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Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year Ended December 31st 1954 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1956

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year Ended December 31st
1954
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1954.
WILLIAM RALPH TALBOT CHETWYND,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C. The Honourable William Ralph Talbot Chetwynd,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1954.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1954 Shows an Increase  7
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1954  7
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1954  8
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  9
Other Canneries  17
Mild-cured Salmon  18
Dry-salt Salmon  18
Dry-salt Herring    18
Halibut-fishery  18
Fish Oil and Meal  20
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  21
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  21
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces, 1953  21
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia  22
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Paper No. 40) (Digest)  22
Herring Investigation  24
Report of the Biologist, 1954  25
APPENDICES
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (No. 40).    By
D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  32
The Status of the Major Herring Stocks in British Columbia in 1954-55.
By F. H. C. Taylor, M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  51
Report of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission for 1954 74
Report of the International Pacific Halibut Commission, 1954  78
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1954 .  82
Statistical Tables  94  REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL  DEPARTMENT
OF FISHERIES FOR 1954
	
r
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1954
SHOWS AN INCREASE
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia for 1954 amounted to
$69,422,000.* This was an increase over the year previous of $3,967,000 or approximately 9.4 per cent more than the marketed value of fisheries products in 1953.
The principal species, as marketed in 1954, were salmon, with a value of $50,281,000;
herring, with a value of $7,340,000; and halibut, with a marketed value of $5,965,000.
The value of the salmon production in 1954 was $2,345,000 more than in 1953. The
value of herring production in 1954 also showed an increase over the year previous of
$822,000. It should be noted that these figures are for the calendar year and, consequently, somewhat distort the picture in respect to herring, as this fishery extends from
November to March. The herring values quoted are for those fish landed in the months
of January and February and properly belong to the 1953-54 herring-fishing season.
The value of the 1954 halibut-catch was $351,000 greater than in 1953.
In 1954 the marketed value of shell-fish amounted to $1,945,000. The value
of clam production was $306,000; oyster production, $470,000; crab production,
$879,000; shrimp production, $290,000.
The total value of boats engaged in commercial fishing in 1954 was $43,318,000,
and the total value of gear used in British Columbia's fisheries during 1954 was
$7,824,535.
The above figures are taken from the " Preliminary Fisheries Statistics of British
Columbia," published by the Federal Department of Fisheries.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1954
In 1954 the Provincial Department of Fisheries licensed twenty salmon-canneries
to operate in the Province, the same number as were licensed in the year previous. The
location of the operating salmon-canneries was as follows: Skeena River, 5; Central
Area, 2; Rivers Inlet, 1; Fraser River and the Lower Mainland, 12. This distribution
indicates there was one more cannery operated on the Fraser River and Lower Mainland
district than in the previous year and one less operating cannery on the Skeena River.
No canneries have been operated on the Nass River or in the Queen Charlotte Islands for
some time, and this is also true of Vancouver Island. All three of these areas formerly
supported salmon-canneries.
In recent past years the tendency has been to operate fewer canneries in the outlying areas and concentrate the actual canning operations in more strategically located
areas. The modern, fast packers and an adequate supply of crushed ice make the transportation of fresh fish in good condition over longer distances a distinct possibility, and
the canners have taken advantage of this in order to cut overhead by reducing the number
of canneries operating.
Except for a short period at the beginning of the season, the 1954 fishing season
was comparatively free from interruptions caused by disputes over prices.
Normally the export of fresh salmon for canning is not permitted, but since 1947
fresh salmon have been permitted to be exported after September 1st in each year.   This
* This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia, amounting to $1,273,000.
7 I 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
permission to export after September 1st has resulted in a large movement of chum salmon
to the United States for processing in Puget Sound canneries. In 1954 there was again
a considerable movement of fresh chum salmon to the Puget Sound canneries for canning,
and these quantities should be taken into consideration when analysing the canned-salmon
pack for this species.
In considering the current pack figures for the canneries of the Lower Mainland,
in addition to the amount of salmon exported for canning must be added the fairly large
quantities of chum salmon caught in the Johnstone Strait and Gulf of Georgia areas
which are frozen.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1954
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1954 amounted to 1,747,854
cases, according to annual returns submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries
by those canners licensed to operate. The 1954 salmon-pack was 78,734 cases less than
in 1953, but was 442,694 cases greater than the total pack of 1952.
The 1954 canned-salmon pack was composed of 680,789 cases of sockeye, 3,850
cases of red springs, 10,506 cases of white, pink, and jack springs, 3,897 cases of steel-
heads, 129,624 cases of cohoe, 337,062 cases of pinks, and 582,124 cases of chums.
In each instance the half cases have been dropped. The total sockeye-pack in 1954,
amounting to 680,789 cases, was the largest sockeye-pack in any year since 1942, when
the pack amounted to 666,570 cases for all districts. The 1954 pack exceeded the large
pack in 1953 by 170,641 cases.
In 1954 the spring-salmon pack amounted to 14,357 cases, which was 1,309 cases
greater than the year previous. The size of the canned spring-salmon pack in any year
is not indicative of the size of the run because many springs find an outlet in the
fresh- and frozen-fish trade. Those canned, generally speaking, were caught incidentally
while fishing for other species.
Steelheads are not salmon, but a few are canned each year, principally those caught
incidentally while fishing for salmon. In 1954 there were canned in British Columbia
canneries 3,897 cases of steelheads.
The canned-cohoe pack in British Columbia in 1954 amounted to 129,624 cases.
This is the largest pack of cohoe since 1949, when the total pack amounted to 215,944
cases.   The 1954 pack exceeds that of 1953 by 19,460 cases.
Pink salmon accounted for 337,062 cases in the canned-salmon pack of 1954.
This was the smallest pack of pinks put up in British Columbia since 1948, when 321,721
cases were canned. The 1954 pink-salmon pack is contrasted with the 1953 pack, in
which year the total pink-pack amounted to 795,330 cases.
As has been remarked previously in the pages of this Report, chum salmon are
exported in large quantities each year to the United States for canning; also, substantial
amounts find their way into cold storage; consequently, due to export and freezing, the
canned-salmon pack of chums is not indicative of the size of the run or of the size of
the catch.
The pack in 1954 amounted to 582,124 cases. This is compared with 394,867
cases packed in 1953. The 1954 chum-salmon pack was the largest since 1942, when
the pack amounted to 633, 834 cases. It is reported that a greater quantity of chums
found their way into Canadian salmon-canneries in 1954 than in recent past years.
In comparing the pack figures for any species of salmon canned in British Columbia,
the reader is referred to the next section of this Report for a breakdown of the fisheries
of each species by districts. The reader should also take into consideration the escapement to the spawning-beds, as indicated in the report on the spawning-beds of British
Columbia which will be found in the Appendix to this Report. This salmon-spawning
report is supplied by the Chief Supervisor for the Federal Department of Fisheries and
is hereby gratefully acknowledged. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 9
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS
Fraser River
The total salmon-pack for the Fraser River district in 1954 amounted to 563,807
cases. This is compared with a pack of 496,936 cases in 1953 and 151,147 cases in
1952. The total pack in 1954 for the Fraser River was composed of 497,023 cases of
sockeye, 8,298 cases of springs, 1,077 cases of steelheads, 11,948 cases of cohoe,
17 cases of pinks, and 45,444 cases of chums.
Pink salmon run to the Fraser River only in the odd-numbered years, and in 1954,
as noted above, there was no pink-salmon run to the Fraser River. This should be
taken into consideration when comparing the total pack figures for the Fraser River
for 1954 with previous years.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1954 the Canadian pack of sockeye salmon for the Fraser
River amounted to 497,023 cases. This is the largest Fraser River sockeye-salmon pack
for Canadian gear since 1913, in which year 719,796 cases were canned. The 1954
pack of sockeye on the Fraser is compared with the pack in 1953, amounting to 191,123
cases, and the 1952 pack of 134,625 cases. In 1951 Canadian canners packed 145,231
cases and 108,223 cases in 1950. The 1954 sockeye-pack on the Fraser was 281,778
cases above the average annual Canadian pack for the previous five-year period.
The Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery is regulated by an International Commission under treaty between Canada and the United States. This fishery is an international
one, in that the sockeye salmon comprising the fishery pass through both Canadian and
United States territorial waters before reaching the Fraser River, hence the nationals of
both countries share in the catch. The Commission is composed of six members, three
of whom are appointed by the United States Government and three by the Canadian
Government. The Commission's job has been to try to rehabilitate the sockeye-salmon
runs to the Fraser River, and there can be little doubt from the results of fishing in the
last few years that the efforts of the Commission are producing results. Much of the
catch which produced the large sockeye-pack on the Fraser River in 1954 was due to
the remarkable come-back of the Adams River run or race of sockeye, although other
areas of the Fraser are also showing phenomenal improvement over previous years. It is
part of the duty of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission to regulate
the Fraser River sockeye-fishery in such a way that the nationals of each country will
share equally in the catch as closely as is practicable.
According to figures released by the Commission, in 1954 the total sockeye-catch
was 9,529,000 fish, compared with 2,115,000 fish for the brood-year of 1950. The
Commission reports that during the last four years Canadian fishermen have taken
9,157,000 sockeye, whereas during the same period United States fishermen took
9,089,000 sockeye, the difference being 68,000 fish in favour of Canadian fishermen.
There is included in this section a table showing the percentage catch by American
and Canadian fishermen since 1937:— American
(Per Cent)
1937  3 8.00
1938  42.00
19 39  44.50
1940  37.50
1941  39.30
1942  37.20
1943  37.42
1944  29.77
1945  39.90
1946  43.90
1947  16.60
Canadian
(Per Cent)
62.00
58.00
55.50
62.50
60.70
62.80
62.58
70.23
60.10
56.10
83.40 I 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
1948  59.47 40.53
1949  49.98 50.02
1950  57.70 42.30
1951  46.78 53.22
1952  49.74 50.26
1953  50.31 49.69
1954  50.44 49.56
There is again included in the Appendix of this Report a table showing the total
sockeye-salmon packs of the Fraser River arranged in accordance with the four-year
cycle, from 1895 to 1954, inclusive, showing the catches made by British Columbia and
Washington fishermen in the respective years.
Spring Salmon.—The canned-salmon pack of spring salmon on the Fraser River is
never indicative of the size of the catch of this species or of the size of the run, as spring
salmon find a large outlet in other than the canned state. The fresh- and frozen-fish trade
takes large quantities of spring salmon, and, generally speaking, the canned pack is made
up of those fish which are caught in nets incidental to fishing for other species.
In 1954 the spring-salmon pack for the Fraser River amounted to 8,298 cases, compared with 5,620 cases in 1953, 2,279 cases in 1952, and 5,719 cases in 1951.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Fraser River in 1954 produced a pack of 11,948 cases of
cohoe, compared with 15,480 cases in 1953, 5,500 cases in 1952, and 14,848 cases in
1951. The 1954 cohoe-pack on the Fraser was 1,188 cases above the average annual
pack for this species for the previous five-year period.
In the case of cohoe salmon it should be remembered that large quantities of cohoe
caught in the Fraser River area are frozen, and these, of course, are in addition to the
catch, as indicated by the canned-salmon pack.
Pink Salmon.—As stated previously, pink salmon run to the Fraser River in the
odd-numbered years only, and, therefore, there was no pink-salmon run in 1954. The
total number of pinks canned on the Fraser in 1954 was 17 cases.
Chum Salmon.—In 1954 the chum-salmon pack on the Fraser amounted to 45,444
cases, compared with 26,921 cases in the year previous. The pack in 1952 was 8,480
cases, while in 1951, 35,530 cases were canned.
As mentioned in a previous section of this Report, in recent past years the embargo
on the exportation of salmon for canning purposes was removed after September 1st,
permitting much of the chum-salmon catch to be shipped to Puget Sound canneries for
canning there. This export of fall fish to Puget Sound canneries has resulted in a very
much reduced canned-chum pack in British Columbia.
In the pages of this Department's Annual Report for 1953 it was stated: "What
is happening to our chum-salmon pack on the Fraser River is indicative of what could
happen to British Columbia's salmon-canning industry if, for any reason, the Canadian
embargo on the export of fresh salmon for canning were lifted. There is no doubt that
United States canners, with their very much larger home market, would be able to outbid
Canadian canners for Canadian fish, with the result that Canadian fish would be canned
in the United States or else the Canadian consumer would have to pay a higher price for
salmon caught and canned in Canada. The extra dollars earned by the slightly higher
price obtained by the fishermen for fish on the other side of the line would not compensate for the loss incurred by the large number of people who find employment in British
Columbia canneries, together with the higher cost to the Canadian consumer." It is felt
that the above remark is worth repeating.
The reader is again cautioned that any consideration of the canned-salmon pack as
a measure of the total run of any species should take into consideration the escapement to
the spawning-beds. This is contained in a report by the Chief Supervisor for the Federal
Department of Fisheries in the Appendix to this Report. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I  11
Skeena River
In 1954 the total pack produced by the Skeena River salmon-fishery amounted to
136,500 cases. This is compared with the total pack in the previous year of 117,406 cases
and 221,306 cases in 1952. This Department has previously called attention to the low
production on the Skeena River in recent past years, and it is encouraging to note that the
Federal Minister of Fisheries has announced the setting-up of a committee to recommend
measures to correct the cause of the gradual decline in the Skeena River production.
The Skeena River pack in 1954 was composed of 60,817 cases of sockeye, 1,260
cases of springs, 1,513 cases of steelheads, 10,449 cases of cohoe, 39,324 cases of pinks,
and 23,135 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack on the Skeena in 1954 was 60,817 cases. This
was 4,186 cases less than the pack in the previous year. The 1954 pack was also 9,137
cases below the average annual pack for this river for the previous five-year period. The
1954 sockeye-pack on the Skeena was the progeny of the 1949 and 1950 runs. The run
in 1949 produced a pack of 65,937 cases, while the 1950 run produced 47,479 cases.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon on the Skeena River, as on most of the other river
systems of the Province of British Columbia, find an outlet in other markets than canning,
and the spring salmon canned are usually caught incidental to fishing for other species;
therefore, the size of the pack is not indicative of the size of the run, nor is it indicative of
the size of the catch.
In 1954 the pack of spring salmon produced from Skeena River caught fish
amounted to 1,260 cases. This is compared with 1,174 cases in 1953, 2,082 cases in
1952, 2,055 cases in 195.1, and 1,758 cases in 1950.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoes are never a large factor in the Skeena River pack of canned
salmon, but the cohoe-pack on this river system in 1954, amounting to 10,449 cases, was
in excess of the previous two seasons. In 1953 the cohoe-pack amounted to 5,260 cases,
while in 1952, 9,358 cases were canned. The cohoe-pack on the Skeena in 1951, which
was the cycle-year, was 19,977 cases.
Pink Salmon.—In 1954 the pack of pink salmon on the Skeena River amounted to
39,324 cases, compared with the cycle-year 1952, when 89,314 cases were canned. The
pink-packs on the Skeena River for this cycle have been very erratic. The 1950 pack
amounted to 26,256 cases, while the 1948 pack was 50,656 cases. In spite of this, however, the pink-salmon pack in 1954 was disappointing in view of the considerably larger
pack in 1952, the cycle-year. It would seem that there is some factor at work on the
Skeena affecting the salmon runs, which is not too well understood.
Chum Salmon. — In 1954 the Skeena River produced a pack of chum salmon
amounting to 23,135 cases. This is compared with 15,114 cases in 1953 and 4,638 cases
in 1952. In 1951 the chum-pack was 14,778 cases, while in 1950 the Skeena produced
a pack of only 10,969 cases. The chum-salmon pack in 1954 was 9,408 cases above the
average for the previous five-year period.
Nass River
The canned-salmon pack for the Nass River has fluctuated widely in size, but during
the past three years the production has been remarkably steady, between 58,000 and
70,000 cases. In 1954 the pack amounted to 69,385 cases of all varieties. In 1953 the
pack was 66,510 cases, in 1952 it amounted to 57,775 cases, and in 1951 it jumped to
152,742 cases. The 1954 pack was composed of 10,285 cases of sockeye, 398 cases of
springs, 237 cases of steelheads, 6,024 cases of cohoe, 36,448 cases of pinks, and 15,965
cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1954 the Nass River produced a pack of sockeye salmon
amounting to 10,285 cases. This pack was most disappointing in the light of recent past
years and is the smallest pack since 1949, when 9,268 cases were canned.  The sockeye- I 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
pack on the Nass in 1954 was less than half the average annual pack for this river system
for the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned on the Nass River only incidental to fishing for other species; consequently, the pack is not indicative of the size of
the run or of the catch. In 1954 the Nass produced 398 cases of spring salmon, compared with 527 cases in 1953, 641 cases in 1952, 596 cases in 1951, and 798 cases
in 1950.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-salmon pack on the Nass River has fluctuated widely
in the past few years, and the 6,024 cases packed in 1954, while 906 cases above the
previous year's pack, was considerably lower than the pack in 1951, the cycle-year. In
that year the Nass produced canned cohoe to the extent of 18,711 cases. There is apparently some influence at work on the Nass River also, which affects the cohoe runs and
which is not too well understood.
Pink Salmon.—The Nass River produced a pack of pink salmon in 1954 amounting
to 36,448 cases. This is compared with the cycle-year 1952, when 13,016 cases of pinks
were canned. The pack in 1950 was 12,582 cases, while the cycle-year 1948 produced
a pack of pinks amounting to 8,565 cases.
In view of the much smaller packs produced on the Nass in the immediately preceding cycle-years, the pack in 1954 must be considered as reasonably satisfactory.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack on the Nass is never large, and the pack
in 1954 was no exception. The pack, amounting to 15,965 cases, is compared with the
pack in 1953, which amounted to 25,756 cases. In 1952 the pack of chums was 13,112
cases, while in 1951 the pack amounted to 37,742 cases.
In using the canned-salmon pack figures for any of the principal fishing-streams, the
reader is cautioned that these do not necessarily represent the size of the runs, notwithstanding the fact that the salmon-packs are usually considered as indicative of the size of
the run. The reader who is interested in the size of the runs to the different river systems
should examine carefully the reports of the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries on the condition
of the salmon-spawning areas of the various runs. The canned-salmon pack indicates the
size of the catch and not necessarily the size of the escapement. The Chief Supervisor's
report on the spawning areas will be found in the Appendix to this Report.
Rivers Inlet
In 1954 the total salmon-pack for Rivers Inlet amounted to 71,023 cases. This is
compared with the pack of 1953, which totalled 148,885 cases, and the 1952 pack of
105,040 cases. The Rivers Inlet pack in 1954 was composed of 50,639 cases of sockeye,
649 cases of springs, 131 cases of steelheads, 4,669 cases of cohoe, 2,581 cases of pinks,
and 12,352 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is generally considered to be a sockeye-producing
area, and the 50,639 cases of sockeye produced in this area in 1954 must be considered
as most disappointing. The recent pack figures for Rivers Inlet show that in 1953 the
sockeye-pack was 132,925 cases; in 1952, 84,297 cases; and in 1951 the pack was
102,565 cases. The 1954 pack was produced from the progeny of the runs of 1950 and,
to some extent, 1949 five-year fish. The run in 1952 produced a pack of 142,710 cases,
while in 1949 the pack was 39,494 cases. The sockeye-pack in Rivers Inlet in 1954 was
51,926 cases below the average pack for the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon in Rivers Inlet are never a large factor in the total
pack for this area, being caught incidental to fishing for sockeye. The pack of springs
in Rivers Inlet in 1954 amounted to 649 cases, compared with 865 cases in 1953, 865
cases in 1952, 937 cases in 1951, and 619 cases in 1950.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of cohoe salmon, and the
1954 pack, while not large, was somewhat greater than the immediately preceding years. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I  13
The 1954 pack of 4,669 cases is compared with 1,979 cases canned in 1953. The pack
in 1952 was 3,415 cases, while in 1951 the cohoe-pack for Rivers Inlet jumped to 12,146
cases.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are never fished for exclusively in Rivers Inlet. The
few which are canned each year are caught in sockeye gill-nets incidentally while fishing
for sockeye salmon. The pack in 1954 amounted to 2,581 cases of pinks, while in 1953
the pack was 7,304 cases. In 1952 the pack amounted to 12,469 cases, and in 1951 it
jumped to 20,960 cases.
Chum Salmon.—Rivers Inlet did not produce chum salmon for canning until 1935,
in which year a small fall salmon-fishery was introduced for the first time. Since then
there has been a pack of canned chums put up each year, the pack varying in size from
year to year, more in relation to the fluctuation in demand for chum salmon than to the
size of the runs. In 1954 the chum-salmon pack in Rivers Inlet amounted to 12,352
cases, compared with 5,627 cases in 1953, 3,711 cases in 1952, 11,842 cases in 1951,
and 10,014 cases in 1950.
Smith Inlet
Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, is largely a sockeye-producing area; other species
caught in Smith Inlet are usually caught incidentally while fishing for sockeye. The total
canned-salmon pack for Smith Inlet in 1954 amounted to 23,548 cases, while the total
pack for this inlet in 1953 was 35,870 cases. The Smith Inlet pack in 1954 was composed of 18,937 cases of sockeye, 177 cases of springs, 51 cases of steelheads, 868 cases
of cohoe, 523 cases of pinks, and 2,992 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack of 1954, amounting to 18,937 cases,
was disappointing. It was 11,010 cases less than in the year previous, 23,498 cases
below the pack of 1950, the cycle-year, and 16,188 cases below the average annual pack
for this inlet for the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon in Smith Inlet, like spring salmon in Rivers Inlet,
are caught only incidentally while fishing for sockeye, and consequently the pack is never
large. In 1954 there were 177 cases of spring salmon canned from Smith Inlet caught
fish, while in 1953 the pack was 176 cases. In 1952, 367 cases were canned, while the
pack in 1951 amounted to 174 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—The same remarks hold true for the cohoe-catch in Smith Inlet,
and in 1954 Smith Inlet produced a pack of 868 cases, compared with 615 cases in 1953,
1,466 cases in 1952, and 3,259 cases in 1951.
Pink Salmon.—Smith Inlet does not support a pink-salmon run of any account; the
few pink salmon caught in this area are caught incidentally while fishing for sockeye.
In 1954 the pack was 523 cases; in 1953, 1,017 cases; and in 1952, 6,496 cases. The
pack in 1951 was 2,482 cases.
Chum Salmon.—There were 2,992 cases of chum salmon packed from Smith Inlet
caught fish in 1954, compared with 4,015 cases in 1953 and 315 cases in 1952. The
pack in 1951 was 2,530 cases, while 1950 produced a pack of 4,499 cases. The size
of the chum-salmon pack in Smith Inlet in any given year is in no wise indicative of the
size of the run of this species to the area.
Queen Charlotte Islands
Pinks and chums are the two species of salmon fished in the Queen Charlotte Islands
district exclusively for canning purposes. Chum salmon are taken every year in this
district, but pink salmon are caught only in every alternate year, the runs coinciding with
the even-numbered years.
In addition to the salmon which are fished for in the Queen Charlotte Islands area
exclusively for canning, there is a large spring- and cohoe-salmon fishery for the fresh-
and frozen-fish trade.   This fishery is conducted by trailers and is not considered in these I 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
reports of the canned-salmon packs. The few cohoes which are caught incidentally while
fishing for chum salmon are canned and included in the salmon-pack figures for the Queen
Charlotte Islands. However, the canned-cohoe pack credited to the Queen Charlotte
Islands is in no way indicative of the quantities of cohoes caught in this area.
In 1954 the Queen Charlotte Islands produced a total canned-salmon pack of
200,639 cases, compared with 20,806 cases in 1953 and 185,590 cases in 1952, the
cycle-year of the pink-salmon run. The total pack in the Queen Charlotte Islands in
1954 was composed of 107 cases of sockeye, 6 cases of springs, 37 cases of steelheads,
11,289 cases of cohoe, 105,123 cases of pinks, and 83,805 cases of chums. In each
instance, half cases have been dropped.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 107 cases of sockeye salmon canned from Queen Charlotte
Islands fish in 1954 were caught incidental to fishing for chum and pink salmon and are
probably stragglers which were proceeding elsewhere to spawn. The 1954 pack is
compared with 246 cases of sockeye canned from Queen Charlotte Islands fish in 1953
and 635 cases in 1952 and 510 cases in 1951.
Spring Salmon.—In 1954 there were 6 cases of spring salmon canned from Queen
Charlotte Islands caught fish, while 1 case was packed in 1953 and 96 cases in 1952.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Queen Charlotte Islands district produced a pack of cohoes
in 1954 amounting to 11,289 cases. This figure is compared with the pack in 1953 when
2,437 cases were canned, while in 1952 the pack amounted to 4,168 cases. In 1951,
however, the cohoe-pack from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish amounted to 22,579
cases, and in 1950 the pack was 9,021 cases.
Pink Salmon.—As pointed out previously, pink salmon are caught in the Queen
Charlotte Islands every second year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years.
In 1954 the pink-salmon pack from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish amounted to
105,123 cases. In 1952, the cycle-year, the pack was 178,959 cases, while in 1950 this
district produced 92,986 cases of pinks. The pack in the 1948 cycle-year amounted to
51,722 cases. While the pack in 1954 was 73,836 cases below the cycle-year, it must
be considered as reasonably satisfactory, as 1952 produced a comparatively large pack
for this area.
Chum Salmon.—The Queen Charlotte Islands is known as a fairly large producer
of chum salmon, and the pack of this species in 1954 amounted to 83,805 cases. If chum
salmon are considered to be four-year fish, the 1954 pack was made up of the progeny
of the 1950 run, in which year the canned-salmon pack amounted to 148,669 cases. The
pack of chums in the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1953 was 17,304 cases, while in 1952
only 1,712 cases were canned.   In 1951 the pack of chums in this area was 61,696 cases.
It should be pointed out in passing that the packs of 1953 and 1952 are in no wise
indicative of the size of the runs. Apparently market conditions were such that the supply
of chum salmon available to meet market demands was obtained from closer fishing-
grounds. In the year 1952 the strike of fishermen which occurred during the fishing
season greatly reduced the catch.
Central Area
For the purpose of this Report the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing
areas off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River,
except Rivers Inlet, which is treated separately.
Salmon-fishing in the Central Area is conducted on many different runs of salmon
in the various parts of the district, and, as a consequence, the size of the pack in this area
is no indication of the magnitude of the different runs to the various streams, but rather
reflects the size of the runs generally within the geographical limits of the area.
In 1954 the Central Area produced a total pack of 327,820 cases of canned salmon.
This is compared with 317,626 cases in 1953 and 289,476 cases in 1952.   The pack in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I  15
1954 was made up of 30,858 cases of sockeye, 1,645 cases of springs, 595 cases of steelheads, 26,511 cases of cohoe, 118,538 cases of pinks, and 149,672 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—Sockeye salmon are caught in a number of districts in the Central Area, which districts are widely scattered, all the way from Banks Island on the west
to Gardner Canal on the north-east; consequently, the total sockeye-pack for the area
does not reflect in any way the production of any one stream and is not indicative of the
size of the different races.
The total pack of sockeye salmon in the Central Area in 1954 was 30,858 cases.
This was 5,013 cases greater than the pack of the year previous and 4,539 cases more
than the average annual pack of sockeye for this area over the previous five-year period.
The pack in 1954 was the largest pack in the past ten years, being exceeded only in 1944,
when the pack in that year amounted to 32,715 cases.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon caught in the Central Area find an outlet in various
markets, including the fresh- and frozen-fish trade; therefore, the canned-salmon pack
figures for spring salmon are not indicative of the production of the area as a whole.
In 1954 the pack of spring salmon in the Central Area amounted to 1,645 cases.
This is compared with 1,568 cases in 1953, 1,261 cases in 1952, 1,082 cases in 1951,
and 776 cases in 1950.
Cohoe Salmon.—The size of the cohoe-pack in the Central Area varies considerably from year to year. In 1954 the cohoe-pack for this area amounted to 26,511 cases,
while in 1953 the pack was 21,502 cases. In 1952, 17,289 cases of cohoe were packed
in this area, while in 1951 the pack amounted to 61,423 cases.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area is a heavy producer of pink salmon, this species
producing one of the largest packs of any of the species in the Central Area over the
years. In 1954 the pink-salmon pack was smaller than was anticipated, amounting to
118,538 cases, whereas in 1952, the cycle-year for this species, the pack was 207,055
cases.   In 1950, however, the pack was 163,301 cases.
In recent past years the 1954 cycle has been the dominant cycle for this area. The
pack in 1953 amounted to 92,517 cases, although in 1951 the pink-salmon pack in the
Central Area amounted to 237,559 cases.
In the pages of this Department's Report for 1952 the comment was made that " for
a number of years the Central Area has been going through a cycle of low pink-salmon
production, and it is encouraging to note that in latter years the runs seem to be improving, as measured by the pink-salmon pack." One sincerely hopes that this trend remains
upward.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack in 1954 amounted to 149,672 cases, compared with 175,289 cases in the year previous, while in 1952 chum salmon were packed
to the extent of 36,605 cases. However, the pack in the Central Area normally is in the
neighbourhood of 160,000 to 175,000 cases. In 1951 it was 190,843 cases; in 1950,
164,884 cases; and in 1949 the Central Area produced 116,292 cases of chum salmon.
Vancouver Island
The Vancouver Island district, like the Central Area, supports numerous races of
salmon running to different streams. No attempt is made to deal with the various races
separately. It should be pointed out, however, that the sockeye salmon caught in the
Sooke traps are not credited to Vancouver Island, but to the Fraser River, where most
of them are known to migrate. Similarly, sockeye salmon caught in Johnstone Strait
between Vancouver Island and the Mainland are also credited to the Fraser River in this
Report and not to Vancouver Island. These sockeye are known to be migrating to the
Fraser River.
For statistical purposes of this Report, salmon, other than sockeye, caught in
Johnstone Strait between Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland are credited to
Vancouver Island. I 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the year 1954 the total salmon-pack from Vancouver Island caught fish amounted
to 349,586 cases, compared with 671,981 cases in 1953 and 245,437 cases in 1952. The
Vancouver Island salmon-pack in 1954 was composed of 12,051 cases of sockeye, 1,649
cases of springs, 91 cases of steelheads, 54,783 cases of cohoe, 32,913 cases of pinks,
and 248,098 cases of chums, half cases being dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island in 1954,
amounting to 12,051 cases, was the smallest pack since 1950, when the pack amounted
to 13,806 cases. In 1953 the Vancouver Island pack was 46,895 cases, while in 1952
the pack was 24,252 cases, and 22,107 cases were packed in 1951. The 1954 pack was
11,771 cases below the average annual pack credited to Vancouver Island for the previous
five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught in large quantities each year by trolling
off the west coast of Vancouver Island. These fish, however, find a market in the fresh-
and frozen-fish trade. Troll-caught salmon on the lower west coast of Vancouver Island
also find a market principally as fresh, frozen, and mild-cured. Because of these outlets,
the canned-salmon pack figures for spring salmon in the Vancouver Island district are
not indicative of the size of the catch of this species. In 1954 the spring-salmon pack
was 1,649 cases, while in 1953 the pack amounted to 3,115 cases. In 1952, 1,687 cases
of springs were canned, and in 1951 the pack was 3,133 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoes are caught in large numbers by troll off the west coast of
Vancouver Island, and these, like spring salmon, find a ready market other than in cans.
For this reason the canned-salmon pack of cohoes is not necessarily indicative of the size
of the catch or of the run.
In the Vancouver Island district in 1954 the cohoe-pack amounted to 54,783 cases.
This was slightly less than in 1953, when 57,773 cases were canned. In 1952 the cohoe-
pack for Vancouver Island was 23,583 cases, while in 1951 the pack amounted to
151,325 cases. In 1950 cohoes were packed to the extent of 72,871 cases. As pointed
out above, the canned-cohoe pack is not particularly indicative of the size of the run of
this species, owing to the fact that cohoe salmon find an outlet in various markets.
Pink Salmon.—In 1954 the total pack of pink salmon credited to Vancouver Island
amounted to 32,913 cases. This is contrasted with the pack in the cycle-year 1952, which
amounted to 171,812 cases, and 1950, when the pack was 132,016 cases. The 1954 pack
was the lowest since 1948, the cycle-year for this run, when 43,547 cases were canned.
The 1954 pack-year belongs to the cycle of lower production in the Vancouver Island
district, but the exceedingly low pack of 1954 is one which should cause some concern.
While there is no relationship between the packs of 1954 and the immediately preceding
year, it is interesting to know that Vancouver Island is capable of producing packs of
300,000 to 400,000 cases. In 1953 the pack of pink salmon was 439,173 cases, and
in 1951, 303,102 cases. In 1949, the cycle-year for this run, the pack was 361,783
cases, indicating that the area is capable of producing quite large packs.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are caught in fairly large numbers in the area comprising Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland districts. However, in comparing
the canned-salmon pack figures with previous years, it must be remembered that in recent
years large quantities of salmon have been shipped to the United States in the fall of the
year for canning there. Therefore, it must be assumed that the large drop indicated in
the canned-salmon pack figures for Vancouver Island in recent years, compared with
previous years, is due almost exclusively to the export of chum salmon which, of course,
are canned in United States canneries.
In 1954 the chum-salmon pack for Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland
was 248,098 cases. This figure is contrasted with the figures for the immediately preceding years, as follows: 1953, 124,840 cases; 1952, 24,039 cases; 1951, 105,458 cases;
1950, 125,833 cases; and in 1949 the pack amounted to only 51,629 cases. As an indication of the productive capabilities of the area, however, the pack figures for some REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I  17
previous years are quoted, as follows:  1942, 383,005 cases; 1941, 593,016 cases; 1940,
279,064 cases; and 1939, 212,949 cases.
In addition to the British Columbia salmon-pack discussed in detail above, there
were canned in British Columbia in 1954 a total of 5,841 cases of salmon, some of which
was held in cold storage from 1953 and the rest imported from Alaska. The importations
amounted to 1,783 cases, composed of 163 cases of chums, 81 cases of pinks, 1,536 cases
of cohoe, and 3 cases of sockeye. The pack from cold storage was composed of 496 cases
of chums, 1,512 cases of pinks, 1,546 cases of cohoe, 163 cases of steelheads, 272 cases
of springs, and 67 cases of sockeye, half cases being disregarded in each intance.
Other Canneries
Pilchard-canneries.—There has been no run of pilchards in British Columbia waters
since 1939, and, as a consequence, again in 1954 no pilchard-cannery licences were issued.
Reports from the biologists and from California indicate that we need not expect a
run of pilchards off the Vancouver Island area for some considerable time in the future.
Herring-canneries.—Two herring-canneries were licensed to operate in 1954. The
two canneries produced a total of 18,940 cases of herring in various sizes, including
sardines and oval snacks.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—The first commercial tuna-fish operation in British Columbia
was licensed in 1948. Tuna-fish in that year were caught off the British Columbia coast,
but those which were caught previous to that time were largely frozen and shipped to
United States canneries for processing there. The run of tuna to the British Columbia
coast has been spasmodic since 1948. In some years the fish appear in very large numbers, while in other years they fail to put in an appearance. Since the end of the war
there has been some importation of Japanese-caught tuna, frozen in Japan and exported
for canning in British Columbia.
In 1954, like 1953, two tuna-fish canneries were licensed, and both produced packs.
In 1954 the two canneries packed 34,250 cases of canned tuna, all of which was imported
from Japan in a frozen condition. In 1953 two tuna-fish canneries operated, producing
a pack of 87,909 cases of 48/1/2's and 22,714 cases of 48/Vi's.
It will bear repeating that the tuna-fishery off the west coast of British Columbia is
still in an experimental condition; consequently, the catch varies from year to year.
Shell-fish Canneries.—Under this heading those plants which are concerned with the
canning of various species of shell-fish are reviewed. In 1954 ten shell-fish canneries were
licensed, and all operated, producing a pack, as follows:—
Crabs: 7,372 cases of 24/1's, 2,041 cases of 48/1/2's, 32,068 cases of 24/1/2's,
and 2,654 cases of 48/1/4's.
Clams:   17,027 cases of 24/1's,  1,271  cases of 48/1/2's,  11,816 cases of
24/!/2's, and 3,962 cases of 6/10's (gallons).
Shrimps:  3,883 cases of 24/V4's and 2,125 5-pound tins.
Oysters:  493 cases of 24/10-ounce and 8,658 cases 48/1/4's. i
Abalones:   147 cases of 48/1's.
The above pack figures for shell-fish canneries are compared with the pack of 1953,
which was as follows:— ,
Clams:  10,433 cases of 48/1/2's.
Crabs:  11,738 cases of 48/V/2's and 2,776 cases of 48/V4-S.
Oysters:  813 cases of 48/1/2's.
Shrimps:  577 cases of 48/41/2-ounce and 436 cases of 48/3V2-ounce.
Abalones:  217 cases of 48/1's. I 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MILD-CURED SALMON
Four plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon in 1954, and all four plants operated.
The four plants produced a pack of 572 tierces of mild-cured salmon, containing 4,519
hundredweight. This is compared with 1953, when three plants operated, producing a
pack of 788 tierces from 6,372 hundredweight of salmon.
DRY-SALT SALMON
Previous to the outbreak of the war in 1939, large quantities of chum salmon were
dry-salted in British Columbia each season for shipment to the Orient. In some years
the production of dry-salt salmon reached quite large proportions, and it was a very
definite factor in the market for fall fish. During the war years the Provincial Government declined to issue licences for salmon dry-salteries in order to divert as much of the
salmon-catch as possible to the salmon canners and freezers. This was done as a war
measure.   Since the end of the war the business of dry-salting salmon has not been revived.
In 1947 two licences were issued but no operation took place, and no licences have
been issued for salmon dry-salteries since that time.
DRY-SALT HERRING
Previous to the war the dry-salting of herring was an important factor in the winter
herring-fishery, the dry-salted product being shipped to China. Since the outbreak of the
war the bulk of British Columbia's herring-catch has been either canned or reduced to
meal and oil, most of the catch going to the reduction plants. Since the war, some activity
has taken place each season in the dry-salting of herring, although the business has not
yet attained anything like the proportions of pre-war years. No doubt the unsettled
condition in China has had some bearing on lack of interest in this product.
In 1954 three herring dry-salteries were licensed, all of which operated, producing
a pack of 10,113 boxes from 2,397 green tons of fish. In 1953, while four plants were
licensed, only three plants operated. In that year the three operating plants utilized
3,910 green tons of herring, producing a total of 17,312 boxes.
HALIBUT-FISHERY
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the International Pacific Halibut Commission, which Commission is set up under a treaty between
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut-fishery.
This is a deep-sea fishery and is shared by the nationals of the two countries. The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis, and on that account there is little fluctuation in the total amount of halibut landed from year to year, except when the quotas are
changed by the Commission for any reason. There is, however, some fluctuation from
year to year in the quantities landed by the nationals of each country.
For the purpose of regulation, the coast was originally divided into a number of
areas, the principal ones, from the standpoint of production, being Areas 2 and 3. The
Commission has found it necessary to subdivide these areas into a number of sub-areas
in order to facilitate its work and to make better use of the stocks of halibut on the
different banks. For a more detailed breakdown of the areas and the geographical limits
of each, the reader is referred to the Pacific Halibut Regulations for 1954.
In 1954 the catch-limits set by the Commission for the different areas were as
follows:  Area 2, 26,500,000 pounds; Area 3a, 28,000,000 pounds.
In 1954 the total landings by all vessels in all ports by areas amounted' to
71,265,000 pounds, to the nearest thousand pounds. This is compared with 60,664,000
pounds in 1953. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I  19
A breakdown of the total halibut-landings by areas for 1954 is as follows: Area
1a, 529,000 pounds; Area 1b, 245,000 pounds; Area 2, 36,699,000 pounds; Area
3a, 33,181,000 pounds; and Area 3b, 611,000 pounds.
The total landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1954 was 29,464,000
pounds, while the total landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1953 was 26,781,000
pounds.
The total landings by all vessels in Canadian ports, by areas, in 1954 is contained
in the following table and is compared with the total landings for the same area in
1953:  1954 (Lb.) 1953 (Lb.)
Area 1a       	
Area 1b       	
Area 2  18,062,000
Area 2a       16,575,000
Area 2b       1,850,000
Area 2c       198,000
Area 3a  11,290,000 7,969,000
Area 3b  112,000 189,000
The total landings by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports in 1954 was 25,240,000
pounds, compared with the year previous in which the total landings by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports was 24,761,000 pounds. These landings were from the following
areas and are compared with similar landings in 1953:—
1954 (Lb.) 1953 (Lb.)
Area 1a       	
Area 1b       	
Area 2  17,540,000      _'__
Area 2a    16,137,000
Area 2b    1,850,000
Area 2c       138,000
Area 3a  7,588,000 6,447,000
Area 3b  112,000 189,000
In addition to the above, Canadian vessels landed in American ports in 1954 a
total of 2,286,000 pounds. This figure is compared with Canadian vessel landings in
American ports in 1953, amounting to 1,091,000 pounds.
In addition to the total landings by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports, American
vessels landed in Canadian ports in 1954 a total of 4,224,000 pounds, compared with
1953 when 2,020,000 pounds were landed.
The average price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1954 and the
average price paid for all Canadian landings in Canadian and United States ports in
1954 were as follows:   Prince Rupert, 16.2 cents;   all ports, 16.1 cents.
The value of halibut-livers to United States and Canadian fishermen in 1954 was
$219,139, compared with a value of $133,000 in 1953. Of the above amount, United
States fishermen received $121,000 for their halibut-livers, while Canadian fishermen
received a total of $98,139.
In addition to the above livers, Vitamin A bearing halibut viscera were marketed
to an estimated value of $103,000 by the United States fleet and $9,548 by the
Canadian fleet.
The above figures relating to the halibut-catch are to the nearest thousand pounds.
