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Provincial Game Commission REPORT For the Year Ended December 31st 1954 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1956

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Provincial Game Commission
REPORT
For the Year Ended December 31st
1954
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955  To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to submit the Report of the Provincial Game Commission for the year ended December 31st, 1954.
R. W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., July, 1955. Office of the Game Commission,
Vancouver, B.C., July 1st, 1955.
Honourable R. W. Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Report for the year ended December
31st, 1954.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
FRANK R. BUTLER,
Game Commissioner. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Reports—
Game Commission-
Officer Commanding "A" Division	
Officer Commanding "B " Division	
Summary of Reports of Game Wardens in
Officer Commanding " D " Division	
; C " Division-
Summary of Reports of Game Wardens in " E " Division	
Report of Fisheries Management Division—Chief Fisheries Biologist Dr,
Larkin	
P. A.
Report of Game Management Division—Chief Game Biologist Dr. J. Hatter-
Report of Predator Control Branch—Supervisor of Predator Control G. A.
West	
Page
7
11
14
16
19
23
26
46
60
Statistical Reports—
Comparative Statistical Statement of Revenue, etc., 1913-54, Inclusive     63
Summary of Total Revenue Derived from Sale of Various Licences, Collections, etc., during Year 1954 ,     64
Revenue—Sale of Resident Firearms Licences     65
Revenue—Sale of Deer, Moose-Elk, Goat, and Pheasant (Game) Tags     66
Revenue—Sale of Resident Anglers', Guides', Free Farmers', and Prospectors'
Firearms Licences     67
Revenue—Sale of Non-resident Firearms and Outfitters' Licences     68
Revenue—Sale of Non-resident Anglers' Licences     69
Revenue—Sale  of  Fur-traders',   Taxidermists',  and  Tanners'  Licences  and
Royalty on Fur     70
Comparative Statement of Revenue from Fur Trade, 1921-54, Inclusive     71
Comparative  Statement  Showing  Pelts  of Fur-bearing Animals  on Which
Royalty Has Been Collected, 1921-54, Inclusive	
Statement of Kind of Pelts of Fur-bearing Animals on Which Royalty Was
Collected during Year 1954 1	
Statement of Firearms, Fishing-tackle, and Fur Confiscated during Year 1954-
Bounties Paid, 1954	
72
73
74
74
Comparative Statement of Bounties Paid from 1922 to 1954, Inclusive       75
76
77
79
80
Revenue—Big-game Trophy Fees Paid by Non-resident Hunters, 1954^
Prosecutions, 1954	
Hunting and Fishing Accidents, 1954	
Statement—Trout Liberations, 1954	
Statement—Big Game, Fur-bearing Animals, and Predatory Animals Killed by
Holders of Special Firearms Licences, Season 1954-55     91
Statement—Game-bird Liberations, 1954     92
Statement—Returns of Game-bird Farmers, 1954     93
List of Resident Guides and Non-resident Outfitters, 1954     93
Personnel of Game Commission as at December 31st, 1954  100  Report of the Provincial Game Commission, 1954
Revenue under the " Game Act" during the year under review was $1,107,973.85,
which was some $5,000 less than in the previous record year of 1953. The slight fall-off
could probably be traced to poor summer and fall weather which very likely discouraged
many anglers and hunters from pursuing their sport. Fur prices were also responsible for
this slight reduction in revenue, due to the fact that the prices generally for fur continued
to be poor.
Industrial expansion and activity, coupled with an unprecedented and steady increase
in population, have continued to create wildlife problems of a very complex nature and
throwing more and more pressure on wildlife and also on the personnel of this Commission. The year was notable for the suspension of bounty payments on coyotes. The
coyote bounty was discontinued as and from August 1st because, after careful survey, it
was found that our predator-control programme has been highly successful, which
undoubtedly has been due to our planned control measures and the careful and planned
use of a poison commonly known as 1080 (sodium fluoracetate).
Another development worth special mention was the live trapping of twenty California bighorn sheep near Williams Lake. The expense of the trapping operations was
borne by the Oregon State Game Commission. These twenty sheep were transplanted
and released on a special game reserve in the State of Oregon. The transplanting has
been very successful because six lambs have been born to this herd since their introduction and the sheep appear to be well established in their new surroundings. This unique
experiment in conservation and co-operation between two game-management agencies is
described in greater detail in the report covering " C " Game Division, which is to be
found on another page.
The experimental introduction of chukar partridge, carried out over a period of years,
into some sections of the Interior appears to have been quite successful, and an open
season in some of the areas in which these birds have been introduced would now seem
to be advisable during the coming year.
A very forward step in the direction of public education was taken during the year
through the creation of our periodical entitled " Wildlife Review." This magazine has
been well received and is much in demand. It is free on request and presents the wildlife
situation in the Province in a popular and readable style. It is expected that this publication will play an important part in acquainting the general public with the aims and
problems of this Commission.
The Eighth Annual Provincial Game Convention, which was held in the City of
Nanaimo from May 26th to 29th, inclusive, once more was a most useful and very successful meeting, giving all people interested in the welfare and management of our wildlife
an opportunity to air their views and to listen to experts in the field of wildlife management
and related subjects. I cannot too strongly commend the Nanaimo Fish and Game Protective Association for the excellent work undertaken in making this annual convention
a most successful one. The reception and hospitality received from this host organization
was, to say the least, most outstanding.
Much valuable information was again collected from the operation of the Cache
Creek Checking-station from September 15th to the early part of December. The location of this strategic station makes it an ideal check-point, funnelling, as it does, almost
all of the traffic south-bound from the hunting districts. The station also serves as a
deterrent against prospective cattle poachers, an information centre for sportsmen, and
a means of obtaining important data on wildlife. This check-point continues to be one
of the most important operations of the fall season.   Spot game checks were also made J 8
BRITISH COLUMBIA
at Flood (near Hope) in co-operation with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the
Department of Public Works, and the Federal Fishery Officer for the district. Game
checks were also made at various other points during the year with good results.
The following is a summary of results obtained at Cache Creek Checking-station:—
Game and Fish Taken by Resident and Non-resident Hunters and Anglers
through the Cache Creek Checking-station, 1954
Species
Black bear _.
Grizzly bear
Caribou 	
Big Game
Mountain-goat _
Mountain-sheep
Wapiti 	
Number
- 128
._ 27
._ 26
._ 53
_ 19
■- 1
Total  254
Deer and Moose
Species
Resident
Non-resident
Total
Male
Female
Male
Female
1,301
655
417
264
161
727
11
72
1,890
Moose	
1,718
Totals
1,956
681
888
83
3,608
Resident 	
Non-resident
Number of Hunters Checked
TotaL
10,518
1,447
11,965
Game Birds
Grouse
Ducks
Geese _
Total-
Trout
5,520
7,065
364
12,949
7,274
Detailed descriptions of the work of the Fisheries, Game, and Predator Control
Divisions appear separately in this Report. All phases of fish and game management,
conservation, and protection carried out during the year are covered.
BIG GAME
Two mild winters followed by favourable spring weather have created conditions
suitable for moose and deer. There has been little spring mortality, and the success of
our predator-control programme has also contributed to fairly heavy populations of moose
and deer. This unfortunately, in turn, has increased overbrowsing and the consequent
damage to important food balances in some areas. In view of this fact and in line with
sound game management, it would seem desirable that an increased harvest should be REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954
J 9
taken in these affected areas. This goal, however, can only be achieved or reached by
any-sex seasons, which is a practice being followed by many game-management agencies
in other sections of the continent. From all reports, moose and deer are more abundant
to-day than they have been for many years. Range conditions are being carefully watched
so that suitable measures can be taken in any section if food for wildlife is threatened.
I believe that a heavy winter followed by a late spring could well cause considerable
mortality in both moose and deer if hunting pressure is slackened off in areas where more
controlled cropping is required.
It is a distinct pleasure to record that widespread reports are being received to the
effect that caribou are increasing. These animals, which had practically disappeared
from much of their former range, have been little studied and little is known of their
habits, and consequently there would seem to be no valid reason for the present fluctuation
in their number.   The cause for this fluctuation, however, is being investigated.
MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS
Despite the tremendous increase in hunting pressure, there has been no noticeable
decline in waterfowl. A good migratory-bird population depends mainly on the weather
during the breeding season and the availability of suitable breeding areas. Under these
conditions and through proper regulations and harvesting, it seems that there will always
be an annual crop of waterfowl which can be taken with safety.
UPLAND GAME BIRDS
Both blue and ruffed grouse suffered heavily from an unprecedented Province-wide
wet spring and summer. Young grouse are exceptionally susceptible to dampness, and
a poor crop was due in large measure to wet weather during the nesting season. The
little-understood cycle should also be considered as an important factor for the low
populations encountered this year.
Generally the pheasant population has not increased to any great extent, due, no
doubt, to many factors which have been encountered in recent years, especially since the
widespread use of detrimental insecticides, a change of farming and orchard practices,
and poor weather during the breeding season.
ENFORCEMENT OF GAME LAWS
Despite efforts to counteract violations by means of education, constant patrols, and
employing other protective measures, there is still a minority of our population which
break the game laws and regulations. Enforcement of these laws will always be necessary, and Game Wardens must consequently be ever on the alert and on constant patrol.
I would like at this time to commend the Game Wardens for the time and effort they
have expended in their work, and I may say that patrols have often been carried out
under difficult and dangerous conditions. In the statistical section of this Report will be
found a summary of the violations encountered and the action taken in reference thereto
during the year.
In speaking of our educational work, one phase of our programme is being accomplished by Game Wardens who have undertaken the formation of youth conservation
clubs in their community. I have always encouraged this type of work because I firmly
believe that in teaching youngsters the fundamentals of woodcraft and the safe handling
of firearms that this goes far in ensuring a good citizen and a safe and enlightened
sportsman.
GAME-FISH CULTURE
Complete reports of the fish cultural programme undertaken by the Fisheries
Management Division will be found elsewhere in this Report.   Great strides have been J  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
taken in fisheries management in recent years. The ever-increasing competition for water
use by industry and human populations makes it imperative that our sport fish are vigorously protected. Your attention is especially directed to the work done in rectifying
pollutions, in improving conditions in respect to natural and unnatural obstructions, the
destruction of coarse fish, etc. A fist of trout liberations which have been made from our
hatcheries is also to be found in a statement contained in the statistical section of this
Report.
HUNTING ACCIDENTS
There were fifteen hunting accidents reported during the year, six of them being
fatal. There was one drowning. This compares with a total of thirty-three accidents
in 1953, and it is sincerely hoped that the trend to fewer accidents, for the most part
needless and unnecessary tragedies, will continue. I realize that there is much room for
educational work in this direction.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
An outstanding feature of the year was the whole-hearted spirit of co-operation that
exists between this Commission and the wildlife administrations in Provinces and States
along the borders of British Columbia. This co-operation has made our work more
enjoyable and more efficient. Modern pressures cause conditions whereby the various
agencies of government of necessity find themselves working ever more closely together.
I am pleased to be able to state that our relationship with the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police, local police forces, all branches of the Department of Lands and Forests, the
Department of Public Works, and many other government agencies has been all that
could be desired. Valuable assistance has also been given in our work by the enlightened
attitudes and helpful ideas offered by such organizations as sheep and cattle growers, fish
and game associations, guides' and trappers' organizations, and others. Talks and moving
pictures that we have been able to give to these groups, as well as to many schools
throughout the Province, have been received with understanding and courtesy.
Finally it is with a great deal of sorrow and regret, coupled with a feeling of
personal loss, that I find it necessary to record in this Report the loss on February
8th, 1954, of Commissioner James George Cunningham. The late Commissioner
joined the department in 1919 after distinguished war service in the First World
War with the Canadian Army. He was appointed Commissioner in 1934 after
outstanding work in various phases of conservation activities. Through the demise
of Commissioner Cunningham, his boundless energy and wise counsel have been
sorely missed, not only by all personnel of this Commission, but by sportsmen
throughout the Province and by his many friends in the rest of Canada and the
United States. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 11
"A" DIVISION (VANCOUVER ISLAND, THE GULF ISLANDS, AND THE
MAINLAND COAST FROM TOBA INLET NORTH TO CAPE CAUTION,
INCLUDING THE ISLANDS ADJACENT TO THE EAST COAST OF
VANCOUVER ISLAND NORTH OF CAMPBELL RIVER).
By G. C. Stevenson, Officer Commanding
I have the honour to submit my annual report covering game and fish conditions in
"A" Division for the year ended December 31st, 1954.
Big Game
Wapiti (Elk).—A short open season for hunting these animals was declared during
the past year, but few of them were shot. It is doubtful if more than twenty-five were
taken on Vancouver Island. Hunters reported seeing many signs of elk in localities
where they were known to be, but thick brush and inaccessible conditions prevented a
larger kill. It would appear that in suitable localities elk are fairly numerous, being
limited solely by adequate range.   I see little harm in a short open season on elk.
Deer.—These animals continue to be the subject of much discussion on Vancouver
Island. There are those who declare that the number of deer are steadily declining every
year, and others who maintain that the deer population in some parts is too great for the
available food-supply. It is difficult to arrive at a true picture for the whole of Vancouver Island as present records only cover certain areas such as Cowichan and Campbell
River, and even these records are approximations. In many areas where deer were once
plentiful, the browse has deteriorated and the animals show signs of malnutrition or have
moved elsewhere.
New slashings are being created as logging operations spread, and although the
hunting public does not have access to all logging areas, the day will come when these
new deer ranges will be available to the sportsmen. It is my opinion that a browsing
area for deer in logged-off country lasts from ten to twelve years, after which it deteriorates rapidly, with the consequent effect on deer populations. Heavy concentrations of
deer are never found in virgin forests and in country such as Vancouver Island; our deer
population depends on suitable browsing conditions created by logging and where winter
range is available.
Factual information is limited to a very small area of Vancouver Island, and
personal opinion amongst hunters varies so greatly that care must be exercised in
accepting much of it. I would like to suggest a shorter open season on deer until such
time as more complete data can be gathered with respect to these animals.
Fur-bearing Animals
Beaver.—This fur-bearer has benefited so well under the present regulations that it
is now becoming a serious nuisance. On many parts of Vancouver Island farmers and
others are compelled to seek assistance from this Department in curbing the depredation
of this animal. It is encouraging to the conservationist to see the results of sound
protective legislation where the beaver is concerned, and demonstrates what can be done
to rebuild an almost depleted population.
Marten.—Marten are numerous but the catch of these animals on Vancouver
Island is not large. The market price on this type of fur is low at the present time, and
consequently not many are taken.
Mink and Otter.—These animals are plentiful throughout this Division. Mink have
been receiving more attention from trappers as the price of this fur has been stable for
some years.
Muskrats.—Muskrats are becoming very numerous, especially in municipal areas
and farm lands.
Squirrels.—These animals are numerous in certain parts of Vancouver Island. J 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Upland Game Birds
Blue Grouse.—Though these birds are subjected to considerable hunting pressure,
they continue to maintain a heavy population. Much controversy takes place as to when
the season should be opened for grouse. Some suggest that an early opening date in
September produces bags of undersized birds, whereas others claim that if the opening
is later, the birds have commenced to leave. The opening of the grouse season on
Vancouver Island is not an easy one to set. Very often fire-hazard is high in early
September and there is likelihood of forest closure. If left too late in September, the
birds are on the move elsewhere. Consequently a certain element of chance is involved
when setting the opening of the season.
Willow Grouse.—These birds are definitely on the increase and in some localities
may be said to be plentiful.
California Quail.—Owing to two fairly open winters on Lower Vancouver Island,
these birds show a healthy increase and are now plentiful. The scarcity of quail has
never been due to heavy hunting pressure in this Division as few hunters pursue quail-
shooting. Everything depends on snow conditions during the winter. There are some
heavy concentrations of quail on the Saanich Peninsula.
Migratory Game Birds
Ducks and Geese.—These birds have been plentiful, but owing to mild weather
conditions they remain out of reach, and the hunter success has been poor.
Black Brant.—Brant were not numerous until the close of the season, when they
commenced to appear in numbers.
Predator-control
One hundred and ninety-two cougars and five wolves were destroyed during the
past year in this Division. Twelve of the cougars were accounted for by Departmental
hunters. Other predators accounted for by personnel in this Division consisted of 107
cats, 107 crows, 62 dogs, 1 eagle, 1 fox, 22 hawks, 26 racoons, and 35 ravens.
Game Protection
There were 100 informations laid for infractions under the "Game Act" and
Fisheries Regulations, resulting in ninety-seven convictions and three dismissals.
Owing to the unfortunate illness of two of our Game Wardens and the retirement
of a third, enforcement could not be carried out as effectively as desired. The growing
population in this Division, which has caused an increase of over 133 per cent in hunting
pressure during the past twenty-five years, is a question that warrants serious attention.
At the present time there are fewer Game Wardens than there were twenty-five years ago
in this Division. Additional Wardens are necessary in the Nanaimo-Cowichan and
Gulf Island areas.
Game Propagation
A number of California quail were released on Hornby and Saltspring Islands during
the past year, and pheasants were liberated in the Nanaimo, Qualicum, Courtenay,
Duncan, North Saanich, and Saltspring districts. Both these species have done well—the
quail especially so, having benefited from two mild winters.
The problem of purchase and release of farm-raised pheasants is one that is receiving
considerable attention. Although management claims this form of restocking is not economical, what is the alternative? Improving present pheasant habitat is an excellent idea,
but would it cost less? The latter method has been tried on some limited areas in Ontario,
but could it be economically put into operation in a Province such as ours? I am of the
opinion that the release of full-grown pheasants in the spring is preferable to liberating REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954 J 13
young birds in the fall.  The mortality rate of the latter during the first two weeks after
release is far too heavy for successful restocking.
Game Reserves
There are a number of game reserves in this Division, of which Strathcona Park,
Shaw Creek, and China Creek can be said to represent actual game reserves in the strict
sense of the word. Others, such as Elk Falls, Elk Lake, Miracle Beach, Royal Roads,
and St. Mary Lake, are more in the nature of recreational areas where the use of firearms
is prohibited.
Fur Trade
A large volume of farm-raised mink-pelts pass through this Division, and of recent
months some chinchillas have been shipped. Most of the wild fur is shipped direct to
Vancouver and eastern points. Reports would indicate that the market for chinchilla
pelts is very disappointing.
Trap-lines
Considerable trapping on private property is carried out in this Division, but many
registered lines are operated in the northern and western portions of Vancouver Island
and some of the adjacent islands. Beaver have become numerous and have to be thinned
out, and racoons have developed into a serious nuisance in many parts of the Division.
Registration of Guides
There are a few guides in this Division, but most of them cater to sport fishermen.
Recently there has been a demand for big-game guides for parties wishing to hunt bear.
Special Patrols
There were no special patrols carried out in this Division during the past year owing
to the lack of a launch. The west coast of the Island requires considerably more supervision than it is receiving at present. A Game Warden can only make occasional patrols
to remote areas, and these are done by the aid of the Fisheries and Royal Canadian
Mounted Police launches.
Hunting Accidents
There were three hunting accidents in this Division during the past year, all of which
were fatal. For detailed information covering the accidents, see report "Hunting and
Fishing Accidents, 1954."
Game-fish Culture
Approximately 87,000 trout were released in lakes and streams in this Division from
the Puntledge Park Hatchery during the past year. A more detailed list of liberations
will be found elsewhere in this Report.
Summary and General Remarks
The success achieved by anglers and hunters during the past season was fair. The
harvest of deer in this Division did not appear to be as heavy as in previous years, but
blue and willow grouse were in abundance. Pheasants were in fair numbers but were
mostly confined to private lands.
Biological studies and game-management techniques should provide us before long
with an answer to our deer population. Greater study will have to be given to food values
of browse as our deer on the average do not appear to thrive as well as those on the
adjacent Mainland.   This falling-off in quality is noticeable in recent years.
I make use of this opportunity to extend my thanks to the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police, who have given us every assistance in our work, and with whom we maintain very J 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
cordial relations. To the personnel of this Division who have assisted me in my work,
I am most grateful, and I wish also to record my appreciation for the long and faithful
services rendered to this Department by Game Wardens F. Weir, J. Jones, and O. Motti-
shaw, who were superannuated during the year.
" B " DIVISION  (KOOTENAY AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS)
By C. F. Kearns, Officer Commanding
I beg to submit herewith my annual report for the year ended December 31st, 1954.
Big Game
Moose.—These animals are now occasional throughout the Division from Princeton
to the Crowsnest, and apparently their southern and westward dispersions have coincided.
The stand in the East Kootenay is probably at a maximum level.
Wapiti (Elk).—The elk bands in the East Kootenay continue their gradual spread
westward. Short open seasons in the Lardeau and Creston districts resulted in much
local interest and a number of good trophies.
Caribou.—It is suggested that the extension of the open season to the end of
November might make these fine game animals a trifle more accessible as they normally
range very high.   The number taken in any season is negligible.
Mountain-sheep (Bighorn).—These animals are slowly increasing in the Rocky
Mountain section of the East Kootenay and produce many top trophies, which are much
desired by non-resident hunters.
Mountain-goat.—Of late years these animals are hunted vigorously and the annual
kill is considerable. There is a general agreement among veteran hunters that goats in
the East Kootenay are not as numerous as they were ten or so years ago. They are
found in smaller numbers throughout the Division.
Mule Deer.—This is the No. 1 game animal, and its numbers are on the up-grade
since the series of disastrous winters commencing in 1948. An either-sex season in
the Kootenay-Arrow Lakes district was experimental, as well as a short doe season in
the rest of the Division.
White-tailed Deer.—This is the deer of the valleys and is most numerous in the
East and West Kootenays, where they cause damage to crops and orchards. Considerable loss was experienced in the Canal Flats district late in the winter—February and
March—when much mild weather with rain, followed by a cold snap, crusted the snow
so hard that it would bear a horse and rider. The yarded white-tails, who normally
depend on grass and shrubbery under the snow to supplement otherwise insufficient
browse, were unable to get at it and many perished, presumably of malnutrition. Fortunately this condition was not extensive, but it was drastic where it did prevail.
Fur-bearing Animals
The plight of the trapper shows some signs of improving. Fur prices are slowly on
the up-grade for the short-haired animals. Lynx, bobcats, and coyotes are in little
demand.
Upland Game Birds
It was expected that the grouse cycle would be in evidence, and, generally speaking,
grouse were not as numerous as in previous years. In some areas they were decidedly
scarce. Nevertheless, generally the native-grouse shooting, as well as pheasant-shooting
at Creston, Grand Forks, and Penticton-Oliver-Keremeos areas, was quite good. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954 J 15
Migratory Game Birds
These birds are found in good numbers in the East Kootenay between Golden and
Windermere, and somewhat more thinly distributed throughout the rest of the Division,
except the south and north ends of Kootenay Lake (Creston and Lardeau) where they
nest in fair numbers.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds
All Game Wardens co-operated with the Predator Control staff in the disposition of
baits, attention to complaints, and the hunting-down of destructive animals. For detailed
information covering the destruction of predators, see report " Vermin Destroyed, 1953
and 1954."
Game Protection
There were 108 convictions, five dismissals, and one withdrawal under the " Game
Act" and Special Fishery Regulations during the year.
Game Propagation
Fresh stocks of pheasants were introduced into the Creston, Grand Forks, and
Penticton-Oliver-Keremeos areas.
Game Reserves
It would appear that some of our big-game reserves should be re-examined in the
light of our present game regulations, as local or restricted open seasons have removed
most of the reasons why they were originally established. This does not apply to
migratory game-bird refuges.
Fur Trade
There is one resident fur-trader at Nelson, but most of the fur trade is carried on
directly with the dealers at Vancouver.
Registration of Trap-lines
These are in a satisfactory condition and are continually being adjusted or brought
up to date. Due to the low price of furs, there is not much activity or change in the
trap-lines.
Registration of Guides
A more implicit system of grading guides could be considered. While it has not
been Departmental policy to specifically recommend individual guides, the superior
qualifications and abilities of some of them might profitably entitle them to a special
category.
Special Patrols
As the field staff in this Division are accustomed to getting around the country on
snowshoes, horses, canoes, rowboats, power-boats, motor-vehicles, jeeps, tractors, and
aeroplanes, there are no patrols that would be termed other than routine.
Hunting Accidents
There were three hunting accidents in this Division during the past year, all of
which were not serious. For detailed information covering the accidents, see report
" Hunting and Fishing Accidents, 1954."
Game-fish Culture
This phase of our work is embodied in the report of the Fisheries Management
Division. J  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary and General Remarks
Again it is time to sound a warning note; the same one that was pertinent last
year and ten years ago. This is no time for a complacent view of our public hunting
or fishing privileges.   The basic problems are augmenting too fast.
It is inevitable that with prosperity and an increase in population we should have
more aggressive pressure on wild game. Due to our expanding system of industrial
highways the urban dweller is almost as handy to the aloof places as the country resident. In this same industrial expansion arises the problem of stream pollution to the
detriment of aqueous wildlife, waterfowl and fur-bearers, and possibly moose, as well as
fish. But the immediate concern is the curtailment of deer winter pasturage by
domestic animals—no winter pasture, no deer. It is so unhappily simple. The day is
here when we must buy land for winter deer range and keep it exclusively for their use.
This condition is critical in the East Kootenay and Okanagan districts, as well as being
imminent in other sections of this Division.
Weather conditions during the year were favourable, and at the time of writing,
March 15th, 1955, the snowfall is light. Predators are at an all-time low, but it is to
be noted with regret that winter patrols indicate a larger than normal amount of illegal
deer-killing. This occurs in deer concentration areas where the animals stay close to
the roads. A deer is shot, dumped into a car, and removed with little fear of detection.
Late winter road checks and consistent patrols resulted in a number of convictions,
