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Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols For the Year Ended March 31st, 1955 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1956

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 .
PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Annual Report
of the
Inspector of Gaols
For the Year Ended
March 31st, 1955
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  ■
To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Inspector of
Gaols for the year ended March 31st, 1955.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., December 5th, 1955.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
_    7
Introduction	
Oakalla Prison Farm—
Men's Section     9
Women's Section  10
Young Offenders' Unit  16
Medical Report of Oakalla Prison Farm and Young Offenders' Unit  21
Psychologist's Report  35
Report of Protestant Chaplain  38
Report of Roman Catholic Chaplain  41
Staff-training  44
Nelson Gaol  45
Kamloops Gaol  46
Prince George Men's Gaol  48
Prince George Women's Gaol  50
Haney Camp Project  51
Report of Probation Branch  56
Appendix—Statistics of Institutions  59
L  Report of the Inspector of Gaols, 1954-55
The Honourable Robert W. Bonner, Q.C,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—It is with pleasure that I submit the Annual Report covering the Provincial
Gaols and the Probation Branch for the year ended March 31st, 1955. Detailed reports
from the various institutions and services are included herein, and by way of introduction
I would offer some brief comments on what I consider the outstanding developments
which took place during the year.
It is gratifying to read Warden Christie's report of the continued success of the
Young Offenders' Unit and Westgate Unit programmes. The experience gained in these
two experiments will be of inestimable value to us in our future development at Haney,
and I might say that already we have been receiving inquiries from elsewhere in Canada
regarding our experiences in this special work that is being done particularly with the
younger offender. The high percentage of successful rehabilitation which has resulted
from the treatment programme in the institution, coupled with the careful post-release
supervision on the part of the Probation Department staff, is something of which, I feel,
we can be justly proud.
The report of the Matron of the Women's Gaol, Oakalla, I am sure, you will find
very interesting, particularly as it refers to the experiment reported last year whereby a
percentage of the women inmates have been segregated both for housing and for programme in the two small cottages which were constructed separate and apart from the
main Women's Building. Miss Maybee's recommendations concerning further developments along this line give food for thought and will be taken into consideration in the
planning which is now being done toward the construction of a new Women's Gaol.
Perhaps one of the most important areas in our treatment programme to have
received attention is that of the health and medical care of inmates particularly of
Oakalla, including the Young Offenders' Unit, the Women's Gaol, and also New Haven.
The report of Dr. R. G. E. Richmond, Medical Officer, which follows, I believe, will
be found to be extremely interesting, as it gives a detailed account of the experiences
in this area and includes certain recommendations which, I might say, relate to suggested changes that are now under consideration, and which I hope next year can be
reported as completed.
There has been nothing outstanding to report from Nelson and Kamloops Gaols.
The structural alterations in Kamloops were completed, and these extra facilities have
been of great assistance to the Warden and his staff in carrying out the work programme
in this institution. As in other years, Warden Teal continues to pursue a policy of
a work programme in co-operation with other institutions and departments in his
immediate neighbourhood, and in this way is able to offset the handicap of lack of
ground surrounding the gaol building. I feel, however, that in the case of both Nelson
and Kamloops Gaols, we are very rapidly reaching the time when we will have to give
serious consideration to the scrapping of both these facilities and the construction of a
new modern gaol building surrounded by adequate land for the housing and training
of prisoners from the Interior of the Province.
The new Men's Gaol at Prince George is now under construction and should be
opened early next year. Warden Trant has made careful plans regarding programme
at the new institution, and I am confident that when he and his staff are able to move
into the new building, we will enter a new era of work programme and treatment for
prisoners in that part of the Province.
There were changes in the forest camp programme, as will be seen from the report
submitted by Mr. Deildal.    It has been possible to conduct a year-round programme P 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
rather than the summer camps which were operated during the last three years in the
Kettle River district. Experience and accomplishments in this new project to date,
I feel, will make most interesting reading.
As in other years, there are accounts of the work of the Chaplains, Gaol Psychologist, and from Professor E. K. Nelson, our training officer.
Activities of the Provincial Probation Branch are reported. There have been some
staff changes, the two outstanding developments being the appointment of Miss Mildred
Wright as Adult Probation Officer for women in the Greater Vancouver area and the
opening of a new branch office at Prince Rupert under Mr. Allan Hare. Once again
the volume of work of this Branch continues to show a steady increase. It is interesting
to note from the statistical summary which is included that each year since 1942 has
shown a steady increase, not only of referrals, but also of those placed on probation,
indicating, of course, that Courts of the Province are becoming increasingly aware of
the value of probation as a means of treatment for particularly those young and more
reformable individuals who break the law.
I would be remiss if I closed this report without some comment on the excellent
co-operation which has been afforded the Corrections Branch by all our many friends,
both individuals and agencies, who have assisted in time and effort toward the extension
and interpretation of the new programme in British Columbia's penology.
Thanks are extended to clergy of the various denominations, the lohn Howard
Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, the Salvation Army, the press, and all others who
have interested themselves in individual inmates, and in a furtherance of the philosophy
that it is no use retraining a person in an institution if there is not a work placement for
him when he is released.
The Wardens, Executive Officers, Guards, and Matrons of all our gaols, staff of
the Corrections Branch, and Probation Officers are again to be commended for the loyal
manner in which they have accomplished their work. The co-operation of the members
of the British Columbia Board of Parole is also gratefully acknowledged.
In closing, I submit the following recommendations for your consideration: —
(1) It is gratifying to know that favourable consideration is being given to
the construction of a new Women's Gaol, and I would urge that there
be no hesitation in pushing these plans to completion, and that the
construction of this institution be undertaken without any further delay.
(2) I would draw attention to the entirely inadequate facilities at Kamloops
and Nelson Gaols, and would stress the necessity for closing both these
institutions and constructing in their place a modern gaol modelled on
the lines of the new Men's Gaol at Prince George and located somewhere
between Kamloops and Nelson, to be used for housing of prisoners from
the Interior of the Province. In selecting the location for this institution,
it is imperative that a large tract of land should also be available.
(3) We are increasingly becoming aware of the inadequacies of hospital
facilities at Oakalla. While it is our plan that the present Women's Gaol
should be converted into a hospital once a new women's institution is
built, there is some degree of urgency regarding the provision of better
facilities for medical treatment meanwhile. Some of these changes can
be made at not too great a cost. I would recommend that favourable
consideration be given to plans which have been put forward along this
line.
(4) The use of probation as a means of treatment in this Province has long
since passed the experimental stage. The provision of additional staff
and the opening of other branch offices will enable increasingly more
people to be rehabilitated through this method, and the additional cost
is far less than that entailed in the construction of new institutions or the REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 9
extension of present facilities. I strongly urge that as requests for this
service come in from other areas of the Province, they be given favourable
consideration.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. G. B. STEVENS,
Inspector of Gaols and Provincial Probation Officer.
OAKALLA PRISON FARM
Men's Section
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Oakalla Prison Farm for
the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
The reports following of the staff in charge of the various units give the detail of
their work during the past year. The optimistic mood reflected therein seems well
justified when one considers some of the year's achievements.
A good example is the successful operation of the economical but self-contained
cottages by the staff of the women's institution. The project allows for the segregation
and separate care of the teen-agers and younger women who sincerely wish to rehabilitate
themselves.
The senior officer and staff of the West Gate Unit also deserve special mention for
the progress they have made during the past year. Four hundred of the more promising
inmates, referred to as the " West Gate Unit," were segregated from the Main Gaol over
a year ago as a hard work, hard play experiment. Their conduct has been excellent, and
they have done double the amount of work of any other similar number of men in the
institution. The most deserving team from this unit was allowed to play as part of an
outside softball and soccer league. They won few games but gained high praise for
their good sportsmanship. In spite of this greater activity, West Gate has had no escapes
or other breaches of custody or discipline during the full year.
The Young Offenders' Unit, one of the most progressive treatment units of its kind
in Canada, has continued its treatment approach to succeed in the rehabilitation of an
amazingly high percentage of its inmates. The Probation Department staff should share
the credit for 90 per cent of Young Offenders' Unit releases successfully completing
their parole period this year. The number who will never return to prison will unquestionably be high.
The caution we must have in mind in reviewing the successful work achieved with
these segregated groups during the past year, however, is the fact that they represent
less than 50 per cent of the Oakalla population.
The Main Gaol, housing approximately 500 inmates of the more criminal type,
has also had improvements in programme, which have segregated the older and more
hardened from the youthful and rehabilitable person. Trafficking of drugs and other
contraband has been made a near impossibility. The control of the institution has been
taken from the professional criminal and placed in the hands of the staff. The trusty,
who used his position to administer favours for a price, is no more. P 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
All this has, however, made the main institution a much less attractive place for
the confirmed delinquent. His hatred, both of the changes in programme and the
administration responsible, has made the control of this hostility a much more difficult
and to some extent more expensive problem. Honesty in prison, as in anything else,
is neither cheap nor easy. It is the belief of this administration that these more-hardened
delinquents can be reformed. A few indeed may even be encouraged toward reform by
the restrictive custody which the modern correctional institution must impose on them.
We should not, however, delude ourselves into thinking that we are doing a complete
job by only punishing this group. Nor is it considered wise to pause too long at this
stage of development, as restrictive custody, without any rewards or the treatment which
teaches an acceptable method of expression, breeds a hostility which relentlessly seeks
an outlet in destructiveness. Until such time as we have sufficient resources to provide
both treatment and control for the confirmed criminal, we must restrict his care to control
only, since we must reserve our still very limited treatment resources for those inmates
who can show the greatest return for its investment on their behalf.
Before appending the reports of the more promising work in the Young Offenders'
Unit and the Women's Gaol, I would like to take this opportunity of thanking the many
agencies which have assisted us; the Government departments, including our own,
which have given us assistance; the public, who have supported and assisted in many
ways; and, finally, the staff of the institutions at Oakalla, who have unselfishly supplemented the investment by the Government and the taxpayer by bearing the responsibility
for the improvements made and the extra work it has involved without additional
recompense of any material kind.
Respectfully submitted. TT        ^ •■»
r i Hugh G. Christie,
Warden.
Women's Section
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—Following is a report of the operation of the Women's Gaol for the fiscal
year 1954-55.
General Survey
Development of programme has been slow but definite. The most notable changes
are the lack of idleness, a more willing attitude on the part of the inmate, the absence
of gang warfare, and a more thorough control of drug smuggling.
Any improvement of atmosphere and discipline is directly due to the intensified
interest, co-operation, and effort shown by all the staff.
Personnel
Recruiting and holding suitable staff has become increasingly difficult, due to exacting nature of the work, the necessity for shifts, and the inequality in wages. Staff turnover has been high and the programme has suffered accordingly. Personnel who have
gained in experience through service, and have the capacity to absorb training, are our
most valuable assets.
Average Population (94.68)
Although the population is relatively small, the variety of types represented necessitates classifying into various small groups. Each group must be thoroughly supervised
as a separate unit and kept apart as much as possible.
To fill the needs of this population, the institution should present varied programmes
which would compare in separate instances with an industrial school, an open Borstal,
a closed Borstal, a reformatory, and a full security correctional plan.
J REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P  11
The problem is how to plan and operate one institution and its programme to cover
these needs
Facilities
A deviation from standard gaol accommodation, in the form of two small cottages,
was put into operation early in the year. Each unit, capable of housing twelve inmates,
consists of a bathroom (the only partitioned section) and one large room containing
sleeping area, day space, kitchenette, and dinette.
Although physical facilities offer only minimum security, maximum supervision is
maintained. Cottages are equipped with small electric stoves and other facilities for
cooking and general housekeeping. Breakfast and dinner are prepared and served in
each cottage. Due to lack of time at noon, lunch is prepared in the central kitchens and
served in the cottage.
Cottage inmates go to school or to their jobs during working-hours, but otherwise
spend their time together in the unit or at various activities. They are under constant
supervision night and day, and much of the success of the experiment depends on the
initiative and character of the supervisor.
Cottage inmates are selected from among the first offenders or, in some instances,
second offenders who are inexperienced in delinquency and not yet institutionalized.
There is no calculated risk taken; candidates must be good custodial risks. This does
not mean that the inmate is not still a behaviour problem when she is placed in the
cottage; often there are weeks of painful adjustment before she accepts the demands
of cottage life. Inmates are moved to the cottages one at a time to avoid placing too
great a strain on either the matron or the group.
This experiment has proved the wisdom of separate units where meals are prepared and served family style. In the more secure section of the Gaol, serving of food
should also take place in the home unit, although central preparation is most practical.
Separate preparation of food in the main institution would be too cumbersome for a
large population.
Apart from the cottages, other facilities remain as in former years, and the same
problems plague the staff. The Women's Building, constructed to accommodate forty-
five, usually houses from sixty-five to seventy, which means that first offenders not
judged suitable for cottage placement live in close proximity to those with long prison
records (the thoroughly experienced drug addict and sex deviant). In this setting the
accidental offender, who may be quite an average person, is too often morally contaminated by too close an association with the chronic recidivist.
Hence new complete moderate-security units for from ten to fifteen inmates is an
immediate necessity if the institution is to avoid becoming a training-school for new
addicts.
Socialization Programme
Socialization programme follows modern group work principles as closely as
possible. Classification at its present stage of development has resulted in the following
groupings:—
Groups I and II (privileged groups who live in the cottages):—
(1) Young first offenders, girls from the Industrial School.
(2) Older inexperienced first offenders least liable to return to gaol.
(3) People who will benefit by segregation and the programme provided on
these units.
(4) Good custodial risks.
Group III: Consists of young addicts or alcoholics who have continuous contact
with family.   This can be an unsettled troublesome group. P 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Group IV: Addicts and alcoholics who have had five or more years' experience
with gaols. Usually active and industrious. Content to do time. However, if serious
trouble arises, this group will be busy organizing it.
Group V:—
(1) The older non-addicts.
(2) Girls from Industrial School with history of escapes.
(3) First offenders with considerable experience and well known to police.
Group VI:—
(1) Consists of new admissions and those awaiting trial or remand.
(2) Addicts and alcoholics suffering withdrawal symptoms.
(3) Inmates who are acutely or chronically ill.
(4) Inmates suspended from privileged groups for misbehaviour.
Group VII: Older alcoholics and addicts of recidivist type. This group is usually
less active.
Groups I, II, and V are kept segregated from addict groups as much as possible.
Some members of Groups I and II have used drugs but are not confirmed addicts.
Segregation helps to slow down progress.
Programme
The schedule that is posted every week varies from last year in that we allow the
groups to plan their own programme within limits. In some groups this method works
effectively, while in others the planning is left to one or two individuals. They are also
inclined to schedule for as many rest periods as possible, which results in minimum
security.
Programme differs this year in that the groups are not allowed any free time.
There are no social nights unless some planned activity is in progress.
Alcoholics Anonymous have given up their discussion groups. We have a bimonthly programme for Protestants and Catholics. Rev. Hollingworth shows films and
leads the discussions following, with the Protestant group. Father McAvoy, with the
Legion of Mary group of ladies, provides religious guidance for the Catholic girls.
Other forms of community activity are picture shows, square dancing, whist drives,
fancy-dress party, concerts planned and impromptu put on by inmates. During Christmas
holidays all groups were given the opportunity of putting on one-act plays. Of five
groups working on plays, two completed same. An amateur hour was held, and went
over so well it lasted two hours. Mrs. Weldon brought in a concert group on December
21st.
The institution provided full-feature shows on December 25th, 27th, and January
2nd, 1955. This year we have been fortunate in getting educational films from the B.C.
Electric Company.   This type of entertainment is popular with the inmates.
Another passive form of indoor activity is listening to recordings. We have a new
high-fidelity machine and are planning on building a music-appreciation programme
around semi-classical recordings. The records the inmates have chosen for themselves
provide them with active form of entertainment, as they are mostly dance tunes. The
Y-menettes are expected in on April lst to give their annual party, which consists of
square dancing to records. We would like to have a glee club, but need volunteer workers
as no one of the staff has experience in this line.
Outdoor Recreation
Outdoor recreation consists of swimming, walks, and playing softball. We have a
volunteer coach who comes in twice a week. He trained girls for the team who had
never played previously. The Oakettes played eight outside teams, winning three games.
The coach managed to get considerable equipment from various Vancouver clubs.   A REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P  13
left-hand fielder's glove and twenty-four pairs of running-shoes are all that has been
ordered from recreational funds this season. All other softball equipment is in good
condition.
During the winter season the gymnasium was available to the Women's Gaol for
four two-hour periods a week. Our same coach and his daughter came in three periods
a week to coach basketball. The Oakettes played four outside teams, losing all the
games, the closest score being 22 to 26.
A sports fund was started in October, and a committee formed by voting one girl
from each group. This committee meets at intervals to decide how they will spend the
money from the fund. So far they have bought $18 worth of Christmas decoration,
crests for basketball uniforms and also some for softball uniforms, pins and balls for
bowling, and donated $5 to Group II to start a sewing class. This fund is also used for
buying prizes for competitions and at times a welfare fund. The committee has also
picked records, selected by the girls, to the value of $15.
We have on order outdoor badminton equipment and are planning to play between
the cottages and the main building.
Hobby Work
Afternoon hobby work is continuing along the same lines as formerly. We are
allowed equipment, but are required to sell enough work to keep up supplies of leather,
copper, etc.
Pottery was introduced in January, 1955. A kiln, clay, glazes, and the necessary
equipment was purchased, and the first pottery class was held for staff about January 15th.
Shortly after this, one group started pottery and showed quite a lot of enthusiasm for the
hobby. Staff classes have been continued on Wednesday nights, and all the inmate
groups have been introduced to pottery. At the present time each group goes to the
pottery hut at least once a week.
The staff have been given enough materials to make two articles free of charge
and are charged for all subsequent materials at cost. The inmates are allowed to use
materials free of charge and have a free hand in selecting their projects. As pottery-
making takes quite a lot of time to learn and the first few articles leave much to be desired,
the inmates are allowed to keep the articles they make. If a staff member wishes to
purchase any of these first attempts, they are charged for them at cost.