The statistical information for the halibut-fishery was supplied by the International
Pacific Halibut Commission and is hereby gratefully acknowledged. I 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FISH OIL AND MEAL
The production of fish-oil and edible fish-meal has been an important branch of
British Columbia fisheries for a number of years. Previous to World War II, pilchards
and herring were the principal species used for reduction to meal and oil. The products of the reduction plants found a ready market, the meal being used as a supplementary food for animal-feeding and the oil being used in manufacturing processes of
many kinds.
The demand for natural sources of vitamins stimulated the production of vitamin
oils from fish products, and at the outbreak of World War II the demand for natural
sources of vitamins greatly increased the production of fish-oils of high vitamin content.
This increased demand for high vitamin oils brought into use other fish besides herring
and pilchards during the war years and immediately after the war. Dogfish and shark
livers were in high demand in those years. Recently, however, the increased production
of synthetic Vitamin A has lessened the demand for fish-liver oil as a natural source of
this vitamin, and if the price of synthetic Vitamin A falls much lower, the market for
livers containing this vitamin may very soon disappear.
In addition to the production of oils from British Columbia's various fish and fish-
livers in recent years, there has been considerable activity in the use of cannery-waste
and viscera for the production of various pharmaceutical products. Besides the high
vitamin-content oils used in the medicinal field, British Columbia's fish-oils of lower
vitamin potency find an outlet in many manufacturing processes, and large quantities
are used for the feeding of poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—In 1954 four plants were licensed to produce fish-liver oil, and
these four plants operated. In 1954 the four operating plants produced a total of
4,310,057 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A from 1,178,777 pounds of fish-livers.
This is compared with a production of 4,370,578 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A in
1953 from 1,363,648 pounds of liver. The above production of Vitamin A includes
the Vitamin A produced from whale reduction in 1954.
Herring-reduction.—The winter herring-fishery in British Columbia has developed
into British Columbia's second important fishery in dollar value. The season generally
runs from late in September or early in October through until the following March,
with a short break at the Christmas period. Many of the boats used in catching herring
are also used in salmon-fishing, and, generally speaking, the herring-fishery does not get
into full swing until the boats have been released from fishing for salmon.
In 1954 twelve herring-reduction plants were licensed, all of which operated.
These twelve plants produced a total of 28,782 tons of meal and 3,714,924 imperial
gallons of oil, compared with the production from fifteen licensed plants in 1953, fourteen of which operated, producing 31,740 tons of meal and 3,516,106 imperial gallons
of herring-oil.
Whale-reduction.—In 1948 the hunting of whales off the British Columbia coast
for reduction purposes was again resumed after a short period of inactivity. Whale-
reduction continued in 1954, and in this year the industry killed 630 whales, compared
with 539 in 1953.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed by
the Provincial Department of Fisheries under miscellaneous reduction licences. These
plants operate on cannery-waste and the carcasses of dogfish and produce meal and oil
for various purposes. The oil produced from the carcasses of dogfish should not be
confused with the oil produced from dogfish-livers, the latter being a high-potency oil
which is reported in another section of this Report.
In 1954 eleven plants were licensed under this heading, all of which operated.
The eleven operating plants produced 2,361 tons of meal and 265,405 imperial gallons
of oil, compared with the production of ten plants in the previous year which amounted
to 2,059 tons of meal and 243,819 imperial gallons of oil. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 21
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS
Under section 73 of the British Columbia Fishery Regulations, fishing with nets
in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under licence
from the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost exclusively
to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in question.
In the Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number and
approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for
net-fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province, namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and
sturgeon. The fur-farm licences are issued to licensed fur-farmers, and the coarse fish
taken under these licences are used for food for fur-bearing animals held in captivity.
Ordinary fishing licences are issued for the capture of fish other than trout, salmon, or
sturgeon, while licences issued for sturgeon-fishing are exclusively for that fishery.
A detailed account of the fish taken by the licensed nets in the different waters of
the Province is again carried in the table appearing in the Appendix to this Report.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING
GROUNDS
We are again indebted to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government and the officers of his department, who conducted the investigations, for furnishing us with a copy of the department's report on the salmon-spawning grounds of
British Columbia and permitting same to be published in the Appendix to this Report.
The Chief Supervisor's courtesy in supplying us with this information is gratefully
acknowledged.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING
OF THE PROVINCES, 1953
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1953 totalled
$150,226,700. During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the
value of $65,455,000,* or 43.6 per cent of Canada's total. British Columbia in 1953
led all the Provinces of Canada in respect to the production of fisheries wealth. Her
output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, second in rank, by $25,442,800.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1953 was
$8,820,000 more than in the year previous. There was an increase in the value of
salmon amounting to $2,345,000.
The following statement gives the value of fisheries products of the Provinces of
Canada for the years 1949 to 1953, inclusive:—
Province
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
British Columbia -   \.  .
$56,120,154
35,039,804
17,428,127
5,111,878
5,728,389
4,800,387
2,704,444
652,545
1,025,896
2,334,009
$68,821,358
38,164,967
18,053,168
5,496,282
7.033.552
6,791,290
3,320.513
767,887
1,360,114
2,297,466
30,000,000
$83,812,704
40,296,367
21,154,877
5,511,379
7,924,530
7,524,392
3,212,629
862,327
1,748,444
2,261,964
29,000,000
$56,635,000!
42,435,000
20,503,700
6,113,000
8,343,700
5,959.700
3,758,700
942,900
1,440,000
2,225,100
(2)
$65,455,000!
40,012,200
17,522,700
5,804,000
7,916,100
4,784,500
4,048,900
1,085 900
Ontario .  -  - -	
Prince Edward Island —	
Saskatchewan - -	
Northwest Territories    _ -
1,281,300
1,511,500
Totals .,.  	
$130,945,633
$182,106,597
$203,309,613
$148,357,200
$149,422,100
1 This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia.
2 Figures for Newfoundland not available.
* This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia, amounting to $805,000.
3 I 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1950 to 1954, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
Salmon        	
Halibut   	
$48,701,583
5,430,374
9,313,447
$60,749,658
5,603,901
10,639,653
$40,495,000
5,531,000
4,235,000
$47,936,000
5,552,702
6,518,000
$50,281,000
5,965,000
7,340,000
Pilchard
444,317
523,435
262,983
263,892
399,396
913,689
122,345
353,429
1,732
43,500
54,632
7,681
20,785
11,909
2,722
7,284
25,861
30,324
290,889
639,643
2,336
688
767,767
453,796
826,315
382,746
501,110
403,538
1,187,934
148.9331
289,624
2,229
47,4993
109,047
(2)
30,697
(2)
(2)
C)
80,210
8,386
4,864,470
1,282,600
5,430
73,211
521,000
590,000
477,000
310,000
475,000
1,533,000
227,0001
438,000
3,000
20,000
75,000
15,000
251,000
384,000
449,000
313,000
663,000
854,000
361,0001
304,000
6,000
(3)
29,000
(2)
7,000
17,000
(2)
6,000
34,000
467,000
487,000
306,000
257,000
879,000
461,000
290,0001
470,000
4,000
30,000
41,000
Perch  	
82,000
Smelts          ...
Sturgeon        	
4.000
9,000
(2)
Skate 	
5,000
115,000
349,000
(2)
(2)
26,000
54,000
9,000
57,000
355,390
(2)
(2)
13,000
3,000
427,000
Whales          ....
(2)
(2)
1,000
499,807
184,985
1,142,000
1,399,000
1,555,000
Totals   -    .,.,
$68,821,358
$83,812,704
$56,635,000
$65,455,092*
$69,422,000*
i Shrimps and prawns.
2 Included in miscellaneous.
3 Skate and flounders.
4 This figure does not include imported Japanese-caught tuna canned in British Columbia.
Miscellaneous includes octopus,  whales, and fish products,  meal and oil,  which  cannot be  separated  into  species,
with a value of $500 or less.
The above figures were supplied by the Federal Department of Fisheries, Vancouver,
and are hereby gratefully acknowledged.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE
SOCKEYE SALMON (PAPER No. 40)
(Digest)
Paper No. 40 in this series is again contributed by D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A.,
of the staff of the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo. This series was commenced
forty years ago by the Provincial Department of Fisheries and has been continued ever
since without interruption. The value of such an unbroken record of the salmon runs
to the principal spawning-streams of the Province is increasing as the years go by.
In recent years the extended salmon work being done by the Fisheries Research Board
of Canada in British Columbia has made it possible to have the material for the catch
analyses collected simultaneously while other field work was in progress, and arrangements have been made with the Fisheries Research Board to have this investigation
continued. In future, however, the work will be financed and carried forward by the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada. The Provincial Department of Fisheries will continue to contribute to this work by publishing papers relating to this investigation. These
papers will appear in the Appendix to this Department's Annual Report, as heretofore. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 23
In the introduction to Paper No. 40 the author points out that the data for these
papers are for the commercial fishery and do not necessarily represent the escapement,
as was pointed out in Paper No. 38 of the series. The writer says: " We have a record
only of the age composition of the catch and not of the escapement which gives rise to
our future runs. The implications of this situation on our attempt to predict these future
runs are not understood as we do not yet know to what extent hereditary and (or)
environmental factors determine the age at which sockeye mature."
In Paper No. 40 for the first time the numbers of fish caught, as published by the
Statistical Branch of the Federal Department of Fisheries, are being added to the tables
to supplement the pack figures.
Commenting on the Nass River run in 1954, the author points out that the catch
of 101,600 sockeye, which yielded a pack of 10,285 cases, was below the average for
the past five- and ten-year periods which produced packs averaging 21,723 cases and
16,814 cases respectively. The Nass River pack, however, was slightly better than that
of 1949, which was the parent year for 60 per cent of this year's catch. The escapement
was reported to have ranged from poor to light. Sixty per cent of the Nass River fish
sampled were in their fifth year. Of these, two-thirds had spent two years in fresh water
and one-third, one year. Apparently the Nass River sockeye were very large in the year
under review, while the sex ratios showed a slight excess of females for each age-group.
On the Skeena River the sockeye-catch was 571,900 fish, which gave a pack of
60,817 cases. This was 10,000 cases below the average pack for the previous five- and
ten-year periods, slightly below the pack of 1949, the cycle-year for the 5-year-old fish,
but was higher than the pack of 1950, the cycle-year for the 4-year-old fish. According
to the author the escapement is reported to have been about average for this system.
On the Skeena 5-year-old fish formed 64 per cent of the Skeena catch sample.
In respect to the distribution of the sexes, the over-all percentage of 43 per cent
males in the catch more or less reflects the general situation in the Skeena fishery.
Commenting on the Rivers Inlet sockeye run of 1954, the author remarks that the
poor catch of sockeye on Rivers Inlet, amounting to 575,700 fish, yielding 50,640 cases,
came from the progeny of the 1949 spawning of predominantly 4-year-old fish and the
1950 spawning of predominantly 5-year-old fish. In this connection the author says:
" That is, there was a poor showing of 5-year fish in 1949 and of 4-year fish in 1950
which, if age is inherited, could be expected to result in the poor run which occurred;
whether the run actually was poor because of genetical factors for maturity being inherited, or because of adverse factors in environment, or because of poor spawn deposition
cannot be proven. This is a problem which must eventually be solved before production
can be put on a firmer basis." Regardless of the reason, the pack was only half the
average of 100,399 cases for the previous five-year period and not a great deal better in
comparison with the average of 87,965 cases for the previous ten years. The escapement was apparently moderate in this area.
In 1954 the sample indicated that 4-year-olds comprised 60 per cent of the catch.
The remainder was almost all 5-year fish. In the distribution of the sexes, in the main
age-class, the males outnumbered the female sockeye. In the 5-year age-class the situation seemed to have been reversed, the males forming only 29 per cent of the sample in
this group.
In respect to the Smith Inlet sockeye run of 1954 the author points out that the
Smith Inlet sockeye-catch sample was comprised mainly of 4- and 5-year-old age-groups.
The catch consisted of 190,800 fish, which yielded 18,937 cases of salmon. This was
very much below the average of 24,963 cases for the previous ten years, and even poorer
when compared with the average of 33,936 cases during the five years immediately preceding the 1954 run. Apparently there was a heavy escapement of predominantly small-
sized fish. I 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In Smith Inlet the 4-year-old age-group formed 61 per cent of the catch sample,
with most of the remainder being 5-year-old fish. With respect to the sex ratios of the
Smith Inlet sockeye, there were 52 males to 48 females.
The author draws attention to the striking diversions from this ratio which are
characteristic of this population; that is, the fact that the 4-year-old fish in this group
are almost invariably mostly males and the 5-year-old fish predominantly females, which,
according to the author, seems to point to some degree of linkage between sex and age
in this population.
The reader is referred to Mr. Foskett's paper in the Appendix to this Report for a
full account of the data digested above.
HERRING INVESTIGATION
Research on the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) in British Columbia was continued
in 1954-55 by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada at the Pacific Biological Station,
under the supervision of F. H. C. Taylor.
The purpose of herring research is to obtain scientific information upon which a
management policy can be formulated to permit the largest annual catches consistent
with the escapement of a sufficient spawning stock to ensure similar catches in future
years. The research is directed along three main lines: (1) A general study of all
major herring stocks in British Columbia to indicate general application of the results
of specific studies, (2) a study of factors affecting survival during the early life-history
phases, and (3) controlled fishing studies to determine both whether catch quotas are
required to prevent overutilization of the stocks and whether they are effective in
stabilizing abundance at a high level.
General Studies on Adult Stocks of All Major Herring Populations
The herring-catch in British Columbia waters in 1954-55 amounted to 169,163
tons, the smallest catch since 1946-47. The catch on the west coast of Vancouver
Island was the lowest since 1943-44. In the northern sub-district the quota was not
taken or approximated for the first time since 1947-48. In the central sub-district the
quota was not taken for the second year in succession, and the catch was less than in
1953-54. In the upper east coast sub-district the catch was the largest since 1940-41,
and resulted primarily from the exploitation of new fishing-grounds in Seymour Inlet
and Nugent Sound. Quota extensions of 15,000 tons were granted in both the middle
east coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts. In the non-quota
fishery in the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district, almost the entire catch came from
Skidegate Inlet, where a major fishery developed for the second year in succession. The
catch was slightly lower in 1953-54.
The annual surveys of herring-spawn deposition carried out by the Federal Department of Fisheries showed that 215.2 miles of spawn (at medium intensity) were
deposited in 1955. This was a slight decrease over the previous year. While spawn
deposition showed an increase in the northern, central, middle east coast of Vancouver
Island, and west coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts, it showed a decrease in the
Queen Charlotte Islands, upper east coast of Vancouver Island, and lower east coast of
Vancouver Island sub-districts. In the latter sub-district, in spite of the continued
decline from the very high level of 1953, spawn deposition was still above average.
In the remaining two sub-districts it declined to an average or only slightly below-
average level. Spawn deposition in all sub-districts appears adequate to ensure the
future maintenance of the stocks.
The 1951 year-class as IV-year fish was dominant in all major herring populations
except those of the lower east coast and south west coast of Vancouver Island where
the 1952 year-class (Ill-year fish) dominated the runs.   In 1954-55 the assessment of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 25
the strength of the 1951 year-class indicates that it was of above-average strength in
the lower and middle east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts, of average strength
in the south west coast of Vancouver Island and possibly in the Queen Charlotte
Islands, and of slightly below-average strength in the north west coast of Vancouver
Island and central and northern sub-districts. The 1952 year-class was considerably
weaker than the 1951 year-class. It was of average or above-average strength in the
middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts and was weak in the
remaining sub-districts. Population abundance in 1955-56 will depend on the contributions to the adult stocks of the 1952 and 1953 year-classes. Present indications on
the basis of the proportion of Il-year fish in the catches in 1954-55 suggest that the
1953 year-class may be stronger than the 1952 year-class. A prediction of the abundance of herring in the 1955-56 season has been published. It is expected that a
decrease in the level of abundance will occur in nearly all populations unless the 1953
year-class makes an exceptionally strong entry. Abundance should still be at a relatively high level in the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts
and should increase somewhat on the west coast of Vancouver Island, particularly in
the southern areas. Fishing is not expected to be as good in the Queen Charlotte
Islands, northern and central sub-districts.
In 1954—55, 2,289 tags were recovered, compared to 4,615 the preceding year.
The decrease was expected as tagging was sharply reduced in 1954. Tag-detector
returns were poor and amounted to twenty-nine as compared to sixty-seven the previous
year. An analysis of recoveries from plant magnets substantiated the findings of previous years. The returns again indicated only slight intermingling between Area 2a
(E) and Area 2b (E) in the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Early Life-history Studies
In the summer of 1955 a preliminary survey was carried out of the distribution
and abundance of juvenile herring in the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver
Island sub-districts and in contiguous American waters. A tagging programme was
undertaken to provide information on the relationship between the juvenile and adult
stocks in an area and on the amount of intermingling between stocks prior to
recruitment.
No further surveys were carried out in Barkley Sound.
Controlled Fishing Experiments
The comparative study of the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island
populations was terminated after the 1954-55 season. The results of this experiment
from 1946-47 to 1954-55 indicated that further worth-while information was unlikely
to be obtained within a definite period of time, and would depend on the occurrence in
the west coast population of a period of low population abundance and on fishing
intensity being greater than in the past. Rather than continue the experiment indefinitely until these conditions arose, it was thought better to end this study and to institute at a later date, and in an area where higher fishing intensities could be more readily
obtained, a controlled experiment designed to produce the desired results in a more
definite period of time.
REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST, 1954
Operations designed to fulfil the functions of the Provincial Shell-fish Laboratory
at Ladysmith have been carried forward. These functions are to provide an information
service on commercial molluscs and to study the biology of these species regarding abundance, growth, reproduction, and culture. I 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Since the inception of the laboratory, emphasis has been on oysters and oyster-
culture, and clam investigations have been confined to routine sampling.
Work on the British Columbia ship worm has been carried on as time permits.
Oyster Investigations
Pacific Oyster Breeding
During the 1954 breeding season the weather was extremely poor, with a considerable amount of rain and little sunshine. Consequently, water temperatures were low
and, as a result, breeding was poor and must be considered a failure in all areas.
Ladysmith Harbour.—No spawning of consequence occurred in Ladysmith Harbour, and at no time were any larvse found in the plankton. Only on two days during
the summer did the average water temperature reach 68° F. at a level 3 feet below the
surface.   This is the second successive breeding failure in Ladysmith Harbour.
Hot ham Sound.—No breeding occurred in this area.
Pendrell Sound.—Water temperatures in Pendrell Sound were the poorest on record,
particularly during luly. No major spawning occurred. There was, however, a small
one on August 10th, and by August 15th surface samples of 20 gallons contained ten
early-stage Pacific oyster larva?. On August 20th a small spawning which produced two
early-stage lame per gallon was observed in a bay between the upper and middle sound.
At this time occasional advanced umboned larva; were present in the plankton. A light
non-commercial spatfall was forecast for early September. By August 31st only occasional larva; were found, insufficient in number to carry out larval studies.
However, shell strings were exposed at the regular stations over the sound between
August 27th and September 29th. Examinations of these strings indicated two quite
distinct sets, and at the end of October one group averaged between one-quarter and
one-sixteenth inch in diameter, while the other group was less than one-sixteenth inch
in diameter.
The average set per shell (both sides) for the upper sound was 4.5 spat; for the
middle sound, 9.3 spat; and for the outer sound, 3.6 spat. The mean for the whole
sound was 5.8 spat per shell. As in three previous sets, cultch along the east shore of
the middle sound caught much better than that in any other area.
Commercial Cultch
The 1954 set in Pendrell Sound may therefore be considered a failure for commercial seed-producers, who had prepared 30,000 shell strings. Acting on the information
provided, no producers exposed any shells.
Cultch
The strawberry-boxes dipped in cement which were used in 1953 are showing considerable promise as a cultching medium. They are holding together well, and on the
experimental area in Ladysmith Harbour they show little tendency to movement from
wave action. The centre tray, however, collects silt. A modification was therefore
developed in which a 24- by 3- by %6-inch piece of veneer was bent into a circle about
8 inches in diameter by stapling the ends together. These are dipped in pure cement.
The cost is half that of the hallocks for an equivalent surface area. Packaging by stringing
on wire for exposure is simple and inexpensive. The light weight, but still heavy enough
to sink, makes handling not difficult, and little flotation is required. While the light set
obtained this year will not provide an adequate test, the action of the circles on the
oyster-bed will be ascertained.
Floating Oyster-culture
The culture of oysters by suspending them from floats is practised in various parts
of the world, but particularly so in Japan, where a large part of the oysters produced
are grown by this system. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 27
Since the shore-line is so precipitous, the amount of potential oyster-ground in
British Columbia is limited. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in Ladysmith
Harbour to test the feasibility of floating culture in these waters where the many sheltered
bays and the availability of logs for floats appear to provide suitable conditions.
Shell-string cultch that had caught a set in Pendrell Sound was brought to Ladysmith in October, 1952, and held on the beach by the laboratory. This cultch, with
various, but known, intensities of set, was restrung on No. 14 galvanized wire. The
shells, all with similar spat counts on each string, were held 6 inches apart by a twisted
loop in the wire. Since then a small tool, merely a steel handle with a notch cut in the
end, has been developed that enables the wires to be twisted quickly and efficiently.
Fifteen shells were placed on each string, making a total length of 8 feet. The strings
were numbered, and sixty of them were hung as double strings over logs of a two-log
float 25 feet long and 4 feet wide. The strings were placed 16 inches apart along the
logs and were hung with the cup downward to prevent accumulation of silt. On December 1st, 1952, the float was loaded and anchored in about 16 feet of water, at low tide,
off the laboratory.
Some fouling occurred, for at various times the strings were heavily set with barnacles, hydroids, and various types of sea-weed. However, when the strings were taken
up in November, 1953, fouling was not extensive and did not materially affect breaking
and opening. The number, the total weight, and volume of oysters on each string were
taken. Samples were measured for size, condition factor measured, and some shucked
to determine the return per gallon.
The growth rate was at least double that in the case of bottom culture, and the
quality of the shucked oyster was excellent, with good appearance and a relatively high
condition factor, nearly double that of oysters on the shore a short distance away. The
clusters separated easily with relatively little mortality, and the oysters were not badly
misshapen.
Strings of fifteen shells with a count of thirty spat per shell or more produced an
average of 41 pounds or 1 bushel of oysters.
Approximately 50 per cent of the yield shucked out at 175 oysters per gallon to
produce about 5 to 6 pints. The remainder, which would be replanted on beds, would
require not more than a year to reach market size on average oyster-ground.
Further developments have been the use of a heavier-gauge galvanized wire and
the utilization of a cultch of a larger size, such as that which has been held on a bed for
a year. The use of stainless-steel wire and bamboo or rubber-pipe separators has been
tested and found to be of no advantage.
Whether or not this type of culture will prove satisfactory for British Columbia
conditions is not yet known. It appears to be competitive with bottom culture on an
economic basis. It will perhaps be of greatest value to small producers or to fishermen,
for beyond the initial preparation of the strings and floats in winter or early spring, no
attention is required until the time for harvest, so it lends itself to the fisherman's timetable.
Several growers are now utilizing the method of floating culture and appear to be
satisfied with the results.
Oyster Productivity
In the spring of 1949 some Japanese oyster seed was obtained by the Provincial
Shell-fish Laboratory for the purpose of obtaining definite figures on productivity from
a unit of seed, and to compare the productivity of unit amounts of broken and unbroken
seed. The seed was planted on March 23rd, 1949, on the experimental ground in Ladysmith Harbour. The area has proved to be not too satisfactory for both growth and
fattening, but these factors should have had little effect on the main concern of the
experiment.    The oysters were harvested only recently  (5 years old), and relatively I 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
few of them were larger than the normal size accepted by the industry.   Various experiments were arranged and these are outlined below.
A. Productivity of Individual Cases
Twenty cases of oyster seed were chosen at random from the fifty cases, with the
limitation that nine cases were M-4 broken (Japanese village designation) and nine cases
were W unbroken.   The other two cases were 0-2 broken and M-7 unbroken.
The cases were arranged in two rows of ten, with broken and unbroken seed cases
alternating in each row. The upper row was at the 3-foot tide-level and the lower row
at the 2-foot tide-level. In order to eliminate horizontal and vertical differences in fertility, the rows and columns were placed quite close together and the plots were relatively
small. Initially, each plot measured 4 by 4 yards and was located on fairly firm ground
of gravel-mud.
In May and June of 1950 the clusters were separated by hand. From samples,
breaking mortality was estimated to be between 15 and 20 per cent. It required, on
the average, two hours to break the clusters from one case of either broken or unbroken
seed. Not all pieces of broken seed required breaking, and each piece requires less
breaking than unbroken seed, but since there are more pieces (approximately three
times as many) than in unbroken seed, the time is equalized. At the same time the
twenty cases were moved down the beach in the same relative positions so that the lower
row of these cases was at the 1-foot tide-level and the upper row of cases at the 2-foot
tide-level.
The new plots were increased in size to 6 by 6 yards.
The average weight per case of unbroken seed at the end of one year of growth
was 330 pounds, as compared with 420 pounds per case of broken seed. Estimates of
the number of oysters per case at this time was 11,000 for unbroken as compared with
14,000 for broken seed.
In May, 1954, the twenty cases were harvested, and the number was determined
for each case and by counting each oyster. In addition, the weight and volume of the
oysters was determined.   These data are given in the following table:— REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 29
73
0
H
0\
en
T?
Os
©
en
00
3,991
(Wun)
3,564
(M-4B)
<n
3,003
(M-4-B)
3,883
(Wun)
oo
oo
SO
4,320
(Wun)
2,887
(M-4-B)
o
CN
2,168
(M-4-B)
2,609
(Wun)
3,272
(Wun)
5,457
(M-4-B)
CN
oo
4,254
(M-4-B)
4,730
(Wun)
-*
00
Q\
CO
6,295
(Wun)
4,481
(M-4-B)
SO
r^
o
4,676
(M-4B)
4,311
(Wun)
t*-
00
as
oo"
3,131
(Wun)
5,542
(M-4-B)
t-
oo*
4,381
(M-4-B)
3,477
(Wun)
oo
l>
i
0
u
i
c
c
5
0
Ih
Ih
to
o
-
1
3
c-
ON
tN
Th        ON
O      <n
O^      cN
en
so
tN
CN
tj-      cn
so       ■*
vo     o
SO
O
ON         O
*~1     °i.
r-
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O^
en
\0      r-
o      3
en
*n
tN
to
0
z
p
0
g
00
H
&0
0
ft
0
H
a
o
5
5
SO        Os
r—      oo
Os       en
tN
en
en
en       tH
^r      O
f-f        CN
TT
Tien
en
2,045
2,001
TT
o_
Tj~
O         00
O      oo
en       oc
00
00
en
pri
en      en
-*       so
©       O
•M          (N
so
o
en
*©       en
r-      un
tN       oo
Os
CN
en
o
U
to
P.
O
D
1
V-
OJ
o
a
ON
CN
CN
o
en
as
—      un
tN       tN
Ti
tN           rt
tN        CN
en
Tt
tN        O
tN        en
tN
tN        O0
t-l         tN
o
oo      r-
*H          Tf
tn
SO
tN        vj-
tN
en       r-
tt       en
O
00
tN       en
MD
00        O
00
un      r-
tN        en
tN
SO
0
OJ
o
o
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Ih
to
o
"3
0
H I 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statistical analysis indicates there was no significant difference in the yield from
broken and unbroken seed in this experiment, either in volume or number or in weight
of oysters. This is apparent from the treatment (broken, unbroken) totals in each case.
In number of oysters, the difference in yield between broken and unbroken seed was only
394 oysters; in weight, 43 pounds; and in volume, 3 bushels. There was no significant
difference in the yield of rows in respect to numbers, but the lower row (lower tide-level)
yielded significantly higher than did the upper row in respect to weight and volume.
Thus a difference in tidal level of 1 foot may produce a significant difference in yield
(weight) as a result of differential growth.
The fact that this experiment demonstrated no difference in yield between broken
and unbroken seed may be explained by the fact that, although broken seed has a higher
guaranteed minimum number of spat, the mortality in this type of seed is greater due to
burying and fouling of the small pieces on average oyster-ground. This is confirmed by
the high mortality of the spat on small pieces from cement-coated egg-trays. Also, the
differential count indicated by the guaranteed minimum may not always exist.
A striking feature of this experiment was the extreme variability in yield in the same
type of seed from the same village, and this was shown clearly at the end of the first year
where, in both broken and unbroken seed, the highest yield in volume was more than
double the lowest.
Since there is so much variability in oyster-ground in respect to rate of growth,
measurements directly influenced by that factor are unsuitable for drawing general conclusions on yield. However, the yield in number of oysters may be expected to be but
little affected by rate of growth, and this may be used as a reliable criterion of productivity. The range in productivity in respect to number of oysters was from 2,168 to
6,295, with an average of approximately 4,000. It should be pointed out that this is
for a five-year growing period; however, indications were that mortality was insignificant in the latter two or three years. The yield in weight varied from 664 to 2,389
pounds, with a mean of approximately 1,500 pounds. At this intensity the planting
amounted to at least 100 cases per acre. As explained previously, this intensity was
necessary to reduce variation in soil and fertility conditions and may account in part for
the relatively slow growth.
B. Productivity from Large Units
To provide a further test on productivity and to compare in another way broken
and unbroken seed, on March 22nd, 1949, eight cases of broken seed (seven cases of
M-4 and one case of 0-2) planted in a group were compared with eight cases of unbroken
seed (six cases of W and two cases of M-7) planted together in an adjacent plot. The
plots, each 20 by 10 yards, were located on medium hard ground between the 3- and
4-foot tide-levels.
In February, 1951, the clusters from these plots were separated and moved to larger
plots 25 by 25 yards between the 0.5- and 1.5-foot tide-levels. In May, 1954, they were
harvested, and the eight cases of unbroken seed produced approximately 290 bushels
weighting 13,340 pounds, with an estimated 31,610 oysters. The eight cases of broken
seed yielded approximately 318 bushels weighing 14,628 pounds, with an estimated
34,662 oysters. In this case the broken seed yielded about 10 per cent more than the
unbroken seed in weight, volume, and number. In numbers the yield per case was little
different from the experiment with individual cases. The average production in weight
was higher by about 250 pounds per case than the single-case experiment, but this may
have been due to better growing conditions.
Since counting would have required so much time in this case, the number of oysters
was estimated from samples and therefore does not have the high degree of accuracy
of the other experiment. In this case the production in numbers was higher by about
150 oysters per case than the single-case experiment. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 31
The intensity of planting in this experiment for most of the period was sixty cases
per acre.
Oyster Production
Production of Pacific oysters in 1954 was greater than in 1953 by 19,394 gallons.
British Columbia Pacific Oyster Production in Gallons (American)
1951
1952
1953
1954
5,117
4,183
12,442
1,045
36,165
6,830
2,347
13,613
668
57,711
4,815
976
4,614
11,620
1,010
43,441
5,169
1,651
Pender Harbour      	
6,603
14,897
997
56,553
Totals     	
58,951
81,185
66,476
85,870
Oyster Seet
i
1
5,375
2,000      |
1
3,584
4,000
1,115
4,000
1,596
Seed production (British Columbia) (cases)  _ 	
Nil
Clam Investigations
Butter-clam and native little-neck clam production was considerably reduced from
1953, while Manila and razor clams showed gains. Such fluctuations in clam production are not abnormal.
British Columbia Clam Production in Pounds
1951
1952
1953
1954
3,500,500
521,900
178,900
135,500
5,492,300
493,300
495,900
125,500
3,691,000
308,700
387,700
154,500
2,896,900
137,900
450,000
271,800
Acknowledgments
The assistance and co-operation given by the Federal Department of Fisheries, the
Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, the Pacific Oceanographic Group at Nanaimo, and
the Provincial Department of Lands and Forests are gratefully acknowledged. I 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE
SOCKEYE SALMON (No. 40)
By D. R. Foskett, B.A., M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
This is the fortieth report in a series reporting on the sockeye in the commercial catch
in the main runs north of the Fraser River. The data are those for the commercial fishery
and do not necessarily represent the escapement, as was shown in No. 38 of this series.
We have a record only of the age composition of the catch and not of the escapement
which gives rise to our future runs. The implications of this situation on our attempts to
predict these future runs are not understood, since we do not yet know to what extent
hereditary and (or) environmental factors determine the age at which sockeye mature.
This year for the first time the numbers of fish caught, as published by the Statistical
Branch of the Department of Fisheries at Vancouver, are being added to the tables to
supplement the pack figures.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS AND TREATMENT OF DATA
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the
fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers—one
in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to
the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left fresh water. The
age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
31; 4j—the "sea types " or fish which migrate seaward in their first year and
mature in their third and fourth year respectively.
32—"the grilse," almost exclusively males and frequently called "jacks,"
which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in their third
year.
42, 52—fish which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in then-
fourth and fifth years respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate seaward in their third year and mature in their fifth
and sixth years respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate seaward in their fourth year and mature in their
sixth and seventh years respectively.
Fish were measured to the nearest quarter of an inch, but when averaged the average
has been recorded to the nearest tenth of an inch to avoid using fractions of more than
one decimal place. Weights were taken to the nearest tenth of a pound. This has resulted
in an even-pound and half-pound bias when the data are grouped to the nearest quarter-
pound.
1. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1954
(1) General Characteristics
The catch of 101,600 sockeye* which yielded a pack of 10,285 cases was below the
averages of the past five- and ten-year periods, which produced packs averaging 21,723
* This figure, taken from the British Columbia catch statistics of the Federal Department of Fisheries, Vancouver,
is to the nearest 100 pieces. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 33
and 16,814 cases respectively. The pack was, however, slightly better than that of 1949,
which was the parent year for 60 per cent of this year's catch. The escapement is reported
to have ranged from poor to light.
(2) Age-groups
As indicated above, 60 per cent of the Nass River fish sampled were in their fifth
year (Table I). Of these, two-thirds had spent two years in fresh water and one-third
one year. Thirty-five per cent of the catch sample were four-year fish which had spent
one year in fresh water, and the remaining 5 per cent of the sample consisted of fish in
their sixth year which had spent two years in fresh water. One 4X female was present
in the catch sample (Tables II and III).
(3) Lengths and Weights
The Nass River sockeye were very large, with the 42 males and the 53 males and
females showing a slight increase on previously recorded lengths and most groups showing
slight increases over previous weight records (Tables II to V).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The sockeye had normal sex ratios for this population, with a slight excess of females
for each age-group (Table VI). The 42 fish, with a ratio of 42 males to 58 females,
showed a ratio very close to that in the cycle-year (Table VI). The over-all ratio was
43 males to 57 females.
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1954
(1) General Characteristics
The Skeena River sockeye-catch of 571,900 fish,* giving a pack of 60,817 cases
(Table VII), was 10,000 cases below the average pack of the previous five- and ten-year
periods. It was slightly below the pack of 1949, the cycle-year for the 5-year-old fish,
but higher than the pack of 1950, the cycle-year for the 4-year-old fish. The escapement
is reported to have been about average for this system.
(2) Age-groups
Five-year-old fish formed 64 per cent of the Skeena catch sample, 54 per cent being
52 fish and 10 per cent 53 fish. Thirty-three per cent of the sample was 42 and 2 per cent
63 fish. That there is no outstanding variation from normal is readily seen in Table VII.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The most numerous age-group, the 52 class, averaged longer and heavier than
populations in the past. The other group in their fifth year, the 53 class, were also large
individuals in relation to past populations. As a whole, individuals in the 42 class were
about average. The small 63 group was, however, composed of large individuals,
especially amongst the males. Tables VIII to XI summarize the data on the above fish.
The 32 males (jacks) averaged 15Vi inches and Wi pounds (Tables VIII and IX).
The 43 age-group, which also consists of jack males, was represented by three fish
averaging 15.9 inches in length and 1.7 pounds in weight.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The over-all percentage of 43 per cent males in the catch more or less reflects the
general situation in the Skeena fishery (Table XII).   The 38 per cent males in the 52
* This figure, taken from the British Columbia catch statistics of the Federal Department of Fisheries, Vancouver,
is to the nearest 100 pieces. I 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
fish is partially offset by the 32 and 43 " jacks " and the slight excess of males in the 53
class (Tables VIII and IX).
3. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1954
(1) General Characteristics
The poor catch of sockeye at Rivers Inlet, 575,700 fish* yielding 50,640 cases, came
from the progeny of the 1949 spawning of predominantly 4-year-old fish and the 1950
spawning of predominantly 5-year-old fish. That is, there was a poor spawning of 5-year
fish in 1949 and of 4-year fish in 1950, which, if age is inherited, could be expected to
result in the poor run which occurred; whether the run actually was poor because of
genetical factors for maturity being inherited or because of adverse factors in the environment or because of poor spawn deposition cannot be proven. This is a problem which
must eventually be solved before prediction can be put on a firmer basis. In any case,
the pack was only half of the average of 100,399 cases for the previous five-year period
and not a great deal better in comparison with the average of 87,965 cases for the
previous ten years.   The escapement was moderate in this area.
(2) Age-groups
The 1954 catch sample was largely 42 fish, these comprising 60 per cent of the
catch (Table XIII). The remainder was almost wholly 52 fish, which formed 39 per cent
of the sample. A few 53 sockeye were in the sample, and isolated representatives of the
4l5 32, and 63 age-groups were also present (Tables XIV and XV).
(3) Lengths and Weights
The 42 age-group of the Rivers Inlet catch was comprised of the largest fish recorded
for this group in many years (Tables XIV to XVII). Only the average length of the
females failed to exceed the records of length and weight compiled since 1942. The
52 fish, however, did not set any length records but exceeded recent weight records for
the males and equalled them for the females (Tables XVI and XVII).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
In the main age-class, 42 fish, the males outnumbered the female sockeye. In the
52 age-class the situation was reversed, the males forming only 29 per cent of the sample
of this group. For the whole sample the males comprised 52 per cent of the fish.
A situation of this type raises the question as to whether some of these 4-year-old males
could be " jacks " or precocious males of a population which normally matured at 5 years
of age.
4. THE SMITH INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1954
(1) General Characteristics
As usual the Smith Inlet sockeye-catch sample was comprised mainly of 42 and 52
age-group fish. The catch consisted of 190,800 fish* which yielded 18,937 cases of
salmon. This is very much below the average of 24,963 cases for the previous ten years,
and even poorer when compared to the average of 33,936 cases during the five years
immediately preceding this run. There was a heavy escapement of predominantly
small-size fish.
(2) Age-groups
The 42 age-group formed 61 per cent of the Smith Inlet sockeye-catch sample, with
most of the remainder, 38 per cent, being from the 52 age-group (Table XIX). Minor
numbers of 41} 53, and 63 age-groups were also present (Tables XX and XXI).
* This figure, taken from the British Columbia catch statistics of the Federal Department of Fisheries, Vancouver,
is to the nearest 100 pieces. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 35
(3) Lengths and Weights
As may be seen from Tables XXII and XXIII, most of the Smith Inlet sockeye fell
within past records for length and weight since the number of fish present in the minor
age-classes was very small (Tables XX and XXI).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
Though the Smith Inlet sockeye population was not, on the whole, far from an
even sex ratio, 52 males to 48 females, the individual age-groups showed the striking
diversions from this ratio which are characteristic of this population. The fact that the
42 fish in this group are almost invariably mostly males and the 52 fish predominantly
females (Table XXIV) seems to point to some degree of linkage between sex and age
in this population.
Table I.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
52
h
63
1912                     	
36,037
23,574
31,327
39,349
31,411
22,188
21,816
28,259
16,740
9,364
31,277
17,821
33,590
18,945
15.929
12,026
5,540
16,077
26,405
16,929
14,154
9,757
36.242
12,712
28,562
17,567
21,462
24,357
13,809
24,876
21,085
13,412
13,083
9,899
12,511
10,849
13,181
9,268
27,286
24,405
29,492
18,163
10,285
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
12
39
3
41
28
23
35
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
16
6
19
9
19
22
20
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
56
60
48
71
31
46
46
40
2
1913                     	
2
10
8
1916
8
1917
4
1918
9
1919
6
1920
6
1921
8
1922
1
1923
6
1924
2
1925
2
1926      	
13
1927
4
1928     	
3
1929
6
1930 _	
3
1931   	
6
1932 _	
-
7
1933	
3
1934
4
1935-	
6
1936  _	
10
1937
6
1938
5
1939       	
7
1940
10
1941      	
	