which presumably represent a mild fraction of the actual violations.
The usual cordial co-operation was received from the British Columbia Forest
Service, the Department of Public Works, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as
well as the various sportsmen's organizations throughout the Division.
SUMMARY OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY GAME WARDENS IN "C"
DIVISION (KAMLOOPS, YALE, OKANAGAN, CARIBOO, CHILCOTIN,
AND SQUAMISH DISTRICTS).
Big Game
Moose.—It appears that moose are still extending their range and are seen in increasing numbers in the Revelstoke, Vernon, and Salmon Arm Detachments. They are also
increasing in the Kelowna district, and are spreading westward into the Pemberton area.
Throughout the rest of the Division, moose appear to be plentiful, but there is distinct
evidence of overbrowsing in many areas, notably portions of the Bridge Lake, Chilcotin,
and Ahbau Lake regions. There seems little doubt that a larger harvest of these animals
could be taken with no ill effects upon the herds. A longer season on cow moose seems
to be indicated.
Deer.—Deer are plentiful and continue to cause damage to orchards and other crops
in heavily settled areas such as the Okanagan. They appear to have increased in numbers
everywhere. Several mild winters have favoured these animals, and they were not seen
in large numbers at low altitudes until the hunting season was over.  The kill was light.
Caribou.—Little is known of these animals, and their fluctuating numbers are so far
unexplained. After an almost complete disappearance from their former ranges, they now
seem to be reappearing. They have been sighted in increasing numbers in the Big Bend,
North Thompson, and Ahbau Lake (Quesnel) districts. It is believed that grizzly bears
prey upon caribou calves to some extent, but it is not known whether this predation constitutes a serious limiting factor.
A suggestion that a survey be made of the caribou herds is a good one. Caribou
have received little attention from researchers on this continent so far. It is certain that
they have increased from the extreme low that was recorded three or four years ago.
Hunting pressure is very light, and few of these animals are taken annually by hunters. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 17
The open season set for caribou in the Anahim Lake-Itcha Mountain area resulted
in a bag of some ten animals.
Mountain-sheep.—The California bighorns, about which the Game Commission has
been gravely concerned in recent years, remain static. They live now on the northern
fringe of their natural range and are split up into some ten distinct bands. Staff biologists
hold out little hope for any increase in the numbers of this type of sheep. The transplanting experiment tried during the year seems to have been an outstanding success.
On November 5th, 1954, twenty California bighorns were live-trapped on the Moon
Ranch, some 15 miles west of Williams Lake. They were then shipped to the Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge in Southern Oregon. California bighorns were once native
to this region, and latest reports are that the animals have settled down well in their new
environment. In the band were one 6-year-old ram, twelve ewes, and two male and five
female lambs.   Six lambs have been born since the transplant took place.
It should be pointed out that this project was financed by Federal and Oregon State
Game Commission funds and was a unique conservation effort between wildlife authorities. The experiment is being watched with great interest by conservationists across the
continent.
Rocky Mountain Goat.—These animals, found, as they are, in rugged and almost
inaccessible terrain, are little hunted, and their numbers appear to remain the same from
year to year.
Grizzly Bear.—These animals are found in various parts of the Division, with the
largest groups being found in the Shuswap, Bowron Lake, Okanagan, Ahbau Lake, and
Baezeko districts. Unlike the black or brown bear, which adapts itself to any type of
environment, the grizzly bear has much more exacting range requirements.
There is little doubt that they will decrease in numbers as the country becomes more
widely settled, but there are still healthy populations in the above and other areas. Very
few of these animals are taken by hunters during the year.
Black or Brown Bear.—These animals continue to be a nuisance in many areas and
appear to be increasing everywhere despite a continuous open season. Most of the complaints about these animals come from orchardists, and they occasionally attack domestic
cattle. The mild winter seemed to keep them from hibernation later than usual so that
hunters took a larger bag of these animals than is common.
Fur-bearing Animals.—Short-haired fur appears to be slightly more in demand than
in recent years, with the result that trappers were more active. It should be noted that,
with high wages being paid in logging camps and other activities, there is little incentive
for a trapper to operate. There is a definite lull in trapping. This lull has caused an
increase in almost all fur-bearers. Beavers have increased to the point where they are a
nuisance in many regions.
The registered trap-line system continues to be a most efficient method of controlling
trappers, and it also encourages them to harvest their fur along the lines of wise conservation. There are few complaints from trappers.
Upland Game Birds
The most interesting development among bird-life in this Division is the introduction
of the chukar partridge. First liberated in the Interior in 1950 and bolstered with fresh
liberations annually, the chukar partridge has thrived in the Kamloops and Okanagan
districts, and they are now almost numerous enough to warrant an open season. They
form an interesting addition to our wildlife species here.
Pheasants.—The new sprinkling methods of irrigation seem to be hard on pheasants,
owing to the fact that sprinkling makes it difficult for the birds to nest in places where they
nested formerly. The widespread use of insecticides such as DDT must have a detrimental
effect upon these birds, but no definite findings can be reported at present. J 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The present situation appears to be good, with a healthy crop of hens being observed
in the Kamloops and Okanagan districts. If all sportsmen realized the importance of
using a good bird dog when hunting pheasants, I am sure that many more birds would be
brought to bag. More and more pheasant territory is being taken under cultivation annually, while an increasing number of farmers are using the " No Hunting" signs, despite
worthy efforts by Game Wardens and fish and game club members to promote a harmonious relationship.
Ruffed or Willow Grouse.—It is now widely realized that these birds are subject to
periodic die-offs (cycles), and some decline in their numbers was noted in various parts
of the Division. Whether this shortage can be attributed to the cycle or to a poor breeding
season is not known at present, but it is certain that these grouse were not abundant.
Blue Grouse.—These birds were plentiful in the higher areas. Sportsmen do not
take many of these birds because they are usually found at higher altitudes.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds
The 1080 poisoning campaign has undoubtedly been a great success. Complaints of
damage by wolves and coyotes are practically a thing of the past. Domestic cats allowed
to run wild continue to be a nuisance everywhere.
In another section of this Report will be found a detailed statement of predatory
animals and other noxious birds destroyed by employees of this Division, together with a
statement of bounty payments made during the year.
The indiscriminate shooting of harmless hawks and owls, as well as ospreys, is to be
deplored, and some sort of educational programme for sportsmen in which they would
learn how to identify the various species of hawks and owls would be of benefit.
Game Protection
A list of the prosecutions made under the " Game Act" during the year will be found
in another section of this Report.  The mild winter made pheasant-feeding unnecessary.
Game Propagation
Game birds liberated within this Division are listed elsewhere in this Report.
Game Reserves
Game reserves and protected areas are patrolled regularly. The reserves which have
been created adjacent to Interior cities continue to provide enjoyment to many citizens,
who are able to observe waterfowl in such areas.
Fur Trade
There was little activity in the fur trade due to low fur prices and high wages in other
forms of endeavour, both factors keeping trappers interested in other matters except
trapping.
Registration of Guides
The system of guiding blocks appears to be working quite well, although it was found
desirable to enlarge some of the blocks in the Cariboo and Chilcotin regions. It has been
suggested by some Game Wardens that a reclassification of guides would be in order, with
stricter requirements being laid down for the first-class licence.
Shortage of staff would seem to preclude any large-scale examination programme,
but there is little doubt that the grading is not what it should be. However, the guide
system seems to work as well as can be expected at present, although some individuals do
not give non-residents the service expected of them. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 19
Game-fish Culture
A list of fish and egg plantings will be found elsewhere in this Report. Fishery
Officer Fred Martin, who was associated with the Lloyd's Creek Hatchery for a number of
years, was transferred to the Puntledge Park Hatchery at Courtenay. His position was
efficiently filled by Hatchery Officer Hugh Sparrow.
Summary and General Remarks
.
Co-operation with other Government departments continues to be one of the most
pleasant features of our work. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Forest Service,
the Water Rights Branch, and other Government agencies gave our staff every possible
assistance during the year.
Great improvement in the wolf and coyote problems was especially noticeable, due
to the success of the 1080 programme.
Canada geese were found to be extremely abundant and, despite the heavy hunting
pressure, the numbers of other waterfowl held up well.
Hunting Accidents
On November 20th, Leonard Larsen, Roe Lake, shot himself in the left forearm
while hunting west of Little Fort. When running to head off a deer, he tripped and fell.
His rifle, an 8-mm. Mauser, then discharged and the bullet tore through the muscles of his
left forearm.   It is expected that he will regain the full use of the wounded arm.
"D" DIVISION  (ATLIN, SKEENA, OMINECA, PRINCE RUPERT, FORT
GEORGE, PEACE RIVER, AND YUKON BOUNDARY DISTRICTS)
By W. A. H. Gill, Officer Commanding
I beg to submit herewith my annual report covering game conditions in " D "
Division for the year ended December 31st, 1954.
Big Game
Moose.—These animals are holding their own, and a good number were taken by
both resident and non-resident hunters. Many animals of both sexes were reported
seen during the mating season, but later these migrated to higher ground and did not
show up in any great numbers until they were forced down by heavy snowfall toward
the end of the season. Migration to higher ridges took place at a much later date than
usual, no doubt due to the exceptionally mild weather which prevailed during most of
the fall.
During the winter and spring the occasional moose was found dead from tick
infestation. It would appear, however, that fewer allegedly infested animals were killed
by hunters during the past season.
Deer.—Deer showed a slight increase in some portions of the Division, while in
others the population remained stationary. Reports have been coming from nearly all
regions to the effect that sportsmen generally feel that the present population does not
warrant a bag-limit of two bucks.
Conditions on the Queen Charlotte Islands differ from the remainder of the Division. Reports indicate that in this region there exists an overabundance of deer. A special effort should be made to reduce their numbers with a view to obtaining a more
healthy breed.
Caribou.—These animals are reported to be increasing slightly in some areas and
holding their own in others.   They are not hunted extensively by residents of the Prov-
. J 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ince, but quite a number are taken by non-residents, especially in the Peace River District. Fair numbers are appearing in the vicinity of Fort Grahame on the Finlay River,
where caribou have not been seen for years.
Black and Brown Bear.—These animals remain plentiful, though reports of damage
to domestic stock are few. During the fall, however, they do cause some damage to
grain-crops on farms, while a number of moose calves are also killed by these animals.
The present year-round open season is a means of reducing their numbers.
Grizzly Bear.—Grizzlies remain plentiful throughout the Division and are not
hunted extensively, but a few are taken by non-resident hunters. Ten were bagged in
the Marilla area south of Burns Lake during the past hunting season.
Mountain-sheep.—No appreciable change has taken place in the population of
these animals. Most of those taken last season were obtained in the northern portion
of the Peace River District and in the Cold Fish Lake area. Trophy fees were collected
on thirty-six mountain-sheep at Fort St. John.
The band in the Sheep Creek Pass area is heavily hunted, and the matter of closing
the season in that area should receive serious consideration. A patrol of the region
should be undertaken for the purpose of closely checking the activities of all guides,
especially those who operate out of Hythe and Beaverlodge in Alberta.
Mountain-goat.—These animals are quite plentiful in all regions, though not heavily
hunted.   The bulk of those taken were obtained in the north-eastern part of the Province.
Wapiti (Elk).—Small bands of elk remain in the vicinity of Red Pass, and also in
the Peace River District, but no noticeable increases have been reported. A slow increase
in population is, however, reported from the Queen Charlotte Islands, where elk were
liberated some years ago. Their range is not easily accessible, and they are therefore
not heavily hunted. A slightly longer open season would perhaps result in a few of these
being taken.
Fur-bearing Animals
Marten.—Marten are plentiful on most trap-lines in the rugged portions of the
Division. However, they are reported as being non-existent on one line in the Pine Pass
area where they were formerly found in abundance. Evidently they migrated to another
area, and a close watch is being kept to ascertain if disease is the cause of the decline.
Beaver.—These animals showed another marked increase in numbers, with the
result that destruction was done to farm lands, while highways and railway rights-of-way
were in danger of being damaged. In some localities it was necessary to sink iron culvert
pipe into the dams, and this proved an effective method of preventing flood conditions.
The increased price offered for pelts which were carried over from last season should
encourage all trap-line holders to harvest some of their beaver-crop.
Fox.—Fox remain plentiful, although few are trapped because of low prices.
Mink.—Mink are still increasing, although quite a number were trapped since fair
prices were offered.
Fisher.—As prices have improved somewhat, and as fisher show an increase in
numbers, it is believed that a few will be trapped.
Lynx.—These animals have increased to the point where repeated requests that
they be declared predators are being received. Since rabbits have nearly all disappeared,
it is natural that lynx prey more heavily on grouse. Reports indicate that many domestic
birds are being killed by lynx who raid chicken-pens.
Squirrels.—These fur-bearers are exceptionally scarce in nearly all areas, but it has
as yet not been established if this condition is brought about by migration or disease.
It is hoped that the improved market condition which prevailed at the end of the
year will result in increased activity among trappers and a reduction in those fur-bearers
which have reached the point of overpopulation. report of provincial game commission, 1954 j 21
Upland Game Birds
Pheasants.—Very poor results were obtained from the birds which were released
in the Smithers, Vanderhoof, and Fort St. John areas as conditions in these northern
latitudes do not lend themselves favourably to the raising of pheasants. Members of
the rod and gun club at Fort St. John have hatched and liberated some birds which have
now settled on adjoining farms, and the results of this endeavour will be watched with
interest.
Willow Grouse.—A sharp drop in the population of willow grouse is reported from
all parts of the Division due, no doubt, to the very wet and unfavourable nesting season,
and also the marked increase in numbers of animals which feed on these birds. However, it is believed that sufficient birds remain in the woods to bring about a substantial
come-back should weather conditions prove more favourable during the coming spring.
Blue Grouse.—These birds are only found on higher ground, and few are taken.
Franklin's Grouse.—These birds also suffered a serious set-back due to unfavourable weather conditions last spring, and so remain scarce.
Sharp-tailed Grouse (Prairie-chicken).—As a result of the serious decline in the
population of these birds, it may become necessary to recommend a smaller bag-limit.
Migratory Game Birds
Ducks and Geese.—As has been the case in the past few years, duck-hunting in
parts of this Division was poor, except for the Peace River District and the Prince Rupert
area. Lack of birds was brought about mainly by reason of the exceptionally fine weather,
which resulted in northern ducks remaining in those parts until freeze-up time. Local
ducks appeared in fair numbers, and quite a few were taken by hunters.
Geese showed a substantial increase, though few were taken. The establishment
of bird sanctuaries should produce fair hunting in the not too distant future.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds
Timber-wolves and Coyotes.—The very extensive poisoning programme which was
undertaken again last year throughout most of this Division has resulted in the destruction of a large number of timber-wolves and some coyotes. No count of the number of
animals destroyed could be obtained as the use of 1080 poison permits the animals to
travel long distances before they die. An effort should be made during the coming year
to carry on with this work with a view to further reducing the predator population.
Cougars.—According to reports, the occasional cougar has been seen, though it is
believed that they are not increasing very rapidly.
Magpies.—There is no noted change in the number of these birds.
Eagles.—These birds remain quite plentiful in some areas and are a definite menace
to small animals and birds.
Game Protection
The rapid increase in population throughout the entire Division has resulted in a
substantial increase in hunters and, likewise, in violations of the " Game Act." A total
of 255 cases were taken before the Courts, resulting in 236 convictions and nineteen
dismissals.
Whereas major construction programmes will be undertaken in many parts of this
Division during the coming year, with a resultant heavy influx of transient workers, the
employment of additional Game Wardens to more extensively carry on patrols is strongly
recommended. However, it is realized that the appointment of such extra personnel
involves the expenditure of additional funds. J 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Game Propagation
Pheasants.—The only propagation programme undertaken was the one at Smithers,
where the Bulkley Valley Rod and Gun Club raised and released thirty-three pheasants,
nearly all of which fell prey to hawks and owls or perished during the extremely wet and
cold summer weather.
A further decline was reported from the Peace River District, and it has therefore
been established that this country does not lend itself to the raising of these birds.
Game Reserves
The game reserves consist of Fort George, Lake Kathlyn, and Kaien Island, all of
which were principally established for the protection of the public from stray bullets
should some ambitious hunter attempt to kill game birds near settlements. The Nechako
Bird Sanctuary at Vanderhoof does not fall into this category as it was frequented by
a large number of migratory birds on their way north and, to a lesser degree, during
the southern migration period in the fall.
The Buckhorn Lake Bird Sanctuary is proving its worth as a greatly increased
number of geese now inhabit this area. Feeding is done in adjoining grain-fields, and
local sportsmen are therefore able to enjoy fair shooting. It is anticipated that greater
numbers of birds will frequent this sanctuary in the near future, and still better shooting
will result.
Fur Trade
The fur trade has been at a very low ebb for some time but should show signs of
improvement as somewhat higher fur prices were offered at the end of the year. Exceptionally high wages which are currently being paid by employers coupled with low fur
prices are the reasons for the greatly deteriorated condition of this industry.
Registration of Trap-lines
Nearly all trap-line registrations have been completed until such time as new and
more accurate maps of the Province become available.
Registration of Guides
All registered guides appear to be highly satisfied with the present registration
system, and no reports of friction caused by overlapping of territory have been received
to date. However, there would appear to be a great variation in rates charged by persons engaged in this type of work, and it is hoped that members of the guides' associations will get together with a view to establishing a more uniform rate. Non-residents
who engage a guide at a low rate per diem are usually dissatisfied with the results of
their hunt, and it is felt that this casts a reflection on the ability of other guides who are
fully qualified to offer first-class service.
Special Patrols
No patrols of a special nature were undertaken by Game Wardens in this Division.
Hunting Accidents
Four hunting accidents were reported to this office during the year, only one of
which proved fatal. For detailed information covering the accidents, see report " Hunting and Fishing Accidents, 1954."
Game-fish Culture
An extensive coarse-fish removal programme was again undertaken, and satisfactory results were obtained in Beaverly and St. George Creeks, at the outlet and inlet to REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 23
West Lake. Fish-traps were operated in both streams, and many hours were spent by
the Game Wardens and myself in keeping the traps in working order. Some poisoning
was also carried out in these streams, but fewer fish were taken by reason of the
exceptionally high water during the summer months.
Many coarse fish were also destroyed in streams flowing into and out of Cluculz
Lake by both fish-traps and poison, and it is believed that their numbers were further
reduced. This work will continue in preparation of a heavy fish-culture programme,
which it is hoped will be undertaken upon the establishment of a fish-hatchery at
Livingston's Fishing Hole on the Crooked River, some 45 miles north of Prince George.
This body of water could support a very large hatchery and many suitable rearing-
ponds, but it is fully realized that the development of the project is out of the question
by reason of lack of funds.
Summary and General Remarks
The year just closed was quite successful from the standpoint of the game-hunter,
but fishing in many localities has deteriorated because of increased population, and it
is believed that this condition will prevail until such time as we are in a financial position to erect a fish-hatchery in this Division in order to restock many of our lakes and
streams.
The lack of good fishing in bodies of water adjacent to motor-roads has resulted
in fishermen now visiting lakes and streams in the more remote areas by means of
aeroplanes. During the fall months, aeroplanes are also used for the purpose of hunting game, and since this Department does not own an aeroplane and the cost of chartering one is prohibitive, we have no means of checking the activities of such fishermen
and hunters. This means of travel will increase as time goes on, and the Department
should therefore give serious consideration to the matter of obtaining an aeroplane for
carrying out patrols into these remote areas. An aeroplane could also be used for
putting out poison baits during the winter months instead of doing this work by a
chartered aeroplane as is done at present. Periodic return trips could be made to the
baits for the purpose of checking the results obtained, which cannot be done at present
because of the high cost of chartering an aeroplane.
I hereby wish to express my sincere thanks to the personnel of this Division for
the efficient manner in which they carried out their work. The many hours spent
during patrols is reflected in the number of prosecutions resulting therefrom.
Many thanks also to the members of the other departments, especially the Forest
Service and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, for their kind co-operation. May the
cordial relations which have existed in the past be extended to the future.
SUMMARY OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY GAME WARDENS IN "E"
DIVISION (MAINLAND COAST NORTH TO TOBA INLET AND LOWER
MAINLAND AS FAR INLAND AS NORTH BEND).
Big Game
Deer (Coast or Columbian).—Deer are on the increase throughout the Division and
are thought to be beyond the carrying capacity of the range on some islands adjacent to
the Mainland. A good harvest was obtained during the season, with the last two weeks
being especially fruitful. It was noted that, although there was an open season on doe
deer, far more bucks than does were taken in many areas. It would appear that a larger
harvest could be taken without any detrimental effects. Deer seem to be increasing their
range and have been seen in increasing numbers at coastal points on both the Mainland
and the east coast of Vancouver Island in areas where they were scarce previously. J 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Wapiti (Elk).—The McNab Creek elk herd appears to be increasing its range. The
five-day open season did not result in a single kill as far as is known. This was partly due
to the mild autumn, which kept the wapiti high up in the hills and made them inaccessible.
Torrential rains and high water in creeks and rivers also discouraged hunters. This elk
herd would appear to be at its maximum capacity at present, and a one-week season at
the end of November is suggested.
Black or Brown Bear.—These animals are a decided nuisance and seem to be on
the increase despite the continual open season. They have been the cause of many complaints in many parts of the Division. Powell River, Coquitlam, and North Vancouver
have been plagued with these animals at various times; it would be a good thing if sportsmen would hunt these animals more extensively in the places named.
Grizzly Bear.—The exact status of these animals is not known due to the fact that
they inhabit almost inaccessible areas at the head of the many coastal inlets. There appear
to be satisfactory populations at the head of Loughborough, Bute, Toba, and other inlets,
as well as Phillips and Ramsay Arms. There are some grizzlies also in the Mission-
Harrison Lake area and perhaps in other mountainous parts of the Division. Few are
ever taken, and hunting pressure has no effect whatsoever upon them. It is believed that
the population remains more or less the same.
Mountain-goat.—These animals are definitely on the increase in the high mountainous country north and south of Powell River and in the high mountains close to the
coastal inlets. Goat populations are also found in the headwaters of the Coquitlam River
north of Alouette and Stave and other lakes in the district. Their range is almost inaccessible, and few are taken by hunters. For the most part the population remains static and
is quite satisfactory. A proposal to extend the open season to December 15th is under
consideration. With mild autumns there is almost no possible chance of mountain-goats
being hunted.
Fur-bearing Animals
Continued low prices for fur have resulted in a fall-off in trapping activity for the
past few years, and, as a result, fur-bearing animals of all types have increased. Racoons
and foxes are so little trapped nowadays that they have become a considerble nuisance in
farming areas, and strong control measures have been taken.
Beavers continue to show an increase everywhere, and damage through flooding is
commonplace throughout the Division.
Upland Game Birds
Blue Grouse.—In this Division the blue grouse are scattered, and their habitat is
continually changing so that the over-all picture is difficult to ascertain. Where they were
previously numerous in the Powell River district, for example, they are now scarce.
Weather conditions were not favourable during the nesting and hatching seasons, but
blue grouse were still taken in fair numbers by hunters willing to climb into the higher
levels. These birds seem to fluctuate, but over the years their numbers would appear to
remain about the same.
Willow (Ruffed) Grouse.—These are found in scattered coveys throughout the
Division where habitat is suitable, with the Sechelt Peninsula yielding the heaviest concentrations. A poor breeding season affected them this year, but, as these birds are cyclic,
little fear should be felt for their survival. Their numbers range from extreme scarcity to
fairly good populations from district to district.
Pheasants.—Despite the tremendous hunting pressure on pheasants—a pressure
which increases yearly—these birds still seem to be able to look after themselves. It
should be noted that areas in which pheasants were once abundant are gradually being
taken over by industry or some other form of human development.   It is most difficult to REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 25
supply the ever-increasing army of hunters with a satisfactory pheasant population when,
at the same time, pheasant habitat is continually decreasing.
A poor breeding season also cut into the pheasant numbers, and it was, on the whole,
a poor season for these birds. To hunt them without dogs is almost useless, and every
effort should be made to teach sportsmen that a dog is absolutely necessary when in the
field after pheasants.
The widespread use of insecticides of various types is also, surely, having a great
effect upon pheasants.
Migratory Game Birds
Ducks and Canada Geese.—There was a fair duck-hunting season in the northern
(Powell River) section of this Division, with the last two weeks of the season yielding the
best harvest. Scoters and golden eyes were the most prevalent types bagged. In general,
ducks were abundant but did not appear in the greatest numbers until after the season had
closed, due to climatic conditions.
Black Brant.—These birds were scarce during the open season but appeared in large
numbers after the season had closed.
Band-tailed Pigeons.—As in the previous two years, band-tailed pigeons left before
the season opened. Food habits appeared to account for this. The birds had finished off
the elderberry and moved off before the dogwood ripened. These birds are little hunted
and are, on occasion, a considerable nuisance around truck-gardens.
Snow Geese.—These birds were observed in large numbers off the foreshore, but, as
usual, few of them were taken.
Wilson's Snipe.—These birds were plentiful but are little hunted.
Predatory Animals and Noxious Birds
Wild house-cats and domestic dogs can be classed as among our worst predators,
especially so in areas close to human settlement. Foxes and racoons also cause certain
damage where chickens and other domestic fowl are being raised. Good results in controlling these troublesome animals were obtained, but the domestic cats and dogs remain
a major problem.
Bobcats have been responsible for local predation on small game birds and fawn