There has been a great deal of enthusiasm for pottery as a group project. Aside
from the fact that it gives the group an opportunity to get outside the main building, they
enjoy the freedom of expression that clay affords. There has been a higher degree of
participation in pottery than in other hobby activities. The fact that they are allowed
to make themselves ash-trays, mugs, etc., encourages the inmates to make their first
try, and after that they begin to develop their own ideas.
It has been pointed out to the inmates that the materials involved cost money, and
that when they develop a fair degree of skill, they might make articles for sale to replenish
the supplies. They are quite willing to do this, and it is hoped that no hard and fast
rules in this matter will be necessary, as the hobby classes have supported themselves in
this way under the present system.
Library
During the past few months the entire library has been reclassified. The bulk of
the fiction is now divided into two major classifications—Light Romance and Humour,
and Standard Novels. The remainder are under the following headings: Short Stories,
Mystery and Adventure, Humour, Plays, Canadian Stories, Light Philosophy, Animal
Stories, Historical Novels (chiefly biographical), and Plays. The non-fiction is now
classified under the following groups: Religion, Art, Poems, Music, Biography, Travel,
Show Business, Fashion and Beauty, and Miscellaneous.    Since this system has been in P 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
effect, it has been found that the inmates are reading a wider variety of books. They
find it easier and quicker to pick out the type of book they enjoy, and the comment " I
can't find anything good " is very rarely heard any more.
Approximately 137 books have been added during the past year. The approximate
total count of all books is 1,313, including twenty-six copies of the Bible and fifteen
volumes of World Book Encyclopaedia. Of these, about thirty-four are on temporary
loan to staff and between 100 and 120 are on loan to inmates at one time. There is
combined a total of twenty books on permanent loan to the kitchen and Occupational
Therapy Department. Another thirty-four books are at present out for either discard
or repair.
Supervised library periods are part of the socialization programme, and selected
inmates have been trained by the librarian to look after the clerical work involved. It
has been found that by having an inmate checking the books in and out and keeping
the records, the inmate interest in books is increasing. They seem to feel that it is their
library. The inmates so employed are proud of the responsibility of the job and are
very conscientious.
Kitchen and Dining-room
Food.—Our supplies have been of good quality. The farm provides a good supply
of meat, fresh eggs, and milk for a good part of the year. The variety this year has been
good. Special diets are at a minimum, and we manage very well with the excellent
advice of our doctor and clinic matron. Proof of this is the quick recovery of any sick
girls and the generally improved health of all the inmates. The cost per day, per meal,
per girl, averages between 23 and 27 cents.
Meals are served family style, with a maximum of ten girls and one or two matrons
at each table. This prevents waste, controls noise and greediness, and keeps conversation
at a respectable level.
The evening meal is planned and prepared during the day work programme before
the afternoon group comes into the kitchen. This change-over is not always as smooth
as it should be, due to the fact that many of the girls are unable or unwilling to accept
this as a pleasant group activity rather than an unpleasant drudgery. This makes for a
difficult situation, but is not without some training value.
Improvements.—In the last year the following improvements have been made to
our kitchen and dining facilities: Plastic dishes, canopy and fan over stove, Arborite
table-tops in dining-room, new dish cupboard, dining-room chairs sanded and varnished,
eight nested chairs for kitchen, kitchen painted, orlon curtains for dining-room, stainless-
steel cooking and kitchen utensils, dining-room floor repaired, stainless-steel sinks and
drainboards, large light-shades for dining-room, three large garbage-cans with heavy
lids, a bird-cage and a canary.   The latter lends a pleasant atmosphere.
Suggested Improvements.—Walk-in cooler for perishables, refrigerator with lock
for storeroom, some added table space, electric food-mixer, larger dining area, new
work-table.
Laundry
The total number of pieces laundered during the year was 53,009, an increase of
4,893 over the previous year.
Equipment in use consists of a Conner electric washing-machine (24 pounds
capacity), one small household-type electric ironer, and six to eight electric irons. These
facilities do not handle all the laundry for the Women's Gaol properly. Lack of adequate
drying-space, poor wiring, and overloaded drains are also a contributing problem.
A complete new laundry with modern equipment is recommended. This addition
would not only give a training in a much-neglected field, but would also relieve the overworked unit in the Main Gaol by serving the Young Offenders' Unit, New Haven, and
the hospital. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P  15
Correspondence Courses
Twenty-six girls attended the school during the year. They were registered for
eighteen different courses, as follows:—
Typing 20   5
Typing 10   13
Typing Practice    5
Typing Theory  1
Bible Study   2
English Grammar and Composition 10  1
English Literature   1
English Grammar and Composition 20  1
English Literature   1
Business English   1
Shorthand 21   1
Shorthand 31      1
Art 10  1
Art 39    1
Record-keeping 11   5
Elementary—
Grade II Language  1
Grade III Spelling  1
Grade V Arithmetic    1
There were eleven courses fully completed during the year. Certificates were
received by nine students. These certificates are worth 5 credits for anyone wishing to
complete a grade.
Three students, since their release, resumed their courses on the " outside " and
have been keeping in touch with this department. Two girls have completed a course
each and have reregistered for further study.
A number of new text-books were purchased during the year as the students showed
an interest in the different courses. Six second-hand typing-desks, with drop-head, were
also added to the supplies. We are hoping to acquire four more, and the felt to go under
the machines. The noise of the machines has been a constant hindrance to those who
are not on these courses, however, we feel that the class facilities are slowly improving.
I would like to mention also the fine co-operation which is received here from the
office of the Director of the High School Correspondence Branch of the Department of
Education at Victoria. The interest shown by that staff and their timely comments and
advice are much appreciated.
Occupational Therapy
This department is used for the benefit of the convalescents, the known but controlled Tuberculosis cases, chronic invalids, inmates on remand or awaiting transfer to
Kingston Penitentiary. It has been found beneficial to the new arrival who has been
under a long period of strain. This way the woman becomes part of the programme
immediately she is admitted, without facing her with a task that may defeat her at the
outset. Industrial School girls, who usually arrive in a chaotic state, are placed here
first, but soon progress peacefully to more active work or study.
A display of handiwork and tea was held in the late summer, at the Gaol, under the
auspices of the Elizabeth Fry group. Eighty guests from various churches and service
groups were entertained. Although this venture took considerable effort on the part of
the staff, the inmates were made to feel that the visitors were their guests. Small groups
were taken on a conducted tour of the institution by the inmates and later served tea. P 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The pride the inmates took in this venture, the satisfaction experienced by the
staff, and the general lift it gave to morale encourage us to attempt more such community
contacts.
Articles completed during year were as follows: Leathercraft, 136 projects; metal-
tooling, 71 pieces; wood-burning, 50 pieces; Dresden painting, 12 figurines; fibre-
flower craft, 150 arrangements; plastic upholstery, 5 hassocks, lamp; and handicraft
(knitting, crocheting, weaving, hooked rugs, and sewing), 529 pieces.
Sewing and Mending
This department has turned out a large amount of mending and sewing during the
last year.
Four new electric machines of the classroom variety have been added to equipment.
This department is used to train staff in the supervision of inmate teamwork.
The continual change of matrons for training purposes cuts down on the potential
efficiency and production of the department. In spite of this handicap, the quality of
sewing and mending has improved.
The total work done was as follows: —
Mending  Pieces
Men's quarters  49,605
Young Offenders' Unit     4,507
New Haven      3,228
Women's Building      1,683
Total   59,023
New work—Women's Building     3,793
In conclusion, Sir, may we thank you and your staff for the interest, co-operation,
and encouragement shown us?
Respectfully submitted. _, _  .,
r B. E. Maybee,
Matron in Charge.
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—We beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Young Offenders'
Unit for the year ended March 31st, 1955.
Administration
During the year many changes have been put into effect at the Young Offenders'
Unit, generally along the line of an increase in the focus of work to be done at the Unit.
Some of these changes are listed in the reports by the department heads, which are given
hereunder. Possibly the greatest change has been as a result of the increasingly better
facilities for classification in the main unit. Individuals sent to the Young Offenders'
Unit were more willing and able to use our present facilities. During the year about
90 per cent of the inmates received had a definite and an indefinite sentence. This gave
and gives an opportunity to release an inmate when it is believed he is ready to return
to the community as a result of his demonstrated ability to (1) get along in a socially
acceptable manner with his peers as well as the staff, and (2) ability to earn his own
living. Thus, at approximately the end of the definite sentence, each inmate's programme
is evaluated with regard to these two main factors, and he is seen by the British Colum- REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P  17
bia Parole Board. A decision, involving the Parole Board, Probation Branch, and the
Unit, is made.
In a very real sense the inmate is working toward this goal right from his reception
into one unit. Our casework service and more intensive psychiatric services by the
Prison Medical Officer have resulted in greater progress by inmates. Those inmates who
are unable to benefit from the facilities at the Unit are returned to the Main Gaol for
reclassification.
Public response to the need for employment for inmates on release has been surprisingly good. Through the efforts of family, relatives, and friends, and through the
consistent efforts of the National Employment Service and the Probation Branch, all
inmates showing a capacity to work were successfully employed. One group, however,
remains difficult to place: those individuals who do not have, for one reason or another,
a family or relatives with whom they can live during the difficult " immediate discharge "
period. Having few, if any, family ties, this group tends to be most deprived, and would
number approximately 10 per cent of the population of 78 at any one time. Increasing
attention is being given to this group by the Unit and the Probation Branch. An interested service club, with whom the Probation Branch is at present working, shows
promise of being able to give valuable assistance in this area.
Staff.
The Unit continues to attract a good quality of staff, though some turnover has
taken place. One staff member joined the Probation Branch, while an increasing number
are making plans to obtain further education. At least two members plan to enrol in
the School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia in the fall.
Regular staff-training meetings are being held for all staff.
All of the present staff have benefited greatly from the in-service course given at
the main unit, but there is need for an expansion of this training to give staff more
advanced training.
Socialization Report
During the past year the socialization programme has maintained the pattern of
the previous year and has added to this pattern several new and noteworthy aspects.
As in the past, sport played a major role in the programme. Competition and
interest were keen, as indicated by the sixty-game softball schedule completed during
the summer, while a sixty-game soccer schedule absorbed the interest during the winter.
A floor-hockey league and a dodge-ball league helped fill the need for an indoor sports
programme during the confinement necessitated by the winter evenings.
Both institutional teams, softball and soccer, played games on outside parks as well
as playing visiting teams on the Young Offenders' Unit field. This proved to be very
satisfactory and gave added impetus to the inter-unit competition, as only the better
players, in terms of ability and sportsmanship, were chosen for the institutional team.
Individual unit groups were encouraged to follow their own interests, compatible
with the over-all goals of the institution, and, in so doing, allowed for considerable
variation from one unit to another so far as the general programme is concerned.
Hobbies have operated well under the continued policy of the previous year. The
policy that each inmate could take home some item of leather, copper, or other craft,
but that all other articles would become the property of the institution, has indeed
assisted inmates to give as well as receive and has increased the therapeutic values of the
hobby programme.
The most notable addition to the socialization programme has been an increased
emphasis upon the inmates to assume more responsibility in formulating and carrying
out new programme. An Inmate Programme Fund has been established, to which the
inmates contribute. The institution, after weighing both the advisability of the considered P 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
programme and the effort made by the inmates themselves, makes an appropriate donation from the institutional Welfare Fund, which is made up of donations and canteen
profits. The resultant pool of money has been used to provide for the sport and recreational programme of the Unit. It is also being used to finance the furnishing of a
combination recreation-room and study-hall, which boys may use either to relax in or
to apply themselves to their numerous correspondence courses. The utilization of such
a fund makes for a more realistic appreciation of programme by the inmates.
Other areas within which the inmates have assumed considerable responsibility are
also worthy of brief mention. The purchase of additional films, not provided for by
the budget, per se, has become the financial responsibility of the inmate population alone.
An altar, built for the chapel, and a mural, nearing completion, were plans developed by
the inmates to increase church attendance. In another instance a panel of experts was
invited by the inmates to discuss with them the twofold problem of employment and
parole. In still another case, a unit organized itself to paint its living-quarters, and the
result was most gratifying. There are others which could be cited, but these are sufficient
to indicate the accentuation of inmate responsibility within the confines of the setting.
Another achievement has been the more active participation of staff in pre-release
and release plans for inmates about to appear before the British Columbia Parole Board.
This participation includes staff meetings held with the aid of the Treatment Officer,
wherein staff express their diagnosis and prognosis of the given boy, as drawn from their
close relationship and concrete experiences. The individual supervisor also presents a
verbal report to the Parole Board when an inmate from his group appears before that
body. This increases the status of the staff member in the eyes of the inmate and increases
the contribution of the staff member to release planning.
Future departures in the programme of this unit are now being formulated. It is
hoped that these will include the beginnings of an interest programme, wherein boys
having a common interest, centred around some worth-while activity, can gather together
and, with the help of a qualified staff member, cultivate this interest. It is also hoped that
the future will bring more utilization of accredited volunteers, drawn from the public and
functioning as instructors, visitors, speakers, or coaches. These volunteers will serve to
form a beneficial and necessary bond with the community, which may aid the individual
inmate upon his ultimate release to that community.
Vocational Report
During the past twelve months the following vocations have operated on a
vocational-training basis: Motor mechanics, woodwork, school-radio, upholstery, kitchen,
bindery, and maintenance group. For the purpose of this report, these various vocations
will be dealt with individually.
Motor Mechanics.—We have had a very good amount of practical project work in
this shop. Our motor mechanics and instructors have had a varied assortment of makes
of cars to work on, as well as a varied assortment of project work, running from engine
analysis to complete engine rebuilds, brake adjustments to complete brake overhauls,
transmission and differential work, and some body and fender work.
It gives me a great deal of pleasure to report that the indication of the work being
turned out in this shop has met satisfaction and approval. This speaks very well for the
careful selection of project work allotted to the trainees as they progress in their instruction and ability, and also the very careful step-by-step check made by the supervisor-
instructor, his control and discipline of his group.
Considerable maintenance work has also been carried out with this group in
mechanical work, such as the making-up of legs for the cell bunks, repair of metal chairs,
wheelbarrows, and trailers, for use in the institution's work. Tools, such as shovels, picks,
rakes, etc., repaired, cutlery trays, and various articles for use by the socialization pro- REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P  19
gramme have not only been made up, but designed by the instructor or by myself. These
various mechanical-work projects have served to keep this group active on the days off
of the regular instructor-supervisor so as not to interfere with his progressive instruction
and step-by-step check of work done. This is not an ideal set-up from the point of view
of vocational training, but it is working out reasonably well.
Woodwork Shop.—I am pleased to report that continued progress has been made
not only in the class of work completed by this group, but also in the instructional work
of the supervisor. The instructor-supervisor has improved a great deal in his ability to
transmit his knowledge in understandable language. He has shown improvement in his
methods of instruction, his selection of project work in relation to the progress of the
trainee, and he has demanded a progressive improvement in the finished product. This
has created an all-round improvement in the work habits, economy, and general conduct
of this shop.
Some very worth-while and well-finished projects have been completed by this group,
which have led to several of the trainees becoming sufficiently interested and proficient to
go on with this type of work on release. One example of the type of work done in this
shop is a scale model of a four-roomed modern bungalow that is complete in all detail
even to the stucco. This project was done by two lads in the shop and took over three
months to complete. The construction of several 8-foot car-top boats have proven excellent projects and have given untold satisfaction to several of the trainees in this shop, as
was the case in the construction of a deep-freeze unit for the Haney forestry project.
General maintenance has also been a useful and a helpful means of practical work for
the inmates.
I consider the progress made in this shop group in the past twelve months very good
from a vocational-training view-point.
School-Radio.—I am somewhat concerned with this group and with results over the
past year. I feel that in view of the number of younger inmates with comparatively low
academic grades that we are getting, a more concentrated effort to better these inmates'
grades should be made. At the same time the possibilities in radio and allied work are
increasing, and the desire for training in this work is naturally becoming more popular.
We have had, in the past year, several very gratifying results from inmates in this group,
possibly at a cost to the group in academic classes.
There is certainly plenty of scope for full-time exercise of both the school group and
the radio group. It is felt that every effort is being made to keep the balance between
these two groups, but that both are suffering to a considerable extent by being amalgamated. It is very difficult to prevent the one group from distracting the other. It is also
very difficult for a supervisor to divide his attention between two such diverse subjects.
It seems obvious that these two classes are too much for one teacher, and that an additional instructor should be provided to get the most out of these classes.
Upholstery.—Some considerable improvement has been made with this group in the
past twelve months, more noticeably in the last four, due, I feel, to two reasons: (a) The
putting-in of some small woodwork tools, which has increased the possibility of more
creative project work and a somewhat larger scope, not only for project work, but for
actual training in the upholstery trade; and (b) considerable improvement in instructional
methods in a more definite training programme from a vocational point of view by the
instructor-supervisor of this group. In all, this has had the effect of a much greater
interest on the part of the inmates and in a better-finished product. It is to be hoped that
further improvement can be looked for in this group.
Bindery.—During the past year this vocational shop, although without an instructor-
supervisor for some months, was kept in operation. Resignation was received from the
previous instructor-supervisor early in 1954, and we were not able to replace him with
the inducement offered. Our present instructor-supervisor, a temporary man with related
knowledge, was not obtained until August.   During this time what work was done was the
3 P 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
result of two fairly responsible inmates, who had considerable training under the previous
instructor-supervisor.
The present instructor-supervisor's methods seem to be vastly different to the former
supervisor's. This was rather hard on the few inmates in the group at first. As six is
about the greatest number that can be utilized in this shop, however, it was not long before
a complete change of inmates was made and the present methods became the standard.
This type of vocation is not very practical for the Young Offenders' Unit. First, it
does not employ enough inmates to expend the full time of the supervisor; secondly, the
type of work is not sufficiently energy-consuming for these younger inmates; thirdly, there
is little or no outlet from an employment point of view for any inmate that does learn the
trade. We have had a reasonably good supply of work for the bindery, however, from
Oakalla Main Gaol, the Women's Gaol, Crease Clinic, Burnaby School Board, and the
Public Library Commission in Victoria.