4
1942      	
5
1943
15
1944  :	
1945
	
38
6
1946	
3
1947
17
1948 -	
12
1949	
7
1950	
6
1951  	
13
1952 	
1953. ...  	
1954 	
304,500
198,400
101,600
4
9
5
1 To nearest hundred. I 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1954, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
41
42
52
43
5
3
63
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.   1   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
15
	
	
1
1
1
1
3
4
9
5
11
3
16
4
5
10
12
1
5
1
7
1
2
2
1
1
8
11
12
15
8
19
10
10
11
9
5
7
2
3
1
1
1
	
	
1
	
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
13
2
9
3
13
7
5
4
14
3
11
6
8
3
2
2
2
1
2
5
2
5
4
4
8
13
5
9
6
9
10
23
10
7
4
17
3
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
3
~2
1
1
1
1
1
1
15% „	
15%	
15%   - 	
1
16       . .  	
1614	
1614	
16% -	
	
1714-  	
17V2            -	
  1 	
17% -	
18    	
	
1
18%	
18 Yt —  	
18% -	
19                          -.
	
19%	
1914            	
1
2
2014 	
2014      —-	
~ 1
2
3
21%            - -	
3
2114 -	
4
21%	
1
1
2
1
3
4
1
12
3
2
4
8
8
3
2
3
1.
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
9
3
14
6
11
4
10
4
3
3
1
1
1
11
17
18
21
22% - -	
18
35
2314	
2314 	
23% 	
24    -	
24%    	
2414 	
24%	
25 - -	
24
37
20
51
20
42
31
69
25
37
15
63
26%  -  - .-- 	
15
21
26%	
14
20
12
2714. - 	
27%	
7
8
9
28%     -	
1
2814.. - - 	
3
1
29            - -     ~
3
29%    1   - -   —	
	
29>/2 " - -     --	
1
Totals	
-    1    1 1 101
139
61  |    77 |      1 | 	
121
154
14 |    17
686
  123.5
24.1
23.1
26.5 1 25.3 1 15.5 1
25.3
24.5
27.7
26.0
24.6 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 37
Table HI.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1954, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
41
42
52
43
5
3
6
5
Total
M.   |   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.   1   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
1.6    	
1
1
1     .	
1
1.8 	
2.0-.-     	
2.2       	
2.4 	
2.6   	
	
	
__
2.8    	
3.0 „ 	
3.2   	
1
1
3.4-  	
1
1
1
3
3.6    "  	
1
1
3.8  	
4.0  -	
2
2
4.2     -   -     »
1
3
2
6
4.4        	
4
2
6
4.6     - -	
	
2
9
1
1
13
4.8 -	
1
10
1
4
16
5 0                              	
1
4
14
1
3
9
32
5.2  -    	
1
9
1
1
1
9
22
5.4  	
5
21
1
6
33
5 6                             - 	
	
6
8
14
12
4
3
5
8
8
31
5.8 	
37
6 0                           -	
	
9
6
10
6
13
4
5
12
1
2
3
4
4
6
12
13
15
10
1
1
1
41
6 2                           	
28
6 4                            -	
__  |      3
4
__ 1   ,.,
38
6.6-    	
38
6.8       - 	
— I __
5
2
3
3
	
4
10
1
28
7 0                            	
8
5
3
1
2
1
1
1
6
7
8
13
7
3
12
10
8
2
2
42
7 2                          -	
34
7.4 	
24
7.6  .-	
	
6
	
2
9
8
8
33
7.8     	
4
1
5
5
4
19
8.0    - 	
4
10 j      5
5
1
1
26
8.2   	
.. _ |    .
2
1   1      1
12
3
1
20
8.4  	
— |
2
	
4 |      3
7
1
2
19
8.6 	
-  1
4 j      4
2
1
3
14
8 8                         „      •
■   1	
1
4 |       1
4         2
2  |       1
2
7
3
1
1
2
10
9 0                        .-   	
14
9.2  	
7
9 4                                          —
1
3
3
6
9 6                                      	
	
3  1      1
3
2
7
9 8                          _ —
8
1
11
10 0                       	
3
2
2
2
9
10 2                            	
3
1
3
7
10.4       	
	
	
	
10.6                       — 	
1
1
2
10.8 __    __..  	
	
	
2
	
1
3
11 0                             	
1
1
112                             -  -
114                          	
i
116                          	
— | 	
118                          	
_ ..   1
12 2                           	
1
1
12.4     	
	
	
12.6     !	
	
Totals  !	
L_ |      1  |  101  | 139
61   |    77 1      1  | 	
121
154
14
17
686
Average weights   .j 	
I   5.0 |   6.4 |   5.5
1          1          1
8.8 |   7.4 1   1.6 |
1          1          1
7.4
6.3
9.5
7.8
6.8 I 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1954
4
2
h
53
h
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41.. -  	
24.5
23.7
26.3
25.2
26.1
25.3
27.7
26.4
1912^11 (conversion) ... ...
23.8
23.0
25.6
24.5
25.4
24.6
27.0
25.7
1942  __ -	
23.9
23.2
26.1
24.9
24.9
24.3
26.9
26.0
1943. 	
22.8
22.2
26.1
24.8
24.1
23.5
27.1
25.8
1944  - 	
23.5
22.7
25.7
24.6
24.8
23.8
26.8
25.8
1945  -  -
23.4
22.8
25.0
24.4
24.7
24.0
25.1
25.5
1946   	
23.4
23.4
22.4
22.9
26.3
25.9
24.9
24.1
24.9
24.5
23.9
23.6
28.1
27.0
26.0
1947      --.
25.6
1948— -  --
23.3
22.6
26.2
25.3
25.0
24.1
27.7
26.7
1949  - - -
23.8
22.8
26.2
23.8
24.7
23.7
26.1
25.5
1950  	
23.6
23.1
26.0
24.7
24.5
23.7
26.7
25.6
1951 - - -  -
24.0
23.1
26.2
24.8
25.1
24.1
27.4
26.4
1952 „ -  - -	
23.9
23.1
26.8
25.3
24.8
23.9
27.6
26.3
1953 -  	
23.9
22.9
26.9
25.6
24.9
24.1
27.7
26.5
1954  -	
24.1
23.1
26.5
25.3
25.3
24.5
27.7
26.0
Table V.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1954
Year
4
2
52
5
5
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41  -  ....
6.0
5.4
7.3
6.4
6.9
6.2
8.0
7.0
1942   	
5.8
5.1
7.1
6.3
6.2
5.6
7.5
6.7
1943  -  - 	
5.2
4.7
7.6
6.4
5.9
5.3
7.9
6.9
1944 — - 	
5.7
5.0
7.7
6.5
6.7
5.7
8.2
7.1
1945 - - -	
5.7
5.3
7.0
6.4
6.5
5.9
7.2
7.1
1946    	
5.6
4.9
8.1
6.7
6.5
5.4
8.9
7.0
1947 - - -  --.
5.8
5.3
7.7
6.2
6.3
5.6
8.1
6.9
1948 ...    	
5.8
5.3
8.1
7.1
7.0
6.0
9.1
7.9
1949     _ -
5.9
5.1
7.9
5.8
6.5
5.4
7.7
6.8
1950  -
5.9
5.2
7.9
6.6
6.4
5.5
8.2
7.1
1951    	
6.0
5.2
7.9
6.6
6.7
5.7
8.8
7.6
1952 -    -
6.0
5.2
8.4
6.9
6.7
5.7
8.7
7.5
1953  -    --
6.2
5.4
8.3
7.2
6.6
5.8
9.0
7.9
1954 --..-	
6.4
5.5
8.8
7.4
7.4
6.3
9.5
7.8
Table VI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1954
Year
42
52
53
63
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1915-41 (average) 	
1942    	
1943   —	
1944  -	
1945  -   -  -
49
42
51
53
37
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
55
43
59
54
51
50
58
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
54
56
42
47
56
44
44
53
52
33
55
63
41
48
46
44
58
53
44
56
56
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
52
51
43
46
49
46
44
55
56
53
61
62
55
49
48
49
57
54
51
54
56
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
66
50
58
70
59
62
45
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
34
50
42
30
41
38
55
47
45
54
50
38
50
56
53
53
44
49
50
48
43
53
55
46
50
62
50
44
47
47
56
51
50
52
57
1947 - -	
1948             —	
50
45
57
41
46
49
50
42
1949-    	
1950     "	
1951    —  -	
1952     	
1953 —	
1954	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 39
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
52
53
h
1907
108,413
139,846
87,901
187.246
131,066
92,498
52.927
130,166
116,553
60.923
65,760
123,322
184,945
90,869
41.018
96,277
131,731
144,747
77,784
82,360
83,996
34,559
78,017
132,372
93,023
59,916
30,506
54,558
52,879
81,973
42,491
47,257
68,485
116,507
81,767
34,544
28,268
68,197
104,279
52,928
32,534
101,267
65,937
47,479
61,694
114,775
65,003
60,817
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
20
13
14
80
17
21
33
66
48
33
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
82
13
76
72
61
26
43
54
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
8
3
6
4
4
4
3
6
10
1908
1909 	
1910   	
1911  	
	
1912	
1913 	
1914 —	
	
1915  	
1916 - 	
18
1917 	
5
1918     	
6
1919     - -
4
1920  	
8
1921  	
3
1922  	
2
1923 - -  	
7
1924 - - 	
1
1925 -      —
1
1926— ... 	
3
1927 - 	
1
1928 - - —  -	
3
1929   	
2
1930    	
	
1
1931 —	
2
1932 	
12
1933  	
2
1934     	
1
1935  	
2
1936    	
2
1937    - -	
4
1938  -  	
5
1939 	
4
1940    	
1
1941 -- - — 	
1
1942.    	
3
1943—- - 	
6
1944    -
4
1945 - - - 	
5
1946    	
9
1947    	
1
1948  	
1
1949—     	
3
1950     	
1951  	
1
1952   -	
1,294,500
659,200
571,900
5
1953  	
3
1954 	
2
To nearest hundred. I 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1954, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
h
42
52
43
h
63
Total
•
M.
F.
1
M.   I   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.   |   F.
1
M.
F.
14                   -     .                      	
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
2
1
1
2
8
12
19
5
24
8
9
11
10
5
8
8
27
6
18
5
17
4
6
3
7
3
1
1
1
2
2
1
7
8
5
20
23
43
29
44
25
36
12
14
12
7
1
1
1
	
	
1
1
1
	
1
1
1
2
4
1
3
5
3
3
6
7
12
4
6
6
5
2
2
3
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
3
4
8
5
8
3
11
3
5
3
4
1
2
2
1
i
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
4
2
1
3
2
14% 	
1414. -  	
14%
1
3
15
2
15%      	
1514    	
15%   	
16                                                     	
2
1
1
16% -    	
1614           	
16 3/4                                                  	
2
1
1
17                                                        	
1
17%                                          -
171/2
1734                                      .     —
1
1814  -   	
18%                                                 	
19                                       „ 	
2
1914   	
1
1
3
20 	
20%  -       	
2014 - - -        -~
20%                                      	
•11
14
21
13
  1 --
35
21%- 	
1
1
1
2
4
6
12
3
14
8
47
20
36
30
44
29
28
10
20
4
6
2
2
1
2
1
2
5
3
16
7
46
26
42
39
84
36
42
41
67
18
16
12
19
3
1
1
1
14
35
21% - 	
38
67
22% 	
2214                                         	
40
64
22%        	
43
84
23%                                    	
27
62
35
92
36
66
24% -  -  	
56
111
25%                         .       — -	
47
25% 	
58
53
26                                      -   —
120
26%                                  	
41
2614	
26%   	
27  -	
27%	
2714                                           	
56
47
66
34
31
27%  - -	
28                                           -	
11
23
5
2814                                            	
6
28%                                          -
2
29-         — -	
29%  - —	
2
1
Totals— -	
12
  | 232 | 294
331  j 530 |      3 | 	
83 |    68
17 |    20
1,590
15.5
22.2
22.4
26.6 1 25.2 1 15.9 1 ..
23.9
22.9
26.4
24.9
24.3 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 41
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1954, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
32
4
2
52               43
5
i
6
i
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
I            I
F.   I  M.   I   F.
I
M.
F.
M.
F.
1.0                                 	
1
1
2
5
~2
...-
1
1
1
2
5
8
13
19
18
9
13
13
15
16
10
13
16
6
17
6
5
7
5
3
1
3
2
1
2
1
2
3
7
1
15
13
27
36
45
42
26
29
16
15
10
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
15
5
11
9
10
18
18
20
27
21
25
20
21
15
22
25
10
4
7
4
3
1
3
1
2
1
1
2
1
3
6
14
13
17
36
30
25
33
34
41
38
45
22
31
39
22
8
17
18
15
6
6
4
2
2
1
2
	