deer but cannot be considered as a serious limiting factor.
Crows and ravens are known to have been active in nest and egg destruction, while
certain types of hawks have also caused damage. Unfortunately the troublesome types
of hawks are extremely difficult to hunt. Care should be taken when hunting hawks so
that only the troublesome types are killed. Few hawks actually seem to cause enough
damage to game birds to be a serious limiting factor.
A complete list of the predators destroyed by Game Wardens will be found in
another section of this Report.
Game Protection
Game Wardens continued to patrol extensively in their various detachments, and a
list of violations and prosecutions will be found in another section of this Report.
Game Reserves
Regular patrols are made of all game reserves in this Division.
Fur Trade
A slight rise in prices of certain furs caused a spur in trapping activity, but the
industry does not flourish on anything like the scale it did a few years ago. The registered
trap-line system continues to function with a minimum of complaint. The trap-line system J 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
practised here is undoubtedly most efficient.   As well as controlling trapping, it also
encourages trappers to conserve their fur and works amazingly well.
Registration of Guides
With the exception of a few hunting trips for grizzly bears along the coastal inlets,
there is no guiding activity in this Division.
Special Patrols
A special patrol was undertaken by Game Warden B. E. Wilson, Powell River. The
patrol commenced December 5th, 1954, and ended three days later. The trip was done
with launch P.G.D. No. 1, and a search was conducted for members of the crew of Powell
River Company's tug " Teeshoe."
Corp. L. R. Lane, Vancouver, undertook aerial flights over coastal islands and inlets
for the purpose of counting waterfowl. A distance of 1,800 miles was covered. A special
road block which was set up at Flood (near Hope) at the end of the hunting season
yielded satisfactory results.
Hunting Accidents
There were two hunting accidents during the year, one of them fatal.
On October 19th, 1954, Richard Rudolph Popp, of 2259 East Fifty-fifth Avenue,
Vancouver, B.C., was accidentally shot and killed by his hunting partner, Clare Steve
Severenski, of 3750 Patterson Avenue, South Burnaby, B.C., while duck-hunting in the
Pitt Meadows district.
Glenmore David Smith, Agassiz, shot his father, Albert Smith, in the back with a
.410-gauge shotgun while hunting pheasants.   Albert Smith recovered later.
Game-fish Culture
Detailed statements regarding game-fish culture activities within this Division are to
be found elsewhere in this Report. It should be mentioned that extensive and far-reaching
studies of the effects of the Cleveland Dam (Capilano River) on down-stream migrants
are being carried out continually. Both Federal and Game Branch fisheries biologists are
engaged in this important matter.   A complete report is not yet available.
Anti-pollution measures and coarse-fish eradication programmes have been undertaken in several Lower Mainland lakes and streams, and a full report on these activities
will be found elsewhere in this Report.
Summary and General Remarks
The whole position of wildlife in " E " Division is a matter of conjecture at the
present time. The unprecedented build-up and ever-extending industrial activity throughout the Division make the wildlife scene constantly changing. As human activity eats into
the wildlife habitat and as more and more people go afield in search of game, a scarcity of
many wildlife species seems inevitable.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT DIVISION
By Dr. P. A. Larkin, Chief Fisheries Biologist
INTRODUCTION
As the reports of the various branches of the Fisheries Management Division which
follow this introduction indicate, 1954 was in every respect an outstanding year of
accomplishment in sport-fish conservation in British Columbia. From an administrative
view-point there have been virtually no major problems.    The specialized branches REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 27
(Hatcheries, Research, and Protection) have played a key role in organizing factual
material and establishing efficient and effective policy. The regional biologists have
taken these tools, and combining them with good public relation programmes have
carried out an effective programme of progressive sport-fish management.
Some examples of the trend of events will illustrate our progress. The Research
Branch has devised, on the basis of our many years of lake survey, a basic standard
stocking policy for lakes. This has been implemented by the regional biologists. The
Hatcheries Division is now geared to provide a uniform high-quality product. These
are the basic ingredients of wise stocking policy. At present there is a bottleneck in the
production of fingerling fish in the hatcheries, but this difficulty could be overcome in
a few years' time with planned hatchery expansion. Accordingly, Department routines
for assuring that sport fish will not be harmed by water use for other resources have
reached a healthy state. A regional biologist need have no doubt about how to present
the case for sport-fish protection in connection with any development. Again, the
regional biologists are able, through the advice of the Protection Branch, to present the
public with an informed picture of the general problem of water use, something which
they would not otherwise be able to do. Many similar examples of informed policy
consistently and effectively applied could be cited. In many respects, then, the Division
can be said to have " come of age." The staff is sufficiently large to cope with most
current problems. Provided growth of the Division can keep pace with the increasing
public demand for more fishing-waters, there is every reason to believe that sport-fish
conservation practice in British Columbia will be abreast of the most progressive in
North America.
It is largely because of the close harmony between the specialized branches and
the regional men that 1954 has been a year of progress and accomplishment. Needless
to say, harmony and integration of effort hinge on the high quality of the men on the
staff. In this general way I should like to acknowledge the very superior work of the
men of the Division in 1954.
MANAGEMENT DIVISION
General
The important Province-wide trends of management in 1954 were:—
(1) Organizing staff for regional duties.
(2) Simplification of fishing regulations.
(3) Increased emphasis on lake and stream improvement.
(4) Beginning of creel-census records.
There were no major changes in Province-wide fishing regulations. However, several important regional changes were made. Lakes were opened to year-round fishing
in all districts but Vancouver Island. Many unnecessary minor regulations no longer
serving a useful purpose were rescinded. Many lakes and streams were added to the
group for which a 6-inch size-limit applies. There has been a growing realization of
the need for easing many of the restrictions on fishing, both because many of the regulations are unnecessary and because they complicate the regulations.
The increased emphasis on lake and stream improvement is reflected in the reports
of the regional staff describing lake poisoning operations (five lakes in 1954), fishway
construction, removal of obstructions, trail-clearing projects, and other improvement
programmes.   This type of work will no doubt be greatly expanded in the future.
The creel-census records begun in 1953 and continued in 1954 give promise of
providing the bases for estimating the annual catch of sport fish in the Province. They
also give valuable insight into the regional needs for all types of fish-cultural work. With
this information, better direction can be given to most of our management activities. J 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Sport-fishing Records, 1953-54
S. B. Smith, Division Fisheries Biologist
During the summer of 1953 a partial creel census was placed in operation by the
British Columbia Game Commission to cover as much as possible of the summer sport
fishing on British Columbia lakes. Records were obtained voluntarily by resort operators who recorded fishing effort in their areas. The programme had its beginning in
the winter of 1952, when about 400 resort operators were first contacted by mail. Of
the 200 who replied indicating they would assist in the programme, usable records for
1953 were obtained from 123. In the summer of 1954, record-books were supplied to
those who had returned them the previous year and to some new participants in the
programme. In 1954 total number of record-books distributed was 140; of these,
sixty-three were returned.
Information contained in the individual books is treated as confidential, and used
books are returned to operators for their private records. Only total catch and average
success for the Province are made available to the general public. In this way any
comparisons which might be made between quality of fishing at various resorts is
avoided.
Although response to the initial request for records was gratifying, coverage of
the Province is by no means complete. Further than that, it is not yet considered
adequate for the purpose of effective management of the sport fishery. However, the
programme will be continued on an annual basis, and doubtless will provide valuable
data on trends in sport-fishing success from year to year. Each year every effort will be
extended by Game Commission field staffs to increase the number of resort operators
contributing.
The following table lists the totals only for numbers of resident and non-resident
anglers checked, hours fished, number of fish caught, catch per hour, and catch per
angler for 1953 and 1954. The very large differences in angling success for the various
areas covered indicated that the records can continue to be of value in sport-fish management on a Province-wide basis only if a wide coverage of angling effort is maintained. Further, to increase the value of such records it is obviously desirable that the
coverage be extended. The totals in the table have been summarized from records for
individual resorts and are not available to the general public.
Creel-census Records Kept at Fishing Resorts in 1953 and 1954
Number
of
Resorts
Number of Angler-days
Hours
Fished
Number of
Fish
Caught
Catch
per
Hour
Catch per
Angler-
day
Resident
Nonresident
Total
1953.. 	
123
63
20,859
17,671
18,592
14,669
39,451
32,340
205,890
170,869
128,684
103,513
0.62
0.61
3.26
1954 -	
3.20
The total number of anglers checked represents about one-third of licensed anglers
in British Columbia for 1953 and about one-quarter for 1954. Although the records
do not cover all areas in the Province, some general conclusions may be drawn from
them and may be applied with some confidence to the British Columbia sport fishery
as a whole. It may be seen from the above table that over 39,000 angler-days were
recorded in 1953 and over 32,000 in 1954. Catch success for the two years was nearly
identical, at slightly over three fish per angler-day. If the sample in each year is
representative of all those who held fishing licences (117,756 in 1953 and 119,750 in
1954), the total number of fish caught in each year may be estimated. Returns from
an angler's questionnaire which was sent to 5,000 residents and 2,000 non-residents
J REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 29
indicate that the average time spent fishing in British Columbia in 1954 was in excess
of fifteen days per angler. Catch for 1954 can be estimated, therefore, as in excess of
5,750,000 fish. Since catch success for the two years is so similar, roughly the same
number of fish probably were harvested in 1953. These estimates are considered to be
conservative.
The records do not take into account the large number of persons who fish for
salmon, steelhead, and cut-throat trout, as well as other species, in tidal waters (where
no angling licence is required). The number of persons and their total catch involved
in tide-water fisheries is unknown. However, it is likely that the annual harvest for
tide-water sport fishing is substantial. It is apparent that the combined catch for the
tidal and non-tidal sport fisheries should be accorded a position of considerable importance among our other Provincial resources.
Although it is important to realize the magnitude of the sport fishery of British
Columbia, it is perhaps of equal importance to maintain a record system which makes
possible an annual inventory of the extent to which available fish stocks are being
exploited. For instance, it is obvious from the above table that fishing success was
equal in each of the two years considered. As time passes, it will be possible to detect
any change which might take place.
Considering the foregoing, there is every reason for expanding this creel-census
programme as far as possible. It is to be hoped that within a few years all those who
operate resorts and boat rentals will come to look upon this programme as being as
necessary to their businesses as the proper keeping of books and taking stock is to the
person who operates a grocery-store or hardware business.
A cknowledgments
A study of this kind naturally can succeed only with the co-operation of resort
operators. To those who have assisted in the programme by supplying catch data in
1953 and 1954, we extend our sincere thanks. Without the excellent voluntary help we
received, we could not have obtained the information at any cost.
Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island
S. B. Smith, Division Fisheries Biologist
The Lower Mainland region, with its paucity of good lakes and extremely heavy
population, is dependent to a large extent on stream fishing to satisfy its anglers. Almost
by necessity, then, the emphasis on management of the sport fishery is directed in large
part to management of two species—the steelhead trout and the sea-run cut-throat trout.
Management of the latter has been confined mainly to protection of the existing cutthroat fishery, although an attempt to obtain 25,000 to 50,000 sea-run cut-throat eggs
is planned for the month of February, 1955. There is, however, an active steelhead-
management programme in operation. It, together with other smaller projects, is outlined below.
Steelhead Programme
The steelhead programme may be divided into two parts: (1) Hatchery operations
and (2) evaluation. Hatchery phase of the programme consists of rearing steelhead to
migrant size for planting in certain selected streams on an experimental basis. All
released fish are marked, and returns are intended to provide (a) a source of eggs for
future operations and (b) evidence on which future plantings will be based.
The evaluation phase of the steelhead programme is based in part on the return of
adult fish as a measure of success of the plantings. The need for plantings in various
streams is being evaluated by means of a creel-census programme. The creel census is
being carried out with the co-operation of sportsmen's associations, newspapers, and J 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
interested individuals. Briefly, the census is obtained from record-cards which have
been distributed to about 9,000 anglers on the Mainland and Vancouver Island.
The record-cards are designed to allow for the recording of forty steelhead (the
annual catch-limit). Date and name of the stream where the fish was caught completes
the record for each fish taken by an angler. Cards are returned at the end of each season
to the Game Commission.
Although the programme is still in its early stages, response to date has been very
gratifying. With a large number of cards returned, it will be possible to direct the annual
output of steelhead migrants to the waters where they are most needed, either to maintain a fishery which already exists or to rebuild a run which may have been depleted.
Deer Lake Project
Deer Lake, a 90-acre body of water which lies close to the Douglas-Grandview
Highway in the District of Burnaby, has produced indifferent sport fishing for many
years. Cause of the low quality of fishing has been assessed as a coarse-fish problem.
Funds have been requested to eradicate all fish in the lake with rotenone and restock
with trout. Burnaby Municipal Council and property-owners adjacent to the lake favour
the plan. A fish-barrier at the outlet is required to prevent reintroduction of coarse fish
from lower levels in the watershed. Plans for this barrier have been drawn, and its
installation will take place in the spring, shortly before the fish-poisoning operation is
carried out.
Stream Survey
Routine surveys have been carried out on a number of steelhead and trout streams.
These surveys are necessary to make possible adequate recommendations for regulations.
At the same time, data are gathered which make possible assessment of problems of
access, stream-flows, pollution, and fishing pressure.
Protection
Investigations have been made on a number of waters in co-operation with the
Protection Division. Two of these where pollution abatement is virtually complete are
Luckakuck Creek and Atchelitz Creek near Chilliwack. Gravel-quarrying leases have
been investigated on the Coquitlam and Stave Rivers. Negotiations are proceeding with
City Council of New Westminster in an attempt to effect abatement of the long-standing
pollution of Brunette River. Survey of Daisy Lake in the Squamish area was made in
connection with the British Columbia Electric Company development of Cheakamus
River.
Research
Research has been concluded on the relationship between scale diameter and body
length of rainbow trout. A paper on this subject will be submitted for publication in
the journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. A paper has also been completed dealing with the relative survival and growth of hatchery-reared and wild fish from
the same stock in the same lake. This paper will be submitted for publication in the
Canadian Fish Culturist, a publication of the Department of Fisheries of Canada.
Okanagan and Kamloops Areas
G. E. Stringer, Regional Fisheries Biologist
Work in the Okanagan and Kamloops areas in 1954 consisted mainly of lake surveys, investigations, and visits to resort operators. Lake surveys will continue until all
important or potentially important lakes have been checked, for, in addition to factual
information, surveys provide statistics used in computing number of fish to be stocked.
" Investigations " is a term used to cover a multitude of complaints and problems such
as poor fishing, overfishing, inadequate stocking, overpopulation, or more specific types REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954 J 31
such as pollutions, obstructions, and water-licence applications. Many fishing resorts
were visited, and the primary purpose of the visit was to stress the importance of resort
operators keeping accurate catch statistics for the Game Department. The general
antipathy of many resort operators to records is discouraging. It seems a corollary of
human nature that those doing least complain the most and expect the most assistance.
Two small lakes—namely, Madden and Bear (Ripley) Lakes—were poisoned in
the Oliver area. Poisoning took place in early July, and a complete kill was attained.
The lakes were last tested on December 27th, 1954, and were still toxic, but it is hoped
that spring run-off and lake flushing will reduce toxicity to a sub-lethal level. Purpose
of poisoning was to eradicate shiners (Richardsonius balteatus) which were inadvertently
planted, probably by the illegal use of live fish for bait.
Stream poisoning was carried out at Bridge Lake in the Cariboo and Pinaus Lake
near Falkland in order to kill undesirable species as they enter the streams and spawn.
Results were spectacular but ineffective since large numbers also spawn in the lake, and
the total effect insignificant.   These stream poisonings will be discontinued.
Bass were transferred from Shannon Lake, Westbank, to Five Mile Lake, Revelstoke. Fish were caught by angling by members of the Revelstoke Club and officials
of the Game Department.   A total of 385 fish were liberated, ranging from 4 to 12 inches.
Two major projects set up in 1954 consist of (a) reducing, by means of poisoning
adult spawners, the number of fish in an overpopulated lake in order to ascertain if size
can be markedly increased, and (b) an evaluation of our yearling-fish plantings from
Summerland. The former programme will be conducted in the Spences Bridge area at
Pimainus Lakes; the latter consists of marking all yearling fish (320,000 to 350,000)
leaving the hatchery for the next four to five years. Continual checks on marked fish
should, it is hoped, provide data from which we can determine the percentage that hatchery stocks contribute to the fishery of particular lakes. Much of the work in the next
few years will be evaluating results of hatchery plantings in lakes where trout co-exist
with undesirable species.
One might question the emphasis on evaluation. However, the largest and most
expensive task facing hatcheries is stocking coarse-fish lakes with yearling fish. Are
these stockings valuable? It does not appear so. Not one lake stocked with yearling
fish provides good fishing when Interior pure-culture lakes are used as a criterion. Three
reasons are: Firstly, Kamloops trout cannot compete successfully with most other species; secondly, insufficient numbers are probably stocked; and, lastly, a lower availability of food which reflects more efficient food cropping of many coarse-fish types.
Results of heavy stocking would not compensate for the prohibitive cost.
The alternative is to plant more successful game-fish species or poison the lake if
not too large. Poisoning is the only consistent technique giving good success. In the
Interior the writer emphasizes the need for a static yearling-fish output based on 1955
distribution lists and inaugurating a vigorous and ever-expanding era. Many lakes
should be poisoned each year, for this is the best avenue of approach to provide good
fishing for the average individual who cannot afford trips into the hinterland lakes where
trout have no competitors.
East and West Kootenays
F. P. Maher, Regional Fisheries Biologist
Fisheries work in the East and West Kootenays during 1954 may be summarized
under the following headings: Investigations with Regard to Regulation Changes; Survey
of Resort Operators; Inquiry into Sport-fishing Activity; Lake Poisoning; Investigations
into Stocking Needs; Pollution Control; Surveys in Connection with Dams; Development of Rod and Gun Club Activity. The subject-matter of some of the above headings
is Province-wide and dealt with in detail by others. Work under the above headings
peculiar to the Kootenays will be discussed briefly. J 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Investigations with Regard to Regulation Changes
Investigations this year indicated that stream regulations in the Kootenays were
unnecessarily complex and did not fully serve their purpose of protecting game fish.
In 1955 anglers in the Kootenays will enjoy a nine-month fishing period in most streams.
The majority are closed for the months of April, May, and June to protect Kamloops
and cut-throat trout, and a few are closed in August, September, and October to protect
eastern brook trout and Dolly Varden.
The regulations are approaching stability in this district, and after the changes in
the 1956 regulations should remain unchanged, except for minor points, for some years.
Survey of Resort Operators
Due to the unusually wet season many resort operators experienced a sharp drop
in tourist business during the early part of the summer, although it picked up in late
summer and early fall. This, together with less prompting by the writer than in the
previous year, resulted in a falling-off of creel-census records by many operators. These
operators and others who have not as yet kept records are being contacted during the
winter months where possible, and it is anticipated that 1955 will see greatly increased
coverage of the principal fishing areas.
Inquiry into Sport-fishing Activity
Apart from the survey of resort operators, a general inquiry has been made into
the types of sport fishing carried on in the Kootenays. To the end of this year it has
been noted that few anglers are taking advantage of the year-round angling season on
lakes. Some activity has been noted at the south end of Kootenay Lake, where a few
anglers obtained catches of large Kamloops trout in December. There is at present no
tradition of winter fishing for trout in the Kootenays, and it will likely be a few years
before this sport develops.
Although small-mouthed bass are present in numbers in Christina Lake and large-
mouthed bass in Duck Lake near Creston, these fish are not popular, and most fishing
pressure centres on trout. There is, however, a growing interest in the midwinter fishery
for ling in the East Kootenay District and for sturgeon in the Creston area. Both fisheries use non-angling methods—spears for ling and set-lines for sturgeon—necessitating
the issuing of special permits by the Game Wardens. Since the number of anglers
involved is becoming large, this system is proving unwieldy, and some adjustment to the
regulations should be made to accommodate these sports. There is also a midwinter
fishery for Rocky Mountain whitefish concentrated on the larger rivers, but the number
of followers of this sport is small.
Lake Poisoning
Three lakes were poisoned in the Kootenay District this year to remove populations of coarse fish. Peckham's Lake near Cranbrook was treated in June to remove a
population of suckers and shiners. This lake was found to be non-toxic in October and
was restocked with Kamloops trout. Erie and Rosebud Lakes near Salmo were poisoned in late October on an experimental basis to determine the effects of smaller concentrations of poison on coarse fish in lakes with a low dissolved-solid content. Concentrations of one part per million have proven unsatisfactory in some lakes in that the
lakes remained toxic for too long a period. Rosebud Lake was treated at one-half part
per million, and indications are that the shiner population was completely destroyed.
Erie Lake was treated with one-quarter part per million to remove a population of shiners,
suckers, squawfish, and chub. Although some suckers took three weeks to die, there is
evidence that a good, if not complete, kill was obtained. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954 J 33
Investigation into Stocking Needs
Using the new stocking formula based on dissolved-solid content of the water and
the length of shore-line, the number of fish placed in various Kootenay waters has been
revised considerably. The work of obtaining water samples and the necessary data for
compiling stocking lists was continued throughout the year.
Coarse-fish populations are prevalent throughout many of the most popular fishing
and resort areas of the Kootenays. Where it is impractical to plan on eliminating these
fish with poison, stocking yearling trout might be helpful in increasing returns to the
angler.   Windermere Lake is a notable example of the need for such management.
Pollution Control
Most of the stream pollutions in the Kootenay District are the result of mill tailings
from mining operations. Due to the drop in the price of base metals, many mills have
closed, resulting in a marked improvement in the pollution situation. The few mills
that have remained operating have co-operated in impounding their tailings. This year
saw final work on the large impoundment of the Canadian Exploration Company at
Salmo, enlargement of the impoundment area of the Marysville fertilizer plant which
proved to be inadequate last year, and the construction of a large sawdust-burner at the
Big Bend Lumber Company at Nakusp to curb the sawdust and driftwood problem there.
An impoundment for the new Mineral King mine at Invermere is being constructed.
Unless unforeseen problems arise, there should be no major pollutions in the Kootenay District in 1955.
Surveys in Connection with Dams
A preliminary investigation of the area to be flooded by the proposed Mica Creek
dam was conducted during August and October. Observations were carried out on the
flooding at Whatshan Lake and the tree-clearing operation there, and on the lake formed
by the Waneta Dam at Trail.
It seems that this type of investigation will become common in the Kootenay District
if plans for several dams on the Kootenay and Columbia Rivers are realized.
Development of Rod and Gun Club Activity in Fisheries Work
Through numerous meetings with rod and gun clubs it has become evident that
these organizations are keenly interested in assisting in fisheries work wherever they are
able to help. This help has expressed itself in the past with club-operated rearing-ponds
for fish. Under the present organized system of stocking, this activity often leads to
confusion and poor management and takes emphasis away from more worth-while
projects. Clubs have been discouraged from rearing-pond work and, instead, encouraged to clear trails into lakes with poor access, clear streams of obstructions, build dams
to prevent re-entry of coarse fish into poisoned lakes, develop junior fishing areas, and
assist in poisoning and other large projects.
Notable in this work so far has been the construction of fish-barriers at Peckham's
and Erie Lakes, operation of a coarse-fish trap in the Little Bull River, development of
a picnic-ground and children's fishing area on Cottonwood Lake near Nelson, the clearing of the shores of Inonoaklin Lake near Needles, and the clearing of the sole spawning-
stream in Snowshoe Lake near Edgewood of obstructions. Rearing-ponds already in
existence were operated by clubs at Fernie, Invermere, Premier Lake, and New Denver.
Under construction or in the planning stage at the present time is a fish-ladder at
Premier Lake, spawning-ground improvement at Jewel Lake, a fish-pond and park for
children at Rossland, and several trail-clearing projects. J 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
HATCHERIES DIVISION
I. Barrett, Division Fisheries Biologist
The year 1954 saw continuing progress in the reassessment and modernization of
the British Columbia Game Commission's hatchery programme. The activities of the
Hatcheries Division were, as usual, widespread and varied. The following report tells
of much of the work done in 1954, and the significance of some of this in relation to
future problems.
During 1954 the Game Department operated four permanent and five summer
hatcheries. The location, superintendents, functions, and species handled at these hatcheries is given in Table I.
Table I
Hatchery and Location
Officer in Charge
Functions
Species Handled in 1954
Puntledge (Courtenay)--	
J. D. Inverarity
Permanent  station;   fry,  finger-
ling,  and  yearling liberations
Steelhead, cut-throat, Kamloops.
Smiths Falls (Cultus Lake)
F. Pells- 	
Permanent station; fingerling and
Steelhead,  cut-throat, Kamloops,
yearling liberations;   cut-throat
cohoe.
brood stock
Summerland (Summerland)	
D. R. Hum -	
Permanent   station;   fry,  finger-
Kamloops,  eastern brook,  steel
ling, and yearling liberations;
head, lake trout.
training-school
Nelson (Nelson)	
E. H. Hunter	
Permanent station; fingerling and
Kamloops, eastern brook, koka-
yearling liberations
nee.
Kamloops.
fry and fall fingerlings
Lloyd's Creek (Kamloops) 	
F. H. Martin	
Summer station;   egg collections;
fry distributions
Kamloops.
Summer station;   egg collections;
fry distributions
Kamloops.
Penask Lake (Merritt)—	
E. M. Martin..—	
Summer station;   egg collections;
fry distributions
Kamloops.
Cranbrook (Cranbrook)	
J. W. Bayley	
Summer station;   egg collections;
liberation   of   fry   and   fall
fingerlings
Cut-throat, Kamloops.
As can be seen from Table I, seven species of fish were handled during the past
year. The breakdown on the numbers and total weights of each species handled is
given in Table II. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
Table II
J 35
Species
Eggs Stripped
Eggs Shipped
or Planted
Numbers of
Fish
Distributed
Pounds of
Fish
Distributed
Puntledge Hatchery
50,000
85,000
23,000
68,000
90,000
54,000
2,500
625,000
20,000
5,000
190,000
150,000
195
	