Kitchen.—The kitchen has only recently come under the direct control of the Vocational Officer. Some changes have been put into effect, with the view of more training
for the inmates in cooking and kitchen administration, also for the better control of the
kitchen, meal-serving, security, and general conduct. So far these changes seem to have
improved the general set-up in the kitchen, and the cook-supervisor seems to be satisfied
that more actual training can be done. These changes, however, have only been in effect
a short time, and it is hardly possible to give, as yet, any positive effects that are a result
of these changes.
General.—There have been several changes in the direct administration of the Young
Offenders' Unit during the past twelve months, and I feel that it speaks well for the vocational programme that those officers who have been placed in control of the Young
Offenders' Unit have seen fit to leave the control of this programme with the Vocational
Officer without any interference, and have seen fit to place more and more of the administration of the whole of the vocational programme with this officer. I believe it has made
for a better working programme, for a better feeling on the part of the vocational staff,
and a much smoother running institution.
The new classification procedures at the Main Gaol have kept the inmate population
at a more constant level at near capacity. This has meant that all of the shops have had
their limit of inmates nearly constantly during the past twelve months. There is a very
urgent need for one further vocation, and it is hoped that we will be able to include sheet
metal in the coming year, as at present we always have not less than twelve inmates on a
maintenance group, most of whom are awaiting placement in one or other of the vocational shops. The fact that the bindery can only handle, at the most, six inmates, is also
possibly part of the reason for the large number that must be carried on this maintenance
group. With limited projects of any large nature it is often difficult to keep this group
actively employed.
Medical-Dental
The Prison Medical Officer visits the Unit four times a week for routine sick parade.
Inmates needing hospitalization are referred by him either to the Main Gaol hospital or
for more specialized treatment to the Vancouver General Hospital.
Psychotherapy is also given on an individual basis as often as necessary.
During the year one inmate was committed to the Provincial Mental Hospital
(Crease Clinic).
Custody and Controls
During the past year the staff at the Young Offenders' Unit has maintained a consistently high level of security, except immediately prior to one incident, which resulted in
three inmates making an escape from a recreational party for a period of short duration.
During the year we recorded 174 inmates and discharged 120. The largest percentage of discharges were through the British Columbia Parole Board. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 21
Food Rations, Stores
The system instituted during the last fiscal year by which the Young Offenders' Unit
received various types of stores through the Main Gaol stores has been continued with
commendable success. The dry stores are delivered weekly. The fresh meats are delivered daily and fresh vegetables from the farm as required. This allows bulk buying, with
consequent economy.
The recommendation has been made for the relocation of the kitchen from the
second floor to the basement. This change of location will be advantageous in many ways.
It will provide a larger area, which will allow the cook-supervisor to give a more complete course in cooking, easier access to storerooms, and a more sanitary kitchen.
Maintenance of Grounds and Buildings
The main playing-field continues to be improved and enlarged. We now have a
playing area large enough for two small ball diamonds.
Landscaping of the grounds continued during the year and will continue to be done.
The main building has been painted, and also the inside of the Quonset huts.
A partition was erected during the year in one hut to provide a separate room for radio
and school.
Summary
During the year, as stated earlier, we received 174 inmates and 120 were discharged;
of those discharges approximately 90 per cent successfully completed their indefinite
sentences on parole and, as far as is known to us, have not been involved in further
offences. Ten per cent broke parole and were returned to the Main Gaol.
In conclusion, we would like to thank you and your administrative staff for your
constructive help and encouragement during the past year.
Respectfully submitted. .   T   ..
*■•;■> A. L. Montpellier,
Chief Correctional Officer.
MEDICAL REPORT OF OAKALLA PRISON FARM
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual medical report for the year ended
March 31st, 1955, for the above-mentioned institution.
A_r r^
Main Gaol
Hospital
Since the submission of the last report, with the co-operation of the executive, the
facilities for medical treatment in the institution have continued to expand, though there
has been no additional building.
As we mentioned in the previous report, plans were prepared for the adaptation of
the present hospital toward establishing fuller operational facilities, in order to render the
prison medical service as comprehensive as possible and independent of outside hospital
assistance. To accomplish this requirement, an extension of the elevator shaft to the
tower of the present building was necessary. The expense of this alteration was found to
be unjustifiable, and, therefore, the scheme was relinquished. On the whole, it would
seem advisable that a new building be erected or another utilized as a prison hospital.   It P 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
is becoming increasingly apparent that with enlarging population and advancing medical
knowledge the present facilities are crudely primitive and insufficient. The expense of
admitting a patient to the Vancouver General Hospital is very considerable, and, as will
be seen from statistics, the annual expenditure of this nature has been heavy. With suitable equipment and accommodation, and part-time specialists, there should be a great
saving financially and at the same time fuller medical services.
There is one room with four beds for the more seriously ill patients and those
recovering from operations. This is equipped with hospital beds, but nursing is carried
out there under considerable difficulty owing to lack of hospital resources.
Even in the present hospital there should be much more equipment as regards
elementary nursing requirements, with bedpan flushers, more bath and toilet facilities,
and means of isolation.
Dietary
In the matter of invalid dietary, diabetic and ulcer diets have continued to be given
consideration. So far the issue of these diets has not been satisfactory, but we are obtaining the counselling of the Provincial dietician and the dietician of the Vancouver General
Hospital. The main hope is that for the less rigid dietaries there will be sufficient choice
from the "line meal." This leaves two major requirements unmet: that of the diabetic
diet, which entails most careful selection and preparation, and the highly restricted ulcer
diets, which contain little or nothing of the usual menu.
It is desirable to avoid the issue of special diets in the Main Gaol as far as possible.
The practice at present is to issue the diabetic diets in the Main Gaol, but to admit to
prison hospital any inmate who requires milk, eggs, jelly, toast and butter, such as ulcer
patients in their early stages of treatment.
X-ray Apparatus
Through the ready assistance of the Department of Health and Welfare, we have
obtained a Philco X-ray machine. One of the hospital staff has been instructed in the
use of this machine and in the development of the films, with the most kind assistance of
Dr. Jackson, radiologist at the Provincial Mental Hospital. Installation of the apparatus
has lessened demand on transportation and assisted in the speedy diagnosis of bone
injuries.
Opera ting-room
Very recently a new operating-table has been purchased to replace the wooden
kitchen table that was used previously.
The stock of surgical instruments has been augmented, and when adequate surgical
accommodation has been supplied there should now be sufficient equipment to fill most
major surgery needs, provided that anaesthetic apparatus is included, as the present
operating-room is unusable for operations requiring general anaesthesia, owing to lack of
special electrical wiring and fixtures. There is also the lack of suitable flooring, sterilizing
equipment, and a scrubroom.
Laboratory
During the year a laboratory has been set up, and we can now carry out basic investigations. One of the hospital staff is being instructed in his duties as laboratory technician.
The following is a list of the work which has been carried out in the laboratory: —
Urinalysis.
P.S.P. kidney function.
Gastric analysis.
C.S.F. chemical and microscopic examination.
Fasces—chemical and microscopic examination (no culture).
Routine microscopic bacteriology. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 23
Blood haematology—
Count—red, white, and differential.
Eosinophil count, platelet count.
Reticulocyte count.
Haemoglobin.
Red-cell morphology.
Hematocrit.
M.C.H., M.C.V., M.C.H.C, colour index.
Icterus index, serum bilirubin.
Sedimentation rate (both Westergren and Wintrobe).
Urea and urea nitrogen.
N.P.N.
Total proteins.
Albumin-globulin ratio.
Sugar tolerance.
Fasting sugar.
Non-fasting sugar.
Bleeding time, prothrombin time.
Coagulation time and clot retraction.
Basal metabolism.
Vital capacity.
The institution of this laboratory has greatly assisted in rapid diagnosis and has
relieved transportation difficulties to some extent.
Hospital Right Wing—Mental Observation
Regarding the Right Wing, there has been no alteration since the last report. It
remains as a mental observation wing, but its structure is such that it cannot be utilized
satisfactorily for this purpose. The need for an especially built observation tier was
stressed in the last annual report. It should contain an adequate number of cells, protective and sound-proof rooms, and a main association room with sufficient bathing
accommodation and other offices to assure that the inmates there would not have to leave
the tier for any purpose. There are no facilities in the prison hospital or elsewhere for the
long-term care of the more psychopathic inmates or safe segregation of those suicidal or
violent; it is feared we have made no progress in this regard.
Hospital Left Wing—Tubercular
Dr. Hakstian, the physician in charge of the Division of Tuberculosis Control in New
Westminster, acts as consultant for the tuberculosis patients in Oakalla. This has resulted
in closer co-operation between this department and Tuberculosis Control. Dr. Hakstian
visits frequently and gives most helpful advice.
Admissions to Tranquille have been arranged for an increasing number of tubercular
cases. There has been more rapid exchange of information in the case of Indians with
tuberculosis. With the co-operation of Dr. Barclay, of the Department of Indian Affairs,
full reports are sent from the Indian hospitals at Sardis and Nanaimo with little delay.
The present accommodation for tuberculosis patients remains entirely inadequate.
They need more beds, more nursing facilities, and more effective segregation than is
possible under present circumstances. It is very evident that with the increasing number
of active tuberculosis cases in Oakalla, the location of the tubercular wing is most unsuitable. They are, on the whole, marked behaviour problems, and a high proportion
of them have been drug-users. They become aggressive and demanding, and build up
a disturbing degree of tension.    Many have been given the opportunity of sanatorium P 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
treatment, but they misbehave there and have had to be sent back to Oakalla. The
remedy would be for the Tuberculosis Control to build a security unit in one of its
hospitals or else to build a small huttage unit on the Oakalla Prison estate.
As can be seen by the statistics, an increasing number of inmates are screened by
the chest X-ray, and this is an important service to the community in general. We are
greatly indebted to Miss Neen, the liaison worker, who gives much of her time and adds
considerably to the welfare of the tuberculosis patients both here and on their discharge.
Occupational therapy, in the form of leatherwork, has been less utilized than during the
previous year, largely owing to the scarcity of patients who are able to carry out work
of this sort. The education section of the Tuberculosis Control has visited us twice,
and the hospital staff has had one lecture and one film concerning the precautions required
in dealing with tubercular patients. Screening of the staff has continued, and some of
those working in the hospital were found to be negative to tuberculosis when tested and
have been given the necessary preventive vaccine. On the advice of the tuberculosis
authorities, surgical gowns for the staff visiting the wing have been ordered. It is hoped
that there will be a gradual and badly needed improvement in isolation technique.
Hospital Staff
We have been fortunate in retaining the services of the more-experienced members
of this staff, though there has been a considerable change among the younger ones.
It has been found difficult to maintain continuity of treatment owing to off-duty days
of treatment personnel and holidays; also out-patient treatment administered by them
takes them out of the hospital for inconveniently long periods during their shift of duty.
The increased number of drug addicts admitted during the year has meant frequent visits
by the hospital staff to the wings each day for the administration of withdrawal treatment,
which still continues to be non-narcotic and relatively free of habit-forming and untoward
effects. As suggested in last year's annual report, there should be a reception unit with
rooms especially equipped for the withdrawal treatment. The custom is now that addicts
on admittance may be found in the South and East Wings. The expansion of medical
services in the Gaol has outrun the staff in regard to the need of trained nursing members.
Gradually it is being found that more consultations and treatment can be given in the
prison hospital itself, owing to the willingness of certain specialists to visit. This clearly
requires more nursing skill and knowledge on the part of the prison staff working in the
hospital. There is a greater responsibility placed on them, with a wider variety of medical
treatment methods. Mistakes are more easily made, and it is greatly to the credit of
the hospital officers that no serious incident has occurred as yet, considering the frequent
change of staff and the employment of entirely inexperienced men. It is very apparent
that a course of instruction, fuller than the one given two years ago, should be made
available to the nursing staff. With this in view, we are planning such a course to be
given with the aid of our own more-experienced members and of a visiting qualified tutor.
The extension of medical treatment within the prison has also necessitated highly technical competence on the part of the officer in charge of the X-ray and laboratory. Added
demands are also made on the pharmacist. There are probably few positions among the
prison staff which entail so heavy a responsibility for human life and highly delicate
apparatus.
It is pleasing to know that efforts are being made to include such appointments in
the list for receiving trade pay. It is apparent that some certificate or qualification will
be necessary in each case. It occurs to me that such a system as that in use in the
English prison service might be applicable. In that organization a certificate is required
as specialists in the medical branch similar to that demanded of equivalent status in the
armed forces. Adequate competence in the medical technicians and nursing field may
take many years to acquire, and we believe that it should be possible for these men and
women performing such duties in prison to be enabled to make a lifetime vocation of REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 25
them, obtaining promotions by virtue of their special training and general capacity. The
policy of placing an experienced medical orderly on the staff of the west wing and West
Gate has justified itself without any doubt; numbers on sick parade are maintained at
a minimum thereby. Sufficient facilities and trained reliefs are very necessary for these
men. At present, owing to lack of trained personnel, medical treatment prescribed loses
its continuity, and dangerous risks are run by inexperienced officers attempting to do
what should only be permitted to be carried out by a trained person. Also there is need
for a medical inspection and first-aid room in each unit. In West Gate the medical supplies become too accessible to both inmates and staff.
I would like to acknowledge with gratitude the loyal and enthusiastic services which
have been rendered by the hospital and out-patients' staff during the year. I am especially indebted to the officers who headed the medical units, such as the hospital itself,
pharmacy cum operating-room, and Tuberculosis Control unit cum dental and V.D.
section, the relief officers who have to be versatile enough to relieve the officers in charge
of each unit, the officer in the laboratory, and officer in charge of the out-patients' department, also the medical treatment officers in the hospital, who have worked conscientiously
in spite of such inadequate training and facilities.
Psychiatric Services
It is with deepest regret that we record the death of Dr. Ernest Campbell in August,
1954. For many years he had been a devoted counsellor and gave much of his service
without financial reward. Additional assistance which he so willingly rendered was that
of helping convicted inmates in need of psychiatric advice, counselling of relatives and
friends, and in the selection of subjects for electro-convulsive therapy, some of which
treatment he himself administered. Up to the present time there has been no authorized
remuneration for such service, with the result that we have had temporarily to discontinue
electro-convulsive therapy. It is hoped that soon some arrangement will be made to
resume this very necessary form of treatment. Discussions are now in progress as to
adequate standards of hospital equipment and nursing care which are necessary to satisfy
the requirements of a psychiatric unit in any establishment. The present policy, we understand, is to leave electro-convulsive therapy in abeyance until the prison hospital and its
equipment could meet the demands of a health authority in the manner of operative procedure of this sort. We have been pleased to welcome Dr. J. C. Thomas as Dr. Campbell's
successor. I have personally found much assistance in the relief from the duties of
psychiatric reports to the Courts. In the short time that Dr. Thomas has been employed
in the prison on a part-time basis, the number of psychiatric reports to the Courts has
risen considerably. He has also seen a number of inmates with a view to committal to
Provincial Mental Hospital.
This relief has enabled me to spend more time in the interviewing of convicted
inmates, although there is still only the barest minimum of activity of this sort. Increasing
experience with drugs acting specifically on certain areas of the central nervous system,
such as largactil, has diminished the intensity of agitation and violence among certain
disturbed inmates. The increased use of segregation without punishment has assisted in
the general peace of the prison, although we are fully aware that the present facilities for
segregation are extremely out of date and unsuitable. We are also finding assistance from
the derivatives of the new drug rauwolfia. It is, of course, to be noted that such substitutes as largactil and rauwolfia products are non-narcotic and non-barbiturate.
The absence of specialized psychiatric services on a whole-time basis has rendered
the psychiatric contribution to the classification of inmates negligible. This is a highly
important function, and it is hoped that as the field of correction in British Columbia
expands, there will be ample provision of psychiatric services.
There is also a pressing need for adding to the staff, in the shape of psychiatric social
workers and, as mentioned below, another psychologist. Through sheer lack of resources, P 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
cases coming before the Classification Board often have insufficient observation, preparation, and presentation. The services of the psychologist have been largely expended on
the staff; this is highly important, but the assessment of the inmates also requires more
attention. Mr. McAllister has given unstintingly of his time and skill, but he urgently
needs a colleague; not only by this assistance would he be enabled to offer more extensive
supervision, but he could utilize his clinical acumen as therapeutic assistant.
We are highly indebted to the authorities at the Provincial Mental Hospital and the
Crease Clinic, especially Dr. W. P. Fister, the neurologist, for continued co-operation in
the taking of encephalograph recordings of any inmates we submit for this investigation.
We have a regular appointment every Monday, and the number taken to the Crease Clinic
for this procedure can be observed in the statistics.
Narcotic Research
We have been pleased to have had the narcotic research team working with us for
another year. Most pleasant associations have been maintained, and the physician to
Oakalla Prison Farm has been invited to join the University Advisory Committee on
Narcotic Research. We are most grateful to Dr. Stevenson for his advice on certain of
our narcotic problems, and also to the consulting internist of the research team, Dr. Stans-
field, for his readiness to give us his expert opinion, when we have requested it, on selected
inmates, and, indeed, he has also examined some non-narcotic patients when we have
sought his advice. We are indebted to him for the basal metabolism reading machine,
which is another helpful feature for physiological investigations. We have, during the
year, maintained our routine withdrawal schedule for addict inmates on admission with
the sodium luminal prescription, but we have also experimented with withdrawal on
largactil, a non-barbiturate, non-sedative drug, and serpina, a product of the rauwolfia
leaf. So far the largactil treatment gives promise of being more satisfactory than any
other, but, of course, more expensive. A short article is being contributed by the Prison
Medical Officer to the " British Journal of Delinquency " on the subject of narcotic addicts
in gaol. Dr. Stevenson has contributed the major contribution to the same journal on
this subject.
The necessity for a small unit for addicts withdrawing from their habit is increasingly
evident. At present they are spread throughout the wings, and adequate observation is
not possible.   On the other hand, it is not a suitable group to have in hospital as routine.
The number of addicts on withdrawal can be seen from a section in the statistics.
I think it is fair to claim that the amount of narcotics brought into the Gaol illicitly has
greatly diminished, and we have covering authority to make complete physical examination of inmates on reception.
