legal Surveys Division has been unable to maintain the proper upkeep of its
indispensable stock of Departmental reference maps, such that wear and tear of the
master tracings begin to compromise their legibility, a vital hazard to status clearances
for all dealings in Crown lands. The Geographic Division has had to postpone revision
of such a valuable map as the 1948 edition of the 27-miles-per-inch Ij of the Province
on one sheet, now obsolescent. The Topographic Division has been diverted for a third
year from its traditional and primary function of standard topographic mapping. The Air
Division, while quoting an impressive output of its interim maps, has not been able to
advance its procedures to include a much-desired modicum of contouring on these
valuable maps.
Offsetting the benefits of improved organization, advancement of training, and
accumulation of experience, all of which contribute to efficiency, losses of staff during
the year have been unprecedented. Exclusive of involuntary separations, such as statutory retirements and the regrettable death of one senior employee, thirty-one resignations
were sustained, representing an aggregate of 139 years' service in the Branch, or an
average of four and one-half years each. These losses occurred in the following categories: Draughtsmen, 9; technical survey assistants, 9; clerical, 2; secretarial, 3; aircraft
pilot, 1; aircraft mechanics, 2; blue-print assistants, 2; and British Columbia land surveyors (senior), 3. Four of these people transferred to better positions in the Provincial
Civil Service, six went into public service other than the Provincial Civil Service, and the
balance went to private industry. The total of thirty-one represents more than 15 per
cent of the permanent establishment of the Branch.
It was also necessary to lend the part-time services of two senior supervisory men
to another branch in the Department to help liquidate a mounting back-log of routine
work there.
The appointment of A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., as Assistant Director of Surveys
and Mapping, effective from April 1st, 1955, was a primary gain in the problem of
administration of this large and complicated Branch. Mr. Ralfs joined the Service in
1930 as apprentice in the Geographic Division, and served with distinction as well in the
Legal Surveys and Topographic Divisions. Besides helping with general supervision of
the Branch, he gives special attention to staff relations, co-ordination of operations among
the four divisions, and to survey problems arising from new legislation such as the
" Petroleum and Natural Gas Act" and arising from new developments as affected by
the older Statutes.
By Order in Council No. 1151, the Director of Surveys and Mapping was appointed
to the Fraser River Board as of April 1st, 1955.
The retirement of W. H. Hutchinson and H. A. Tomalin on superannuation occurred
during the year. Mr. Hutchinson was Chief of the Geographic Division and accredited
member for British Columbia of the Canadian Board on Geographical Names. He joined
the Branch in 1920 and specialized in the mathematical computations of adjusting survey
control to the spheroidal North American Datum (1927). The fact that he left a skilled
and well-trained staff to carry on the highly specialized work of the Geographic Division
is eloquent testimony of his high attainments and the esteem with which he was regarded
by all.   Mr. Hutchinson was succeeded by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Mr. Tomalin joined the Surveys and Mapping Branch as Chief Clerk in 1953 after
some forty years' prior service in the Department. He was noted for thorough and
meticulous attention to the records under his charge.
The untimely death of W. G. Thorpe, Supervisor of Map Production in the Geographic Division, with over thirty-five years' service was a grievous loss to the Branch.
Respectfully submitted herewith are the usual separate reports of each of the four
divisions of the Branch and a special report on some survey problems by A. H. Ralfs,
Assistant Director. X 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ON PROBLEMS OF THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
By A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., Assistant Director,
Surveys and Mapping Branch
It would seem quite normal that a large branch such as this should encounter problems in connection with the many activities with which it is concerned, particularly during
the post-war period of such great and increasing activity. Many of the problems, of
course, concern other branches or departments equally as much as this one, but the
service nature of the Surveys and Mapping Branch finds it in closer co-operation with
other departments than would normally be the case, and seems to ensure that as well as
experiencing satisfaction over projects successfully completed, it must also share in the
worry of solving problems sometimes created thereby.
One of the most interesting problems with which we have been concerned for the
past three years has been that of propagating control for oil and gas locations over some
25,000 square miles of muskeg lands in North-east British Columbia. This project has
been described quite fully in previous Reports but deserves brief mention here for two
reasons: Firstly, the past year has seen the completion on schedule of our objective set
in the spring of 1953 and, secondly, a few problems have arisen thereby.
Throughout the course of this great project, and since its completion, our Geographic
Division has carried a large share of the load, inasmuch as besides normal duties it is
called upon to meet all requests for control for the oil industry. Besides being able to
supply co-ordinates for the hundreds of triangulation stations and other points over the
area, calculations have been made for the thousands of centizone unit corners comprising
the underlying geographical grid as well as calculating the areas of each centizone unit.
Most of the oil permits in North-east British Columbia were located before the adoption
of the grid system, so that some minor revisions to certain permit boundaries have had
to be made to eliminate small gaps and overlaps inadvertently created. These are now
being gazetted as specifications of permit boundaries prepared over the Surveyor-General's
signature, under authority of section 34 (2) of the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act."
Because of the extreme urgency of the oil industry, another problem has been created
in that at the present time two sets of co-ordinates are having to be calculated and
maintained.
When the oil activity began there was no basic geodetic control throughout the area,
much less such control being on a final datum. All of the calculations accordingly have
been based on what is known as the " Prince George non-closure final," on which datum
the positions are preliminary only and differ in varying amounts up to about 90 feet from
the final datum positions. Concurrent with our own programme, the Geodetic Survey
of Canada has been active and has recently produced a final datum adjustment throughout
the area, which is now enabling all adjacent survey data to be converted to same in the
normal course of procedure.
In the meantime, of course, our heavy programme of the last three years has produced a tremendous crop of triangulation and other control, but, as explained, this has
all been calculated on the preliminary datum. On this datum necessarily are based all of
the oil permits, many co-ordinates of which are already calculated. The demand for this
data is currently heavy and increasing, so that there is no alternative but to continue calculating consistently on this same datum. At the same time the triangulation control is
being systematically converted to final datum, so that in effect we are committed at present,
and until the pressure eases, to maintaining two systems of co-ordinates—one for temporary use in oil locations and the other for standard mapping control and all other
requirements.
Another allied problem, not yet too much of a reality, but one which can now be
foreseen, concerns the great amount of impending work for British Columbia land sur- SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 41
veyors in connection with anticipated surveys of oil and gas leases, as well as continuing
activity in well-site surveys. Although the Branch is justifiably proud of the rapid introduction of a sound survey structure to this area, previously devoid in this respect, by
normal standards it must nevertheless be classified as sparse compared to many other areas
of the Province. Individual surveys correspondingly will take longer to complete, and
this, coupled with a looming shortage of British Columbia land surveyors, confirms this
particular problem. The solution is not yet evident, but some thought is being given to
the possibility of using photogrammetric plotting methods to break down the gaps, which
average 12 to 15 miles between the existing stations. Special photography and precision
bridging-machines would be required, which would be able to plot the long strips of
territory between any two existing controls. This would result in co-ordinates being
available to the surveyor for any points visible on the photographs. The points chosen
would be ones in the area of oil locations to be surveyed and, of course, would be very
definite ones which could be located on the ground. Possibly such positions would check
out to be accurate to within 100 feet in horizontal position, which would seem to be
acceptable for the particular oil-industry requirements involved. The greatest concern,
however, over such a solution lies with that one important step, namely, that of accurate
identification on the ground of the air-photo point.
Another most interesting problem which has been giving considerable trouble and
involves our Legal Surveys Division is that of the location of high-water mark both on
tidal and inland waters. Since the recent introduction of the Surveyor-General's Regulation No. 29, issued under the authority of the " Land Registry Act" and covering the
inspection of surveys and (or) plans by the Surveyor-General, many more cases involving
this trouble are coming to light.
Basically the problem is that in making certain subdivisions of parcels of land containing water boundaries, the total of the subdivided area is more than was in the original
title being subdivided. Under the Torrens system of land registration as adopted by this
Province, it is stated that " the registration of land shall in the first instance be according
to the description contained in the Crown grant thereof (section 72, " Land Registry
Act"). That is to say, the original Crown grant, to whatever waterwards boundary it
may have extended, sets up the title, which then becomes a matter under the charge of
the Land Registry Office concerned. A subdivision may involve a portion of the parcel
or the whole of the parcel, but certainly not more than the parcel, otherwise the basic
concept of the Torrens system has been contravened.
It is quite obvious that the current interpretation of average high-water mark is the
proper criterion for current surveys of new Crown grants, but no such assumption is
authorized under the " Land Registry Act " for subdivision surveys of existing titles. In
other words, the surveyor should not expect the legal limits of his subdivision to necessarily conform to the average high-water mark as he finds it.
In the great majority of these cases, the encroachment beyond the original parcel's
boundary is upon a strip of Crown land, be it unsurveyed land, foreshore, or bed of water
for which no Crown grant has yet been issued, and, therefore, for which no title has been
set up in the Land Registry Office. Apart from such cases being a direct contravention
of the " Land Registry Act," this Branch is most concerned because, by the registration
of such a subdivision plan, the title to the strip of land in question automatically passes
from the Crown to the subdivider and thus eliminates potential Crown revenue from the
sale or lease of the said strip. As might be expected, the value of such lost lands being
water-front strips is generally now comparatively high. Once registered, very little chance
exists for this property to be returned to the Crown unless by a decision of a Court of law.
It is readily admitted that differences of opinion exist as to the extent of title of
parcels bordering on inland waters where most of these difficulties occur. Although most
opinions, including those of Government departments concerned, believe that average X 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
high-water mark is the limit, there are others who favour low-water mark, and many of
the cases giving trouble are merely manifestations of this latter concept. After reading
the " Land Registry Act," no one can deny that the original Crown grant is the root of
the title, and that subsequent subdivisions must therefore conform to the limits, whatever
they may be, of this Crown grant.
Actually for current Crown-land surveys the requirements, including delineation of
water boundaries, are sufficient to subsequently enable accurate retracements to be made.
Unfortunately some of the older Crown grants are very difficult, if not impossible, for
accurate retracement, especially along their water boundaries. Subdivisions of such grants
have undoubtedly resulted in considerable encroachment on Crown lands in the manner
already described. The Registrars in the past unfortunately have not had sufficient data
to check, or for that matter suspect that this encroachment was taking place, so that the
plans became registered in due course, ensuring the new titles of relative invulnerability
to attack.
It should be remarked that the above-mentioned encroachments on Crown land can
be accounted for in several ways:—
(a) At the time of the original Crown-grant survey, when land was plentiful
and cheap, the strip could have been considered marginal land and simply
excluded from the survey and grant:
(b) Formed by natural accretion subsequent to the original survey:
(c) Formed by man-made fill subsequent to the original survey:
(_.) The result of denudation; that is, formed by the lowering of the adjoining
body of water subsequent to the original survey:—
(i)  From natural causes:
(ii)  From man-made causes such as flood-control:
(e)   As portions of the foreshore and bed of the water body; that is, land below
the average high-water mark.
The objective of this Branch is merely to find a way to ensure that no short cuts to
acquire title at the expense of the Crown are used which contravene the " Land Registry
Act," and which, if allowed to stand, create very undesirable precedents.   Suffice it to say
that this problem is now receiving considerable attention, with full co-operation from the
Attorney-General's Department.    It is hoped to be able to correct certain outstanding
cases, and also perhaps to introduce new legislation which will clarify some of the difficulties presently associated with such water boundary surveys and possibly allow of
broader scope in determining such boundaries.
The above perhaps will give an indication of problems arising and being dealt with,
or assisted with, by this Branch. There are, of course, others, a few of which are indicated in the divisions' reports that follow, and it is realized, as development of the Province continues, that the appearance of still more is inevitable. All of these problems are
annoying because much valuable staff time is lost over them, but, even so, they do present
an interesting challenge to those whose duty it is to find the means of solving them. LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION Legal Surveys Division
■■HH^^^H
Long Beach, west coast of Vancouver Island.
Home-site surveys along the Pasayten River south of Princeton. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH X 45
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief
The Legal Surveys Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is responsible for cadastral surveys of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails the issuing of
instructions to the land surveyors engaged to make each survey and supplying them with
copies of the field-notes and plans of adjoining surveys. After the completion of the
survey, the returns are forwarded to this office for checking and plotting. Included in
these returns are all right-of-way surveys, such as for highways, railways, transmission-
lines, etc.   During the year 252 sets of instructions were issued.
In 1955, 308 sets of field-notes were received in this office and duly indexed,
checked, and plotted, and official plans prepared therefrom. Of the above-mentioned
surveys, 324 were made under the " Land Act" and fifty-two under the " Mineral Act."
At the present time there are approximately 93,230 sets of field-notes on record in our
vaults.
There were 222 plans received from surveyors covering surveys made under the
"Land Registry Act." These were duly checked and indexed, and certified copies deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands, a set of reference maps must be maintained covering the whole
of the Province. These show all cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department.
Keeping these maps up to date by adding new information as it accrues day to day and
renewing the master tracings when they become worn by constant handling form a considerable portion of the work of this Division.    (See Appendix 1.)
From the above reference maps, together with other information and facilities maintained by this Division, it is possible to give an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel of
Crown land in the Province.
It had been hoped that a start could have been made during the past year on the
recompilation of certain reference maps covering the south-east corner of the Province,
within geographic grids which could eventually be more easily designated under the
National Topographic Series. However, owing to the pressure of work under which this
Division has laboured during the past year, it has not been possible to make a start on
this phase of the work.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore which are received
by the Lands Branch, and all applications to purchase Crown timber received by the
Forest Service, are channelled through this Division for clearance. The orderly processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be made from the reference
maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans. A synopsis of these clearances
processed during the year will be found in Table A, attached.
It has been necessary during the year to obtain from the various Land Registry
Offices 1,401 plans; copies of these have been made, indexed, and filed as part of our
records.
As in the past, this Division has co-operated with other departments of Government,
at their request, by preparing and checking legal descriptions. Those assisted in this way
were the Attorney-General's Department, descriptions of boundaries of Small Debts
Courts; the Agriculture Department, descriptions of disease-free areas and pound districts;
the Department of Municipal Affairs, descriptions for the incorporation of municipal
areas; the Forest Service, descriptions for forest management licences; and our own
Lands Branch, descriptions for gazetted reserves of lands from alienation, etc. During
this year it has taken approximately 242 man-hours to prepare the descriptions referred
to above. X 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
BLUE-PRINT AND PHOTOSTAT SECTION
The Blue-print and Photostat Section continues to supply a service to all departments of Government, as well as supplying all the prints and photostats required by the
Surveys and Mapping Branch. The total number of prints made during the year was
144,777, in the preparation of which 110,285 yards of paper and linen were used. The
increase in the number of prints made this year as against 1954 is approximately 40
per cent.
The number of photostats made during this year was 42,233; this is an increase of
approximately 97 per cent over last year.
Early this year an electrically operated revolute " Unicop " machine was purchased
for the Photostat Room. This has greatly increased the speed and efficiency of the copying of documents and letters. With no increase in manpower the Photostat Room has
handled the 97-per-cent increase of work and kept same flowing in an orderly and speedy
manner.
COMPOSITE MAP SECTION
This Section is responsible for the compilation and tracing of composite maps, at
a scale of 1 inch to 500 feet, of the more thickly subdivided areas of the Province, generally in unorganized territory.
During the year composite maps covering the area from Penticton to Osoyoos, comprising thirty-nine sheets, were completed.
The next project for this type of mapping covers the area between Trail and Nelson,
along the Columbia and Kootenay River valleys. The plan searches in the Land Registry Office at Nelson have been completed, and part of the necessary control, both triangulation and photographic, has been completed.
However, on September 1st of this year it became necessary to suspend our composite mapping and to use the draughtsmen in that Section on the retracing of some of
the more badly worn reference maps. It is regrettable that this step was necessary, but
for the orderly processing of the large volume of land-application clearances, it is imperative that the reference maps be kept in the best condition possible. It appears that it
will be at least a year before we can again commence our composite mapping.
LAND-EXAMINATION PLANS
The small section charged with the responsibility of preparing plans for the use of
the Land Inspectors for their inspection of applications for Crown land has again had
a busy year. The type and quantity of information being placed on these plans is proving most valuable to the Inspectors when they are on the ground.
INCIPIENT VILLAGES
During the past year certain work was undertaken at the instigation and request of
groups of people living in the vicinity of Valemount and Muskwa (Fort Nelson, Mile
300).
In the case of Valemount it appeared that land transactions had been taking place
but title could not be produced until certain survey work was done, also the question of
road access to certain of these areas was of the utmost importance.
Reports were received from the Land Inspector at Prince George, also the Divisional Engineer, Department of Highways, giving suggestions as to the proposed layout
of the necessary roads.
P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., of the Legal Surveys Division staff, visited Valemount
and surveyed and monumented the required roads. The necessary plan was prepared
and deposited in the Land Registry Office at Kamloops, thus dedicating these roads and
making it possible for the finalization of the land transactions mentioned above. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 47
The co-operation and suggestions of Mr. Roberts, Divisional Engineer, Department of Highways, and Mr. Cunningham, Land Inspector, Department of Lands and
Forests, in assisting in this project is much appreciated by this Division.
Regarding Muskwa (Fort Nelson, Mile 300), the request received was for the
laying-out of town lots in this vicinity. The lots previously laid out were of 5 acres
area, and it was felt that what is required now are building-sites (town lots). Certain
of the 5-acre lots were in the Crown, and a proposed pattern of subdivision was laid
out and surveyed, and when the adjoining privately owned 5-acre lots are subdivided,
they will follow the pattern of the Government subdivision. Also a part of Lot 1535,
Peace River District, which was under reserve to the Department of Transport for airport purposes, was released, and part of this area was also subdivided.
The question of narrowing the right-of-way of the Alaska Highway at Fort Nelson
was raised by the Northwest Highway System. It was their wish to reduce the width of
the highway at this point from 300 to 150 feet. This matter was referred to the Highway Board, Department of Highways, for their consideration, and they have now advised
as follows: " This Board does not consider that the right-of-way of the Alaska Highway
through Fort Nelson should be reduced. Also that it would not be advisable for the
Northwest Highway System to issue any more permits for the construction of buildings
within the highway right-of-way, and that when buildings are being reconstructed, they
should be moved back off the right-of-way." This opinion is concurred in by this
Division.
GENERAL
Since the former Dominion Railway Belt was returned to Provincial jurisdiction in
1930, this Department has been endeavouring to obtain the field-notes of the surveys
made therein between the years 1884 and 1930. Through the co-operation of the
Surveyor-General at Ottawa, this deal was finally consummated this year. This Department has received from Ottawa on permanent loan 958 field-books covering such surveys. There still remain 260 field-books, which will be forwarded to us after certain
copies have been made in Ottawa.
These field-notes have been indexed and become part of our survey records.
As the duties of the draughtsmen in the Legal Surveys Division are of such a diversified nature, it has been felt for some time that written instructions should be prepared
regarding certain problems involved in these duties, and also to assist in the training of
the junior personnel.
During the year this need was recognized. After much thought and discussion, a
manual was prepared which encompassed such subjects as administration and filing
records, examples of descriptions, office policy on alienation of land by description or
survey, office policy on plotting foreshore leases, notes on land without potential access,
instructions for plotting mineral claims, etc.
The members of the staff collaborating in the preparation of this manual are as
follows: W. A. Taylor, Supervising Land Surveyor; A. J. Baker, Chief Draughtsman;
M. Chandler, Supervising Draughtsman; D. H. Stuart, Supervising Draughtsman; J. A.
Hawes, Supervising Draughtsman;   and J. Edward, Technical Draughtsman.
Continuing the programme of disseminating mapping information to Government
Agencies, the writer made a visit to the Government Agents, Provincial Assessors, Land
Inspectors, and certain other Government officials at Lillooet, Clinton, Williams Lake,
Quesnel, Prince George, Burns Lake, Smithers, and Terrace, with the object of ascertaining their requirements for maps and aerial photographs.
Samples of the different types of mapping were shown them, and in the subsequent
discussions the uses to which they could be put in their own particular field of endeavour
were ascertained. Copies of the maps requested were prepared and forwarded to the
respective officials.
A detailed synopsis of the surveys made by this Division is as follows:— X 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table A.—Summary of Office Work for the Years 1954 and 1955
Legal Surveys Division
1954
Number of field-books received  399
lots surveyed  490
lots plotted  498
lots gazetted  585
lots cancelled  22
mineral-claim field-books prepared  168
reference maps compiled or renewed  30
applications for purchase cleared       2,148
applications for pre-emption cleared
applications for lease cleared .
coal licences cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber sales cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared
reverted-land clearances	
cancellations made	
125
760
64
101
6,616
.____      1,200
432
       3,673
inquiries cleared       1,271
placer-mining leases plotted on maps  15
letters received and dealt with    	
land-examination sketches       1,266
Crown-grant and lease tracings made       1,037
miscellaneous tracings made  42
Government Agents' tracings made  215
photostats made     21,446
blue-prints made  103,771
documents consulted and filed in vault     59,080
1955
308
324
425
664
11
79
30
2,448
99
1,186
23
105
8,103
1,709
648
3,011
1,763
2
4,892
2,030
1,062
63
358
42,233
144,777
66,675 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 49
1955
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
SURVEY   AND    MAPPING   BRANCH
BLUEPRINTS  MADE
llt&d 11272
PHOTOSTATS   MADE
MZ
iFT""
a^v
rooo
o
1500
CLEARANCES
13E3 1354
TRACINGS ^MAbE ALLOTS GAZBPFED^
^366
FZQ3
288,0^"
REFERENCE
MAPS       ^
COMPILED i.
TRACED
COMPOSITE
MAPS      _
COMPLETED X 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FIELD WORK
W. A. Taylor, B.C.L.S., Supervising Surveyor
Field work conducted by the staff of this Division totalled fifty-seven separate
surveys, varying in extent from a few days' field work up to four and a half months.
Twelve of these surveys were done at the request of the Forest Service, consuming seventy
field days.
A very representative type of work embracing every form of legal survey, with the
exception of mineral-claim surveys, was undertaken. Although it has not been possible
to undertake a programme of re-establishment of old survey corners on a planned basis,
every opportunity is seized to replace an old corner with a permanent monument that
occurs in conjunction with a current survey. This Division replaced 284 such corners
this year, the oldest dating back to 1870. Seventy-two miss of road right-of.way were
surveyed, and lots for alienation and reserve, varying in size from half an acre to 640
acres and totalling 335 parcels, were created.
Four investigations into surveys by private surveyors of Crown lands were made at
the request of the Surveyor-General. The findings in three cases proved the necessity of
the inspection. Two private surveys were investigated—one at the request of the Corporation of British Columbia Land Surveyors and the other on request of a Registrar of
Titles—both resulting in resurvey being required. A report on a survey was also supplied
to the Right-of-way Agent, Department of Highways.
Plans examined, under the Surveyor-General's Regulation No. 29, effective February 1st, 1955, at the request of the Land Registry Office numbered thirty-three.
Although the time consumed on these exhaustive checks seriously taxes our power to
cope with them, the effort is considered worth while by assisting to maintain a high
standard of surveying. It is interesting to note that the extensive inspection noted in our
report for 1954 is resulting in a complete new survey being obtained.
The services of various private surveyors were engaged, for limited surveys, where
their local knowledge or current adjacent work made it advantageous to the Department
to do so.   We are grateful to them for their prompt service rendered.
In December of this year our staff was augmented by the acquisition of Harold V.
Buckley, B.C.L.S., whose position was transferred from another division. We were again
fortunate in having the services of A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., together with assistants and
equipment, loaned to us by the Topographic Division. It was a pleasure to have them
with us.
The expenses of the four highway right-of-way surveys conducted are again shared
on a 50-50 basis with the Department of Highways. Staff salaries and all equipment
are supplied in addition by this Division.
The individual reports of the staff surveyors and one private surveyor, R. E.
Chapman, B.C.L.S., who was engaged on a right-of-way survey for this Division, are
presented below under three general headings.
Subdivision, Right-of-way Re-establishment, and Inspection Surveys
P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S.
The 1955 programme commenced in January with the laying-out of six building
lots at Clinton.   Later a park was surveyed at Lillooet.
Near Alberni, work was done relocating six old corners, laying out Maplehurst Park,
and dividing up an area previously covered by a subdivision.
At Valemount the skeleton of a future townsite was completed, in co-operation with
the Department of Highways. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH X 51
The subdivision at Fairview, South Okanagan, was finalized and registered, after five
years of encountering various obstacles. This included twelve lots and a site for another
park.
On the outskirts of Summerland a foreshore lot on Okanagan Lake was posted,
which the municipality intends to fill in for a recreation ground.
Near Prince George, at Summit Lake, 2 miles of line was run for the Forest Service,
in connection with a timber sale and possible future subdivision. Here, too, assistance
was given to N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., in a local triangulation survey. Some blocks in the
townsite were reposted, and also at Endako a small reposting job was undertaken.
Three hundred miles north of the Peace River, 105 building lots were delineated at
Fort Nelson (Mile 300), where there is a big demand, and also a graveyard-site 3 miles
north of the townsite was surveyed.
The Forest Service is constructing a new Ranger station at Mile 101, Alaska
Highway (Blueberry); this was surveyed.
Seventeen lake-shore home-sites were created at Charlie Lake, a few miles from
Fort St. John.
Another Ranger station at Squamish, another park at Hope, and a lot for the local
troop of Boy Scouts at Hope were surveyed. The Crown land adjoining this park might
be surveyed into about fifteen very desirable building lots in the 1956 season.
A few lake-shore home-sites at Pitt Lake, not yet completed, finished the season.
R. W. Thorpe, B.C.L.S.
During the early part of the field season a district lot of 433 acres was surveyed in
the University Endowment Lands as an addition to the grounds of the University. The
flat, heavily bushed area extends easterly to the southerly production of Acadia Road and
southerly to Marine Drive.
An extensive Crown-land survey was conducted at Gun Lake, where forty-three
summer-home site lots of from 3 to 6 acres each were created, together with five public
reserves. It is interesting to note that, previous to this survey, much of the lake-shore
property was held under mineral claims, Crown grants to which were unobtainable by
reason of a Government policy preventing monopolization of large areas of desirable
water-frontage. As these claims were obviously not being mined, but retained solely for
summer-home site purposes, agreement was made with the owners whereby, upon
relinquishment and subsequent subdivision of the mineral claims, they would be entitled
to purchase a lot of their choice within their former claim, the balance of the lots surveyed
to be auctioned.
In the office considerable additional work was entailed this year by the response of
Land Registry Offices to the new item 29 of the Surveyor-General's regulations.
D. W. Carrier, B.C.L.S.
The field season for 1955 commenced in March with a " Land Registry Act" subdivision of Crown land at Cowichan Lake. Thirty-one small lots were created, all with
water-frontage.
A control survey was carried out in May in the Nelson-Trail area for the purpose
of composite mapping, and at this time an inspection survey was done at the request of
the Registrar at Nelson.
July and August were spent west of Prince George subdividing reverted Crown land
at Babine Lake under the " Land Registry Act," where twenty-six water-front lots
averaging 5 acres were created. Two right-of-way surveys were done for the British
Columbia Forest Service. At Houston the Morice Forest development road was surveyed through private lands, and north of Hazelton the Babine Slide road was surveyed
through three Indian reserves. Also on this trip a gravel-pit was surveyed for the
Department of Highways at Terrace. X 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In September three subdivisions of Crown land were carried out in the Pemberton
area. Nine lots were created to accommodate persons in residence, one for a park
reserve, and seventeen for new development.
In October and November a subdivision of private land at Sayward for the British
Columbia Forest Service provided a site for a new forestry station in that area, and, also
for the Forest Service, approximately 100 chains of line was retraced to decide a trespass
action.
For the most part it was possible to locate evidence on all old surveys encountered.
One of the oldest was the Kisgegas Indian Reserve, surveyed in 1897, on which three out
of four old corners were found. Thirty-four such corners were renewed in all during the
140-day field season.
G. T. Mullin, B.C.L.S.
The 1955 field season consisted of thirteen surveys, which were spread over the
southern portion of the Province from Tofino to Kingsgate. Three Crown-land subdivisions were made along the Pasayten River, Otter Lake, and Eagan Lake, producing thirty
water-front lots. Three subdivisions were carried out under the " Land Registry Act,"
two of these being parks for the British Columbia Forest Service at Long Beach, Vancouver Island, and Cottonwood Lake, 4 miles south of Nelson, and the other being a
subdivision of part of the airport at Salmo, which produced fifteen lots. West Vancouver
was the scene of a re-establishment survey which consisted of putting back on the ground
the boundaries of the Capilano Indian Reserve cut-off, which was originally surveyed in
1924. The re-establishment of a city block at Greenwood was made at the request of the
British Columbia Forest Service. Four inspection surveys were carried out at the request
of the Surveyor-General—at Kingsgate, Pilot Bay, which is on Kootenay Lake, Apex,
which is about 5 miles south of Nelson, and at Westbridge. Ten days were spent running
profile level over the south-easterly portion of the University Endowment Lands so that a
check could be made of the contours shown on the Cleveland plan of the University
Endowment Lands.   During the season fifteen old lot corners were renewed.
Highway Surveys
M. Perks, M.A., A.R.I.C.S., B.C.L.S.
Sections of the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway from Fort Steele Junction to
Wardner, east of Cranbrook, and through Lot 31, west of Cranbrook, were surveyed.
The total centre-line chainage of the two sections amounted to 17J/3 miles.
In the course of these surveys, thirty-seven lot and sub-lot corners were re-established
with permanent monuments. At only seven of these corners were old or previously
re-established corner posts found in place. At fourteen corners, re-establishment was
possible from bearing-trees or stumps corresponding to bearing-trees recorded in the
original field-notes. The remaining corners were re-established either from evidence of
owner or under the provisions of the " Official Surveys Act."
The considerable time spent on corner re-establishment and the extra ties and posting
necessitated by railway and power-line rights-of-way either adjacent to or overlapping the
highway right-of-way markedly restricted the mileage completed during the season.