445
880
Smiths Falls Hatchery
75,000
200,000
73,000
2,210
3,555
3,910
510,000
60
Summerland Hatchery
4,620
70
140
Nelson Hatchery
1,660
145,000
5,000
1,875,000
3,225,000
2,530,000
300
Loon Hatchery
55,000
1,375,000
2,695,000
2,300,000
540,000
390,000
380,000
175,000
368,000
250,000
590
Lloyd's Creek Hatchery
110
Beaver Hatchery
105
Penask Hatchery
50
Cranbrook Hatchery
195
285,000
75
A small percentage of the eggs and fish handled during 1954 were received from
sources outside of the Province, or were shipped to points outside of the Province, or were
sold to private persons within the Province.
Fish shipments into the Province included 100,000 eyed steelhead-trout eggs and
100,000 steelhead fingerlings, through the courtesy of the Washington State Department
of Game.   Fish shipments outside of the Province are shown in Table III.
Table III
Source
Destination
Numbers
Description
Charge
2,000,000
100,000
100,000
165,000
200
Eyed KT eggs
Eyed KT eggs
Eyed KT eggs
Eyed KT eggs
KT yearlings
$1.50 perM.
Lloyd's Creek
Lloyd's Creek
Ecuador Department of Economic Recuperation-
Saskatchewan Department of Natural Resources-
$3.00 per M.
Trade for LT eggs.
Trade for early KT eggs.
KT=Kamloops trout; LT:=Lake trout.
Other handlings of fish outside of routine lake stockings included twenty sales to
private individuals, ranging in price from $2 to $800. In this connection it should be
noted that the number of inquiries from private individuals to purchase trout either to use
in ornamental ponds or to establish fish-hatcheries rose sharply during the past year. This
has led to a reconsideration of the Game Commission's policy toward the sale of surplus
eggs or fish. It has been decided that, wherever possible, sales of fish to private individuals for any purpose be strongly discouraged, and that any surplus be sold at cost or
traded for other species to government agencies only. J 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Two ponds exclusively reserved for children's fishing were also stocked by the Game
Department last year. Poison's Pond, located at Vernon and supervised by the Vernon
Rod and Gun Club, received 1,000 catchable-size Kamloops trout. A pool at Oliver,
supervised by the Canadian Legion, was stocked with 500 catchable-size Kamloops trout.
The great majority of eggs and fish handled during 1954, however, were liberated
into the lakes and streams of British Columbia. The number of trout planted into a
specific body of water was based on four factors: (1) Miles of shore-line of the lake;
(2) mineral content of the water; (3) spawning facilities; and (4) accessibility of the
lake. While these factors have as yet not been determined for every lake stocked, the fist
is growing and should shortly be complete. The lists of waters to be stocked are drawn up
by the regional fisheries biologists as part of the general fisheries-management programme.
Wherever possible, liberations have been and will be of fish which have been marked by
having a fin removed. This policy of setting up a general standard for liberations is a
new departure in the stocking methods of the British Columbia Game Department.
Improvements, both in facilities for fish and living conditions for staff, were made
at nearly all of the hatcheries. A new dam and an automatic water-screening device was
built at the Smiths Falls Hatchery. In addition, the interior of the hatchery was lined
and the bachelor's living-quarters have been improved. At Summerland a new food-
preparation room has been constructed and has been supplied with new food-grinding and
food-mixing units. Five new double plywood troughs have been constructed to a design
developed at the hatchery. The exterior of the Nelson Hatchery has been completely
repainted and the interior has been lined. New plywood troughs are in the process of
manufacture. The living-quarters at the Loon Creek Hatchery have been rebuilt and
newly decorated. A hot-water system and washroom facilities have also been installed
there. At the Lloyd's Creek Hatchery the telephone-line was completed and put into
operation during the past year. General improvements were made to the living-quarters
there. The hatchery troughs and the facilities at the Beaver Lake Hatchery have all been
consolidated into one unit.   New plywood troughs were also built at this hatchery.
No major changes were made to the Penask Hatchery, but routine general maintenance was continued. Major improvements were made to the Cranbrook Hatchery
grounds, including new driveways, the construction of retaining-walls, and the seeding
of lawn areas. Routine maintenance was the order of the year at the Puntledge Park
Hatchery during 1954.
A major feature of 1954 was the meeting of all hatchery personnel at the Summer-
land Hatchery in October. For the first time in the history of the Hatcheries Division, a
two-day technical session for all employees was held. Discussions covered trout biology,
artificial fertilization, trout diseases, measuring, feeding, and other technical and administrative problems. The meeting was characterized by the high level of active participation
and group discussion and will undoubtedly be continued as an annual function.
Other general activities of the year were varied. The purchase of trout-food has been
relieved of many complexities by placing blanket orders with the suppliers and then
making the hatchery superintendent responsible for his own supply under the purchase
order. Several outbreaks of disease were encountered during the year, and all but one
were successfully treated. Both the stock-pile of drugs and the experience in their use is
growing. Routine prophylactic treatments of the fish with the chemical Roccal have been
introduced as a disease preventive. In an attempt to reduce fry-losses during liberations,
experiments have been undertaken using the hypnotic drug sodium amytal. The results
to date have been encouraging. Two aluminium fry-cans were made and used during the
past year. Their lightness and convenience have been a boon on liberations involving
back-packing.
The new hatchery report forms have proven themselves in providing an accurate
measure of the activities of both fish and men at each of the hatcheries. Consequently
these forms have not been altered.  The Manual of Game Fish Culture, which outlines REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 37
hatchery procedures, was revised in late 1954, when some changes in methodology and
procedures were made to bring the manual up to date. Copies were distributed to all
hatchery personnel.
The in-service training programme for probationary employees continued at the
Summerland Hatchery. One probationer spent the 1953-54 winter season there, and the
second is in training there now. Staffs at both the Smiths Falls and the Summerland
Hatcheries were increased from two to three men in order to cope with the greater volume
of fish being handled at these hatcheries. There was one retirement in the latter part of
last year and one new appointment.
Greater numbers of fishermen, increasing fishing pressures, and changing fishing
habits necessitated changes in the role of some of the present hatcheries. The Smiths Falls
Hatchery is being converted almost entirely to steelhead production. Steelhead eggs have
been supplied to date by the Washington State Game Department, but plantings are being
made which should provide a local source of eggs by the spring of 1956. A cut-throat
trout brood stock at this hatchery supplied any cut-throat trout requirements on the Lower
Mainland. Negotiations are in progress to purchase property adjacent to the Summerland
Hatchery so that additional ponds may be built for the rearing of more yearling Kamloops
trout. Plans for an improved water system at the Nelson Hatchery are on the drawing-
board now. This new water system will allow a greatly increased number of yearling trout
to be raised for liberation in the West Kootenay area. In conjunction with this, a brood
stock of winter-spawning trout is in the process of being established at this hatchery. This
will provide early eggs and give the fish a longer growing period before liberation. The
Beaver Lake and Penask Lake Hatcheries have been designated as the major Kamloops
trout egg sources. As a result of this, no eggs will be taken at the Lloyd's Creek Hatchery
this year. Lloyd's Creek, however, will continue to serve as a distribution centre. An
experimental collection of early eggs will be made at the Loon Creek Hatchery, and a
pilot run of fish will be made there during the coming winter to determine the feasibility
of a permanent year-round hatchery in the South Cariboo.
In summary, it may be seen that the activities of the Hatcheries Division have been
indeed widespread and varied. The programme of the past year has placed emphasis
on two phases of hatchery management. There has been, firstly, a stream-lining and
modernization of the procedures and practices in the hatcheries of the Province and a
marked trend toward standardization of these procedures and practices. Secondly, there
has been an active consideration of the roles of the various hatcheries and the functions
they must fulfil to meet the changing demands of fisheries management in the coming
years. A continuing critical approach to all functions of the Hatcheries Division is the
best assurance of an efficient fish-cultural programme.
PROTECTION DIVISION
R. G. McMynn, Division Fisheries Biologist
Introduction
During 1952 to 1954 a great deal of the work of the Protection Division was channelled into obtaining the confidence and co-operation of industrial and private concerns.
In the past these concerns often utilized certain of the Province's natural resources, with
little or no regard to other interests, such as the effects on sport-fish values. This work,
although essential and of fundamental importance, produced very little in the way of
tangible results. However, it is now beginning to yield dividends. The year 1954-55
appears to have been the turning-point. Some of the larger industrial, mining, and lumbering undertakings are now working with the Game Commission, often seeking their
advice and following their recommendations. New legislation—that is, Bill No. 47—has
undoubtedly strengthened the Commission's hand, but the tedious groundwork of the
co-operative approach and the consequent gratifying results did not occur overnight. r
J 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The placement of three regional fishery biologists has been a most important factor
in the attempt to sell the principles and methods of sport-fish protection. These regional
men can and have, through repeated personal contact, convinced many industrial concerns that they have a responsibility to fulfil in the protection and conservation of wildlife values threatened by their varied projects. As a matter of fact, the benefits of
multiple use are not always one sided. Many industrial developments have discovered
that their operations become more thriving because of the public goodwill created by
the company's interest in the well-being of the community and the local recreational
demands. The following summary of the activities of this Division during the past year
exemplifies the preceding remarks.
Water Licences
Nine hundred and fourteen water-licence applications were reviewed in 1954.
Approximately one-third of this number required field investigations, and of these, eleven
were officially objected to. In each case involving an official objection, concessions were
granted for the protection of sport-fish interests. In attempting to have wildlife and
sport-fish interests recognized as legitimate water-users, the Game Commission applied
for minimum water-flows on two important trout-producing rivers where water-use conflicts were beginning to arise. One was made on the Nanaimo River on Vancouver
Island and the other on the Salmon River in the Langley district on the Lower Mainland.
The applications have not yet been clarified or granted, and in both cases objections
were recorded. As a result of the complexities of the present water-allocation system,
which is based on prior rights, especially as it affects wildlife and fisheries interests, a
comprehensive brief entitled " British Columbia's Water Use Policy and Sport Fish
Interests " was prepared and submitted to the Deputy Attorney-General. It is anticipated that this brief will form the basis for and precipitate a joint meeting of all interested
government agencies together with the Water Rights Branch. Until this important problem is reviewed and the position of the wildlife values clarified, it is inevitable that the
wildlife resource of the Province will be jeopardized.
Pollutions
In 1954 several major pollution problems were successfully abated. Only the
larger ones will be briefly mentioned here as the reports of the regional biologists will
review the pollutions within their various districts.
Luckakuck Creek near Chilliwack has been polluted for many years as a result of
waste emptied into the creek from the operations of the Fraser Valley Milk Producers'
Co-operative Association utility plant at Sardis. This year the above company expended
nearly $40,000 for the construction of a steel pipe-line which now conveys the waste to
the junction of the Chilliwack River. Should the additional dilution provided at this
point prove inadequate to absorb the pollution load within the next year or so, the pipe-
fine will be extended to the Fraser River. Luckakuck Creek has now cleared up and,
following stocking, will once again produce many hours of fishing pleasure for local
anglers.
Atchelitz Creek, also near Chilliwack, has been polluted for many years by the
activities of Canada Packers Limited. The creek, especially during the canning season,
has long been the focus for many complaints. In 1954 screens and settling-tanks were
installed at the outfall, but these failed to achieve the desired results. Consequently the
company was requested to install a spray-irrigation system to treat its wastes. This system should be in operation in the spring of 1955.
The impoundment area for gypsum wastes from the Marysville fertilizer plant near
Kimberley has been greatly improved during the past year, and, as a result, the St. Mary
River is running clear and free from gypsum wastes. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 39
Canadian Exploration at Salmo has now completed plans and commenced construction of a large impoundment area for mill-wastes from its operations. These tailings were formerly dumped directly into the Salmo River. The summer of 1955 should
see this beautiful river once again running clean and clear.
Several lumber-mills have been requested during 1954 to install burners and clean
up situations which had caused numerous local complaints. Most notable in this regard
has been the clean-up of the Big Bend Lumber Company in the West Kootenay.
Through the medium of checking all water licences, many pollutions have been
averted before they actually occurred; for this reason alone, the review of water licences
has been a most valuable tool in the protection of sport-fish interests in the Province.
Obstructions
During 1954 fish screens or barriers were installed at the outlet of Beaver Lake
near Kelowna and at the outlet of Chimney Lake near Williams Lake. Fish-ladders were
built over the Skaha Lake dam near Penticton and over a dam on the East Barriere
River. A temporary dam was constructed on Eastern Creek (Ootsa Lake) pending
the building of a permanent structure in 1955. Surveys, plans, and specifications for a
concrete fish-ladder on Mission Creek (Kelowna) have been completed.
In 1954 almost $2,000 was paid out in consulting fees for the services of engineers
in making initial engineering surveys and in the drawing-up of plans for our various
projects. Fortunately these services were supplied at very reasonable rates by engineers
from the Federal Department of Fisheries who worked during their regular holidays with
the Game Commission. Without this source of professional help, consulting fees would
have been at least three times as high. The necessity for the employment of a permanent
engineer on our own staff is becoming increasingly more important each year.
Close liaison was maintained with the Department of Fisheries during the year in
dealing with several major industrial developments in the Province. In this respect,
fish-protective facilities and minimum flows were guaranteed in the Cheakamus River,
Seton Creek, Jones Creek, and Okanagan flood-control project. Reservoir clearing was
achieved in the case of Fourth Nanaimo Lake and Jones Lake. It is anticipated that
similar results will be achieved in the Cheakamus project.
Preliminary surveys have been undertaken on the Mica Creek project on the Columbia River, and a comprehensive survey completed on Murtle Lake. In both cases,
attempts were made to evaluate the effects of a dam on fisheries interests. The reports
of both these surveys are on file with the British Columbia Game Commission.
The outlook for 1955 seems bright. Industry is beginning to work with us, and
gains are being made in fish-protection work which were unheard of several years ago.
Capilano River
E. H. Vernon, Assistant Fisheries Biologist
The construction by the Greater Vancouver Water District of Cleveland Dam on
Capilano River for domestic-water storage was started in 1951. This 300-foot dam will
become operational in the spring of 1955. As this structure presents many hazards to
the runs of steelhead trout and cohoe salmon, the Game Commission, in co-operation
with the Federal Department of Fisheries, has expended much effort in formulating plans
to ensure preservation of these fish.
In 1951 plans were completed for the trapping of adult fish below the dam and
their transport and release in the river above the reservoir area. In 1952 and 1953
permanent concrete and steel trapping facilities, as well as a 600-gallon tank-truck, were
constructed by the Greater Vancouver Water District. In July, 1954, construction of
Cleveland Dam had proceeded to the point where it was a complete obstruction, and,
therefore, these facilities for the transport of up-stream migrants were put into operation. J 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A study of operational procedures was made by Departmental technical personnel, and
the Greater Vancouver Water District was given advice on these matters. The operation
of the facilities will continue to receive close attention from our fisheries personnel. By
the end of January, 1955, 3,000 cohoe and fifty steelhead had been successfully transported above the dam.
The problem of ensuring adequate escapement of young seaward migrants through
the reservoir and over the dam has also received much study from Game Commission
and Federal Fisheries personnel. Up to and including the year 1954 these migrants have
not been obstructed by the dam, and in the years 1952 to 1954 the characteristics of the
normal down-stream migration have been investigated. By capturing, marking, releasing,
and recapturing native down-stream migrant steelhead and cohoe, much information
has been acquired on the period of migration, the numbers of each species migrating,
the size of migrants, and their rate of down-stream movement. These data will form a
basis for assessing the effects of Cleveland Dam when it becomes operational this year.
Ten thousand steelhead and 2,500 cohoe of migrant size were provided by Game
Commission hatcheries for use in studying down-stream migration. Most of these fish
survived the various traps used in the investigation, and thus will contribute to stocks of
fish in Capilano River.
During 1955 and 1956 the Game Commission and the Federal Department of Fisheries will co-operate in an extensive investigation of the effects of Cleveland Dam on
down-stream migrants. The work of previous years on native fish will continue, but a
direct attack on the question of spillway mortality will also be carried out. It is planned
to release large numbers of hatchery fish of migrant size directly into the spillway.
Samples of these will be recovered in the river below, and mortalities under various
conditions will be calculated.
From these investigations it is hoped the following results will ensue:—
(1) Factual and quantitative information on the effects of Cleveland Dam
on the seaward migration of steelhead and cohoe. This information will
be used as a basis for recommending any necessary remedial measures.
(2) Information which may be applied in the planning of similar dams on
other streams containing anadromous fish.
RESEARCH DIVISION
Dr. C. C. Lindsey, Division Fisheries Biologist
The principal project of the Research Division in 1954 was the expansion and continuation of the study of Kamloops trout spawning at Loon Lake near Clinton in the
Southern Cariboo District. The object of this study is to gain as much knowledge as
possible concerning the behaviour of both young and adult trout in currents by an intensive investigation at one location over a period of several years. Because trout spawn
at Loon Lake and at many other localities in British Columbia in both inlet and outlet
streams, it follows that young trout hatching in the two streams must swim in opposite
directions if they are to reach the lake. By studying the factors producing this opposite
reaction to current, it is hoped to be able to predict and perhaps control the reaction
of trout at power dams, irrigation cut-offs, streams subject to seasonal drought, and other
similar areas now presenting problems in fish management. The possibility of two genetically distinct races of trout—inlet and outlet spawners—must also be explored, for if
such races exist they should be recognized in hatchery practice.
The Loon Lake study was started in 1953. By the fall of 1954 a four-man camp
was established near Loon Lake, with wall tents with wooden flooring, storage and
cooking facilities. Five fences have been completed on the outlet stream and one on
the inlet stream, each constructed to catch and hold trout of all sizes moving in either
direction.   Adult trout have been marked with numbered celluloid disks attached just REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 41
ahead of the dorsal fin. Younger trout have been marked by various combinations of
fin-clipping, so that when recaptured later their original place of capture will be known.
This programme of intensive marking will, if carried out over several years, answer such
questions as whether trout always return to spawn at the same stream, whether trout
hatched in the outlet invariably return to the outlet to lay their eggs, whether young trout
leave the streams to enter the lake in their first year of life, and so forth. Already some
12,000 trout have been tagged over a two-year period. Over 2,000 of these tagged fish
have been subsequently recaptured in traps or by anglers on Loon Lake. A large body
of information is therefore at hand on movements of adult fish, time taken to spawn,
growth rates, and mortality rates. In order to analyse all this material, data on each fish
have been placed on punch-cards for rapid sorting and calculation.
Roughly 25,000 young trout have also been marked by fin-clipping. Fish marked
in 1953 as yearlings (1-year-olds) will probably return in large numbers as adults in
the spawning run of 1955. Already in 1954 several dozen such fish were recovered in
the spawning run as precocious males or " jacks." The total number of recaptures as
adults of these fish marked when young will provide an estimate of the total number of
fish in the lake.
The number of fish taken from Loon Lake in 1953 was estimated as follows: Resort-
owners co-operated by keeping record-books and leaving record-cards in their cabins for
anglers to fill in. From these records of numbers of hours fished and numbers of fish
caught, an average catch per hour's fishing was calculated for each summer month. The
total number of hours fished each month was estimated from daily counts of the number
of boats fishing on the lake (a figure recorded each time the Game Department truck
drove along Loon Lake between the two ends). From these figures the total anglers'
catch in 1953 was estimated at roughly 36,000 trout. This probably represents only a
small proportion of the total number of fish present in the lake.
Records of trout entering the inlet and outlet streams to spawn show striking differences. The outlet spawning run begins in March before ice has left the lake. The peak
of the outlet run is in mid-April, after which a sharp drop-off occurs; almost no adults
enter the outlet to spawn after May. The spawning run in the inlet stream occurs later;
the peak is in mid-June, and a few adults are still spawning there in July.
The average time spawning fish spend in the streams decreases as the season
advances. From recoveries of tagged fish it appears that trout entering the outlet to
spawn in March do not return to the lake for roughly six weeks, while trout entering
in May may spawn and return within two weeks. A similar decrease in average spawning
time is shown by late spawners in the inlet creek. In both creeks, males spend longer in
the stream than do females.
Trout are frequently badly scarred and exhausted after spawning. Inlet spawners
can return to the lake in this condition by simply dropping down-stream with the current,
while exhausted outlet spawners must recuperate sufficiently to swim up-stream to regain
the lake. Accordingly, records suggest that outlet spawners spend more time in the stream
than do inlet spawners. Furthermore, the condition of spent fish moving through traps
from the inlet stream into the lake is on the average much poorer than the condition of
spent fish caught on their way up-stream from the outlet. Mortality amongst spawners
is extremely high in Loon Lake; probably fewer than one fish in ten survive to spawn a
second time. Such mortality is probably not characteristic of all British Columbia lakes;
in Loon Lake it may account in part for the absence of large fish. Factors producing
high mortality are not at present known, but they are probably not unrelated to the very
large population. Limitations on the food-supply and perhaps other factors in any lake
allow either a large population or large fish, but not both.
Temperature-recorders, flow-meters, rain-gauges, and other apparatus were used to
try to relate behaviour of trout to such factors as temperature or weather.   In the inlet J 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
stream young trout descended toward the lake in very large numbers shortly after they
hatched. As many as 10,000 fry were counted down-stream in one day. Hourly observations conducted over several days and nights showed that this down-stream movement
occurred almost entirely at night, the peak movement corresponding to the darkest period.
Perhaps small trout in the inlet stream hold their position during daylight by sighting on
near-by objects; in darkness no objects are visible to " fix " on, and trout slip downstream with the current. An experiment with artificial light supported this theory. As
long as a gas lantern was hung over the creek above the trap, no fish descended at night.
When the light was removed, fry moved down into the trap in large numbers.
In the outlet stream, behaviour of young trout proved to be quite different. Here
newly hatched fry did not move downstream. Instead, they apparently held their positions for several months. The most likely environmental factor producing this behaviour
difference in inlet and outlet is temperature; the outlet stream drains off the warm surface
water of Loon Lake and usually has a higher temperature than the inlet. Various lines
of evidence suggest that at higher temperature the behaviour of trout fry is altered in such
a way as to prevent their moving down-stream in darkness. Possibly in warm water fry
sink to the bottom or move into the shallows at night. Further experiments are planned
to test these theories.
After trout in the outlet have grown for some months, they move up-stream into
the lake. Some do so late in their first year of life, while many spend the winter in the
stream and do not move up-stream until the following year. Up-stream movement occurs
during the daylight and is most marked when water temperature is rising.
While the details are still unknown, research at Loon Lake has already shown the
general pattern of the life-history of Kamloops trout spawning in the inlet and outlet.
Behaviour in the two streams can evidently be related to a few external factors, notably
temperature, light, and current. Before these findings can be applied to fisheries-management problems, experiments must be conducted which require more constant conditions
than are available in a field study. Therefore, an artificial stream is to be constructed by
Game Department personnel at the Institute of Fisheries at the University of British
Columbia. Temperature, light, and water-flow will be controllable, and trout of various
sizes will be studied. Preliminary experiments have already been conducted at the University by Dr. W. S. Hoar in the spring of 1954. This project, which will take several
years to complete, should eventually allow prediction of the effect on young trout of
irrigation-ditches, power-dams, and allied obstructions.
Adult trout cannot be readily studied in the laboratory. The Loon Lake research
will continue with emphasis on life-history of the adults. Observations are also planned
for other areas to determine to what extent the Loon Lake findings are applicable
elsewhere.
A separate line of research during 1954 concerned the study of the distribution of
various species of fresh-water fishes in British Columbia. Need for work in this direction
is shown by the fact that four species of fish not previously known to occur in the Province
were collected during the year. A reconnaissance along the John Hart and Alaska
Highways provided much new material; three species were recorded for the first time in
British Columbia, the known ranges of several others were considerably extended, and
information was gathered on the possible sport-fishing potential of the north-eastern
quarter of the Province. Over forty new collections of fishes were deposited in the Institute of Fisheries for cataloguing and study. An unknown type of sucker was collected
from the Fraser River near Prince George. The known ranges of several types of minnows were greatly expanded. In Stave Lake a number of rare hybrids between two
different types of minnows were collected.
A study was carried out near Clinton on the life-history of the lake chub, a small
fish which may be an important source of food for sport fish. Another study was made
on the factors controlling the size of food taken by young Kamloops trout.   An investi- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 43
gation was begun on methods of accurately distinguishing cut-throat and Kamloops trout
at all stages of their development. Investigations are also proceeding on the mass marking of hatchery-reared trout as a means of evaluating their contribution to the sport fishery.
During 1954 a twenty-minute colour moving picture entitled " Trout Research "
was prepared for loan to game clubs and other interested organizations. A second film
describing the poisoning of coarse fish is in preparation.
Lake Surveys
T. G. Northcote, Assistant Fisheries Biologist
In 1949 the British Columbia Game Department began a limnological reconnaissance of British Columbia lakes. The investigation was primarily concerned with determination of the morphometry, readily obtainable physical and chemical characteristics,
and standing crops of plankton, bottom fauna, and fish of lakes in the accessible areas
of the Province. When the survey was terminated in 1953, over 100 lakes had been
investigated, ranging geographically between Vancouver Island and the Alberta border
in the south, and between Prince Rupert and Fort St. John in the north.
An attempt has been made to relate the standing crops of plankton, bottom fauna,
and fish with physical and chemical characteristics of the lake waters. Furthermore, the
lakes have been grouped together into recognized physiographic divisions, and then
examined to present differences in limnological productivity which exist in these regions.
The factors affecting lake productivity have been grouped into three major divisions
—dissolved nutrients, basin morphology, and climate. The independent effects of each
of these has been considered in relation to standing crops of plankton, bottom fauna,
and fish.
An indication of the dissolved nutrients present in the lake waters was obtained by
measuring their content of total dissolved solids. The amount of plankton taken in total
vertical samples appeared to be related to the dissolved-solid content of the lakes. In
lakes where the nutrient content was below 50 p.p.m. (parts per million) settled volumes
of plankton never exceeded 4.5 ml. and averaged less than 1.5 ml. Above 50 p.p.m.
the mean amounts of plankton rose gradually, exceeding 3.5 ml. at 300 p.p.m. In some
cases quantities in excess of 10 ml. were recorded. However, much variation was evident
in volumes of plankton within this 50-300 p.p.m. range of dissolved solids, and occasionally samples were as low as those found in lakes with a content below 50 p.p.m.
The bottom fauna showed a similar trend toward greater abundance in lakes of
higher dissolved-solid content. Bottom organisms were scarce (0 to 5 per sample) in
lakes ranging between 4 to 165 p.p.m. dissolved solids, but abundant (over 25 per
sample) in lakes whose dissolved solids were above 130 p.p.m.
Higher weights of fish were caught with standard overnight gill-net sets in lakes
whose dissolved solids were also high. In lakes between 50 and 300 p.p.m., catches were
often in excess of 20,000 gms. of fish, although there was even greater variability than
found in plankton quantities. With one exception, less than 4,000 gms. of fish per set
were caught in lakes where the T.D.S. (total dissolved solids) were below 50 p.p.m.
Mean depth obtained by dividing the volume of a lake by its surface area was used
as a measure of favourable or unfavourable lake-basin shape. Previous studies have
shown that low mean depths were generally associated with high productivity and vice
versa. At mean depths up to 50 feet, a wide range in standing crops of plankton, bottom
fauna, and fish was found in the lakes. A trend toward lower productivity was evident
in lakes with mean depth over 50 feet.
Annual duration and intensity of the growing season was the only climatic factor
assessed independently. The most important effects of precipitation were considered to
be reflected in the total dissolved-solid content of the lake waters. The number of degrees
by which the mean daily air temperature exceeded 50° F. was taken as an index of J 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
climatic favourability. There appeared to be no relation between annual values of this
index and the standing crops of plankton, bottom fauna, or fish in the lakes.
British Columbia may be divided into eight major physiographic regions. One of
these, the Interior Plateau, has been further subdivided into four areas for convenient
discussion of limnological productivity.
The lakes on the Vancouver Island mountain region are all low in total dissolved
solids, and have steep, deep basins. Standing crops of plankton, bottom fauna, and
fish all appear low in these lakes.
Lakes of the coastal trench, which include those on the south-east margin of Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, and low-lying area about the Fraser River up to Hope,
are generally higher in dissolved-solid content and possess more shallow lake basins than
those of the former region. Lakes of the coastal trench tend to show higher levels of
productivity than those found in the Vancouver Island mountains, but a few are equally
as low.
Lakes in the coastal mountainous region are similar in dissolved-solid content and
basin shape to those in the Vancouver Island mountainous region. Levels of productivity
are likewise comparable.
Three subdivisions of the Interior Plateau are characterized by lakes of similar
physical and chemical features; productivity in these regions is also similar. Many lakes
in the valleys and low plateau (below 3,000 feet elevation) of the Southern Interior,
Central Interior (Merritt to Williams Lake), and Northern Interior have relatively high
dissolved-solid content but moderate to low mean depths. Productivity appears to be
high in the majority of lakes in these regions. Lakes above 3,000 feet elevation in the
Southern Interior Plateau are generally low in dissolved solids. The lake basins are
most often shallow. A wide range in levels of productivity is evident in these lakes, but
in general it seems to be lower than in the other three subdivisions of the Interior Plateau.
Lakes in the Columbia mountain region are found in a roughly triangular block of
land, the base of which stretches from the mountains east of the Okanagan Valley to the
western edge of the Rocky Mountain trench, the apex of which stretches north almost
to 54th parallel of latitude. The region includes a great diversity of lakes, many of those
occupying valley trenches being deep, low to moderate in dissolved solids, and never as
highly productive as many of the Interior Plateau lakes.
The Rocky Mountain trench, flanked on the west by the Purcell and Selkirk Ranges
of the Columbia mountain system, and on the east by the sharply rising Rockies, presents
an anomalous group of lakes. All have relatively high dissolved solids (above 180
p.p.m.) and low mean depths. However, the standing crops of plankton, bottom fauna,
and fish are low in five of the six lakes investigated. Further study will be needed to
clarify the causes of apparent low productivity of lakes in this region.
Only two lakes were surveyed in the Rocky Mountain system—one in the southern
limit of the mountains in British Columbia and one in the north, west of Dawson Creek.
Both gave indication of being only moderately productive.
Charlie Lake near Fort St. John was the sole representative from the tramontane
plains region of British Columbia. It possessed a relatively high dissolved-solid content,
a low mean depth, and a high-standing crop of plankton and fish.
In summary it would appear that the total dissolved-solid content of lake waters,
modified to some extent by mean depth, provides a useful index for determining general
levels of biological productivity on a regional basis.
However, variation of productivity within a region may be so great as to make these
two factors alone of questionable value in predicting the productivity of an individual lake. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 45
Shuswap Lake Investigations
D. P. Scott, Assistant Fisheries Biologist
Investigations of vital statistics of Kamloops trout in Shuswap Lake, initiated in
1953, were confined to the following aspects in 1954:—
(a) Collections were made of trout scale samples for growth-rate and age-
composition studies. The number of scale samples collected by resort
operators in 1954 was well below that of 1953, excepting the Little River
Fishing Camp. The probable reason for this decline was poor tourist
trade due to poor weather and much road construction in the Shuswap
Lake area.
(b) Spot checks of trout stomach contents were made to determine the species
of fishes eaten by trout. Only two species were found. Kokanee, Onco-
rhynchus nerka kennerlyi, were found in some large trout from the Eagle
Bay and Sicamous areas. Cohoe-salmon migrants (O. kisutch) were
present in many trout taken in the Little River area during May and June.
No sockeye-salmon fry or migrants were discovered, possibly due to the
small sizes of the 1952 and 1953 runs.
(c) Attempts were made to gill-net trout entering certain inlet streams to
spawn, but large quantities of debris made it impossible to hold the nets
in position. Spawning trout were observed in the following inlets: Adams,
Seymour, Eagle, and Salmon Rivers, and Scotch, Ross, Hunakwa, and
Granite Creeks. None were seen in other streams, but in September many
trout fry were visible in all streams of any size.
(d) A programme of plankton-sampling was initiated on March 1st in cooperation with F. Ward, of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission. Twice-monthly collections were made at four points in
Shuswap Lake, and four subsidiary areas were sampled four times per
year. It is hoped that this project will indicate the extent of annual plankton fluctuations which may be correlated with sockeye-salmon abundance.
The Adams River sockeye-salmon run of 1954 was one of the largest on record,
over 1,500,000 fish spawning in Adams and Little Rivers. During and after the run,
many trout were taken by anglers in these areas, and over 900 scale samples were collected by the writer between September 15th and November 15th. In contrast to 1953,
when over 60 per cent of the trout stomachs examined from this area were empty, all trout
in 1954 were feeding on sockeye-salmon eggs exclusively. Only one insect was found in
over 900 stomachs, and the remainder contained from thirty to over 1,000 eggs. During
the peak of the salmon run, fishing for trout was very poor due to the high availability of
salmon eggs.
Plans for the Shuswap Lake investigation in 1955 include: (1) Continued collection
of scale samples for population dynamics studies; (2) intensive investigation of trout
stomach contents to determine the degree of trout predation on sockeye-salmon fry;
(3) investigation of survival of hatchery-reared trout, leading to the use of marked hatchery fish in 1956 for population estimates; (4) survey of South Thompson and Thompson
Rivers, leading to sampling the resident trout populations of these rivers in 1956; and
(5) continued collection of plankton samples.
Other Research Studies
Dr. P. A. Larkin, Chief Fisheries Biologist
In 1954 several previous investigations were brought to completion in published
articles. The redside-shiner studies at Paul Lake were published in the Transactions of
the American Fisheries Society.   Data from lake surveys provided the basis for an article J 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
on introductions of Kamloops trout in British Columbia lakes in the Canadian Fish
Culturist. The steelhead studies of F. P. Maher on the Chilliwack River were presented
as a paper at the American Fisheries Society meetings, and this paper has been accepted
for publication in the Transactions for 1954, to be published in 1955. Some observations
on the use of fish-tox in streams and a review by E. H. Vernon of the effects of heavy
metal ions on fish were published in the Canadian Fish Culturist. The group contributed
a sketch of recent developments to the Sport Fishing Institute for inclusion in their annual
Highlights publication.   Several articles were prepared for local distribution.
Developing programmes in research included review of steelhead data from various
British Columbia rivers, studies of growth rate of Kamloops trout, further investigation
of the redside-shiner problem, and detailed studies of fish behaviour. All of these projects
give promise of findings of value to future management.
Summary
During 1954 the Fisheries Management Division began to see results from its major
building and organizational programme begun in 1950. The Protection Division has
evaluated major problems of the sport fishery that arise from more intensified resource
use in the Province. The Research Division has developed some important tools for
management. The Hatcheries Division has modernized and implemented a routine for
production of fish for planting. Each of these specialized sections has contributed to the
programme of the Management Division, particularly for the regional men, whose field
activities are beginning to develop. Provided growth of these aspects of our work keeps
pace with public demand for more fishing-waters (and there is no great immediate
problem), we can remain reasonably optimistic about future sport fishing.
REPORT OF THE GAME MANAGEMENT DIVISION
By Dr. J. Hatter, Chief Game Biologist
INTRODUCTION
The year 1954 marked some notable advances in game management in British
Columbia. Widespread seasons on cow moose, doe deer, and others on bull elk on
Vancouver Island, at McNab Creek, and in the Princeton area marked the beginning
of an effort to make better utilization of our big-game resources. The unique season
at Vaseaux Lake on California bighorn sheep with minimum three-quarter curl likewise
illustrates our objective, and also the willingness on the part of the administration to
implement the recommendations of the Game Management Division.
Although the either-sex seasons on deer and moose did not result in the desired
harvest, they have very definitely changed public attitude. Opposition has been virtually
nil, and with the new amendment to the " Game Act " legalizing the shooting of animals
under 1 year of age, the deer-management programme should in future include regular
antlerless seasons.
Whether or not we will be successful in ameliorating the periodic winter mortalities
to which our deer and moose are exposed is not certain, but we will at least be able to
cherish the thought that much better utilization of the surplus is being made than would
have been possible under a buck law. It seems inevitable that inadequate harvests of
deer and moose will continue for some time in the less accessible regions of the Province,
due not only to the difficulty of access, but also the relatively low hunting pressure in
British Columbia at the present time. Even though we may be unable to manage in the
sense that this implies hunter control of population size, the added recreational benefits
of more liberal seasons are obvious. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 47
It is likely that several years of manipulation of deer and moose seasons will be
necessary before maximum yields can be approached. In the face of many years of
adhering strictly to seasons on the male sex, it is hardly advisable now to plunge immediately into maximum harvests even if such were possible. A transition period would
seem desirable. There is, however, the risk that several consecutive winters producing
heavy deer and moose mortality will result in public opposition to a continuance of
either-sex seasons. On the other hand, the public relation endeavours of the Game
Commission are rapidly producing a much better understanding on the part of our critics,
and the real reasons for depressions of population levels in deer and moose are becoming
understood by the layman.
I am pleased to report that the Game Management Division has assumed an added
responsibility in the formulation of the game regulations, and certainly the field staff of
game biologists feels that its efforts play a major role in regulation of the annual harvest.
Indeed, over the past year our objectives seem to have moved closer, and the likelihood
of solving our many problems has become decidedly more encouraging. When appointed,
our regional biologists naturally did not have the wisdom and experience they now possess, and it is quite apparent, after only four or five years of service, what a great difference there is in having a more experienced staff. I cannot emphasize too strongly in this
regard how important it is to have a permanent personnel contented in their work and
not desirous of leaving for positions in the United States or other parts of Canada.
Familiarity with local conditions and understanding the complications of public opinion
are primary assets in a group as new as the Game Management Division. Perhaps there
is a place for " new blood " and new ideas, but this hardly seems applicable at the present
time when so much work is being undertaken for the first time, often with no precedent
to follow.
There can be little doubt but that our regional fieldmen are spread too thinly over
this large Province of ours, and that three or four additional game biologists would be
quite justified under the present demand for hunting. Up until this year the lack of a
biologist in the Kootenays was felt quite considerably, and the appointment there in
October of G. W. Smith as game management biologist has made a noticeable difference,
not only in the public attitude toward game management, but it has also provided an
opportunity to solve the many game problems in the Kootenay District. Due to the
lateness in the year of the Kootenay appointment, no report of activities is included in
the present Annual Report. Since October, Mr. Smith has been largely occupied in
becoming familiar with his district, observing hunter distribution and pressure, and in
extensive aerial surveys of the Rocky Mountain trench in connection with the proposed
Mica Creek and Libby Dam projects.
The need of a game biologist in " D " Division is more noticeable than ever. As
we continue to learn more about the southern half of the Province, conditions in the
north remain a source of embarrassment and hindrance to an intelligent programme of
management. This is particularly true since the northern half of British Columbia seems
to be developing out of proportion to the south, and hunting is becoming more popular
than ever before.
It will be noted that each of the regional game biologists has included herein his own
report of major items of work for the year. This seems a preferable way of summarizing
the Division's activities and permits a greater variety of presentation.
HUNTER SAMPLE
The selection of the hunter sample followed the same pattern as that described in
the Annual Report for 1953. One difficulty with the sample seems to be the wide limits
of accuracy applying to the less common game species and those hunted the least. Moose
also fall in this category, and it seems that regional estimates of the kill from the hunter
sample are open to a noticeable degree of error. J 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of the 1954 Harvest of Major Game Species
District
Ducks
Grouse
Pheasants
Deer
Moose
	