Plastic Surgery
We have once more to acknowledge with much gratitude the honorary services of
Dr. Edward Lewison. He has continued to perform rhinoplasty on inmates with nasal
deformities, and also submucous resections. There has been no possibility of assessing,
as yet, the assistance that this practice may offer toward rehabilitation, but we can observe,
within this environment, the aid to the inmate's morale. As can be seen from the statistics, Dr. Lewison has conducted a large number of operations throughout the year to
both the women and the men.   He has been ably assisted by his colleague, Dr. Leeson.
Optometrist
We are also indebted to the optometrist, Dr. Milne. Dr. Milne has visited the Gaol
in the place of the former optometrist, Mr. Roy Scott. This service has been of great
assistance in supplying inmates of the Main Gaol with glasses at their own expense, and
certainly at most reasonable cost.   This has saved transport to Vancouver of these cases. REPORT
OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,
1954-55
P 27
Needy inmates of the Young
at public expense.
Offenders' Unit and New Haven are
V.D. Clinic
suppli
ed with
glasses
This valuable service has been continued by the Provincial Health Department.
Difficulty was experienced in presenting classification procedure. This difficulty was
brought to the attention of the Provincial health authorities, who, without any hesitation,
offered further clinics to meet this problem. The result has been that they are now held
on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays,
Dentist
Dr. Gilroy has continued to give highly skilled and comprehensive service to inmates
on one and one-half days a week. The number that it is possible to treat on this basis
is entirely inadequate, and waiting-lists become longer and longer. Again it is most
strongly recommended that additional arrangements be made for dental services, either
on a part-time or whole-time basis. It is hoped that in time some means will be found
to supply needy inmates with dentures at public expense.
West Wing
This wing has continued to be the classification unit. The procedure for classification has been dealt with elsewhere in this report. It has been found that the staff in this
wing have shown a ready aptitude in the way of help to assess the needs of the inmates
awaiting classification, and also those of the more-disturbed group who are sometimes
retained in the West Wing, as being unemployable elsewhere. This again points out the
value of a special unit for those who are in need of a somewhat protective environment,
yet who are not suitable for retention in prison hospital over a long period.
Increasing use of the segregation cells in this wing for the purpose of withdrawal
of the inmate from general circulation and for closer observation has proved of value,
but an adequately equipped tier is necessary. It is hoped that there will be some addition
to this wing, in the shape of a room or rooms for interviewing and a room for medical
examination of inmates.
The segregation cells are not in line with modern institutions in this aspect. The
present cells have no adequate ventilation, and no plumbing, and also insufficient means
for observation.    They are also not sound-proof.
South Wing
Mention is made once more of the unsuitability of the condemned cells. It is again
understood that plans for alterations are under consideration.
East Wing
My observations concerning this wing in a previous medical report remain pertinent. There is no evidence that any progress has been made concerning the rehabilitation of the drug addicts in this wing, and there is still difficulty of having in the same
wing all degrees of drug-users, from those who have barely left the " joy pop " stage to
the habitual user over many years, although attempts are made to minimize the association.
From the medical aspect, this wing shows a larger number of inmates reporting
sick to the Medical Department than any other wing. There is much greater difficulty
getting inmates to work, and the excuse is often the complaint of sickness, which is
usually trivial.
This is the only wing which at present has no officer specifically assigned medical
orderly duties, and, therefore, the medical organization is inevitably haphazard in this P 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
unit. It has been found that in other units which have an officer with some training in
medical work, specially appointed to supervise the medical care in his unit, that the
results have proven without doubt the value of such procedure. It is hoped that the
executive will see fit, as soon as possible, to attempt to bring the standard of medical
care in this wing closer to the level of that afforded to the others, although the gross
problems in this are fully appreciated.
Bathroom and Admitting Accommodation
This area has caused much concern medically. With the co-operation of Dr. George
Elliot and Dr. E. Wylde, Mr. W. A. Mallett, the sanitarian for New Westminster, has
accompanied me on monthly hygiene inspections, and the urgent need for alteration or
reconstruction of this department was recommended by the sanitarian in his reports.
The ventilation is entirely inadequate; the disinfector is inefficient and requires replacement by an up-to-date apparatus. An added problem has been the persistent passage
through the admitting section of verminous inmates on transfer from the city gaol. This
was reported to the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm, who discussed the matter with the
Chief Constable of Vancouver, Mr. Walter Mulligan. Clothing is sprayed with DDT,
as are also the infected individuals. Insufficient space for the storage of clothing adds
to the difficulty of ensuring clean and tidy procedures.
Dietary and Kitchen
The new kitchen is proving very satisfactory. The food, in quality and preparation,
is excellent, and is up to the highest standard of institutional cooking. There has been
little complaint over the new apparatus which has been installed, although difficulty has
been experienced in regard to the washing-up machine, partly because it is a little small
for the work involved. There has also been a suggestion that the ventilation could have
a larger vent.
Dairy
The new dairy has met with approval by the health authority, and samples of milk
are frequently tested.   Pasteurization technique is efficient.
West Gate
This unit is proving a valuable asset to the commencement of rehabilitation training
in Oakalla, and it is very satisfactory to observe the programme there and the keenness
of the staff. The vocational facilities approximate those of a fully established training
centre.   It is clear that this unit could be a forerunner of the Haney Vocational Institute.
Structurally it is an unsatisfactory building; the layout renders adequate ventilation
most difficult to achieve. Some improvements have been made, such as raising the skylights so that there is a gap for air to enter and by making openings in the outside wall of
each unit in order to facilitate cross-ventilation. This, however, is not sufficient, and it is
felt that some of the large number of sore throats and colds could be avoided under more
adequate ventilation.
There is a pressing need for a first-aid room, which could also contain the medication
cupboard and also an examination couch. The food-containers recently purchased serve
the food appetizingly and warmly.
The medical supervision has been in charge of an experienced male nurse, but owing
to an absence of a medically trained relief and the forty-hour-week schedule, medical care
is difficult to maintain at a satisfactory level. When the exigencies of medical duties allow,
I make a routine and periodic examination of each inmate at West Gate. The establishment of a unit for those fit for light work and for those unemployable has greatly relieved REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,   1954-55 P 29
pressure of accommodation in the West Wing.   Since writing the above, the male nurse
has resigned on appointment to the penitentiary service.
Following the destruction of the Nissen hut by fire on February lst, 1954, the
Doukhobor women were removed to West Gate, and two units were occupied by them.
This has proved a workable arrangement, and, owing to careful supervision and an
embargo on oils and other inflammable material, there have been no further incidents of
incendiarism.
The women have refused to allow their food to be prepared in the main kitchen and
have been content with what little heating of food that can be carried out in their present
units. The women Doukhobor inmates are slowly decreasing in number owing to a succession of releases. This group of inmates has been a most interesting group to study and
was the subject of two lectures I have given—one to the Psychiatric Section of the British
Columbia Medical Association and one at the Staff Seminar at the Crease Clinic. On the
whole, during this year, the Doukhobor women have shown good behaviour, although
they have steadfastly refused to go to work. There has been only an occasional incident
of clothes-burning. A full statement concerning the Doukhobors was submitted in the
last annual report.
Young Offenders' Unit
The general health of the inmates of this Unit has been very satisfactory. Classification has tended to send the younger boys there, and this number has included those
transferred from the Boys' Industrial School. On the whole there has been little change
of the nature of personality problems encountered there, although there has been a
tendency to transfer the more-disturbed young offenders to the Main Gaol for reclassification. The amount of psychiatric counselling to this Unit has been very limited owing to
pressure of demands elsewhere, but I have commenced to spend half a day in this Unit
for therapeutic interviews and also close medical attention is maintained by four morning
visits a week.
The major medical comment concerning the hygiene of this Unit is that with regard
to kitchen sanitation. I have paid frequent visits to the kitchen and have found it sometimes in a poor state of hygiene, mainly shown by untidiness, unclean equipment, drawers,
and cupboards, and food lying around uncovered. There has been some improvement,
but close supervision is essential, especially during the afternoon period; there should be
an ample supply of clean white clothing for the boys working there. The dietary, clothing,
bedding, ventilation, and heating have been satisfactory.
This Unit continues to offer facilities for treatment of the young offender which
combine a fair proportion of the necessary techniques. It would be helpful if more
stenographic services could be provided for the adequate recording of case notes and
histories.
Haney Camp
This camp was commenced in September, 1953, as a project for the purpose of
clearance in connection with the construction of the new correctional institute at Haney.
It has also proved a valuable pre-release resource in that the additional amount of money
earned there by the inmates has assisted them on their discharge. Also their physical
health has, in most cases, shown the beneficial results of camp life.
Many difficulties had to be overcome. The staff were inexperienced in camp administration, except that later on in the year an officer was placed in charge who had previously superintended the forestry camps which the Attorney-General's Department had
instituted for selected inmates.
Unfortunately there was an outbreak of Salmonella infection, which throughout the
year affected a number of inmates and staff. We are most grateful to the Medical Officer
in charge of public health of that area, Dr. Larsen, and to our consultants in the Provincial
Health Department, Dr. George Elliot and Dr. John Nelson, for their unflagging interest P 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and co-operation and active assistance. We would also like to thank the Director of the
Provincial Health Laboratory, Dr. C E. Dolman, and his staff, for their work in carrying
out a large number of investigations. Dr. Larsen, the Director of the Mission Health
Unit, and his sanitarian have frequently visited the camp and made most helpful
recommendations.
It was necessary to make a large number of improvements concerning the camp
equipment and routine in regard to the needs of hygiene. Basic education was required
in the fundamental necessities for camp sanitation. The Warden of Oakalla Prison
Farm conscientiously gave his full attention to the adjustments. The latrines, sources of
drinking-water, fly infestations, and food storage, kitchen, and dining-room facilities were
all reported upon and remedied as far as was possible. Also hot-water supplies, showers,
and refrigeration were established to the fullest possible extent. Active treatment of those
infected with Salmonella was carried out, and it is hoped that the situation has been
brought under control. However, it is the opinion of the authorities of the Health Department that for many reasons, including overcrowding, the present site and equipment is
unsuitable, and it is understood that new sites will be chosen.
Women's Gaol
The general health of the majority of the inmates of this unit has been satisfactory,
and those who have been in poor health on admission have rapidly improved. It is with
pleasure that we observed the high standard of care which is afforded to the women
inmates of Oakalla. The dietary is excellent, and any special diets which are prescribed
are conscientiously prepared and administered. From the medical aspect, as far as
service of the staff to the individual is concerned, this is of high standard. There are
certain features which render medical services difficult to offer efficiently. One of these
factors is the lack of sufficient number of registered nurses on the staff; another is the
tendency to transfer matrons from clinical work to duties with another group. It is considered that there should be one highly experienced registered nurse in charge of the
Nursing Department, with registered nurses under her supervision permanently employed
on the medical side, and enough of them to staff each shift. It would be helpful if the
senior nursing matron were qualified in up-to-date operating-room procedure in order
that she could both instruct the medical staff (men and women) and assume nursing
responsibilities for the operations carried out in the Men's and Women's Gaols in general
nursing matters.
Dr. Lewison has continued to perform his plastic surgery in the Women's Gaol as
well as in the Men's Gaol. It is felt that the women are even more appreciative of this
form of surgical rehabilitation than the men. Admission procedure in the women's
building is well organized, and the technique on examination of female drug addicts on
committal reduces to an absolute minimum the likelihood of narcotic drugs entering the
building. It is interesting to observe that the women drug addicts in Oakalla appear to
require less sedative medication for withdrawal than the men. This would seem to be
largely due to the intensity of nursing care which they are able to obtain. The presence
of a matron constantly in their room during withdrawal is of great assistance. It may
also be due to the fact that women give the impression of being able to suffer as much
with less complaint.
There is need of a separate unit for female inmates on admission and on withdrawal
from narcotics. There is also the need of a small hospital section. At present there are
no rooms specifically designed for hospital patients, and there is a necessity for isolation
for actively tubercular patients. We lack, in addition, protective rooms for mental
observations.
It is our opinion that there should be made possible similar facilities for the sentencing of young female offenders as now exist for young male offenders.   It would be REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 31
advantageous, it is thought, if the definite and indefinite sentences were legal for the young
female delinquents aged 16 to 23 years.
It is apparent, owing to the smaller number of inmates in the women's building,
that the techniques and the more immediate results of the more recent rehabilitative
measures can be observed. It appears to us, from the medical view-point, that a great
deal is being achieved in the women's unit, and it is hoped that the effect will soon be
evident within the general community.
There are, no doubt, many more resources desired, one of which would be the
appointment of a social worker as such. Also it is hoped that there will be made possible a wide extension of after-care and supervision, and also expanded services to the
women and girls by the Probation Branch.
Huts
The outstanding addition to the women's quarters has been the construction of huts
which are built to contain ten inmates. These annexes also include a schoolroom and
hobby-room. The huts offer a homelike environment and group participation, domestic
training with good standards of hygiene and living conditions, together with very satisfactory means of supervision. Except for the small proportion of inmates who require
maximum security, this is becoming an established plan throughout all correctional
organizations.
Summary
In summary, it is submitted that during the year covered by this report certain
progress has been made, but in the matter of trained medical staffing, clinical and other
accommodation, operative and general nursing treatment, treatment of tubercular inmates, resources for mental observation, and care of disturbed inmates, and in accommodation and training of adolescent girls, we remain far below standards required in
the modern conception of correctional institutions.
Services rendered by the staff and facilities of the Vancouver General Hospital have
been of inestimable value and have been most willingly offered. For these we are indeed
greatly indebted.
To you, Sir, and your superiors, and to the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm, we
are grateful for the means whereby medical care of inmates has shown hope and promise
of extension and evolution. P 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Breakdown of Admissions to Prison Hospital
Diagnosis
Number
of
Patients
Days in
Hospital
Days per
Patient
Diagnosis
Number
of
Patients
Days in
Hospital
Days per
Patient
Abscesses	
2
1
4
3
4
2
65
16
1
4
1
10
9
4
9
1
1
6
4
7
6
1
20
1
1
27
2
18
47
43
21
71
7
3,617
420
6
11
14
76
62
16
141
11
8
62
14
35
84
13
202
8
3
137
7
9.00
47.00
10.75
7.00
17.75
3.50
55.63
26.25
6.00
2.75
14.00
7.60
6.88
4.00
15.66
11.00
8.00
10.33
3.50
5.00
14.00
13.00
10.10
8.00
3.00
5.07
3.50
Infections—Continued
Boils       _	
3
1
6
2
9
26
19
16
3
42
67
7
24
61
8
3
3
8
1
34
4
3
26
2
7
9
10
9
8
27
7
81
284
97
166
17
169
336
181
216
429
37
176
22
112
41
276
35
16
364
20
100
54
3.00
Chest conditions—
Asthma_— 	
Carbuncles- 	
Tonsil itis __ 	
Injuries—
8.00
4.50
3.50
9.00
Lower limbs _ 	
Upper limbs 	
Muscles, ligaments, and
joints—
Arthritis 	
Lumbaao  	
10.92
Cripples and amputees.
Dental conditions—
5.10
9.75
Epidermis—
5.66
4.02
5.014
Diabetes __	
Neurosis  	
25.66
8.10
7.03
Post-narcotic	
Protection _.	
Surgical—■
Cystitis  	
Circumcision	
Prostatectomy  _
Rhino-plasty  _	
Submucous resection
Tonsillectomy^	
Senility  _	
Stomach disorders—
Dyspepsia— 	
Ulcers 	
4.72
58.66
Gastro-intestinal—
Acute abdominal pain____
Diarrhcea 	
Jaundice- _	
Haemorrhoids _	
Heart ailments—
Acute Endocarditis _
Valvular disease 	
Acute myocarditis 	
Tachycardia.. __	
7.99
14.00
41.00
8.11
8.75
5.99
18.20
10.00
14.29
6.00
Infections—
Inmates admitted to Provincial Mental Hospital
...
Oakalla Prison Farm Medical Recapitulation
Venereal Disease Control
Male immediate examination  4,466
Female immediate examination       948
	
Total   5,414
Number of new infections—
Male Female
Syphilis      6 2
Gonorrhoea     10 19
Totals    16 21
Number treated on epidermological grounds   15
Number treated, non-specific urethritis     5
Inmate Hospitalization
Inmates admitted to Vancouver General Hospital—
Total patients   59
Total days in hospital  1,108
Average days per inmate   18.61
Total cost of hospitalization  $3,359.20
Average cost per patient  $569.35
Average cost per day  $16.15 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 33
Women's Gaol
Inmates examined by Dr. Richmond	
Inmates treated for drug addiction	
Inmates treated for alcoholism	
Out-patient trips to Vancouver General Hospital-
Tuberculosis clinic	
Orthopaedic 	
Maternity 	
Surgery 	
Dermatology 	
Emergency
Eye, ear, nose, and throat ___ _ 	
Gynaecology 	
Neurosurgery 	
Cancer clinic	
Venereal disease clinic	
Dentist 	
Transferred to Pearson Tuberculosis Hospital
To optometrist  _
Glasses supplied	
To dentist—
Extractions 	
Fillings 	
Dentures 	
Interviewed by Dr. Campbell	
Interviewed by Dr. Thomas
Transferred to Provincial Mental Hospital
Returned from probation	
539
173
185
48
28
6
8
3
6
9
50
1
5
59
1
3
3
3
235
2
7
4
2
3
3
Tuberculosis
Male
Male,
Indian
Female
Female,
Indian
Total
Active „   , 	
Suspect   	
Arrested _ —   . 	
i          i
32        |          9        |          7
7        |          2                    1
18         |           4         |           6
3
2
2
51
12
30
57          1          IS          1          14
7
93
Institution hospital
65
Institution wing (suspect and arrested) _'___ 37
Admitted to Tranquille Tuberculosis Hospital    6
Admitted to Willow Chest Clinic and Pearson Hospital  4
Total days in hospital  783
To Willow Chest Clinic for investigation and large X-ray plates 110
Note.—Hospital officers are X-rayed once yearly as routine test. P 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Dental Clinic Report
Number of patients seen  693
Number of extractions  956
Examinations   60
Amalgam fillings  101
Enamel fillings   4
Cement fillings   27
Pulp caps   1
Jacket crowns   1
Gold fillings     1
Gold inlay .,  1
Impressions   36
Fit dentures  23
Insert dentures   23
Reline dentures   11
Repair dentures  20
Trim dentures   20
Prophylaxis   11
Treatment   43
Remove sutures _  23
X-ray   2
Surgery    2
Cement cap  3
Cement facing  1
Plastic filling   4
Porcelain filling  4
Plastic inlay   1
Officers' Sick-leave
Male Staff-
Officers absent, sick  284
Total days' sick-leave  1,204
Average days absent, per man  4.25
Percentage of staff reporting sick  86.60
Female staff—
Matrons absent, sick  27
Total days' sick-leave  304
Average days absent  11.26
Respectfully submitted.