2
1
2
2
3
2
2
1
3
5
11
8
6
5
3
6
5
2
4
1
3
2
2
1
T
1
2
2
6
5
3
6
9
6
9
7
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1.2    -               -	
1
1.4                        -    _            —
2
1.6  . „	
6
1.8     	
3
2.0               -
2
2.2                                             	
2.4 	
1
2.6                         .    .             	
1
2.8    -  	
3.0                         	
1
2
3.2-    -	
3.4  	
3.6   -    	
9
11
21
3.8      -	
22
4.0                            	
36
4.2.  	
4.4
4.6                                      	
30
48
57
4.8                         -  	
69
5.0 - -	
5.2 -	
73
49
5.4                          	
70
5.6     	
57
5.8                          	
53
6.0       - - 	
78
6.2 -'.	
50
6.4                          	
40
6.6                                             	
47
6.8      	
7.0        .        ..   —	
52
67
7.2      	
48
7.4                        	
63
7.6                          - .             	
35
7.8         •    - 	
48
8.0                        	
65
8.2                        -   .
40
8.4    --
8.6           	
33
45
8.8                                .          	
40
9.0      - -    	
43
9.2      - :	
29
9.4 	
28
9.6      	
18
9.8      	
27
10.0— — - -
10.2     -    -	
27
10
10.4     	
8
10.6	
7
10.8  	
4
11.0     -   - -.
3
11.2     -	
1
11.4      -  	
3
11.6    	
11.8  	
12.0   	
1
2
2
12.2.    	
1
Totals	
12 [ .-„ | 232
294
331  | 530 [      3  | 	
83
68
17
20
1,590
1.5  I           I   4.9
4.9
8.8  1   72  1   1.7  I
6.2
5.2
8.6
7.2
66 I 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1954
4
2
h
5
3
63
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41-  — -
23.7
23.1
25.8
24.9
24.2
23.4
25.8
24.8
1912^11 (conversion) - 	
23.0
22.4
25.1
24.2
23.5
22.7
25.1
24.1
1942..  — 	
22.6
22.3
25.2
24.3
24.1
23.7
26.3
24.9
1943    	
21.9
21.9
25.1
23.9
23.3
22.6
25.8
24.7
1944 —	
22.4
21.7
24.8
23.9
22.5
21.7
25.0
23.7
1945  —	
22.6  '
22.3
24.9
24.1
23.3
22.6
25.0
24.3
1946   -  - .
22.7
22.0
25.4
24.3
23.9
23.2
25.5
24.4
1947 	
22.3
22.0
25.1
23.8
23.0
22.4
26.3
25.8
1948  - -  	
23.0
22.3
25.3
24.1
23.0
22.1
26.0
24.5
1949 	
22.5
22.8
22.2
22.3
25.3
25.7
24.5
24.4
23.2
23.9
22.3
23.4
24.8
25.5
23.9
1950.—   ..
24.3
1951-  -  - -	
22.7
22.6
25.9
24.8
23.6
22.9
26.0
24.6
1952  	
23.3
22.6
25.8
24.7
23.2
22.8
26.1
24.6
1953  —
23.2
22.8
26.2
25.0
23.6
22.9
26.0
25.5
1954  — 	
22.2
22.4
26.6
25.2
23.9
22.9
26.4
24.9
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1954
4
2
52
5
3
63
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41   -	
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
5.1
6.8
6.0
1942.   -
4.9
4.7
6.7
6.0
5.8
5.4
7.2
6.6
1943- — - - 	
4.7
4.6
6.8
5.9
5.5
4.9
7.3
6.1
1944  —  ..
5.1
4.6
7.0
6.1
5.3
4.6
7.1
5.8
1945— - -	
5.2
4.9
6.7
6.1
5.6
5.0
6.7
6.2
1946 -..   --
4.7
4.2
6.9
5.8
5.8
5.1
7.0
6.1
1947-   -
4.9
4.7
6.9
5.9
5.3
5.0
7.7
6.8
1948   	
5.5
4.9
7.3
6.1
5.4
4.7
7.7
6.4
1949   -   -
5.0
4.7
7.1
6.3
5.3
4.8
6.6
5.7
1950  - 	
4.8
4.3
7.2
5.9
5.8
5.1
6.8
5.6
1951 ... -   -	
5.1
5.0
7.6
6.5
5.6
5.0
7.6
6.4
1952- — - 	
5.6
5.0
7.5
6.4
5.6
5.0
7.4
6.0
1953  —
5.8
5.5
8.0
6.9
5.8
5.2
7.8
7.3
1954—  -
4.9
4.9
8.8
7.2
6.2
5.2
8.6
7.2
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1954
Year
42
h
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
48
42
50
54
41
50
50
50
54
56
41
52
40
44
52
58
50
46
59
50
50
50
46
44
59
48
60
56
43
25
31
34
35
32
29
29
30
40
37
34
34
38
57
75
69
66
65
68
71
71
70
60
63
66
66
62
46
33
43
43
38
38
33
47
36
44
39
48
39
43
54
1942  	
67
1943        - - —	
57
1944          	
57
1945           	
62
1946        -  -
62
1947     - -
1948          -
67
53
1949        	
64
1950 - —
56
1951      -  -  — .
1952 -  	
1953 -	
1954    	
61
57 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 43
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
42
h
h
63
1907
87,874
64,652
89,027
126,921
88,763
112,884
61,745
89,890
130,350
44,936
61,195
53,401
56,258
121,254
46,300
60,700
107,174
94,891
159,554
65,581
64,461
60,044
70,260
119,170
76,428
69,732
83,507
76,923
135,038
46,351
84,832
87,942
54,143
63,469
93,378
79,199
47,602
36,852
89,735
73,320
140,087
37,665
39,495
142,710
102,565
84,298
132,925
50,640
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
8
8
76
57
37
3
55
84
13
38
41
73
60
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
44
14
87
60
58
26
39
1
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
1
1
(."■>
1
1
1
1
1908
-
1909
1910           L 	
1911 —	
1912
1913    	
1914
1915
1916 	
1917                      	
1918 -    	
1919 -    	
1970
1921...     	
1922           -
1923       	
1924    	
1
1925    	
1926    — 	
	
1
1927       	
1928   - 	
1929      	
1930  - - 	
1931      	
1932      	
	
1933...  —  -  	
1934  	
1
1935     " - 	
1936                       	
1937     —	
1938        -	
2
1939      	
1940                   - 	
1941                 	
1942
1
1943      	
1
1944                      . 	
1945    	
1946   	
1947         	
1948             	
1949                      -. ..
1950     -
1951  -  	
1
1952   _      .    	
938,700
1,522,300
575,700
(2)
(2)
(2)
1953 .  	
1954  -   	
1 To nearest hundred.
2 Age-class represented but less than 0.5 per cent. I 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XIV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1954, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
41
32
42
52
h
63
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.   1   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
14
1
1
1
—
1
1
1
6
5
10
16
11
15
22
22
19
22
18
16
1
2
4
14
14
12
14
17
10
13
17
1
1
2
2
3
1
1
3
4
3
2
6
3
3
7
4
11
6
5
5
1
4
2
1
1
1
2
1
5
2
6
6
15
9
9
7
21
18
15
16
25
14
14
7
6
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
1
1
	
1
	
14%                                      	
1414            -        	
1
14%                              	
15  	
15%                                     	
15V2     -
15%.       -     - - -
16                            	
16%	
1614 -   -	
16%    -  	
17   	
1714 -
1714                                    	
1734                                  _      „   „
1
18 	
18%                              	
1814                                     —-	
18 34                                       -
19                                       	
1
19%                              -
2
1914                                   .— - 	
6
1934                                   - 	
5
20                                        	
12
20%                                 	
21
2014                              — - —
25
2034 -  	
21                                           —	
29
34
21%                               - 	
36
2114                                    — -
36
2134                                     -
33
22                                           -
32
35
221*                                    - -	
12  |    15
22  1      4
29
22?4                                    	
31
15
9
19
9
6
2
1
25
23%                                        -	
19
23V4                                          	
28
27
24                                  —
9  1      1
20
24%   -
4
5
6
1
1
1
—
16
2414                                   	
16
24?4	
25                                   	
31
23
25%                             	
19
25%   -
25%                       	
22
28
26                                         	
17
26%                                    	
21
2614 	
11
17
27                          	
10
27%                                       -	
7
27 Ii                                      	
6
2734                                     	
2
28 -	
5
28%     	
2
1
2834                                     -
1
29        . - -	
-      1        1
Totals -
1 |      1  |      1  | —
297 | 148 |    83 | 206
3 |      3 |      1  | -  |    744
Average lengths	
25.0 1 24.5 | 14.5
1          1
22.0 | 21.6 1 26.1
1          1
25.1
22.1  123.4 127.8 |          |   23.2
1          1          1          1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 45
Table XV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1954, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
■
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
41
h
42
52
h
63
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1.6               - -	
1
1
1
	
1
1
7
14
18
16
31
26
15
22
24
12
14
15
15
12
12
15
7
2
8
8
18
16
21
12
• 7
15
11
9
8
8
2
2
1
1
1
4
1
2
1
4
2
1
1
3
3
1
2
3
4
3
1
5
2
5
5
3
6
1
1
2
1
1
4
1
2
2
1
1
1
1.
2
3
2
4
8
6
9
8
4
8
10
9
11
14
13
12
13
12
13
6
9
7
4
4
4
1
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
1.8      - -	
2.0              -   -	
2.2               -  —
2.4 	
2.6             	
2.8    -         - -	
1
3.0             .   —	
3.2...    	
3.4             	
1
3.6              -
9
3.8    -    "
4.0	
22
27
4.2             	
34
4.4	
48
4.6              —
48
4.8              	
29
5.0               	
32
5,2    	
43
5.4   .        .„ -    -    	
25
5.6                 	
28
5.8                 - - - -	
32
6.0               	
34
6.2            	
24
6.4               -	
24
6.6    	
6.8              	
20
19
7.0         -
77
6 |      1
2  1 —-
20
13
7.4       	
5
2
1
2
1
1
	
17
7.6              	
20
7.8              - 	
17
8.0  —	
8.2              -	
15
16
8.4              -	
16
8.6 	
8.8               	
17
9
9.0
10
9.2                   -      -   -	
12
9.4                - 	
6
9.6               -	
9
9.8               	
9
10.0               -
4
10.2            	
10
104
2
10.6             -— -.
  ! 	
2
10.8             .-    	
	
	
2
11.0             	
3
11.2            	
1
11.4                	
4
11.6
1
11.8        -   -
2
12.0             	
3
12.2            	
1
12.4  	
12.6              	
1
12.8 -      - —
13.0  	
1
Totals	
1 |      1 |      1 | i_
297 | 148 |    83 | 206
3 |      3
1 |   |    744
Average weights	
7.0
7.2
1.6 1 ...
1
5.2 |   4.8 |   8.9
!       1
7.6
4.6 |   6.1
1
11.9
6.2 I 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XVI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1912 to 1954
Year
42
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41       -	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
21.4
20.9
21.1
21.9
21.5
21.6
22.0
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
20.7
21.3
21.4
20.8
21.9
21.5
21.8
21.6
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
25.2
23.8
25.2
25.8
26.0
26.5
26.1
24.7
23.9
1942                          	
23.8
1943                          	
23.7
1944                       - 	
23.3
1945                     	
23.9
1946                  - 	
24.1
1947           -	
23.5
1948                              — —
24.2
1949                             	
22.8
1950                           -
24.2
1951                          	
24.8
1952         	
25.0
1953   ... —  -	
1954
25.3
25.1
1
Table XVII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1914 to 1954
Year
42
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41                       	
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.4
4.2
5.2
4.9
4.7
5.2
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.6
4.3
3.9
5.0
4.7
4.7
4.8
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6.4
7.9
5.9
7.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
6 5
1942       	
1943                        	
6.4
6 3
1944   ...              -	
6 0
1945	
6 4
1946                          . -	
6 2
1948                - - 	
5.9
7 0
1949   -	
5 9
1950                      	
1951          -	
1952
7.4
1953
1954     	
7.6
Table XVIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1954
Year
41
4
2
52
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.'
F.
1915-41 (average)   —
1942. - -    	
1943              -
36
50
50
64
50
50
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
50
70
75
66
58
55
67
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
50
30
25
34
42
45
33
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
38
22
36
30
34
33
29
66
65
66
67
61
63
65
62
78
64
70
66
67
71
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
45
63
41
44
44
49
52
50
62
64
1944  -	
41
1945 - -  	
1946                 	
43
47
1947             -	
64
1948              •■ ..
55
1949      .  . .
37
1950     	
59
1951 	
56
1952  —
56
1953 - 	
1954  	
51
48 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 47
Table XIX.-
-Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
1 To nearest hundred.
- This age-class was represented by less than 0.5 per cent of the number of fish in the sample.
Year
Pack in
Cases
Number of
Sockeye1
Percentage of Individuals
41
42
h
62
h
1925    -       .
33,764
17,921
22,682
33,442
9,683
32,057
12,867
25,488
37,369
14,607
31,648
12,788
25,258
33,894
17,833
25,947
21,495
15,939
15,010
3,165
15,014
14,318
36,800
10,456
13,189
42,435
49,473
34,834
29,947
18,937
2
1
50
89
95
90
5
83
77
91
10
38
3
(*)
(2)
1
1926                        	
1927 —   	
1928 - -—   .
1929—  - -	
1930 .    	
1931  -   	
1932—  	
1933 -  „  	
	
1934   	
1935    .
1936  	
1937                   -
1938—      .
1939   _  	
1940-  	
1941 -   	
1942 - 	
1943  	
1944—    	
1945    	
50
11
5
7
92
17
22
8
89
61
1946
1947
1948   	
1949
(2)
1950
(2)
1951
(2)
1952    	
342,200
367,100
190,800
1
1953    	
1954                        	
(2)
1 I 48                                                           BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1954, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
Total
41
42
h
53
63
M.
F.
1
M.   1   F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19—    	
19%           .                    ..     	
1914     -	
1
1
19?4 -  	
1
3
3
	
	
	
	
1
6
20       	
20%.—	
4
4
	
	
8
2014 -- 	
4
4
8
20%      -
2
2
4
21	
	
21
15
--- |      36
21%    - 	
16
9
25
2114    	
21
14
35
21%	
35
20
-- |      1
56
22  	
	
38
17
----- 1      1
	
56
22% -	
39
19
1  |      3
62
2214  	
37
15
52
22%	
29
9
4
1
43
23                                   	
25
21
7
5
1
4
7
1
	
	
38
33
23%   -	
2314                             -	
15
8
6
5
1
1
2
2
2
4
8
5
10
17
1
1
	
	
25
16
21
27
23?4                            -   -
74
-  1      1
— 1 „-
2414  	
3
1
1
26
1
32
24%    -
4
4
23
	
	
27
25  	
1
1
2
7
19
17
1
24
24
25% 	
2514 	
1
9
7
25
25
1
36
32
25%    	
26	
1
1
1
	
8
11
12
10
	
22
22
26%—    - 	
2614 -  -	
— | —
	
	
5
5
	
10
2634                             - ,	
— 1 	
5
2
7
27   - -	
2
3
	
	
5
27% 	
2
1
	
3
2714  - -	
1
	
	
1
27%   -  - - -
	
28 -      	
1
	
1
28% -      ... .
1
	
	
	
1
2814    	
1
	
	
1
Totals-	
1   |      3  | 341   |  148
77 | 228  |      1
3
1  |      2 |    805
Average lengths —	
26.3  | 25.0
1
22.3
21.9
25.7 |24.9 |23.0
1           1
23.5
24.5  123.3 |   23.3
1           1
- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 49
Table XXI.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1954, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
41
42
52
53
63
Total
-
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2.6 -	
2,8
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
6
9
16
27
26
31
37
29
30
29
21
25
10
11
9
2
2
7
1
2
1
1
____
3
5
1
3
17
16
18
14
12
16
10
10
7
9
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
4
1
4
2
5
1
4
6
7
4
6
8
2
5
1
1
1
2
1
--
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
4
6
3
5
9
11
14
17
9
12
26
11
19
14
8
12
7
9
4
9
7
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
1
....
3.0        .   -               -  - 	
1
3.2       -   -	
3.4               	
4
9
3.6 -         	
3.8   	
4.0   	
5
10
26
4.2       	
33
4.4  	
4.8      -
5.2 	
5.4 - -	
46
43
46
57
46
43
5.6  - - -	
5.8                           -   —	
42
32
6.0    	
6.2  - 	
6.4     	
48
28
33
6.6 -  	
6.8 - -   	
7.0      	
7.2   - -	
22
19
34
23
7.4 	
21
7.6  - - 	
7.8                           	
20
15
8.0  - 	
8.2     -	
21
11
8.4    - 	
8.6       	
8.8	
16
12
11
9.0     -	
12
9.2  	
9.4        -
1
2
9.6 —	
4
9.8          	
2
10.0 -   	
10.2  -   .	
2
1
10.4— —   -   - - 	
10.6   	
10.8.   -	
1
11.0   	
11.2   	
2
11 4
11.6   	
11.8- -   -	
12.0 - .   - .             .               	
12.2  	
1
Totals  	
1  [      3 | 341  1 148
77 | 228 |      1  |      3
1  |      2 |    805
Average weights   	
8.0 ]   7.1  |   5.2
1          1
4.7
7.9
7.0 |   5.8 [   5.8
1          1
6.6 |   6.7  |     5.9
1           1 I 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XXII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Age-groups,
1945 to 1954
Year
4
1
4
2
5
2
6
2
5
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945 	
25.4
26.3
23.5
24.3
25.0
22.2
21.3
23.2
21.9
21.4
21.6
22.8
21.8
22.9
22.3
22.0
22.7
23.4
21.7
21.7
21.7
22.0
22.4
22.3
21.9
25.1
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.6
24.8
25.6
25.7
25.9
25.7
24.4
24.0
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.0
24.8
24.9
25.2
24.9
26.7
25.0
25.5
25.1
25.1
20.5
23.4
22.9
22.8
23.0
1946  	
1947  -....„	
1948. " 	
1949.    	
1950	
1951  -	
1952
23.1
1953...   	
1954. 	
23.3
23.5
Table XXIII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Age-groups,
1945 to 1954
4
1
4
2
5
2
6
2
5
3
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945  —- 	
4.9
4.7
7.1
6.5
1946-   	
4.6
5.8
7.3
6.6
1947 -  	
5.7
5.5
6.9
6.0
1948- - - -
5.1
5.4
7.6
6.9
10.3
7.5
1949    -	
7.9
6.1
5.0
5.1
7.2
6.7
7.3
1950.  —
4.9
5.0
7.4
6.6
4.0
1951  — -
6.0
5.2
8.2
7.3
7.2
6.4
1952..   -  -
4.8
5.2
8.0
7.1
7.3
5.7
5.4
1953 -
5.9
5.9
5.3
8.2
7.6
5.7
5.8
1954— 	
8.0
7.1
5.2
4.7
7.9
7.0
5.8
5.8
Table XXIV.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1945 to 1954
41
4
2
5
2
62
53
Per Cent
Per Cent
Year
Total
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
R
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945.- - -  - -
73
27
49
51
61
39
1946- 	
76
24
37
63
41
59
1947- -	
38
62
47
53
46
54
1948 ....	
79
21
42
58
11
89
43
57
1949- - - -
36
64
80
20
40
60
100
77
23
1950-	
86
14
42
58
100
49
51
1951- -
72
28
41
59
100
100
48
52
1952... —
100
57
60
43
40
38
36
62
64
100
63
37
40
58
60
1953 	
71
29
42
1954	
25
75
70
30
25
75
—
25
75
52
48 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 51
THE STATUS OF THE MAJOR HERRING STOCKS
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1954-55
By F. H. C. Taylor, M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
This report presents a review of the present status and level of abundance of the
major herring stocks in British Columbia and of the results of the tagging programme
obtained in 1954-55.
The past eight reports* in this series have dealt with the results of the comparative
study of the herring populations on the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver
Island under different methods of management. In both populations it was found that
no direct relationship existed between the amount of spawn deposited and the size of the
resulting year-class and that the fluctuations in year-class strength were more readily
explained by variations in natural factors affecting survival than by any effect of fishing.
It became apparent that further information bearing on the relationship between spawn
deposition and resulting year-class strength could be expected only when a series of poor
year-classes contributed to the fishery for several years in succession and then, in all
probability, only if the fishery were more intense than it had been in the past. In view,
therefore, of the indefinite period for which the study would need to be continued, it was
thought preferable to terminate the experiment after the 1953-54 season and to substitute
at a later date a controlled fishery experiment of a type that would offer better possibilities
for obtaining the required results within a more definite period. The proposed experiment
would be carried out in an area where fishing intensity could be increased to higher levels
than on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Research on the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) is carried out at the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. In addition
to the studies on adult herring, an investigation to determine the relationship between the
abundance of juvenile (I-year) herring and year-class strength at recruitment is in progress and will be reported at a later date.
Fig. 1 is a map of British Columbia showing the sub-districts and statistical areas
into which the waters of the Province are divided, together with some of the place-names
mentioned in the text and tables.
THE 1954-55 FISHERY
The total catch of herring in 1954-55 was 169,163 tons, the lowest since 1946-47.*
While catches were good in the Queen Charlotte Islands, the upper east coast of Vancouver Island, the middle east coast of Vancouver Island, and the lower east coast of
Vancouver Island sub-districts, they were poor in the northern, the central, and the west
coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts. The table below shows for each sub-district the
catch and catch per unit of effort in 1954-55 and 1953-54, and the average catch from
1950-51 to 1954-55.
* Previous publications in this series are: Tester and Stevenson, 1947, 1948; Stevenson, 1950; Stevenson and
Lanigan, 1950; Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951; Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson, and Outram, 1952; Stevenson
and Outram, 1953; Taylor and Outram, 1954.
* With the exception of 1952-53, when there was no major fishery because of a dispute between industry and union. Fig. 1. Map showing the division of the British Columbia coast into
districts, sub-districts, and areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 53
Sub-district
Catch,
1954-55
Catch,
1953-54
Average
Catch,
1950-51 to
1954-551
Catch per
Unit of
Effort,
1954-55
Catch per
Unit of
Effort,
1953-54
22,350
20,050
9,700
17,850
9,200
24,650
51,300
6,863
7,200
28,550
29,750
7,500
24,150
6,650
19,600
52,660
31,550
9,800
16,312
39,438
9,350
28,250
7,600
16,663
46,502
17,118
10,485
76
51
22
31
82
40
56
18
61
218
77
North Central  	
30
68
35
49
82
53
28
169,163
210,210
189,535
1 Catches in 1952-53 were omitted.
As in 1953-54, almost the entire Queen Charlotte Islands catch, the second highest
on record, came from Skidegate Inlet. Fish were not nearly as abundant as in the
previous year, when the entire catch was taken in fourteen fishing-days between February
25th and March 16th. In 1954-55 the season extended from November 30th to February
9th, when it was closed to protect the numbers of small fish present. The catch per unit
of effort was a third of that in 1953-54.
In the upper east coast of Vancouver Island sub-district the catch in 1954-55 was
the highest since 1940-41. In marked contrast to previous years, Area 11, instead of
Area 12, provided the bulk of the catch. In the latter part of November and early
December a new fishing-ground in Seymour Inlet and Nugent Sound was exploited and
yielded 7,300 tons in a short vigorous fishery. In Area 12, 1,900 tons were taken from
Clio Channel, Retreat Pass, McKenzie Sound, and Belle Isle Sound.
Of the record middle east coast of Vancouver Island catch of 24,650 tons, 5,100
tons were taken in early July and in early September in the summer fishery in Area 14;
the remainder of the catch came from the winter fishery in Deepwater Bay (Area 13).
This fishery also took place in two periods—one in late October and the other in late
January. Although only sporadic fishing occurred in the interval, a large body of fish
was present in Seymour Narrows, but until late January remained too deep to be fished.
Two quota extensions were granted—one for 5,000 tons on November 2nd, taken on
January 18th, the other for 10,000 tons on January 23rd, taken on February 3rd. As in
1953-54, the catch per unit of effort in the summer fishery was low, amounting to 33
tons per seine-day. In the winter fishery, catch per unit of effort was higher than in the
summer fishery, amounting to 56 tons per seine-day in October and a little over 80 tons
per seine-day in January, but was somewhat lower than in 1953-54.
In the lower east coast sub-district, while the catch nearly equalled the record catch
of the previous year, catch per unit of effort was somewhat lower. Abundance, however,
was still at a high level. The quota was taken in three weeks, with the fishing improving
throughout the period. A quota extension of 10,000 tons, granted on November 7th, was
taken by November 15th in spite of the hindrance to fishing by exceptionally strong tides
in the Swanson Channel region. Sporadic fishing by one or two boats continued until late
February under a special quota extension for canning and bait purposes of 5,000 tons.
In the northern sub-district the decrease in abundance noted in 1953-54 continued.
Both catch and catch per unit of effort were less than in the previous year, and the quota
was not reached for the first time since 1948-49. Although the sub-district was extensively scouted, no fish were found until mid-January, when they appeared in Kitkatlah
Inlet and provided two weeks of fishing.   No other bodies of fish were located.
In the central sub-district the quota was not reached for the second year in succession. While the catch in the north central region was slightly higher than in the previous
year, that in the south central region was lower. The total catch, slightly less than in
1953_54; Was the smallest since 1946-47.   Catch per unit of effort declined sharply, I 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
particularly in the south central region. The fishery was characterized by a greater
dependance than in previous years on local populations. The migratory stocks which
usually support the fishery made a comparatively small contribution in 1954-55. Fishing
in the central sub-district was closed on February 9th, a month earlier than the regular
official closing date, with the provision that it would be reopened if substantial new stocks
came on to the fishing-grounds.
In the west coast of Vancouver Island sub-district, the catch declined sharply and
was the smallest since 1943-44. In Barkley Sound (Area 23) the catch was the lowest
since 1944-45, and catch per unit of effort was reduced to only 18 tons per seine-day.
No large bodies of fish were found, and the fishing was dependent on the inshore movement of a succession of small schools. Virtually no fish were caught in Areas 24 and 26,
and in Area 25 the fishery was a complete failure for the first time since 1943-44. In
contrast to other west coast areas, Area 27 produced a record catch of 6,550 tons in a
short vigorous fishery.   Catch per unit of effort was 77 tons per seine-day.
TAGGING AND TAG-RECOVERY
Herring have been tagged extensively in British Columbia since 1936. The aims of
this programme were (1) to confirm the existence of the discrete populations deduced
from meristic and age composition studies (Tester, 1937), (2) to define more precisely
the regions occupied by such populations, (3) to assess the extent of movement both
between and within populations, and (4) to permit, in certain areas, a rough estimation
of the rate of exploitation by the fishery. Detailed analyses of each year's data have
appeared in previous Annual Reports of the British Columbia Fisheries Department.
Stevenson (1955) reviewed and analysed the results obtained from 1936-37 to 1951-52.
The primary objectives of the intensive coastwise tagging programme are now considered
to have been achieved. The general relationship between most populations is sufficiently
well understood for the practical purposes of management. The annual variation in the
extent of intermingling between populations was not considered large enough to warrant
the continued expenditure entailed in a coastwise programme. It was decided, therefore,
to abandon coastwise tagging, but to continue tagging in specific areas to elucidate the
more complex relationships existing there between certain stocks.
Because of the suitability of the stocks in the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts as subjects for a future controlled fishery experiment and
because of the complex relationships existing between herring runs, particularly in the
former sub-district, it was decided to confine tagging in 1955 to these stocks. Through
the co-operation of the Washington State Department of Fisheries it was hoped to extend
the programme to cover populations in contiguous American waters. As the comparative
study of the lower east coast and west coast of Vancouver Island populations had been
discontinued after the 1953-54 season, no tagging was done in the latter sub-district.
A total of 17,505 tags were put out in the middle east coast and lower east coast
sub-districts. American waters in the San Juan Islands-Boundary Bay regions were
scouted, but no herring were found. Methods used in tagging herring were the same as
employed in previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1947).
Table I is a list of all taggings made during the 1955 spawning season and includes
information on the place and date of each tagging. The numbers of fish tagged in the
various areas are shown in the table below:—
Sub-district and Area of Tagging
Year
Middle East Coast
Lower East Coast
13
14
15
17a
17b
18
1014
1,500
1,503
2,953
1,511
3,020
2,015
3,025
2,006
5,509
4,053
1,498
11,088
1955                    	
17,505 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 55
Tags were recovered during the 1954-55 season mainly from plant magnets tended
by reduction-plant crews. A small number of tags were recovered by tag-detectors operated by investigation personnel.
During the 1954-55 season only one tag-detector was operated, in the Gulf of
Georgia plant at Steveston. The percentage efficiency of this induction-type detector was
44 per cent during the pre-Christmas period, as compared to 51 per cent for the same
period the previous season and 80 per cent in 1951-52. To prevent interference from a
near-by weighing-machine, the detector had to be operated with the sensitivity reduced
to a point where it was only partially effective in recovering tags. This would account for
its low percentage efficiency.
The installation in the Colonial plant of a new detector using an "Alnico " permanent
magnet proved unsuccessful because of electrical interference from plant machinery.
The whole problem of tag-detector construction and operation received close study
during the year. The conclusion was reached that the basic fault with the system lay in
the fact that the frequency of the impulse produced by a tag lay in the same frequency
range (0-10 cycles per second) as variations in line voltage and as switching transients
caused by the operation of plant machinery. Because of the small size of the tag, the
amplitude of the pulse it produced was little, if any, greater than that produced by such
transients. There appear to be three possible solutions to the problem of detector
instability:—
(1) An increase in the size of the tag, which may be undesirable on biological
grounds.
(2) The use in tags of an alloy with a high nickel content to increase the size
of the pulse produced.
(3) The screening of both detector and coil to reduce the effect of the
transients.
Further experiments are under way to determine how effective is each of the above
methods and which is the most practical.
The efficiency of the various plants in recovering and submitting tags found on the
magnets depends on both the mechanical efficiency of the magnets and on the diligence of
the plant crews. Magnet efficiency tests were conducted in the same manner as in previous years (Stevenson, Hourston, Jackson, and Outram, 1952). A table of the average
1954-55 efficiency for each plant, with its average efficiency the previous season in
parentheses, is given below:—
West Coast
Plant
Port Albion-
Number of
Tests
1    (1)
Average
Efficiency
92 (90)
Imperial	
Gulf of Georgia-
Colonial	
Phoenix	
North Shore	
Steveston and Vicinity
         2 (3)
         3 (2)
         2 (2)
         4 (2)
         2 (3)
Average.
Butedale	
Port Edward-
Seal Cove	
North and Central British Columbia
        2 (2)
        2 (4)
        3  (1)
87 (96)
94 (97)
91 (92)
98 (92)
79  (97)
90 (94)
83 (96)
87 (92)
64 (68)
Average.
78  (85) I 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Port Albion was the only west coast of Vancouver Island plant to operate in
1954-55. Kildonan and Nootka were ready but never received fish. Ceepeecee was
destroyed by fire; Hecate was dismantled. The reduction plant at Namu was enlarged
and rebuilt in 1954, the new construction being such that no magnets could be installed
in the meal-lines. No efficiency tests were carried out at the new Fairview plant in Prince
Rupert. The North Shore plant was remodelled in 1954, and this no doubt explains the
18-per-cent drop in efficiency. The decreased efficiency of Butedale may be explained
by the fact that both efficiency tests were carried out just before the plant closed down for
a period; some tags could thus have been retained in the plant machinery. The low
efficiency of the Seal Cove plant results from use of a cyclone drier and the lack of a
magnet in one meal-line carrying 40 per cent of the meal. Only relatively small variations
in efficiency occurred in other plants. The tests at plants in north and central British
Columbia were carried out by officers of the Department of Fisheries, the remainder by
personnel of the Pacific Biological Station.
Recoveries by Tag-detectors
In 1954-55 detector recoveries again showed a marked decrease. A total of 29 tags
were recovered—28 from the Gulf of Georgia plant and 1 from the experimental installation in the Colonial plant. Detector recoveries amounted in 1953-54 to 67 and in
1951-52 to 226. The marked reduction in detector recoveries in 1954-55 results from
the continuous operation of only one detector, from the continued reduced efficiency of
this appartus, and from the smaller number of tags present in the herring stocks.
Detector recoveries shown by area of tagging and area of recovery are shown in Table II.
The number of tag-detector recoveries in 1954-55 is too small to permit reliable analyses
of movements of herring both between and within populations.
Recovery of Tags by Plant Crews
In 1954-55, 2,289 tags were recovered from magnets and plant machinery in ten
reduction plants. This total represents a considerable decrease from the record number
of 4,528 tags recovered in 1953-54. The reduction in recoveries was expected, and is
accounted for primarily by the sharply reduced tagging carried out in 1954 as compared
to previous years (see table on page 61, Taylor and Outram, 1954) and to a lesser extent
by the smaller total catch in 1954-55.
The distribution of tags by area of tagging and probable sub-district of recovery is
shown in Table III.
The limitations on the accuracy of the use of plant magnet recoveries in assessing
the movement of fish between populations have been discussed in previous reports (Taylor
and Outram, 1954, and preceding reports). The same methods as employed in previous
years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948) have been used to assign the most probable area of
recovery to each plant magnet return. Table III shows that for 545 tags or 23.8 per cent
the most probable area of recovery could not be readily determined. This is double the
10.7 per cent obtained in 1953-54. The increased number of tags doubtful as to area of
recovery is probably accounted for by plants processing a greater proportion of fish from
different areas at the same time than in previous years. Because of the very small number
of detector recoveries, the analysis of the movements of herring between populations has
been based on the probable number of tags in the catches derived from plant magnet
returns. Due to the uncertainty as to the exact area of recovery of magnet returns,
analyses of movement within populations were not possible. The probable numbers of
tags were calculated in the same manner as in 1953-54 (Taylor and Outram, 1954).
They are shown in Table IV, together with the actual numbers on which the calculations
are based. Table IV is summarized in the tabulation below, which shows the probable
number of tags in the catches by sub-district of tagging and probable sub-district of
recovery; actual numbers of recoveries are given in parentheses. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 57
Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district of Tagging
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
Northern
North
Central
South
Central
Uoper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
South
West
Coast
North
West
Coast
Total
984
(729)
25
(15)
66
(45)
850
(557)
26
(17)
3
(3)
	
