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Mental Health Services PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 31ST… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1956

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 DEPARTMENT OF PROVINCIAL SECRETARY
Mental Health Services
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDED MARCH 3 1st
1955
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majest>
1955  To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor oj the Province oj British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Director
of Provincial Mental Health Services for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
W. D. BLACK,
Provincial Secretary.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
December 16th, 1955.  The Honourable W. D. Black,
Provincial Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Provincial Mental
Health Services for the twelve months ended March 31st, 1955, being the Eighty-third
Annual Report.
Of particular significance during the year under review has been the following:—
(a) The gratifying changes in the community attitude toward mental illness
and mental institutions, and the organization of a volunteer programme
developed with the help of the British Columbia Division of the Canadian
Mental Health Association, as a result of which teams of visitors make
regular visits to patients in the hospital. Amongst the volunteers are
members of several nationalities, thus enabling our patients of foreign
extraction to converse in their own language with visitors. Similarly, the
British Columbia Society for Handicapped Children is being of great assistance in developing community interest in the welfare of physically and
mentally handicapped children, both within and without The Woodlands
School.
(b) The accelerated treatment programme directed toward the more-prolonged
treatment areas of the Mental Hospital, which is being reflected in the
increasing number of patients being discharged from these wards.
(c) As will be noted in the statistical tables included in the report of the
Director of Mental Health Services, the increase by eighty-eight in the
patient population is the lowest in the last ten-year period, although it
must be borne in mind that a considerable waiting-list for applicants to
The Woodlands School and to the Homes for the Aged is accruing. However, this very satisfactory result does reflect the influences of the early
active treatment programme of the Crease Clinic, for which such high
hopes were created when the Clinic was first opened in 1951, and of the
increased treatment programme being carried out in the Mental Hospital
itself.
I cannot commend to you too highly the high devotion to duty and to the welfare of
our patients on the part of the staff of the Provincial Mental Health Services in all its
branches under the able administration and leadership of Dr. A. M. Gee, the Director of
Mental Health Services. The members of the staff carry out their duties efficiently and
with the utmost understanding and patience.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
R. A. PENNINGTON,
Deputy Provincial Secretary.
Deputy Provincial Secretary's Office,
December 14th, 1955.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Officers and Staff, List of  13
PART I.—HEADQUARTERS
Report—Director of Mental Health Services  17
Table Showing Movement of Population in Individual Institutions of Mental Health
Services  34
Report—Business Manager  35
Financial Tables—
Table A.—Average Number in Residence, Maintenance, and per Capita Cost
Individual Institutions for Past Ten Years  38
Table B.—Summary of Gross and Net per Capita Cost of Patients in All Mental
Health Services Institutions  39
Table C.—Expense Statement, The Woodlands School, New Westminster  40
Table D.—Expense Statement, Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale  40
Table E.—Expense Statement, Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz  41
Table F.—Expense Statement, Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam  41
Table G.—Expense Statement, Home for the Aged, Vernon  42
Table H.—Expense Statement, Home for the Aged, Terrace  42
Table I.—Expense Statement, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine, Essondale  43
Expenditures under Federal Health Grants  44
Report—Personnel Officer  45
PART II.—CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Report of Crease Clinic—Dr. A. E. Davidson  48
Report of Mental Hospital—Dr. T. G. Caunt  50
Report of Treatment Services—Dr. F. E. McNair  54
Report of Occupational Therapy, Women's Division—Mrs. K. Feltham  60
Report of Occupational Therapy, Men's Division—R. Herring  64
Report of Recreational Therapy—R. L. Ramsay  67
Report of Audio-Visual Department—G. H. Walker  70
Report of Library—Miss H. M. Walsh  72
Report of Department of Physical Medicine—Dr. F. E. McNair  73
Report of Dental Department—Dr. H. O. lohnsen  74
Report of Optician—H. H. Woodbridge  75
Report of Beauty-parlour—Mrs. M. Townsend  75
Report of Department of Dietetics—Miss C. Neighbor  76
Report of Department of Neurology—Dr. W. P. Fister  77
Report of Laboratory—Dr. H. E. Wilson  78
Report of Department of Radiology—Dr. J. M. Jackson  82
Report of Department of Psychology—Miss A. J. Elart  83
Report of Social Service Department—Miss A. K. Carroll  86
Report of Chaplain—J. F. O'Neil  97
Report of Department of Nursing, Women's Division—Miss E. M. Pullan  99
Report of Department of Nursing, Men's Division—R. H. Strong  101
Report of Department of Nursing Education—Miss O. J. Smith  102
Report of Rehabilitation Service, Women's Division—Dr. F. E. McNair  103
Report of Rehabilitation Service, Men's Division—J. D. Addison  104
7 M 8 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Statistical Tables— page
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine—
Table No. 1.—Movement of Population    106
Table No. 2.—Summary of Operations since Inception  106
Table No. 3.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of
Residence and Sex  107
Table No. 4.—First Admissions and Readmissions by Method of Admission, Age-group, and Sex  108
Table No. 5.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex 109
Table No. 6.—Readmissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex .... 112
Table No. 7.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Marital Status, and
Sex  114
Table No. 8.—Readmissions by Mental Diagnosis, Marital Status, and Sex 115
Table No. 9.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Years of Schooling,
and Sex  115
Table No. 10.—Readmissions by Mental Diagnosis, Years of Schooling,
and Sex  115
Table No. 11.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  115
Table No. 12.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  115
Table No. 13.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  115
Table No. 14.—Live Discharges by Condition on Discharge, Disposition
to, and Sex  116
Table No. 15.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge, and Sex  116
Table No. 16.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex 117
Table No. 17.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Length of Stay, and
Sex  120
Table No. 18.—Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  121
Table No. 19.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  121
Provincial Mental Hospital—
Table No. 1.—Movement of Population  122
Table No. 2.-—Summary of Operations since Inception  123
Table No. 3.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of
Residence and Sex  125
Table No. 4.—First Admissions and Readmissions by Method of Admission, Age-group, and Sex  126
Table No. 5.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex 127
Table No. 6.—Readmissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex... 129
Table No. 7.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Marital Status, and
Sex  131
Table No. 8.—Readmissions by Mental Diagnosis, Marital Status, and Sex 132
Table No. 9.—First Admissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis,
and Sex  132
Table No. 10.—Readmissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis,
and Sex  132
Table No. 11.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  132
Table No. 12.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  132
Table No. 13.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  132
Table No. 14.—Live Discharges by Condition on Discharge, Disposition
to, and Sex  133
Table No. 15.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge, and Sex  133 TABLE OF CONTENTS M 9
Statistical Tables—Continued Page
Provincial Mental Hospital—Continued
Table No. 16.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex 134
Table No. 17.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Length of Stay, and
Sex  136
Table No. 18.—Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  137
Table No. 19.—Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Length of Stay, and Sex  138
Table No. 20.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  139
Table No. 21.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Length of Stay, and Sex  140
PART III.—THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
Report of Medical Superintendent—Dr. C. E. Benwell  141
Report of Educational Department—Mrs. H. M. Davy  144
Report of Occupational Therapy, Girls' Division—Miss F. M. Robertson  145
Report of Occupational Therapy, Boys' Division—H. Mercer  147
Report of Recreational Therapy—J. A. Lynes  148
Report of Dental Department—Dr. S. J. Gallagher  149
Report of Department of Dietetics—Miss J. Ing  150
Report of Laboratory—Dr. H. E. Wilson  150
Report of Department of Radiology—Dr. J. M. Jackson  152
Report of Beauty-parlour—Mrs. J. DeCoene  153
Report of Department of Nursing, Women's Division—Miss V. M. Sanders  153
Report of Department of Nursing, Men's Division—J. N. Elliot  154
Report of Department of Nursing Education—Miss E. M. Pullan  154
Report of Department of Physiotherapy—Mrs. J. M. Granberg  155
Report of Department of Psychology—Dr. T. T. Coulter  155
Report of Social Service Department—Miss A. K. Carroll  156
Statistical Tables—
Table No. 1.—Movement of Population      162
Table No. 2.—Summary of Operations since Inception  162
Table No. 3.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of Residence and Sex  162
Table No. 4.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and Sex  163
Table No. 5.-—First Admissions by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and
Sex  163
Table No. 6.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  163
Table No. 7.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  163
Table No. 8.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  163
Table No. 9.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge,
and Sex  163
Table No. 10.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group,
and Sex  164
Table No. 11.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Length of
Stay, and Sex  165
Table No. 12.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  166
Table No. 13.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Length of Stay, and Sex  167
PART IV.—PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME, COLQUITZ
Report of Medical Superintendent—Dr. L. G. C. d'Easum  168
Report of Occupational Therapy Department—H. Helander  169
Report of Recreational Therapy Department—J. Lowndes  170 M  10 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Page
Report of Dental Department—Dr. W. G. Dempsey  171
Report of Department of Nursing Services—P. T. McLeod   171
Report of Training School—J. Lowndes  172
Statistical Tables-
Table No. 1.—Movement of Population  173
Table No. 2.—Transfers by Health Unit and School District of Residence  173
Table No. 3.—Transfers by Mental Diagnosis and Age-group  173
Table No. 4.—Transfers by Mental Diagnosis and Marital Status  174
Table No. 5.—Transfers by Years of Schooling and Mental Diagnosis  174
Table No. 6.—Transfers by Citizenship and Age-group  174
Table No. 7.—Transfers by Religion  174
Table No. 8.—Transfers by Previous Occupation  174
Table No. 9.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis and Condition on Discharge  174
Table No. 10.—Live Discharges from and Deaths Occurring by Mental Diagnosis and Age-group  174
Table No. 11.—Live Discharges from and Deaths Occurring by Mental Diagnosis and Length of Stay  175
Table No. 12.—Deaths by Cause of Death and Age-group  175
PART V.—GERIATRIC DIVISION
Report of Medical Superintendent—Dr. B. F. Bryson  176
Statistical Tables—
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam—
Table No. 1.—Movement of Population    184
Table No. 2.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of
Residence and Sex  184
Table No. 3.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and
Sex  185
Table No. 4.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Marital Status,
and Sex  185
Table No. 5.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Years of Schooling, and Sex  185
Table No. 6.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  185
Table No. 7.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  185
Table No. 8.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  185
Table No. 9.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge, and Sex  186
Table No. 10.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-
group, and Sex  186
Table No. 11.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Length
of Stay, and Sex  187
Table No. 12.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  188
Table No. 13.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Length of Stay, and Sex  189
Home for the Aged, Vernon—
Table No. 1.—Movement of Population  190
Table No. 2.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of
Residence and Sex  190
Table No. 3.—First Admissions by Age-group, Method of Admission,
and Sex  190 TABLE OF CONTENTS
M  11
Page
Statistical Tables—Continued
Home for the Aged, Vernon—Continued
Table No. 4.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Age-group, and
Sex ,  191
Table No. 5.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Marital Status,
and Sex  191
Table No. 6.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis, Years of Schooling, and Sex  191
Table No. 7.—First Admissions by Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex  191
Table No. 8.—First Admissions by Religion and Sex  191
Table No. 9.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation and Sex  191
Table No. 10.—Live Discharges by Condition on Discharge, Disposition
to, and Sex  192
Table No. 11.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge, and Sex 1  192
Table No. 12.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Age-
group, and Sex  192
Table No. 13.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis, Length
of Stay, and Sex  193
Table No. 14.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Age-group, and Sex  193
Table No. 15.—Deaths by Cause of Death, Length of Stay, and Sex  194
Home for the Aged, Terrace—
Table No. 1.—Movement of Population  195
Table No. 2.—First Admissions by Health Unit and School District of
Residence  195
Table No. 3.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis and Age-group  195
Table No. 4.—First Admissions by Mental Diagnosis and Marital Status___ 196
Table No. 5.—First  Admissions  by  Mental  Diagnosis  and  Years  of
Schooling  196
Table No. 6.—First Admissions by Citizenship and Age-group  196
Table No. 7.—First Admissions by Religion  196
Table No. 8.—First Admissions by Previous Occupation  196
Table No. 9.—Live Discharges by Mental Diagnosis and Condition on
Discharge  196
Table No. 10.—Live  Discharges  and Deaths  by  Mental Diagnosis  and
Age-group  197
Table No. 11.—Live Discharges and Deaths by Mental Diagnosis and
Length of Stay  197
Table No. 12.—Deaths by Cause of Death and Age-group  197
Table No. 13.—Deaths by Cause of Death and Length of Stay  198
PART VI.—CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS
Report of Director—Dr. U. P. Byrne  199
Report of Social Service Department—R. W. MacDonald  206
Report of Psychology Department—Miss M. Munro  209
PART VII.—COLONY FARM
Report of Business Manager—F. A. Matheson	
212  OFFICERS AND STAFF
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
Department of the Provincial Secretary
Hon. W. D. Black, Provincial Secretary.
R. A. Pennington, O.B.E., F.C.I.S., Deputy Provincial Secretary.
HEADQUARTERS STAFF
A. M. Gee, M.D., CM., F.A.P.A., Director of Mental Health Services.
A. E. Davidson, B.A., M.D., F.A.P.A., Deputy Director of Mental Health Services.
F. A. Matheson, Business Manager.
C. B. Watson, M.A., Administrative Assistant.
J. Dowling, Administrative Assistant (Personnel).
Miss A. K. Carroll, B.A., M.S.W., Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work.
Miss E. M. Pullan, R.N., B.A.Sc, Director of Nursing.
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL AND CREASE CLINIC OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE, ESSONDALE
T. G. Caunt, M.D., F.A.P.A., F.A.G.S., Medical Superintendent.
F. E. McNair, B.A., M.D., CM., Clinical Director.
J. M. Jackson, M.D., Director of Radiology.
G. A. NlCOLSON, B.A., M.D., Director of Laboratories.
W. P. Fister, M.D., M.R.C.P.{Edin.), F.R.C.P.(C), Director of Neurology.
W. E. Powles, B.A., M.D., CM., Assistant Clinical Director.
N. L. Richardson, M.D., CM., Assistant Clinical Director.
G. H. Stephenson, M.D., Assistant Clinical Director.
J. Walsh, M.B., B.Ch., D.P.M., Assistant Clinical Director.
R. Halliday, M.B., B.Ch., D.P.M., Assistant Clinical Director.
C. E. Derkson, M.D., CM.
I. S. Kenning, B.Sc, M.D., CM.
T. Dobreva, M.D.
F. G. Tucker, M.B., B.S.
M. O. Calverley, B.Sc, M.D.
L. T. Jordan, B.A., M.D., CM.
A. M. Creamer, M.B., B.Ch., D.P.M., D.P.H.
0. Karabanow, M.D.
F. H. G. Mills, M.D.
J. E. Miles, B.A., M.D., CM.
H. L. Sussman, M.B., Ch.B.
R. R. McLeod, B.A., M.D.
1. TlSCHLER, M.D.
A. M. Beach, B.A., M.D., CM.
W. Lazorko, M.D.
H. O. Johnsen, D.D.S.
G. D. Campbell, D.D.S.
Miss A. J. Elart, B.A., Psychologist.
R. L. Ramsey, B.Sc, Director of Recreation.
K. Woolcock, Pharmacist.
G. H. Walker, Audio-Visual Department.
W. Creber, Chief Male Psychiatric Nurse.
Miss O. J. Smith, B.A., R.N., Instructor of
Nursing.
Miss C L. Neighbor, B.Sc. (H.Ec), Chief Dietician.
Mrs. K. Feltham, B.A., O.T.Reg., Supervisor,
Occupational Therapy (Women's Division).
R. Herring, Supervisor, Occupational Therapy
(Men's Division).
J. D. Addison, Rehabilitation Officer (Men's
Division).
Miss H. Walsh, B.A., B.L.Sc, Librarian.
Miss A. D. Dingle, Senior Stenographer.
Consultant Staff:
F. A. Turnbull, B.A., M.D., F.R.CS.(Can.), Neurosurgery.
James W. Wilson, M.D., CM., F.R.CS.(Can.), M.S.(Minn.), General Surgery.
George T. Wilson, B.A., M.D., CM., F.R.CS.(Can.), General Surgery.
R. E. Outerbridge, M.D., F.R.CS.(C), F.A.C.S., Orthopcedic Surgery.
Business:
J. G. Anderson, Assistant Business Manager. W. Gueho, Cashier.
G A. Grieve, Cost Accountant. R. Boulter, Steward.
Miss A. Mikita, Business Stenographer.
Rev. John F. O'Neil, Protestant.
Chaplains:
Rev. Father J. P. Kane, Roman Catholic.
Colony Farm:
W. B. Richardson, B.Sc(Agriculture), Superintendent.
13 M  14
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER
C. E. Benwell, M.B., Medical Superintendent.
A. Gallinger, M.D., CM.
M. C. Ellis, B.Sc, M.D., CM.
B. Tischler, M.D.
S. J. Gallagher, B.Sc, D.D.S.
Mrs. T. Coulter, B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Psychological Clinic Assistant.
Miss V. M. Sanders, R.N., Superintendent of
Nurses.
Miss J. Ing, B.Sc. (H.Ec), Dietician.
Miss M. C. Hardy, Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work.
Mrs. H. M. Davy, School Principal.
H. Mercer, Industrial Arts Instructor.
J. Lynes, Recreational Instructor.
Miss F. Robertson, Occupational Therapist.
J. Elliot, Chief Male Psychiatric Nurse.
R. Nash, Instructor, Male Psychiatric Nursing.
Mrs. J. Cliffe, Clerk-Stenographer.
Business:
W. O. Booth, Deputy Business Manager.
Rev. P. C. McCrae, Protestant.
Chaplains:
Rev. Father D. J. McIntosh, Roman Catholic.
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME, COLQUITZ
L. G. C. d'Easum, M.B., Medical Superintendent.
H. C. Yardley, Deputy Business Manager. P. T. McLeod, Chief Male Psychiatric Nurse.
GERIATRIC DIVISION
B. F. Bryson, B.A..
L. W. Fox, Supervisor, Vernon.
M.D., CM., Medical Superintendent
W. E. Skillicorn, Supervisor, Terrace.
CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS
U. P. Byrne, M.D., D.P.H., D.I.H., F.A.P.H.A., F.A.P.A., Director.
Miss M. Munro, B.A., M.A., Supervisor, Psy- D. B. Ricketts, B.A., A.M., Supervisor, Social
chology. Work.
Mrs. M. Harvey, B.A.Sc, R.N., Supervisor, Public Health Nursing.
Vancouver and Travelling Clinics:
G. M. Kirkpatrick, B.A., M.D., Psychiatrist.
F. E. Broughton, B.A., M.D., Psychiatrist.
Mrs. O. McRae, B.A., D.C.S., Psychologist.
Mrs. D. Reeves, B.A., Psychologist.
Miss M. Hopkins, B.A., Psychologist.
Miss R. Stokes, B.A., M.A., Psychologist.
Mrs. S. LePage, B.A., Psychologist.
Miss A. Cameron, B.A., Psychologist.
H. J. Heilbron, B.A., Psychologist.
Miss S. Carmichael, R.N., C.P.H., Nurse.
Mrs. A. Artman, R.N., C.P.H., Nurse.
Miss E. Mackenzie, L.C.S.T.(Eng.), Speech
Therapist.
Miss J. Maza, Senior Stenographer.
R. W. Macdonald, B.A. B.S.W., Acting Supervisor.
Mrs. E. Chave, B.A., M.S.W., Casework Supervisor-
Miss K. Daly, B.A., B.S.W., Casework Supervisor.
Miss B. Sanderson, B.A., B.S.W., Social
Worker.
G. W. Pepper, B.A., M.S.W., Casework Supervisor.
M. Sutherland, B.A., M.S.W., Acting Casework Supervisor.
Mrs. V. Ellis, B.A., M.S.W., Social Worker.
S. E. Kerslake, B.A., B.S.W., Social Worker.
W. J. Camozzi, B.A., B.S.W., Social Worker.
Mrs. D. Beck, B.A., M.S.W., Social Worker.
Mrs. P. Coyle, B.A., B.S.W., Social Worker.
Mrs. M. Christensen, B.A., M.S.W., Social
Worker.
Mrs. J. Lee, B.A., B.S.W., Social Worker.
Mrs. E. Webster, B.A., B.S.W., Social Worker.
V. Hromadka, M.P.Sc.Soc, M.S.W., Social
Worker.
Vancouver Island Clinics:
W. L. Valens.
Miss F. Macdonald, B.A., M.A., Psychologist.
P. Laeser, B.A., Psychologist.
Mrs. M. Duncan, R.N., C.P.H.
Mrs. A. Allen, B.A
M.D., CM., Director.
Mrs. A. Newton-White, B.A., M.S.W., Casework Supervisor.
J. Allman, B.A., B.S.W., Social Worker.
M.S.W., Social Worker. School of Psychiatric Nursing graduation exercises, May 13th, 1954,  REPORT OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
For the Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1955
PART I.—HEADQUARTERS
REPORT OF DIRECTOR OF MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES
R. A. Pennington, Esq., O.B.E., F.C.I.S.,
Deputy Provincial Secretary,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—In compliance with the "Mental Hospitals Act," the Eighty-third Annual
Report of the British Columbia Mental Health Services is submitted herewith.
INTRODUCTION
Mental illness still remains the greatest single problem in the national health picture
to-day. More than half of the nation's hospital beds are devoted to the care of the mentally ill. However, there is every hope that this picture may be changed during the next
decade if governments are prepared to make the necessary expenditures to advance preventive programmes, active treatment, and research. The present upsurge of public
interest in matters pertaining to mental health indicates that the public are prepared to
bear the necessary expense to deal adequately with the problem. We are all encouraged
by the statement of Dr. lonas Salk, who recently developed the polio vaccine, that science
should now turn its attention toward mental illness as the next major health problem of
preventive medicine.
During the coming year some 18,000 Canadians will be admitted for the first time
to Canada's seventy-seven mental institutions and 9,000 additional citizens will seek
readmission. In our own Province 2,000 persons will be admitted for the first time and
1,000 will be admitted as readmissions. The degree to which the public's attitude has
changed toward mental illness and mental institutions in recent years is exemplified in the
fact that over 40 per cent of our admissions and readmissions will be made voluntarily.
A large number of these individuals will be young. A large number will be admitted
in their declining years. A great many will be of superior intelligence, and another large
number will be of limited intellectual capacity. Over 50 per cent of these 3,000 prospective patients will be suffering from mental illness of an acute nature. Their illness will
be amenable to treatment, and 94 per cent of this group will be back in their homes within
a four-month period. Two-thirds of the total group of 3,000 will be back in the community some time during the first year following their admission. The remaining third,
for the most part, will be constituted by a group of mental defectives, mostly children,
who will require years of education and training, together with another large group whose
mental symptoms are dependent upon cerebral degenerative changes associated with their
advanced years. This remaining third accounts for the increase in the resident population
of our mental hospitals. This annual increase in resident population averages over the
past ten years 1,393 patients for all Canadian mental hospitals. This increase is the result,
not so much from an increase in the incidence of mental illness, but rather from the
growth of the whole population and the larger number and proportion of older people.
This last factor is of great significance in our own Province, where 11 per cent of the
population is over 65 years of age, against a national average of 7.75 per cent.
17 M  18 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Great changes are now taking place in the community attitude toward mental illness
and mental institutions. As a result of this moderation in public attitude, great improvements have resulted in the internal management of the mental hospital. Hospital wards
which were previously double locked, on the inside to keep the public out and on the
outside to keep the patient in, are now shedding some of their locked doors. Mental hospitals are now becoming respectable places in which to visit your friends and relatives,
even respectable enough to consider admitting yourself as a patient if the need should
arise. Increasingly we are moving toward a community-centred type of psychiatry in
which it is realized that the community in which the patient lives has a responsibility, that
any resident may at any time require hospitalization during a phase of his illness, and that
when hospitalization is no longer required he has a right to return to the community with
his former status as a resident. Communities are now asking that psychiatric facilities and
services be provided in their locality, where formerly overtures in this direction would
have met with rejection.
Keeping pace with these improved community attitudes, even greater changes are
occurring within the hospital. An atmosphere of greater freedom has been developed
with the increase in the number of " open wards " in which locked doors have been
removed. Two additional large wards in the Mental Hospital have been classified as
" open wards " during recent months. Five such wards are now functioning in the Mental
Hospital and two in the Crease Clinic, serving a total of 537 patients. In addition, several
hundreds of other patients have been granted freedom privileges within the grounds. It
will be noted that the Annual Sports Day event was attended by 1,500 patients in the
open playing-fields.
I would like to speak favourably of our accelerated treatment programme which is
being continued in the more prolonged treatment areas of the Mental Hospital. I would
refer you to the increasing numbers of patients that are being discharged from these wards.
These present-day changes in psychiatry are being reflected architecturally in our
building programme. No longer will you be confronted in our new structures with a
multiplicity of small panes of glass surrounded by steel sash. Our new buildings will
present a more pleasing exterior, from which all obvious signs of restraint have been
removed. The buildings will be planned around small functional nursing units adapted to
treatment purposes rather than for the domiciliary care of large groups of patients.
These changes in what might be summarized as environmental therapy are probably
the greatest single advance in our therapeutic programme. Great strides have also been
made in more specific instances. General paresis, which formerly constituted 10 to 12
per cent of our admissions, has now been practically eliminated from the field of psychiatry and is now an aspect of preventive medicine dealing with the prevention and early
treatment of syphilis. Agitated depressions of middle life together with other depressive
reactions respond dramatically to appropriate treatment. Schizophrenia is no longer the
completely hopeless condition that it was in former years. Over 50 per cent of these
patients can be assisted back to the community after a relatively short period of active
treatment. Epilepsy, which formerly contributed a large number of long-stay patients,
has been brought under control to the point that the majority of this group can continue
to live relatively normal lives while under continued medical supervision.
A glance at our statistical tables will show that each year there is a widening of the
horizons of psychiatry. More and more patients are being given service for shorter
periods of time. But fewer and fewer patients, other than the mentally defective and
elderly groups, are being retained for lengthy periods of time. An active-treatment programme of this nature is costly, particularly during the present transition stages, where
we are still dealing with large numbers of our former treatment failures in greatly overcrowded buildings. The most serious bottleneck in the provision of proper treatment for
the mentally ill is the shortage of trained personnel. This situation is gradually improving,
with the exception of trained psychiatric nurses, in so far as availability is concerned, but HEADQUARTERS M  19
governments must be prepared to provide salary levels that will attract and hold well-
trained people.
The furtherance of a community-oriented type of treatment programme requires the
development of a number of bridges to span the gap between the community and the
hospital. Chief among these is a well-integrated social service department giving assistance to the patient and the family during both the hospitalization phase of treatment and
the post-discharge period. Closely allied to this service and equally important is the
rehabilitation period. This may involve the securing of employment and job placement
suitable to the individual's needs. It may involve trial visits by the patient in his home
surroundings. It may involve the placement of mentally retarded children in foster-home
care or the placement of the partially disabled mental patient in boarding-home care.
Another more recently developed bridge between the hospital and the community is
our volunteer service. This group of citizens is recruited, trained, and sponsored by the
British Columbia Division of the Canadian Mental Health Association.
Our active-treatment programme will move a step closer to the community with the
coming development of the Mental Health Centre for adults, which is now under construction in the Burnaby area. Here an active-treatment programme will be carried out
which will allow the patient to remain in his home setting. Earlier discharges from the
Crease Clinic and Mental Hospital may be anticipated with follow-up periodic supervision
and treatment on a day-care basis.
Coincident with the development of the day-hospital care, new and expanded services of the Child Guidance Clinic will be possible. The Child Guidance Clinic will move
into its new quarters as soon as construction is completed.
These changes in attitudes and services will, we hope, lead to a closer integration of
psychiatry with all other health and welfare activities within the community.
STATISTICAL COMMENTS
The statistics contained in this Report have been compiled by the Division of Vital
Statistics, Health Branch, Department of Health and Welfare. We are particularly indebted to members of the Division who have produced the very fine charts and graphs
appearing in this Report.
Table I indicates that we were able to conclude the year with a net increase of eighty-
eight patients in all institutions. This total may be further reduced by disregarding the
additional twenty-five patients who happened to be in the Crease Clinic at the conclusion
of the year. By Statute all patients are discharged from the Clinic at the conclusion of a
four-month treatment period. Any population increase at any one time merely reflects
the normal fluctuation that occurs.
The population of the Mental Hospital was increased by forty-three patients, almost
equally divided between men and women. Provision for these additional patients was
made by further overcrowding.
The population of the branch mental hospital at Colquitz was static.
The Woodlands School has been operating at full capacity throughout the year and
concluded the period with an additional nineteen patients. This does not in any way
indicate the demand for admission to the School. For some years it has been necessary
to establish a waiting-list of applicants and admit only as space becomes available. At the
end of the fiscal year 202 applications for admission were on file.
No change was recorded in the total population of the three branches of the Home
for the Aged. This does not indicate the demand for services in this particular division.
Here again it has been necessary to establish a waiting-list of applicants who are admitted
as space becomes available. At the conclusion of the year, 110 applications for admission
were on file.
The fact that the year was concluded with the smallest increase in population occurring over the past decade (see Table II) is attributable to several factors:— M 20 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
(1) The influence of the early active-treatment programme of the Crease Clinic.
(2) The influence of the increased treatment programme being carried out in
the Mental Hospital.
(3) No increased accommodation was provided during the year. It was therefore necessary to limit in some degree the admissions to The Woodlands
School and the Homes for the Aged.
Table I.—Showing Patients in Residence in the Various Institutions of the Provincial
Mental Health Services, April 1st, 1954, and March 31st, 1955, together with
Increase or Decrease.
Institution
In Residence, Apr
1, 1954
In Residence, Mar,
31, 1955
Increase (+)
Men
Women
Total
Men
Women
Total
Decrease (—)
110
1,832
287
692
136
109
298
132
1,649
497
372
129
242
3,481
287
1,189
508
238
298
121
1,852
288
706
139
99
285
146
1,672
502
396
125
267
3,524
288
1,208
535
224
285
+25
+43
+ 1
+ 19
+27
14
Mental Hospital, Essondale  -	
Mental Hospital, Colquitz __	
The Woodlands School
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam 	
Home for the Aged, Terrace 	
-13
Totals  	
3,464
2,779
6,243
3,490
2,841
6,331
+88
Table II.—Showing in Summary the Admissions and Population Increase oj the Provincial
Mental Health Services jor the Ten-year Period April 1st, 1945, to March 31st, 1955
Year
Total
Admissions
Admissions
65 Years
and Over
Admissions
under
15 Years
Voluntary
Admissions
Population
Increase
Index of
Increase1
1945-46   	
1946-47  	
1947-48  	
1948-49    .. .   .                	
834
880
1,111
1,260
1,415
1,811
2,175
2,518
2,437
2,492
206
207
225
270
230
262
306
357
347
348
49
52
69
63
72
148
97
179
169
71
33
40
91
165
297
504
637
768
834
884
147
140
316
354
306
235
285
290
215
88
17.62
15.91
28.44
28.09
1949-50   	
21.62
1950-51	
12.98
1951-52  _   -
1952 53    _.—	
13.05
11.54
1953-54     	
8.82
1954-55 	
3.53
Totals 	
16,933
2,758
969
4,253
2,376
1 Percentage ratio of increase in population to admissions.
On the whole, admission rates to Provincial Mental Health Services in British
Columbia from 1921 to 1946 remained relatively constant. Graph A, which depicts
the number of admissions per 100,000 population, shows an increasing rate from
1926-27 to 1939-40, at which time it began to decline until 1946-47, reaching a rate
which was not significantly higher than that for 1925-26. In the immediate post-war
years, the admission rates increased rapidly and were,later accelerated, in 1950, with
the opening of the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine. The first three years of
operation for Crease Clinic increased the admission rate for the Mental Health Service
from 106.4 per 100,000 population to 213.0, a twofold increase. This, of course, was
the result of introducing a short-term hospital into the Services.
As far as admissions are concerned, the introduction of Crease Clinic into Mental
Health Services has released the pressure considerably on the long-term mental hospitals
in the Services. It may be noted on the graph that the admission rates to these hospitals
have been declining since 1950-51. It is premature to state the ultimate effect of the
treatment received at Crease Clinic on the mental-health status of people of British
Columbia, but the indications given by the declining admission rates for the long-term
institutions is favourable toward a much-improved status. HEADQUARTERS
M 21
The number of admissions to Mental Health Services are mainly governed by the
available beds and the number of separations; separations consist of live discharges
and deaths. Graph A shows that the admission rates increased with the introduction
of the Home for the Aged at Port Coquitlam into Mental Health Services in 1935, and
again in 1950 with the introduction of Crease Clinic. Graph B, depicting separation
rates per 1,000 patients under treatment for the Provincial Mental Health Services,
plainly displays that a change in the trend of separations affects the admission rates.
In 1945-46 the separation rate, which had been gradually declining since 1921-22,
began to increase. It was in the following year that the admission rate commenced its
rapid climb. Likewise in 1951-52 the upward trend ended, and it was in the following
year that the admission rate began to decline. A close study of the two graphs will
reveal other examples.
Graph A.—Admission Rates, Provincial Mental Health Services, British Columbia,
1921-54 (Fiscal Years)
(Rate per 100,000 population.)
———    Mental Hea
th Services
.— ^™     Mental Health Services
cxcludin
; Crease Clinic
/ A
l'\
/       \
/             \
\
\
1    1    1    I
1        1        1         1
III!
1          1          1          1
1          1          1          1
1     1     1     1
1     1
Admissions to mental institutions are of two general types, which are:—
(1) First admissions—people being admitted to mental institutions for the
first time.
(2) Readmissions—people who have been admitted to a mental institution
previously, then discharged and readmitted at a later date. It is customary to base the readmission rates on the general population in order to
determine their incidence. Consequently, for areas where the number
of live discharges is proportionately high in relation to the population,
then the readmission rate will be high. Such a readmission rate creates
a false impression of the effect of treatment within a given area or of a M 22
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
specific mental-health service, because it is thought that patients are
discharged only to be readmitted at a later date.    Therefore, in order
to get a truer measure of the effect of treatment, the readmissions must
be shown in relation to the number of live discharges.
Patients who are being readmitted to mental institutions will have spent varying
lengths of time in the community before returning to the institution.    For this reason,
it would be more meaningful to relate the number of readmissions to the number of live
discharges for a period previous to the year under study.   That is to say, for the given
Graph B.—Separation Rates, Provincial Mental Health Services, British Columbia,
1921-54 (Fiscal Years)
(Rate per 1,000 patients under treatment.)
Rate
300
/ /
/ /
/ /
/ /
/-J '
/       /
\
v     /N
/'\
y^Total
y     i
i
i
/
/       \
 /
Live Discharges
/
,**\
_        .'" V
/
\
Deaths
-***               *>
— —-.S
*•-_».. *~~~
	
