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Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare For the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1956

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of  the  Department  of
Health and Welfare
For the Year Ended March 31st
1955
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955  Victoria, B.C., November 30th, 1955.
To His Honour Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health
and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1955, is herewith respectfully submitted.
E. C. MARTIN,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 30th, 1955.
The Honourable E. C Martin,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C
Sir,—-I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1955.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
C. W. LUNDY,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 30th, 1955.
C. W. Lundy, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I am pleased to submit herewith the Report of the Social Welfare Branch for
the year ended March 31st, 1955.
J. A. SADLER,
Director of Welfare. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND WELFARE
(SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH)
Hon. Eric Martin Minister of Health and Welfare.
C. W. Lundy____	
J. A. Sadler	
Miss Amy Leigh	
Miss Marie Riddell_
Miss Ruby McKay	
J. H. Creighton	
SENIOR ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
 Deputy Minister.
 Director of Welfare.
 A ssistant Director.
 Provincial Supervisor, Family Division.
 Superintendent of Child Welfare.
 Chairman,   Old-age  Assistance  and  Blind
Persons' Allowance Boards.
Dr. J. C. Moscovich Director of Medical Services.
Mrs. E. L. Page Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions.
Miss E. S. Wyness Provincial Supervisor, Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control and Venereal Disease Control.
Miss A. K. Carroll	
F. G. Hassard.
 Provincial   Supervisor,   Psychiatric   Social
Work.
 Superintendent,  Brannen Lake  School for
Boys.
Miss W. M. Urquhart Superintendent, Girls' Industrial School.
J. M. Shilland Superintendent, Provincial Home.
A. H. Rose Hospital Consultant and Inspector.
E. L. Rimmer Administrator, Region I.
R. Talbot Administrator, Region II.
R. I. Stringer Administrator, Region III.
J. W. Smith Administrator, Region IV.
V. H. Dallamore Administrator, Region V.
A. O. Morrison Acting Administrator, Region VI.
_  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part I.—General and Regional Administration-
General	
Page
  9
Assistant Director of Welfare  13
Regional Administration—
Region I  16
Region II  19
Region III  20
Region IV  23
Region V  26
Region VI  27
Part II.—Divisional Administration-
Family Division—
Social Allowances	
Mothers' Allowances	
  29
  35
Family Service  41
Child Welfare Division  46
Old-age Assistance and Blind Persons' Allowances Boards and Cost-of-living
Bonus  59
Medical Services Division  74
Part III.—Institutions—
Industrial School for Boys _____
Industrial School for Girls_.___
Provincial Home, Kamloops
  77
  80
  84
Welfare Institutions Board  87
Part IV.—Medical Social Work and Psychiatric Social Work Services—
Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control  97
Social Service Department, Division of Venereal Disease Control  101
Psychiatric Division, Social Services, Provincial Mental Health Services  104
Hospital Consultation and Inspection Division of Hospital Insurance Service  123  Report of the Social Welfare Branch
PART L—GENERAL AND REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
GENERAL
The estimated population of British Columbia in 1954-55 was 1,305,000. This
was an increase of 75,000 over 1953-54. The rate of increase, however, varied considerably among regions. The whole of Region VI (lower part of Fraser Valley), the
Saanich Peninsula in Region I, and the Municipality of Richmond in Region II show
the greatest increase and density in population. For example, Richmond and Surrey,
where there are still large unoccupied areas of land, are reported to have a density of
700 persons per square mile of occupied land. These two municipalities, together with
the other municipal and unorganized areas in the Lower Fraser Valley, have an
average density of 100 to 125 persons per square mile. The Saanich Municipality has
about twice this density.
In contrast, Regions III (south central) and Region IV (south-eastern) have
only a density of two to ten persons per square mile. Region V (largely that portion
north of the Thompson River) has about one person per 2 square miles, except Prince
George and Prince Rupert with one person per square mile. Of these two northern
cities, Prince George is the most rapidly growing community in the north because of its
" cross-roads " position. This spilling over of people from the metropolitan areas of
Vancouver and Victoria into the neighbouring rural municipalities will likely continue
for some time.
Case loads have reflected this increase in population. The following Table I shows
that the total number of family units and shared services at the end of the fiscal year
was 61,506:—
Table I.—Breakdown of Case Load1 by Categories of Service
as at March 31st, 1955
Category of Service Number Per Cent
Total  61,506        100.000
Family Service (no financial assistance)     1,728 2.809
Social Assistance—
Mothers' Allowance        404
Social Allowance    11,288
  11,692 19.009
Blind Persons' Allowance        440 0.715
Old-age Assistance—
Old-age Assistance     9,240
Old Age Security bonus and health
services  31,797
  41,037 66.720
Disabled Persons' Allowance        147 0.239
Child Welfare Division     5,337 8.677
Medical and institutional—
Tuberculosis Division        305
■
Psychiatric Division  264
Collection of institutional revenue 157
Hospital clearance  26
Provincial Home  6
Provincial Infirmary  6
Welfare institutions  361
       1,125 1.829
1 Case load is the total family units and shared services. O  10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
This represents, as at March 31st, 1955, an increase of 1,038. But more significantly, as Table II indicates, this fiscal year there were 13,260 new cases, which were
1,417 more than last fiscal year, and 15,262 closed cases, which were 1,517 more than
last fiscal year. Like last year, the number of reopened cases, ninety-five more than last
year, was high.
Table II.—Number of Cases1 Opened and Closed in the District Offices2
from April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Cases Opened during Month
Cases Closed during Month
Increase
Month
New
Reopened
Transferred
In
Total
Opened
Closed
Transferred
Out
Total
Closed
Decrease
in Case
Load
April, 1954	
May, 1954   	
June, 1954    .
1,305
1,058
1,513
984
827
984
974
1,093
944
1,288
1,079
1,211
267
246
242
234
198
208
226
307
257
286
259
262
410
471
402
540
380
403
421
519
394
460
321
514
1,982
1,775
2,157
1,758
1,405
1,595
1,621
1,919
1,595
2,034
1,659
1,987
1,270
2,334
1,424
1,068
1,134
1,066
1,142
1,127
1,030
1,219
1,121
1,327
381
443
399
435
389
345
409
445
368
173
335
447
1,651
2,777
1,823
1,503
1,523
1,411
1,551
1,572
1,398
1,392
1,456
1,774
+331
— 1,002
+334
July, 1954	
+255
August, 1954 _ 	
— 118
September, 1954	
+ 184
October, 1954
+70
+347
December, 1954 __._ — 	
January, 1955 	
February, 1955
+ 197
+642
+203
March, 1955               _	
+213
Totals  	
13,260
2,992
5,235
21,487
15,262
4,569
19,831
+ 1,656
1 Cases are family units.
2 District offices do not include Vancouver City Social Service Department.
Table III.—Categorical Breakdown of Case Load1 by Region as at March 31st, 1954,
and March 31st, 1955
Region I
Region II
Region III
Region IV
Region V
Region VI
Total for
Province
Category of Service
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1954
1955
1          1
1954 I 1955 I 1954
1          1
1955
1
1954 | 1955
1
274
36
1,670
79
1,504
6,454
275
31
1,678
84
1,478
6,582
19
756
81
75
32
15
294
251
4,721
99
5,074
14,728
1,067
87
22
21
8
317
227
4,995
90
4,315
14,643
20
1,185
74
25
14
1
271
34
1,010
74
1,015
3,114
968
27
41
16
4
2
1
18
305
27
1.161
70
982
3,067
21
1,075
36
57
22
1
28
188
19
1,020
54
790
2,418
602
42
55
11
175
14
1,067
52
679
2,419
49
580
27
32
13
242
7
788
62
478
1,358
718
38
27
17
2
5
4
16
323
7
1,015
67
532
1,407
1
820
50
29
27
5
6
4
15
276
83
1,140
71
1,201
3,566
794
33
53
14
55
333
98
1,372
77
1,254
3,679
37
921
37
46
49
62
1
1,5451  1,728
Mothers' Allowance __	
4301     404
10,349|11,288
Blind Persons' Allowance
4391     440
10,062 [ 9,240
Old Age Security bonus and
1
31,638[31,797
_ |      147
796
99
89
28
6
_..._-
1
55
4,9451 5,337
3261     305
287 j     264
1071      157
11 [       4
  1  	
 - 1        1
32 1     33
31|       26
7|         6
	
34
86
1
131
40|         6
92
262!     361
Total Case Load
11,091|11,198|26,492
1           1
26,038
6,595
6,852 |5,242 [5,145
1       !
3,762
4,308 |7,286
1
7,965
60,468]61,506
1
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
The difficulty in securing adequate estimates of population in unorganized areas to
which reference was made last year still exists. Notwithstanding, a categorical breakdown
of case load by regions as a crude gauge of the social distress existent in this Province is
given for the end of the fiscal years 1954 and 1955 in Table III. On analysis the greatest
increase in case load ( + 679) occurred in Region VI; that is, the Valley, where the
greatest influx of people is taking place. The second largest increase (+546) was in
Region V. The other four regions' case loads show either a slight decrease or increase.
Further research would be necessary to determine more positively what correlation there REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 11
is between case load and population. Certainly many other factors as availability of
trained staff, transportation facilities, utilization of resources, climate and weather, and
other socio-economic conditions affect case loads.   The regional reports testify to this.
Several changes in social legislation were effected at the 1955 session of the Legislature. The " Disabled Persons' Allowance Act," mentioned in the 1954 Annual Report,
was proclaimed January 20th, 1955. The " Provincial Infirmaries Act " and " Provincial
Home Act" were amended to bring them under the administration of the Minister of
Health and Welfare. The base of eligibility for admission to the Provincial Home was
broadened considerably. The " Elderly Citizens' Housing Aid Act " (new) passed legislation governing the Government's assistance to municipalities and non-profit organizations in the construction or reconstruction of cottage-type or boarding-home-type homes
for elderly persons of low income.
There were, too, certain significant amendments in regulations and several developments in administration. Dental services for children of families on social assistance were
extended to children under 10 years of age. Payment of a cost-of-living bonus and health
services to Disabled Persons' Allowance recipients on a similar basis to old-age recipients
was provided. The new, modern cottage type of training-school for boys, Brannen Lake
School, was opened in February, 1955.
Other happenings as these are worthy of note. At the fall Pacific National Exhibition,
Vancouver, the Social Welfare Branch display, together with the other Governmental
exhibits, was a special attraction. As a result of the several months' intensive work on
the part of the Committee of Planning Council and of the Social Workers' Salaries Committee, Civil Service positions for social workers were reclassified and salaries revised
upward. Two United Nations Fellows, Mile Elisabeth Ploix, Chief Social Worker, Ministry of Finance Overseas, and Mr. Aly Abdel Rahman Fahmy, Head of Financial
Inspecting Section, Division of Social Services, Ministry of Social Affairs, Egypt, spent
some time studying Branch operations. From the Social Science Department, University
of Nottingham, England, came also Miss Sheelah Forster.
The remaining pages of this Report are an assessment of the year's work in field
and division by the various senior administrative heads. Despite staff shortages which
continue to cause serious concern to Administration, nearly all report some progress.
Unfortunately this has been accomplished largely by many hours of overtime. On the
other hand, some improvement has been effected by a realignment of services within
and a greater effort toward utilization of community resources outside the Branch. The
following quotations from the reports of Regional Administrators and divisional heads
illustrate the special emphasis attributed to community participation:—
" Vancouver Island Private Hospital and Welfare Institutions' Association, recently
formed, has been trying to find ways and means of improving patient care." . . . "The
Kelowna area has been the only area in the region which has built up an organized
housekeeping service." ..." During the year the Vancouver Committee on the Aged
sponsored a series of lectures which were given by doctors and psychologists on chronic
diseases of old people and how these ailments can be treated at home."
In other places throughout this Report additional areas of social welfare requiring
further understanding and support of the local community are mentioned. For example,
on page 74, the Medical Director points out that the very lack of recreational facilities
for old people increases the demand on the medical profession. The Provincial supervisor
of the social services in the Division of Venereal Disease Control, on page 102, states that
" the experiences of the caseworker at the Vancouver Clinic has pointed up the need for
community resources to give a casework service to young people in the 15-34-year age-
group." On page 107, the inadequacy of family casework services for mentally ill patients
on discharge is stated thusly: " From a study in the Social Service Department, approximately 750 patients on discharge are in need of continuing family services. The service
capacity of existing health, welfare, and employment agencies in the Greater Vancouver O 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA
area is already seriously overtaxed. Therefore, the Crease Clinic and its Social Service
Department must provide a follow-up service for these patients whom existing community
agencies cannot serve." The Superintendent of Child Welfare, in reference to some of
the reasons why certain children are not adopted, on page 53, appeals for " the sympathetic understanding of all adults in every community of the Province, or otherwise the
children concerned can never know the desirable security of adoption."
J. A. Sadler,
Director of Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O  13
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE
I beg to submit this report of my activities as Assistant Director during the fiscal
year 1954-55.
As will be seen in the separate chapters of this Annual Report, the purpose of the
Social Welfare Branch is to administer British Columbia's social legislation. The task is
not an easy one, for it is not merely a matter of rendering first aid. It is a matter of
attempting to discover and cure the individual causes of social suffering. The problems
faced by the Branch to-day resolve themselves into four areas of grave social need—
destitution, family breakdown, personality disorder, and the problems of the aged. To
maintain the standard of curative service, a sufficient number of adequately trained professional staff is essential. The decline in enrolment in schools of social work across
Canada, however, has seriously limited the supply of university-trained social workers,
and in order to meet the demands of normal staff turnover the Branch must continue its
programme of in-service training.
This report reveals, in particular, the number and the qualifications of the social-
work staff employed in the year under review and briefly outlines the efforts made to
develop their competence. In addition to the social workers who bring professional services to those in need, the Branch employs stenographic and clerical staff in each district
and divisional office as well as maintenance-workers for the Provincial Home, Girls'
Industrial School, and the new Brannen Lake School for Boys. The total staff was 547
at the end of this fiscal year. It should be mentioned that the processing of appointments,
resignations, leaves of absence, and transfers is a continuing function of the Assistant
Director's office.
The Professional-staff Situation
The following table gives the total staff employed and comparative figures of
university- and in-service-trained men and women at the end of the fiscal year 1954-55.
Men
Women
University
Trained
In-service
Trained
University
Trained
In-service
Trained
Total
48
11
8
51
42
11
9
44
109
25
29
105
44
18
7
55
243
Staff appointed April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955	
Resignations, April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955_-_	
65
53
255
In this fiscal year no actual increase in the establishment of new positions was
approved. The apparent increase was due to the fact that non-Civil Service appointments
were made to replace workers on educational leave.
Two years ago the percentage of university trained was 70 per cent as against
in-service trained of 30 per cent. Last year the former decreased to 64.61 per cent, and
this year, despite a 5.19-per-cent decline in resignations from university-trained workers,
it decreased to 61.17 per cent. Add to this the fact that, on a percentage basis, the
number of graduates of schools of social work employed this year is the same as in former
years. The seriousness of diminishing enrolments in the schools is readily seen. This
agency, as others, must therefore be prepared to do everything possible to hold staff
presently employed to so align its work as to make the best use of its trained people. The
in-service-trained staff meanwhile give a commendable service which, as plans for their
professional education are fulfilled, makes for ultimate stability and strength in holding
and improving standards. O  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following table gives a breakdown of total professional staff according to their
training:—■
Men
Women
Total
16
7
17
4
7
0
4
40
22
2
43
27
2
9
3
52
38
9
60
31
9
9
7
92
Totals           	
95
160
255
STAFF DEVELOPMENT
Staff development is the term used to denote the efforts made by the Branch to
develop the competence of the staff employed. Its purpose is to enable the Branch to
function more effectively through the development of the individual worker's abilities.
This programme is a major aspect of the personnel practices of the Branch, and it is
carried out by the Training Division under the guidance of the Assistant Director.
During the year twenty-nine new appointees received instruction under the revised
in-service training programme. Four three-week introductory sessions were conducted
for these new appointees and, after four to five months of learning the job by doing it
under the supervision provided in district offices, three of these groups to date have
received the final part of the programme—four weeks of further discussion and teaching
in which the knowledge gained thus far is consolidated.
All elements of the staff-development programme are immediately and closely
related to the services the Branch gives. A most important part of staff development is
the day-to-day supervision given the social workers in the district offices. The supervisors, who have both professional training and experience in the Branch, act as teachers
and consultants while at the same time carrying out heavy administrative duties. Situations frequently arise which are so complex that the workers who have training and
experience need to test their judgment against that of another whose knowledge is greater.
The social workers beginning their careers depend upon the supervisor to relate theory
to practice, hence effecting an integration of knowledge and experience which is the
agency's responsibility in education for social work.
As one means of helping these supervisors to improve the special skills required in
supervision, the Branch annually arranges a week-long institute or short training course.
This year the institute was conducted by Mr. Arthur Abrahamson, Associate Professor
of the School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia, supervisors from both
the field and divisional staffs benefiting from his able teaching. To make possible a continuation of the studies initiated by Mr. Abrahamson, the supervisors this year constituted
themselves as an organized group. Intercommunication on matters having to do solely
with their own development as supervisors is maintained through executive members,
a nucleus located in Vancouver being responsible for planning and circulating material
and ideas for study. The Training Supervisor acts as secretary to this group and as
liaison between it and the Planning Council of the Branch.
Educational leaves of absence have been maintained during this year, fourteen
members of staff being granted such leave. Seven of these were in-service trained, three
receiving a Branch bursary. Five of the remainder were social workers or supervisors
holding the Bachelor of Social Work degree on leave to obtain the Master of Social Work
degree, and two were administrators receiving advanced courses at American schools.
One of the supervisors obtaining the Master of Social Work degree was awarded one of REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O  15
the Federal Mental Health bursaries available to the Provincial Mental Health Services.
This supervisor will return to the field on completion of his study. The Branch appreciates this co-operation on the part of the administrators of the Province's Mental Health
Services, which underlines the importance they attach to the field service as a means of
strengthening community agencies.
To facilitate a better use of the Branch library, a new catalogue was prepared by
the Training Supervisor, containing indexed lists of reading from professional journals.
The library has been well used this year, and with the new catalogue in each office it
should be of greater value in the coming year.
A pamphlet on staff meetings was prepared by the Training Supervisor, later published by the Canadian Welfare Council. This material has given new impetus to staff
meetings, which are considered an essential means of interpreting and testing policies and
for inducing participation by the whole staff in the shaping of new policies. This is one
of the subjects the supervisors will continue to analyse in the next year, with special
emphasis on the value of such meetings in staff development.
CONCLUSION
This year has seen many major changes in senior positions in the Branch. The
natural regret in losing, by his well-earned retirement, the wisdom and steady direction
of the Deputy Minister, Mr. E. W. Griffith, was offset by the appointment of Mr. C. W.
Lundy, the former Director of Welfare to that responsible post. Throughout the Branch,
these changes, and others they made necessary, occasioned no interruption in the loyalties
which make the day-to-day work of this Branch that of a dedicated team.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare.
\ O 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
REGION I
I beg to submit the annual report for the fiscal year 1954-55, which outlines statistical information and gives a resume of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region I.
As previously, Vancouver Island, near-by islands, and a northern strip of mainland
coast comprise the region. Although the land area — that is, 13,000 square miles
roughly — is the same, the population has increased proportionately with that of the
Province. It has reached in round figures 244,000 persons. About half of these people
live in the very southerly part—the Victoria-Saanich area. The remainder are strung
mostly along the east coast as far north as Campbell River, with two large central settlements at Nanaimo and at the head of the Alberni Canal. The mountainous interior is
nearly unoccupied. The northern and western coasts have a few sparse communities,
chiefly concerned with logging and fishing.
Lumber, pulp, paper, and coal are the major products, with fish, dairy, and poultry
produce secondary. The tourist trade continues to flourish. However, as some of the
industries are more or less seasonal, social welfare is directly affected.
The staff consisted of thirty-one social workers and four supervisors. The case load
as at March 31st, 1955, was 11,198, a slight increase over 1954. As last year, there
were seven administrative offices (five Provincial and two municipal). Table I shows the
distribution of the case load by major category of services among the seven offices.
Table I.—Analysis of Case Load1 by Major Categories of Services in the District
Administrative Offices of Region I as at March 31st, 1955
Category
Alberni
Courtenay
Duncan
Nanaimo
Saanich
Victoria
City
Victoria
District
Total
Family Service 	
50
2
124
4
100
328
4
90
24
64
1
186
6
147
515
1
193
39
37
5
121
7
142
473
3
120
34
71
5
322
17
289
1,051
222
34
3
140
7
165
976
2
32
2
15
547
29
431
2,195
3
	
79
51
238
14
204
1,044
6
131
53
275
31
1,678
84
1,478
Old Age Security 	
Disabled Persons' Allowance	
Child Welfare
6,582
19
756
295
Totals 	
726
1,152
942
2,011
1,325
3,301
1,741
11,198
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
A comparison with the case load as at March 31st, 1954, showed there was an
increase of 107 cases. However, during the year under review there were 2,118 new
reopened or transferred in cases. This sizeable figure of 2,118 additional cases with
only a net increase of 107 cases for the year indicated the volume of work involved in
dealing with new cases, cases for suspension, transferring out, and for closing.
As in previous years, the processing of applications for Old-age Assistance and
Old Age Security cases predominated, with applications from persons for financial aid
the second largest number. Requests for services under child welfare legislation and
for family services were relatively high. Five hundred and twenty-seven new cases were
attended to under child welfare—unmarried mothers, children placed in foster homes,
children placed for adoption, approval of adoption, and foster homes.
The increase in Mothers' Allowance and Social Allowance rates, which went into
effect April lst, 1954, certainly proved most helpful to the persons receiving social aid.
The increases were $5 per month for single individuals, $7 per month for two persons, REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O  17
and $2 per month for each additional dependent. The expenditure for Social Allowance
cases for the year for the region amounted to $1,063,628.29. Included in this figure
was an amount of $11,865.53 paid out to unemployed employables—202 families and
forty-two single individuals.
It is pleasing to report that the bed accommodation in nursing homes was increased
by the opening of the Victoria Nursing Home and the private hospital at Cobble Hill,
Duncan. However, the ever-pressing need of sheltered accommodation for elderly
persons who, due to physical infirmities, cannot look after their own requirements continued as in past years. Records show that 383 new placements were made, and of this
number, eighty-two individuals of necessity had to leave their own locality and go into
other areas where accommodation suitable to their needs could be found. At the close
of the year the resources for accommodation were thirteen private hospitals with a bed
capacity of 380 and forty-one licensed boarding homes with accommodation for 520
individuals. The Social Welfare Branch, as at March 31st, 1955, was contributing to
the care of 456 individuals in boarding homes and nursing homes. Worthy of special
comment was the fact that the Vancouver Island Private Hospital and Welfare Institutions Association, recently formed, has been trying to find ways and means of improving
patient-care to the individuals who were more or less confined to bed or confined to the
home. Their plan was to include, with improved patient-care, recreational activity and
entertainment. The municipal welfare administrator for Saanich has been very active in
promoting, with organized groups in the municipality, picnics and sightseeing trips by
bus and private car for those patients who are able to take part. The problem of old
age encompasses many fields; many situations present individual problems and needs,
particularly in regard to proper accommodation. On many occasions during the year,
situations were faced where an elderly pensioner, or a person on social assistance, needed
sheltered care, but at the time no accommodation was available. These situations were
met, if no other resources were available, by arranging for care in the home of the client
through the services of housekeepers. Twenty-four housekeepers were used in this
way. The rate paid by the Branch for maintenance of the aged in boarding and nursing
homes appeared to be in keeping with the service given. However, the staff has been
constantly faced with the problem of the person who needed more than ordinary care
yet did not require full nursing care. For example, Mrs. X. was 86 years old, mentally
alert but memory was defective; she was a bit unsteady on her feet and needed supervision against falls and possible fractures as she did go out walking frequently. She
could dress and feed herself, and was always neat. There were many others who were
either incontinent or noisy at nights, or confused and inclined to wander away during
the night, requiring considerable supervision. For these cases, nursing care was not
required, but boarding-home operators did not want them at prevailing rates; therefore, placements had to be made in selective boarding homes at a rate commensurate
with the degree of care required.
The twenty-three municipalities (eight cities, five district municipalities, and ten
villages) had an estimated population of 159,000. As stated previously, only the larger
municipalities of Victoria and Saanich have amalgamated social welfare offices. The
remaining twenty-one paid the Branch the per capita charge of 15 cents. Seven villages
were still exempt from payment for welfare services due to small land-tax revenue.
Table II shows the status of the areas in the region (under the " Social Assistance
Act") regarding social welfare administration, and also figures on population (1951
census) and welfare case loads in the area. O 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Analysis of Case Loads1 in the Municipalities of Region I as Related to the
Administrative Plan (Section 6 of the Regulations under the " Social Assistance
Act "), as at March 31st, 1955.
Population,
1951 Census
Welfare Services
Per
Capita
Plan
Amalgamated
Plan
Welfare
Case Load
Village of Campbell River-
City of Cumberland	
City of Courtenay	
City of Port Alberni... _
City of Alberni _
City of Nanaimo ___ 	
City of Ladysmith	
Municipality of North Cowichan	
City of Duncan      	
Village of Lake Cowichan 	
Village of Qualicum Beach	
Municipality of Esquimalt  	
Municipal'.ty of Central Saanich	
Municipality of Oak Bay	
Municipality of Saanich „ 	
City of Victoria  	
Village of Alert Bay 	
Village of Comox  	
Village of Parksville	
Village of Sidney	
Village of Tofino 	
Village ofUcluelet    	
Village of Zeballos 	
Case load in organized territory	
Case load in unorganized territory ..
Total case load for region..
,986
971
553
.845
,323
.601
.094
665
784
,628
771
.153
069
960
481
331
638
714
882
,035
302
444
283
63
61
113
272
143
829
113
303
159
37
18
243
94
271
1,325
3,301
7,345
3,853
11,198
1 Case loads are the total of family units and shared services.
As last year, the skipper and social worker on board the Branch launch M.V.
" Shiely " sailed some 6,000 nautical miles. Their services were much appreciated by the
scattered communities on the Gulf Islands and northern mainland coast.
Employment in the region compared favourably with the previous year, there being
shut-downs in industry of only short duration due to weather conditions. Snow at its
higher levels in the winter months curtailed logging operations, and the adverse summer
weather affected the tourist trade generally. The general outlook for increased employment is favourable with the announcement made by McMillan & Bloedel of their intentions
to expand their operations by enlarging the pulp-mill, and also the announcement of the
extension of the paper-mill at Duncan Bay, north of Campbell River.
On November 24th, 25th, and 26th, 1954, the social workers, district supervisors,
and welfare administrators of this region gathered together in the City of Victoria for
a regional staff meeting. They were very pleased to have present for the official opening
the Minister of Health and Welfare, the Honourable Eric C. F. Martin and his deputy,
Mr. C. W. Lundy. Mr. Martin spoke briefly on instances of welfare to the group and
wished them well in their deliberations for the three-day conference. Very active participation was taken by the thirty-five persons present. The theme of the conference was
"Child Welfare—Implications of Protection." Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent of
Child Welfare, was the discussion leader. All felt this meeting was of great value, not
only in ironing out day-to-day problems, but in further co-ordinating work of field,
divisions, and general administration.
In conclusion, may I say once again the Branch members, together with the municipal
employees, have tried to the best of their ability to serve their communities.    I sincerely
acknowledge on their behalf the assistance received from other agencies.
Respectfully submitted. ___  T   _
E. L. RlMMER,
Regional Administrator. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O  19
REGION II
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region II for the fiscal year 1954-55:—
The general geographic boundaries of this region remained the same as last year,
with a minor change within the boundaries. The area covered included the west coast of
the Province (except the districts around Margaret Bay and Rivers Inlet) up to and
including Ocean Falls, as well as the Lower Mainland to the Pitt River on the north side
of the Fraser River and the Municipality of Delta on the south side of the Fraser River.
Margaret Bay and Rivers Inlet were inaccessible from the Vancouver district office and
were transferred to Region I in June, 1954, because they could be covered by the worker
in that region with the use of the Social Welfare Branch launch M.V. " Shiely."
The movement of population within the boundaries of the municipalities surrounding
Vancouver City has been extensive during the present fiscal year. Many new subdivisions
have been developed in these municipalities which has encouraged this movement of
population. The resultant steady increase in some categories of the case loads has
been quite noticeable, and this increase is expected to continue with further suburban
developments.
Following is a comparison of total case loads for the region by categories as at
March 31st, 1954, and March 31st, 1955:—
Comparison of Case Load1 by Categories as at March 31st for the
Years 1954 and 1955
Category of Service Mar. 31, 1954 Mar. 31, 1955
Family Division—
Family Service        287 303
Mothers' Allowance         250 225
Social Allowance     4,639 5,956
Divisional total     5,176   ' 6,484
Old-age Division—
Old-age Assistance and Blind
Persons' Allowance     4,797 4,063
Old Age Security bonus  13,808 13,724
Disability Allowance    20
Divisional total  18,605  ' 17,807
Child Welfare Division—
Adoption homes pending         167 130
Adoption homes approved,- 59 68
Children in adoption homes .160 190
Children in care        177 229
Foster homes pending  72 62
Foster homes approved  99 158
Protection of children      61 51
Unmarried parents, children
of        232 254
Special services  8 8
Divisional total     1,035 1,150
Other divisions—Tuberculosis, Child Guidance Clinic, Crease Clinic, Provincial
Mental Hospital, etc        162 166
Regional totals  24,978 25,607
Case load is the number of family units. O 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
It is readily recognized from the above figures that the increase in case loads is in the
divisions administering service to families and children. If the Branch is to continue to
provide the help needed in these categories, further increases in staff will have to be
provided.
Many staff changes took place during the year. A change in the position of Regional
Administrator took place in December, 1954. Two supervisors were moved to temporary
positions, one outside the region and one to the Girls' Industrial School. One of the
above positions was filled by a worker within the region, and the other position remained
vacant until the end of the year. Burnaby municipal staff was increased by one worker.
Three Provincial staff members were transferred from the Vancouver City Social Service
Department to the Old-age Assistance office to handle the intake work in connection with
new applications for Old-age Assistance, Old Age Security and bonus, and Disability
Allowances in Vancouver City.
Casework services continued to emphasize rehabilitation of people, and extra funds
were provided to enable individuals to take special training. Each individual who has
benefitted this way means a saving in public funds and, more important, an asset to his
own community.
There has been some improvement in the nursing-home situation during the past
year. Nursing-home beds, however, are still urgently needed, and steps will have to be
taken to encourage more private hospitals to offer their services within the region. Some
plans are already under way in this connection.
The unemployment situation was most serious during the past winter.   The burden
of this responsibility fell on the Vancouver City Social Service Department, whose normal
programme and work had to be seriously curtailed in order to meet the demands of
screening applications of the unemployed employables.    Unemployed from other areas
came to Vancouver in the hopes of finding work, and when this was not available, sought
assistance through city agencies.    Heavy demands were also made on private-agency
funds to meet emergency situations to prevent actual suffering and want.   The situation
could again be serious in the winter months of 1955-56 unless adequate early provisions
are made to meet the situation.
Respectfully submitted. _   __
r J R. Talbot,
Regional Administrator.
REGION III
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region III for the fiscal year 1954-55.
There was a continued gradual increase in population in this region, which included
the Okanagan area, Merritt, Princeton, Kamloops, Clinton, Bralorne, and surrounding
districts. There were no changes in the regional boundaries during the year, but a sub-
office was opened in Oliver when a social worker moved from Penticton in order to give
better service to the community of Oliver and surrounding district.