2,500
1,800
76,000
191,000
109,000
26,000
17,000
71,000
8,000
101,000
25,700
11,300
7,000
19,500
19,000
2,500
11,900
7,300
10,200
6,600
Kootenays  	
500
300
Wells Gray Park	
120
	
	
Totals 	
419,000
217,000
48,000
36,000
5,220
There is very little change in the calculated harvests except in the case of grouse,
which have shown a notable drop from approximately 359,000 in 1953 to 217,000 in the
past year. This has been largely due to the cyclic low in ruffed grouse in the Interior, and
also to the fact that weather conditions were not favourable for the production of upland
game birds in the spring and summer of 1954.
The deer harvest has shown a marked increase. This is due to three causes, namely:
More deer, a two-deer limit over the Province, and the either-sex season in November
when approximately 7,400 does were taken.
The decline in the pheasant harvest from 51,000 to 48,000 is probably related to
failures in the spring production due to wet weather.
Results of the Economic Survey
The hunter survey to determine money spent in pursuit of hunting was divided into
three parts: (1) Resident hunters; (2) non-residents hunting in the Cariboo and Chilcotin;  and (3) non-residents hunting in the Kootenays and Northern British Columbia.
The preliminary survey of resident-hunter expenditures was made in 1954. Twelve
thousand questionnaire forms were mailed out to a random sample of British Columbia
hunters. Returns were received from approximately 4,000 or about 5 per cent of the
82,000 persons holding hunting licences in 1953. Expenditures were broken down into
several items, with the average hunter expenditure as follows:—
(1) Transportation   $20.00
(2) Guns and ammunition     26.00
(3) Food and lodging     11.00
(4) Packers and guides       1.00
(5) Clothes and camping equipment       7.00
(6) Miscellaneous        5.00
Total  $70.00
Hunters in different regions of the Province expended varying amounts, which are
listed in the following: — Average Expendlture
Vancouver Island  $84.00
Mainland Coast     86.00
Lower Mainland     88.00
Interior     59.00
Kootenays      64.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 49
Expenditures for British Columbia hunters in this preliminary survey are totalled as
follows:—
Transportation   $1,611,000.00
Guns and ammunition      2,165,000.00
Food and lodging        901,000.00
Guides and packers        100,000.00
Clothing and equipment        598,000.00
Miscellaneous          435,000.00
Total  $5,810,000.00
Inasmuch as the figures given may be low, a more comprehensive survey of resident
hunters is planned for 1955.
Expenditures by Non-resident Hunters in the Cariboo
Three thousand one hundred and twelve non-resident general firearms licences were
sold in British Columbia in 1953. Approximately one-third of this number hunted in
the Cariboo and Chilcotin, primarily for moose. This group spends less money than the
hunter of the Rocky Mountain region and Northern British Columbia inasmuch as
the stay is shorter and hunting, which does not involve the use of a large string of horses,
is usually carried out from the residence of the guide. Average length of stay is
eleven days.
The average American hunter in this group spent $242 hunting in British Columbia
in 1953.   The breakdown of the $242 is as follows:—
Guide services   $190.00
Travelling in British Columbia        52.00
Total  $242.00
The estimated 2,500 non-residents in this group spent approximately $600,000
hunting in British Columbia in 1953, exclusive of the cost of licences and trophy fees.
Expenditures by Non-resident Hunters in the Kootenays and
Northern British Columbia
Hunters in this category spent approximately fourteen days in British Columbia,
and spent $550 for transportation, guiding fees, and accommodation while in British
Columbia. Total expenditures, exclusive of licences and trophy fees, for this group
amount to a total of $276,000.
Total expenditures, exclusive of licence fees and trophy fees, for all persons
hunting in British Columbia is calculated as follows:—
Resident hunters (preliminary survey)   $5,810,000.00
Non-resident hunters         876,000.00
Total  $6,686,000.00
VALUE OF THE FUR RESOURCE
On the basis of last year's fur prices, which were lower than for many years, the
value of the fur harvest to the trapper was calculated at $728,000.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
As mentioned in the 1953 Report, it is of utmost importance that the technical
staff of the Game Management Division work in close harmony with the Game Wardens
of the Province.   I am pleased to report that this past year co-operation between these J 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
two groups has, in general, been excellent. On behalf of the game biologists I wish to
extend sincere appreciation to the Divisional Inspectors and Game Wardens who have
" pitched in " and helped to strengthen our " team " in the work of game management.
LOWER MAINLAND AND SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICTS
E. W. Taylor, Regional Game Biologist, Vancouver, B.C.
Big Game
Deer and Elk Winter Range Survey, Princeton District
The forage plots established on the Tulameen and Similkameen River areas in 1952
were abandoned in 1954. It was felt that the time spent in making twig measurements
on such a limited number (thirty) of these 1/100-acre plots was not commensurate
with the amount and quality of the information they provided. In place of these plots,
random line-intercept transects were run on representative portions of the winter range,
and the key forage plants were given ocular appraisal and assigned to one of five classes
according to degree or intensity of use in each case.
Data were obtained from a total of 14,100 feet of random transect and also from
classified non-linear random listings of a number of forage plants in certain localities.
A summary of the information obtained appears in the following table:—
Forage Classification according to Degree of Use for Winter Range Areas
about Princeton, June 15th to 19th, 1954
Plant Species
Percentage of Plants in—
Plants in
Area
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5
Sample
Sandhill. 	
Amelanchier sp.
66.6
11.6
10.4
22.4
15.4
4.4
20.4
28.4
20.4
50.0
16.3
22.4
30.8
21.9
31.1
66.6
9.7
30.7
69.2
33.2
53.8
57.0
32.7
5.0
0.9
7.7
4.1
18.4
15.4
13.1
2.4
3.6
1.3
2.7
—
Thomas Meadows and Wolfe
Creek Hill
Salix sp 	
Amelanchier sp	
Ceonothus sp	
Salix sp	
Amelanchier sp	
Ceonothus sp.
Amelanchier sp	
—
—
Totals, all areas	
4.4
32.0
12.8
22.4
26.0
43.6
61.4
27.4
38.5
11.1
11.8
5.1
0.7
2.8
269
865
39
Class 1—Zero to light use.    Class 2—Moderate use.    Class  3—Heavy use  (Classes  3 to 5 indicate an overuse
condition).   Class 4—Severe use.   Class 5—Dead.
From the above analysis of the sample it would appear that, for the areas
represented, over 70 per cent of the Amelanchier shrubs, 42 per cent of the Ceonothus
shrubs, and 43 per cent of the Salix species were in an overbrowsed condition at this
time. On this basis the over-all condition of the winter range as reflected by that of the
key forage species shows 53 per cent over use, 31 per cent moderate use, and 16 per
cent zero-to-light use. Even though Ceonothus, which constitutes the greatest portion
of the sample and is perhaps the most important unit, appears to be in fairly good condition, 42 per cent of it appeared to be overbrowsed and over 12 per cent to a degree
which may prohibit plant regeneration. Service-berry (Amelanchier sp.) and upland
willow (Salix sp.) are in a poor state on much of the main game concentration areas,
except for certain sections in which plant growth is so vigorous and of a height sufficient
to place it beyond the availability of most animals.
Unfortunately no trend in range state can be readily obtained between the last two
years because of difficulties inherent in comparing data from the two different methods
of survey. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954
J 51
Elk, Princeton.—From data received from various sources, combined with that from
aerial survey, it was apparent that the Princeton elk herd experienced some increase over
the preceding year. A total of 113 animals was counted on the census of January, 1954,
as compared with 102 counted during the survey of February, 1953.
The relatively large concentration of animals on the Thomas Meadows during the
winter months subjected the forage to noticeably heavy use in this area.
The five-day open season (October 9th to 13th) on bull elk in this district was well
attended by hunters from all sections and resulted in a known kill of sixteen elk. Of this
number, eleven were bulls legally harvested, four were bulls wounded and later found
dead, and one was a cow elk found shot and left. An additional bull, believed killed in
a fight prior to the season, was also found. At least seven of the bulls harvested were
mature animals, three of which were in the four-point class and four of six points
and over.
Elk, McNab Creek.—A five-day (November 11th to 15th) open season on bull elk
was in effect throughout the Mackenzie Electoral District this year but had apparently
little or no success. Few hunters visited the McNab Creek area, and as far as is known
none was successful.
Mule Deer, Princeton.—The winter of 1953-54 was favourable to deer in this district, and a good carry-over of young animals was noted. Counts made during April 1st
to 4th, 1954, involving a classified sample of 254 deer, showed 30.2 per cent of the group
to be fawns of the preceding spring.
Data pertaining to the 1954 deer harvest were obtained from the Princeton cold-
storage plant and from road checks maintained at Flood on the last two week-ends of
November. The increase in the kill by Princeton hunters, as is suggested by the locker
records, may be partly due to an increase in local deer numbers or may reflect the effect
of an increase in the bag-limit to two bucks.
Princeton Locker Records of Deer Stored, 1950-54
Season
1950	
1951
Number
of Deer
  130
.       118
Season
1953	
1954	
Number
of Deer
  141
  180
1952	
     63
Information gathered from those hunting the South Okanagan, Similkameen, and
Kettle River areas was obtained at Flood for the week-ends of November 13th and 14th
and November 27th and 28th, 1954. During the latter period, doe deer were open to
hunting in certain sections. A summary of the Flood data appears in the following
table:—
Deer Harvest Data from Road Check at Flood, November 13th and 14th
and November 27th and 28th, 1954
November 13th and 14th, 1954
November 27th and 28th, 1954
Area Hunted
Number of
Hunters
Deer Killed
Number of
Hunters
Deer Killed
Bucks
Does
Bucks
Does
Cariboo  	
99
16
78
8
12
33
5
9
2
8
3
17
2
88
17
159
8
21
9
108
6
5
4
3
7
1
17
5
9
Olalla-Osoyoos  - 	
2
20
2
Totals   	
251
39
2
416
42
33 J 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
It will be noted that of the number of hunters returning from the south and east
portions of the Province via the Hope-Princeton Highway, only 51 per cent hunted the
Princeton-Keremeos area on the week-end of November 13th and 14th during the generally prevailing buck season, and 48 per cent on the week-end of November 27th and
28th, at which time does were also legal game in all areas but Princeton-Keremeos.
Hunter success in the latter section, on the basis of the Flood sample, was low (5 per cent)
compared with that for the Kettle River district (38 per cent). It was also evident from
the sample data that there was no disproportionate harvest of doe deer. The ratio of
bucks to does for areas having open season on both sexes was 38:33.
Coast Deer.—Gambier Island was visited for the second successive spring during
March and April, 1954, and additional evidence of deer mortality was found in the form
of carcasses and skeletal remains, all of which were from fawns of the previous spring.
Some loss of this juvenile fraction of the population appears to occur annually regardless
of how favourable the winter might be for deer survival.
Upland Game Birds
All species of upland birds appeared to suffer the effects of adverse weather conditions which prevailed during the spring and summer months in this area.
Grouse.—The harvest of both blue and willow grouse reflected the poor reproductive
season for these species in the Yale-Similkameen and Lower Fraser Valley districts during
1954.
Pheasants.—The supplementing of wild stocks of pheasants by the release of farm-
reared hens in the spring and cocks in the fall was carried out by this Department in 1954.
A summary of the regional distribution of these birds appears elsewhere in the Annual
Report.
Harvest estimates of pheasants taken during the 1954 season are not yet available,
but data obtained through bag-checks made during the season suggest that pheasant-
hunting success was below average this year. Cock birds appeared to be fewer in number
and generally retarded in plumage development at the time of harvest. It is felt that the
unusually cold, wet spring and summer weather was a major factor contributing to the
poor production of pheasants in the Fraser Valley, Similkameen, and South Okanagan
districts. Clutches were late in hatching and were below average brood size for the
season.
Chukar Partridge.—Attempts to establish the chukar partridge as a game bird in the
South Okanagan and Similkameen districts were continued during 1954.   A release of
144 birds sponsored by the Lower Mainland Hungarian Partridge Committee was also
made in the Spences Bridge area.   Plants of birds were made in the following locations:—
March 16th, 1954—
Keremeos   106
Okanagan Falls-Oliver  144
April 25th, 1954—
Spences Bridge     72
Oregon Jack Creek     72
Little information as to the success of the introductions made to date has been
obtained. Surveys about the release-sites in the summer of 1954 disclosed few birds.
However, reports from persons resident in the districts suggest that some birds have been
successful in rearing broods in the Keremeos and White Lake sections.
Public Shooting-grounds
During the past year considerable attention has been given to the problem of public
shooting-grounds in the Lower Fraser Valley. Crown land, on which hunting might be
freely pursued by the public, forms but a small portion of the valley area.   The encroach- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 53
ment of urbanization and industrial development on the remaining unalienated acreages
of foreshore and insular lands constitutes a real threat to the future of waterfowl wintering areas and public hunting-grounds, particularly in the Fraser River delta regions.
The British Columbia Game Department, in an attempt to ensure the continuance
of a valuable natural resource, has taken active measures to acquire certain Crown lands
important to the welfare of migratory game birds and public hunting.
Acknowledgments
Work during the past year has been greatly assisted by the co-operation received
from all Game Wardens and many other interested persons. I would like to express my
thanks to Game Warden A. F. Gill for his untiring efforts in connection with the collection
of material and information pertaining to deer, elk, and other species in his district. I am
also indebted to Game Wardens L. R. Lane, H. D. Mulligan, and B. Wilson for help on
black-tailed deer surveys. Considerable data pertaining to pheasants and waterfowl
received during the summer and fall seasons from Game Wardens W. H. Cameron, A. J.
Butler, F. Urquhart, P. Cliffe, H. P. Hughes, and R. King were much appreciated.
SOUTH CENTRAL INTERIOR
P. W. Martin, Regional Game Biologist, Kamloops, B.C.
The area of responsibility of the regional game biologist of the South Central Interior
may be roughly described as those portions of the central valleys and plateau country
south of 100 Mile House to the American border.
Big Game
Moose.—Moose are undoubtedly the most important big-game animal in the district.
They provide much recreation and meat for the resident hunter and, as the prime attraction for the visiting sportsmen, support a valuable tourist trade which adds appreciably to
the economy of the Cariboo District. Accordingly, during the year quite a large proportion of my time was spent in working on various phases of moose management.
Range appraisals were made in the spring of 1954 to ascertain the present state of
the ranges and trends in food production. These appraisals were made in a similar
manner to those described in the 1953 Report of the Provincial Game Commission
(page 38). The sample areas were distributed through known moose winter ranges from
Lac la Hache south to the Thompson River valley.
Only a slight improvement in the range condition is apparent. Using upland willow
as a key species, 16 per cent of the sample areas showed a definite improvement, 24 per
cent unchanged, and 60 per cent declining in browse production (see Table I). Other
browse species were noted and measured where abundant enough to provide a reliable
assessment. This general trend downward in the production of forage is due to two
factors—the excessive use of the plants by moose and the general maturation of the
forests. This latter condition favours conifers over the deciduous browse species in most
cases. Areas of greatest improvement were in the vicinity of Eagan Lake, North Bonaparte, in recently burned areas, and in logging slashes west of 100 Mile House. J 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Utilization and Use of Key Browse Species, 1954
Sample
Size
Species
Degree of Use
H.
M.
L.
Production Trend
33
8
4
3
2
5
2
Upland willow-
Red osier	
Paper birch	
Aspen..
Saskatoon-berry.	
Bog birch  _
Water birch	
16
2
1
20
6
3
2
1
5
2
E.=Excessive use.   H.=Heavy use.   M.=Moderate use.   L.
or static.   D.—Decreased production.
=Light use.   I.=Increased production.   S.=Stationary
Winter moose sign was apparent in all samples. Many of the plants had been visited
repeatedly during the winter. The winter of 1953-54 was moderate both with respect
to temperatures and snowfall. The animals were therefore virtually unhampered in their
movements, and the use of browse was very uniform in most areas.
The long, cold spring resulted in a later commencement of succulent growth than
usual. This resulted in the moose having to utilize hard winter food late into the spring.
The condition of the animals was variable. The incidence of ticks was quite heavy in
areas of mature Douglas fir forest, and six calves were reported to have been found dead
up until the end of May.   This number is not considered excessive.
An urgent appeal to hunters and guides was made to have the lower jaws of moose
deposited at the Cache Creek Checking-station. As a result of this appeal, the jaws of
approximately 23 per cent of the bulls and 14 per cent of the cows that passed through
Cache Creek were collected. From these specimens the age composition of the herds
they represented was computed. This information is of great value in judging the current
reproductive success of the various populations. A population with high reproductive
success will have a high proportion of young animals, while a population that is stagnant
or decreasing will have a high proportion of older age-classes within its structure.
Table II.—Age Composition of Interior Moose Population Based on Jaw Studies
Area of Sample
Percentage Composition by Age-classes
l>/4 Years    2'/2 Years  3>/i Years     Mature
Aged
Area I (Lone Butte, Bridge Lake, Jesmond)	
Area II (100 Mile House, Canim, Lac la Hache)	
Area III (150 Mile House to Quesnel and Horsefly)	
Areas V and VI (West of Fraser north to Blackwater)-
North of Quesnel  	
All bulls	
All cows  	
38.7
25.0
24.3
15.8
38.0
33.3
25.0
29.7
16.5
21.5
10.7
21.9
21.9
17.3
14.4
14.7
21.7
21.7
40.3
23.7
2.6
6.2
5.4
10.1
2.4
25.2
15.7
23.2
7.8
16.0
15.7
28.8
70.8
6.5
The preponderance of young animals in Areas I, II, and III indicates that in these
areas the animals are hunted heavily, but that a reasonable survival apparently results in
adequate bulls of breeding age. In Areas V and VI, west of the Fraser, the predominance
of old animals is somewhat disturbing, for it indicates a definite lack of reproductive
success. If the age distribution shown is representative, it seems unlikely that the annual
increment would equal the yearly drain on the population. As this is an area of relatively
light hunting pressure, the causes of the decline are probably range conditions. Similarly,
the age distribution of cows is far from reassuring. However, the sample was too small
to be divided into groups representing areas, and as a large proportion of the specimens
came from the area west of the Fraser, the sample cannot be considered to represent the
population as a whole.   The sample from the northern area north of Quesnel is most REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 55
satisfactory, for this is an area of relatively light hunting pressure, and the high proportion
of young animals indicates an expanding population.
Aerial surveys of moose were undertaken in January of 1954 in an attempt to
appraise the moose population. The population of Area I appeared to be virtually
unchanged from that of the previous year. The calf-crop, which comprised 27 per cent
of the population, was most satisfactory. In Area II the calf-crop comprised 23 per cent
of the population. The techniques of aerial survey are still in their infancy, and it is
hoped that future data will reliably indicate trends in the moose populations.
Mule Deer.—Mule deer are maintaining their numbers in a most satisfactory manner.
The long, cold spring did not appear to have affected them adversely. No reports of
die-offs were received in the spring and, up until the end of 1954, wintering conditions
were ideal. The 1954 kill was light, due to the lack of snow. The doe season was quite
satisfactory; it demonstrated that a short doe season would not harm the herds and would
afford extra recreation.
Sheep.—The three-day open season on California bighorn sheep in the South Okanagan was most successful. Fourteen rams were taken, thirteen of them fine trophies.
A ruling prohibiting the taking of rams with less than a three-quarter curl was well
received and respected by the hunters.
The season on the Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep in the vicinity of Chase and
Squilax was open for a week. About twelve animals were taken, several of them very
small.
Upland Game Birds
Pheasants.—The Okanagan pheasant population suffered from the prolonged spring
and subsequent wet summer, and the crop of birds was below that of the previous year.
Shooting was not as good as usual, but those hunters who persevered and used dogs were
reasonably successful. The supply of birds in the Thompson Valley showed little change
from that of the previous year.
Chukar Partridge.—Chukars continue to increase in numbers and to expand their
range since their introduction near Ashcroft. Good coveys have been seen about Cache
Creek and Walhachin. The population at Vaseaux Lake appears to be doing quite well,
but there is little evidence that they are spreading. A plant of the birds was made at
Vernon, and strong coveys were observed up to the new year, indicating good survival.
Grouse.—Routine observations on grouse indicate little change in their numbers.
Ruffed grouse are at a cyclic low, and an increase should soon be apparent.
Public Relations
Considerable time was spent on public relations during the year. Sixteen fish and
game association meetings and question and answer periods were also indulged in. Every
effort is made at all times to explain and acquaint individuals with the principles and
practices of game management, and also to explain the reasons behind changes in the
regulations.
Two formal papers were prepared and delivered—one at the Sixth Natural Resources
Conference at Victoria and the other at the Eighth Annual Game Convention at Nanaimo.
CARIBOO AND CHILCOTIN DISTRICTS
L. G. Sugden, Range Management Biologist, Williams Lake, B.C.
The information given in the following report represents an abstract of the major
activities during the year 1954.
Big Game
Moose Aerial Surveys.—Aerial counts of moose were undertaken in the Williams
Lake-Horsefly region in January, during which 473 miles of strip counting provided an J 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
index of 5.3 moose per square mile, which, for practical purposes, is the same as that of
1953. Of 250 moose classified, 19 per cent were calves. A 172-mile flight in the
Meldrum Creek area resulted in an index of 2.3 moose per section. This represents
a post-thaw count. A flight in the Alexis Creek area disclosed the characteristic concentration of wintering roose along the Chilcotin River between Hanceville and Redstone.
Moose Range Surveys.—Winter range appraisals were conducted in the spring and
summer. Upland willow was used as a "key" forage species in most areas and its
condition and utilization as indicators of range condition from the standpoint of moose
production. Five use categories were employed for ocular estimates of browse condition—nil, light, moderate, heavy, and severe. An " observation " consists of a single
willow clump.
Summary of Observations on Upland Willow Condition, April and May, 1954
NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS
Area
Nil
Light
Moderate
Heavy
Severe
Total
38
3
321
17
491
141
437
201
112
94
1,399
Eastern Chilcotin 	
456
PERCENTAGE OF OBSERVATIONS
Williams Lake-Horsefly-
Eastern Chilcotin	
31.2
44.1
8.0
20.6
100.0
100.0
In the Williams Lake-Horsefly area, samples of winter range were examined at Black
Creek, Horsefly River, Beaver Valley, Big Lake, Peavine Ridge, Rosa Lake, Nine Mile
Lake, Deep Creek, and Lac la Hache. In the Eastern Chilcotin, winter ranges were
sampled at Meldrum Creek, Fish Lake, Chilco River, Alexis Creek, Chilco Ranch, and
Fletcher Lake. " Moderate " use is considered proper or most efficient use. The preceding data show widespread use in excess of that desired and indicate a greater-than-
capacity moose population, and the trend in range productivity is necessarily downward.
General observations on moose winter ranges were made in other areas, as follows:—
Manila, Ootsa Lake, Uncha Lake:  Generally moderate use of upland willow
and carrying a capacity population.
Baezaeko River:  Maximum desired use.
Whitewater Lake:   Heavy use of upland willow, the primary winter browse.
Tatlayoko Lake:   Upland willow used light to moderate and range in good
condition.
Hunter Success.—Success of guided moose-hunters was determined from guide
returns.   It showed an increase in 1954 in the Williams Lake and Alexis Creek Game
Detachments and a drop in the Quesnel Game Detachment.    Hunting pressure was
universally down, as the following table shows:—
Area
1953
1954
Hunters
Moose
Per Cent
Success
Hunters
Moose
Per Cent
Success
136
78
57.4
41.7
57.1
99
190
404
51
94
268
51.5
302                126
542        |        309
49.5
66.3
Totals     	
980        1        513
52.4
693
413
59.7
The drop in hunter success in spite of reduced hunting pressure in the Quesnel area
is considered a result of a decreased moose population. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954
J 57
California Bighorn Sheep.—Two years' fall counts of bighorn sheep north of the
Chilcotin River and west of the Fraser River are available. Herd composition for the two
years may be found in the following table:—•
Numbers
Percentage
1953
1954
1953
1954
55
76
34
61
90
43
33.4
46.0
20.6
31.4
46.4
Lambs     	
22.2
Totals	
165
194
The higher count in 1954 is considered, at least in part, a result of increased numbers
in the herd.   There is no apparent change in the herd composition.
By means of live-trapping, twenty-eight sheep (two rams, eighteen ewes, and eight
lambs) were removed from this herd. Considerable time was spent on this project, which
was largely financed by the Oregon State Game Department, to whom the sheep were
consigned. The animals were baited into a 2-acre corral constructed of 9-foot fencing.
Dairy feed, salt, and cabbage were the principal baits employed. The animals were confined and loaded by hand into a double-decked stake truck and hauled non-stop to the
Hart Mountain Game Preserve in South-eastern Oregon. There they were placed in
a 35-acre pasture to await construction of a permanent 500-acre pasture.
There are an estimated 200 head of sheep remaining in the band, and it is anticipated
that a similar operation may become a permanent project at regular intervals, depending
on the population response to the removals. Subsequent releases will, in all probability,
be confined to British Columbia bighorn ranges.
A February flight into the Whitewater area, sponsored by a grant from the Wildlife
Management Institute, confirmed reports of sheep wintering near that lake.
Mule Deer.—One only formal investigation of mule deer was conducted during the
year. The winter range of the Moha herd was examined, and an investigation of deer
damage to agriculture in that area was made.
The winter-range browse was found to be limited and chronically overused. The
two most important browse plants in the area are mountain maple (Acer glabrum) and
service-berry. Only a small part of the annual surplus of the Moha deer herd is harvested,
and overpopulation is the rule. The damage, consisting of fence-breaking and eating on
stacked as well as growing hay, is largely a result of the excessive deer numbers which, in
turn, have reduced their natural food-supply.
Waterfowl.—Assistance was given in eight waterfowl-banding operations in the
Cariboo District.
Public Relations
Meetings of various groups are attended at every opportunity. During 1954 twelve
different groups were met at least once, during which addresses, discussions, or the showing of slides took place.
VANCOUVER ISLAND
D. J. Robinson, Regional Game Biologist, Nanaimo, B.C.
The year 1954 marked three noteworthy advances in game management on Vancouver Island. These were (a) the acceptance by hunters of the general doe season;
(b) a successful attempt to provide a means of access on private forest lands; and (cj
a marked interest shown by many forest industrial companies in tree-farms and forest
management licences which, it is hoped, will lead to a more stable type of game habitat. J 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
By increasing the efficiency of the game harvest, coupled with an improvement in
the wildlife habitat and satisfactory means of access, we should approach more closely
the basic ideals of good game management.
Big Game
Black-tailed Deer.—Routine counts were made on representative deer ranges throughout the year. This information, together with the hunter sample survey and data gathered
from road checks, supplies the necessary facts to set constructive seasons.
Although there was a short period of inclement weather during late January, the
spring carry-over was excellent.
Table I.—Spring Counts on Three Vancouver Island Deer Ranges Showing
the Contribution of Short Yearlings in the Total Population
Area
Adults
Short Yearlings
Percentage of
Yearlings in
Population
82
289
13
38
161
9
31.6
Courtenay - _
	