R. G. E. Richmond, M.D.,
Medical Officer. r
REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 35
PSYCHOLOGIST'S REPORT
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—-Herewith is the report of the Provincial Gaol Service Psychologist for the fiscal
year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
Tests Administered at Oakalla Prison Farm to Male Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  16
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  29
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (elementary
school)   58
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form B (elementary
school)   10
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (high school) 5
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  17
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory (full scale)  5
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory (pd. scale)  23
Kuder Preference Record (C.H.)  4
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (intermediate)  35
Bennett Hand-tool Dexterity  1
Reading Examination  1
Tests Administered at Oakalla Prison Farm to Female Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  3
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  4
Draw-a-Person Personality Test  1
Kuder Preference Record (C.H.)  ... 1
Tests Administered at New Haven to Inmates
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I	
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II	
Mental Health Analysis (adult)	
Mental Health Analysis (secondary)_
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory (intermediate)-
37
15
62
1
63
Tests A dministered at Oakalla Prison Farm to Staff
Guards—
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I       28
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II      69
Otis Employment Test (1a)  33
Otis Employment Test (Ib)  53
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory  32
Purdue Pegboard     1
Crawford Dexterity      1
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form A  62
Attitude toward the Treatment of Criminals, Form B     2
Kuder Preference Record (C.H.)  61 P 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Guard applicants—
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  2
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  3
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A (elementary school)   2
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability, Form A  (high
school)   1
Otis Employment Test (Ib)  1
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory (L. Scale)— 1
Kuder Preference Record (C.H.)  2
Matrons—■
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I  11
Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale II  17
Otis Employment Test (1a)  19
Otis Employment Test (Ib)  23
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory  4
Attitude to Treatment of Criminals, Form A  23
Attitude to Treatment of Criminals, Form B  1
Kuder Preference Record (C.H.)  16
Matron applicants—Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale I _____ 1
Stenographer applicants—
Otis Employment Test (Ib)      4
Shipley-Hartford Retreat Scale  4
The work of the Psychologist over the past year has become concentrated in three
main areas: (a) Individual and group testing of inmates; (b) individual and group
testing of prison personnel; and (c) participation on the Classification Committee.
The past year has seen an improvement in the office accommodation for the Psychologist, and this has resulted in several benefits: (1) More favourable conditions under
which to administer tests and to conduct interviews, and (2) some expansion of the
individual testing programme, especially of prison personnel.
With reference to personnel, some observations can now be made on the results of
group tests administered to them. It is noted, for example, that on the Otis Employment
Test the majority of those tested obtained scores in the upper one-third of the test range.
When the test scores of those persons who had left the employ of the Gaol were
inspected, it became apparent that the same general results held true for them, too.
Therefore, it would appear, on the basis of inspection alone, that it is not because of a
lack of mental ability that most personnel have been leaving the Gaol service, and that,
in fact, this may be considered a minor causative factor (a graphic illustration of the
test results is shown in Fig. 1). It would seem, too, that a fairly high standard of mental
ability is being maintained in the prison staff; that is, most of the staff might be classed
as high average or above average in so far as mental capacity as measured by this type of
test is concerned.
It is hoped that time will be available in the coming year for a more rigorous and
comprehensive appraisal of the statistical data which have now been accumulated both
on prison personnel and inmates. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 37
3
C
V
U
(J.
52
50
48
46
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Scores
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Fig. 1. Comparison of test results of Otis Employment Tests (I) administered between March, 1953,
and March, 1955, to 141 Oakalla male personnel who remained on staff during this period (diagonal lines)
and 126 Oakalla male personnel who left the Gaol service during the same period (cross-diagonal lines).
Respectfully submitted.
R. V. McAllister,
Gaol Psychologist. P 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF PROTESTANT CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Protestant Chaplain,
Provincial Gaol Service, for the year ended March 31st, 1955.
The word " grace " is one of the strong words of the New Testament, and basic in
the Christian's faith. It denotes more than a " kindly " attitude of God to man, and is
used to describe God's redeeming and transforming power which can be released in man's
life.
How this power is released in man's life is of utmost importance. The prison
chaplain is primarily concerned that his programme should function in such a way as to
help prepare the inmate for the release of this divine, redeeming, and transforming power.
A threefold programme of public worship, study, and counsel is therefore planned
to this end. It is true, of course, that many inmates will not accept it. It is equally true
that many citizens of the community will not accept it. Yet the programme of the church
continues.
So the programme of the prison chaplain continues much as in previous years, with
its sole objective being the spiritual welfare of the prisoner, admitting that the crime
problem in the world to-day is yet a spiritual problem.
" The art of self-discipline which makes it possible for a man to live without
offending himself, his family, and his community is the product of both a gratitude for a
fife given by the Creator and a dedication to those tenets for which the Creator stands.
Consequently, religion is life, and nothing can separate the two. But the offender,
consciously or unconsciously, endeavours to do just that . . . separate religion from
life." Since this is the case, this threefold spiritual programme is geared to the attempt
to relate religion to life, always and under all circumstances. Public worship must be
related to the inmate's problems—his spiritual need must be made apparent to him in a
practical fashion.
Discussion groups and study groups must be approached with this need in the mind
of the leader, and all counsel must have this spiritual overtone if it is to be truly effective.
1. Public Worship
Services of worship are held regularly each Sunday and in all institutions in the
Greater Vancouver area.
The Chaplain conducts a service at 9 a.m. at New Haven which is attended by all
Protestant inmates. At 1.15 p.m. a service is held at Oakalla Prison Farm of a voluntary
nature, which has an average attendance of 300 inmates. At 2.15 p.m. services are held
at the Young Offenders' Unit and at the Women's Gaol. The attendances at the Young
Offenders' Unit have shown a marked increase. This is due, it is felt, to an increased use
of the services of the various church groups which conduct the service at Oakalla Prison
Farm.
On December 12th, 1954, Bishop Godfrey P. Gower, Bishop of the Diocese of New
Westminster, dedicated an altar built by the inmates of the Young Offenders' Unit. The
service, which was attended by the Inspector of Gaols, Warden Hugh Christie, and staff
and inmates of the Young Offenders' Unit, was most impressive, and its impact on the
inmates was markedly evident.
The policy of inviting co-operation from the major Protestant denominations was
continued again this year. Clergymen and choirs of various churches led in the services
of worship and contributed greatly to the effectiveness of these services. The attitude
and behaviour of the inmates reflect the high calibre and careful planning of the services
by the visiting groups. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 39
Monthly services are conducted by the Salvation Army, the Anglican Church, the
United Church, and the Union Gospel Mission. When there is a fifth Sunday, the Baptist and Presbyterian Churches alternate. During the year twenty-eight churches were
represented by their ministers and choirs.
Appropriate services were held on the major Christian festivals, with holy communion administered to eight inmates on Christmas Day and five on Easter Day. There was
one confirmation during the year. At New Haven and at Oakalla Prison Farm the Chaplain conducted services on Remembrance Day. At Oakalla Prison Farm 231 inmates
were present, among whom were many veterans.
Bibles and New Testaments are available to those who request them. There is no
attempt made toward a general distribution, although if a grant were made for such
distribution, it might effectively be used in the initial interview at New Haven, Women's
Gaol, and the Young Offenders' Unit.
There is a small library of books for guided reading along religious lines available
in the Chaplain's office, and many of these books are in constant circulation.
Religious periodicals, mostly second hand, are placed in the chapel for distribution
and appear to be widely read.
The Sunday evening " hymn-sing " at Oakalla Prison Farm, conducted by Mr. J. B.
Taylor, of the Y.M.C.A., was held monthly from October to April. Several additional
" hymn-sings " were held also in response to many requests. Inmates choose the hymns
they wish to sing, there is one visiting soloist, and the leader gives a five-minute inspirational talk. The constant high attendance at these gatherings is an indication of the
sustained interest in such a programme.
On July 4th the Salvation Army Citadel Band conducted an open-air service in the
Oakalla ball park. This was attended by inmates of the Women's Gaol, the Young
Offenders' Unit, and Oakalla. It was estimated that over 90 per cent of the inmate
population were in attendance, and the programme appeared to be greatly appreciated.
2. The Study Programme
Voluntary and informal groups meet regularly with the Chaplain both at the Young
Offenders' Unit and New Haven. Ten to fifteen inmates are in attendance, and the
group discussions are based on Bible study and questions concerning religion which are
suggested by the inmates themselves.
The use of visual-aid films has been continued again this year through the co-operation of the British and Foreign Bible Society branch in Vancouver. Once each week a
religious film is screened at the Young Offenders' Unit and New Haven. Following the
film there is normally a discussion period which stresses positive Christian training. It
has been evident that such films have helped inmates to remember the facts, increased
the taste for the reading of the Bible, and appealed in a healthy way to the emotions.
There were seventy-two separate film-showings during the fall and winter months, all
of which were followed by discussion. Reasoning with inmates, not preaching at them,
is not only what they want, but what they need, in public and in private, as groups and
as individuals.
Alcoholics Anonymous
Authorities are agreed as to the merits of this organization in rehabilitating the
alcoholics. A significant impact upon inmate personality problems is derived from the
A.A. group, particularly because outside citizens are showing an interest by their visit,
and frequently by holding out a helping hand to the inmate upon discharge. Meetings
are held once each week on Tuesday evenings.
3. Counselling
At the Women's Gaol, the Young Offenders' Unit, and New Haven the Chaplain,
wherever possible, interviews the new inmate as part of the admission procedure.   Fre- P 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
quently this affords an opportunity to establish a personal relationship with the inmate,
which may develop into a situation where some intensive counselling is possible. This
can, of course, be undertaken in only a very few cases. Normally about twelve inmates
per week are dealt with in an intensive fashion.
Requests for interviews come in large numbers and deal with a variety of problems.
The willingness of the Probation Branch to undertake some of the outside contacts has
relieved the Chaplain to some extent. The daily record indicates that 1,792 interviews
were granted at Oakalla, 173 at the Women's Gaol, 168 at the Young Offenders' Unit,
and 239 at New Haven.
4. Public Relations
In a period when there is an aroused interest in penal reform, the Chaplain is able
to act in an interpretative role to a certain section of the community. Requests are
frequently received from churches, service clubs, and various small groups, and during
the past year thirteen addresses were given on the function of the Chaplain in the correctional process. An interview conducted over radio station CKWX on a United Church
programme gave additional publicity to the Chaplain's work.
Conclusion
The response of inmates to the work of the Chaplain and the increasing use of the
Chaplain's services by relatives of inmates, other clergy, and the public in general suggest
an extension of this phase of the programme as soon as possible.
I would again stress the potential value of theological students being employed on a
part-time basis. Not only could the discussion-group type of programme be enlarged to
include other groups of inmates, but the experience gained therefrom would be of great
practical value to the student ministers in their training.
The amount of money involved would not be large, and the results of such a
programme would amply justify the additional expenditure.
The co-operation and support of the Salvation Army, the John Howard Society, the
Elizabeth try Society, and the Vancouver Council of Churches are once again gratefully
acknowledged.
The Vancouver branch of the British and Foreign Bible Society merits special thanks
for grants of Bibles and New Testaments, as does also the Gideons Society of Canada.
The co-operation and support of directors and staffs of the various units have been
most, generous. Warden Hugh Christie has offered many valuable suggestions from his
wide experience, which have proved most helpful.
In acknowledging my indebtedness to my fellow-workers and those in positions of
authority, I would especially acknowledge the guidance and encouragement which you,
Sir, as Inspector of Gaols, have so generously given to me once again during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. D. Grant Hollingworth,
Protestant Chaplain. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 41
REPORT OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPLAIN
E.G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is submitted the report of the Roman Catholic Chaplain for the
period September 30th, 1954, to March lst, 1955.
Four hundred and sixty-nine notification slips were received specifying that inmates
were of the Catholic faith.
One hundred and ninty-four inmates stated that they would like to be interviewed
as soon as possible.
One hundred and seventy inmates did not wish to be interviewed (but were, nevertheless).
One hundred and five Catholic inmates requested special interviews.
Eighteen Protestant inmates requested special interviews.
Twenty-six inmates (no religion) requested special interviews.
Catholic Inmates' Reasons for Wanting to Be Interviewed
1. Return to the sacraments (confession and holy communion).
2. Solution to domestic problems.
3. Solution to financial problems.
4. To seek compensation for work done (employer-employee relationships).
5. To obtain work.
6. To obtain room and board when released from Oakalla.
7. To cash cheques and money-orders.
8. To obtain legal assistance.
9. To obtain city welfare relief for families.
10. To obtain probation.
11. To buy tobacco, eye-glasses, tooth-paste, candy, etc.
12. To perform errands.
13. To visit sick wives, relatives, or girl friends in city hospitals.
14. To obtain clothes—shoes, suits, coats, hats, shirts, etc.
15. To obtain financial assistance to return to eastern parts of Canada.
Protestant Inmates' Reasons for Wanting to Be Interviewed
Besides the fourteen reasons (material assistance) stated above for the Catholic
inmates, the majority of the Protestant inmates wanted to take instructions in the Catholic
religion. Six of these eighteen inmates had the proper and valid attitude and dispositions
for conversion to the Church. The remaining twelve inmates wanted to become Catholics
because they were going to marry Catholic girls; this is not a sufficient or valid reason
for conversion to the Church. Hence they were advised not to take instructions, for the
present time, unless they were intellectually and rationally convinced that they should
join the Church.
(Note.—There exists a clear and perfect understanding between the Protestant
Chaplain and the Catholic Chaplain concerning non-Catholics who wish to become
Catholics.)
Catholic Inmates' Reasons for Not Wanting to Be Interviewed
1. Shame.
2. Could not speak English.
3. Indifference toward religion.
4. Fell away from the sacraments and the doctrines of the Church. P 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
5. Short-term sentences (thirty days, etc.).
6. Fear of revealing identity.
Young Offenders' Unit
The Catholic population of this particular unit is rather small. Very few have asked
for material assistance. When they are eligible for parole, they will ask if a position or
some kind of work might be attainable to assure them of parole.
In co-operation with the authorities at the Young Offenders' Unit, the Knights of
Columbus, with the assistance of the Catholic Chaplain, presented a two-hour variety
concert during the Christmas holidays.
A Christmas bingo was held during the holidays; bingo cards and prizes (cartons
of cigarettes and boxes of candy bars) were donated by the Catholic Chaplain.
In January another bingo was held for the members of the Young Offenders' Unit.
Bingo cards and prizes (cigarettes and candy bars) were again donated by the Catholic
Chaplain.
New Haven Borstal
The Catholic population at this institution is very small, and no requests were made
for material assistance. The authorities of this institution provide for the wants and
needs of their inmates in a magnificent manner.
The Catholic Chaplain gives instructions to the Catholic inmates every Friday
afternoon for one hour.
During the months of October, November, and December, 1954, Sunday services
were held once a month. As of January, 1955, permission was granted by the Archbishop
of Vancouver to say mass on Sundays at this institution. Consequently mass will be
celebrated and the sacraments will be administered weekly.
Haney Prison
The Catholic population of this institution is very small. As of January the Catholic
Chaplain has been visiting and instructing the Catholic inmates twice a month (usually
every other Monday evening from 7 to 9 o'clock). During personal interviews, requests
were asked for clothing, work, financial assistance, and room and board until work was
obtainable.
Women's Gaol at Oakalla
During the months of October, November, and December, 1954, interviews and
instructions were held every Monday evening for the Catholic population of this unit of
the Prison Farm. As of January, instructions are held on the second and fourth Mondays
of the month. Mass has been celebrated every Sunday, and the sacraments administered
as of September 26th, 1954.
On February 14th a bingo was held for the entire population of this institution.
The prizes (cigarettes and 1-pound boxes of candy) were donated by the Catholic
Chaplain.
Women inmates' reasons for wanting to be interviewed were (1) to write letters,
(2) to obtain legal assistance, and (3) domestic and family relief.
Summary
Religious Activities
1. The holy sacrifice of the mass is celebrated every Sunday for the Catholic
population of Oakalla. Non-Catholics are cordially welcomed to attend. Mass is
celebrated at 8.15 a.m.
2. Confessions (sacrament of penance) are heard at the convenience of the penitents and always before mass on Sundays. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 43
3. The epistles and the Sunday gospels are explained, and a sermon of Catholic
doctrines is delivered during the Sunday mass.
4. Distribution of religious articles (rosary beads, medals, crucifixes) to the inmates,
free of charge.
5. Two hundred and fifty copies of the New Testament have been distributed, free
of charge, to the Catholic inmates.
6. Six non-Catholics (with a perfect understanding between the Protestant Padre
and the Catholic Chaplain) were converted to the Catholic religion.
7. The Legion of Mary—a group of Catholic professional men—with the Catholic
Chaplain visit those inmates who wish to be interviewed and to learn their Catholic duties
more intelligently.
8. The Catholic Chaplain, with the approval of proper authorities, is taking care
of the spiritual welfare of three inmates in the death cell.
Women's Gaol
1. Mass is celebrated every Sunday at 9.30 a.m. for the Catholic population of this
institution.
2. Confessions are heard every Saturday afternoon and before mass on Sunday.
3. The same activities are carried on at the Women's Gaol as are listed for the
men above.