Following is a comparison of total case loads for the region by categories as at March
31st, 1954, and March 31st, 1955:— REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 21
Comparison of Case Load1 by Categories of Region III, as at March 31st,
for the Years 1954 and 1955
Category of Service                                                             Mar. 31, 1954 Mar. 31, 1955
Family Service      271 305
Mothers' Allowance        34 27
Social Allowance  1,010 1,161
  1,044   1,188
Blind Persons' Allowance        74 70
Old-age Assistance  1,015 982
Old Age Security bonus  3,114 3,067
Disabled Persons' Allowance      21
  4,203   4,140
Adoption homes pending  84 101
Adoption homes approved  90 97
Children in adoption homes  128 129
Children in care  301 324
Foster homes pending  51 71
Foster homes approved  205 217
Protection of children  23 33
Unmarried parents, children of  85 100
Special services  1 3
      968   1,075
Tuberculosis Division  27 36
Child Guidance Clinic  5 11
Crease Clinic  14 16
Provincial Mental Hospital  19 30
Collections   16 22
Hospital clearance  4 1
Provincial Home   2                       	
Provincial Infirmary  1                       	
Welfare institutions        18 28
The Woodlands School  3 	
      109       144
Totals  6,595 6,852
1 Case load is the total of family units and shared services.
As can be seen from the above, there was a total increase of 257 cases at March
31st, 1955, over March 31st, 1954. This represents a 3.9-per-cent increase. There were
actually 3,041 new, reopened, and transferred-in cases, and 2,784 cases were closed or
transferred out. The Child Welfare case load showed a percentage increase of 10.8.
Blind Pension, Old-age Assistance, and Old Age Security bonus cases were down 1.9
per cent; however, at the end of the year there were twenty-one new applications pending
for the new Disabled Persons' Allowance. Social Allowance cases showed a total increase
of 14.3 per cent; the number of cases increased from 1,010 cases to 1,161. It has been
interesting.to note that there was an increase of 16.9 per cent in the four municipally
administered cities and 14 per cent in the districts. This was believed to be accounted for
by the fact that the cities were growing faster than the rural areas. The Family Service
case load increased 12.2 per cent. This was partly accounted for by increased population
and greater awareness of the availability of family counselling service.
Economic conditions throughout the region have been fairly stable during the year.
There was the usual seasonal increase in employment in the late summer and early fall
during fruit-harvesting time, and a drop in employment during the winter.    However, O 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
neither was very great. Assistance was granted to needy unemployed persons as required
from social assistance funds. It should be noted, however, that the Cities of Kamloops,
Vernon, Kelowna, and Penticton for some years have each had schemes whereby meal
tickets and beds were issued to single unemployed and transients. In each city the plan
was administered differently, but was financed entirely by voluntary and municipal funds.
There was a lack of social resources to assist and support the Social Welfare Branch
programme in Region III. There were no private hospitals (nursing homes) in Region
III. The nursing-home cases that were cared for within the region were cared for in
private homes taking only one person, for which they did not require a private-hospital
licence.
In the Kamloops district the staff has been working toward building up more community resources. At the present time there has been great difficulty in securing boarding homes or housekeepers, although adopting parents and foster-parents have been
helpful in the latter.   Service clubs also, when called upon, have been most helpful.
The community resources in the Vernon area have not been as fully used as they
might be, although service clubs have helped in particular cases. There continued to be
a lack of suitable boarding homes for the non-senile aged, and also of boarding homes
and foster homes especially for the teen-age group, although the ministerial association
has been most helpful in finding foster homes. The Unemployment Insurance Commission has been of assistance in many cases, but there was considerable difficulty in finding
suitable housekeepers. The Salvation Army and the Canadian Legion have proved most
helpful, and there was a good liaison with the Department of Veterans' Affairs.
In the Penticton area the staff has worked more closely with the community welfare
organizations, to the eventual benefit of their clients. The local community services have
been very helpful in cases where temporary assistance has been needed to provide help
where eligibility for public assistance was not established. With regard to the care of
old people, an excellent resource has been developed in the Valley View Lodge, a boarding home for old people in Penticton. The lodge has been in operation since January,
1955, and there have been about thirty-eight elderly people in residence. The lodge
contains forty-six single and seventeen double rooms. It was operated by a group of
private citizens under the " Societies Act," and the funds for its purchase and equipping
were raised locally. There was a start of a co-operative community move toward something similar in Oliver, where there was already a number of licensed boarding homes
for older people. There has been a need for a private hospital in this area. Of course,
the more boarding homes that are opened up, the more need there will eventually be for
an institution giving bed care.
The Kelowna area has been the only area in the region which has built up an organized housekeeping service. This excellent resource was made use of both in the care of
children when the mothers were ill and the care of old people.
With the belief that statistics and general descriptions have not properly described
the types of services given by the Social Welfare Branch, the following summaries of three
cases have been submitted.
The first case shows where community interest and financial assistance has enabled
a ward to attend university. Jack was taken into care by a Children's Aid Society and
moved to this region when an infant. He experienced several placements until he was
11 years of age, and then was placed in a home which encouraged and stimulated him
greatly in his academic work. He had always shown good ability in his school work and
had expressed a desire to enter a profession. When half-way through high school, he
became discouraged over finances. With the interest and help of his foster-mother, minister, and social worker, he was encouraged to apply for a service club scholarship. Jack
won the scholarship. During the summer he worked and saved enough to care for all
his incidental expenditures.    The Branch assumed responsibility for his clothing and REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 23
maintenance. The result of this combined effort and especially the industry of Jack
was that he successfully completed his first year at university.
The second case is an example of where the use of Social Allowance plus retraining
has assisted a young girl with marked physical disabilities toward becoming self-supporting. Miss B. applied for financial assistance some years ago. While she was applying
for financial assistance, it also appeared that she was requesting help with personal
problems.
Miss B. was extremely shy and completely lacking in confidence. She had been
sheltered all her life and, because of her feelings toward her family, her sense of independence had been crushed, and she became quite apathetic. Through the constant interest
and understanding help of the social worker, she began to understand and accept her
problems, and thereby gained some assurance of herself. As her physical condition
improved, Miss B. gained in self-confidence.
In order to assist Miss B. to become independent of her family, employment was
found for her elsewhere. After several months she returned home in order to test her
progress in solving her personal and family problems. Finally she had achieved sufficient
adjustment in her personal problems to commence the initial vocational course she had
desired.   Without help, undoubtedly Miss B. would likely have been dependent for life.
Alice was an erratic, unstable, and unrealistic girl when she applied for foster-home
care for her child born to her out of wedlock. She was on Social Allowance from another
district and had just moved to this area. There was only one point on which Alice was
clear and decisive, and that was on her determination to keep her child.
A foster home was found for the infant, who was fretful, highly nervous, and
excitable, with calm, experienced foster-parents. Alice was encouraged to visit her child
frequently. Gradually, with the help and guidance of the social worker and the foster-
mother who kept in constant touch with one another, she learned to handle her baby
intelligently and competently. In addition, with encouragement and support she finally
reached the point, after losing several jobs, where she was able to take and hold a position
which required perseverence and reliability. After a period of eighteen months she was
able to assume the full responsibility for the care of her baby.
Respectfully submitted. R L Stringer>
Regional Administrator.
REGION IV
I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare
Branch in Region IV for the fiscal year 1954-55.
There have been no changes in the geographical boundaries of the region during
the year, nor were there any new offices opened. The population increased in most
areas, resulting in a greater volume of work for the staff. All municipalities responsible
for administration of their local areas remained on the per capita basis. As at January
lst, 1955, Slocan City assumed administration for its cases, with the Branch providing
the social-work services. Prior to this, Slocan City paid the per capita rate and was
exempt its shareable costs and the administration of its cases. It now is the same as
the other responsible areas in the region. There was every indication that one or two
villages will reach the point where they will be required to administer and share in
welfare costs in the near future, and a start has been made with them in preparation of
this happening.
The economic picture throughout the year was not too bright, but toward the end
conditions improved and appeared fairly hopeful for the coming year. During the period
covered, unemployment increased in all areas, resulting in many more requests to the O 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Branch, both financial and otherwise. The granting of assistance to this group—namely,
the unemployed employables—was both time-consuming and costly. Many transients
passed through the region in search of employment, and as some were not covered by
unemployment insurance, it was necessary to grant assistance, especially to those with
families.
As at March 31st, 1955, the case load, including shared services, totalled 5,145,
which represented a decrease of approximately 100 cases over March 31st, 1954. However, due to an increase in basic rates of allowances, and the unemployed employable
grants, costs for the year increased.
Co-operation with officials in rural communities has been quite good. Doctors,
church organizations, and others have helped in many ways, yet throughout the region,
both rural and urban, an even fuller understanding of the aims and also of the limitations in the field of social work is needed. During the year seven organizations invited
members of the staff to speak to their groups, and it was hoped that in the coming year
even more friendly relationships and understanding will be achieved.
In scattered areas local resources were few, but local residents often helped in
various ways. For example, local residents in one area hauled and cut the winter's
supply of fuel for a couple receiving Old Age Security whose activities, for health
reasons, were greatly curtailed. It was this sort of thing in more or less isolated areas
that meant much to the recipient, and also the neighbours doing these things derived a
great deal of satisfaction from doing it.
As a further illustration of community co-operation and real worth-while effort,
the following was a good example.
This spring the Strathcona Hotel in Nelson burned to the ground. It is most
regrettable that six people lost their lives in this fire, and the others, forty-five in number,
lost all their personal possessions. The fire started shortly after midnight, when all the
tenants had retired for the night. In a very short time the building was a mass of
flames, and rescue of residents was a very difficult undertaking. The fire department,
police, and others did a splendid job under harrowing circumstances. Immediate accommodation for the rescued was provided by the Canadian Legion and other organizations
and individuals. The next morning Mayor Kary of Nelson called a meeting of citizens
and organizations, at which the Branch was represented. The Honourable Wesley
Black, Provincial Secretary, was in Nelson at the time and attended the meeting. He
arranged for the Civil Defence Co-ordinator for British Columbia, Major-General Stein,
to come to Nelson. This he did, and on arrival stated that everything was very well
organized and functioning well. The Honourable Mr. Black arranged a donation from
the Provincial Government and, during his time here after the disaster, was not only
active in connection with the problem, but was also available at any time for discussions.
As well as the General Committee, separate ones covering housing, clothing, finance,
etc., were set up. The banks and the Nelson Daily News volunteered to accept donations
at their offices. A total of $11,000 was realized, the Provincial Government donating
$1,000 and the City of Nelson $500. Donations came in from many areas, for example,
Calgary, Vancouver, and the Kootenays, etc. It was noted that former Nelson residents
contributed generously. Temporary shelter was found the night of the fire, and all
Nelson organizations and private citizens helped greatly in providing the necessary
permanent shelter and care. A few of the victims left the area, but the others were
soon settled in permanent quarters. The Clothing Committee appealed for clothing,
and the response was amazing. The widow of one of the fire victims and her large
young family were of special concern to all, and out of the money raised, a trust fund
of $2,000 for the children's education was set up and administered by local representatives. The committees worked very well together, and their efforts, aided by many
officials and volunteers, resulted in an outstanding job being done. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 25
Mount St. Francis Nursing Home, located just outside the boundaries of Nelson,
continues to function efficiently and meet the needs of its residents in many ways. At
present there are 102 patients, of whom eighty-three are Social Welfare Branch clients.
Service clubs such as the Kiwanis, Lions, and other groups have been active in providing
added comforts and equipment. There is a possibility that another story may be added
to the building, and as the provision in construction was made to do this if the need
were proved, there is hope that some day this may be done.
The Nelson City hostel for men continued to function well, and here, also, organizations such as the I.O.D.E., Soroptomists, and others have taken interest in its people,
providing extras, visits, etc. The Jaycettes recently provided a television set, which
gives much pleasure to the residents.
There was need for more boarding homes throughout the region, but these were
difficult to locate, especially in outlying areas. Many cases, both nursing and boarding
home, preferred to be in or near the area where they have lived for so many years.
Their friends of long standing and relatives were close by, and the thought of leaving
them was something they considered very anxiously. If it were possible to establish
small boarding homes in certain strategic areas where this difficulty could be overcome,
it was felt that more would accept this type of care that so often is necessary for their
comfort and well-being.
Requests for housekeeping services fluctuated, and the period of time for which
such service was necessary varied constantly. At times it has been difficult to find
suitable housekeepers, but in most cases the workers have been successful.
There were twelve hospitals throughout the area, with the occasional Red Cross
outpost. Throughout the whole region the public health units of the Health Branch
gave an excellent service. Nelson City has been negotiating for a new hospital. A site
has been chosen and plans have been drawn. When completed, this hospital will give
more modern and up-to-date care than at present is possible. Castlegar has been considering building its first hospital, and with the Celgar Corporation planning extensive
operations up the Arrow Lakes region from there, it could prove to be a real necessity.
Trail's new modern hospital was opened during the year, and as it was in the heart
of the largest concentration of population and industry, it filled a great need.
It can be reported that the Sons of Freedom group of the Doukhobor faith by the
end of the year had more children in school on a voluntary basis than previously. It
was hoped that this trend would continue and the long-range programme now in effect
might lead to better understanding on the part of all of the whole Doukhobor problem.
This year re-emphasized the fact that adequate well-trained staff could make real
progress in all matters pertaining to welfare, and while they were not always successful
in achieving their goal, the possibility of doing so would be increased if more staff were
available. Staff shortages as a rule nullified or greatly delayed the work previously
done, but continuity of adequate trained staff would result in not only better service,
but would produce better results.
Throughout the year the Branch has had the fullest co-operation from municipal,
Provincial, and Federal bodies. Local organizations in all areas have been of real help
in many ways. Through this co-operation and support the whole region has benefited,
and their assistance is hereby sincerely acknowledged.
Respectfully submitted.
J. W. Smith,
Regional Administrator. O 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REGION V
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region V for the fiscal year 1954-55.
Population and economic activity in this northern region continue to increase
rapidly. Although no new municipalities had sufficient tax-revenue increases to the point
where they would become responsible for welfare costs, the three municipalities of Burns
Lake, Fort St. John, and Williams Lake are expected to achieve that status next year.
Following is a comparison of total case loads for the region by categories, as of
March, 1954, and March 1955:—
Comparison of Case Load1 by Categories of Region V, as at March 31st,
for the Years 1954 and 1955
Category of Service Mar. 31, 1954 Mar. 31, 1955
Family Service       242 323
Mothers' Allowance   7 7
Social Allowance      788 1,015
      795   1,022
Blind Persons' Allowance        62 67
Old-age Assistance      478 532
Old Age Security bonus  1,358 1,407
  1,898   2,006
Disabled Persons     1
Adoption homes pending        90 106
Adoption homes approved         36 38
Children in adoption homes      113 115
Children in care      176 224
Foster homes pending        51 58
Foster homes approved      101 141
Protection of children        60 50
Unmarried parents, children of        88 86
Special services           3 2
      718       820
Tuberculosis Division        38 50
Child Guidance Clinic          2 4
Crease Clinic        10 9
Provincial Mental Hospital        15 13
The Woodlands School  3
Collections         17 27
Hospital clearance          2 5
Provincial Home          5 6
Provincial Infirmary          4 4
Welfare institutions         16 15
      109       136
Totals   3,762 4,308
1 Case load is the total of family units and services.
Commensurate with the increase in population has been the increased demand for
services. Case loads at the end of the fiscal year showed an increase of 546 cases, or
14.5 per cent. This was most noticeable in Family Services, which increased 33.5 per
cent, and in Mothers' Allowances and Social Allowances, which increased 28.6 per cent.
The sundry services to clients with physical and mental-health problems increased 25.7
per cent, child welfare 14.2 per cent, and financial assistance to the disabled (inclusive of
blind) and aged, 5.7 per cent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 27
During the year there were 3,497 new services to clients initiated and 2,951 services
completed. The maintenance of services on this scale was made particularly difficult by
a high turnover of staff. Of a social-work staff of fourteen workers and three supervisors
as of April, 1954, seven workers and one supervisor left through transfer or resignation
and required replacement. Changes of staff on this scale, coupled with the vast areas
each worker must serve and the difficulties of transportation in many areas, have made
the problem of maintaining services particularly acute.
The appointment of an additional social worker to the Prince George office and one
to the Terrace office was a great help. This and the industry of all staff have enabled
the maintenance of a reasonable standard of service to clients in need.
The clerical and stenographic staff, which has been equally hard hit by turnover of
personnel, has responded equally as well as the social-work staff, and the Regional
Administrator wishes to take this opportunity to commend them, one and all.
A significant factor with staff in this region arises from the lack of contact with the
other social workers. This results in lack of opportunity for improvement in the skills
and techniques of their profession. The annual staff meeting is the most important means
of countering it. This year the meeting was held in Prince George on September 8th, 9th,
and 10th, and dealt with " Psychiatric Factors in Case Work in Public Welfare." Papers
were presented by individual workers and received full discussion with the help of the
Provincial Supervisor of Psychiatric Division, who also presented a paper on the value
and use of social histories and follow-up reports in mental hospitals and child guidance
clinics.
The value of this type of meeting was attested to by all. The more complete
knowledge of mental health the social worker has, the better he or she is equipped to
handle all types of problems coming to his or her attention.
Respectfully submitted. V H n
Regional Administrator.
REGION VI
I beg to submit the following annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare
Branch in Region VI for the fiscal year 1954-55.
This has been another year in which the population growth and development of the
Fraser Valley was readily observed. This population increase has been partially balanced
by a suitable increase in the social services and public utilities.
The rapid changes in the Fraser Valley are substantiating the vision of the Lower
Mainland Regional Planning Board that foresaw it as a suburb of the coastal cities. The
population increase is altering the character of the Valley as farm lands are subdivided to
provide for housing developments. The small rural communities surrounding a general
store and gas-station that have existed for years have become organized settlements and
older settlements are now considering incorporation as cities.
This development has brought its economic and social changes to Region VI.
Farming has become intensified as the farm land is reduced in acreage. Where social
change was formerly retarded due to an agriculturally geared community, now the
influences of urban life are more readily felt in the Valley communities.
Manufacturing has been increasing, thus affording a stable resource to family
incomes, changing the basis of the family economy from seasonal employment to a more
permanent type of employment.
" Commuters' specials " are advertised by the bus lines from Surrey and Maple
Ridge districts to New Westminster and Vancouver. It is reported that 350 private cars
travel each day from White Rock alone, carrying workers to employment in the Vancouver and metropolitan areas.   Calculations have been made that the Maple Ridge popula-
I O 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
tion is growing at the rate of 1,000 individuals a year, which is principally accounted for
by it becoming the home of commuters.
Families suffering with social problems would appear to believe that semi-rural
living was the panacea for social ills. As a result, the case load for the region as at
March 31st, 1955, had increased 679 cases over the case load as at March 31st, 1954.
This represented an increase of 221 over the increase of the previous fiscal year. The
total regional case load as at March 31st, 1955, was 7,965 cases.
The social services have been increased partially to meet this growth of the case load.
Forty additional boarding-home beds were licensed by the Welfare Institutions Licensing
Board. This gave some assistance to elderly and convalescent people. However, there
were only nine nursing-home beds added in the past year to relieve the growing request
for removal of chronic patients from acute hospitals.
Welfare institution licences were granted for the care of seventy children in private
homes and kindergartens. This has only relieved partially the problem of substitute care
of children.   The need for foster homes has continued to press the social workers.
The population growth in the Township of Chilliwhack resulted in the opening of
an amalgamated Social Welfare office in that municipality. An additional social worker
was appointed as a co-worker with the Administrator-social worker.
In the Municipality of Surrey the position of Administrator-Supervisor was separated, and a full-time Social Welfare Administrator was appointed. The case-load
growth has necessitated the making of definite plans to establish two sub-offices in order
to improve the service to the clients.
Additional social workers were needed in the Social Welfare Branch offices at
Abbotsford and Haney. The incorporation of Langley City created a social case load
that was serviced from Abbotsford by staff members who were already pressured by
growing case loads. With the growth of the Maple Ridge population, mentioned above,
the point had long since been passed when another social worker was needed if the
present high quality of service was to be maintained.
The growth in population of the Fraser Valley and the proportionate increase in the
social case load has been met in part by additional social service resources.
The three-day annual staff meeting for Region VI, held in March, was highlighted
by a full one-day casework institute led by Mr. Arthur Abrahamson of the School of
Social Work, with the practical topic of " Social Casework in a Public Agency." The
teaching content and discussion were likewise practical and afforded the staff members an
opportunity to know the value of a sound social diagnostic skill. Such a quick and sharp
perception of social problems was seen to be not only good economy of time and tax
money, but also a better service to clients.
A feature of the meeting suggested a focus for future staff meetings. The local
Probation Officer and the National Film Board representative joined in planned discussions and brought a realization to the group that other community agencies have a part
to play in a family's social rehabilitation. One of the functions of a professional social
worker, therefore, appeared to be community organization but has been frequently the one
that has been least emphasized. A period of an annual staff meeting devoted to discussion
of a family situation by representatives of the church, school, judiciary, and public health
would serve to help workers realize their forgotten function of community organization
and would be a practical demonstation of that aspect of social work.
Without the ready and sincere co-operation of the municipal officials, the public
health personnel, the Probation Officers, and the policemen, the work of the Social
Welfare Branch in Region VI in this fiscal year would have been most difficult. Good
relationships with these officials have been enjoyed. The loyalty and energy of the social
workers and district supervisors has made the past year's service to the clients both
efficient and effective.
Respectfully submitted. A Q MoRRISON;
Acting Regional Administrator. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 29
PART II.—DIVISIONAL ADMINISTRATION
FAMILY DIVISION
I wish to present the report of the Family Division, which is concerned with the
services rendered to families and individuals by the Social Welfare Branch within the
provisions of the " Social Assistance Act," the " Mothers' Allowances Act," and the
Family Service programme, for the fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955.
SOCIAL ALLOWANCES SECTION
Again the significant factor has been the sharp rise in the number of recipients during
the winter months and up to the end of the fiscal year and the fact that the increase
commenced one month earlier than in the previous fiscal year. This was partly due to
the fact that this year it became necessary to institute a temporary programme of assistance to unemployed employable persons, granted under specific and restricted provisions,
to heads of families and to single men. This experience would suggest the need for some
general programme of unemployment assistance for those who are ineligible for or have
exhausted their unemployment insurance benefits, or who do not ordinarily qualify for
other assistance programmes, because even in a period of relatively high employment
seasonal decline will apparently continue to occur.
One other factor should be noted. The Disabled Persons' Allowances did not
become effective in this Province until April lst, 1955; consequently any effect this will
have on the general unemployable Social Allowance case load will not be evident until
the next fiscal year.
Based on the comparative figures given below, it is noted that the number of recipients has risen by 5,259 individuals as between March, 1953, and March, 1955, and by
3,048 individuals as between March, 1954, and March, 1955.
Such a rise in case load has been reflected in a rise in the total costs of Social
Allowance in addition to the rise resulting from the increase of Social Allowance rates
effective April lst, 1954.
Case Load
A comparative statement for the month of March in the past three years is as
follows:—
Table I.—Case Load
March, 1953
March, 1954
March, 1955
2,855
6,886
5,535
3,327
8,252
5,908
3,688
9,475
7,372
8,390
6,886
9,235
8,252
11,060
Dependents  	
9,475
15,276
17,487
20,535 O 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Case Load and Total Number of Recipients on a Monthly Basis
Heads of
Families
Dependents
Single
Recipients
Total
8,483
6,303
18,188
8,373
5,875
17,590
8,391
6,027
17,773
8,086
5,961
17,331
7,817
5,922
16,931
7,744
5,934
16,853
7,704
5,984
16,820
7,934
6,246
17,407
8,734
6,766
18,943
9,206
7,248
20,088
9,286
7,332
20,277
9,475
7,372
20,535
April, 1954	
May, 1954 	
June, 1954._	
July, 1954	
August, 1954	
September, 1954.
October, 1954 ....
November, 1954 _
December, 1954—
January, 1955	
February, 1955.....
March, 1955	
3,402
3,342
3,355
3,284
3,192
3,175
3,132
3,227
3,443
3,634
3,659
3,688
Of the 20,535 individuals in receipt of assistance in March, 1955, the regional totals
are as follows:—
Table HI.—Regional Totals of Individuals in Receipt of Assistance
in March, 1955
Provincial District Office Organized Territory (Municipal)
Region I—
Alberni           72               Alberni City     50
Courtenay _         313               Campbell River     24
Duncan        75               Courtenay     35
Nanaimo         320               Central Saanich     12
Victoria         238               Cumberland _  27
Duncan       33
Esquimalt _   51
Ladysmith    __   23
Lake Cowichan   6
Nanaimo       __     217
North Cowichan   94
Oak Bay    23
Port Alberni   88
Qualicum Beach   3
Saanich   __ _ 143
Victoria    631
Region II—
New Westminster
Vancouver 	
Westview  	
1,018
41
155
59
1,460
2,478
Burnaby —
Coquitlam
Delta    _
New Westminster 	
North Vancouver City	
North Vancouver District .
Port Coquitlam 	
Port Moody  	
Richmond _   	
Vancouver 	
West Vancouver 	
Westview Village  _.
255
645
260
103
540
180
130
67
36
270
5,973
64
17
8,285
1,540
Region III—
Kamloops
Kelowna __.
Penticton  .
Salmon Arm
Vernon _	
446
Armstrong 	
       27
311
       23
238
Enderby  _	
       23
86
Glenmore    _	
8
338
Kamloops  _ 	
      175
      141
39
       57
..   _      28
_.      ._        8
Penticton  — _	
      198
        36
        27
Salmon Arm City ___	
        25
.      __      66
Spallumcheen       _ 	
         38
Summerland	
       45
Vernon ~	
       92
1,419
1,056
2,475 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Table III.—Regional Totals of Individuals in Receipt of Assistance
in March, 1955—Continued
Provincial District Office
Region IV—
Cranbrook
Creston —
Fernie	
Grand Forks
Nelson  	
New Denver _
Trail 	
Organized Territory (Municipal)
323
Cranbrook  	
          63
186
53
75
52
96
Grand Forks 	
....   __       36
590
Greenwood  	
30
146
        10
155
Kimberley  _	
_       46
      107
Rossland  	
       59
19
Trail  ___	
87
Warfield   	
       21
O 31
Region V—
Pouce Coupe _
Prince George .
Prince Rupert .
Quesnel _	
Smithers 	
Terrace 	
Williams Lake
Region VI—
Abbotsford
Chilliwack  .
Haney 	
Totals
1,571
473
361
99
180
228
156
92
1,589
583
56
168
224
6,076
2,154
Dawson Creek Village  117
Fort St. John   42
Prince George   212
Prince Rupert    165
Quesnel     24
Smithers  -  22
582
2,171
Chilliwack City 	
Chilliwhack Township
Hope  	
Kent   _
Langley 	
Maple Ridge 	
Matsqui 	
Mission District
Mission Village .
Pitt Meadows __
Sumas	
Surrey   	
108
303
36
8
265
227
263
151
43
25
77
987
2,493
2,717
14,459 20,535
By region the total is divided into the following approximate percentages: Region I,
12 per cent; Region II, 41 per cent; Region III, 12 per cent; Region IV, 11 per cent;
Region V, 11 per cent; and Region VI, 13 per cent.
The distribution of recipient case load living in organized or unorganized areas
shows a slight variation this year, with 70.4 per cent living in municipal territory and
29.6 per cent living in Provincial territory.
If, however, legal residence as determined by the " Residence and Responsibility
Act " is taken into account, the distribution is as follows:—
Table IV,
—Legal Residence of Social Allowance Recipients
March, 1953
March, 1954
March, 1955
1
9,081                          10,131
6,195                          7,356
11,790
8,745
15,276
17,487
20,535 O 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Comparative Table (Percentages) Based on Legal Residence
...
March, 1953
March, 1954
March, 1955
Municipal responsibilities     ,	
Per Cent
59.45
40.55
Per Cent
57.93
42.07
Per Cent
57.41
42.59
From Table IV it will be noted that the number of recipients who have municipal
residence have increased by 28 per cent, approximately, in two years, whereas Provincial
responsibilities have increased by 41 per cent, approximately, in the same period.
In Table V it will be seen that the proportion of the total recipient case load who are
Provincial responsibilities and for whom the Province pays 100 per cent of the costs of
Social Allowance has also risen by 2 per cent in two years, with a corresponding decrease
in the percentage proportion of municipal responsibilities.
Following is a statement of expenditures made by the Social Welfare Branch during
the fiscal year under review for Social Allowances, medical services, and other charges:—
Table IV.—Expenditures by the Province for Social Allowances, Medical Services, etc.
Fiscal Year
1952-53
Fiscal Year
1953-54
Fiscal Year
1954-55
Cases who are the responsibility of a municipality (80 and 50
per cent paid by the Province)1.
Cases who are the sole responsibility of the Province (100 per
cent paid by the Province)  __	
Repatriation, transportation within the Province, nursing- and
boarding-home care (other than tuberculosis), special allowances and grants
$1,744,098.77
1,457,025.51
$1,959,600.06
1,615,348.10
Emergency payments, such as where a family may lose its home
by fire or similar circumstances  	
Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis, boarding-, nursing-, and private-home cases	
(b) Transportation of tuberculosis cases  	
(c) Comforts allowances for tuberculosis cases 	
Net Social Allowances  _  _
1,005,371.49    |       1,102,455.93
31,564.08
346,035.85
4,825.54
19,256.50
6. Administration and operation of project and pavilion for Japanese at New Denver  _ 	
7. Hospitalization of social assistance cases2  	
8. Medical services and drugs ,	
Totals      	
$4,608,177.74
55,233.60
3.560,296.40
1,648,966.07
39,009.41
376,412.30
3,464.24
19,729.00
$5,116,019.04
44,556.58
3,883,070.37
1,707,339.76
',872,673.81     I $10,750,985.75
$2,588,455.80
2,241,850.58
1,262,185.21
39,048.25
444,882.01
4,341.91
16,025.30
$6,596,789.06
53,816.85
20,597.31
1,947,832.23
8,619,035.45
1 Effective April lst, 1953, basis of sharing Social Allowance reverted to 80-20 per cent for maximum allowance in
effect as at April lst, 1952.
2 Effective April lst, 1954, hospitalization costs (including co-insurance) for Social Allowance cases paid by British
Columbia Hospital Insurance Service. Expenditures under above heading include only short-stay costs for Social
Allowance cases, Provincial Government share of hospitalization costs for immigrants, and Children's Hospital pilot
plan.
Some of the significant developments in the Social Allowance programme for the
year have been as follows:—
(1) The total reciprocal agreement between the Province of Saskatchewan and
this Province was reviewed and found satisfactory by each Province, and
it was therefore mutually agreed to continue the policy for another year at
least. This agreement provides that each Province will accept financial
responsibility for the costs of assistance granted to persons in need living
in that Province but who have residence in the other Province. Residence
is confirmed in each case, although reimbursement is not requested.
Repatriation may still be considered, however, in extraordinary circumstances. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 33
(2) Effective April lst, 1954, an increase of $2 per month up to a maximum
of $7 per month was granted in comforts allowances paid to persons in
a general hospital if they were in receipt of Social Allowance prior to then-
admission to hospital, or to persons in receipt of Social Allowance in
boarding homes or private hospitals. The comforts allowances for persons receiving care in any institution operated by the Provincial Government remains at $5 per month.
(3) Effective April lst, 1954, the dental-care programme for children, as
described in the last Annual Report, was extended to include children
under 10 years of age.