0
i     i     i     i
1     I.I     1
1              1              1             1
I             1             1             1
1    1    1    1
i     i     i     i
i
year of 1954 use the number of live discharges in the four previous years—1953, 1952,
1951, and 1950. This will give a representative group which will cover the majority
of readmissions. Graph C shows the rate of readmissions per 1,000 live discharges,
occurring in the previous four-year period, for Canada (excluding British Columbia),
British Columbia Provincial Mental Health Services, and other mental institutions in
British Columbia for the years 1945 to 1954.
There are two points of interest displayed on this graph. First, you may note that
the readmission rates for the Provincial Mental Health Services compared favourably
with the rates for Canada exclusive of British Columbia, and, second, that the rates
for other mental institutions in British Columbia were comparatively high for six out
of the ten years shown. In only two out of the ten years shown, 1949 and 1950, did
the Provincial Mental Health Services have a higher rate than the remainder of Canada.
From this it is apparent that the standard of treatment received at the Provincial Mental
Health Services has been of good quality as far as recurring illnesses. On the other
hand, the other mental institutions in British Columbia, which are all short-term hospitals, have been experiencing a high readmission rate, more especially for the year 1954.
The rate in this year was 179 per cent higher than it was for Canada exclusive of British
Columbia.   However, this higher rate was expected, as these hospitals, in the main, are
J HEADQUARTERS
M 23
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s
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-k_
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CD
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Pi M 24
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
treatment centres for mental conditions quite different than the mental conditions of the
patients admitted to the Provincial Mental Health Services.
Readmission Rates to Mental Institutions, Canada and British Columbia, 1945 to 1954
(Rate per 1,000 live discharges in previous four years.)
Canada (Excluding British
Columbia)
British Columbia Provincial
Mental Health Services
Other Mental Institutions
Year
Readmissions
Live Discharges in
Previous
Four
Years
Rate
Readmissions
Live Discharges in
Previous
Four
Years
Rate
Readmissions
Live Discharges in
Previous
Four
Years
Rate
1945	
2,510
2,715
2,911
3,109
3,354
3,737
3,967
5,077
5,751
6,553
25,289
27,508
28,769
30,278
31,180
32,541
34,723
37,590
42,868
48,064
99.3
98.7
101.2
102.7
107.6
114.8
114.2
135.1
134.2
136.3
133
174
173
210
318
399
286
2,015
2,015
2,102
2,215
2,624
3,113
3.787
66.0
86.4
82.3
94.8
121.2
128.2
75.5
93.6
136
255
251
270
248
363
338
376
722
806
934
1,214
1,516
2,260
2,898
3,410
3,908
3,703
168.7
1946	
1947...	
273.0
206.8
1948..	
1949	
178.1
109.7
1950. 	
125.3
1951	
99.1
1952 	
448     1       4.787
96.2
1953	
732
776
5.751     I      127.3
195.0
1954	
6,945
111.7
1,395
3,668
380.3
Source: Health and Welfare Section, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa.
Final stages of construction of new Mental Health Centre and Child Guidance Clinic, Burnaby.
BUILDING PROGRAMME
I am pleased to report that our building programme is progressing rapidly.
The North Lawn Building was let to contract on May 5th, 1953, and completed
on February 7th, 1955. This building will be officially opened on May 4th, following
which it will be occupied. The building will house 230 patients and will be devoted to
the care and treatment of those patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis.    In HEADQUARTERS M 25
addition, the bottom floor will be reserved as small treatment units for the early isolation of patients suffering from other infectious diseases.
Tenders were called for the construction of a new large unit at The Woodlands
School in October, 1954, and the contract was let to Dawson & Hall Company at a
cost of $1,529,758.00. Excavation was started on December 20th, 1954. The construction is progressing according to schedule. This unit will house in excess of 300
patients, and has been specially designed for the treatment of infants and young children
in the mentally defective group, together with those who are sick and infirm. The
Woodlands School is at the present time operating to full capacity in overcrowded conditions. It has been necessary to admit on a selective basis as space becomes available.
By the time the building is ready for occupancy, the accumulated waiting-list of prospective patients will exceed the capacity of the building. With the opening of the new
unit a better distribution and more suitable segregation of patients will be possible.
Tenders were called for a post-office and tuck-shop building at Essondale. In
addition, this building will provide a coffee-shop, Credit Union office, and a centre for
the use of the volunteers. It will also provide shelter for people while waiting for bus
service.
Tenders were called for the construction of the new Child Guidance Clinic and
Mental Health Centre in Burnaby on June 19th, 1954. Construction was started on
August 18th, 1954. This unit is specially designed to provide adequate space for the
Child Guidance Clinics presently operating in very restricted temporary quarters in
Vancouver and at the same time to provide space to initiate a new service on a day-
hospital basis.
Preliminary plans are under way with reference to the planning of a new hospital-
site on Vancouver Island. Several prospective locations have been examined, but no
definite site has as yet been selected.
Plans are under way for the construction of a 300-bed unit addition to the Port
Coquitlam Home for the Aged. These plans are well advanced, and it is hoped that
this construction will go to tender early in the new fiscal year.
The Public Works Department has had a very busy year in carrying out many
major changes and alterations as well as maintaining the present plant. Details of the
work may be found in the report of the Business Manager.
GENERAL COMMENTS
The twenty-third graduation ceremony of the School of Psychiatric Nursing was
held in the auditorium of the New Westminster Junior High School on May 13th. The
exercises were very colourful, and a capacity audience was in attendance. Mr. R. A.
Pennington acted in the capacity of chairman, and Mrs. G. S. Selman, the vice-president
of the British Columbia Division of the Canadian Mental Health Association, addressed
the graduating class. The activities of graduation week were expanded this year to
include a church service on the Sunday preceding graduation. There was also a graduation tea, which was held in the Nurses' Home.
The annual observance of Mental Health Week was held from May 2nd to May
8th. Complete arrangements for the week were in the hands of the Canadian Mental
Health Association, British Columbia Division. It was felt that the whole week was
a success, and that much was accomplished in the way of general education. Members
of our staff participated in many of the events. Dr. F. E. McNair opened the week
with a radio interview. Five regional mental-health forums were held in Vancouver
school auditoriums and proved to be very popular. Open house was held at the Crease
Clinic on Friday, May 7th. The Clinic was open to the public during the afternoon
and evening. All departments were open for inspection, and many fine exhibits were
demonstrated. M 26 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
The Seventh Annual Sports Day was held at Essondale on Friday, August 27th.
We were fortunate in having fine weather for the occasion. As usual, the Vancouver
Firemen's Band provided music on the lawns. One thousand five hundred patients participated in the activities. Hot-dogs, cold drinks, ice-cream, and cookies were served
from a large booth erected under the trees. The day's festivities were concluded with
a dance in the evening.
The arrangements established with the medical faculty of the University of British
Columbia have continued through the present academic year. The entire graduating
class has spent approximately two weeks in residence for practical experience. The
students attend in small groups of six or eight. Honorary appointments to the Faculty
of Medicine have been given to our senior staff members who are engaged in the teaching programme.
We were able during the year to make a start in introducing television to some of
our wards. Funds for the installation of sets have been allocated from the Patients'
Comfort Fund. It is hoped that as funds are available we will be able to install sets
on all wards. Our experience to date is very favourable. This added feature has been
very well received and greatly appreciated by the patients. Priority is being given to
those wards where the patient-groups are not able to participate in other recreational
and diversional activities.
I am pleased to record the establishment of a personnel department during the
current year. A representative from the Civil Service Commission and a representative
from the Provincial Secretary's Department have been appointed. It is hoped that the
development of this new function will improve our general over-all organization.
It is anticipated that the North Lawn Building will be ready for occupancy early
in the next fiscal year. This building will provide, for the first time, adequate isolation
and treatment of those patients suffering from tuberculosis and other infectious diseases.
It is with a great deal of satisfaction that I report the organization of a volunteer
programme involving the Crease Clinic, the Mental Hospital, and the Port Coquitlam
branch of the Home for the Aged. The group has been developed under the £egis of
the British Columbia Division of the Canadian Mental Health Association. Applicants
are carefully screened and receive a course of six lectures before being attached to the
visiting groups. The Volunteer Service Committee is headed by Mrs. Rex Eaton, and
the chairman of volunteers is Mrs. R. B. Kerr. The programme is closely supervised
under the direction of Dr. F. E. McNair. Mr. Blair Wood, from the psychiatric nursing
staff, is acting as staff co-ordinator of volunteers. Actual visiting was commenced on
July 2nd, 1954. The group now has fifty active members, derived from Vancouver,
Burnaby, and New Westminster. The main group is well organized and is divided into
teams, each team being headed by a captain. A team visits on Tuesdays, Wednesdays,
Thursdays, and Fridays. These visits are for a full day. In addition, one team visits
Friday evening. The response which the citizens have made has greatly exceeded both
the expectations of the association and our own. The volunteers are scattered throughout the Crease Clinic, in both men's and women's wards and the three Lawn Buildings.
Coverage is also given to Pennington Hall, where one member spends time in assisting
in the bowling-alleys and one assists in the Audio-Visual Department. The most recent
development has been the placing of volunteers in the Home for the Aged at Port
Coquitlam, where they visit, write letters for patients, and generally assist in more personal ways. The volunteers have been able to secure members of a good many different
nationalities, thus providing visitors to those of foreign extraction. Great credit goes
to the British Columbia Division of the Canadian Mental Health Association in developing and organizing this new aspect of our treatment programme. It is felt that the
organization of a volunteer service serves a wide purpose, meeting a great variety of
needs. It assists the hospital directly in the matter of personal service, but, more important, it brings personal contact and assistance to the patient in a closer relationship than HEADQUARTERS M 27
can be accomplished by staff and patient relationships. It does much to increase the
public's understanding of mental illness and the particular needs surrounding the treatment of the mentally ill. It brings great satisfaction to the individual volunteer who is
giving service in a very personal way.
There has been a remarkable increase in community interest with reference to The
Woodlands School. Many groups of patient pupils have been invited out by various
organizations and individuals to be entertained in their homes or in public halls. In
addition, a great many gifts have been received. The British Columbia Society for
Handicapped Children has been of great assistance in developing community interest
with reference to the physically and mentally handicapped child.
Several successful meetings have been held throughout the year in connection with
the development of the Association for Retarded Children of British Columbia. These
meetings have been chaired by Dr. Donald Paterson of the Crippled Children's Registry.
Twenty-six representatives from the different organizations in the Province dealing with
mentally retarded children have been brought together with an advisory panel. The
Provincial Departments of Health and Welfare, Mental Health, and Education have been
represented, as well as the Vancouver School Board and the Vancouver Departments of
Health and Mental Hygiene. As a result of these meetings, a British Columbia association has been organized and registered. The development of this community activity for
the retarded child is worthy of every support.
Several meetings have been held with a select committee of the Vancouver School
Board for the purpose of developing an in-service course for selected school counsellors.
This training experience will be designed to acquaint the teacher-counsellors with the
mental hygiene implications for child development of community and family living, and
of the educational process. The various Provincial University and Vancouver Mental
Health facilities will take part in the training programme. It is hoped that the Federal
Mental Health Grants will assist financially.
Although we have no formally organized public relations programme, we welcome
every opportunity to interpret the function and scope of the Mental Health Services to the
public. This year we were asked to prepare a display to be permanently housed in the
British Columbia Building at the Pacific National Exhibition in Vancouver. The display
takes as its theme the fact that mental illness is an illness, and as such is amenable to
treatment. By means of photographs, charts, and brief statements the viewer is shown
the various units of the Mental Health Services and informed of the special function of
each. Emphasis is placed upon the mental hospital as a therapeutic community, and the
display attempts to show how the various needs of the hospital resident are met by several
departments of the institution. This display was seen by large numbers during the exhibition and continues to be on view, as the British Columbia Building is open the year
round. Thus many school-children have the opportunity of learning something of the
Mental Health Services, and this, we feel, should be helpful in recruitment of staff.
We also prepared a display which was placed in the rotunda of the Parliament Buildings during the spring session of the Legislature. This display proved very popular and
on request was moved to one of the department stores in Victoria for an additional two
weeks. The display depicted the use of occupational and industrial therapy in the treatment of the mentally ill. It was generously illustrated with examples of work done by the
patients in the occupational- and industrial-therapy shops.
Both displays were greatly enhanced by the excellent photographs prepared in our
own Audio-Visual Department.
Strenuous efforts are being continued to increase the intensity of the treatment programme in the admitting and particularly the continued-treatment wards of the Mental
Hospital. There is no doubt that if an adequate treatment programme could be carried
out in these areas, there would be considerable improvement in our discharge rate.
The statistical tables show the beneficial results of the increased treatment programme. M 28
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Mental Health Services display, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, February, 1955.
During the year we were able to establish a small post-lobotomy ward as a retraining
centre for male patients following psychosurgery. In addition, we were able to improve
the nursing care in the West Lawn Building by establishing proper nursing stations on
each ward. A small coma insulin ward was established for both men and women in the
Centre Lawn Building. A new schoolroom was constructed in the East Lawn Building.
These added facilities will do much to enhance our treatment in these buildings.
Arrangements are under way to initiate a full-scale treatment programme for our
tubercular patients. This will become effective with the opening of the North Lawn
Building. A specialist in the diseases of the chest has been seconded to our staff from
the Division of Tuberculosis Control.
There continues to be a good deal of interest shown in the work of the Crease Clinic.
During the year the Clinic has been host to many organizations.
The Honourable the Provincial Secretary visited various branches of the service on
numerous occasions. We were pleased also to be visited by the Honourable the Minister
of Health and Welfare.   Several members of the Legislature have visited on occasion.
During the year we have had visitors from all parts of the world, including Mr.
Nathaniel Dreskin, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa; Dr. H. R. Ohri,
Punjab, India; Dr. C. A. Roberts, Principal Medical Officer, Division of Mental Health,
Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa; Dr. I. L. Clancey, Clinical Director,
Saskatchewan Hospital, Weyburn, Sask.; Dr. MacMillan, Medical Superintendent, Mental
Defective Colony, Walsale, Kent, England; Dr. Phon Sang Sing Keo, Director of Mental
Health, Thailand; Dr. Syuzo Naka, Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Imperial University, Kyushu, Japan; Dr. Reva Gerstein, National
Director of Program Planning, Canadian Mental Health Association, Toronto, Ont.; Dr.
J. D. N. Griffin, Medical Director, Canadian Mental Health Association, Toronto, Ont.;
Miss Alison Player, Melbourne, Australia; Dr. R. O. Jones, Professor of Psychiatry,
Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S.; Mrs. L. C. Smith, Executive Consultant, Canadian
Association of Occupational Therapy, Toronto, Ont. HEADQUARTERS M 29
MENTAL HEALTH GRANT
The Government of Canada for the seventh year made a Mental Health Grant available to this Province. The grant is administered by the Department of National Health
and Welfare, and, as in previous years, a happy and cordial relationship has prevailed in
our associations with the officials of the Federal Department. The organization for the
administration of the grant is now well established. The use of the grant in 1954-55
follows closely the pattern developed in the past few years.
In 1954-55 the total expenditure was $552,359.14, an increase of $82,625.64 over
the 1953-54 total.
The following paragraphs make reference to the major areas of expenditure this year.
Professional Training
Bursaries for postgraduate training of key members of the psychiatric treatment team
were given a number of staff members, as follows:—
Dr. C. E. Derkson completed one year of postgraduate study in psychiatry at McGill
University in August, 1954.
Dr. A. P. (Gould) Hughes completed one year of postgraduate study in psychiatry
at the University of Toronto in August, 1954.
Mr. M. Sutherland completed a year of postgraduate study in social work at the
University of British Columbia, May lst, 1954.
Miss Ryllys Cutler completed a one-year course of study in administration in schools
of nursing at McGill University, June, 1954.
Mr. J. W. Borthwick continued his three-year course of study in clinical psychology
at the University of Washington.
Dr. F. E. McNair, Clinical Director, attended the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in
Group Development at Friday Harbor, Wash., August, 1954.
Dr. A. E. Davidson, Mr. F. A. Matheson, and Mr. C. B. Watson attended the Sixth
Annual Mental Hospitals Institute of the American Psychiatric Association held at Minneapolis in October.
Dr. Ian Kenning commenced a one-year postgraduate course in psychiatry at McGill
University in September, 1954.
Dr. G. A. Nicolson commenced a one-year postgraduate course in pathology at the
University of Toronto in July, 1954.
Mrs. G. Ripley commenced a one-year course in supervision in psychiatric nursing
at the University of British Columbia in September, 1954.
Mr. D. Ricketts commenced a one-year postgraduate course at the New York School
of Social Work in September, 1954.
Eight bursaries were granted to enable social workers to enroll in the M.S.W. course
at the University of British Columbia for the academic year 1954-55.
Equipment and Supplies
The complete X-ray equipment for the new North Lawn Building was approved for
purchase from Mental Health Grant funds. The purchase of a mobile X-ray unit for The
Woodlands School was also authorized. The establishment of a fully equipped radiological darkroom in conjunction with the Crease Clinic operating theatre was made possible
by equipment purchased with Mental Health Grant moneys.
Several major items of clinical laboratory equipment have been secured this year
with Mental Health Grant funds. A chromatocab and a chromatography drying-oven
have been installed in the Crease Clinic laboratory. This equipment has made possible
the introduction of paper chromatography, a new analytical technique now used in several
routine chemical analytical procedures and for research projects. M 30 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Serological water baths (de Khotinsky) were provided for the laboratories of the
Provincial Mental Hospital and The Woodlands School. This latter unit was also provided with a clinical electrophotometer.
A major attachment for the flame spectrophotometer provided for the Crease Clinic
laboratory in 1948-49 was authorized this year.
The facilities of the Crease Clinic operating-room have been again increased by
instruments and equipment authorized for purchase with Mental Health Grant funds. Of
special importance in this connection is the provision of a full range of instruments for
the use of the consultant orthopaedic surgeon. Two specially constructed stainless-steel
instrument-cabinets were provided for the storage of the instruments, and a special
operating-room table for orthopaedic surgery was authorized.
A 16-mm. movie projector and screen were authorized for the recreation-room of
the North Lawn Building of the Provincial Mental Hospital. This unit was also equipped
with all the instruments and equipment to set up six minor surgeries and six nurses'
stations. In addition, wheelchairs and several items of equipment for physiotherapy were
made available, together with equipment for the administration of oxygen therapy.
The large steam sterilizer (autoclave) with recording thermometer, smaller instrument sterilizers, and a water-still were provided to permit the establishment of a central
surgical supply room in the Provincial Mental Hospital.
A large utensil sterilizer, bedpan sterilizer, and mobile dressing-carts were authorized
for Ward H2 in the Provincial Mental Hospital to permit an improvement in the quality
of the infirmary care provided there.
The instruments and equipment to set up seven combined ward surgeries and nurses'
stations in the West Lawn Building of the Provincial Mental Hospital were provided. In
addition, an extensive range of power equipment and hand-tools was made available in
order than an occupational-therapy shop could be established in the West Lawn Building
in connection with the reactivation programme.
To increase the range of equipment in the print-shop of the Industrial Therapy
Department, the purchase of a hand-operated printing-press was authorized.
The provision of a special chair for chiropody treatments made it possible to
improve the quality of foot care accorded the patients of the Provincial Mental Hospital.
At The Woodlands School the instruments and equipment to establish a proper
admitting suite were provided. The commencement of a specialized physiotherapy programme for the physically handicapped mentally defective children of The Woodlands
School was made possible by the provision of a full range of specialized equipment for
the new physiotherapy department. To assist in the work of the visiting speech therapist
at this unit, audio recording and transcription equipment was made available. The
teaching of the children in The Woodlands School educational department will be
enhanced by the provision of a large supply of children's books suited to various ages and
mental abilities.
Community Mental-health Programmes
The programme of the Mental Hygiene Division of the Metropolitan Health Committee of Greater Vancouver received support as in former years.
Psychiatric Services in General Hospitals
The psychiatric services of the Vancouver General Hospital continued to receive
assistance. This year support was given to the salaries required for a medical social
worker and a medical stenographer. In addition, a second electroencephalograph was
provided from funds made available by the Laboratory and Radiological Services Grant.
The Royal Jubilee Hospital was provided with a grant to pay the salary of a part-
time occupational therapist employed in the psychiatric ward.
. headquarters m 31
Staff Increases
The stipends for our consultants in general surgery, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic
surgery are provided by the Mental Health Grant. The ready availability of these surgical
specialists has made a very significant improvement in the quality of the surgical care
provided for the mentally ill.
The Rehabilitation Department was again supported by a salary and travel allowance
for the Rehabilitation Officer. The full details of the valuable work of this service will be
found in the report of the Rehabilitation Officer, printed elsewhere in this Annual Report.
Again we have expanded our active-treatment programme, and the success of this
type of treatment is closely allied with the provision of a trained staff of psychiatrists,
psychologists, laboratory technicians, psychiatric nurses, and other specialized groups on
the therapeutic team, some of whose salaries are provided by the Mental Health Grant.
The continued high discharge rates of our active-treatment institutions is evidence to
show that active treatment and " total push " do produce results.
COUNCIL OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSES
The Council met twice this year. The annual meeting was held on April 21st,
1954, and an ordinary meeting was held February 8th, 1955. Both meetings took
place in the medical conference room of the Crease Clinic.
The Council was established in 1951. It is composed of eleven members, two of
whom are ex officio members and nine of whom are appointed for a three-year period.
There was some change in the Council membership, inasmuch as several new persons
were appointed for a three-year term to replace members whose terms had expired.
The present composition of the Council is as follows: Mr. R. A. Pennington,
Deputy Provincial Secretary, designated a member ex officio by the Act; Dr. A. M.
Gee, Director of Mental Health Services, designated Chairman ex officio by the Act;
Dr. L. E. Ranta, Assistant Superintendent (Medical), Vancouver General Hospital,
appointed by the Hospital Council; Dr. B. F. Bryson, Medical Superintendent, Provincial Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam, appointed by the Hospital Council; Mrs.
E. H. Duke, Matron, Hollywood Sanatorium, New Westminster, appointed by the Hospital Council; Miss E. M. Pullan, Director of Nursing Services, Provincial Mental
Health Services, Essondale, appointed by the Hospital Council; Mr. C. B. Watson,
Administrative Assistant, Provincial Mental Health Services, Essondale, appointed by
the Hospital Council; Miss A. V. Romeo, Charge Nurse, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, appointed by the British Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association; Mr. R.
Butcher, Charge Nurse, The Woodlands School, New Westminster, appointed by the
British Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association; Mr. G. W. Kenwood, Instructor,
School of Psychiatric Nursing, Essondale, appointed by the British Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association; and Mr. R. H. Strong, Chief Psychiatric Male Nurse, Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, appointed by the British Columbia Psychiatric
Nurses' Association.
At the annual meeting the representatives of the British Columbia Psychiatric
Nurses' Association requested that their representation on the Council be increased.
This request was favourably received by the Council, and a resolution was passed and
forwarded to the Honourable the Minister recommending that it be given consideration
by the Government.
At the ordinary meeting in February the Deputy Provincial Secretary was able to
inform the Council that the Government had introduced a Bill into the Legislature to
amend the " Psychiatric Nurses Act" by providing an additional member of the Council to be appointed by the British Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association.
At the April meeting the Council accepted a recommendation of the British
Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association to the effect that the certificate in mental M 32
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
nursing of the General Nursing Councils of Scotland meets the requirements for licensing as a psychiatric nurse in British Columbia. The Council requested the British
Columbia Psychiatric Nurses' Association to conduct evaluation studies of the course in
mental nursing prescribed by the General Nursing Council of England and Wales to
determine whether it can be accepted as meeting the requirements for licensing in the
Province.
At the annual meeting the registrar reported that the Council had licensed 936
psychiatric nurses for the calendar year ended December 31st, 1954. This is an
increase of eighty-eight over 1953 and reflects the large graduating classes in our School
of Psychiatric Nursing for the past few years.
STAFF CHANGES
Our most serious staff problem has been the maintenance of a sufficient number of
physicians having specialist qualifications in psychiatry. It is essential that we have an
adequate specialist staff if we are to continue to provide a high level of treatment and
medical supervision. Our resident medical staff has presented no problem. We continue to participate in the postgraduate training programme, and residents are accepted
for twelve-month periods and in some instances twenty-four-month periods. This constant turnover of junior medical staff imposes heavy responsibilities on the senior supervising staff. We have for some years endeavoured to obtain sufficient psychiatrists to
act as assistant clinical directors in small areas but have not as yet been able to achieve
this goal. At the present time we have only fifteen certified specialists in the whole of
the Provincial Mental Health Services. The majority of these are engaged full time in
administrative duties. Only three are engaged full time in the actual treatment of
patients.
I am sorry to report the resignation of Dr. R. D. S. Herrick from the staff of The
Woodlands School. Dr. Herrick was a certified specialist in psychiatry and had many
years of experience. We have not been able to find a replacement with his degree of
training.
Dr. L. E. Sauriol, Medical Superintendent of The Woodlands School, was retired
on superannuation due to ill health on December 31st, 1954. Dr. Sauriol terminated
a period of thirty-four years in the service and will be greatly missed. Dr. C. E. Ben-
well, who for many years has been Deputy Medical Superintendent, was promoted to
the position vacated by Dr. Sauriol. We have as yet been unable to fill the vacancy
thus created. Dr. Sauriol was entertained prior to his leaving by the entire staff of the
School, and a suitable presentation was made to honour the occasion.
Mr. Walter Creber terminated a lifetime's service by superannuation. Mr. Creber
completed thirty-nine years of service. He headed the Male Nursing Division during a
considerable period of time. Mr. and Mrs. Creber were entertained at a farewell tea,
at which they were presented with gifts and tendered the thanks of the staff for Mr.
Creber's long faithful service.
I am sorry to have to report the tragic death by accident of Mr. J. T. Gawthrop,
Deputy Business Manager of the Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz.
The following staff members terminated service by superannuation: Mr. G. R.,
Symons, psychiatric male nurse; Mr. J. F. Moore, Deputy Charge Nurse, The Woodlands School; Mr. R. J. Hunter, driver, Colony Farm; Mr. W. Marshall, stockman,
Colony Farm; Mr. F. E. Pollard, night chief; Mr. T. McFadyen, psychiatric aide; Mr.
J. Hutchinson, building service worker; Mr. W. S. Aspee, psychiatric male nurse; Mr.
S. Wimpenny, cemetery caretaker; Mr. F. Stoker, Deputy Charge Nurse; Mr. F. C.
Hunt, psychiatric male nurse; Mr. H. W. Armitage, driver, Colquitz; Mr. W. G. Noon,
Charge Nurse;  and Mr. G. Gustafson, psychiatric male nurse.
It is with regret that I advise you of the following deaths which occurred among
staff members:   Mr. F. T. Brown, psychiatric male nurse;  Mr. D. M. Waters, psychi- HEADQUARTERS
M 33
atric aide; Mr. S. G. Walker, kitchen helper; Mrs. M. L. Rock, psychiatric aide; Mr.
R. Amos, psychiatric male nurse; Mr. T. E. Rippington, student psychiatric nurse; and
Mr. B. H. Joyce, psychiatric male nurse.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
As our programme increases its ramifications into the community, it becomes more
and more closely integrated with other services and community organizations. Our debt
of gratitude is so widespread that individual acknowledgments are not possible. Our
only hope is that where we have incurred indebtedness we may have rendered some
service. We are greatly appreciative of our growing responsibility, and we will continue, to the best of our ability, to meet the obligations placed upon our service.
I should like to express my gratitude for the fine degree of co-operation that exists
between the officials of this department and other departments of government.
Our relationships with the various departmental heads within the service have been
congenial, and we are indebted to these people for more than the service which they
render. I am appreciative of the fine relationships that exist between departmental
heads and personnel, all of whom ultimately administer to the treatment and welfare of
our patient population, whom we all serve.
May I, through you, Mr. Pennington, express my appreciation to our Minister, the
Honourable Wesley D. Black, who has had the difficult task of interpreting our needs
to the Legislature.
Our continued thanks go to you, Sir, for your continued splendid leadership.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
A. M. Gee, M.D., CM.,
Director oj Mental Health Services. M 34
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
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fcS HEADQUARTERS M 35
BUSINESS MANAGER'S REPORT
A. M. Gee, Esq., M.D., CM.,
Director oj Mental Health Services,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith for your consideration my report on the business
operations together with financial tables and statements covering the various units of the
Mental Health Services for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
As will be seen from Table A, the average number in residence during the year was
6,301.19, an increase of 148.26 over the year 1953-54. Maintenance expenditure
increased from $8,765,016 to $9,221,893, and the daily per capita cost from $3.90 to
$4.01 or 2.74 per cent. The heaviest increase in costs comes under Public Works Department expenditures covering the maintenance of buildings, grounds, and plant.
Dairy produce, meats, fruits, and vegetables to a value in excess of $463,000 were
purchased from Colony Farm during the year.
Aid received under Federal health grants for equipment, personnel, and staff
training, under projects approved by the Federal authorities for the Province of British
Columbia, amounted to $552,359.14. Particulars of this expenditure are given in a
statement included in this report.
During the year The Woodlands School stores department was closed and the staff
transferred to Essondale. The new store at Essondale is now supplying The Woodlands
School with all its requirements. The central butcher-shop in the Essondale store was
opened and is now supplying all the kitchens at Essondale and The Woodlands School
with meat. The Federal Government Meat Inspectors are continuing to make periodic
inspection of our meat deliveries, and their co-operation in this regard is very much
appreciated.
All stationery was transferred from the stenographic staff to the stores department,
and this department is now ordering and issuing all stationery supplies.
New regulations regarding staff uniforms were drawn up this year. The main change
made in this regard was that members of the male nursing staff are now required to turn
in their old uniforms after the second year before a new uniform suit is issued. The old
uniforms, if suitable, are dry cleaned and dyed and then issued to patients. This change
has meant a considerable saving in the purchase of patients' suits.
The Agricultural Prices Support Board is now paying us a subsidy in the amount of
21 cents per pound on our butter purchases. This subsidy means a saving of over $700
per week for all our institutions.
On January 17th, 1955, the Public Works Department and all departments of the
Mental Health Services not requiring extra staff started to work a five-day forty-hour week.
A Civil Service Commission survey team started a survey of all departments of the
Mental Health Services in March, 1955.
An order has been placed for eight more television sets, to be purchased out of the
Patients' Comfort Fund. In addition, a relative of one of our patients donated a television
set for the use of the Colony Farm cottage patients.
A second bus, to be used for the transportation of patients at Essondale, was ordered
and received.
I am pleased to be able again to report that during this fiscal year a large number of
major improvements and additions to our plants and equipment were made. Some of the
main items of interest in this regard are as follows:—
Crease Clinic and Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale
The dayrooms of Wards F 2, East Lawn Building, and Wards E 3 and E 4, Centre
Lawn Building, were completely refurnished.
The old laundry building was converted into Public Works shops and office building. M 36 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Complete new dish-washing facilities were installed in the East Lawn Building.
A new morgue was installed in the East Lawn Building.
A new garbage-room was constructed in the East Lawn kitchen.
A fire-escape causeway was constructed between classrooms in the East Lawn
Building.
The boiler-house was painted inside and out.
Work has started on converting the former store section in the East Lawn Building
to a dispensary.
A new heating and ventilating system was installed in the laboratory, lecture-room,
shower-rooms, and diet kitchen in the Crease Clinic.
A ventilating system was installed in the press area of the laundry.
Additional parking facilities were provided in front of the Centre Lawn Building
and the East Lawn Building.
A new lobotomy ward in the West Lawn Building was completed and furnished.
The contract was let in the amount of $129,381.95 for the installation only of pipe
for the new sewage-disposal system. Work started on this contract in January, 1955.
The Government will furnish the necessary pipe for this project.
A contract was let in the amount of $25,790.50 for excavating a reservoir to provide
an emergency water-supply for Essondale area.
Plans were completed for the installation of two incinerators in the Crease Clinic.
The 230-bed North Lawn Building for care of tubercular patients was completed in
February, 1955. The official opening of this building will be held on May 4th, 1955.
The new car and truck garage was completed.
The East Lawn Building, the West Lawn Building, the Colony Farm cottage, and
the boiler-house were completely rewired.
A new dining-room was installed in the East Lawn Building for Ward H 1 patients.
A new schoolroom was installed in the East Lawn Building for the use of patients.
Plans were completed for the complete renovation of the West Lawn kitchen.
A contract was let in the amount of $61,388 for a new tuck-shop and Credit Union
building.
The Boys' Industrial School was transferred to its new quarters at Brannen Lake,
and the old Boys' Industrial School buildings were turned over to us.
The Woodlands School, New Westminster
The bakery in the administration building was remodelled to provide dayroom
space for ground-privilege patients.
The laundry building was demolished.
The stores building was renovated to provide new facilities for the shoe-shop,
manual arts department, and furniture repair department.
The radio installations in Cedar, Willow, Beach, and Birch Cottages were completed.
A new airing-court was installed between Cedar and Pine Cottages.
A contract in the amount of $1,529,758 for a 300-bed unit was let. The contractor started work on this building in December, 1954.
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz
Both main parking-lots were hard-surfaced.
The dayrooms of Top East Ward, Lower East Ward, and Lower West Ward were
completely refurnished.
Work was started on converting old coal-bunkers into a storage building.
Home for the Aged, Vernon
A new laundry building was completed and put into operation.
The interior of hospital building was redecorated.
A new greenhouse was built. HEADQUARTERS
Home for the Aged, Terrace
M 37
A considerable amount of major repair work was carried out on the understructure
of nearly all the institution buildings.
A pump-house was constructed and a pump installed in the new well. A contract
was let for the construction of a 100,000-gallon water-storage tank.
Property was purchased for a sewage-disposal bed, and contract was let for the
installation of the sewage-disposal system.
Miscellaneous
A contract was let for the new Child Guidance Clinic and Day Hospital to be built
in Burnaby.   Work started on this new building August 18th, 1954.
A new roof was installed on the Child Guidance Clinic Building in Victoria.
The outside of the Vista Building, Vancouver, was painted.
In spite of the increase in Public Works expenditure and the number of major additions and improvements made or under way this year, I regret to advise that the ordinary
maintenance is not keeping pace with our demands. This is particularly true in so far
as painting and decorating is concerned, and a great many of our wards are now very
badly in need of redecorating.
A separate report has been prepared to cover the operation of Colony Farm.
In closing I would like to express my appreciation of the many courtesies shown
and the close co-operation that has been maintained between the various departments of
the Government and the Provincial Mental Health Services at all times.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
F. A. Matheson,
Business Manager. M 38
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
FINANCIAL TABLES
Table A.—Showing the Average Number of Patients in Residence Each Year,
the Total Amounts Spent for Maintenance, and the Gross Yearly and
Daily per Capita Cost, 1945-46 to 1954-55.
Institution
Average
Number in
Residence
Maintenance
Expenditure
Yearly
per Capita
Cost
Daily
per Capita
Cost
1945-46
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale	
610.36
3,163.61
283.67
137.10
$433,041.89
1,769,363.15
210,798.32
114,337.96
$709.49
559.29
743.11
833.87
$1.94
1.53
2.04
2.28
Totals for the year..	
4,194.74
$2,527,541.32
$602.55
$1.65
1946-47
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster
626.29
3,217.03
286.48
202.44
$497,945.37
2,117,563.62
231,894.65
138,802.91
$795.07
658.24
809.46
685.65
$2.18
1.80
2.22
1.88
4,332.24
$2,986,206.55
$689.30
$1.89
1947-48
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale 	
628.00
3,275.41
290.31
326.75
$662,357.80
2,622,349.15
298,773.55
243,861.27
$1,054.70
800.62
1,029.15
746.33
$2.88
2.19
2.81
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam 	
2.04
Totals for the year	
4,520.47
$3,827,341.77
$846.67
$2.31
1948^.9
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale	
631.75
3,394.08
287.76
372.03
119.68
$800,776.92
3,162,819.02
356,110.21
339,606.91
150,706.50
$1,267.55
931.86
1,237.52
912.85
1,259.24
$3.47
2.55
3.39
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam	
Home for the Aged, Vernon _	
2.50
3.45
Totals for the year _	
4,805.30
$4,810,019.56
$1,000.98
$2.74
1949-50
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster
650.83
3,556.78
287.02
380.15
202.57
$891,944.27
3,500,902.41
384,874.24
374,093.25
215,009.96
$1,370.55
984.29
1,340.93
984.07
1,061.41
$3.75
2.70
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz. 	
3.67
2.70
2.91
Totals for the year	
5,077.35
$5,366,824.13
$1,057.01
$2.90
1950-51
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale	
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz 	
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam	
763.81
3,425.98
286.82
384.74
231.42
74.07
192.52
$1,081,062.76
3,419,312.37
388,744.44
437,282.20
244,853.02
139,016.27
525,256.87
$1,415.35
998.05
1,355.36
1,136.56
1,058.05
1,876.82
2,728.32
$3.88
2.73
3.71
3.11
2.90
5.14
Crease Clinic	
7.47
Totals for the year. 	
5,359.36
$6,235,527.93
$1,163.48
$3.19
1951-52
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale	
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz. 	
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam	
799.47
3,485.14
282.68
381.03
216.43
208.97
188.82
$1,284,649.25
4,021,001.69
407,123.16
504,668.17
309,649.05
265,697.50
689,466.11
$1,606.88
1,153.75
1,440.23
1,324.48
1,430.71
1,271.46
3,640.85
$4.39
3.15
3.94
3.62
3.91
3.47
Crease Clinic          	
9.95
Totals for the year 	
5,562.54
$7,482,254.93
$1,345.11
$3.68
1952-53
Provincial Mental Hospital, New Westminster
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale	
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz	
949.24
3,440.34
284.79
442.94
224.18
292.07
230.77
$1,590,703.00
4,441,278.38
433,108.50
617,445.55
384,971.73
325,842.57
759,406.04
$1,675.76
1,290.94
1,520.80
1,393.97
1,717.24
1,115.63
3,290.75
$4.59
3.54
4.17
3.82
4.70
Home for the Aged, Terrace	
3.06
9.02
5,864.33
$8,552,755.77
$1,458.44
$4.00 HEADQUARTERS
M 39
Table A.—Showing the Average Number of Patients in Residence Each Year,
the Total Amounts Spent for Maintenance, and the Gross Yearly and
Daily per Capita Cost, 1945-46 to 1954-55—Continued.
Institution
Average
Number in
Residence
Maintenance
Expenditure
Yearly
per Capita
Cost
Daily
per Capita
Cost
1953-54
1,150.76
3,491.15
285.28
469.13
228.26
293.19
235.16
$1,768,922.31
4,393,682.65
421,622.61
683,511.48
378,006.20
330,968.40
788,302.36
$1,537.18
1,258.52
1,477.93
1,456.98
1,656.03
1,128.85
3,352.20
$4.21
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale	
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz.	
3.45
4.05
3.99
4.54
3.09
9.18
Totals for the year 	
6,152.93
$8,765,016.01
$1,424.53
$3.90
1954-55
1,204.60
3,517.75
285.74
527.33
230.72
296.42
238.63
$1,811,848.81
4,685,444.76
426,786.04
739,859.92
368,726.10
328,553.97
860,673.73
$1,504.11
1,331.94
1,493.62
1,403.03
1,598.15
1,108.41
3,606.73
$4.12
3.65
Provincial Mental Hospital, Colquitz	
4.09
3.84
Home for the Aged, Vernon	
Home for the Aged, Terrace 	
4.38
3.04
9.88
Totals for the year  	
6,301.19
$9,221,893.33
$1,463.52
$4.01
Table B.—Summary Statement Showing the Gross and Net per Capita Cost
of Patients in All Mental Health Services Institutions for the Year
Ended March 31st, 1955.
Gross operating costs—
The Woodlands School, New Westminster  $1,811,848.81
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale  4,685,444.76
Provincial Mental Home, Colquitz  426,786.04
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam  739,859.92
Home for the Aged, Vernon  368,726.10
Home for the Aged, Terrace  328,553.97
Crease Clinic   860,673.73
Gross cost for all institutions
Less collections remitted to Treasury..
$9,221,893.33
1,343,848.02
Net cost for all institutions  $7,878,045.31
Daily average population	
Gross per capita cost, one year.
Gross per capita cost, one day-
Net per capita cost, one year.	
Net per capita cost, one day	
6,301.19
$1,463.52
$4.01
$1,250.25
$3.43
Revenue (Patients' Maintenance Collections) oj the Mental Health
Services for the Past Ten Years
1945-46    $388,312.23               1950-51  $763,884.12
1946-47      388,682.36              1951-52  928,398.83
1947-48      434,098.27              1952-53  1,147,831 65
1948-49      613,710.03              1953-54  1,300,056.89
1949-50      730,442.02              1954-55  1,343,848.02 M 40
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
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M 43
Table I.—Expense Statement of the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine,
Essondale, for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1955
Salaries, Supplies, and Operating Expenses
Net
Vouchered
Expenditure
as per
Public
Accounts
Service and Supplies from
Other Departments
Headquarters
Public
Works
Department
Actual
Cost of
Operations
Yearly
per Capita
Cost
Office, stores, and general-
Medical care	
Nursing and ward supplies	
Dietary 	
Light, water, heat, and power~
Laundry-
Cars and trucking  	
Occupational and recreational therapy-
Miscellaneous 	
Buildings, grounds, and general maintenance-
Totals	
$4,778.83
106,648.05
486,991.34
170,606.04
21,300.00
7,200.00
1,795.00
20,063.47
5,687.32
$3,940.47
160.43
$31,502.78
$8,719.30
106,648.05
486,991.34
170,606.04
21,300.00
7,200.00
1,795.00
20,063.47
5,847.75
31,502.78
$825,070.05       $4,100.90
$31,502.78
$36.54
446.92
2,040.78
714.94
89.26
30.17
7.53
84.08
24.50
132.01
$860,673.73  j    $3,606.73 r
m 44 mental health services report, 1954-55
Expenditures Made under Federal Health Grants for Province of
British Columbia, Year Ended March 31st, 1955
Crease Clinic—
Equipment      $10,566.85
Staff and personnel training     85,884.96
$96,451.81
Mental Hospital, Essondale—
Equipment   $ 147,271.87
Staff and nersonnel trainine        53,926.13
The Woodlands School, New Westminster—
Equipment        $8,640.41
Staff and personnel training       70,952.46
201,198.00
79,592.87
Mental Home, Colquitz—
Equipment   $882.91
Staff and personnel training         8,016.00
         8,898.91
Child Guidance Clinic, Vancouver—
Staff and personnel training         5,089.60
Neurophysiological  Research  Unit  at  University  of  British
Columbia—
Human lobotomy studies     $15,279.61
E.E.G. and psychopathology studies       14,035.75
Capillary nail bed studies          1,186.51
Experimental lobotomy studies       18,087.41
       48,589.28
Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam—
Equipment   $306.20
Staff and personnel training          2,256.00
2,562.20
Home for the Aged, Vernon—Salaries  490.92
Rehabilitation Department          4,712.77
Vancouver General Hospital          5,322.20
City of Vancouver mental-hygiene programme       27,191.02
Jubilee Hospital, Victoria         1,500.00
Consultants in surgery        12,000.00
Survey of factors contributing to narcotic addiction in British Columbia __      22,489.85
Aid to Canadian Mental Health Association         5,000.00
General personnel training—
Short-term postgraduate        $1,604.31
Social service        16,146.81
Psychiatry          7,344.20
Psychology          3,512.03
Training in teaching and supervision in nursing         2,662.36
       31,269.71
Total  $552,359.14 HEADQUARTERS
M 45
REPORT OF THE PERSONNEL OFFICER
A. M. Gee, Esq., M.D., CM.,
Director oj Mental Health Services,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—On March 17th, 1954, at a meeting attended by the Deputy Provincial Secretary, the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission, the Director of Mental Health
Services, and senior departmental officials, it was decided to establish a departmental
personnel office. Effect was given to this decision by the appointment on August lst,
1954, of an Administrative Assistant (Personnel) to the Director, Provincial Mental
Health Services. Unfortunately the development of this new function was impeded by
the resignation of the new Personnel Officer, effective November 17th, 1954. A successor was appointed, effective January 17th, 1955, and minor changes in the duties and
responsibilities were made, notably the consolidation of the personnel and pay functions
under the Personnel Officer.
Between August lst, 1954, and the close of the fiscal year, studies were made on
a variety of subjects, including the following:—
(1) Staff organization of the Essondale laundry.
(2) Staff organization of the Essondale meat-cutting section.
(3) Female nursing division—policy and methods re duty rosters and scheduling of vacation periods and regular days off.
(4) Methods used in preparation of payrolls and the development of procedures for conversion of the Provincial Mental Health Services payroll
to mechanical methods centralized in the Department of the Comptroller-
General, Victoria.
The figures shown on Table A appended to this report indicate recruitment and
separation activity during the fiscal year. Casual appointees are included in the totals
recorded. Total separations from the department amounted to 774, for a turnover of
34.5 per cent.
Table B provides a staff comparison by division for the fiscal years 1953-54 and
1954-55.
The monthly average of staff throughout the fiscal year was 2,240, compared with
a monthly average of 2,154 in the preceding fiscal year.
Table C indicates the ratio of psychiatric nurses to psychiatric aides. An acceptable
standard is one aide to two psychiatric nurses, and the figures provided indicate a most
unfavourable trend, particularly in the female nursing division.
Following is a comparison of the numbers of psychiatric student-nurses enrolled in
the School of Psychiatric Nursing under the two-year course:—
Enrolled
as of Mar.
31, 1954
Male students     49
Female students   148
Enrolled
as of Mar.
31, 1955
Male students     50
Female students   142
Total
197
Total
192
It is apparent that the nurses' training programme will have to be expanded to cope
with the present high rate of resignations and the expanding bed capacity of the Mental
Health Services. A study of this problem has been initiated and will be completed during the next fiscal year. M 46
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Table A
The following figures indicate staff recruitment and separation activity during the
fiscal year. The figures shown were taken from available records and are approximate.
Casual appointees are included in the totals. Recruited
Physicians     17
Medical interns      9
Registered nurses    25
Female psychiatric nurses    81
Male psychiatric nurses  26
Female student-nurses  117
Male student-nurses  44
Female psychiatric aides  307
Male psychiatric aides  129
Teachers  5
Occupational therapists  10
Recreational therapists  2
Industrial therapists	
Psychologists  6
Technicians  3
Dieticians  2
Cooks  4
Kitchen-helpers  22
Clerks  15
Stenographers  23
Trades  2
Laundry-workers  8
Miscellaneous professional  2
Miscellaneous technical  6
Miscellaneous  27
Farm help  25
Totals  917
Separated
17
9
18
133
30
66
22
249
88
5
13
1
2
5
1
1
7
16
10
24
2
4
3
7
23
18
774
Table B.—Staff Comparison by Division, 1953-54 and 1954-55
Vote
Positions
Provided in
Estimates,
1953-54
Number
on Staff as
of Mar.
31.1954
Positions
Provided in
Estimates,
1954-55
Number
on Staff as
of Mar.
31, 1955
Patient
Poulation
as of Mar.
31.1954
Patient
Poulation
as of Mar.
31, 1955
Colony Farm (272 (a))	
Colquitz Farm (272 (6))                	
55
7
52
7
60
53
7
	