2
(2)
1
(1)
	
1,052
9
(7)
33
(29)
20
(18)
	
	
(776)
889
4
(2)
35
(17)
276
(120)
	
(582)
	
	
94
(63)
2
(2)
19
(18)
22
(21)
146
(138)
60
(58)
6
(6)
2
(2)
1
(1)
8
(6)
4
(3)
329
(168)
14
(12)
40
2
(2)
(36)
1
(1)
3
(3)
229
(191)
13
(13)
9
(9)
152
(144)
2
(1)
2
(1)
2
(2)
32
(31)
2
(2)
1
(1)
10
(9)
71
(56)
294
	
2
(2)
(253)
65
(62)
2
(2)
1
(1)
87
	
(72)
Totals	
1,011
(746)
949
(626)
65
(57)
319
(141)
15
(13)
258
(246)
254
(216)
37
(36)
94
(75)
3,002!
(2,156)
1 Tags recovered at the Fairview plant, where no magnet efficiency tests were carried out, were omitted in the
calculations of the probable numbers of tags.
As in previous years, most of the recoveries were made from the same sub-district
in which the fish were tagged. Although unknown differences in the exploitation of the
populations in the various sub-districts prevent any comparisons of the relative strength
of the " homing tendency," this tendency would appear to be strongest in 1954-55 in the
Queen Charlotte Islands, the northern, and the middle east coast of Vancouver Island
sub-districts, and weakest in the south west coast of Vancouver Island, the north central, •
and the upper east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts.
The dispersion of upper east coast tags indicated by the returns in the table may
be greater than the dispersion that actually occurred. Recoveries, with one exception,
were from a series of tags put out in Retreat Pass in 1953, and were largely made by
one plant late in the season. An examination of the catch records of this plant indicate the possibility that some, at least, of these tags may have come from catches from
Knight Inlet (Area 12) rather than from Deepwater Bay (Area 13) in the middle east
coast sub-district.
Movement of herring from the west coast of Vancouver Island to other sub-districts
was 24 per cent (37/152). This is considerably greater than the corresponding emigrations in previous years (3 per cent in 1953-54, 8 per cent in 1951-52, and 15 per cent
in 1950-51). Tagging on the west coast was very light in 1954, and the bulk of the
recoveries were from tags put out in 1953. The greater degree of emigration noted may
partially be due to the greater opportunity for mixing arising from the majority of the
tagged fish having been at liberty for more than a year. The bulk of the movement was
to the lower east coast sub-district. Movement to this sub-district was greater from
south west coast areas (20 per cent, 13/65) than from north west coast areas (10 per
cent, 9/87). The movement of lower east coast herring to the west coast (1 per cent,
3/294) was considerably lower than in previous years (13.5 per cent in 1953-54, 7.5
per cent in 1951-52, and 10.5 per cent in 1950-51). The disparity in the movements
in the two directions between the west coast and lower east coast sub-districts is the
reverse of that noted in 1953-54 (Taylor and Outram, 1954), when 13.5 per cent of
lower east coast herring moved to the west coast and 2.9 per cent of west coast herring
moved to the lower east coast. Movement of herring from the south west coast of Vancouver Island to the north west coast was 15 per cent (10/65), whereas movement in
the reverse direction was only 2 per cent (2/87). I 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In 1954—55 the dispersion of middle east coast tags was considerably less than in
previous years, only approximately 4 per cent (6/152) migrating to other areas, compared to an average of 45.5 per cent (Stevenson, 1955). Approximately 2 per cent
(3/152) of the middle east coast tags were recovered from the lower east coast, compared to 17 per cent in 1953-54 and to 6.8 per cent from magnet recoveries or to 29.9
per cent from detector recoveries in 1951-52. Movement of lower east coast fish to
the middle east coast was 20 per cent (60/294), a little greater than the 16 per cent
found in 1953-54. This is the reverse of the situation found by Stevenson (1955) from
an analysis of tag returns from 1936-37 to 1951-52. He found that movement in the
southerly direction greatly exceeded that in the northerly (27.6 per cent as compared
to 6.7 per cent). The movement to the middle east coast of fish tagged in Area 17a
(46 per cent) was greater than for those fish tagged in Area 17b (14 per cent) or Area
18 (6 per cent). Of fish tagged in Area 17a, more recoveries were from Area 14 of the
middle east coast sub-district than from Area 13. A series of tags put out at Schooner
Cove (Area 17a) in the northern part of the lower east coast sub-district in March, 1954,
showed an interesting pattern of recoveries illustrating the complex type of intermingling
that may occur between the lower east coast and middle east coast stocks. Of 70 tags
recovered from this series, 57 could be assigned to a definite area. Of these 57, 16 were
recovered from the middle east coast summer fishery (Area 14), 30 from the winter
fishery in the lower east coast sub-district, and 11 from the middle east coast late winter
fishery (Area 13). While several explanations are possible, the most probable seems
to be that some of these fish joined the stock that remained throughout the summer in
the middle east coast sub-district, others joined the middle east coast stock that migrated
to offshore feeding-grounds and returned by way of Johnstone Strait? while others, possibly the largest portion, joined the main lower east coast stocks which moved offshore
and returned by way of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
The main movement of fish from the south central sub-district was to the north
central (6 per cent, 20/329) and to the middle east coast (6 per cent, 19/329) sub-
districts. Recoveries from herring tagged in the north central sub-district suggest that
approximately the same proportion of fish migrated to both the northern (28 per cent,
26/94) and south central (37 per cent, 35/94) sub-districts as remained within the
sub-district of tagging (35 per cent, 33/94). The main movement of fish from the
northern sub-district was to the Queen Charlotte Islands (3 per cent, 25/889) and to
the north central (1 per cent, 9/889) sub-districts, approximately the same as in
1953-54. Herring were tagged in Skidegate Inlet (Area 2a-E) in the Queen Charlotte
Islands for the first time in 1954. The main movement (3.4 per cent, 34/1,009) of
these fish was to the northern sub-district (Table IV). Only three fish tagged in Area
2b-E were recovered in the Skidegate Inlet fishery. This suggests that there are probably
separate stocks in the two Queen Charlotte Islands areas. Of fish tagged in Area 2b-E,
74 per cent (32/43) of the recoveries were from the northern sub-district and only 21
per cent (9/43) from the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district (Table IV). However,
because of the very small fishery (550 tons) in Area 2b-E it is unlikely that the returns
this year represent a true picture of the dispersion from this area.
AGE COMPOSITION
The average percentage age composition of the herring from each major population
for the past two seasons are given below. The data are weighted according to the numbers of fish caught in each statistical area. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 59
Sub-district or Population
In Year of Age
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX and
Over
Queen Charlotte Islands—
1953-54 --	
0.04
2.42
27.19
21.28
35.11
10.66
2.33
0.68
0.29
1954-55 	
7.82
13.77
40.89
18.06
14.80
4.18
0.29
0.19
Northern—
1953-54  	
0.82
24.30
31.48
26.31
14.17
2.30
0.58
0.05
1954-55 -- 	
2.78
4.90
70.79
15.32
5.02
1.04
0.15
	
North central—
1953-54       	
0.42
0.54
5.12
12.43
74.48
18.73
14.11
63.12
4.93
4.06
0.94
0.87
0.21
	
1954-55	
South central—
1953-54    --
0.12
0.38
4.16
6.10
69.79
10.24
19.82
68.19
4.58
12.03
1.34
2.62
0.14
0.44
0.05
1954-55    -
Upper east coast—
1953-54  	
0.14
9.30
65.89
15.20
6.61
2.33
0.44
0.08
1954-55 	
0.15
5.79
31.77
48.05
11.61
2.07
0.41
0.14
Middle east coast—
1953-54 -.
2.64
5.87
30.31
36.40
42.13
43.86
16.56
7.70
6.29
6.10
1.67
0.08
0.35
0.04
1954-55  -
Lower east coast—
1953-54	
0.72
58.03
34.36
6.06
0.62
0.14
0.04
0.02
1954-55  	
2.79
57.44
33.24
5.79
0.49
0.07
South west coast—
iq"!3 m
0.09
0.03
2.71
16.82
64.29
59.40
26.64
19.81
5.44
3.32
0.58
0.60
1.14
0.03
0.07
0.03
1954_>;5
North west coast—
iq^-M
6.36
44.91
34.82
42.13
50.04
9.56
6.96
2.32
1.48
1.08
0.27
0.06
1954-S5
In 1954-55 the 1951 year-class, as IV-year fish, was the major contributor to the
herring runs in all but the lower east coast of Vancouver Island and south west coast of
Vancouver Island populations. In these latter populations the 1952 year-class (Ill-year
fish) was dominant. In spite of the large percentages of IV-year fish in the catches, the
1951 year-class is considered to be of no more than average strength in the northern and
the north and south central populations in view of the decreased catches and only average
spawnings of the past two seasons. The 1951 year-class was somewhat stronger than
the 1950 year-class. In the upper, middle, and lower east coast of Vancouver Island
populations the 1951- year-class was of above-average strength. In the west coast of
Vancouver Island population this year-class was of average strength, and was somewhat
stronger in the south west coast areas and Quatsino Sound than in the remaining areas.
In all populations the 1952 year-class (Ill-year fish) appears to be weaker than
the 1951 year-class. In the Queen Charlotte Islands, northern, and north and south
central populations it made the smallest contributions for Ill-year fish for a number of
years. In these populations it must be considered a weak year-class. In the middle and
lower east coast and in the south west coast of Vancouver Island populations this year-
class made an average contribution for Ill-year fish for recent years. In the latter two
populations it was the dominant age-class. This year-class is probably of above-average
strength in the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island populations. In the
west coast of Vancouver Island populations it is of below-average strength, and is weaker
in the north west coast than in the south west coast populations.
The percentage of II-year fish (the 1953 year-class) in the catches in 1954-55 was
higher than in the previous season in all except the upper east coast population. The
largest contributions were in the north central and south west coast populations. In the
south central population, although the percentage of II-year fish in the local stocks was
higher than in the previous season, in the main offshore or migratory stocks it was lower.
While the greater contribution of II-year fish in 1954-55 suggests that the 1953
year-class may be stronger than the 1952 year-class, in most populations the contributions
were not sufficiently outstanding, considering the relative weakness of the older year-
classes, to suggest that the 1953 year-class will be of much more than average strength. I 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the Queen Charlotte Islands (Skidegate Inlet) population in 1954-55, as in the
preceding year, the proportion of older fish of V, VI, and VII years was greater than in
other populations. The greater predominance of older fish may be related to the short
period (two seasons) of exploitation. If as intense exploitation continues, the numbers
of older fish may be reduced in future years and the age composition of the stock come
to resemble more closely that of other northern populations.
AVERAGE LENGTH AND WEIGHT
Information on possible changes in environmental factors (food-supply, temperature,
etc.) affecting growth is provided by the annual variations in the average length and
weight of herring of each age-class. The average weight of the various age-groups in
a population, together with its percentage age composition, are also used in the calculation
of the numbers of fish in the catch.
The average lengths and weights of herring of Ages II to VI in each of the major
populations are given in the table below for 1954—55. Those derived from samples taken
in the regular winter fishery are denoted " F." and those from samples taken in the 1955
spawning season by " S." No weights are taken in samples of spawning fish. For comparison, the average lengths and weights for the period 1945-46 to 1954—55 are given
in parentheses for all populations except those of the Queen Charlotte Islands and upper
east coast of Vancouver Island. The population in Area 2a-E of the Queen Charlotte
Islands sub-district has been exploited for the past two seasons only; before this the
fishery centred in Area 2b-E. Tag returns have suggested that these two populations are
relatively distinct and, as will be discussed later, the growth rates differ noticeably. The
fishery in the upper east coast sub-district is dependent upon six or seven local populations, not all of which are fished each season. As the fish in some of these populations
are fast growing, in others slow growing, the average lengths and weights in one year are
not strictly comparable to those in another.
Average Length (Mm.)
Average Weight (Gm.)
II
III
IV
V
VI
II
III
IV
V
VI
Queen Charlotte Islands
(Area2A-E)—F	
147
163
184
202
214
40
58
86
115
135
156(146)
182(174)
194(191)
205(199)
218(207)
40(36)
80(68)
92(96)
114(108)
132(120)
North central—F. —   .'
146(146)
162(175)
179(189)
194(198)
188(204)
41(38)
64(73)
84(95)
105(110)
97(119)
South central (Areas 7,
8, 9, 10)—F -
133
161
181
195           202
30
60
85
109
124
Area 7—F 	
160(154)|177(179)
192(195)
210(205)
218(212)
49(43)
75(76)
98(99)
122(118)
144(133)
Upper east coast—F	
136    |       159
165
178
208
33
61
67
86
135
Middle east coast—
1
F  -	
150(151)|177(180)
190(198)
205(212)
216(221)
45(44)
80(78)
119(110)
124(134)
145(157)
S.     - - 	
163    |       183
1
196
211
225
	
	
	
Lower east coast—
F. •	
163(156)|188(188)
200(199)
211(212)
225(221)
57(49)
94(90)
113(110)
132(132)
163(150)
S	
156    |      188
164(162)|182(187)
199
199(201)
212
210(212)
221
222(230)
58(54)
83(87)
108(110)
125(130)
South west coast—F.	
151(140)
North west coast—F	
154(162)|180(188)
1
195(203)
210(213)
216(222)
46(52)
84(87)
105(109)
135(133)
142(150)
A comparison of the average lengths and weights for the ten-year period 1945-46
to 1954-55 indicates that fish from Northern British Columbia are smaller and lighter
at each age than those from Southern British Columbia. The growth rates of fish from
the northern and north central populations are very similar, as also are those from the
lower east coast and west coast of Vancouver Island. Fish from the south central and
middle east coast of Vancouver Island populations are intermediate in average length
and weight between the northern and southern groups. These differences would indicate
either that feeding conditions are generally better in the south than in the north or, more
probably, that other environmental conditions are more favourable for rapid growth in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 61
the south. It is known that southern herring mature earlier than those in the north, and
that while in the south recruitment occurs mainly at Age III with a small proportion at
Ages II and IV, in the north it occurs mainly at Ages III and IV. It is interesting to note
that in the middle east coast population fish of Ages II and III resemble more closely fish
from the south central populations, while those of Ages IV to VII resemble those of the
lower east coast and west coast of Vancouver Island populations. Tag returns have
indicated both that the migration route for adult herring from the middle east coast
sub-district is mainly northwards through Johnstone Strait and also that considerable
intermixture between the middle and lower east coast stocks takes place, probably within
the Strait of Georgia. Very little is known of the migration of herring prior to recruitment. However, it would not seem unreasonable to assume that juvenile herring follow
essentially the same migration route as adults. If this is so, it offers a reasonable explanation for the growth pattern in the middle east coast. Prior to recruitment, herring from
the middle east coast and south central populations would be subject to essentially similar
environmental conditions. After recruitment, not only would herring from the middle
and lower east coast populations be subject to similar environmental conditions for at least
part of the year, but considerable intermixture between the two stocks could occur. The
influx of lower east coast herring into the middle east coast sub-district would tend to
decrease the average size of the older fish found there, and conversely the influx of middle
east coast herring into the lower east coast sub-district would tend to increase the average
size of the older groups in the lower east coast sub-district. Thus, while middle east coast
herring of Ages II and III might reasonably be expected to resemble herring from the
south central population, it might also be expected that in the older age-groups middle
and lower east coast herring would resemble each other.
In 1954-55 the average weights of herring of each age-class in the northern and
lower east coast of Vancouver Island populations were slightly greater than the ten-year
averages, whereas in the north central and middle east coast populations the average
weights were slightly less. In Area 7, and in the west coast of Vancouver Island populations, herring of each age-group were of approximately average weight. In most populations average lengths in 1954-55 differed little from the corresponding ten-year averages.
However, herring in each age-group in the northern population were slightly longer than
average, while those in the north central population were slightly smaller. The differences
found from the ten-year averages are not such as would suggest that any major changes
had occurred in 1954-55 in environmental conditions affecting growth.
Little difference existed in average length between fish from the winter and spawning
samples in either the middle or lower east coast of Vancouver Island populations, although
there was a tendency for fish in the middle east coast spawning samples to be slightly
longer than those from the winter samples.
The average lengths and weights of herring in each age-group in the runs to Areas
2a-E and 2b-E in the Queen Charlotte Islands are shown below for each of the recent
years in which there has been a fishery in this sub-district.
Fishing Season
Average Length (Mm.)
Average Weight (Gm.)
II
III
TV
V
VI
II
III
IV
V
VI
1954-55
Area 2k-E
147
133
150
163
165
179
180
178
184
176
197
194
190
202
197
205
202
199
214
208
221
212
207
40
25
39
58
51
63
76
67
86
67
98
101
85
115
95
105
116
99
135
1953  54                 -- 	
19S3  S4
Area 2b-E
151
1951  52                          -     	
136
1950-51                       	
114 I 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The data indicate that in each age-group herring from Area 2a-E are smaller in
average length than those from Area 2b-E. The difference is more pronounced among
the younger age-classes. A similar but somewhat less distinct difference exists in average
weight. These differences in average length and weight lend support to the evidence
from tag-recovery that the herring in Area 2a-E and Area 2b-E form two essentially
distinct populations.
EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF SPAWNING
Each year the fisheries officers of the Federal Department of Fisheries estimate
the extent and intensity of herring-spawn deposition along the British Columbia coast.
An independent survey by members of the Pacific Biological Station staff was carried
out each year from 1947 to 1954 in the west coast of Vancouver Island sub-district, and
in 1955 in the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts and in
contiguous American waters (San Juan Islands and Boundary Bay regions). The methods
employed were the same as those of previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948). As
spawning takes place shortly after the close of the fishery, the size of the spawning stock
is equivalent to the size of the escapement from the winter fishery. The amount of spawn
deposited forms an index of the relative size of this stock and of the initial size of the
new year-class. Data from the spawn survey are also used to obtain information on the
relationship between size of the spawning stock and size of the resulting year-class at
recruitment.
The results of the 1955 spawn surveys have been presented by Outram (1955) in
a separate report, and only a general review will be given here. All amounts of spawn
are shown as statutory miles at a standard intensity of deposition. The length of each
individual spawning is measured and the intensity of deposition estimated as one of five
broad categories—very light, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy. For each statistical
area, the total miles of spawn and the average intensity of deposition are obtained and
converted to the equivalent mileage at a standard intensity (medium).
The total amount of spawn deposited (215.2 miles) in 1955, while slightly less than
in 1954 (225.6 miles), was still above the average for the last ten years. Increases in
spawn deposition over the 1954 level occurred in the northern (40 per cent), middle east
coast (68 per cent), south central (8 per cent), and west coast (8 per cent) sub-districts.
Marked decreases in spawn occurred in the Queen Charlotte Islands (50 per cent), upper
east coast (36 per cent), and lower east coast (32 per cent) sub-districts. In spite of
the marked decreases, spawning in the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district was little
below average, while spawning in the lower east coast sub-district remained, for the third
consecutive year, considerably above average.
The increased deposition in the northern sub-district resulted from a spawning of
10.1 miles in a new location, Wilson Inlet, in Area 5. While spawning has been at a low
level in Area 4 for the past two years, the decrease has been compensated for by large
increases in Area 5. While in the middle east coast sub-district spawning decreased
somewhat in 1954, it returned in 1955 to the relatively high level of previous years.
Large spawnings along the Parksville-Deep Bay shore-line (Area 14) and at the head
of Bute Inlet (Area 13) accounted for the increase. In the south central sub-district,
slight increases occurred in Areas 7 and 9 and a pronounced increase in Area 8. In
Area 10 there was a marked drop in spawn deposition. The marked increase in Area 8
resulted from a remarkable spawning over 7 miles long in Burke Channel at the beginning
of July. Not only was this one of the largest spawnings recorded for the area, but, with
the exception of small spawnings in Area 2a-E in the Queen Charlotte Islands, it was
one of the first records of summer spawnings on the British Columbia coast. On the west
coast of Vancouver Island the increase in spawn resulted from a substantial increase in
Area 26, where a large new spawning occurred in the Spring Island region.   The increase REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 63
in Area 26 more than offset a sharp decrease in spawning in Area 27. Spawning in other
areas was about average.
In the Queen Charlotte Islands the decrease in spawning arose from the virtual
failure of spawning in Area 2a-E and from a sharp decrease in Area 2b-E. The amount
of spawn in Area 2b-E was approximately the same as in 1951, 1952, and 1953. In the
upper east coast sub-district there was no spawning in Kingcome Inlet (Area 12) for
the first time in ten years. In recent years between 1 and 3 miles of spawn have been
recorded here. In the lower east coast sub-district, while spawning was reduced from
the high level of the previous two years, it still remained above average. The lack of
recurrent spawnings in the Yellow Point region (Area 17b) was largely responsible for
the decrease. It is interesting to note the reappearance of a large spawning in Nanoose
Bay (8.7 miles) after the almost complete failure of fish to spawn there in 1954.
The survey of American waters in the Boundary Bay and San Juan Islands regions
revealed the presence of an exceptionally large and previously unreported spawning at
Point Roberts. The spawning-ground was partly in Canadian waters and partly in
American waters. Over a million square yards of spawn was recorded, making it one
of the largest individual spawnings on the coast. On the basis of the 1955 survey, the
San Juan Islands region would not appear to be an important spawning area. While
several spawnings were found, these were small and of very light intensity.
DISCUSSION
In the previous sections of this report the 1953-54 data on catch statistics, age
composition, and spawn deposition in the major herring populations have been reviewed
and an analysis of the movement of herring between populations presented. In this
section, information on the level of abundance of the major stocks derived from data in
the previous sections is discussed.
In 1954-55, herring in British Columbia were generally less abundant than in the
previous year. The stocks in Northern and Central British Columbia and on the west
coast of Vancouver Island were principally affected. In contrast, abundance remained
at a high level in the stocks in the Strait of Georgia.
In the northern sub-district a marked decline in catch, and in catch per unit of
effort, occurred for the second year in succession. The quota was not exceeded or
approximated for the first time since 1948-49. Spawn deposition in 1955, although
showing an increase of 40 per cent over the reduced deposition of 1954, was little above
average. This, coupled with the decline in catch, suggests that the level of abundance
has declined. If the poor catch had been solely due to the failure of the fish to appear
on the fishing-grounds prior to spawning, a much larger increase in spawn deposition
would have been expected. The markedly reduced amount of spawn deposition in
Area 4 for the second successive year occurring simultaneously with a marked increase
in Area 5 suggests a possible southward shift in the centre of the spawning population.
In the central sub-district the quota was not taken for the second year in succession,
and the catch was the lowest since 1946-47. The fishery was characterized by poor
catches from the major migratory populations of Areas 6 and 7, usually the dominant
contributors, and by a greater dependence on the local populations in all areas. Spawn
deposition in Area 7, the major spawning region of the sub-district in recent years, was
up to average; in Area 6, spawn deposition remained at the low level that has existed
for the past four years and was the lowest recorded for the area. In Area 8, spawn
deposition showed a sharp increase over 1954, due to the large summer spawning in
Burke Channel. The significance of this apparently unusual spawning in terms of eventual
recruitment to the stock is not known. Spawnings in Areas 9 and 10 were both below
average. The low catch in this sub-district cannot, therefore, be accounted for by late
inshore migration, and hence abundance must be at a generally low level throughout the
sub-district and particularly in Area 6. I 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district the fishery took place almost entirely in
Skidegate Inlet, in Area 2a-E, for the second successive year. Although the catch was
almost as high as in 1953-54, much greater effort was expended in taking it. The fishery
lasted for nine weeks, as compared to four weeks in 1953-54, and catch per unit of effort
was one-third that in 1953-54. Although only relatively small spawnings have been
reported in past years from this area, spawning in 1955 was negligible. It would thus
appear that abundance had declined in this area in 1954-55, but possibly not to as low
a level as in other populations in Northern and Central British Columbia.
On the west coast of Vancouver Island the catch in 1954—55 was the lowest since
1943-44. This is a marked contrast to 1953-54, when the catch was the highest since
1948-49. The low catch resulted from the sharply reduced fishery in Area 23 and the
complete failure of the fishery in Area 25, the other major producing area, and in Area 24.
In Area 27 the catch was a record and equalled that made in Barkley Sound. In spite
of the poor fishery, spawning in all areas, except Area 27, was at least up to average.
The apparent reduction in spawn deposition in Area 25 was due to an incomplete survey
of the large Nuchatlitz spawning. Spawning in Area 26 was the highest on record.
In Area 27, spawning was sharply reduced and was below average. The data on spawn
deposition do not suggest that delayed inshore migration could have been a major cause
of the poor fishery.
In the middle east coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts, in
contrast to other sub-districts, abundance was at a high level. In the middle east coast
sub-district a record catch of 24,650 tons was followed by a record spawning of 36.6
miles. In the lower east coast sub-district a nearly record catch of 51,300 tons was
followed by an above-average spawning of 43.4 miles. The reduction in spawn deposition in this sub-district for the second year in succession from the exceeding high level
of 1953 suggests that possibly some decline in abundance occurred from the very high
level of the previous two years.
Thus, while population abundance was at a reduced or low level in 1954-55 in all
major populations except those of the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island,
spawn deposition in all populations appears to have been at least equal to the average
for recent years, and should, therefore, be adequate to ensure the maintenance of the
populations.
The reduced or low level of abundance in 1954-55 in all major populations except
those of the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island is the result of the relative
weakness of those year-classes contributing the III-, IV-, and V-year-old fish to the
populations. Fish of Age V form a considerably smaller proportion of the population
than either the III- or the IV-year-olds; their contribution is usually of more importance
in northern populations than in southern populations. The 1952 year-class (Ill-year-
olds) was weak in the Queen Charlotte Islands, northern, and north and south central
populations. In these populations it made one of the smallest contributions for III-year-
old fish for a number of years. On the west coast of Vancouver Island this year-class
was possibly somewhat stronger, at least in the south west coast population, but was still
of below-average strength. In the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island
sub-districts the 1952 year-class was relatively strong. The 1951 year-class was considered to be stronger than the 1952 year-class in all populations. However, while it
was of above-average strength in the middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island
populations, it was only of average strength on the west coast of Vancouver Island and
of no more than average strength in the northern group of populations. The 1950 year-
class appears to have been somewhat weaker than the 1951 year-class in all populations.
Thus, in the Queen Charlotte Islands, northern and north and south central populations
where dependence is primarily on fish of Ages III and IV, the year-classes contributing
these fish were of weak and below-average strength. In the southern populations,
dependence is principally on fish of Age III, with some support from fish of Age IV. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 65
On the west coast of Vancouver Island the year-class providing the dominant Ill-year
age-group was weak, although the year-class providing the IV-year fish was of average
strength. In the middle and lower east coast both the 1952 and 1951 year-classes were
of at least average and probably above-average strength.
In 1952, spawn deposition in the northern group of populations and on the west
coast of Vancouver Island was sharply reduced. In the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-
district it was 63 per cent below the average for the ten years 1946 to 1955, in the
northern sub-district 33 per cent below, in the central sub-district as a whole 50 per cent
below, and in the west coast of Vancouver Island sub-district 46 per cent below the
ten-year average. While it is possible that the reduced amount of spawn deposited in
1952 might be the direct cause of the weakness of the 1952 year-class in these sub-
districts, it is more probable that it was only a contributing factor, and that the weakness
of this year-class resulted from poor survival during the critical early life-history stages.
The results of the comparative study of the west coast of Vancouver Island and lower
east coast of Vancouver Island populations have shown that variations in year-class
strength are better explained by changes in environmental conditions, probably during
the critical larval and post-larval period, than by changes in the amount of spawn
deposited. Spawn deposition showed no relationship to future recruitment. For instance,
on the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1947, 36.7 miles of spawn (adjusted to medium
intensity) was deposited, 2.6 miles less than in 1952, yet the 1947 year-class was one
of the strongest on record while the 1952 year-class was of below-average strength.
On the other hand, in 1950, when 53.1 miles of spawn was deposited, one of the largest
amounts recorded for the sub-district, the resulting year-class was of below-average
strength. In the northern sub-district in 1952, spawning was only 20 per cent less than
in 1947, yet there was great dissimilarity in the strengths of the resulting year-classes.
The 1952 year-class was weak, while the 1947 was extremely powerful and contributed
largely to the record catches of 1949-50, 1950-51, and 1951-52. In 1945 there were
only 7.7 miles of spawn of medium intensity deposited, compared to 14.1 miles in 1952,
yet the 1945 year-class was at least of average strength, for substantial catches were
made in 1947-48 and 1948-49, the seasons when this year-class was present as III-
and IV-year fish. It appears likely, therefore, that in the northern sub-district as well
spawn deposition bears no direct relationship to resulting year-class strength. While
no specific examples from the central and Queen Charlotte Islands sub-districts are
available, it seems reasonable to assume that no direct relationship exists in these populations between spawn deposition and year-class strength, and that variations in year-class
strength result primarily from the effect of natural factors on survival. It appears likely,
therefore, that the relative weakness of the 1952 year-class in Northern and Central
British Columbia and on the west coast of Vancouver Island was caused not so much
by the poor spawnings in 1952 as by poor survival conditions during the first year of life.
In all sub-districts except the upper east coast of Vancouver Island the proportion
of II-year fish in the catches in 1954-55 was higher than in 1953-54. This may indicate
that the 1953 year-class is stronger than the 1952 year-class. However, the proportion
of II-year fish is not always a reliable indication of the strength of the year-class when it
is fully recruited. It has been found to be a better indication in the west coast of
Vancouver Island populations than in others. It is probably somewhat more reliable
in southern populations than in the northern where a greater proportion of the recruitment
takes place at Age IV. The success of the fishery in all sub-districts will depend to
a large extent on the strength of the 1953 year-class. If it proves stronger than the 1952
year-class, an improvement in the fishery should result.
SUMMARY
A general review of the status of the major British Columbia herring stocks in
1954-55 has been presented. I 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The catch (169,163 tons) in 1954-55 was the poorest since 1946-47. Record
or near-record high catches were made in the upper east coast of Vancouver Island,
middle east coast of Vancouver Island, and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-
districts. The catch in the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district was less than the record
catch of 1953-54. Catches in the northern, central, and west coast sub-districts were
sharply reduced.
While population abundance was at a high level in the middle and lower east coast
sub-districts, it was at a low level in the northern, central, and west coast of Vancouver
Island sub-districts. In the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district, population abundance
was considerably lower than in the previous year. Population abundance in Area 12
of the upper east coast sub-district was probably also below normal. The high catch
in this sub-district resulted from the exploitation of a new fishing-ground in Seymour
Inlet and Nugent Sound.
The low level of population abundance in the northern, central, and west coast of
Vancouver Island sub-districts and the reduced level of abundance in the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district resulted from the poor contributions of Ill-year fish by the
1952 year-class. The 1951 year-class (IV-year fish) was probably of below-average
or no more than average strength in the northern group of populations. On the west
coast of Vancouver Island this year-class was probably stronger than in the north, but
was still probably of only average strength. Both the 1951 and 1952 year-classes were
stronger in the south west than in the north west coast of Vancouver fsland areas. In the
middle and lower east coast of Vancouver Island the 1952 year-class was also somewhat
weaker than the 1951 year-class, but both were probably of above-average strength.
The proportion of II-year fish in all sub-districts, except the upper east coast of
Vancouver Island, in 1954-55 was greater than in 1953-54. This may indicate that
the 1953 year-class will be somewhat stronger than the 1952 year-class.
Spawn deposition in 1955 was greater than in 1954 in the northern, central, middle
east coast, and west coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts. In the Queen Charlotte
Islands, upper east coast, and lower east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts it was
less than in 1954. In the latter sub-district it was, however, still above average. The
level of spawn deposition in all sub-districts appears adequate to ensure the maintenance
of the populations.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The herring investigation is grateful for the assistance of various types provided
in 1954-55 by the fishing companies, herring-fishermen, and government fisheries
departments.
Special thanks are extended to the fishing companies for their willingness to provide
vessels on a charter-free basis and for space and facilities in various plants for the
operation of tag-detectors and for sampling the catch. British Columbia Packers Limited provided the seiner " Dominion No. I," used in the tagging and spawn survey
programmes, and space in their Imperial plant for sampling. The Canadian Fishin;
Company Limited, in their Gulf of Georgia plant, and Nelson Brothers Fisheries Limited,
in their Colonial plant, allowed the operation of tag-detectors and provided facilities for
sampling. The assistance of staff members of various plants in collecting herring samples
and the help provided by the captain and crew of the " Dominion No. I " are gratefully
acknowledged. The continued interest shown by the staff of all plants was most
appreciated.
Pilot-house record-books, which provided much valuable information on the catch
and the fishery, were again kept by most of the seiner captains. It is with great pleasure
that we acknowledge this support and the continued interest of all herring-fishermen in
the research programme.
The Federal Department of Fisheries, through Chief Supervisor A. J. Whitmore and
Regional Supervisors G. S. Reade and H. E. Palmer, rendered invaluable assistance in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 67
many different ways. Fisheries officers again carried out surveys of the extent and
intensity of herring spawning in all coastal areas. In addition, the fisheries officers at
Butedale and Prince Rupert carried out magnet efficiency tests at plants in their areas.
Our special thanks are due to all officers for the assistance they rendered. Final catch
records of all fishing areas, and records of daily deliveries to the various plants during
the progress of each fishery, were provided by the Chief Statistician and members of his
staff.   For this assistance we are most grateful.
The interest of the Provincial Department of Fisheries and its Deputy Minister,
G. J. Alexander, in continuing the publication of this series of reports is gratefully
acknowledged.   This report is the nineteenth of the series.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to all members of the herring investigation for
their conscientious and diligent efforts. A. S. Hourston, assistant scientist, has ably
continued the investigations on juvenile herring, which will be reported later; D. N.
Outram, assistant scientist, has supervised the spawn studies, and his results are presented
in this report in the section on spawn deposition.
G. T. Taylor acted as administrative assistant of the herring investigation. He was
responsible for the compilation and analysis of the catch data and for the compilation
and preliminary analysis of the tag-recovery data. R. S. Isaacson, laboratory technician,
was responsible for the age determinations of all fish from the winter and spawning
samples. In addition, he supervised the compilation of age and growth data and contributed to their preliminary analysis. His assistance in assembling this report is also
gratefully acknowledged.
All members of the investigation assisted in some phase of the field work. J. S. Rees
was responsible for the supervision of the tag-recovery and sampling programmes and
was in charge of the field crew in Steveston. Other members of the investigation,
B. Wildman, W. P. Neave, E. W. Stolzenberg, A. Rigby, and D. Pozar, assisted in the
field programme and in the preliminary analysis of the data. Miss Elizabeth Neave and
Miss Naomi Johnson provided invaluable assistance during the summer in the compilation of current and past years' sampling data. Miss Diane Blackburn ably carried out
stenographic and clerical duties for the investigation.
M. A. Pirart continued work in the design and operation of tag-detectors. R. M.
Wilson, port contact man in Vancouver, arranged for the collection of certain samples.
Thanks are due to Dr. J. C. Stevenson, Assistant Director of the Pacific Biological
Station, for the critical review of this report and for his advice, unfailingly provided,
during the course of the year.
The counsel and encouragement provided by Dr. A. W. H. Needier, Director of the
Pacific Biological Station, has been sincerely appreciated.
REFERENCES
Outram, D. N. (1955):   Extent of herring spawning in British Columbia waters during
1955.   Fish. Res. Bd. Can., Pac. Biol. Stn., Circ. No. 37, 1955, pp. 1-10.
Stevenson, J. C. (1955):   The movement of herring in British Columbia waters as
determined by tagging, with a description of tagging and tag recovery methods.
Rapp. et Proc.-Verb., Cons. Explor. Mer. 140, II, pp. 33-34.
Stevenson, J. C; Hourston, A. S.; Jackson, K. J.; and Outram, D. N. (1952):
Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1951-52.   Rept.
British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1951, pp. 57-87.
Taylor, F. H. C, and Outram, D. N. (1954) :*  Results of investigation of the herring
populations on the west coast and lower east coast of Vancouver Island in 1953-54.
Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1953, pp. 52-82.
Tester, A. L. (1937):   Populations of herring (Clupea pallasii) in the coastal waters
of British Columbia.   Jour. Biol. Bd. Can., 3, 2, pp. 108-114.
* Reprints were published in year following the date of publication of report. I 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1947):   Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1946-47.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1946,
pp. 42-71.
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1948):  Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1947-48.    Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1947,
pp. 41-86.
Table I.—Tags Inserted during the 1955 Spawning Season
Code
Letters
Tagging
Code
Place
Date
Number
HSH
19A
19A
19A
19B
19B
19B
19C
19C
19C
19D
19D
19D
19E
19E
19E
19F
19F
19F
19G
19G
19G
19H
19H
19H
19J
19J
19J
19K
19K
19K
19L
19L
19M
19M
19M
Area 13
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
Apr.
25, 1955
25, 1955
25, 1955
13, 1955
13, 1955
13, 1955
17, 1955
17, 1955
17, 1955
25, 1955
25,  1955
25, 1955
26, 1955
26, 1955
26, 1955
22, 1955
22, 1955
22,  1955
6, 1955
6,  1955
6,  1955
4,  1955
4, 1955
4, 1955
11, 1955
11, 1955
11, 1955
20, 1955
20, 1955
20, 1955
1, 1955
1,  1955
18, 1955
18, 1955
18, 1955
496
HTH
HXH
EKE
Frederick Point, Read Island    - 	
Frederick Point, Read Island.— -   	
Area 14
513
491
492
ELE
496
eme
495
ene
479
eoe
493
HUH
498
HYH
HZH
Area 15
Junction Point, Lewis Channel — -  - 	
509
500
IAI
507
IBI
Scuttle Bay   —             -	
501
ICI
Scuttle Bay  -	
492
IDI
Scuttle Bay   .         	
501
KIK
Area 17a
502
KJK
501
KKK
506
LAL
506
LBL
506
LCL
KAK
Departure Bay  - -   ' -  „
Area 17b
Coffin Point                                     	
504
458
KBK
KCK
Coffin Point    -. -     ....
Coffin Point    -                 .-      -	
477
489
KLK
500
KMK
529
KNK
521
KDK
506
KEK
498
KHK
536
KOK
KPK
JEJ
Preedy Harbour, Thetis Island     	
Preedy Harbour, Thetis Island  - 	
Area 18
512
493
503
JHJ
497
JIJ
498
Total   -	
17,505 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 69
Table II.—Number of Tags Recovered by Tag-detectors, according to Area of Tagging
and Area of Recovery, for the 1954-55 Fishing Season
Area of Tagging
Area of Recovery
Total
Number of
6
8
13           1          17b
1
18
27
Recoveries
4 	
1
1
6 -	
1
1
7-  	
1
1
15. -	
1
1
17a - —	
1
1
2
17b 	
6
6
18   	
11
11
23    -    	
1
1
24   -	
1
1
25 	
2
2
27	
2
2
Totals  „  .
2
1
1
1
20
4
29
Table HI.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1954-55 Fishing Season
V
O
0
00
G
'oo
00
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district and Area
^
w
.j
to
«
of Tagging
d
rt
rt
CS
0
o
o
a
U
l-i
■£ B
R fl
- rt
3 c
■Otn
5 .-
•5-
s S3
13
>H
6
Z
ZO
O <u
fi"8
2w
O rt
w&
z£
C~-
o
h
Queen Charlotte Islands
Area2A-E  _
18T
1954
173
4
51
228
18U
1954
282
17
86
385
18W
1954
142
5
—
	