35.7
45.4
The sex ratio obtained from three key areas revealed an adequate breeding population of males (Table II). Field work in August showed a fawn-crop amounting to a
population increase of over 60 per cent above the post-winter level (Table II). Road-
check data show that W2- and 2V^-year-old deer contribute from 70 to 80 per cent of
the population of deer. This increase cannot go on indefinitely, and if we are to prevent
or alleviate the disastrous results of overpopulation, the harvest must keep pace with or
exceed the increase. To do this, it is necessary to take both sexes. A partially successful
attempt was made in this direction in late November, 1954.
The data collected have drawn to attention a substantial fawn-loss in the immediate
pre- and post-natal periods. These losses are believed due to low nutritional levels
experienced by the parents during the winter and early spring months.
Tagging operations resulted in the banding of seventy-nine fawns in the Courtenay
and Campbell River areas. Two banded bucks were shot in 1954. One 2Vi -year-old
animal had moved over 5 miles, but the other was taken only 600 yards from the tagging-
site. This aspect of the deer programme will eventually provide more information on
ageing criteria, growth rates, movements, and mortality. Knowledge of these facts is
basic to good management.
Table II.—Sex Ratio and Contribution of Fawn-crop on Three Major
Ranges from June to August, 1954
Area
Male
Female
Sex Ratio,
Males to
Females
Fawns,
Twins to
Singles
Percentage
of Fawns in
Population
Sayward      	
74
187
68
272
446
139
1:3.7
1:2.4
1:2.0
1:1.4
1:1.3
1:0.61
38.6
38.3
40.3
Elk.—An open season on Roosevelt elk was held on Vancouver Island for the first
time in over forty years. The harvest of bulls was meagre, amounting to ten known kills.
Several female elk were also shot. The total harvest, which certainly did not exceed
25 head of an estimated population in excess of 1,500, will produce no measurable ill
effect.   More intensive field work and better access should permit a substantially increased REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 59
harvest. The majority of elk herds on Vancouver Island are quite local in distribution,
and the prospect of a large increase in the kill must be based on more specific knowledge
of the individual bands.
Fur-bearers
Nuisance beaver were live-trapped for restocking and research purposes from the
Courtenay area. The district from the Puntledge drainage north to the Salmon River
contains an erupting beaver population. Three co-ordinated factors have aided this
build-up: (1) Low price of beaver-pelts, (2) close control of numbers taken by trappers,
and (3) floral successions of a nature which supply great amounts of food. Live-trapping
for restocking and research will be continued in certain areas.
Upland Game Birds
Blue Grouse.—Blue grouse production for 1954 was below the 1951-53 average.
Heavy rains were commonplace during June, July, and August, with apparent adverse
effects upon the broods. The hatching period was similar to other years, starting in late
May at the latitude of Victoria and extending to the 15th of June at Campbell River.
Females with chicks under a week old are usually plentiful for approximately two
weeks, with a few noted up until mid-July. However, there was a radical departure from
this pattern in 1954 as newly hatched young were observed constantly up until mid-
August. Male blue grouse, usually off the breeding ranges by mid-July, were present in
fair numbers in mid-August, hooting and apparently holding territory. Despite the lowered production, as indicated in Table III, the Campbell River check produced the second-
best hunter success figures since 1948. The reason for this fine harvest in the face of
decreased production resulted from the early opening date.
The following considerations are important in establishing a season on blue grouse:
(1) Birds of the year make up 70 to 80 per cent of the harvest; (2) non-breeding females,
adult males, and females that have lost their broods are usually off the breeding-grounds
by mid-August; and (3) the main migration of females and broods starts in August and
is over by the second or third week of September.
By opening a week earlier than usual, birds that normally are out of reach of the
hunter can be taken. Juveniles may be 2 to 3 ounces smaller than when the opening date
is later, but this slight disadvantage is greatly outweighed by the substantial increase in
the total number of birds bagged. The size of the blue grouse harvest is dependent
primarily on the number of days' shooting prior to migration and only secondarily upon
the yearly production.
Table III.—Comparison of Brood Size from Three Vancouver Island Areas
Brood Size
Area 1953 1954
Nanaimo   3.2 2.1
Campbell River (new burn)   4.1 3.2
Duncan   3.2 2.2
Waterfowl
Black Brant.—Brant-hunting on the east coast of Vancouver Island appears to be
dependent on two populations. There is the local Gulf of Georgia wintering population
which supplies limited shooting to a few keen hunters, then there are the migrant waves
en route to the breeding-grounds. These birds begin to show up late in February. When
they appear in large numbers before the end of the season, as in 1951, the harvest runs
between 3,000 and 4,000 birds, but when they are largely absent during the hunting
period, the take is low as in 1954 when only 850 were taken. Table IV shows how the
build-up of migrant birds commences early in March, reaches a peak in late April, and
declines as the birds leave for the northern breeding-grounds in May and June. J 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Counts of Black Brant Taken along the East Coast of Vancouver Island
during the Spring Migration
Number of Birds
Date 1953 1954
February (early)       50
February 17th    __,_ 125
March 7th to 9th      723 373
March 21st  1,587 1,923
April 4th  2,950 3,135
April 18th  2,505 4,340
May 2nd       1,625
May 28th  25
Public Relations
Favourable contact with the general public is an important part of the game
programme. In 1954 forty-three meetings were attended and over 2,600 persons interested in the wildlife resource were contacted. Fish and game clubs were the groups
most commonly requesting talks or lectures. However, an increasing number of service
clubs and school-teachers are availing themselves of the services of the Department's
biologists in conservation education. Most fish and game organizations on Vancouver
Island are also utilizing the Game Department's technical staff for assistance in deciding
local and Provincial conservation policies and recommendations. This trend, it is hoped,
will result in increasing the number of well-informed sportsmen on Vancouver Island
and generally strengthening the over-all conservation programme.
REPORT OF PREDATOR CONTROL BRANCH
By G. A. West, Supervisor of Predator Control
This Branch has just completed a very satisfactory year inasmuch as control
measures were concerned. In fact, 1954 was the most successful year to date, with
coyote bounties eliminated, numbers of wolf bounties much reduced, and the placing of
1,911 major poison-stations.
The destruction of noxious animals and birds was at a very high level, although
major predators such as coyotes, wolves, and cougars were in much less evidence than
before. But this situation corresponds very closely with the reductions in bounty
payments on these animals. The accompanying table shows the destruction of vermin
by Departmental personnel.
The larger, more important predators and their importance are as follows:—
Bear.—For the third consecutive year, bears have caused more complaints and
damage than all other predators put together. We maintained a high level of success
against the depredations of these animals through the use of cyanide guns and compound
1080. Both of these methods have proven to be very effective in this regard. A total
of 321 bears (including two grizzlies) were destroyed during the year because they were
causing damage, ranging from eating oats to killing domestic stock.
Cougars.—The numbers of cougars that were presented for bounty payments during
1954 were considerably below those of 1953. Here a reduction of 20.6 per cent (from
500 to 397) was revealed. Vancouver Island again contributed more than half the total
number of bounties paid, but it is from this area that the largest reduction occurred. It is
possible that the continuous heavy hunting pressure that has been exerted on these big
cats for a number of years has gained sufficient momentum to have a reducing effect on
the population. The East Kootenay and Williams Lake areas tend to be the major
sources of cougar bounties on the Mainland. Of the total of 397 cougars that were
bountied, 159 or 40 per cent were taken by registered bonus cougar-hunters. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954 J 61
Coyotes.—These predators did not cause very many complaints during the last
year. The Departmental kill was reduced during 1954, but this coincides with the
reduced numbers presented for bounty before August 1st, 1954, when the coyote bounty
was eliminated. It is felt that the control measures now being utilized by our personnel
will keep the numbers of coyotes within bounds and damage will be at a low level.
When the coyote bounty was abolished, it was expected that a flood of complaints
would be received by Departmental personnel regarding damage and even sightings of
coyotes. This did not happen and consequently tends to prove that most people would
destroy any coyote on sight. This situation has been advanced many times as an
argument against payment of bounties but was not believed by the majority of people.
Foxes.—Personnel in the Lower Fraser Valley have had a large measure of success
with control measures which were used against the red foxes in this area. Three hundred
and thirty foxes were definitely destroyed in this area during 1954, or an increase of 53.5
per cent over 1953. It is hoped that even larger numbers will be accounted for in 1955
if certain control measures can be followed. In any case, the damage caused by these
small predators has been reduced by a large degree and should never become more
serious.
Wolves.—Again there was a substantial decrease in the numbers of wolves presented
for bounty. Bounties dropped from 544 in 1953 to 413 in 1954, or a decrease of 24.1
per cent. These figures indicate the measure of success that various controls have had
on these large predators. However, even with these low numbers of wolves that have
been bounded, we still have animals that have been destroyed by our personnel being
turned in for bounty. In addition, we believe that bounties have been paid on wolves
brought over the Provincial boundary from non-paying areas and presented in this
Province—a simple case of bootlegging. There is only one way to prevent these happenings, and that is to eliminate the payment of wolf bounties. This procedure is very
strongly recommended by the writer. It is felt that the Game Commission can exercise
sufficient control to keep these animals in fairly low numbers. In addition, the natural
reaction of a person when a wolf is sighted is to shoot anyway, regardless of bounty.
There are very few persons who actually hunt wolves. Therefore, we are paying bounty
on wolves of which most would be destroyed in any case. This is definitely not good
business.
Although a very large percentage of the Province receives intensive wolf-control
measures at the present time, it is intended that these measures will be expanded during
the 1955 season.
Other Predators.—Racoons and bobcats were again the most troublesome of this
group. Fairly large numbers of both species were destroyed on complaints received by
personnel. The damage caused by these predators is quite low, but they could become
serious if left alone. The lynx is beginning to cause a few complaints in the North and
Interior. These animals are very numerous throughout the whole of the Cariboo and
northern areas, and where their natural food has disappeared the lynx have taken to
killing poultry and, in some cases, sheep. However, they are not to be considered a
serious menace.
The poisoning operations carried out during the winter months were very large and
intensive, with a total of 1,911 major poison-stations established. These represent an
increase of 149 per cent over 1953. Much of this increase was due to the threat of rabies,
but, in any case, resulted in much lower bounty payments and negligible damage created
by wolves and coyotes.
At this point I would like to extend sincere thanks from the Predator Control staff
to all those members of the Enforcement Branch who aided in the control of predators.
Their help was invaluable. J 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Vermin Destroyed, 1953 and 1954
Divisions
Totals
Species
"A"
"B"
"C"
"D"
"E"
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
1953
1954
3
129
27
71
30
1
107
12
62
1
26
37
26
69
51
314
20
13
41
11
89
36
71
46
277
60
3
103
~ 20
1
78
15
245
2
410
53
7
144
16
29
79
11
184
2
284
33
7
104
5
25
127
1
90
2
366
83
18
178
2
110
98
3
248
52
10
8
8
50
87
9
30
650
2
24
69
215
119
112
42
48
527
1
27
53
330
9
165
94
254
72
1,183
84
1,114
296
253
185
149
139
207
2
321
Bobcats.  	
95
987
64
836
260
Foxes.	
351
215
Otter                            .   .
17
Racoons	
241
119
113
Totals. — -
260
209
582
706
999 |     734
867
674
1,230
1,296
3,938
3,619
Crows 	
Eagles. 	
Hawks  -
Owls _ _	
Magpies  -
Mergansers	
122
2
28
6
36
127
1
22
35
297
56
71
33
89
10
31
302
66
58
20
3
3
51
696
7
81
54
424
12
82
2
849
33
147
48
592
50
191
416
57
92
173
99
8
73
353
46
131
215
142
6
123
1,223
56
150
13
8
41
61
8
1,203
53
139
26
18
12
30
9
2,754
178
422
273
620
77
283
10
2,834
199
497
309
755
71
430
9
Totals	
194
185
587
503
1,358
1,910
918
1,016
1,560
1,490
4,617
5,104 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
STATISTICAL STATEMENTS
J 63
Comparative Statistics, 1913 to 1954, Inclusive
Calendar Year
Prosecutions
Informations
Laid
Convictions
Cases
Dismissed
Firearms
Confiscated
Fines
Imposed
Revenue
Derived from
Sale of Game
Licences
and Fees
Revenue
Derived from
Fur Trade
1913..
1914..
1915
1916
1917...
1918-
1919...
1920..
1921_
1922-
1923...
1924...
1925-
1926...
1927-
1928..
1929..
1930-
1931-
1932-
1933...
1934...
1935-
1936-
1937-
1938-
1939-
1940.
1941..
1942..
1943-
1944..
1945-
1946.
1947..
1948..
1949..
1950-
1951..
1952-
1953..
1954-
188
294
279
127
111
194
267
293
329
359
309
317
296
483
518
439
602
678
676
538
498
477
454
451
585
613
547
440
446
409
356
379
652
819
895
1,142
1,115
1,359
1,489
1,504
1,519
1,241
181
273
258
110
97
167
242
266
312
317
280
283
279
439
469
406
569
636
625
497
474
454
438
436
552
574
526
419
430
392
342
372
632
798
878
1,117
1,099
1,337
1,468
1,476
1,500
1,158
7
21
21
17
14
17
25
27
17
42
29
34
17
44
49
33
33
32
51
41
24
23
16
15
33
39
21
21
16
17
14
7
20
21
17
25
16
22
21
28
19
83
5
36
46
74
44
24
24
43
39
47
29
54
33
40
37
22
4
19
14
20
42
21
18
9
27
18
8
30
39
56
74
86
69
83
87
67
48
$4,417.50
5,050.00
4,097.50
2,050.00
1,763.50
3,341.00
6,024.50
6,073.00
6,455.00
7,275.00
5,676.50
4,758.00
5,825.00
7,454.00
10,480.50
7,283.50
9,008.00
9,572.75
8,645.00
5,493.50
3,531.00
5,227.82
4,399.50
3,965.00
5,332.50
5,729.50
4,776.50
5,197.00
4,977.50
5,079.50
5,554.50
5,570.50
8,381.50
10,921.00
11,837.50
17,537.00
18,148.50
22,923.00
24,087.50
25,755.00
23,663.50
22,540.50
$109,600.80
92,034.20
72,974.25
66,186.97
65,487.50
75,537.00
116,135.00
132,296.50
114,842.00
127,111.50
121,639.50
125,505.50
123,950.50
135,843.50
139,814.00
140,014.75
142,028.22
147,660.00
137,233.31
141,269.55
135,876.94
149,955.11
148,689.64
157,647.30
177,771.33
192,024.07
193,170.53
188,605.20
213,267.67
205,451.71
207,661.72
238,902.36
352,228.85
502,555.25
597,529.30
610,383.56
656,997.38
706,591.06
830,178.59
856,971.22
1,032,264.31
1,029,903.83
$5,291.39
24,595.80
51,093.89
60,594.18
56,356.68
56,287.78
62,535.13
71,324.96
58,823.07
47,329.89
45,161.11
46,091.08
40,363.79
44,167.48
47,102.81
49,831.95
52,196.50
53,697.48
44,963.87
49,187.00
68,466.33
63,125.30
68,475.07
58,354.03
70,363.23
104,250.95
107,357.72
99,344.14
73,392.08
61,543.26
71,335.44
76,454.56
58,713.48
56,788.19
55,529.52
Totals..
24,687
23,578
1,089
1,436      | $365,879.57
$11,711,791.48    | $2,060,489.14
 I	 J 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Total Revenue Derived from Sale of Various Licences,
Collections, etc., January 1st to December 31st, 1954
Revenue derived from—
Sale of resident firearms licences  $415,177.00
Sale of deer, moose-elk, goat, and pheasant tags  104,961.75
Sale of resident anglers', guides', and prospectors'firearms licences  191,585.00
Sale of non-resident firearms licences and outfitters'
licences  66,342.00
Sale of non-resident anglers' licences  162,140.50
Sale of fur-traders', taxidermists', and tanners' licences,
and royalty on fur  55,529.52
Sale of confiscated firearms  169.47
Sale of confiscated fur_  517.16
Collection of big-game trophy fees from non-residents 88,075.00
Prosecutions—fines imposed under the " Game Act" 22,540.50
Miscellaneous revenue  935.95
Total  $1,107,973.85 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954
J 65
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2 o <s ra « ■- i? J 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Revenue Derived from the Sale of Moose-Elk, Deer, Goat, and Pheasant Tags,
January 1st to December 31st, 1954
Government Agency
Deer Tags
No.       Amount
Moose-Elk Tags
No.        Amount
Goat Tags
No.       Amount
Pheasant Tags
No.       Amount
Total
Alberni...
Ashcroft..
Atlin._	
Barkerville—
Burns Lake-
Clinton	
Courtenay....
Cranbrook—
Creston	
Duncan	
Fernie	
Golden	
Grand Forks..
Kamloops	
Kaslo 	
Kelowna	
Lillooet	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Denver	
New Westminster-
Oliver	
Penticton	
Pouce Coupe-
Powell River	
Prince George-
Prince Rupert _
Princeton	
Quesnel 	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Salmon Arm	
Smithers-	
Terrace	
Vancouver	
Vanderhoof	
Vernon	
Victoria.	
Williams Lake—
Totals..
Less refunds..
Total	
2,840
739
162
291
1,267
6,365
4,226
1,144
2,227
1,794
1,765
1,336
5,389
292
2,584
821
453
4,310
2,429
569
11,267
1,582
2,958
3,173
946
3,144
2,065
1,433
1,973
330
2,980
1,176
361
194
10,957
555
3,182
6,045
1.778
$1,420.00
369.50
81.00
145.50
633.50
3,182.50
2,113.00
572.00
1,113.50
897.00
882.50
668.00
2,694.50
146.00
1,292.00
410.50
226.50
2,155.00
1,214.50
284.50
5,671.25!
791.00
1,479.00
1,586.50
473.00
1,572.00
1,032.50
716.50
986.50
165.00
1,490.00
588.00
180.50
97.00
5,478.50
277.50
1,591.00
3,022.50
889.00
65
215
57
73
394
526
112
1,563
218
51
792
666
28
1,058
67
216
181
61
160
237
43
3,082
263
225
1,599
12
1,923
416
191
641
111
255
219
314
291
2,235
435
433
187
487
$130.00
430.00
114.00
146.00
788.00
1,052.00
224.00
3,126.00
436.00
102.00
1,584.00
1,332.00
56.00
2,116.00
134.00
432.00
362.00
122.00
320.00
474.00
86.00
6,203.00s
526.00
450.00
3,198.00
24.00
3,846.00
832.00
382.00
1,282.00
222.00
510.00
438.00
628.00
582.00
4,470.00
870.00
866.00
374.00
974.00
97,102  |$48,588.75      20,102  |$40,243.00
I      I   1   	
4
13
32
1
30
22
11
417
32
1
237
289
2
38
28
94
6
3
90
48
188
18
6
167
12
139
122
8
5
35
39
7
58
141
138
6
22
6
48
$8.00
26.00
64.00
2.00
60.00
44.00
22.00
834.00
64.00
2.00
474.00
578.00
4.00
76.00
56.00
188.00
12.00
6.00
180.00
96.00
376.00
36.00
12.00
334.00
24.00
278.00
244.00
16.00
10.00
70.00
78.00
14.00
116.00
282.00
276.00
12.00
44.00
12.00
96.00
91
196
770
405
426
167
1,409
1,001
336
69
7,019
211
500
13
151
90
129
455
5,775
1,564
775
9
$45.50
98.00
385.00
202.50
213.00
83.50
704.50
500.50
38.00
168.00
34.50
3,970.50:
105.50
250.00
2.00
6.50
75.50
45.00
64.50
227.50
2,887.50
782.00
387.50
4.50
2,563  [ $5,126.00
 -- I  	
21,641  |$11,281.50   $105,239.25
  |    277.50
$1,603.50
923.50
178.00
229.00
993.50
1,729.50
3,813.50
6,073.00
1,274.50
1,430.50
2,955.00
2,792.50
811.50
5,591.00
336.00
2,224.50
960.50
398.50
2,649.00
1,903.00
466.50
16,220.75
1,458.50
2,191.00
5,118.50
523.00
5,696.00
2,115.00
1,190.00
2,278.50
502.00
2,142.50
1,267.50
924.50
961.00
13,112.00
1,159.50
3,283.00
3,796.00
1,963.50
$104,961.75
1 Includes $37.75 for tags sold in 1950 but accounted for in 1954.
2 Includes $39 for tags sold in 1950 but accounted for in 1954.
3 Includes $461 for tags sold in 1950 but accounted for in 1954. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
J 67
Revenue Derived from Sale of Resident Anglers', Guides', Free Farmers', and
Prospectors' Firearms Licences, January 1st to December 31st, 1954
Anglers
Guides
Free
Farmers
Prospectors
Total
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
No.
Amount
1,632
$3,264.00
1,678.00
144.00
408.00
1,192.00
1,332.00
7,358.00
5,052.00
1,962.00
2,502.00
2,582.00
1,660.00
1,644.00
8,334.00
666.00
6,182.00
1,752.00
1,154.00
5,332.00
6,260.00
1,256.00
32,510.00!
1,472.00
5,392.00
3,466.00
2,384.00
5,236.00
4,350.00
2,724.00
2,080.00
1,266.00
5,424.00
3,136.00
1,696.00
1,672.00
31,566.00
1,222.00
4,964.00
8,154.00
1,898.00
7
6
27
155
15
27
6
3
48
58
8
71
16
2
1
4
1
1
87
46
34
5
48
5
8
11
3
48
3
1
212
9
8
23
2
23
20
32
49
1
16
35
72
10
50
1
2
76
22
4
111
12
83
6
72
4
7
43
8
14
52
40
7
19
17
144
77
15
5
7
12
30
13
5
7
29
7
4
16
8
29
27
11
47
6
29
1
49
9
2
47
4
50
48
20
63
22
11
4
13
18
136
10
21
16
43
$1.00
$3,265.00
839
72
204
596
666
3,679
2,526
981
1,251
1,291
830
822
4,167
333
3,091
876
577
2,666
3,130
628
16,247
736
2,696
1,733
1,192
2,618
2,175
1,362
1,040
633
2,712
1,568
848
836
15,783
611
2,482
4,077
949
1,678.00
Atlin     	
$75.00
65.00
270.00
1,615.00
110.00
240.00
50.00
25.00
470.00
595.00
75.00
695.00
219.00
473.00
2.00
1,462.00
2,947.00
7,470.00
Cranbrook 	
5,292.00
2,012.00
	
2,527.00
Fernie	
3,052.00
2,255.00
1.00
1,719.00
9,030.00
666.00
2.00
1.00
6,184.00
1,887.00
135.00
20.00
10.00
40.00
Merritt
1,174.00
5,342.00
6,300.00
1,256.00
32,526 00
15.00
10.00
770.00
1,472.00
5,402.00
2.00
4,236.00
2,384.00
5,688.00
4,650.00
2,784.00
Prince George 	
450.00
300.00
60.00
485.00
55.00
Quesnel- .   -
1.00
5.00
2,565.00
1,321.00
5,424.00
3,216.00
1,796.00
1,673.00
31,586.00
1,652.00
4,994.00
8,164.00
3,878.00
80.00
100.00
Vancouver	
20.00
430.00
30.00
10.00
1,975.00
91,155
$182,326.00
967
$9,280.00
1,186
879
$15.00
$191,621.00
36 00
Less refunds	
Total	
	
	
	
	
	
$191,585.00
1 Includes $16 sold in 1950 and 1952 but accounted for in 1954. J 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Revenue Derived from Sale of Non-resident General Firearms, Non-resident
General Firearms Special, Non-resident Ordinary Firearms, and Outfitters' Licences, January 1st to December 31st, 1954.
Government Agency
General Firearms
Licences
General Firearms
Licences (Special)
Ordinary Firearms
Licences
Outfitters'
Licences
Total
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
34
6
1
8
40
12
139
39
1
132
59
7
68
13
2
1
9
4
1,305
283
38
97
37
24
10
7
7
4
3
170
3
11
11
16
1
2
4
2
2
7
13
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
16
10
1
1
1
1
$15.00
30.00
60.00
5
1
2
8
2
3
1
1
38
5
3
	
1
$15.00
$850.00
150.00
25.00
200.00
1,000.00
300.00
3,475.00
975.00
25.00
3,300.00
1,475.00
175.00
1,700.00
325.00
50.00
25.00
225.00
100.00
880.00
Atlin   	
$15.00
	
225.00
25.00
	
200.00
1,000.00
Courtenay	
30.00
30.00
330.00
3.00
6.00
3,508.00
	
981.00
25.00
105.00
195.00
30.00
30.00
15.00
$50.00
3,455.00
1,694.00
24.00
205.00
6.00
9.00
1,736.00
349.00
	
50.00
	
25.00
225.00
3.00
3.00
100.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
240.00
150.00
33.00
32,625.00
7,075.00
950.00
2,425.00
925.00
600.00
250.00
175.00
175.00
100.00
75.00
4,250.00
75.00
275.00
275.00
400.00
32,658.00
7,105.00
980.00
114.00
2,779.00
1,075.00
	
600.00
	
250.00
175.00
175.00
15.00
15.00
15.00
115.00
	
90.00
Vancouver   	
15.00
4,280.00
75.00
9.00
284.00
15.00
	
290.00
400.00
2,601
$65,025.00
74
$1,110.00
69
$207.00
1
$50.00
$66,392.00
50.00
Total	
	
	
	
$66,342.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
J 69
Revenue Derived from Sale of American Non-resident Anglers', Canadian
Non-resident Anglers', and Minor Non-resident Anglers' Licences, January 1st to December 3 1st, 1954.
Anglers' Licences
(American)
Anglers' Licences (Canadian)
Anglers' Licences
(Minor)
Government
Agency
$3.50
$5
Total
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
133
80
28
10
16
178
726
481
459
61
157
93
346
756
153
879
15
60
159
882
10
9,795
1,672
407
361
140
94
74
95
28
$931.00
560.00
196.00
70.00
112.00
1,246.00
5,082.00
3,367.00
3,213.00
427.00
1,099.00
651.00
2,422.00
5,292.00
1,071.00
6,153.00
105.00
420.00
1,113.00
6,174.00
70.00
68,565.00
11,704.00
2,849.00
2,527.00
980.00
658.00
518.00
665.00
196.00
329.00
1,526.00
4,172.00
140.00
49.00
5,670.00
315.00
1,883.00
1,617.00
896.00
13
15
17
~i
6
48
156
149
9
747
673
9
78
14
106
4
1
23
133
10
109
30
69
728
78
11
5
6
38
14
59
5
16
65
30
48
31
8
$45.50
52.50
59.50
~ 1
1
8
2
1
57
9
1
10
1
2
11
3
17
20
2
2
1
51
125
83
73
1
66
118
53
122
13
181
2
14
22
111
4
2,197
309
76
110
1
17
3
30
4
10
38
43
1
73
8
45
41
13
$17.00
20.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
51.00
125.00
83.00
73.00
1.00
66.00
118.00
53.00
122.00
13.00
181.00
2.00
14.00
22.00
111.00
4.00
2,197.00
309.00
76.00
110.00
1.00
17.00
3.00
30.00
4.00
10.00
38.00
43.00
1.00
73.00
8.00
45.00
41.00
13.00
$993.50
Ashcroft	
$5.00
637.50
257.50
72.00
28.00
21.00
168.00
546.00
521.50
31.50
2,614.50
2,355.50
31.50
273.00
49.00
371.00
14.00
3.50
80.50
465.50
35.00
381.50
105.00
241.50
2,548.00
141.00
5.00
40.00
1,323.00
5,415.00
3,996.00
10.00
5.00
285.00
3,817.50
464.50
4,064.50
3,124.50
	
2,506.50
5,687.00
1,133.00
6,705.00
121.00
437.50
45.00
5.00
1,260.50
6,755.50
109.00
New Westminster
53.00
71,196.50
12,118.00
5.00
3,171.50
5,185.00
981.00
10.00
273.00
38.50
17.50
21.00
133.00
49.00
206.50
17.50
56.00
227.50
105.00
168.00
108.50
28.00
948.00
Prince Rupert	
569.50
712 50
221.00
47
218
596
20
7
810
45
269
231
128
472.00
1,613.00
4,421.50
157 50
	
106 00
55.00
6,025.50
428 00
2,096.00
1,781.50
15.00
Totals
Less refunds.	
20,719
$145,033.00
3,569
$12,491.50
107
$538.00
4,100
$4,100.00
$162,162.50
22.00
Total	
	
	
	
	
$162,140.50 J 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Revenue Derived from Sale of Fur-traders', Taxidermists', and Tanners'
Licences, and Royalty on Fur, January 1st to December 31st, 1954
Government
Agency
Resident
Fur-traders'
Licences
Resident
Fur-traders'
Licences
(Transient)
Agent for
Non-resident
Fur-traders'
Licences
Royalty or
Tax on Fur
Taxidermists'
or Tanners'
Licences
Total
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
No.
Amount
Alberni 	
2
1
1
1
1
2
17
5
10
2
1
25
5
15
1
2
2
3
1
1
1
19
1
13
1
2
1
2
19
1
2
6
3
231
48
29
4
1
1
16
1
94
16
1
13
2
$2.90
109.31
.75
364.15
7.50
2.00
1.00
18.40
178.04
.40
3.25
1
1
1
~2
8
"~2
$2.90
Atlin    ____.
	
109.31
Barkerville	
.75
Burns Lake-	
$50.00
25.00
$100.00
514.15
Clinton	
32.50
Courtenay    	
2.00
Cranbrook	
25.00
26.00
	
18.40
178.04
.40
Kamloops.	
25.00
25.00
50.00
	
$2.00
30.25
25.00
50.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
2.00
27.50
31.70
10,263.03
3,646.60
696.35
12.50
9.00
16.50
716.73
1.50
34,997.22
1,095.34
1.00
22.25
2.00
29.50
New Westminster_____
425.00
125.00
250.00
50.00
31.70
$200.00
10,892.03
200.00
3,971.60
Prince Rupert	
Quesnel  _
946.35
200.00
262.50
	
9.00
16.50
25.00
741.73
1.50
Vancouver  	
Vanderhoof 	
625.00
125.00
300.00
16.00
35,938.22
1,220.34
1.00
4.00
26.25
Williams Lake	
375.00
100.00
477.00
Totals. r   " -
88
$2,200.00
9
$900.00
1
$200.00
528
$52,226.92
15
$30.00
$55,556.92
27.40
	
	
$55,529.52 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
Total Collections from Fur Trade, 1921 to 1954, Inclusive
J 71
Year
Fur Royalty
or Tax
Fur-traders',
Tanners', and
Taxidermists'
Licences
Total
1921   .   .                    ...           _ _   -
$24,595.80
51,093.89
60,594.18
56,356.68
48,737.78
56,045.13
61,629.96
51,563.07
40,769.89
40,431.11
41,056.08
36,253.79
39,592.48
42,697.81
44,986.95
46,186.50
47,257.48
39,423.87
44,238.00
62,745.33
56,755.30
63,176.07
52,122.03
63,412.23
93,793.40
98,766.72
92,637.14
66,939.08
56,563.26
65,205.44
70,799.56
54,256.48
52,565.19
52,199.52
$6,195.00
6,365.00
6,930.00
6,090.00
7,550.00
6,490.00
9,695.00
7,260.00
6,560.00
4,730.00
4,925.00
4,110.00
4,575.00
4,405.00
4,845.00
6,010.00
6,440.00
5,540.00
4,949.00
5,721.00
6,370.00
5,299.00
6,232.00
6,951.00
10,559.00
8,591.00
6,707.00
6,453.00
4,980.00
6,255.00
5,655.00
4,457.00
4,223.00
3,330.00
$30,790.80
1922                       -	
57,458.89
1973
67,524.18
1974
62,446.68
1925           ...                     ■    -	
56,287.78
1926           -              -     -"       .  - -               . - -          	
62,535.13
1977
71,324.96
1928
58,823.07
1979
47,329.89
1930
45,161.11
1931
45,981.08
1937.
40,363.79
1933        --                -
44,167.48
1934
47,102.81
1935                        .                 -   -              -              	
49,831.95
1936
52,196.50
1937          - -       _         --
53,697.48
1938            --
44,963.87
1939
49,187.00
68,466.33
63,125.30
68,475.07
58,354.03
70,363.23
104,352.40
1940    _            '   	
1941             .    .
194?
1943
1944
1945
1946
107,357.72
1947
99,344.14
73,392.08
61,543.26
71,460.44
76,454.56
58,713.48
56,788.19
55,529 52
1948
1949
1950
1951                      _     	
1957
1953
1954	
Totals
$1,875,447.20
$205,507.00
$2,080,894.20
■ J 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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J 73
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>£ J. 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statements Showing Firearms, Fishing-tackle, and Fur Confiscated under
the " Game Act," January 1st to December 31st, 1954
Confiscated Firearms
The following firearms were confiscated under the " Game Act," January 1st to
December 31st, 1954: 42 rifles and 6 shotguns. The sum of $169.47 was received
during 1954 from the sale of confiscated firearms.
Confiscated Fishing-tackle
The following fishing-tackle was confiscated under the " Game Act," January 1st
to December 31st, 1954:   10 rods, 10 reels, and 1 speargun.
Confiscated Fur
The following fur was confiscated under the " Game Act," January 1st to December 31st, 1954: 63 beaver-pelts, 12 lynx-pelts, 16 weasel-pelts, 117 squirrel-pelts, 38
mink-pelts, 167 muskrat-pelts, and 2 marten-pelts. The sum of $517.16 was received
during 1954 from the sale of confiscated and surrendered fur.
Bounties Paid during the Year Ended December 31st, 1954
Government Agency
Wolves
$40
$25
Cougar
Bounty, $20   Bonus, $20
Coyote, $4
Total
Alberni	
Atlin	
Barkerville...
Burns Lake-
Clinton	
Courtenay	
Cranbrook.	
Duncan	
Fernie	
Golden	
Grand Forks..
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kelowna	
Lillooet	
Merritt	
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
New Westminster-
Penticton	
Pouce Coupe	
Powell River	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Princeton	
Quesnel	
Revelstoke	
Rossland	
Smithers	
Salmon Arm..
Vanderhoof-
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Vernon	
Williams Lake—
Totals-
42
10
~44
" 5
	
1
~9
" 3
1
	
—
35
—
131
95
~
	
—
""19
	
15
14
1
28
373
54
2
14
77
5
19
6
9
11
25
3
25
5
1
6
1
2
2
2
16
1
3
4
1
3
47
10
43
26
3
43
17
1
10
21
17
4
13
400
156
22
68
126
~SS6
~35
56
5
135
6
34
55
268
30
4
12
227
276
30
29
108
13
14
34
38
54
21
""89
468
2,343
$1,600.00
338.00
1,412.00
964.00
2,525.00
444.00
720.00
260.00
449.00
440.00
1,475.00
84.00
136.00
320.00
1,072.00
920.00
220.00
36.00
168.00
1,803.00
40.00
4,379.00
2,535.00
156.00
812.00
72.00
116.00
611.00
232.00
611.00
494.00
1,305.00
636.00
4,112.00
$31,497.00
Note.—Coyote bounty discontinued, effective August 1st, 1954. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954
J 75
Comparative Statement of Bounties Paid from 1922 to 1954, Inclusive
Calendar Year
Wolves
Cougars
Bonus
Cougars
Coyotes
Crows
Magpies
Eagles
Owls
Amount
1922	
1923-	
1924	
1925
303
162
195
291
336
344
452
411
312
310
1
221
561
837
828
915
1,159
1,659
1,002
1,039
1,017
1,321
1,202
932
1,102
1,156
1,180
991
753
728
544
415
372
195
173
137
183
372
444
530
491
701
8
628
572
430
599
423
384
366
285
196
261
265
301
472
461
519
725
524
395
488
465
500
400
	
1,092
1,687
5,175
7,276
14,070
20,192
3,672
1,881
1,544
2,864
53,443   .
172
5,770
10,046
2,246
70
2,487
3,427
7,095
20
89
17,625
172
1,025
1,389
403
1
$60,494.80
14,840.00
20,398.40
24,397.00
1926
41,077.00
1927   	
65,377.95
1928   	
1929 	
1930    	
50,709.25
42,122.00
36,090.25
1931  	
42,036.15
1932 •	
80.00
1933 -	
6,285.00
1934	
6,825.00
1935    .. -	
1,877
1,950
1,400
2,094
1,971
2,038
1,924
1,546
1,221
1,259
5,506
2,720
2,976
3,911
6,847
9,822
5,202
4,769
4,425
2,343
12,374.00
1936  .
20,350.00
1937-  .
19,540.00
1938	
	
-
21,018.00
1939  , .
	