	
62
59
67
60
	
28
32
27
29
31
34
29
28
270
959
517
78
1
245
964
480
79
280
1,044
559
81
	
265
1,059
490
76
242
3,481
1,189
287
267
3,524
The Woodlands School                         	
1,208
288
Colquitz  	
U.B.C.-Crease Clinic  	
1,825
1,768
1,964
1,890
5,199
5,287
188
73
63
166
69
54
192
77
63
182
75
55
508
238
298
535
Home for the Aged, Vernon 	
224
285
324
289
332
312
1,044
1,044
2,271
2,172
2,428
2,319
6,243
6,331 HEADQUARTERS
M 47
Table C.—Showing Ratio of Psychiatric Graduates to Psychiatric Aides (Male
and Female) in Crease Clinic, Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, and
The Woodlands School, as of March 31st, 1955.
Classification
Male—
Charges
Assistant charges _
Psychiatric nurses
Female—
Charges 	
Assistant charges .
Psychiatric nurses
Respectfully submitted.
Psychiatric
Nurses
35
59
215
309
(61%)
30
44
138
212
(37.5%)
Psychiatric
Aides
197
197
(39%)
353
353
(62.5%)
J. Dowling,
Personnel Officer. M 48
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
PART II.—CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
REPORT OF THE CREASE CLINIC OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
A. M. Gee, Esq., M.D., CM.,
Director oj Mental Health Services,
Essondale, B.C
Sir,—I herewith submit the annual report of activities for the Crease Clinic of
Psychological Medicine for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
The following table gives a summary of the movement of population for the past
fiscal year:—
Men
Women
Total
Total in residence, April lst, 1954__
Admissions during the year	
Discharges during the year	
Deaths during the year  	
110
573
557
5
132
791
775
2
242
1,364
1,332
7
Total separations-
562
777
1,339
In residence, March 31st, 1955..
146
267
The Crease Clinic has been extremely busy this past year, as partially indicated by
the heavy admission rate. This year we have had 1,364 new admissions to the Clinic, as
compared to the total of 1,256 admitted during the fiscal year 1953-54. This is an
increase of 107 patients and represents the largest number of admissions we have had
to the Crease Clinic since the beginning of operations in 1950. The rate of voluntary
admissions during this past year has again remained very high. Some 630 patients were
admitted to the Crease Clinic this past year on a voluntary basis, consisting of 253 men
and 377 women.
Our separation rate has, of necessity, kept pace with our admission rate. During
this past year 1,339 patients were separated from the Clinic, and of these only 93 patients
were transferred for committal to the Provincial Mental Hospital. This means that the
vast majority of patients admitted to the Clinic are returned to the community on completion of treatment.
It is interesting to consider the great amount of work involved in caring for this
number of patients. The examination and investigation of 1,364 psychiatric patients
requires much time and effort. The active-treatment procedures, including physical therapies, psychotherapy, occupational therapy, recreational therapy, nursing care, physiotherapy, etc., again require a great deal of effort on the part of the various members of
our staff. Also the work involved in developing rehabilitation and discharge plans for
1,339 patients is considerable. These facts are only mentioned to focus attention on the
extremely heavy patient load and on the amount of work involved in caring for them.
The work in each of the various departments in the Crease Clinic has expanded this
past year because of the increase in the rate of admissions. This trend can be noted in
the separate reports submitted by the heads of the various departments.
The work in the operating-room area has increased particularly. Our operating-
room serves all units of the Mental Health Services, including Crease Clinic, Provincial
Mental Hospital, The Woodlands School, and Home for the Aged. Most of the surgery
for these units has been performed at the Crease Clinic during the past year. The surgical
consultants include Dr. F. Turnbull, neurosurgeon; Dr. George Wilson and Dr. James CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 49
Wilson, general surgeons; Dr. R. E. Outerbridge, orthopaedic surgeon; and Dr. J. R.
Ireland, urologist. Anaesthetics are given under the direction of Dr. J. J. Carroll. There
has been a total of 406 operative procedures carried out in the operating-room during the
year. The following summary gives the details: 40 major operations, 104 minor operations, 73 orthopaedic operations, 133 applications of plaster, 47 neurosurgical operations,
5 genito-urinary operations, and 4 otolaryngological operations. These cases have all
been cared for in our small post-operative suite, which at present has only accommodation
for eight patients. We are certainly in need of additional space for this purpose, and, at
present, plans are being formulated for enlarging this area to accommodate an additional
20 patients. These additional 20 beds should make the operation of this department much
more efficient.
Our educational programme has continued much as it has during the past few years.
We have continued to offer a postgraduate programme of study to our medical staff. Also
during this past year, members of the final year in the Medical School at the University of
British Columbia have attended the Crease Clinic and the Mental Hospital for a two-week
period. During this period the medical students have been assigned cases and have been
supervised by various senior members of the staff. In addition to these activities, various
public lay groups have visited the hospital from time to time for the purpose of being
oriented in regard to the type of work carried on in our clinic.
During the year Dr. M. Kennard, of the University of British Columbia Research
Department, and Dr. W. Fister have been interested in a research programme in regard
to studying the relationship of certain personality disorders to changes found in the
electroencephalogram. This study is still proceeding.
Open house was held at the Crease Clinic on May 7th, 1954, at the end of Mental
Health Week. We did not have nearly as many visitors this year as we have had in
previous years. The displays set up by the various departments were extremely well
thought out, and those visitors who did come were able to gain a fairly useful idea of the
functions and work of the Crease Clinic.
Respectfully submitted.
A. E. Davidson, M.D.,
Deputy Director oj Mental Health Services. M 50 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
REPORTS OF THE PROVINCIAL MENTAL
HOSPITAL, ESSONDALE
REPORT OF THE MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT
A. M. Gee, Esq., M.D., CM.,
Director oj Mental Health Services,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I submit herewith the annual report of the Provincial Mental Hospital at
Essondale for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
In residence on April lst, 1954, there were 1,832 men patients and 1,649 women
patients, 123 patients were on probation, and 5 patients were carried on escape, thus
making a total of 3,481 patients on our books. During the year 1,139 patients were
admitted, making a total under treatment at the Mental Hospital at Essondale for the year
of 4,748 patients. Of the number admitted, 824 patients were by ordinary committal,
27 were by urgency committal, 260 patients (198 men and 62 women) were voluntary
admissions (that is, 22.8 per cent of the total admissions), 11 were admissions from the
Yukon, 1 admission was by warrant, and 20 admissions were by Order in Council. No
patients were transferred from The Woodlands School or from the Provincial Mental
Home, Colquitz. The total admissions were thus 664 men and 475 women, making a
grand total of 1,139 patients during the fiscal year.
The rate of separations during this year has been kept at a very satisfactory level.
There were 699 men patients and 525 women patients separated from the Mental
Hospital at Essondale during this period, making a grand total of 1,224 patients. In
residence on March 31st, 1955, there were 1,852 men and 1,672 women, making a total
of 3,524 patients in residence at the end of the fiscal year. This is an increase of 43
patients in residence at the same date as compared to the previous year.
During the fiscal year our Federal charges remained fairly constant in number as
compared to the previous year. The number of Indians under care for the Department of
Indian Affairs fluctuates slightly from month to month. The Indians we have in residence
are from eighteen different tribes in British Columbia and the Yukon. At the end of the
fiscal year we had 75 Indian patients in residence. The number of veterans under care,
for whom the Department of Veterans' Affairs is financially responsible, vary by 10 or
15 patients per month but average 270 patients per month for the year. We have received
7 patients from the British Columbia Penitentiary, New Westminster. We are now caring
for 31 patients from the Yukon.
We are still maintaining 25 beds for male alcoholics. These beds are usually occupied, and from time to time there may be a short waiting-list. However, by arranging
admissions through the Alcoholic Foundation, the admission flow is kept running
smoothly, so little delay in admissions occurs in suitable cases being admitted.
During the year there were 43 men patients and 50 women patients, making a total
of 93 patients, admitted to the Mental Hospital at Essondale from the Crease Clinic.
These patients did not recover sufficiently during their four months' residence in the
Crease Clinic to be discharged to the community, and they were therefore committed to
the Provincial Mental Hospital for continued treatment. During this same period 6 men
patients were discharged from the Mental Hospital at Essondale to the Crease Clinic,
since they were short-term cases and could be more suitably dealt with in that area.
The intake of new patients each month shows that the majority are received directly
from the community, with 5 to 10 patients from the Crease Clinic and the occasional
patient from the Geriatrics Division, British Columbia Penitentiary, Oakalla Prison
Farm, or Federal services. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 51
The separation of patients from the Mental Hospital at Essondale each month shows
considerable fluctuation. The majority of patients are discharged to the community,
directly to their relatives or friends. During the fiscal year a total of 200 patients were
discharged in full from the Mental Hospital at Essondale to the Geriatrics Division.
During the same period we were able to transfer 14 patients to the Provincial Mental
Home at Colquitz.
The annual report for the fiscal year April lst, 1953, to March 31st, 1954, reported
1,169 patients were admitted to the Mental Hospital at Essondale, whereas in the fiscal
year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955, there were 1,139 patients admitted, showing
a decrease of 30 patients from the preceding year. This would appear to indicate a trend
which we hope will become more marked in succeeding years. This year it will be
observed there were more patients admitted to the Crease Clinic than to the Mental Hospital at Essondale. This would point out the advantage of early discovery and treatment
of mental illness, enabling patients to respond to treatment with greater rapidity and
making their periods of hospitalization progressively shorter.
The percentage of patients recovered or improved, as compared to admissions, was
53.64 per cent. The percentage of deaths to the number under treatment was 2.95 per
cent; the percentage of discharges to admissions (exclusive of deaths) was 95.17 per
cent. The daily average population was 3,517.75.
There has been a notable reduction of short-term and acute psychotic cases from the
British Columbia Penitentiary since they have installed a resident psychiatrist at the
Penitentiary. I feel this service in the Penitentiary is very worth while. The psychiatrist
there has been able to treat many cases within the Penitentiary and screen the cases that
are drawn to his attention. The majority of cases we now receive from the Penitentiary
are psychotic, and actively psychotic patients, though criminals and though serving long
terms, can be more readily hospitalized here and are much less disturbing to the hospital
routine than many patients who were not psychotic or who were psychopaths and who
had been admitted to this Hospital in past years. I think this is an important point, since
the trend in mental-health care is to increase our patients' liberties, recreations, occupations, and activities generally within the Hospital whenever possible, and so bring the
Hospital environment more in line with the environment of the community and home.
This trend is desirable but is difficult of operation to provide at the same time the degree
of security which is necessary in treating psychopaths and various criminals whose mental
difficulties were not predominately a treatable mental illness. I would recommend that
all Penitentiary and Oakalla cases go directly to the Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz
or other suitable location where they could be provided with the type of treatment, care,
and security they require for their several needs.
This has been an extremely active year. The volume of work and services provided
by the various departments can only briefly indicate the continuing and increasing activities of a hospital of this magnitude. It has been necessary for all departments to work to
capacity. This has been difficult of attainment in many departments due to either shortage
or changes in staff personnel. I wish at this time to express my appreciation of the
splendid type of service being provided for our patients by all departments. It is noticeable that their activities are increasing rapidly as treatment activities are being increased
and as changes in hospital trends take place. This, I feel, is an indication of the vastly
increasing confidence our patients and the public generally have in the Provincial Mental
Health Services.
All our treatment centres have been active and functioning efficiently under the
Clinical Director, the medical staff, the nursing staff, all therapy departments, and all
those members who make up the complete treatment team. The Clinical Director's
comprehensive report will give full details in this regard. Coma insulin treatment was
renewed in the Centre Lawn Building of the Mental Hospital in April, 1954, in addition
to insulin services being continued in the Crease Clinic. M 52 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
Dr. G. A. Nicolson, Director of our Pathology Department, has been away for postgraduate studies at Toronto. He commenced the course on July lst, 1954, and will
complete it on July lst, 1955. During his absence this department has been functioning
very well under the direction of Dr. Harry Wilson and Miss Alice Hagen, Senior Laboratory Technician, and her staff.
There have been many changes and activities occurring in the Mental Hospital at
Essondale, British Columbia's twelfth city. It is not possible or desirable in a report
such as this to go into great detail, though examination of the score or more reports of
the chief departments in which more details of their activities are enumerated will give
some idea of the tremendous volume of work which is being carried out in this Hospital, and on comparing it with previous reports, some idea will be gleaned of the vast
expansion which is taking place in most of these departments.
Changes within the Hospital services are constantly occurring as they are required.
Many of these refer to small items, such as the use of locked safety razors; others are
more far reaching in their effect upon the functioning of the whole Hospital, such as the
reactivation of our Hospital Council, whereby all departmental heads meet at regular
intervals to present problems related to their services or the Hospital as a whole or to
discuss new methods or techniques.
Considerable credit reflects on Mr. C. B. Watson, Administrative Assistant,
Administration, on his completion of the Handbook for the Guidance of Employees of
the Provincial Mental Health Services. This is an informative and valuable reference,
especially for our new personnel.
We are finding Mr. J. Dowling, Administrative Assistant, Personnel, a valuable
addition to our Hospital staff, and also Mr. G. Tomalty, of the Civil Service Commission, who now makes his headquarters here. The presence of these two men greatly
assists us in all matters relating to personnel.
We now have seven open wards where patients may leave the ward at will during
the day. We have found a remarkable improvement in our patients where this type of
care has been possible. Medical staff, nursing staff, and patients are all enthusiastic
with the improvements so far attained in this type of ward.
We now permit relatives to visit certain of our wards in the evening hours. This
has worked out very satisfactorily, and both the patients and visitors have commented
favourably regarding this privilege. This evening visiting, which was started one night
per week, is in addition to our regular practice of permitting relatives and friends to
visit our patients any day of the week, including Sunday, between the hours of 2 and
4 p.m.
Another change made this year in many areas in the Hospital was the further
extension of the five-day work-week for the staff. This necessitated considerable
change, since the Hospital functions fully on a six-day week basis.
During the course of this year we are pleased to make note of the fact that Dr.
G. H. Stephenson and Dr. R. Halliday received their specialty in psychiatry from the
Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.
Another valuable addition to the Hospital was the starting this year of hospital
volunteer workers, a group of men and women selected, approved, and supervised by
the Director of the Canadian Mental Health Association, British Columbia Division.
This group has been extremely enthusiastic and active. These volunteer workers are
being most helpful in many areas of the Hospital Services, and we greatly appreciate
their devoting this time to the Hospital Services.
A change in the method of handling our Order in Council cases was made this
year. All those Order in Council cases whose sentences expire, and where further
liberties are required for treatment or other reasons, now have their Order in Council
rescinded in order that they may be dealt with as though committed pursuant to section
9 of the " Mental Hospitals Act."   This change has greatly facilitated our treatment of
J CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 53.
this group of patients generally, and we feel it has increased their recovery rate by
enabling them to take fuller part in patients' occupational and recreational activities.
With the moving of our stores department in the East Lawn Building to the new
stores building, the space vacated is being remodelled for the pharmacy department.
This work is proceeding satisfactorily and will be of great assistance in providing more
area for the staff of the pharmacy to prepare and distribute their supplies.
The new morgue in the East Lawn Building is functioning satisfactorily but
requires enlarging, and recommendations have been forwarded in this regard.
The old laundry building, remodelled now for the various trades shops, is a great
improvement and is more efficient, being centrally located, more spacious, and better
constructed than the former shops.
In August the move was made to our new garage, maintenance, and repair building.   This well-equipped garage will greatly assist that department in its services.
A new lobotomy ward for male patients has been developed in the West Lawn
Building. This has made more specialized treatment and care possible for this group
of patients following surgery.
One of the most valuable alterations made during this fiscal year was on Ward
H 5 in the East Lawn Building, where new offices and patients' facilities have been
installed.
Many changes are constantly taking place about the hospital grounds. New roads
were built to the North Lawn Building and new parking areas were completed in front
of the Centre and East Lawn Buildings by means of road-widening. Recommendations
have been forwarded for further new parking areas to be developed.
Much painting and general maintenance work have been done. Alterations and
additions to the Crease Clinic ventilation and air-conditioning systems were made, and
a start has been made on new garbage-disposal incinerators for the Crease Clinic.
We have had, in addition to our hospital volunteer workers, many visitors to the
Hospital this year. The Army, Navy and Air Force Veterans in Canada and the Canadian Legion, British Empire Service League, have regular groups visiting our veterans.
The ladies' auxiliaries and councils of these organizations also visit periodically and
provide many additional comforts for our veteran group of patients, such as reading
material, fruit, sweets, and smokes, and, in addition, the pleasure they afford our veterans by their company. Many outings and band concerts are arranged in addition to
those arranged by our Recreational Therapy Department. Television sets have been
donated, and also a splendid Nadeau hand skill loom. This is a very valuable piece of
equipment for our Occupational Therapy Department in that patterns can be pre-set
automatically in order that deteriorated patients may operate this eight-harness machine.
The religious needs of our Protestant patients are being well taken care of by our
resident chaplain, Rev. John F. O'Neil, and the religious needs of our Roman Catholic
patients by Rev. Father J. P. Kane. Religious services are held regularly for all those
patients wishing to attend. Examination of the following report will show a great
activity in this department. Services are held on many wards in addition to those services held in Pennington Hall and over the radio public address system.
The Hospital Civil Defence organization remains quite active, with various members attending instruction at Civil Defence schools. This information is passed on to
the whole group, and there are members from all departments of the Hospital service
interested and active in this most valuable organization.
There have been many staff changes. I would mention at this time, however, the
retirement of Mr. Walter Creber, Chief Male Psychiatric Nurse, on March 31st, 1955,
after completing thirty-nine years' service. Mr. Creber has always been a most valuable
member of our staff and will be greatly missed by all his friends.
The North Lawn Building for infectious diseases is rapidly nearing completion and
will be opened early in the next fiscal year.    This building will be a valuable addition M 54 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
to our present services and will likely improve conditions in the East and West Lawn
Buildings by the removal of all the tubercular and other infectious cases. However, we
still have a very urgent problem in the great overcrowding of our patients in many areas
of this Hospital, and we will require much further new accommodation to handle those
patients we now have in Hospital.
A matter of greatest importance is the shortage and large turnover of our trained
nursing and medical staffs. In the medical staff this is especially pronounced in July
and August, when many of our members leave to go to other and better appointments
for the monetary reward or to continue their education in the specialty of psychiatry
toward obtaining their certification. These constant changes greatly accentuate treatment and administrative problems. We have a great need here for more well-trained
senior medical staff who would remain and who would assume senior medical-staff
responsibilities. I believe senior medical-staff salaries must be increased to attract this
desirable type of medical personnel and, in fact, must be provided in order to hold
those suitably trained senior medical personnel we now have at this Hospital.
I wish to express my appreciation of the close co-operation which I have received
from the staffs of all departments of the Provincial Mental Health Services and Government.
Respectfully submitted.
T. G. Caunt, M.D.,
Medical Superintendent.
TREATMENT SERVICES
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—The following is the report of the Treatment Services in the Mental Health
Services, Essondale.
Significant progress has been made this year toward bringing the psychiatric hospital and the community in closer relationship. Despite the highest patient admission
rate yet recorded in the Province, the separation rate has nearly approximated it, a
product of efforts bent toward rehabilitation.
The first great advance in the care of the mentally ill was the building of institutions
which would provide humanitarian care. Originally places of refuge and safety for the
patient, they often became vaults to lock away and forget a rejected group of the population. In these places called asylums, custodial care was emphasized and overcrowding and understating became permissible. The patients need space to live in, not just
dormitory space, but living-room, dining, work, and hobby space; room for storing
personal effects and room for personal cleanliness and grooming. When the space is
not provided for indoors, it must be found out of doors. We have been rethinking this
heritage of humanitarian care and have been introducing changes to make the patients'
life a happier one.
The second great advance has been a scientific approach to treatment. In the
modern mental hospital and psychiatric clinic all the hospital facilities needed in a good
general hospital are required. Furthermore, we draw on those branches of human
knowledge which endeavour to cast light on the workings of the individual personality
and also how people work together—psychology, sociology, anthropology, religion.
This knowledge cannot be bought by the crate, carload, or pound—it can only be
accumulated and applied by the building-up of a trained enthusiastic and dedicated
staff. Tremendous steps have been made in the fashioning of a staff which has an
organic unity, is competent and flexible.   Yet we cannot expect to attract or hold pro- CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 55
fessional staff of top calibre unless financial returns for work done is in keeping with
the going wage elsewhere in the community.
The most dramatic of the medical treatments, the so-called shock treatments which
we prefer to call somatotherapies, have been reinforced by the new drugs chlorpromazine
and reserpine. At best they reduce the length and severity of symptoms which cut the
patient off from society; they must be accompanied by the social treatments, occupational and recreational therapies, and the more personal treatments, social casework
and psychotherapy. Without the enabling qualities of insulin and electric treatments,
lobotomy, chlorpromazine, or largactil, our efforts would be seriously handicapped.
The results of these treatments are tabulated below.
The third advance is the drawing together of the hospital and the community.
Rehabilitation is a responsibility of everyone at the hospital from the day the patient
arrives. It is the special function of the Rehabilitation Officer, the Vista, the social
service, and the medical staff. However, if rehabilitation is to succeed, community ties
must be preserved during the patient's hospital stay or, if broken from long hospitalization, must be renewed. We endeavour to establish high standards of morale on hospital
wards, and to create special atmospheres and attitudes around patients who present
special problems that cannot be assisted by broad general principles of ward management. Group methods of treatment continue to grow in number and importance, and
thirteen psychotherapy groups now meet each week. Problem relationships with other
people lend themselves to change in a group setting where full expression of opinion is
encouraged. Two large wards in the Mental Hospital have been made open wards, so
that patients are free to come and go without waiting to be let in and out. For the
most part, the patients who enjoy this freedom are making contributions to the hospital
by working in one of the industrial areas. The removal of these traditional restrictions
makes for a more relaxed atmosphere and so encourages the patient to find in himself
a renewal of personal dignity. Club and interest groups have formed in these areas.
The problem of preserving personal identity in a large hospital can be met only in part
by this development. The advent of the volunteer worker from the community, sponsored by the Canadian Mental Health Association, holds out a real prospect that feelings
of hope and personal worth can be rekindled in patients long sick and isolated from the
community both by their mental illness and their hospitalization. The volunteer soon
finds that the patient responds to his freely offered interest, and this is his reward for
his weekly visit. We have found the visiting a vehicle for a better integration of the
work of the Hospital to the community. M 56
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Medical treatment team administering electro-convulsive treatment.
Nursing care for patient undergoing coma insulin treatment. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 57
Table 1.—Cases Treated by Coma Insulin, by Sex, Diagnosis, Result, and Disposal,
Crease Clinic oj Psychological Medicine
(fl)  FEMALES
1
V
0.
>H
O
u
OJ
§
a
Z
Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
•o
V
>
o
o
V
>
o
Q,
E
1—(
73
>
O
Ih
a.
E
5
D
o
cu.-
ll
a .a
Eo
«.9
to
rt
_.
u
5
rt
O     _ti
*-   a
a. -h
a > c!
ca o o
tH   "H
H0-c2
c
oS
■d rt
to to
'X f*
Oh
Affective Disorders
1
1
1
1
1
1
Totals     	
2
2
-     1
2    |    —
Schizophrenia
21
8
12
50
19
36
9
1
2
6
3
6
14
6
8
37
14
29
8
6
2
2
7
2
1
1
17
5
11
44
18
35
9
4
3
1
6
1
1
Schizo-affective psychosis  	
Unspecified schizophrenia 	
Totals                       	
155
18
116
21
139    j    ......
16
1
1
1
1
1
1
Mental deficiency with psychosis. 	
Totals                                 ...
2    1    -         1    	
2
-     |      .
2
159
20
116
23
141
18
(6) MALES
Schizophrenia
19
3
5
61
42
9
3
2
1
10
12
1
1
10
2
5
39
26
8
2
2
8
1
12
4
14
2
5
53
40
9
3
2
5
1
8
2
Totals                       	
144
25
94
25
128    |    _.    |    .....
16
5
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
Epilepsy with psychosis  _	
Psychotic depressive reaction 	
Chronic brain syndrome   	
Immature personality—aggressiveness	
Totals.     	
18
	
15
3
17    |    __..
	