A 1-acre subdivision of Section 18, Range 5, Somenos District, adjacent to the Island
Highway, was surveyed as a picnic-site for the Forest Service.
Some reposting was carried out in the vicinity of Section 69, Goldstream District,
near the Sooke Road.
At the request of the board of management of the Corporation of British Columbia
Land Surveyors, an inspection survey was made of parts of the right-of-way of Henry
Road near Chemainus. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 53
4
■   m
141 Mile House, Old Cariboo Road, with Canadian Government Astronomic Pier
No.  12 on the high bank.
A. P. McLaughlin, B.C.L.S.
The season's work consisted primarily of a road survey on the Cariboo Highway
from 144 Mile Ranch to Williams Lake, where a tie was made to J. C. A. Long's road
survey.
The party, consisting of A. P. McLaughlin, with A. C. Bridge as assistant, and four
survey helpers, left Victoria on May 24th and returned on September 25th. Camp was
made at 141 Mile Ranch.
A distance of 13% miles of centre line was run and boundary monumented.
A total of fifty-two lot corners were replaced with pipe posts.
Considerable trouble was encountered, especially in the vicinity of 150 Mile House
and Williams Lake, with missing lot corners, both of district lots and of new subdivisions.
In the San Jose Valley a survey made in 1883 by W. D. Patterson was found to be
almost intact, generally the original bearing-trees with a stone cairn being the evidence
found on the ground; however, in one instance an original quarter-section post was found
in place, 72 years old.
Besides the highway survey, a preliminary survey was carried out for a proposed
subdivision on the Chilcotin Road, approximately 3 miles west of Williams Lake. Also
a trigonometrical tie was made between J. C. A. Long's road survey and the Central
British Columbia network Stations Will and Allison.
R. W. Leak, B.C.L.S, D.L.S.
The right-of-way survey of a portion of the Cariboo Highway from Lac la Hache
village to the old 144 Mile House commenced May 26th and was completed October 23rd.
The intersection of seventy-seven district lot or subdivision outline boundaries along
the 27 miles of surveyed centre line required the renewal by permanent monument of X 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
120 lot corners, twenty-six of these being re-establishments. A further 154 permanent
monuments were erected on the right-of-way boundary, forty of which were of concrete.
Approximately 500 iron posts were also planted.
Several surveys were dealt with which dated back to 1870, 1878, and 1881. Fortunately, however, the outlines of district lots governed by these surveys have been resur-
veyed by surrounding township or district lot surveys of more recent date.
R. E. Chapman, B.C.L.S.
The highway from Pender Harbour to Earls Cove on Jervis Inlet was opened to
traffic in the late summer of 1954 and is the newest portion of the highway which now
extends the full length of the Sechelt Peninsula.
The 1QV2 miles surveyed are on the rocky lower slopes of the mountain range which
forms the backbone of the peninsula. The broken nature of the country necessitates
one of the most meandering highways we have. There are sixty-nine curves, many with
deflection angles over 45 degrees. One of the longer curves required three traverse
courses to make a connection between tangents. At the northern end of Ruby Lake,
where the road is crowded between the lake-shore and high rock bluffs, it makes two
successive sharp curves with deflections over 140 degrees which combine to make a
complete " S " turn.
Our main monumenting has been done on the centre, which has quite an advantage
over posting on the right-of-way limits, especially where the tangents are very short or
non-existent. Over thirty rock posts have been set; in fact, so many monument positions came in rock that we found it necessary to set only two concrete posts—one at the
beginning or south end of the project and one at the second P.I.
Crown-land Surveys for Development
A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
Apart from one lot, the land surveyed and to be surveyed lies north of the Blueberry River. It is west of the Beatton River, adjoining and north and east of Townships
110, 112, 113, and 115, and is 30 miles due north of Fort St. John to the southern
boundary. The only existing access, by truck, is to the western boundary via the Alaska
Highway and the Beatton Airport Road.   This is some 60 miles.
Initially it was hoped to complete the survey of seventy-six lots of approximately
640 acres each, or some 48,000 acres of land. To accomplish this it was planned to
operate two line crews, with the total complement being twelve to the party. This plan
of attack was frustrated at the outset, with a rash of hired help quitting due to not liking
the walking the job entailed, the monotonous aspect of the burned land with its fire-
blackened trees, and at the time the continuous hot and oppressive days we were experiencing. Also sickness and axe cuts had their toll on man-power. These factors resulted
in operating two crews for one month only of the four and one-half months we were
away, and in the final analysis forty lots were surveyed, with an area slightly in excess
of 26,000 acres. This acreage was run in lots, equivalent in size to a section, being 1
mile square, with the centre lines run, so dividing each lot into quarter-lots. This necessitated running 144 miles of line along with IV2 miles of traverse in the Blueberry and
Beatton River canyons which formed natural boundaries to some lots. This acreage
included two applications to purchase, which previously had been allowed with the
reserve. Some 197 standard pipe posts were set, accompanied by the arduous and
lengthy chore of digging the required pits. In spite of the fire that had burned through
the area, on the retracement of the northerly boundary of Townships 113 and 115 definite evidence was found of twelve out of fourteen wooden posts set in 1911. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 55
At present the land surveyed is part and parcel of reserved Crown lands, and the
intention is to release it for sale by auction. This summer great interest was shown in
the land by many persons anxious to acquire new land by purchase.
This block, which will be released from the reserve, is gently rolling with average
grades of 3 to 5 per cent and being the valleys of Umbach and Prespatou Creeks. These
two creeks, as is typical of the country, become rapidly more and more deeply entrenched
until they are gorges of 200 to 250 feet in depth. The natural boundaries of the Blueberry and Beatton Rivers have sandstone walls which are approximately 300 feet high.
Near the top of these walls there is a line of rimrock 50 feet high. All these waterways
have an extremely meandering course; the two main rivers have larger sweeps, for their
route, than the indecisive abrupt courses of Umbach and Prespatou Creeks.
On either side of the Umbach and Prespatou Creeks and above their steep banks is
a varied width of flat land, with enough slope for easy drainage. Here over the clay
subsoil is a good layer of black topsoil which diminishes in depth as one ascends the
gentle slopes. Immediately adjacent to the creeks now exists open grassy land, and the
hills are covered by fire-killed, blackened stands of aspen, spruce, and pine. The whole
terrain was severely burned in recent years, but forest reproduction is rapidly taking
place with dense carpets of pine seedlings springing up in the timbered areas and aspen
reproducing in the open sections.
This summer the weather was exceptionally dry and hot, with strong arid westerly
winds drying up many obvious marshes and semi-bog land. The days were hot but the
nights cold, with sharp heavy frosts occurring as late as July 1st and commencing again
on August 12th. Because of this short frost-free period, it would appear that this area
would be poor for crop-raising, other than for stock-feed. For stock-raising it would
be ideal, with the lush, hardy-type grasses that are native and profuse even within the
timber. Both Prespatou and Umbach Creeks flowed continuously in spite of the dry
season, and, except for perhaps the southerly mile of Prespatou Creek, access for cattle
to the water is easy. Hence the water problem prevalent in much of the Peace River
Block is not significant. X 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Surveying on the Babine Slide Road.    Camp on Cariboo Creek,
Indian Reserve No. 6 (Sedina), Lot 4718, Cassiar District. TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION Topographic Division
The Liard River country, westward from station " Uchuck.:
!
Looking westward along the 60th parallel from station " Snorker." SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 59
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
The seemingly impossible has become a reality. Three years ago this Division was
confronted with the task of obtaining ground control for some 25,000 square miles of
territory situated in the north-eastern corner of British Columbia. When it was realized
that most of it was relatively flat and, to a large extent, covered by muskeg with hardly a
prominent feature in the whole area, it was labelled impossible; that is, considering the
resources available, time, size, and the amount of control required. But, like most things
apparently impossible, there is usually an answer if you have the wit to see and the will
to do. Tower-building was the magic solution, the helicopter was the magic carpet, and
a group of agile, fearless young men, most certainly akin to squirrels, were the magicians.
Twenty-six thousand square miles of controlled territory was the final score, and one to
be proud of. Certainly all those men involved, whether they be staff members or temporary summer helpers, are to be highly commended for a job well and truly done. The
report of E. R. McMinn, B.C.L.S., that follows is the concluding chapter of a three-
year epic.
F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S., was in charge of a control survey for multiplex mapping
along the Fraser River from Lillooet to Lytton, assisted by R. P. Justice, B.C.L.S. Mr.
Speed suffered an attack of jaundice early in July and was relieved by Mr. Justice, who
completed the job and moved with the party to Prince George. Assisted by D. G. Alexander, he obtained control for two multiplex projects—one at the headwaters of the
Willow River and the other in the vicinity of Purden Lake. Mr. Justice himself was
incapacitated for a week during this operation by an attack of pleursiy, during which time
Mr. Alexander was in charge.
W. H. Stilwell, D.L.S., was in charge of several miscellaneous surveys; namely,
replacing two destroyed monuments on the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary, checking
bearings on the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary in the vicinity of Astrofixes N 8 and
N 9, and finally was in charge of a control traverse along the Monkman Pass Road.
The back-log of incomplete manuscript map compilations, which a year ago loomed
so large, has now practically disappeared. The great number of map-sheets completed
and shipped to Ottawa for lithographing over the past two years has in fact transferred
the back-log from Victoria to Ottawa, as we have now overtaxed the Federal Government
facilities available to us. Many of our sheets are not in Federal priority areas and so are
awaiting their turn. Very little topographic mapping control has been done during the
past three years. Ottawa agencies will have an opportunity to catch up with lithography
before regular map production is resumed here.
A programme of revision, commenced last year for sheets on which new data are
available, now is being concentrated on the south end of Vancouver Island. The Federal
Government is converting all map-sheets formerly printed at the scale of 1 inch to 1 mile
to the scale of 1:50,000. It is hoped to have all these sheets revised in time for this
reprinting programme.
THE PROVINCIAL (STANDARD)  TRIANGULATION OF
NORTH-EASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA
By E. R. McMinn, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
The season of 1955 saw the completion of three years' triangulation of that little-
known corner of the Province lying between the Alaska Highway and the Alberta border,
which corner has heretofore best been described as " up thar " with a wave of the hand
to the north-east. The survey party of forty-one men, including A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S.,
and W. H. Stilwell, D.L.S., and with one Okanagan helicopter CF-HLW and our Beaver X 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 61
CF-FHF, left Victoria on a schedule starting May 29th. The party returned to Victoria
on October 15th.
The field work was planned in the winter at Victoria to deal with operational problems such as transportation, supply, communication, tower construction, and observation
of angles. The man-power problem was solved neatly by asking each of our tried and
true men to bring in a friend.
Spring, and the survey party came to Fort Nelson on the second day of June to find
the great river already humming with activity. Four float-planes, using the muddy stream
as a base, were servicing oil exploration crews and an Army survey party. The 60th
parallel survey crew under W. N. Papove, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., were caulking and tarring
their two freight-boats preparatory to their 200-mile access trip to the Beaver River.
River-barges were loading supplies for Aklavik. Our six-truck convoy unloaded 10 tons
of equipment at the river-bank and the two 3-ton trucks left immediately for Dawson
Creek on the first of many 600-mile trips for food and gasoline.
Under the spruce-trees near Fort Nelson a supply and transit camp of eleven tents
was erected. A road was bulldozed down to the river's edge, where a serviceable log
float and refueling facilities were completed just as our yellow Beaver FHF came in on
schedule from Victoria. The next day was cold, bright, and windy as the first load went
out 110 miles to Midwinter Lake, the site for the first advance camp selected the previous
year.   By June 6th this camp was built and all of the gasoline and supplies flown in.
The advance camp had a 110-volt generating plant and a 75-watt radio which was
on the air twelve hours a day every day from June 6th to October 10th. The six to fourteen fly camps of two to four men each kept in daily contact with portable 2Vi-watt radio
sets. Radio contact was also maintained with the 25-watt set at Fort Nelson camp, as
well as with the Beaver aircraft, the helicopter, the Forest Service, and Mr. Papove's
boundary survey. The supply trips or camp moves for the helicopter and Beaver were
planned each night for the next day—that is, planned in so far as planning was possible—
in practice we moved from crisis to crisis. Essentially the work consisted of reconnaissance by helicopter and Beaver for triangulation sites, moving crews out, supplying them,
moving them on again, and moving the observing crews along behind them. At no time
was the helicopter without work to do; bad weather and necessary maintenance work
caused the loss of twenty-four flying-days for the helicopter and fifteen days for the
Beaver. Tommy Gurr and Lock Madill, helicopter pilot and mechanic respectively, of
the Okanagan Air Services, did a fine job and were welcome members of the party.
Considerable work was done for the boundary survey party under W. N. Papove,
B.C.L.S., D.L.S., involving forty flying-hours on the helicopter and some fifty flying-
hours on the Beaver, which made about fifteen freight trips to Larsen Lake and Tightfit
Lake, in addition to delivering supplies direct to the line camp by parachute drops.
By June 6th all forty-one men had arrived at two-day intervals, and were at work
preparing for the initial fly camps. The new men were taken out by truck to Stations Fish
and Nelson, to be given a course on the towers and in the bush. No mosquito ointment
was supplied on these work-outs; three men were sent home.
On June 9th the Okanagan helicopter piloted by Tommy Gurr returned from Mr.
Papove's 60th parallel boundary survey and commenced the following day the task of
moving and supplying tower crews that was to continue day by day, seven days a week,
until October 10th. The helicopter work, totalling 467 hours and 1,462 landings, began
when the trees were in new leaf, went through the brief, hot, fly-infested summer, through
the incredible colours of September, and into October with the geese flying south and
snow whistling through the leafless trees and caribou pawing moss on the muskeg.
From our camp on the lake, which we named " Midwinter " (from a note on the
door of a derelict cabin), the building crews were scattered from the Kotcho Lake plateau
at Stations Hipper and Peggo, northerly to Stations Jonvan and Starbright, and on the
north-east corner of the Province.   Here, in a little muskeg where the Boundary Com- X 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
mission pipe post indicates the intersection of 120° west longitude and 60° latitude, a
57-foot tower was built and named "Artieboy," after our good companion of two seasons,
Arthur Coles, who died in the crash of his helicopter this summer in Ontario.
After reaching the objective of our three seasons' work, we turned westward toward
the Liard River. Observing parties commenced a rear-guard action, completing the angle
reading as we moved along.   At this time, progress was threatened by a forest fire which
The 1 13-foot tower station " Fancy Free.:
had been burning for two weeks along the Alberta boundary and which now paid us a
visit, loading the atmosphere with smoke, and reaching 30 miles into our area. It burned
one side of the 90-foot tower " Peggo."
Our Beaver pilot, C. A. E. Matson, B.C.L.S., resigned to take a job on the DEW
line supply work and Harry Brown, his replacement, proved very competent.
From June, when the sun rose and set in the same northern sky, the triangulation
network was woven across over 8,000 square miles of potentially valuable muskeg lands,
until we reached and crossed the Simpson Trail in August—August with its lengthening SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH X 63
darkness and nightly display of the aurora borealis. In this month we moved camp to
the sandy shore of Maxhamish Lake, the only clear-water lake in this north-eastern corner.
The mountains west of the Liard were just visible.
By the first week of September, student helpers were leaving to return to school, but
the tower-builders were at their last stations—Glory, Tattoo, Donnamarie, and Shannon.
On the other hand, the instrument observing work was lagging, mostly because of the
loss of experienced men. Two towers on exposed ridges, Petitot and Dilly, blew over in
the August gales and were rebuilt. The bright, hot sunlight of June and the eighteen
hours of daylight were gone; we finished the angle reading in autumn with its pale, hazy
sunlight and its eleven-hour day. Night observing from the towers was tried, using
500-candle-power gas lights and with a radio hook-up, but with only fair results, mostly
because of the freezing weather. Eventually the observing programme was completed
satisfactorily, if not perfectly, in the light snow-storms of October. Troubles with horizontal closures in the windy days of August were more than matched by those with vertical
angles read to towers distorted and inverted by mirages.
The season's work covered 8,000 square miles with sixty-two stations; five ties were
made to the monuments of the Alberta boundary and ten ties to those of the 60th parallel.
The key reference point of the petroleum and natural-gas permits in the western section—
namely, the old Hudson Bay Company post at Nelson Forks—was also fixed.
In three years 26,000 square miles of country have been covered, using 184 stations,
most of which were towers. The total combined height of these towers is 11,400 feet;
twenty-four stations were over 100 feet. Flying-time on the helicopters was 1,588 hours;
on the Beaver, 1,042 hours. Nearly a million pounds of freight, including 40,000 gallons
of aviation fuel, was transported by truck, Beaver, and helicopter; 10 tons of spikes,
4,000 yards of signal cotton, and 7 tons of cement were used. The triangulation network,
which involved some 212 stations and the reading of about 26,000 angles, included the
Geodetic stations from Fort St. John to Fort Nelson and ties to the Alberta boundary,
60th parallel monuments, the bench-marks on the Alaska Highway, Beatton Road, and
Simpson Trail, and to all location-posts established under the " Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act." It is understood that the mapping of this area is to be undertaken by the
Federal Government. To date, the available field survey information—co-ordinates,
azimuths, elevations, and photo identification—has been supplied to many oil exploration
companies and commercial mapping organizations.
CONTROL SURVEY ALONG THE FRASER RIVER
FROM MORAN TO LYTTON
By F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S.
Under instructions of the Director of Surveys and Mapping and Surveyor-General,
control was obtained for mapping along the Fraser River from Moran to Lytton.
This map was requested by the Water Rights Branch, to be compiled by the Multiplex Section at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch with 20-foot contours from river-level to
elevation 2,000 feet in the main valley and to elevation 1,800 feet in the tributary streams.
As the area required to be mapped was a river-valley, horizontal control was most
economically obtained by a network of twenty-eight main triangulation stations extending
southwards to Lytton from the Triangulation Stations Cole and New South Base, which
were set in 1951 by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Most of the main triangulation stations were located along the valley-sides to facilitate the location of secondary triangulation stations in the valley.
The thirty-two secondary triangulation stations tied in two Geodetic bench-mark
monuments, the P.G.E. right-of-way, eight cadastral lot corners, and the B.C. Electric
_ X 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Company's dam-site and installations at Seton Lake. Four ties were also made to the
1954 right-of-way survey of the Lytton-Lillooet Road by J. H. Drewry, B.C.L.S.
Base-lines were laid out both at the centre and the south end of the triangulation
network to enable adjustment to be made to the quadrilaterals.
Stations Stein and Rifle were set near Lytton for a future extension and tie to the
Provincial triangulation network.
Vertical control was obtained over the complete area by trigonometric levelling,
carried forward via the triangulation stations.
To strengthen and extend vertical control, a line of double-run spirit-levels was
carried from the Geodetic Survey of Canada Bench-mark 624j at Lillooet southwards
along the Lillooet-Lytton Highway to the Geodetic Bench-mark 63 J at Lytton, a distance
of 44 miles. A total of twenty-nine new bench-mark monuments were established. Permission was obtained to use as bench-marks the concrete highway traverse monuments set
by J. H. Drewry, B.C.L.S.
Spirit-levels were run to nine of the triangulation stations to assist in the adjustment
of vertical elevations.
The elevation of Triangulation Station Rey, obtained by trigonometric levels carried
over 54 miles, was calculated to be 558.3 feet, and the elevation obtained by spirit-levels
was 558.95 feet. To obtain vertical control on the air photographs, vertical elevations
were read from the triangulation stations to points identified on the air photographs. It
was also necessary to run 22 miles of levels to obtain six of the vertical points.
The Geodetic elevation was carried by spirit-levels to the Water Resources benchmark located at its cable crossing and gauging-station on the Fraser River.
The multiplex plotter, using the 194 controlled air photographs, will map the
Fraser River from Moran to Lytton.
Numerous roads gave good access in the area, and the highway bridge at Lillooet
and the reaction-ferry at Lytton eliminated most of the difficulties of crossing the Fraser
River. In July, when the ferry was not in operation because of the high-water level,
we used the Canadian National Railway bridge to cross the Fraser River.
For transportation, three Land Rovers and a Willys truck were used. Difficulties
in sighting due to heat haze were minimized because of cool weather and heavy cloud
overcasts.
Forest-cover was very sparse in the lower valleys, consisting mostly of ponderosa
pine, while blue Douglas fir was found at higher altitudes. At present the lumbering
industry is making extensive use of the fir-trees only.
Wildlife consisted mostly of birds—robins, Wilson nutcrackers, mosquito hawks—
with only an occasional deer and bear being sighted. In the southern half of the area,
rattlesnakes were encountered on three or four occasions.
CONTROL SURVEY OF THE WILLOW RIVER AND PURDEN
LAKE AREAS
By R. P. Justice, B.C.L.S.
The purpose of the survey, made at the request of the Forest Service, was to provide vertical control and possibly thicken the existing horizontal control for multiplex
mapping of the Willow River and Purden Lake Public Working Circles, at a scale of
1,320 feet to 1 inch with 50-foot contours, located south-east of Prince George.
It was proposed that vertical control could be obtained by rounds of ground photographs taken from some nine points whose elevations were to be determined by vertical
angles from existing triangulation stations and Army Survey Establishment " cut in "
points. The occupied positions were to be positively identified on the air photographs.
If it were possible to horizontally fix the two points to be occupied in the area immedi- SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH X 65
ately north of Narrow Lake and at the head of George Creek from existing stations, the
necessary observations were to be made and the stations permanently marked in the
conventional manner.
Working from existing Triangulation Stations Tabor and Eaglet, four new stations
and one Army Survey station were occupied. Fifteen rolls of film were exposed from
these stations. The two points Narrow and George, in the southern portion of the Willow River area, were fixed horizontally and permanently marked with brass bolts. Eleven
stations were occupied—seven horizontal and four vertical—all of which were identified
on the air photographs. Although the purpose of the survey was to provide vertical
control, horizontal angles were read and new co-ordinates calculated for the three Army
stations.
While sufficient crew members to run two three-man parties were recruited from
F. O. Speed's party at the completion of the Moran-Lytton survey, there occurred two
cases of jaundice, one of pleurisy, and one infected leg, which resulted in only one three-
man party in operation for practically the whole job. The lack of unemployed and the
shortness of the job made it impossible to find replacements. The party arrived in the
area on July 31st and left for Victoria on September 7th.
During the latter part of July one week was spent in the office at Victoria in preparation for this survey. At this time, in discussion with W. K. MacDonald, Air Survey
Division, it was proposed to occupy a total of nine stations—three Army Survey " cut
in " points, three Army Survey stations, one Geodetic station, and two new stations. The
main object of these stations was to carry elevations through the two areas and provide
points from which horizontal photographs could be taken and vertical angles read to
identifiable points on air photographs. The cameras were tested at the Patricia Bay
instrument-shop; considerable work, both mechanical and optical, is needed before these
instruments become reliable tools on a mapping survey.
On arrival in the area the plan was changed; two of the original stations were
dropped and one Provincial triangulation station was added. This made a total of eight,
six of which formed a network to horizontally fix the two points in the southern portion
of the Willow River area. Seven of these were occupied and the high point of the
eighth (Curly) was intersected only; it could not be occupied because the Beaver aircraft, supplied by the Forest Service, had crashed while flying for them, and no other
suitable aircraft was available to us.
The camera stations were not prominent and commanded a poor outlook over the
rolling forested country. Distances to the areas where points are wanted are in excess
of an 8-mile maximum, and at this distance the haze obscures all detail. The quality
of the pictures is also poor. Some vertical points will be computed from these pictures,
but it is not expected to get checks on points from other stations. In general, these
points will be close to the station and hence of little use in setting up the multiplex
models. It was nearly impossible to find identifiable ground points on the air photographs of this country, which is blanketed with dense forest-growth. Duplicate sets of
photographs should be supplied for this work as almost a complete set must be carried
to each station. However, five of these points were obtained as well as sixteen points
to which horizontal and vertical angles were read, although the points were not identifiable on the air photographs. The problem of getting accurate field control for multiplex mapping in this kind of country appears to be both difficult and expensive. Despite
the access problem, triangulation possibly with towers and always exploiting the possibility of identifiable photo points seems to offer the best solution, although precise
barometer work by helicopter or bush traverses by tape or subtense can be used in some
areas.
The use of horizontal photographs can be of assistance even in this type of country,
particularly if a dominant station is available, but reliance should not be wholly placed X 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
in pictures which may not turn out successfully. In this type of country enough methods
must be used to ensure that the party leaves the field confident that they have sufficient
control for the projected map.
MISCELLANEOUS SURVEYS
By W. H. Stilwell, D.L.S.
Several separate surveys were undertaken in widely separated sections of the northeasterly portion of British Columbia. The first was on the British Columbia-Alberta
Boundary in the vicinity of the Red Willow River, latitude 55° 02' approximately. The
second entailed the establishing of a monument at the junction of Mill Creek and the
Tetsa River near Mile-post 363, approximately, of the Alaska Highway. The next surveys were for the purpose of checking bearings in the vicinity of Astrofixes N 8 and N 9
along the British Columbia-Northwest Territories Boundary at longitudes 122° 59' and
122° 13' respectively. The final jobs were the completion of the British Columbia-
Alberta Boundary survey mentioned above and, following its completion, a control
traverse along the Monkman Pass Road westerly from the British Columbia-Alberta
Boundary to the vicinity of Stony Lake, about 33 miles to the west.
The initial attempt to replace Monument 70-3 on the British Columbia-Alberta
Boundary was unsuccessful because of the extremely wet and soggy conditions encountered along the line. In the course of the reconnaissance it was found that Monument
70-1 had also been damaged and moved, though slightly, apparently by a bulldozer.
This discovery was reported to the Surveyor-General. It was decided to leave the
replacement of these monuments until later in the summer, when the ground would
probably be drier.
The second task was the establishing of a standard rock post at the junction of the
Tetsa River and Mill Creek and the connection by traverse of this monument to East
Base through the Alaska Highway right-of-way survey. This monument is situated on
the left bank of the Tetsa River and the right bank of Mill Creek and is a basic reference
point for permits under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act."
The third survey was in the vicinity of Astrofix N 8 and comprised astronomic
observations for azimuth, the angles between adjacent monuments, a tie traverse between
Monument 19 and Astrofix N 8, and an inspection, on the ground, of various hubs and
monuments as found.
The survey at Astrofix N 9 was similar to that at Astrofix N 8 but not so extensive.
In addition, Triangulation Station Ney, over Monument 65a, was occupied and angles
to other available stations were read.
A witness monument was established according to instruction, to replace Monument
70-3, destroyed probably by a bulldozer in the spring of 1953 and deposited on the west
side of the boundary and toward the Red Willow River. Monument 70-1 was restored
to its original position.
The traverse along the Monkman Pass Road between the British Columbia-Alberta
Boundary and Stony Lake was double-chained, in feet and links; the angles between
traverse stations were read and checked and trigonometric elevations were carried
throughout. In addition, ties were made to three oil-permit posts adjacent to the road.
The inaccessible ones were left, as per instructions, for determination, if required, by the
triangulation.   Photo identification was made all along the traverse.
The last assignment was completed on October 25th. Several snow flurries, rain,
and generally poor weather were experienced throughout, and it was uncertain at times
whether conditions would prevent its completion. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 67
DRAUGHTING OFFICE
By S. L. Clarke, Chief Draughtsman
This draughting office, with a staff of nine men, is responsible for the inking,
compilation of cadastral surveys, and the completion of topographic manuscripts, as well
as for the compilation of cadastral surveys on the Federal Government manuscripts.
This year the back-log of incomplete manuscripts has been very much reduced. To
date forty-seven of the old photo-topographic, twenty-three part sheets, and 145 of the
new topographic manuscripts have been completed, of which forty were completed this
year. The Federal Government now has 101 manuscripts on hand for the purpose of
printing; they are in various stages of lithography.
Prints from the above-mentioned manuscripts, as shown in Appendix 2a, Topographic Surveys, are available on request, at the scale of both 40 and 80 chains to the inch.
Cadastral surveys were plotted on sixty-three Federal Government manuscripts;
fifty-five of these were on a scale of 1 inch to 40 chains and the balance on a scale of 1
inch to 2 miles.
A tracing was prepared to show the triangulation stations in the north-east corner
of British Columbia; this tracing shows the location, co-ordinates, elevation, etc., of the
triangulation in that area and is proving very valuable to the petroleum and natural-gas
interests in the Province.
A member of our staff was granted leave of absence to assist as a member on one of
the United Nations truce teams in Indo-China.
The services of a senior staff member were lost through transfer to another
department.
During the year one of our senior draughtsmen had the opportunity to take a course
at Ottawa in the new mapping technique of scribing. As yet this Division has made no
attempt to convert to this technique. All Federal Government departments at Ottawa
have now accepted and are using this new method of map reproduction. To prepare our
staff for such a possibility in the near future, it is proposed to instigate a training
programme early in 1956. X 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Geographic Division
Field Culture Check
. ill SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH X 69
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., Chief, and Provincial Representative on
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
During the past year the task of calculating geographic positions for the corners of
oil and gas permits granted under authority of the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act,"
which the Division has assumed as an additional responsibility, has increased in importance and volume in comparison to our normal function of producing and distributing
lithographed maps.
The increased activity in oil- and gas-bearing areas is only one phase in the general
increase in the economic development of the Province, which is reflected in an increased
number of maps distributed.
A field culture check was carried out this year in the Lower Fraser Valley and
brings to ten the number of 2-miles-to-l-inch maps in the National Topographic Series
undertaken by the Division in this manner.
The second map in the new 10-miles-to-l-inch series was also published this year,
and considerable interest has been shown by the public in the continuation of the series.
In addition to the retirement of W. H. Hutchinson as Chief of the Division, we suffered deep loss in the death of W. G. Thorpe, Map Editor. The loss of the abilities of
two such skilled and experienced men will present a challenge in maintaining the high
standards set by them in their work in the Division.
The various activities of the Division are dealt with in more detailed form under the
following headings.