(4) The annual Christmas bonus was paid to persons in receipt of Social
Allowance in the amount of $5 for each head of a family and $2 for each
single person.
(5) Effective April lst, 1954, Social Allowances and Mothers' Allowances
were increased by $5 per month for single individuals, $7 per month for
two persons, and $2 per month for each additional dependent.
(6) As a result of an extended study by a committee composed of Provincial
and municipal representatives, recommendations were made for a new
uniform policy relating to exemptions and deductions based on earnings
and other income to individuals or families in receipt of Social Allowance
or Mothers' Allowance. It was also recommended that the new policy
become effective April lst, 1955, subject to review at a later date for any
necessary revisions.
Rehabilitation
During the fiscal year 1954-55 the number of resident trainees in the Western
Rehabilitation Centre for whom the Province assumed the total cost of remedial training
or shared on the usual 80-20 basis with the responsible municipalities totalled fifty.
Of the fifty, twenty-four were arthritic patients and the balance of twenty-six were paraplegic or otherwise orthopa_dically disabled.
In addition, there were sixteen out-patient trainees and an equal number (sixteen)
of former resident trainees who received out-patient care and for whom cost of their care
was also met by social assistance.
For some of these persons, training in the Western Rehabilitation Centre meant
primarily a lessening of pain or discomfort or degree of handicap and an increase in their
ability to care for themselves and enter into other activities even though they might never
become financially independent. For others, training in the Western Rehabilitation
Centre was also the stepping-stone to vocational training if required, and return to former
employment or a new type of employment, which would not otherwise have been possible
for them.
It is gratifying to note the number of such cases and to estimate the satisfaction it
must bring to the patient himself.
Examples of successful retraining have been described in previous Annual Reports,
and there have been others this year equally encouraging and equally outstanding in terms
of restoration of the person and his family, if he has one, to independence and security.
" Social Assistance Act "
During the fiscal year under review, one city and one district municipality were
incorporated, making a Provincial total of 116 municipalities, thirty-six cities, thirty-one
districts, and forty-nine villages. Of these, eighty-three participate in the administration
of social assistance under the provisions of the " Social Assistance Act." The balance are
those village municipalities whose current annual tax revenue for general purposes is O 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
under $12,500, and they are therefore not required to be responsible for social assistance
costs.
The number who have established their own social welfare departments remains at
seventeen, and the balance of sixty-six purchase the service from the Province.
There have been ten Boards of Review requested and established in accordance with
section 13 of the regulations to the Act, to review decisions concerning the granting of
Social Allowance which the applicants or recipients considered affected them adversely.
There was no amendment to the Act or regulations thereto during the year.
General Comments
The basic purpose of Social Allowance to prevent destitution by the granting of
general maintenance is well known, but there may be other problems for which Social
Allowance can be used and are probably not so well known. Two examples of these
special provisions are the payment of Social Allowance in special cases on behalf of
children in the home of relatives or the payment for housekeeper services to meet family
emergencies.
In the first instance it may be the teen-aged girl who was living with her grandmother. Her mother was unable to care for her because of chronic illness, and the
father had deserted his wife and family many years ago. The grandmother could offer
the girl a home but was not able to support her. Social Allowance was paid to the
grandmother on behalf of the girl until she had completed her education and obtained
employment.
Another situation may be that of the widowed mother who died leaving four
children to be cared for by an aunt who, although she is more than willing to care for
them, is not financially able to maintain them. Social Allowance paid to her on their
behalf prevents the children being removed from the family circle or separated by
placement in different homes. It strengthens family unity and feelings of security so
necessary to children who have suffered bereavement in the loss of both parents.
Social Allowance may be used in other situations to provide housekeeping service,
to strengthen a home disrupted or broken by the illness of the mother.
In one such case a widowed mother with five children became ill and required
lengthy hospitalization. The illness of the mother and her absence from the home was
naturally disturbing to the children, but to have removed them from the familiar surroundings of their own home would have only added to their insecurity.
A housekeeper was found and her services paid for, as well as maintenance for the
children. She gave the children excellent care and successfully managed the home in
the mother's absence. The mother, who had been at first most concerned for the welfare
of her children, was able to enter hospital and remain there, assured by the knowledge
that her children would be well cared for in her absence from the home. This aided
in her recovery, and she was later able to return home in improved health and better
able to resume her duties as a mother and a home-maker.
In the words of the social worker, " Housekeeper services played a large part in
the plan to help this mother regain her health so that she could once again assume the
role she so sincerely wanted to fulfil."
Housekeeping service may also be a happy plan in the case of an elderly couple
who, because of ill health or infirmity, are unable to care for themselves or one another.
Boarding- or nursing-home care might be a solution, but in some areas of the
Province this is difficult to arrange. It is equally difficult to arrange for them to be
together in the same nursing or boarding home in any part of the Province. It is
infinitely preferable for them to be together in their own home as long as this is
physically possible. In this plan they do not face the breaking-up of their home and
the possibility of separation from each other.   In one such case the wife was an invalid,
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 35
confined to a wheelchair when she returned from hospital; the husband, aged 80, was
unable to give her the care she needed. Placement of a housekeeper paid from Social
Allowance funds enabled them to remain in their home together. Some months later
the wife died, but the housekeeper remains to care for the husband, whose own health
is failing and requires someone to care for him.
From a practical point of view this plan of housekeeper service is less costly than
nursing-home care. What is equally important, however, is that it takes into account
emotional and personal needs, too, when the Branch is able to use this provision as an
alternative to removal from the home and possible separation of the two old persons.
In conclusion, it should be said that assistance-giving cannot be a mechanical
administration of money. It is an area of social welfare that involves the greatest skills
of the social worker if the assistance is to be given in a constructive rather than a
destructive way. It must be flexible and even imaginative to meet extraordinary
problems and meet the needs of people above and beyond the basic needs to maintain
life.   The goal of social work is to make that life a satisfying and happy one.
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES SECTION
The case load for the year under review has again decreased at about the same
rate as in the previous year.
Table I.—Comparative Statement of Case Load
As at March, 1953	
As at March, 1954	
As at March, 1955	
470
426
393
On a monthly basis the case load figures for this fiscal year are as follows:
Table II.—Monthly Case Load, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Month
Number of
Allowances
in Pay
Number of Persons
Mothers
Children
Incapacitated
Husbands
April, 1954	
May, 1954	
June, 1954 	
July, 1954	
August, 1954.	
September, 1954_
October, 1954	
November, 1954-
December, 1954__
January, 1955	
February, 1955	
March, 1955__	
430
431
427
419
414
404
397
389
388
391
392
393
430
431
427
419
414
404
397
389
388
391
392
393
965
969
960
949
943
911
895
869
869
877
887
900
92
91
91
89
87
84
79
77
76
75
72
69
The gradual decrease as shown above is indicative of a trend that has been apparent
for several years; namely, that categorical forms of general assistance are no longer
needed. Where the generalized provision of assistance exists and duplicates the specific
provision, the specific provision tends to fall into disuse.
The volume of applications and reapplications for Mothers' Allowances have shown
a marked reduction from 114 last fiscal year to ninety-four in this fiscal year. The
number of grants, refusals, and withdrawn applications show a corresponding decrease.
The following tables give a breakdown concerning applications, grants, refusals,
and cancellations:— O 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Statement of Applications Considered and Decisions Made
Applications pending as at April lst, 1954  19
New applications received during year  71
Reapplications received during year  23
Total   113
Decisions—
Grants   77
Refusals   22
Withdrawn   1
100
Applications pending as at March 31st, 1955  13
Total   113
Reasons for refusals—
Mother's earnings in excess  1
Husband not totally disabled one year  3
Disability of husband did not arise in British Columbia  1
Desertion eligibility requirements not met  2
Assets in excess   4
Property in excess  3
Property not used as home  1
Free board and lodging  1
Divorced less than two years  2
Not legally separated  3
Only child not dependent  1
Total   22
Reasons for applications pending—
Documents and medical report required  3
Awaiting information re assets  5
Decision pending  1
First investigation report not received  2
Awaiting information re citizenship   1
Awaiting further information  1
Total   13 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 37
Table IV.—Reasons for Cancellation of the Allowances
Mother remarried   10
Left British Columbia  1
Whereabouts unknown    1
Mother in hospital indefinitely  1
Mother earning in excess  30
Only child's earnings in excess  2
Mother ineligible under section 7 of the " Mothers' Allowances
Act"   2
Husband not totally disabled  17
Husband released from Penitentiary  1
Children no longer in mother's care  1
Only child 18 years of age  16
Only child under 16 left school  2
Only child under 18 left school  10
Older children maintaining  3
Assets in excess  8
Unearned income in excess  2
Withdrawn   2
Property not being used as home  1
Total   110
Of the cancelled cases, the length of time each family had been in receipt of Mothers'
Allowance is as follows:—
Years    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9 10 11  12 13  14 15 16 17 18 19
Cases 26 16 12    5  13  10    2    2    3    3    1    5    3    3    3    2      1
Total cases, 110.   Average length of time on allowance, 5.22 years.
The average length of time on allowance has also decreased this year. Approximately 65 per cent of the allowances cancelled had been in effect for less than six years,
and approximately 81 per cent for less than ten years. In the second consecutive year,
the most frequent single reason for cancellation of the allowance is because of the mother's
employment and earnings. One possible reason for this was noted last year and probably
remains true. This is that current opinion does not now regard this categorical form of
assistance as a permanent pension, but rather in the same light as other forms of general
assistance which are used to help the family meet temporary financial need until such
time as they can achieve economic independence by their own efforts. This represents
a swing between the old concept that the mother must remain in the home at all times
to ensure the welfare of her children and the new one that independence for the family
can be equally important to their well-being, and often more than compensate for the
very minimum financial security which public assistance offers.
There is, of course, the added factor of the higher level of average wages, which
makes it possible for the mother to earn a reasonably adequate salary in excess of public
assistance rates without neglecting her home or her family.
In the following table the term " status " refers to the specific sections of the
" Mothers' Allowances Act" or regulations under which the mother qualifies for the
allowance. O 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Status and Number of Mothers and Dependents in Receipt
of Allowance as at March, 1955
Status of Mother in Accordance with Eligibility
Number of Children
Qualifications Set by the Act
1
2
3
4
5
6
7         Total
78
3
3
13
2
9
3
8
88
4
3
12
4
5
1
8
11
44
2
2
5
5
2
1
7
6
28
2
6
1
1
6
5
1
3
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
247
12
11
40
Incapacitated husbands away (hospital or institution,
etc.).  	
11
18
Judicial separation  	
4
19
31
Totals _	
119
136
74
44
12
5
3
393
From the above table the following figures are derived:—
Table VI.—Number of Individuals for Whom Allowance Granted
Mothers      393
Husbands_
Children___
401
900
1,333
1 This figure applies to those incapacitated husbands who reside in the home and who are included in the Mothers'
Allowance grant. In addition, it will be noted there are eleven husbands in hospital or an institution or cared for
elsewhere, and eighteen husbands in receipt of Old Age Security, Old-age Assistance, or Blind Pension, or a total of
twenty-nine who are not included in the Mothers' Allowance grant.
The percentage of one-child cases is approximately 30 per cent and of two-children
cases approximately 35 per cent of the case load.
Costs of Mothers' Allowances
With the decrease in the case load the statutory Mothers' Allowance expenditures
have decreased accordingly. The supplementary Social Allowance expenditures have
increased, however, because of the increase granted effective April lst, 1954. As has
been pointed out previously, the maximum Mothers' Allowance which may be paid in
any one case is set by legislation. In order, therefore, to bring the rates paid to the level
of the Social Allowance scale, a supplementary grant is made from Social Allowance.
Any increase in the scale, as long as the present procedure prevails, will be reflected in
the Social Allowance expenditures.
In view of this, it is therefore necessary to provide two financial statements to indicate
total costs.
. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 39
Table VII.—Mothers' Allowance Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Amount of allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowance
April, 1954  $20,218.77
May, 1954  20,221.22
June, 1954  19,907.67
July, 1954  19,449.87
August, 1954  19,158.82
September, 1954  18,744.47
October, 1954  18,181.02
November, 1954  17,881.77
December, 1954  18,028.52
January, 1955  17,861.82
February, 1955  18,108.73
March, 1955  17,683.28
  $225,445.96
Reconciliation with Ledger Account in Controlling and
Audit Branch: Amount advanced by Minister of
Finance   $225,445.96
The books and records of the Director of Welfare, respecting Mothers' Allowances for the fiscal year ended March
31st, 1955, have been examined under my direction.
C. J. FERBER,
Comptroller-General.
Table VIII.—Financial Statement of Supplementary Social Allowances Paid to Recipients
of Mothers' Allowance (Vote 175) for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1954, to March
31st, 1955.
Amount of allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowance
April, 1954  $15,503.55
May, 1954  15,540.00
June, 1954  15,289.20
July, 1954  14,933.90
August, 1954  14,751.00
September, 1954  14,492.30
October, 1954  14,096.90
November, 1954  13,844.90
December, 1954  14,015.35
Christmas bonus  1,945.00
January, 1955   13,935.65
February, 1955   14,049.40
March, 1955  13,599.65
  $175,996.80
Reconciliation with Ledger Account in Controlling and
Audit Branch: Amount advanced by Minister of
Finance   $175,996.80
The books and records of the Director of Welfare respecting supplementary Social Allowances paid to recipients
of Mothers' Allowance for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955, have been examined under my direction.
C. J. FERBER,
Comptroller-General. O 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IX.—Statement Showing per Capita Cost to the Province
Fiscal Year
Total
Expenditures
Population
at June of
Each Year
Per Capita
Cost to the
Province
1952 53                                          _	
$411,453.11
387,919.17
401,442.76
1,165,000
1,230,000
1,266,000
$0.35
1953-54 - _	
1954-55 _       	
.32
.32
General Comments
No amendments were made to the " Mothers' Allowances Act" during the year
under review. The regulations were amended, however, by Order in Council on March
22nd, 1955, at which time subsections (a) and (b) of section 10 were repealed, in conformity with the recommendation of the special committee established to study revision
of Branch policy relating to exemption and deductions on other income, as reported in
the Social Allowances Section. This amendment eliminated the necessity of reducing
the allowance by $5 per month in those cases where the mother owns her home free of
encumbrance, and was to be effective April lst, 1955.
It becomes increasingly a matter of question whether there continues to be a need
for this categorical form of assistance. Some of the provisions and restrictions in the Act
and regulations do not reflect modern principles in assistance-giving. When compared
with the " Social Assistance Act," it is prohibitive in application and difficult to administer.
It offers no special benefit to mothers who qualify because the rate of Mothers' Allowance
is the same as that for Social Allowance.
It is a resource used almost entirely by municipal areas for the understandable and
acceptable reason that Mothers' Allowance is a total charge on the Province while Social
Allowance is a shareable charge on the municipalities. This is borne out by the following
table:—
Table X.—Proportion of Applications and Grants in Organized Territory
Total applications and reapplications received     94
Applicants residing in organized territory     86
Applicants having legal residence in organized territory     8 8
Total grants made during year     77
Recipients residing in organized territory     71
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory    72
Allowances in pay as at March 31st, 1955  393
Recipients having legal residence in unorganized territory      3 5
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory 358
There is practically no variation in the percentage of the case load or applicants who
live or have legal residence in organized (municipal) territory. It will be noted that
approximately 94.6 per cent of all applicants had legal residence in organized territory,
and approximately 91 per cent of all recipients of Mothers' Allowance as at March 31st,
1955, had similar legal residence.
One further comment would be that if it is considered necessary that this categorical
form of assistance be continued, the hope is expressed that further consideration might
be given to a general revision of the provisions and requirements of the Act and regulations to bring them into line with current thinking on assistance-giving and to facilitate
administration of the Act and regulations.
Apart from the difficulties inherent in the terms of the Act itself, two major problems
remain.   The first is the matter of the degree of responsibility which should be expected REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 41
of earning children living in the home. So much feeling revolves around this problem
both on the part of the parent or parents and the children that it is extremely difficult to
establish a uniform pattern which may be equitable in all cases. Parents are reluctant
to be dependent on their children, and the children often resent claims on their new-found
financial independence. Whether parental training or the casework service inherent in
assistance-giving has failed is often difficult to determine, but the question presents a
perplexing challenge to all concerned.
The other problem is that of the family who has not been able or is unable to provide
any supplementation to the allowance granted. This is particularly evident in the families
where, by reason of age or ill health of the parents or the children, even part-time work
is out of the question. Budgeting on a minimum income calls for the highest skill, and
even then on occasion not all the needs of the family can be met on a fixed rate of
allowance.
Some modified form of a budget deficiency method of computing rates of allowance
might help to solve this problem, and perhaps some time it may be possible to give
consideration to this.
These last two problems which have been described are not confined to Mothers'
Allowance recipients alone, but would apply in equal measure to Social Allowance
recipients.
FAMILY SERVICE SECTION
This is always a difficult aspect of the Social Welfare Branch programme on which
to report. Apart from tables of figures which show only rise or fall in numbers of cases
in a few specified areas of service, there remains definition and description of the service,
but that definition does not change from year to year.
As explained in previous years, Family Service is not only a category for statistical
purposes of the Branch, but a term for family casework, which is the process of helping
families and individuals with their problems of relationship to one another and the
community, of behaviour and personality, which are emotional in nature, although they
may arise from physical or mental causes, and do not necessarily result from financial
need. It is not a service given in one case and not in another; it is one of the foundations
of social work. Hopefully it may be preventive in nature if case loads and other pressures
on the social worker allow adequate time and full use of skills, but it is also remedial
where social remedy is possible. It is based on a person-to-person relationship between
client and social worker, but to be effective must take into account others in the family
group, and, what is also important, it must have the help of the community and the
resources which that community provides.
Its effect cannot be proved in dollars and cents because monetary value alone cannot
be placed on it or the individuals or families who are helped by it.
From the point of view of statistics, the case load in the Family Service category has
continued to rise during the year, as will be seen by the following table:—
Table I.—Total of Family Service Cases from April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
April, 1954  1,573
May, 1954  1,601
June, 1954  1,593
July, 1954  1,626
August, 1954  1,645
September, 1954  1,646
October, 1954  1,624
November, 1954  1,635
December, 1954   1,645
January, 1955  1,666
February, 1955   1,695
March, 1955  1,728 o 42 british columbia
Other Services
Family Allowances
The Family Division continues to act as the channel for requests from the Family
Allowances Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare for inquiries
regarding the use of or eligibility for Family Allowance in some cases or recommendations
concerning a suitable payee.
Table II.—Requests Received from Family Allowances Division,
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Pending as at April lst, 1954       5
Received during fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955,
by months—
April, 1954  12
May, 1954     6
June, 1954  17
July, 1954     5
August, 1954     7
September, 1954     4
October, 1954  11
November, 1954     7
December, 1954     5
January, 1955  14
February, 1955     9
March, 1955  14
— Ill
Total requests received  116
Requests completed within fiscal year  113
Requests pending as at April lst, 1955 •       3
These requests for reports were directed as follows:—
Table III.—Referrals to District Offices and Other Agencies
Reports pending as at April lst, 1954     28
Requests forwarded during fiscal year April lst, 1953, to March
31st, 1955, by regions—
Region I1  29
Region II1  30
Region III  11
Region IV  10
Region V  15
Region VI  19
— 114
Total number of requests referred  1422
1 Includes referrals to private agencies in Victoria and Vancouver.
2 The difference in this total as compared with requests is accounted for by the fact that one request from the
Family Allowances Division may require two or more separate reports from different offices or agencies. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 43
Table IV.—Referrals Completed within Fiscal Year, by Regions
Region I  25
Region II  27
Region III  12
Region IV  9
Region V  16
Region VI  25
Total  114
Total number of requests referred  142
Referrals pending as at April lst, 1955     28
Third-party Administration of Family Allowances
As at March 31st, 1955, two cases of third-party administration were in effect.
Old Age Security
The Family Division also acts as the channel for requests from the Old Age Security
Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare for assistance to applicants
for Old Age Security. This usually involves help with correspondence, securing documents, or, on occasion, the granting of social assistance pending the granting of the
Old Age Security.
Table V.—Requests Received from Old Age Security Division from
April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Pending as at April lst, 1954_
Received during fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955,
by months—
April, 1954     1
May, 1954     1
June, 1954     1
July, 1954     1
August, 1954	
September, 1954     1
October, 1954      2
November, 1954	
December, 1954     2
January, 1955     1
February, 1955     2
March, 1955     6
— 18
Total case load  21
Cases completed within fiscal year  13
Cases pending as at April lst, 1955     8
- O 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VI.—Requests to District Offices
Pending as at April lst, 1954     3
Requests forwarded during fiscal year April lst, 1954, to March
31st, 1955, by regions—
Region I     3
Region II     5
Region III	
Region TV     3
Region V     3
Region VI     4
— 18
Total number of requests  21
Table VII.—Reports Completed by Regions
Region I  3
Region II  2
Region III  1
Region IV  3
Region V  3
Region VI  1
Total   13
Total number of requests  21
Requests pending as at April lst, 1955     8
Tribunals
The volume of requests for tribunals has shown a marked decrease for the year
under review as many of these are now arranged by the Department of National Health
and Welfare.
Table VIII.—Requests Received from Old Age Security Division for Tribunals
from April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955, by Months
April, 1954
May, 1954     5
January, 1955     1
Total requests  14 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 45
Table IX.—Tribunals Completed by Regions
Region I     8
Region II     4
Region III	
Region IV    4
Region V     2
Region VI     1
Tribunals completed  19
Tribunals pending as at April lst, 1954     5
Total requests  14
19
Tribunals pending as at April lst, 1955 Nil
Conclusion
The Family Division again wishes to express its appreciation and thanks to the
social workers, district supervisors, regional administrators, and field consultants for
their help and support. The Division also wishes to express appreciation to the municipal
welfare departments, other departments of government, and the private agencies for
their advice and co-operation throughout the year.
(Miss) Marie Riddell,
Provincial Supervisor, Family Division. O 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION
I beg to present herewith the annual report of the Child Welfare Division for the
fiscal Year ended March 31st, 1955.
At the beginning of the fiscal year the Superintendent of Child Welfare had in care
1,562 children. Seven hundred and forty-six were admitted and 617 discharged throughout the year, bringing the total cared for in the twelve-month period to 2,308 (Table
I), and at March 31st, 1955, to 1,691 (Table II). Exclusive of the seventy-five
Doukhobor children of the Sons of Freedom sect who are in the care of the Superintendent
under the " Protection of Children Act" for non-attendance at school, the legal status
of all children in care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare as at March 31st, 1955,
is as follOWS:  Children in Care
Legal Status as at Mar. 31,1955
Wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare under the
" Protection of Children Act "  1,026
Before Court under the " Protection of Children Act "  125
Committed to Superintendent of Child Welfare under the
" Juvenile Delinquents Act "  49
Wards of a Children's Aid Society  133
Wards of other Provinces   35
In care by parental request (non-wards)   323
Total   1,691
Doukhobor children of the Sons of Freedom sect under
" Protection of Children Act "        75
During the same period, April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955, the three Children's
Aid Societies had in care a total of 2,810 children (Table I) and as at March 31st, 1955,
2,040 (Table II). One hundred and sixty-five of these are wards of the Superintendent,
and reciprocally the Superintendent is extending care to 133 wards of a Children's Aid
Society.
Tables I and II are a comparison of the numbers of children cared for by the Superintendent of Child Welfare and the three Children's Aid Societies throughout the fiscal
year 1953—54 and the fiscal year now ending.
Table I.—Children in Care under the "Protection of Children Act"
during Past Two Fiscal Years
(Note.—Figures include reciprocal wards (see above).)
Agency
Child Welfare
Division
Total for
Province
Year
Vancouver
C.A.S.
C.A.A.S.
Victoria
C.A.S.
Total
1953-54 	
1954-55. 	
1,644
1,678
801
776
359
356
2,804
2,810
2,071
2,308
4,875
5,118 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Table II.—Children in Care under the "Protection of Children Act"
as at the End of Past Two Fiscal Years
(Note.—Figures include reciprocal wards (see above).)
O 47
Agency
Child Welfare
Division
Total for
Province
Year
Vancouver
C.A.S.
C.A.A.S.
Victoria
C.A.S.
Total
March 31st, 1954
March 31st, 1955	
1,258          1             586
1,223                       591
1
232
226
2,076
2,040
1,562
1,691
3.6381
3.7312
1 Number of reciprocal wards is 337; therefore, actual total is 3,301.
2 Number of reciprocal wards is 298; therefore, actual total is 3,433.
COST OF MAINTAINING CHILDREN
The cost to the Provincial Government of maintaining children for the fiscal year
was as follows:—
Gross cost of maintenance of children in Child Welfare Division foster homes (including physically
handicapped children)       $548,469.95
Gross cost of maintenance of children with Provincial
residence in care of Children's Aid Societies and
paid by the Provincial Government        480,460.62
Gross cost to Provincial Government of maintenance
of children with municipal residence in care of
Children's Aid Societies (80 per cent share of
cost paid by the Provincial Government)        429,945.04
Gross cost of transportation of children in care of
Superintendent   7,237.62
Gross cost of hospitalization of new-born infants being permanently planned for by Superintendent 21,895.00
Grants to sundry homes  1,300.00
Gross expenditure  $1,489,308.23
Less collections and refunds         183,849.61
Net cost to Provincial Government  $1,305,458.62
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL CHILD POPULATION IN CARE
Current statistics of the total number of children and young people in British
Columbia under the age of 21 years are not available, but the Regional Director of Family
Allowances for British Columbia reports there are 386,865 children from birth to 16 years
in receipt of Family Allowance as at March 31st, 1955. Since some 2,100 of the total
3,433 children in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare and a Children's Aid
Society at the beginning of the new fiscal year are in this same age range, it might be
roughly estimated that something less than 0.54 per cent of the total number of children
throughout the Province are in agency care. This figure seems not disproportionate and,
indeed, could be termed indicative of a reasonably healthy family life in the Province.
Low as this percentage of children in agency care is and for purposes of planning
for the new fiscal year, this report will, in the main, be devoted to an examination of the
reasons why even they are apart from their own parents. By so doing, answers may be
found also to the healthy and pertinent questions being raised in many quarters to-day
. O 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
as to why children in foster homes and(or) institutions and adopting parents seeking
children are not more readily brought together.
INSTITUTIONS FOR CHILDREN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Apart from private boarding schools, two dormitory-type hostels operated in conjunction with the public schools' programme in the more remote part of the Province, and
those institutions operated by the Provincial Government, as the Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools and the School for the Deaf and the Blind, there are but six in British
Columbia which care for children, and in these six there is an aggregate population of
only about 172 children.
One, with a population of thirty-five, is used exclusively by the Catholic Children's
Aid Society as a receiving home for babies pending permanent placement. As in other
Provinces and most countries, British Columbia legislation directs that children be placed
with adopting parents of like faith. There continues to be a shortage of Roman Catholic
adoption homes throughout the Province, and because of this and despite the increased
number of placements Child Welfare Division and the Catholic Children's Aid Society are
able to make each year, it is still not possible to plan as well for Roman Catholic children
as it is for children of other faiths. To offset some of the well-known ill effects of institutional care for infants, Child Welfare Division for some time has been accepting on an
average of two babies a month from the Catholic Children's Aid Society for temporary
foster-home care until adopting parents can be found for them. This has served to keep
the population of the institution within the maximum number permitted by licence and
at the same time ensures for the baby the mothering and fathering essential to his well-
being. However, until there is a quickening sense of community responsibility throughout
the Province, some children of this faith will continue to be deprived of the parents they
need, and the disuse of institutional care for infants, long since established as detrimental
to healthy personality development, will be delayed.
The second institution, which has a maximum population of twenty, is a residential
school for mentally retarded boys, and the age range is from 5 to 14 years. Here the
children enter on the recommendation of the Child Guidance Clinic, and only when it is
believed they can benefit from the specially geared academic and vocational programme
of the school.
Two other institutions, each with an average population of ten to fourteen, accept
disturbed and pre-delinquent girls from 10 to 16 years old. One of these is presently
reorganizing, has already engaged one social worker, and in time plans to develop a
residential treatment programme.
The remaining two institutions are the only ones in the Province which offer long-
term care for children. The age range in these is 3 to 16 years. One has a population
of sixty and the other thirty-five children, who stay for varying lengths of time. Rarely
are the children true orphans but, in the main, are families of several children whose
parents are divorced or the mother or father has deserted or died. Our working relationship with these institutions is such that should the parent placing the children fail to fulfil
his obligations to them, they will be referred to the Superintendent of Child Welfare or a
Children's Aid Society for appropriate planning. It is quite possible, by refocusing the
purpose of both these institutions, that the boards of each would find some of the ninety-
five children involved could be either re-established with their families or alternatively
better planned for by adoption placement. Some positive steps in this direction have
been made. Through the consistent help being given the boards by the Chief Inspector
of the Welfare Institutions Licensing Board, progress in the future can be expected.
CHILDREN IN AGENCY CARE
Apart from these 172 children and an equally small number placed by their parents
each year in licensed private boarding homes, all children living apart from their own REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 49
families in this Province are in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare or a
Children's Aid Society. As reported previously in Table II, as at March 31st, 1955,
together these agencies had in care 3,433 children, representing some 2,500 family units
and ranging in age from birth to 21 years. This is a relatively small increase of 132
children over the preceding year but " Why cannot more be placed for adoption? "
INCREASED AGENCY ADOPTION PLACEMENTS
The record of the number of children who are planned for through adoption by social
agencies in this Province each year is one in which they can take justifiable pride. During
the past twelve months 357 children were placed with adopting parents by Child Welfare
Division and 300 by the three Children's Aid Societies. A high percentage of these went
directly from hospital to their adoptive homes. In addition, forty-five children originally
placed as foster-children by Child Welfare Division changed their status in the same
foster home to that of " child on adoption probation." This is a total of 702 children,
eighty-one more than last year, who would otherwise have been reared without parents
of their own. These children in due course and by order of the Supreme Court will have
the legal status and prestige bestowed by adoption. Three thousand three hundred and
seventy children, ranging in age from 10 days to 14 years, have achieved this status during
the past seven years solely by the efforts of social agencies in this Province.
Seven hundred and two adoption placements in one year is a gratifyingly high
number. Reassuring, also, is the fact that the total number of children in agency care
and the number of family groups represented is low in relation to the total known child
population of British Columbia and low also when compared with the number of children
reported in foster homes and institutions in other Provinces and countries. Children
without parents, however, need parents—and what of the children in foster homes
throughout the Province?
Adoption Not Indicated for Some Children
There is always a certain number of children in any agency's care for whose
problems adoption placement is not a valid solution. Among these would be boys and
girls between 12 and 18 years who have been in trouble with the law, adjudged delinquent
by a Court and committed to a Children's Aid Society or the Superintendent of Child
Welfare. Their brief lives have usually been filled with troubles, and they are often too
upset to participate positively in any such plan as adoption, involving, as it must, a close
parent-child relationship. Of the total 1,432 children in Child Welfare Division foster
homes as at March lst, 1955, forty-six had been committed to the Superintendent under
the " Juvenile Delinquents Act."
Two other groups for whom continuing foster-home care is necessary are the
children who are permanently physically handicapped and those mentally retarded, but
not committable to an institution, whose own families cannot or will not care for them.
Some suffer from a terminal condition, and our goal can only be to provide them foster-
parents capable of meeting their many physical and emotional demands. Others will
respond to some degree to medical treatment and later may even gain from rehabilitation training, but if their condition continues to impose serious physical and mental
limitations, State guardianship seems the best protection that can be extended to them.
About fifty such children are to-day in Child Welfare Division foster homes.