1
162
25
109
28
145
17 M 58
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Table 2.—Cases Treated by Electro-convulsive Therapy, by Sex, Diagnosis,
Result, and Disposal, Provincial Mental Hospital
(a) FEMALES
■d
Result
Disposal
■o
ft
Diagnosis
rt
to
o£
S32
.£- C
ll
■o
u
k.
CU
>
O
u
CU
P.
to
O
Ih
P.
|
to
3
£
>
o
he
|
to
>
O
a
a
E
i
TJ
to
DC
rt
Xl
o
tft
a
■d
u
Ml
H
m
—  Ih
cj _>
■j- CS
CU
Secondary to
Treatment by
Psychopharma
cology
2£
rt to
■ge.s
O rt*3
to to £
to it c
o
•o
Kb
m B
c o
2S
0
•d
81
OJ    .
_S"S
09
IS
'3 2
l|
Ih
u
rt
hJ
■g
s
Affective Disorders
Manic	
19
i
15
3
3
1
1
	
	
14
	
Depressive	
4
	
4
	
	
1
__
	
	
3
	
Involutional 	
11
2
8
1
5
6
Totals   	
34
....
3
27
4
8
2
1
-.
....
23
Schizophrenia
Simple.  	
26
2
21
3
5
1
20
8
6
2
8
Catatonic	
17
2
11
4
1
3
13
Paranoid  	
60
4
44
12
9
8
1
42
Acute undifferentiated _
4
4
1
1
	
2
Chronic undifferentiated
4
4
4
Schizo-affective psycho
sis—_	
11
	
1
8
2
2
1
8
Unspecified 	
14
13
1
1
1
12
—
144
....
9
111
24
19
14
1
1
-    |    ....    | 109
Pathological personality-
4
....
3
1
	
4
Epilepsy with psychosis-
3
	
....
3
3
3
3
1
2
4
3
1
3
1
Chronic brain syndrome-
6
....
5
1
6
Mental deficiency with
psychosis	
1
....
1
	