ADMINISTRATION
W. H. Hutchinson, Chief of this Division and Provincial representative on the
Canadian Board on Geographical Names, retired on superannuation in February. Responsible for the organization and operation of the Trigonometric Control Section of the
Division when it was formed in 1920 under the name of "Base Maps Section," Mr.
Hutchinson developed a triangulation control system of records and trained a staff in
computing methods and procedures noted for efficiency and accuracy, characteristics
which he carried into the operation of the Division as a whole when he assumed charge
in 1950.
The untimely death of W. G. Thorpe in October will be keenly felt by all his associates. Joining the staff of the Division in 1920, he employed his wide knowledge and
many skills in all phases of map compilation and reproduction and, in addition, undertook the arduous tasks of drawing up descriptions for the boundaries of many of the
administrative districts within the Province and the technical editing for publication of
the Lands Service Annual Reports. At the time of his death Mr. Thorpe held the position of Map Editor.
T. Hinton was promoted to the position of Supervisor of Map Distribution in April,
and in December H. L. E. Hooper was appointed to the new position of Supervisor of
Map Reproduction to carry out the duties performed previously by Mr. Thorpe. G. F.
Hill was promoted from Senior Draughtsman to Chief Draughtsman, the position held
previously by Mr. Hooper.
Other staff changes involved the addition of one Senior Draughtsman, the appointment of E. J. Carter as Assistant Mathematical Computer, and several changes in the
junior staff gradings—draughtsmen, clerical, and technical.
While showing a decrease from the volume dealt with in 1954, correspondence was
still heavy. It is difficult to account for the decrease, since the number of maps distributed
during the past twelve months and involving the largest part of the correspondence shows
considerable increase. X 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
COMPUTATIONS
Once again the computations resulting from the extension of Provincial main and
secondary triangulation networks have been below the 1952 level, the last year during
which full topographic field parties were engaged in standard mapping control. However,
least-square adjustments and triangles computed from rectangular co-ordinates are considerably in excess of 1954.
Control in North-eastern British Columbia, primarily for petroleum and natural-gas
permit positioning, was extended to the north boundary of the Province during the year,
and preliminary values for the new stations are progressing favourably, together with
final values for the previous season's work.
Computing of oil- and gas-permit positions has increased greatly in volume, due to
additional demands for such information, and due also to the expansion of the control
network in the areas concerned making the computations possible. The Section has been
kept extremely busy, and though one addition to the temporary staff was made, it has
still been necessary to enlist aid from the Topographic Division during rush periods in
the fall when field personnel are available.
Rectangular co-ordinates for centizone corners in all potential oil areas have now
been calculated, and the information so obtained is being used to an increasing extent in
checking well-site positions at the request of the Department of Mines. As was stated
in last year's Report, the above-mentioned task involved 9,600 separate calculations for
each quadrangle of 1 degree extent in latitude and longitude, and seven such quadrangles
were calculated.
In addition to the above outline of work considerable computing was undertaken
and more is in hand in connection with the completion of the British Columbia-Northwest
Territories Boundary survey and with triangulation ties made to various boundary
monuments.
GEOGRAPHER
Geographic field studies were carried out in Central British Columbia, to bring up
to date the land bulletin for the Prince Rupert-Smithers area started in 1952, and to
complete the Quesnel-Lillooet bulletin undertaken in 1953. Kamloops, the Lower Coast,
and Vancouver Island bulletins are in hand.
Due to a reorganization of the Fraser River Board's terms of reference, work ceased
on the land-use cover maps being compiled within the Fraser River watershed, but additional duties in an advisory capacity were undertaken in the editing and compilation of
the new Atlas of British Columbia Resources, sponsored by the British Columbia Natural
Resources Conference.
The preparation of the land-forms edition of Map Ik (South-western British
Columbia) was completed during the year, as was a land-use cover compilation for the
same sheet, but the latter has been held in abeyance due to lack of funds for printing.
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMING AND MAP-CHECKING
Besides maintaining a comprehensive record of all geographical names within our
borders, the duties of this Section include the preparation of name-sheets for submission
to the Canadian Board on Geographical Names at Ottawa for all maps to be published
by this Department, as well as checking name-sheets which are submitted to the Provincial
representative by all Federal agencies mapping in British Columbia.
This year we have been able to deal with a large back-log of such name-sheets
which resulted from the extensive post-war topographic mapping projects carried out by
the above-mentioned agencies. The field surveys reached a peak in 1951-52, but have
now levelled off and we hope to keep abreast of present production. A comparison of
the map-sheets and names checked will be seen in the accompanying tables. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH X 71
Preparatory to printing or reprinting, the work of checking and revising maps and
colour proofs for this Department as well as the several Federal offices preparing maps of
British Columbia is carried out by this Section. In addition to our own new editions,
forty-four maps were revised or colour-proved for the Army Survey Establishment and
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, and twenty Topographic Division
manuscripts were checked prior to shipment to Ottawa for reproduction.
A field culture check was carried out this year for Map 92 G/SE (Langley),
comprising some 1,410 square miles, half of which is in the densely populated Fraser
River valley. The requirement for this sheet became increasingly urgent with our present
Map 4p (Lower Fraser Valley) going out of print.
MAP COMPILATION AND REPRODUCTION
The adoption this year of the negative engraving method, an advanced and faster
process in which the skill of scribing with a steel point is used in place of pen drawing,
marks another milestone in this Division's progress from its pre-war work of compiling
base manuscripts, drawing, and hand-lettering.
Compilations now consist of combinations of topographic and interim planimetric
manuscripts where available, together with all other reliable base material (including the
most recent culture), and the whole reduced to a working scale for scribing.
Draughting work at present remains essentially the same, minus the time-consuming
hand-lettering, but due to rising costs of lithography since the war we have added to our
skills the techniques allied to the photo-mechanical phases of map reproduction which
were formerly tendered out to commercial firms. Master and type patch-up, negative
colour separation, vinylite colour transparencies, the touching-up of negatives and positives, etc., and all work preparatory to actual plate-making is now handled by this office
with the skilled co-operation of the Photographic Branch of the Government Printing
Bureau.
H. L. Hooper, Supervisor of Map Reproduction, attended a special course at Ottawa
in October, 1954, to familiarize himself with the latest negative engraving techniques, and
during 1955 instruments and other necessary material were procured and a training
programme instituted. The first map-sheet—82 L/SE (Sugar Lake)—is now being
reproduced by this method.
Our map production remains approximately the same as last year, since five of
the twelve maps published were reprints necessitating a minimum of draughting work.
Only five Provincial Topographic Division manuscripts were reproduced and printed at
Ottawa this year, but forty other maps of portions of British Columbia were printed by
Canadian Government agencies, for all of which we received considerable stock in return
for our co-operation and work contributed. All but the 1:250,000 series show lot
divisions where such exist. A back-log of 130 Provincial Topographic Division manuscripts are now in various stages of reproduction at Ottawa. Details and prices of the
lithographed maps are contained on Indexes 5 to 11 included in this Report, and 1955
production referred to above is detailed in the adjoining tables.
Mounted blue or paper impressions of all new Canadian Government and Provincial
topographic maps being reproduced at Ottawa, on which lot overprints are to appear, are
supplied to this office. The Topographic Division is responsible for compiling the lots;
the impressions are then checked by this Section, inked, type numbers set on the mounted
impressions, boundaries of land districts, parks, municipalities, and forests outlined, and
the sheets returned to Ottawa either when completed or upon receipt of a colour proof.
Some twenty-seven such map-sheets were dealt with this year.
Miscellaneous draughting and special work for other departments, such as preparing
map bases for the Government Travel Bureau, describing and delineating administrative
boundaries, etc., undertaken by this Section amounted to sixty requests involving 1,069
man-hours for a total of $1,990.
I X 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In addition, assistance was given in assembling, editing, procuring, and distributing
the Annual Report for 1954.
MAP DISTRIBUTION—PUBLIC RELATIONS
Some 48,000 maps were distributed during the past year, and more than 84,000
maps were taken into stock during the same period. The first figure denotes an increase
of 4,300 over 1954, and is an all-time high in the history of the Division; the latter
figure is some 14 per cent less than last year's, but, similar to last year, largely comprises
new maps rather than stock replenishments.
The total value of maps distributed during 1955 was, as shown in the accompanying
tables, $18,995, of which nearly $12,000 was received in actual cash and returned to
Consolidated Revenue. Once again it is perhaps as well to point out that the difference
in the last two sums represents the value of maps issued departmentally together with
map stocks issued to Government Agents and as yet not sold.
It is of interest to note that, while the number of maps distributed increased during
the year, those issued departmentally were less than the totals of each of the past two
years, denoting a definite increase in map demands from public sources.
Indexes 5 to 11, included in Appendix 3, accompanying this Report show all published maps available from this Division, together with all pertinent information regarding scales, printing sources, prices, etc.
As in 1954, the Lands Service maintained a series of exhibits in the British Columbia
Building on the Pacific National Exhibition grounds in Vancouver, and representatives
from all divisions conferred regarding changes and additions made to that part relating
to the Surveys and Mapping Branch. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
STATISTICAL
Computations
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
X 73
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
Provincial Main-
Provincial Main-
Provincial Main-
Provincial Main-
Peace River	
Victoria	
Willow River-
Provincial Secondary-
Provincial Secondary-
Provincial Coast—	
Canadian Hydrographic Service-
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary-
Peace River	
Lytton-Lillooet 	
Kyuquot Sound-
Douglas-Devastation Channels.
True
True
True
True
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
201
13
8
62
10
28
94
102
The following tables give comparisons with the previous five-year period:
Computations
1950
1951
1952
1953
I       1954
I
1955
Triangles adjusted by least squares... 	
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates
Ties to cadastral surveys 	
Elevations of stations determined 	
Index cards—■
New  _
Old (rewritten)..
Total on file	
Requests for control attended to..
512
1,137
326
528
1,888
924
16,373
212
i
696
1,431
248
439
1,676
586
18,049
225
614
1,484
170
643
1,342
506
19,391
272
409 |
1,300 |
189 |
131 |
I
1,561 |
450 |
20,952 |
287 |
28
537
114
143
1,192
830
22,144
314
518
810
49
239
1,415
576
23,559
378
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
Number of map-sheets or charts checked	
i
63    |
5,457    |
831    |
!
1
49    |
3,686    |
298    |
1
39
6,403
252
56    |
7,052
351    1
I
1
102    |
11,683
442    |
1
83
8,766
Number of new names recorded 	
655
Map Stock and Distribution
Maps issued to departments and public
Maps received into stock-
Total value of printed maps issued-
34,244    1 41,581 I 45,724
36,021    I 45,369 j 73,981
$11,794 $14,205 | $13,450
I I
40,733    |      43,741
92,456    |      97,274
$14,184    |    $17,382
48,043
84,573
j    $18,995
I
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
Total number of items..
Total value of work	
31    | 68
$4,400    |      $1,361
60
I      $1,990
Letters
Letters received and attended to..
5,783 X 74
department of lands and forests
Maps
Published during 1955
Name
Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Surveys
and Mapping Branch, Victoria
British Columbia land recording districts  	
British Columbia showing post-offices, railways, main roads,
trails, parks, distance charts, etc
South-eastern British Columbia showing land-forms.
South-western British Columbia  _
South-western British Columbia showing land-forms..
South-western British Columbia showing only water features,
place-names, and brown relief    	
Peace River    _ 	
Vancouver  _.  :  	
Rivers Inlet    	
Bonaparte River  _ 	
Fort Fraser    	
Charlie Lake    	
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Reproduced
and Printed by the Canadian Government, Ottawa
Nanaimo _   	
Alexandria, east half    	
Alexandria, west half  _ _ „	
Quesnel River, east half.
Quesnel River, west half._
Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Canadian
Government, Ottawa
Nootka Sound    	
Dawson Creek    	
Halfway River    	
Fort Grahame     	
McConnell Creek    	
Ware   	
Tuchodi Lakes.—  	
Bowser Lake    	
Telegraph Creek—   	
Tulsequah      	
Shuswap ._   — 	
Canal Flats, east half     	
Canal Flats, west half-.   - 	
Mount Urquhart, east half    	
Aikman Creek, east half      	
Aikman Creek, west half.  	
Blair Creek, east half—     _.
Blair Creek, west half_ _ -   	
North Beatton, east half    	
North Beatton, west half    	
Pink Mountain, east half     	
Pink Mountain, west half    	
Prophet, east half	
Prophet, west half  _   	
MacDonald Creek, east half 	
MacDonald Creek, west half- 	
Toad Hotsprings, east half  — 	
Toad Hotsprings, west half    	
Vents River, east half   	
Vents River, west half     	
Egnell Lakes, east half   	
Egnell Lakes, west half    	
Port Edward, east half	
Port Edward, west half   —
Stephens Island, east half—   	
Stephens Island, west half 	
Gladys River, east half   	
Gladys River, west half  _ 	
Smart River, east half    — 	
Smart River, west half    	
Map No.
lex
lj
lEL
lK
lKL
lKLS
3e
92 G
92 M
92 P
93 K
94 A
92G/4
93 B/9, E. 1/2
93 B/9, W. Vi
93 B/16, E. Vi
93 B/16, W. 1/2
92 E
93 P
94 B
94 C
94 D
94 F
94 K
104 A
104 G
104 K
L/NW
J/4, E
J/4, W
H/12, E. 1/2
B/9, E. 1/2
B/9, W. 1/2
B/16, E. i/_
B/16, W. 1/2
G/l, E. i/2
g/i, w. 1/2
G/2, E. 1/2
G/2, W. Vi
J/2, E. 1/2
J/2, W. 1/2
K/10, E. Vi
K/10, W. 1/2
K/14, E. Vi
K/14, W. 1/2
M/8, E. 1/2
M/8, W. 1/2
M/13, E. 1/2
M/13, W. 1/2
J/1, E. 1/2
J/l.W. 1/2
J/2, E. 1/2
J/2, W. 1/2
N/16.E. 1/2
N/16, W. 1/2
0/13, E. Vi
0/13, W. 1/2
82
82
82
92
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
103
103
103
103
104
104
104
104
.■/2
.1/2
Scale
1 in. to 55 mi.
1 in. to 27 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 4 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 1 mi.
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1:50,000
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Remarks
Reprint.
Reprint.
Reprint.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
Reprint.
Reprint.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
Third edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Third edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition. surveys and mapping branch
Maps—Continued
In Course of Compilation
X 75
Name
Map No.
Scale
Remarks
Maps Being Reproduced for Printing by Surveys
and Mapping Branch, Victoria
British Columbia.— 	
British Columbia    	
South-western British Columbia showing land-use cover.- —
West Central British Columbia....  	
West Central British Columbia showing land-forms	
Upper Kettle River 	
Kelowna	
Penticton 	
Sugar Lake    	
Langley  	
Yale       	
Chilliwack Lake     	
Merritt—     —	
Provincial Government Manuscripts Being Reproduced for
Printing by the Canadian Government, Ottawa
Galiano Island, east half  	
Galiano Island, west half  	
Carmanah, east half  —
Carmanah, west half  _ 	
Ucluelet, east half—   _ - —
Barkley Sound, east half  —
Barkley Sound, west half	
Nitinat, east half .  — 	
Nitinat, west half __ 	
Vargas Island, east half—   	
Estevan Point, east half— — _ — 	
Hesquiat, east half  — -  	
Hesquiat, west half   	
Alberni Inlet, east half    _ 	
Alberni Inlet, west half- —   —
Effingham, east half —     	
Effingham, west half.    	
Tofino, east half    - —
Tofino, west half    —	
Bedwell, east half—   - - 	
Bedwell, west half   — 	
Great Central, east half— 	
Great Central, west half   	
Home Lake, east half— -  	
Home Lake, west half—     	
Texada Island, east half   	
Texada Island, west half      	
Comox   - 	
Forbidden Plateau, east half _   	
Forbidden Plateau, west half... 	
Sechelt, east half    	
Sechelt, west half    	
Squamish, east half       —
Squamish, west half —   	
Sechelt Inlet, east half.   	
Sechelt Inlet, west half.     	
Jervis Inlet, east half —   - —
Jervis Inlet, west half   - - -
Ashnola, east half   	
Ashnola, west half    - 	
Manning Park, east half.   - 	
Manning Park, west half  	
Quadra Island — —	
Salmon River     	
Sayward    	
Sonora Island    	
Kyuquot — _ -   	
Alice Lake, east half—   	
Alice Lake, west half 	
Nimpkish, east half   	
Nimpkish, west half  —
Adam River, east half	
Adam River, west half     	
Yalakom River, east half—   	
Yalakom River, west half——   — - 	
Empire Valley, east half       	
lex
lj
Ikc
If
Ifl
82 E/NE
82 E/NW
82 E/SW
82 L/SE
92 G/SE
92 H/NW
92 H/SW
92 I/SE
92 B/14, E. 1/2
92 B/14, W. 1/2
92 C/10, E. 1/2
92 C/10, W. 1/2
92 C/13, E. 1/2
92 C/14, E. 1/2
92 C/14, W. 1/2
92 C/15, E. 1/2
92 C/15, W. 1/2
92 E/l, E. 1/2
92 E/7, E. 1/2
92 E/8, E. 1/2
92 E/8, W. 1/2
92 F/2, E. 1/2
92 F/2, W. 1/2
92 F/3, E. V-
92 F/3, W. 1/2
92 F/4, E. 1/2
92 F/4, W. 1/2
92 F/5, E. 1/2
92 F/5, W. 1/2
92 F/6, E. Vz
92 F/6, W. 1/2
92 F/7, E. 1/2
92 F/7, W. Vi
92 F/9, E. Vi
92 F/9, W. 1/2
92 F/10
92 F/ll, E. %
92F/11.W. 1/2
92 G/5, E. 1/2
92 G/5, W. 1/2
92 G/ll, E. 1/2
92 G/ll, W. 1/2
92 G/12, E. 1/2
92 G/12, W. 1/2
92 G/13, E. Vi
92G/13.W. Vi
92 H/l, E. 1/2
92H/1, W. 1/2
92 H/2, E. 1/2
92 H/2, W. 1/2
92K/3
92K/4
92K/5
92K/6
92L/3
92 L/6, E. 1/2
92 L/6, W. 1/2
92 L/7, E. 1/2
92 L/7, W. 1/2
92 L/8, E. 1/2
92 L/8, W. 1/2
92 O/l, E. 1/2
92 O/l, W. 1/2
92 0/8, E. 1/2
1 in. to 55 mi.
1 in. to 30 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
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1 in. to 2 mi.
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1
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1
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1
1
1
1 in
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
lin
lin
lin
1 in.
lin
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
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to 1 mi.
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New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition. X 76
department of lands and forests
Maps—Continued
In Course of Compilation—Continued
Name
Map No.
Scale
Remarks
Empire Valley, west half..
Springhouse, east half	
Springhouse, west half	
Owen Lake, east half	
Owen Lake, west half	
Houston, east half	
Houston, west half	
Forestdale, east half...	
Forestdale, west half.	
Topley, east half _
Topley, west half	
Quick, east half 	
Quick, west half 	
Telkwa, east half 	
Telkwa, west half	
Smithers, east half
Smithers, west half	
Cape Scott, east half-
Cape Scott, west half-
Kitimat, east half	
Kitimat, west half..
Kispiox River, east half	
Kispiox River, west half—
Cranberry River, east half-
White River, east half-
Brown Bear Lake, east half-
Brown Bear Lake, west half-
Kwinageese River, west half-
Meziadin Lake, east half.	
Meziadin Lake, west half	
Bowser Lake, east half
Bell Irving River, east half-
Bell Irving River, west half..
Taft Creek, west half	
Delta Peak, east half _	
Delta Peak, west half-
Mount Alger, west half	
Bob Quinn Lake, east half-
Bob Quinn Lake, west half~
Iskut River, east half~
Iskut River, west half	
Refuge Lake, east half -
Refuge Lake, west half	
Kinaskan Lake, east half—
Kinaskan Lake, west half.—
Telegraph Creek, east half-
Telegraph Creek, west half-
Buckley Lake, east half _
Buckley Lake, west half	
Klastline River, east half	
Klastline River, west half—
Kluea Lake, west half	
Ealue Lake, west half-
Classy Creek, west half-
Tahltan River, east half.
Tahltan River, west half—
Kennicott Lake, east half—
Kennicott Lake, west half-
Ketchum Lake, east half—
Ketchum Lake, west half
Dudidontu River, east half—
Dudidontu River, west half-
Prairie Lake, east half	
Prairie Lake, west half-
Teresa Island, east half	
Teresa Island, west half	
O'Donnel River, east half—
O'Donnel River, west half-
Bell Lake, west half  _.
Surprise Lake, west half—
Atlin, east half	
Atlin, west half-
Mount Minto, east half-
Mount Minto, west half-
92 0/8, W. Vi
92 0/16, E. 1/2
92 0/16.W. 1/2
93 L/2, E. 1/2
93 L/2, W. 1/2
93 L/7, E. 1/2
93 L/7, W. 1/2
93 L/8, E. 1/2
93 L/8, W. 1/2
93 L/9, E. 1/2
93 L/9, W. 1/2
93 L/10, E. 1/2
93 L/10, W. 1/2
93L/11.E. 1/2
93L/11.W. 1/2
93 L/14, E. 1/2
93 L/14, W. 1/2
102 1/16, E. 1/2
102 1/16, W. 1/2
103 1/2, E. 1/2
103 1/2, W. 1/2
103 P/9, E. Vi
103 P/9, W. 1/2
103 P/10, E. 1/2
103 P/14, E. 1/2
103 P/15, E. 1/2
103 P/15, W. i/2
104 A/2, W. 1/2
104 A/3, E. 1/2
104 A/3, W. 1/2
104 A/5, E. Vi
104 A/6, E. 1/2
104 A/6, W. %
104 A/11, W. 1/2
104 A/12, E. 1/2
104 A/12, W. 1/2
104 A/13, W. Vi
104 B/16, E. Vi
104 B/16, W. 1/2
104G/1, E. 1/2
104G/1, W. Vi
104 G/8, E. 1/2
104 G/8, W. Vi
104 G/9, E. 1/2
104 G/9, W. 1/2
104 G/14, E. 1/2
104 G/14, W. 1/2
104 G/15, E. Vi
104 G/15, W. 1/2
104G/16.E. 1/2
104 G/16, W. V_
104 H/12, W. 1/2
104 H/13, W. Vi
104 J/2, W. 1/2
104 J/3, E. 1/2
104 J/3, W. 1/2
104 J/4, E. i/2
104 J/4, W. 1/2
104 J/5, E. %
104 J/5, W. 1/2
104 J/12, E. 1/2
104 J/12, W. 1/2
104 J/13, E. 1/4
104 J/13, W. 1/2
104 N/5, E. 1/2
104 N/5, W. %
104 N/6, E. 1/2
104 N/6, W. 1/2
104 N/7, W. Vi
104 N/11, W. 1/2
104 N/12, E. 1/2
104 N/12, W. 1/2
104 N/13, E. 1/2
104 N/13, W. 1/2
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First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
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First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
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First edition.
First edition.
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First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.  Air Divisu
ivision
Anson Aircraft, taken from approximately 1 0,000 feet.    This is the type of aircraft used by the Air
Survey Division.    Illustrated below is an example of air photography taken from the Anson.
Waneta Power Dam, junction of Pend d'Oreille and Columbia Rivers.
Altitude 7,200 feet above sea-level. SURVEYS and MAPPING BRANCH X 79
AIR DIVISION
W. Hall, P.Eng., B.C.R.F.
During the calendar year 1955 the work and accomplishment of the Air Division
continued in much the same general pattern as during 1954.
Flying operations to obtain 40-chains-to-l-inch basic vertical photography for the
forest inventory programme were extended to the area north of Prince George in the
Peace River drainage, with some rephotography of areas in the vicinity of the McGregor
River where existing photography was unsuitable (see Appendix 4).
Poor weather was encountered in this northerly region and only sixteen days suitable
for photography were obtained. As a result, only 18,000 square miles were covered with
new photography.
Because of the scarcity of suitable photographic weather, as is apparent from
meteorological records and from our own personal experience, and of the long distances
from suitable airfields, causing much deadhead flying, in this northern part of the Province, it will be necessary to make full use of our two Anson V aircraft during the months
of August and September in order to obtain the 30,000 square miles of new photography
required each year. Other projects will have to be done before that time. This is a quite
feasible arrangement providing requests for photography are submitted early in the year
so the full season's programme can be planned well ahead.
Two 8-inch-focal-length narrow-angle Williamson cameras were rebuilt and fitted
with Dallemeyer Pentac lenses early in the year at the Air Division instrument-shop.
These were used to obtain large-scale photo coverage of some 5,000 square miles of public
working circles for more intensive forest inventory work. The resulting photographs were
of excellent quality and proved invaluable, not only to Forest Surveys, but also to Forest
Engineering for road-location work.
Apart from the major job of obtaining photographs for Forest Surveys, many other
projects in various parts of the Province were completed, including coverage of new road
construction for map revision, special photography for multiplex mapping, rephotograph-
ing areas requested by the Taxation Branch for assessment work, a complete coverage of
the route of the proposed road from Dease Lake to Stewart, and identification photographs of triangulation stations in the north-east section of the Province.
Two areas were photographed—one near Smithers and the other near Dog Creek—
using a Wilde RC 5 cartographic camera which had been loaned to us by the National
Research Council. This project was carried out at the request of the National Research
Council to test its camera, and in return will compile maps of the two areas which will
serve as checks against our own existing topographic maps.
A total of 508 hours of flying-time was accomplished during the season by the two
aircraft, which is the highest total of any year to date. It is significant that only 224
hours were spent on large- and small-scale block vertical photography for the Forest
Surveys, which shows the increasing demand on the Air Division for photography of
special requirements by other branches of the Lands Department and other departments
of the Government.
In the office the mapping programme continued much the same as during 1954, with
the addition of the preparation of principal point lay-downs of the large-scale photographs
mentioned above. These were plotted at a scale of 20 chains to 1 inch and were tied in
to the existing 40-chains-to-l-inch interim maps so the two series will be in sympathy.
A total of 43,000 square miles of 40-chains-to-l-inch interim maps were completed
during the year, almost up to last year's record output (see Appendix 5a).
In the Multiplex Section 968 square miles of large-scale contoured maps were produced—205 square miles for the Fraser River Board, 194 square miles for the Water
Rights Branch, 539 square miles for the Forest Service Engineering Division, and 30
square miles for the British Columbia Power Commission. X 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The maps for the Forest Engineering Division involved a departure from normal
procedure of topographic mapping by use of the multiplex. As the maps were required
early in the summer by the field parties responsible for road location, no time was available to establish the ground control, either horizontal or vertical, necessary to produce
maps to standard specifications. However, an examination of the required areas indicated that by using existing triangulation stations and levelled traverse routes for vertical
and horizontal control, and the 40-chains-to-l-inch interim maps to hold over-all scale,
maps could be produced at a scale of 20 chains to 1 inch, with a 50-foot contour interval,
which would be quite suitable for the purpose. This procedure was adopted, and judging
by reports from the field location parties it would appear that a quite satisfactory answer
was obtained.
It is unfortunate that expedients such as this must be resorted to in order to meet
dead-lines set by the field crews, but it would appear that the time element will always be
the deciding factor in many of these projects, and that it will be necessary for us to produce this type of map to serve the needs. Reconnaissance maps might be an appropriate
title for them.
The controlled photo mosaics covering Richmond Municipality mentioned in last
year's Report were completed early in the year.
The total Air Photo Library traffic for loans and reprints remained about the same
as for 1954, with a decrease in requests from Government agencies more than offset by
an increase in requests from private companies and individuals. These latter totalled
48,698 prints, as compared to 31,570 during 1954.
As a follow-up to the rebuilding and calibration of the Eagle V air-survey cameras
which was completed last year, work was started during 1955 on reconditioning and
calibrating the allied optical equipment consisting of the reduction printer for diapositive
plates and the individual projectors on the multiplex plotters.
The principle behind this work is to ensure that the combination of the three optical
systems involved—namely, the air-survey cameras used to obtain the original negative,
the reduction printer for making the diapositive plates from the original negatives, and the
multiplex projector units that enlarge the diapositive plates on to the mapping-table—all
combine to produce an undistorted final model of the ground area originally photographed.
Work is still in progress, and so far the results are most encouraging and indicate
that basically our equipment is sound and that with a few minor modifications, well within
our ability to handle, the efficiency and accuracy of our mapping equipment can be
materially improved.
At the 1954 meeting of the International Society of Photogrammetry, held in Rome,
it was decided to establish a test mapping area in France and invite interested mapping
organizations to participate in a comparative mapping test with a view to obtaining data
on the accuracies and costs of mapping using different types of cameras and plotting-
machines.
It was felt that participation in such a test would be most valuable to the Air Division
as it will provide, in effect, a measure of the accuracy we can expect from our equipment.
Accordingly, arrangements were made with the Institut Geographique National in
Paris to have the test area photographed using one of our air-survey cameras. This was
done and the resulting negatives, developed in our own laboratory, are of very good
quality, and the actual mapping will be commenced as soon as time is available.
During the year three senior personnel—C. A. Matson, B.C.L.S., E. A. Rothery,
F.R.I.C.S., B.C.L.S., and W. K. MacDonald, D.L.S.—left the Division for positions outside the Government, necessitating some reallocation of duties and responsibilities within
the Division. It is difficult for an organization such as the Air Division, with its many
and varied activities, to maintain a rigid organization, and it has been found necessary
to distribute the work to conform with the abilities and experience of available personnel
in order to maintain a workable unit. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 81
Nine other personnel left the Division during the year, making a total of 16 per
cent of the staff requiring replacement.
During the year, arrangements were made by the Government to rent Hangar No. 1
to Pacific Western Airlines and to turn over all servicing of aircraft to that company. As
a result of this, our two aircraft mechanics left the Division to join Pacific Western Airlines. In view of this change, plans are being made to move the instrument-shop from
Patricia Bay to a location near the head office in Victoria to facilitate administration.