4. Legion of Mary meeting on every second Monday of the month.
New Haven Borstal
1. Every Friday afternoon, for one hour, the Catholic population at this institution
receive special instructions in the Catholic catechism and the teachings of the Church.
2. As of January lst, 1955, the Catholic Chaplain has received permission from the
Archbishop of Vancouver to trinate on Sundays. This means that the Chaplain can
celebrate three masses on Sunday. As of the first Sunday in January, mass has been said
at New Haven at 11 o'clock.
3. Copies of the Holy Bible, prayer books, and rosary beads have been distributed
to the boys at this institution.
Haney Gaol
1. The Catholic Chaplain visits this institution with members of the Legion of Mary
every two weeks. Arrangements are being made to have mass celebrated on Sundays
by the local Catholic clergy.
2. Literature and religious articles have been distributed freely to the Catholic men.
Material Assistance
1. Jobs and excellent positions have been obtained for twenty-seven men from
Oakalla.
2. Room and board was given for thirty-eight former inmates until jobs were
obtained for them.
3. Train fare was given to thirteen men to return to their home towns and to their
families.
4. Clothing in excellent condition was given to fifty-six former inmates.
5. Tobacco, candy bars, and tooth-paste were given to inmates who requested the
same.   This single item amounted to $326.
6. A dozen inmates (before their release) had their clothes dry-cleaned and pressed.
7. Games, with cigarettes, tobacco, and candy bars as prizes, at the discretion of the
proper authorities, are held for inmates of the Young Offenders' Unit.
8. Games, with the same prizes, were held for the women in the Women's Gaol. P 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
9. Candy bars and cigarettes are distributed to all the inmates at Haney (twice
a month) when the Chaplain and the Legion of Mary visit these men.
10. Legal assistance by Mr. Raymond Hughes was given to a dozen inmates.
Respectfully submitted.
Thomas M. McAvoy, S.P.M.,
Roman Catholic Chaplain.
REPORT ON IN-SERVICE TRAINING ACTIVITIES IN PROVINCIAL
INSTITUTIONS DURING THE YEAR 1954-55
E.G.B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C
Sir,—Staff training courses continued intermittently at Oakalla and New Haven
during the report period. The bulk of the training at Oakalla consisted of basic courses
for newly employed officers, but some instruction was made available to senior staff at
a more advanced level. The sessions at New Haven concentrated upon the use of human-
relations techniques by staff members in the treatment of young offenders. Training
activities in both institutions followed the general patterns described in previous reports.
The end of the report period saw the laying of plans for a reorganization of the
in-service training programme, and these plans were being implemented at the date of
this writing. The major element of the new approach is the establishment of a staff
training-school to operate directly under the authority of the Inspector of Gaols. This
school will largely replace the basic and advanced training courses which had previously
been provided on a decentralized basis within particular institutions or subdivisions
thereof. Each institution, however, will continue to offer certain specialized training
designed to orient new staff to specific duties and responsibilities. The staff training-
school will provide periodic training cycles for staff assigned to Oakalla, New Haven,
the gaols in the Interior of the Province, and the Probation Branch. The basic purpose
of the reorganization is to co-ordinate and centralize training programmes which serve
the different operating units, to achieve a more thorough and rounded training than has
been possible under the previous system, and to develop in staff a sense of membership
in the prison service as a whole. This development may be seen as a logical stage in the
growth of our correctional services, particularly in view of the need to recruit and prepare
a sizeable number of officers and other personnel for the new gaol near Haney. It is
hoped that the training-school may be a positive factor in the recruitment and retention
(as well as the development) of competent staff.
There has been continued co-operation between the personnel of the prison service
and the criminology division of the University, with a very gratifying exchange of teaching
and consultative services within the framework of the arrangement described in earlier
reports. This provision for interaction between theory and practice has proved valuable
to the University as well as the field.
Respectfully submitted.
E. K. Nelson,
Staff Training Officer. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 45
NELSON GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the annual report of the Nelson Provincial Gaol for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
Administration
During the past year the number of inmates received and handled at this institution
has been lower than in the last fiscal year due to more employment in the district.
Staff Changes
The only staff change during the year with the addition of Mr. K. A. Anderson to
the strength.
Population
The population at the Gaol at the beginning of the year was 30. There were 451
inmates received and 461 inmates discharged during the year, leaving a total of 20 inmates
in the Gaol at the beginning of the new fiscal year. The peak of the Gaol population was
43, with the lowest being 14. The daily average for the year was 40.16, as against 44.7
last year, a decrease of 4.54.
Welfare and Recreation
As in the past, the inmates not working on the outside gang are allowed the freedom
of the cell blocks during the day, and, when weather permits, one hour of exercise is
allowed in the exercise yards daily except Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. During
this exercise period the inmates may play quoits, which they seem to enjoy very much.
In the evenings the inmates are allowed to play ping-pong or listen to the radio between
the hours of 7 and 9 p.m., when the lights are turned off. As in the previous year, the
inmates are shown a picture show every Wednesday night at 7 o'clock. The library is
still stocked with some very good books.
Fire drill is being carried out weekly, as suggested by the local fire chief.
Religious Services
There have been no changes in the religious service programme during the last year.
The Salvation Army service is still held on Sunday mornings between the hours of 10
and 11 a.m.   Other denominations have their service during the balance of the day.
Medical Welfare
The general health of the inmates in the past year has been very good, with only
a few cases having to be hospitalized at the local hospital. One of these cases, Mr. Pong
Wing, passed away. According to Dr. F. M. Auld, the Gaol Surgeon, and also the
Coroner, this man passed away due to heart failure and old age. As in the past, all
inmates on entering the Gaol are X-rayed for tuberculosis.
Maintenance and Construction
During the past year a new tile floor has been laid in the Gaol kitchen.   This has
provided better sanitary and working conditions.    The Public Works Department has
installed a new fence between the Government parking-lot and Gaol garden, as the
previous fence was in very poor condition. P 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A buzzer and intercommunications system has been installed between the Gaol office
and the workshop in the Gaol yard, which is a great advantage to the office and the
outside guard.
Panelling work has been done in the Warden's quarters, with the bathroom, stairway, and hallway being done. The inside of the Gaol has been painted a light-green
colour by prison labour.   This has improved its appearance greatly.
I wish to mention that I am still awaiting the construction of a two-car garage next
to the Gaol, also some of the fences around the Gaol are in bad need of repairing as they
are likely to fall over at any time.
Farm Work
Prison labour in the Gaol garden produced vegetables to the estimated value of
$497.59, this being a decrease over the past years. This decrease was caused by blight
in some of the vegetables.
Discipline
Discipline in the Gaol during the past year has been very good, with only six
breaches of the Prison Regulations, which were only of a minor nature. On a few
occasions, warnings have been issued, which seem to have been very effective.
Summary
In closing, I would like to mention the co-operation and manner in which my Deputy
Warden and the guards under him have performed their duties during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
A. Tulloch,
Warden.
KAMLOOPS GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Kamloops Provincial
Gaol for the year ended March 31st, 1955.
Population
1953-54 1954-55
Received (male and female)     1,017 1,041
Transferred to Oakalla Prison Farm        131 85
Total number of days' stay  11,008 13,152
The above excerpts from the summary of annual statistics show an increase from
the previous year, in prisoners received and total number of days' stay, also a decrease
in transfers to Oakalla Prison Farm over the previous year. This was made possible
by the addition of the west cell block (Cap 17) (formerly the offices used by the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police, Kamloops City Detachment).
Maintenance and Construction
We completed several projects for the Department and also for the Department of
Public Works during the year, summarized as follows:—
1. The alterations and renovations proposed in 1953-54, covering the following
named portions of the Gaol, were completed: Main office, west cell block, main dormitory, east dormitory, Women's quarters, Gaol vestibule, and Warden's office.    The r
REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 47
extra accommodation and modernization of the aforementioned portions of the Gaol
raised the standard to a parity with other institutions of this type, taking into consideration the age and structure of the building. We still have the basement, excluding the
kitchen, to remodel and the exterior of the Gaol to paint.
2. We finished a works programme for the Department of Public Works (Provincial
Home central-heating project). This entailed a large crew, all manual labour. The
project was as follows: Excavating and back-filling the ditch from the Royal Inland
Hospital to the Provincial Home (approximately 620 lineal feet; dimensions of ditch,
6 by 6 feet), and also the expansion joints and tunnelling the hospital road; the excavating and back-filling for the storage tank (10,500 gallons), and auxiliary tank (500
gallons) (dimensions, 46 by 12 by 20 feet); excavating and backfilling ditch from tanks
to heating plant (6 by 7 to 9Vi feet length, 120 lineal feet); dismantling old boilers
and excavating the floor (3-foot area, 1,320 square feet); removing all debris from all
points and hauling same to make roads on the Gaol property, hauling done by Gaol
tractor; all sill, side, tops, and component parts of steam-box painted and moved to all
points by prison labour; removed roof from heating plant and readied same prior to
contractor installing new roof; excavated and poured concrete walls for new workshop
at the rear of the heating plant.
3. The Provincial departments within the Gaol area have availed themselves of
our services during the year. We have supplied Mr. Merridew, Provincial Home
gardener, with sufficient men to maintain the lawns, gardens, and greenhouse under his
control. The Provincial Home cemetery detail has improved the cemetery area and
excavated and refilled nineteen graves during the year.
4. I wish to voice my appreciation to those members of the staff and inmates of
Oakalla Prison Farm that worked on the new space-saving mess table, constructed by
them for this institution.
Farm and Gardens
The farm, under the supervision of the Deputy Warden, J. D. H. Stewart, had a
successful year. The increased yield in the root-crop made it possible to sell and ship
10 tons of potatoes to Oakalla Prison Farm. The main crops were stored in our root-
cellars and lasted until the end of March, 1955. The apple-crop was lighter (approximately 200 boxes); this was stored and used by the Provincial Home and the prisoners
confined at this Gaol. The alfalfa hay was cut, stacked, and taken to Tranquille farm
during the winter months (approximately 35 tons). We had a light crop of mature
onions owing to the inclement weather during the late summer and fall.
Medical Care
The general health of our inmate population was good, there being no major
operations or epidemics, and only eight days' hospital facilities used during the year.
The doctors from the Burris Clinic have served as Gaol surgeons whenever called to
examine or treat any inmate needing medical care.
Welfare and Recreation
I again report no change, owing to the extensive works programme and the alterations being made in the Gaol proper. We hope in the near future to be able to install
radio, using single earphones instead of loud-speakers.
Escapes and Recaptures
On October 27th, 1954, at approximately 2 p.m., Carl Anderson, K.P.G. No.
A 9976, escaped lawful custody. p 48 british columbia
Discipline
Discipline has been well maintained throughout the year, breaches of Gaol Rules
and Regulations amounting to four. In all cases, charges were laid before me, and all
offenders found guilty and sentenced to a period of time in the confinement cell with
loss of all privileges.
Staff
I would like to commend to you the good work of the staff at the Kamloops Gaol
during the past year. They have certainly co-operated both in their attention to routine
duties and in ready application to extra duties whenever called.
Summary
In closing, I would draw your attention to our works programme—Provincial Home
central-heating project. This was a large undertaking for us, but we were able to fulfil
our commitments, and have on file a letter of appreciation from Mr. Mills of the Public
Works Department.
Respectfully submitted.
Warden.
PRINCE GEORGE MEN'S GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Prince George Provincial
Men's Gaol for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
Population
The institution was crowded all year long. Average daily population during the
year was 30.68 prisoners, with 172 prisoners being transferred to Oakalla Prison Farm
during the year.
Administration
Administration is carried out by one guard-clerk and myself. The work is accomplished with difficulty, as all movement of the prison goes through the office. With
prisoners moving to Court, to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, to work and for
exercise, and also being admitted and with visits taking place at the same time, it makes
it very difficult to do the office work. At the new gaol being constructed, this will be
remedied.
Maintenance and Construction
During the year the Men's Gaol was painted twice inside and once outside by prison
labour. The front half of the fence at the Women's Gaol was painted. A cement walk
was built at the entrance to the Women's Gaol, and the boulevard outside the fence was
landscaped. Snow was shovelled at the Women's Gaol, keeping the walks and roads
and fire-gate clear. The ashes were hauled away from the Government Building and
the Women's Gaol. The sidewalks and the parking-lot at the Government Building were
kept clear of snow. The basement of the Government Building was painted throughout,
and the office, clinic, kitchen, and boiler-room at the Women's Gaol.
For ten months of the year a guard and five prisoners have worked at the new gaol
site five and a half days a week clearing up the debris at the perimeter of the clearing
for the building.   As the bulldozers just pushed all stumps and roots to the edge of the REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 49
clearing, this has been a big undertaking. This work at the present time is about half
finished. The new gaol is well on the way to being completed. This is a well-constructed
building and is built for utility and attractively finished on the inside. This will provide
a place where a prison work plan can be accomplished. There will also be facilities
for recreation.
Farm and Garden
This Gaol has a small garden the size of two city lots. This small area was intensely
cultivated. We started in April with a hotbed where flowers and some vegetables were
started. The flower-garden was an attractive asset to the Government Building and
Gaol. Vegetables and flowers were entered in the Prince George and District Fall Fair
for competition. First prizes were taken for carrots, cucumbers, and vegetable marrow
in the vegetable division. First prizes were taken for pansies, asters, petunias, and
salpiglossis. Second prizes were taken for asters (four blooms of one variety), Antirrhinum (two classes), phlox, Drummondi (two classes), and hollyhocks. Zinnias took
third prize.
Welfare and Recreation
Recreation is limited to playing catch in the exercise period and reading books
supplied by the library. However, a small carpenter-shop was established in the garage
to make toys as a hobby for underprivileged children at Christmas. This was started
October lst, 1954. One of the staff loaned a power-saw. Eighty-five substantial toys
were made, such as wagons, wheelbarrows, rockers, and kiddy cars, etc. The wood
was donated by local contractors. The toys were constructed at the Men's Gaol and
painted at the Women's Gaol. Forty toys were given to the Salvation Army and forty
to the Canadian Legion. Five were given to underprivileged children of inmates. All
inmates engaged seemed to enjoy this work.
Escapes
We had one escape from a work party at the new gaol site. This man was recaptured the same day by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. He was later charged and
convicted of this offence and sentenced to six months.
Discipline
Discipline was well maintained throughout the year, with twelve inmates being
charged with breaches of the Gaol Rules and Regulations. These were all sentenced to
short terms of solitary confinement.
Staff Training Course
Four members of the staff attended the training course at Oakalla Prison Farm
during the year. Six of the staff here have now had this course. This course is highly
beneficial in the training of guards.
Summary
In summary, I wish to thank a loyal and efficient staff for a successful year. When
the new gaol opens we will have more scope for work and developing a recreational
programme.
Respectfully submitted.
Wm. Trant,
Warden. P 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PRINCE GEORGE WOMEN'S GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I am honoured to submit to you a report of the Women's Provincial Gaol in
Prince George. The year 1954-55 was a normal year. Our average count for the year
was 26.02. The discipline of the Gaol has been well maintained. A small fire was started
in a cell in the north wing, which was quickly extinguished and there was no serious
damage.
This year we have had two religious services per month conducted by the Salvation
Army. These services are well attended. Recently another group, the Evangelical Free
Church, has taken an interest in us and visits twice a month. This is mostly a song service
and much appreciated.
Dr. McKenzie visits weekly and whenever needed. We appreciate his work with us,
as he is most understanding toward the inmates. This year we had one girl transferred
to the Tranquille Sanatarium.   The public health nurse visits weekly and is valuable to us.
The local Film Board supplies a film for us twice monthly. This is a break which
is greatly enjoyed by all. During the Christmas week there was a full-length picture—
a comedy, which all enjoyed.   The Warden and staff donated funds to pay for this film.
The garden was very good this year. The inmates did practically all the work.
Despite a very wet season, everything grew well and the flowers were pretty. We were
allowed to compete at the Prince George and District Fall Fair in September. I am very
proud to say that we got prizes in several sections for flowers, vegetables, and handiwork.
The occupational therapy has progressed well. Competing at the fair, we had a large
exhibit of patchwork quilts, hooked rugs, leatherwork, copper and aluminium-foil pictures
and frames, and woodwork, besides a great deal of knitting, embroidering, and crocheting. Exhibits from the kitchen consisted of canning, pickling, and baking. The inmates
took a keen interest in the fair and really worked hard to make it the splendid display it
was. The prizes we received included seven firsts, twelve seconds, six thirds, and one
special prize for a wood-burned coffee table.
Our building is in good shape. The roof was well repaired during the summer, and
we have no trouble with leaking ceilings any more. The four hall floors were laid with
inlaid linoleum, and also one office. These are splendid, and the matrons and inmates
alike are interested in keeping them well polished and shining at all times. We had
a great deal of inside painting done, and the fence was partly painted. We hope to get
the rest done this year.
The kitchen is busy always. This year we canned 60 quarts of small carrots, 100
quarts of beets, 20 quarts of cauliflower, 5 quarts of peas, and 40 quarts of rhubarb.
We also canned a quantity of blueberries and crab-apples which were donated to us, and
60 pints of grape jelly was made. Besides this, 200 quarts of several kinds of pickles
were made. Inmates in the laundry have also been busy. Blankets, towels, etc., come
from the Men's Gaol three times weekly and are returned thoroughly clean. Along with
this, the regular daily washing and ironing is always done promptly. Those in the sewing-
room have worked well. Mending has been done for the Men's Gaol, and also a great
deal of mending and the making of new articles for the Prince George and District
Hospital.   Patchwork quilts were given to the Red Cross for fire victims.
Christmas, New Year, and Easter Days we had special meals. Most of the treats
were gifts from outside donors, including the Swift Canadian Company, Kelly-Douglas,
W. H. Malkin Company, and the local branch of the Moose Lodge.
We have received 200 new books from the prison librarian. Our library now boasts
of a very good selection of books, both educational and entertaining, which provide many
hours of pleasure among the inmates.
J REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 51
Warden Trant has been a tower of strength to me during the year, and many times
I have gone to him with my worries and he has shown me they were not too serious.
Matrons and guards are co-operative and are willing to do a good job.