....
1
4
....
4
1
1
	
_
	
2
Totals 	
25
....
19
6
5
1
	
....
..__    |    ....    [    19
Grand totals
203
—
12
157
34
32
17
2
1
....    [ 151
1
(b) MALES
Affective Disorders
Manic. 	
Depressive	
Involutional	
Totals..
Schizophrenia
Simple 	
Hebephrenic. _
Catatonic  —
Paranoid.
Acute undifferentiated —
Chronic undifferentiated
Schizo-affective psychosis— 	
Unspecified _	
Totals	
Paranoid state.	
Pathological personality.
Alcoholic psychosis	
Neurotic depressive reaction  	
Anxiety reaction	
Obsessive compulsive
neurosis	
Chronic brain syndrome
Mental deficiency with
psychosis	
Totals	
Grand totals..
17
5
1
I
15    |
5    I
1     I
23    |       1
I    21
22
4
35
55
4
17
1
19
3
24
39
1
6
4
3
1
13
2
1
11
16
1
149    |
3    | 111
35
3
2
12
3
2
1
3
1
3
2
11
1
2
1
1
1
2
31    |      2    |      1    |    22    |
203
I
3    I
154
42
I
1     I 5
1     I 1
~-     1 1
2    |      7    |
1
10
1
13
3
1
1
5
26
12
45
I    11
3
I    14
5     I
| 112
1    I
1    | 138
19
4
33
39
4
1
1
1
11
_..
1
1
1
1
2
1
_
5
12    | CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 59
Table 3.—Cases Treated by Electro-convulsive Therapy, by Sex, Diagnosis, Result
and Disposal, Crease Clinic oj Psychological Medicine
(a)  FEMALES
Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
T3
O
ed
— -.
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Affective Disorders
32
39
8
10
2
23
26
1
1
19
24
8
11
2
2
3
2
Depressed   	
23
4
1
17
1
16
5
1
1
Totals	
94
22
3
66
3
59
24
....
5
6
_-
Schizophrenia
Simple	
17
1
1
14
1
7
1
9
Hebephrenic 	
8
8
1
3
4
Catatonic.      	
11
1
8
2
2
8
1
Paranoid 	
76
6
57
13
28
14
27
7
Acute schizophrenic reaction	
8
1
7
3
5
Schizo-affective psychosis	
42
3
39
17
12
12
1
Unspecified     .,.
24
2
1
19
2
10
1
11
2
Totals  	
186
14
2
152
18
65
34
76
11
6
4
2
3
2
1
Neurotic depressive reaction	
25
4
1
20
17
7
1
12
10
2
9
3
8
5
3
3
2
3
3
1
2
1
2
Depersonalization 	
2
1
1
2
Totals.	
56
6
1
42
7
35
16
- i   i
..._    |      4
336
42
6
260
28
159
74
....
82
21
(6) MALES
Affective Disorders
Manic   -	
Depressed   	
Involutional melancholia	
Hypomania 	
Totals  	
Schizophrenia
Simple 	
Hebephrenic.	
Catatonic.—  	
Paranoid..	
Acute schizophrenic reaction _
Schizo-affective psychosis	
Unspecified _	
Totals 	
Paranoid state ~_
Pathological personality—presenile psychosis	
Epilepsy with psychosis.	
Alcoholic psychosis	
Neurotic depressive reaction...
Anxiety reaction.. -	
Obsessive compulsive neurosis
Psychoneurotic disorders	
Hysterical reaction	
Totals	
Grand totals	
15
20
6
1
18
3
6
56
14
18
23
16
5
1
10
2
6
1
40
1
7
12
1
12
12
2
3
7
138 | 13 |  3 | 89 | 33
5
1
8
17
8
1
2
2
3
13
7
1
1
2
34
231
27
153
47
11
20
5
1
9
2
4
36
6
15
10
2
13
6
82
31
4
1
8
14
2
1
1
1
37 I
156 | 19
I 39
I U I
3 I
15 M 60
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Table 4.—Cases Treated by Electronarcosis, by Diagnosis, Result, and Disposal
(a) PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
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Disposal
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20
1
14
5
9
11
Miscellaneous  -	
1
-- i   i
1
22
2     1     15
5
11
-
11
(b) CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
9    |      1    [    ___    1      8
55    j      3    |      2    |    43
8    1    ....    j    —    |      7
7
1
8
48
8
—
....
1
7
Miscellaneous—       	
Totals   	
72    |      4    |      2    |    58
8
64
—
....
—
8
1             1             1
Table 5.—Cases Treated by Lobotomy, by Diagnosis, Result, and Disposal
TJ
to
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Result
Disposal
Diagnosis
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21
9
1
1
4
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12             4
4     ]       4
2
2
19
7
7
Totals   —  	
30
2
4
16
8
4
26
9
Respectfully submitted.
F. E. McNair, B.A., M.D., CM.,
Clinical Director.
DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY
Women's Division
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,-—The report of the Women's Occupational Therapy Department for the past
fiscal year is submitted herewith.
In Canada there is a shortage of qualified occupational therapists, and twice the
number now employed are required to fill vacant positions. Consequently the most
difficult problem of this Department during the last year has been the unavailability of
professionally trained staff and the fact that positions remain vacant for months.   Most CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 61
of our new staff came from England, and it is to be hoped this policy of recruiting staff
will be continued. As a result of lack of staff, our services have been curtailed and ward
programmes have been temporarily discontinued.
According to the American Psychiatric Association standards a hospital this size
requires a staff of seventy-five in order to offer a complete occupational-therapy programme. This Department serves women patients only, but based on the above figures
the present staff would seem to be inadequate. The staff consists of thirteen occupational
therapists and instructors of handicraft, one school-teacher, and nine industrial therapists
and seamstresses.
Average number of patients registered for treatment was 912. Number of patients
admitted for treatment to this Department was 1,851. Number of patients discontinued,
transferred, or discharged during the year was 2,063. Number of treatments given was
162,070. Total number of hours workshops available to patient was 11,733.
Three University of Toronto second-year students received clinical training in the
Department for a period of two months. Lectures were given to the psychiatric and
affiliating nurses, and the latter spent one week observing in the Department.
Occupational-therapy displays were held at the April meeting of the British Columbia Society of Occupational Therapy, at open house on May 7th, at the Coquitlam
Women's Institute Flower Show on August 19th, at the Nursing Exposition on December
15th, and at the Parliament Buildings, Victoria, in February.
Christmas activities included designing the Hospital card, assisting in judging ward
decorations, parties for patients attending the workshops, and the annual sale which
realized $2,422.95. This money is placed in the Patients' Comfort Fund.
Volunteer workers have been assisting in our Department since June. Their visits
are welcomed by our patient-groups.
Mrs. L. C. Smith, executive consultant for the Canadian Association of Occupational
Therapy, visited us in September. Her visit was much appreciated, and we hope it may
become an annual event.
The school-teacher gives elementary instruction to students and supervises correspondence courses.
The industrial-therapy departments provide treatment for longer-term patients and
supervise the making of articles used in the Hospital. The Uniform Department made
7,105 articles and repaired 1,013, the sewing-room made 105,869 articles, and the
Mending Department repaired 50,862 articles. Nurses' uniforms were also sorted in the
Department.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Kathleen Feltham,
Supervisor, Occupational Therapy Department
( Women's Division). M 62
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Individual instruction in Crease Clinic shop.
General view of art room, Crease Clinic shop. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 63
Manufacturing nurses' uniforms in East Lawn occupational-therapy shops.
A corner of the mending-room, East Lawn occupational-therapy shops. M 64 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
MEN'S DIVISION
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Following is the annual report of the activities of this Department for the
twelve months ended March 31st, 1955.
(a) Industrial Shops
The industrial-therapy records were destroyed in the recent fire, so figures are not
available for this report.
I would estimate the figures to show a general increase over the previous year. The
demands on the industrial shops are becoming greater each year with the expansion of
the Hospital.
(b)  Occupational-therapy Shops
1. Crease Clinic Shop.—During a twelve-month period the average monthly attendance was 102. During this period 363 patients were discharged. An average of 40
new patients started treatment each month, and 18 were transferred to the Provincial
Mental Hospital; 3 patients were treated on wards. Patients received approximately
37,469 treatment-hours.
2. Centre Lawn Shop.—The daily average attendance is 30 patients. In the course
of the year 45 patients were discharged to the community; the remainder were transferred to other treatment areas for a further period before discharge.
This is a small shop and the present case load places a heavy strain on our limited
space.
3. West Lawn Shop.—This is a new therapeutic section and will be ready to receive
patients in approximately one month. Its purpose will be to serve patients unable to
attend the industrial shops and act as a screening section for industrial patients. A treatment programme will be directed from this department to serve the West Lawn lobotomy
ward.
The location of this shop will be in the section known as Ward B 1.
4. Veterans' Building Shop.—A considerable amount of work was completed for
other departments of the Hospital. One outstanding item was the making of 495 checker
boards for the Recreational Therapy Department. In addition, orders were received for
360 Chinese checker boards, 94 crib-boards, and 76 shuffle-board disks.
The floor loom produced a total of 335 yards of 30-inch curtain material that was
used to make drapes for various wards. After weaving, the curtains were made up by
the Women's Occupational Therapy. One hundred and twenty-five yards of 14-inch
material for tote-bags were produced on small looms in addition to twenty-two sets of
place-mats and 100 woollen scarves.
The second year of operation of the Yule Log Division produced a total of 218
yule logs which also found a ready sale. In addition, they found a good use for salvage
newspapers from the wards.
The Woodworking Section produced twenty arm supports and thirty-five back rims
for the Loyalist furniture, as these items were not available at the time from the factory.
One hundred bird-houses from gallon cans salvaged from the kitchens and other waste
materials were made and sold. Thirty-six maple bang-a-peg toys were made for the
Child Guidance Clinic in Vancouver. Pull toys were made and distributed to the Canadian Legion in the amount of 1,064, and 341 were sent to the Occupational Therapy sale.
Considerable work was done on the wood-turning lathe for the Department of
Public Works. This consisted of 16 turned legs for tables, 244 plugs for bed legs, and
164 ring frames for observation ports in side-room doors.   In addition, two special cash- CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 65
Ceramic-room, Crease Clinic shops.
Hand-weaving, Crease Clinic shops. M 66
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Metal-shop, men's occupational shops.
Cabinetmaking, men's occupational shops. 	
CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 67
drawers with coin and bill compartments were completed for the Business Office.   A large
quantity of knobs were made for tea-urns and coffee-pots, etc.
A very fine contribution was received from the Ladies' Auxiliary to the Canadian
Legion in the form of one of the new Nadeau looms. This loom is all metal and incorporates some very fine features not found in any other loom.
No accidents of any sort occurred.   The average number of patients in the shop
daily amounted to eighteen.   A considerable number of other patients took advantage
of the pressing facilities and the use of tools to repair personal property.
Respectfully submitted.
R. Herring,
Supervisor, Industrial and Occupational Therapy
(Men's Division).
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATIONAL THERAPY
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit to you the following report indicating the various programmes
and showing the attendance of the activities directed by the Department of Recreational
Therapy from April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
Patients' Recreation
Number of Total
Programmes Attendance
Badminton         60 944
Bowling       401 6,792
Chess        25 297
Concerts (visiting groups)           8 5,576
Concerts (patient talent to shut-ins)        18 2,255
Conditioning classes (alcoholics)         56 670
Dances         76 17,071
Dance instruction         77 2,466
Games periods, outdoors (supervised)           7 108
Golf        94 1,205
Gymnasium classes         16 562
Gymnasium classes (Industrial School for Boys)       16 237
Picnics         14 418
Softball League        29 2,979
Sports day (seventh annual)          1 1,400
Swimming        32 1,401
Tennis (supervised periods)         21 164
Ward programmes      233 15,239
Totals   1,184 59,784 M 68
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
|
Baseball game, annual field-day, August 27th, 1954.
Bowling-alleys, Pennington Hall. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 69
Badminton
Staff Recreation
Number of
Programmes
15
Total
Attendance
152
Bowling 	
62
495
Dances     _ _
2
880
Dance instruction
7
198
Gymnasium classes
Swimming 	
10
49
48
669
Totals 	
....     145
2.442
The following is a list of programmes which were newly formed and Departmental
events, qualifying for special notice:—
November lst, 1954: Gymnasium classes regularly scheduled three days a
week for the boys of Bisco, including calisthenics, gymnastics, games, and
swimming. Directed by Recreational Therapy staff and continued for six
weeks.
January 11th, 1955: Conditioning period for alcoholics, 9 to 9.30 a.m., Monday to Friday, in Pennington Hall.
January 21st, 1955: Reactivation period on Ward H 4, held daily. Recreational facilities were presented to all wards in the East Lawn Building.
January 25th, 1955: Mr. Don Cunnings of the Recreational Therapy Department went on loan to The Woodlands School three periods a week for
ten weeks.
January 26th, 1955: Reactivation periods on Wards A 3 and C 3 held daily.
Recreational facilities were presented to all wards in West Lawn Building.
January 31st, 1955: Mr. W. R. Brown resigned as Recreational Therapy
Director.
March 9th, 1955: Volunteer workers commenced helping in recreational
programmes.
March 10th, 1955:   Mr. R. L. Ramsay commenced duties as Recreational
Therapy Director.
The following is a list of Hospital events held in Pennington Hall:—
April lst, 1954:  Blood donor clinic.
April 8th, 1954:  Alumna? fashion show.
April 23rd, 1954:   Staff Drama Club presentation to staff.
November 3rd, 1954:  Blood donor clinic.
December 10th, 1954:   Staff Drama Club presentation to staff.
December 11th, 1954:  B.C.G.E.A. children's Christmas party.
December 17th, 1954:  Student-body dance.
December 22nd, 1954:  Bisco concert.
March 18th, 1955:  Credit Union annual meeting.
March 31st, 1955:  Alumnaj fashion show.
Musical-therapy activities were as follows: —
Church choir:  44 periods, 953 patients.
Glee Club:  42 periods, 744 patients.
Music appreciation:   176 periods, 8,576 patients.
Music variety:   66 periods, 3,505 patients.
Therapeutic music:  44 periods, 3,040 patients.
Individual music:   15 periods.
Staff choir:  9 periods, 305 patients.
Although I have been on the Recreational Therapy staff for only a short time, it is
quite evident to me that the success of the programme is a direct reflection of the keen M 70 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
interest the staff has in each patient and the assistance and co-operation received by the
staff from the other departments.
In closing this report I would like to express my great delight in being identified with
the Provincial Mental Hospital as Recreational Therapy Director, and also I would like
to express my sincere thanks and appreciation to all those who help to make our work
enjoyable and successful.
Respectfully submitted.
R. L. Ramsay,
Director oj Recreational Therapy.
AUDIO-VISUAL DEPARTMENT
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Plans are under way for a new theatre building at The Woodlands School.
The stage will be of sufficient width to incorporate a wide screen. A recommendation
will soon be submitted to the Business Manager to install a wide screen in Pennington
Hall. It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain the " flat" type of productions suitable
for Pennington Hall, since all of the more desirable films now require some form of
wide screen.
The educational film library has had heavy demands upon it during the past year,
and with new films being added, the total number of films now in the library amounts to
206, with a value of approximately $14,000. New films bring up the problem of catalogues, which are in constant demand, and while they have been assembled from mimeographed sheets, the job is becoming too cumbersome to handle along with the routine
work of the Department, and it would appear that catalogues could be made up by some
other means. A great deal of credit is due to Miss L. Archibald, stenographer, who has
given detailed assistance to borrowers by mail or telephone.
Referring to the enclosed table, it will be noted that for the first time an educational
record library is included. These seventy-six disks are the result of many years of planning. The original idea was to have audio and visual records, wherever possible, of
various types of psychiatric disorders, for reproduction for analysis and educational
purposes.
Subsequent to the purchase of a number of small portable record-players for use by
staff, volunteers, and patients, the recreational record library was used more than ever
before.   The records are also used in conjunction with the wired music system.
Our work assists many departments throughout the Mental Health Services. A full-
time photographer would be a great asset to utilize all equipment fully and complete the
many assignments in this field.
I wish to thank all of the staff who have assisted and co-operated with this department in the past year. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 71
Recreational Motion Pictures
Number Total
of Shows Attendance
35-mm. films at Pennington Hall  148 54,212
35-mm. films at The Woodlands School  147 25,306
16-mm. films at Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale; Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam; and Colony Farm  419 35,338
Total attendance   114,856
16-mm. recreational films shipped to other institutions—
Mental Home, Colquitz  95
The Woodlands School, New Westminster  90
Home for the Aged, Vernon  46
Provincial Home, Kamloops  46
Girls' Industrial School  46
Boys' Industrial School  46
Allco Infirmary, Haney  46
Total  417
The 16-mm. projection equipment was loaned out 218 times.
Educational 16-mm. Film Library
Number of registered borrowers, 116.
Films loaned, 489; attendance, 14,107.
Films projected at Essondale, 228; attendance, 6,415.
Photography
4x5 negatives exposed, monochrome   372
35-mm. negatives exposed, colour  71
8 x 10 prints produced  408
5x7 prints produced   47
7>Va x 4 transparencies produced, colour  44
3V4 x 4 transparencies produced, monochrome  13
Miscellaneous prints produced   22
2x2 transparencies produced, colour   71
16-mm.   motion - picture   film   exposed,   monochrome   and
colour  300 ft.
Record Library
Popular records loaned   2,083
Recorded music played on wired music system 891 hr.
Miscellaneous disks recorded for Recreational Therapy and
Audio-Visual   372 min.
Educational Record Library
Clinical tape recordings  633 min.
Clinical disk recordings  670 min.
Miscellaneous tape recordings  320 min.
Records in library (transcriptions, 78's, long plays)         76
Respectfully submitted.
G. H. Walker,
Director of Audio Visual Department. M 72 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
LIBRARY REPORT
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is the report of the medical and patients' libraries in the Crease
Clinic for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
Compared to trie previous year, there was an increase of 3,782 in circulation in the
patients' library and a decrease of 27 in medical library circulation. The latter is more
than offset, however, by the receipt of 86 interlibrary loans requested by doctors, compared to 32 the previous year. Considerable bibliographic work was undertaken, especially in connection with the training programme for medical staff.
In June the library undertook the editing and publication of the Leader, a Hospital
bulletin which had formerly been put out by the Recreational Therapy Department.
The stencilling and distribution is done by the Men's Occupational Therapy in the
Crease Clinic, and regular contributions are received from the Audio-Visual Department, Recreational Therapy, Music Therapy, and the Chaplains' Services.
In July the library began to use the services of volunteers, who personally take the
books to the Homes for the Aged. Their visits soon became a bright spot in the week
for the patients, and it is planned to extend their services to other wards.
Books from the patients' library needing rebinding were sent to the Young Offenders'
Unit at Oakalla.
Many donations of magazines were received during the year, and they were distributed to all the wards in the Hospital. The George Derby Health and Occupational
Centre were particularly generous.
The Crease Clinic library provided service to all the wards of the Provincial Mental
Hospital at Essondale, the Homes for the Aged in Coquitlam and Vernon, and the Vista
in Vancouver.
A portion of the Federal Mental Health Grant was again made available to the
medical library for the purchase of basic works in medicine and psychiatry.
Patients' Library
Book collection   4,845
New books added   310
Donations     132
Total     5,287
Less—
Losses    130
Discards   161
        291
Total     4,996
Current magazine subscriptions  15
Number of books circulated  16,966 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 73
Medical Library
Book collection     1,924
New books added   148
To nurses' library     36
To laboratory r~    23
        207
Total     2,131
Journals, medical and psychiatric  85
Journals currently bound  21
Number of books received on interlibrary loan  86
Number of books circulated  928
Number of pamphlets  603
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) H. Walsh,
Librarian.
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL MEDICINE
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Following is a report of the treatments given in the Physiotherapy Department of the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine from April lst, 1954, to March
31st, 1955:                                                                                               Male Female Total
Bran and oatmeal baths        72   72
Cervical suspension         18 4 22
Delormes exercises        19   19
Foam baths      130 1,330 1,460
Galvano and faradic stimulation      100 49 149
Infra-red      450 342 792
Massage and remedial exercises  1,431 1,931 3,362
Needle sprays .__     454 1,375 1,829
Progressive relaxation          8 539 547
Scotch douche      43 43
Sedative baths      870 788 1,658
Short-wave diathermy      928 401 1,329
Sitz baths        27 41 68
Starch baths          8   8
Steam baths        42 32 74
Ultra-violet lights      526 95 621
Wax baths      138 131 269
Whirlpool baths        29 66 95
Total number of treatments  5,250 7,167 12,417
Total number of patients treated     868 942 1,810 M 74 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Chiropody
Total number of patients treated      801
Total treatments   1,175
Respectfully submitted.
F. E. McNair, B.A., M.D., CM.,
Clinical Director.
DENTAL DEPARTMENT
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—The past year has been a busy one for the Dental Department. The ever-
increasing demand by the medical staff for dental work for their patients has made it
necessary for all members of the staff to work hard, and this they have all done.
During the year a new system of ordering supplies has been put into effect, eliminating all emergency ordering and confining our general ordering to once per month.
This was made possible by having the Occupational Therapy Department construct a
large cabinet and then putting in a basic stock of supplies, from which we now also
supply the needs of The Woodlands School Dental Clinic.
Far too many instances occur where perfectly good anterior teeth are loosened and
thus lost during convulsive therapy. This is due to the unsatisfactory mouth props at
present being used. Dr. McNair has asked me to examine several new types used in
other mental hospitals. One of these I consider ideal and would most strongly advocate
its adoption by this Hospital. I believe the cost would be more than offset by the
preservation of healthy teeth, and could save the Hospital from some nasty damage suits
which a patient or his or her relatives, in my opinion, would be bound to win were it
proven that this Hospital is employing inferior methods for the protection of its patients'
teeth during convulsive therapy.
Much time is at present spent by the laboratory technician on repairing broken
dentures. This is due to the many old vulcanite dentures still in use. Whenever opportunity presents, these dentures are replaced with new ones made of the much stronger
plastic.
Summary of Work
Examinations  1,992
Extractions  1,293
Fillings  1,366
Treatments      246
Prophylaxis      581
X-rays      628
Dentures made      247
Dentures repaired      256
Dentures relined        38
Bridge repairs  9
Gold inlays  2
General anaesthesia  7
Plastic crowns  3
Respectfully submitted.
H. O. Johnsen, D.D.S. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
OPTICAL REPORT
M 75
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—The following is the report of the optical work done at the Provincial Mental
Hospital and the Crease Clinic for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955:—
Refractions    429
Major repairs   281
Minor repairs and adjustments  120
Respectfully submitted. R H WooDBRIDGE;
Optometrist.
Beauty-parlour, Crease Clinic.
BEAUTY-PARLOUR REPORT
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I hereby submit the Beauty-parlour report for the fiscal year April lst, 1954,
to March 31st, 1955:—
Location of Unit
Shampoos
Sets
Perma-
nents
Oil
Treatments
Haircuts
Manicures
Shaves
Scalp
Treatments
Marcels
Home for the Aged1	
1,722
1,570
576
4,268
1,546
1,254
1,721
3,564
116
315
190
702
729
642
350
1,225
914
835
668
6,190
22
101
96
754
661
16
77
1,343
71
253
East Lawn Building2	
52
Totals	
8.136    1    8.085    1    1.323    1    2.946
8.607    1       973
2.097     1        394
52
Plus 192 make-ups. 2 Plus 4 dyes.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) M. Townsend. M 76
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
DEPARTMENT OF DIETETICS
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—A major change in the Dietary Department during this past year has been the
completion of a centralized meat-cutting shop. Partial operation from this unit began in
May, with services gradually increasing until centralization was completed in September.
To accomplish this, it was necessary to effect a standardization of menus for all kitchens
so that the daily work orders would be consistent. A rotation menu plan was set up,
consisting of four one-week phases. The menu for approximately one-quarter of the
population is on each phase, and as they rotate through the pattern they receive a well-
balanced and varied diet. Prior to this system, each kitchen had operated as a completely
separate unit; now all have basically the same meals, which may, of course, be adapted
to the special requirements of the patients in the area.
Dietician checking special-diet trays.
Installation of a new dish-washing machine in the East Lawn Building was an
important factor in raising the standard of service there. The fact that the dish-washing
section has been relocated has helped to relieve the congestion in the kitchen.
A total of four night cooks have been employed for staff meal service. As the
number of meals served in three areas seldom reached a total of fifty, night meal service
was concentrated into one building. The two cooks released from night duty were utilized
in the areas serving large numbers of patients.
Although some work was done in the East Lawn diet kitchen, this unit was not
completed. The number of therapeutic diets has increased from 100 to over 200 in the
past three years.
During the year the Department assisted with plans for kitchens in two new units
to be built at The Woodlands School and the Home for the Aged.   Equipment orders CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 77
were placed for the North Lawn unit, and preliminary organization plans made. It was
also necessary to plan new staff schedules so that the forty-hour week could be implemented in April.
Considerable progress has been made during this year, but the shortage of dieticians
on staff is a major problem. Complete supervision of the food services of the Provincial
Mental Hospital, Crease Clinic, and Home for the Aged is impossible with a staff of
only four.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Catherine L. Neighbor,
Chief Dietician.
DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the annual report of the Department of Neurology covering
the period of April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
Both the clinical and laboratory studies of patients showed an increase over the
previous fiscal year. The number of electroencephalograms carried out was 1,331,
compared with 1,079 the year before. A total of 328 pneumoencephalograms were
performed, 91 more than in 1953.
Thirty-nine cases were dealt with in collaboration with the neurosurgical service;
fourteen of these required neurosurgical intervention of various kinds, and the remainder
were handled with conservative therapies. For the first time practically all neurosurgery
was done at the Crease Clinic, avoiding the costly transfer to the Vancouver General
Hospital. Corticoencephalography was employed in the surgical eradication of epileptogenic lesions with gratifying results.
Survey studies on a research project of the electroencephalographic relationship to
mental illness were jointly continued with Dr. M. Kennard.
Lectures on neurological and related matters were given to medical and nursing
staff.
Clinical demonstrations were given to first- and third-year medical students, as well
as to students of applied psychology.
Patients Referred to Neurosu
rgery and Dispos
it ion, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st
7955
Number
of
Cases
Post-operative Disposition
Diagnosis
Rehabilitation
Discharge
Pending
Return
to
Mental
Hospital
In
General
Hospital
Died
Total
5
2
....
3
1
....
5
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
3         |          3
1         |        ....
....         |        ....
1         I
3
1
Totals          	
15         1         10
1         1
4
15
Respectfully submitted.
W. P. Fister, M.D., F.R.C.P.(C),
Director of Neurology. M 78 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
LABORATORY REPORT
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Total laboratory tests carried out at the Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic
during the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955, were 51,486. This represents
5,460 more laboratory examinations than were performed in the previous year; this also
represents a greater rate of increase than that of the previous fiscal year over 1952-53.
In reviewing the detailed figures of the tests carried out and comparing them with
the record of the previous year, several points are of some interest.
In serological tests there is a further decrease in the percentage of positive Kahn
tests, with an over-all increase in the total tests carried out.
Laboratory technician in Crease Clinic laboratory.
In the field of hematology the most outstanding variation from the previous year is
in the blood-bank area, where grouping and cross-matching total 436, as opposed to 268.
There is as well a very appreciable increase in bleeding and clotting times, with the more
routine blood tests showing only a slight increase.
Biochemical tests, particularly in the field of liver-function tests, show very pronounced rise. This is ascribable to two factors: first, an outbreak of infectious hepatitis
among both patients and staff, and the increased use of largactil as a therapeutic measure.
A further factor entering into the over-all increase in total laboratory tests has been the
opening of the new North Lawn Building.
The Mantoux testing programme is continuing. It is of further interest to note that
a number of the more time-consuming procedures, particularly tests for 17-ketosteroids,
show an increase of well over 100 per cent.
Surgical and biopsy speciments are at approximately the same level as last year, and
autopsies show a slight decrease. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 79
A very real rise has been present in the medico-legal biochemical tests for Coroner's
Courts tand for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. For the most part, these are blood
alcohol estimations and blood, gastric contents, and tissue estimations for barbiturates.
Electrocardiograms and basal metabolic rates are approximately the same level as
last year.
Enumerated below is the report of laboratory tests carried out from April lst, 1954,
to March 31st, 1955:—
Blood tests—
Kahn, negative.
Kahn, positive...
Kahn, quantitative
3,111
40
27
1,393
Red-blood cells and haemoglobin	
Haemoglobin  3,352
Hematocrit  10
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin  2
Mean corpuscular volume  2
Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration  2
White-blood cells and differential  4,151
Eosinophile count
Thorn test	
Examination for L-E cells ....
Sedimentation rate	
Grouping	
Cross-matching	
Indirect Coombs test	
Sternal marrow	
Bleeding time .	
Coagulation time	
Prothrombin activity	
Platelet count	
Reticulocyte count	
Red-cell fragility	
Culture	
Widal 	
Agglutination for B. abortus.
Paul Bunnell test	
Glucose	
Glucose tolerance	
Amylase
        142
  1
  1
     1,914
        145
....        291
  3
  2
        220
        233
        111
  33
  40
  1
  26
  1
  1
  4
        518
  24
  13
Non-protein nitrogen         221
Urea nitrogen	
Urea clearance	
Uric acid	
Creatinine	
Carbon monoxide	
Carbon dioxide combining power	
Cholesterol	
Barbiturate	
Bromide	
Chloride	
Sodium	
Potassium	
Iron	
13
1
6
11
1
37
104
6
14
22
31
30
5 M 80 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Copper  3
Calcium  26
Phosphorus  15
Alkaline phosphatase  68
Acid phosphatase  11
Icterus index  101
Van den Bergh  235
Total protein __. 70
Albumin globulin ratio  78
Fibrinogen  2
Hanger flocculation  904
Thymol turbidity  8 8
Bromsulphalein excretion  1
Alcohol  9
Salicylate  1
Ascorbic acid  2
Cerebrospinal-fluid tests—
Kahn, negative  332
Kahn, positive  15
Kahn, quantitative .. 9
Colloidal gold  310
Cell count _._.___ 656
Total protein  869
Glucose  4
Chloride  1
M. tuberculosis  1
Ultra-violet absorption spectrum  214
Urine tests—
Routine general  10,358
Acetone  2,004
Quantitative sugar  409
Benzidene test  561
Bromide  2,511
Quantitative albumin  273
Bence-Jones protein  2
Two-hourly  3
Concentration-dilution test  1
Diuresis test  1
Urea concentration test  1
Friedman —. 61
Bile  1,509
Urobilinogen  152
Uroporphyrin  1
Porphobilinogen   1
Phenylpyruvic acid  2
Diastase  2
Phenolsulphonphthalein excretion   3
Barbiturates  3
Salicylates  2
Total nitrogen  2
17-ketosteroids  27
Tuberculosis (24-hour specimen)  7 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 81
Copper	
Cystoscopic specimens.....
Smears—
Miscellaneous	
Gonococcus	
Trichomonas vaginalis	
Fungus	
M. tuberculosis	
Vincent's organisms	
Malaria	
Sputum for tuberculosis	
Cultures—
Miscellaneous	
Antibiotic sensitivity test.
Diphtheria	
  121
  4
  1,116
95
77
  6
  50
  3
  1
  181
  383
  211
  1
Typhoid..                              1,376
Dysentery  1,339
Salmonella	
M. tuberculosis	
Candida albicans..
Gonococcus	
Water ...
Gastric contents—
Chemical analysis.
Occult blood	
M. tuberculosis	
Barbiturates	
Alcohol	
Heavy metals	
Faeces—
Parasites	
Occult blood	
M. tuberculosis	
Injections—
Typhoid vaccine ...
Diphtheria toxoid
Skin tests—
5
127
14
2
8
67
3
3
3
63
68
1
563
54
Tuberculin  2,050
Pollen sensitivity	
Schick test	
Casoni test	
Smallpox vaccinations ...
Basal metabolism tests...
Electrocardiograms	
Surgical specimens	
Cytological examination-
Autopsies	
Animal autopsies
  1
  197
  1
  148
  204
  401
  89
  6
  125
  60
Sections, paraffin...                3,982
Sections, frozen  3
Rumpel-Leeds test  1
Pleural-fluid routine  1 M 82 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Hydrocele-fluid routine  1
Milk for preservatives  1
Tissue for barbiturates  4
Tissue for alcohol  9
Tissue for phenol  1
Tissue for salicylates  1
Tissue for chloral hydrate  1
Tissue and food for cyanide  2
Soap analysis  1
Total  51,486
Respectfully submitted.
H. E. Wilson, M.D.,
Pathologist.
DEPARTMENT OF RADIOLOGY
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—The following is a report of the work performed in the Department of
Radiology from April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955:—
Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
Number of films taken  4,902
Number of patients X-rayed  1,979
Films Patients
Chests     1,509 1,484
Extremities         202 65
Spines         377 114
Skulls           75 31
Pneumoencephalograms     1,920 160
Barium enemas         172 17
Barium meals         336 26
Pyelograms          84 12
Ribs           19 10
Pelvis          12 6
Abdomens           40 19
Jaws          31 9
Mastoids          28 7
Sinuses          34 9
Nose            3 1
Gall-bladders          25 4
Barium swallows            7 2
Ventriculargrams           16 2
Angiogram           12 1
4,902 1,979 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 83
Provincial Mental Hospital
Number of films taken	
Number of patients X-rayed	
Films
Chests  8,996
Extremities  2,540
Spines  547
Skulls  276
Pneumoencephalograms  1,872
Barium enemas  567
Barium meals  813
Intravenous pyelograms  236
Ribs  54
Pelvis  38
Abdomens  174
Jaws  142
Gall-bladders  86
Sinuses  46
Noses  96
Barium swallows  79
Mastoids  16
Cholangiogram  4
Ventriculargram  6
Orbit  2
16,590
Respectfully submitted.
16,590
10,560
Patients
8,906
834
149
101
156
64
65
37
28
22
76
38
17
13
32
15
4
1
1
1
10,560
J. M. Jackson, M.D.,
Director of Radiology.
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Following is a report on the activities of the Psychology Department from
April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
During the past year two psychological interns were carried by the Department,
with an effort being made to give these people a wider programme of supervised experience. A plan was formed whereby an intern should obtain some experience with
mentally retarded patients in The Woodlands School. It was felt that a broader use of
the facilities available in the training period would add to the scope of the psychologist
who spends up to one year gaining experience that will make him an adequate member
of the psychiatric team. Mr. A. Clarke, who completed his internship in October, 1954,
remained on staff as a Psychologist II.
The reorganization of psychologist positions was completed this year. There still
remains an unfavourable ratio of staff to patients, and new positions are persistently
sought in order to keep up with the work demands made on this small department.
Of some assistance has been the work of the psychologist of the University research
team, who has covered some cases that would normally be assigned to the psychologists
here. M 84
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
There has been an increase in the amount of time spent in interdepartmental staff
meetings this year. A psychologist attends all ward-round meetings, a total of six weekly.
Here the referral system shows some improvement when a psychologist is present to
review the possibilities of the individual case before the referral is accepted. The
psychologist also has the opportunity to assess his findings in the light of the investigations completed by other departments.
The programme of the psychology lectures for psychiatric nursing continues. Forty-
five hours of lectures were given to approximately 100 second-year students. An effort
has been made to rotate classroom activities amongst the members of the Department
so that more psychologists become experienced in the presentation of psychological
lecture material.
Clinical psychologist examining a patient.
The Psychology Department still contributes to the group therapy programme, with
108 sessions being attended. Psychologists are active in groups in the Provincial Mental
Hospital as well as the Crease Clinic. A new system of recording of material obtained
from group therapy has been instituted. This requires a pre-therapy note on the treatment goals for each individual, progress notes during therapy, and a concluding summary
when group therapy is completed. This recording is in addition to the regular reports
still kept on individual meetings.
A contribution was made to the research programme carried on in conjunction
with the medical staff. Psychological tests have proved a useful means of measurement
when pre- and post-treatment comparisons are to be made. Twelve patients were seen
and a total of fifty-six tests were given in a group therapy study with patients in the
Mental Hospital. Another research design was set up for a study on the effects of a new
treatment drug. It is planned to proceed with two testing periods with each individual,
after which statistical comparisons will be drawn.
The main function of the Psychology Department remains the clinical assessment
of individual patients by means of psychological tests.   Many tests are employed to meet CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 85
a variety of needs, but the most pressing need is for information most readily obtainable
through the use of projective techniques. A thorough assessment of the patient's assets
and liabilities is of utmost importance early in his hospitalization.    However, there is
an ever-increasing interest in re-evaluation of patients* who have been in hospital for
a prolonged period, and again material brought forth on both projective and standardized
psychological tests is of utmost importance in assessing the individual's degree of
function.
A total of 478 patients were seen for clinical assessment in one or more interviews.
The following table lists the specific tests utilized:—
Referrals completed  478
Referrals seen by research  102
Ward rounds  210
Group therapy t  108
Lectures to medical students  8
Hospital tour for University students  1
Student-nurse interviews  2
Psychiatric nursing lectures  45
Psychiatric nursing examinations  100
Abstracts of psychological examinations  2
Orientation lectures  5
Research project  1
Tests Administered
Bender-Gestalt  124
Benjamin Proverbs  5
Blacky Pictures  1
Draw-a-Person  190
Goldstein Scheerer  9
Kuder Preference Record  5
Incomplete Sentences  8
McQuarrie Test of Mechanical Ability  1
Make-a-Picture Stories  1
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory  2
Occupational Interest Inventory _.... 6
Porteus Maze  7
Progressive Matrices  3
Rorschach  373
Rosenweig Picture Frustration  1
Stanford-Binet  10
Symonds Picture Story , ... 9
Shipley-Hartford  104
Szondi  52
Thematic Apperception Test  53
Wechsler-Bellevue  338
Wechsler Memory  15
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children  6
Word Association  1
Wide Range Achievement  3
Total 1,327
Respectfully submitted.
Alice J. Elart,
Senior Psychologist. M 86
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENTS, PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
AND CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D., ,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to present the annual report of the Social Service Department of the
Provincial Mental Hospital. During the years 1954 and 1955 the Department has
moved toward greater consolidation, both in organization and administration. Social
Service functions have been critically studied and defined, and a statement of policy
relevant to these changes has been formulated. Withal social services in general to
patients have continued to expand through the increasing use of diagnostic and brief
services, as well as in the area of group work services.
 ■:■■
"' fl
•: :H;:::,":' :.:i.s|l||||f
N
■'.'...■ r
UST"
fc *WL
a
^,
EH
. . ■ . : .-■ ■
;
Social-case worker interviewing relatives of a patient.
Staff Changes, Provincial Mental Hospital
During the year 1954-55, the Social Service Department of the Provincial Mental
Hospital, with a basic establishment of eight social workers, has undergone several
changes. Three resignations necessitated replacement by one experienced social worker
and two who were newly graduated from the School of Social Work. In addition, two
members of the staff were granted educational leave, and in the interim were replaced
by one trained social worker, employed, however, on a part-time basis only. Another
staff member was promoted to a supervisory position which had become vacant on the
transfer of the encumbent to the Social Service staff of the Crease Clinic. In all, the
Department carried on its responsibilities throughout the year with the assistance of five
and one-half social workers on staff.
Despite these changes in personnel, with their ensuing decrease and dislocation of
services, over-all gains have accrued in the quality of services, in improvements in CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 87
Departmental organization, and in an expansion of those services provided on a short-
term basis. This has been due primarily to the skill of the casework supervisor, and to
the interest and sense of responsibility on the part of the entire staff.
Changes in the Locale of Social Services in the
Provincial Mental Hospital
The Departmental structure instituted three years ago continues to prove adequate
as a base for the effective use of a less than minimal staff in rendering service to the
percentage of patients selected for coverage. This structure comprises two sections—
Admission and Brief Services and Continuing Casework Services. Social Services in the
Admission and Brief Services Section are located in the Centre Lawn Building and are
now concerned almost entirely with direct service to the patient-group there in residence,
whereas formerly this service was extended to all units of the Hospital, with the result
that a percentage of the patients in Centre Lawn were selected for brief social services.
Because of the demands from other units of the Hospital, it was not possible to concentrate on the total group of patients in the Centre Lawn Building, the admission unit to
the Provincial Mental Hospital.
During the year 1,163 patients were admitted to Centre Lawn; of this patient-group,
1,109 were referred to the Admission and Brief Services Section. For the past three
years this Section has been staffed by one social worker. Increasing demands from
Centre Lawn for service this year necessitated assistance from two social workers from
the Continuing Casework Services Section and from three student social workers. This
assistance was given at the expense of the programme in the latter Section. The benefits
to the Centre Lawn programme were encouraging. The social worker, with assistance,
was able to assess the social situation and social service needs of the 1,109 patients
referred for social diagnostic study, and to screen out from these referrals 429 patients
(38.68 per cent) for social services. These, of necessity, had to be of a very brief nature,
which is understandable when the numbers needing this help and the staff available to
give it are taken into consideration. It was not possible to extend help to the patients in
Centre Lawn during the pre-convalescent and convalescent period. This is a very regrettable situation, since the percentage of patients being discharged from Centre Lawn
admission unit has increased over the past two years from 44 to 65 per cent of all patients
admitted.
A preliminary review of staff needs in the establishment of a social service department in Centre Lawn admission unit would indicate the appointment of four workers
on intake and brief services to cover the needs of newly admitted patients and four on
continuing casework services to cover the needs of patients during treatment, pre-
convalescence, and convalescence. The intake workers would greatly facilitate the
diagnostic study by the team at the time of the patient's first staffing. The appointment
of four workers to continuing casework services would make a marked contribution to
the rehabilitation of the patient and, on his return to community, help him to hold his
gains in treatment and to adjust to community life. Patients at this time need the
security that lies in the concrete help, support, and understanding of a social worker
from the Hospital.   It is this service which often prevents a readmission.
The Continuing Casework Section is located in East Lawn; although having an
establishment for seven workers, the work-time of only four and one-half workers was
available this year. The workers in this Section have tended to focus their efforts on
the patients in the long-term treatment units in East Lawn, West Lawn, Homes for the
Aged, and the Colony Farm. These units have increased their referrals of patients to
such an extent that the Section had to close intake from time to time. However, 118
patients were referred for help from Centre Lawn while in treatment, and 217 were
referred from East Lawn, West Lawn, and the Colony Farm.   In addition, 413 patients M 88 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
were referred from the same sources for assessment of readiness for rehabilitation and
for planning rehabilitation. The Section's greatest social-work activity has centred on
East Lawn, with its patient population of 1,433 women.
Case-load Details in the Social Service Department,
Provincial Mental Hospital
Tables 1 and 2 show the continued increase in the numbers of patients given direct
service (42.4 per cent) over the previous fiscal year. The quality of service on interview count has improved some 60.27 per cent over that of the previous fiscal year. The
activity of the Admission and Brief Services Section may be further estimated by the
increased number of case summaries (713) prepared for the diagnostic study and the
formulation of the initial treatment plan during the patient's first staffing. This Section
covered 90.77 per cent of all patients admitted to Centre Lawn; 38.68 per cent were
given brief casework services, ranging from three to six interviews. The remainder were
studied for diagnostic purposes. In the previous year 31.15 per cent of all patients
admitted to Centre Lawn were screened for brief casework services and no diagnostic
study service was given.
Tables 3 and 4 indicate a slight decrease in the number of patients given service in
the Continuing Casework Services Section of the Social Service Department of the Provincial Mental Hospital. This is undoubtedly due to staff shortages and the fact that
resignations were replaced mostly by beginning workers who must be oriented at first
to the specifics of the psychiatric-hospital setting. Some 809 patients were given service
in this Section, and some 5,577 helping interviews were undertaken in the integrated
approach to patient treatment shared by social work with medicine, nursing, psychology,
and other services in the hospital.
Social Service Department, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
The year 1954-55 has been a year of consolidation and expansion of the work in
the Social Service Department of the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine. Demands
for in-patient services have increased, as well as those for continuing family casework
services for patients discharged in full. This latter service is very necessary if patients
are to retain whatever gains in treatment they make in the Crease Clinic with its accelerated period of treatment, ranging from eight weeks to four months. Emotional illnesses are long in the making; treatment to rehabilitation is only possible through intensive and extensive services over a long period. These must extend into the patient's
home, his family, and often his relatives, friends, and the community. The patient's
increasing need for family services on discharge are thus seen as a real necessity if an
adjustment is to be made and maintained. Of the 1,385 patients entering the Crease
Clinic during the fiscal year, it is estimated that approximately 1,108 come from their
homes in the Greater Vancouver area. From a study in the Social Service Department,
approximately 750 patients on discharge are in need of continuing family services. The
service capacity of existing health, welfare, and employment agencies in the Greater
Vancouver area is already seriously overtaxed. Therefore, the Crease Clinic and its
Social Service Department must provide a follow-up family service for those patients
whom existing community agencies cannot serve. The development of the day-hospital
and out-patient unit is eagerly looked forward to in an effort to meet these patients' needs.
Meanwhile a very large responsibility for this service rests with the Crease Clinic Social
Service Department. It has received the help and support of the medical and nursing
departments in this work, and grateful acknowledgment is hereby extended to them.
Staff Changes, Crease Clinic
During the fiscal year there have been three changes in senior staff. One casework
supervisor transferred to another division of the Social Welfare Branch.    This position CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 89
was filled from senior casework staff in Crease Clinic. Another senior caseworker transferred to a casework supervisory position in the Child Guidance Clinic. These vacancies
in the caseworker ranks have remained unfilled to date. The present establishment for
caseworkers in the Crease Clinic is set at seven. For much of the fiscal year the Social
Service Department has operated with five social workers. Their in-patient social service
responsibility covers 1,385 patients admitted during the fiscal year and 750 patients
needing continuing family services on discharge.
Department Structure
This remains as instituted three years ago. The reasons for the structure were to
attain better coverage of patients' social service needs through a functional utilization
and structuring of a less than minimal staff. It still proves relatively adequate to these
ends. This structure embodies the sectionalization of staff into Admission and Brief
Services and Continuing Casework Services.
In the Admission and Brief Services Section, 1,385 patients were reviewed and
screened for referral to social services. Of these, 410 patients were referred to the Continuing Casework Services Section, and 734 patients were carried in the Admissions and