	
34
181
Area 2b-E 	
16CC
1952
2
2
4
8
17QQ
1953
3
2
1
2
8
17RR
1953
1
1
4
6
18S
1954
7
	
—
9
16
Northern
Area 4	
15T
15U
1951
1951
1
1
5
1
2
3
7
16Z
1952
7
2
9
16AA
1952
8
	
	
3
11
16BB
1952
2
1
3
17MM
1953
5
47
6
58
17NN
1953
2
24
9
35
17PP
1953
29
i
5
35
18P
1954
16
2
18
18Q
1954
78
1
7
86
18R
1954
5
153
3
—
44
205
Area 5	
18N
1954
1
147
3
1
23
175
North Central
Area 6-  	
14AA
14BB
15V
1950
1950
1951
	
1
2
	
	
—
1
2
1
1
4
15W
1951
4
1
1
6
17LL
1953
	
1
3
3
5
12
18M
1954
7
15
9
11
42
South Central
Area 7	
14KK
1950
1
1
15AA
1951
1
1
15BB
1951
2
2
16U
1952
1
3
4
16W
1952
5
1
6
16X
1952
1
1
3
5
16Y
1952
6
3
9
17EE
1953
1
4
—
—
2
11
18 I 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table HI.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1954—55 Fishing Season—Continued
oo
a
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district and Area
o
00
00
CS
H
^
w
*g
%
of Tagging
B
CS
rt
CS
o
o
.3
oo
00
rt
H
o
H
cs
V
U
6
o
Z
~ cs
o aj
ZU
*2
3 O
Pita
5w
in
s3z,
■Ota
a rt
2w
StS
O rt
U
o 1
si
z£
e~
"a
a
H
17FF
1953
1
5
2
1
5
14
17GG
1953
1
10
1
	
14
26
17HH
1953
	
„
2
6
8
1711
1953
1
1
1
2
5
17KK
1953
1
4
2
1
3
11
18K
1954
5
10
2
10
27
18L
1954
3
14
1
17
35
Area 10.  - 	
14EE
1950
1
2
3
15CC
1951
1
	
2
	
1
4
Upper East Coast
Area 12 	
9J
1945
1
--
1
17DD
1953
	
—
—
10
16
2
7
35
Middle East Coast
Area 13	
10S
1946
	
1
1
14A
16A
1950
1952
- . 1 -....
1
9
1
2
1
12
17B
1953
1
6
7
17C
1953
	
1
1
18C
1954
	
1
	
	
11
2
14
Area 15 —
14B
14C
1950
1950
--
—
—
2
2
	
2
2
15A
1951
	
4
2
6
15B
1951
5
1
6
17A
1953
1
28
	
7
36
18A
1954
—
	
—
45
1
10
56
Lower East Coast
15C
1951
2
2
15D
1951
	
	
	
1
	
_
1
16C
1952
1
.
1
16D
1952
_.
1
2
.
1
4
17D
1953
	
3
2
	
5
17E
1953
1
1
2
18C
1954
—
	
	
27
24
19
70
14H
1950
1
1
16F
1952
1
5
6
16G
1952
	
1
2
3
17F
1953
2
	
2
17G
1953
	
1
1
2
171
1953
1
__
2
1
4
18D
1954
—
6
30
—
	
4
40
Area 18   ■  	
15F
1951
7
4
11
15G
1951
	
1
1
17J
1953
	
	
4
4
18E
1954
	
	
3
31
1
1
12
48
18F
1954
.-- | ..-.
	
—
4
39
—
3
46
South West Coast
Area 23 -	
13H
1949
1
1
161
1952
1
1
2
16J
1952
	
	
2
1
	
3
16K
1952
	
	
1
1
1
1
4
17K
1953
	
	
	
	
	
1
_
6
7
17M
1953
	
2
1
6
9
17N
1953
	
3
1
1
4
9
17P
1953
	
	
	
1
1
2
4
17R
1953
	
	
	
1
1
17S
1953
	
—
1
3
4
Area 24    -	
16M
1952
1
1
2
4
17T
1953
2
_
2
4
17U
1953
	
	
	
...
1
1
1
3
18G
1954
—
	
	
—
	
	
1
1
5
7 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 71
Table HI.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1954—55 Fishing Season—Continued
o
00
5
*5i
00
rt
H
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district and Area
Cfl
tn
of Tagging
a
M
03
«
O
O
D
'oo
o
Ih
CS
U
_ rt
^3
■O to
S3"
£ ^
Ss
'is'
rt
>
6
Z
ZU
O to     a OS
s«
O rt
&£
z£
e-
&
North West Coast
Area 25 	
14R
1950
1
	
1
15Q
1951
	
......
1
1
16R
1952
2
2
17W
1953
1
1
17Y
1953
1
1
17Z
1953
1
1
18H
1954
2
1
6
9
18J
1954
1
3
4
8
Area 26  	
14V
1950
1
1
14W
1950
—
1
1
16T
1952
1
3
2
6
17X
1953
1
1
2
17AA
1953
	
	
	