I have appreciated, Sir, your visits to this Gaol, and I thank you for your advice.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) J. H. McKenzie,
Matron in Charge.
HANEY CAMP PROJECT
Hugh G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit a progress report on the Haney Camp Project
from its inception in September, 1954, to April lst, 1955.
Background
In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the limitations of existing
penal institutions in providing segregation, individualized treatment, the fostering of good
work habits, and special training for criminal offenders in order to effect their successful
rehabilitation to the community. With greater accommodation in our prisons and the
introduction of a number of modern correctional measures, this situation is rapidly
improving. However, the need for alternative resources to meet the special requirements
of offenders has become increasingly evident. It is gratifying to observe that more and
more consideration is being given to the extension of our probation and parole services
and the establishment of institutions of lesser security as effective and less costly means
of treating offenders.
The present camp programme can be considered as a continuation of the former
scheme. Administratively, it was founded on a more secure basis. It is operated by one
Provincial Government department only, which has proven to be a decided advantage.
Under the direction of the Oakalla administration it has been much easier to obtain
competent staff, and the victualling of the camp has been far less costly. Its location has
permitted year-round function, whereas the location of the former camps, in the Lower
Arrow Lake area, necessitated winter closure.
Inmate Population
The prison camp is located on Twenty-first Avenue in the Municipality of Maple
Ridge, about AV2 miles from Haney. It is situated on the western edge of the property
purchased by the Provincial Government, upon which the new correctional institution
is being constructed. The camp was set up on the site of an old sawmill. The mill had
been dismantled, leaving a small house and some outbuildings. Prior to occupying the
property, several work parties were sent out from Oakalla to make the buildings ready
for occupancy. On September 3rd, 1954, fourteen inmates were transferred from Oakalla
to the camp, where they remained under the supervision of Oakalla guards. The inmate
population remained constant for about three weeks, until three large marquee tents could
be erected. The population was increased then to forty-eight. Each week discharges
occurred, and reinforcements were received each Sunday to bring the inmate population
up to capacity. Thus the population tended to fluctuate between forty and forty-eight.
With the erection of two bunk-houses during February, 1955, we were able to increase the
prisoner population to sixty. Since then the population has fluctuated between fifty and
sixty. P 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Aims and Purposes of the Programme
During the first few months of operation the work programme was confined to the
building-site of the proposed prison near Webster's Corner. This entailed the clearing
of stumps, trees, and debris from the 8-acre area where the buildings are now being
erected. In addition to this, we felled and slashed the right-of-way for the main access
road that will eventually lead from Twenty-first Avenue to the institution. While carrying
out these projects, we salvaged a good deal of material for use in the main prison, such
as fence-posts, hand-split shakes, and a good deal of cedar for the construction of a
drainage system on the Oakalla ball fields. Last February a small sawmill was made up
from scrap parts and was set up very close to our camp. The stump-clearing and right-
of-way projects entailed a great many man-hours of work, but we managed to complete
the job before the contract was awarded to the company that is now doing the construction of the prison. Last spring we were given permission to use prison labour to build the
road-bed on the right-of-way that we had cleared from Twenty-first Avenue to the prison-
site, and we also embarked upon a project in Garibaldi Park. This project included the
widening of the right-of-way on an existing road from the Maple Ridge property line to
Alouette Lake. The right-of-way is to be widened to 100 feet over a distance of AV2
miles.   A more complete description of these projects will be given later.
Throughout the period the camp has been in operation, we have been fortunate
enough to have good constructive work projects for the inmates. The camp has provided
a further resource for the segregation of prisoners and has given them an opportunity to
earn a sum of money to have on release from custody. For each full working-day the
inmates are paid the sum of $1, which is withheld until his day of discharge. In addition
to this, $1 a week is deposited in his trust fund in the Bursar's office. From this he may
purchase tobacco, chocolate bars, and other commissary supplies. The camp has provided a healthful atmosphere for people who, otherwise, would have more idle time on
their hands. There is no doubt that in the camp an inmate's health improves and he is
more fitted to accept his responsibilities as a citizen after his discharge.
Administrative Framework
The camp has been under the direct administration of Oakalla and has been financed
almost wholly by Oakalla funds. All inmates are received from the Main Gaol after
having served a portion of their respective sentences, and the guards are members of the
prison staff. The camp is equipped and provisioned by the main prison, and much of its
administration is carried out through the Oakalla offices. Thus it is an adjunct to the
main prison, and its administration procedures are similar to that of another wing or unit.
The policies, rules, and regulations of Oakalla apply in camp, but because of differences
in its function, some of these have been modified considerably.
The camp is a unit of minimum security as opposed to maximum security with its
armed guards, cell blocks, and other security measures. In the selection of inmates,
therefore, care has to be taken to choose those who are unlikely to run away. Inmates
are selected also on the basis of their general behaviour while in prison, length of sentence,
and personality characteristics. Because all the jobs in camp are of the labouring type,
good health is necessary. The ages of the inmates have varied from 16 to 66 years,
although the greatest number have been in their twenties and thirties. Some have been
first offenders, but there have been some chosen as worthy cases in spite of many rather
impressive criminal records. The types of offences for which the prisoners have been
sentenced have been of a wide variety. Categories such as sex deviants and narcotic
addicts have been excluded, except when their problems have been completely controlled.
The length of sentences being served have varied from a few weeks to two years, although
only the last four to eight weeks are spent in the camp. Most of the inmates have spent
the greatest portion of sentence in Oakalla.    Thus the camp programme is essentially REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 53
a pre-release project. It provides a transition stage from life in the Main Gaol to the
outside. It also enables a man to earn a few dollars to carry him over until he gains
employment and, in the greatest number of cases, a few weeks of steady work makes him
better prepared physically and psychologically to take a job on release.
Housing
As mentioned previously, during the winter months the prisoners were housed in
three large marquee tents. The tents were old, but were in serviceable condition after
being repaired. During February of this year, one of the tents was replaced by a bunk-
house, and an additional bunk-house erected near by. The two remaining tents have
suffered considerable abuse, and it is unlikely that they will last through another winter.
They will have to be replaced by the construction of at least two more bunk-houses.
Each unit accommodates sixteen inmates in double-decker beds. The beds are situated
rather closely together and there is little room in each unit for recreation purposes. The
inmates, however, are allowed supervised recreation and leisure in the immediate vicinity
of the camp, and during the evening hours the dining-room is used as a recreation hall.
As a consequence, they are less confined than they would be in the cell units. It is
recommended that eventually more 16- by 24-foot bunk-houses be erected, and eight
men be placed in each, every man to have a single cot. The rather overcrowded units
tend to become dirty easily, and we are obliged to keep two bull cooks permanently
employed in the cleaning-up of the building. The kitchen and dining-room comprise one
large building and are adequate. The small house on the property has been very convenient to us as an administrative building. One room is used as an office, another as
a first-aid room, and a third as a clothing change-room. The attic is used to store tools
and equipment as well as some supplies, and another room is used as an officers' locker-
room. A small building near the kitchen is used as a saw-filer's shack. Some equipment
is stored in the building, and one inmate is kept employed in repairing equipment, sharpening tools, etc.
Lavatory facilities are fairly adequate for the time being. A building about 8 by 20
feet includes eight toilets, which we built last fall. A smaller building close by houses
a urinal. Within the next three or four months the lavatories should be reconstructed
elsewhere.
The ablutions room is in a lean-to building abutting the dining-room. There is
a sufficient number of hot- and cold-water taps, and the supply of water is good. Nevertheless, the Medical Health Officer of the area has been very critical of our facilities.
There is but one shower for sixty men; the recommended number by the Department
of Health and Welfare is a minimum of five. At various times during the past year the
camp has been inspected by the Medical Officer and the local Sanitary Inspector. We
have acted on their recommendations with regard to standards of cleanliness but have
not as yet been able to conform to their housing standards.
Because of the proximity of the camp to the public road, and the fact that it is not
really feasible to erect more buildings because of the limitations of space, it would be
wise to eventually move the camp to another location.
Employment of Prisoners
As mentioned before, the main work project from September, 1954, to April of this
year consisted of the clearing of the site of the correctional institution. This entailed the
removal of several hundred large stumps of trees that had been felled some years before.
An accumulation of logs and other debris had to be cleared away and burned. A daily
average of approximately twenty inmates were employed on the project. A gasoline-
operated donkey-engine was used to gather the logs and debris together for burning.
A great many man-hours were expended on the job. and the progress was slow because P 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of the almost continuous bad weather during the winter months. The removal of stumps
posed a special problem. It was necessary to dig away the ground under each stump
and cut the roots by hand. An RD-8 tractor and winch were used to pull the stumps
from the ground. The burning of the stumps and logs was a time-consuming task, and
the total project took about seven months to complete.
In the meantime another gang was employed on the right-of-way from Twenty-first
Avenue. We managed to salvage a good deal of material. Hundreds of fence-posts
were made from fallen cedar logs, and the shakes that were manufactured were shipped
to Oakalla for use on the farm buildings. Some twenty loads of rough cedar were sent
in to Oakalla to be used in the making of drains for the ball fields that were under construction at the time, and as a base for the heavy prison fencing where it crosses the
swamp area.
The make-shift sawmill is capable of producing our needs with regard to lumber.
However, it has not been kept in regular use because often we had no means of getting
logs out of the bush to the mill. Some of the lumber was used for camp buildings, but
most of it was sent in to the main prison. The mill has been a real asset to our programme
and has been used for instructional purposes. Fortunately we have had officers with
previous experience with this type of machinery, and they have instructed several inmates
in the techniques of sawing lumber. There is no doubt that this type of instruction can
be of positive value in terms of prisoner rehabilitation. The largest percentage of the
inmate population has been engaged in unskilled labour. The few jobs requiring special
skills, such as saw-filing, heavy-machinery operators, cooks, etc., have been filled by
inmate tradesmen with previous experience. It is recommended that as the programme
develops more use be made of our resources to give trade instruction to unskilled inmates.
The Garibaldi Park and road-building projects have kept most of our inmates
employed since June. A forty-five-passenger bus was acquired to transport inmates to
and from the park project, where progress has been very favourable. A representative of
the Parks Division of the British Columbia Forest Service has been giving guidance to
the operation, and we have been employing an average of thirty inmates on the task for
six days each week. In addition to the right-of-way clearing, our men have built a small
Forest Service personnel camp on the Mike Lake Road to house the civilian crews that
will be brought in to build the new park road this coming autumn.
Construction of the road-bed from Twenty-first Avenue to the gaol-site was slow at
first. Most of the equipment was of ancient vintage, and this fact, accompanied by a lack
of skill on the part of some of our inmate drivers-in-training, retarded progress for a time.
During the month of August an experienced officer-mechanic was transferred from
Oakalla to supervise the project. Since then the progress has gone ahead very well, and
the road-bed is nearing completion.
Since the beginning of the camp programme a year ago, we have had the advantage
of having good purposeful work programmes at all times. All the work done by the
inmates is constructive, and we have not been in the position where we had to " invent "
jobs in order to keep men busy. Administratively this is very valuable to us. The inmates
gain satisfaction from doing a useful job. The guards have a greater sense of achievement, and morale and discipline are enhanced considerably. Inmates are kept employed
on the basis of an eight-hour day for six days each week. In spite of the very inclement
weather during the past winter, we missed only three one-half-days of work.
Guards are instructed to report all malingerers and inmates who neglect to observe
safety precautions on the job. In practice, when an inmate's work habits are inefficient
to the extent where he would be discharged by his employer in a normal job situation,
we transfer him back to Oakalla as an unsatisfactory inmate. Over the months there
have been very few inmates who had to be disciplined this way. Generally speaking, the
work programme has been the best feature of the camp, and in terms of the productive
work accomplished, our inmates are closer to being self-supporting than in any other unit
of Oakalla. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 55
Discipline
The maintenance of discipline in a minimum-security institution is somewhat different
from that of maximum security. The inmate is given more responsibility in a number of
ways. He can, at almost any time, try to run away from the camp and is therefore
responsible for maintaining his own custody. Inmates are selected carefully, but with
the knowledge that the temptation to leave is a disturbing factor for some of the youthful
and immature people. By facing up to the temptation and remaining in camp, the inmate
gains moral strength which can have a positive value in his rehabilitation. He also has
additional responsibilities concerning work. We insist that he justifies his presence in
the unit by doing his full share of productive work. Because of the nature of forestry
work, inmates are dependent one on the other for personal safety. We have attempted
to make this an educational experience, and many inmates become far more safety conscious after a few weeks with us.
Sometimes new officers will equate minimum security with minimum supervision,
and will tend to become lax in keeping their charges under observation. Actually a
greater degree of supervision is required in a camp such as ours. In the Main Gaol, with
its perimeter control over work gangs and recreational groups, and its locked doors, cell
blocks, etc., a guard can sometimes be lax in his supervision with little chance of trouble
developing. In the camp situation, on the other hand, inmates have greater freedom
within the confines of the camp and also on the work gangs, but they do require constant
supervision for twenty-four hours a day. Because of the proximity of the camp to a public
road, and because a number of the inmates are working fairly close to civilian work
crews, precautions must be taken to prevent the entrance of contraband into the camp.
Constant vigilance on the part of the staff must be maintained. It is necessary to remind
officers of this continually. As time goes by, new officers become increasingly aware of
their responsibilities in this regard, and the camp is maintained at a good level of
supervision.
Inmates are received each Sunday to replace those who have been discharged
throughout the preceding week. Usually from five to ten are brought in from Oakalla.
On arrival they are briefed by the senior officer in camp, who outlines their responsibilities
as inmates and the routine rules and regulations of the camp. They are told what they
can expect with regard to privileges and any services we are able to offer. The briefing
talk has developed to the point where all the obligations of the inmates concerning work,
conduct, etc., are covered. Officers are encouraged to report any infraction of camp rules
immediately. Most of these are handled in camp with the imposition of minor penalties,
the denial of extra privileges, etc. Offenders of a more serious nature are returned to
Oakalla, and formal charges are made in Warden's court.
Conclusion
During its first year of operation, the Haney Camp Project has been characterized
by its emphasis on a sound, constructive, and remunerative work programme to assist
inmates in their efforts toward rehabilitation. Potentially it has much more than this to
offer. As our resources develop, and as our staff gains in training and experience, we
shall be able to introduce more of the modern correctional measures for the prevention
of recidivism. We have now reached the stage where it would be more feasible to institute
a group therapy programme, more extensive use of social casework services, job-finding
services for inmates about to be released, and other remedial features.
I would strongly recommend that a permanent forestry camp be established and the
present pre-release prison camp programme be maintained and given the opportunity for
further development. During the past year I have been convinced of the advantages that
a few weeks of camp life have to offer for a long-term prisoner before his release to the
community. P 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
I would like to express my appreciation to you for the guidance and co-operation
you have given to me as senior officer of the camp. In closing I would draw your attention to the loyal support I have received from the Haney Camp Project staff during
the year.
Respectfully submitted. _   . _ _
R. M. Deildal,
Assistant Deputy Warden, Treatment.
PROBATION BRANCH
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The annual report of the Provincial Probation Branch for the year commencing April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955, is submitted with pleasure.
As in previous years, certain staff changes were effected. Envisioned in the annual
report of the previous year, an office was established at New Westminster in July, and
Mr. Putnam, who had been serving the New Westminster district from the Vancouver
office, continued in this new branch office which he shared with Mr. R. J. Clark, who
covers Burnaby and Lulu Island.
Another highlight of the year was the appointment of Miss Mildred M. Wright on
June lst, 1954. Miss Wright's appointment has made possible full-time probation
services for women in the Greater Vancouver area. Her appointment is also noteworthy
in that it has set the precedent for equivalent probation services for women as for men.
Mr. A. C. Hare was appointed as a Probation Officer on May 15th, 1954, and
shortly after his appointment was transferred to the Nanaimo office to work under the
supervision of Mr. McGougan. Mr. Hare's move to the Nanaimo office made possible
more adequate coverage to the upper portion of Vancouver Island, while, at the same
time, it effected a cut in the case loads for both Mr. McGougan and Mr. Jones. With
Mr. Hare's assistance, Mr. McGougan was able to give services to the Duncan area
instead of Mr. Jones.
Mr. A. Byman also joined the staff in June, 1954, and was employed in the
Vancouver Courts until being moved to Nanaimo in January, 1955. Mr. G. G. Wood-
hams joined the staff on November 22nd, 1954. His appointment continued full-time
probation services to North and West Vancouver, which were interrupted after the
resignation of Mr. B. J. C. McCabe on June 30th.
In December Mr. R. G. Shepherd was appointed to the staff to work primarily as a
follow-up officer with those offenders released on parole from the Young Offenders' Unit
and Oakalla Prison Farm by authority of the British Columbia Board of Parole. Mr.
O. E. Hollands joined the staff on January lst, 1955, and has, since his appointment,
been employed in the Vancouver office. The Branch lost the valued services of Mr. G. G.
Myers on March 16th, when he resigned to accept employment in Alberta.
In February, 1955, a new branch office was opened at Prince Rupert, and Mr. Hare
was moved from Nanaimo to the Prince Rupert office. Coincident with this move,
Mr. Byman was moved from Vancouver to Nanaimo.
The volume of work done by the Provincial Probation Branch during the current
year can readily be seen in the statistical report for the period. One hundred and forty-
three cases more than the previous year were placed on probation by the various Courts
of the Province, giving a grand total of 831 new probation cases during the year. Of this
number, 200 came from Police Courts and the balance from the Juvenile Courts of the
Province.   This figure constitutes 24 per cent of the total number and is a drop of 13 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55 P 57
per cent from the previous year. This fall-off in the number of adults being placed on
probation may be explained by the interaction of a number of factors, but it is important
to note there has not been a drop in the number of pre-sentence reports prepared by the
Branch. It is felt the Police Courts using our services are being more selective on
the basis of the pre-sentence reports received and are not using probation in cases where
this disposition was formerly used because of the more-varied types of institutional
treatment which are now available.