Brief Services Section on a brief service level. The number of patients to whom no
in-patient service could be given was 241.
Despite the fact that 52.9 per cent of patients were carried in Admission and Brief
Services Section reflects in no way any kind of adequate service to the patients concerned.
Intake studies of the patient's situation, single interviews with relatives, single interviews
with patients, and single interviews with psychiatrists account for a large proportion of
the 52.9-per-cent coverage. In many of these instances the Admission and Brief Services
workers' assessment revealed that a further service, either of a brief or continuing nature,
would have been most helpful to the patient or his family. It was not possible to give
such a service, even during that portion of the year when there were three social workers
in this Section (April lst, 1954, to August 31st, 1954).
In reviewing the records of the patients' first staffings, an over-all average of fifteen
women patients and twelve men patients were presented weekly at each staffing (ward
rounds). Each patient to be presented was reviewed by the social workers and casework supervisor in this Section prior to ward rounds, and a tentative decision made
regarding referral. It has been concluded from this review that where fifteen women
patients have been presented at the staffing in any one week, an average of three have
been assigned to Continuing Services, and two to Brief Services, involving more than
the very brief contact, as indicated above. Despite the fact that 33Vz per cent of the
patients presented were assigned on any specific basis, the Section supervisor has always
been aware that an additional 33VS per cent of the patients had problems, indicated in
the initial social service review, as requiring casework services.
The Continuing Casework Services Section started the fiscal year with four caseworkers on staff. In December, 1954, this was reduced to three workers. During the
fiscal year 410 patients were referred to this Section. In such instances intensive casework services were provided to these patients and to their families for periods of time
varying from two months to one year and involving interviews ranging from three or
four a week to once every two weeks or a month. The latter applies to patients who
have been discharged, whereas in some instances in-patients have been seen on a daily
basis for several weeks of their hospitalization. Follow-up services to discharged patients
have had to be provided at a minimal level.
Case-load Details in the Sections Concerned with Admission and Brief
Services and Continuing Casework Services, Crease Clinic
Tables 5 and 6 show a continued increase in the numbers of patients given direct
services at the time of admission (80 per cent increase over the previous fiscal year). M 90 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
On interview count the quality and activity in direct help has improved some 72.46 per
cent over that of the previous fiscal year. This Section's activity in the diagnostic and
treatment formulation staffings may be ascertained from the fact that 231 summaries
were prepared by this Section for the patients' first staffings. Some 734 patients (52.9
per cent of all patients) were carried at a very brief service level.
Tables 7 and 8 indicate that 33% per cent of all patients entering Crease Clinic
were carried on an intensive continued-casework services level. Due to depletion in
staff, this Section was able to carry only one-third of the patients it carried in the previous fiscal year in a sustained and continued casework helping relationship.
These tables also indicate progress made in integrative therapy. There has been
over 100 per cent increase in inter-conferencing of cases with other disciplines, that of
nursing being most significant.
Report on Social Group Work Services, Provincial Mental Hospital
and Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
During the fiscal year the social group work service to patients (inaugurated in
February, 1954) has expanded into three major areas of collaboration with medicine
and nursing. These include development of social group activities for adolescent patients,
an experimental " open ward" programme, and participation in nursing education.
While development of the total service is still in its early stages, with only one worker,
the social group work method appears to have stimulated widespread interest and gained
considerable acceptance as a therapeutic medium. The following is a brief summary of
services given:—
Adolescent Treatment Group.—Demonstration programme in collaborative use of
social group work method and group psychotherapy in treatment of teen-age patients
who form a small but clear-cut minority within Hospital and Clinic.
This is a mixed group of approximately ten adolescents referred by their own doctors for a socializing experience and especially for help in working through dependency
needs and channelling awakening hetero-sexual drives. The group meets three times
weekly (two social and one psychotherapy session—one session taken by social group
worker, one by doctor, and one jointly led). It is composed of teen-agers from all parts
of Hospital and Clinic living on adult wards. They have widely varying diagnoses (from
schizophrenic to behaviour problems) and diverge markedly in previous socialization
and background. A balance is kept between boys and girls, and aggressive and passive
reaction patterns, as well as between Clinic and Hospital patients. It is a small, constantly changing group (turnover of 60 to 70 per cent in nine months) but with relatively stable nucleus.
During the year this group has met ninety-six times (exclusive of psychotherapy
sessions), extending group membership to a total of thirty-five patients with an average
treatment period of six weeks each. Two-thirds of the total of twenty-four discharges
have been Clinic patients, while five patients have been suspended or transferred to other
treatment services. While attendance at meetings is voluntary, group attendance for the
year has been 86 per cent, while a further 12 per cent is accountable to conflicting
appointments, physical sickness, etc., leaving only 2 per cent as voluntary absence.
This high attendance record in itself gives some indication of the need being filled.
Group Goals.—1. To promote warmer, more meaningful interpersonal relationships
and feeling of belonging to society.
2. To provide both outlets and controls for the aggressive and greater security and
freedom of expression to the withdrawn.
3. To assist the total group acquire greater ability to make and carry out its own
plans in an increasingly mature fashion.
4. To help all members gain increasing independence of parental patterns while
developing social standards and values in keeping with those of the wider community. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 91
Through this service the group worker provides a different treatment focus in which,
through the worker's concentration on the needs of the whole group and of the individual
only as seen in and through the group, all members gain ability to adjust their own needs
to those of their contemporaries and of society.
The social programme, aimed toward improvement in relationships and behaviour,
is basically that of a teen-age club, in which members are encouraged to develop ability
in planning their own programme, making decisions, and assuming responsibility for
follow through. It has been extremely permissive but within definite limits of hospital
setting with additional controls as necessary in the light of individual and group needs.
The group itself has become well established during the past year, slowly developing through the usual testing phases until it now has quite well-defined group mores and
codes, many of which are now internalized by members. Despite slip-backs, there is
marked general improvement in members' behaviour both in the group and on their
wards. Group unity has also permitted increasing freedom in choice and setting of
programme, enabling leaders to take members out of doors and occasionally off the
grounds.
Programme media used as tools in channelling hostility, increasing independence,
and assisting in development of hetero-sexual interests have included simple active games,
hikes and picnics, sing-songs, square and ballroom dancing, and listening to records.
Painting and plasticine work (chosen by members in preference to clay) were important
in freeing the group in initial stages. Food and its preparation has been a major interest
(as might be expected), as have periodic group parties and informal discussion of social
experience. In good weather the group has also made extensive use of a log cabin on
the grounds, which has permitted a further range of programme activities.
Group Movement.—During the year significant changes in group behaviour have
occurred. These include broadening of programme and interests, development of group
codes of behaviour enforced by the members, increased ability to make and carry through
appropriate decisions and plans, along with a greater sense of freedom, unity, and
belonging both for the individual members and for the group as a whole.
While individual treatment goals vary widely, within the general goals according
to the nature of each member's particular problems, it is safe to estimate that 50 per
cent have made significant improvement in behaviour and general adaptation, while a
further 25 per cent have benefited considerably in specific areas (these are, by and large,
the youngsters with the more deep-rooted forms of disturbance). Of the remaining
25 per cent who have benefited only slightly or not at all, approximately half were new
members beginning treatment at the year-end, while the remainder were those whose
personalities were too damaged to gain anything from this form of treatment (and who
were therefore suspended from membership) or those whose escape terminated treatment in its initial stages (one member).
Major achievements, in addition to improved behaviour already noted, have come
in several areas. Most important is the impetus which group progress has given to
medical plans for separate living facilities for these patients in an adolescent treatment
centre.
While many refinements in selection and screening criteria, group methods and
programmes, casework group work integration, and research techniques are still required,
it is safe to state that the social group work method as demonstrated in and through
this group has gained high acceptance in this setting as a valuable therapeutic tool in
the treatment of adolescents. As a further step in sharpening group work skills, a major
evaluation of all aspects of the programme is to be undertaken during the summer of
1955 as a guide to future planning.
" Open Ward " Project.—As a second demonstration of use of social group work
method, an on-ward programme has been initiated in relation to a hospital ward of 156
patients which was " opened " in February.    This is basically a long-term treatment M 92 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
ward for patients working in various parts of the Hospital who have proved themselves
capable of using parole privileges effectively. The social group work programme has
been designed to assist the nursing staff in organizing and conducting an extensive
social-recreation programme for the patients, developing interest and discussion groups
to improve ward life. In this the worker has given direct leadership in initiating and
planning activities, functioned as resource person to the charge nurse and her staff in
carrying continuing programme and as liaison person between the various disciplines
involved in the team, participating in a total of eighty major conferences. One of the
major aims has been to institute group controls to replace the staff controls automatically relaxed with the opening of the ward, and to make a transition toward more
socialized " community " living. Toward this end, small groups of patients have been
planned around verbalized and inferred interests such as charm and personal appearance, cooking, talents (music, dancing, choral singing, drama), active games, etc., in
addition to discussion groups around ward life and management. Patients are already
showing marked response to the suggestion of more autonomous club-type activity, and
repercussions begin to show in administrative circles toward efforts to provide necessary
equipment and facilities, and to strengthen and solidify the staff team conducting the
experiment. With the project yet in its initial phase, many difficulties remain to be
overcome, but the approach is generally most positive and forward looking. Already
much has been accomplished toward clearance of interdepartmental communication
channels, provision of equipment, and stabilization of nursing personnel (who normally
move from ward to ward as well as from shift to shift).
To date two new social activity groups have been formed on the basis of patient
interest involving roughly one-third of the total ward population.
Entertainment Committee.—This group began in December, 1954, around planning of ward Christmas activities, including a concert party (with talent drawn from
the ward) which was organized and conducted mainly by the patients themselves. As
of March 31st, it had held a total of ten meetings and grown in both size (from six to
twenty) and in scope of activities, planning and carrying out entertainment, decorating,
refreshment and serving responsibilities for monthly ward parties, and initiating the
request for joint parties with patients in the equivalent male open ward. This group
has chosen its own mistress of ceremonies for each event, produced two short skits
(written and acted by patients), and proposed formation of its own "kitchen " orchestra (subsequently organized). Initially led by the social group worker with a nurse as
observer, this group has " graduated " to regular leadership by a member of the nursing
staff. Volunteers now being oriented to the project are expected to be able to contribute their skills to this development at a later date.
Beauty Counselling.—Started on March 14th, this group had met only three times
to March 31st, but already thirty-eight patients were attending and a new interest in
personal appearance had begun to show as patients discussed posture and figure, skin
care, make-up, clothing, etc. Increased patient self-respect and mutual awareness continued between meetings and carried over to the ward as a whole. In addition to its
direct value to the patients involved, this programme immediately focused attention on
general ward needs for basic toilet articles, clothing, and cosmetics which had previously
been overlooked. While this group has been led since inception by a member of the
nursing staff, the group worker has assisted both the leader and supervising charge
nurse in its organization and initial programme planning.
Plans.—Patients have also indicated strong interest in cooking, games, book club,
talent club, music, painting, and newspaper, a number of which will be developed in the
autumn of 1955 after summer assessment of the initial programmes, while special efforts
will be made to cover a wide variety of summer outdoor interest groups for ward patients
in co-operation with Recreational and Occupational Therapy Departments. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 93
Social Group Work Orientation in the Nurses' Education Programme
From September to March, 1955, the social worker has given a total of nineteen
teaching clinics to orientate student and graduate nurses, student social workers, and
medical staff in the use of group methods in a clinical setting. These have included discussion of theory and experience with existing groups plus suggestions for practical application of group methods toward life, and have aroused considerable interest in each of
the lecture groups.
Summary of General Activities of the Social Service Departments, Provincial
Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
1. Supervision of Junior Staff.—The programme of individual and group supervision of junior staff has shown marked advancement during the fiscal year. Its value is
apparent in the Departments' coverage of patients referred and in the quality of services
rendered. The junior workers have received individually one and one-half hours of supervision weekly, senior workers an hour weekly. The advanced worker has consultation
available from his casework supervisor as he needs it. Group supervision brings together
senior and junior staff for group thinking and action in the over-all study and assessment
of social service demands, as well as planning for better social services to patients and
their families. The three casework supervisors on the Departments' staffs spent on an
average of forty-five hours monthly in the supervision of casework staff—approximately
539 hours during the fiscal year.
2. Committees drawn from staff have been studying recording in an effort to focus
it on the service requested, the patient to be served, and his movement to health and
rehabilitation in the casework relationship. Conciseness as to diagnostic study, service
plan, patient's response to services, as well as ways of integrating social treatment with all
other treatment services have been considered. As a result, concise, focused recording
outlines have been devised for use in treatment, pre-convalescent, and convalescent
recording on patients. A committee drawn to evaluate the present statistical system in
the Social Service Department has presented suggestions which will result in more relative
accuracy and simplicity in the system.
3. Educational Activity to Allied Professions.—During the fiscal year the Social
Service Departments have been active in the educational programme for fourth-year
medical students, public health nurses, postgraduate nurses, affiliate nurses, and psychiatric nurses. Conferences with the Director of Education, School of Nursing, University
of British Columbia, have resulted in a more purposeful participation of social work.
Some thirty-six hours were spent in nursing education and eight in medical education.
4. Social-work Education.—Seven students from the School of Social Work had
field placement in the Provincial Mental Hospital and the Crease Clinic, supervised by
staff members of the Social Service Departments. During the years a valuable contribution has been made by the School and the students to the development and growth of
social services in the psychiatric setting. Four groups of in-service trained social workers
from the Social Welfare Branch were oriented to social services in the setting of psychiatric hospital and clinic. The Departments consider this a very important function and
of value in the working relationships existing between the Social Service Departments in
Hospital and Clinic and the field services of the Social Welfare Branch. This has been
further strengthened by the Social Service Departments' participation in the educational
programme in the annual staff meetings of the Social Welfare Branch regions.
5. Each year brings interesting visitors to the Mental Health Services. This year,
visitors from Australia, the Philippines, Japan, and England were oriented to social
services in the Mental Health Services.
6. The Goal.—The goal continues to be primarily concerned with increasing the
time spent individually with patients at every level of their treatment and to integrate in M 94
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
a total push, therapeutic approach the contribution of social work. Mental Health Grants
are making possible an increase in social workers available for appointments to staff in
line with this goal of individual service to more and more patients. Last year eight bursaries were extended to social workers in training and contracted to work for a two-year
period in the Mental Health Services. A recommendation for the structuring of a social
service department in Centre Lawn has received consideration from administration. This
will greatly assist in the attainment of the goal before us.
The Social Service Departments gratefully acknowledge the support of administration, all departments of Hospital and Clinic, and the community health and welfare
agencies—together they make a therapeutic community in the treatment and prevention
of mental illness.
Summary
Table 1.—Summary of Cases Given Services in the Admission and Brief Services Section, Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital, April 1st, 1954, to
March 31st, 1955.
1954-551 1953-542
Cases  brought  forward  from  previous  fiscal
year    28 27
New cases   999 422
Cases reopened during fiscal year  110 58
Total intake into Admission and Brief Services
Section case load   1,109 482
Total cases given service in Admission and Brief Services Section
case load   1,137 509
Cases closed or referred   1,101 471
Cases carried over to next fiscal year in Admission and Brief Services Section        36 28
Number of cases given brief service casework
services         429 509
1 Work of one worker stationed on admission unit assisted by two workers and three students from time to time.
- Work of one worker only.
Table 2.—Summary of Casework Activity on All Cases Referred to Admission and
Brief Services Section, Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital,
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
1954-55
Total casework interviews with and regarding patients  593
Total casework interviews with patients  443
Total casework interviews with relatives   150
Total  number of  conferences  and  consultations  concerning
patients       482
Team conferences   88
Consultations with other disciplines   296
Consultations with other welfare agencies  98
Periods of casework supervision (hours)   480
Case summaries and case preparation   823 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 95
Table 3.—Summary of Cases Given Services in the Continuing Casework Services Section, Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital, April 1st, 1954, to
March 31st, 1955. During Period
of Pre-conva-
lescence and
Convalescence
During Period
of Hospitalization
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year    72
New cases   207
117
413
Total intake into case load
279
Cases closed or referred  233
530
390
Cases carried over      46
Total cases given service (treatment and convalescence )     809
140
Table 4.—Summary oj Casework Activity on All Cases Rejerred to Continuing Casework Services Section, Social Service Department,  Provincial Mental Hospital,
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955. During Period
of Hospitalization
(Treatment)
Total casework interviews with and regarding patients   1,088
Total casework interviews with patients  832
Total casework interviews with relatives   256
Total number of conferences and consultations concerning patients   971
Team conferences, social workers attending... 19
Consultations with other disciplines   760
Consultations   with   other   welfare   agencies
and employment resources   192
Contacts with patients in Vista Rehabilitation
Centre     2
During Pre-
convalescence
and
Convalescence
1,801
1,407
394
1,717
66
1,202
401
48
Table 5.—Summary oj Cases Given Services by the Admission and Brief Services Section, Social Service Department, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st,
1955.                                                                                                                   1954-55 1953-54
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year    19 25
New cases   731 610
Cases reopened during fiscal year  149 116
Cases reopened from previous fiscal year       8 7
Total intake into Admission and Brief
Services Section case load   907
733
Total cases given service in Admission and Brief
Services Section   926
Cases closed or referred  910
758
739
Cases carried over in Admission and Brief Services Section 	
16
19 M 96
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Total number of conferences and
consultations concerning patients   2,617
Consultations with other disciplines   1,616
Team conferences (ward rounds)       113
Consultations with other welfare and employment agencies       888
Table 6.—Summary oj Casework Activity on Cases Carried by Admission and Brief
Services Section, Social Service Department, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954,  to
March 31st, 1955.                                                       1954_55 1953_54
Total casework interviews with and regarding patients  1,093 792
Total casework interviews with patients      635 331
Total casework interviews with relatives       458 461
1,469
914
102
453
Table 7.—Summary oj Cases Given Service by the Continuing Casework Services Section, Social Service Department, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st,
1955. During Period
During Period of Pre-conva-
of Hospital.- lescence and
zation Convalescence
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year    60 101
New cases      80 169
Total intake into case load   140 270
Cases closed or referred   124 222
Cases carried over     16 48
Total cases given service (treatment and convalescence), 410.
Table 8.—Summary oj Casework Activity, Continuing Casework Services Section,
Social Service Department, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
During Period
During Period of Pre-conva-
of Hospitali- lescence and
zation Convalescence
Total casework interviews with and regarding patients   2,262 1,581
Total casework interviews with patient  1,659 1,100
Total casework interviews with family      603 481
Total number of conferences and consultations concerning patients   2,574 1,680
Team conferences       113
Consultations with other disciplines   2,147 1,097
Consultations with Supervisor,  Vista Rehabilitation Centre           9 114
Consultations with other welfare agencies       295 429
Consultations with employment agencies         10 40
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Alice K. Carroll, B.A., M.S.W.,
Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 97
CHAPLAIN'S REPORT
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—The following report is submitted for the year April lst, 1954, to March 31st,
1955. It deals with the work of the Resident Chaplain in the Crease Clinic; the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale; and the Home for the Aged, Port Coquitlam, since, in
the Chaplain's work as at present constituted, they cannot be separated; further, it does
not cover the efforts of Rev. Father J. P. Kane as he is still on part-time duty.
In accordance with the standards for chaplaincy work in a mental hospital as set up
by the Association of Mental Hospital Chaplains (A.M.H.C), an affiliate of the American Psychiatric Association, and also by the Group for Advancement of Psychiatry
(G.A.P.), this report covers five major areas of work. Since it is the second year in
which there has been a full-time resident chaplain with the Mental Health Services, it has
been a year of selection and concentration on those aspects of the work that can be
covered by one man working a sixty-five-hour week and of discarding or only slightly
touching other areas.
(1) Worship
In this area of work there has been adequate coverage for a large section of the
patient population; namely, those who were not prevented from leaving the wards because
they were either too disturbed or were physically or legally incapable. The only expansion
in this area would be for more services on the wards themselves, which would require a
real increase in man-power. The statistics at the end of the report will show the public
services of worship at which there were ten or more patients gathered together voluntarily
for a regularly scheduled service, but takes no account of the smaller or private services.
(2) New Patients
Although both the A.M.H.C. and also the G.A.P. require that all patients be seen
by the chaplain upon or shortly after their admission to hospital, because there has not
been the man-power available, this area of work has had to be completely disregarded
even though it affects the field of public relations of the Mental Health Services as a
whole, besides its aid and beneficial effects to the patient.
(3) Counselling and (4) Visiting the III, Especially Those Critically III
Both of these areas have been recognized and met to the degree that time permitted,
even if not fully.
(5) Public Relations
This area has been slowly but steadily expanded during the year with regards to
relationships with relatives of patients, with other clergy, and with the general public.
It is a field that still requires great growth.
During the year there were several successful special events. On Easter Day a
service of worship was held during visiting hours in the afternoon, and the visitors were
invited to come along with the patients whom they were visiting. A fairly good number
accepted the invitation and afterwards were very grateful for the opportunity, and expressed a need for something similar more often.
On Remembrance Day the hour of the memorial service was set to correspond with
the 11 a.m. silence, and all recreational accompaniment removed to the evening. This
change has been a great help to the patients.
When the Archbishop of Canterbury was visiting the Province, arrangements were
made both with the Diocese of New Westminster and within the Hospital itself so that a
number of the patients were able to be taken to the mass service in the arena.  This was
4 M 98 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
a real help to the patients, and the only drawback was that we were unable to accommodate more patients.
During the year the Resident Chaplain went to the University of British Columbia
and gave a series of lectures to the senior students at the Anglican Theological College
on the role of the parish priest with regards to the mentally ill. Also active participation
was taken in a three-day institute on marriage and problems related thereto. This was
also conducted at the Anglican Theological College.
During the year, consideration was given and recommendations submitted (1) for
an addition to Pennington Hall to provide a chapel, since a real lack in the Hospital is
that there is no place where a patient can go whenever he needs to for a few minutes of
quiet and meditation; (2) for a chapel at the Home for the Aged so that its religious
needs can be more adequately met; and (3) as to what would be required for more
effective work at The Woodlands School.
The periods spent each week in the use of the public address system of the Hospital
have continued to be greatly appreciated and to prove their worth, even though they are
sadly handicapped by the fact that the system reaches to such a small proportion of the
patient population.
The following statistics cover only the services conducted by the Resident Chaplain
where at least ten patients were voluntarily gathered together, and does not cover the
twenty-five celebrations of mass for the Roman Catholics conducted by Rev. Father
J. P. Kane.
Number of services conducted        212
Number of broadcasts of public address system        161
Total  373
Total attendance at the services only (the broadcasts reach
one-sixteenth of the patient population)  24,312
Number of services held in Pennington Hall  68
Total attendance in Pennington Hall  20,731
Number of services held on the wards (128 in the Home for
for the Aged and 16 in the Veterans' Block)  144
Total attendance on the wards  3,581
Number of communion services  20
Total attendance at communion services  1,215
Total number who communicated (most of these services are
on a Monday morning)  713
Special mid-week services in Pennington Hall  4
Total attendance at special mid-week services  1,405
Average attendance—
Pennington Hall, morning  432
Pennington Hall, evening :  317
Pennington Hall communions  61
On the wards  25
At four special services  351
Average number of communicants (Monday morning)  36
Average weekly congregation  468
Average weekly services and broadcasts  7
Respectfully submitted.
John F. O'Neil, E.D., B.A., L.Th.,
Resident Chaplain. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M 99
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING SERVICE
Women's Division
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Presented herewith is the report of the Department of Nursing Service
(Women's Division) for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
This year there have been additions made to the areas of nursing service. A section
of Ward E 3 in the Centre Lawn Building was set apart as an insulin treatment area for
seven male and seven female patients. This area had been used for this type of treatment
prior to the opening of the Crease Clinic. Because of the lack of nursing personnel, we
were unable to open this as an insulin treatment area until April 5th, 1954. After much
preparation on the part of the nursing staff, Ward F2 in the East Lawn Building was
made into an "open ward." Much credit is due to the staff of this ward for its ability in
meeting this type of nursing situation, for it has not been an easy task. With the change
of philosophy toward the management of patients in an " open ward " situation, there was
need to discuss methods of nursing care. Regular meetings have been held for this purpose which have proved very valuable to the ward teaching and administrative staff. The
organization of meetings of the heads of staff of the departments offering treatment to
patients under the leadership of the Clinical Director have proved very valuable in coordinating the efforts of each department, as well as providing an opportunity to discuss
related problems, and regular meetings of the Hospital Council have done much to solve
interdepartmental problems.
This year a planned in-service educational programme was arranged for supervisors
and charge nurses of the men's and women's division of the units at Essondale and The
Woodlands School. The programme included discussions and demonstrations on various
phases of nursing. Guest speakers from the Royal Columbian Hospital and the Victorian
Order of Nurses were among the lecturers. As part of the programme an excellent display
was set up in the School of Psychiatric Nursing. It included the newer treatments and
the methods and care of patients.
All areas of the Nursing Department have extended a much broader service to
patients. The nursing staff are to be praised for enthusiasm and understanding in the
development of the newer types of treatment programme.
The change in methods of the management of patients has been encouraging but has
brought heavier demands on the nursing staff. The demands made on the staff in the
care of physical conditions has increased with the increase in surgical operations. Four
hundred and twenty-seven patients have been given care on our surgical ward in the past
year, as compared with 200 patients during the previous year.
The School of Psychiatric Nursing has had a very busy year, with 173 students
graduating from the psychiatric nursing course. The graduation exercises were held in
the auditorium of the New Westminster Junior High School. Greater liaison between
nursing administration and the students has been provided through regular meetings with
the students' council. These have been probem-solving sessions and have resulted in a
better understanding between administration and the student group. The purpose of these
meetings is to prepare the students' council to manage its own affairs more completely,
and this would include the general discipline of the student group.
Minor illness has been very prevalent among the staff, some of which has been
treated in the Nurses' Infirmary. We were fortunate indeed to have the services of Dr.
Dobreva and Dr. Just, who have given so generously of their time and skill to the members
of the nursing staff. The programme of immunization for tuberculosis through the use of
B.C.G. vaccination has continued, and it would appear to be successful. There has been
one case only of tuberculosis or pleurisy with effusion among our staff during the past year. M  100 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
The staffing of the Nursing Department has been difficult, particularly with respect
to the maintenance of sufficiently well-prepared staff. The demands of nursing service
have increased and the numbers of prepared personnel have decreased. The fiscal year
ended on March 31st, 1955, with the following personnel: —
Registered nurses      47
Graduate psychiatric nurses  192
Student psychiatric nurses .>  150
Psychiatric aides  297
Home housekeepers      26
Nursing counsellor        1
Total  713
Plus 15 at The Woodlands School.
The personnel changes during the year are summarized as follows:—
Total number of staff, year ended March 31st, 1954  655
Total number of staff, year ended March 31st, 1955  713
Resignations   311
Transfers        6
New appointments  331
The attrition rate continued to be high. The reasons for resignations are as
follows:—
Household duties  52
111 health  43
Change of residence  42
Marriage  39
To further education (music, course)  29
Change position  26
Unsuited to work  15
Services terminated  11
Training at General Hospital  10
Training at Provincial Mental Hospital       9
Failed lectures       8
Unable to get a housekeeper       5
Illness in family       4
Transportation difficulties       4
Completion of psychiatric graduate course       3
Personal reasons        2
Transferred to another position within unit       2
Temporarily employed       2
Attend Bible School       2
To travel       2
Work did not give satisfaction       1
Total  311
There were some changes in our senior nursing staff. Miss Edith Johnstone was
granted leave of absence to visit mental hospitals in Britain and Europe. Miss R. Cutler
returned from McGill University following completion of the course in administration in
schools of nursing and was assigned to the supervision of the Centre Lawn Building
following the resignation of Mrs. E. Boe. Miss S. Highman was appointed to night
supervisor, replacing Mrs. H. Samuel, who was assigned to day relief supervisor. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M  101
Our Department would function much more satisfactorily if there were greater
stabilization of staff, and if there were staff who were more adequately prepared to take
supervisor positions. There is also much need for personnel who are prepared in teaching
in the School of Psychiatric Nursing.
(Miss) Edith M. Pullan, R.N.,
Director oj Nursing.
Men's Division
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Presented herewith is the report of Department of Nursing Service (Men's
Division) for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
During the past year there has been greater fluctuation of male staff than for many
years, and though our total staff count is higher, we have not been able to replace the
number of male nurses lost to us with the same category of personnel and have had to
supplement them to some extent with psychiatric aides.
The following tables show the categories of staff appointed and lost during the past
year in this Department:—
New Appointments
Psychiatric nurses       7
Psychiatric aides     59
Student psychiatric nurses     44
Total .  110
Separations
Psychiatric nurses—
Deceased   4
Superannuated  6
Resigned  18
Transferred  9
Terminated  2
— 39
Psychiatric aides—
Resigned  34
Terminated     2
— 36
Student psychiatric nurses—
Resigned     5
Terminated     1
— 6
Total     81
Total number of staff as of March 31st, 1954  412
Total number of staff as of March 31st, 1955  441
Of the thirty-four psychiatric aides shown as resigning, nine did so to enrol in the
School of Psychiatric Nursing.
On the evening of April 21st, 1955, twenty-two male psychiatric nursing students
will receive their diplomas, thus bringing our ratio of psychiatric nurses to aides up
slightly but still below that of last year. M  102 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Following is the placement of staff as of March 31st, 1955:—
Psychiatric
Nurses
Aides
Students
Total
Provincial Mental Hospital	
166
48
29
1
12
10
80
4
18
9
3
22
12
6
6
15
268
64
53
1
Holiday relief  	
The Woodlands School 	
21
6
Ill      _     	
13
15
Totals	
266
114
61
441
The recreational programmes have been stepped up for patients in continued-
treatment areas, and it is with keen interest that staff note the benefits derived by the
patients, both mentally and physically, from recently inaugurated reactivation programmes on deteriorated wards.
The event of another male ward becoming an "open ward " on February lst, 1955,
is another important milestone in steady advance of mental-health programmes and
gives great encouragement to all concerned.
I should like to take this opportunity to express appreciation to all nurses, physicians,
and heads of departments who have helped and co-operated with the nursing staff at
all times.
Respectfully submitted.
R. H. Strong,
Chiej Male Psychiatric Nurse.
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING EDUCATION
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—Following is the annual report of the School of Psychiatric Nursing for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
The number of students applying for the course in psychiatric nursing has remained
approximately the same as the two years previous. During the year 1953-54 an effort
was made to increase the enrolment by admitting three classes a year instead of two.
This plan was not successful. Enrolment of students in January reduced the number
enrolled in May. Reverting then to the two-class-a-year plan, fifty-five women and
fifteen men students were accepted in August, 1954, and thirty-five women and fifteen
men students were accepted in March, 1955.
A total of 248 women and eighty-eight men students received instruction in the
basic psychiatric nursing course during the year.
Approximately twenty women and six men students are assigned to The Woodlands School for three months of experience. Two instructors visit The Woodlands
School one day each week to assist with their clinical instruction. Due to the co-operation of the physicians and supervisors, an excellent orientation programme has been
instituted, and students are given extensive assistance with nursing-care studies.
Because of the shortage of instructors, it has been necessary for Mr. G. Kenwood
to teach combined classes for men and women in psychiatric nursing. The students
have benefited from these classes, but women students have lacked the subsequent
instruction on the wards that is so necessary to make their classes meaningful. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL M  103
During the year 114 affiliate students have received instruction, as follows: Vancouver General Hospital, 52; Royal Columbian Hospital, 26; Royal Jubilee Hospital,
8; Royal Inland Hospital, 8; St. Paul's Hospital, 12; and University of British Columbia (degree course), 8.
The postgraduate course in psychiatric nursing was discontinued, and registered
nurses are offered an alternative. They are permitted to take the two-month student
affiliation course in psychiatric nursing, followed by four months of added experience
on wards selected to provide a balanced experience. Ten registered nurses enrolled for
the two-month course.
The School of Psychiatric Nursing played an active part in in-service education
and, besides contributing to the programme throughout the year, organized a nursing
exposition which was well attended.
The year has ended with the consciousness that in spite of maximum effort on the
part of the instructors to meet the changing and increasing demands resulting from
advances in psychiatry, further changes are necessary to prepare student-nurses to take
their place on the psychiatric team.
Respectfully submitted.
Orma J. Smith, B.A., R.N.,
Senior Instructor.
DEPARTMENT OF REHABILITATION
Women's Division
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—The rate of discharge from Vista has been comparable to last year's figure,
although there has been an increased discharge rate generally from the Crease Clinic
and Mental Hospital in keeping with the increased admission rate. There has also been
a greater incidence of unemployment in the community at large.
We welcome the Federal Government's decision to make funds available to discharged psychiatric patients to make an adequate living allowance while vocational
training goes forward. However, we have not yet taken advantage of this resource.
As a by-product of the Canadian Mental Health Association's volunteer programme,
a women's club has donated a sum of money to augment the patient's funds at the time
of discharge when there is need.
In recent months, out-patient service has been extended to patients discharged via
Vista so that they are permitted to make appointments to see the visiting physician
during his regular weekly call.   Four or five patients seek this service each week.
The Clinical Director has continued to direct supervision of this Department,
although case referral is now made through the Assistant Clinical Directors. The social
workers visit regularly to see their clients.
At Vista the full co-operation is enjoyed from the Supervisor and her assistant,
who work faithfully both to keep the patient's stay there a happy and fruitful one and
also to maintain and improve the premises. The resignation of Miss Green, the housekeeper, was received with regret during the year. On one occasion during the year the
Supervisor was at home to a small group of selected visitors from the hospital area
whose work is intimately bound in with the discharge of patients, and who are accorded
this opportunity to become familiar with the facilities of Vista. M 104 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Intake
Remaining in residence, March 31st, 1954      3
Total number admitted to The Vista from the Crease Clinic 42
Total number admitted to The Vista from the Provincial
Mental Hospital   17
— 62
Separations
Number returned to the Crease Clinic     4
Number returned to the Provincial Mental Hospital     1
— 5
Rehabilitated to the community   10
Rehabilitated to own home   10
Rehabilitated to job and lodging  32
Total rehabilitated   52
Remaining in residence, March 31st, 1955      5
Respectfully submitted.
F. E. McNair, B.A., M.D., CM.,
Clinical Director.
Men's Division
T. G. Caunt, Esq., M.D.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—The following report comprises the fifth annual report of the Men's Division
of the Rehabilitation Department.
Looking back over the year, it has been a difficult but successful one. The weather
during 1954 was unusually wet and definitely affected the employment picture in general.
Even during the peak months of employment, statistics show that there was a higher
percentage of unemployment than in former years. This was evident in the concern
shown by unions, social agencies, municipalities, etc., in referring this matter to higher
governmental authorities for consideration. However, it is with pleasure that this
Department can report a better than average percentage of sound placements throughout
the year. The Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine has done much to educate the
general public to an awareness of mental illness and to show the hopefulness rather than
the hopelessness of hospitalized patients. When one considers the number of patients
treated in the Crease Clinic, it is evident that a great many families in British Columbia
have had direct, or at least indirect, contact with the purpose and treatment possibilities
of the institution. This is very noticeable in interviewing people in industry. Because
of their awareness, there is less evidence of the so-called " stigma " of mental illness
and a more accepting attitude in regard to employment.
In November, 1954, an important meeting was held to discuss the possibility of
using Schedule R for the training of rehabilitable mental patients. The meeting, chaired
by Mr. H. A. Jones, Director of Technical and Vocational Education, Provincial Department of Education, included Col. J. Naish, Regional Supervisor of Special Placements,
National Employment Service; Mr. C. E. Bradbury, Rehabilitation Co-ordinator, Department of Health and Welfare; Dr. A. M. Gee, Director of Provincial Mental Health
Services; Miss A. K. Carroll, Provincial Supervisor of Psychiatric Social Work; and
Mr. J. D. Addison, Rehabilitation Officer, Provincial Mental Health Services.    The CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M  105
details of referral were cleared and the way opened for training under Schedule R.
Confirmation of this has been obtained from Mr. Ian Campbell, National Co-ordinator
of Rehabilitation, and will prove to be a valuable resource in the rehabilitation of mental
patients, provided extreme care is always exercised in choosing patients who will benefit
by training.
There are still many " tools " lacking to do a complete job in this specialized
rehabilitation field—adequate funds and increased staff. There appears to be some
prospect of obtaining an in-town rehabilitation centre, which is sorely needed. Further
progress and details are unavailable at the moment.
The need for rehabilitation services has been clearly shown in many fields. This
need appears to be branching into further specialized avenues, such as treatment and
rehabilitation services for alcoholics, a possible treatment and rehabilitation centre for
drug addiction, as well as the already well-established agencies for rehabilitating the
many forms of physical handicaps. All are a combination of services—medical, physical
training, vocational training, and placement in a gainful occupation. In all fields, as
in this Department, the aim is to return the patient to the community as a normal citizen.
In dollars and cents, the cost of rehabilitation is small compared to the economic returns
from well-established wage-earning ex-patients.
Respectfully submitted.
Summary of Referrals, April 1st, 1954,
to March 31st, 1955
1-4
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85
Psychoneurosis-	
27
17
7.
Epilepsy without psychosis. 	
7
10
70
in
Situational maladjustment.	
l
3
7
Pre-senile psychosis. • 	
4
12
1
Immature personality—passive dependency
Obsessive compulsive 	
1
1
3
Totals 	
Closed  - ,	
15
1
25
1
15
16
1
14
24
2
14
14
12
20
1
19
18
2
206
9
Total active rehabilitation cases...
14
24
14
15
14
22 [    14
14
12
19
19
16
197
10
4
162
14
10
190
9
5
158
11
4
165
10
4
90
16  1      8
8
6
122
5
7
79
9
10
132
10
9
156
11
159
121
Cases assisted by referral and casework
Total interviews _ _.
6
131
6
127
76
1,671
J. D. Addison,
Rehabilitation Officer. M  106
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
STATISTICAL TABLES
CREASE CLINIC
Table 1.—Movement of Population, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954,
to March 31st, 1955
Male
Female
Total
In residence, March 3 lst, 1954 _	
Admissions—
110
495
78
132
631
160
242
1,126
238
573
791
1,364
683                923             1,606
Separations—
Discharged in full _     _  _	
Died                 	
557                775
5                   2
1,332
7
562                 777              1,339
11                   14                   25
In residence, March 31st, 1955 _ _	
121
146
267
Table 2.—Showing in Summary Form the Operation of the Crease Clinic
since Its Inception
c
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Percentage of
Patients Recovered
and Improved to
Admissions
Percentage of
Discharges to
Admissions
(Deaths Excluded)
Year
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V
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D
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Percentage of
Deaths to
Whole Numbet
under Treatme
January, February, and
March, 1951	
1951-52
1952-53.	
1953-54           ...     _ .
264
963
1,221
1,256
1,364
26
158
96
85
147
38
496
727
814
901
23
155
201
213
284
7
97
148
131
C1)
12
21
14
7
170
215
243
242
267
45
28
25
i
264
1,133
1,436
1,499
1,606
24.24
67.91
67.39
71.58
76.09
35.61
94.19
94.35
98.96
97.65
1.06
1.46
0.93
1QS4-J5
0.44
1 "Without Psychosis" included in three columns of "Discharges" shown. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M  107
Table 3.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Health Unit and School
District of Residence and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
East Kootenay, Cranbrook—
School District No. 1	
„   2	
4
2
1
1
4
3
2
3
8
4
3
1
9
2
1
3
1
6
7
2
1
1
2
6
1
11
3
3
19
2
5
192
2
5
1
1
1
10
2
12
1
3
5
1
13
3
3
4
6
2
9
1
2
1
2
2
5
4
11
10
3
35
1
17
234
6
7
1
1
2
1
14
3
2
5
20
1
7
8
1
1
22
5
4
7
1
12
2
16
1
4
2
1
4
2
11
5
22
13
6
54
3
22
426
Metropolitan Heal
Vancouver—C
School District In
th Committee,
ontinued
o. 41	
21
15
4
15
7
6
4
1
5
1
3
10
2
1
2
1
16
6
1
3
5
5
1
8
4
12
3
3
3
2
7
42
22
6
23
12
9
5
3
8
3
4
3
4
1
18
6
3
2
1
1
1
3
4
5
14
1
4
2
2
1
1
1
4
63
„   3   	
44
37
„   4	
„   5	
 ,   45	
10
 18	
School District Is
North Fraser Valle
o. 40 -
38
,   43	
19
School District No. 6	
„   7        	
y, Mission—
n 42           	
15
„   8         	
75
9
„   10 	
Upper Island, Coui
School District >
Skeena, Prince Rup
School District >
Peace River, Daws
School District IN
,   76	
West Kootenay, Trail—
School District No. 9	
tenay—
o. 47	
4
„   11    	
,   71	
,   72          	
13
„        „   12 	
4
 13	
South Okanagan, Kelowna—
ert—
o. 50	
3
,   51	
„   15	
„   16     	
,   52	
,   53          	
14
5
 17.—	
 23	
 77 - -
,   54	
jn Creek—
o. 59	
1
6
North Okanagan, Vernon—
School District No. 19   	
,   60	
2
„   20      	
of Health-
School District No. 61 (part1)...
Saanich   and   South   Vancouver
Island—
School District No. 61 (part2)-
62        	
„   21      	
34
„   22	
„   78	
South Central, Kamloops—
School District No. 24	
12
4
„   25	
Central Vancouver
Nanaimo—
School District Is
,   63      	
3
„   26 	
,   64         	
4
 29	
, 30	
 31	
Island,
o. 65	
6
,   66	
6
»»           >»
,   67
„   28   	
,   68.	
,   69	
,   70.	
,   79      	
 55	
„   56      	
9
26
-            „       „   57...	
3
„   58     	
School districts not
health units—
School District IN
»             »»
»»             t*
covered by
Upper Fraser Valley, Chilliwack—
„   33   	
,   48	
,   49...	
,   61 (part3)
,   73
5
,.       ..   34	
Boundary, Cloverdale—
School District No. 35	
3
3
„   36	
„           „        „   37	
,   74	
,   80	
1
4
Metropolitan Health Committee,
3
Vancouver—
11
School District No. 38	
»   39
Totals	
495
631
1,126
1 Includes Victoria and Esquimalt only.
2 Excludes Victoria, Esquimalt, and Oak Bay.
s Includes Oak Bay only. M  108
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
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M  115
Table 8.—Readmissions to Crease Clinic by Marital Status, Mental
Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Marital Status
Total
Mental Diagnosis
Single
Married
Widowed
Divorced
Separated
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
With Psychosis
18
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
15
6
1
2
2
13
3
1
2
1
7
1
2
1
45
20
2
1
1
1
12
6
19
1
1
1
3
4
1
1
2
	