26,399.00
1940 	
rE
23,131.00
1941 :  _
	
	
16,868.00
1942   .
	
17,397.00
1943- 	
	
16,587.00
1944.    	
1945- -
1946      	
	
	
20,243.00
46,627.00
22,392 00
1947	
1948.	
1949- 	
36,386.00
58,344.00
70,501.00
1950	
59
185
156
	
73,688.00
1951-	
51,133.00
1952	
	
48,551.00
1953 	
1954. 	
	
45,645.00
31,497.00
Totals	
22,679
13,265
400
125,254
69,431
8,230
7,204
20,615
$1,089,403.80
Note.—Bonus cougars are included in the number of cougars presented for bounty.
j J 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Big-game Trophy Fees Paid by Non-residents, January 1st to
December 31st, 1954
Species
Government Agency
i
o
u
cs
o
m
rt g
«l
Mo
s
Q
.o
*H
a
U
as
a
0
y
5
s
Q
11
• to
0(6
|
cs
O cs
A tat
i
a
S 0.
5 5
0 u
§■9
0
0
I
3
B
Amount
Atlin
l
l
9
1
9
2
17
13
1
5
21
7
8
2
3
4
~2
49
" 7
1
17
23
1
1
22
3
14
3
7
~2
1
11
6
_6
4
6
"37
5
i
10
2
~5
1
2
164
""6
3
7
21
4
2
1
21
54
""T
2
"7
"2
~3
10
3
2
16
25
1
29
30
6
5
38
13
10
~ 2
1
T6
2
13
7
1
~4
11
2
5
5
1
47
7
7
2
5
~T
3
11
12
695
"4
2
20
20
~9
3
29
41
33
36
7
"3
"4
16
""64
40
~45
15
$495.00
660.00
830.00
47,045.00
80.00
3,700.00
325.00
5,835.00
4,090.00
100.00
595.00
260.00
1,710.00
4,200.00
50.00
4,890.00
3,135.00
990.00
25.00
180.00
280.00
50.00
210.00
25.00
2,225.00
1,200.00
25.00
4,945.00
Totals	
110
176
70
3
303
212
105
1,015
100
$88,155.00
80.00
Less refunds	
TntaJ
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
$88,075.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
J 77
Prosecutions (Provincial Game Divisions), January 1st to
December 3 1st, 1954
Description of Offence
Divisions (See Foot-note)
fl-a
•aw
° <»
si
Fines or
Penalties
Imposed
Game Animals
Allowing dog to run deer. -
Buying or selling game animals illegally-
Exceeding bag-limit on game animals..
Hunting or killing game animals with rim-fire shells or
metal-cased bullets  	
Hunting, killing, or possession of game animals under
1 year of age   	
Hunting, killing, or possession of game animals or parts
thereof during close season..
Hunting, killing, or possession of game animals of female
sex  	
Hunting or killing big game with shotgun	
Hunting big game from power-boat..
Keeping big-game animals in captivity without a permit-
Pit-lamping or hunting game animals at night-
Possession of game animals in logging camp, hotel, etc	
Possession of untagged moose, elk, goat, or deer	
Possession of game animals with sex removed 	
Firearms
Carrying firearms on game reserve 	
Carrying loaded firearms or discharging same from automobile  	
Carrying or possession of unplugged shotgun,.
Discharging firearms on or across highway-
Minors carrying firearms unaccompanied by an adult..
Non-residents in possession of unsealed firearms	
Licences
Non-resident   carrying   firearms   or   hunting   without   a
licence—   -   	
Non-resident carrying tackle or fishing without a licence	
Resident carrying firearms or hunting without a licence	
Resident carrying tackle or fishing without a licence	
Fur Trade and Trapping
Interfering or trapping on another person's trap-line	
Possession of untagged beaver-pelts	
Trading in fur without a licence..
Trapping or carrying traps without a licence-
Trapping or possession of fur during close season-
Trapping beyond the bounds of his registered trap-line	
Trapper allowing another person to use his line without
a permit... 	
Upland Game Birds
Allowing dogs to run during prohibited time-
Hunting pheasants during prohibited hours..
Hunting or possession of upland game birds during close
season  _
Possession of untagged pheasants  	
Possession of more birds than daily bag-limit   _
Migratory Game and Non-game Birds
Hunting migratory game birds from power-boat....
Hunting migratory game birds during the night.	
Hunting migratory game birds with a rifle-
Hunting migratory game birds during close season-
Hunting migratory game birds in closed area	
Using bait to attract migratory game birds-
Possession of migratory game birds with plumage removed
24
32
3
4
5
2
47
2
22
3
84
100
20
3
	
1
1
1
~~3
1
2
2
4
4
2
2
3
3
9
10
46
50
21
24
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
6
2
2
22
25
11
12
3
3
182
187
4
6
4
4
14
15
9
9
18
19
42
42
181
201
210
213
5
6
7
7
2
2
6
6
17
20
2
3
1
1
2
2
1
1
22
26
7
7
1
1
7
8
59
68
5
5
22
27
4
4
1
1
1
1
$35.00
50.00
175.00
70.00
410.00
3,065.00
1,630.00
10.00
40.00
10.00
1,050.00
20.00
285.00
135.00
85.00
2,567.00
40.00
40.00
155.00
90.00
635.00
460.00
2,057.50
2,230.00
625.00
465.00
75.00
180.00
475.00
200.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
675.00
85.00
20.00
70.00
615.00
65.00
690.00
55.00
20.00
10.00 J 78                                                          BRITISH COLUMBIA
Prosecutions (Provincial Game Divisions), January 1st
TO
December 3 1st, 1954—Continued
Divisions (See Foot-note)
si
co
s
Fines or
Description of Offence
rt
4
3e
Penalties
"A"
"P."
"C"
"D"
"E"
I
o
'>
a
Imposed
P
U
Special Fishery Regulations
5
2
33
40
40
$415.00
1
1
1
20.00
Commercial fishing for salmon without required licence-
	
	
1
	
1
1
15.00
3
2
3
1
7
8
250.00
4
3
15
22
22
220.00
5
8
4
3
14
17
331.00
Possessing or using salmon roe in prohibited area	
5
5
	
1
11
11
125.00
Taking or possession of undersized trout-   ,   	
1
	
	
	
10
11
11
245.00
1
1
1
25.00
Using more than one rod or line...  	
2
8
	
10
10
100.00
Using gear designed to catch more than one fish- _	
6
	
1
7
7
40.00
1
1
1
5.00
Miscellaneous
1
1
1
50.00
1
1
1
5.00
niving false information tn nhtain a licence
2
1
2
4
1
1
9
10
105.00
1
2
3
3
30.00
1
1
1
1
2
10.00
Guiding on other than his own area    -   	
	
1
1
 .
2
2
60.00
Guide failing to complete form on non-resident firearms
1
1
1
3
3
3
60.00
1
1
1
25.00
Non-resident hunting big game without a guide	
	
6
	
	
2
4
6
95.00
Obstructing Game Warden and giving false information.	
1
2
1
	
4
1
7
8
100.00
Parent failing in responsibility when minor carrying fire-
4
1
1
18
2
1
21
1
23
10.00
250.00
3
5
1
7
8
105.00
Using another person's licence 	
	
1
1
	
2
2
125.00
	
	
1
	
1
1
10.00
Totals           	
100
113
327
255
446
83
1,158
1,241
$22,540.50
Gaol Sentences
Illegal hunting, killing, or possession of game animals of female sex—2, total of thir
ty day
s.
Carrying loaded firearms or discharging same from automobile—1, one day.
Interfering or trapping on another person's trap-line—1, three months.
Possession of untagged beaver-pelts—3, total of three months.
Trapping or possession of fur during close season—3, total of four months and ten c
ays.
Note.—"A" Division:   Vancouver Island area and part of Mainland.    " B " Div
isron:
Koote
nay an
I Boundary
areas.   " C " Division:   Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, Cariboo, and Lillooet areas.
'D"
Divisio
n:   Atlin,  Skeena,
Omineca, Fort George, Peace River, and Yukon Boundary  areas.    " E " Division:
Vane
ouver,
Coast,
and Lower
Mainland areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
J 79
!
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Game-fish Culture Distributions, Showing Eggs, Fry,
Fingerlings, and Yearlings, etc., 1954
Kind of Game Fish
Eggs
Fry
Fingerlings
Yearlings
14V4
Months
15
Months
17*5
Months
2
Years
5
Years
15,060
306,188
170,744
2,276
61,058
160,369
42,030
5,920
13,000
	