The number of follow-up cases during the year shows a marked increase over the
previous year. It is felt this increase stems from the greater use of the definite and
indeterminate sentences in the cases of young offenders appearing in the Police Courts,
together with a greater number of referrals for post-discharge supervision since the Boys'
Industrial School adopted the policy of release on extended leave. The Provincial Probation Branch has been supervising most cases on extended leave in the areas served by
the Branch, with the exception of those cases where the juvenile concerned is a ward of
the Superintendent of Child Welfare.
The inadequate office accommodation for the Vancouver office, to which attention
was drawn in the previous year's report, has not been corrected, and it is felt that the
general efficiency of the Vancouver office has been hindered by inadequate office space.
It is hoped that more facilities will be provided during the next fiscal year.
As in previous years, the Probation Officers of the staff have carried on their interest
in general community activities through their participation in meetings and panel discussions on subjects related to the correctional field. In most instances these have taken
place during non-working-hours.
During this fiscal year, steady progress has been made in providing probation
facilities to the Province as a whole. The one major area not yet receiving services—that
is, the Prince George area—it is hoped will receive services during the coming year. In
the areas presently being serviced, there is need for consolidation and additional staff to
bring case loads into line with presently accepted standards.
The work of the Provincial Probation Branch during the year has been facilitated
by the valued co-operation of allied social agencies. Close co-operation has been maintained with the British Columbia Board of Parole as well as the correctional institutions.
This valued co-operation is sincerely appreciated.
As at March 31st, 1955, the staff of the Provincial Probation Branch consisted of
the following personnel:—
Vancouver Office.—E. G. B. Stevens, Provincial Probation Officer; C. D. Davidson,
Chief Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; O. E. Hollands, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; Mildred M. Wright, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer; and R. G.
Shepherd, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
North Vancouver Office.-—G. G. Woodhams, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
New Westminster Office.—R. J. Clark, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer, and
J. M. Putnam, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Victoria Office.—A. E. Jones, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Nanaimo Office.—E. H. B. McGougan, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer, and
A. A. Byman, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Abbotsford Office.—A. L. Langdale, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Penticton Office.—H. W. Jackson, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Vernon Office.—D. Guest, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Nelson Office.—A. W. Garwood, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Cranbrook Office.—L. D. Howarth, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
Prince Rupert Office.—A. C. Hare, Assistant Provincial Probation Officer. P 58
british columbia
Provincial Probation Branch Statistics
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New probation cases.   .
New follow-up cases
Pre-sentence reports	
63
24
49
60
56
54
46
57
31
105
50
84
142
61
117
158
35
122
276
36
262
350
28
349
~727
455
14
461
930
591
33
472
598
46
638
688
92
736
1
831  |4,363
151 |   683
892 |4,267
Total cases
Miscellaneous	
136
170
134
239
320
315
574
1,096
74
1,282
178
1,516
151
1,874 |9,313
238 j   641
1
New Probation Cases
Apr. 1, 1951. to
Mar. 31, 1952
Apr. 1, 1952. to
Mar. 31, 1953
Apr. 1, 1953, to
Mar. 31, 1954
Apr. 1, 1954, to
Mar. 31, 1955
Total Cases.
Mav 1. 1942. to
Mar. 31, 1955
Under 20 years of age	
Between 20 and 25 years of age _
Over 25 years of age 	
Married probationers	
Single probationers	
496
49
46
40
551
Total probationers-
591
481
66
51
54
_544_
~598
527
79
82
83
605
710
65
56
58
773
688
831
3,388
609
366
403
3,960
4,363
New Follow-up Cases
Under 20 years of age 	
Between 20 and 25 years of age _
Over 25 years of age 	
Married parolees  	
Single parolees .   	
Total follow-up cases....
22
11
3
30
33
37
9
1
_45_
46
70
22
2
90
107
41
3
8
143
92
151
501
165
17
32
651
683
Respectfully submitted.
C. D. Davidson,
Chief Assistant Provincial Probation Officer. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 59
APPENDIX
ANNUAL REPORT OF GAOLS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st,  1955
Oakalla and
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
1
$2,008,451.34
1,633,082.68
$5,435
4.84
$0,767
.80
6,623
7,831
1
$56,527.25
55,675.68
$4.07
3.56
$0,573
.65
451
523
1
$46,782.29
33,160.74
$3.46
3.01
$0,576
.67
1,041
1,017
1
$114,484.84
111,886.34
$5,525
5.80
$1.36
1.35
1,251
1,126
4
2. Total expenditures for gaol maintenance in
B.C.—
Year ended March 31st, 1955    	
$2,226,245.72
Year ended March 31st, 1954
1,833,805.37
3. Average total maintenance cost per day per
prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1955	
Year ended March 31st, 1954   	
$4.62
4.57
Average dietary cost per day per prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1955	
Year ended March 31st, 1954 	
4. Number of prisoners committed—
Year ended March 31st, 1955    	
$0.82
.87
9,366
Year ended March 31st, 1954 .. 	
10,703
I. Movement of Population, Year Ended March 3 1st, 1955
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
On register, April 1st, 1954._
Received—
From gaols and lockups..
By transfer   	
By recapture  _
By revocation of licence
By forfeiture of ticket of leave ...
By internal movements	
From bail	
O.R. totals  	
Totals..
Discharged—■
By expiry of sentence _
By ticket of leave—	
By deportation	
By pardon  	
By escape 	
By death.
By payment of fines     .__    .
By release of Court order (including bail)..
By transfer _
By internal movements  	
Licence—B.C. Parole Board.
Totals _
On register, March 31st, 1955..
1,007
5,525
24
11
28
7
884
123
21
7,630
4,216
205
2
16
12
2
182
678
375
884
1,058
6,572  |
30
409
42
31
1,032
2
481  |  1,072
261
1
3
1
21
40
131
3
786
1
130
28
86
76
1,239
11
1
1,327
864
1
138
35
173
65
461
1,031  |  1,278
20
49
1,144
8,205
79
12
28
7
884
130
21
10,510""
6,127
207
5
17
14
3
471
781
765
952
9,342
1,168 P 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
II. Commitments
1953-54
1954-55
Decrease
Increase
Murder	
Manslaughter	
Crimes—
Against the person..
Against property._
Against public morals and decency	
Against public order and peace 	
Other offences not enumerated below _
Insanity
Number of prisoners sentenced  	
Number of days' stay of prisoners 	
Average number of prisoners per month-
Average number of prisoners per day	
Escapes
Escapes and recaptured..
Death in gaols	
16
25
430
2,031
364
6,439
478
30
9,374
398,807
32,501
1,139
8
17
4
26
25
395
1,940
285
5,295
310
30
7,942
395,023
32,193
1,113
13
12
3
35
91
79
1,144
168
1,432
3,784
308
26
10
III. Sex
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
Males	
5,071
454
363
26
919
113
1,052
199
7,405
792
Totals    _	
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197
IV. Educational Status
1
214      j
3,127
2,024
160      i
19
270
98
2
143
682
203
4
116
864
265
6
492
Elementary  _. _.. _
4,943
2,590
College or university	
172
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197
V. Nationality
(Place of birth.)
British-
4,346
424
73
354
9
967
23
12
1,040
16
6,707
Great Britain and Ireland  	
472
85
Totals _    —
4,843
363
1,002
1,056
7,264
Foreign—
United States       	
148
475
43
16
2
16
3
5
9
21
31
164
190
676
46
21
Totals
682
26
30
195
933
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197
VI. Habits as to Use of In-
rOXICANTS
471
2,533
2,521
27
222
140
15
60
957
30
241
980
543
Temperate...	
Intemperate 	
3,056
4,598
Totals	
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
VII. Habits as to Use of Drugs
VIII. Occupations
IX. Racial
X. Civil State
P 61
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
Abstainers     _  	
1
5,010               388             1,029
515      1             1                   3
1,231
20
7,658
539
Totals. _      	
5,525
389       1       1.032       1       1.251
8,197
114
329
415
2,547
328
98
1,266
152
175
101
34
30
122
58
28
112
5
175
20
97
303
5
17
410
	
5
10
34
186
301
30
4
627
42
12
5
333
383
Domestic 	
728
3,273
Mechanics .	
421
147
Loggers and miners	
2,315
194
192
HI
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197
White    _  	
4,871
50
521
66
17
327
59
3
586
3
439
4
861
390
6,645
53
1,409
73
Hindus	
17
Totals _	
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197
Single	
Married —
Widowed...
Separated-
Divorced....
Totals..
3,450
1,315
108
558
94
5,525
288
85
6
5
5
389
620
220
72
120
867
234
35
83
32
1,032
1,251
5,225
1,854
221
766
131
;,197
XI.
Ages
638
722
819
1,209
1,149
721
267
55
68
62
88
58
46
12
62
106
140
259
209
192
64
97
170
207
286
215
198
78
852
1,066
1,228
1,842
1,631
1,157
421
25 to 30 years _ _ _ 	
Over 60 years	
Totals — _	
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197 P 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
XII. Creeds
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
2,013
1,066
660
133
669
116
411
49
19
9
12
21
145
6
196
154
100
23
31
4
16
4
2
44
1
10
689
95
77
8
68
8
45
10
14
2
16
683
122
97
6
126
10
153
7
12
35
3,539
1,383
Presbyterian  —
857
147
894
138
625
70
Other Christian creeds	
35
53
12
Buddhist                                                         	
24
Other    .
157
41
None 	
222
Totals  	
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197
XIII. Duration of Sentence
2,168
755
556
487
403
174
49
223
21
27
286
19
115
5
2
31
37
45
3
84
9
12
7
3
7
152
60
28
35
8
2
63
13
1
18
5
753
178
33
15
19
7
4
3
9
1
10
961
92
29
48
31
22
1
9
4
17
12
25
4,034
1,085
646
585
2 months and under 3 months  	
461
203
50
238
21
27
356
28
128
6
2
49
37
45
3
107
27
17
7
3
O.I.C.                                                	
7
To R CM.P.                                          -	
25
Totals                       	
5,525
389
1,032
1,251
8,197 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,   1954-55
P 63
XIV. Previous Convictions
Oakalla
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
1,843
759
497
329
230
184
236
1
317               457
2,853
1 117
t.                     _	
53
33
24
7
11
117                188
93                112
66                 75
45                   67
49                   55
34                   46
32                   33
2     .
735
3                             	
494
4                          _	
349
5  _ _	
299
6 -~ _
161
6
247
7	
8 	
121
114
95
103
74
65
54
45
53
55
34
56
34
48
32
56
33
173
136
42
99
10
1
1
1
1
1
2
196
9 _	
20
28
24
16
9
12
13
12
10
12
8
19
4
11
3
33
9
9
29
22
17
14
11
7
7
6
5
5
4
2
3
1
2
49
2
145
to        __                	
153
11                      	
12....                         	
96
13 _	
14	
65
15  _	
74
73
49
16 _	
17    ... 	
18	
20 _	
21 _	
46
69
23 _	
24. 	
26	
38
27	
210
194
53
49	
60	
Over 60	
5,525      |          389      |      1,032      |      1,251       |      8,197
ff, f.&7    I     ifi fin     I     e.Q->n
69.11 P 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
XV. Offences for which Prisoners were Committed and Sentenced during the Year
Commitments
Sentences
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
(a) Crimes against the person—
Abduction 	
Abortion _	
Assault, common  -
Assault, felonious	
110
147
3
11
9
24
14
11
33
6
4
2
2
1
116
151
5
11
9
26
15
11
33
118
154
5
8
22
10
9
18
11
4
1
1
1
129
158
6
Cutting, wounding, and attempting same.___
8
Manslaughter- ■ _—	
23
11
9
18
Totals _ 	
362
15
377
344
18
362
(b)  Crimes against property—
15
333
113
64
32
209
1
648
145
82
118
66
1
2
1
3
1
16
45
4
1
16
335
114
67
33
225
1
693
145
82
122
67
4
442
116
148
43
455
869
159
108
193
75
1
3
3
32
45
5
1
5
445
Robbery  _  _
116
151
Fraud  _	
43
487
914
Theft of auto                   	
159
108
198
Trespass  _	
76
Totals .-..;	
1,826
74
1,900
2,612
90
2,702
(c) Crimes against public morals and decency—
Bigamy	
6
15
20
3
2
82
5
1
7
91
6
15
20
3
2
1
89
1
91
5
8
12
27
3
2
79
1
6
4
54
8
12
27
3
Inmates and frequenters of houses of ill
2
1
83
1
54
6
Habitual criminal _	
134
99
233
138
59
197
(d) Crimes against public order and peace—
2,236
164
4
396
22
90
5
5
5
1
13
470
356
183
200
64
8
141
1
1
131
33
5
2,436
228
4
404
22
231
5
5
6
1
14
601
389
188
2,823
163
522
27
230
1
17
3
29
501
457
224
203
68
9
139
1
1
133
71
6
3,026
Breaches of "Excise Act"           	
Breaches of "Narcotic and Drug Act"	
231
531
27
369
1
18
3
Lunatics and persons unsafe to be at large
30
634
528
Cause disturbance _ _ —	
230
Totals	
3.950
584
4,534
4,997
631
5,628
252
25
277
328
26
354
Grand  totals of  (a),   (6),   (c),
(d),and(e)  _	
6,524
797
7,321
8,419
824
9,243 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1954-55
P 65
XVI. Employment of Prisoners
(Per cent of population.)
Oakalla and Young
Offenders' Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince George
Male
Female
Male           Female
20.00
15.00
65.00
-
25.00
1.00
54.00
1
23.695    I      10.884
20.20
0.32
16.29
2.19
92.10
Sick                   	
2.618
1.928
11.669
25.050
4.440
26.322
9.755
1.10
0.70
       ;    	
61.00
35.040
48.599
20.00
5.60
XVII. Number of Officers and Employees on March 3 1st, 1955
Oakalla
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Men's Institutions
1
1
1
3
3
1
1
1
14
9
2
241
17
1
1
1
1
8
1
1
1
6
1
Deputy Warden, Treatment          ...                  .....
Bursar, Assistant Deputy Wardens  .    —                  .
Senior Correctional Officers       _   ._..           _...       —
-
Senior Guards            	
—
Assistant Engineers   	
13
Guards, temporary   .
Stenographer—Grade 2 (Female)
Dentist                          	
Total male employees    ...
297
10
9
14
Women's Institutions
Matron in Charge  	
1
48
1
1
1
1
17
1
2
2
1
1
11
Education Officer _	
S.C.O.                   	
1
Total female employees ...   	
73
2
1
13
Total employees                . 	
370
12
10
27 P 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
XVIII. Statement of Revenue and Expenditure for Year Ended March 3 1st, 1955
Oakalla (Men)
and Young
Offenders'
Unit
Oakalla
(Women)
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
(Men)
Prince
George
(Women)
Total
Expenditure
Salaries 	
Office expense  —
Travelling expense _
Heat, light, power,
water __ _ 	
and
Janitors' supplies_
Laundry,
Uniforms and clothing _._..
Provisions   (keep of prisoners)
Medical attention and hospital supplies 	
Medical services 	
Farm operations	
Sheet-metal plant	
Library
Good Conduct Fund 	
Return transportation
(prisoners)
Supplies for training __
Office furniture and equipment  	
Incidentals and contingencies	
Vocational  	
Group work _ _	
School     	
Recreation facilities and
supplies     — —
Equipment and machinery
Printing and publication...
Totals    _ -
Public  Works  expenditure—
Rc-a'rs and maintenance
Other votes _	
Gross expenditure...
Revenue
Salaries	
Sale of goods, fines, and
costs  .    .  	
Keep of prisoners  _.
Totals   	
Total cost	
$963,434.15
11,671,04
11,585.22
91,290.51
16,275.68
17,753.46
91,622.91
282,139.79
15,230.91
14,725.68
54,591.86
63,506.23
20,594.90
7,512.07
3,152.12
2,938.27
2,756.24
7,839.48
13,845.29
153.48
23,979.03
15.35
$116,975.15
890,33
197.51
26.00
1,289.72
2,232.31
3,272.15
1,048.00
2,707.29
2,609.95
1,434.10
420.06
1,670.81
8.78
186.82
278.29
2,343.20
$38,358.07
570.58
797.27
5,455.41
1,056.13
1,799.27
8,378.91
1,417.46
410.70
438.17
112.68
304.18
430.90
$30,829.20
381.06
757.80
1,539.32
714.03
1,418.13
7,589.58
634.17
287.59
770.50
21.26
74.11
603.47
$35,343.05
649.05
1,127.56
1,051.98
17,987.20
801.46
268.00
72.98
380.00
175.45
$46,922.00
298.63
176.65
5,291.21
606.25
725.26
11,127.95
1,782.91
100.00
1,041.00
834.89
376.86
114.26
99.39
$1,231,861.62
14,460.69
14,642.01
103,602.45
19,335.56
20,592.02
99,889.70
328,271.43
22,574.20
17,335.63
54,879.45
63,506.23
100.00
24,519.20
9,299.43
5,199.79
3,439.73
3,611.06
7,839.48
13,845.29
153.48
278.29
27,455.99
15.35
$1,716,613.67 $137,590.47 I $59,529.73
111,590.94
230,356.93
$45,620.22 | $57,856.73 [ $69,497.26
643.57     924.06
5,871.28     112.94
819.85
$2,086,708.08
113,978.42
236,341.15
$2,058,561.54 |$137,590.47 | $59,529.73
$52,135.07 | $58,893.73 | $70,317.11 | $2,437,027.65
$156,083.39
$31,318.5
$2,259.48
743.00
$438.78
4,924.00
$2,134.00
$190,100.45
20,393.00
$156,033.39 | $31,318.80 | $3,002.48
$5,362.78 | $12,592.00 |  $2,134.00 |  $210,493.45
$1,902,478.15 $106,271.67 | $56,527.25
$46,772.29  $46,301.73  $63,183.11 | $2,226,534.20
I	
XIX. Average Cost of Each Prisoner and Miscellaneous
Dietary cost of each prisoner per diem	
Keep of prisoners (including salaries and all expenses) per diem	
$0,767
5.567
$0,767
5.056
$0.57.3
$0.57.60
3.46
$1.65
4.14
$1.07
6.91
Average dietary cost of each prisoner per diem, 90 cents.
Average cost of keep of each prisoner including salaries and all expenses per diem (all gaols), $4.86.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956
160-1155-8178  

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