Children in Care at Parental Request
Excluding these three groups of children, there are among the remaining 1,336 in
Child Welfare Division foster homes, at the end of the fiscal year, 323 in care at parental
request. Some of these are in the group of physically or mentally handicapped children.
In some instances the child needs treatment not available in the home community. O 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In others, a family crisis, as an acute mental or physical illness of the mother, has
developed. When the important resource of housekeeping service, as outlined on pages
34 and 35 of the Family Division's report, is unavailable, foster-home care is the only
alternative plan open to the father, who in this situation has no relative or friend to whom
he can turn.
Special Needs of Children of Unwed Mothers
About one-third of the children in care at parental request are children born to
unwed mothers, although a high percentage of such children are now placed from hospital
with their adopting parents. Sometimes the mother needs opportunity to explore her
own or family resources further or to recover her physical and emotional strength more
completely before reaching the very final and difficult decision of relinquishing her child
for adoption. A few of the children, as in any group of children, need special medical
or surgical care before adoption placement can be finalized, but the length of stay in
foster-home care for these is a vastly different picture from what it was a few years ago.
Social agencies, allied professions, and the public generally understand better to-day not
only the needs of the child born with a physical handicap, but the deep satisfaction and
happiness he, too, can bring to adoptive parents who have in their hearts a true love for
children. The placement of Bill demonstrates well this change in attitudes and thinking.
Bill was born with a club-foot and a badly disfiguring facial birthmark, both of which
required him to be in or near a hospital for the first few months of his life. By the time
major surgery was completed, however, the worker knew who Bill's adoptive parents were
to be, and although they lived in a far distant community, they had been kept closely
informed of his progress and development, and throughout had received encouragement
and reassurance from their family physician. When the surgeon advised that periodic
treatments and check-ups only were necessary, Bill's adoptive parents came for him, but
he had already in fact become part of their lives. Should all Bill's disfigurement not be
corrected, their acceptance and understanding of him will be his bulwark against the
difficulties or embarrassment it may cause him in later life.
Final Plans for Children in Care at Parental Request
Of the 351 children who had been in Child Welfare Division foster homes at parental
request and were discharged last year, 236 were reunited with their families, 110 were
placed in adoption homes, two were subsequently committed to the Boys' Industrial
School, one to The Woodlands School for the mentally retarded child, and one, a 14-
year-old boy, who had been in care a number of years, throughout which he had suffered
a grave physical ailment, died.
Bars to Adoption Placement
Excluding the children who will be returning to their own homes or for other reasons
are not to be placed for adoption, other agency wards, children before a Court under the
" Protection of Children Act," and those, as Bill, who need interim care pending adoption
placement, there are about 800 children in Child Welfare Division foster homes who in
the main are healthy and normal. What then are the bars to their being placed for
adoption?
These children have been found in need of protection and made wards of the Superintendent by Court order under the " Protection of Children Act." A few only are true
orphans, and the majority were born to married parents, although the number born of a
so-called common-law union is also worthy of note. Whatever their status, many were
old enough when they came into care to know that their parents had not provided properly
for them, and the memory of abuses and neglect remains too often a bar to their becoming in any real sense a member of an adoptive family. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 51
The age and stage of development at which a child lives through this most damaging
of all experiences—the failure of his own parents—will have a vital bearing on his later
capacity to form new family ties. If the experience has not been entirely crushing to him,
and if the agency has well-established placement resources, he can still be helped by the
skills of a social worker to want and accept the giving but binding ties of adoption. This
hope of happiness will be a reality for some of the wards in care, but for others the hurt
has gone too deep.
Some Wards in Foster Homes Many Years
Unquestionably some of the children who came into agency care out of neglect
situations twelve to twenty years ago should have been found adoptive parents. But
there was not staff throughout this Province to launch such a programme, community
interest and support was not as widespread, nor was there available the fund of knowledge
about adoption and mental health that there is to-day. As a consequence, as will be seen
from Table III of ages of children in the Superintendent of Child Welfare's care, and the
same would be true of children in Children's Aid Societies' care, a high number is over
the age of 12 years and many have been in care for almost as many years.
Table III.—Age-group of Children in Care of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare as at March 31st, 1955
0-5
Months
6-11
Months
1-2
Years
3-5
Years
6-11
Years
12-13
Years
14-17
Years
18-21
Years
Total
Wards under "Protection of Children Act"—
Before the Court under the " Protection of
6
5
6
19
13
9
12
20
65
19
21
33
141
26
12
40
1
306
34
26
68
8
9
123
9
17
28
7
10
257
20
24
76
11
21
115
3
15
39
8
9
1,026
125
Wards of  Children's  Aid  Societies  under
" Protection of Children Act " in Super-
133
Children  in  care   at  parent's  or  parents'
323
35
Committed   under   " Juvenile   Delinquents
Act "   	
49
Totals 	
36
54
138
220
451
194
409
189
1,691
Achievements of Older Boys and Girls
Many of the boys and girls in the upper age range, in Table III, have put down roots
in communities. They are fast reaching the point where they will be independent, and
many have a record of excellent achievement. Each year for the past five years at least
two girls have completed nurses' training. Several have taken commercial and hairdressing courses, and these vocations continue to be popular in planning careers with the older
girls. This year we have three boys in university. They have qualified for scholarships each
term, and with their summer earnings have required little in the way of financial help from
the Department. Technical training in diesel engines, mechanics, radar, and radio have
attracted a number of boys, too, and their ability and diligence have in more than one
instance won them special recognition in the various vocational schools attended. A ward
of the Superintendent was chosen this year by a national insurance company to be specially trained by them in an eastern city. Each year throughout the Province between
sixty and seventy of our boys and girls now write Junior or Senior Matriculation examinations, and five or six enlist in the armed forces to pursue their particular vocational bent.
One of these won a national award, together with a promotion, this year. Both seemed
not only appropriate recognition, but to his worker one with special compensatory significance, because Jimmie had been one of the small children rejected for adoption placement
seventeen years ago for no better reason than that he was a child of mixed racial
background. O 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Age and Life Experience a Bar to Adoption
Although the majority of the wards shown in Table III between 18 and 21 years
are wholly self-supporting, the Superintendent's guardianship extends to the age of 21
years. Many in the 14- to 17-year age-group are also employed and wholly or partially
self-maintaining. In any event, because of their age and life experiences, these boys and
girls, as well as most of those aged 12 to 13 years and many in the 6- to 11-year group,
adoption placement is not practical. Lacking a home and parents of their own, our goal
for them must continue to be the provision of kind, understanding foster mothers and
fathers and opportunities to learn and develop according to their various abilities and
interests. Among those who have graduated from our care is a lawyer, a veterinary
surgeon, and a travelling evangelist. There are several nurses and nurses' aides, office
receptionists, stenographers, officers and men in the armed services, captains and deckhands on tug-boats, etc. Children in agency foster homes come from all walks of life, and
they go into all lines of endeavour. Some meet with difficulty. There are twenty-two
presently in a correctional institution and eleven in The Woodlands School for the mentally retarded. But each year, as a number of boys and girls in care reach their majority,
it is deeply satisfying to note how many appear to have been helped toward responsible
citizenship through either the Superintendent's or a Children's Aid Society's guardianship.
Few Small Children in Care
The Division is particularly pleased to draw attention in Table III to the fact that
there are only six wards under the age of 6 months and thirteen under 1 year in foster-
home care. Never have there been so few under 3 or even under 6 years, and it is
believed this record compares most favourably with the numbers of children in care in
other Provinces and countries.
Many of the children shown in Table III in these age-groups as " before Court" or
" in care at parental request" will be reunited with their own families, but it is evident
from the small numbers of babies and little children now in care that staff everywhere is
conscientiously striving to gain permanency and security for them at the earliest possible
time. Many children needing parents to-day are brought together with their adopting
parents from hospital within ten days or two weeks after birth and no period of foster-
home care is required. Those who for a number of reasons must be placed temporarily
in foster homes are a special concern to workers, and the majority go to their adoptive
homes within one to two months, or just as soon as is reasonably practical.
Some of the children shown in Table III as under 3 years of age have not fared as
well and have waited overlong for their permanent homes. Some are part Oriental, for
instance, and in present-day society may still be equally unwelcome to both Oriental and
Occidental prospective adoptive parents. Others are full or part native Indian, and
toward these, too, must come an increased sense of community awareness of the needs
and rights of children. Without this, no social agency can plan successfully through
adoption for the children entrusted to them.
Legislative Requirements No Major Limitations
A few of the children under 3 years have a parent or parents who, though unwilling
to give consent to adoption, still do not re-establish a home for their family. Each year
there are fewer in this unsatisfactory situation, however. Generous consultation privileges over the past few years have been extended to the Division by Supreme Court
Judges, and this, together with the guidance received from many members of the legal
profession, has resulted in improved agency pre-placement planning and procedure in
connection with the provisions of the British Columbia "Adoption Act" relative to the
waiving of parents' consents.   A revision of the "Adoption Act " is presently under study, REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 53
but in the meantime little delay in either placement of a child or finalization of an adoption
need occur when these recommended procedures are carefully followed.
Special Problems of the 6- to 11-year-old Child
Among 349 wards shown in Table III in the 6- to 11-year age range are several of
the seriously physically and mentally handicapped children and children who have been
too badly hurt in their own homes to be readily placed with adopting parents even if there
were any large numbers of adopting parents ready to take the strains and risks involved.
There are also a number in this age-group who are one of several children of a family in
care. They should not be separated from their brothers and sisters, and yet there are few
adopting parents ready to assume full responsibility for a family of three, four, or more
at one time.
All these factors have a bearing upon what permanent plans can be made for a child.
The two main deterrents to the successful and early adoption placement of children in all
age-groups who need and can relate to adopting parents continue to be (1) that many
are children of a mixed racial origin and (2) shortage of adoption homes for children of
the Roman Catholic faith. Neither of these limitations can be removed wholly by social
agencies. They call for the sympathetic understanding of all adults in every community
of the Province, or otherwise the children concerned can never know the desirable security
of adoption.
Progress in Adoption Placement
That we are moving more rapidly and successfully into adoption for children coming
into care to-day is well shown in the following tables:—
Table IV.—Ages of Children Placed for Adoption throughout the Social Welfare
Branch Regions during the Fiscal Year
Region
Under 1
Month
1-2
Months
3-5
Months
6-11
Months
1-2
Years
3-4
Years
5
Years
6
Years
9
Years
Total
Region I 	
23
56
34
16
9
20
12
21
30
14
13
8
10
7
10
7
6
8
6
6
6
8
3
2
2
1
3
1
4
1
1
3
1
3
1
1
56
92
Region III  	
Region IV  	
Region V __
Region VI-	
84
46
38
41
Totals           	
158
98
48
31
12
5
3
1
1
357
Table V.—Religion of Children Placed for Adoption throughout the Social Welfare
Branch Regions during the Fiscal Year
Region I —
Region II _
Region III _
Region IV-
Region V._.
Region VI.
Totals-
Region
Roman
Catholic
7
3
13
8
6
3
40
Protestant
49
89
71
38
33
37
317
Total
56
92
84
46
39
40
357
The foster-children whose status changed to "adoption probation" were 45, thus
making a total of 402 adoption placements. Last year the number of children placed in
adoption homes by the Division was 256 and of foster-children whose status changed to
"adoption probation" 15, thus making a total of 271. The increase has been 131. O 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ingenuity Used in Adoption Placement
During this fiscal year seventeen of the 357 children placed with adopting parents
were of mixed racial origin, three were wholly North American Indian, and one full
Chinese, but only two of these could be placed from hospital because no home was
immediately available. Most had remained in foster homes for months and some even
years, and great ingenuity and resourcefulness had to be used to ultimately find their
adoptive parents. One, a little girl aged 4 years, was part Indian, and her racial heritage
was apparent in her colour and features. A written background history could not tell of
Ann's charm and potential, but the crayon sketches a worker made and the numerous
coloured pictures he took of her at play and around her foster home did. Adoptive
parents were found who saw in this child the promise of the daughter they longed for.
After a period of careful preparation Ann went to them, but because of her heritage she
had been a hard-to-place child and the four years of growing up in the foster home had
been lost to the parents now hers.
Younger and Older Children Placed
As will be seen from Table IV, an increased number of adoption placements were
made in all parts of the Province this year. It is to be noted, too, that the largest group
of children placed were under the age of 1 month, and the average age at placement was
generally considerably lowered. The number of placements of children over 3 years
of age, however, also shows an upward swing, and the Division is pleased to report that
this year the top age range was successfully raised by two years. It can be reported, too,
that among these older children were a few with a congenital physical handicap or a
handicapping social history, as mental illness of a parent or relative.
Majority of Children Adopted Placed by Agencies
The number of adoptions finalized by order of the Supreme Court this year was
1,102, thirty-nine more than last year. Six hundred of these were made in Social Welfare
Branch areas and 502 within the communities served by a Children's Aid Society.
Again this year, social agencies placed a high percentage of the children involved. Three
hundred and nineteen of the 1,102 children legally adopted were adopted by relatives.
Only 132 had been placed through private channels with non-relatives. The Superintendent or a Children's Aid Society had placed the remaining 651. One hundred and
sixty-four of the 1,102 adoption orders granted this year pertained to wards either of
the Superintendent or a Children's Aid Society.
Future Goals in Adoption
From this brief review of reasons why children are in the care of the Superintendent,
it becomes clear why many quite validly require temporary or permanent foster-home
care. The progress made in adoption placements since the additional worker was
assigned to the Child Welfare Division Adoption Placement Section last year is evident
in the figures quoted. With the co-operation of field staff and responsive adopting
parents from all parts of the Province, more children each year should be able to go
directly from hospital to their adoptive homes. Such a practice protects the child from
the damaging experience of a second placement and at the same time results in a
considerable saving to the Branch.
A point of decision has been reached, however, and, as is the case with other
child-placing agencies everywhere, the goals and standards set for the future are dependent upon the availability and the ability of staff to build an ever-growing pool of
prospective adopting parents from which can be drawn a family to meet the needs of
every child needing parents.
As at March 31st, 1955, there were fifty Roman Catholic, one Buddhist, and 289
Protestant prospective  adopting parents  throughout Social  Welfare  Branch  regions REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 55
awaiting placement of a child. But plans are already under way for placement in almost
all the Roman Catholic homes, in the home of the Buddhist faith, and by early in the
new fiscal year a large number of the Protestant homes will have been used. With the
steadily increasing number of adoption placements, the period prospective adopting
parents wait for their child has been reduced during the past five years from three to
four years to one year and less. This is in one way a satisfactory state of affairs, but
it also points to a time in the not too distant future when the numbers of adopting parents
available may not be sufficient to ensure that a careful selection of a home will be made
in each instance with the needs of the child as the central focus. On exploring this situation with field staff, it becomes evident that while interest in adoption placement could
be increased to advantage in certain ethnic and religious groups throughout the Province,
there is an inability of field staff to process new applications on account of the daily
pressures being experienced by them in other categories of service. Easement of this
situation is essential if the present standard of adoption placement is to be continued.
The alternative can only be an ever-increasing number of children in foster homes who
need and have a right to a life with a family of their own. From a standpoint of human
values such a course is wasteful, and since one child in a foster home for eighteen years
costs a government a minimum of $15,000, it is plainly an uneconomical one financially
to follow.
Finding of Foster Homes Hampered by Rates
From the preceding pages of this Report it becomes clear that the Branch is giving
adoption the preferred position it warrants in planning for the child needing a permanent
home apart from his own parents. For those children who cannot be planned for by
adoption, however, the Superintendent and Children's Aid Societies have a rather special
responsibility in that they must stand in lieu of parents for varying lengths of time,
depending upon the practicability of the parents re-establishing the family as a unit.
The Division's ability to fulfil the obligations implied has been greatly hampered for some
time now by the current prevailing foster-home rates, and it is imperative that these be
revised at the earliest possible date. The Division is making excellent use of the money
designated in last year's estimates for vocational and education fees, but in the urban
areas, as well as in most throughout the Province, it is becoming next to impossible to
house teen-age boys and girls. The rates being asked, and being paid, for ordinary board
are far in excess of what the Branch can offer. In addition, foster-families are being
asked to assume a major responsibility for supervision and training of foster children.
Adequate board rates are not the whole answer in maintaining good standards in a
foster-home programme, but without them staff are seriously handicapped in their work
with both foster-parents and foster-children. Old-established homes become too often
overused, and new applicants are discouraged early when they learn that a considerable
gap exists between the actual costs and services rendered and the rates paid.
Use of Family Allowances for Children in Care
When a child is placed with his adopting parents, they, on his behalf, receive Family
Allowance as an own child. A child in a foster home receives Family Allowance also, but
unless he has been in a home for one year or more, a trust account is maintained by
the Superintendent, out of which she purchases items chargeable under Family Allowance
policies.
Throughout the calendar year, $39,522.74 was received in Family Allowance,
$37,128.79 disbursed, and as at January lst, 1954, the trust account had a balance of
$31,290.33, involving 1,059 children.
Doukhobor Children of the Sons of Freedom Sect
In accordance with Government policy, there are now seventy-five children of this
sect in a group-living arrangement at New Denver.   The quarters were formerly a sana- O 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
torium for adults, and in many ways are unsuited to the healthy, active life of growing
boys and girls. However, the setting is pleasant, and the Division has been fortunate in the
staff it has managed to attract, although the number available continues to be inadequate.
The children, for the most part, are not presenting immediate major problems. Each is
attending the local school regularly, and some have shown remarkable ability to learn.
So far, however, no amount of encouragement has resulted in any continuing at school
after the age of 15 years. When the children first came into care in September, 1953,
they seemed singularly unaware of ordinary child play and fun. An almost disproportionate amount of staff time and effort were devoted to introducing and instructing in
such simple play-time activities as skipping, ball games, skating, and even story-telling.
All such activity was only looked upon with suspicion and seemed foreign to the children's
muscles and sense of humour. Gradually an interest was aroused, and some now take part
in many of the local sports events. One boy won a junior golf tournament trophy this
year, and several are keen baseball players, but they still remain a close-knit watchful
group, subject to their parents' direction in all matters. There are few signs that the
teachings of their leaders with respect to citizen responsibility and participation have
been modified in any way.
The children's life in the institution is not without interest. Their physical well-being
has been meticulously safeguarded by the local Public Health Officer, and in only in
one or two instances have there been any symptoms of disturbance, as a result of separation from parents, noted in a child. However, as long as the children's parents and
relatives in the various Doukhobor communities continue their extraordinary methods of
protestation against law enforcement, which most aptly has been likened to a mass
paranoia, it is not possible to estimate what the mental health of the children will be
when they reach adulthood, since they are out of their homes by order of a Court. Some
of the parents who have left their home community during the past two years to become
established elsewhere have applied to Court and had their children returned to them, and
are sending them to school. A few have recently been exploring the possibility of moving
from a Doukhobor community and making use of correspondence courses for their
children. Branch policy is to encourage such plans, but until the very real fear of
retaliation by the group through burnings, which a large number of the sect feel, has been
lessened, only a few are ready to take so courageous a step. In the meantime and for
so long as the Sons of Freedom children are in care, the goal will be to show them by
word and deed that the laws of the land are fair and the methods used in their administration are humane and considerate.
Jewish Overseas Children
Only two Jewish overseas children remain in care as at March 31st, 1955. One of
these, a brilliant boy who will be 21 next month, supports himself by summer employment and teaching Hebrew after school-hours, and at the same time has won scholarships
in each of his three years at university. The other is an equally bright girl, aged 16 years,
who also has plans to continue her education. Her foster-parents are in the process of
legally adopting her, and it is interesting to note that this is the only instance in this group
of children where this plan seemed feasible. The Superintendent has commented in
previous Annual Reports about the success of the Jewish overseas children placement
project and of the outstanding contribution made to it by the Jewish people of this
Province. As the last child leaves agency care, it is appropriate that the Superintendent
re-emphasizes her admiration of this group of citizens and at the same time expresses
her sincere thanks to the Vancouver Children's Aid Society for its able leadership and the
untiring interest it has at all times given the project on her behalf.
Fairbridge Farm School Children
Two of the Fairbridge Farm School children reached the age of 21 years during
the year, one girl married, and a boy returned to England.    Of the fifty-three still in REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 57
care, twenty-four are in Social Welfare Branch foster homes, nineteen in a Children's
Aid Society's home, five are in the Royal Canadian Air Force, one in another Province
with her foster-parents from British Columbia, three in a correctional institution, and
one, aged 18 years, has been absent without leave for many months.
Most of the Fairbridge Farm School children had known long periods of institutional life before coming into the care of the Superintendent in 1948-49, and learning to
live in a family was difficult and for some well nigh impossible. However, the majority
of the fifty-three boys and girls remaining are settled, and many have shown real achievement. One is attending the University of British Columbia, and the boy who returned
to England this year plans to finish his education at a university there. One boy had the
highest marks in his class at a vocational training school, and another, who has a serious
physical ailment to contend with, completed a book-keeping course. Several completed
Grade XII this year and have found clerical positions to their liking, and one specially
gifted boy is taking an advanced course in draughting.
A somewhat high percentage of the total group of Fairbridge Farm School children
seem to have difficulty with personal relationships in their adolescence and young adult
years. Two this year were released from correctional institutions, and the Division was
pleased to note that they were at last able to take help from their social worker. For
several months now both have been steadily employed, and their changed attitude
toward their foster-parents and the agency holds high promise of a better, richer life
in the years ahead.
OTHER PHASES OF CHILD WELFARE DIVISION WORK
Forty-seven requests from Supreme Court Judges for reports on plans offered by
parents in disputes regarding the custody of children were handled in the Division this
year, which was thirty less than last year. Since this service to the Court was started
some fourteen years ago, the Court has many times expressed appreciation of the helpfulness of the reports. However, there have been questions raised periodically in the
Division, in the Bar Association, and by the Court itself as to the status of the reports
in the Court. As a result and at the instigation of the Chief Justice, certain Court procedures were established and in the main have been put into effect to ensure not only that
the reports will continue to be available to the Court, but that full protection against
possible misuse or misinterpretation of information contained in the reports will be
extended the Superintendent. As at the end of the fiscal year, thirteen custody reports are
pending completion.
Six legitimation applications were accepted for verification during the year, and
two are in the process of realization. Twenty-four referrals from the Canadian Department of Immigration with regard to the proposed emigration of children from the United
Kingdom and Europe were received, and seven remain incomplete. Negotiations to
repatriate thirty-two transient children, two of whom are still in British Columbia, were
also undertaken this year. These interdepartmental and interprovincial phases of the
work of the Division are not only important with regard to the individuals concerned, but
they afford a valuable opportunity to the Branch to participate in the formation of Provincial and National policies and legislation which affect the lives of children and their
families. Through these kinds of services, for instance, Judges of the Supreme Court
and members of the Bar Association are more keenly aware of the child welfare services
in the Province than they otherwise would be. The Branch through the years has participated in changed legislation with respect to legitimation of children and the protection
of the child born out of wedlock or adopted by the enactment of legislation providing
that such personal information be omitted from birth certificates issued. In a small way
because of these past undertakings, the Branch can feel a part of the interprovincial and
international negotiations presently in process between departments of vital statistics
in many countries as a result of which similar legislation may become universal. O 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Administration of the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act "
The administration of this Act has undergone an interesting change during the past
few years, which in the main is the result of expanded and improved services throughout
the Province to both unmarried mothers and unmarried fathers. There is much room
for research in this area of work, but it seems evident that fewer unwed mothers are
to-day keeping their children. If they do and later marry, the trend seems more toward
adoption of the child by the mother and her husband rather than a continuation of collecting from the child's father for his maintenance. Socially in this country's culture
these developments seem better for all concerned. As a result, an increasing number of
settlements are accepted each year, and also a gradual increase is noted in the number of
agreements and orders enforced over a long period of time.
Nineteen new agreements and forty-eight orders were obtained this year, bringing
the total of both to 264. A total of $58,859.65 was collected during the year, an increase
of $6,773.80 over last year.
CONCLUSION
In ending this report, the Superintendent would like to pay special tribute to all
staff for what progress she has been able to report in this fiscal year. Many times, because
of the distances involved, geographic factors and the sheer weight of other duties, some of
the services reported have been possible only because of a worker's dedication to children
and his willingness to make personal sacrifices to ensure a child's well-being. Other
agencies, departments, and many individuals throughout all communities have made
contributions, too. As always throughout this year, the foster-families who care for
foster-children have been thought of as the very core of child welfare services. It is
hoped that the Branch's appreciation of them will shortly be expressed tangibly and
practically by an implementation of the recommendation made earlier in this report with
respect to a needed revision in foster-home rates.
(Miss) Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 59
OLD-AGE ASSISTANCE AND BLIND PERSONS'
ALLOWANCES BOARDS
GENERAL
The year under review, like the year 1953-54, was a fairly quiet one, though the
work was rather heavy. There were no changes in either of the Acts administered by the
Board, but some changes were made in the regulations under both Acts and also in the
cost-of-living bonus regulations.   These changes are dealt with further on in the report.
The trend in rate of receipt of new applications for old-age assistance was slightly
downward. Only 2,728 were received, compared with 2,858 the year before. The total
number on the payroll on March 31st, 1955, was only 7,869, compared with 8,144 on
March 31st of the preceding year. These include transfers from other Provinces. On
the other hand, the number of applications for blind allowances was up from forty-eight
in 1953-54 to sixty this year. However, the number of blind persons, including those
from other Provinces, on the payroll was down from 488 on March 31st, 1954, to 474
on March 31st, 1955. This drop was due largely to the transfer of a number of persons
to Old Age Security on their reaching the age of 70 years.
Reference to the last page of the financial statement at the end of this report will
show that there was a marked increase in expenditure on cost-of-living bonuses paid to
recipients of Old-age Assistance, recipients of Blind Persons' Allowances, and Old Age
Security pensioners. The net cost to the Province of this form of supplementary assistance
in 1954-55 was $5,610,657.29, compared with $3,707,714.17 in 1953-54. This
increase was due almost entirely to the increase from $10 a month to $15 in the rate
paid to recipients commencing April lst, 1954.
THE LENGTHENING LIFE-SPAN
It is common knowledge that life expectancy is lengthening out rapidly. Two thousand years ago, when the Roman Empire was at the height of its glory, the life expectancy
of a child at birth was twenty-three years. One hundred years ago in the States along
the Atlantic seaboard it was forty; fifty years ago in the United States and Canada it was
still only forty-eight; to-day it is between sixty-eight and seventy. This phenomenal
increase in the last half-century was due largely to the fact that fewer people died in
childhood because children's diseases have largely been conquered.
However, older people are now living longer, too. As Julietta K. Arthur says in
her book " How to Help Older People ": " Till recently the lengthening life span meant
only that men and women were reaching the evening of their lives in larger numbers.
Now it is evident that the evening itself is lengthening." An illustration of this is to be
found in the fact that a women who was granted an old-age pension in British Columbia
in September, 1927—the first month in which such pensions were paid in any part of
Canada—is still living. Though she is now on Old Age Security, she continues to receive
the Provincial cost-of-living bonus. In September of this year she will be 99 years of
age and will have been on our payroll for twenty-eight years. It is hoped that the assistance she has received has not only added years to her life, but life to her years.
CHANGES IN THE REGULATIONS
The regulations made pursuant to both " The Old Age Assistance Act " and " The
Blind Persons Act" were amended during the year under review, and the amendments
came into effect as from January lst, 1955. The most significant of these are as
follows:—
(1) The age at which an application for Old-age Assistance may be accepted
was reduced from 64 years and 8 months to 64 years and 6 months if
the applicant is resident in a part of Canada that is accessible only at a
certain time or times of the year. O 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(2) In the case of a person resident in such a part of Canada, the period
during which an investigation report must be completed before the date
of the proposed commencement of assistance or allowance was extended
from four to six months.
(3) Where an applicant was temporarily absent from Canada and was unable
to return due to the dislocation of transportation facilities during or immediately following the Second World War, he may now be deemed to
have been present in Canada for the period of absence between the date
he made application to the proper authority for transportation to Canada
and the date of his actual return.
(4) A deduction of $500 may now be allowed from the cash surrender value
of life insurance available to a recipient or his spouse before determining
the income value of personal property.
(5) The date at which the assets of an applicant for assistance or allowance
are to be considered was changed from the date of application to the proposed date of commencement.
(6) The provision for retroactive payment of assistance or allowance was
extended from a maximum of three months prior to the date of approval
to a maximum of four months prior to that date.
(7) In the case of a person sentenced to a period of imprisonment in excess
of thirty days, assistance or allowance may now be reinstated from a date
not more than one month prior to the date of release. The regulation
covering this point was previously not specific.
(8) The list of types of income that could be exempted from consideration for
income purposes was extended to include any cost-of-living bonus or
supplemental allowance paid by a Province to a person in receipt of an
allowance under " The Disabled Persons Act."
There were important changes in the amount of cost-of-living bonus paid during the
year. As from April lst, 1954, the Government decided to pay an additional bonus of
$5 a month to all British Columbia recipients or pensioners on the payroll. The immediate effect of this was to increase the income ceiling of a single person by $60 a year and
of a married person by $120 a year.
New bonus regulations confirming this change were made effective as from June
lst, 1954. The maximum income for a single person was increased to $780 a year,
including bonus, and to $1,320 a year, including bonus, for married persons. The
maximum bonus was increased from $10 a month to $15.
In February, 1955, the bonus regulations were further amended, making it possible
for persons to receive a bonus who were 70 years of age and were originally granted a
pension under " The Old Age Pensions Act," assistance under " The Old Age Assistance
Act," or an allowance under " The Blind Persons Act " or " The Disabled Persons Act"
as the responsibility of British Columbia on the basis of residence. This change meant
that a number of persons who were originally the financial responsibility of British Columbia for assistance or allowance purposes, but who were not eligible for the bonus
because they did not have the required three years' residence, were now able to qualify.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING THE PERIOD FROM
JANUARY 1st, 1952, TO MARCH 31st, 1955
Following will be found a graphic presentation of the various aspects of Old-age
Assistance since the coming into force of " The Old Age Assistance Act" in January,
1952.
The broken dotted line indicates the cost of Old-age Assistance in units of 50,000
per square.   This line shows a rapid rise in the first few months and a more gradual one
J r
REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 61
in the following months. This is due to the initial large number of applications granted
at the beginning of the year 1952 when the Act first came into force. The monthly
increase in cost is smaller than it would be otherwise because of the fact that recipients
are transferred to Old Age Security as soon as they become 70 years of age.
The line graph showing the number of applications received by January lst, 1952,
is extended beyond the upper limits of the graph. The arrow at the end of the fine graph
indicates that it should be extended to 7,032.
Examination of the line graph for this year will show that the line denoting the
number of transfers to Old Age Security periodically rises above the line denoting the
number of applications granted. It is possible that this may be the trend for the next two
years. This possibility arises from the fact that over 7,000 applications for Old-age
Assistance were received by January 31st, 1952. Since all Old-age Assistance recipients
transfer to Old Age Security at age 70, and the number of applications received in the
last two years has been less than 3,000 a year, it would appear that the total Old-age
Assistance case load may show a decrease rather than an increase for a time.