1,000
35,600
4,000
951,538
10,610
235
4,183,000
1,727,927
4,000
Totals	
4,198,060
2,204,859
1,001,748
265,733
5,920
13,000
4,000
1,000
235
Summary of Game-fish Eggs, Fry, Fingerlings, and Yearlings, etc.,
at Departmental Hatcheries, December 31st, 1954
Hatchery
Cohoe
(Fingerlings)
Cut-throat
(Yearlings)
Eastern Brook
(Eggs)
Great Lakes
(2 Years)
Kamloops
(Fry or
Fingerlings)
Steelhead
(Yearlings)
119,000
21,400
43,881
Smiths Falls	
19,040
35,760
6,765
338,450
77,466
100
Totals	
19,040
35,760
119,000
100
366,615
121,347
Eggs 	
Fry 	
Fingerlings _
Yearlings 	
\AVz months
15 months 	
YlVi months
2 years 	
5 years	
Summary
Total distributions
On hand at hatcheries, December 31st, 1954_.
4,198,060
2,204,859
1,001,748
265,733
5,920
13,000
4,000
1,000
235
7,694,555
661,862
Total
8,356,417 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
J 81
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
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J 83
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J 87
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Sulphuroi REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
! ! I
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Htn REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954
J 91
Returns from 2,275 Holders of Special Firearms Licences Showing Big Game,
Fur-bearing Animals, and Predatory Animals Killed, Season 1954-55
Big Game
Bear
433
Caribou  1     21
Deer   524
Moose   401
Mountain-goat „
Mountain-sheep
Wapiti (elk) __
Fur-bearing Animals
Beaver     8,070
Fisher .	
Fox 	
Lynx 	
Marten _
Mink 	
Muskrats
443
308
1,918
4,410
14,245
31,108
Otter	
Racoon _
Skunk	
Squirrels _
Weasels _
Wildcat ____
Wolverine
30
6
40
456
479
119
125,571
12,270
133
128
Cougar         93
Coyotes   1,226
Predatory Animals
Wolves
4 136 J 92
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Summary of Liberation of Game Birds, 1954
Area
Vancouver Island—
Alberni          _ _
Pheasants         Chukar Partridges
Courtenay 	
Cowichan .       —   	
Duncan 	
Galiano Island _       _ _ _      .   _     	
__     295
      196
Ladysmith 	
Nanaimo-Parksville  _.   -   -
196
Victoria (North and South Saanich) _ _
96
Saltspring Island	
32
Totals 	
      815
Lower Mainland—
Abbotsford 	
Agassiz  	
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack 	
Delta 	
Dewdney 	
Essondale   	
Hatzic 	
Lulu Island    	
      160
      100
      100
711
_ 1,757
_     125
      275
. 1,867
Langley     	
Matsqui      __      _ _      .   ...
36
492                	
Mission 	
Nicomen Island .  	
      112
449
Pitt Meadows   _               _ _ _ _
  1,252
Port Coquitlam      	
Sumas Prairie  ..    _    -   -
___.     600                	
Surrey 	
      644
Totals 	
  8,680
Interior—
Armstrong  	
Ashcroft                _           _
      100
48
Bella Coola	
Cache Creek      	
Chase 	
Clinton         	
Creston   ____          __ _        __     _
64
404
Dawson Creek
Enderby 	
Fort St. John     	
      100
Grand Forks	
__..     202
Kamloops 	
Keremeos 	
Merritt	
Oliver	
229                250
_     200                106
...     100
208                144
Totals	
1,655                500
Note.—Total cost covering purchase of all game birds listed was $30,653.80. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954 J 93
Statement of Game-bird Farmers, 1954
Number and Kind of Birds on Hand as at January 1st, 1954
Pheasants      7,241 Ducks       61
Quail   40 Partridge   659
Number and Kind of Birds Raised, 1954
Pheasants   17,529 Ducks         3
Quail   10 Partridge   925
Number and Kind of Birds Purchased, 1954
Pheasants         661 Quail    114
Number and Kind of Birds Sold, 1954
Pheasants   13,723 Ducks       51
Quail    82 Partridge   885
Number and Kind of Birds Killed, 1954
Pheasants      4,160 Ducks         5
Quail   40 Partridge        1
Number and Kind of Birds on Hand as at December 31st, 1954
Pheasants      7,548 Ducks         8
Quail   42 Partridge   698
Note.—During the year 1954 there were 118 licensed game-bird farmers in the
Province, but during the year 1954 twenty-four of these farmers discontinued business.
There were three nil returns. Game-bird bands sold to licensed game-bird farmers
during the year 1954 amounted to $257.70 (2,577 bands at 10 cents each).
Miscellaneous Revenue, 1954
Sale of Lists to Various Licence-holders, etc.
17 Game Convention minutes at 75 cents per copy  $12.75
2,577 game-bird bands at 10 cents each  257.70
148 trap-line transfer fees  ($2.50 each)  370.00
Proceeds, sale of live fur-bearing animals  10.00
Proceeds, permits to export game meat  81.50
Proceeds, fee for tagging deer and moose hides  202.50
Proceeds, sale of one fur-trader's list  1.50
LIST OF GUIDES AND NON-RESIDENT OUTFITTERS
Definition of Guide Licence Classifications
A First-class Guide shall be one who has acted as a guide in the Province for a
period of at least three years in the ten years immediately preceding his application for a
guide's licence, and who has suitable equipment for outfitting any person desiring to
hunt game.
A Second-class Guide shall be one who has acted as a guide in the Province for a
period of at least three years in the ten years immediately preceding his application for a
guide's licence, but who cannot qualify as a First-class Guide.
An Assistant Guide shall be one who cannot qualify as either a First-class or Second-
class Guide, and shall be entitled to act as a guide in the hunting of game birds or in J 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
angling for trout, and after securing a permit so to do from the Game Commission, when
employed by or under the supervision of a First- or Second-class Guide, to guide big-
game hunters.
Vancouver Island and Mainland Coast North to North End of
Vancouver Island
Class of Class of
Name and Address of Guide Licence Name and Address of Guide Licence
Flesher, Eric Reed, Phillips Arm  2nd Robertson,  George Roderick,  2329 Blan-
Hancock, Arthur, Cowichan Lake     1st shard St., Victoria  2nd
Johnson,  Herbert J.,  340  Railway Ave., Ryan, J., Campbell River  2nd
Nanaimo   2nd Saharchuk, Allan, Box 534, Hope     1st
Kirkman, Jack, Harrison Hot Springs  2nd Stanton, James R., P.O. Box 3400, Van-
Marshall, Donald, Campbell River  2nd              couver      1st
Parkin, Alvin, Campbell River  2nd Williamson, David, Campbell River.  2nd
Mainland Coast (Stewart South, Including Bella Coola)
Name and Address of Guide
Brynildsen, G. A., Bella Coola_.
Bugnella, Angelo, Stewart-
Class of
Licence
—-    1st
—. 2nd
Class of
Licence
     1st
Edwards, Ralph A., Bella Coola  2nd
Elsey, George Allen, Bella Coola  2nd
Fraser, J.  G, Sandspit  2nd
Mack, Clayton, Bella Coola    1st
Name and Address of Guide
Nygaard, Martin, Bella Coola	
Nygaard,  Wilfred,  Bella Coola      .. 2nd
Siwallace, Andrew S., Bella Coola  2nd
Skuce, Herb, c/o West Tahtsa, Kemano     1st
Stanwood,  Larry,   145  Ninth St., Prince
Rupert     2nd
Adams Lake-Salmon Arm-Revelstoke-Vernon Areas
Class of
Name and Address of Guide Licence Name and Address of Guide
DeSimone, Sam, Revelstoke    1st Kachuck, John, Trout Lake	
Donnelly, Charles W., Salmon Arm  2nd LaForme, George W., Revelstoke—.
Gardiner, Robert, Sicamous     1st May, Arthur William, Celista	
Hansen, Chas. E., Cherryville  2nd Melinchuk,  Fred,  Ewings  Landing-
Harrison, Robert Owen, Squilax     1st Potts,  William,  Chase	
Hurstfield, Frances, Scotch Creek  2nd Upper, Clarence F., Revelstoke	
Class of
Licence
_ 2nd
..-   1st
.____ 2nd
-- 2nd
._ 2nd
.~~ 2nd
Cassiar District (Atlin-Telegraph Creek District)
Class of Class of
Name and Address of Guide                            Licence Name and Address of Guide                            Licence
Ball, Robert E. A., Telegraph Creek  2nd Dennis, John Creyke, Telegraph Creek    1st
Callison, Frederick C, Atlin    1st Edzerza, George, Atlin    1st
Carlick, John, Telegraph Creek  2nd Jack, Alex., Telegraph Creek  2nd
Carlick,  Tom,   Telegraph  Creek     1st Nyman,   Robert,  Atlin  2nd
Carlick, Walter, Telegraph Creek  2nd Simpson, Walter S., Telegraph Creek  2nd
Clever, Gene B., Bennett  2nd Tashoots, Frank Pete, Telegraph Creek  2nd
Dennis, Alex., Telegraph Creek  2nd Williams, Jack, Atlin  2nd
Kamloops District (Savona-North Thompson-Clearwater-
Spences Bridge-Merritt)
Class of Class of
Name and Address of Guide                           Licence Name and Address of Guide                           Licence
Archibald, D. A., Clearwater.  2nd Grant, Gordon, McLure    1st
Blackman, William, Valemount  2nd Helset, Ted, Clearwater    1st
Blair, Percy, Little Fort  2nd Hogue, John, Clearwater.    1st
Boule, James, Savona     1st Hoover, Eldred, Westsyde     1st
Brown, Starr A., Little Fort  2nd Humphrey, Ashton C, Knutsford  2nd
Burdett, George, Savona    1st Johnston, Stan, Black Pool  2nd
Burdett, Loretta, Savona  2nd Korsvick, George Emil, Valemount  2nd
Carter, Cecil, Black Pool  2nd Lafave, Everett, Louis Creek  2nd
Comeau, William R., Savona    1st Lafave, George E., Louis Creek  2nd
Cooper, Norman, Savona  2nd Lafave, John W., R.R. 1, Louis Creek     1st
DeVooght, Roger P., Vavenby  2nd Latremouille, Joseph, Little Fort    1st
Ellis, Douglas K., Kamloops     1st Lean, Theodore, Clearwater     1st
Farquharson, Jim, Kamloops  2nd Loveway, Thomas, Little Fort  2nd
Fennell, Amos C, Chu Chua  2nd Ludtke, Charles, Clearwater  2nd
Gourlay, James, Barriere    1st Ludtke, Laurence, Clearwater    1st REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
J 95
Kamloops District (Savona-North Thompson-Clearwater-
Spences Bridge-Merritt)—Continued
Name and Address of Guide
McDiarmid, Garfield, Clearwater	
McGarrigle, W. J., Little Fort	
Modrall, Thomas F., East Black Pool  2nd
Class of
Licence
_    1st
... 2nd
Mountford, Gordon E., Merritt..
Murray, George E., Savona	
Nelson, Gerald, Black Pines..
  2nd
    1st
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd
Rodgers, Francis A., Spences Bridge  2nd
Peacock, C, Box 537, Kamloops..
Perry, Samuel, Kamloops	
Petersen, Ross, Savona	
Pringle, Joseph, Westwold	
Rainer, Karl, Darfield..
Name and Address of Guide
Sand, Martin J., Vavenby	
Scott, Duncan, Barriere	
Small, Reginald, Clearwater..
Stadnyk, Mural, Falkland	
Tupper, James J., Savona	
Turner, John, Criss Creek..
Tuson, Clifford, Copper Creek..
Welland, Tom, Red Lake	
Whittaker, John, Lac le Jeune, Kamloops
Wilson, Donald, Vinsulla	
Wood, Benjamin, Heffley Creek	
Class of
Licence
... 2nd
... 1st
... 2nd
... 2nd
... 2nd
... 2nd
_ 1st
2nd
2nd
2nd
2nd
West Kootenay (Including Nelson-Creston, Kootenay Lake, and Lardeau)
Name and Address of Guide
Bennett, Arthur, Kaslo..
Cummings, Arnold, Boswell.
Koch, Charles A., Sanca..
Class of
Licence
..... 2nd
..... 2nd
.... 2nd
MacNicol, J. W., Johnsons Landing  2nd
Name and Address of Guide
Oliver, George J., Gray Creek..
O'Neil, Richard, Sirdar.	
Schwartzenhauer, Carl, Deer Park....
Simmons, Robert Thomas, Lardeau..
Class of
Licence
_ 2nd
..... 2nd
..... 2nd
..... 2nd
Boundary Districts (Grand Forks West to Princeton, Including
Kettle Valley and Ashnola)
Class of
Name and Address of Guide Licence
Anschetz, Chris, Kettle Valley  2nd
Bradshaw, George A., Westbridge  2nd
Chorlton, Chester L., Bridesville.  2nd
Cochran, F. M., Westbridge  2nd
Cudworth, Alan F., Greenwood  2nd
From, Oliver, Westbridge  2nd
Gold, Robie Booth, Bankier  2nd
Class of
Licence
.__- 2nd
Name and Address of Guide
Hall, D. Elmer, Westbridge	
Lawrence, George Vincent, Box 61, Hedley 2nd
Lewis, James William, Vedder Crossing     1st
Lutner, E. C, Beaverdell  2nd
Manion, William Bartlett, Tulameen  2nd
Wright, Brian (Pat), Princeton     1st
East Kootenay "A" (Cranbrook-Invermere-Golden District)
Name and Address of Guide
Alexander, Michael, Spillimacheen..
Anderson, Charles D., Windermere..
Barbour, J. A., Wilmer..
Bjorn, Henry Manning, Fort Steele..
Buckman, Alan, Fort Steele	
Buckman, Charles, Bull River	
Canning, Lester, Skookumchuck	
Cloarec, Leon, Cranbrook	
Cooper, Albert, Invermere..
Drysdale, A. J., Skookumchuck..
Fisher, Tony, Fairmont	
Gabry, Michael, Brisco	
Goodwin, Dave, Invermere	
Goodwin, Elwood, Edgewater.—
Gould, Percy, Canal Flats	
Hammond, Lyle, Golden..
Class of
Licence
_ 1st
  1st
..... 2nd
...__ 2nd
..... 2nd
.... 2nd
..... 2nd
..... 2nd
  1st
..... 2nd
..... 2nd
..... 2nd
..... 2nd
..... 1st
..... 1st
..... 2nd
..... 1st
Hansen, Tyvegert, Wilmer	
Harrison, William O., Edgewater    1st
    1st
  2nd
  2nd
  2nd
    1st
    1st
  2nd
    1st
Hogan, Charles A., Harrogate..
Jimmie, Joe, Fairmont	
Joseph, Camille, Windermere	
Keir, Eugene Warren, Marysville..
King, Norman, Golden	
Lindborg, Axel, Golden..
Lum, Peter, Skookumchuck...
McKay, Gordon, Invermere.
Name and Address of Guide
McKay, James A., Invermere..
Mitchell, Robin, Brisco..
Morigeau, Martin, Fairmont-
Morris, Edward R., Golden	
Class of
Licence
..... 2nd
.___ 1st
..... 1st
2nd
Nicholas, Dominic, Windermere     1st
Nicol, Arthur, Fort Steele    1st
Pelton, Robert Benjamin, Cranbrook ..    1st
Pommier, Emil, Skookumchuck  2nd
Rauch, Harold C, Golden     1st
Romane, W. H., Golden  2nd
Seward, Arvid, Golden     1st
Seward, Roy, Golden  2nd
Sheek, Pat, Golden  2nd
Smith, Josephine Mary, Fort Steele  2nd
Stewart, Charles Wm, Spillimacheen .. 2nd
Strain, George, Golden .
Tegart, George, Edgewater.
Tegart, James, Brisco..
Thomas, Robert, Spillimacheen..
Thompson, James, Edgewater.	
Thompson, Lioel, Edgewater.	
Thornton, George, Invermere	
Thouret, George, Radium-
Tyler, Graham, Invermere	
White, James Freeman, Fort Steele.
Wolfenden, Winston, Brisco	
1st
1st
1st
2nd
1st
1st
2nd
2nd
2nd
1st
1st J 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
East Kootenay " B " (Cranbrook East to Crowsnest, Including
Fernie and Natal)
Name and Address of Guide
Baher, Fred, Natal	
Baher, Martin C, Natal	
Baher, Mathias, Natal-
Barnes, Alfred, Fernie.
Class of
Licence
..... 1st
.___ 1st
..... 1st
  1st
Barnes, James Norman, Fernie     1st
Billy, Andrew, Natal  2nd
Bossio, William, Fernie  2nd
Bush, William, Ta Ta Creek  2nd
Cutts, Jack, Fernie  2nd
Dvorak, Frank, Fernie    1st
Dvorak, Wenzel, Fernie  2nd
Eftoda, Gordon, Natal     1st
Gorrie (Jr.), Methden, Flagstone  2nd
Gorrie, (Sr.), Methden, Flagstone     1st
Gravelle, Alex., Flagstone     1st
Hammer, Andy, Wardner  2nd
Name and Address of Guide
Hicks, Frank, Fernie	
Hicks, Phillip, Fernie	
Kubinec, Pete, Fernie	
Logan, Doris May, Wardner..
McGinnis, Earl, Natal-
Class of
Licence
.__.    1st
     1st
     1st
.— 2nd
.....    1st
McGuire, Albert, Flagstone  2nd
McKenzie, Fergus, Fernie     1st
Phillips, Frank, Flagstone     1st
Porco, Albert, Natal     1st
Reay, C. D., Jaffray  2nd
Riddell, Harry Scott, Wardner  2nd
Rosicky, Anton D., Wardner     1st
Rothel, Malcolm, Natal     1st
Travis, Frank, Natal     1st
Volpatti, Benjamin J., Natal     1st
Prince George District "A" (Prince George East to Jasper)
Name and Address of Guide
Class of
Licence
Boyko, William, Finlay Forks  2nd
Bricker, William J., South Fort George     1st
Brooks, George, South Fort George    1st
Cannon, Walter L., 893 Burden St., Prince
George   2nd
Corless  (Jr.), Richard F., 2388  McBride
Crescent, Prince George    1st
Dale, Joseph T., Woodpecker  2nd
Gaugh, Allen, Prince George    1st
Hall, Cyril A., Prince George  2nd
Hansen, Anund,  Hansard     1st
Hansen (Jr.), Anund, Hansard  2nd
Henry, Mack G., 730 Third Ave., Prince
George    2nd
Henry, Walter J., Box 225, Prince George   1st
Hobe, Henry, Hansard  2nd
Hoff, William, Box 305, Prince George  2nd
Hooker, James B., Dome Creek    1st
Name and Address of Guide
Jensen, Arne, Dome Creek-
Class of
Licence
..... 2nd
—    1st
Jensen, Ernest H, Dome Creek	
Johnson,   Howard   T.,   Box   386,   Prince
George    2nd
Johnson,   John   H,    1735   Ingledew   St.,
Prince George   2nd
Mills, Marshall, Tete Jaune     1st
Monroe, Everett A., McBride  2nd
Neighbour, Hersch, Tete Jaune     1st
Reid, William, Box 673, Prince George  2nd
Simmons, Herbert, Box 128, Prince George    1st
Wade, Gordon, South Fort George  2nd
Walker,   Thomas  A.,   R.R.   1,   Qualicum
Beach        1st
Winsor,   William   J.,   1530   Second   Ave.,
Prince George   2nd
Zlot, Martha, Prince George  2nd
Zlotucha, Antoni, Prince George  2nd
Prince George District "B" (Prince George West to Terrace)
Name and Address of Guide
Class of
Licence
Anderson, Duncan MacC, Babine  2nd
Berghammer, Joe, Fort McLeod  2nd
Blackwell, Alan E., Wistaria  2nd
Buchanan, Curtiss, Vanderhoof  2nd
Campbell, T. B., Hazelton  2nd
Cooke, Ted, Vanderhoof    1st
Cowan  (Jr.), Hugh S., Clemretta  2nd
Craker, Ronald J., North Bulkley  2nd
Davidson, Charlie B., Vanderhoof    1st
Delmonico, Henry H,  1475 Trimble St.,
Vancouver   2nd
Easter, Cal, Fort St. James    1st
Fisher, Ed, Vanderhoof  2nd
Foote, Charles H., Fraser Lake  2nd
Foote, Charles W., Fraser Lake  2nd
Gilliland, Don, Germansen Landing     1st
Grainger, Barry H., Noralee  2nd
Grasser, William Harold, Tatalrose  2nd
Harrison, Alford J., Burns Lake  2nd
Haugen, Karl, Manson Creek  2nd
Hensen, Frank E., Marilla     1st
Hodgson, William, Fort St. James  2nd
Hobson, Richmond P., Vanderhoof  2nd
Johnson, George M., Vanderhoof.  2nd
Knox, John, Ootsa Lake     1st
Kohse, Louis, Vanderhoof    1st
Lee, John Thomas, Hazelton     1st
Leon, Paddy, Topley  2nd
Name and Address of Guide
Loback, Wesley L., Marilla..
Class of
Licence
    1st
Loper, Howard, Vanderhoof  2nd
Lord, Roy E., Burns Lake  2nd
Loss, Helmar Frederick, Topley  2nd
McConachie, Harry R., Fort St. James    1st
McKenzie, George, Fort Fraser  2nd
McNeill, Cliff, Ootsa Lake    1st
McNeill, J. W., Ootsa Lake    1st
Meier,  John,  Vanderhoof  2nd
Menard, Gerry, Nithi River  2nd
Mesich, Emil, Smithers  2nd
Moran, Thomas E., Vanderhoof  2nd
Munger, Francis W. R., Noralee  2nd
Nelson, George Wm., Vanderhoof     1st
Nelson, John N., Clemretta     1st
Pease, Clarence A., Nithi River    1st
Plowman, Clarence, Endako  2nd
Plowman, Enid A., Endako  2nd
Prince, Alex., Fort St. James  2nd
Prince, Dixon, Fort St. James  2nd
Prince, Teddy, Fort St. James  2nd
Rowland, Edward F., Decker Lake  2nd
Smith, Harold Craig, Fort St. James    1st
Smith, Richard H, Fort St. James    1st
Van Tine, Douglas, Ootsa Lake  2nd
Van Tine, James, Ootsa Lake    1st
Van Zantine, James, Francois Lake  2nd
Wheeler, William A., Burns Lake  2nd REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1954
J 97
Cariboo District "A" (100 Mile House South, Including Ashcroft)
Class of Class of
Name and Address of Guide                              Licence Name and Address of Guide                              Licence
Abbs, R., Fawn  2nd Koster, Francis, Empire Valley  2nd
Baker, James A., Clinton  2nd Land, Robert, Ashcroft    1st
Barker, A. S., Fawn P.O    1st Larson, Jack O., Bridge Lake    1st
Black, Jack, Bridge Lake  2nd Larson, K. J., R.R. 1, Fawn     1st
Bones, Peter, Clinton  2nd Leavitt (Jr.), Frank, R.R. 1, Fawn    1st
Camille, Francis, Canoe Creek  2nd Lehman, Bert, Lillooet  2nd
Chabara, Anna, 70 Mile House  2nd Levick, J. S., R.R. 1, Fawn     1st
Christy, Frank, Lillooet     1st Long, C, R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd
Christy, Thomas, Lillooet    1st Loring, Edwin, Clinton  2nd
Cleveland, J. G, Bridge Lake    1st Louie, Fred, Canoe Creek     1st
Cleveland, R. C, Bridge Lake     1st McFaul, S. F., 70 Mile House  2nd
Cleveland, W. L., Bridge Lake     1st McMahon, J. C, 70 Mile House    1st
Coldwell, H. W., Jesmond     1st McNeil, B. S., Fawn    1st
Cunningham, C. B., Bralorne     1st McNeil, H. M., Fawn     1st
Dougherty, E. G, Clinton     1st Matier, Muriel, Ashcroft  2nd
Duncan, Peter, Clinton     1st Mooring, A. R., Fawn P.O     1st
Dyer, G. H., 70 Mile House  2nd Nordgren, Jonas, Fawn  2nd
Eden, Don D., 70 Mile House  2nd O'Keefe, Wally, Bridge River.    1st
Faessler, C. J., Bridge Lake     1st Olafson, H. J., R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd
Fenton, Charlie, Clinton    1st Osterlund, Ed, Moha  2nd
Fenton, Walter, Big Bar Creek     1st Owens, John Henry, Ashcroft     1st
Flaherty, R. J., Fawn     1st Parent, S., Fawn  2nd
Forde, H. D. W., Clinton  2nd park, A. H., 70 Mile House  2nd
Fowler, Norman A., Clinton  2nd pariC; jack P-j 70 Mile House     1st
Gaehck, W. T, Fawn P.O.  2nd Parkes, L. G., 70 Mile House  2nd
Gaines, Clinton, R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd Petrie, Don, Bridge Lake                        _        1st
Gammie H. G, 70 Mile House    1st Pierr0; Johrl) Cache Creek  2nd
Se0Jg?V?en^Cf ^e Creek  2fd P'geon, C. L., Clinton     1st
Graf, Mike, R R  1  Fawn     1st pi j  R   c,inton     lst
Grice Percy 70 Mile House.  2nd pi Norman clinton  2nd
Grinder, Bert, Clinton  2nd Pollard, J. H, Clinton    lst
Grinder, Isidore  Clinton.—   2nd powdl H j   R R   j  Fawn     lst
Grinder, John, Big Bar Creek    lst Powell T G   Fawn                                          lst
Grinder, Louise, Clinton.   ...      2nd Reinertson, R., 100 Mite TW*                      1st
Grinder, Walter, Big Bar Creek      st Reynolds, A. J., Big Bar Creek P.O     lst
Sarlsen' WesleV'BrM« ££ " 2nd Re^o]ds' R »" Bi* Bar Creek PO"     lst
tj;™; *  r»mi  na„m i«t Scheepbower, J. A., 70 Mile House  2nd
S i"wL?Fawn"p:oz:::--:z::z IS t^™!' 'Wsh70^ House— 2f1
Higlins Marion, Bridge Lake     lst Scott, Douglas   100 Mile House    1st
Hodges E. W., R.R. LFawn     lst Redman, John E.  R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd
Horn, Walter A., Clinton  2nd Shulldes, Bruce   Clinton  2nd
Houseman, J. J., 100 Mile House    lst Thorsteinson, Charles, Fawn  2nd
Huckvale, Jim, Fawn P.O    lst Umphrey, S   Fawn P.O       2nd
Hunter, M. T. (Mickey), Ashcroft  2nd Van Horhck  Buster, Clinton     1st
Johnson, James A., 100 Mile House     lst Vecqueray, A. E., Jesmond  2nd
Johnson, Zale A., Clinton    lst Vecqueray, R. L, Clinton     lst
Kent, A. G, Lytton  2nd Walsh, F. C, 70 Mile House  2nd
King, C. J., R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd Winteringham, F., R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd
King, Gordon B., R.R. 1, Fawn  2nd Womack, C. B., Fawn     lst BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cariboo District "B" (100 Mile House North to Marguerite and
Williams Lake, East of Fraser River)
Class of
Licence
..._ 2nd
Name and Address of Guide
Abram, Arthur E., Lac la Hache.	
Archie, Charlie, Canim Lake     lst
Archie, Jacob, Canim Lake    lst
Archie, Sam, Canim Lake  2nd
Archie, Tommy, Canim Lake     lst
Ash, Christopher, Big Lake  2nd
Asserlind, Hilyerd C, Keithley Creek  2nd
Atkins, Daniel F., Horsefly  2nd
Barrett, Stanley N., Horsefly  2nd
Bayne, Dr. A. H, Canim Lake     lst
Beeson, George M., Miocene  2nd
Bob, Edward, Canim Lake  2nd
Bobb, E. R., Marguerite  2nd
Bowe, Alfred, Williams Lake  2nd
Bowers, Robert William, Marguerite  2nd
Christopher, David, Canim Lake     lst
Christopher, Peter, Canim Lake  2nd
Colin, Grover, Lac la Hache  2nd
Conn, Robert Hanley, Keithley Creek  2nd
Decker, English, Canim Lake  2nd
Dick, Matthew, Alkali Lake  2nd
Dodd, John E., 150 Mile House  2nd
Eagle, Clifford B., Lac la Hache     lst
Goetjen, Charles E., Horsefly     lst
Graham, James, Horsefly  2nd
Graham, John, Horsefly  2nd
Greenlee, E. L., Canim Lake     lst
Haller, August, La la Hache  2nd
Hamilton, Gavin G, Williams Lake  2nd
Hamilton, Herbert M., Lac la Hache     lst
Hamilton, Peter, Williams Lake  2nd
Hamilton, Ray, Williams Lake  2nd
Hamilton, Theodore, Lac la Hache     lst
Hamilton, Thomas C, Williams Lake  2nd
Higgins, K. E., Mahood Falls P.O     lst
Hockley, George, Horsefly     lst
Hooker, Fred C, Horsefly  2nd
Hooker, Perry, Horsefly  2nd
Hooker, Silvester B., Horsefly     lst
Name and Address of Guide
Hubbard, Isaac H., Horsefly-
Jefferson, Jesse, Big Lake-
Class of
Licence
_.__    lst
_ 2nd
Jenner, Ernest, Horsefly  2nd
Johnson, Charlie Tom, Alkali Lake  2nd
Jones, Frederick E., Horsefly  lst
Jones, Lawrence, Horsefly  lst
Kinvig, Tom E., Keithley Creek  2nd
Krebes, L. B., Lac la Hache  2nd
McBurney, Aubrey, Keithley Creek  2nd
McBurney, Gordon, Likely  2nd
Mitchell, Samuel, Williams Lake  lst
Morgan, Dallas J., Likely  lst
Morris, D. L., Forest Grove  lst
Nicol, Alex., Horsefly  lst
Nicol, Shelley, Horsefly  lst
Oak, Ernest, Horsefly  2nd
Paxton, Herbert E., Soda Creek  2nd
Petrowitz, Arthur, Williams Lake  2nd
Pickering, Leonard, Williams Lake  2nd
Pinkney, R. O., Canim Lake  lst
Racher, Wilfred J., Horsefly  lst
Reid, William R., Horsefly  2nd
Roberts, R. V., Mahood Falls  lst
Robertson, William, Soda Creek  2nd
Roper, Alfred, Canim Lake  lst
Sharp, William M., Ochiltree  2nd
Thygasen, Julius, Horsefly  lst
Utm, Roy C, Soda Creek  2nd
Vaness, John, Horsefly  lst
Walters, Glen, Horsefly  lst
Walters, Leonard, Horsefly  lst
Webster, Alister, Horsefly  2nd
Westwick, Burton, Williams Lake  2nd
Westwick, Lawrence, Williams Lake  2nd
Wiggins, Howard W., Miocene  2nd
Williams, Aubrey, Horsefly  lst
Williams, Thelma V., Horsefly  2nd
Wotzke, Herbert, Williams Lake  2nd
Wynstra, Jack W., Horsefly  2nd
Cariboo District "C " (Quesnel-Barkerville North from Marguerite)
Class of Class of
Name and Address of Guide                             Licence Name and Address of Guide                             Licence
Allen, George H, Quesnel    lst McKenzie, James Henry, Cinema    lst
Anderson, Al P., Box 38, Quesnel  2nd McKitrick, Roy D., Wells    lst
Armstrong, Thomas B., Bouchie Lake  2nd McKitrick, William, Wells  2nd
Armstrong, Wilfred, Quesnel  2nd Miller, Isaac Edward, Quesnel (Punchaw)    lst
Bate, Donald C, Wells  2nd Moffatt, Ronald Henry, R.R. 1, Quesnel    lst
Bowden, Ted, Box 99, Quesnel  2nd O'Leary, Arthur, Quesnel    lst
Coldwell, Reg, Quesnel  2nd Orr, William M., Chilliwack  2nd
Gilbert, W. G, Quesnel  2nd Paley, Robert G, Gen. Del., Quesnel    lst
Griffiths, Richard A., Wells  2nd Quanstrom, Carl, Quesnel  2nd
Harrington, A. G., Quesnel    lst Quanstrom, Harry, Quesnel    lst
Heaton, William F., Buck Ridge  2nd Rawling, Arden L., Quesnel  2nd
Kellogg, Earle J., Wells  2nd Redlack, William Louis, Hixon Creek P.O. 2nd
Knauf, Mrs. E. C, Gen. Del., Quesnel  2nd Rogers, Sam, Moose Heights  2nd
Knauf, Harold, Gen. Del., Quesnel    lst Smith, Bert, Batnuni (Quesnel)  2nd
Laurent, Louie, Nazko  2nd Sorum, Erick, Quesnel  2nd
Lavington, Art C, Nazko     lst Tibbies, Fred, Quesnel     lst
Lavington, H. A. (Dude), Quesnel    lst Trudeau, Oscar, Quesnel (Nazko)  2nd
Lavoie, George, Quesnel (Nazko)  2nd Trudeau, Mrs. Oscar, Quesnel (Nazko)  2nd
Maclnnes, John, Barkerville  2nd Wilkinson, Hugh J., Quesnel  2nd REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954
J 99
Cariboo District " D " (Chilcotin District, Cariboo West of Fraser River)
Name and Address of Guide
Auchinachie, Bill, Alexis Creek	
Blatchford, John A., Alexis Creek-
Bliss, Bill, Alexis Creek-
Class of
Licence
 2nd
     1st
     lst
Bliss, Jack, Alexis Creek  2nd
Bracewell, Gerry, Tatlayoko Lake     lst
Bryant, Alfred, Anahim Lake    lst
Bullion, Jimmy Sammy, Hanceville  2nd
Buttler, Leonard, Tatla Lake  2nd
Cahoose, Gus, Anahim Lake  2nd
Capoose, Oggie, Anahim Lake  2nd
Church, Richard H, Big Creek    lst
Clayton, John, Anahim Lake  2nd
Collier, Eric, Riske Creek  2nd
Dester, Batiste, Kleena Kleene    lst
Dorsey, Lester, Anahim Lake     lst
Elkins, Joe, Alexis Creek  2nd
Elkins, Thomas, Alexis Lake     lst
Erickson, Carl, Anahim Lake  2nd
Fraser, Tom, Penticton   2nd
Garner, Tom, Duncan     lst
Hance, Grover, Hanceville     lst
Haynes, Harry K, Tatlayoko Lake     lst
Haynes, Kenneth, Tatlayoko Lake    lst
Henderson, Johnny, Tatlayoko Lake    lst
Henry, Cecil, Big Creek     lst
Henry, Eagle Lake, Tatlayoko Lake    lst
Hensen, Fred, Kleena Kleene     lst
Holte, James, Anahim Lake     lst
Holte, Tommy, Anahim Lake  2nd
Holtry, Lewis, Anahim Lake     lst
Hudson, E. R., Kleena Kleene  2nd
Hugo, Mark, Big Creek     lst
Jack, Johnny, Alexis Creek  2nd
Johnson, W. T., Riske Creek     lst
Johnston, Victor, Riske Creek  2nd
Kellogg, Bruce, Kleena Kleene  2nd
Knolls, Alvis, Redstone  2nd
Name and Address of Guide
Le Lievre, Lind, Penticton—
Lloyd, David, Anahim Lake-
Class of
Licence
     lst
  2nd
McDougall, Robert, Big Lake  lst
Mack, Maxine, Alexis Creek  2nd
Maindley, John, Alexis Creek  2nd
Maxted, William, Big Creek  lst
Mullen, B. A., Tatla Lake  2nd
Mulvahill, Randolph, Redstone  lst
Mulvahill, William, Redstone  2nd
Nicholson, Donald R., Tatla Lake  2nd
Nicholson, Terry, Tatla Lake  2nd
Paxton, Alex., Alexis Creek  lst
Paxton, Ann, Alexis Creek  2nd
Petal, Henry, Alexis Creek  2nd
Phillips, Floyd, Anahim Lake  lst
Potvin, A., Alexis Creek  2nd
Rafferty, Tom, Riske Creek  2nd
Robson, Bert, Atnarko P.O  2nd
Rosette, Augustine, Gang Ranch  lst
Schuk, Edward, Tatlayoko Lake  2nd
Scott, Robert, Riske Creek  2nd
Siebert, John, Big Creek  lst
Snow, Shannon, Alexis Creek  2nd
Stephenson, Donald, Alexis Creek  2nd
Squinas, Thomas, Anahim Lake  lst
Stowell, Orvel, Meldrum Creek  2nd
Sulin, Willie, Anahim Lake  2nd
Turner, George, Alexis Creek  2nd
Vogelaar, Pete, Alexis Creek  2nd
Watson, Arthur, Alexis Creek  lst
Watt, Bruce, Big Creek  lst
Wilson, David, Tatla Lake  lst
Wilson, Tom, Big Creek  2nd
Witte, Duane, Big Creek  lst
Witte, Frank, Big Creek  lst
Yoxall, Alfred, Alexis Creek  2nd
Peace River District and Lower Post
Class of Class of
Name and Address of Guide                           Licence Name and Address of Guide                           Licence
Anderson, Edward, Dawson Creek  2nd Johnnie, Vincent, Lower Post  2nd
Beattie, Donald, Fort St. John  2nd Johnston, Freddie, Mile 747, Alaska High-
Beattie, Robert, Gold Bar.  2nd way   2nd
Belcourt, Adolphus, Hazelmere P.O., Alta.    lst Larson, Albin O., Fort Nelson     lst
Belcourt, Clarence, Hazelmere P.O., Alta... 2nd Longhurst, William J., Lower Post    lst
Brown, Wesley John, Mile  175, Fort St. McDonald, Charlie, Mile 442, Fort Nelson 2nd
John     lst McGarvey, George Morris, Hudson Hope.. 2nd
Calliou, Johnny, Kelly Lake, B.C. (Good- McGarvey, Morris M., Taylor     lst
fare, Alta.)      lst MacLean, Arthur J., Fort St. John     lst
Calliou, Pete, Moberly Lake  2nd McLean, William, Little Prairie     lst
Callison, Dennis W., Fort Nelson     lst Melville, Kennedy, McLeod Lake  2nd
Callison, Elisha O., Mile 419, Fort Nelson   lst Mould, Thomas John, Lower Liard (Mile
Cameron, Pat, Moberly Lake    lst 496)     lst
Cameron, Ralph, Moberly Lake  2nd Paquette, Morris, Moberly Lake     lst
Chingy, Harry, McLeod Lake  2nd Peck, Donald R., Trutch     lst
Dahl, Joel O., Fort Nelson    lst Peterson, A. F., Muncho Lake    lst
Dalziel, George C. F., Dease Lake    lst Powell, Gary, Hudson Hope    lst
Davidson, John Ogilvie, Lower Post    lst Powell, Jack Kenneth, Hudson Hope  2nd
Dhenin, Rene G, Fort St. John    lst Ross, James A., Pink Mountain    lst
Durney, Lavirl, Groundbirch  2nd Rutledge, Leo, Hudson Hope     lst
Durney, Milo, East Pine    lst South wick, Harvey, Fort St. John  2nd
Elden, Otto, Little Prairie    lst Van Somer, James R., Summit Lake  2nd
Golata, Frank W., Dawson Creek    lst Varley, James, Coal River  2nd
Groat, Allen Henry, Lower Post    lst Watson, James Henry, Fort St. John  2nd
Houle, Joe, Arras  2nd J 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PERSONNEL OF GAME COMMISSION AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1954
Attorney-General (Minister) Hon. R. W. Bonner, Q.C Victoria.
Game Commission (member) Frank R. Butler Vancouver.
Scientific Advisers Dr. W. A. Clemens Vancouver.
Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan .Vancouver.
Headquarters
Chief Clerk H. D. Simpson Vancouver.
Intermediate Clerk J. McLellan Vancouver.
Intermediate Clerk W. Fowkes Vancouver.
Intermediate Clerk Miss I. Lawson Vancouver.
Secretarial Stenographer Miss J. Smith Vancouver.
Senior Clerk-Stenographer JVIiss P. Golder Vancouver.
Clerk-Stenographer Mrs. T. Gold .Vancouver.
Clerk-Stenographer JVIiss R. McKay Vancouver.
Clerk-Stenographer Mrs. M. Terpenning Vancouver.
Clerk-Stenographer Mrs. J. Whitfield Vancouver.
Clerk Miss J. Hine .Vancouver.
"A" Division (Vancouver Island and Portions of Lower Mainland)
Inspector G. C. Stevenson Victoria.
Intermediate Clerk D. Keirs Victoria.
Stenographer Miss J. Bull Victoria.
Corporal Game Warden O. Mottishaw Nanaimo.
Game Warden F. H. Greenfield Nanaimo.
Game Warden R. W. Sinclair Victoria.
Game Warden E. Martin Alberni.
Game Warden. ._ .R. S. Hayes Campbell River.
Game Warden C. E. Estlin Courtenay.
Game Warden .W. S. Webb Duncan.
"B" Division (Kootenay and Boundary Districts)
Inspector C. F. Kearns Nelson.
Clerk-Stenographer Miss L. Hickey Nelson.
Game Warden R. A. Rutherglen Nelson.
Corporal Game Warden A. F. Sinclair. Grand Forks.
Game Warden P. D. Ewart Castlegar.
Game Warden J. W. Bayley Cranbrook.
Game Warden R. R. Farquharson Cranbrook.
Game Warden B. Rauch Creston.
Game Warden J. J. Osman Fernie.
Game Warden W. A. McKay Golden.
Game Warden J. V. Mackill Invermere.
Game Warden A. Monks Penticton.
Game Warden A. F. Gill Princeton.
"C" Division (Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, and Cariboo Districts)
Intermediate Clerk G. Ferguson Kamloops.
Stenographer Mrs. S. D. Bertoli Kamloops.
Game Warden J. P. C. Atwood .Kamloops.
Game Warden H. Tyler Kamloops.
Game Warden K. R. Walmsley Alexis Creek.
Game Warden W. I. Fenton Clinton.
Game Warden D. D. Ellis Kelowna.
Game Warden R. S. Welsman Lillooet.
Game Warden E. M. Martin Merritt.
Game Warden H. J. Lorance Quesnel.
Game Warden G. A. Lines Revelstoke.
Game Warden D. Cameron Salmon Arm.
Game Warden A. S. Frisby .Vernon.
Game Warden E. Holmes Wells.
Game Warden J. P. Gibault .Williams Lake. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION,  1954
J  101
" D " Division (Atlin, Skeena, Omineca, Fort George, Peace River,
and Yukon Boundary Districts)
Inspector	
Intermediate Clerk-
Stenographer	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Stenographer	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
-W. A. H. Gill
JR. J. Guay..
-Frince George.
.Prince George.
.Miss J. Wilson Prince George.
.A. J. Jank Prince George.
R. A. Seaton Prince George.
-C. J. Walker .Prince Rupert.
Mrs. B. Sheppard ...  	
 .Prince Rupert.
W. H. Richmond	
 Burns Lake.
J. A. McCabe	
 Fort Nelson.
B. Villeneuve..  .      ... 	
 Fort Nelson.
H. O. Jamieson	
J. Dowsett   .             .....
 Fort St. John.
  . Lower Post.
J. M. Hicks	
 McBride.
..G. R. Taylor....
L. J. Cox	
J. D. Williams..
..Pouce Coupe.
.Smithers.
.Terrace.
"E" Division (Vancouver, Coast, and Lower Fraser Valley Districts)
Corporal Game Warden-
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Corporal Game Warden-
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
Game Warden	
-L. R. Lane .
R. S. King-
.R. K. Leighton..
-F. R. Lobb	
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
 .Vancouver.
 Vancouver.
-W. J. Mason Alert Bay.
-D. A. MacKinlay Alert Bay.
.A. J. Butler Chilliwack.
.H. D. Mulligan..
-W. T. Ward	
-F. J. Renton	
-H. P. Hughes.	
-W. H. Cameron..
_P. M. Cliffe	
_F. Urquhart	
B. E. Wilson	
-Cloverdale.
..Ladner.
..Mission.
-Port Coquitlam.
Powell River.
Chief Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Regional Game Biologist-
Chief Fisheries Biologist-
Game Management Division
 Dr. J. Hatter	
..E. W. Taylor..
_W. G Smith...
..P. W. Martin-
-D. J. Robinson..
L. G. Sugden—
Fisheries Management Division
 Dr. P. A. Larkin	
Division Fisheries Biologist-
Division Fisheries Biologist-
Division Fisheries Biologist-
Division Fisheries Biologist-
Assistant Fisheries Biologist    ....T. G. Northcote-
Assistant Fisheries Biologist J. G. Terpenning-
Assistant Fishery Officer E. H. Vernon	
Assistant Fishery Officer F. P. Maher-
-Dr. C. C. Lindsey-
JR. G. McMynn—
..S. B. Smith	
J. Barrett..
.Vancouver.
Vancouver.
..Cranbrook.
Kamloops.
..Nanaimo.
-Williams Lake.
-Vancouver.
-Vancouver.
-Vancouver.
-Vancouver.
-Vancouver.
..Vancouver.
...Vancouver.
..Vancouver.
...Cranbrook.
...Kelowna.
Assistant Fishery Officer G. E. Stringer.
Assistant Fishery Officer D. P. Scott Salmon Arm.
Fishery Officer J. D. Inverarity Courtenay.
Fishery Officer F. Pells Cultus Lake.
Fishery Officer F. H. Martin Kamloops.
Fishery Officer E. Hunter Nelson.
Fishery Officer R. A. McRae .Nelson.
Fishery Officer D. Hurn Summerland.
Hatchery Officer J. J. Phelps	
Hatchery Officer J. C. Lyons.	
Hatchery Officer N. W. Green	
Hatchery Officer L. E. Hunter	
Hatchery Officer G. Dibblee	
Stenographer —..Miss M. Jurkela.
._ Courtenay.
-Cultus Lake.
-Summerland.
.Cultus Lake.
..Vancouver.
..Vancouver. J 102
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Supervisor of Predator ControL
Predator Control Division
 G. A. West	
Assistant Supervisor of Predator Control JE. H. Samann-
Predatory-animal Hunter .W. J. Hillen	
Predatory-animal Hunter N. Lingford	
Predatory-animal Hunter G. Haskell	
Predatory-animal Hunter J. KandaL
Predatory-animal Hunter	
Predatory-animal Hunter	
Predatory-animal Hunter.	
Predatory-animal Hunter.	
Predatory-animal Hunter	
Predatory-animal Hunter	
.J. Dewar..
.A. M. Hames—
-C. G Ellis	
_M. W. Warren.
_A. E. Fletcher..
_M. Mortensen..
-Vancouver.
..Kamloops.
Kamloops.
-Abbotsford.
-Cranbrook.
-Castlegar.
-Nanaimo.
-Merville.
-Pouce Coupe.
.Prince George.
-Smithers.
..Williams Lake.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
1,060-955-7338  

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