For further details of Air Division activities during 1955, reference should be made
to the separate reports and appendices that follow.
AIR OPERATIONS
By A. S. Lukinuk
The 1955 field season produced a notable variation in photographic accomplishment, indicative of the limitations to which flying operations are subjected in northern
latitudes of the Province.
Eighteen thousand square miles of new cover completed in the Peace River, Tete
Jaune, and Atlin areas represents a near-maximum effort on the part of both Anson
detachments to extend basic vertical cover into these regions. The average output of
the past few seasons—well above this figure—illustrates the advantages that were enjoyed
in Southern British Columbia, where a fairly selective range of airfields and weather-
reporting stations, as well as generally more favourable weather and maintenance facilities, enabled the air crews to operate with comparative ease. Although the persistence
of snow on higher ground delayed this phase of the summer's operations until mid-July,
the 16,000 square miles completed in the Peace River drainage were sufficient to provide our base-mapping staff with two sizeable lay downs (including low-level photographic
identification of triangulation control points within the areas).
However, as restrictions impaired progress with the main priority of basic vertical
cover, both aircraft were able to undertake a full programme of special miscellaneous
projects, completing an unusually large number of these requests, as was opportune.
The 282.22 aircraft hours spent on this phase of the operations—a record accomplishment—represent 55 per cent of the total flying for the season.
Forest Service demands for special large-scale photography were a primary alternative to the block vertical programme. A total of 6,197 exposures, taken with an
8-inch lens cone at a scale of 20 chains to 1 inch, provided photographic cover for
detailed forest interpretation in public working circles throughout the Province, and an
additional 954 reconnaissance photographs of access roads and bridge-sites were provided as required for allied engineering projects. These demands for which special cover
was completed involved sixteen separate areas of activity. Total of areas flown, by
districts, is as follows: Prince Rupert, 950 square miles; Prince George, 3,191 square
miles; Kamloops, 250 square miles; and Nelson, 460 square miles.
The combined total of 4,851 square miles of large-scale photographic cover was
procured at a unit cost of $4.24 per square mile, plus 324 lineal miles of reconnaissance
cover at a unit cost of $10.14 per lineal mile.
Special photographic cover was also provided for multiplex mapping projects and
survey crews engaged in the field control necessary for these areas. A total of 2,590
exposures were taken to specifications as required for irrigation, pondage, dam-sites,
town planning, or contouring. The eighteen separate projects completed cover an area
of 2,433 square miles in the Okanagan and Kootenay Valleys, Cariboo Mountains,
Babine Lake, Lower Fraser Valley, and Saanich Peninsula, and 931 lineal miles along
the Fraser River watershed. X 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Fifteen additional miscellaneous projects were flown, the most notable being reconnaissance photography of the proposed highway route extending from Dease Lake to
Stewart.
Total cost of air operations, including salaries, amounted to $73,138.97, an increase
of less than 1 per cent over the 1953 and 1954 seasons.
For details of 1955 air operations costs and accomplishment see Appendices 6 and 7.
As the scene of photographic activity progresses northward into the remotest regions
of the Province, several normal operating factors become critical enough for special
consideration. Foremost amongst these is the extended range of operation, adding to
time-consuming deadhead flying and risk to air crew personnel in event of aircraft failure
hundreds of miles from the nearest emergency airstrip. The possibility of establishing
a suitable landing-strip in the vicinity of Dease Lake is currently under investigation with
the Department of Transport. The acquisition of long-range V.H.F. radio equipment
and a recently developed search and rescue homing unit are strongly recommended.
PROCESSING LABORATORY
By T. H. Bell
The total output of the Processing Laboratory was slightly higher than that of 1954,
with much the same general distribution of product.
The ventilation of the darkrooms, which has never been satisfactory, is currently the
subject of serious study, and it is hoped that alterations in the present arrangement of
sinks, fans, and printers can be made early in 1956 to greatly improve the situation.
Reference should be made to the following tabulation for detail of production:—
Production Record
1946-50
1951
1952
1953
1954
19551
Grand
Totals.
1946-55
Processing completed—
Air films (Eagle V rolls, averaging 115 exposures)	
Air films (tests—part rolls) 	
Air films (K 20 rolls, averaging 40 exposures)	
Mountain-station films2 (6 exposures each)	
Printing completed—
Standard prints (5 by 5 inches enlarged to 9 by 9 inches)...
Contact prints (5 by 5 inches)	
Contact prints (large to 20 by 24 inches)	
Enlargements (various sizes to 30 by 30 inches)	
Mountain-station enlargements2 (11 by 14 inches)	
Lantern-slides (2 by 2 inches)	
Autopositive films (various sizes to 30 by 40 inches)	
Miscellaneous photographs, copies, and Kelsh plates—
Positives (films or glass plates)	
Requisitions completed .
1,010
542
238,867
39,370
3,079
3,297
96
88
164
2,451
192
2
830
112,435
921
1,849
4,656
78
185
84
1,446
161
13
605
165,976
135
1,568
3,445
3
100
114
1,569
163
235
151,249
1,201
102
2,457
1,788
119
278
91
203
1,726
161
13
4
183
136,342
715
459
1,135
48
35
1,859
94
25
2,215
168
14
5
115
138,000
450
550
860
400
15
1,650
100
60
2,400
1,855
27
32
2,510
942,869
42,792
1,211
10,948
13,634
346
4,160
647
288
11,807
1 Estimated.
1 For Topographic Survey Division.
MULTIPLEX SECTION
Requests for large-scale topographic maps prepared by use of the multiplex plotters
increased during the year to an extent well beyond the capacity of existing equipment and
trained personnel.
Ten full-time operators, working in two shifts, plus two trainees, one photographer
for processing diapositive plates, and one supervisor are employed in this Section, making
up 20 per cent of the total strength of the Air Division.
One of the problems encountered in this phase of the work of the Division is the
constant need to train new operators, which normally requires about six months, to replace SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 83
experienced personnel leaving to go to private companies engaged in the same type of
work.   During 1955 two such experienced operators left the Section.
During the year the Section moved to new quarters especially built to house the
multiplex equipment.   These have proved very satisfactory in all respects.
The mosaics of Richmond Municipality mentioned in last year's Report were
successfully completed early in the year, together with standard mapping projects as
fisted in the following summary:—
Square
Miles
Project
Authority
Scale
Vancouver
Island
State
of Completion
346.0
193.0
20.8
1.0
3.8
140.0
128.0
57.8
33.4
12.0
29.3
51.4
30.0
0.6
61.2
Morice Lake	
Naver Creek	
Chilcotin River..
Gaspard Creek-
Churn Creek	
Forest Engineering Division-
Forest Engineering Division-
Water Rights Branch	
Water Rights Branch 	
Hobson Lake	
Moran-Lytton	
Penticton-Osoyoos-
Kelowna.. 	
Westbank 	
Creston	
Clearwater River-
Water Rights Branch	
" Prairie Farms Rehabilitation Act'
Water Rights Branch	
Water Rights Branch  	
Water Rights Branch  	
Water Rights Branch	
Dam-sites (various)..
Taghum.-
Richmond Municipality-
Water Rights Branch	
" Prairie Farms Rehabilitation Act "
British Columbia Power Commission.
Water Rights Branch	
Water Rights Branch— 	
1,000
1,320
500
500
500
1,000
500
500
500
500
500
500
1,320
660
300
200
(mosaic)
Ft.
50
50
20-40
20-40
20-40
50
20-40
5, 10, 20
5, 10, 20
5, 10, 20
5, 10, 20
20-40
50-100
20-40
5, 10, 20
Spot heights
Per Cent
100
100
100
100
100
25
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
The two projects for Forest Engineering—Morice Lake and Naver Creek—were not
done to the standard normally set for this type of mapping as time was not available to
establish the necessary ground control.
However, with the control available and by using water-bodies for levelling and the
40-chains-to-l-inch interim maps for over-all scale, maps suitable to the purpose were
compiled.
INSTRUMENT-SHOP
The instrument-shop at Patricia Bay Airport handled a wide variety of projects
during the year.
Forty-six field transits and levels and twenty-two barometers were repaired and
adjusted, two 8-inch-focal-length Williamson cameras were rebuilt and fitted with reconditioned Dallemeyer Pentac f.2.9 lenses, and twenty-seven multiplex projectors were
tested and adjusted. Work was started on fitting a Forest Service epidiascope with an
automatic focus linkage, and it would appear at this stage that a practical solution can be
obtained to this problem using the Peaucellier inversor principle.
AIR PHOTO LIBRARY
By R. J. Cosier
Demands for reprints of standard British Columbia Government air photographs in
1955 will reach an estimated 140,000. This will by no means approach the 1952 figure,
which reached a record 165,976, but will surpass the 1954 total by nearly 15,000. This
increase compensated for a reduction in the number of loan photographs handled this year.
The total number of prints issued on loan during the year was down 11,000 from
the 52,349 total of 1954. This decrease is entirely accounted for by reduced demands
on the part of Provincial Government departments. Actually the loans to individuals and
private companies increased some 4,000 prints, from 15,262 to 19,111.
Standing out in the breakdown of orders for standard reprints are the heavy demands
for photographic work made by the public in 1955.   The estimated figure of 30,000 for
_J X 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
this year is nearly double the 1954 total. Forest industries, as usual, top the list with
a demand for 7,722 photographs. Private individuals ordered 5,089 copies for their
personal use, and the balance was requested by companies and organizations.
In this latter category came many varied requests from unusual sources. Most
unusual, perhaps, was the letter from a committee in Summerland. This committee plans
to reproduce contact prints on table mats and other items in conjunction with the celebration of Summerland's golden jubilee in 1956.
A writer preparing a brief for the Royal Canadian Flying Club Association in connection with a proposed satellite airport sought photographs of English Bay and Spanish
Banks in Vancouver.
Another man wrote for a photograph because he believed someone was building on
his island lot in error. Still another desired photographs in certain areas of the Province
in his task of making gold-placer summaries, while a member of the Marine Medical
Mission wanted an enlargement of Thetis Island as he prepared to make a soil and type
map of the island.
Uses of aerial photographs have been highlighted in previous Reports and, except
for the few examples above, a repetition of these uses will not be made. However,
reference should be made to the emergence of the air photograph into a new field as
outstanding exhibits in legal cases. They have been used in Court of Appeal exhibits,
in determining the nature of trespasses made on private property, in right-of-way legal
suits, and for other legal purposes.
Correspondence into the Air Photo Library remains at a high level. This being the
case, the Library was divided into two functional sections during the past twelve months.
This was in the form of an experiment but is likely to continue.
The Reference Section, under the guidance of K. S. Walker, continued to provide
service to visitors to the Library. During visits, customers are given an analysis of air
photographs, many of which are purchased or borrowed. Telephone calls, including
many long-distance calls and radiograms from the British Columbia Forest Service, are
received and acknowledged by this Section. Accurate ledgers, film reports, and a well-
defined special file are of assistance in providing ready information on altitudes, scales,
and interesting photographs. In the early months of the year the shipper was changed
constantly, with accompanying difficulties. This situation rapidly improved with the
appointment of a permanent shipper during the peak summer period.
To facilitate the handling of large volumes of mail, a Correspondence Section was
introduced, whereby the incoming mail could be handled without interruption. This
Section handled letters, telegrams, etc. A permanent stockroom clerk-typist was added
in April, greatly improving the efficiency of Library files and cardex indices. This Section
recorded the flow of Library traffic and compiled monthly and annual report figures.
Approximately from 250 to 300 letters per month are received.
In yet another section, indexing on autopositive bases was carried out. This indexing, we are happy to relate, kept well abreast of the processing, and 1955 photographs
were therefore available for early release to the public and to official sources.
For the first time since the Air Photo Library opened its doors in 1946, there are
more British Columbia Government photographs on file than Canadian Government
photographs.
For new photography obtained during 1955, reference should be made to Appendix
4 following this report. r
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 85
1953
AIR  PHOTO LIBRARY TRAFFIC
1954 1955
10.
ONDJ     FMAMJJASOND.FMAM.JASOND
__
Z
<
_.
o
x
LOANS FROM LIBRARY
20.
15.
a
z
<
_.
-3
o
10.
DEMANDS FOR REPRINTS
PRODUCTION OF 9"x9" PRINTS X 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Orders for Standard Prints (9 by 9 Inches) from British
Columbia Air-photo Negatives, 1955
Private—
Individuals	
Companies and organizations	
Mining industries	
Oil and natural-gas industries	
Schools and universities	
Towns and cities	
Real-estate companies	
Commercial air-survey companies.
Forest industries	
Photographs
Requisitions _Reprints
(Estimated)
541
231
59
Totals-
Federal Government agencies—
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys
Department of National Defence	
Department of Agriculture	
Department of Fisheries	
Fraser River Board	
Miscellaneous	
Totals	
Provincial Government—
Surveys and Mapping Branch-
Library copies	
Land Inspection Division
Water Rights Branch
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)-
Department of Public Works	
Department of Highways	
Forest Surveys	
Forest districts	
Forest Engineering-	
Forest Service (miscellaneous)-
Department of Finance	
Department of Agriculture	
Department of Mines	
Pacific National Exhibition	
Miscellaneous	
Totals	
Grand totals..
15
35
22
29
58
258
16
12
8
1
12
26
75
259
23
22
38
5
13
10
33
67
28
32
63
13
27
2
42
(Estimated)
5,089
7,088
2,997
2,161
1,915
701
225
2,771
7,722
1,248   30,669
961
726
80
11
727
694
3,199
30,633
13,144
2,736
1,172
19
130
187
13,099
31,943
3,008
443
2,667
581
3,397
139
834
697  104,132
2,020  138,000 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 87
Loan Traffic, 1955
Photographs
_  . Issued Returned
Private ■ (Estimated) (Estimated)
Individuals  5,041 4,436
Companies and organizations  3,798 4,208
Mining industries  445 275
Oil and natural-gas industries  217 217
Schools and universities  1,302 1,559
Towns and cities  257 220
Real-estate companies  168 229
Commercial air-survey companies  1,780 1,242
Forest industries  6,103 5,922
Totals  19,111 18,308
Federal Government agencies—
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys
Department of National Defence	
Department of Agriculture	
Department of Fisheries	
Fraser River Board	
Miscellaneous	
Totals     1,856
Provincial Government—
Surveys and Mapping Branch-
Land Inspection Division-
Water Rights Branch     2,000
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)	
Department of Public Works	
Department of Highways	
Forest Surveys	
Forest districts	
Forest Engineering	
Forest Service (miscellaneous).
Department of Finance	
Department of Agriculture	
Department of Mines	
Miscellaneous	
Totals	
Grand totals-
864
864
106
139
104
101
329
329
326
738
127
66
2,237
9,769
9,934
166
464
2,000
1,666
32
43
298
292
347
178
190
445
343
366
741
594
2,352
2,522
256
226
186
178
1,729
2,088
2,081
2,273
20,490   21,269
41,457   41,814 X 88
:
department of lands and forests
Summary of Loan Traffic, 1955
Issued
Out on loan, December 31st, 1954     4,770
Loaned out during 1955  41,457
Returned during 1955    .      	
Returned
41,814
Totals, December 31st, 1955  46,227
Net photographs out on loan, December 31st,
1955    _.        ._    	
41,814
4,413
Totals  46,227
46,227
Library Copies of Aerial Photographs of British Columbia
Federal
Provincial
Total
On hand, December 31st, 1954                                                    .   .
206,293
195,848
13,144
402,141
13,144
Total photographs of British Columbia on hand, December 31st, 1955	
206,293
208,992
415,285 I
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
APPENDICES
Appendix 6.—1955 Air Operations Costs and Distribution
X 89
Flying Operations
Aircraft operations (salaries—pilots and engineers; field
expenses—pilots and engineers; field transport; gas
and oil; oxygen; insurance—personnel and aircraft ;  miscellaneous)	
Total Cost
$21,997.17
Aircraft maintenance and overhead (salaries—engineers;
hangar—rental and utilities; equipment and parts;
material and supplies; services; miscellaneous)     16,289.14
Administration and organization (general administration
and operations organization)       4,371.36
Total, flying operations_
$42,657.67
Photographic Operations
Field operations (salaries—navigator and camera operator; field expenses—navigator and camera operator;
field transport; air film; insurance — personnel;
miscellaneous)   $15,353.46
Camera maintenance  (salaries;   equipment and parts;
material and supplies)       5,514.99
Processing and prints (dark room—development; air
photo library—annotation and prints (one set 9 by
9 inches))        5,241.49
Administration and organization (general administration
and operations organization)       4,371.36
Total, photographic operations.
Grand total	
$30,481.30
$73,138.97 X 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Appendix 7.—1955 Air Operations Cost Summary by Projects
Aircraft
Hours
Number
of Photos
Accomplishment
Total Cost
1951-54
Sq. Mi.
Lin. Mi.
Stations
Averages
A. Basic   vertical   cover    (approximately   40   chains   to   the
inch)—
Hr. Min.
114   40
10   28
2   00
8    10
4,275
409
295
16,000
1,000
$17,052.61
1,593.20
167.66
1,200.89
Atlin 	
Victoria-Saanich, revision
1,500
Total               	
135    18
4,979
$4.02
18,500
$1.08
$20,014.36
$4.25/photo,
$1.44/sq. mi.
10    16
22   36
3    47
17    04
15    00
7    43
10   52
5 16
3    04
6 18
1    51
1    31
1    31
	
	
$1,536.18
4,156.51
749.38
3,395.93
2,688.90
1,276.92
2,331.96
1,120.53
675.36
883.38
349.33
303.92
317.92
C Forest   Inventory   projects   (approximately 20 chains to the
inch)—
Willow River—field photographs-
386
1,300
247
1,123
818
360
812
388
239
203
111
101
109
324
1,070
136
950
525
250
650
300
125
120
75
70
70
Hallmark Creek-Kianuko Creek.
Summit Creek	
Total _	
Average cost, approximate ...
106   49
6,197
$3.19
4,665
$4.24
$19,786.22
$7.18/photo,
$7.09/sq. mi.
D. Forest Engineering projects—
2 32
3 23
3    41
3    01
1    06
5    29
1   25
1    25
1    51
1    31
45
.—.    30
46
51
147
59
39
342
57
73
73
31
30
6
36
30
50
12
55
36
30
45
20
10
	
$292.84
372.85
565.99
356.17
160.46
1,058.13
218.54
246.54
282.84
181.42
115.37
52.42
185
Carp Lake bridge-sites...         	
	
	
1
Total     	
26    39
954
$4.09
186
$3.32
324
$10.14
$3,903.57
Average cost, approximate...
E. Multiplex projects—
Sinclair Mills-Loos (W.R.B.)	
6    34
—.    30
4   49
35
1    14
3 18
4 37
14   47
3    46
18    13
1    25
10   30
256
56
123
11
24
68
113
126
137
454
83
495
140
9
45
3
28
60
11
50
300
	
$998.51
139.92
619.06
68.12
145.36
395.64
584.79
1,459.80
555.54
2,321.68
264.04
1,746.47
Giscome Canyon (P.F.R.A.)	
Giscome pondage (P.F.R.A.)	
McGregor    River    dam-site
(P.F.R.A.) _   	
McGregor    River    pondage
(P.F.R.A.)  	
McGregor    River     (1954)
(P.F.R.A.) 	
	
Hobson    Lake    dam - site
(P.F.R.A.)	
Hobson     Lake     pondage
(P.F.R.A.)  	
Babine   Lake   P.W.C.    (Forest
650
1,500
35
Willow   River-Purden   Lake
P.W.C. (Forest Engineering)..
Royal    Oak    (Town    Planning
Lytton-Moran   pondage
(W.R.B.)    	
J SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
X 91
Appendix 7.—1955 Air Operations Cost Summary by
Projects—Continued
Accomplishment
Aircraft
Hours
Number
of Photos
Total Cost
1951-54
Averages
Sq. Mi.
Lin. Mi.
Stations
E. Multiplex projects—Continued
Hr.
Min.
Dragon Lake (W.R.B.)	
1
32
20
14
163.51
Raush    Valley    pondage
(P.F.R.A.) 	
Naramata irrigation (W.R.B.) ..
7
32
232
240
1,037.49
3
59
67
50
451.14
130  Mile  Lake-San Jose  River
(W.R.B.)       ..
Richmond extension (Richmond
2
21
68
45
316.00
Municipality)  . — —
1
50
6
2
164.16
Osoyoos irrigation (W.R.B.)	
2
33
99
85
387.02
Kelowna irrigation (W.R.B.)	
2
50
71
50
361.74
Westbank irrigation (W.R.B.)....
2
17
25
12
235.13
Creston irrigation (W.R.B.)	
1
53
56
35
255.85
Total  .
97
05
2,590
$4.89
2,433
$2.12
931
$8.07
$12,670.97
Average cost, approximate—
$4.08/photo,
$6.64/sq. mi.,
$7.82/lin. mi.
F. Special projects—
Lower   Fraser   gap   strip   (Re
gional Planning)— 	
2
50
36
20
$300.49
New Westminster - Hope   (Dyk
ing Commission) - 	
Penticton   River   (map   amend
4
20
74
84
492.75
ment)   	
Cariboo Highway (map amend-
2
00
28
4
216.66
3
17
68
58
394.21
Trout Lake road (map amend
ment)-    	
Bulkley Valley (taxation assess
1
27
11
10
140.80
ment)     	
Peace   River    (taxation   assess
2
53
92
70
402.68
ment)—  ... -	
2
52
49
200
30
326.09
Nelson-Castlegar-Trail  (compos-
4
00
65
45
449.08
Kingsgate-Ryan (Department of
Mines and Technical Surveys)
U.B.C. campus (Faculty of En
37
23
16
91.97
gineering)  	
1
05
9
5
106.54
Fort Steele-Elko Highway (Le-
1
47
76
46
282.47
Ootsa Lake flooded area  (map
5
30
123
204
676.34
Dease    Lake-Stewart    (Depart-
14
00
1,219
300
3,294.67
Dease   Lake-Stewart   tricamera
1
16
93
43
268.96
Sooke    Road    (multiplex   field
3
55
63
10
438.61
Total                  	
51
49
2,029
225
920
$7,882.32
Average cost, approximate—
$3.88
$3.26
$7.77
$3.76/photo,
$4.11/sq. mi.,
$6.34/lin. mi.
G. Triangulation control—
North-east topographic control-
25
25
224
67
$2,522.71
17
17
184
49
1,770.83
McGregor River. —	
2
00
55
9
263.91
Total              	
44
42
463
125
$4,557.45
Average cost, approximate—
$9.84
$36.46
$9.10/photo,
$31.82/stn.
H. Miscellaneous projects—
15
40
$1,313.36
1,557.82
18
35
Camera maintenance and testing.
12
13
245
1,452.90
Total
46
28
245
$4,324.08
508
50
17,457
26,009
2,175
125
$73,138.97   Note 3
THE WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
As the title of the Water Rights Branch suggests, the people and industries of British
Columbia have a " right " to the " use " of water in this Province. At first reflection, the right
to use water might be considered as basic as the right to use air or to admire the scenery. And
so it is, but because it is a commodity which everyone must have, it becomes necessary for
government to control its use or the " haves " would be making a great deal of money selling it
to the " have nots." The Water Rights Branch is the agency of the Provincial Government
which administers the control of the use of water. The Branch administers the " Water Act,"
which has been developed by legislation into an excellent administrative vehicle, used as a model
in the initiation of other similar Acts in other countries.
The main principles of the "Water Act" are:—
(1) The property in and the right to the use and flow of all water at any time in any
stream in the Province are for all purposes vested in the Crown in the right of
the Province.
(2) Licence-holders have a right to the use of water under the terms and conditions
of the licence.
(3) A licence-holder's priority of right is generally based upon the date his application
was recorded by a Water Recorder. Earlier licences have priority over licences
issued later.
(4) Retention of a water licence is dependent upon the beneficial use of the water,
payment of the rentals, and observance of the regulations of the " Water Act."
No one can adopt a " dog in the manger " attitude to this Province's water.
(5) Every licence and permit that is made appurtenant to any land, mine, or undertaking shall pass with any conveyance or other disposition thereof. Ownerships
of licences are therefore automatically transferred with their appurtenant land,
mine, or undertaking.
The administration of the " Water Act " is carried out by the Comptroller of Water Rights.
He and his staff are located at a headquarters office in Victoria, and at district offices in Victoria,
Kamloops, Kelowna, and Nelson.
There is much correspondence, field investigation, and record-keeping of an exacting nature
associated with this administration because all details of every application must be carefully
reviewed before licences are issued. The filing and recording of all the mass of data associated
with water use is, in itself, an assignment of no small magnitude.
Much of the vast industrial expansion presently occurring in this Province is associated
with the use of British Columbia water, and the Government and its Civil Service are therefore
called upon to assist and direct this expansion in the public interest.
The Water Rights Branch therefore has a technical function as well as an administrative
one and is called upon to carry out many investigations and studies of a scientific nature. The
fact that almost every executive in the Water Rights Branch is a professional engineer is indicative of the technical nature of the work. These executives of the Branch take active part on a
number of important boards and committees dealing with the disposition of the Province's
water resources.
The Comptroller of Water Rights has a technical staff consisting of a Deputy Comptroller
and Chief, Operations Division; Chief, Hydraulic Investigations Division; District Engineers;
Senior Hydraulic Engineers; Project Engineer; and a number of hydraulic engineers, technicians, and draughtsmen. This staff carries out many assignments in the irrigation, domestic
water-supply, hydro-electric, dyking and drainage, and other fields. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 95
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
A. F. Paget, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., Comptroller of Water Rights
INTRODUCTION
The duties of the Water Rights Branch are twofold—to administer the "Water
Act" and to carry out investigations dealing with the water resources of British Columbia.
To further these objects the establishment of the Branch was changed during the
year to provide two separate divisions: (1) Operating Division and (2) Hydraulic Investigations Division.
Each of these divisions is supervised by a Chief Engineer, who is directly responsible
to the Comptroller of Water Rights. The functions of the two divisions will be explained
more fully in the following sections.
In addition to these divisions, the Comptroller is advised by the Branch Solicitor and
the Project Engineer.
The Comptroller of Water Rights is required from time to time to be a member of
certain advisory boards and committees and during the past year was a member of the
following: (1) International Kootenay Lake Board of Control, (2) Fraser River Board
(this replaced the former Fraser River Basin Board under new terms of reference),
(3) Dominion-Provincial Co-ordinating Committee on Land Reclamation in British Columbia, (4) Western Snow Conference, and (5) British Columbia Natural Resources
Conference.
In the course of administration of the "Water Act" the Comptroller is required,
where necessary, to conduct hearings in regard to application for water licences of a
contentious nature. Most important of these held during the past year was the hearing of
objections to the application of Northwest Power Industries Limited to divert and use
waters of the Yukon River, Teslin Lake, and Taku River for a proposed power development of enormous potential. This hearing was held in Atlin during August and was
followed by an inspection of this general area by air, boat, and rail. X 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
OPERATIONS DIVISION
W. A. Ker, B.A.Sc, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., Deputy Comptroller and Chief,
Operations Division
The Operations Division was established in July, 1955, under the direction of the
Chief, Operations Division, and comprises the following:—
(1) Four district offices, located at Nelson, Kelowna, Kamloops, and Victoria,
each office staffed by a District Engineer, Assistant District Engineer, and
clerk-stenographer, plus such additional temporary survey help as is required for surveys:
(2) A Senior Hydraulic Engineer to supervise improvement districts and
water-users' communities:
(3) A Senior Hydraulic Engineer to supervise inspection of dams and other
hydraulic structures (position not filled):
(4) Water Rights draughting office, supervised by Chief Draughtsman:
(5) General office staff, supervised by Chief Clerk.
The prime function of this Division is to carry out the administrative duties of the
Water Rights Branch and to provide engineering assistance to improvement districts,
water-users' communities, and individual licensees.
"WATER ACT" ADMINISTRATION STATISTICS
The following table provides statistical information illustrating the large volume of
detailed work which the Operations Division has carried out during the year. For comparison purposes, certain statistics for the three previous years are also shown.
Certain of these statistics are also shown in a visual way, on Plates 1, 2, and 3.
1952
1953
1954
1955
744
23
11
36
397
734
183
147
775
30
22
42
422
766
292
137
584
17
16
33
490
965
327
137
635
48
30
27
544
618
205
108
2,275
2,486
2,569
2,215
668
425
724
363
556
485
528
347
1,093
1,087
1,041
875
Draughting-room
Water applications cleared and platted on maps  635
Conditional-licence plats compiled and drawn   528
  347
  13
  11
  39
Final-licence plats compiled and drawn_
Water-rights maps compiled and drawn_
Water-rights maps revised 	
Reference maps renewed..
Improvement-district maps compiled and drawn-
improvement-district maps revised _
Water clearances (cancellations, change of ownership, extension of time)_
Land clearances (purchases, leases, revisions, Crown grants,
timber sales, cancellations)	
1,360
6,000
J WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 97
PLATE   1
WATER  RIGHTS   BRANCH,  REVENUE  AND   EXPENSES
Fiscal   Years    1330 - 1955
AND
DISTRIBUTION    DIAGRAM    For Fiscal \&ar   1954-55
1330
1935 B40 1345 1950
FISCAL     YEARS (Ending   March   3!s-r.) X 98
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PLATE 2
WATER    RIGHTS    BRANCH    ADMINISTRATION
1913       to      1955
oo
/
-6
1/
,___
/
/
sBX
caac
\,
/
A
\s
h
/
/
|
/
{
s\
APPLICATIONS
RECEIVED
1313     to    1955
1
j
1
O
PJ
m
in
g
01
23
1
m
(0
<n
1
2
3 1"
s   |
o
m
in
in
e
1
.
-500-
u.
M
52
CONDITIONAL    L1CENC
ISSUED
1913    -to   1955
_S
o
N
0.
_
<
i
3
n
I
in
/booI
f-500-
!