I O 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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O 63
STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1955
Old-age Assistance
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received	
Number of applications granted
  2,728
  2,3031
Number of applications not granted (refused, withdrawn, etc.)     504
1 Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous
(a) British Columbia—
Number of recipients returned to British Columbia  32
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  156
Number of B.C. recipients who have died  332
Number of B.C. recipients suspended  406
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to other Provinces 61
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to Old Age Security 1,985
Total number of B.C. recipients on payroll at end of
fiscal year  7,552
(b) Other Province—
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred to
British Columbia      137
Number of " other Province " recipients reinstated  3
Number of " other Province " recipients suspended        13
Number of " other Province " recipients who have died 2
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred out
of British Columbia        70
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred to
Old Age Security        56
(c) Total number of recipients (B.C. and " other Province ") on
payroll at end of fiscal year  7,869
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Not of age	
Unable to prove age	
Not sufficient residence
Income in excess	
Unable to prove residence
Transfer of property
Receiving War Veterans' Allowance
Information refused	
Applications withdrawn
Applicants died before grant        25
Whereabouts unknown	
Eligible for Old Age Security	
Miscellaneous	
dumber
Per Cent
108
21.42
21
4.17
1
0.20
174
34.52
5
0.99
3
0.60
32
6.35
98
19.44
25
4.96
11
2.18
24
4.77
2
0.40
Total
504
100.00 O 64
Male
Female
Married
Single	
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Sex of New Recipients
Number
 :_  1,134
  1,169
Per Cent
49.24
50.76
Total   2,303
100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Recipients
Number
    ______         .   .   .        923
Per Cent
40.08
14.03
19.97
6.90
16.72
2.30
      323
Widows _
      460
Widower.
Separatee
Divorced
British G
Other par
British Is
Other pai
United St
Other for
Age 65
Age 66
Age 67
Age 68
Age 69
Age 65
Age 66
Age 67
Age 68
      159
      _     _____                 385
        53
Total   2,303
100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Recipients
Number
nlumbia  ___    ___      _____        146
Per Cent
6.34
22.14
29.18
0.78
9.38
32.18
ts of Canada _____           _       510
les _________                          672
ts of British Empire        18
ates of America _                                     216
sign countries      741
Total   2,303
100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of Assistance
Number
  1,159
      390
Per Cent
50.33
16.93
12.46
11.51
8.77
      287
      265
      202
Total   2,303
100.00
Table VIII.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number
        33
Per Cent
9.94
17.77
15.66
28.01
28.62
        59
        52
        93
Age 69
        95
Total               _         332
100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 65
Table IX.—With Whom New Recipients Live
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
alone	
with spouse	
with spouse and children
with children	
with other relatives
with others	
in public institutions __
in private institutions
Total 	
Number
836
748
166
286
119
107
23
18
2,303
Per Cent
36.30
32.48
7.21
12.42
4.65
5.17
0.99
0.78
100.00
Table X.—Where New Recipients Are Living
Number
In own house  967
In rented house  247
In children's home  288
In home of other relatives  70
Boarding  15
In boarding home  368
In housekeeping room  75
In single room (eating out)  165
In rented suite  67
In institutions  41
Total   2,303
W
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Recipients
(a) Holding real property of value—
Number
  1,399
  30
  124
  176
  159
$ 1,001 to $ 1,500 ____.              197
$ 1,501 to $2,000  120
$2,001 and up  98
$0
$1 to$250__.
$251 to$500___
$501 to $750 ___
$751 to $1,000
Total   2,303
Holding personal property of value—
$0	
$1 to $250	
  1,106
      680
$251 to $500             211
$501 to $750 ______
$751 to $1,000 ___
$1,001 to $1,500
$1,501 to $2,000
$2,001 and up	
123
79
75
19
10
Per Cent
41.98
10.73
12.51
3.04
0.65
15.98
3.26
7.16
2.91
1.78
100.00
Per Cent
60.75
1.30
5.38
7.64
6.90
8.55
5.22
4.26
100.00
48.02
29.53
9.16
5.34
3.43
3.26
0.83
0.43
Total
2,303
100.00 O 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XII.—Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces
Whose Assistance Is Paid by British Columbia
Alberta	
Granted by
British Columbia
  25
Granted by
Other Provinces
n
Saskatchewan 	
Manitoba	
  13
  11
18
8
Ontario 	
  13
20
Quebec
     2
4
New Brunswick	
Nova Scotia  _ _ —.   '
     2
2
Prince Edward Island     _ _
     1
Newfoundland 	
Northwest Territories       •    	
Yukon Territory	
Total	
  67
63
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Recipients according to the Amount of Assistance
Received (Basic Assistance, $40)
Amount of Assistance Per Cent
$40  83.82
$35 to $39.99  3.84
$30 to $34.99  3.81
$25 to $29.99  2.65
$20 to $24.99  1.81
Less than $19.99  4.07
Total  100.00
Blind Persons' Allowances
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received     60
Number of applications granted     51
Number of applications not granted (refused, withdrawn, etc.)      9 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 67
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. recipients suspended.
Number of B.C. recipients reinstated_
  22
  24
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to other Provinces  10
Number of B.C. recipients returned to British Columbia  7
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to Old Age Security  31
Number of deaths of B.C. recipients  22
Number of deaths of " other Province " recipients  2
Number of "other Province" recipients transferred to British
Columbia	
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred out of British Columbia or suspended	
Number of " other Province " recipients reinstated	
Total on payroll at end of fiscal year—
British Columbia	
Other Province	
11
9
3
451
23
474
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Not blind within the meaning of the Act.
Income in excess	
Applications withdrawn	
Eligible for Old Age Security...
Died before grant_
Receiving War Veterans' Allowance..
Information refused ...
Total-
Number
..    5
_.    2
__    2
Per Cent
56.00
22.00
22.00
100.00
Male	
Female.
Table IV.—Sex of New Recipients
Number
  27
  24
Total-
51
Per Cent
52.94
47.06
100.00
Married	
Single	
Widows	
Widowers.
Separated.
Divorced._
Table V.—Marital Status of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
  19 37.26
  12 23.53
     7 13.73
    6 11.76
    6 11.76
     1 1.96
Total.
51
100.00 O 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
British Columbia....  21 41.18
Other parts of Canada  10 19.60
British Isles     8 15.69
Other parts of British Empire     1 1.96
United States of America     3 5.88
Other foreign countries     8 15.69
Total.
51
100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of Allowance
Number Per Cent
Age 21     2 3.92
Ages 22 to 30     6 11.76
Ages 31 to 40     6 11.76
Ages 41 to 50     9 17.65
Ages 51 to 60  12 23.53
Ages 61 to 69  16 31.38
TotaL
51
100.00
Table VIII.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number
Age 21	
Ages 22 to 30.
1
Ages 31 to 40     2
Ages 41 to 50     3
Ages 51 to 60     4
Ages 61 to 69  12
Per Cent
4.55
9.09
13.64
18.18
54.54
Total.
22
100.00
Table IX.—With Whom New Recipients Live
Living with parents	
Living alone 	
Living with spouse	
Living with spouse and children.
Living with children	
Living with other relatives	
Living with others	
Living in public institutions	
Living in private institutions	
Total	
Number
..    5
.. 13
11
4
4
3
2
1
51
Per Cent
9.80
25.50
15.69
21.57
7.84
7.84
5.88
3.92
1.96
100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Table X.—Where New Recipients At
In parents' home    ._           	
■e Living
Number
6
22
2
2
5
1
2
Per Cent
11.77
In own house          	
In rented house             	
43.14
3.92
In rented suite      ...        	
3.92
In children's home	
In other relatives' homes.   .. 	
9.80
1.96
Boarding                         	
3.92
In housekeeping room        	
__    6
1
3
1
51
11.77
In boarding home...    ..-,           	
1.96
In institutions               	
5.88
In single room (eating out)     _      	
1.96
Total	
100.00
O 69
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Recipients
(a)  Holding real property of value—
$0	
$1 to $250	
$251 to $500	
$501 to $750	
$751 to $1,000....
$1,001 to $1,500.
$1,501 to $2,000.
$2,001 and up-__
Total	
Number
_ 36
2
2
3
2
4
2
51
Per Cent
70.60
3.92
3.92
5.88
3.92
7.84
3.92
100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value-
$0	
$1 to $250	
$251 to $500	
$501 to $750	
$751 to $1,000	
$1,001 to $1,500	
$1,501 to $2,000	
$2,001 and up	
Total	
31
60.79
9
17.65
3
5.88
3
5.88
2
3.92
1
1.96
1
1.96
1
1.96
51
100.00 O 70
Table XII.-
BRITISH COLUMBIA
-Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces Whose Allowances
Are Paid by This Province
Granted by
British Columbia
Alberta	
Saskatchewan. __   	
Manitoba        _   _ 	
Ontario	
1
Quebec	
New Brunswick_     .,      _ _ _
1
Nova Scotia      	
1
Prince Edward Island  _ __   _     _
Newfoundland  	
Northwest Territories	
Yukon Territory  	
Granted by
Other Provinces
2
1
Total.
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Recipients according to the Amount of Allowance
Received (Basic Allowance, $40) Percent
$40 i  91.77
$35 to $39.99  2.74
$30 to $34.99  1.27
$25 to $29.99  2.11
$20 to $24.99  0.63
$19.99 and less  1.48
Total.
100.00
Cost-of-living Bonus and Health Services
New Applications
Number received  1,764
Number granted bonus and health services  907
Number granted bonus only  45
Number granted health services only  115
Number who died before application was granted  27
Number of applications withdrawn  85
Number of applicants ineligible  255
Number of applications pending  330
Total  1,764
General Information
Former old-age pensioners still receiving cost-of-living bonus
on March 31st, 1955  17,616
Old-age Assistance recipients transferred to Old Age Security
receiving cost-of-living bonus on March 31st, 1955     4,124
New Old Age Security pensioners receiving cost-of-living
bonus on March 31st, 1955     3,659
Blind persons in receipt of Old Age Security receiving cost-
of-living bonus on March 31st, 1955        221 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 71
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
" The Old Age Assistance Act," Year Ended March 31st, 1955
Cost-of-living
Total   amount   paid   recipients   in   British Assistance Bonus Total
Columbia   $3,766,652.69 $1,168,572.00 $4,935,224.69
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Overpayments refunded        $17,202.96 $2,454.12       $19,657.08
Miscellaneous refunds   302.62 102.50 405.12
Totals         $17,505.58 $2,556.62       $20,062.20
Net amount paid to recipients in British
Columbia   $3,749,147.11  $1,166,015.38 $4,915,162.49
Add amount paid other Provinces on account of recipients for whom British
Columbia is responsible  29,385.47 4,495.00 33,880.47
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of recipients for whom
other Provinces are responsible  69,248.26 13,144.33 82,392.59
Less amount refunded by the Federal
Government  •     1,875,777.24        1,875,777.24
Total amount paid by British
Columbia   $1,833,507.08 $1,157,366.05 $2,990,873.13
" The Blind Persons Act," Year Ended March 3 1st, 1955
Cost-of-living
Allowances Bonus Total
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia $228,413.33 $76,677.56 $305,090.89
Less amount of refunds from recipients—Overpayments refunded  693.57 15.00 708.57
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia   $227,719.76 $76,662.56 $304,382.32
Add amount paid other Provinces on account
of recipients for whom British Columbia is
responsible   968.87 255.00        1,223.87
Less amount received by British Columbia on
account of recipients for whom other Provinces are responsible          2,981.09      2,142.50        5,123.59
Less amount refunded by the Federal Government       170,831.84      170,831.84
Total amount paid by British Columbia      $54,875.70 $74,775.06 $129,650.76 O 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Old Age Security Pensioners—Cost-of-living Bonus,
Year Ended March 31st, 1955
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia ___ $4,541,386.59
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Overpayments refunded        $15,401.56
Miscellaneous refunds   207.36
Total         $15,608.92
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia  $4,525,777.67
Add amount paid other Provinces on account of
recipients for whom British Columbia is responsible   40,972.74
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of recipients for whom other Provinces
are responsible        188,078.08
Total amount paid by British Columbia ... $4,378,672.33
"The Old Age Pensions Act," Year Ended March 31st, 1955
Cost-of-living
Amount of refunds from pensioners and estates—     Pensions Bonus Total
From estates  $17,879.57    $156.15    $18,035.72
Overpayments refunded  560.00       560.00
Totals   $18,439,571 $156.15! $18,595,721
Less amount paid other Provinces on account of
pensioners  for  whom  British  Columbia  was
responsible   209.05       209.05
Less amount refunded to the Federal Government    13,814.95            13,814.95
Total net refunds received by British
Columbia      $4,415,571 $156,151    $4,571,721
1 Credit.
Administration Expense
Salaries and special services  $150,408.89
Office expense  47,696.76
Travelling expense   349.23
Incidentals and contingencies  607.03
Equipment and furniture   633.22
Total   $199,695.13 report of the social welfare branch
Summary
Cost-of-living Bonus
 (Credit)
O 73
" Old-age Pension Act " 	
" Old-age Assistance Act " 	
" Blind Persons' Allowances Act "
Universal Old Age Security 	
As per Public Accounts
#756.75
1,157.366.05
74,775.06
4,378,672.33
$5,610,657.29
Administration
Administration and Assistance
  $199,695.13
" Old-age Pension Act " (Credit) 4,415.57
" Old-age Assistance Act "  1,833,507.08
" Blind Persons' Allowances Act "  54,875.70
As per Public Accounts  $2,083,662.34
CONCLUSION
In closing this report the Board would like to express its sincere appreciation to the
office and field staffs for the willing spirit in which they carried a very heavy load and
to other departments of the Government and the many outside agencies that assisted so
freely throughout the year.
J. H. Creighton,
Chairman. O 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION
The Division, in reporting the activities for the past year, takes pleasure in informing
you of continued progress in rendering service to all its responsibilities in the medical field.
Men ponder through the night,
Originally the foundation was laid in 1949 to provide medical services in a uniform
manner, Province-wide. It was at this time that the principle was accepted by both
municipal and Provincial bodies as the experiences of the previous years had shown the
rationale for this step. From the hodgepodge handling of this vital service came into
being a method of approach which could not but be successful. It received the silent
acclaim of all concerned—the blessing of the giver and the receiver. It established the
proper stature of the Government. It re-established the respect of the welfare recipient;
no longer was he a mendicant, nor need he suffer in silence.
But understanding waits the dawn
The scheme was far from perfect; the basis was sound. As there were no established arrangements to act as a guide, it was to take the future years to bring to light the
weaknesses. The Branch has, with the understanding of the governing bodies and cooperation of all concerned, weathered the storms. The Government, with the support of
its citizens, its vision set high and faith in God, set out to do justice to its responsibilities
and has never wavered.
As the years rolled by, certain facts became quite apparent:—
(1) The larger proportion of the welfare cases being elderly individuals, the
medical requirements are greater than those of the average population
because, in addition to the ordinary prevailing illnesses, they have the
added medical condition of growing old.
(2) The elderly are slower physically and mentally, and take more time in
handling in comparison to the younger, thus increasing the over-all cost.
(2a) The per capita payment to the medical profession at the start was $14.50,
which provided an approximate percentage payment to the doctor of 65
per cent. This sum has gradually been increased, and during the past
year it reached $20, which netted the medical men approximately 52 per
cent. As the payments to the doctors are only made for carefully scrutinized and rigidly adjusted accounts, it is obvious that the service is being
utilized more and more.
(3) The lack of recreational facilities for this group increases the demand on
the medical profession. This statement has been repeated so often it has
become a hackneyed expression, but there is no doubt that the sudden
inactivity necessitated by chronological age is prone to lead to emotional
ailments which, at this stage of life, are most difficult to alleviate.
(4) The increased knowledge of the availability of these services, added to
the improvements in medical science, plus the acceptance by the Government of the principle to assist in certain specialized services such as
cancer, arthritis, and rehabilitation, has created a great number of requests
for consultations and treatments. This has involved your Division in
increased expense for transportation to medical centres where these
specialized services exist. The provision of care during investigation and
treatment and also incidental costs resulting from this have added further
to the cost.
The Director takes pleasure in reporting that the coverage under the prophylactic
dental plan has been extended. During the past year, arrangements were made to provide
this service for all socially assisted children under the age of 10 years. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 75
The Division has dealt with all submitted drug accounts promptly and expeditiously.
There were no complaints as to delay in payments.
The costs to the taxpayer for these services through the Division are illustrated by
Tables I and II at the end of this report.
And wisdom the break of day.
What does the Branch learn from these experiences? How can the Branch give the
maximum service with the utmost economy?
The service is needed. It is being used with increasing frequency. One would find
it difficult to obtain a better arrangement for the provision of care by the physician than
that existing today; that is, financially speaking, for the governments.
The provision of drugs requires further study and experimentation.
The advances in science and treatment will increase the need for expansion in the
field of rehabilitation.
Steps should be taken to educate youth in the schools, the labourer during his working years, to prepare for retirement. Decompression should be gradual. Improvements
must be made in housing for the ageing; boarding-home and nursing-home facilities
improved and increased to care for those requiring custodial care. Recreational facilities
should always be included in the planning for these people.
The prophylactic dental scheme should be extended in proportion to the availability
of dentists until all children are cared for.
There is the immediate need to simplify the administration in the provision of all
services other than medical drugs and optical to lessen the demand on the social workers'
time.
Men ponder through the night,
But understanding waits the dawn
And wisdom the break of day.
Table I.—Categorical Breakdown of Medical Coverage, 1953—54 and 1954-55
1953-54
1954-55
Category
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Apr. 1,
1953,to
June 30,
1953
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Julv 1,
1953,to
Sept. 30,
1953
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Oct. 1,
1953,to
Dec. 31,
1953
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Jan. 1,
1954, to
Mar. 31,
1954
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Apr. 1,
1954,to
June 30,
1954
Number
Covered
Monthly,
July 1,
1954,to
Sept. 30,
1954
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Oct. 1,
1954, to
Dec. 31,
1954
Number
Covered
Monthly,
Jan. 1,
1955,to
Mar. 31,
1955
Mothers' Allowances	
1,563
15,537
3,018
36,401
9,937
1,499
15,084
3,007
35,822
10,634
1,444
15,473
3,068
37,677
8,808
1,447
16,587
3,060
37,504
8,877
1,466
17,332
3,135
37,446
8,860
1,431
17,416
3,190
37,266
8,936
1,371
17,910
3,267
37,308
8,853
1,371
18,704
3,276
37,209
8,720
Old   Age  Security   bonus   and
Blind Persons' Allowances
Old-age Assistance 	
Average monthly coverage on
66,456
66,046
66,470
67,475
68,239
68,239
68,709
69,280
Average monthly coverage on yearly basis:   1953-54, 66,556;   1954-55, 68,513. O 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Comparative Breakdown of Expenditures for Fiscal Years
1953-54 and 1954-55
1953-54
1954-55
Expenditure
Municipalities and
Other
Sources
Provincial
Government
Expenditure
Municipalities and
Other
Sources
Provincial
Government
$2,447.50
1,217,431.12
2,047.75
489.84
632,297.94
8,797.23
35,533.27
3,621.59
6,851.64
76,243.94
3,601.96
377.96
13,400.11
8,416.16
236.70
26,301.69
$2,394.30
217,056.65
1,300.35
$53.20
1,000,374.47
747.40
489.84
569,774.72
3,621.59
6,851.64
74,633.94
3,521.46
377.96
12,976.75
8,137.35
236.70
25,542.74
$3,623.59
1,359,212.98
1,257.63
2,457.60
f 702,090.43
\      9,090.55
I   38,983.79
14,017.99
7,845.05
90,855.99
4,492.46
114.07
19,285.22
9,561.52
269.70
51,741.07
$3,282.34
230,753.60
614.36
$341.25
Medical—
1,128,459.38
643.27
2,457.60
j. 106,873.72
1
[. 128,568.19
J
621,596.58
Dental—
14,017.99
31.40
2,082.20
199.09
7,813.65
1,610.00
80.50
88,773.79
Transportation—
4,293.37
114.07
Other       _                  	
423.36
278.81
498.41
154.82
18,786.81
9,406.70
269.70
758.95
883.00
50,858.07
Totals
$2,038,116.40
$330,776.64
$1,707,339.76
$2,314,899.64
$367,067.41
$1,947,832.23
Respectfully submitted.
J. C. Moscovich, M.D.,
Director. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 77
PART III.—INSTITUTIONS
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS
I beg to submit the annual report of the Provincial Industrial School for Boys for
the period ending March 31st, 1955.
During the first half of this fiscal year, programme-planning and policy-making were
practically at a standstill pending the report of the committee inquiring into the operations of the Schools. Whilst the greater portion of the committee's report submitted in
October, 1954, dealt with personnel, the committee found the rehabilitation programme
needed and basically sound. They strongly urged further study, particularly, relating to
planning for the child prior to commitment. They were of the opinion that the new School
and new administrative staff would aid in the implementation of the rehabilitation programme. Accordingly, the last half of 1954-55 has been taken up pretty much with the
occupancy of the Brannen Lake School under the direction of new personnel.
Fiscal Year
VO
1
1
CO
Ov
Os
OO
©
I
OS
1
_-_
m
tn
A
in
l
cn
CTs
2
Number in School, April lst 	
Number A.W.O.L., April lst	
Number in Crease Clinic, April lst	
83
14
2
1111
81
10
4
2
76
74
27,144
(2)
76
10
4
2
69 »
__....
88
2
1
56
53.3
19,456
(2)
56
2
1
129
29
158
18.4
119
7
3
3
95
74.6
27,295
5.5
95
7
3
3
102
23
125
18.4
126
14
1
3
89
86
31,408
8
89
14
1
3
86
25
111
22.5
126
13
79
81.7
29,808
10
79
13
130
26
156
16.7
128
15
1
104
82
30,011
(2)
104
15
1
121
31
152
20.4
146
19
3
104
84.3
30,865
(3)
104
19
3
118
23
141
16.3
155
4
2
1
4
101
100.6
36,721
9
101
4
2
1
4
105
17
122
13.9
119
15
2
2
96
102.4
37,383
9.5
96
15
2
Number on extended leave, April lst
Number of new admissions 	
Number of recidivists—   	
2
171
32
203
15.8
Number of releases 	
Number A.W.O.L., March 31st _
126
9
Number in Crease Clinic, March 31st
Number in Oakalla, March 31st.
Number on extended leave, March
31st 	
19
33
131
Average daily population 	
101.9
37,198
Average length of stay in months
(2)
1 Recidivists included,
admissions.
2 Not recorded.
A parole system was used whereby boys were returned to the School without affecting
It will be noted from the ten-year tabulation above that there were 171 new admissions and thirty-two readmissions during the year, which is an all-time high for the
School. Due to increased population and lack of security facilities, a larger number
of boys were transferred to Oakalla than had been the case during previous years.
Since the administration of the School firmly believes in the principle of extended
leave, there has been an increase in the number of boys granted this form of discharge.
It is thought that this policy assists the boy in his transition period from institution back
to the community life. This form of discharge means that there is authoritative control
during this period, which may be an unsettled one for the boy. This control of the
School is a positive influence.
During the late months in the old School, there was instituted an admission unit
wherein new boys were segregated during the period of orientation into the School programme.   Realizing that these facilities were available in the new School, this was started O 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
as an experiment and preparatory to the move to Brannen Lake. This, in the staff's
opinion, was one of the major factors in the reduction of A.W.O.L.'s. With the facilities
of the new School it has been possible to step up both the work and recreational
programmes.
After a considerable amount of preparation and with the co-operation of the
transportation companies and local resources both on the Mainland area and Nanaimo
district, the physical move of the School was carried out on the 16th day of March. The
buses were at the Coquitlam School at 6 a.m., and the School staff, consisting of
twenty-four staff and 114 boys, boarded the buses and made the trip by bus and ferry
to Brannen Lake, arriving at 10.30 a.m. Much credit is due the transportation companies and all persons who assisted in this transfer. While this was the most important
point, it was not the full problem of the move. The thirty-five members of the staff who
moved with the School had to locate new quarters, move their families, and re-establish
themselves, and here again the services of all local resources were much appreciated.
Twenty-three new persons had to be engaged and oriented into the programme.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT, 1954-55
Salaries  $151,010.98
Office expense  2,489.25
Travelling expense   2,489.25
Maintenance of buildings and grounds  2,543.93
Heat, light, power, and water  7,511.09
Medical services   8,828.80
Medical supplies   1,861.16
Provisions and catering  39,739.77
Clothing and uniforms   11,553.83
Laundry and dry-goods  5,188.31
Maintenance and operation of equipment  1,933.43
Transportation   1,411.81
Equipment and machinery   457.54
Incidentals and contingencies   6,850.43
Repairs to furnishings and equipment  768.22
Training programme expense   3,792.83
Less—
Rent collected  $150.00
Unemployment insurance  deductions   209.07
Workmen's Compensation Board.. 680.88
Meal tickets   1,710.00
Miscellaneous   77.37
Increase in inventory  298.30
$251,037.25
3,125.62
$247,911.63
Public Works expenditure         5,382.79
$253,294.42
Less maintenance receipts         2,127.46
Per capita cost, $6.81.
$251,166.96 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 79
CONCLUSION
This report is brief, and this, in part, is due to the fact that there was a change of
administration late in the year. In addition, much time had to be spent in preparation
to the moving of the School from Port Coquitlam to Brannen Lake, which took place
during the last two weeks of the fiscal year. Many hours of overtime was put in by the
staff of the old School preparing for the move, planning the programme, and compiling
a handbook for staff, which has been issued to all staff members, both old and new. This
necessitated much work on the part of the staff members of the Coquitlam School, and
their suggestions were most helpful and greatly appreciated. When the move took place,
fullest co-operation was given by the new School staff and Public Works employees
located at the School, who gave unstintingly of their time and effort to assist in the transfer
of the institution from one location to the other.
In conclusion, I would like to take this opportunity of expressing the School's
appreciation to those individuals and organizations who assisted in its work during the
past year.
F. G. Hassard,
Superintendent. O 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
The report of the Provincial Industrial School for Girls, covering the fiscal year
ended March 31st, 1955, is herewith submitted.
This year continued in much the same vein as the previous year, with considerable
unrest among the girls and many changes in staff. No major changes were made in the
programme or policy during the early months of the year, pending the outcome of the
committee investigating conditions in the Schools. This report was made public in October, and while it made no major recommendation for staff changes, it did strongly
recommend a new School and suggested changes in the present quarters to facilitate and
improve the operation of the institution until such time as a new School could be built.
During the year the Elizabeth Fry Society extended its services to include active
interest in the School and the individual girls. This society works with women prisoners
and gives assistance in rehabilitation on discharge. They have been instrumental in
arranging for a number of groups to bring first-class entertainment into the School. Some
of their members held a regular square-dancing class once a month. They obtained
tickets for a variety of programmes being presented in the city and the regular weekly
hockey games so that groups of twelve to fifteen girls who had earned privileges were able
to attend free of charge. Some of its members have taken a personal interest in girls
without families or with no relatives in the city, have written to them, sent them small
gifts, and, when they were ready for a week-end privilege, have taken them as guests to
their homes. This has been a great asset and most valuable in working with some of the
more upset and lonely girls.
Several religious groups who have maintained an interest in the School over a long
period of time continued to conduct services in the building once a month. The need for
a more consistent religious programme is recognized and should be provided, not only
for formal services in the School, but to include simple religious instruction and counselling.   The girls have shown a desire for this.   A School padre would be an asset.
To increase the meagre training facilities, a hairdressing-parlour was opened, with a
trained hairdresser in charge. As space for this was small, it was only possible to train
two girls at a time. Both girls completed the six months' course and passed the Board
examinations. Unfortunately the hairdresser became ill and was off from January till the
end of the fiscal year.
Formal education continued in the schoolroom for girls under school-leaving age
and those over who wished to attend. While correspondence courses were used almost
exclusively, the school was carried on under the supervision of a qualified and experienced
teacher. The number attending dwindled through the year, and it was even difficult to
keep girls under 15 years in regular attendance. Correspondence courses require pupils
with a high degree of intelligence and ability to concentrate. Many of our girls are too
disturbed by their circumstances to work up to their ability.
The recreational programme, including sports and handicrafts, has been spotty,
partly due to the difficulty in getting trained staff for physical education and lack of
proper space and equipment for other activities.
Following two periods of leave of absence due to ill health, the Superintendent
requested a transfer, and this was granted at the end of February while she was off ill.
At the same time the Treatment Director resigned to take another position in the East.
This threw a tremendous responsibility on the whole staff, and those occupying the more
senior positions are to be commended for the marvellous way in which they carried on
and kept things going. At the first of March an Acting Superintendent and Acting Treatment Director were appointed temporarily from the field staff, where they held positions
of district supervisors. Both being new to this type of institutional work, they had to lean
heavily on the existing staff. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
0 81
The Treatment Director, during the year and before leaving the School, completed
a report on the girls who have been committed to the institution over a period of years
which could very well form the basis for further and continued research in this field.
This report was submitted to the Deputy Minister early in March.
The total population in the School has not varied greatly from the previous fiscal
year. There has been an increase of only one more in admissions and the same in
releases. The number of A.W.O.L.'s has continued high, and it is unlikely this will
improve as long as the School remains in its present setting. During this year 25 per cent
of the girls committed to the Girls' Industrial School have been transferred to other institutions—Oakalla or mental institutions; 21.74 per cent of the committals were recidivists;
and Indian girls represented 24.64 per cent of the total committals. The high percentage
of recidivists might indicate two factors: (1) The need for greater training facilities and
segregation within the institution, and (2) a stepping-up of casework services to the
family while the girl is in the institution and continuing services when she is released.
Successful rehablitation and the value of care given by the institution is difficult to assess
without considerable research, which has not been possible in the past due to other
pressures on staff in both areas. O 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
EXPENSES AND REVENUE STATEMENT OF SCHOOL, MARCH 31st, 1955
Total inmate-days from April 1 st, 1954, to March 31 st, 1955  11,136
Per capita cost, one year       $4,848.92
Per capita cost, one day  $13.28
Operating expenditure by voucher—
Salaries  $84,876.99
Office expense  1,536.64
Travelling expense  54.71
Maintenance of buildings and grounds  3,685.89
Light, power, water, and fuel  6,323.78
Medical services  4,250.03
Medical supplies  :  1,167.83
Provisions and catering  13,150.23
Clothing and dry-goods  3,515.77
Maintenance and operation of equipment  978.90
Office furniture and equipment  230.46
Equipment and machinery  2,419.85
Incidentals and contingencies  90.26
Good Conduct Fund  249.04
Vocational and recreational supplies  3,712.26
Transportation of girls  1,044.93
Motor-vehicles and accessories  2,275.35
Total expenditure for year by voucher  $129,562.92
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department)—
Salaries  $7,701.42
Maintenance of buildings and grounds  11,335.41
       19,036.83
Inventory, March 31st, 1954         4,377.79
$152,977.54
Less—
Proceeds from meal tickets  $798.50
Rent   66.93
Sale of garden produce  365.10
Refund of transportation  79.00
Miscellaneous   249.98
$1,559.51
Inventory, March 31st, 1955     3,479.17
         5,038.68
$147,938.86
Less maintenance  930.90
$147,007.96 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE
BRANCH                               O 83
Reconciliation
Total expenditure as per Public Accounts 	
  $127,072.51
Add Public Works expenditure              ....
19,036.83
Add inventory as at March 31st, 1954	
$146,109.34
4,377.79
Less inventory as at March 31st, 1955 ... _ 	
$150,487.13
3,479.17
Expenditure (as above)  	
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Winifre
__ $147,007.96
D M. Urquhart,
Acting Superintendent.
-
■
 :	 O 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL HOME, KAMLOOPS
I herewith submit the annual report of the Provincial Home for the Aged and Infirm,
Kamloops, for the fiscal year 1954-55.
BUILDINGS
The matter of maintenance of the Provincial Home buildings proper, despite recommendations and need, has been neglected during the past fiscal year. With the exception
of minor repairs, chiefly performed by the staff, there has been nothing done. The painting job started in May, 1954, and discontinued to allow for annual vacation of painters,
was never resumed or completed.