6
2
8
17BB
1953
2
3
5
Area 27  	
12X
1948
1
1
2
14X
1950
	
1
3
4
17CC
1953
—
1  J 	
2
13
3
19
Totals 	
620
574
37
81
12  1  201
164
9
46
545
2,289 I 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Probable Number of Tags in the Catches during the 1954—55 Season, Based
on Magnet Recoveries, Shown by Area of Tagging and Probable Sub-District of
Recovery, with Actual Number of Tags in Parentheses.
Sub-district and Area
of Tagging
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
Northern
North
Central
South
Central
Upper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
South
West
Coast
North
West
Coast
Total
Queen Charlotte Islands
Northern
North Central
South Central
Area 10   	
Upper East Coast
Area 12  	
Middle East Coast
Lower East Coast
Area 18 	
South West Coast
Area 23  	
North West Coast
Area 25	
Area 26            _	
Area 21— 	
Totals	
975
(723)
9
(6)
23
(14)
2
(1)
2
(2)
1,011
(746)
34
(22)
32
(23).
611
(402)
239
(155)
26
(17)
3
(3)
2
(2)
2
(2)
5
(4)
4
(3)
33
(29)
19
(17)
1
(1)
1
(1)
2
(2)
4
(2)
35
(17)
275
(119)
1
(1)
2
(1)
2
(1)
949
(626)
65
(57)
319
(141)
14
(12)
1
(1)
15
(13)
2
(2)
1
(1)
14
(13)
5
(5)
22
(21)
1
(1)
31
(31)
114
(106)
42
(40)
10
(10)
8
(8)
5
(5)
1
(1)
1
(1)
1
(1)
258
(246)
2
(2)
1
(0
53
(45)
56
(47)
120
(99)
9
(9)
4
(4)
9
(9)
254
(216)
1
(1)
2
(2)
26
(25)
6
(6)
2
(2)
37
(36)
(6)
4
(3)
1
(1)
4
(4)
6
(5)
17
(14)
24
(20)
30
(22)
94
(75)
1,009
(745)
43
(31)
643
(422)
246
(160)
94
(63)
322
(161)
7
(7)
40
(36)
1
(1)
35
(35)
116
(108)
95
(85)
68
(58)
131
(110)
46
(44)
19
(18)
27
(24)
27
(23)
33
(25)
3,002!
(2,156)
1 This total does not include 133 tags recovered at Fairview plant as no magnet efficiency tests were made at this
plant. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 73
Table V.—Number of Statutory Miles of Spawn, Adjusted to Medium Intensity,
by Area and Years
Statutory Miles of Spawn of Medium Intensity
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Queen Charlotte Islands
Area2A-E  	
1.5
6.5
0.8
4.6
3.2
10.2
1.9
20.2
Area 2b-E                	
11.3
Totals 	
8.0
3.2
14.5
7.2
5.4
1.6
11.6
0.9
13.4
0.9
16.1
3.3
22.1
0.5
5.4
10.5
11.3
Northern
4.3
18.8
Totals  	
24.9
11.8
28.6
0.5
2.1
3.3
14.1
4.3
17.7
1.5
0.8
2.8
20.3
6.8
29.4
0.2
4.2
9.2
16.4
4.7
28.0
2.7
0.4
5.8
23.1
North Central
4.0
South Central
Area 7 (Bella Bella)                   -	
28.2
Area 8 (Bella Coola)- 	
8.9
1.1
Area 10 (Smith Inlet)—	
1.6
Totals -—	
34.5
0.1
14.2
22.8
0.2
9.7
43.0
24.7
36.9
0.4
14.0
39.8
Upper East Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 12 (Alert Bay)	
9.2
Totals 	
14.3
2.6
22.4
3.4
2.7
9.9
6.0
24.4
2.3
3.4
24.7
5.8
23.7
3.0
3.2
14.4
3.2
11.4
2.4
4.8
9.2
Middle East Coast of Vancouver Island
12.2 (13.8)
19.0 (21.0)
1.4    (1.6)
4.0    (4.0)
31.1
12.2
5.8
0.3
0.1
36.1
7.8
20.4
2.0
0.1
35.7
17.6
82.4
2.5
21.8
0.8
61.5
1.9
36.6 (40.4)
9.0    (9.4)
!6.5 (28.8)
Lower East Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 17a (Nanaimo)  	
1.4    (5.2)
18.4
4.1    (8.3)
6.5     (3.0)
9.5  (34.1)
1.5    (1.0)
4.9    (5.1)
30.3
4.8 (9.8)
4.9 (2.4)
2.8 (26.6)
0.9    (1.6)
1.2    (1.3)
102.5
7.8 (13.1)
7.0    (7.8)
11.4 (36.4)
4.4    (8.0)
10.8 (11.5)
64.2
4.6 (11.0)
4.2     (4.5)
7.1 (17.5)
3.2 (4.8)
7.2    (7.3)
16.8 (43.4)
West Coast of Vancouver Island
Area 23 (Barkley Sound)-	
5.6
4.7
6.9
8.6
2.6
Totals..	
United States
26.5  (51.5)
14.6 (41.7)
41.4 (76.8)
26.3  (45.1)
28.4
-- (15.6)
Grand totals, all areas -  	
169.0(194.5)
137.5 (164.6)
287.8 (323.2)
206.8 (225.6)
169.2 (215.2)
1 Complete coverage by fishery officers impossible because boat not available. I 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON
FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1954
The task of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission as defined in
a convention between Canada and the United States on July 28th, 1937, is to protect,
preserve, and extend the sockeye-salmon fishery of the Fraser River system. The
remarkable increase of the annual catches of 1951 to 1954 over those of the brood-
years 1947 to 1950 shown in the following table clearly indicates that the purpose of
the convention is being fulfilled. However, the yield to the industry of 18,247,000
sockeye for the past four years, while almost three times as great as the yield of the
previous four years, still represents only 56 per cent of the yield of the exceptionally
productive four-year period 1910 to 1913 preceding the Hells Gate slide. The ultimate
goal of maximum production is yet to be reached, but the increases of recent years
bring hope that this will be achieved in the not too distant future.
Sockeye-catch in Canadian and United States Waters, 1947—54
Year Number of Fish Year Number of Fish
1947         443,000 1952      2,268,000
1948   1,842,000                1953   4,025,000
1949   2,078,000                1954   9,529,000
1950   2,115,000                                            	
1951   2,425,000                         Total  18,247,000
The regulations for the 1954 fishing season were formulated and finalized in three
regular and six emergency meetings of the Commission. The recommended regulations,
after study and analysis by the advisory board, were adopted by the Commission on
March 13th, 1954. The recommendations were accepted in substance for Canadian
waters by an Order in Council adopted on June 10th, 1954, and for the United States
waters by an order of the Director of the Washington State Department of Fisheries on
May 10th, 1954.
For Canadian convention waters the Commission recommended that fishing for
sockeye commence on June 24th, 1954, and that the following closures be in effect:
For Areas 19, 20, 21, and 23, forty-eight hours from June 24th to August 30th; for
Areas 17 and 18 and District No. 1 excluding the area above Pattullo Bridge, seventy-
eight hours from June 24th to August 4th, ninety-six hours from August 4th to August
25th, seventy-eight hours for the week-end following August 25th, and forty-eight hours
from September 1st to September 16th; for District No. 1 above Pattullo Bridge,
weekly closed periods commencing as above but closing four hours later than for the
remainder of District No. 1 and Areas 17 and 18; for Areas 17 and 18 and District
No. 1, complete closure from 8 a.m. on September 16th to 8 a.m. on September 27th,
except for a twenty-four-hour period when fishing for spring salmon would be permitted
with 8Vi -inch-mesh nets. During the course of the fishery season certain modifications
to these regulations were recommended by the Commission. They included a reduction
of twenty-four hours in the weekly closed period beginning August 13 th for Areas 17
and 18 and District No. 1 below Pattullo Bridge and of twenty-eight hours for District
No. 1 above Pattullo Bridge; closure of Areas 17, 18, and 19 to purse-seines from
12.01 a.m. on August 31st and to gill-nets from 8 a.m. on August 31st until 6 p.m.
on September 25th.
With respect to United States convention waters the Commission recommended the
following regulations: Weekly closed periods of forty-eight hours commencing at 12.01
a.m. on June 25th for purse-seines and reef-nets and at 6 p.m. on June 24th for gill-
nets, and continuing thereafter at weekly intervals until September 6th, 1954. The
regulations were modified to this extent:   On July 22nd the weekly closed period was REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 75
extended by twenty-four hours; the weekly closed period was reduced by twenty-four
hours on August 22nd and August 29th; waters westerly of a line drawn from Point
Roberts light to Patos Island light were closed from September 4th to September 20th.
The Commission further recommended forty-eight-hour weekly closures of the high
seas to fishing by Canadian and United States nationals from June 24th to August 30th.
These regulations were designed for a run of sockeye to the Fraser River that was estimated at 12,115,000, which was the largest ever recorded for this cycle and exceeded
all annual runs since 1913. The Canadian and United States fishermen caught
9,528,720 sockeye. The requirement of the Sockeye Salmon Fisheries Convention that
the catch be divided between the fishermen of Canada and the United States as equally
as might be practical was met. The Canadian fishermen captured 4,722,462 sockeye
or 49.56 per cent of the total, whereas the United States fishermen caught 4,806,258
sockeye or 50.44 per cent. In addition, the Indians, exercising their right to take
salmon for subsistence purposes, caught 94,534 sockeye in 1954, compared with 70,795
in 1950.
The total escapement to the spawning-grounds was estimated at 2,485,480 sockeye, or 20.5 per cent of the run. The escapement of the Stellako River run, currently
dominant on the 1954 cycle, was 142,632 sockeye and showed no significant change
from the brood-year. In spite of an intense Canadian and United States fishery, the
escapement of early and late Stuart sockeye was satisfactory. The escapement to
Chilko River was slightly higher than in the brood-year and appeared adequate for a
subdominant run. With the exception of the Upper Pitt River and Birkenhead River,
the escapements to the Lower Fraser tributaries were comparable with the brood-year.
The Birkenhead escapement showed a decrease of 44 per cent over the brood-year, and
the escapement to Pitt River decreased from an estimated 42,800 in 1950 to 17,624
in 1954.
The largest escapement was the late Adams run, which has established dominance
on the 1954 cycle; an estimated 2,065,743 sockeye spawned in Adams River, Little
River, and other tributaries of the South Thompson district. Although this escapement
is significantly below that permitted on large runs in earlier years and demonstrates an
improvement in the management of the fishery, recent research has indicated that it
may still exceed the number required for optimum production by about 600,000.
Scientific management of the Adams River run in 1954 was a complex and difficult undertaking. One difficulty was that the size of the run could not be predicted in
advance of its entry into the fishery. An additional difficulty was that the effect of
changes that had occurred since previous runs of the cycle, both in unit efficiency of
the fleet and in the areas fished, could not be immediately assessed. Nylon nets, which
had a higher but unknown efficiency, were employed extensively instead of linen by
Canadian and United States gill-netters in 1954. The Canadian fishermen, eager to get
high-quality fish, had pressed farther westward to offshore waters, and the former
exploratory region in the Sooke-San Juan area supported a well-developed fishery in
1954. Although almost equal division of the catch between Canada and United States
fishermen was achieved, the lack of a prior knowledge of the size of the run and the
instability of the fishery, combined with natural changes in the character of the migration of the run, resulted in what is considered to be an excess escapement to the South
Thompson district. The Commission is continuing its research to improve both predictions of the size of the run before it enters the fishery and the methods for statistical
analysis of the catch, but a stabilized fishery appears to be essential to ensure good
management of each and every race.
The 1954 escapement of all runs of sockeye apparently spawned under favourable
conditions. In almost every area fewer fish died unspawned than in any of the previous
six years of complete record.    Although all river flows were high as a result of the I 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
abnormally large amount of precipitation during most of the summer and fall, the water
temperatures were near optimum during the spawning period.
In 1950 a significant step was taken in the scientific rehabilitation of barren areas
in the Fraser watershed: the Upper Adams River, a once-productive sockeye-stream
but one which has been barren of recent years, was planted with eyed eggs of Seymour
River stock. In 1954, in spite of the heavy fishery, 205 adult sockeye returned to the
exact location in Upper Adams River where the eggs were planted, although many miles
of potential spawning-ground were available to them. Similarly, eggs obtained from
Adams River were eyed there and planted in Portage Creek, a stream linking Anderson
Lake with Seton Lake. This plant, combined with a small native spawning population,
provided an escapement of 3,505 adult sockeye in 1954. When these successes with
eyed eggs became known, three more transplantations were made: 1,396,000 eyed eggs
of Lower Adams River stock were planted in Middle Shuswap River, 390,000 eggs
from the same stock were planted in Little Horsefly River, and 258,000 eggs from
Seymour River were planted in Salmon River. The success of these 1954 plants will,
not be known until 1958, but returns to Upper Adams River and Portage Creek in
1954 provide every hope for the restoration of those runs that were destroyed by the
Hells Gate slide in 1913.
In 1954, investigations were conducted to determine the feasibility of bringing
inaccessible spawning and rearing areas within easy reach of sockeye salmon and thus
into production. Topographic surveys of the Nadina River and Horsefly River falls
were made in conjunction with studies assessing the suitability of above-falls areas for
sockeye production.
In close collaboration with the Department of Fisheries of Canada, the Commission has kept abreast of the many industrial developments affecting the sockeye of the
Fraser River. The effect of the diversion of the Nechako River by the Aluminum
Company of Canada on the temperature and flow of the residual stream was examined
by the Commission, but again, as in 1953, cool weather and abundant rain provided
favourable conditions for migrating sockeye.
The vertical-slot fishway surmounting the 25-foot dam constructed by the British
Columbia Electric Company on Seton Creek will be placed in operation in 1955. This
fishway will provide the adult sockeye access to the spawning-grounds in Gates Creek
and Portage Creek.
For disposing of waste effluents from the oil-refinery at Kamloops, the oil company
has adopted the two methods, separation and lagooning, recommended by the Department of Fisheries of Canada and the Commission. The methods have proven effective
in keeping the waste materials out of the Thompson River.
The effect of a proposed placer gold-mining operation on the Horsefly River was
investigated. Field studies were conducted to assess the production; transportation and
deposition of silt and laboratory studies were made of the effect of silt on eggs incubating in the gravel.
Other industrial problems investigated by the Commission included disposal of
fine particles produced by hydraulic barkers in sawmills on the Fraser River, waste-
disposal from a brewery near the Nechako River at Prince George, and the fisheries
implications of the proposed diversion of the Columbia River near Revelstoke into the
Fraser River.
The investigations initiated in 1953 at Sweltzer Creek to determine methods for
guiding down-stream migrant salmon at dams was continued. The efficiency and immediate or delayed physiological effects on the salmon of electrical guiding was studied by
means of controlled tests using 100,000 marked migrants. The studies showed that
electrical fields were very efficient as guiding forces under controlled circumstances, but
the delayed effect of the electrical stimuli will not be known until the marked indi- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 77
viduals return in 1956. Full-scale field investigations are proposed at Baker River dam
during 1955 in co-operation with the Department of Fisheries of Canada and the
Washington State Department of Fisheries.
The fishways at Hells Gate, Bridge River Rapids, and Farwell Canyon on the
Chilcotin River were kept in operational order during the season. Owing to unusually
high water the entire Adams River run in 1954 used the Hells Gate fishways in ascending the river at this turbulent reach. Had the fishways not existed, a substantial portion
of the Adams River run would have been blocked below the Gate and destroyed and
a quadrennial run worth $28,000,000 lost to the economy of Canada and the United
States.
Members of the Commission during 1954 were as follows: For Canada—Senator
Thomas Reid (Chairman), H. R. MacMillan, A. J. Whitmore; for the United States—
Elton B. Jones (Secretary), Robert J. Schoettler, Albert M. Day (January to May),
Arnie J. Suomela (May to December). I 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC HALIBUT
COMMISSION,  1954
The year 1954 was a noteworthy one in the history of the Commission. Important changes were made in the general method of regulation, and the resultant annual
catch was the greatest ever taken by the Pacific halibut-fishery.
Members of the Commission in 1954 were George R. Clark, Harold Helland, and
Richard Nelson for Canada, and Edward W. Allen, J. W. Mendenhall, and Seton H.
Thompson for the United States. Mr. Allen served as Chairman and Mr. Clark as
Vice-Chairman.
The annual meeting of the Commission was held at the Seattle office from January
25th to 29th, inclusive. The previously named officers were elected for the ensuing
year. The results of investigations in 1953 were reviewed and an investigational programme for 1954 was adopted. Conferences were held with representatives of the
halibut-fishermen, vessel owners, and dealers. Some important changes were made in
the regulations for 1954, under the broader authority of the halibut treaty of 1953.
The new halibut treaty increased both the responsibilities and the regulatory
authority of the Commission. It made the Commission responsible for attainment of
the maximum sustainable yield from the stocks of halibut and required that regulatory
actions be based upon prior investigational evidence of need. It authorized the establishment of more than one fishing season in any area in any year, which was not
permitted under the previous halibut treaties.
With this broader regulatory authority, the Commission was able to discontinue
the separate regulation of some small underfished areas which had been closed during
the spring fishing season in other areas and opened in the summer at their season of
best fishing after other areas were closed from 1951 to 1953 to secure increased fishing
in them. By the use of multiple fishing seasons, it could provide both spring and
summer fishing on all grounds, including those previously underfished, and improve the
utilization of their stocks.
The Pacific Halibut-fishery Regulations for 1954 were approved by the Governor-
General of Canada on March 25th and by the President of the United States on April
9th, and became effective on the latter date.
The following changes were made in the regulatory areas: Areas 2a, 2b, and 2c
were recombined as Area 2; Area 4, in Bering Sea, was combined with Area 3b on
the basis of evidence that the stock in Bering Sea is a part of the large halibut stock
found south of the Alaska Peninsula; the boundary-line between Areas 1a and 1b was
moved north from Cape Blanco to Heceta Head, transferring the intervening waters off
the southern Oregon coast from Area 1b to Area 1a, to increase fishing there.
With these changes, the regulatory areas in 1954 were as follows: Area 1a, the
waters off the Northern California and Southern Oregon coasts, south of Heceta Head,
Oregon; Area 1b, the waters off the Oregon and Washington coasts between Heceta
Head and Willapa Bay, Washington; Area 2, the waters between Willapa Bay and
Cape Spencer, Alaska; Area 3a, from Cape Spencer to a line running south three-
quarters east from Bold Cape through Caton Island of the Sanak Islands group; Area
3b, all convention waters west of Area 3a, including those of Bering Sea.
The fishing season in all areas opened on May 16th, one day earlier than in 1953.
The number of seasons and their lengths varied. Area 1a was closed to halibut-fishing
on September 9th. The first season in Areas 1b and 2 closed on June 5th, and the first
season in Areas 3a and 3b closed on July 12th, upon attainment of catch-limits set for
those seasons in Areas 2 and 3b respectively. A second season of eight days in Areas
1b and 2 and of ten days in Areas 3a and 3b commenced on August 1st. A third
season in Area 3 b commenced on August 15th and terminated on September 9th. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 79
Catch-limits of 26,500,000 pounds during the first season in Area 2, which was
1,000,000 pounds greater than in 1953, and of 28,000,000 pounds in Area 3a were
provided. Areas 1a, Ib, and 3b, where the total catch of halibut is comparatively
small, were allowed to continue without catch-limits.
Vessels fishing for crab in Bering Sea, with bottom nets of 12-inch or larger mesh,
were permitted to retain a limited proportion of halibut caught incidentally to such
fishing between May 16th and November 14th, inclusive.
Other regulatory provisions were also continued as follows: A minimum size-limit
of 26 inches heads on or 5 pounds heads off for halibut; the closure of two nursery
areas, one off Masset in Northern British Columbia and one off Timbered Islet in
South-eastern Alaska; the prohibition of the use of dory gear and nets of any kind in
fishing for halibut; the termination after November 15th of permits for the retention
and possession of halibut caught incidentally during fishing for other species in Areas
1a, 1b, 3a, and 3b; and the beginning of the statutory closed season after November
30th in any area that might still be open by reason of the non-attainment of the catch-
limit which otherwise determined its closure.
The closing dates for the first fishing season in Areas 1b and 2 were announced in
advance on May 26th and for Areas 3a and 3 b on June 24th, on the basis of the
estimated dates of attainment of their respective catch-limits.
In 1954 the total landings of halibut by all vessels in all ports on the Pacific Coast
amounted to 71,265,000 pounds, as compared to 60,515,000 pounds for 1953, an
increase of 10,750,000 pounds. This total production for 1954 was an all-time high
and 27,000,000 pounds over the 1931 level.
The landings from the various groups of areas were: Areas 1a and 1b combined,
773,000 pounds; Area 2, 36,712,000 pounds; Areas 3a and 3b combined, 33,778,000
pounds.
Areas 1a and 1b are at the southern extremity of the commercial range of the
species and, as their halibut stocks are relatively small, no catch-limits have been placed
upon them. The combined annual catch from these areas has been about one-half
million pounds or less in recent years. The increase in 1954 to three-quarters of a
million pounds was brought about by a change in the 1954 regulations which allowed
Area 1a to remain open from May 16th to September 9th instead of closing in early
July as in recent years.
The combined catch of 36,712,000 pounds in 1954 from Area 2 was 3,705,000
pounds higher than in 1953, due to the large fleet operating and very heavy catches
during the second fishing season in the area. The catch in the first season of twenty-
one days amounted to 26,196,000 pounds and that for the eight-day second season
amounted to 9,937,000 pounds. Landings by Canadian vessels from Area 2 totalled
17,590,000 pounds and were 48 per cent of the combined catch.
Included in the above landings from Area 2 are 761,000 pounds of halibut caught
incidentally to fishing for other species in the area under permit after the area had been
closed to halibut-fishing. This total is about 25 per cent larger than in 1953. Permit
landings of 8,000 pounds from Area 3a are similarly included in the Area 3 total.
The 1954 catch from Areas 3a and 3b combined was 33,378,000 pounds, compared to 27,125,000 pounds in 1953. The. total commercial catch in Area 3a during
the first season of fifty-eight days amounted to 29,533,000 pounds. During the second
season of ten days, a catch of 3,431,000 pounds was taken from Area 3a. Landings
from the third fishing season in Area 3b amounted to 611,000 pounds, none being
taken there during the first and second seasons.
The 1953 halibut treaty requires the Commission to undertake a broad and intensive programme of research to meet current and future regulatory needs. The Commission adopted such a programme in 1954 but, for financial reasons, was unable to I 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
embark upon it immediately. Its research activities were confined to the collection and
analysis of current statistical and biological data, to the analysis of some of these, and
to carrying forward the tagging programme begun in 1949 to study the utilization of the
stocks on the different banks.
Biological statistics, derived from the daily fishing records kept by the captains of
the halibut-vessels, indicated that the sharp increase in pounds of halibut caught per
unit of effort in 1952 and 1953 in Area 2 during the first or regular season was not
evident throughout the area in 1954. Off the British Columbia coast the catch per
unit of effort declined to below the 1953 level but was still above that for 1952. In
South-eastern Alaska waters it was materially higher than in 1953.
In Area 2 during the second or August season, the catch per unit of effort in all
parts of the area was much higher than during the regular season. Preliminary studies
indicate that the increase between seasons was no greater than used to occur between
the same months when there was one long continuous season, suggesting that the
increase could not be attributed to the reduced amount of fishing in the second season.
In Area 3a the catch per unit of effort was at the same general level as in 1953
during the first season. During the ten-day August season, the over-all catch per unit
of effort was only slightly higher than during the regular season, though it was noticeably higher on the grounds off Central and Southern Kodiak Island, where the fleet
tended to concentrate during the August season.
In Area 3b, west of Sanak Islands, the catch per unit of effort during the August-
September fishery in that area was higher than in 1952 and 1953, possibly due to a
better knowledge of the grounds by the fleet.
Sampling of the commercial catches to secure data and materials for the study of
changes in the length composition and age composition of the stocks was again conducted at the ports of Seattle, Vancouver, and Prince Rupert during the fishing seasons.
Over 50,000 length measurements and nearly 15,000 otoliths were collected from 106
trips from Areas 2, 3a, and 3b. An additional 5,000 length measurements and otoliths
were secured incidentally during tagging operations. The above represents a considerable increase in sampling over the seventy-one trips and 40,000 measurements and
10,000 otoliths taken in 1953.
The samples taken during the regular season from Goose Island ground, which is
an important bank north of Vancouver Island in Area 2, showed about the same age
composition as in 1953, except that the good 1944 brood-group that as 9-year-olds
ranked first in numbers in 1953 held the same rank in 1954 but as 10-year-olds.
The 10-year-olds were also the most numerous group in the Goose Island samples
taken during the August season, but a much higher proportion of fish over 12 years of
age were present in the August stocks.
In the important Portlock-Albatross sections of Area 3a the 1944 brood-group,
which entered the fishery strongly as 8-year-olds in 1952, held its strength in 1953 and
became the dominant group in numbers of contributors to the catches as 10-year-olds in
1954. The 1941 brood-group, which had maintained itself as a dominant group in numbers from its strong entry as 9-year-olds in 1950, became the largest contributor to the
weight of the catches in 1954 as 13-year-olds. The strength of these brood-groups indicates successful survival from spawnings in the early 1940's, when the stocks had been
restored to high levels of density.
In the combined samples taken from trips landed from Portlock and Albatross banks
in the August season, the age composition was similar to that in the regular season. There
had been a falling-off in the numbers of fish over 16 years of age in July, but these age-
groups reappeared in the August catches in about the same magnitude as in May and
June. The 1944 year-class was still the dominant age-group in numbers of contributors
to the late season catches. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 81
Samples from Bering Sea waters in 1952, 1953, and 1954 indicated that the stocks
in those waters are composed primarily of young fish.
Samples obtained in 1952 from Bering Sea were composed predominantly of fish
8 to 12 years old, with few individuals as old as 16 years. A decided progression of
dominant classes was observed in subsequent sampling in 1953 and 1954. Particularly
striking was the 1944 year-class which appeared strongly as 8-year-olds in 1952 and
which as the 10-year-olds in 1954 was the biggest contributor both in numbers and weight
to the catches.
The coincidence of the overwhelming appearance of the 10-year-olds in Bering Sea
and the strong showing of the same age-class throughout Area 3a tends to verify other
evidence that these stocks are interdependent.
The programme of tagging experiments, begun in 1942 to study the utilization of the
halibut on the different banks, was continued. The halibut-vessel " Eclipse " was chartered and operated from early May to early September.
New tagging experiments were started on the important Yakutat, Portlock, and
Albatross banks in Area 3a.  A total of 4,002 fish, weighing 116,000 pounds, were tagged.
Recoveries of tags during the year numbered 1,580, a new high for recoveries in a
single year. The increase resulted chiefly from the multiple fishing seasons and the large
number of tags released in 1953 in Hecate Strait, where recoveries are high due to the
intense fishery in that area.
Approximately 77 per cent of the 1954 recoveries came from the regular season and
23 per cent from the short August season, but the ratio varied considerably from area to
area. The rate of recovery from the August season was highest in middle Hecate Strait,
off Prince of Wales Island in South-eastern Alaska, and on grounds west of Portlock in
Area 3. The general reopening of the grounds in August appeared, therefore, to have
improved the utilization of stocks in areas somewhat neglected by the fleet during the
regular season. However, until recoveries are related to fishing intensities and tested by
results from succeeding years, any conclusions must be considered tentative. I 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1954
GENERAL
Foreword.—Developments of special interest associated with the 1954 salmon
migration and spawning escapement were as follows:—
1. Continuing improvement in the volume and distribution of sockeye spawning
stocks in the Fraser. The Fraser sockeye-fishery, after nine years of management and
regulation by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, yielded the largest
catch since 1913; that is, 9,527,000 sockeye.
2. A spawning escapement slightly in excess of 500,000 sockeye reached the Babine
section of the Skeena system. The remote point on the Babine River where salmon were
blocked by the 1951 rock-slide was clear and easy for passage. From observations during
the season it appeared that the extraordinary engineering job of removal of the slide was
a complete and permanent one.
3. Further demonstration of the uncertainties and vagaries of pink-salmon runs.
These runs, as reflected in the catches and spawning escapements, were disappointingly
light in many areas where good catches and excellent spawnings were recorded in the
brood-year 1952. Areas where pink returns were much below expectations included
Masset Inlet, Skeena, Grenville-Principe, Butedale, and Alert Bay.
4. The strong run of chums through Johnstone Strait and Discovery Passage fishing-
grounds en route to Southern Vancouver Island and Lower Mainland streams and the
ever-increasing effectiveness of seine and gill-net fishing operations in the narrow confines
of this inside migration route. Fishing efficiency in the Johnstone Strait and Discovery
Passage area is regarded as the major factor responsible for the light escapement of chum
spawners to streams on the Lower Mainland coast, including those of Jervis Inlet, Pender
Harbour, Howe Sound, and Fraser River areas.
5. Sparse supply of chum spawners in streams on both the east and west coasts of
Moresby Island, attributed directly to large-scale poaching in the Queen Charlotte Islands
area in the brood-year 1950, which seriously depleted supplies intended for reproduction.
6. Continued success of salmon purse-seining in the Juan de Fuca Strait area and
successful entry of enlarged fleet of salmon gill-net boats using 300-fathom gill-nets.
7. Above-normal water-levels generally throughout the year in all coastal watersheds.
8. Capilano River: Completion of Cleveland Dam (Vancouver and Lower Mainland water-supply) and utilization of specially designed installations for fisheries protection, including transportation of salmon above dam en route to spawning-grounds.
Sockeye.—Supplies of sockeye were maintained at good levels in all principal
spawning areas for this species with the exception of the Nass River, where the catch was
light and the escapement light.
Of outstanding importance in relation to the sockeye-fisheries of British Columbia
was the escapement of sockeye salmon to the Adams River area of the Fraser system,
where supplies were estimated in excess of 1,500,000 fish. In other sections of the Fraser,
stocks compared favourably with those of the brood-year.
The spawning in the Skeena watershed was normal. The escapement to the Babine
area, the principal spawning-ground of the system, was satisfactory, a total of 503,442
sockeye passing through the counting-fence in Babine River maintained by the Pacific
Biological Station. Spawning in the Buikley-Morice section was light to moderate, while
the seeding in the Bear Lake and Lakelse areas was average.
Although substantial numbers of sockeye reached the spawning areas of Rivers Inlet,
aggregate volume was less than the annual average of the past five years. In Smith Inlet
the spawning was heavy, while in the Bella Coola area supplies were moderate. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 83
On Vancouver Island the escapement to the Nimpkish system was slightly lower
than in recent years, and in the Somass system the seeding was fairly good.
Springs.—Spawning stocks of this species over the Province were well maintained.
The escapement of springs to the Fraser watershed was satisfactory, well up to average
in the Kamloops, Quesnel, and Prince George areas, and above brood-year levels in the
Chilliwack and Harrison areas. Supplies on the spawning-grounds of District No. 2 were
also fairly satisfactory; heavy to the Smith Inlet and Bella Coola areas; satisfactory in the
Lower Skeena, Lakelse, and Butedale areas; while the Upper Skeena area and Nass River
area were moderately stocked. Evidence available indicated good numbers ascended the
Owekano system in Rivers Inlet. Along the east coast of Vancouver Island the streams
were generally well supplied. Cowichan River had the best seeding in many years.
Above-average supplies were present in the Alert Bay and Comox districts. Normal
supplies were present in the Ladysmith area, while the Toba system was moderately
stocked. Spawning in the streams in the Quathiaski sub-district was generally lighter
than the brood-year. Along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Barkley Sound streams
were fairly satisfactorily supplied, stocks in the Nootka area were light and considerably
below average, while spawning in the Quatsino area was normal.
Cohoe.—Generally supplies of this species were fairly satisfactory in all sections.
In District No. 2, spawning in the Bella Coola area was generally heavy; in the Grenville-
Principe area, above average; satisfactory in the Central Queen Charlotte Islands and in
the Lakelse area; moderate to the Nass and Bella Bella areas; and light to moderate in
the Butedale area and North Queen Charlotte Islands area. Spawning was fairly good
throughout the Vancouver Island streams as well as in the Mainland streams opposite,
above average in the Alert Bay and Comox areas, satisfactory in the Quathiaski and
Ladysmith areas, fairly substantial in the Cowichan area, and light to moderate in the
Pender Harbour district. In the Fraser River area the escapement was normal in the
Chilliwack and Harrison areas and adequate in the Nicola area. Supplies of this species
to the Kamloops area appear to be increasing. Stocks in the Squamish area were substantial, although down from the brood-year. Average supplies were present in the
streams of the North Vancouver section.
Pinks.—With few exceptions the over-all spawning of pinks was disappointingly
light when compared with the excellent seeding which occurred in all pink-streams over
the Province in the brood-year 1952. In District No. 2 spawning supplies were light in
all areas, with the exception of the west coast of the Queen Charlottes where stocks were
heavy, the Bella Bella area where they were moderately heavy, and in the Nass and North
Queen Charlotte areas which received light to moderate seeding. In the Skeena system
fairly substantial stocks were noted in the Lakelse area; elsewhere they were light. In
District No. 3 supplies were fairly good in Alert Bay and Comox areas; light to all other
sections. This being an off-year for pink salmon in the Fraser system, none of this species
was expected or observed.
Chums.—The over-all catch of chums was above average and, with the exception
of District No. 1, spawning supplies generally were satisfactory. In District No. 2 there
were moderate to heavy seedings of this species in all areas, with the exception of the
west coasts of Graham and Moresby Islands, the east coast of Moresby Island, and in the
Butedale area, where spawning was light and unsatisfactory. In District No. 3 supplies
were excellent to all sections of the east coast portion, with the exception of the Pender
Harbour area and the western portion of the Quathiaski sub-district, where supplies were
light. On the west coast of Vancouver Island the seeding of this species was generally
good, with the exception of Kyuquot sub-district, where spawning was light to moderate.
In District No. 1 spawning of this species was disappointingly light to all streams in the
Fraser area, with the exception of the Chehalis River and Chehalis sloughs. The seeding
of the Fraser area is estimated at less than 50 per cent of brood-year supplies. Numbers
of chum spawners were also below average in the Squamish River. Spawning in Indian
River, Burrard Inlet, and the North Vancouver streams was satisfactory. I 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
IN DETAIL
Masset Inlet and North Coast of Graham Island Area
The escapement of creek sockeye to streams in this area was moderate. This run is
of little commercial importance. Cohoe-supplies to Masset Inlet streams were the largest
since 1951. In Naden Harbour the escapement was moderate. Notwithstanding the light
catch of pinks, the escapement to Masset Inlet area was light to moderate. Stocks in the
Yakoun River are estimated as light to medium. In other Masset Inlet streams there
was general decline in the number of pinks on the spawning-grounds, in fact the lightest
escapement since 1948. In Juskatla Inlet this condition was reversed; a very heavy
escapement of pinks appeared in the Datlamen Creek and moderate supplies were present
in Mamin River. In Naden Harbour, Naden River was heavily stocked while Lignite
Creek received only a light seeding. Chum-supplies were generally abundant in streams
in Masset Inlet and Naden Harbour.
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham-Moresby Island Area
The majority of the streams frequented by cohoe were satisfactorily supplied. Tlell
and Copper Rivers received excellent spawnings. Over 1,250,000 pinks were caught,
and the escapement to the majority of the streams frequented by this species was heavy.
Kaisun River, Dena River, and Security Inlet streams were exceptionally heavily supplied.
Satisfactory seedings occurred in all streams in east and west Skidegate Inlet as well as
in Seal Inlet and Reilly Creeks. Chum-salmon catches were fairly heavy, but spawners
were concentrated in a few areas. The east and west Skidegate Inlet streams were heavily
seeded. On the west coast of Graham Island the over-all escapement was fair to light,
while in the west coast of Moresby Island streams, with one or two exceptions, the seedings were very light to negligible.
East Coast of Moresby Island and South Queen Charlotte Islands Area
Generally the cohoe escapement was light, comparing unfavourably with the moderate supplies present in brood-year 1951. Although the year 1954 was a cycle-year for
pink salmon in this area, the good returns looked for from the excellent seeding in 1952
failed to materialize. Generally the escapement to the streams frequented by this species
can be classed only as from very light to light. The escapement of chum salmon to the
majority of streams throughout the area was also light. Only six streams received what
might be called adequate seedings. These were Lagoon Bay creek, Sewell, Salmon River,
Tangle Cove, Sedgwick Bay, Powrivco Creek, and Richardson Creek in Atli Inlet. Supplies in the remaining streams ranged from very light to light, reflecting serious illegal
fishing operations in 1950 and the poor escapement which resulted.
Nass Area
The run of sockeye to the Nass system was again light, and the escapement to the
Meziadin Lake system, principal spawning-ground for this species, was poor. Of the
lower tributaries frequented by this species, Tseax River was moderately supplied, while
the Gingit River was only lightly seeded. Generally all streams frequented by spring
salmon were moderately stocked with better than brood-year seedings. The Quinimaas
River and Meziadin system grounds were well supplied. On the whole there was a good
medium seeding of cohoe, showing definite increase over the brood-year. Bear and
Illiance Rivers had moderate but better than average seedings. The light to moderate
pink-salmon escapement showed increase over 1953 as well as brood-year 1952. Such
good producing rivers as Toon, Ensheshese, and Khutzemateen were well seeded.
Streams frequented by chums were moderately supplied, slightly better than the brood-
year. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 85
Skeena Area
Babine-Morice Area.—Inspections of the slide area on the Babine River carried
out before the commencement of the salmon runs showed that no obstacle to free passage of salmon had developed since the removal of the slide material was completed in
April, 1953. This was borne out by the negligible number of injured fish observed in
the Babine spawning-grounds. It was July 25th before sockeye in any appreciable numbers arrived at the counting-fence of the Pacific Biological Station in Babine River.
During the period August 22nd to September 6th the count through the fence ranged
daily from 10,000 up to a peak of 38,755 on September 1st. Total unrevised figures of
salmon passing through the counting-fence which is just below the outlet of Babine Lake
are:   Sockeye, 503,442;   springs, 5,925;  pinks, 4,604;  cohoe, 3,094;  chums, 66.
The sockeye count through this fence in brood-years 1949 and 1950 was 509,132
and 543,658 respectively. The escapement of spring salmon was somewhat below
average. Supplies of cohoe were also below normal but an improvement over brood-
year 1951, one of the years the slide in the Babine River interfered with the migration.
The escapement of sockeye to the Bulkley-Morice system was estimated to be light.
Spring-salmon supplies were moderate. About 11,000 spawned in the Morice River,
compared to about 15,000 in the cycle-year. The cohoe-seeding was about average and
in line with the past several years. Pinks again spawned in the Bulkley system in moderate numbers.
The sockeye escapement to Bear Lake area was about the same as last year, estimated at 10,000. Spring-salmon supplies in the Bear River were somewhat better than
in 1953, when the escapement was estimated at about 10,000; a feature was the larger
individual size of the spawners. The escapement of pinks was light, much lighter than
the escapement in 1952, estimated at 5,000 to 10,000. The cohoe run was just commencing at the time of inspection.
Lakelse Area.—The supply of sockeye on the spawning-grounds of the Lakelse and
Allistair Lake systems was average, while spawning in the Kispiox watershed was light.
The spring-salmon escapement was normal on all grounds. The spawning of cohoe was