1
O
s
in
K)
0.
i
00
i
FINAL.   LIOEIMC
ISSUED
1316    -to     195
5
l
5
1
1
1
o
s
1
1
1
n
11
c
u
1
1
1
" WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 99
PLATE 3
Water   Rights Branch   Administration
Nov.   1st.    1954-     -to    Oct.   31=*-   1955
OTHER
135
IRRIGATION
 E02	
Total   S35
APPLICATIONS
WATER    LICENCES
RECEIVED
OTHER
94
IRRIGATION
 172	
"Total. 52B
CONDITIONAL
WATER   LICENCES
ISSUED
OTHER     IA
•IRRIGATION-
 156——
Tota l_    3 4-7
FINAL
WATER   LICENCES
ISSUED
Other   i Waterworks,lndustrial, Power, Mining, Land  Improvement,
Storage   cfi   River   Improvement. X 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
H. D. DeBeck, B.A., B.A.Sc, M.E.I.C, P. Eng., District Engineer
The Kamloops office administers the
" Water Act " throughout an area of approximately 75,000 square miles of Central British Columbia, comprising the drainage-basin
of the Fraser River and its tributaries from
Spuzzum up-stream, with the exception of
the watersheds of the Shuswap River and the
Stuart and Nechako Rivers above their confluence. This area is divided for administrative purposes into eight water districts—
Ashcroft, Barkerville, Cariboo, Kamloops,
Lillooet, Nicola, Prince George, and Quesnel.
The City of Kamloops, although not at the
geographical centre of this area, is near the
centre of the Dry Belt, where the water use
is greatest and the supply most critical.
Climate
As might be expected, the climate within this area varies widely. Precipitation
ranges from 7 inches at Ashcroft and 10 inches at Kamloops to 40 inches at Barkerville,
increasing in general from south to north and from lower elevations to higher elevations.
Mean temperatures, in general, follow the same patterns, although both temperature and
precipitation show wide local variations.
For the climatic year, from November 1st, 1954, to October 31st, 1955, based on
figures for Kamloops only, the mean monthly temperature varied only slightly from the
fifty-eight-year average, being slightly warmer in the winter and slightly cooler in the
summer months. However, rainfall during June and July, which are normally heavy
rainfall months, was unusually high and provided the stream-flow required to meet the
main irrigation requirements. Rainfall in the northern part of the district was excessive
in June, and a storm with rainfall in excess of 2 inches in twenty-four hours caused serious
damage in the Quesnel area.
The critical factor in the water-supply picture is the flow during the late summer in
the small streams, which are the main source of the water-supply for domestic and irrigation purposes, and this is greatly affected by variations in climate from year to year.
Although precipitation was only 62 per cent of average, no serious shortages were
experienced in irrigation streams during the summer of 1955. This appears to have been
due to the unusually late spring, to heavy rains during the early part of the summer, and
to a large carry-over of water in storage reservoirs from the preceding season.
Water Use
The types of use to which water is put in the Kamloops District are as varied as the
district itself. In the southern area, irrigation is of primary importance; in the north,
industrial use of water by the logging industry is the most important; in the Barkerville
District and the mining areas of the Quesnel and Lillooet Districts, most licences are for
mining purposes. Domestic use is important throughout the whole area, although a
larger proportion of the domestic-water users have sought the protection afforded by
licensing in the southern districts, where shortage of water is greatest.
Where water is seasonally in short supply, many users have constructed dams to
level out the seasonal fluctuation in stream-flow and in some cases to retain the whole flow WATER rights branch
X 101
of a stream for use during the irrigation season. About 400 storage-dams are under
licence in the district, and many of the small streams are fully controlled or are controlled
to the full extent of the economically feasible storage-sites.
Except for use by major power developments, by far the greatest quantity of water
is used for irrigation. Agriculture in the district is almost entirely dependent on irrigation, except in the northern part or at very high altitudes. With the exception of small
areas in the Kamloops, Ashcroft, and Lillooet Districts where fruit, vegetables, and other
specialized crops can be grown, practically all irrigated land in the area is devoted to the
cattle industry for the growing of hay and feed crops and irrigated pasture. Owing to
the broken nature of the area and the large holdings which are required for this type of
agriculture, most irrigation licences are for individual use. There are only nine irrigation
districts in the area, and most of these are comparatively small.
In practice, the amount of water required for irrigation depends on many factors,
including soil types, ground-water level, temperature and precipitation during the growing
season, type of crop, and method of application of irrigation-water. For administrative
purposes, however, an arbitrary figure is used for duty of water based on the estimated
effect of these factors. A duty of 3 acre-feet per acre is used generally for the valley-
bottom lands of the Kamloops, Nicola, and Ashcroft Districts, reducing to 2 or 7,Vi
acre-feet for the higher land. In areas where the rainfall is greater and the growing
season shorter, such as parts of the Cariboo and Quesnel Districts, the duty is further
reduced to 1 or \Vi acre-feet per acre.
With regard to the prospects for the expansion of water use within the district, the
development of water-supplies for domestic, waterworks, industrial, and similar uses will
undoubtedly follow the expansion of other activities in the area. Water-supplies for these
purposes are usually economically available, and the development of their use depends on
other factors. However, development of use for irrigation is another matter, for the cost
of irrigation is usually a deciding factor in agricultural development. Most of the readily
available supplies have long since been utilized, and recent irrigation developments have
largely resulted from the storage of water on small streams or the pumping of water from
the large streams in valley-bottoms. Recent extensions of electric-power supplies have
given new impetus to irrigation pumping, and during the past year conditional licences
have been issued for several fairly extensive pumping schemes. Of particular interest in
this regard is a project at Lillooet for which a licence was issued during the past year.
Its aim is the irrigation of a 650-acre tract of Fraser River bench-land which rises in three
steps of about 100 feet each above the Fraser River. The project is sponsored by the
British Columbia Electric Company and is regarded as a pilot scheme to demonstrate the
feasibility of similar pumping projects to serve the bench-lands along the Fraser and
Thompson Rivers, featuring the pumping of water to an elevation of about 350 feet by
the use of power from the British Columbia Electric Bridge River power plant. The
results of this development will be watched with interest as a key to future irrigation
development in the area. X 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
|
;-     . .     -     *-■:/•■■■ •        :     .      *;. ;       .
Fig. 1. Small storage dam being constructed at outlet of Hughes Lake, 8 miles west of
Kamloops. Photo from left bank shows bulldozer on earth-fill dam in centre, borrow-pit in
upper centre;   rubber-tire tractor on right bank used for compacting earth fill.
Summary of the Year's Work
The following is a summary of the routine work carried out by the staff of the
Kamloops office for the period November 1st, 1954, to October 31st, 1955:—
New applications investigated and reported on     86
Conditional licences inspected  194
Final-licence surveys made     70
Resurveys for amendment of existing final licences       7
Miscellaneous surveys and investigations       6
Routine dam inspections     32
Dam repairs and maintenance inspected     11
New dam construction inspected       3
Proposed dam-sites inspected       4
Complaints investigated     21
Of the seventy final-licence surveys made, twenty-one were for irrigation licences,
and beneficial use of water was found to have been established on 385 acres. The
remainder of the licences surveyed included storage and power licences, but most were
for domestic use.
New conditional licences issued during the period authorize the development of
irrigation on 3,724 acres.
In general, the summer of 1955 was one of a series of seasons of better than average
flow in the smaller streams. As a result, there were comparatively few complaints regarding the distribution of water. However, as the summary above shows, considerably more
attention was given to storage-dams, several of which were severely taxed by large spillway
discharges resulting from heavy summer rains. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 103
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
R. G. Harris, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., M.E.I.C, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Kelowna office, administering an area
of approximately 15,000 square miles, includes the Grand Forks, Fairview, Princeton,
Vernon, and Revelstoke Water Districts. This
area comprises the Kettle River, Similkameen, and Okanagan drainage-basins and, in
addition, the Shuswap River drainage-basin
from Sicamous to its source, and that part
of the Columbia River drainage-basin from
Boat Encampment, the northerly limit of the
Columbia River, to a point about 15 miles
south of Arrowhead on the Upper Arrow
Lake.
Kelowna is centrally situated with regard
to serving its administrative area, and most
of the important centres are readily accessible within a few hours' drive.
The principal industries of this district are agriculture, lumbering, and mining, with
agriculture predominating. The Okanagan Valley, which has one of the mildest climates
in Canada, is best known for its production of tree-fruits and early vegetables. The
Similkameen and Kettle River valleys are basically agricultural areas also, although of
lesser importance than the Okanagan. The main economy of the Revelstoke area is
mining and logging.
Climate
The climate is the governing factor in establishing the use of water for agricultural
purposes. Ranges of temperature, precipitation, the number of frost-free days, and the
length of growing season are the more important factors. Average figures for the main
centres are given in the following table:—
Temperature
Annual
Precipitation
Frost-free
Period
Length of
Growing
Season
Station
High
Low
Yearly
Average
Altitude
Revelstoke 	
Armstrong  „
Vernon     ,	
Deg. F.
105
105
104
102
105
111
107
106
110
Deg. F.
—30
—44
— 31
—24
— 16
—23
—42
-22
— 38
Deg. F.
44
44
45
46
48
49
42
49
45
In.
40.27
16.89
15.71
12.38
11.35
9.79
14.24
9.90
16.26
Days
126
114
152
144
149
152
85
184
130
Days
194
200
200
217
226
188
221
204
In.
1,494
1,187
1,383
1,160
1,200
995
2,098
1,165
1,746
As seen from the above table, the precipitation in most of the southern areas is very
light, owing to the influence of the Coast Range system, especially during the summer
when the prevailing westerly winds are comparatively cloud-free.
An important factor in the precipitation pattern are the June rains, which are higher
than the monthly average and are of considerable importance to agriculture. In general,
with the exception of the June rains, the summer precipitation in the southern area is
negligible. This deficiency must be supplemented, where possible, by irrigation to provide
sufficient water during the growing season. x 104 department of lands and forests
Duty of Water
The duty of water can be defined as the amount of irrigation-water required during
the growing season, and is usually expressed in acre-feet per acre per annum. The
maximum demand, or peak demand, can be defined as the maximum rate of flow of
irrigation-water required and is usually expressed in acre-feet per day. The acre-foot is
the unit most generally used in irrigation for both diversion and storage and represents
the quantity of water covering 1 acre 1 foot in depth, and is equivalent to 43,560 cubic
feet.
The duty of water is based on several factors, such as climate, soil type, type of crop,
ground-water level, and water losses. In general, for administrative purposes, a liberal
value is established for specific areas, based on the above factors and, in addition,
recommendations from the Department of Agriculture.
The duty of water in this district varies from a maximum of 6 acre-feet per acre in
the southerly part of the Okanagan Valley to a minimum of 1 acre-foot per acre in the
northerly part. In the Similkameen and Kettle River valleys and the central part of
the Okanagan Valley, the average water duty is approximately 2.5 acre-feet per acre. For
lands at a higher elevation than the valley-bottoms or where lands are partly sub-irrigated,
lower water duties are recommended.
Water Resources
Many of the streams in the water districts are already fully recorded for their low
flow. Where possible, storage has been developed to make up the deficiency. The
amount of storage varies from a few acre-feet to several thousand. For example, the
largest storage developed in this district is 8,200 acre-feet, which is held in McCulloch
Lake, east of Kelowna.
In most areas electric power is now available, and the trend is toward pumping
water under pressure for sprinkler irrigation, in particular on lands bordering lakes or
streams.
Ground-water from wells is used extensively for domestic supply and in some
instances for irrigation. In the Similkameen Valley the Cawston Irrigation District has
abandoned its gravity system and is pumping water from individual wells for irrigation
purpose.
A few dugouts, noticeably in the Armstrong area, are being used for irrigation supply.
As the economy and well-being of the people in this Province are dependent, more
or less, on the availability of water, the work carried out by the Water Rights Branch is
highly important.
Administration of District Office
The district office is responsible for administering the " Water Act " in the area under
its jurisdiction. The routine work consists of such matters as investigation of new water
applications, inspection, survey and reports of existing licences, regulation and measurement of water to conform with the priority of licences, inspection of distribution-works,
settling of disputes between licensees over water problems, attending meetings, and giving
general advice. Added to these are the inspection of works involving public safety, such
as storage-dams, which are inspected periodically, and, if necessary, instruction or recommendations are given for their repair. Water-users are assisted in storage-dam development and, in this regard, services include an examination of storage-site and design of
dam, arrangements for soil tests where required, and loan of a sheep's-foot roller upon
request.
In addition to the above, this office is called upon to make various engineering
investigations, principally for irrigation and domestic waterworks proposals. This work
is carried out for the purpose of determining the feasibility and approximate cost of such
a scheme, and is part of the public service provided by the Water Rights Branch. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 105
The district office also acts in an advisory capacity to the various improvement
districts and water-users' communities and assists in the formation of new ones.
Personnel
There has been one staff change in the Kelowna office staff during the past year,
as follows: R. G. Harris, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., P.Eng., appointed in July to succeed W. A.
Ker as District Engineer, and E. G. Harrison, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., appointed September 1st
to succeed R. G. Harris as Assistant District Engineer.
Summary of Year's Work
Routine Work.—The following is a report of the routine work carried out by the
staff of the Kelowna office for the period November 1st, 1954, to October 31st, 1955:—
Final-licence survey reports  31
Apportionments and resurvey of existing final licences  13
Amendments and change of works  6
New licences recommended from apportionments and resurvey
of existing final licences  64
Total licences recommended  93
Applications received  107
Applications inspected  76
Applications refused  9
Routine dam inspections  2
Proposed dam-sites inspected  4
Engineering Investigations.—See Water Resources Compilation section of report.
General
The latter part of the 1955 season was exceptionally dry, and longer irrigation
periods were required in some areas. Consequently shortages were experienced in many
of the streams influenced by the dry period.
As a good part of this year's work consisted of engineering investigations, the number
of surveys for licence purposes was considerably less than in previous years.
During the latter part of July the Kelowna office was moved into offices in the newly
constructed Court-house, which should provide for more efficient administration and
better public service.
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
R. Pollard, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., District Engineer
The Nelson office administers Water
Rights Branch matters over some 25,000
square miles comprising Kootenay Land District, except Revelstoke, which area is more
easily reached from the Okanagan. The year
drawing to a close has followed the general
pattern of ample available water, which has
become the order of things now for some ten
years. The work of the Branch is strongly
influenced by the vagaries of the weather as,
if there is ample water, there is always the
danger of local floods. Major flood damage
has generally taken place when the snow
cover has been exceptionally heavy, and the
weather has been the factor in the incidence
or otherwise of out-of-hand freshet flow. X 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Since the inception of district office administration of water rights some forty-five
years ago, water shortages for irrigators and other users were normal to the summer season
until about ten years ago, when the definite change in weather pattern took place. Although it is necessary at times to design measuring-boxes for installation at intakes where
separate lines are used, or by means of rotation of hours of irrigation and by other means,
the percentage of time that it has been found necessary to devote to this work has been
noticeably less than in the years preceding 1945. Figures show that there are fewer water
applications now than in previous years, but there are more applications for apportionments of licences, which indicates increased settlement along the already crowded marginal land characteristic of the West Kootenay in particular.
In the summer season of 1947 we began to use undergraduate engineers in the field
for the purpose of making final-licence and other routine surveys, the Assistant District
Engineer acting in a supervisory capacity. Production this year, while inclined to be lower
than for some previous years, was good. In addition to some small non-routine jobs, the
field staff conducted a land-classification survey of the Blueberry Creek Irrigation District
and revised one for the Vermilion Irrigation District at Edgewater which had been undertaken the previous season.
Routine Work
The following is a resume of the work performed by the Nelson office since the
1954 Report was prepared:—
Applications   70
Final-licence surveys  74
Special investigations—
Duck Lake Dyking District.
Reclamation Committee meeting.
Blueberry Creek Irrigation district.
Beaver Creek flooding.
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company licences, Riondel.
Coutts Creek—new concrete division tank.
Montrose Utilities—meeting.
Sproule Creek proposed improvement district.
Vermilion Irrigation District—supplementary water-supply design.
Mirror Lake district—alternative scheme for pipe-line.
Westside Improvement District—estimate for alternative pipe-line.
Myers Springs.
Walkley vs. Podmeroff—further studies.
Westside Improvement District—survey for supplementary data.
Duhamel Waterworks District—alternative estimate.
Duck Lake Dyking District—test-holes re water-levels.
Elko Village water-supply problem.
Flooding—
Feeney vs. F. R. Rotter—flooding and erosion, Salmo River.
Canadian Exploration vs. F. R. Rotter—tailings pond, ownership of river-bottom and dyke.
Beaver Creek flooding.
D. F. Thorpe vs. D. B. Merry Lumber Company—log-jams,
etc., Big Sheep Creek.
Soloveoff vs. Kenville Gold Mines—flooding from mine adit. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
C Errington, P.Eng., District Engineer
X 107
The Victoria District office administers the
" Water Act " in five water districts, namely,
Victoria, Alberni, Nanaimo (which cover
most of Vancouver Island), New Westminster (the Lower Fraser River valley as far
east as Spuzzum), and Vancouver (which
extends from Vancouver northward up the
west coast of British Columbia some 350
miles and includes also the north-eastern
section of Vancouver Island).
victor ia
Rainfall Table for Summer of 1955, Compared with Long-term Average
Water District
1955
Long-term Average
July
Aug.
Sept.
July
Aug.
Sept.
2.38
1.31
3.06
3.45
2.97
2.63
0.31
0.03
0.28
0.21
0.31
0.23
1.52
0.55
2.73
2.44
1.87
1.82
1.00
0.47
1.51
1.36
1.38
1.14
1.01
0.66
1.77
1.62
1.68
1.35
1.87
1.39
3.89
New Westminster  -	
Vancouver     „   . ._
District average..- 	
3.45
3.46
2.81
Irrigation
From the above table it will be seen that July was a very wet month. More than
twice the normal rainfall of the long-term average was recorded in each of the districts
during the month. As this is the month of maximum growth, the usual irrigation problems did not occur this year until well into August, when dugouts and reservoirs were
full and plenty of water remained in the streams. In fact, the whole season produced a
minimum of complaints about water shortage to this office.
Storage
As the low flow of many streams becomes fully recorded, there is a desire to create
more storage, both on the streams themselves by means of dams and adjacent to the
streams by means of dugouts. On the majority of coastal streams, the potential to create
storage is almost untouched.
In Saanich, where there are few creeks, the tendency continues for enterprising
farmers to hold back sufficient of the winter run-off to meet their irrigation needs for
the year. This is done by the further creation of dugouts, some running to 2 or 3 acres
in area. Licences are still being granted even after the stream is fully recorded to store
water for irrigation. Such a licence bears the proviso that the water must be diverted
from the streams before the irrigation season commences. This tendency to store winter
water for later irrigation is encouraged, otherwise it would run to waste. X 108 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Duty of Water
In co-operation with the Department of Agriculture, a duty of 1 acre-foot (that is,
1 foot of water per acre each year) has been considered satisfactory for the normal
coastal crop, with a normal rainfall. Water in excess of 12 inches per year is sometimes
granted in special cases; for example, where a light sandy soil is encountered or where
special crops are grown. So far, few farmers have required more than the normal 1 foot
per acre; in fact, where clayey loam is encountered, they have sometimes been content
with a duty of one-half acre-foot (that is, 6 inches of irrigation-water) in the irrigation
season. Special crops include such things as cranberries, where a duty of 3 acre-feet
has been granted. Cranberries are totally submerged during part of the growing season,
and a duty of 3 acre-feet for this crop appears to be the bare minimum under which it
can be successfully grown.
Drainage
Many more complaints regarding drainage and flooding are reaching this office in
recent years than formerly. During the year we made eight special studies and reports
dealing with this phase of the operation.
General
During the period November 1st, 1954, to October 31st, 1955, some twenty-eight
special reports were made, covering miscellaneous disputes, advice regarding forming of
improvement districts, dam inspections, unauthorized use of water, flooding and drainage problems, etc.
The usual summer programme of final-licence surveying was pursued; ninety-eight
final licences were issued and 184 new conditional licences were granted. The year's
work is summarized in the following table:—
Applications received  253
Applications refused       9
Final-licence reports      98
Conditional-licence reports   184
Recommendations re extension of time  202
Recommendations re amendment of licences      18
Abandonments      32
Cancellations     20 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 109
PLATE A
200 r
1925
1930 1935 1940 1945 1950
VEARS      (ENDING    31  OCT.   1955)
1955 X 110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
A. K. Sutherland, LL.B., Solicitor
Pursuant to section 50 (1) of the " Water Act," being chapter 361 of the " Revised
Statutes of British Columbia, 1948," public corporate bodies may be incorporated by
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council by the issuance of Letters Patent " under such name
and with such objects as appear advisable."
The main purposes for which improvement districts are incorporated are irrigation,
domestic water-supply, fire protection, street-lighting, sewage-disposal, garbage collection, and the granting of financial aid to hospitals.
There were eleven districts incorporated and three districts dissolved in 1955, making a total of 183 districts now in operation. The following improvement districts were
incorporated during the calendar year of 1955: Arden Improvement District, Fraser
Canyon Hospital Improvement District No. 8, Gulf Islands Hospital Improvement District No. 9, Lantzville Fire Protection District, Lillooet Hospital Improvement District
No. 11, Martin Valley Fire Protection District, Parksville East Waterworks District,
Petroglyph Waterworks District, Prince George and District Hospital Improvement District No. 10, Royston Improvement District, and Willow Point Waterworks District.
The following districts were dissolved and incorporated into a municipal body
known as The Corporation of the District of Powell River: Cranberry Waterworks District; Westview Light, Power and Waterworks District; and Wildwood Light, Water
and Sewerage District.
The affairs of improvement districts are administered by elected trustees under the
supervision of the Comptroller of Water Rights. Technical and administrative help is
also given to improvement districts by the District Engineer of the water district in which
the improvement district is located or by the Victoria office.
The Government can loan money to improvement districts having as their objects
the purposes of providing domestic water, irrigation of land, or sewage-disposal. A total
of $296,327 was authorized to be loaned to improvement districts for these purposes
during the year 1955.
Improvement districts providing fire protection, street-lighting, or aid to hospitals
can, with the approval of the Minister of Finance, have their taxes levied and collected
by the Provincial Assessor and Collector, and if a substantial amount of money is needed
to carry out these purposes, the Minister can advance moneys from Consolidated Revenue, to be collected over a period of time. An amount of approximately $685,696 was
advanced to improvement districts for these purposes during 1955.
Water-users' Communities
There are forty-eight water users' communities in the Province at the present time.
Two were incorporated during 1955, namely, Clearwater Water Users' Community and
Gibson-MacNeal Water Users' Community. One (Bentom Brook Water Users' Community) was disbanded.
The communities function under the " Water Act" and are incorporated by a certificate of incorporation issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights. Although some
have a large membership, they are usually small corporate bodies of six or more persons
holding water licences. Their powers are more restricted than those of an improvement
district, and administration is carried out by a manager under the supervision of the
Comptroller of Water Rights. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH X 111
INTERNATIONAL WATERS
G. J. A. Kidd, B.Sc, P.Eng., Project Engineer
Previous descriptions bearing upon rivers falling within the category of international
waters, which have appeared in the Annual Reports of the Lands Service to date, have
dealt solely with the Columbia River basin. This has been due primarily to the attention
which has been focused on the Columbia because of the complex international problems
of immediate importance which are involved in its development.
The Columbia, the main drainage-basin in British Columbia with international
complications, is not the only river drainage of this type, and attention is also drawn to
other rivers which rise in Canada and flow into the United States or some portion of its
territories.   These are discussed briefly as follows:—■
Skagit River.—Rising in the south-western portion of the Province, the Skagit River
flows through the north-western corner of the State of Washington on its way to the sea.
The City of Seattle has extensive hydro-power developments on the United States portion
of the river, of which Ross Dam, below the International Border, is planned to eventually
back water into British Columbia to a depth of 130 feet at the border, subject to agreement with the Province in conformity with the International Joint Commission order
dated January 27th, 1942. The area which may be flooded in British Columbia is not
large, amounting to 5,475 acres.
Stikine River.—By far the largest portion of the Stikine drainage lies entirely within
British Columbia, but the river flows to salt water through the Alaska Panhandle. The
power potential of the stream with diversion from the Liard River is estimated at
2,000,000 horse-power.
Yukon-Taku Project.—This potential development is at present under study by a
Canadian metallurgical firm. The proposed method of development envisions the use of
water from a series of lakes and rivers tributary to the Yukon River in the Yukon Territory and British Columbia, with diversion into the Taku River in British Columbia to
eventually develop about 4,900,000 horse-power. The Yukon River flows to the sea
through Alaska, and its diversion may necessarily be the subject of international negotiation. The Taku River is similar to the Stikine in that it flows through the Alaska Panhandle to the sea.
Others.—Other smaller streams rise in British Columbia to flow across the Alaska
Panhandle to the sea. These include the Unuk, Whiting, and Alsek Rivers. The power
potentials of these streams are not known.
Columbia River and Tributaries.—A full description of the Columbia basin, together with the international problems involved, was presented in the 1954 Report of the
Lands Service, and the reader is referred to this source for greater detail. To recapitulate
briefly, the main-stem Columbia and its major tributaries—the Kootenay, Okanagan,
Similkameen, and Kettle Rivers—all rise in British Columbia and cross the International
Boundary en route to the Pacific shore. Only 15 per cent of the total Columbia River
drainage is in British Columbia, but this area is highly productive, contributing approximately 45 per cent of the total flow of the river.
Extensive hydro-power developments have taken place or are planned on the
Columbia main stem in the United States, and because of widely varying seasonal run-off,
storage of water and subsequent release to create more uniform flow conditions are of
considerable advantage for the production of hydro power. Thus any storage project in
the Columbia basin in British Columbia will benefit down-stream hydro projects in the
United States, and it has been maintained by all Canadian representatives that British
Columbia should share in any benefits so created with a return to the Province of a portion
of the additional power produced from release of the stored water in British Columbia. X 112
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
It is therefore readily apparent that problems involved in the best plan of development of
the Columbia are complex, and as yet no solution, acceptable internationally, has been
indicated.
These problems have become increasingly complicated as a result of various plans
for diversion of the Kootenay into the Columbia at Canal Flats and of the Columbia into
the Fraser, which are now under investigation by Federal agencies.
ii
f •• •*
Fig. 2. The close proximity of the Kootenay River to the Columbia River at Canal Flats is
clearly illustrated. It is readily apparent that the proposed diversion of the Kootenay to the
Columbia is physically possible either directly at Canal Flats by dyke and ditch or by damming
the river at down-stream dam-sites. Such a diversion would considerably increase the power
potential of the main stem of the Columbia River.
Diversion Proposals
The diversion of the Kootenay River into the Columbia River is physically possible
because of the proximity of the two streams at Canal Flats, where they are about a mile
apart, occupying the same valley but flowing in opposite directions (see Fig. 2). The
diversion would allow British Columbia to utilize the water so diverted through approxi-
J WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 113
mately 570 feet of head, which would ordinarily be lost in that portion of the Kootenay
River which flows through the United States.
Under consideration are three possible diversions of the Kootenay as follows:—
(1) Diversion at Canal Flats directly by channel or by use of a regulating
reservoir with dams at Copper Creek on the Kootenay and at Luxor on
the Columbia. On an average, the flow at the International Boundary
would be reduced by about 30 per cent, which would not seriously affect
the economic feasibility of the presently proposed Libby Dam in the
United States.
(2) Diversion at Canal Flats by a regulating reservoir with dams at Bull River
on the Kootenay and Luxor on the Columbia. Average flow of the
Kootenay River at the International Boundary would be reduced by about
50 per cent, which would make the economic feasibility of the presently
proposed Libby Dam very doubtful.
(3) Diversion of the Kootenay River at the Dorr Dam site just above the
International Boundary by pumping into the Bull River-Luxor regulating
reservoir and hence to the Columbia has been mooted as another consideration. The major portion of the run-off to the Kootenay above the
International Boundary would be diverted by such a scheme.
During the past year the possibilities of diverting the excess flow of the Columbia
River into the Fraser basin, thus enabling the use of that water within British Columbia
through the major portion of the head to sea-level, has been under investigation by
Federal Government agencies. Two alternative schemes are being considered, both of
which would divert water stored at Mica Creek by long large-capacity tunnels into the
Thompson-Fraser system. These alternative proposals, as presently contemplated, are
described briefly as follows:—■
(1) Diversion to take place by tunnel from Little Dalles Dam on the Columbia
above Revelstoke to Eagle Creek and hence into Shuswap Lake and the
Thompson-Fraser system.
(2) Diversion by tunnel from Downie Creek Dam, up-stream from Little
Dalles site, to Ratchford Creek and thence into Shuswap Lake and the
Thompson-Fraser system.
A number of possible low-head dam-sites on the Thompson River below Kamloops
and the Fraser River below Lytton are being investigated for hydro-power development
as a complementary study to the diversion investigations. A sketch-plan showing the
approximate location of the proposed diversions, together with potential power developments in the Columbia basin, are shown on Plate 5.
It is understood investigations as to feasibility of the various diversion proposals will
require about two years to complete, and it is apparent that a host of complex technical
and economic problems, many of which are controversial in nature, will have to be considered. Among these are the problems associated with the Fraser River salmon industry
and the effect which hydro-power development and diversion of Columbia water may have
on the movements, spawning-grounds, and environment of the migrant salmon.
International Planning
Many governmental and private agencies from both countries are vitally interested
in planning for the development of the Columbia basin. Several engineering committees
and task forces have been formed to study various aspects from both the international
and domestic points of view of both countries. Of these, the most important is the International Columbia River Engineering Board with committee and work group.