The Public Works Department installed a complete new steam plant adjacent to
the Provincial Home, from which the Home obtains the necessary steam for heating, etc.
CEMETERY
The staff continued to improve the appearance of the Provincial Home cemetery,
which has proved to be quite an undertaking. The nature of the soil, which is just plain
fine sand, tends to blow away, grass seed along with it, resulting in rather unsatisfactory
results to date.
HEALTH SERVICES
As indicated in last year's report, the downward trend of the general physical and
mental condition of new admissions continues, resulting in continued pressure on the
sick-ward facilities and sick-ward staff. The daily bed patient average is thirty-four or
approximately 35 per cent of the inmate total. The average weekly number of patients
examined and treatment prescribed for, by the attending physician, is twenty. The hospitalized cases are in addition.
EQUIPMENT
The equipment of the Home, which has gradually been improved, was greatly
enhanced by the installation of new spring-filled mattresses for every inmate. The mattresses were protected by plastic envelope covers. This combination had previously
proved successful in the sick ward.
The acquisition of several Hollywood convertible wheelchairs, together with several
Hollywood toilet commode chairs, has proved of great benefit to patients and staff of the
sick ward in particular.
Two Vornado 12-inch bracket-type fans were installed in the sick ward, and two
portable types of similar size were placed in the dining-room.
Equipment obtained for cemetery use consists of 4-foot-high commercial wire
fencing with necessary metal posts and double gate and a suitable sprinkler system, with
a power-mower capable of servicing approximately a 5-acre plot.
A new Kodascope Pageant sound projector was placed in operation for the weekly
picture-show entertainment.
ENTERTAINMENT
With respect to entertainment, the Home continues to receive the kind co-operation
of many organizations such as the Elks Band, the Kamloops High School Band, St. Ann's
Academy Girls' Choir, the Royal Inland Hospital Nurses' Christian Association, the
Lions Club, and the Elks Concert Party. During the past year the ladies' auxiliary to
the Kiwanis Club has adopted the Provincial Home as a project, visiting individually and
collectively. Once a month a birthday party is held; all the men are invited. Those
whose birthday occurs during that month are especially honoured. The weekly picture
show has continued. The Christmas decorations, both internal and external, are an
outstanding feature. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 85
RELIGIOUS SERVICES
Religious services are regularly conducted weekly by various denominations, who
are accorded every facility for their needs.
" PROVINCIAL HOME ACT AMENDMENT ACT,  1955 "
The Act was amended at the last session. The base of eligibility was broadened
to include men, although not destitute, unable by their own efforts to find suitable accommodation. The residence qualification was altered to one year, in conformity with the
" Residence and Responsibility Act" and also with the interprovincial agreement in
respect to welfare services. The section with reference to transfer of property was
reworded to provide repayment to the inmate and his heirs of moneys not used for his
maintenance and funeral expenses. The administration of the Act now comes under
the Minister of Health and Welfare.
REMARKS
The many divers problems of the aged, especially with respect to chronically ill
persons, is ever present, and apparently increasing, relatively and actually, with the
increase of population in the Province. As suggested in last year's report, it would seem
wise to give consideration to the establishment of suitable accommodation for chronic
bed cases.
FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR APRIL 1st,
TO MARCH 31st, 1955
1954,
Expenditures for the Fiscal Year Ended March 31st, 1955
Salaries	
Expenses—
Office expense
Maintenance of buildings and grounds.
Heat, light, power, and water	
Medical services	
Medical supplies
,109.17
673.40
2,105.26
11,419.47
2,934.06
2,574.02
Provisions and catering       31,768.63
Clothing and uniforms _
Laundry and dry-goods
Transportation
Maintenance and operation of equipment-.
Equipment and machinery	
Incidentals and contingencies 	
Burials  	
2,759.65
10,142.39
660.76
296.39
7,816.05
1,372.40
1,600.00
$165,231.65
Less—
Board
Rent _.
$2,016.00
661.25
Special purchases charged to Provincial Home Trust Reserve
Account 	
9,161.44
11,838.69
$153,392.96 O 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Inmate-days
Inmates in the Home, April lst, 1954  123
Inmates admitted during the year     58
  181
Inmates discharged     30
Inmates deceased     27
     57
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1955  124
Total number of inmate-days  43,823
Summary
Provincial Home expenditure  $153,392.96
Public Works expenditure         5,799.98
Total expenditure  $159,192.94
Cost per capita: $159,192.92-^43,823=3.63
Pensions
Pensions paid to Government Agent, Kamloops     $54,439.40
Reconciliation
Net expenditure as per Public Accounts  $100,546.72
Add maintenance receipts—
Pensions   $54,439.40
Municipalities       5,521.81
       59,961.21
$160,507.93
Add Public Works expenditure         5,799.98
$166,307.91
Less pensioners' comforts         7,114.97
Total expenditure (as above)  $159,192.94
Respectfully submitted.
J. M. Shilland,
Superintendent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 87
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS BOARD
I herewith submit the annual report of the administration of the " Welfare Institutions
Licensing Act" for the year 1954. As licences are issued on the basis of the calendar
year, this report covers the period from January lst, 1954, to December 31st, 1954.
LICENCES
The total case load for the year was 957. Included in this number were 523 licensed
institutions and 434 pending applications. Of the licensed institutions, sixty-five closed
within the year and 309 pending applications were closed or withdrawn. The total
number of cases at December 31st was 583, made up of 458 licensed institutions and
125 pending applications (Table II, p. 95). In 1954 licensed welfare institutions served
27,720 persons.
Welfare institutions' licences are issued to cover the following types of care:—
(1) Full-time boarding care of children under 15 years of age. This includes
the small private boarding home with two children, children's institutions,
and summer camps.
(2) Day-time care of children in kindergartens, nursery schools, and foster
day-care boarding homes.
(3) Homes for older people.
(4) Maternity homes.
(5) Hostels for fifteen or more unemployed employables.
A home and personnel must meet the requirements as set out in the Act and
regulations before a licence is issued.
BOARD MEETINGS
There was a change in the personnel of the Welfare Institutions Board. The Chairman, Mr. C. W. Lundy, relinquished this office upon his appointment as Deputy Minister
of Welfare in October. Mr. J. A. Sadler, who succeeded Mr. Lundy as Director of
Welfare, was appointed Chairman. Mr. A. A. Shipp, of the Social Welfare Branch, was
also appointed a Board member. Ten meetings were held by the Welfare Institutions
Board during the year.
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS FOR CHILDREN
A. Full-time Care of Children
Institutions for Child-care
There are ten licensed institutions for the full-time care of children. No institutions
were licensed in 1954. With the exception of two of these institutions, the others have
been established to give special care to children. Rosary Hall at Williams Lake was
started as a boarding home for children who came to Williams Lake to attend school, and
Notre Dame was opened in Dawson Creek for the same reason. Children boarding in
these homes attend the local public schools and return to their own homes for week-ends
and vacations. These two institutions made it possible for children living in outlying
areas to attend school rather than receive their education by means of correspondence
courses.
St. Christopher's School, for retarded boys aged from 5 to 14 years, is giving a
much-needed special service. As the capacity of this school is limited to twenty boys,
individual attention can be given to each pupil. This school has had great success in the
training of these boys, many of whom are self-supporting. The school has an active and
energetic board of directors, and plans for a new school is one of the first items on the
agenda. Admission to the school is upon the recommendation of the Child Guidance
Clinic. O 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Loyal Protestant Association Home in New Westminster and the British
Columbia Protestant Orphans' Home in Victoria have greatly improved in programme,
admission policy, and staff. Admissions to these homes are now considered in terms of
whether the institution can meet the child's needs rather than having their quota of
children. Children in these institutions attend the local public and high schools and
participate in community activities. Both these institutions have active boards of directors
and women's auxiliaries. The British Columbia Protestant Orphans' Home has a junior
women's auxiliary as well, whose members are young married women with children of
comparable age to those in the institution. The work of this group has been most
effective.
The children are from broken homes, and the placement is a private arrangement
between a parent and the institution. There are no orphans in these homes, as orphans
in this Province are usually made wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare.
One institution, the Convent of the Good Shepherd, with the help of an advisory
committee, has under review the total programme of the institution. The new programme
which is being formulated is one which will meet the needs of emotionally upset adolescent
girls.
Number of institutions licensed in 1954  10
Number of children cared for  657
Total days' care  129,976
Private Boarding Homes
There were fifty licensed boarding homes for children at the end of 1954. All homes
used for this purpose are required to meet the standards as set out in the regulations to
the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act." The number of children for whom a home
is licensed depends upon the available accommodation, but no home can be licensed for
more than five children. In Vancouver these homes are supervised by the two Children's
Aid Societies, in Victoria by the Family and Children's Service, and in other parts of the
Province by the Provincial field service staff. The reasons for placement of children in
boarding homes are broken homes, illness, or death of a parent, and both parents working.
Approximately 200 newspaper advertisements of homes offering to board children
were checked during the year and referred to the agency concerned for attention. The
daily papers, especially in Vancouver, have been most co-operative in referring these
advertisements to the Welfare Institutions office, and also by giving the necessary information needed to check the homes. These newspapers also advise the persons advertising
about licensing, and that a visit may be expected from a social worker. Only a small
percentage of homes which advertise can be licensed, as these homes are not up to and
cannot be brought up to the required standard. Often there are social, economic, or
marital problems existing in these homes which require the services of a welfare agency.
Municipal and Provincial inspectors, especially those of health and fire, are most
helpful in clearing up difficult situations which arise from time to time in these homes.
The Advisory Committee on Private Placements, under the chairmanship of Dr.
Stewart Murray, Senior Medical Health Officer, Vancouver, with representatives from the
two Children's Aid Societies, Foster Day Care Association, Metropolitan Health Committee, and the Welfare Institutions Office, meets bi-monthly to review the private boarding-home situation in Vancouver. This Committee works continuously to improve the
quality of care given to the children and the physical standards of the homes.
While it is necessary to have private boarding homes for children, in many cases
these homes are referred to child-placing agencies as possible foster homes.
Number of children's boarding homes licensed in 1954  50
Number of children cared for        174
Total days' care  35,053 r
REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 89
B. Day Care of Children
Foster Homes for Day Care
Homes for the day care of children are used mainly for children whose mothers must
work to support the family or to supplement the family income. Recently, however,
many mothers who wish to work from choice have been asking for this service for their
children. The policy of the Foster Day Care Association, Vancouver, a Red Feather
agency, has been to limit this service to mothers who must work. Day-care homes used
by this agency are located in all parts of Vancouver, and a mother is referred to the one
nearest her own home or her place of work. It is the mother's responsibility to take her
child to and from the foster home. There is a moderate charge made for this service, and
if the mother cannot meet the full cost, the agency will help out financially.
Foster day-care homes outside the City of Vancouver are supervised by municipal
and Provincial social workers. Homes licensed for this service are limited to the care
of five children.
A good day-care programme for the care of young children whose mothers must
work in order to support the family is essential in all communities. It is a means of
keeping homes together and prevents the permanent placement of children away from
their parents.
Number of foster day-care homes licensed  28
Number of children cared for        254
Total days' care  18,201
Kindergartens, Play-schools, etc.
This year the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia offered
for the first time a correspondence course in pre-school methods. This course is divided
into two parts—(a) pre-school education, which is taken by correspondence, and
(b) a demonstration course in pre-school methods, to be attended in person by the
students. The minimum educational requirement to register for this course is high-school
graduation. The course is to be completed in two years, and upon successful completion
the student will be given a certificate by the Extension Department. The Extension
Department is careful to point out that this certificate, however, does not carry credit
toward a university degree. The certificate will be recognized by the Welfare Institutions
Board as evidence that the student has the minimum qualifications required by supervisors
of pre-school centres.
Courses in pre-school education are also given by the Adult Education Department
night-school classes of the Vancouver School Board and by Victoria College Evening
Division, Victoria.   The following ten courses are given:—
(1) Methods in Pre-school Education.
(2) Demonstration of Pre-school Methods.
(3) Child Growth and Development (Psychology I).
(4) Personality Development (Psychology II).
(5) Play and Play Techniques for Pre-school Children.
(6) Music and Rhythms for Pre-school Children.
(7) Arts and Crafts for Pre-school Children.
(8) Language and Literature for Pre-school Children.
(9) Social Studies and Science for Pre-school Children.
(10) Parent-Teacher Relationship in the Pre-school Setting.
It has been so arranged that the ten courses may be completed at night-school in two
years. A demonstration course in pre-school methods is given each summer in Vancouver
either by the Adult Education Department of the Vancouver School Board or by the
Extension Department of the University of British Columbia. This is a full-day three-
week course and is usually given the first three weeks in July.   Registration is limited to O 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
twenty-five persons because of limited space. At the present time the minimum of training is being offered, but all pre-school groups are working toward a higher standard of
training.
In November the British Columbia Pre-school Education Association, in co-operation with the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia, held a two-day
conference on pre-school education followed by a full-day workshop. The conference
was planned to educate the general public as to the value and importance of pre-school
education. This first venture proved so successful that plans for another institute for the
fall of 1955 are nearing completion.
With the exception of a very few kindergartens for 5-year-olds which are part of the
public-school system, pre-school education is entirely a private enterprise. Many groups
of parents throughout the Province have established co-operative pre-schools for their
young children. Fully trained supervisors are employed, and mothers take their turn at
assisting the supervisor. Neighbourhood houses, community centres, many churches and
private persons have established pre-school centres, all of which are giving a good service
to their communities.
Another milestone in pre-school education was reached toward the end of the year
with the announcement that the Nursery Training School of Boston, Mass., was offering
a scholarship of one year's training at this famous nursery school for Canadians only.
This scholarship is called the Queen Elizabeth Scholarship and was given to commemorate
the coronation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The Government of Canada has been
asked to see that arrangements are made to select suitable candidates, and the Minister
of the Federal Department of Health and Welfare has agreed that his Department will be
responsible for organizing a committee which will receive applications and recommend
candidates. The Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions is the representative on this
committee for British Columbia. Information about this scholarship and application
forms can be obtained from the Welfare Institutions Office.
As the figures below will show, the number of licensed pre-school centres increased
and a larger number of children attended than in the previous year.
Number of pre-school centres licensed in 1954  194
Number of children registered        8,924
Total days' care  712,808
MATERNITY HOMES
The accommodation provided by the three licensed homes—namely, Maywood
Home (Salvation Army), United Church Home, and Our Lady of Mercy Home (Roman
Catholic)—are adequate for the needs of this service. All three homes work closely with
the Children's Aid Societies and other welfare agencies. The services of the social-work
staffs of these agencies are available to the unmarried mothers. Working together, the
mother and social worker make plans for the baby's care and the mother's rehabilitation.
Some mothers wish adoption for their babies; others who want to keep their children
are helped to find suitable boarding homes. Many requests are for homes where mother
and baby may stay together. At the present time, plans for mother and baby are completed fairly quickly, and this means that more mothers can be accommodated in the
homes.
This year the United Church Home was completely renovated, and an addition was
added which provided more spacious accommodation and modern facilities. The kitchen
and dining-room were enlarged. The addition has provided a large, bright sitting-room,
recreation-room, and study for girls who are continuing with their school work while in
the Home. Two more bedrooms for the girls have been added, and also the latest in
powder-rooms. Furnishings and drapes are colourful and modern. The Home now has
accommodation for twenty-three mothers and six babies. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 91
The matrons of two of these homes are graduate nurses, and a trained social worker
is in charge of the other home.
Number of homes licensed in 1954  3
Number of mothers cared for        219
Number of infants cared for        225
Total days' care  26,240
AGED-CARE
Each year brings an ever-increasing demand for homes for older people, and 1954
was no exception to this rule. During the year twenty-four private rooms were added to
Normanna, the Norwegian Home located in Burnaby. Menno Home, under the auspices
of the Mennonite Benevolent Society, with accommodation for thirty persons (twenty
private and five semi-private rooms), was opened at North Clearbrook in the Fraser
Valley. Westminster Pioneer House, with private-room accommodation for thirty persons, was completed and opened by the City of New Westminster. An addition was
added to the King's Daughters' Restholm in Vancouver, making room for sixteen more
guests.   Other municipalities and organizations are planning homes for our older people.
While there are many good homes operated by private individuals, it has been the
experience of this Division that these homes are usually not as well administered nor is
the standard of care as good as in homes sponsored by municipalities and organizations.
In a privately operated home the individual's interest centres around the financial return,
while in the homes of municipalities and organizations the chief concern is to give a
service to the community. However, both types of homes are necessary, as some older
people will not go to municipal or organization homes as they seem to have the idea that
these are " charity homes."
Homes which have been recently constructed and those in the process of building
are providing more private rooms, as this is the type of accommodation most older people
prefer; also most of the homes are of one-story construction. This is the most satisfactory type of building for older people, as there are few steps. All homes are required to
have a sitting-room for the guests. Radios, television, games, and books are provided.
Many church and other groups have " adopted " various homes and arrange for concerts,
entertainments, and birthday parties. These groups also see that transportation is
provided when needed.
During the year the Vancouver Committee on the Aged sponsored a series of lectures
which were given by doctors and psychologists on chronic diseases of older people and
how these ailments can be treated at home. These lectures were attended by most of our
boarding-home personnel, who reported them as practical and instructive.
There are now 150 licensed boarding homes in all parts of the Province, which
means that older people, when they need this service, do not have to leave their own
community.   These homes are under the supervision of the district social workers.
During the year Mr. Clark Tibbitts, Chairman, Committee on Aging, Department
of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C., visited some of our homes in the
Vancouver area and was well pleased with what has been done for the older people in
this Province.
Through the kindness and generosity of Mr. Tibbitts, the new film " Such a Busy
Day Tomorrow " was loaned to the Board. This film, which was shown to several groups,
organizations, and agencies which are interested in older people, revealed the great need
of a recreation programme for senior citizens.
During the year there have been many requests from other Provinces and places in
the United States for information about homes for elderly persons and legislation.
The Branch continues to work toward improved care and accommodation for our
older people. O 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Number of homes licensed during 1954  150
Number of persons cared for       3,299
Total days' care  664,429
UNEMPLOYED ADULTS
There were no new homes licensed for unemployed adults during the year. The
number still remains at four, all of which are for young women.
These homes have been established by church or national groups, and their purpose
is to provide a home for girls who are looking for work and are living away from their
families. All four homes are located in good residential districts. The atmosphere is
always homey and comfortable. Here the girls share bedrooms or sleep in dormitories,
enjoy the comfortable living and dining rooms, and are free to entertain their friends.
A capable, understanding matron is in charge of each home, who is able and willing to
help and advise the girls with their problems or difficulties.
These homes have proven most successful for the older adolescent and young woman
and are always filled to capacity. In the larger centres more homes of this kind are
needed.
Number of homes licensed during 1954  4
Number of persons cared for        390
Total days' care  16,825
SUMMER CAMPS
Do you know or remember me?
I am the fields and trees
Beside the shining river.
I am camp fires when the sun has set,
Songs loved and hummed over and over again.
I am the fellowship renewed each day
At morning and evening prayers.
I am excitement born of pleasure,
Something looked forward to and long remembered.
I am camp.
There were fifty licensed camps in 1954, at which 13,578 campers enjoyed a healthful and happy holiday.   All camps reported a booming and successful year.
The improvement in camping standards and in educating the public to the value
of camping experience is due in a large part to the work of the British Columbia Camping
Association. Under the sponsorship of this association, Camping Week was held this
year early in May. City and municipal authorities supported this effort, as did some of
the larger stores with camping display windows. Radio stations also co-operated by
announcements or personal interviews. Camp literature was distributed in the public
schools in the larger centres. Some 50,000 copies of these pamphlets were printed free
of charge by one of the department stores.
A most successful Camp Counsellor Institute was held early in May, at which
more than 100 persons were registered. In co-operation with the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia, an Institute for Camp Administrators was
arranged and declared the best of its kind ever given in British Columbia. Forty persons,
representing twenty-four camps, registered for the course.
In Vancouver, through the Camp Referral Programme, some 300 boys and girls
who otherwise could not have afforded it had a camp holiday. In order to ascertain the
value of this experience, a questionnaire was sent to the parents of these children. The
number of questionnaires returned was encouraging and showed clearly the benefits to
the children. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 93
A camp directory was again published this year through the joint efforts of the British
Columbia Camping Association, the Vancouver Community Chest and Council, and the
Welfare Institutions Office.
Reports received from the Health Branch and the district social workers indicate
that physical and programme standards of camps continue to improve.
The Medical Health Report Form No. P.H. 26 was used for the first time this
year by many of the camps. As this form proved so successful, it is hoped that all camps
will be using it by the next camping season.
This year the Chief Inspector had the privilege of attending the Pacific Camping
Federation Conference which was held at Harrison Hot Springs. The theme of the
conference was "And So the Camper Grows." Sitting in on many of these sessions,
it was learned that British Columbians were keeping up with their American neighbours
in the camping field; also our problems were the same, particularly those of staff. Everyone at the conference, especially those present from across the border, agreed that British
Columbia, with its snow-capped mountains, its blue rivers, and its green forests, has
the ideal camp setting. Their advice was that camp-sites should be secured while there
is still time and choice.
It is important to keep in mind the objects of camping, which have been well defined
by the American Camping Association. " Camping should be an out-of-doors experience
where emphasis is placed on the enjoyment of simple living and where campers have
an opportunity to take responsibility for the basic problems of their day-by-day life.
Camping includes at least five elements—out-of-doors, recreation, group living, education,
and social adjustment, for camping is a recreational experience in the out-of-doors
which provides special opportunity for education and for social adjustment through
group living."
In looking back it can be said that 1954 was the best camping year yet.
Number of summer camps licensed in 1954  50
Number of children cared for     13,578
Total days' care  122,693
CONCLUSION
Sincere thanks and appreciation is extended to all who helped with the administration of this Act. O 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Table I.—Showing a Comparative Summary of Information Regarding Premises Licensed
under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" for Calendar Years 1951 to 1954
1951
1952
1953
1954
Children—Total Care (Excluding Summer Camps)
Number licensed-
Institutions.-.
Boarding homes  _
Capacity—
Institutions  	
Boarding homes  	
Number of children under care—
Institutions 	
Boarding homes  	
Number of days' care—
Institutions-   	
Boarding homes- 	
Women—Maternity
Number licensed-
Capacity..
Number of persons under care-
Mothers 	
Babies— 	
Number of days' care  _
Adults—Infirm and Unemployable
Number licensed _    	
Capacity-
Number of persons under care-
Number of days' care	
Adults—Employable
Number licensed-
Capacity..
Number of persons under care.
Number of days' care	
Number licensed—
Kindergartens-	
Foster day care..
Capacity—
Kindergartens-	
Foster day care.
Children—Day Care
Number of children enrolled—
Kindergartens	
Foster day care__
Number of attendance days—
Kindergartens 	
Foster day care  __
Number licensed-
Capacity..
Summer Camps
Number of persons attending .
Number of attendance days	
11
49
497
126
648
166
121,140
30,025
3
116
204
256
29,758
120
1,809
2,723
513,114
4
58
352
14,174
127
17
3,614
83
6,841
277
481,058
15,997
32
2,258
8,957
152,230
10
37
562
105
613
149
122,139
27,581
3
116
214
221
26,941
110
1,740
2,630
533,660
4
58
455
15,464
146
28
3,993
126
7,401
293
554,173
22,502
33
2,463
9,572
203,234
10
48
549
126
643
166
140,269
30,553
3
116
229
218
25,852
133
1,955
2,874
601,941
4
58
406
15,642
136
29
4,839
183
!,046
324
663,378
26,428
42
2,642
12,626
118,713
10
50
549
146
657
174
129,976
35,053
3
115
219
225
26,240
150
2,222
3,299
664,429
4
58
390
16,825
194
28
5,120
137
8,924
254
712,808
18,201
50
3,369
13,578
122,693 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 95
Table II.—Case Load Showing the Total Number of Licensed Institutions
and Pending Applications for Calendar Year 1954
Licensed December 31st, 1953
Number licensed in 1954 	
Licensed
Dec. 31,
Licensed
Total Cases
Licensed
Institution
Licensed at
in 1954
Closed
Dec. 31,
in 1954
1954
Licensed
Children—total care—■
1. Boarding homes  - - - _
42
17
14
45
2. Institutions   	
10
10
42
9
1
50
Children—day care—
169
38
28
179
27
3
4
26
Aged—
99
30
18
111
2. Institutions.  _   —
27
3
30
Adults—employable       _ 	
4
4
3
3
Totals     	
423
100
65
458
423
100
Closed in 1953
523
65
458
Pending
Dec. 31,
1953
New Cases
in 1954
Closed
in 1954
Total Pending
Cases at
Dec. 31,
1954
Pending Licences
Children—total care—
1. Boarding homes 	
2. Institutions	
3. Camps  —_ 	
Children—day care—
1. Kindergartens 	
2. Foster day care— 	
Aged—
1. Boarding homes  	
2. Institutions-  	
Adults—employable	
Women—maternity homes	
Totals 	
17
16
36
9
25
1
121
1
16
20
77
7
119
1
22
72
16
73
6
104
309
19
10
52
13
29
2
Pending December 31st, 1953
Pending in 1954   	
Closed in 1954
104
330
434
309
Total Case Load
Licensed
Pending .
458
125
583 O 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
MEMBERS OF BOARD
The following are the members of the Welfare Institutions Board for 1954:—
Chairman:   Mr. J. A. Sadler, Director of Welfare.
Members:   Dr. G. Elliot, Assistant Provincial Health Officer, Department of
Health; Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent, Child Welfare Division; Mrs.
Edith Pringle, R.N., Inspector of Hospitals;  Mr. A. A. Shipp, Assistant
Administrator, Region II, Social Welfare Branch.
Chief Inspector:  Mrs. Edna L. Page.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Edna L. Page,
Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 97
PART IV.—MEDICAL SOCIAL WORK AND PSYCHIATRIC
SOCIAL WORK SERVICES
	
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF
TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control, for the fiscal year 1954-55. The statistics relate
to the calendar year ended December 31st, 1954.
The downward trend in tuberculosis noted in the annual report for 1953-54 continued during the current year. In spite of increased case-finding methods, fewer new
cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis are being discovered in the Province, and the
disease is being detected in its earlier stages, where treatment is more effective. Of the
719 new cases (excluding Indians) of pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed at the clinics of
the Division in 1954, only fifty-six were far advanced. Tuberculosis as a cause of death
reached a new low in 1954 of 9.7 per 100,000 population, and there are indications that
this will place tuberculosis even lower on the list of causes of death in this Province than
the tenth place it occupied in 1953.
There was a decrease of about 10 per cent over 1953 in the total number of patient-
days' care given in the various units of the Division. Empty beds in the main hospital
units made it possible in October, 1954, to close the Jericho Beach unit of ninety-one
beds, which had been taken over by the Division of Tuberculosis Control from the
Department of National Defence shortly after the war. Those chronic patients who could
be cared for in the community were discharged, and the remainder were transferred to
the other units.
In the current year there was a slight increase in the number of hospital admissions
and a greater increase in the number of discharges. Over 70 per cent of the patients were
discharged after less than one year of treatment, and, of the total number of patients
discharged, 80 per cent were considered to have their disease under control. Only 10 per
cent left hospital with their disease unimproved. Death accounted for 6 per cent of the
discharges, and the remainder were discharged with a diagnosis of other than tuberculosis.
The average age of patients in our tuberculosis hospitals is on the increase, with
almost 40 per cent of the total patient population as of October lst, 1954, over 50 years
of age. The ratio of males to females in this older age-group was seven to one, and this
is of significance in rehabilitation planning for the tuberculous. The problem of retraining
or re-establishing in gainful employment of the older man who has had tuberculosis is a
very real one.
Improved medical and surgical procedures for tuberculosis have made it possible to
extend the age-group for whom surgery is possible, and in 1954 there were 203 major
surgical procedures performed in the institutions of the Division. This represents a
20-per-cent increase over 1953.
The problem of the patient who leaves hospital against medical advice continued,
with 195 or almost 18 per cent of the total discharges being in this category in the current
year. This showed an improvement over 1953, however, when the proportion was almost
25 per cent. Of the patients discharged without medical approval in 1954, about one-
third left the hospital with their disease unimproved. From the standpoint of controlling
tuberculosis in the community, this represents the hard core of infection. During the
current year legal action to have patients forcibly admitted to hospital was taken against
four patients. However, for compulsory treatment for tuberculosis to be effective, it
must be possible for the patient to be controlled on the ward, and this is the major
problem facing the Division of Tuberculosis Control in relation to this hard core of
infectious patients.    Except for four locked rooms at Tranquille, there are no security O 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
measures in our hospitals for the recalcitrant patient. In addition to patients who have
been committed for treatment, there are patients in our hospital units transferred for
treatment from penal institutions in the Province. These patients pose a special management problem, since there is no provision for their segregation, and they must be accommodated on the open wards and dealt with by ward staff who are not trained to supervise
this kind of problem person who is in revolt against authority. The patients who are
prisoners tend to group themselves together, and thus they become a subversive element
on the ward, which makes discipline almost impossible. This has an unfavourable effect
on the other patients, particularly the young and more impressionable ones who derive
excitement from associating with the criminal group.
The Social Service Department of the Division of Tuberculosis Control enjoyed a
stable staff situation during the current year, and from January, 1955, when the position
of casework supervisor for the Vancouver area was filled, the staff has been complete.
When the Jericho Beach unit was closed, the caseworker who had served that unit on a
part-time basis moved full time to the Pearson Hospital, where many of her patients had
been transferred.
In March, 1955, arrangements were made to provide part-time Social Service staff
to the Polio Pavilion that had been built adjoining to and under the administration of the
Pearson Tuberculosis Hospital. With medical and nursing staff being delegated from the
tuberculosis unit to the Polio Pavilion, it was appropriate that Social Service staff should
also be made available to the new polio wing. The first patients were transferred from
the Vancouver General Hospital toward the end of March, 1955. Prior to this there was
consultation between the Social Service Department of the Vancouver General Hospital
and the Pearson Social Service staff to expedite the transfer to the social worker in the
Polio Pavilion of patients who had had contact with the Social Service Department of
the Vancouver General Hospital. Most of the patients being transferred to the Pearson
Pavilion were severely disabled, whose hospitalization was going to be on a long-term
basis, and with these patients it had been the experience of the Social Service Department
at the Vancouver General Hospital that their defences were well established to deal with
the negative aspects of their future, and that except around practical problems the services
of the social worker had been limited to supporting the patients' defences. Until the
Pearson Polio Pavilion has been operating for some time, it will not be known how much
time of the Social Service Department of the tuberculosis unit will be required to be
devoted to the patients in the Polio Pavilion.
Ward responsibility for the caseworkers in this Division averaged about 125 patients
per month in 1954. This is a slight decrease from the previous year and reflects the drop
in the number of patient-days' care given in the various hospitals of the Division. Active
cases have averaged seventy per worker per month, and these cases have involved monthly
for each worker approximately eighty-six interviews with patients and relatives, fifty-one
discussions with medical, nursing, and other hospital staff, and seventeen interviews with
communitiy agencies. At Tranquille, because of its geographical isolation, most contact
with community agencies is by correspondence rather than by interview or conference.
At the Willow Chest Centre the service to out-patients has continued to be a separate
case load, averaging eighty-six patients a month. Of this number, fifty-two have been
active cases, involving an average of thirty-one interviews with patients, sixty-four with
medical and other Division personnel, and forty-two with community agencies per month.
Because of the stability of the staff and the growing competence of the individual
workers, it has been possible this year, on a selective basis, to do more intensive casework
with patients needing this kind of service to enable them to utilize the many positive
factors for the treatment of tuberculosis in this Province. The following case illustrates
the effectiveness of skilled casework at the point of diagnosis of tuberculosis.