2
1
5
1
1
1
1
36
4
3
2
1
1
2
10
1
3
1
65
31
2
1
1
2
2
16
7
23
1
1
1
101
35
5
1
Psychosis with cerebral arteriosclerosis
2
2
Psychosis of other demonstrable etiology	
Other and unspecified psychoses	
Anxiety reaction without mention of
3
4
26
Hysterical reaction without mention of
7
1
26
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms
(somatization reaction) affecting di-
2
Psychoneurotic disorders, other, mixed,
1
Syphilis and its sequela.	
1
Total with psychosis	
27  |    26
31
110
1    11  1 --
3
6 |      3 |    64
153
217
Without Psychosis
2
1
3
2
2
1
3
1
4
1
1
7
1
1
3
2
6
1
13
Immature personality _ 	
Primary childhood behaviour disorders..
Epilepsy 	
Other diseases of central nervous system not associated with psychosis	
1
1
4
2
Total without psychosis	
8 |      3
4
4
1  1     -    1      - 1  -
1   t      -
14
7
21
35
29
35
114
1
11
3
7
3
78
160
238
Table 9.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Years of Schooling, Mental
Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 3 1st, 1955
Table 10.—Readmissions to Crease Clinic by Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 11.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Citizenship, Age-group, and
Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 12.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Religion and Sex, April 1st,
1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 13.—First Admissions to Crease Clinic by Previous Occupation and Sex,
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Detailed information for the above tables may be obtained on request. M  116
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Table 14.—Live Discharges from Crease Clinic by Condition on Discharge,
Disposition to, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Condition
Home
Clinic
Agency
General
Hospital
Welfare
Institution
Other
Mental
Hospital
Other
Total
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.    F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
72
37
261
73
67
38
470
100
2
1
2
	
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
6
40
.
8
43
7
5
37
10
1
30
12
79
44
308
126
68
39
510
158
-
147
83
818
Unimproved   	
284
Totals .■	
443
675
2
3
5  1    1
1
2 |    2
46
51
59
43
557
775
1,332
Table 15.—Live Discharges from Crease Clinic by Mental Diagnosis, Condition
on Discharge, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Condition on Discharge
Total
Mental Diagnosis
Recovered
Much
Improved
Improved
Unimproved
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
With Psychosis
28
14
2
14
3
4
1
1
6
1
17
22
5
1
2
2
2
1
6
9
1
23
3
2
12
5
2
112
12
3
12
4
1
10
5
4
36
5
1
4
31
1
2
10
1
207
46
17
1
2
1
5
6
79
18
1
1
51
1
1
5
9
40
2
1
6
1
2
3
3
1
2
3
2
2
3
2
1
55
6
1
3
2
1
10
22
1
5
3
2
203
31
6
20
1
6
4
24
12
5
47
12
2
5
43
4
5
12
2
291
79
25
5
4
1
2
8
20
107
30
1
2
70
2
1
6
14
2
494
110
31
25
Psychosis with cerebral arteriosclerosis	
1
5
3
_____
4
2
5
1
5
1
1
1
5
26
Psychosis of other demonstrable etiology 	
20
Anxiety reaction without mention of somatic symp-
154
Hysterical   reaction   without   mention   of  somatic
42
3
7
113
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms (somatization reaction) affecting circulatory system	
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms (somatization reaction) affecting digestive system— 	
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms (somatization reaction) affecting other systems.. 	
Psychoneurotic  disorders,   other,  mixed,   and  un-
2
5
11
26
4
Total with psychosis  ,	
74
68
42 |    35
254
451
74
116
444
670
1,114
Without Psychosis
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
17
9
9
4
2
8
3
2
21
17
5
1
3
8
4
26
7
4
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2
1
5
3
2
14
11
2
3
1
5
2
1
3
44
16
14
6
2
7
14
6
2
2
37
29
7
4
4
14
6
1
3
45
21
Primary childhood behaviour disorders 	
10
Other  and unspecified  character,  behaviour,  and
intelligence disorders   	
11
28
Other diseases of the central nervous system not
Observation   without   need   for   further   medical
(psychiatric) care—   -
Other, unknown, and unspecified conditions	
3
5
5
2
4
54
59
52
42
113
105
218
79
68
44
39
308
510
126
158
557
775
1,332
J CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
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J CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M 119
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MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
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00 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M  121
Table 18.—Deaths Occurring in Crease Clinic by Mental Diagnosis, Age-
group, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Age-group (Years)
Total
Mental Diagnosis
0-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and
Over
o
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M. IF.
1
!
M. IF.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M. IF.
1
c
fl
O
With Psychosis
1
1
1
1      1
1      1
11    1     2
Psychosis of other demonstrable etiology.
1
1-	
—
-—
	
—
11
l|__
1
1
Neurotic-depressive reaction —	
1
	
__
1
Total with psychosis	
 1
2
1
1|-	
 1—-1    1
- 1-
1
4|    1|    5
Without Psychosis
Other, unknown, and unspecified conditions...
1
1
 1    1
1
1      1
1      1
1|    1|    2
Total without psychosis	
 1 1 II    1|	
-    I—-1 1--I--I    1|--|—
1|    1|    2
2
...... |	
21......
 I......I    1I......I. 1    11 1    1
5|    2
1
7
1
During the year seven patients in Crease Clinic died. Two patients had been hospitalized for a period between one
and two months—one female with a mental diagnosis of manic-depressive reaction and the other, a male, diagnosed as
neurotic-depressive reaction.
The length of stay in hospital for the other five deaths was under one month. The female was diagnosed as an
unknown condition without psychosis, and there was one male death in each of the four diagnoses mentioned in the
above table under the With Psychosis section.
Table 19.—Deaths Occurring in Crease Clinic by Cause of Death, Age-group,
and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Age-group (Years)
Total
Cause of Death
0-39
40-44
45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and
Over
■2
o
H
M.
F.
M.
F.
M. IF.
1
1
M.|F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M. IF.
1
1
M. IF.
1
1
M.I F.
1
c
rt
Ih
O
Malignant neoplasms..	
Vascular  lesions  affecting   central   nervous
system	
-
1
1|
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
 1    1
2
 1    1
1|
l|   _
1
1
i
Pneumonia 	
1
1
Congenital malformations  	
1
1
Total, all causes.  	
2
—
—
21	
	
	
1
1
1
5|    2
1
7
The cause of deaths of two patients who were hospitalized for the period between one and two months was pneumonia for the female and arteriosclerotic heart-disease for the male.
The four males who were hospitalized for a period under one month died from the following causes, one from each
cause: A malignant neoplasm, arteriosclerotic heart-disease, bronchitis, and a congenital malformation. The female in
this group died of a vascular lesion of the central nervous system. M  122 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
Table 1.—Movement of Population, Provincial Mental Hospital,
at Essondale, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Male
Female
Total
1,832
50
5
1,649
73
3,481
On probation, carried forward from 1953-54	
On escape, carried forward from 1953-54	
123
5
Totals as at March 31st, 1954 _ 	
1,887
1,722
3,609
Admissions—
483
181
342
133
825
314
664
475
1,139
Total under care	
2,551
2,197
4,748
Separations—■
535
87
76
1
388
53
84
923
Died   —                   	
140
160
1
699
525
1,224
20
23
43
In residence, March 31st, 1955	
1,852
1,672
3,524 CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M  123
Table 2.—Showing in Summary Form the Operations of the Mental
Hospitals since Inception
Year
Discharges
Z*
* ° a
z« o
B
OH
° M c
B-P<<
-oSS
C rt W.T3
o 3 Eti
O.P<W
9 o se
*Hh(|
e "» S P
B.OZH
1872._ 	
1873 	
1874	
1875 	
1876	
1877	
1878	
1879.	
1880	
1881 	
1882	
1883  	
1884 	
1885	
1886	
1887	
1888 	
1889 _	
1890 _	
1891 -.
1892..	
1893	
1894	
1895 	
1896	
1897	
1898	
1899 —	
1900 --	
1901—- _	
1902	
1903 	
1904	
1905	
1906 _ 	
1907.. 	
1908.	
1909  _ 	
1910	
1911 	
1912  _ _
1913.	
1914 	
1915— -
1916  	
1917 	
1918  	
Jan. 1, 1919, to
March 31, 1920
1920-1921... 	
1921-1922	
1922-1923	
1923-1924...	
1924-1925 _
1925-1926	
1926-1927...	
1927-1928 	
1928-1929 	
1929-1930...	
1930-1931	
1931-1932	
1932-1933	
1933-1934	
1934-1935 	
1935-1936-	
18
15
12
29
22
14
16
18
17
13
7
8
10
20
27
36
26
41
52
49
52
44
80
62
64
74
81
101
113
115
121
139
115
123
150
221
230
232
280
332
375
380
402
332
353
371
375
574
489
478
438
447
461 |
475
494
542
543
602
632
562
635
610
653
679
1
10
4
3
11
4
7
4
5
5
3
4
2
5
10
15
12
14
17
19
17
14
13
29
23
20
27
31
38
40
30
38
46
43
361
48
681
732
84
67 3
741
90*
58
83
732
88
75
116
88
96
91
842
63
575
76*
75i
92 _
1181
701
58"
44*
61s
711
63i
6
5
6
5
6
4
10
18
19
11
25
8
13
32
27
20
31
37
26
33
43
43
56
77
82
114
128
146
126
91
96
78
95
221
173
178
167
121
242
240
171
252
294
311
235
299
323
309
349
304
1
5
3
10
5
3
5
5
2
3
2
5
6
5
3
4
12
20
13
14
19
20
9
14
19
21
29
25
25
26
26
27
28
39
57
40
41
60
76
67
74
89
80
106
132
132
122
114
133
163
138
142
161
147
181
223
191
181
195
200
321
291
16
14
19
32
35
38
36
41
48
48
49
49
51
61
66
77
82
100
117
123
135
133
162
164
171
203
221
234
258
284
311
349
321
348
388
461
507
536
595
690
752
919
1,027
1,090
1,205
1,301
1,347
1,458
1,566
1,649
1,697
1,784
1,884
1,995
2,125
2,269
2,347
2,411
2,550
2,676
2,824
2,960
3,080
3,180
5
13
3
3
5
7
2
10
5
11
5
18
17
6
12
29
2
7
32
18
13
24
26
27
38
27
43
73
46
29
48
105
62
167
108
63
115
96
46
111
108
83
48
87
100
111
130
144
78
64
139
126
148
136
120
100
28
18
31
26
48
54
49
54
54
58
61
55
57
59
71
88
102
103
123
152
166
175
179
213
224
228
246
285
327
356
377
413
466
480
505
552
666
765
816
896
1,034
1,065
1,264
1,364
1,437
1,527
1,650
1,753
2,025
2,043
2,137
2,180
2,234
2,327
2,434
2,565
2,743
2,914
3,063
3,148
3,214
3,390
3,530
3,721
3,838
5.55
66.66
33.33
10.34
50.00
28.57
43.75
22.22
29.41
38.46
42.85
50.00
20.00
25.00
37.03
41.66
46.15
34.15
32.69
38.77
32.69
31.81
16.25
46.77
35.93
27.03
33.33
30.69
33.63
34.78
24.79
27.34
40.00
33.33
23.03
21.30
28.30
31.00
30.00
19.57
18.90
22.63
14.43
25.00
20.68
23.72
20.00
20.20
14.17
20.08
20.77
18.56
13.66
12.00
15.38
13.28
16.76
19.10
10.60
10.32
6.92
10.00
10.87
9.27
5.55
80.00
33.33
26.89
63.63
78.57
62.50
27.77
29.41
61.54
57.14
62.50
60.00
25.00
59.25
55.55
69.23
46.34
44.23
46.94
51.92
72.72
40.00
64.51
75.00
37.83
49.38
62.37
57.52
52.17
50.41
53.96
62.61
61.78
52.06
41.20
53.90
64.60
59.28
54.42
53.80
62.10
45.77
52.41
47.87
44.74
45.33
58.71
72.60
57.32
59.36
64.20
66.16
62.53
50.00
60.33
71.07
71.26
64.24
63.52
58.42
60.65
64.32
54.05
5.55
16.12
11.53
20.83
9.35
6.12
16.16
14.81
8.62
8.19
3.63
5.26
3.33
6.94
6.81
4.80
2.87
3.25
7.64
11.69
6.95
7.60
8.92
8.92
3.94
5.69
6.66
6.42
8.14
6.63
6.06
5.57
5.42
5.34
5.04
5.08
7.44
6.40
4.57
5.83
7.02
5.30
5.43
6.19
5.24
6.42
7.47
6.51
5.97
5.33
6.10
7.25
5.93
5.83
6.27
5.36
6.21
7.28
6.06
5.63
5.75
5.66
5.94
7.58
1 Three not insane.
a Five not insane.
2 One not insane.
3 Two not insane.
1 Four not insane.
B Six not insane. M  124
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
Table 2.—Showing in Summary Form the Operations of the Mental
Hospitals since Inception—Continued
Year
Discharges
ZA
fl
3   8
s
ta o ri
_>
to
tn
3
c«—• rt
|o«
to
O cd
X u
2 « o
fl
0
&H
3,301
121
4,067
3,487
186
	
4,255
3,612
125
4,471
3,710
98
4,713
3,836
126
4,781
3,902
66
4,843
3,925
23
4,919
3,960
35
4,965
4,019
59
	
4,960
4,110
91
5,014
4,151
41
	
5,174
4,269
118
5,447
4,355
86
5,758
4,602
247
—
5,999
to cn M
seJ-215
C rt _.*o
Qja<as
MO 3 g
g.s?J§
__Ǥ_>
q-DZh
1936-1937.
1937-1938.
1938-1939.
1939-1940
1940-1941.
1941-1942
1942-1943
1943-1944
1944-1945.
1945-1946
1946-1947.
1947-1948
1948-1949.
1949-1950
793
834
827
869
864
834
803
840
822
834
880
1,111
1,260
1,415
78s
74
72s
1117
107°
718
918
87
9610
117s
9710
124"
13712
195
300
330
345
455
410
400
443
423
377
352
496
560
748
787
268
207
208
230
254
255
260
309
300
240
238
240
209
202
9.96
8.87
8.71
11.39
12.38
8.51
11.32
10.36
10.46
14.02
11.02
11.34
10.87
13.78
63.60
67.30
78.72
88.50
79.97
56.46
66.50
61.66
58.39
57.43
68.18
63.64
76.59
69.40
6.59
4.86
4.65
4.88
5.31
6.54
5.31
6.02
6.04
5.84
4.59
4.40
3.63
3.37
Year
Discharges
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1950-51	
1951-52	
1952-53.	
1953-54"..
1954-5511..
1,499
1,217
1,332
1,041
1,139
169
138
53
23
26
421
301
240
395
589
414
438
350
374
313
284
252
258
188
223
188
183
161
145
4,538
4,578
4,791
3,718
3,812
64
40
213
62
44
6,314
6,020
6,035
5,040
5,031
39.35
36.07
21.99
35.45
54.08
67.04
92.77
67.64
94.64
81.47
I
3.53
3.12
3.03
3.38
2.88
3 Two not insane. fl Five not insane. 7 Twelve not insane. 8 Ten not insane. 9 Eight not insane.
10 Seven not insane. " Three not insane;   196 without psychosis. 12 Two not insane;   seventy-eight without
psychosis. 13 Includes Essondale and Colquitz only. li Includes Essondale and Colquitz only;   "Without
Psychosis " included in three columns of " Discharges " shown. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M  125
Table 3.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by
Health Unit and School District of Residence and Sex, April 1st, 1954,
to March 31st, 1955.
1 Includes Victoria and Esquimalt only.
2 Excludes Victoria, Esquimalt, and Oak Bay.
3 Includes Oak Bay only.
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
East Kootenay, Cranbrook—
Metropolitan Health Committee,
School District No. 1 	
2
2
4
Vancouver—Continued
1
2
3
School District No. 41    	
27
25
52
„   3 	
1
1
2
„   44	
8
12
20
„   A.....	
2
1
2
1
, 45 	
Simon Fraser, New Westminster—
School District No. 40	
3
29
6
14
9
„   5 	
18
43
Selkirk, Nelson—
„   43	
12
7
19
1
1
North Fraser Valley, Mission—
7
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
4
School District No. 42 ..-	
4
2
3
1
7
„        „   8
 75	
„   76 	
Upper Island, Courtenay—
3
„   10	
West Kootenay, Trail—
School District No. 9	
1
1
School District No. 47 	
3
2
5
„   11	
2
3
5
„   71 	
5
1
6
„   12.	
2
1
3
„   72 	
3
1
4
„   13 	
Skeena, Prince Rupert—
South Okanagan, Kelowna—
School District No. 50  	
1
1
School District No. 14	
4
4
 51 	
1
1
„   15  , .
3
3
6
„   52	
4
3
7
„   16	
 53 	
5
5
„   17..	
2
2
„   54 	
1
1
 23.  	
10
2
12
Peace River, Dawson Creek—
77
1
1
2
School District No. 59	
4
1
2
4
North Okanagan, Vernon—
, 60—	
3
School District No. 19	
1
2
3
Victoria-Esquimalt Union Board
„   20 	
1
1
of Health-
 ,   21	
2
2
School District No. 61 (part1)....
16
13
29
 22	
7
5
12
Saanich   and   South  Vancouver
„   78 	
1
1
Island   —
South Central, Kamloops—
School District No. 61 (part2)...
7
4
11
School District No. 24   —
9
5
14
„            „        „   62	
1
1
2
 25	
1
1
 63	
1
1
 26.	
 64	
4
2
6
„   29	
3
3
Central Vancouver Island,
„   30	
2
2
Nanaimo—
„   31	
2
1
3
School District No. 65	
2
2
4
Cariboo, Prince George—
„   66. 	
3
3
School District No. 27 	
7
7
„   67....	
1
1
2
„   28 ._	
11
3
14
 68.. _.
8
2
10
„   55 	
2
2
4
„   69..	
2
3
5
„   56	
1
1
2
 70	
3
2
5
„   57.	
6
2
8
„   79...	
1
1
„   58 	
1
1
2
School districts not covered by
Upper Fraser Valley, Chilliwack—
health units—
School District No. 32
1
1
1
2
3
33
4
6
10
„   48......	
 ,   34	
7
7
14
„   49	
1
1
Boundary, Cloverdale—
„   61 (part3)....
1
1
2
School District No. 35	
2
7
9
„   73..	
2
2
 36 	
14
14
28
„   74..	
„   37	
1
1
2
„   80	
Vancouver—
11
4
15
School District No. 38 	
3
189
7
135
10
324
1
1
„   39
Totals  	
483
342
825 M  126
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
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MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Table 8.—Readmissions to Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by
Marital Status, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1954 to March 31st,
1955.
Marital Status
Mental Diagnosis
Single
Married
Widowed
Divorced
Separated
total
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
With Psychosis
40
1
2
2
2
1
2
17
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
12
4
2
2
1
1
31
6
5
1
1
2
I
2
2
2
1
1
7
1
1
4
1
1
1
3
1
3
1
3
8
58
11
2
2
3
4
1
2
1
4
66
11
2
9
2
2
4
2
2
3
1
1
124
1      ....
22
1
1
2
11
Presenile psychosis __
Psychosis with cerebral arteriosclerosis
Alcoholic psychosis
Psychosis of other demonstrable etiol-
2
4
7
6
Other and unspecified psychoses   .
Anxiety reaction without mention of
3
5
Hysterical reaction without mention of
somatic symptoms   	
Neurotic-depressive reaction	
2
5
Total with psychosis ,	
50  !    28
22  |    49
6  |    15
5  |      4
5  1      9
88  |  105
193
Without Psychosis
6
25
1
3
4
2
1
2
2
1
1
24
9
1
1
1
1
2
1
7
1
1
4
1
18
1
9
1
74
1
3
5
5
1
15
1
2
3
14
Immature personality 	
2
89
.....
....
1
Primary chiidhood behaviour disorders
      -
2
5
Epilepsy  _.
8
39 |      7
26  |    11
2 |      3
7 |      6
19 |      1
93 |    28
121
«■<   1     35
48
60
8
18
12
10
24
10
181
133
314
Table 9.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by
Years of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March
31st, 1955.
Table 10.—Readmissions to Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by Years
of Schooling, Mental Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st,
1955.
Table 11.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by
Citizenship, Age-group, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 12.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by
Religion and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 13.—First Admissions to Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by
Previous Occupation and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Detailed information for the above tables may be obtained on request. CREASE CLINIC AND PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL
M  133
Table 14.—Live Discharges from Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by
Condition on Discharge, Disposition to, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March
31st, 1955.
Home
Clinic
Agency
General
Hospital
Other
Mental
Hospital
Other
Total
Grand
Total
i
M.   |   F.
M.
F.
1
M. | F.
1
M.   I   F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
8
2
1
:::: i::::
.... i i
.... i...
... i...
8 |      2
90 | 129
15
9
194
21
...
14
4
23
21
348
143
...
2
3
214
169
25
12
145
32
3
197
36
24
562
Unimproved  _	
312
Totals 	
197
238
1
... | i
98 | 131
239
18
535
388
923
Table 15.—Live Discharges from Provincial Mental Hospital at Essondale by
Mental Diagnosis, Condition on Discharge, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to
March 31st, 1955.
Condition on Discharge
Total
Mental Diagnosis
Recovered
Much
Improved
Improved
Unimproved
Grand
Total
1
M.   |   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
With Psychosis
8
1
l
5
3
91
17
1
3
9
3
3
11
1
8
1
1
92
16
5
3
I
1
3
3
3
2
9
1
6
1
4
45
1
2
43
15
1
3
2
1
2
23
1
1
98
1
20
2
1
1
1
149
19
3
51
18
19
6
6
14
2
1
9
1
3
118
18
5
99
2
23
4
3
2
11
2
7
1
5
267
37
5
7
150
2
   | -	
  I ------
I
8
1
2
1
1
1
2
	
23
9
Other and unspecified psychoses —  	
Anxiety reaction without mention of somatic symp-
8
25
Hysterical   reaction   without   mention   of  somatic
4
1
16
Psychoneurosis with somatic symptoms (somatization reaction) affecting other systems	
Psychoneurotic  disorders,   other,  mixed,  and  un-
1
6
3
Total with psychosis	
21   |      2
8 |      3  |  157
150
115
149
301
304
605
Without Psychosis
   1 	
1  |
1
12
1
19
163
1
4
1
3
7
1
38
4
7
2
5
12
7
8
1
4
"a
1
9
	