These agencies were established to co-ordinate and carry out studies under the
reference of 1944 from the Governments of Canada and the United States to the Inter- X 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PLATE  5
J WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 115
national Joint Commission " to determine whether, in its judgment, further development
of the water resources of the river basin would be practicable and in the public interest
from the points of view of the two governments." The Board has been charged with the
responsibility of producing an over-all Columbia River basin report with plan of development. Activities of Canadian agencies (the Province has representation on the committee and work group) to date have been devoted largely toward securing the necessary
basic data upon which planning can be based. Much of the similar information has
already been collected for the United States portion of the basin by United States agencies.
During this past year the Board has completed for approval of the International
Joint Commission the Okanagan-Similkameen appendix of the over-all Columbia basin
report. A study has also been carried out to estimate the flow depletions from consumptive use of water, present and future, for the Columbia basin in Canada and international
tributaries. Work is presently under way on the preparation of a further appendix of the
over-all Columbia report covering the main-stem Columbia River in British Columbia.
The Province also has representation on another international group entitled the
Pacific Northwest Governors' Power Policy Committee and Engineering Committee with
technical staff nucleus. The energies of this group have been directed toward the study
of obstacles blocking the development of power resources required to meet estimated
future power loads in the Pacific Northwest. Several reports have been prepared by the
Engineering Committee setting forth future resources and estimated electric loads, together with discussions of problems involved.
Additionally, the Columbia River Basin Development Advisory Committee, chaired
by the Honourable the Minister of Lands and Forests and Minister of Mines, is playing
a continuing part in the planning involving the Columbia basin within British Columbia.
Under the International Joint Commission are various regulatory bodies created to
control and administer particular orders of the Commission. One such body is the
Kootenay Lake Board of Control, which administers the Commission's Kootenay Lake
orders of approval. During the past year the Comptroller of Water Rights was appointed
to fill a vacancy on this Board.
It will be readily seen, therefore, that the Province of British Columbia is participating actively in the planning phases of the Columbia basin, with efforts directed primarily
toward the most beneficial plan of development possible for this great water resource. X 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PLATE  6
W>*TCR   RESOURCES    DIVISION,,   WATER    RIGHTS    BRANCH
DEVELOPMENT    OF-   HYDRO-POWER    IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
SHOWING
ANNUAL.   .OlSTPtl BUT 1 OKI     BV     MAJOR    ROWER.     PRODUCERS
"   FOR   CALENDAR   VEAU     1300   TO    1335 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH X 117
HYDRAULIC INVESTIGATIONS DIVISION
T. A. J. Leach, B.Sc.(Eng.), M.E.I.C, Assoc.M.A.S.C.E., P.Eng.,
Chief, Hydraulic Investigations Division
The growth and economic development of British Columbia from the simple
agricultural endeavour to the most complex of industrial developments depends primarily
on water resources.
The inventory of these resources and their evaluation has been one of the main
functions of the Water Rights Branch. In the early days, before and after the First
World War, the main effort was expanded in obtaining preliminary information on our
hydro-electric resources. The latest summary of this work is contained in the publication
" Water Power of British Columbia," published in 1954. More-detailed information on
a number of the power-sites mentioned in this publication can be found in the Water
Rights Library in the form of individual reports.
With the growth of the Province, hydraulic investigations were expanded to include
not only other water uses such as irrigation, municipal and domestic water-supplies, and
ground-water, but also interrelated problems such as flood-control, dyking and drainage,
and the problems of international water use.
This research has paid off by indicating to interested parties the likely site for a
particular water use. It has also pointed up the desirability of obtaining hydrometric
and basic topographic information well ahead of the opening-up of the newer portions
of the Province. Such prior information allows those charged with water licensing to
assess the amount and distribution of water within a region and the value of the various
alternative uses to which it may be put. This is of particular importance in interprovincial
or international rivers where the problems of upstream-downstream benefits are involved.
The information which follows describes some of the major investigations carried
out by the engineers of the Hydraulic Investigations Division and is indicative of the
diversity of hydraulic problems which are being met in British Columbia to-day. The
increasing rate of growth, particularly in the central and northern areas of the Province,
will be accompanied by expanding water use, and an early appraisal of several of these
areas has been planned for 1956.
FRASER RIVER BOARD WORKING GROUP
G. E. Simmons, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer, Member
Although the Fraser River is well down on the fist of great rivers of the world, its
850 miles of main stem stretching into the Interior of the Province in a vast loop and its
extensive tributary system drain an area of 89,000 square miles, or approximately one-
quarter of the total area of British Columbia. Within the drainage-basin and including
the Greater Vancouver area lives more than one-half of the population of the Province.
It contains within its boundaries nearly half the arable land and nearly a fifth of the
timber available to the people of British Columbia. Around it revolves a large part of
the economy of the Province. The lower reaches are a waterway to the expanding
industrial area south and east of Vancouver; the tributaries bear logs to mills and produce
hydro-electric power for communities and industry; and extensive stretches of the many
streams, both large and small, provide spawning-beds for the salmon to sustain the second
principal industry of the Province.
While use is already being made of the river and its tribuaaries, the potential of the
Fraser has hardly been tapped. With the increasing demand for cheap electrical energy,
the possibilities of power development on a very large scale on this river are becoming
more and more attractive. r
X 118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
On the debit side, however, there are many problems which demand consideration.
Prime of these is the annual threat of floods, particularly in the Lower Fraser Valley,
where population density is high and all available arable land is intensively cultivated.
Each spring the melting snows in the drainage-basin pour down the main stream to spill
into the delta area of the Lower Fraser Valley and place in jeopardy the cultivated fields,
the communities, and the great and small industries which stand along the banks.
The wealth which the Fraser has to offer the people of British Columbia and the
attendant problems of flooding are potentialities which have been under consideration in
government circles for some years.
On March 19th, 1949, by agreement between the Federal and Provincial Governments, the Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, was jointly formed. This
agreement said in part:-—
" Whereas it is desirable in the public interest to make a survey and report on the
water resources and requirements of the area comprising the Fraser River watershed,"
and that " the Board shall determine what developments and controls of the water and
other resources of the Fraser River Basin, in its judgment, would be advisable and in the
public interest," and further, " the Board shall also investigate and report upon all existing
dams, irrigation systems, hydro-electric plants, aids to navigation, fishways, dykes, sanitary systems, sources of pollution, and all other works located in the Fraser River basin
in so far as these may be germane to the developments and controls proposed."
In May, 1955, the Board was reconstituted with a reduced membership and renamed
the Fraser River Board. The Comptroller of Water Rights continued to serve as an
active permanent member and an engineer from the Water Rights Branch remained on
the working group which had originally been established under a previous committee of
the old Board.
Flood-control and Power
Although several small areas in the upper reaches of the Fraser system are subjected
to flooding during high spring flows, the most serious conditions occur in the Lower
Fraser Valley. As early as 1873, Statutes were enacted to provide the means of protection for this area annually threatened by spring flows. Since that time the most susceptible and the most valuable land has been given some measure of protection by a growing
system of dykes on both sides of the river from Agassiz to the mouth. This method of
flood protection has been used for many hundreds of years with varying degrees of success.
With the advent of new construction methods and the erection of large dams principally
for power purposes, the idea of utilizing these artificial storage-basins to contain flood-
waters during the critical period and release them them during the natural low flow of
the river has gained force. Already many structures in other parts of the world have
been built for multi-purpose use, namely, power, flood-control, recreation, irrigation,
navigation.
Surveys and investigations carried out by the Water Rights Branch and Federal
engineering agencies under the 1949 agreement have produced information on several
sites on the Fraser where dams could be constructed to develop large storage-reservoirs.
On the main these include Moran site near Pavilion, Cottonwood site near Quesnel, Fort
George Canyon, and Grand Canyon near Longworth. On the tributaries there are many
sites, some of the more outstanding of which are the Clearwater site on the Clearwater
River, the McGregor River site, the Isle Pierre site on the Nechako River, and the Lillooet
River site north of Harrison Lake.
Preliminary estimates place the power potential of the Fraser River system at
8,000,000 horse-power. Storage-reservoirs to develop all or any part of this vast amount
would range in size from small lakes of a few square miles in area to the 185-mile-long
lake which would form behind a 720-foot-high dam at Moran. With logical control of
the operation of these reservoirs, provision could be made for the retention of the high WATER RIGHTS BRANCH X 119
spring flows in order to reduce the threat of flooding in the built-up areas. However, such
a possible system of flood-control does not preclude the necessity for dykes in localized
areas.
The problem of potential flood-control storage being operated in conjunction with
the existing dyking system in the Lower Fraser Valley is now the primary consideration
of the Fraser River Board. Other problems which must be given very close attention
include the passage of migratory fish around high dams, the increasing threat of pollution,
and the provision of sufficient flow in the lower industrial area of the river for navigation
purposes.
Much study and investigation is yet to be done before all the contentious questions
have been settled and any plan for development of the Fraser River system is evolved.
WATER RESOURCES COMPILATION SECTION
Duart A. MacLean, B.Sc.(Eng.), Assoc.M.A.S.C.E., P.Eng.,
Senior Hydraulic Engineer
The Water Resources Compilation Section is composed of hydraulic engineers,
technicians, and draughtsmen. The Section is charged with carrying out field investigations and preparing engineering reports on irrigation, hydro power, domestic water-
supply, flooding, drainage, and allied subjects.
The Section also keeps a library of these engineering reports and maintains records
of various types of hydrologic and hydro-power data. Administrative and technical data
are also recorded and kept in this Section.
Apart from the normal work of this Section—that is, of compiling information on
this Province's water resources—it also does work on behalf of the Fraser River Board.
The investigations carried out during 1955 and being in part reported on are shown on
Plate 7, and described as follows:—■
Provincial Water-resource Investigations
Irrigation and Domestic Water-supply
Several large-scale water-supply investigations were made during the summer of
1955. Some of them consisted of evaluating existing systems, which included detail
mapping of the areas at a scale of 500 feet equals 1 inch. Two investigations involved
considerable design work.
Much of the work carried out during the past year was office studies, some of which
was completion of projects carried over from 1954.
The following reports consist of summaries describing the major irrigation and
water-supply investigations made during 1955 and written by the hydraulic engineers
who were given the assignments.
South Okanagan Lands Project Evaluation Survey
J. Buchanan, B.Sc, A.M.I.C.E., P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
Following the passing of the "Soldiers' Land Act" (British Columbia) in 1918,
the Government purchased the 22,000 acres now known as the South Okanagan Lands
Project. Occupying most of the floor of the Okanagan Valley for 20 miles north of the
International Boundary, the area is one of the few Canadian localities ideally suited for
the production of soft fruits. Irrigation was introduced into the area in 1919, and
to-day 4,800 acres are being irrigated by a system which includes 23 miles of main canal,
eight pump-houses, and 42 miles of laterals and distribution-pipe (see Plate 8). The
Project is administered by the British Columbia Lands Service, a project manager, two X 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
office and thirteen field personnel, and financed by votes from the Legislature and by
an annual charge of $12.50 per acre for irrigation-water.
The irrigation system is now operating to almost full capacity and the Project is in
the position of having to refuse applications for water to irrigate additional lands. In
addition, the neighbouring irrigation districts—Black Sage, Osoyoos, and East Osoyoos
—have filed applications to be included within the Project. Problems such as these
instigated the decision to re-evaluate the Project area and the irrigation system.
Previous surveys of the area were examined and were found to be lacking in sufficient detail for an over-all irrigation evaluation. Triangulation networks established by
the Surveys and Mapping Branch in 1953 and by the Okanagan Flood-control Project
Fig. 3. The intake dam of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project. Reconstructed during
the winter of 1954—55, this dam also serves as a flood-control structure controlling the flood-
waters of the Okanagan River. In the right foreground is the main canal of the Southern
Okanagan irrigation system.
in 1941 were used as a basis for horizontal and vertical control for aerial photographic
mapping. The control survey occupied a four-man crew for about two months, during
which 90 miles of levels were run, most of the original triangulation stations reoccupied,
and several additional stations established.
The area was reflown for photographic mapping on June 3rd, and by early August
the Multiplex Section had completed the first contour maps to a scale of 500 feet equals
1 inch and with a 10-foot contour interval. On the valley-floor and benches a 5-foot
contour interval was interpolated by multiplex. An index of these maps will be included
in the 1956 Annual Report.
From records available in the office of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project at
Oliver, it was possible to place on the maps the location and sizes of all canals, laterals,
and distribution-lines. An attempt was also made to assess the age and condition of the
various parts of the irrigation system. The knowledge and experience of the operation
and maintenance personnel was most helpful in this respect. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 121
Throughout the summer a close watch was maintained on the main canals and
laterals. The flow was measured at frequent intervals at different points in an attempt
to determine the consumption of water in different areas and to assess the effect of aquatic
growths on the carrying capacity of the main canal. The 1955 season was unusual in
that the irrigation system remained comparatively free of water weeds and alga.. More
than the usual quantity of copper sulphate was used, but it is doubtful if this was entirely
responsible. During the previous winter the channel of the Okanagan River above the
intake dam was enlarged and riprapped by the Okanagan Flood-control. Flood-control
structures stabilized the spring run-off, and the water being diverted into the S.O.L.P.
intake was unusually free of silt and debris and possibly had a somewhat lower temperature than in previous years.
Fig. 4. A view of Oliver looking west from the intake end of the main syphon of the
Southern Okanagan irrigation system. The main syphon is a 78-inch-diameter pipe-line which
carries the full flow of the main canal of the system on the east side of the valley over the
Okanagan River and below Oliver to emerge in the main canal on the west side of the valley.
The possibility of irrigating additional land is now being considered. As the existing system is operating to almost full capacity, the water for the additional land would
have to be obtained by reallocating or adjusting the supply to existing irrigated lands or
by introducing fresh supplies pumped from tthe Okanagan River. With a few exceptions the cost per acre of irrigating any appreciable amount of new land would be exorbitant. Most of the suitable land is too far removed from a source of water-supply or is
at an elevation which would make pumping prohibitive.
The irrigation districts of Black Sage, Osoyoos, and East Osoyoos are being operated and maintained by the Southern Okanagan Lands Project, and the cost of operation
and maintenance is paid by the districts. Irrigation rates within the districts are higher
than those in force within the Southern Okanagan Lands Project and their renewal
reserves are inadequate. They would benefit considerably by being included within the
Project. In this event it has been proposed the pumping systems of Southern Okanagan
Lands Project No. 2 and the Black Sage Irrigation District be interconnected, and that X 122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the Osoyoos and East Osoyoos Irrigation Districts be joined to make full use of the
Haynes Creek water-supply.
Special attention was given to the Haynes Creek diversion and storage-reservoir of
the Osoyoos Irrigation District. Due to the failure of the storage-dam in 1949, the
storage facilities have not been used in recent years. As the district is pumping to an
elevation of 370 feet above Osoyoos Lake, the Haynes Creek storage could reduce the
pumping costs considerably. This advantage is offset to a large extent by the local power
authority requiring annually a three months' minimum operating charge for irrigation-
pumps. Pumps are required to augment the Haynes Creek supply during the latter
months of the irrigation season.
Preliminary reconnaissances were made of possible additional sources of irrigation-
water such as Siddley Meadows, Sawmill Lake, and Mclntyre Creek. Elevations were
established in Mclntyre Creek canyon, and these would be of considerable value in any
future survey.
Fig. 5. Pump-house No. 1 of the Southern Okanagan irrigation system. Constructed
during the early twenties, this pump-house continues to supply 173 acres of fruit land with
irrigation-water.     In the foreground is the main canal of the irrigation system.
Irrigation Investigations for B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District and Doukhobor Lands
M. Arnold, B.Sc(Eng.), Assoc.M.S.A.I.C.E., P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District.—The B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District includes
approximately 4,000 acres of land near the confluence of the North and South Thompson
Rivers at Kamloops, the soils being for the most part water-deposited sand and silt
forming the flood-plain of the two rivers.
In 1912 the B.C. Fruitlands Company Limited built an irrigation system to supply
gravity water by concrete canal, flume, and pipe from Jamieson Creek, and in the years
following several different companies owned and operated the system, but none established a fund for the renewal of the works. As might be expected, by the early 1940's
the system had deteriorated to such an extent that for any given year there could be no WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X  123
guarantee that water would be available for the crops. Therefore, in June, 1946, the
farmers within the area petitioned the Government of British Columbia to form an irrigation district under the Provincial " Water Act."
The B.C. Fruitlands District was thus formed in 1947, and since then has, under
extreme difficulties, supplied water to the area. Because of the deteriorated condition of
the system and lack of capital for replacements, the supply has been both inadequate
and uncertain.
This situation prompted the district to approach both the Federal and the Provincial
Governments for assistance, and in February, 1954, the Minister of Lands and Forests
requested that the Branch prepare a design for a new irrigation system.
Owing to the high estimated capital cost and annual running costs of all previous
proposals, both those submitted by the Federal " Prairie Farms Rehabilitation Act" and
by the Water Rights Branch, it was decided to prepare a further revision of the scheme
submitted by P. Riley (the Water Rights Branch hydraulic engineer) with a view to
reducing costs wherever practicable in order to produce a workable scheme at the lowest
possible cost. Accordingly, it was established that the area known as Westsyde, situated
on the west bank of the North Thompson River just north of Halston Siding on the
C.N.R. line, could be fed from Jamieson Creek by means of the existing canal, which
would, however, require general repairs. The area known as Brocklehurst, situated on
the north bank of the Thompson River west of the North Thompson River, would still be
served by a pump which would be located in a somewhat more favourable position than
that previously recommended, and, in addition, certain urbanized areas adjacent to the
North Thompson River and the Village of North Kamloops would be omitted from the
proposals.
On this basis a very rapid investigation was made and a new tentative design proposal submitted at short notice, utilizing data from the previous reports, and at a public
meeting of the members of the district and the Minister of Lands this tentative design was
approved and the Water Rights Branch was requested to produce a complete design based
thereon, together with specifications and cost estimates. By the end of the year, work
on this design was well advanced.
Doukhobor Lands Irrigation.—The term " Doukhobor lands " applies to approximately 18,500 acres of Crown land located in the vicinity of Grand Forks and also in the
vicinity of Castlegar and generally in the area along the Kootenay River below Kootenay
Lake; that is, from a few miles north of Trail up the Kootenay and Slocan Rivers as far
as Perry Siding.
The Doukhobor lands were originally held in the name of the Christian Community
of Universal Brotherhood, a corporate body established by the Doukhobors shortly after
the arrival of the group in Canada more than forty years ago.
The Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood borrowed funds from private
loan companies to construct irrigation systems. Large tracts of orchard were planted
and even a successful jam-factory established. After prospering for a few years, the
Community began a slow decline which culminated in its bankruptcy in 1937. The loan
companies to whom the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood owed money
were attempting to recover their debts by foreclosure when the Provincial Government,
to avert mass evictions, assumed control of the Doukhobor lands by an Act of Legislature in 1939.
To assist the Doukhobor Research Committee, which was set up by the Provincial
Government in 1950, the Branch conducted a survey of the engineering aspects of supplying irrigation-water to the Doukhobor lands. The survey has been completed for the
larger blocks of former C.C.U.B. holdings, and the information thus gathered, which
includes preliminary designs and estimates of cost together with material supplied by the
former Land Utilization Research and Survey Division of the British Columbia Lands X 124
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
»-««^'
m: m^j^v:-
** _£_.
Fig. 6.    Aerial view of the northern portion of the B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation
District, showing the Westsyde and Jamieson Creek areas.
i-
Fig. 7. Aerial view of the southern portion of the B.C. Fruitlands Irrigation District, showing the Brocklehurst area. The Village of North Kamloops
is situated at the junction of the two rivers. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 125
Service, is now being compiled into a report which is expected to be ready for publication
early in 1956.
Creston Area Domestic and Irrigation Water-supply and Sproule Creek
Irrigation District Investigation
A. R. D. Robertson, B.A.Sc, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
Creston Area Water-supply and Irrigation Investigation.—Following representations
by The Corporation of the Village of Creston and by residents of the Alice Siding area
north of the village, the Water Rights Branch undertook a comprehensive examination of
Fig. 8. Oblique air photograph showing the Creston area. The Water Rights Branch
conducted an investigation in the summer of 1955 to improve the water-supply to the Village
of Creston, and to bring water to the Alice Siding area to the north. Arrow Creek is the present
source of supply for the East Creston Irrigation District and the Village of Creston.
the problems of this area during the summer of 1955. A preliminary investigation was
made in the autumn of 1954, with special reference to the Alice Siding area; this
instigated the more complete survey of the area during the past summer.
Creston Village, obtaining its water-supply from Arrow Creek via the main pipe-line
of the East Creston Irrigation District, has difficulty maintaining full service during the
summer months. Service to the north of the village suffers seriously, some homes at
times getting water only one hour in twenty-four.   The southern portion of Alice Siding X 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
is developing as a suburb of the Village of Creston (it should be noted that more than
100 of the 700 connections to the village water system are outside the village limits), and
logical expansion of this residential section is handicapped by water shortage. Homes
are consequently being built to the east within the boundaries of the East Creston Irrigation District, reducing acreage under orchard and thus cutting down the main revenue of
the area.
The north end of the Alice Siding area is good orchard land, provided that there is
an adequate supply of water; farmers in this region, however, are satisfied with their
present supplies from springs on Goat Mountain, but a comparison with the trees in the
East Creston Irrigation District makes it obvious that crops could be improved in quality
and quantity with adequate irrigation.
Fig. 9. Arrow Creek near Creston. View of the diversion-works of the East Creston
Irrigation District, showing excess water coming over the spillway. The sluice-gate at left
centre controls the amount of water admitted to the intake-works farther down-stream.
Several pipe-line routes and reservoir-sites were surveyed during the summer, and
the major water sources of the area were examined. Daily measurements were made of
the volume of water supplied to the Village of Creston and the East Creston Irrigation
District, to establish the capacity of the present pipe-lines and the consumption rates.
The Creston area was photographed by the Air Division of the British Columbia Lands
Service on June 8th, 1955, and topographical maps are being prepared at a scale of 500
feet equals 1 inch from these photographs by the Multiplex Section of that Division;
ground control was established by personnel of the Water Rights Branch.
A report is presently being prepared suggesting alternative schemes for improvement
of the water-supply situation for the Creston area, with particular emphasis on the domes- WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 127
tic water use; expansion of irrigated land in the Alice Siding area and land to the south
of the village is also considered. Attention is being given to the ultimate development of
the Creston Valley and the utilization of available water sources in the area.
Sproule Creek Irrigation District.—Taghum, a settlement on the north bank of the
Kootenay River about 6 miles west of Nelson, was incorporated into the Sproule Creek
Irrigation District on November 6th, 1954, for purposes of domestic water-supply and
irrigation. Following incorporation, the officers of the district requested engineering
advice from the Water Rights Branch, the proposal being to provide domestic supply and
to irrigate some 80 acres of the 250 acres within the boundaries of the district; the requirements are a pipe-line route from Sproule Creek and a distribution-system layout.
Fig. 10. The Sproule Creek Irrigation District near Nelson, a newly formed district whose
objects are irrigation and water-supply. A preliminary survey of the possibilities of supplying
this irrigation district from Sproule Creek was made in August, 1955.
A limited survey of the irrigation district was conducted in late August, 1955, and a
contour map of the area was made from low-level air photographs. Alternative schemes
and the estimated cost of each will be presented in a later report.
Telkwa Village Water-supply.—A preliminary survey was made to supply data
pertinent to the selection of a water-supply for domestic purposes for the Village of
Telkwa.   Two possible schemes were developed for costing purposes only.
The present water-supply system is by individual wells; the suggested systems would
bring the water in from near-by Maclure (Tyhee) Lake or by pumping from the Bulkley
River. X 128
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The investigation was conducted and the report prepared by J. H. Doughty-Davies,
hydraulic engineer.
Naramata Irrigation District Investigation
M. L. Zirul, B.A.Sc, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., Senior Hydraulic Engineer
The Naramata Irrigation District is situated on the east side of the Okanagan Lake,
approximately 10 miles north of the City of Penticton. Almost the whole of the irrigated
area is developed in orchards, producing both apples and soft fruits.
The trustees of the irrigation district are faced with the problem that their replacement programme is insufficient to cope with the deterioration of the very old system.
They have requested that the Water Rights Branch carry out a survey and draw up plans
for a complete replacement system, together with a schedule for replacement, giving
attention to the completely expended portions first. A plan for financing the replacement
is also required, with the possibility of obtaining a Government loan.
Fig. 1 1. This photo shows Highway No. 1 6 as it passes through the Village Municipality
of Telkwa. A preliminary survey for a domestic water-supply was carried out here. The source
of water is Maclure Lake, which lies over the hill in the background.
The trustees are also desirous of bringing in any further irrigable acreage within or
adjacent to the boundaries of the district and have requested that the investigation include
the possibility of developing extra storage to increase the supply of water during the
limiting low-flow period to supply this extra acreage.
Of the approximately 1,336 acres noted on the district's assessment roll, there are
914 acres noted as irrigated, with a further 63 acres irrigable, the remainder being rocky
or gully land. The trustees consider that their boundaries could be extended to include
a further 400 acres if sufficient storage could be developed to serve the arable land within
that area.
A reconnaissance of a proposed storage-site on Lequime (Chute) Creek was made
on October 27th.   Winter conditions had already set in at this elevation on that date, WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 129
preventing a thorough investigation being made. However, the reconnaissance indicated
that the proposed storage-site was not favourable because of the restricted reservoir area,
lack of a favourable dam-site, and lack of favourable materials for earth-fill dam
construction.
There is the possibility of increasing the storage slightly on the district's present
Naramata Lake reservoir. Since one section of the existing dam is already giving trouble
with seepage, any raising of the storage level will require very careful consideration, with
the possibility of extensive modification to the existing dam structure.
At the request of the Water Rights Branch, the Surveys and Mapping Branch flew
a low-level air-photo strip over the Naramata area this fall and had one of its staff obtain
the necessary field control for multiplex mapping of the area. This will supply the Water
Rights Branch with a detailed large-scale topographic map of the area which may be used
in the layout and design of a new system.
Studies and design will be carried as far as possible during the winter season so that
use can be made of the additional information as soon as it becomes available next season.
Irrigation and Domestic Water-supply Investigations Carried Out
by Kelowna District Office
R. G. Harris, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., M.E.I.C, P.Eng., District Engineer
Westbank Irrigation District.—An evaluation of the Westbank Irrigation District's
irrigation system is currently being made by our district office at Kelowna.
During the summer of 1955 the area has been air-photographed, and Mr. Ferny-
hough, of this Division, has carried out the control surveys necessary to map the area
by the Multiplex Section, Air Division.
The Multiplex Section has completed the mapping at a scale of 500 feet equals
1 inch.   The finished draughting and field checks have yet to be completed.
The Kelowna office has almost completed its investigations, which has involved
evaluating the system with a view to making it an all-pressure system for sprinkler irrigation, and designing the system. Further work will include a study of potential storage-
sites, completion of mapping draughting, and design of new system.
Blue Bird Bay Waterworks System.—An investigation was carried out during 1955
of a water-supply for an area known as Blue Bird Bay. This area lies a few miles south
of Kelowna and involves, at present, fifty-five houses plus fifteen auto courts.
The present water-supply consists of individual pumping systems from Okanagan
Lake, and the proposed system is a joint pumping system from Okanagan Lake.
The proposed system was given a preliminary design for costing purposes only,
based on 100 service connections and a peak demand of 100 U.S. gallons per minute.
This included water for secondary protection only. A serious fire could be handled by
bringing in portable pumps and pumping from Okanagan Lake.
A preliminary report has been completed providing estimated costs and recommendations.
Flooding Investigations
The year 1955 was notable for several damaging storms. Near the end of June,
high-intensity rains occurred in the vicinity of Quesnel and also in the area east of the
south end of Kootenay Lake.
These high-intensity rainfalls produced flows greater than highway culverts could
handle, and many of them washed out (see Figs. 17 and 18). Several investigations have
been made this year on areas with flooding problems.   These are described below.
Lac la Hache, San Jose River
Lac la Hache (lake) during high water causes flooding difficulties to water-front
property which includes the Pacific Great Eastern Railway right-of-way and to a num- X 130
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Fig. 17. Main highway bridge (Quesnel to Prince George) at Stone Creek on the verge
of washing out. This happened as a result of a severe flash flood on June 28th, 1 955. High-
intensity rainfall occurred north and south of Quesnel on this date, washing out several main
bridges.
Fig. 18. One of the main breaks in the Quesnel—Prince George Highway
that occurred in late June, 1955. The culvert pipe in the base of the road
fill was unable to carry away enough water, with the result that Australian
Creek backed up behind the fill until it overflowed the highway. The water
then poured down the side of the fill until it was washed away sufficiently to
fail. The size of the washout can be gauged by comparison with the pavement of the two-lane highway. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH X 131
ber of recently constructed auto courts. San Jose River, which drains the lake, is a small-
capacity stream which meanders to a certain extent over the flood-plain of the valley-
floor. This flood-plain is utilized for hay-farming by the local ranchers. The Pacific
Great Eastern Railway also traverses the valley-floor.
Since an application to replace a dam which had been at the lake outlet is in hand,
our approval of the design is governed by our knowledge of the lake outlet and of the
San Jose River.   It was therefore decided to carry out field investigations on the matter.
The area concerned was air-photographed and enough field control was obtained to
map the area by multiplex to a scale of 500 feet equals 1 inch. A traverse made by the
Legal Surveys Division along the new Cache Creek-Prince George Highway was used
to supplement our surveys. The multiplex work has yet to be done on this project,
although the survey calculations are almost completed.
Kelowna (Mill) Creek Flooding
R. G. Harris, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., M.E.I.C, P.Eng., District Engineer, Kelowna
Kelowna (Mill) Creek has, in the past, caused damage to property in the City of
Kelowna and in areas outside the city limits as well.
A complete field investigation has been made by the Kelowna office. The area has
been air-photographed; these air photographs have been controlled both horizontally
and vertically; the multiplex mapping has been completed; and the finished draughting
is almost completed.
This project will be completed when a design has been made which will alleviate
the flooding, cost has been estimated, and a report has been prepared giving recommendations.