An intellectually superior young woman was referred to the caseworker in the outpatient clinic after signing an application for admission to hospital.    The patient was REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 99
restless, angry that she had become ill, and feeling that the decision to sign an application
was not her own decision at all but had been forced on her. Because the social worker
was removed from medical authority, the patient was able to talk through her reactions
to her illness and to authority, and during the interview she reached the point of making
a firm decision as to when she would come into hospital. She was then able to move
into lining up concrete plans for arranging her affairs, which she was well able to handle
on her own. She was also able to face the realistic difficulties that she, as an intellectually
and physically active person, might have in accepting the restrictions of hospital. She
was prepared by the out-patient worker for a contact with the social worker on the ward.
Diagnostic impressions of this patient's probable reaction to hospital and of the possible
areas in which casework services might be helpful to her were recorded for the use of the
ward social worker.
After admission to hospital the patient's focus of need may change and casework
service is directed toward a different goal. The following case became active with the
ward social worker when a 27-year-old single girl was admitted to hospital for the second
time. She was an attractive girl who had been earning her own living and making her
home with relatives. At the time of the initial interview it was clear to the social worker
that the patient had been emotionally dependent in a childish way on her relatives. She
appeared to be immature, with strong tendencies toward passivity and marked dependency
needs. Although she was very frightened by the implications of her second breakdown
and the need for readmission to hospital, she accepted hospital routine fairly easily,
appearing to transfer her dependency from her family to the hospital. During the first
few months she seemed not to require supportive measures other than those provided by
her doctor and the ward routine, and accordingly the social worker maintained only
enough contact to allow the patient to feel comfortable in asking to see the worker if the
patient's emotional needs became greater. Initiated by the patient, contact with the
social worker became more intensive when the patient's physical condition improved to
the point where she was expected to begin thinking about picking up the threads of her
life outside the hospital. At this point the social worker moved into a more actively
sustaining position and at the same time began to help the patient clarify her own feelings
concerning her dependency upon the hospital and upon the family. During this period
there were regular interviews. The patient now appears to have gained enough strength
from her relationship with the caseworker to be able to think about planning to live apart
from her relatives. Since apparently these relatives have received enough satisfaction
from the patient's dependency upon them to encourage this independence, the caseworker,
in co-operation with the public health nurse, plans on helping the relatives to relinquish
the patient so that she can establish herself on her own in the community.
As in the previous case, it is often necessary for the hospital social worker to extend
her services to include the patient's relatives. One of the male patients and his wife had
acute marital problems at the time he entered hospital. Since it appeared that there were
strengths in the marriage for both the partners and that neither wanted to separate, the
social worker maintained regular contact with the patient in order to assist him to clarify
his own feelings about the marriage and to come to terms with those aspects of it that
were difficult for him. At the same time, although the contact with the wife was less
intensive, she also was given help to sort out some of her emotional reactions to her
husband and to the marriage. Both marital partners were prepared for referral regarding
this conflict to the community agency which would be assisting them financially. The
hospital caseworker sent a full summary of her contact to the community agency to assist
in continuing the casework plan. While it seems clear that this marriage will never be
entirely stable, many of the immediate pressures have been relieved, and through this the
patient has been helped to make more effective use of medical treatment.
The TB. Social Service Department has continued to give service to the Vancouver
Preventorium, and it has been possible to improve the working relations between that O  100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
institution and the health and welfare agencies throughout the Province. The home report
form revised during the previous year to bring the local public health nurse into planning
for patients coming into the Preventorium and being discharged to their homes is working
well. A much more effective service could be given to the children in the Preventorium
if that agency had its own social worker on the staff. However, this development may
have to be delayed until there is some clarification of the future role of the Vancouver
Preventorium in relation to the total child health facilities in the Province. This has been
under review, and during the year TB. Social Service staff served on a committee set up
by the Community Chest and Council of Vancouver to review the request of the Preventorium for increased financing when the new Preventorium building is constructed.
Again this year the School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia used
the Social Service Department of this Division for field work, and two first-year students
were placed at the Pearson Hospital. In addition, this department has continued to take
part in the training programme carried out by the Division for affiliated student-nurses.
During the year the lecture material and the method of presentation by the Social Service
Department was revised. The teaching department of the Division has expressed great
satisfaction with the results of this revision, which requires the student to complete a
questionnaire. This active participation by the student has increased interest in the
lecture material, and it has also indicated the areas that need to be amplified for the
student by the ward social workers in their discussions with the students on the wards.
This year an achievement of real interest to all social workers in public welfare
agencies in British Columbia was the inclusion of this group of workers in the compensation coverage for tuberculosis in the Province. Formerly this protection had applied
only to health workers in hospitals, clinics, public health units, and branches of the
Victorian Order of Nurses whose work brought them in contact with tuberculosis infection. In 1955 social workers "in a place of employment where the work performed by
a social welfare worker employed by the Province of British Columbia or by any municipality is of a nature and kind usually performed by any such public health unit" were
specifically covered in the event that they acquired tuberculosis as a result of and in the
course of their employment.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Enid S. Wyness,
Provincial Supervisor, TB. Social Service. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O 101
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF
VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL
I wish to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service section
of the Division of Venereal Disease Control for the fiscal year 1954-55. The statistics
relate to the calendar year ended December 31st, 1954.
From a review of the activities of this Division over the past ten years it is evident
that the venereal-disease problem in the Province of British Columbia has undergone
radical changes. This is reflected in the decreasing number of venereal-disease infections
diagnosed in British Columbia each year. The downward trend in the total number of
reported cases of venereal disease since the peak year of 1946 has continued throughout
1954 as compared to 1953. The rate per 100,000 population has declined, and at 228.4
per 100,000 population it is well below the pre-war (1939) rate of 329.9 per 100,000
population. Gonorrhoea has continued to be the main venereal-disease problem, accounting for 92 per cent of all cases reported during the year. The most striking conquest in
the control of venereal disease in this Province has been with syphilis, with a 91-per-cent
reduction in the number of reported cases between 1946 and 1954. In 1946 there were
2,126 cases of syphilis reported, whereas in 1954 there were only 188 cases reported, of
which only seventeen could be classified as early or infectious syphilis.
The favourable trend in the total number of reported venereal-disease cases is felt
to be due largely to two main factors—the introduction of new medical therapeutic
agents and the use of a speed-zone concept in the epidemiological control of venereal
infection. With regard to the new medical treatment, the following statement made by
Drs. B. Kanee and A. J. Nelson in an article in the American Journal of Syphilis, " Gonorrhoea and Venereal Diseases," in 1954, clearly illustrates the importance of the new
treatment in the over-all control of venereal disease:—
" The past decade may, truly, be said to have been the beginning of a new era in the
over-all problem of control of venereal disease, particularly in regard to syphilis: 1943
will always be remembered as the turning point in syphilotherapy, as the result of the
introduction of penicillin.   .   .   .
" To the private physician, concerned with the care of his patient, and to the venereologist, charged with the public health control of venereal disease, penicillin has proved
a real boon. Its known efficacy in treatment, ease of administration, safety, lack of
toxicity, inexpensiveness, and, in particular, its ability to clear lesions rapidly of virulent
treponemas, have established its place in the control of venereal disease. These manifold
advantages, applicable to the treatment of both syphilis and gonorrhoea, have made treatment effective and of short duration. Thus, uncomplicated cases of gonorrhoea can be
cured, in approximately 90 to 95 per cent of patients, with a single intramuscular injection
of 300,000 units of depotpenicillin. Treatment of syphilis has changed to such an extent
that the prolonged courses of therapy, which characterized the arsenical era, have now
been compressed, with penicillin, into a period of approximately ten days, with even
better rates of cure."*
Complementing the dramatic effect of the new antibiotic drugs has been the new
concept of epidemiology. " Speed-zone " is the term used to describe the epidemiologic
process which is geared to locate and bring to treatment within twenty-four to seventy-two
hours the female contacts of males infected with gonorrhoea. The goal of this process is
to break the chain of infection before a third party becomes involved in it. Experimentally
it has been demonstrated that the incubation period of gonorrhoea in males ranges from
one to thirty-one days, with 85 per cent of the infections producing clinical symptoms
within six days. Accordingly, the infected male patient is interviewed by an epidemiologist for the purpose of discovering the names of all his contacts during the seven days
prior to the onset of his symptoms.   The key to speed-zone epidemiology then is a high
* American Journal of Syphilis, Gonorrhoea and Venereal Diseases, Vol. 38, 1954, p. 354. O 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
calibre of interviewing to elicit sufficient information to enable the health-workers to
locate the female contact and to bring her to treatment within the shortest time period.
The evidence to date indicates that the speed-zone concept of epidemiology has made
a significant contribution toward reducing the number of venereal infections in the
Province of British Columbia.
Now with both medical treatment and the epidemiologic control of venereal disease
contributing positively toward a reduction in the number of venereal infections by
ensuring rapid and effective treatment, the role of the social caseworker at the Vancouver
clinic has undergone certain changes. These changes are directly related to the new
epidemiological focus and to the brief treatment period. The caseworker's concern is
the patient as a person, and the contribution to the treatment process is to be helpful
to the patient in dealing with his feelings in relation to his infection, to treatment, and
to the entire clinic experience. There are some patients who experience a strong
emotional reaction to the acquisition of a venereal disease, and casework skills have
been particularly effective in helping these patients. The object of casework treatment
on this short contact basis is essentially supportive and educational; that is, to support
the patient through this experience to ensure that no crippling effects will remain, and
to make sure that the patient has adequate and accurate knowledge regarding the
venereal diseases.
The following illustrates how the clinic experience provided a patient with an
opportunity to sort out his problems and to make a start at seeking some solution to them.
Mr. B. was a 19-year-old English boy who had just completed his Bachelor of
Arts degree at a Canadian university. He had acquired his infection as the result of a
sexual exposure to another university student. It was apparent that during this last
year of academic work, his first year in Canada, he had been leading an increasingly
promiscuous life, with the clinic experience coming as both a climax and a crisis. He
was gifted intellectually, and physically attractive, with a sophistication which concealed
his emotional immaturity and underlying concern for his own behaviour. The behaviour
which had led him to the clinic was seen to be a direct result of his reaction to the
freedom of a Canadian university campus, which was a contrast to his previous schooling
in the comparatively sheltered fife of an English boarding school. In addition, he had
never known the emotional security of a happy family life, and his new freedom found
him ill equipped to deal with either the attractions and stimulations of this university
campus or with his own internal confusion.
The casework relationship at the Vancouver clinic enabled this patient to reorganize
his defences, to gain some insight into his behaviour, and to respond to the clinic
experience with some real psychological growth. His dramatic response indicated both
his own inner strength and the value of having a casework service available at the clinic.
For the first time in his life he was able to relate to an accepting adult in a professional
relationship. This relationship, which continued for a longer period than usual because
of his remarkable response to treatment, resulted in his achieving direction in life,
stability in his social relationships, and satisfaction in a job. All of this he attained
through his own efforts in response to the casework relationship at the Vancouver clinic.
Casework treatment at the Vancouver clinic is set up to give a direct short-term
service to the patient and to make referral of the patient to a community agency for
continued help with whatever problems have been presented. As venereal disease is
seldom the major problem but is merely symptomatic of other difficulties, it is not
appropriate for a lengthy casework treatment service to be maintained at the venereal-
disease clinic. The experience of the caseworker at the Vancouver clinic has pointed
up the need for community resources to give a casework service to young people in
the 15- to 34-year age-group. In venereal-disease control in British Columbia single
men between 20 and 34 years of age and single women from 15 to 24 constitute the
greatest problem.    To be helpful to these patients, such a community agency would REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O  103
have to have evening hours, since most of the patients in this age-group are working.
In referring patients to existing agencies, the caseworker has sometimes experienced
difficulty because of a prejudice against the patient when the referral comes from the
venereal-disease clinic. This prejudice is inappropriate and calls for continued interpretation about the venereal diseases to social workers and others in the community.
During the fiscal year there was a social caseworker at the Vancouver clinic for
a six-month period, with service during the remainder of the year provided on an
emergency basis by Social Service staff from the Division of Tuberculosis Control.
Accordingly, statistical information on the work of the Social Service Department of
this Division is available only for the period during which there was social-work staff
at the Vancouver clinic. In this six-month period 422 patients were interviewed and
given counselling service on a casework basis. The clinic caseworker continued to
evaluate the patients being routinely interviewed as part of their treatment, in accordance
with the rating scale which was described in the annual report for the year 1953. The
evaluating process revealed much the same pattern as in previous years, with the
exception that nearly three-quarters of the patients interviewed were considered to be
in the three groups who could benefit most from a counselling interview. This is an
increase over the figures of the previous years, but it must be borne in mind that the
rating is a subjective process that is affected by changes in the rater.
In addition to direct service to patients, the clinic caseworker has continued to
participate in the education programme of the Division for student-nurses, public health
workers, and professional staff in allied fields.
With the increase in effectiveness of both medical treatment and epidemiologic
control of the venereal-disease problem, it has become increasingly evident that the
social and psychological aspects of venereal disease are of primary importance in any
control programme. Venereal disease is a social problem with a medical aspect whose
real roots lie in social lacks and personal maladjustments. Whatever can be done toward
alleviating conditions which predispose individuals toward promiscuity in sex relations
and to personal maladjustment will affect positively the total venereal-disease control
programme.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Enid S. Wyness,
Provincial Supervisor, V.D. Social Service. O 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PSYCHIATRIC DIVISION
I beg to present the annual report of the social workers of the Psychiatric Division,
Social Welfare Branch, working in the Mental Health Services of the Province of British
Columbia for the fiscal year 1954-55.
A. SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENTS, PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL,
HOMES FOR THE AGED, AND CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
MEDICINE.
I. Provincial Mental Hospital and Homes for the Aged
The Social Service Departments of the Provincial Mental Hospital and Homes for
the Aged during the years 1954 and 1955 have moved toward greater consolidation,
both in organization and administration. Social service functions have been critically
studied and defined, and a statement of policy relevant to these changes has been formulated. Withal social services in general to patients have continued to expand through
the increasing use of diagnostic and brief services, as well as in the area of group-work
services.
(a)  Staff Changes
During the year 1954-1955, the Social Service Department of the Provincial Mental
Hospital, with a basic establishment of eight social workers, has undergone several
changes. Three resignations necessitated replacement by one experienced social worker
and two who were newly graduated from the School of Social Work. In addition, two
members of the staff were granted educational leave, and in the interim were replaced
by one trained social worker, employed, however, on a part-time basis only. Another
staff member was promoted to a supervisory position which had become vacant on the
transfer of the encumbent to the Social Service staff of the Crease Clinic. In all, the
Department carried on its responsibilities throughout the year with the assistance of five
and one-half social workers on staff.
Despite these changes in personnel, with their ensuing decrease and dislocation of
services, over-all gains have accrued in the quality of services, in improvements in
Departmental organization, and in an expansion of those services provided on a short-
term basis. This has been due primarily to the skill of the casework supervisor, and to
the interest and sense of responsibility on the part of the entire staff.
(b)  Changes in the Locale of Social Services in the Provincial Mental Hospital
The Departmental structure instituted three years ago continues to prove adequate
as a base for the effective use of a less than minimal staff in rendering service to the
percentage of patients selected for coverage. This structure comprises two sections—
Admission and Brief Services and Continuing Casework Services. Social services in the
Admission and Brief Services Section are located in the Centre Lawn Building and are
now concerned almost entirely with direct service to the patient-group there in residence,
whereas formerly this service was extended to all units of the Hospital, with the result
that a percentage of the patients in Centre Lawn were selected for brief social services.
Because of the demands from other units of the Hospital, it was not possible to concentrate on the total group of patients in the Centre Lawn Building, the admission unit
to the Provincial Mental Hospital.
During the year 1,163 patients were admitted to Centre Lawn; of this patient-
group, 1,109 were referred to the Admission and Brief Services Section. For the past
three years this Section has been staffed by one social worker. Increasing demands
from Centre Lawn for service this year necessitated assistance from two social workers
from the Continuing Casework Services Section and from three student social workers. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O  105
This assistance was given at the expense of the programme in the latter Section. The
benefits to the Centre Lawn programme were encouraging. The social worker, with
assistance, was able to assess the social situation and social service needs of the 1,109
patients referred for social diagnostic study, and to screen out from these referrals 429
patients (38.68 per cent) for social services. These, of necessity, had to be of a very
brief nature, which is understandable when the numbers needing this help and the staff
available to give it are taken into consideration. It was not possible to extend help to
the patients in Centre Lawn during the pre-convalescent and convalescent period. This
is a very regrettable situation, since the percentage of patients being discharged from
Centre Lawn admission unit has increased over the past two years from 44 to 65 per
cent of all patients admitted.
A preliminary review of staff needs in the establishment of a social service department in Centre Lawn admission unit would indicate the appointment of four workers on
Admissions and Brief Services to cover the needs of newly admitted patients and four
on Continuing Casework Services to cover the needs of patients during treatment, pre-
convalescence, and convalescence. The intake workers would greatly facilitate the
diagnostic study by the team at the time of the patient's first staffing. The appointment
of four workers to Continuing Casework Services would make a marked contribution to
the rehabilitation of the patient, and, on his return to community, help him to hold his
gains in treatment and to adjust to community life. Patients at this time need the
security that lies in the concrete help, support, and understanding of a social worker from
the Hospital.   It is this service which often prevents a readmission.
The Continuing Casework Services Section is located in East Lawn Building;
although having an establishment for seven workers, the work-time of only four and
one-half workers was available this year. The workers in this Section have tended to
focus their efforts on the patients in the long-term treatment units in East Lawn, West
Lawn, Homes for the Aged, and the Colony Farm. These units have increased their
referrals of patients to such an extent that the Section had to close intake from time to
time. However, 118 patients were referred for help from Centre Lawn while in treatment, and 217 were referred from East Lawn, West Lawn, and the Colony Farm. In
addition, 413 patients were referred from the same sources for assessment of readiness
for rehabilitation and for planning rehabilitation. The Section's greatest social-work
activity has centred on East Lawn, with its patient population of 1,433 women.
(c)  Case-load Details in the Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital
Tables I and II show the continued increase in the numbers of patients given direct
service (42.24 per cent) over the previous fiscal year. The quality of service on interview
count has improved some 60.27 per cent over that of the previous fiscal year. The
activity of the Admissions and Brief Services Section may be further estimated by the
increased number of case summaries (713) prepared for the diagnositc study and
the formulation of the initial treatment plan during the patient's first staffing. This
Section covered 90.77 per cent of all patients admitted to Centre Lawn; 38.68 per cent
were given brief casework services, ranging from three to six interviews. The remainder
were studied for diagnostic purposes. In the previous year 31.15 per cent of all patients
admitted to Centre Lawn were screened for brief casework services, and no diagnostic
study service was given.
Tables III and IV indicate a slight decrease in the number of patients given service
in the Continuing Casework Services Section of the Social Service Department of the
Provincial Mental Hospital. This is undoubtedly due to staff shortages and the fact that
resignations were replaced mostly by beginning workers, who must be oriented at first to
the specifics of the psychiatric-hospital setting. Some 809 patients were given service in
this Section, and some 5,577 helping interviews were undertaken in the integrated
approach to patient treatment shared by social work with medicine, nursing, psychology,
and other services in the Hospital. O 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Summary of Cases Given Services in the Admission and Brief Services Section,
Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital, April 1st, 1954, to March
31st, 1955.
1954-55i        1953-542
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year        28 27
New cases       999        422
Cases reopened during fiscal year      110 58
Cases transferred in from other services  2
Total intake into Admission and Brief Services Section case load  1,109        482
Total cases given service in Admission and Brief Services Section case load  1,137        509
Cases closed or referred  1,101 471
Cases carried over to next fiscal year in
Admission and Brief Services Section       36 28
Number of cases given brief service casework services     429        509
1 Work of one worker stationed on admission unit assisted by two workers and three students from time to time.
2 Work of one worker only.
Table II.—Summary of Casework Activity on All Cases Referred to Admission and Brief
Services Section, Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital, April lst,
1954, to March 31st, 1955.
1954-55
Total casework interviews with and regarding patients  593
Total casework interviews with patients  443
Total casework interviews with relatives   150
Total number of conferences and consultations concerning
patients   482
Team conferences   88
Consultations with other disciplines  296
Consultations with other welfare agencies  98
Periods of casework supervision (hours)  480
Case summaries and case preparation  823
Table III.—Summary of Cases Given Services in the Continuing Casework Services Section of the Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital, April 1st, 1954,
tO March 31st, 1955. „       J   .    During Period of
During Period of   Preconvalescence
Hospitalization     and Convalescence
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year    72 117
New cases  207 413
Total intake into case load  279 530
Cases closed or referred  233 390
Cases carried over     46 140
Total cases given service (treatment and convalescence)   809 	 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O  107
Table IV.—Summary of Casework Activity on All Cases Referred to Continuing Casework Services Section, Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital, April
1st, 1954,  to March 31st,  1955. During Period of During
Hospitalization Preconvalescence
(Treatment) and Convalescence
Total casework interviews with and regarding
patients  1,088 1,801
Total casework interviews with patients  832 1,407
Total casework interviews with relatives  256 394
Total number of conferences and consultations
concerning patients   971 1,717
Team conferences, social workers attending____ 19 66
Consultations with other disciplines  760 1,202
Consultations with other welfare agencies and
employment resources  192 401
Contacts with patients in Vista Rehabilitation
Centre  2 48
II. Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
The year 1954-55 has been a year of consolidation and expansion of the work in
the Social Service Department of the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine. Demands
for in-patient services have increased, as well as those for continuing family casework
services for patients discharged in full. This latter service is very necessary if patients
are to retain whatever gains in treatment they make in the Crease Clinic with its accelerated period of treatment, ranging from eight weeks to four months. Emotional illnesses
are long in the making; treatment to rehabilitation is only possible through intensive and
extensive services over a long period. These must extend into the patient's home, his
family, often his relatives, friends, and the community. The patient's increasing need for
family services on discharge are thus seen as a real necessity if an adjustment is to be
made and maintained. Of the 1,385 patients entering the Crease Clinic during the fiscal
year, it is estimated that approximately 1,108 come from their homes in the Greater
Vancouver area. From a study in the Social Service Department, approximately 750
patients on discharge are in need of continuing family services. The service capacity of
existing health, welfare, and employment agencies in the Greater Vancouver area is
already seriously overtaxed. Therefore, the Crease Clinic and its Social Service Department must provide a follow-up family service for those patients whom existing community
agencies cannot serve. The development of the day-hospital and out-patient unit is
eagerly looked forward to in an effort to meet these patients' needs. Meanwhile, a very
large responsibility for this service rests with the Crease Clinic Social Service Department.
It has received the help and support of the medical and nursing departments in this work,
and grateful acknowledgment is hereby extended to them.
(a) Staff Changes
During the fiscal year there have been three changes in senior staff. One casework
supervisor transferred to another division of the Social Welfare Branch. This position
was filled from senior casework staff in Crease Clinic. Another senior caseworker transferred to a casework supervisory position in the Child Guidance Clinic. These vacancies
in the caseworker ranks have remained unfilled to date. The present establishment for
caseworkers in the Crease Clinic is set at seven. For much of the fiscal year the Social
Service Department has operated with five social workers. Their in-patient social service
responsibility covers 1,385 patients admitted during the fiscal year and 750 patients
needing continuing family services on discharge. O  108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(b)  Department Structure
This remains as instituted three years ago. The reasons for the structure were to
attain better coverage of patients' social service needs through a functional utilization and
structuring of a less than minimal staff. It still proves relatively adequate to these ends.
This structure embodies the sectionalization of staff into Admission and Brief Services
and Continuing Casework Services.
In the Admissions and Brief Services Section, 1,385 patients were reviewed and
screened for referral to social services. Of these, 410 patients were referred to the
Continuing Casework Services Section, and 734 patients were carried in the Admissions
and Brief Services Section on a brief service level. The number of patients to whom
no in-patient service could be given was 241.
Despite the fact that 52.9 per cent of patients were carried in Admissions and Brief
Services Section reflects in no way any kind of adequate service to the patients concerned.
Intake studies of the patient's situation, single interviews with relatives, single interviews
with patients, and single interviews with psychiatrists account for a large proportion of
the 52.9-per-cent coverage. In many of these instances the Admissions and Brief Services
workers' assessment revealed that a further service, either of a brief or continuing nature,
would have been most helpful to the patient or his family. It was not possible to give
such a service, even during that portion of the year when there were three social workers
in this Section (April lst, 1954, to August 31st, 1954).
In reviewing the records of the patients' first staffing, an over-all average of fifteen
women patients and twelve men patients were presented weekly at each staffing (ward
rounds). Each patient to be presented was reviewed by the social workers and casework
supervisor in this Section prior to ward rounds and a tentative decision made regarding
referral. It has been concluded from this review that where fifteen women patients have
been presented at the staffing in any one week, an average of three have been assigned to
Continuing Services and two to Brief Services, involving more than the very brief contact
as indicated above. Despite the fact that 33J/3 per cent of the patients presented were
assigned on any specific basis, the Section supervisor has always been aware that an
additional 33V6 per cent of the patients had problems, indicated in the initial social service
review, as requiring casework services.
The Continuing Casework Services Section started the fiscal year with four caseworkers on staff. In December, 1954, this was reduced to three workers. During the
fiscal year 410 patients were referred to this Section. In such instances intensive casework
services were provided to these patients and to their families for periods of time varying
from two months to one year and involving interviews ranging from three or four a week
to once every two weeks or a month. The latter applies to patients who have been
discharged, whereas in some instances in-patients have been seen on a daily basis for
several weeks of their hospitalization. Follow-up services to discharged patients have
had to be provided at a minimal level.
(c)  Case-load Details in the Sections Concerned with Admissions and Brief
Services and Continuing Casework Services, Crease Clinic
Tables V and VI show a continued increase in the numbers of patients given direct
services at the time of admission (80 per cent increase over the previous fiscal year).
On interview count the quality and activity in direct help has improved some 72.46 per
cent over that of the previous fiscal year. This Section's activity in the diagnostic and
treatment formulation staffings may be ascertained from the fact that 231 summaries were
prepared by this Section for the patients' first staffings. Some 734 patients (52.9 per cent
of all patients) were carried at a very brief service level.
Tables VII and VIII indicate that 33^ per cent of all patients entering Crease Clinic
were carried on an intensive continued-casework services level.    Due to depletion in REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O  109
staff, this Section was able to carry only one-third of the patients it carried in the previous
fiscal year in a sustained and continued casework-helping relationship.
These tables also indicate progress made in integrative therapy. There has been
over 100 per cent increase in interconferencing of cases with other disciplines, that of
nursing being most significant.
Table V.—Summary of Cases Given Services by the Admission and Brief Services Section,
Social Service Department, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
1954-55 1953-54
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year     19 25
New cases  731 610
Cases reopened during fiscal year  149 116
Cases reopened from previous fiscal year       8 7
Total intake into Admission and Brief Services Section case load  888 733
Total cases given service in Admission and Brief
Services Section  907 758
Cases closed or referred  891 739
Cases carried over in Admission and Brief Services
Section  -     16 19
Table VI.—Summary of Casework Activity on Cases Carried by Admission and Brief
Services Section, Social Service Department, Crease Clinic, April lst, 1954, to
March 31st, 1955.
1954-55 1953-54
Total casework interviews with and regarding
patients  1,093 792
Total casework interviews with patients  635 331
Total casework interviews with relatives  458 461
Total number of conferences and consultations
concerning patients   2,617 1,469
Consultations with other disciplines  1,616 914
Team conferences (ward rounds)  113 102
Consultations with other welfare and employment agencies  888 453
Table VII.—Summary of Cases Given Service by the Continuing Casework Services
Section, Social Service Department, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st,
1955. During Period
of Pre-
During convalescence
Period of and
Hospitalization   Convalescence
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year     60 101
New cases     80 169
Total intake into case load  140 270
Cases closed or referred  124 222
Cases carried over     16 48
Total cases given service (treatment and convalescence), 410. O 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Summary of Casework Activity, Continuing Casework Services Section,
Social Service Department, Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
During Period
of Pre-
During convalescence
Period of and
Hospitalization      Convalescence
Total casework interviews with and regarding
patients   2,262 1,581
Total casework interviews with patient  1,659 1,100
Total casework interviews with family      603 481
Total number of conferences and consultations
concerning patients   2,574 1,680
Team conferences       113 	
Consultations with other disciplines  2,147 1,097
Consultations with Supervisor, Vista, Rehabilitation Centre           9 114
Consultations with other welfare agencies      295 429
Consultations with employment agencies        10 40
III. Social Group Work Services, Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic
During the fiscal year the social group work service to patients (inaugurated in
February, 1954) has expanded into three major areas of collaboration with medicine and
nursing. These include development of social group activities for adolescent patients, an
experimental " open ward " programme, and participation in nursing education. While
development of the total service is still in its early stages, with only one worker, the social
group work method appears to have stimulated widespread interest and gained considerable acceptance as a therapeutic medium. The following is a brief summary of services
given:—■
(a)  Adolescent Treatment Group
Demonstration programme in collaborative use of social group work method and
group psychotherapy in treatment of teen-age patients who form a small but clear-cut
minority within Hospital and Clinic.
This is a mixed group of approximately ten adolescents referred by their own doctors
for a socializing experience and especially for help in working through dependency needs
and channelling awakening heterosexual drives. The group meets three times weekly
(two social and one psychotherapy session—one session taken by social group worker,
one by doctor, and one jointly led). It is composed of teen-agers from all parts of the
Hospital and Clinic living on adult wards. They have widely varying diagnoses (from
schizophrenic to behaviour problems) and diverge markedly in previous socialization and
background. A balance is kept between boys and girls and aggressive and passive
reaction patterns, as well as between Clinic and Hospital patients. It is a small, constantly
changing group (turnover is 60 to 70 per cent in nine months) but with relatively stable
nucleus.
During the year this group has met ninety-six times (exclusive of psychotherapy
sessions), extending group membership to a total of thirty-five patients with an average
treatment period of six weeks each. Two-thirds of the total of twenty-four discharges
have been Clinic patients, while five patients have been suspended or transferred to other
treatment services. While attendance at meetings is voluntary, group attendance for the
years has been 86 per cent, while a further 12 per cent is accountable to conflicting
appointments, physical sickness, etc., leaving only 2 per cent as voluntary absence. This
high attendance record in itself gives some indication of the need being filled. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O  111
1. Group Goals.—(a) To promote warmer, more meaningful interpersonal relationships and feeling of belonging to society.
(b) To provide both outlets and controls for the aggressive and greater security and
freedom of expression to the withdrawn.
(c) To assist the total group acquire greater ability to make and carry out its own
plans in an increasingly mature fashion.
(d) To help all members gain increasing independence of parental patterns while
developing social standards and values in keeping with those of the wider community.
Through this service the group worker provides a different treatment focus in which,
through the worker's concentration on the needs of the whole group and of the individual
only as seen in and through the group, all members gain ability to adjust their own needs
to those of their contemporaries and of society.
The social programme, aimed toward improvement in relationships and behaviour,
is basically that of a teen-age club, in which members are encouraged to develop ability
in planning their own programme, making decisions, and assuming responsibility for
follow through. It has been extremely permissive but within definite limits of hospital
setting with additional controls as necessary in the light of individual and group needs.
The group itself has become well established during the past year, slowly developing through the usual testing phases until it now has quite well-defined group mores and
codes, many of which are now internalized by members. Despite slip-backs, there is
marked general improvement in members' behaviour both in the group and on their
wards. Group unity has also permitted increasing freedom in choice and setting of
programme, enabling leaders to take members out-of-doors and occasionally off the
grounds.