equal to the satisfactory seeding in brood-year 1951. Pink-supplies were substantial
and the seeding generally good. The principal streams frequented by this species were
the Kispiox, Kitwanga, and Lakelse Rivers. Chum-supplies were satisfactory, with a
better than average spawning.
Lower Skeena Area.—Sockeye-supplies were heavy to Diana Creek, moderate to
Shawatlan Lake, and light to Johnson Creek flowing into the Ecstall River. The spring-
salmon spawning in Johnson Creek area was good and showed improvement over the
1950 seeding. The escapement of cohoe to all streams was light, with the exception of
Diana Creek, where the seeding was satisfactory. The pink-salmon escapement was considerably below brood-year levels. Although the chum-salmon spawning was moderate,
it showed improvement over the 1950 seeding.
Grenville-Principe Area
Generally the sockeye-seeding throughout the area was moderate, showing slight
improvement over brood-years 1949 and 1950. Moderate supplies were present in all
systems, with the exception of Lewis, Gale, Captain Cove, and Klewnuggit Lake areas,
where light seedings occurred. The escapement of cohoe is estimated to be above
average and equal to or better than the seeding in brood-year 1951; particularly good
runs and seedings occurred in Quinstonsta Creek and Bonilla Creek on Banks Island.
Supplies at the Lowe Lake system were light and disappointing. Pink-salmon stocks in
the streams throughout the area were generally light, considerably less than brood-year
1952. Turn Creek on Gil Island and Bonilla River, west coast of Banks Island, were
the only streams which were heavily seeded.    Streams in the northern portion of the I 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
area, including Kitkatla Inlet, Ogden Channel, Beaver Pass, and Petrel Channel, received
adequate seeding, slightly less than that of the brood-year. Streams in the Principe
Channel area were only lightly seeded. The west coast of Banks Island was moderately
supplied. In the Grenville Channel area, supplies were light. Generally the chum-
salmon escapement was adequate. The streams on the west coast of Banks Island, particularly Rawlinson Creek, Skull Creek, and Bonilla Creek, had good chum runs this
season with satisfactory seeding.
Butedale Area
The sockeye escapement was satisfactory. Supplies in Douglas Channel were
similar to that of brood-year 1950. Laredo Inlet showed a slight decline, while stocks
to the Aristazabal Island area were up slightly. Spring-salmon supplies were satisfactory
and similar to those of brood-year 1950. Generally the cohoe spawning was light to
medium. The escapement to the main rivers in Douglas Channel, Kitimat Arm, Graham
Reach, and Sheep Pass were largely similar or showed some decrease in numbers to the
seeding in 1951, while streams in the outside channels and islands showed marked
improvement. Supplies of pinks were not satisfactory when compared to the excellent
seeding in 1952. Spawning in the large Mainland rivers flowing into Douglas Channel,
Gardner Canal, Kitimat Arm, Graham Reach, Sheep Pass, and Poison Cove was nearly
all light, while the smaller outside creeks received similar stocks to the brood-year. The
chum escapement to the northern portion of the area was light, while the southern portion, the outside waters, Laredo Inlet, and Aristazabal Island showed some improvement
over 1950. In spite of this increased spawning in outside points the over-all chum
seeding for the area must be classed as light because of the poor seeding in the large
Mainland rivers.
Bella Bella Area
The sockeye escapement was moderate and compared very favourably with the
supplies of the brood-year. Tinkey Lake and River received a good seeding. Howyit
River had the largest number of spawners for many years. Kajusdis had a satisfactory
seeding; fair supplies were found in the other small spawning-streams. Generally
cohoe-supplies were medium, somewhat better than brood-year 1951. Kajusdis River,
the main cohoe-stream, had supplies estimated at 8,500 fish. Noota, Sally, and Tinkey
also had good supplies in relation to their size. Other small spawning-streams were fairly
well supplied. The pink-salmon spawning was moderate to heavy, comparing very
favourably to brood-year 1952; even the smaller streams had excellent spawning stocks.
Kainet River in Kynoch Inlet, again the heaviest producer, had an estimated 90,000
spawners, just less than the brood-year 1952. Good to excellent seedings were also noted
in Salmon Bay stream, Nameless Creek (McGinnis Lagoon), Klatse River, Howyit River,
Neekas, Vala, Kwakusdis, Gullchuck Head stream, and Kajusdis. Generally the chum-
supplies were moderate. Kainet River had an estimated 85,000 chums, a 25-per-cent
increase over the brood-year. Neekas River was heavily supplied. Fair to good stocks
were present in the Howyit, Klatse, Salmon Bay, Kwakusdis, Gullchuck Head, Noota,
Vala, and Nameless Creeks (McGinnis Lagoon). Other small streams such as Deer
Pass and Tinkey Creeks had good stocks. Progress was made in the construction of a
fishway at the falls near the mouth of Kajusdis River. This new facility will be completed before the 1955 runs commence. Although improvement work had previously
been carried out at this point, the falls had always proved an obstacle to ascending
salmon during periods of low water-levels.
Namu-Bella Coola Area
The seeding of sockeye in this area generally was moderate. Medium supplies
reached the Bella Coola-Atnarko system, the main producer.  The percentage of jacks REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 87
was large. Spawning in the Kimsquit River was medium, and in all smaller streams, fair.
The escapement of springs was generally heavy, particularly good supplies being noted in
the Bella Coola system. The spawning of cohoe was generally heavy, particularly so in
the Bella Coola system, the major producer. Generally the pink escapement was light
when compared to the 1950 and 1952 supplies. The smaller streams received good seedings while supplies in the larger streams were light. Port John had a count of 31,000
pinks. Koeye River received a moderate seeding. Chum-spawning in most streams in
the area was fairly satisfactory, with the exception of Bella Coola and Kwatna Rivers.
Rivers Inlet Area
Although there was a substantial number of sockeye observed in the Owekano Lake
system, the spawning can only be considered as fair in comparison with heavier seedings
of the past five years. Supplies in the Dallac, Indian, and Quap Rivers were reported
as optimum. Moderately heavy supplies were noted in the Cheo River and at Whannock
River flats, the main spawning area. Spawning in Nookins River was good, but only
light supplies were present in the Wauk-Wash, Shumuhalt, Gennessee, and Asklum Rivers.
Stocks in the Markwell River could not be observed due to flood conditions. Best evidence available indicates a substantial spawning of spring salmon. Generally the cohoe-
seeding was light. Pink-supplies were light to all areas except Hole in the Wall, where
they were satisfactory. The escapement of chums was moderately heavy. Early-run
supplies to Moses Inlet were satisfactory, and the showing of late-run chums inside the
boundaries at Whannock River was very satisfactory.
Smith Inlet Area
The escapement of sockeye to the Long Lake system was heavy and was composed
mainly of small-size fish. The Delebah and Geluck Rivers, which comprise the principal
spawning-grounds, were both heavily supplied. The escapement of springs to the Docee
River was heavy, showing increase over the brood-years. The usual light stocks of cohoe
were present. Pink-supplies were very light, with the exception of the Nekite, which was
favourably seeded. There was a moderately heavy seeding of chums, with satisfactory
supplies present in the main spawning-streams.
Alert Bay Area
The escapement of sockeye to streams in this sub-district was slightly below average
in volume compared to the improved supplies of the past six years. This applies to the
Nimpkish system and also to Nahwitti, Shushartie, Quatse, Adam, Fulmore, Glendale,
Kakweiken, and Mackenzie and Klinaklini Rivers. As was the case last year, there was
a general increase in the escapement of spring salmon. Good supplies were observed in
Klinaklini and Kingcome Rivers, and the escapement to Nimpkish River was very satisfactory. Stocks of cohoe, although above average, did not reach the proportions of
brood-year 1951. Supplies to Nimpkish, Keogh, Quatse, and Glendale were satisfactory.
In the Seymour-Belize Inlet area, one of the finest seedings recorded occurred in Salmon
River, and in the Mainland area Fraser Creek stocks were well above average. Pink-
supplies were very satisfactory, although not quite up to the abundance recorded in brood-
year 1952. Good seedings were found in Nahwitti, Quatse, Keogh, Tsitika, Adam, and
Shushartie Rivers. Some excellent seedings also occurred in the Mainland streams. The
run to Embley River was outstanding, while Glendale, Kakweiken, Ahnuhatti, and Bond
Rivers were satisfactorily seeded. The seeding of chums compared favourably with brood-
years 1949 and 1950, with some marked increases noted. The Viner River escapement
was heavy, one of the most abundant on record. Returns to Tsibas River at the head of
Drury Inlet and to Salmon River in Seymour Inlet were exceptionally heavy. Returns to
Ahnuhatti, Quatse, Keogh, and the Nimpkish Rivers were satisfactory, while those to I 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Tsitika and Adam Rivers were only fair. The fishway at Karmutsen Falls, located in the
upper part of the Nimpkish system, completed in August, 1953, by the Department's
engineers, operated successfully, with the result that there was no hold-up of salmon at
this once difficult point. Water-levels remained satisfactory throughout the entire period
of salmon migration. Very heavy rainfall throughout November and into December has
caused some concern regarding the survival of spawn in some, of the streams, particularly
those where the watersheds have been logged off.
Quathiaski Area
The sockeye escapement in Phillips River was good, much better than last year and
the brood-year. An exceptionally good catch was made from this run. On the other
hand, supplies reaching Hayden Bay were very light, notwithstanding the absence of
sockeye-fishing in the Hayden Bay area. Escapement of spring salmon to Campbell and
Homathko Rivers was somewhat less than brood-year 1950, when better than average
supplies were present. This was also true of Orford River. Phillips River escapement
showed increase over 1950, as did those in Southgate River and Cumsak Creek. Supplies
to Salmon River were very light and compared unfavourably to the brood-years. The
escapement of cohoe was generally satisfactory. Supplies to Campbell, Orford, and
Southgate Rivers, including Village Bay Creek, were good and in excess of the brood-year.
The Homathko River had good supplies similar to 1951, while stocks in Salmon River
were light, showing decrease from brood-year stocks. The escapement of pinks generally
was disappointing, showing decrease in practically all streams, compared to brood-year
1952. Supplies to Campbell River were very poor and far below brood-year levels. Bear
River was the only Vancouver Island stream with a comparatively good escapement, but
supplies here were considerably less than pink-spawning in 1952. In the Mainland area,
notwithstanding special conservation measures, Grays, Grassy, and Hayden Creeks, all
streams in Loughborough Inlet, and Read Creek were below 1952 levels. Chum-supplies
to the Vancouver Island streams were light. Spawning in both Campbell and Salmon
Rivers was lighter than the brood-years, whereas Bear River and Menzies Creek showed
increases. Supplies in the Quadra Island streams were also less than those of the brood-
year, with the exception of Granite, Kanish, and Village Bay Creeks, where increases
occurred. The chum escapement to the Mainland streams was satisfactory, Eva, Grassy,
and Hayden Bay Creeks, and the Homathko, Orford, and Quatum Rivers having increased stocks when compared to brood-year.
Comox Area
Supplies of spring salmon were well above average. The escapement to Puntledge
River was about the heaviest on record; a total of between 11,000 and 12,000 springs
spawned in this system. Supplies in the Little Qualicum and Big Qualicum were above
brood-year levels, while small supplies frequenting Oyster River were lighter than the
1950 escapement. Cohoe stocks were also well above average. Excellent supplies, comparing very favourably with brood-year 1951, were present in the main streams, such as
Puntledge River, Oyster River, Tsolum River, and the Big and Little Qualicum Rivers.
Practically all other cohoe-streams in this area were also satisfactorily supplied. The
pink-salmon escapement, although below that of brood-year 1952, was fairly satisfactory,
good stocks being present in main producers such as Tsolum River, Oyster River, and
Puntledge River. Elsewhere supplies were light, as was the case in the brood-year.
Chum-supplies were satisfactory. Excellent stocks were noted in such streams as Big
Qualicum River, Puntledge River, Cook Creek, Tsable River, Coal and Rosewall Creeks,
and Oyster River. Although substantial numbers reached Little Qualicum River, the
volume was about one-half of the 1950 run. In most of the other chum-streams, stocks
compared favourably with brood-year supplies. report of provincial fisheries department i 89
Pender Harbour Area
Some 4,143 sockeye spawned in Sakinaw Lake, compared to 2,473 sockeye in
brood-year 1950. Spring-salmon supplies in the Toba system were moderate. A few
spring-salmon spawners were observed in the Jervis-Sechelt Inlet areas, notably Tzoonie
River. The escapement of cohoe was generally very light in the majority of streams.
Moderate seedings occurred in Brem and Theodosia Rivers and at Sakinaw Lake. In this
sub-district, 1954 was an off-year for pink salmon. Normal small pink-spawnings were
observed at Toba Inlet, Wolfson Creek, Tzoonie River, and Shannon Creek. Generally
chum-supplies were light. There was a moderately heavy escapement of early-run chum
salmon to Theodosia River, Forbes Bay Creek, and Klein Creek, situated at the head of
Pender Harbour. The late run to Saltery Bay Creek in Jervis Inlet was of good medium
strength and improved the early light run to this stream. Elsewhere chum-seedings were
generally very light in most of the streams throughout the area. The chum-seeding in
Deserted Bay River, Jervis Inlet, was particularly disappointing, this being the principal
chum-salmon producer in the sub-district.   Stocks there were far below average volume.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith Area
Spring-salmon supplies in the Nanaimo River were above average and slightly in
excess of the brood-year. The escapement of cohoe was satisfactory throughout the area,
showing slight increase over brood-year 1951. The small showing of pinks in Nanaimo
and Englishman Rivers was lighter than usual and well below 1952 levels. The escapement of chums was satisfactory in all streams and compares very favourably with the
good escapement in parent-year 1950. Nanaimo River was heavily supplied, while
remaining streams were moderately well seeded.
Cowichan Area
The spring-salmon run to the Cowichan system was the best for some years. It is
estimated that approximately 11,000 spawned in the system this year. Cohoe-supplies
were substantial but somewhat below brood-year levels.   Chum-supplies were satisfactory.
Victoria Area
Cohoe-supplies were light in all streams, with the exception of De Mamiel Creek,
which was well seeded. The escapement of chums was satisfactory and compares favourably with the brood-year in Sooke, Stoney, and Muir Creeks. Goldstream River was also
well seeded with this species.
Alberni-Nitinat Area
There was a fair escapement of sockeye to the Somass River system, about equal
to that of the brood-year. The Great Central Lake portion of the run is estimated at
between 15,000 and 20,000 fish, and the Sproat Lake portion slightly less. High-water
conditions at Stamp Falls again held up the early part of the run, but there was no indication of loss of spawners. Supplies to Anderson (Henderson) Lake and Hobarton Lake
were quite good and in line with brood-year stocks. The run of spring salmon to Somass
system was good, with the escapement over Stamp Falls showing marked increase over
past years. Spring-salmon stocks were also generally satisfactory in the San Juan,
Gordon, Toquart, Effingham, and Nahmint Rivers, fair in Anderson River, and quite
light in Nitinat and Sarita Rivers. The over-all escapement of cohoe was light, with the
exception of Toquart and Maggie Rivers, where supplies were very good. Nitinat, Sarita,
Gordon, San Juan, and Somass Rivers were all lightly stocked. The small run of pinks to
this area was lighter than the brood-year. The chum-salmon escapement over the area
was favourable. Particularly good runs ascended Nahmint River, Toquart River, Hobarton River, Ucluelet Harbour creeks, Grappler Creek, Dutch Harbour creeks, Twin Rivers, I 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and Silver Creek. Fair supplies were noted in the Sarita and Somass Rivers. Supplies to
the Nitinat River are reported as not better than moderate. The seeding in Effingham
River remained light despite special conservation measures taken there.
Clayoquot Area
There was a medium escapement of sockeye to the Kennedy Lake system with good
distribution on all spawning-beds. Supplies of creek sockeye in Megin River were light.
The escapement of spring salmon in the streams frequented by this species was generally
light and below average. This was particularly so in Cypre River. Cohoe-supplies were
generally light and well below average for early-run fish. The late-run seeding of this
species was somewhat better, but it also was light. The seeding of chums was generally
good throughout the area, with favourable water conditions during spawning, the exceptions being Sidney and Holmes Inlets, where supplies were exceptionally light.
Nootka Area
Supplies of creek sockeye were normal. Spring-salmon spawning was light and
considerably below average. A few pinks were noted in some of the streams. Cohoe
stocks were only fair and did not compare well with supplies of the brood-year. The
escapement of chum salmon was excellent, showing considerable increase over the
brood-year 1950.
Kyuquot Area
The spring-salmon escapement to limited grounds in this area was average. The
main producer, Tahsish River, showed a fair increase over brood-year 1950; light supplies were noted in the Artlich River. Supplies of cohoe were somewhat better than
the good escapement reported in the brood-year 1951. Although pink salmon do not
normally frequent the streams in this area in any large volume, there was a fair seeding
of this species in some of the streams showing good increase over brood-year 1952.
Supplies of chums in total numbers were considerably less than in brood-year 1950.
Increases over the brood-year were noted in Artlich and Kaouk Rivers and Chamiss
Creek;  elsewhere the escapement was short of brood-year levels.
Quatsino Area
The escapement of creek sockeye was good to all streams except Canoe Creek and
Brooks Bay. This run is of little commercial importance. Spring-salmon supplies in
the two streams frequented by this species, Marble Creek and Spruce River, were good,
and the grounds were well seeded similar to last year. Notwithstanding a light commercial net fishing operation, the over-all escapement of cohoe was unsatisfactory and
much lighter than in brood-year 1951. There was almost complete failure of this species
in Koprino River, which in the past has been a good producer. There was an average
escapement in Neroutsos Inlet. The escapement of pink salmon, although not quite as
good as in 1952, was highly satisfactory. Koprino River, Browning Creek, Ingersol
River, Johnson River, and Fisherman River were well supplied with pinks. Chum-
supplies were very satisfactory. Winter Harbour Lagoon was well stocked. Outside
streams were slightly down from last year but equal to the brood-year of 1950. In the
inside portion of the area, exceptionally good supplies reached Monkey Creek and the
Holberg Inlet streams.    Elsewhere the escapement was adequate.
Fraser River
Prince George Area.—An estimated 42,100 sockeye ascended the Stuart Lake
system. The early run, consisting of some 36,700 fish, showed a decrease from the
1950 spawning of 53,800.    The late run, amounting to 5,400 fish, on the other hand REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT I 91
was an increase over 1,460 reported in 1950. The escapement to the Fraser-Francois
system was estimated at 146,000, compared with 149,000 in 1950 and 250,000 in
1946. The sockeye runs arrived on the grounds from five to twelve days later than
normal time of arrival: however, actual spawning took place at recorded normal times.
Spawning-bars in the Fraser at Tete Jaune were again well covered with spring salmon.
McGregor River and other streams flowing into the Fraser River between Prince
George and Tete Jaune carried normal supplies. An estimated 1,200 to 1,500 springs
spawned in the Nechako River this year. The small run to the Stuart Lake system was
somewhat less than the parent year. Weather generally was cool and overcast with
above-average precipitations, with the result that the water in all the streams, particularly the larger rivers, was above normal.
Quesnel-Chilko Area.—In the Chilko system the 1954 cycle has the lowest rate of
production of sockeye of the four cycles. Supplies reaching these grounds, however,
compared very favourably with stocks in brood-year 1950. As always on the low production years, spawning was confined to certain favoured areas of the Chilko River. It is
estimated that 5 per cent were jacks. Stocks in the Taseko Lake area also compared very
favourably with those of the brood-year. In the Quesnel system an estimated 300 sockeye
were observed in the Horsefly River, approximately the same number as in 1950. A small
number of sockeye were noted spawning in the Mitchell River this year; none were
observed there in 1950. Sockeye-supplies in the Bowron River were less than the 1950
count by several thousand. However, a good seeding of all the most favourable areas in
the Upper Bowron occurred under excellent conditions, inspections showing a strong
active stock of spawners on these grounds. The escapement of spring salmon to the
Bowron River and Quesnel River systems compared favourably with brood-year supplies,
and there was a slight increase in the spring salmon spawning in the Chilco River system.
Kamloops Area.—The sockeye and spawning migration to the South Thompson,
Adams, and Little Rivers area was the outstanding feature of the 1954 Fraser run.
The return from a brood-year spawning of approximately 1,000,000 fish was almost
10,000,000. Of this, a catch of approximately 8,000,000 sockeye was made by commercial fishermen of Canada and United States divided evenly between the two countries,
and an escapement in excess of 1,500,000 was provided. These spawn mainly in the
Adams River, with heavy seedings occurring in Little River, South Thompson River,
Scotch Creek, and Seymour River. A further significant development was the return this
year of a small number of sockeye spawners to the Upper Adams River. In the North
Thompson River area the only sockeye-spawning takes place in Raft River, and the run,
although arriving slightly later than usual, was satisfactory, numbering between 10,000
and 20,000, much heavier than in the brood-year. Spring-salmon supplies were at least
equal to the brood-years in the South Thompson and Shuswap area and heavier than the
brood-year on all grounds in the North Thompson area. Bonaparte River and Deadman
River were satisfactorily supplied. The spawning of cohoe was similar to the brood-year
in the South Thompson and Shuswap area and heavier than the brood-year in the North
Thompson area. Bonaparte River and Deadman River were also satisfactorily seeded.
No pinks were in evidence this year.
Lillooet Area.—An estimated 35,000 to 45,000 sockeye spawned in the Birkenhead
River, which is little better than half of the brood-year supplies and is the smallest spawning in recent years. The run was later than normal arriving on the spawning-grounds.
Jack sockeye were again very numerous, estimated at about 30 per cent of the run. In
the Seton-Anderson system, sockeye-supplies in Portage Creek, estimated at approximately 5,000 fish, were the best in recent years. Small numbers, estimated at fifty fish,
were observed in Gates Creek and in Seton Creek. The spring-salmon run to the Birkenhead was about average. In Seton Creek supplies were light. No springs were observed
in either Portage Creek or the Yalakom River. The cohoe run to the Birkenhead River
was light, consisting of an estimated 1,000 spawners, compared to 16,000 in brood-year I 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
1951.   Supplies to Gates Creek were light, estimated at fifty.  This was the off-year for
pinks in the Fraser system, and none were observed in this area.
Yale-Merritt Area.—The escapement of spring salmon to the Nicola system was
well up to average. It is estimated that about 9,000 springs spawned in the Nicola while
1,200 were present in the Coldwater River and 800 in Spius Creek. These fish arrived in
excellent condition and dispersed themselves widely throughout the system. About 400
springs entered Nahatlatch River and spawned in a short section of good spawning-gravel
below Hanna Lake. This is noteworthy as only a few were observed in this stream during
the brood-year. Cohoe-supplies were lighter than in brood-year 1951; however, sufficient
seeding occurred to provide for a satisfactory spawning.
Chilliwack Area.—An estimated 24,000 sockeye spawned in the Cultus Lake
system, compared with 30,000 in 1950. The usual small numbers of this species were
observed in the Chilliwack Lake area. It is estimated that 900 to 1,000 springs were
present in the Chilliwack River, a substantial increase over 300 spawners reported in the
brood-year. These spring salmon entered the Chilliwack River much earlier than usual
this year. Cohoe-supplies were about normal. An estimated 15,000 to 20,000 spawned
in the Chilliwack-Vedder River, which compares favourably with brood-year 1951.
Other streams such as Slesse Creek, Sweltzer Creek, Popkum Creek, Lorenzetta Creek,
and Silver Creek received average seedings. In Jones Creek, Sucker Creek, and the
Coquihalla River, supplies were light. Chum-supplies were disappointingly light and far
below normal in all streams, about 50 per cent of brood-year stocks.
Mission-Harrison Area.—The escapement of sockeye to Weaver Creek was satisfactory. Good supplies also spawned in Harrison River rapids. Runs to the other
smaller streams were light. An estimated 15,000 spring salmon spawned in the Harrison
River, compared to 1,000 in 1950. Jacks composed about 10 per cent of this run.
Elsewhere the seeding was light. Cohoe-supplies were good, above-average numbers
being present on practically all grounds, particularly so in the Chehalis River, where an
estimated 7,000 to 10,000 were present, about double the number in the brood-year.
There was also a big increase over the brood-year in Weaver Creek, where upwards of
1,800 cohoe spawned. There was an excellent early run of chum salmon to the Chehalis
River, estimated at 10,000 to 12,000, slightly better than in the brood-year. The late
run, however, was light, estimated at about one-third of the brood-year escapement.
The chum run to the Harrison River was very poor, less than 20 per cent of the brood-
year spawning. The ten Chehalis sloughs of the Harrison River were well seeded and
water-levels remained excellent; an estimated 25,000 to 30,000 chums were present.
All other grounds were poorly supplied with chums.
Lower Fraser Area.—The escapement of sockeye to the Upper Pitt system was
fairly good, estimated at about 20,000. Spring-salmon supplies were light, with spawners scattered over a large area in the Upper Pitt system both in the main river and the
several tributaries. There was a fairly good showing of cohoe in most streams. Blaney
Creek, a small stream, had a good run of chums, and West Creek received a good seeding
during December. Other than this the escapement of chums to all streams in this section of the Fraser was light and disappointing; the spawning-grounds generally were
very lightly seeded. Coquitlam River and South Alouette River, which usually have
fairly good runs, were down to almost zero.
North Vancouver Area
The escapement of cohoe to the Capilano, Seymour, and Indian Rivers was below
normal. The fish-trapping facilities provided by Greater Vancouver Water Board at a
point in Capilano River just below Cleveland Dam were in operation. During the season
slightly over 3,000 cohoe were trapped at this point and transported to a point on the
Capilano River several miles above Cleveland Dam, where they were released into the REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 93
river to migrate up to their spawning-grounds. The usual small number of off-year pink
salmon were observed in the stream. Chum-salmon stocks in all streams in this area
were satisfactory. There was a particularly good escapement of approximately 25,000
chums to Indian River. This is a definite improvement over the brood-year run of this
species.
Squamish Area
An estimated 20,000 spring salmon provided for a fairly satisfactory seeding of
the Squamish system. Cohoe-supplies, although down from brood-year levels, were
substantial, and the seeding of this species is considered adequate. This was an off-year
for pink salmon, and none of this species were observed. Chum-supplies, estimated at
25,000, were below average and also below brood-year levels. I 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICAL TABLES
LICENCES ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
FOR THE 1954 SEASON
Number of
Kind of Licence Licences
Salmon-cannery   20
Herring-cannery   2
Pilchard-cannery   	
Herring-reduction   12
Pilchard-reduction  	
Tierced salmon  4
Fish cold storage  16
Fish-processing   17
Shell-fish cannery  10
Tuna-fish cannery  2
Fish-offal reduction   11
Fish-liver reduction  4
Whale-reduction   1
Pickled herring   	
Herring dry-saltery   3
Processing aquatic plants   	
Harvesting aquatic plants   	
Fish-buyers'    478
Non-tidal fishing   269
Dogfish-reduction    	
General receipts  3
Total	
Revenue
$4,000.00
200.00
1,200.00
400.00
1,600.00
17.00
10.00
2.00
11.00
4.00
100.00
300.00
11,950.00
273.50
40.00
$20,107.50
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON,  1954 SEASON
(Showing the Origin of Salmon Caught in Each District (48-pound Cases))
District
Sockeyes
Springs
Steelheads
Cohoes
Pinks
Chums
Total
Fraser River    	
497,023
1071
10,285
60,817
50,6391
18,937
30,8581
12,051
3
671
8,298
61
3981
1,260|
649
1771
1,645
1,6491
2721
1,077
371
237
1,5131
131
51
5951
9U
11,948
11,289
6,0241
10,449
4,6691
868
26,511
54,783
1,536
1,546
171
105,123
36,448
39,3241
2,5811
523
118,5381
32,913
81
1,5121
45,444
83,8051
15,9651
23,1351
12,3521
2,992
149,672
248,0981
163
496
563,8071
200,369
69,3581
136,500
71,023
Smith Inlet                   	
23,5481
327,8201
Vancouver   Island   and   adjacent
Mainland _     	
349,5861
1,783
4,058
Cold-storage (1953) catch      	
1631
Totals                	
680,789
14,357
3,8971
129,624
337,062*
582,1241
1,747,8541
Note.—4,30254 cases of bluebacks are included with cohoes (Vancouver Island); also included are 50Vi cases of
cohoes (flakes), 1,194 cases of chums packed in oil, 757 cases of sockeyes (flakes), 87 cases of sockeyes (minced), and
170 cases of chums (minced). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 95
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1946 TO 1954, INCLUSIVE
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
Sockeyes	
Springs - 	
Chums.	
Pinks	
Cohoes  	
Steelheads - 	
680,789
14,357
582,124}
337,062}
129,624
3,897}
510,148
13,048}
394,867
795,330
110,164}
3,030}
449,494}
9,279
96,005
679,182
67,438
3,762
428,299
13,698
462,101
736,093
313,674
3,655}
408,0261
9,233}
507,611
446,4561
123,629}
3,227}
259,821
21,184
230,556}
709,987
215,944
2,373
261,230}
16,445}
511,404
321,721}
221,804
5,663}
286,497
10,025
486,615}
600,787}
146,293
3,260}
543,027
8,100}
576,133}
116,607}
100,1541
4,115}
Totals	
1,747,854}
1,826,588}
1,305,160}
1,957,520}
1,498,184}
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,478}
1,348,138}
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS
Total Packed by Districts in
1946 to
1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
563,807}
136,500
71,023
23,548}
69,358}
349,586}
529,972}
4,058
496,936}
117,406
148,8851
35,8701
66,5101
671,981}
338,432
566
151,147
221,306}
105,040
43,562}
57,775
245,437
475,066
5,826}
268,233
130,681
148,996
58,022
152,742}
585,240
612,482
1,124
139,721}
97,889
172,107}
52,750
57,961
347,996}
623,609
6,150
189,938
129,027
70,210}
19,083
58,336}
538,370}
431,498}
3,402
104,485
193,435}
72,117
14,675
38,538}
317,572
567,314
30,134
171,302}
79,718
168,935}
46,172
29,450
552,940}
456,639
28,321
413,542
Skeena River - 	
105,9121
123,304
Smith Inlet     	
23,177
38,313
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland
264,922
378,968
Grand totals	
1,747,854?
1,826,588}
1,305,160}
1,957,520}
1,498,184}
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,478}
1,348,138}
.    '
. .:/ 1.96                                                           BRITISH
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOC
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITI
British Columbia          1895— 395,984
COLUMBIA
KEYE-PACK
I THE FOUR
1896— 356,984
72,979
OF THE FRASER RIVER,
-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1954
1897— 860,459            1898— 256,101
312,048                         252,000
Washington                            65,143
Total                           461,127
429,963
1900— 229,800
228,704
1,172,507
1901— 928,669
1,105,096
508,101
1902— 293,477
339,556
British Columbia           1899— 480,485
Washington                      499,646
Total                         980,131
British Columbia           1903— 204,809
458,504
1904—   72,688
123,419
2,033,765
1905— 837,489
837,122
633,033
1906— 183,007
182,241
Washington                           167,211
Total                          372,020
British Columbia           1907—   59,815
196,107
1908—   74,574
170,951
1,674,611
1909— 585,435
1,097,904
365,248
1910— 150,432
248,014
Washington                            96,974
Total     .                      156,789
British Columbia          1911—   58,487
245,525
1912— 123,879
184,680
1,683,339
1913— 719,796
1,673,099
398,446
1914— 198,183
335,230
Washington                       127,761
Total                        186,248
British Columbia          1915—   91,130
308,559
1916—   32,146
84,637
2,392,895
1917— 148,164
411,538
533,413
1918—    19,697
50,723
Washington                             64,584
Total _                      155,714
British Columbia _        1919—   38,854
116,783
1920—   48,399
62,654
550,702
1921—   39,631
102,967
70,420
1922—   51,832
48,566
Washington                            64,346
Total                       103,200
British Columbia             _        1923—   31,655
111,053
1924—   39,743
69,369
142,598
1925—   35,385
112,023
100,398
1926—   85,689
44,673
Washington                               47,402
Total                           79,057
109,112
1928—   29,299
61,044
147,408
1929—   61,569
111,898
130,362
1930— 103,692
352,194
British Columbia           1927—   61,393
Washington.                         97,594
Total  -                      158,987
British Columbia        ,         1931—   40,947
90,343
1932—   65,769
81,188
173,467
1933—   52,465
128,518
455,886
1934— 139,238
352,579
Washington.— -                         87,211
Total                          128,158
British Columbia                         1935—    62,822
146,957
1936— 184,854
59,505
180,983
1937— 100,272
60,259
491,817
1938— 186,794
135,550
Washington                          54,677
Total                        117,499
British Columbia                1939—   54,296
244,359
1940—   99,009
63,890
160,531
1941— 171,290
110,605
322,344
1942— 446,371
263,458
Washington                        43,512
Total                          97,808
British Columbia             1943—   31,974
162,899
1944—   88,515
37,509
281,895
1945—   79,977
53,055
709,829
1946— 341,957
268,561
Washington                         19,117
Total -                           51,091
British Columbia         1947—   33,952
126,024
1948—   64,823}
90,441
133,032
1949—   96,159
80,547
610,518
1950— 108,223
116,458
Washington                          6,760
Total                                           40,712
155,264}
1952— 134,625
114,638
176,706
1953— 191,123
178,323
224,681
1954— 497,023
501,496
British Columbia                          1951— 145,321
Washington    ....                                                    118,151
Total                 —                    263,472
249,263
369,446
998,519 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 97
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES
Fraser River, 1946 to 1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
Sockeyes -	
Springs „ -
Chums	
Pinks    	
Cohoes     	
497,023
8,298
45,444
171
11,948
1,077
191,123
5,620
26,921
204,421?
15,480
371
134,625
2,279
8,480
60
5,500}
202}
145,231}
5,719
35,530*
66,673
14,848}
230}
108,223
1,818}
23,343?
72
6,025}
240
96,159}
9,889
6,763
66,626
10,286
214}
64,823?.
2,955}
20,209
31
16,102
364
33,952?
1,455
16,475}
113,136}
6,105
178
341,957
1,096}
60,713
429
9,1681
178
Totals	
563,807}
496,396}
151,147
268,233
139,721}
189,938
104,485
171,302}
413,542
Skeena River, 1946 to 1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
Sockeyes	
Springs	
60,817
1,260}
23,135}
39,324}
10,449
1,513}
65,003
1,174}
15,114?
29,884
5,260
970
114,775
2,082
4,638
89,314
8,358
2,139}
61,694?
2,055?
14,778
30,356}
19,977}
1,819
47,479}
1,758?
10,969
26,256
9,781
65,937
2,507*
4,896
33,069?
21,333}
2,507}
101,267}
4,018*
11,863
50,656
22,0861
3,544
32,534
2,113
8,236
13,190*
21,600}
2,044
52,928
2,439
11,161
Pinks	
10,737
26,281}
Steelheads   '	
2,366
136,500
117,406
221,306}
130,681
97,889
129,027
193,435}
79,718
105,912}
Rivers Inlet, 1946 to 1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
Sockeyes	
Springs _   .
Chums  	
Pinks	
50,639}
649
12,352}
2,581*
4,669}
131
132,925}
865}
5,627
7,304*
1,979
184
84,297*
865}
3,711}
12,469*
3,415}
280*
102,565}
937}
11,842}
20,960
12,146
274}
142,710*
619}
10,014}
12,864
5,736
163
39,494*
743
11,819
11,937
5,978
239
37,665}
899?
11,486}
13,491
8,143
431}
140,087
475
13,873
9,025
5,182
293}
73,320
1,108}
37,395}
1,641}
Cohoes	
Steelheads	
9,524}
314
Totals	
71,023
148,855}
105,040
148,996
172,107*
70,210}
72,117
168,935}
123,304
Smith Inlet, 1946 to 1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
18,937
177*
868
523
2,992
51
29,947
176
615
1,017
4,015
100}
34,834
367
1,466
6,496
315*
84
49,473
174?
3,259
2,482
2,530
103}
42,435
71*
397
5,308
4,499?
39
13,189
159
785
2,533
2,361
56
10,456*
186?
929?
1,481}
1,521}
991
36,800
43
348
1,054
7,910
21
14,318
45
Cohoes  	
Pinks                      	
177
235
Chums     —	
8,369
33
Totals - -
23,548}
35,870}
43,562*
58,022
52,750
19,083
14,675
46,172
23,177
Nass River,
1946 to 1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
Sockeyes 	
10,285
398}
15,965}
36,448
6,024}
237
18,162*
527}
25,756}
16,635*
5,118
310}
29,429
641
13,1121
13,016
1,223
290?
24,405?
596*
37,742
70,880
18,711
407}
27,286?
798?
14,321
12,582
2,737
236
9,268
174*
7,854
34,324
6,665
51
13,181*
416
7,272}
8,565
8,954*
149
10,849
398
8,925
5,047
4,075
156
12,511
472
13,810
Pinks	
7,147
Cohoes  	
Steelheads  -	
4,239
134
Totals -	
69,358}
66,510}
57,775
152,742}
57,961
58,336}
38,538?
29,450
38,313 I 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued
Vancouver Island District and Adjacent Mainland, 1946 to 1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
Sockeyes.
Springs 	
Chums 	
12,051
1,649}
248,098*
32,913
54,783
91*
46,895*
3,115}
124,840
439,173}
57,773
184
24,252}
1,687
24,039
171,812
23,583
63}
22,107
3,133
105,458
303,102}
151,325*
114
13,806
3,343
125,833
132,016
72,871
127?
19,486}
6,361?
51,629
361,783}
98,958}
151}
9,981}
6,622
147,227*
43,574}
109,939*
227
14,543
4,942?
99,679*
355,992
77,684?
99
35,381}
2,283}
190,313
6,809}
29,983
151*
349,586*
671,981}
245,437
585,240
347,996}
538,370?
317,572
552,940*
264,922
1 Since 1940, bluebacks have been included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1946 to 1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
107?
6?
83,805?
105,123
11,289
37}
246
1?
17,304
811
2,437?
6
635
96
1,712
178,959'
4,168
19?
510
61,696?
3,455
22,579
89
48
148,669
92,986
9,021
15
20
145
71,287
51,722
4,145
14,096
1,200
392
Chums   	
Pinks- —- 	
24,852*
1,550
8,141}
32,414
8,024
1,192
5
Totals  	
200,369
20,806
185,590
88,240*
250,828
34,544
127,319
15,688
41,635
Central Area, 1946 to 1954, Inclusive
1954
1953
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
30,858}
1,645
149,672
118,538*
26,511
595*
25,845*
1,568
175,289
92,517
21,502
9041
26,583?
1,261*
36,605
207,055
17,289
682
22,312
1,082
190,843*
237,559
61,423?
706?
25,997
776
164,884
163,301
17,061
762
16,140}
1,007
116,292*
173,456
44,169
355
23,246}
1,195*
225,686
152,200*
36,816
850*
17,343*
514?
292,604*
101,241*
28,778
469
12,611*
656
221,958
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelheads 	
81,584}
19,589
934
Totals	
327,820?
317,626
289,476
513,926}
372,781
351,420
439,995
440,951
337,333 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I 99
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1954
Season
Canned
Meal
Oil
1930-31 ..
1931-32...
1932-33
1933-34...
1934-35 .
1935-36-
1936-37 -
1937-38
1938-39 -
1939-40 -
1940-41 -
1941-42 ..
1942-43..
1943-44 ..
1944-45 .
1945-46 -
1946-47 -
1947-48 ..
1948-49 ..
1949-50
1950-51 -
1951-52 -
1952-53
1953-54 -
1954-55..
Cases
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
2,656
Tons
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
Gal.
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
275,879
1,635,123
1,634,592
1,217,087
1,707,276
2,195,850
178,305
890,296
1,916,191
1,560,269
2,238,987
1,675,090
1,273,329
81,831
12,833
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1954
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Pickled
Meal
Oil
1935 36                      -             	
Cases
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
92,719
77,913
56,798
103,928
5,132
66,231
Tons
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons
892
779
502
591
26
100
129}
1
Tons
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
5,525
7,223
18,948
31,340
30,081
31,913
32,777
218
31,740
28,782
Gal.
328,639
786,742
1,333,245
1,526,117
1,677,736
923,137
594,684
323,379
512,516
717,655
521,649
484,937
1,526,826
2,614,925
3,823,464
3,385,685
3,832,301
7,203
3,516,106
3,714,924
1936-37                             	
1937-38 -	
1938-39    	
1939-40                    	
1940-41  „	
1941^12 --	
1942-43-  	
1943-44 -  	
1944^15   -  	
1945-46  -- 	
1946-47 	
302
5,807
3,084?-
412
3,858
4,418
4,331
5,871
3,910
2,397
1947-48.- - - 	
1948-49 .....
1949-50--	
1950-51	
1951-52    ,.
1952-53  	
1953-54  	
1954-55 	
1 Previously reported as 2,988 tons.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually. I 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, VITAMIN A, AND
FERTILIZER PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING
AND PILCHARD, 1947 TO 1954.
From Whales
From Fish-
livers
From Other Sources
Whalebone
and Meal
Fertilizer
Oil
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1947-48—- ,	
1948-49 — 	
1949-50  -	
1950-51  	
1951-52	
1952-53 	
1953-54  -
1954-55 	
Tons
119
921
1,098
1,981
2,349
1,786
2,502
Tons
324
21
Gal.
186,424
312,055
393,176
680,129
668,408
5,707,968
872,060
Units1
11,109,063
10,121,374
12,079,015
3,578,905
5,250,441
5,409,264
5,339,768
4,310,057
Tons
3,929
1,172
1,635
1,717
3,593
2,011
2,059
2,361
Gal.
519,802
141,098
175,202
166,898
250,777
192,315
243,819
265,405
i Million U.S.P. units Vitamin A. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
I  101
O
<
PQ
cc
4
V5
PQ
H
<
<
Q
55
O
55
O
Pi
55
PQ
<
H
pt<
o
u
H
<!
U
Approximate
Weight
(Lb.)
248|         283
685 j      1,950
21,260[      5,940
26,799|    40,032
489          308
334|      2,057
92|         306
1
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2,892|      8,088
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12.327J    11,087
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