Flooding of Beaver Creek near Fruitvale
Beaver Creek, a tributary of the Columbia River, rises just west of Lake Erie near
Salmo, and flows in a general south-westerly direction for approximately 15 miles to its
confluence with the Columbia.
Between Parks Siding and the Village of Fruitvale the creek has caused considerable damage by its annual flooding of adjacent meadow lands, and the Water Rights
Branch was instructed to investigate the possibility of preventing the recurring flooding.
A site investigation revealed that it would cost about $60,000 to straighten and widen
the channel sufficiently to contain the annual floods. As the total assessed value of the
property involved is only $47,000, the proposed scheme was uneconomic and impracticable.
Hydro-power Investigations
The only Provincial investigation on power made during 1955 was a reconnaissance
made by V. Raudsepp on the proposed Yukon-Teslin-Taku Rivers power development.
Mr. Raudsepp's description follows.
Yukon-Teslin-Taku Rivers Power Development
V. Raudsepp, C.E., P.Eng., Senior Hydraulic Engineer
The Northwest Power Industries Limited continued in 1954 its surveys on the
power project which was outlined in the 1954 Annual Report. It is noted that some of
the remarks in the 1954 Annual Report concerning the potential power development
are no longer pertinent as the company's planning has progressed and some aspects,
especially those concerning the later stages of the development, have been changed.
A reconnaissance survey of the water resources of the area involved was undertaken in the summer of 1954.
In connection with the application for a water licence by the Northwest Power
Industries Limited, a public hearing was held by the Comptroller of Water Rights at
Atlin in August, 1954. X  132 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
It is expected that the company will have obtained enough detailed information by
the fall of 1956 to permit the commencement of construction of the initial stage of power
development in the spring of 1957.
The initial stage, under present plans, will involve the development of some 270,000
horse-power at the power-site on the Nakonake River, a tributary to the Taku River.
Only the Atlin Lake waters will be utilized in the initial stage by erecting a temporary
timber crib dam on the Atlinto River near its outlet from Atlin Lake. This temporary
dam will raise Atlin Lake to a maximum of 12 feet above its high-water level of 2,195
feet. The storage-reservoir thus created will be sufficient to make available a constant
flow of 2,500 to 2,700 cubic feet per second.
The impounded water will be carried from Atlin Lake by a short tunnel to Sloko
Lake, the waters of which will be lowered to the same level as that of Atlin Lake.
Another tunnel will be driven through to the Nakonake River to give a head of approximately 1,090 feet and provide for the development of some 270,000 horse-power.
The temporary Atlinto River dam will not be needed after the Whitehorse dam is
built, as planned in the later stages of the development.
This initial stage of the development will supply the first metallurgical plants and
also provide ample power for future construction operations.
The company's surveys have shown that a suitable industrial site is available on
the south bank of the Taku River just east of the International Boundary, on the Canadian side. Power to this area will be carried from the Nakonake power-site by a 45-
mile transmission-line. A deep-water wharf will be constructed on the Taku Inlet, in
Alaska, and will be connected by a road or railway with the industrial site.
Miscellaneous
Ram Creek Hot Springs
A small group of hot springs, tributary to Ram Creek, about 40 miles north-east
of Kimberley, was the subject of an inquiry to the Water Rights Branch in the spring
of 1955. A report has been made of the reconnaissance carried out in August, 1955,
by A. R. D. Robertson, hydraulic engineer, indicating that development of these thermal
waters may be feasible.
Water-resource Investigations Made for the Fraser River Board
As in the past few years a large share of the work performed during 1955 by the
Water Resources Compilation Section was done for the Fraser River Board.
The Water Rights Branch was involved with this Board on all levels during the past
year: the Comptroller, being a member of the Board, was very active, dealing with policy
matters; the Chief of the Hydraulics Investigation Division acted as alternate on the
Board; a hydraulic engineer worked almost full time as a member of the Board's working
group, principally on planning; and the Water Resources Compilation Section carried
out a number of actual field investigations on behalf of the Board.
The part played by the Branch on policy and general planning is covered elsewhere
in this Report. The following is a general description of the field investigations carried
out by or for the Water Resources Compilation Section on behalf of the Board.
Grand Canyon Project
One of the survey parties spent the entire field season in the Upper Fraser River
area in the vicinity of Longworth, between Prince George and McBride.
A dam built on one of the dam-sites in the Grand Canyon of the Fraser River,
impounding the water to an elevation of about 2,120 feet, would create a large reservoir
extending up-stream to about Crescent Spur. This reservoir would be about 48 miles in
length (86 river miles) and have an average width of perhaps 1 mile. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X  133
Fig.  12.    Hydraulic engineering survey party traversing along the Torpy River on the
Grand Canyon project.     River-boat was used for transportation.
Fig. 13.    River-boat used on the Grand Canyon project.    This 30-foot freighter, powered by two
25-horsepower outboard motors, was able to carry large amounts of survey and camping gear. X 134
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The reservoir area was mapped from the Grand Canyon to about Uchling during
1951, 1952, and 1953. This entailed considerable field work, as the mapping was done
without the aid of photogrammetry. Maps are currently available at a scale of 500 feet
equals 1 inch with a contour interval of 20 feet. A key plan of these sheets is included
in the 1954 Annual Report.
This year's work in this area progressed on five fronts, as follows:—
(a) Completion of Reservoir Mapping.—This entailed the field surveys which
will provide the horizontal and vertical control for multiplex mapping of
the remaining reservoir area which lies between Uhrling and Crescent
Spur, a matter of about 17 river miles. This mapping would close the
2,120-foot contour.
(_>) Mapping for Canadian National Railways Relocation.—Were a dam to
be constructed in the Grand Canyon, some of the C.N.R. trackage would
be required to be relocated. The areas in which this relocation might be
required (depending on reservoir top water-level) will be mapped by
multiplex at a scale of 500 feet equals 1 inch. Our survey party has
provided the horizontal and vertical field control for this mapping.
(c) Spillway Diversion Mapping.—Were a dam to be constructed in the
Grand Canyon, an attractive separate spillway location presents itself.
This location is by way of Toneko Lake and Moxley Creek. This area
will be mapped by multiplex also, at a scale of 500 feet equals 1 inch, and
our survey party has provided the necessary field control.
(d) Geological Mapping, Grand Canyon Dam-sites.—A geologist from the
Provincial Department of Mines, J. W. McCammon, in company with a
small mobile survey party under D. E. Smuin, of the Branch, geologically
mapped the dam-sites. Five dam-sites were reported upon, only two of
which showed very great promise.
(e) Capacity Calculations, Grand Canyon Reservoir.—Although the mapping
has not been completed, several men were employed for some time taking
out areas with planimeters and preparing a capacity curve for the portion
of the reservoir which has already been mapped.
Geological Reconnaissance, Fraser River above Moran
A small, mobile survey party, with D. E. Smuin as chief, provided surveys, transportation, and housekeeping for two geologists from the Provincial Department of Mines,
Hugh Nasmith and J. W. McCammon. The former geologist was available for only the
first part of the season, the latter remaining until the end.
Since the Fraser River from Moran Dam site north to Prince George had already
been mapped by the Water Rights Branch, the Fraser River Board assigned the Water
Rights Branch the task of re-examining the same stretch of the river for low-head dam-
sites and to geologically map these sites, and to place monuments on the more promising
locations.
This party, travelling by motor-vehicles and large river-boats, examined the following dam-sites which are presently being reported upon (see Plates 9, 11, and 12) (the
numbering progresses in an up-stream direction): 1, Lower Moran; 2, Upper Moran;
3, Lower Chisholm Canyon; 4, Upper Chisholm Canyon; 5, French Bar Canyon; 6,
Lower China Gulch; 7, Upper China Gulch; 8, Little Dog Canyon; 9, Iron Canyon;
10, Moons; 11, Chimney Creek Bridge; 12, Chimney Creek Canyon; 13, Lower Soda
Creek; 14, Upper Soda Creek; 15, Cottonwood Canyon; 16, Westroad River Canyon;
17, Fort George Canyon;  18, Isle de Pierre (Nechako P.); and 19, Grand Canyon.
Little can be said as to the conclusions reached by these reports at this time because
of their stage of completion. In general, however, it appears that there are few good
dam-sites as the rock appears to be badly shattered and faulted with few exceptions. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
X 135
PLATE 9
1955
Geological Reconnaisance
OF
Low   Head    Damsites
Upper    Fraser  River
O     5      to _0 30 <W BO   MILES
This reconnaisance survey was made by the W.R..B. for-the Fraser R.iver Board . X  136 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Lytton to Moran Mapping
The Fraser River has now been mapped at a scale of 500 feet equals 1 inch from
Prince George continuously down-stream to the Moran Dam site. The Fraser River
Board decided to continue this mapping south to the confluence of the Thompson River
at Lytton. Field control for this survey was carried out during the 1955 field season by
the Topographical Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch. The chief of party was
Frank O. Speed.
The Multiplex, using Speed's control, has completed the mapping at a scale of 500
feet equals 1 inch and with a contour interval of 40 feet.
The Water Rights Branch will prepare the finished maps. An index of these finished
maps will be included in the 1956 Annual Report.
Moran Dam Reservoir
A reservoir area and capacity curve has been prepared in 1955 following considerable detailed taking off areas by planimeter from the sixty-one map-sheets making up the
reservoir mapping. A dam, constructed on the Moran site, would store about 13,350,000
acre-feet, assuming a top water elevation of 1,540 feet.
Cottonwood Canyon Dam Reservoir
A reservoir area and capacity curve has been remeasured, recalculated, and redrawn
for the Cottonwood reservoir. A reservoir backing the water up to the foot of the Fort
George Canyon dam-site (elevation 1,800 feet) would store about 1,307,000 acre-feet.
A higher dam built on the Cottonwood site and backing up the river to Prince George,
thus flooding out the Fort George dam-site, would create a reservoir holding about
2,500,000 acre-feet.
Raush River Dam-site, Fraser River
A dam-site was examined briefly by Dr. J. D. Mollard, P.F.R.A. geologist, and on
the basis of this report it was decided to carry out investigations on a dam-site on the
Fraser River immediately up-stream from the confluence of the Raush River.
A small party, under James Buchanan, hydraulic engineer, visited the site and gathered the topographical information required to prepare a dam-site plan.
The reservoir behind this dam was also mapped this year by a private photogram-
metric company.
HYDROLOGY SECTION
V. Raudsepp, C.E., P.Eng., Senior Hydraulic Engineer
With the reorganization of the structure of the Water Rights Branch in July, one
senior hydraulic engineer was placed in charge of investigations in the field of hydrology,
snow surveys, sedimentation, ground-water, etc.
One senior hydraulic engineer and one hydraulic engineer together with one part-
time assistant form this section. The hydraulic engineer and the assistant are, as they
have been, carrying out the snow surveys and sediment sampling, and reports on those
activities can be found elsewhere.
As for the new section, as yet no programme has been formulated. The senior
hydraulic engineer has been fully occupied with special assignments of various nature.
Ground-water Investigations
Extent of Use of Ground-water in British Columbia.—The report on the reconnaissance survey was completed. A synopsis of the findings of the survey was published in
the 1954 Annual Report.
Ground-water Studies in the Agassiz-Harrison Lake Area and the Cawston Irrigation District.—Groundwater-level observation programmes, as reported in the 1953 and WATER RIGHTS BRANCH X 137
1954 Annual Reports, were continued. A review of the drainage and ground-water
conditions of the Agassiz-Harrison Lake area indicated that the observation programme
in that area could be curtailed.
Dyking and Drainage
November, 1954, Flood in Lower Mainland.—In order to keep the Comptroller of
Water Rights informed about the functioning of the reclamation works in the Lower
Mainland, a short study of the November, 1954, flood was carried out.
A Study of Electric-power Rates for Drainage Pumping in the Lower Mainland.—
The dyking authorities in the Lower Mainland had suggested that the power rates for
drainage pumping are unduly high. A short study of the installed motor capacity, consumed energy, and the cost of pumping was undertaken and recommendations made for
further action.
A Review of Drainage and Dyking in British Columbia.—In conjunction with the
preparation of a brief on Federal-Provincial co-operation in developing the Provincial
agriculture, a review was prepared on dyke-land reclamation and its future problems.
Study of a Proposal to Replace the Nicomen Slough Bridge by Fills Containing
Culverts.—It has been proposed to replace the existing bridges at Dewdney and Deroche
by fills equipped with culverts. The proposed structures would have adverse effects with
respect to drainage of the dyked areas bordering the Nicomen Slough. It will be recommended that the bridges be replaced by fill-and-bridge structures. The study is continuing.
Snow Surveys and Water Forecasting, Sedimentation Survey
J. H. Doughty-Davies, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., Hydraulic Engineer
Snow Surveys and Water Forecasting
Two extensive field-trips were made in connection with the snow courses throughout the Province. On these trips eight snow courses were inspected and twenty observers
were instructed. The McBride Snow Course was reopened, a new observer having been
found. Five snow courses were discontinued, the majority of these by the Powell River
Company. Two new courses were established—one on Le Jeune Lake near Kamloops
and the other on Mount Anglemont near Shuswap Lake. These two new courses will
increase the snow data in the South Thompson and Nicola watershed.
A reconnaissance trip was made into the Horsefly and Likely areas to try to find
suitable locations for new snow courses. Unfortunately no areas from which the snow
data information could be sent in winter could be found.
Accuracy of the 1955 Spring Run-off Forecasts Based on Snow-survey Data.—The
number of forecasts made this year was increased by the forecast for the Fraser River
at Hope.
The winter snow-pack did not reach its maximum depth and water content until
four or five weeks past the usual date of March 31st. The run-off was correspondingly
late, and the over-all effect was that the actual spring run-off was greater than normal
in the greater part of Central and Southern British Columbia.
Since the run-off forecasts are issued on the assumption that the spring run-off will
be normal, the forecasts this year were generally less than the actual run-offs. Therefore, in order to make an accurate comparison between the forecast and actual run-offs,
the actual run-offs were normalized, based on the snow-survey data.
In general the results of this year's forecasts were found to be as follows: 94 per
cent of the forecasts made were within 15 per cent; 87 per cent of the forecasts made
were within 10 per cent; and 25 per cent of the forecasts made were within 5 per cent.
The following table supplies the data on the comparison of the run-off forecasts
with the normalized run-off.   The figures for the actual run-offs are also shown. Fig. 14.    Sediment-sampler in operating position.    The jeep is shown on the Marguerite Ferry
with the boom swung out ready to lower the sampler into the water.
DO NO
UNTIL
BY FE
ss::s^:^::.\:[:.S:S'-^
Fig. 15. Sediment-sampler and derrick in its travelling position on the jeep. The Marguerite Ferry, which crosses the Fraser River, from which the sampling was done, is seen in
the background.
138 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
ACCURACY OF RUN-OFF FORECASTS, 1955
X 139
Stations Forecast
Forecast
Actual
Normalized
Difference
Difference
Columbia at Nicholson1 	
Columbia at Revelstoke1	
Columbia at Birchbank1	
Kootenay at Wardner1..	
Elk at Stanley Park1 	
Lardeau at Gerrard1.	
Duncan at Howser1	
Slocan at Crescent Valley1	
Inflow to Kootenay Lake1	
Inflow to Okanagan Lake3—
North Thompson at Barriered
Fraser at Hope1- _. _
Inflow to Stave Lake3—	
Capilano at North Vancouver intakes-
Inflow to Powell Lake'5— _	
Inflow to Lois Lake3  	
Acre-feet
1,937,000
15,400,000
36,300,000
3,710,000
1,293,000
595,000
1,830,000
1,704,000
15,425,000
297,000
6,550,000
45,000,000
1,040,000
179,000
950,000
235,000
Acre-feet
2,157,000
17,529,000
39,880,000
4,407,000
1,190,000
600,000
1,928,000
1,965,000
17,284,000
388,000
7,433,000
54,216,000
1,195,000
166,000
1,031,000
259,000
Acre-feet
2,021,000
16,423,000
36,695,000
4,152,000
1,190,000
600,000=
1,928,000
1,847,000
16,423,000
360,000
6,837,000
49,341,000
1,135,000
166,000*
1,031,000
259,000
Acre-feet
84,000
1,023,000
395,000
442,000
— 103,000
5,000
98,000
143,000
998,000
63,000
287,000
4,341,000
95,000
-13,000
81,000
24,000
Per Cent
4.2
6.3
0.1
10.6
—8.6
1.2
5.1
7.7
6.1
17.5
4.2
8.8
8.4
-7.9
7.9
9.3
1 April to August, inclusive, flows.
2 Flow for July estimated.
3 April to July, inclusive, flows.
1 Corrected for storage.
Fig. 16. The suspended sediment-sampler is shown being lowered into the Fraser River.
The lower " fish " is the sampler, while the lead weight is shown mounted above it. This
arrangement allows the sediment load to be sampled practically on the river-bottom. X 140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Sedimentation Survey, Fraser River
The modified sediment sampling programme was continued for the spring of 1955.
Only the stations at Hope and Marguerite were sampled.
The sampling equipment was changed in some details and is now improved and
samples are obtained with greater efficiency.
Listed below are the stations with the number of measurements made and samples
taken in 1955:— __   ,_ ' ,        ..   ,     _
Number of Number of
Sampling Station Measurements Samples
Marguerite     6 72
Hope      7 252
Totals  13 324
An instruction booklet for the operation and maintenance of the sampling equipment and power-hoist is under preparation.
Miscellaneous
The flooding and damage caused by the severe November rain-storm in North Vancouver and on the south side of the Fraser River was inspected. Attempts were made
to obtain data on the crest height of the flood-water. Also some stream-velocity measurements were made.
The Western Snow Conference was attended, and several mutual problems discussed
concerning the co-operation between the United States and British Columbia snow surveyors. It was also decided to hold the 1956 Conference in Penticton. A. F. Paget was
placed on the Programme Committee and J. H. Doughty-Davies was nominated as chairman of local arrangements.
Mr. Doughty-Davies was asked to serve on the sub-committee of ice and snow for
the National Research Council. This was agreed to, and co-operation with the National
Research Council is anticipated. DYKING COMMISSIONER Dyking Commissioner
Flooding of Alouette River, Maple Ridge area, November 3rd,  1955.
Results of failure of private dyke, Alouette River flooding,
November 3rd, 1955.
Centre left:   Reconstruction of wing-wall,
No. 1 Pump-house, Matsqui District.
Centre right:   Extension of flood-boxes,
No. 2 Pump-house, Matsqui District. DYKING COMMISSIONER
X  143
DYKING COMMISSIONER
J. L. MacDonald, B.Sc, P.Eng., Dyking Commissioner and
Inspector of Dykes
It is not generally recognized that each dyking and drainage district is a registered
separate corporate body, and that the financial and other affairs of each must be kept
entirely separate from the others. This means that bank accounts must be kept for the
renewal reserve fund, sinking fund, and maintenance fund for each of the fifteen districts
administered by this office.
Also there is the matter of keeping up to date the fifteen assessment rolls for the
4,520 owners; the mailing of Court of Revision notices to each owner, followed by tax
notices; the collection of taxes and issuing of receipts. These duties, along with others
too numerous to name, keep the efficient office staff of two fully occupied. The reason
that such a small staff can cope with such a volume of detailed work is that the dates of
tax notices for the different districts are spaced to fall on different months of the year.
There is never sufficient money in any district to do all the maintenance and construction work that needs to be done. To get the work done as cheaply as possible, it is
done for the most part by day-labour and the district's or hired equipment. This means
that planning and supervision must be given to the work in connection with the maintenance of dykes, the cleaning and improvement of many miles of drainage-ditches, the
constant inspection of flood-boxes and the twenty-six pumping plants with combined
connected horse-power of 6,279 and capacity of 828,000 imperial gallons per minute
in all districts.
Besides the regular inspections of the areas and the works, there is always a waiting-
list of calls from individuals in the various districts with drainage problems or grievances
who must be contacted and an inspection made. Then, in addition to the regular
prescribed annual general meetings and the Courts of Revisions in each district, there are
numerous evening meetings each month called by the Reeves of municipalities or presidents of ratepayers' associations to discuss affairs of the districts. These meetings and
individual calls account for quite an amount of effort and time, but they are welcomed
as it is one sure way of clearing up many misunderstandings and retaining the confidence
and co-operation of the farmers in the districts.
The annual threat from the spring freshet of the Fraser is always a busy time of
organization and preparation. The duration of this threat the last two years has been
prolonged due to the heavy snow-pack and late slow run-off. Constant vigilance and
readiness for action was necessary for four months this year. Organizations are set up
in each district composed of experienced competent leaders and men skilled in the various
endeavours needed. Men are alerted for call when wanted; sources of equipment such
as power-loaders, bulldozers, trucks, etc., are tabulated; and stock-piles of sand-bags,
sand, gravel, clay, and quarried rock are set up. At times when the situation is considered
acute, a headquarters is maintained at Mission, which is about central for all the districts
in the Fraser Valley. At such times this Mission headquarters functions under the
provisions of the Flood Relief Act and directs the forces to combat the flood threat of
the Fraser Valley area under the over-all supervision of the Deputy Minister of Highways.
A system of communications is set up in all districts and from the districts to the headquarters. Fortunately this year the full scheme did not have to be put into operation, and
the office at Mission was only open a matter of days. Nevertheless the threat remained
for four months, and a constant system of dyke patrol and state of readiness had to be
maintained. This interfered with the maintenance and other regular work of the districts
and has left many jobs uncompleted that would have been done.
The "Dykes Maintenance Act," 1950, enacted following the expenditure of large
sums by the two senior governments in rebuilding the dykes after the 1948 flood, has now X 144
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
come into general use. The intent of the Act was to provide for an over-all inspection
of all dykes in the Province in an attempt to ensure proper maintenance and to prevent
them falling into disrepair so as to contribute to conditions likely to result in a disaster
such as occurred in 1948. Until recently the newly reconstructed dykes did not require
much repair. Now they are beginning to require more maintenance and repair. Requests
are becoming frequent for inspections and consultations regarding maintenance, rock
protection, drainage, increased pumping capacity, etc., not only from the thirty-five
districts in the Fraser Valley not administered by this office, but by districts throughout
the Province, such as Pemberton and the four districts in the Kootenays.
The following tables are given outlining physical and financial characteristics of the
various districts administered by this office.
Financial Data
Tax Rate
per Acre
Total Taxes
Collected
Allocation of Taxes
1954
Dyking or Drainage District
Capital
Charges
District
Operating
Costs
Power
Costs
$3.70
1.75-2.52
3.651
1.50
2.70
5.10
2.321
3.00
.17-.68
2.00
.60-.90
5.35
.68-4.10
2.60-13.03
1.44
$11,280
7,175
6,460
1,770
10,820
850
2,060
24,560
2,570
20,200
3,320
5,670
85,700
14,820
575
$2,110
2,160
$9,170
5,015
$6,860
3,640
1,960
590
4,310
1,180
6,510
1,100
Harrison Mills Dyking 	
4,860
1,030
5,000
1,320
2,220
22,870
4,240
100
19,700
1,540
15,200
2,000
3,450
62,830
10,580
475
7,630
6,750
2,710
Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development
28,100
1,200
1 South Dewdney and Harrison Mills tax on assessed values of land and improvements.
Capital charges include repayment of debt, payments to sinking funds, and payments to renewal reserve accounts.
Tax rate is converted to an average rate per acre in the above table.
Physical Inventory
Assessed
Area
Drainage
Area
Dyke
Pumping Plants
Capacity
Dyking or Drainage
District
No.
Total
H.P.
Total
Capacity
(1,000
I.G.P.M.)
Removed
over
Drainage
Area in
24 Hr.
Coquitlam	
Dewdney (3,356 acres)
South Dewdney (1,605
Acres
3,050
1
\      5,161
1,180
4,138
250
1,100
8,380
10,039
1,060
28,029
1,400
900
Acres
4,250
22,400
2,000
4,200
300
2,300
9,600
25,800
1,150
82,000
3,740
1,830
Miles
8.4
7.4
5.4
13.62
3.4
4.8
14.4
7.2
7.2
27.7
4.6
2.6
5
1
3
1
2
4
2
2
2
3
1
420
700
90.0
80.0
In.
1.36
0.23
105
15
40
464
755
200
3,500
40
40
9.5
2.0
4.5
120.0
120.0
30.0
350.0
15.0
7.0
0.15
North Nicomen	
0.60
0.13
0.81
0.30
Pitt Meadows No. 2
1.60
0.33
South Westminster
0.26
0.25 DYKING COMMISSIONER X 145
DYKING DISTRICTS
Brief remarks follow on the individual districts administered by this office.
South Westminster
The dykes in this area have had two weak sections raised and widened: one section
was between the Timberland Mill and the grain-elevator, and the other from Yale Road
to the Pattullo Bridge. The programme of cleaning all the drainage-ditches included in
the dyking system has been completed this year. During the record rainfall in November
of this year, considerable distress was experienced in the area. The ditches and pumps
are not of sufficient capacity to carry the quick run-off from the now urban adjacent
highland. Two new pumps with combined capacity of 20,000 imperial gallons per
minute provided by the Department of Highways to relieve the flooding of highways in
the area will be installed in the near future. This additional pumping capacity will
improve conditions but will not give 100 per cent protection during winter flash storms.
The only feasible way to give this insurance would be by means of a gravity ditch to divert
the waters from the high lands.
Coquitlam
This district has a stretch of dyke with an unfilled borrow-ditch on the inside.
A small section of this dyke sluffed during this year's high water. It was discovered in
time and repaired quickly to prevent flooding of the area. This borrow-ditch should be
filled and the cross-section of the dyke widened to give adequate protection.
This district, relatively speaking, has a high pumping capacity capable of lowering
the water-table 1.36 inches in twenty-four hours over the entire drainage area. Unfortunately the pumping costs are high, costing over the past year approximately $7,000,
leaving a very small margin in the $9,000 levied for all maintenance purposes. This
means only a fraction of the required cleaning of the drainage-ways can be done each year.
The main canal from the south dyke to the Dominion Avenue pump was cleaned this
year.  The possibility of diverting the water from Mary Hill by gravity will be investigated.
Maple Ridge Dyking
The dykes in this area are adequate against the waters of the Fraser. Some sections
with sandy subsoil are very porous and give trouble through seepage when the water-level
stays up a long time. The dykes along the Alouette River are not high enough nor of
sufficient cross-section to withstand flash winter storms of the Alouette watershed.
Considerable anxiety was experienced during the recent storm in November when at one
stage a section of dyke had only 1 foot of free-board. Fortunately the storm slackened
at this time and possible disaster was averted. Had the dam farther up the river failed
at this time, which it did approximately thirty-six hours later, it is doubtful if any of the
dyked areas along the Alouette would have escaped disaster. A study of the general
situation—the dam, river clearance, and the dykes—is now under way by the Water
Rights Branch.
There is a demand in the district for more winter drainage and pumping. In anticipation of this demand a new pump with a capacity of 30,000 imperial gallons per minute
has been ordered and will be installed in the near future. This pump is being financed
from the district's renewal reserve fund.
Maple Ridge Drainage
The work in this district consists chiefly in reconditioning as many miles of ditch
each year as the funds will allow.   This policy has been continued this year. X 146 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Silverdale Flats
This small district is organized under the " Water Act." The elected trustees of the
district decide matters of policy and programme of works. They were having difficulty
assessing and collecting so they petitioned this office to do the office management for them.
The district's affairs are in good shape. They have a very real threat to their dykes caused
by the continuous erosion of the river-banks. A solution to this problem has not yet been
found.
Dewdney and South Dewdney
These two districts are protected by the one dyke and pumping-station, although
their financial set-up is separate. The dam at the pump-house constructed across the
mouth of the slough has shown signs of weakness during the past two freshets. The
concrete in the flood-boxes cracked in several places and water seeped through in an
alarming way during the freshet. Similar conditions were experienced at the dam in
Matsqui. This was corrected by gunite shot in under pressure. This job is now being
done on the Dewdney dam by the Keyes Construction Company.
West Nicomen Island
The main concern of this district is drainage during continued high level of the
Fraser during freshet time. The soil of the island is deposited on porous gravel and sand
seepage is severe after the river reaches 18 feet. It is not considered wise to attempt to
pump too much of this seepage water out while the river remains high as the more that
is removed the greater the seepage. When the Fraser level recedes, every attempt is made
to remove the inside water as quickly as possible. The pumping capacity was increased
by the addition of a 12-inch pump for this purpose this year.
East Nicomen
This district was organized after 1950. It has no improved drainage system nor
pumps. The internal waters go out through flood-gates located in natural sloughs when
the Fraser drops. The growth of cottonwood bushes on the dykes is causing concern.
Yearly chemical sprays have not held this growth in check. It is now necessary for
a brushing job to be done.
Harrison Mills
The district was organized after 1950. For one reason or another the trustees did
not act. Before this year's freshet, responsible people in the district were approached
and told that they should put their affairs in order and make certain repairs to the works
before freshet time. New trustees were elected. The district petitioned to have this office
do the assessing and collecting. Miss Palm, of this office, was appointed assessor and
collector.   The repairs were made in good time before the high water.
Matsqui Dyking
Major repairs were made to the works at the two pump-houses before the spring
high water. At No. 1 Pump-house the wing wall had broken away from the head wall
of the pump-discharges and flood-boxes, threatening to fall and render the flood-gates
and pump-discharges useless. It was necessary to remove the wing wall and replace it
with one 30 feet in length and 20 feet high on new footings. The spillway from pumps
and gates was also extended several feet.
At No. 2 Pump-house the cross-section of the dyke was too narrow, and the
possibility of its crumbling from the weight of water gave considerable concern during
the freshet of the year before. The four 5- by 6-foot flood-boxes were extended 22 feet
and the dyke widened to conform. DYKING COMMISSIONER X 147
The seepage problem in the sandy stretch west of the Sumas Mountain was present
again in an aggravated degree this year. This condition is hard to correct as test-holes
show that the sand stratum goes down 30 feet or more. An experiment will be made this
coming year on a trial section of this sandy stretch in an attempt to core the outside of the
dyke with clayey material.