Programme media used as tools in channelling hostility, increasing independence,
and assisting in development of hetero-sexual interests have included simple active games,
hikes and picnics, sing-songs, square and ballroom dancing, and listening to records.
Painting and plasticine work (chosen by members in preference to clay) were important
in freeing the group in initial stages. Food and its preparation has been a major interest
(as might be expected), as have periodic group parties and informal discussion of social
experience. In good weather the group has also made extensive use of a log cabin on
the grounds, which has permitted a further range of programme activities.
2. Group Movement.—During the year significant changes in group behaviour have
occurred. These include broadening of programme and interests, development of group
codes of behaviour enforced by the members' increased ability to make and carry through
appropriate decisions and plans, along with a greater sense of freedom, unity, and belonging both for the individual members and for the group as a whole.
While individual treatment goals vary widely, within the general goals according to
the nature of each member's particular problems, it is safe to estimate that 50 per cent
have made significant improvement in behaviour and general adaptation, while a further
25 per cent have benefited considerably in specific areas (these are, by and large, the
youngsters with the more deep-rooted forms of disturbance). Of the remaining 25 per
cent who have benefited only slightly or not at all, approximately half were new members
beginning treatment at the year-end, while the remainder were those whose personalities
were too damaged to gain anything from this form of treatment (and who were therefore
suspended from membership) or those whose escape terminated treatment in its initial
stages (one member).
Major achievements, in addition to improved behaviour already noted, have come
in several areas. Most important is the impetus which group progress has given to medical plans for separate living facilities for these patients in an adolescent treatment centre.
While many refinements in selection and screening criteria, group methods and
programmes, casework group work integration, and research techniques are still required,
it is safe to state that the social group work method as demonstrated in and through this O 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA
group has gained high acceptance in this setting as a valuable therapeutic tool in the
treatment of adolescents. As a further step in sharpening group work skills, a major
evaluation of all aspects of the programme is to be undertaken during the summer of
1955 as a guide to future planning.
(b)  " Open Ward " Project
As a second demonstration of use of social group work method, an on-ward programme has been initiated in relation to a hospital ward of 156 patients which was
" opened " in February. This is basically a long-term treatment ward for patients working in various parts of the Hospital who have proved themselves capable of using parole
privileges effectively. The social group work programme has been designed to assist the
nursing staff in organizing and conducting an extensive social-recreation programme for
the patients, developing interest and discussion groups to improve ward life. In this the
worker has given direct leadership in initiating and planning activities, functioned as
resource person to the charge nurse and her staff in carrying continuing programme and
as liaison person between the various disciplines involved in the team, participating in
a total of eighty major conferences. One of the major aims has been to institute group
controls to replace the staff controls automatically relaxed with the opening of the ward,
and to make a transition toward more socialized " community " living. Toward this
end, small groups of patients have been planned around verbalized and inferred interests,
such as charm and personal appearance, cooking, talents (music, dancing, choral singing,
drama), active games, etc., in addition to discussion groups around ward life and management. Patients are already showing marked response to the suggestion of more
autonomous club-type activity, and repercussions begin to show in administrative circles
toward efforts to provide necessary equipment and facilities, and to strengthen and solidify
the staff team conducting the experiment. With the project yet in its initial phase, many
difficulties remain to be overcome, but the approach is generally most positive and forward
looking. Already much has been accomplished toward clearance of interdepartmental
communication channels, provision of equipment, and stabilization of nursing personnel
(who normally move from ward to ward as well as from shift to shift.)
To date two new social activity groups have been formed on the basis of patient
interest involving roughly one-third of the total ward population.
1. Entertainment Committee.—This group began in December, 1954, around planning of ward Christmas activities, including a concert party (with talent drawn from the
ward) which was organized and conducted mainly by the patients themselves. As of
March 3 lst, it had held a total of ten meetings and grown in both size (from six to twenty)
and in scope of activities, planning and carrying out entertainment, decorating, refreshment and serving responsibilities for monthly ward parties, and initiating the request for
joint parties with patients in the equivalent male open ward. This group has chosen its
own mistress of ceremonies for each event, produced two short skits (written and acted
by patients), and proposed formation of its own "kitchen" orchestra (subsequently
organized). Initially led by the social group worker with a nurse as observer, this group
has " graduated " to regular leadership by a member of the nursing staff. Volunteers
now being oriented to the project are expected to be able to contribute their skills to
this development at a later date.
2. Beauty Counselling.-—Started on March 14th, this group had met only three times
to March 31st, but already thirty-eight patients were attending and a new interest in
personal appearance had begun to show as patients discussed posture and figure, skin
care, make-up, clothing, etc. Increased patient self-respect and mutual awareness continued between meetings and carried over to the ward as a whole. In addition to its direct
value to the patients involved, this programme immediately focused attention on general
ward needs for basic toilet articles, clothing, and cosmetics which had previously been REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O  113
overlooked. While this group has been led since inception by a member of the nursing
staff, the group worker has assisted both the leader and supervising charge nurse in its
organization and initial programme planning.
Patients have also indicated strong interest in cooking, games, book club, talent
club, music, painting, and newspaper, a number of which will be developed in the
autumn of 1955 after summer assessment of the initial programmes, while special efforts
will be made to cover a wide variety of summer outdoor interest groups for ward patients
in co-operation with Recreational and Occupational Therapy Departments.
(c) Social Group Work Orientation in the Nurses' Education Programme
From September to March, 1955, the social worker has given a total of nineteen
teaching clinics to orientate student and graduate nurses, student social workers, and
medical staff in the use,of group methods in a clinical setting. These have included
discussion of theory and experience with existing groups plus suggestions for practical
application of group methods to ward life, and have aroused considerable interest in each
of the lecture groups.
IV. Summary of General Activities of the Social Service Departments,
Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic
(a)  Development of Staff
The programme of individual and group supervision of junior staff has shown marked
advancement during the fiscal year. Its value is apparent in the Departments' coverage
of patients referred and in the quality of services rendered. The junior workers have
received individually one and one-half hours of supervision weekly, senior workers an
hour weekly. The advanced worker has consultation available from his casework supervisor as he needs it. Group supervision brings together senior and junior staff for group
thinking and action in the over-all study and assessment of social service demands, as
well as planning for better social services to patients and their families. The three casework supervisors on the Departments' staffs spent on an average of forty-five hours
monthly in the supervision of casework staff—approximately 539 hours during the fiscal
year.
(b) Special Committees
Committees drawn from staff have been studying recording in an effort to focus it
on the service requested, the patient to be served, and his movement to health and rehabilitation in the casework relationship. Conciseness as to diagnostic study, service plan,
patient's response to services, as well as ways of integrating social-work treatment with
all other treatment services have been considered. As a result, concise, focused recording
outlines have been devised for use in treatment, preconvalescent, and convalescent recording on patients. A committee drawn to evaluate the present statistical system in the
Social Service Department has presented suggestions which will result in more relative
accuracy and simplicity in the system.
(c) Educational A ctivity to A Hied Professions
During the fiscal year the Social Service Departments have been active in the educational programme for fourth-year medical students, public health nurses, postgraduate
nurses, affiliate nurses, and psychiatric nurses. Conferences with the Director of Education, School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, have resulted in a more purposeful participation of social work. Some thirty-six hours were spent in nursing education
and eight in medical education.
(d) Social-work Education
Seven students from the School of Social Work had field placement in the Provincial
Mental Hospital and the Crease Clinic, supervised by staff members of the Social Service O 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Departments. During the years a valuable contribution has been made by the School
and the students to the development and growth of social services in the psychiatric
setting. Four groups of in-service trained social workers from the Social Welfare Branch
were oriented to social services in the setting of psychiatric hospital and clinic. The
Departments consider this a very important function and of value in the working relationships existing between the Social Service Departments in Hospital and Clinic and
the field services of Social Welfare Branch. This has been further strengthened by the
Social Service Departments' participation in the educational programme in the annual
staff meetings of the Social Welfare Branch regions.
(e)   Visitors
Each year brings interesting visitors to the Mental Health Services. This year,
visitors from Australia, the Philippines, Japan, and England were oriented to social
services in the Mental Health Services.
(/)  The Goal
The goal continues to be primarily concerned with increasing the time spent individually with patients at every level of their treatment and to integrate in a total push
the therapeutic approach contribution of social work. Mental Health grants are making
possible an increase in social workers available for appointment to staff in line with this
goal of individual service to more and more patients. Last year eight bursaries were
extended to social workers in training and contracted to work for a two-year period in
the Mental Health Services. A recommendation for the structuring of a social service
department in Centre Lawn has received consideration from administration. This will
greatly assist in the attainment of the goal before the Division.
The Social Service Departments gratefully acknowledge the support of administration, all departments of Hospital and Clinic, and the community health and welfare
agencies—together they make a therapeutic community in the treatment and prevention
of mental illness.
B. SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL
The year 1954-55 has been a year of consolidation and expansion of the work of
the Social Service Department. In numbers of cases carried there has been continuous
expansion.   This is also evident in rehabilitation and in community education services.
(a) Staff Changes
The present establishment for social workers at The Woodlands School stands at
three and one casework supervisor. During the year there were two resignations from
the social-work staff, with the result that during most of the year the service was carried
by two social workers and the casework supervisor. At one time the service was carried
for three months by one social worker and the casework supervisor. A replacement
was secured for one resignation; the other vacancy has yet to be filled.
(b) Department Structure
The Department operates in two sections, the first focuses on admission, reception,
and training casework services, and the second on pre-rehabilitation and rehabilitation
casework services. When the establishment of workers is maintained, two social workers
give service in the first section and two in the second. In the first two years of operation
the social workers were involved much more extensively in casework services before and
during admission and during the reception of the pupil into the training-school. Another
area of intensive services during this time was casework services to the pupil while REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O  115
resident in the training-school. Rehabilitation during this time was in its beginning
phase. The pupils' rehabilitative potential had yet to be assessed, and the staff reoriented
from custodial-care service to a service of vocational training and rehabilitation of those
pupils able at sometime to be relatively self-directing and self-supporting. During the
first two years of the Social Service Department's operation, the social worker on rehabilitation had to initiate the rehabilitation assessment. Much time was spent in finding,
interviewing, and assessing pupils for rehabilitation. Recently the training-school has set
up a rehabilitation clinic and conference, whereby all the departments having knowledge
of the pupils come together to study and assess the pupils' rehabilitation potential. The
social worker's contribution to this clinic is the social study of the pupil, his family, and
his situation before admission and while resident at the School; besides this he gives
likely leads as to job resources in the near-by community. The work emphasis in the
Social Service Department is beginning to centre on rehabilitation, and no doubt this
will increase as the years go by.
(c) Case-load Details
Table I indicates a total pupil intake of 897 during the year, a 65.55 per cent-
increase; of this total intake, 346 cases were concerned with pre-admission services.
These involve the worker in giving information to inquiring parents and relatives, as
well as orienting them to the school programme and buildings. Some sixty-five cases
were concerned with services to the parent and the pupil at the point of the latter's
reception into the School. Some 486 cases were concerned with casework services to
pupils in residence, as well as pre-rehabilitation and rehabilitation services. In the latter
area, 123 pupils were interviewed or assessed for rehabilitation.
Table II shows increases in face-to-face helping interviews with pupils and parents
during the time of the pupils' training and at the point of planning pre-rehabilitation and
rehabilitation. This table also points up the change in focus in the Social Service Department, from services at admission to services toward rehabilitation. A total of 3,302
interviews were directed to helping pupils and parents. Some 3,638 conferences and
consultations were held by Social Service with other disciplines furthering integrative
therapy, as well as multi-disciplined planning for the pupil in residence and the pupil
about to be rehabilitated to either family convalescent or working convalescent care.
Some 126 conferences and consultations were with employers prior to placement,
and 210 consultations were with employers following work placement.
(d) Group Work Project
The problem of constructively occupying the patients in their leisure time on the
wards has long faced the nurses in carrying out their daily routine at The Woodlands
School. With the increased emphasis on socializing the patients and preparing them for
possible rehabilitation, it has become recognized that recreation on the wards can play
an important part in developing the intellectual capacity, the emotional maturity, and
the social habits of the patients. However, until recently, the staff time has not permitted a ward leisure-time programme to be developed on an organized basis. In February of this year an inroad was made toward meeting this problem when a pilot group
work project was launched on one of the wards on the women's side. A group of nine
youngsters, ranging in age from 9 to 16 years, were selected to participate in a leisure-
time programme once a week under the direction of a trained group worker. These
girls have a relatively high intellectual potential and were chosen with a view to forming
a reasonably cohesive group. The programme drawn up included such activities as
handicrafts, games, singing, dancing, stories, and listening to records, with the object
of (a) providing a social experience for the children through which they could learn to
work and play co-operatively, (b) developing the skills of the children and stimulating O 116 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and broadening their interest, and (c) experimenting with a kind of programme media
which can successfully be used on the wards with this kind of patient.
In order to organize this programme and to co-ordinate it with the School routine,
it was necessary to obtain the interest and assistance of the staff of almost all the departments of The Woodlands School. In January a staff group representing the Medical,
Psychological, Nursing, Education, and Social Service Departments met to discuss the
project and to assist in its planning. Through this interdepartmental co-operation the
project became integrated with the total programme of the institution, and the Division is
grateful to these and other departments, particularly the Occupational Therapy Department, whose continued support has enabled the development of the project.
It is still very early to evaluate this programme, but the results to date have been
most encouraging. The children in the group have responded with great enthusiasm to
the activities—to the extent in one case where a child who had formerly been reluctant
to come back to the School from home visits cut her Easter holidays short in order not
to miss the weekly play session. It became apparent very soon that these children, who
are on a ward with some fifty other patients, ranging from youngsters to those well on
in middle age, needed to participate in their own personal group through which they
could exercise their own initiative. Although the social development of the children is
limited in keeping with their retardation, it was interesting to note that the children
quickly developed a feeling of belonging and the feeling of responsibility toward their
group. When one member of the group was absent, it became the pattern of the group
for one of the other members to make a craft article for them so the absentee would not
miss out. The group was able to exercise some control in keeping out those who are not
in the group, and, when the occasion arose, they were able to suggest who they wanted
for a new member. Recently they have been able to work out a system of cleaning up,
through which the responsibility will be shared equally by all members of the group.
After several weeks of the leader determining the activities for the children, they gradually
began to make their own suggestions about the programme, not only for games, but in
regard to craft programme. Now each week the group members sit down together to
plan their craft programme for the coming week. In making the articles, the children
are encouraged to express their own ideas and to use their resourcefulness within the
limits of their ability. In an institution where the children must constantly conform to
routine and uniformity, the opportunity for them to express their individuality through
the activities and through the opportunity for self-determination as a group takes on a
particularly important meaning.
It has been established that mental deficiency is often accompanied by emotional
disturbances on the part of the defective because of inability of the family and community
to meet the problem of the backward child. It is interesting to note that in this group
of nine children, seven were rejected by their family and one of the remaining girls had
one parent who was treated for a psychosis. The results of these home environments
were seen in the lack of emotional stability and socialization of many of these children.
The group experience has contributed toward enriching the emotional life of these children, not only through their creative expression in the activities, but through their
increased enjoyment of each other in the group and their friendly relationship with the
leader. This is strikingly demonstrated by the growth of one child, age 11, who first
sought her attention in the group by annoying the others and by being loud and boisterous.
This was an unattractive child who had been rejected at home and who undoubtedly
felt she was not worthy of genuine affection. She gradually found satisfaction in creating
things with her hands which at the same time increased her feeling of achievement and
of self-worth in the group. She began to find she could get recognition from the leader
and from the other girls through her constructive participation in the group activities.
She gained such attention by saying " Please " and " Thank you " that she began to use
these words almost to excess.   When the girls in the group gave her a surprise birthday REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O  117
party, this child became assured of her acceptance by the group and the fact that she
could be liked for herself. Although the child occasionally reverts to her former antics,
her general behaviour has steadily improved, and her experience in the group has substantially contributed toward her personality growth.
Through the co-operation of the nursing staff and their interest in seeing more
recreation on the wards, a nurse's aide was assigned to assist with the programme with
a view to carrying on similar activities on the ward at other times in the week. Through
this method there has been an increased programme of play and leisure-time activities
on the ward for the patients who can benefit from these activities.
In carrying out this programme, it was necessary to face many problems which will
have to be met if a group work programme is to become enlarged at The Woodlands
School. At the present time there is no allocation of money for equipment and supplies
to carry on this programme. An adequate budget will be necessary if more leisure-time
activities are to be developed on the wards. The dayrooms and playrooms will have
to be improved by the provision of more cupboard space and facilities for recreation.
The lack of segregation on the ward creates another difficulty in that it is difficult to
organize activities or even to provide equipment which will be appropriate for patients
with such varying levels of mental and physical ability. Even with this specially selected
group of patients, it has been difficult to conduct a programme to meet the diverse range
of capacities of the group members. It would be helpful to the staff and to the patients
for the patients to be grouped so that they could work and play more harmoniously
together.
Lastly, it will be necessary to increase the social-work staff if this programme is to
be expanded. At present, with the heavy load of casework, the staff is not able to carry
on more than the one experimental group work programme.
(e) General Activities of the Social Service Department
1. Social-work Education.—The Social Service Department participated in the
educational programme for the in-service trained social worker co-operating with the
Division of Training of the Social Welfare Branch. Four sessions were conducted, during
which the functions and services of social workers in the training-school setting were
outlined, together with case presentations which were illustrative of services at every
level of the pupils' training, education, and socialization.
2. Education to Allied Professions. — Four groups of affiliate and postgraduate
nurses were oriented to the contribution of social service in this specific setting, as were
groups of teachers in training and psychologists in training.
3. Public Interpretation.—Nine community organizations, among whom were the
Parent-Teacher Associations, the public health nurses, the registered nurses' association,
women's service clubs, church groups, and various membership groups of the British
Columbia Association for the Advancement of the Mentally Retarded have been introduced through clinical team presentations or individual talks to the institutional programme for the care, education, training, socialization, and vocational rehabilitation of
the mentally retarded child and adult. There is a vast and ever-increasing interest on the
part of community in this service. A willingness to co-operate in programme is increasingly evident on the part of many community groups. Some groups have expressed an
interest in developing community co-operative and ancillary services to the institutional
programme.
4. Community Co-operation.—Out of the activity of the School and the Social
Service Department in public interpretation, with its emphasis on the need to share in the
development of an over-all programme for the mentally retarded, the New Westminster
Association for the Advancement of the Mentally Retarded has provided a clubroom in
the community for the use of pupils in residence having visiting privileges. The Vancouver Association has fostered a child in the School, providing a spending allowance. O 118
BRITISH COLUMBIA
5. Liaison between the School and the Auxiliary.—The Woodlands School now has
a very active auxiliary, formed by parents residing in the New Westminster area, most of
whom have children in residence at the School. They have offered their homes for hospitality to parents from out-of-town areas who are visiting children in The Woodlands
School. Hospitality has been extended to pupils in working convalescent care on their
days off work. Homes have been offered to the same group of pupils on a short-stay
basis between jobs or before going out to a job. The value of this service in socialization
is inestimable. The auxiliary is considering ways of helping in the provision of certain
equipment for the use of the pupils in the School. The supervisor of the Social Service
Department has officiated most ably as liaison person between the auxiliary and the
School staff committee. She has had the responsibility of interpreting the institutional
programme and ways through which the auxiliary might co-operate in its development.
6. Staff Development.—An opportunity was afforded a staff member to study the
administration organization of training programmes in schools in Eastern Canada and
United States, and the services and functions of social work in the training-school. Many
valuable ideas were obtained both from the Ontario programme and that of the Southbury
training-school in the United States.
Staff committees have been busy throughout the year in a study of social-work
activity at the different job levels, as well as studying the statistical system, recording, and
group work method. The Social Service Department hereby acknowledges with grateful
thanks the assistance received from administration and all departments of the School. The
movement to an integrated programme has been outstanding and augurs well for future
developments.
Table I.—Summary of Cases Given Services by the Social Service Department,
The Woodlands School, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year_
1954-55
97
1953-54
98
New cases  800 512
Cases reopened during the fiscal year     65 56
Cases reopened from previous fiscal year     32 20
Total intake into the case load  897
588
Total number of cases given service  994 686
Cases closed or referred  864 589
Cases carried over_
130
97
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 119
Table II.—Summary of Social-work Activity in the Social Service Department,
The Woodlands School, April lst, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Interviews with or Regarding
Pupils and Patients
Consultations Regarding Pupils
and Patients
With
Pupils
With
Relatives
Total
With Other
Disciplines
With Other
Agencies
With
Employers
Total
1954-55
11
20
512
935
164
35
264
1,361
175
55
776
2,296
198
84
1,113
1,413
130
9
288
277
336
328
93
1,401
Rehabilitation (pre and post)	
2,026
Totals  _	
       |              [      3,302
       |                      3,848
1953-54
34
48
568
468
262
540
502
310
1,180
890
162
300
1,260
885
1
128
290
36
66
103
	
336
1,272
684
135
1,183
2,811
	
3,081
C.   SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENTS, CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC
The year 1954-55 has been a year of consolidation and expansion of the work of
the Social Service Departments. In numbers of cases carried, the Victoria Clinic Department has continued to expand, while the Vancouver Clinic Department case load has
decreased slightly due to space and staffing limitations, as noted below. However, in
the preventive aspects of child guidance as well as in more efficient structuring of services,
the Vancouver Social Service Department has expanded significantly.
(a) Staff Changes
During the year there were four resignations—two staff members leaving for family
reasons and two leaving for salary reasons, one going to a social casework teaching
position and one going to a research position. Replacements were secured for three
of these resignations, and the fourth replacement will be secured in April, 1955. In
addition, two staff members were on educational leave—Mr. D. B. Ricketts undertook a
third year of postgraduate study at Columbia University and Mrs. P. Coyle a second year
of postgraduate study at the University of British Columbia. Both will be returning
to the Clinic in June, 1955.
Because of these staff changes, the Vancouver Clinic had to function with fourteen
of the usual establishment of sixteen social workers. A change in the student-training
project this year meant that only four students took their field-work training with the
Clinic, whereas last year there were ten. Of this year's group, one has since come on
staff at the Vancouver Clinic, one is applying for employment with the Mental Health
Services, and one has accepted employment with the Tuberculosis and Venereal Divisions
of the Social Welfare Branch. The Victoria Clinic retained the same three staff members
during the year.
(b) Changes in Department Structure in Vancouver Clinic
During the year the Admission and Brief Services Section (intake section) was
further structured to include a casework supervisor to be responsible for the administration of that Section and to be responsible for casework supervision of three social workers
assigned to the Section. In the Continued Services Section the casework supervisor
assumed similar administrative responsibilities plus supervision of six social workers.
Preliminary review of this structuring indicates that a better ratio would be five
intake workers to six continued-service workers.    This would greatly facilitate a rapid O 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA
intake study which, in turn, will facilitate more rapid diagnostic study by the complete
team assigned to each case. In addition, it is hoped that more cases could be carried
beyond the diagnostic study period for a limited number of interviews by the intake
worker. At present the intake worker can only see the family for one or two interviews
in addition to the diagnostic study period. This has meant that almost all cases requiring
interviews, beyond the initial period, have had to go on a waiting-list for continued
treatment. In these cases the intake worker retains responsibility for emergency services
but does not initiate contact with the client during the waiting time.
Of seventy-nine cases on the waiting-list and assigned during the fiscal year,
eighteen closed at the point of assignment to Continued Services Section. This amounts
to approximately 23 per cent, which is a somewhat lower figure than that of other clinics
who have studied the effect of waiting-lists. The percentage is significant enough to
speculate as to whether a planned brief service was indicated in these cases or as to
whether a " spontaneous remission " was predictable following the diagnostic study.
Increasing staff in the intake section would not only permit intake workers to carry
brief-service cases, but also would tend to decrease the waiting time for initial interview.
As of March 31st, 1955, there were twenty-six cases waiting assignment to intake workers
for initial interviews. At the same time nineteen cases were waiting assignment to
continued-service workers. Without additional space and staff, waiting period will be
necessary. But with present establishment, the most feasible plan appears to be that of
avoiding a lengthy waiting period prior to initial interviews.
(c) Case-load Details
Table I shows the continued increase in direct-service cases carried by the Victoria
Clinic. The Vancouver Clinic direct-service cases appear to be decreasing. It should be
noted that this is an artificial levelling-off because of the following reasons:—
(1) Intake on direct-service cases was limited as much as possible to the
Vancouver City area during the past year. Parents from Burnaby, Richmond, New Westminster, North Vancouver, and West Vancouver were
referred, whenever possible, to their district Social Welfare Branch office
or the social service department of their municipality.
(2) Staff changes during the year meant a decrease in the case-carrying staff
of the Social Service Department from eleven to nine.
(3) The severe limitations of office interviewing space, coupled with the staff
decrease, made it impossible to handle more cases, although the demands
for service have not greatly diminished. All staff are eagerly awaiting
the opening of the new building.
Table II illustrates the increased casework activity on cases carried. For Victoria
the increases shown are a result of the increase in direct-service cases carried. For Vancouver there are substantial increases shown in the number of conferences and consultations held to review plans and progress regarding direct-service cases. In addition, the
number of periods of supervision per worker has shown a slight increase. These figures
are a reflection of the increased activity of the casework supervisors who have been
released to a great extent from their former case-carrying responsibilities.
(d) General Activities
Table III illustrates the further development of the total aspects of the professional
social worker's job. In addition to case-carrying responsibilities, the Social Service
Department has continued to increase its activities in other aspects of responsibility,
such as consultative, programme and staff development, community education, community organization, and research.
Much of this work has been handled through committees, some of which met out
of office hours.   Projects under way include revisions to recording methods to facilitate REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
O 121
both operational research and research into effectiveness of services. With the new
building, it is anticipated that more lectures, orientations, talks, etc., can be given by staff.
It is hoped that more staff time can be devoted also to general community education to
promote mental-health principles. Further time and effort could be devoted to the
interpretive and preventive functions plus further time devoted to assisting in community planning for additional resources if additional staff were available. It seems
apparent that the number of children requiring direct treatment will continue to increase
beyond available facilities unless more personnel can be obtained to carry out preventive
work before problems become acute.
(e) Indications for the Future
The following recommendations are submitted for consideration:—
(1) Establishment of a position of research-worker to carry out such projects
as:—
(a) Evaluation of services, as noted above, preliminary steps have
been taken toward uniformity of recording. In addition, follow-up
reports are being gathered on travelling clinic cases.
(b) Evaluation of community resources needed by children examined by clinics.
(c) Evaluation of lacks in parental relationships contributing to
behaviour disorders, delinquency, mental illness, etc.
(d) Evaluation of the needs for decentralized stationary clinics or
further travelling clinics.
(2) Establishment of a position of group worker to assist in a programme
of group work and group therapy for those children and their parents
who would benefit from group treatment.
(3) Continuation of interagency meetings to discuss policy and referral procedures similar to the discussions held during the past six months with
the family service agency of Vancouver.
(4) Provision of more adequate salary ranges and opportunities for furthering
programme and staff development through participation at professional
conferences.
As an adjunct to furthering the preventive aspects of clinic work, it is hoped that
case loads in district offices, municipal welfare departments, and children's aid societies
will gradually be reduced. Often a prompt, intensive service by the local agency can
prevent development of more serious problems. Occasionally such cases are still
referred to the Child Guidance Clinic solely on the basis of lack of worker or supervisory
time on the part of the referring agency. O  122
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Summary of Cases Given Services by Social Service Departments, Child
Guidance Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Activity
1954-55
1953-54
Vancouver
Victoria
Vancouver
Victoria
Direct-service Cases
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year	
211
85
195
58
225
23
39
181
17
34
293
46
38
165
Cases reopened during the year                      . .
Cases reopened from previous years 	
12
22
Total intake into case loads _	
287        |           232
377
199
Total cases carried in case loads1.. ~        _	
4752                  300
293                   207
526
315
245
160
182                       93
211
85
Indirect-service Cases
Other agency cases given brief service  — — 	
Travelling clinic cases given brief service 	
427
356
6
91
635
231
47
56
1,258
397
1,392
348
1 Corrected for cases reopened during the year (minus 23 Vancouver, minus 17 Victoria).
2 Does not include cases waiting assignment to intake workers.
Table II.—Summary of Casework Activity on Cases Carried in Social Service Departments, Child Guidance Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Activity
1954-55
1953-54
Vancouver
Victoria
Vancouver
Victoria
Total casework interviews with and regarding clients.    ..      .
i
6,306                2,514
7,473
2,020
"With aHuIts
75%     |              59%
25%     |              41%
69%
31%
56%
44%
Team conferences attended on direct-service cases—
980
51
163
73
495
704
183
1
46
31
196
74
)        839
>
}        162
f
384
751
151
Casework conferences—
33
83
70
Table III.—Summary of General Activities of Social Service Departments,
Child Guidance Clinic, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955
Activity
Totals
Vancouver Victoria
Average per Worker
Vancouver Victoria
Total cases carried—
Direct-service cases _
Other agency cases...
Periods of supervision received3	
Programme and staff development committee meetings-
Meeting attendance per worker-
Orientations to clinic of outside professional personnel-
Talks, lectures, etc., to outside groups..
Community committee meetings regarding development of community resources  _   	
475
783
704
168
125
48
15
300
97
74
43
781
39
67
9
3
1002
332
25
43
2
2
1 Based on ten of fourteen workers actually carrying cases.
2 Based on three workers carrying cases.
3 For Vancouver, includes supervision periods of four students.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Alice K. Carroll,
Provincial Supervisor of Psychiatric Social Work. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH O  123
HOSPITAL CONSULTATION AND INSPECTION DIVISION  (VANCOUVER
OFFICE)  OF HOSPITAL INSURANCE SERVICE
I beg to submit a report of the work of the Hospital Consultation and Inspection
Division, Vancouver, for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1955.
The activities of this office are primarily directed to hospital clearance and to the
licensing and inspection of private hospitals often referred to as nursing homes.
Hospital clearance is the process by which suitable placement is found for patients
in general hospitals who no longer need the specialized services of such hospitals but who
do need some form of care. Most hospitals in the Province do not have a social service
department, and so it falls upon the Social Welfare Branch, through its field service staff,
to assist the general hospitals to find placement for problem cases.
The field-worker does not receive direct from the hospital the request to handle such
cases, but must receive it from one of two sources:—
(1) If a patient is a resident of a city or district municipality, then the worker
may be asked by the city or district municipality to give aid.
(2) If a patient is a Provincial resident—that is, a person who by reason of the
" Residence and Responsibility Act" is so classed—then this office would
ask for aid.
During the year 1954-55, 265 hospital clearance cases were referred to this office.
Of these, 235 were placed.
All applications for admission to the Provincial Infirmary were screened by this
office, and during this period 130 applications were recommended on the basis of social
histories submitted by the field service staff. Of these, eighty-eight persons were admitted,
twelve applications were cancelled, and eight persons died.
During this period there were fifty-three private hospitals licensed in the Province.
The average facility accommodates eighteen to twenty-two patients. Some private hospitals have only two bed patients, and many have less than ten patients.
While the responsibilities of the field service staff do not extend to the licensing and
inspection of private hospitals, a task which falls on Hospital Insurance Service alone,
nevertheless a strong liaison is maintained between the two, especially with respect to
patient-care being given to social assistance cases or any other complaints in this regard.
Respectfully submitted.
Andrew H. Rose,
Hospital Consultant and Inspector.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
760-1155-7862 

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