1
	
31
183
1
12
2
4
1
11
1
42
5
16
2
6
1
42
1
1
28
4
10
1
Other and unspecified  character,  behaviour,  and
intelligence disorders	
Other diseases of the central nervous system not
associated with psychosis 	
2 | -._. |    13 |   | 191 j    64
28
20
234
84
318
r* 1     ? 1   91
3
348
214
143
169
535
388
923 M  134
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
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;.: '.-: -aSCQQCj<5o THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL M  141
PART III.—THE WOODLANDS  SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER
REPORT OF THE MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT
A. M. Gee, Esq., M.D., CM.,
Director of Mental Health Services,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I submit herewith the annual report of The Woodlands School for the fiscal
year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955, including reports of the various departments.
On April lst, 1954, our population was 1,189, consisting of 692 males and 457
females. In addition, there were on probation 9 males and 8 females, making a total
on our books of 1,206. On March 31st, 1955, we had 1,208 patients, consisting of
706 males and 502 females. In addition, there were 5 males on probation and 12 females
on probation, making a total population of 1,225.
Owing to lack of bed space our waiting-list has grown. There are 78 prospective
patients under 6 years of age and 133 over 6 years now seeking admission. This
necessitates accepting only the most urgent cases, resulting in a patient population of
less promise for rehabilitation than formerly. This not only reduces the number of
those who may be rehabilitated, but also adds materially to the already heavy nursing
load. In view of the negligible results obtainable with so many of these new admissions,
the interest shown and the care given to them by the nursing staff befits the traditions
of their profession and deserves a special word of commendation.
The health of our patients has been well maintained at a satisfactory level. The
epidemic of dysentry sonnei that was so troublesome at the early part of the year gradually died out and has shown no recurrence. There has been the usual number of cases
of measles and chicken-pox, but these diseases were well confined and at no time
reached epidemic proportions. It is interesting to note that we had the first case of
whooping-cough in October of this year. It occurred on one of the crowded wards.
However, no other cases followed, due, no doubt, to the prophylactic immunization of
all the smaller children in the school population.
The death rate has been surprisingly low this year. This is the more noteworthy
when one considers the number of weaklings among the individuals lately admitted, and
also the various conditions from which they suffer, that under optimum treatment are
incompatible with a long life-span. During the year we had two deaths, the autopsy
findings of which indicated that death was due to anterior poliomyelitis. This is mentioned with the thought of the advisability of using the Salk vaccine for the residents
of The Woodlands School when it becomes more plentiful.
The various departments at the institution have been working smoothly. Manual
Arts, Shoe Repairing, and Upholstery Departments are preparing to move into the new
quarters provided for them by the renovation of the stores building. Here there will be
more space, better lighting, and better arrangements of the power-machines, which
should lead to more efficient operation. The Women's Uniform and Repair Department is also preparing to move to its new quarters on the second floor of the same
building.
The recreational and physical instruction of the pupils has followed its usual course,
with weekly dances, picture shows twice weekly, and organized games. Special dances
and parties in the Hallowe'en, Christmas, and Valentine seasons were successfully
staged. The annual gymnastic display, to which visitors are invited, was better than
usual. Many of the higher-grade pupils, upon whom its success in former years mostly
depended, were out on probation. Nevertheless, the programme was well executed and
was a credit to the members of the staff responsible for the necessary training. M  142 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
The Recreational Department is badly handicapped in its summer schedule by having no playground facilities. Organized outdoor games, such as softball, football,
basketball, etc., are no longer possible. To decrease to some extent the number of
boys and girls wandering about with nothing to do, work has been started on the construction of two outside checker-boards and a volleyball court and two horseshoe-
pitching ranges.   A playground of adequate size is badly needed.
Picnics and entertainments outside the institution for our pupils have been organized as formerly. Gymkhanas, Pacific National Exhibition, the Shrine Circus, and May
Day in New Westminster are a few of the events visited. A group of boys attend the
softball games regularly. Picnics were held at White Rock, Second Beach in Vancouver, and other smaller ones at various places. Many small groups have been entertained
at private homes in the community.
The auxiliary to The Woodlands School, organized by the British Columbia Society
for Handicapped Children, has been particularly active in this regard. In addition, they
have recently established a clubroom in the city where our more dependable pupils may
gather on week-ends and spend an enjoyable time under adequate supervision, or where
parents who live at a distance from town may take our pupils during their visit.
This has proven very popular and affords another opportunity for them to acquire
socialization.
The Social Service Department has been working at an increased tempo during the
year. Our rehabilitation programme has been intensified, which leads to more interviews with employers and prospective employers. The functioning of the rehabilitation
clinic, recently formed, has resulted in an increase in the number of social histories.
There has also been an increase in the number of orientation courses at the School and
educative talks in the community. In addition to this, group socialization is being
experimented with among our younger pupils. Consequently the Social Service Department finds the present staff inadequate. The addition of another member is required
in order that they may be able to cope with this increase in their work.
The practice has been recently introduced of allowing some of the better male and
female patients to go to jobs in the community during the day and returning to the
School at night. This has worked out very well as a first step toward rehabilitation,
and it promises, with further development, to be of more help in the future.
To better co-ordinate our various training facilities to the needs of our pupils, a
rehabilitation committee has been formed under the chairmanship of Dr. Hughes. Acting with her are the medical staff, heads of the various training departments, and representatives of the nursing staff. This committee has not been functioning long, but the
results so far are gratifying. As well as performing the purpose for which it was
intended, it makes the staff rehabilitation conscious and gives them a keener interest in
their work.
To discover the feasibility of organizing a day-school where pupils now resident
could attend by day and return home at night, a survey was conducted by the Social
Service Department of all parents of our pupils living in New Westminster and vicinity.
Some of these parents had asked for such arrangements before their children were committed. The results of the survey proved disappointing. Even those parents who were
so eager for such arrangements before the committal of the children were unwilling to
accept them after committal had taken place. Transportation seemed the greatest difficulty as the parents live at considerable distance from the School and in different
directions.
The lectures and orientation tours for various outside groups were conducted by
Dr. Herrick and later by Dr. Ellis, who has fitted in admirably to our teaching programme. Nurses from the various hospitals, Parent-Teacher Association groups, schoolteachers, School Inspectors, Normal School students, and student-nurses are some of the THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
M  143
groups who attended. Dr. Ellis also lectured to the final-year medical students and
student psychiatric nurses from the School of Psychiatric Nursing, Essondale.
It is anticipated that the lectures given to various student-bodies will be expanded
further. With this end in view, Dr. H. G. Dunn, teacher of paediatrics at the University
of British Columbia, is presently examining our patients and making a comprehensive
card index of those conditions suitable for teaching purposes. In addition to facilitating
teaching, the index will furnish us in accessible form with a fund of information that
otherwise could be obtained only with considerable time-consuming effort. It will also
be of decided advantage in any future research programme.
With the exception of the construction of the new 300-bed unit, which is progressing satisfactorily, building changes have been of a minor nature this year. The stores
building has been renovated and suitably wired, lighted, and partitioned to accommodate the various occupational departments. They have now well-lighted, airy quarters
with sufficient area to properly set up their power-machinery to best advantage. This
should lead to greater efficiency than was possible under the former conditions.
The old laundry building was demolished, and the site cleared for the erection of
a new auditorium, the plans of which are well advanced. Nurses' Home I has been
vacated, preparatory to its renovation. The Public Works Department has kept the
institution in a satisfactory state of repair.
A new admission office has been set up on the third floor of the administration
building and is now functioning.
The staff has been fairly static this year. The various departments have reported
most of the resignations. Those that might be mentioned in this report are Mrs. K. E.
MacKinnon, Assistant Superintendent of Nurses, resigned on June 30th, 1954, as she
was moving to California; Mr. C. Stapleton, head gardener, was superannuated, effective June 30th, 1954; Mr. J. Woodward, psychological clinical assistant, resigned,
effective June 30th, 1954; Mrs. A. I. Rhodes, school principal, who entered service
October lst, 1946, resigned September 30th, 1954; Dr. H. MacCrostie, dentist, resigned
October 30th, 1954, due to ill health; Mr. G. Gustafson, psychiatric nurse, was superannuated, effective March 31st, 1955, owing to ill health; Dr. M. C. Muckart resigned
July 22nd, 1954.
We were unfortunate in losing the services of two members of the medical staff
during the year. Dr. Herrick commenced duty on September 22nd, 1947. During his
eight years with us he fitted in well with our training programme, especially in the
masterly way he handled lectures and demonstrations to the various student-bodies
attending the School. He resigned to join his family in England, his resignation becoming effective December 8th, 1954.
Dr. Sauriol joined the staff of the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, in June,
1921. He became head of The Woodlands School in 1930 and for a little over twenty-
four years piloted its development with marked success. He was compelled to retire
owing to ill health.    Retirement was effective on December 31st, 1954.
In addition to those mentioned in other reports, the following members have been
taken on to our staff: Dr. Mildred C. Ellis, Physician—Grade 1, entered service July
2nd, 1954, to replace Dr. M. C. Muckart; Dr. T. Coulter, psychological clinical assistant, entered service July 16th to replace Mr. J. Woodward; Miss J. Ing, dietician,
entered service September 23rd, 1954, replacing Mrs. G. Allan, who resigned in July;
Dr. B. Tischler, Physician—Grade 2, entered service October lst, 1954; Mrs. H. Davy
was appointed school principal, effective October lst, 1954, replacing Mrs. A. I.
Rhodes; Dr. S. Gallagher, dentist, entered service December lst, 1954, replacing Dr.
H. MacCrostie.
Dr. T. Dobreva came to The Woodlands School from the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, to assume relief duties during shortage in our medical staff. M  144 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Dr. Gallinger assumed duties at the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, from
September to gain further experience in psychiatry.
Mr. Stapleton, who is mentioned above, joined our staff on September lst, 1930.
He put in many years of conscientious work as gardener, and during these years has
been a decided asset to the Hospital staff. He reached his retiring age in 1954 and was
superannuated.
The following recommendations for the coming year should be mentioned:—
A playing-field is still our most pressing need. The only suitable area available
is at the north end of the grounds. This should be levelled and suitably treated to form
a playing-field as soon as possible. We should not face another summer without these
facilities.
The office space in the School has now become quite inadequate. With the completion of the new wing there may be some relief. However, the reallocation of offices
should be carefully examined.
The present location of the dental office is unsatisfactory. Odours from the kitchen
and scullery are always present, and when the weather is warm the heat in the dental
office is oppressive. In addition, there is no place for the patients to wait. These factors have led to complaints of successive dentists.   A new location is badly needed.
At present we have no library in the School and no space available where one can
be established. Reference books are in various parts, with no one knowing exactly
where. A central place where books may be kept and read by the various branches of
the staff is urgently required.
In closing, I should like to express my gratitude to the members of the staff, particularly the heads of the departments, who have shown such splendid enthusiasm and
co-operation in the past year. I would also like to thank you and the various governmental departments for their assistance and support.
Respectfully submitted.
C. E. Benweix, M.B.,
Medical Superintendent.
EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—I respectfully submit the annual report of the Educational Department for
the fiscal year from April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
Four teachers resigned from the school staff during the year. Miss Patterson
resigned to be married in July. Miss Young resigned for the same reason in August.
Mrs. Regehr resigned in August because her health was not equal to the strain of teaching twelve months a year.   Mrs. Rhodes, school principal, resigned in September.
Four teachers to replace these began their duties October lst. They were Mrs.
Frost, Miss Oseki, Miss Anderson, and Mrs. Manning.
Mrs. Frost is teaching a kindergarten class in the mornings and the senior handwork class in the afternoon. She is also in charge of the library and has started a school
choir. At the present time there are thirty members, comprising junior boys and girls
and senior girls.
Miss Oseki is teaching a primary academic class in the mornings and a science
class and two pre-school classes in the afternoon.
Miss Anderson is teaching a pre-school class in the morning and a play class and
a kindergarten group in the afternoon. THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
M  145
Mrs. Manning has a junior academic class in the morning and a remedial reading
class and a primary academic class in the afternoon.
Mrs. Davy became school principal on October lst, and also took over the opportunity class formerly taught by Mrs. Rhodes. Mrs. Siddall took over the senior academic
class formerly taught by Mrs. Davy.
Again this year, most of the school staff took pupils to May Day celebrations at
Queens Park.    About sixty pupils attended.
Gardening classes were held under the direction of Mrs. Davy and Mr. Ewles,
psychiatric aide attached to the School staff. About thirty boys and girls had plots.
They derived much pleasure from these, and in many cases, besides eating the raw
vegetables, they were allowed to cook vegetables on the wards for themselves. They
also supplied the cooking class with produce for their Friday dinners.
Classroom scene, The Woodlands School.
Four picnics were held during the summer for the boys and girls who attend school.
The junior and intermediate picnics were held on the school playground. The senior
picnic was held in Queens Park, where baseball was thoroughly enjoyed by all.
The senior academic class was taken on a trip to White Rock by Mrs. Davy and
Mr. Ewles.
Hallowe'en and St. Valentine's Day were both celebrated with parties and special
dances.
The annual Christmas concert was held in December. Parties and a dance at which
refreshments were served were also held during the festive season.
Piano tuition under Mrs. Brankley has now been increased to fifteen minutes per
pupil twice a week instead of once a week. This may seem a small amount of time for
such instruction, but only four pupils with special qualifications are being taught.
Educational films, which are integrated with school lessons, were shown as usual
during the year. M  146 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Mrs. Middleton, teacher of retarded children in Kelowna, observed school classes
from June 3rd to July 8th.
Many groups of visitors, both large and small, were shown through the school
during the year.
Mrs. Davy was on leave of absence from March 8th to 31st and was replaced by
Mrs. Scharf.
The annual gymnasium display was held in March under the direction of Mr. Lynes,
assisted by the school staff.
I should like to take this opportunity to thank the various departments which have
given us their co-operation during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) H. M. Davy,
School Principal.
DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY
Girls' Division
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—I respectfully submit my annual report of the Department of Occupational
Therapy for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
The Occupational Therapy Department was reopened to women patients on Friday,
June 28th, 1954, after having been closed for three months, following the departure of
Mrs. E. Jones to take up a position at the Pearson Hospital. Twenty-five patients were
entered on the register during the first week, and numbers increased steadily during the
ensuing months. During October the total reached fifty, three patients receiving treatment on the wards.
During March of this year the Wednesday morning session in the Occupational
Therapy Department was suspended, and two ward classes, each of one hour's duration,
were started for spastic and athetoid patients unable to attend the Department—one
class on Ward K and one on Ward II. About eight patients attend each class, and even
after so short a period of trial, with very limited equipment, it is apparent that these
patients are benefiting from the brief sessions. Where practicable, those participating
are being encouraged to continue on projects between weekly classes, but the majority
require careful supervision and cannot be expected to work on their own.
Sixty women are now receiving occupational therapy, but it is not possible for a
single therapist to give sufficient individual attention to such large numbers or to maintain adequate treatment records.
In addition to spastic patients, it appears that there are many boys who would
benefit from occupational therapy. In December last Dr. Herrick requested that a
group of eight boys be given occupational therapy, but although the Department could
provide various crafts suitable for male patients—for example, basketry, rug-making,
stool-seating, etc.—it was impossible to take on these patients under existing conditions.
There is urgent need for further qualified staff, and it is hoped that assistance may
be obtained shortly. While a nursing aide would relieve the therapist of much routine
preparation and finishing of work, in addition to taking patients to and from wards, it
will not be possible to expand the treatment programme much further until another
qualified therapist is provided.
In addition to the usual crafts, basketry has been introduced into the programme
of occupational therapy, and the work done has been of a remarkably high standard, THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
M   147
taking into account the fact that many patients in the lower, as well as the higher, intelligence groups have attempted it. It has proved extremely popular. Another craft now
gaining impetus is puppetry, and it is hoped eventually to start a puppet theatre. The
large floor-loom is now in use, and some excellent work has been done on it. Blanket
slippers are being made for some of the wards, and some half-dozen patients are assisting in this project.
Particular emphasis is laid on the development of qualities important to eventual
rehabilitation; for example, concentration, perseverance, initiative, a sense of responsibility, co-operation with others, and so forth.
A party for the women and girls attending the Occupational Therapy and Mending
Departments was held on February 18th. This consisted of an excellent tea provided
by the catering department, followed by dancing, games, and competitions.
Table decorations for the staff dining-room at Christmas time were again made in
the Occupational Therapy Department.
During the year a new portable two-way loom, which can be worked with one
hand only, has been acquired, in addition to a number of basketry and other small
tools. Several light bed-looms and an upright rug-loom for remedial work have been
ordered from England.
It is hoped in the near future to obtain ten special chairs for use by spastic patients
who attend school and occupational-therapy classes on the wards. The chairs at present
in use are unsatisfactory, as they do not give sufficient support to enable the patient to
relax properly whilst working.
A start has been made in co-operating with the Physiotherapy Department. One
patient has been attending regularly for remedial occupational therapy, following up
treatment received from the physiotherapist. Much valuable work might be done in the
remedial field, however, if the two departments were in closer contact. Perhaps consideration could be given to the possibility of establishing an Occupational Therapy
Department on the ground floor, closely linked with the Physiotherapy Department.
Wheelchair patients could then be given treatment in the Occupational Therapy Department, where specific use could be made of available equipment.
The present Occupational Therapy Department can accommodate a maximum of
twenty-five patients. There is great need for a storeroom where tools and materials
may be kept, as there is insufficient cupboard space in the Department. Many valuable
materials are kept in cardboard boxes under tables and on tops of cupboards, and there
is no provision made for the proper storing of tools so that they may be easily checked
at any time.
Much help and co-operation have been given by other departments during the past
months. It is felt, however, that the Occupational Therapy Department could co-ordinate much better with other departments if the therapist could, from time to time,
attend meeings with the medical and other professional staff, in regard not only to
questions of rehabilitation, but also to matters connected with treatment of patients.
Respectfully submitted.
Frances M. Robertson,
Occupational Therapist.
Boys' Division
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—I hereby submit my report covering the Industrial Arts Department for the
fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955. M  148 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
The tools and equipment have been kept in excellent condition. Losses and
breakages have been nil.   No repairs were required.
Supplies have been carefully maintained, and effective use made of all material.
The boys' work is still improving. Projects completed were very good. Some
larger jobs were accomplished, which reflected a good deal of credit on the boys.
A sale was conducted prior to Christmas, and the proceeds sent to the Business Office.
Individual instruction and supervision are still the keystones of our work. Mutual
respect and consideration were very evident. Keen interest in the shop has been shown
by our many visitors. Co-operation and consideration from doctors, nurses, and other
departments left nothing to be desired.
A new shop is slowly approaching completion. The floor-space is much greater,
and facilities will be a tremendous improvement over the present shop. Cabinets,
counters, tool-holders, etc., are being made in the present shop by the pupils for their
use in the new set-up.
Attention to the physical and mental welfare of the pupils still takes precedence.
The year has shown steady improvement in results with satisfaction to all concerned. In conclusion I wish to express my appreciation of your continued help and
thoughtfulness.
Respectfully submitted.
Harold Mercer,
Industrial Arts Instructor.
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATIONAL THERAPY
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—I respectfully submit my annual report from April lst, 1954, to March 31st,
1955.
This Department has continually requested an additional instructor. Three years
ago the need was recognized, and a position was created in our Department. Repeated
requests to have the position filled were not granted. The classes have reached their
maximum number for the size of our hall, and the classes are too large for one instructor. Our largest class has an average attendance of fifty-six. Assistance was given in
January of this year when an instructor was on loan for three months on a part-time
basis. The help was appreciated, and results were noticed in greater participation of
the classes.
Our annual displays have continually shown the high calibre of work that our
pupils are capable of achieving. Not only have they gained in co-ordination and physical development, but their socialization has been a contributing factor in the rehabilitation programme. It invariably follows that our outstanding pupils in recreation have
been our rehabilitees.
Since our old playground was used for new buildings, we have been restricted to
small playing areas that are very inadequate. The wards and cottages make use of any
small area that is available, and because of this condition there are wards that can send
only a limited number outdoors. We have reached a point in our building programme
where an area is now available for a playing area and playground. The proposed area
could be bulldozed and levelled out, and would relieve the present situation. Our
future planning will include two or three small playgrounds beside the cottages to take
care of the needs of the smaller children. With the use of portable play equipment,
this plan is now operating on a limited scale. THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL M  149
Entertainment through television is filling a great need for leisure time on the
wards. Sets are being installed, and it is found that supervision has become less of a
problem. Through the medium of television a new field of entertainment and education
has been created for our boys and girls.
Last year our annual display was a marked success, with many visitors commenting on the high calibre of performance and the improvement of the boys and girls. Last
summer a group of ninety-six boys and girls went to Second Beach in Vancouver for
their annual day's outing. A second group of our " workers " spent a day at White
Rock, and they thoroughly enjoyed themselves. For some it was the first time that
they had been outside of The Woodlands School in years. Our New Year's party was
another highlight of the year, with 200 attending. We had balloons, novelty hats,
noise-makers, and streamers, and finished the evening's entertainment with the singing
of "Auld Lang Syne."
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Lynes,
Chief Instructor.
DEPARTMENT OF DENTISTRY
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—The Woodlands School had the services of a dentist on a full-time basis
during the fiscal year 1954-55, except for the months of October and November.
The operations completed by Dr. MacCrostie during the period from April to
September were as follows:—
Patients attended   1,114
Examinations       552
Prophylaxis and scaling       146
Fillings       801
Dentures          19
Denture repairs         20
Extractions         290
Miscellaneous treatments       150
I commenced my duties at this institution on December lst, 1954. During the
month of December a superficial examination of the majority of ambulatory patients
was undertaken. A thorough examination was not possible because of the lack of
X-ray facilities.
However, by seeing approximately 900 patients a comprehensive understanding of
the patients' oral problems was determined. Rampant caries as seen in normal children
was not evident. The greatest problem in this institution dentally is periodontal. The
cause of this condition, I believe, is mainly lack of adequate oral hygiene. There are
other modifying factors, such as a soft-food diet, mouth breathing, unusual chewing
habits, possible endocrine imbalance. I would recommend that the routine now established on the wards be changed to include adequate oral-hygiene methods.
The facilities of the local dental office were increased to enable us to do some
laboratory procedures.   This permits the Dental Department to accelerate the services
rendered to the patients.   The equipment installed included a large cabinet for storage
of supplies with counter area and a reconditioned laboratory lathe.
Respectfully submitted. _,T^ „ o     .»._-»„
F J S. J. Gallagher, B.Sc, D.D.S.,
Dentist. M  150 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
DEPARTMENT OF DIETETICS
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—The following is a report of the Department of Dietetics covering the year
April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
Mrs. M. Allen resigned her position as dietician in July, 1954, and the cafeteria
and food service were capably managed by Chief Dietician Miss C. Neighbor and
Charge Cook A. Bowes.   I joined the Dietary Department in late September, 1954.
During the year two catering services of importance were rendered to the staff of
The Woodlands School and to staff guests from the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale. The first was a tea held November 30th for Dr. Herrick, whom we were unfortunate to lose from our staff after a number of years. The second was a tea held February 17th for Dr. L. E. Sauriol on the occasion of his retirement as Medical Superintendent here.
There were also a few notable changes which cannot be overlooked. These were
the gradual change-over to delightful coloured crockery and the installation of a stainless-
steel steam ventilation-hood over the serving area—both in the staff cafeteria. At the
end of the fiscal year the kitchen staff were happily looking forward to the forty-hour
week which they had obtained, effective April lst, 1955.
An effort has been made to improve food service from the ward kitchens, and to
improve variations in the food items, especially the meat dishes and fresh vegetables.
The results, thus far, have been satisfactory, but we feel that it is a matter which can
be further improved.
Construction for the new unit is well under way, and we are looking forward to
seeing it completed with its fully equipped kitchen and dietary office.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Jean Ing, B.Sc.(H.Ec),
Dietician.
LABORATORY REPORT
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—The Woodlands School laboratory report for the fiscal year ended March
31st, 1955, is submitted herewith.
One change in computing laboratory statistics has been made this year; namely,
combining white-blood counts and differential counts, and combining red-blood counts
and haemoglobins as two major groups of test recordings rather than four separate
entities, as listed in the report of the previous year.
Autopsies performed at The Woodlands School are included with the Provincial
Mental Hospital statistics, but it is of interest to note that two of the autopsies performed consecutively on patients from a single ward showed gross and microscopic
changes pathognomonic of anterior poliomyelitis. Neither clinically nor on other autopsy
findings was there any evidence of expansion of this disease either within this specific
ward or The Woodlands School as a whole.
J THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL M  151
The laboratory work accomplished has been listed below.
Hematology—
White-blood count and differential  468
Red-blood count and haemoglobin  336
Haemoglobin  149
Sedimentation rate  200
Bleeding time  4
Clotting time  4
Reticulocyte count  8
Eosinophile count  10
R.B.C. fragility  2
Platelet count  1
Prothrombin activity  1
Chemistry—
Blood sugar  110
Icterus index  189
Thymol turbidity   40
Van den Bergh  53
Cholesterol  2
Glucose tolerance  1
Serum bilirubin  1
Calcium   1
Phosphorus   1
Alkaline phosphatase  1
Serology—Paul Bunnell  17
Cerebrospinal fluid—
Cell count   3
Globulin   3
Sugar   1
Bacteriology—
Cultures—
Miscellaneous    94
Tuberculosis    17
Diphtheria   2
Fungi   5
Faeces for typhoid and dysentery  930
Blood   1
Urine    18
Smears—
Miscellaneous  237
Tuberculosis  30
Monilia  2
Vincent's angina   1
Gonorrhoea  2
Skin scrapings for scabies   1
Vaginal swabs for trichomonas  14
Antibiotic sensitivity  72
Cough plates for H. pertusis  3
Milk count  1
Faeces—
Parasites  14
Occult blood  16
Bile   2
Fat   1 M  152 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Urinalysis—
Routine general  631
Bile   374
Urobilinogen   2
Quantitative sugar  5
Acetone    11
Quantitative albumin   3
Concentration-dilution test   2
P.S.P. renal function test  1
Urea clearance  1
Phenylpyruvic acid   75
Sulkowitch test for calcium  1
Total   4,175
Respectfully submitted.
H. E. Wilson, M.D.,
Pathologist.
DEPARTMENT OF RADIOLOGY
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—I respectfully submit the annual report of this Department for the fiscal year
ended March 31st, 1955.    The following work was accomplished:—
Extremities               .
      180
Shoulders .. 	
          7
Teeth 	
        26
Pelvic    	
        10
Nasal sinuses 	
          5
Abdomen 	
        15
Skulls 	
        40
Spines   .     ....     .
        42
Noses    .       .           '
        10
Hips 	
         10
Ribs     	
          5
Gall-bladders ..   .
          3
Total 	
  4,275
Respectfully submitted.
J. M. Jackson, M.D.,
Director of Radiology THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL M  153
BEAUTY-PARLOUR REPORT
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—I respectfully submit my report for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March
31st, 1955.
Permanents       181
Finger-waves   1,238
Shampoos    1,419
Hair-cuts   2,545
Shaves       180
Selsun treatments  3
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Jacqueline DeCoene,
Hairdresser.
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING SERVICE
Women's Division
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—I respectfully submit the report of the Department of Nursing Service for
the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
The year ended with the following personnel: Registered nurses, 3; psychiatric
nurses, 79; student psychiatric nurses, 15; psychiatric aides, 117; and home supervisors, 12.
New appointments for the year were 135. Resignations numbered 122, with the
following reasons: 111 health, household duties, general training, to be married, and
unsuited for the work.
There have been some changes within the senior staff of our departments. Mrs.
K. MacKinnon, Assistant Superintendent of Nurses, resigned in June, 1954, to take up
residence in the United States.
Miss D. Curie, R.N., who held the position of head nurse in Pine Cottage, was
appointed Assistant Superintendent of Nurses in July, 1954.
Mrs. M. Sanford, R.N., transferred from the staff of the Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale, in October, 1954, when appointed head nurse in Pine Cottage.
Mrs. M. Mowat, R.N., head nurse in Cedar Cottage, resigned in January, 1955, to
resume household duties.  This position is now vacant.
All members of our graduate staff have profited by the in-service educational programme carried out at the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, for the last eight
months of the year. Mrs. Sinclair, R.N., from the teaching staff of the Provincial Mental
Hospital, has given us valuable assistance in helping to stimulate interest in the newer
methods of treatment and care of psychiatric patients on her weekly visits to The Woodlands School.
Our recreational activities have been carried out with great enthusiasm, as in
former years.
I would like to thank the various departments for their help and co-operation.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) V. M. Sanders, R.N.,
Superintendent of Nurses. m 154 mental health services report, 1954-55
Men's Division
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—I respectfully submit this annual report of the Department of Male Nursing
for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
The male nursing staff shows a slight increase, as at this time we have 89 graduate
psychiatric male nurses, 110 psychiatric male aides, 1 instructor of nursing, and 5 psychiatric nurses-in-training, a total of 205.
Our population is gradually increasing, with a greater number of juveniles, spastics,
and pupils of low mentality, who all require more nursing and daily care. This, with the
increase in utility work, clinical reports, etc., has caused this slight increase in our staff
requirements.
This year we have become better acquainted with the pupils we received to populate
our new cottages. Many have been reallotted in their housing, and all have been placed
on fuller activities. The wards in these cottages are now operating on a well-established
basis, and have been able to adjust to the installation of additional beds.
Social activities, which are also educational with our type of pupils, have been maintained at a high functional level. This included picnics, dances, seasonal parties, concerts,
picture shows, and numerous outings.
The behaviour of our boys has been very good this past year; this, I think, we can
attribute to the increased privileges and activities we have been able to establish.
We now have over one-third of the boys on ground privileges. A number of the
more-advanced boys are allowed to leave the grounds in small self-conducted groups and,
when nearing rehabilitation, are granted individual privileges.
The television sets we obtained for three of our wards have proven a great medium
of entertainment and education; we hope it will not be too long before we have a set on
every ward.
Regular attendance at the weekly clinics and staff meetings has been enjoyed by our
senior staff, and on several occasions groups have been taken to the Provincial Mental
Hospital, Essondale, to attend in-service lectures.
Considerable thought and discussion have been given the rehabilitation programme,
and I feel we have made very good progress in this field. No doubt we will accomplish
much more as we continue our studies and correct our faults.
In closing, I wish to express my appreciation for all help and counsel received from
you and other departments who have so ably assisted with our many problems.
Respectfully submitted.
J. N. Elliot,
Chief Psychiatric Male Nurse.
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING EDUCATION
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—The report of the Department of Nursing Education for the fiscal year ended
March 31st, 1955, is herewith submitted.
The psychiatric nurses-in-training of The Woodlands School joined the students at
the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, for lectures and demonstrations. One male
student and ten female students graduated from the School of Psychiatric Nursing at
ceremonies held at the New Westminster Junior High School on May 13th, 1955.  This THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL M  155
was the last group of psychiatric nurses-in-training to graduate from the School.   In future
all students will be directly enrolled in the School of Psychiatric Nursing of the Provincial
Mental Health Services, as established by Order in Council No. 2001/51.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Edith M. Pullan, R.N.,
Director of Nursing.
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOTHERAPY
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—During the past year the Physiotherapy Department completed 1,754 treatments. This represented a total of 854 males, 821 females, and 79 staff.
The basic case load of spastic or permanently crippled children has been augmented
by post-surgical orthopaedic corrections and classes in posture and foot deformities.
We are now in receipt of all equipment ordered, with the exception of medium-size
walkers. The new equipment is in almost daily use, either in the Department or on the
wards.
A vacancy for additional staff, preferably male, to handle the heavier patients now
exists, and it is hoped that it may be filled in the near future.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Janet M. Granberg,
Physiotherapist.
DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—Following is a report of work performed for the fiscal year ended March
31st, 1955, at The Woodlands School.
There was no psychologist from April lst, 1954, until July 16th, 1954, when
Thelma T. Coulter, Ph.D., joined the staff as clinical psychologist.
The Department has been reorganized, with three main functions in mind: (1)
Routine testing with regard to intelligence or developmental age of new patients two
months after admission; (2) personality assessment of patients with behaviour disorders
and recommendations concerning them; and (3) assessment of patients being considered for rehabilitation, this assessment to include intelligence, basic organization of
personality structure, personal and social adjustment, interests, and aptitudes.
Referrals for psychological testing are received from the medical staff, the social
service, the nursing staff, and the school.
Because intellectual level is only one aspect of the total personality, more emphasis
is being placed on the personal and social adjustment of the patient so that deviations
in personality can be adjusted before the patient is rehabilitated. For this reason,
greater use is being made of a battery of projective techniques.
Therapeutic interviews have been commenced with a selected number of patients
who have the capacity to gain insight into their maladaptive unconscious motivations.
It is hoped that eventually a full-time psychological intern will be added to the staff to M  156 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
do routine testing so that more patients can receive the benefit of this therapeutic relationship both individually and as a group.
During the year 110 patients were examined and a total of 316 tests administered.
Reports on these interviews were written for the clinical file of each patient. In addition, talks were given to each of twenty groups of students and outside organizations.
Daily conferences were attended on 164 occasions. Weekly clinics were attended on
twenty-four occasions, and full personality evaluations of the pupils under review were
presented. Abstracts of twenty-eight psychological examinations performed at various
Child Guidance Clinics were made.
Following is a tabulation of tests used in psychological evaluations of patients in
The Woodlands School:—
Arthur Point Scale        2
Bender Gestalt        7
Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale        6
California Test of Personality       7
Children's Apperception Test     11
Crawford Small Parts Dexterity       4
Draw-a-Person      56
Ingraham-Clark Reading Test       1
Kuder Preference        3
Mental Health Analysis     11
Minnesota Clerical       1
Minnesota Personality Inventory       2
Modified Alpha        1
Otis Arithmetic        2
Porteus Mazes      41
Progressive Matrices        8
Rorschach Method of Personality Diagnosis     32
Stanford-Binet, Form L     18
Stanford-Binet, Form M       8
Thematic Apperception      17
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I      14
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II      35
Wechsler-Intelligence Scale for Children     29
Total  316
It is hoped that in the near future some experimental research can be carried out
by the Psychology Department on the variability of mental defectives in the moron
group in learning ability, taking into account the differences in etiology.
Respectfully submitted. Thelma t CoulteR) ph D
Clinical Psychologist.
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICE
C. E. Benwell, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, The Woodlands School,
New Westminster, B.C.
Sir,—The year 1954-55 has been a year of consolidation and expansion of the
work of the Social Service Department. In numbers of cases carried there has been
continuous expansion. This is also evident in rehabilitation and in community education services. THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL M  157
Staff Changes
The present establishment for social workers at The Woodlands School stands at
three and one casework supervisor. During the year there were two resignations from
the social-work staff, with the result that during most of the year the service was carried
by two social workers and the casework supervisor. At one time the service was carried for three months by one social worker and the casework supervisor. A replacement was secured for one resignation;  the other vacancy has yet to be filled.
Department Structure
The Department operates in two sections; the first focuses on admission, reception,
and training casework services, and the second on pre-rehabilitation and rehabilitation
casework services. When the establishment of our workers is maintained, two social
workers give service in the first section and two in the second. In the first two years of
operation the social workers were involved much more extensively in casework services
before and during admission and during the reception of the pupil into the training-
school. Another area of intensive services during this time was casework services to
the pupil while resident in the training-school. Rehabilitation during this time was in
its beginning phase. The pupils' rehabilitative potential had yet to be assessed, and the
staff reoriented from custodial-care service to a service of vocational training and rehabilitation of those pupils able at some time to be relatively self-directing and self-
supporting. During the first two years of the Social Service Department's operation,
the social worker on rehabilitation had to initiate the rehabilitation assessment. Much
time was spent in finding, interviewing, and assessing pupils for rehabilitation. Recently
the training-school has set up a rehabilitation clinic and conference, whereby all the
departments having knowledge of the pupils come together to study and assess the
pupils' rehabilitation potential. The social worker's contribution to this clinic is the
social study of the pupil, his family, and his situation before admission and while in
residence at the School; besides this he gives likely leads as to job resources in the
near-by community. The work emphasis in the Social Service Department is beginning
to centre on rehabilitation, and no doubt this will increase as the years go by.
Case-load Details
Table 1 indicates a total pupil intake of 897 during the year, a 65.55-per-cent
increase; of this total intake, 346 cases were concerned with pre-admission services.
These involve the worker in giving information to inquiring parents and relatives, as
well as orienting them to the school programme and buildings. Some sixty-five cases
were concerned with services to the parent and the pupil at the point of the latter's
reception into the School. Some 486 cases were concerned with casework services to
pupils in residence, as well as pre-rehabilitation and rehabilitation services. In the latter
area, 123 pupils were interviewed or assessed for rehabilitation.
Table 2 shows increases in face-to-face helping interviews with pupils and parents
during the time of the pupils' training and at the point of planning rehabilitation. A total
of 3,302 interviews were directed to helping pupils and parents. Some 3,638 conferences
and consultations were held by Social Service with other disciplines furthering integrative
therapy, as well as multi-disciplined planning for the pupil in residence and the pupil
about to be rehabilitated to either family convalescent or working convalescent care.
Some 126 conferences and consultations were with employers prior to placement, and
210 consultations were with employers following work placement.
Group Work Project
The problem of constructively occupying the patients in their leisure time on the
wards has long faced the nurses in carrying out their daily routine at The Woodlands M 158 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
School. With the increased emphasis on socializing the patients and preparing them
for possible rehabilitation, it has become recognized that recreation on the wards can
play an important part in developing the intellectual capacity, the emotional maturity,
and the social habits of the patients. However, until recently, the staff time has not
permitted a ward leisure-time programme to be developed on an organized basis. In
February of this year an inroad was made toward meeting this problem when a pilot
group work project was launched on one of the wards on the women's side. A group
of nine youngsters, ranging in age from 9 to 16 years, were selected to participate in a
leisure-time programme once a week under the direction of a trained group worker.
These girls have a relatively high intellectual potential and were chosen with a view to
forming a reasonably cohesive group. The programme drawn up included such activities
as handicrafts, games, singing, dancing, stories, and listening to records, with the object
of (a) providing a social experience for the children through which they could learn to
work and play co-operatively, (b) developing the skills of the children and stimulating
and broadening their interest, and (c) experimenting with a kind of programme media
which can successfully be used on the wards with this kind of patient.
In order to organize this programme and to co-ordinate it with the School routine,
it was necessary to obtain the interest and assistance of the staff of almost all the departments of The Woodlands School. In January a staff group representing the Medical,
Psychological, Nursing, Education, and Social Service Departments met to discuss the
project and to assist in its planning. Through this interdepartmental co-operation the
project became integrated with the total programme of the institution, and we are grateful
to these and other departments, particularly the Occupational Therapy Department,
whose continued support has enabled the development of the project.
It is still very early to evaluate this programme, but the results to date have been
most encouraging. The children in the group have responded with great enthusiasm to
the activities—to the extent in one case where a child who had formerly been reluctant
to come back to the school from home visits cut her Easter holidays short in order not
to miss the weekly play session. It became apparent very soon that these children, who
are on a ward with some fifty other patients, ranging from youngsters to those well on
in middle age, needed to participate in their own personal group, through which they
could exercise their own initiative. Although the social development of the children is
limited in keeping with their retardation, it was interesting to note that the children
quickly developed a feeling of belonging and the feeling of responsibility toward their
group. When one member of the group was absent, it became the pattern of the group
for one of the other members to make a craft article for them so the absentee would not
miss out. The group was able to exercise some control in keeping out those who are
not in the group, and, when the occasion arose, they were able to suggest who they
wanted for a new member. Recently they have been able to work out a system of
cleaning up, through which the responsibility will be shared equally by all members of
the group. After several weeks of the leader determining the activities for the children,
they gradually began to make their own suggestions about the programme, not only for
games, but in regard to craft programme. Now each week the group members sit down
together to plan their craft programme for the coming week. In making the articles,
the children are encouraged to express their own ideas and to use their resourcefulness
within the limits of their ability. In an institution where the children must constantly
conform to routine and uniformity, the opportunity for them to express their individu-
lity through the activities and through the opportunity for self-determination as a group
takes on a particularly important meaning.
It has been established that mental deficiency is often accompanied by emotional
disturbances on the part of the defective because of inability of the family and community to meet the problem of the backward child. It is interesting to note that in this
group of nine children, seven were rejected by their family and one of the remaining THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL M  159
girls had one parent who was treated for a psychosis. The results of these home environments were seen in the lack of emotional stability and socialization of many of these
children. The group experience has contributed toward enriching the emotional life of
these children, not only through their creative expression in the activities, but through
their friendly relationship with the leader. This is strikingly demonstrated by the growth
of one child, age 11, who first sought her attention in the group by annoying the others
and by being loud and boisterous. This was an unattractive child who had been rejected
at home and who undoubtedly felt she was not worthy of genuine affection. She gradually found her feeling of achievement and of self-worth in the group. She began to find
she could get recognition from the leader and from the other girls through her constructive participation in the group activities. She gained such attention by saying " please "
and " thank you " that she began to use these words almost to excess. When the girls
in the group gave her a surprise birthday party, this child became assured of her acceptance by the group and the fact that she could be liked for herself. Although the child
occasionally reverts to her former antics, her general behaviour has steadily improved,
and her experience in the group has substantially contributed toward her personality
growth.
Through the co-operation of the nursing staff and their interest in seeing more
recreation on the wards, a nurse's aide was assigned to assist with the programme with
a view to carrying on similar activities on the ward at other times in the week. Through
this method there has been an increased programme of play and leisure-time activities
on the ward for the patients who can benefit from these activities.
In carrying out this programme, it was necessary to face many problems which
will have to be met if a group work programme is to become enlarged at The Woodlands
School. At the present time there is no allocation of money for equipment and supplies
to carry on this programme. An adequate budget will be necessary if more leisure-time
activities are to be developed on the wards. The dayrooms and playrooms will have
to be improved by the provision of more cupboard space and facilities for recreation.
The lack of segregation on the ward creates another difficulty in that it is difficult to
organize activities or even to provide equipment which will be appropriate for patients
with such varying levels of mental and physical ability. Even with this specially selected
group of patients, it has been difficult to conduct a programme to meet the diverse range
of capacities of the group members. It would be helpful to the staff and to the patients
for the patients to be grouped so that they could work and play more harmoniously
together.
Lastly, it will be necessary to increase the social-work staff if this programme is
to be expanded. At present, with the heavy load of casework, the staff is not able to
carry on more than the one experimental group work programme.
General Activities of the Social Service Department
(a) Social-work Education.—The Social Service Department participated in the
educational programme for the in-service trained social worker co-operating with the
Division of Training of the Social Welfare Branch. Four sessions were conducted, during which the functions and services of social workers in the training-school setting were
outlined, together with case presentations which were illustrative of services at every
level of the pupils' training, education, and socialization.
(b) Education to Allied Professions.—Four groups of affiliate and postgraduate
nurses were oriented to the contribution of social service in this specific setting, as were
groups of teachers in training and psychologists in training.
(c) Public Interpretation.—Nine community organizations, among whom were the
Parent-Teacher Associations, the public health nurses, the registered nurses' association, women's service clubs, church groups, and various membership groups of the
British Columbia Association for the Advancement of the Mentally Retarded, have been M  160 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
introduced through clinical team presentations or individual talks to the institutional
programme for the care, education, training, socialization, and vocational rehabilitation
of the mentally retarded child and adult. There is a vast and ever-increasing interest
on the part of community in this service. A willingness to co-operate in programme is
increasingly evident on the part of many community groups. Some groups have expressed an interest in developing community co-operative and ancillary services to the
institutional programme.
(d) Community Co-operation.—Out of the activity of the School and the Social
Service Department in public interpretation, with its emphasis on the need to share in
the development of an over-all programme for the mentally retarded, the New Westminster Association for the Advancement of the Mentally Retarded has provided a club-
room in the community for the use of pupils in residence having visiting privileges. The
Vancouver Association has fostered a child in the School, providing a spending allowance.
(e) Liaison between the School and the Auxiliary.—The Woodlands School now
has a very active auxiliary, formed by parents residing in the New Westminster area,
most of whom have children in residence at the School. They have offered their homes
for hospitality to parents from out-of-town areas who are visiting children in The Woodlands School. Hospitality has been extended to pupils in working convalescent care on
their days off work. Homes have been offered to the same group of pupils on a short-
stay basis between jobs or before going out to a job. The value of this service in socialization is inestimable. The auxiliary is considering ways of helping in the provision of
certain equipment for the use of the pupils in the School. The supervisor of the Social
Service Department has officiated most ably as liaison person between the auxiliary
and the School staff committee. She has had the responsibility of interpreting the institutional programme and ways through which the Auxiliary might co-operate in its development.
Staff Development
An opportunity was afforded a staff member to study the administration organization of training programmes in schools in Eastern Canada and United States, and the
services and functions of social work in the training-school. Many valuable ideas were
obtained both from the Ontario programme and that of the Southbury training-school
in the United States.
Staff committees have been busy throughout the year in a study of social-work
activity at the different job levels, as well as studying the statistical system, recording,
and group work method. The Social Service Department hereby acknowledges with
grateful thanks the assistance received from administration and all departments of the
School. The movement to an integrated programme has been outstanding and augurs
well for future developments. THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL M  161
Summary
Table 1.—Summary of Cases Given Services by the Social Service Department,
The Woodlands School, April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
1954-55 1953-54
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year     97 98
New cases   800 512
Cases reopened during the fiscal year     65 56
Cases reopened from previous fiscal year     32 20
Total intake into the case load  897 588
Total number of cases given service  994 686
Cases closed or referred  864 589
Cases carried over   130 97
Table 2.—Summary of Social-work Activity in the Social Service Department, The
Woodlands School, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Interviews with or Regarding
Pupils and Patients
Consultations Regarding
Pupils and Patients
With
Pupils
With
Relatives
Total
With
Other
Disciplines
With
Other
Agencies
With
Employers
Total
1954-55
Pre-admission 	
Reception   	
Education and training.. 	
11
20
512
935
164
35
264
1.361
175
55
776
2,296
198
84
1,113
1,413
130
9
288
277
366
328
93
1,401
2,026
Totals 	
     |     3,302
.       |     3,848
1953-54
Pre-admission	
34
48
568
684
468
262
540
135
502
310
1,180
890
162
300
1,260
885
128
36
66
103
290
336
Education and training.... 	
1,272
1,183
2,811
[     3,081
1
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Alice K. Carroll, B.A., M.S.W.,
Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work. M  162 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table 1.—Movement of Population, The Woodlands School,
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Male
Female
Total
692
9
497
8
1,189
On probation, carried forward from 1953-54  	
17
701
37
505
20
1,206
57
738
525
1,263
Separations—
11
16
5
4
6
13
15
Died  	
22
18
32
23
55
14
5
19
706
502
1,208
Table 2.—Showing in Summary Form the Operation of The Woodlands School
since April 1st, 1954
__
Discharges
a    a
a.   i   o
o
;fl
a
o
TJ
X
a
to
0
to r"1
2j=
tft to
it «
Ih<h
ii
ZO
to
cd
CJ
H
CJ
□
CD
cS
to
Ih
CJ
a
Ih
to
X
1
fl
X to
3£]
2   Hi ~
a St.
u <J S
B « 2
-no. a
Q'g-o
MOW
«          OB
-t-1   tft   2
c »3
u 00 "fl
5 h S
•h cd^
U-flQ
Year
•o
to
to
>
O
to
to
flj
•fl
to
O
fl,
1
•o
to
>
o
u
I
c
D
to   to -i_>
Qj5 c
HCID
*H  C  c
O 3 C
toZ rt
S-fl hi
£-2§
1954-55	
57
4
11
22
1,208
19
1,263
0.07
26.32
1.74
Table 3.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Health Unit and
School District of Residence and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
Health Unit
Male
Female
Total
East Kootenay, Cranbrook—
School District No. 1 	
„   18	
West Kootenay, Trail—
School District No. 9	
„   11	
South Okanagan, Kelowna—
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
11
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
7
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
18
2
6
1
Upper Island, Courtenay—
School District No. 47	
„   71	
Skeena, Prince Rupert—
School District No. 52 	
Peace River, Dawson Creek—
School District No. 60	
Victoria-Esquimalt Union Board
of Health-
School District No. 61 (part1)-.
Saanich   and   South   Vancouver
Island—
School District No. 61 (part2)...
Central Vancouver Island—
School District No. 62	
„   65	
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
North Okanagan, Vernon—
School District No. 19	
1
„   20   	
„   22	
Upper Fraser Valley, Chilliwack—
School District No. 33	
Boundary, Cloverdale—
School District No. 35	
1
1
1
„   36	
„           „        „   68
„           „        „   37	
„   70
Metropolitan Health Committee,
Vancouver—
School District No. 38	
School districts not covered by
health units—
School District No. 48
„   39.	
„   61 (part3)....
„   41 	
„   44
North Fraser Valley, Mission—
37
20
57
School District No. 75   .	
1 Includes Victoria and Esquimalt only.
2 Excludes Victoria, Esquimalt, and Oak Bay.
3 Includes Oak Bay only. THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
M  163
Table 4.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Mental Diagnosis,
Age-group, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Age-group (Years)
Mental Diagnosis
Under
1
1-3
4-6
7-9
10-14
15-19
20-29
30-39
40 and
Over
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.  F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Mental deficiency—
Idiocy 	
Imbecility 	
2
2
1
1
4
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
'!-—
......j i
4
ll	
 -i	
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
5
7
12
3
6
5
8
1
3
10
15
12
1
4
Mongolism  	
1     1
9
Mental deficiency with epilepsy.
Other and unspecified types	
ii_i:::::
4
2
1
6
1
Totals  	
2|    4|  111    4|    4|    2
61    1
2|    1|    5[    1
4|    2
1|    4
2
1| 371 20|     57
The fifty-seven cases shown as first admissions to Woodlands were all by certification under the " Mental Defectives
Act," and the marital status of these fifty-seven admissions was single.
Table 5.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Years of Schooling,
Mental Diagnosis, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 6.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Citizenship, Age-group,
and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 7.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Religion and Sex,
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 8.—First Admissions to The Woodlands School by Previous Occupation
and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Detailed information for the above tables may be obtained upon request.
Table 9.—Live Discharges from The Woodlands School by Mental Diagnosis,
Condition on Discharge, and Sex, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Condition on Discharge
Total
Mental Diagnosis
Improved
Unimproved
Grand
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Mental deficiency—
2
1
1
2
3
1
2
-
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
Moron  _    	
5
2
Mongolism  	
2
1
2
Totals _  	
3
1
8
3
11
4
15
Of the four improved patients, two males and one female were discharged to home, and the other male patient was
placed elsewhere in the community.   All eleven unimproved patients were returned to their homes. r
M  164
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
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c M  168 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
PART IV.—PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME,  COLQUITZ,
VANCOUVER ISLAND
REPORT OF THE MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT
A. M. Gee, Esq., M.D., CM.,
Director of Mental Health Services,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I take pleasure in submitting herewith the annual report of the Provincial
Mental Home, Colquitz, for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955, with
reports from the heads of the various departments.
It is with regret that I report the loss on January 16th, 1955, of Mr. J. T. Gawthrop,
our Deputy Business Manager, who was fatally injured in a motor-car collision when
coming to work four days previously. In the short time he was with us he had proved
himself a very capable and efficient organizer, and his absence will be felt in many ways.
Severely injured in the same accident was Mrs. K. Stapleton, who was on her way out
to start her first morning's work in this office. I am pleased to report she is making
satisfactory recovery.
Our patient population on April lst, 1954, was 283. This number fluctuated during
the year, but on March 31st, 1955, the patient population was 287. During the year
fourteen patients were transferred to this institution from the Provincial Mental Hospital,
Essondale. Five patients were discharged in full, one being returned to the British
Columbia Penitentiary, and one being transferred to the Nova Scotia Mental Hospital,
Dartmouth, N.S.   Three patients were discharged on probation, and are still on probation.
There were five deaths among the patients during the year, the cause of death being
circulatory in four and bronchopneumonia in the other case.
Throughout the year the physical health of the patients has been remarkably good.
We had a number of rather severe cases of influenza, but not of epidemic proportions.
Otherwise there was no serious illness or accident to report.
For the second year we were unable to have the mobile unit of the Division of
Tuberculosis Control visit us, but as in previous years the Victoria Tuberculosis Clinic
was most co-operative in checking the cases considered active when the mobile clinic
visited us last. It is good to be able to report all of these cases are now classified as
arrested, and the five patients reported last year as confined to bed because of pulmonary
tuberculosis are now ambulatory and off specific medication.
Dr. G. Hall and Dr. W. Dempsey continued to care for the physical and dental needs
of the patients respectively.
We continue to have about 60 per cent of our patients employed in some beneficial
and useful occupation.
During the year, in a number of wards, the old furniture was removed and replaced
with new plastic-upholstered chairs and couches in varied bright colours. This has added
much to the comfort and appearance of the wards and has been favourably commented
on by patients, staff, and visitors.
The recreational- and occupational-therapy facilities were used to the limit. We
hope to extend our occupational-therapy facilities by utilizing the present stores space for
occupational therapy after conversion of the old boiler-room into a storeroom. This
large undertaking is well under way, much of the work being done by the patient help
under the supervision of Mr. H. Helander and his assistants.
The patients have not lacked recreation in various forms throughout the year.
Weather permitting, they were in the recreation court both afternoons and evenings PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME M  169
throughout the summer months and on many afternoons in the fall and winter.   Different
outdoor games were organized and played, softball proving the most popular.
Indoors, television continues to be popular. The bi-weekly moving pictures continue
to be shown, and in addition to our own entertainment programme we had fourteen
concert parties sponsored by individuals, service clubs, etc., who visited and entertained
the patients.
A very much appreciated outing is the 21/i-hour tour of Greater Victoria on May
24th each year.   We are able to take as many as thirty-one or thirty-two patients.
The spiritual needs of the patients were taken care of by visiting clergy of various
denominations, as in previous years.
During the year ten members of the nursing staff left the service. Two of these,
Mr. G. Moon and Mr. H. W. Armitage, had reached the age of retirement, and the others
left for varied reasons. The ten vacancies resulting were all filled by psychiatric aides,
making the psychiatric aides now 33 per cent of the total nursing staff.
We have no training-school here at the present time, but during the year 160 hours
were spent in giving postgraduate lectures to the psychiatric nurses and instruction to the
psychiatric aides.
On the whole the past year has been a satisfactory one, and we feel we have
accomplished a number of things which have added to the comfort and well-being of the
patients here. I wish to compliment the staff and personnel on their efficiency and
co-operation during the year.
In conclusion, I wish to express my appreciation to you for your understanding and
support and to your staff members who visited during the year in a consulting capacity.
Respectfully submitted.
L. G. C. d'Easum, M.B.,
Medical Superintendent.
DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY
L. G. C d'Easum, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Home,
Colquitz, B.C.
Sir,—The following is the report of the Occupational Therapy and Maintenance
Department for the year ended March 31st, 1955.
This has been another busy year for our Department. In the shop, art metal,
leatherwork, rug-making, wood-carving, and woodwork have kept the patients occupied
and happy. Some model aeroplanes were made in the shop, and the patient who made
them will be given opportunities to fly them. We have had very encouraging results in
wood-carving.
Painting in oil and water colours has been encouraged on the wards, and patients
there have been supplied with materials; an assortment of stretchers was made in the
shop for pictures of various sizes. Quite a number and assortment of toys were made
in the shop, and these toys were taken to a local radio station, before the Christmas
season, to be distributed to needy families.
The Occupational Therapy Shop is open to patients from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. on
week-days. We still keep it open on Saturdays, so the patients here have not been
affected by the five-day week. A nice lot of tools and small machines were ordered and
received during the year, these coming through the Federal grant. The new equipment
will be used in the proposed Occupational Therapy Shop in the old storeroom.
A considerable amount of maintenance and new building has been done by our
Department during the year.   Approximately 650 lineal feet of concrete steam-line duct M  170 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT, 1954-55
was installed. This duct entailed a lot of work; it is underground, so there is excavating
and back-filling to do, besides the formwork and pouring of concrete. A two-room
addition was built to the greenhouse, also a three-room 30- by 50-foot storage room over
the old coal-bunker, as well as a two-car garage on Roy Road farm. Approximately
400 feet of concrete curbing was poured at the back of the buildings. Our Department
also installed about 500 feet of drain-tile, with proper catch-basins at the required places.
Water that used to flow over the roads and into the buildings at the back of the main
building is now diverted into the new drains.
The old boiler-room has almost been completed for the new storeroom; a new and
lower concrete floor was poured, a mezzanine floor constructed, and cupboards, counters,
shelves, and platforms built to requirements. This new storeroom should prove a lot
better than the old store, as it is compact, light, and contains the same floor area in one
room as the previous one had divided into five rooms.
The painters have painted new buildings as we have built them. They painted the
new barn on Roy Road farm, plus the old barn, dairy, and silos. Considerable decoration
of wards, dormitories, etc., was accomplished, also window-washing and general cleaning.
The usual maintenance of furniture, bed repairs, building of furniture as needed, and
repairs to buildings have been attended to during the year.
Fire-fighting equipment is checked regularly, as are conditions throughout the
institution and other buildings to ensure that there are no fire-hazards.
My thanks to you for your counsel and help during the past year, also to the staff
of this Department for their co-operation.
Respectfully submitted.
H. Helander,
Instructor of Trades and Maintenance.
DEPARTMENT OF RECREATIONAL THERAPY
L. G. C d'Easum, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Home,
Colquitz, B.C.
Sir,—Indoor activities were the main attraction during April, 1954, with outside
action beginning in May and continuing through September.
Softball, tennis, golf, volleyball, catch, lawn-bowls, and football provided most of
the interest.
Softball, with about thirty patients playing at various times throughout the summer,
was the most popular game; kicking a soccer ball was next in popularity, though with
fewer participants; tennis was not too well received, the best court being available only
to parole patients.
Volleyball is difficult to organize, and the facilities for lawn-bowling are not the best,
but, generally speaking, the activity in the recreation court during the summer was good.
At least two ball games each week (evening games) produced considerable interest
and enjoyment. A large number of patients not interested in active sport were engaged
in cards and chess and as spectators at the ball games.
Starting in October and still in effect at the present time, there are two bingo games
each month, at least one card party, and one evening of travel, industry, scenic, and other
interesting movies, which, combined with the regular Sunday and Wednesday evening
movies, provide three evenings of organized recreation each week. One hundred and
twenty patients on an average attend the picture shows, sixty the bingo games, and thirty
the card parties. PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME M  171
In addition to the above, there is considerable card and chess playing on the wards
throughout the day.
Respectfully submitted.
J. Lowndes,
Recreation Instructor.
DENTAL REPORT
L. G. C d'Easum, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Home,
Colquitz, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith submit a report on the dental services administered to patients
at the Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz. During the period April lst, 1954, to March
31st, 1955, the following was done:—
Examinations and consultations  130
Extractions     95
Restorations     65
Prophylaxes     10
Denture adjustments     17
Denture repairs       4
Denture refines       1
Impressions taken     13
Bites     13
Try-in of dentures     13
Intra-muscular penicillin  1,600,000 units
Members of the staff, who were carefully selected to assist me, have, as before,
proved themselves to be of invaluable help. I should like to thank them for their
co-operation.
Respectfully submitted.
W. G. Dempsey, D.D.S.
DEPARTMENT OF NURSING SERVICES
L. G. C d'Easum, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Home,
Colquitz, B.C.
Sir,—The following is a report of the Department of Nursing Services for the fiscal
year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
During the year ten members of the nursing staff left the service for the following
reasons: Superannuation, 2; health reasons, 2; resigned to accept other employment, 3;
temporary help, 2; services terminated, 1.
Psychiatric aides were employed to fill the vacancies in our establishment when
psychiatric nurses left this field of endeavour.
Besides regular ward duties, staff members escorted groups of patients to the Vancouver Island Chest Clinic at Victoria and others for eye examinations and emergency
dental treatment to the respective doctors' offices in the city. Staff were detailed to special
duty at St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, for a total of sixty-two eight-hour shifts. One
psychiatric nurse and one aide escorted a patient to Nova Scotia. Members of the Nursing
Services are to be commended for the manner in which they performed their duties. M  172 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
As the number of resident patients changes but little from year to year, those granted
grounds privileges, employed in the various departments, and engaged in routine ward
activities remain at a constant level.
Weather permitting, the recreation courts were in use daily. The radio and television
continued to provide enjoyable entertainment for the patients. On May 24th thirty-one
patients were taken on a 2Vi -hour tour of Greater Victoria. Besides the bi-weekly and
extra picture shows, fourteen concerts, sponsored by individuals, service clubs, and
organizations, augmented the entertainment programme.
The Travelling Library, Public Library Commission, Victoria, changed the books
in our library twice during the year. Popular magazines were sent in by individuals and
organizations.
The Church of England minister, Rev. N. J. Godkin, held services on the second
and fourth Sunday of each month. The Salvation Army held services on the first and
third Sunday of each month. They were accompanied by their band on four occasions
and by the songsters twice. Major and Mrs. Martin distributed Christmas parcels on
December 22nd. Roman Catholic patients were visited, and mass was held each month
by Rev. Father L. MacLellan.
The Red Cross Society and the Britannia Branch of the Canadian Legion, with the
Women's Auxiliary to the Britannia Branch, provided comforts for ex-service patients
monthly.   Other organizations supplied comforts at times.
Chief Joseph Law, of The Corporation of the District of Saanich, visited and renewed
our fire department certificate, in recognition of a high standard of fire safety and
cleanliness in effect in the institution.
Mr. M. C. McCallum, Audit Division of Narcotics Control, Department of National
Health and Welfare, Ottawa, visited the institution on November 18th and checked out
very limited supplies of narcotic drugs.
The co-operation between the other departments and that of the Nursing Services
was excellent and greatly appreciated.
Respectfully submitted.
P. T. McLeod,
Chief Psychiatric Nurse.
TRAINING-SCHOOL REPORT
L. G. C d'Easum, Esq., M.B.,
Medical Superintendent, Provincial Mental Home,
Colquitz, B.C.
Sir,—April, 1954, saw the completion of a series of postgraduate lectures for all
nursing staff, except the night shift and the last four psychiatric aides.
Classes were resumed on October 16th, and since that date lectures have been held
on a daily basis for all available staff. A total of 160 hours of lectures have been given
for the forty staff members in attendance. Again, the only staff not attending the lectures
have been the night shift and the last psychiatric aides.
Interest remains good, with the psychiatric aides persistently reiterating their wish
to be included here in a regular course leading to graduation and certification as psychiatric
nurses.
Respectfully submitted.
J. Lowndes,
Instructor. PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOME
STATISTICAL TABLES
Table 1.—Movement of Population, Provincial Mental
Home, Colquitz, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Number1
In residence, March 31st, 1954  287
On probation, carried forward from 1953-54       1
On escape, carried forward from 1953-54       1
M  173
Total as at March 31st, 1954_
Admissions—Transfers	
... 289
...    14
Total under care
303
Separations—
Discharged in full
Died	
On probation and still out       4
Escaped but not discharged       1
Total separations 	
Net increase 	
In residence, March 31st, 1955
15
1
288
1 This institution cares tor male patients only.
Table 2.—Transfers to Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz by Health Unit
and School District of Residence, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Health Unit
Number
Health Unit
Number
East Kootenay, Cranbrook—
Simon Fraser, New Westminster—
School District No. 3	
     1
School District No. 40..	
     1
North Okanagan, Vernon—
 43. ...	
_    1
School District No. 21	
.....    1
Victoria and Esquimalt Union Board of Health-
South Central, Kamloops—
School District No. 61  	
     1
School District No. 24 	
     3
Unknown—
Cariboo, Prince George—
School District No. 98  	
....     1
School District No. 55	
     1
—
„    57 	
     1
Totals.  _
  14
Metropolitan Health Committee, Vancouver—
School District No. 39 	
     1
„    41	
     2
Table 3.—Transfers to Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz by Mental
Diagnosis and Age-group, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Age-group (Years)
Total
0-24
25-29
30-34
35-39
40-44 I 45-49
50-54
55-59
60-64
65-69
70 and
Over
Schizophrenic disorders—
....
1
~2
"t
2    1      1
2
1
1
1
....
"l
1
1
10
Paranoia and paranoid states
Psychosis with cerebral arteriosclerosis  	
Psychosis, other and unspecified-
1
1
1
Totals	
1
2
1
2    |      1
3
2
1
1
14 M  174
MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
Table 4.—Transfers to Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz by Mental
Diagnosis and Marital Status, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Mental Diagnosis
Marital Status
Total
Single
Married
Widowed
8
1
1
2
1
1
11
1
1
1
Totals   —	
10
3
1
14
Table 5.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz by Years of
Schooling and Mental Diagnosis, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 6.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz by
Citizenship and Age-group, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 7.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz
by Religion, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Table 8.—Transfers to the Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz
by Previous Occupation, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Detailed information for the above tables may be obtained upon request.
Table 9.—Live Discharges from Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz by Mental Diagnosis and Condition on Discharge, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st,
1955.
Mental Diagnosis
Condition on Discharge
Total
Recovered
Improved
Unimproved
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
5
The three patients with improved condition were discharged to home, while the unimproved patient was discharged
to another mental hospital.   The recovered patient was placed elsewhere in the community.
Table 10.—Live Discharges from and Deaths Occurring in the Provincial
Mental Home at Colquitz by Mental Diagnosis and Age-group, April 1st,
1954, to March 31st, 1955.
Age-group (Years)
0-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-69
70 and
Over
Live Discharges
1
1
3
3
Other and unspecified psychoses—Psychosis with psychopathic
1
Pathological personality—Other and unspecified 	
1
....    |      2
3
....    |    ....    |    ....
5
Deaths
Schizophrenic disorders—Paranoid type — 	
1
3
1
5
—
1
3
1
J PROVINCIAL mental home
M  175
Table 11.—Live Discharges from and Deaths Occurring in the Provincial
Mental Home at Colquitz by Mental Diagnosis and Length of Stay, April
1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
Length of Stay
Mental Diagnosis
8-11
Months
1 Year      2 Years
but under but under
2 Years     3 Years
3 Years
but under
5 Years
5 Years
but under
10 Years
10 Years
and Over
Total
Live Discharges
Schizophrenic disorders 	
Other and unspecified psychoses         	
1
i
i
2
....        [      ....
....        |      ....
1
1
3
1
1
Totals _,-	
1        |        2        |      ....        J        1
1         |      ....                 5
Deaths
Schizophrenic disorders. 	
1
1
....        |        5
5
....
1         5
5
Table 12.—Deaths Occurring in Provincial Mental Home at Colquitz by Cause
of Death and Age-group, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Cause of Death
Age-group (Years)
Total
0-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-69
70 and
Over
Arteriosclerotic and degenerative heart-disease
1
2
1
1
4
1
Totals  	
1
3
1
5
All five patients who died had a length of stay in the Home for a period longer than ten years. M  176 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
PART V.—GERIATRIC DIVISION
REPORT OF THE MEDICAL SUPERINTENDENT
A. M. Gee, Esq., M.D., CM.,
Director of Mental Health Services,
Essondale, B.C.
Sir,—I submit herewith the annual report of the Geriatric Division of the Provincial Mental Health Services for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
During the past year there has been no appreciable decrease in the demand for
admissions of aged mentally ill persons to this Division, as there was a total of 333
applications received, compared to 337 applications for the previous year. This represents a continued average of twenty-eight applications per month from all parts of the
Province. The ratio of requests for men compared to women remains equal, as there
were 167 applications received for men and 166 for women.
Of the 333 applications received, it was possible to accept only 219 patients for
admission to the Division, leaving, therefore, 114 patients who were denied the care
provided in our Homes for the Aged. The greatest demand for accommodation continues to be from the south-west corner of the Province, including Vancouver Island,
the Greater Vancouver area, and the Fraser Valley. Of the total number of applications received, 291 were requests for admission to the Port Coquitlam unit. From the
Okanagan area, 36 applications were received for admission to the Vernon unit, but it
was possible to actually admit 43 patients from this area directly, thereby accommodating those few patients who were on the waiting-list at the end of the last fiscal year.
At the end of this year there are no names on the waiting-list for either the Vernon
or Terrace units, and all applications received from these areas have been accepted
immediately.
As in previous years, many requests for admission have been very urgent and, after
careful evaluation, have been accepted on an emergency basis immediately or very
shortly after receipt of the application, even though others had been waiting longer.
In all such cases the patients were exhibiting behaviour of such a nature as to be dangerous to themselves or others in their community, and no other facilities existed for
their proper care and management. A total of 82 such cases were accepted, which
represents 24.6 per cent of the total number of requests received.
As in past years, many hours were spent by the Medical Superintendent of the
Division in dealing with numerous inquiries and requests for the care provided by this
Division for aged persons in the Province. These inquiries are received by telephone,
letter, and, more frequently now, by requests for office interviews with the families of
prospective patients. The problem in the community appears to be twofold. Firstly,
there is insufficient accommodation available to provide adequate care for the increasing
number of aged individuals who, because of senile changes, become great problems in
management. Secondly, although adequate care can be provided in many instances by
nursing homes or private mental hospitals, the financial burden thus imposed on the
family becomes insupportable.
The total number of patients in residence at the beginning and end of this fiscal
year remains unchanged. As will be noted in the accompanying tables, there were 543
men and 501 women, a total of 1,044 patients, in residence in the three units of the
Geriatric Division as of April lst, 1954. As of March 31st, 1955, there were 523 men
and 521 women, a total of 1,044 patients, in residence. There has been an increase of
separations during the year, with 220 deaths and 15 discharges in full. An increase of
50 deaths over the number for the previous year of 170 reflects the fact that the GERIATRIC DIVISION M  177
patients who are the greatest problem in the community are the more debilitated and
feeble, and an increasing number of admissions to the Division are in this category, so
that the death rate is consequently increased. A total of 248 patients, 104 men and
144 women, were actually admitted to the three units of the Division during the past
fiscal year. Of the 15 discharges from the Homes for the Aged, all but one were discharges back to the community, and in most instances were returned to their families.
It is felt that a still greater number of patients could be rehabilitated to the community
if the services of a social worker were available at the Port Coquitlam unit especially.
With the limited medical staff and the lack of social workers at the present time, it
is impossible to make an adequate investigation of the family situations and other
resources that quite possibly could be made available to many of our patients who have
shown improvement and who might very well be cared for at the community level or in
a nursing-home situation.
As the requests for direct admissions to the Terrace and Vernon units did not
utilize the number of vacancies created by deaths and discharges, several patient transfers were arranged from the Mental Hospital and Port Coquitlam unit. On September
8th, 1954, twelve male patients were transferred to Terrace, nine being admitted from
the Provincial Mental Hospital and three from the Port Coquitlam unit. On the return
trip, one Terrace patient suffering from active pulmonary tuberculosis was brought to
the Mental Hospital for active therapy for his infection. On December lst, 1954, four
male patients were admitted to the Vernon unit from the Mental Hospital. On March
2nd, 1955, thirteen male patients (eight from the Mental Hospital and five from the Port
Coquitlam unit) were taken to Vernon. In each instance the patients and escorting staff
were transported via Canadian National Railway without difficulty, and with the best of
co-operation from the railway personnel and the various departments in the Mental
Hospital.
Port Coquitlam
The general health of the patients at the Port Coquitlam unit has been very satisfactory throughout the past year, although there is a large number of very feeble and
debilitated patients who require complete and constant bed care. There are approximately 110 women and 50 men at all times who require this type of care. During the
past year, Ward H.A. 9 has been developed as a secondary infirmary ward for women,
with extra staff and equipment to care for the surplus of bed patients over those being
cared for on Ward H.A. 7. Ward H.A. 6 continues to give infirmary care for our
male patients.
During the months of January, February, and March the number of upper respiratory infections and influenza reached epidemic proportions and created a marked problem in nursing care on all wards. The antibiotics proved a great boon in the treatment
of these patients, but many of the more feeble and elderly men and women succumbed
to secondary bronchopneumonia.
In April, 1954, the use of the new tranquilizing drugs, largactil, and, later, ser-
pasil, was initiated at this unit for the treatment of those patients who were great
problems in management because of restless, agitated, or destructive behaviour. This
therapy has been of great assistance, and in most instances the patients have responded
very favourably, with a consequent reduction in nursing care required and an improvement in the general ward atmosphere.
A number of patients were referred to surgery during the year, and in all cases the
operative procedures were carried out at the Crease Clinic, with post-operative care
being given on the West 2 Surgical Ward or in the infirmaries at the Mental Hospital.
A total of thirteen patients were referred to the surgical consultants—three men and
ten women. In addition, three men were referred to the urological specialist because of
hematuria, and in one case transurethral prostatic resection was required.   In October M  178 MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES REPORT,  1954-55
an elderly lady accidentally suffered tracheal obstruction by dislodgement of her partial
denture. She was immediately transferred to the Royal Columbian Hospital, where the
foreign body was removed, but she succumbed a few days later from a lung abscess.
Throughout the year thirty-five patients were referred for orthopaedic care because
of fractures. Of these, four men and sixteen women required surgical treatment for a
fracture of the neck of the femur. In addition, eight women suffered fractures of the
wrist, and the remainder a variety of minor bone injuries. In all cases the injuries were
sustained by accidental falls on the ward. In many instances the falls were unwitnessed,
as there is not a sufficient number of staff available on the ward to give the constant
supervision required for the large number of feeble and confused patients who tend to
wander and attempt activities beyond their physical capabilities. In all cases the orthopaedic service afforded these patients has been prompt and efficient.
General medical ward care has been provided throughout the year by myself, with
the assistance of part-time service from one of the physicians at the Provincial Mental
Hospital. During the first part of the year Dr. McLeod attended to routine medical
problems in the mornings as his other duties permitted. In January he was replaced by
Dr. Sussman, who has continued in the same capacity, and the assistance of these two
men has been invaluable. During the summer months Mr. K. Atkinson, a fourth-year
medical student from the University of British Columbia, gave full-time assistance on
the wards and is to be commended for his genuine interest and assistance in the medical
care of our elderly patients. However, in order to provide adequate medical care to the
patients, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is a need for a full-time physician
at this unit in addition to the Medical Superintendent, whose administrative duties are
gradually demanding a greater part of his time.
The general nursing and ward services continue to function efficiently, and I wish
to commend the sincere interest and devotion shown by the nursing staff in their care
of our aged men and women. Many letters and words of appreciation have been
received from relatives and friends of patients concerning the kindly and sympathetic
care given to the patients by the nursing staff. I am pleased to report that general ward
supervision has been greatly enhanced by the appointment of Mrs. Warrender as unit
supervisor on April 12th, 1954. Mrs. Warrender has shown exceptional interest in the
problems peculiar to the care of aged mentally ill patients, and has been able to
improve considerably the general organization and efficiency of the female ward services
and activities. However, there is still a great need for an additional supervisor to cover
the night shifts and for week-ends.
The many and varied duties of the clinical office have been carried on efficiently
throughout the year under the supervision of Miss Marjorie Anhorn. In January Miss
Beryl Tompkins was transferred to the East Lawn clinical office, and her duties have
been carried on by Miss Beverley Snook, who entered the Mental Health Services the
same month.
Rev. J. F. O'Neil has continued to show a devoted interest in the religious needs
of our patients and has conducted regular services on Wards H.A. 1, H.A. 4, and H.A.
8 throughout the year for those patients who are unable to attend regular services at
Pennington Hall. The Audio-visual Department has also continued to show 16-mm.
movies on the wards regularly, and this entertainment is appreciated by a large number
of our patients. The beauty-parlour on Ward H.A. 4 also continues to be a very
popular service for the elderly ladies, and one operator is employed full time in keeping
pace with the demand for her services. Many patients are able to attend the various
concerts and attractions at Pennington Hall, and throughout the year special occasions
have been marked where possible by suitable ward parties or other entertainment to
brighten the daily routine of our patients. Occupational therapy has also been encouraged, and all patients who are physically and mentally capable of being occupied with
simple handicraft procedures have been assisted by the occupational therapist assigned
to this area. GERIATRIC DIVISION M  179
A very welcome addition to the services afforded our patients appeared in October,
1954, when the first group of volunteer workers arrived on the wards of this unit. In
March two additional workers were assigned to this area, so that at the end of the fiscal
year six ladies have been active here in volunteer work. These workers have been wholeheartedly accepted by patients and staff alike, and they have shown a genuine interest in
the welfare of our elderly patients. Their activities, such as friendly visiting, distribution
of library books, organization of reading groups, and, more recently, assistance with
occupational activities, have been eagerly looked forward to each week by our patients,
men and women alike.
I would like also to report two special events which added greatly to the entertainment of our patients. On August 26th seventy patients were again guests at the Pacific
National Exhibition Shrine Circus through the courtesy of the Vancouver Shriners' organization, who provided transportation to the Forum at Exhibition Park and returned the
patients to the hospital after a very enjoyable and interesting afternoon. All the patients
who attended were very grateful for this generous evidence of community interest in their
welfare. On September 14th a few of our elderly ladies attended the special service in
New Westminster honouring the Archbishop of Canterbury.
The dietary service has continued to be of a high standard throughout the year, both
in respect to the quality of the general diet supplied to the wards daily and in the special
dietary service provided for Wards H.A. 6, H.A. 7, and H.A. 4. The new kitchen equipment provided last year has functioned well, except for the steam-canopies, which still
do not