Matsqui Drainage
Very minor works were done in this district this year. The reason for this was to
permit the district's funds to accumulate so that a rather major job could be undertaken.
Several wild mountain streams carry a great amount of sediment during winter storms.
This sediment fills one of the main drainage-canals of the district. Previously this canal
has been dredged, only to be filled again during the first winter freshet. It is hoped to
provide a catchment basin for this sediment so that it will not pass into the canal.
Sumas
The usual maintenance programme was carried out in this district. Several miles
of drainage-ditches were reconditioned over the area. Works of a major nature were
started in the area east of the Vedder Canal. Parts of this area were always subject to
winter flooding. By means of improving the ditch along Hopedale Road, the waters from
the east are conducted by gravity to Wilson Creek. A new 6-foot-diameter culvert was
installed at this point to handle this extra water. Except in prolonged storms causing the
Fraser to rise, closing the flood-gates, all this water is passed out by gravity without aid
from the pumps. In the event of the flood-gates closing at Wilson Creek, the water must
then still go west and be taken care of by the pumps at McGillivray Creek. It was realized
that the pumping capacity at McGillivray, 15,000 imperial gallons per minute, was far
too low for winter storms. Two new pumps are being added with a combined total
capacity of 60,000 or 75,000 imperial gallons per minute.
This work and the cost of the pumps is being financed from the renewal reserve fund
of the district. It is hoped that funds will be available in order to increase the pumping
capacity at the main pumping plant west of the Vedder by one unit to take care of the
winter waters from the lake-bottom and the Sumas River.
Pitt Meadows District No. 2
This small district of approximately 1,000 acres has always been handicapped by
insufficient drainage. Last year $25,000 was made available by the Government of
British Columbia by means of a combined loan and grant for the purpose of improving
the system. A new ditch was constructed around the extra 5 miles of dyke. This ditch
was located well back from the old borrow-pit ditch which had been filled by the Fraser
Valley Dyking Board. The purpose of this ditch is to intercept the seepage-waters when
the Fraser is high and prevent them from spreading over the entire area. In addition, all
ditches in the district were widened and deepened. In all approximately 25 miles of
ditches were either dug or improved. The results are very satisfactory, and the residents
in the area now have a more hopeful attitude to carry on the cultivation of the rich land
in this district.
Kootenay Districts
The four districts in this area — namely, Creston Dyking District, Reclamation
Dyking District, Nicks Island Dyking District, and Duck Lake Dyking District — were
visited during the year. The main concern of all the districts is the loss of land and
threat to the dykes caused by erosion. In the past when erosion occurred, the dyke has
been moved back. This has been done several times both on Nicks Island and the
Creston Dyking District, with resultant loss of valuable land and only temporary safety.
This method of protection cannot continue.   The situation of the Nicks Island Dyking X 148 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
District is especially critical. Due to the nature of the soil along the banks and the great
depth of the water at the banks, the method of rocking the banks used along the Fraser
would not be physically sound or financially possible in this area. This erosion will
continue, and it would seem that the best method to combat it would be by means of
a floating dredge with a long boom and bucket.
This equipment could first be used to remove the bars formed in the river and
responsible for the erosion, placing the material from them in the eroded sections of the
bank and dyke. The first operation of cleaning the entire channel would be a considerable
operation. Thereafter it is thought that one or two months' operation after each freshet
would keep the channel free from bars and also build up and repair any damage to the
dykes. It is not thought that the cost, spread over the entire acreage of the area, would
be prohibitive. Unless some method is adopted to combat the threat, a large amount of
land will be lost.
GENERAL
There are some problems common to all dyked areas. One of these is protection
of the river-banks from erosion. This subject, it is understood, is being given priority
study by the Fraser River Board for the areas within the Fraser watershed. Their
recommendations are being awaited with interest and hope by all concerned. Another
is protection from and removal of the waters caused by winter storms. Times and
conditions are rapidly changing. Land is being divided into smaller holdings and must
be farmed more intensively. This causes a demand for more and more winter pumping.
To supply pumps of sufficient capacity to take care of any winter storm of unpredictable
severity would seem to be economically impossible. Also to operate pumps practically
continuously puts a great burden of overhead on the land. This is shown by the power
costs of the districts given previously.
The question must be studied and a decision must be made as to the amount of
winter pumping that is economically justified. If the proposed legislation concerned with
highland waters should become law, it will have considerable bearing on the drainage
studies of the low lands.
V SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT Southern Okanagan Lands Project
North Flume No. 14.—Bulldozer at work removing soil from
upper side of ditch to buttress
lower side.
North Flume No. 14.—Work
on lower side.
North Flume No. 14.—N.B.
subsidence as evidenced by water
in low point of ditch. SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROIECT
X 151
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
F. O. McDonald, Project Manager
GENERAL
The year under review has been particularly trouble-free, with no major shut-downs.
Water-supply has been ample in all areas. The water itself has been very clear and free
of foreign matter, such as weeds, alga., silt, etc. Despite a hot, dry summer, no trouble
was experienced in keeping the orchardists satisfied. The water was turned out of the
main canal on October 17th, somewhat earlier than heretofore because the contractors
were anxious to proceed with pouring of concrete on the siphon bridge, the water in the
siphon being too great a burden for easy jacking up.
LAND SALES
During 1955, sales of lands were as follows:
Town lots (18)	
Farm lots (2)	
$4,750.00
2,450.00
$7,200.00
1955 CROP RETURNS
Although fruit prices are generally lower this year, there has been a marked increase
in volume. In the case of apples, the increase in volume over 1954 is in the neighbourhood of 60 per cent, and, for the first time in three years, the soft-fruit crop volume has
not been affected by frost. With the exception of cherries, which suffered splitting from
spring rains, the crop volume has been normal.
Fruit-growers should, therefore, receive a larger gross return for their 1955 crop
than that enjoyed for any of the previous three years, and, although final payments for
the crop will not be received until the spring of 1956, advances on the crop already
received have doubtless accounted for the better collections in 1955, which are $8,880
larger than in 1954 and are as follows:—
Collections for 1955 (Estimated for Month of December)
Land—
Principal
Interest __
Lease rentals _
  $8,030.00
  935.00
  1,200.00
Sundry realizations   3,735.00
Water rates—
Oliver domestic  16,430.00
Irrigation  58,550.00
TotaL
$88,880.00
ACCOMPLISHMENTS DURING THE YEAR UNDER REVIEW
1. Roads.—Approximately 40,000 feet of new road was constructed alongside the
main ditch to provide access for men, material, and machinery for repairs and maintenance. This work was done with the TD-14, prior to turning it in on new and smaller
equipment.
2. New Intake.—The new dam and intake constructed in 1954 included powering
the Southern Okanagan Lands Project headgates.   Operation was very satisfactory and X 152 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
enabled volume to be regulated within close limits.   Control of flow from the upper lakes
was accomplished without difficulty, necessitating only one or two visits per day.
3. Pitching Main Canal.—The use of the new kettle purchased in 1954 was one of
the main contributing factors in the trouble-free ditch operation, as pitch could be
maintained at constant temperatures. The fact that the rubber-tired kettle was highly
mobile and could in most places be operated in the ditch itself produced a really good job
of pitching. The use of 145-degree asphalt is proving more satisfactory than the higher
melt point previously used of 170 degrees; brittleness is avoided, and with the use of
foundation seal the reinforcing strips of burlap remained, for the most part, in place all
season. The above pitching of cracks, joints, and weak spots contributed to a reduction
in loss of water and could be a factor in the opening-up of further irrigable acreages
within the Project.
4. No. 5 Pump.—A 7 Vi -horsepower motor and suitable pump were substituted in
this location east of Oliver. Previously insufficient water was available to the users
under No. 5. The new pump provides ample water, and the users have expressed their
satisfaction.
5. Hester Creek Spillway.—This open concrete flume (about 1,500 feet long) is a
hazard to residents of this area. It is proposed, therefore, to cover the spillway with
lumber. To determine costs and feasibility of this project, the spillway has already
been covered where it crosses the main highway south of Oliver.
6. No. 7 Pump.—This pump (15 horse-power) supplies four veterans, each farming about 15 acres. In the system originally installed, water was pumped to an open-
ended 8-inch line, each user having his own pressure-pump for sprinklers. The pump
itself required extensive repairs, so it was decided to pressurize the system, and accordingly a new pump was installed, designed to give each grower 20 to 25 pounds pressure.
Unfortunately the 8-inch pipe failed, due to rot in the wood staves, and many pipe
replacements became necessary. It will be necessary to replace the main pipe-line before
another season.   With this done there should be no further trouble.
7. Topsoil Stock-piling.—In the Richter Pass area three large stock-piles of soil
were established. This was done in an effort to curb the pilfering of topsoil which was
going on in areas where vacant land existed. A charge of 25 cents per yard was established, permits being available in the main office or from the Osoyoos ditch-rider. The
arrangement worked admirably and prevented, for the most part, soil " scalping." The
revenue from the sale of soil amounted to $135. It should be noted here that the top-
soil used for stock-piling was largely hillside areas above the irrigated lands.
8. Trestle No. 21k.—This trestle, washed out in 1953, being replaced hurriedly
during the season, required some permanent work to make it safe for the season's operation. Accordingly concrete footings were poured and the flume itself was extended 30
feet to the north because the terrain was dangerous and liable to further cave-in.
9. Pacific Silica Limited.—A new bridge was designed and constructed where the
entrance to the new pit crosses our west lateral flume. The design had to be such that
heavy transport vehicles could be safely used. The work was done under our supervision and by our crews. This new bridge will enable the concrete ditch to be renewed
at the point of crossing where collapse has occurred due to inadequate underpinning.
10. Bridge at No. 22.—This is a permanent bridge crossing the main canal in the
vicinity of Flume No. 22 and gives access to about one-half mile of ditch in a particularly difficult section. Already substantial savings have been effected by being able to
place timber above the ditch, where it is located on side-hill terrain, preparatory to
floating it down the canal to location.
11. Cattle-guard.—A cattle-guard was installed, using our crew, with material being
supplied by the Oliver Sawmills Limited. The location is at the Inkaneep Indian Reserve,
boundary of District Lot 2450 (S.).   Since the Oliver Sawmills use the Indian reserve SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROIECT X 153
for log supply and transportation and the Southern Okanagan Lands Project do not own
the right-of-way through the reserve, the above arrangement was concluded as the road
is in constant use by Southern Okanagan Lands Project crews and by the sawmill trucks.
12. Deer-escapes.—A new type of deer-ladder, termed the " Richmond escape,"
after Lome Richmond, foreman, who designed same, was put into operation at the head
of the main siphon. With slight alterations it should prove adequate and much more
satisfactory than the ladder type. It consists of dropping one of the slabs of the ditch
wall to an easy gradient so that the animals can easily climb out despite their exhausted
condition. Quite a few deer were known to escape without injury from this Richmond
escape. It may be possible to alter the design slightly so that the Project's new OC-6
Caterpillar can also get in and out of the canal during off-season repairs.
13. Buttressing of Ditch.—The photographs clearly show this construction, north
of Flume No. 14 in the Testalinda area. Ditch-sides were raised to again conform to
ditch grade, as fill settlement had posed a problem. Raising the bottom to grade and
filling in on the low side of the ditch was a necessary measure but very expensive. As
funds permit, more of this kind of repair in critical locations is indicated.
14. Peanut Lake.—Peanut Lake, which acts as a drainage-basin near Osoyoos, latterly filled up to the point where some orchards were becoming water-logged. A careful
check was made on the outflow, and the drain was found to be carrying its capacity. The
irrigation lateral supplying the area was shut off, and in a few days the level of Peanut
Lake had subsided to a point where the orchards were no longer endangered.
INDIAN RESERVE LANDS OF RITCHIE FARMS LIMITED
An area of approximately 60 acres situated on Inkaneep Indian Reserve, south of
Tuc-el-nuit Lake and west of the main ditch, was fenced and put into tomatoes by Ritchie
Farms Limited.
Water was supplied by the Project by gravity from the main ditch, on the understanding that continuity of supply depended on first satisfying the present users under
the system. However, it was found possible to maintain supply during the whole season.
It is calculated that the four boxes drew a total of 4 cubic feet per second when running
to capacity.
It is interesting to note that the quality of tomatoes grown was excellent, and the
volume would have been satisfactory except for an early freeze-up. Payroll, transportation, etc., helped the economy of the Oliver area, and encouragement of prime industry
as above noted is clearly pointed up.
DOMESTIC WATER SYSTEM
At no time during the year was it necessary to restrict water use, despite the hot
weather prevailing.
Certain changes were made at the pump-house. A new discharge manifold was
designed and put into operation. Briefly the main 10-inch line was extended, thus allowing an unrestricted discharge system from the pumps.
An entirely new electrical set-up was installed. It would appear that voltage delivery
to motor terminals is now such that overheating of the motor windings is eliminated.
Metering of the consumption is through one instead of two meters. This installation
now meets the requirements of the Inspector of Electrical Energy.
New Sump
Water for the Oliver domestic system is obtained from the Okanagan River. However, due to work of the Okanagan Flood-control, water going into the system was found
to contain foreign material.   It was necessary, therefore, to rectify this matter.   Accord- X 154 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ingly a dragline was employed to dig a sump. Fortunately water-bearing gravel was
struck at about 10 feet, and two sump pumps of a combined capacity of 1,000 gallons
per minute were employed to unwater this sump hole. A perforated pipe 10 inches in
diameter and 100 feet in length was buried in the clean coarse gravel. The well on test
gave completely clear water of sufficient quantity for the needs of the village.
CULVERT AT MILL
A drainage-culvert 30 inches in diameter was put in place where it crosses the mill
domestic water-supply line. This was a particularly difficult job, but the new backhoe
accomplished the digging, which was in gumbo. A leak was discovered in the supply-
line, and apparently water has been going to waste over a long period. The plugging
of this leak should have a beneficial effect on the volume of water available for the village.
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH SURVEY
J. Buchanan and party of three assistants worked all summer on the Project providing control points for the Multiplex Section, which was perhaps the most important
development in 1955. Rough copies of the topographical maps are presently available
and are proving very useful to the Project. In addition, Mr. Buchanan's survey will
include recommendations on the following subjects: (a) Evaluation of the adequacy
of the present system; (b) adequacy of the present maintenance methods; and (c) the
feasibility of supplying water to other lands in the area not presently being supplied with
water.
This report should prove very valuable to the Project management and to the
Government.
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROIECT No. 2
This is a closed system and gave little operating trouble during the season under
review. Lack of pressure on the upper level section of the Project calls for study, and
a booster pump may have to be installed. One length of wood-stave pipe which had not
been pressure-creosoted was replaced.
The Project supplies seventeen growers, all of whom use sprinklers for irrigation.
It has been noted, however, that the water, which is pumped from the Okanagan River,
carries a heavy load of silt, and this has caused sprinkler-heads to wear out faster than
should normally occur. The silt also has an abrasive effect on the pump runner, casing,
and wearing sleeves. It is expected that clearer water will be obtained when Okanagan
River control work is completed.
Typhoon Primer at No. 8
This large pump (150 horse-power), on Southern Okanagan Lands Project No. 2
on the east side of the river, was hard to prime, and being of such a large capacity, loss of
prime was a serious matter. However, one of four old Typhoon pumps which have been
in storage for years has now proven useful as a priming agent for this pump. Eventually,
all of these old Typhoon pumps will be put to use in similar situations.
WATER TOLL COLLECTIONS
Under the provisions of an amendment to the " Soldiers' Land Act" passed during
1955, water charges which are in arrear will be placed on taxation rolls and shall be
subject to all the like incidents as are ordinary taxes. In general, this legislation will have
the endorsation of residents in the area and will be of considerable assistance to the
management of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project in the matter of collections. SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROIECT
X 155
NEW EQUIPMENT
In 1955 the Project purchased an OC-6 tractor, 42-inch tread, equipped with dozer
blade, Henry backhoe, Henry bucket loader, and power rotary broom. This equipment
is designed to do general light bulldozing, such as in road-building, filling ditches, and
levelling. The backhoe is invaluable for trenching, laying culverts and pipes, and deep
excavating. The backhoe loading-bucket is used for loading gravel and soil. The power-
broom will be used for cleaning the inside of the main ditch.
WEATHER
Precipitation by the month was as follows: lanuary, 0.79 inch; February, 0.44
inch; March, 0.65 inch; April, 0.95 inch; May, 0.82 inch; lune, 1.23 inches; luly,
0.95 inch; August, nil; September, 0.78 inch; October, 0.93 inch; November, 1.45
inches. Thus the total for the year is 8.99 inches. Figures for December were not available at time of submitting this report. Average rainfall for the past twenty-seven years
is 9.79 inches. It is seen, therefore, that the present year is more or less average. It
should be noted that August was without precipitation. It would appear that November
produced another record, as minimum temperatures were the lowest since 1925, namely:
Average maximum, 33.4, and average minimum, 23.2.
The following table gives the high, low, and mean temperatures for the years 1941
to date:—
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
1948	
1949	
1950	
1951	
1952	
1953	
1954	
1955 -	
High
Low
Mean
111
3
52.5
108
3
50.7
103
2
50.4
105
4
49.0
104
10
50.0
103
-8
48.0
104
-8
49.0
98
-8
47.0
102
-12
46.0
101
— 18
48.4
100
— 8
47.0
102
-10
49.6
101
16
51.3
97
— 10
47.0
103
-1
1 To November only.
November snowfall should be mentioned, as a record was established, namely, 13.3
inches. The last period of heavy snowfall in November occurred in 1927, namely, 7.5
inches.
Snowfall in the mountains (1954 winter and 1955 spring) was, on most ranges, well
below average. This fact may account for the present low level of the valley lakes and
the extremely small discharge from Lake Okanagan.
The first snowfall for 1955-56, November 19th to 28th, combined to make this a
record for the month of November since 1925. This indicates a good snow cover this
winter, which will fill lakes, reservoirs, and restore the ground-water level to normal.  UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS  UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS X 159
University Campus Expands to Meet Present and Future Needs
University of British Columbia campus,  1955—994.04 acres.
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson, Manager
We have again reached another milestone along the way, which means an annual
report of events and accomplishments of our activities for the past year along with our
forecasts for the coming year. A reasonable prognosis of the past year's endeavours
would indicate that, in spite of the growing pressures for further expansion and development, a definite policy is being carefully planned to prevent recurrence of mistakes made
in earlier years of our development.  This will be covered more fully later in the report.
LOT SALES
Although we were in the position of not having any property for sale for the second
successive year, the number of inquiries and requests for property remained encouragingly
heavy, which should indicate a need for early servicing of additional property to meet
these demands.
BUILDING
Naturally there was very little in the way of new buildings during the past year, since
the building-sites were not available. We had quite a fair amount of improvements and
additions to existing homes, such as swimming-pools, garages, outdoor living areas, etc.
SEWERS
The major sewer programme which was started in 1953 with the commencement of
our trunk sewer on Marine Drive, which was followed in order by the extension of the
Acadia relief sewer and the discontinuance of the Acadia outfall at Spanish Banks, at the X 160
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
same time constructing storm and sanitary sewers to the areas not previously served, was
finished in 1955. The completion of this work brought all our presently developed land
up to the high standard one would expect to find in such a choice residential district.
WATERWORKS
Once again our recently completed water-mains proved quite a boon during the dry
spell last summer, to the extent no major sprinkling restrictions were necessary for the
second year in succession.
TAXATION
Considering the fact we added special-levy taxes to consolidated major sewer charges
on a twenty-year amortized payment plus normal increased cost of services, our mill rate
did reach the mill rate on comparable property in adjoining districts of the Lower Mainland. Should we find such a condition can be maintained, there should be no doubt as
to the continued desirability this land will hold for the potential purchaser.
GENERAL
During the early months of the year careful study and thought was given regarding
the establishment of a progressive over-all development programme, with the result Dr.
D. B. Turner was appointed co-ordinator of a master-plan survey. With the assistance
of a small staff, Dr. Turner is presently gathering data with which to prepare a report
early in the new year with the hope a long-term development and detailed planning programme will result. At this time it is too early to forecast when or what the results will
be, but one thing is certain—we are well on the way to formulating policies and planning
that will permit orderly development in the near future and at the same time ensure a
maximum endowment for the University.
During the year it was decided to grant additional land to the University for campus,
and after careful consideration an additional 438 acres were deeded to the University,
bringing the total campus area to just under 1,000 acres. This was rather an important
event for the University, since it now permits them to proceed with their master plan of
campus development, which is extremely important in light of the current arrangement
by the Government to advance several million dollars for new buildings, and such a
programme can only be properly planned by knowing exactly what the total campus area
is to be comprised of and its location.
Considering what has happened during this current year, there is no doubt the coming
year should prove of extreme interest and importance. UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
STATISTICAL
Table A.—Lot Sales
X 161
1953
1954
1955
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
Unit 1 	
2
1
$5,940.00
8,820.00
1
Unit 2	
$10,541.25
Totals	
3
$14,760.00
1
$10,541.25
—
Table B.—Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the Years
Ended December 31st, 1953, 1954, and 1955
1953
1954
1955
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
13
1
3
1
18
1
7
11
1
8
$368,565.00
187,500.00
1
3
2
10
7
$54,654.00
116,000.00
$263,000.00
Swimming-pools 	
7,700.00
Fraternities 	
40,000.00
4,750.00
50,000.00
16,475.00
28,100.00
19,857.00
4,450.00
91,990.00
Garages, etc 	
6,450.00
36
$374,225.00
28
$608,472.00
23
$276,794.00 X 162
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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OV LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD  LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
X 165
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
Clara Stephenson, Secretary
The Land Settlement Board was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of
the " Land Settlement and Development Act," superseding the Agricultural Credit Commission. It was empowered to advance money by way of loans secured by mortgage, to
purchase, develop, and colonize lands considered suitable for settlement, and to declare
settlement areas, having for its main purpose the promotion of increased agricultural
production.
Settlement areas were established in Central British Columbia—namely, in the
Bulkley Valley, Nechako Valley, Francois Lake district, and the Upper Fraser River
valley—where land had been taken up as speculation by non-resident owners, which was
retarding the settlement and development of these districts. Establishing settlement
areas throughout these districts on those unoccupied alienated lands helped to relieve
this situation and to bring the land within reach of the actual settler at reasonable prices.
Development areas were established at Merville on Vancouver Island, Lister, Fernie,
and Kelowna. The development area at Kelowna is under lease to a tenant for a term
of years.
The Board has under its jurisdiction the administration of the former Doukhobor
lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the " Doukhobor
Lands Acquisition Act " of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on
a rental basis.   They are reserved from sale at the present time.
The Board holds approximately 7,000 acres scattered through the various parts of
the Province, representing properties on which it held mortgages and to which it obtained
title through tax-sale proceedings.   Several of these properties were sold this year.
The Board's balance-sheets appear in the Public Accounts of the Province, as in
the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's activities and collections for
1955:—
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $8,748.25. Fifty purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and two borrowers paid up in full
and received release of mortgage.
Collections
Loans 	
Land sales
$3,285.93
40.056.26
Dyking loan refunds, etc.       9,993.19
Foreclosed properties and areas—stumpage, rentals, etc.      8,604.46
$61,939.84
lands.
The above figures include proceeds received from the sale and rental of Doukhobor X 166 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REPORT BY I. SPIELMANS, INSPECTOR
As in previous years, the collection of rentals from occupants of Land Settlement
Board lands has constituted the main part of my duties. In addition to rentals submitted
direct to Victoria, the total collections through this office for the year ended December
31st, 1955, amounted to $6,414.11.
The amounts collected by localities are tabled hereunder:—
Crescent Valley  $55.00
Perry Siding  75.00
Slocan Park  100.00
Brilliant  725.00
Pass Creek  80.35
Winlaw  125.00
Kammina.     90.00
Ootishenia  502.65
Shoreacres  243.90
Glade   150.00
Krestova  60.00
Clay Brick  105.00
Perepelkins  50.00
Raspberry  910.00
Brilliant Co-operative  90.00
:                Grand Forks  3,052.21
Total   $6,414.11
As authorized, I have co-operated with the Commissioner, His Honour Judge Lord,
and his staff in matters pertaining to investigations in relation to these lands. PERSONNEL OFFICE  PERSONNEL OFFICE
X 169
PERSONNEL OFFICE
J. H. Palmer
SERVICES
During the year 1955 the functions that were carried out by the Personnel Office
included the following: Employment office for staff recruitment, selection, placement,
handling inquiries, correspondence and documents regarding employment; providing
information regarding location or service of present or former employees; administrative
procedures in connection with leave, retirement, establishment control, efficiency reports,
salary and classifications; maintenance of personnel records; liaison between the Lands
Service and the Civil Service Commission in staff matters; and in distributing advice
regarding personnel policies and information about changes in regulations. In addition
to the induction interview with each new employee, the Personnel Assistant conducted
numerous counselling sessions with various employees. The Personnel Assistant attended
meetings in the Civil Service Commission on various topics of concern to the Department
and acted in an advisory capacity for the Department's representatives on the Professional
Salary Board.
The Personnel Assistant was appointed to the Civil Service staff survey team for the
Lands Service to make a check of the organization and efficiency of the Lands Service.
This team was under the chairmanship of Miss J. M. Campbell, Personnel Officer, Civil
Service Commission, and R. Torrance, the Assistant to the Deputy Minister of Lands,
was the other member. All Civil Service establishments within the Lands Service were
visited and studied over the course of five months, and a lengthy report ensued containing
recommendations, many of which have been implemented and some of which are awaiting
ministerial review. The greatest co-operation from the employees of the Department at
all levels was received.
ORGANIZATION
Two positions were added to the permanent staff of the Lands Service during the
fiscal year beginning April 1st, 1955, the total permanent establishment now being 326.
The only major organizational change occurred in the Water Rights Branch, which
was divided into two divisions—one concerned with hydraulic investigations and the other
with water-rights administration. The appointment of a Deputy Comptroller, who is also
the Chief of the Operations Division, fills a long-standing need for a split in the administrative functions within the Water Rights Branch.
The appointment of an Assistant Director of Surveys and Mapping confirms what
had been a de facto organization for some time.
RECRUITMENT, CLASSIFICATION, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The year just concluded was particularly active so far as staff changes are concerned.
Forty-eight members left the service during the year, and fifteen more were transferred to
other departments for various reasons. Of the separations, three were terminations, two
retirements, and one death.
Forty-two new employees were inducted into the permanent staff of the Department,
and nine internal transfers occurred. Twenty-five in-service promotions were effected as
a result of Civil Service competitions for vacancies, and twenty-eight position reclassifications were implemented. Twenty-five persons were hired on a casual basis for varying
lengths of time under temporary assistance, and approximately eighty young men were
hired principally by the Surveys and Mapping Branch and the Water Rights Branch for
the summer season on field surveys.
In addition to the permanent and summer staff referred to above, seventy-five persons
were employed by the University Endowment Lands, the Southern Okanagan Lands X 170 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Project, and the Fraser River Board, which are non-Civil Service establishments.
A minor reorganization of the outside staff of the University Endowment Lands was
effected, and personnel actions in these units were limited in number.
Protracted negotiations were carried on between the Department and the British
Columbia University Area Fire Fighters, Local No. 901, International Association of Fire
Fighters (A.F.L.), resulting in increased salaries being granted. Wages for outside
workers on the University Endowment Lands staff were also reviewed.
In all of the foregoing activities the Personnel Office participated in a staff capacity
and in the administrative functions related to the functions outlined.   MAIL AND FILE ROOM
X 173
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
John A. Grant
During May of 1955 the Civil Service survey teams recommended that most of the
mail of the Forest Service and a large proportion of the Lands Service mail be no longer
numbered by the File Room. This recommendation was put into immediate effect.
However, as the number of letters recorded by the numbering-machines would be only
about 30 per cent of the total mail, it was decided to make an actual count each day.
This explains the apparently tremendous increase during 1955 of letters received—
179,546, as compared to 87,913 letters in 1954.
Early in the year a committee was appointed by Mr. Bassett, Deputy Minister of
Lands, under the chairmanship of Mr. Torrance, to study methods to modernize the
filing system and status records of the Department.
As a result of the deliberations of this committee, it was decided to separate the
" 0 " file series in active and non-active categories with a view to microfilming and
destroying all non-active files. The work has already commenced, and to date 112,000
" 0 " files have been processed. Estimates would indicate that 60 per cent of valuable
vault space will be saved when the job is completed.
It will be of interest to know that the Microfilming Bureau has in the past few years
microfilmed 473,000 files exclusive of the " 0 " series. When the " 0 " series has been
completed, the estimated total will be 623,000 files.
The combined collections of all branches of the Department amounted to
$30,797,000.
Letters Inward
Branch
1955
1954
10-year Average,
1946-55
43,250
94,652
23,976
17,668
24,266
35,264
13,223
15,160
32,073
61,518
11,555
11,568
Surveys and Mapping Branch  	
Totals                ~       -   	
179,546
87,913
116,714
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch
1955
1954
10-year Average,
1946-55
9,144
3,000
984
8,847
8,183
1,793
23
21,242
13,145
5,227
4,270
Totals                                                          	
13,128
18,846
43,884
Miscellaneous Reports Received
Designation
1955
1954
10-year Average,
1946-55
Forest-fire reports —
Slash-disposal reports -	
Logging-inspection reports..
Land-classification reports-
Totals	
Cruise reports-
2,772
420
15,360
2,264
Stumpage-adjustment notices-
Totals. __ 	
20,816
4,214
4,200
8,414
1,538
458
14,148
2,196
18,340
2,915
11,300
14,215
1,997
817
14,719
2,043
19,576 X 174
department of lands and forests
New Files Created
Designation
1955
1954
10-year Average,
1946-55
4,128
1,860
4,344
3,991
1,456
3,700
5,228
1,645
3,200
Totals
10,332
9,147
10,073
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956
1,360-156-8713  

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