Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

Annual Report of the Inspector of Gaols For the Year Ended March 31st, 1953 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1954

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0348786.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0348786.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0348786-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0348786-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0348786-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0348786-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0348786-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0348786-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0348786-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0348786.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
department of the attorney-general
Annual Report
of the
Inspector of Gaols
For the Year Ended
March 31st, 1953
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954  To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned has the honour to present the Annual Report of the Inspector of
Gaols for the year ended March 31st, 1953.
ROBERT W. BONNER,
A ttorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., January 11th, 1954.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Introduction     7
Oakalla Prison Farm—
Men's Section     9
Women's Section  10
Young Offenders' Unit  14
Medical Report of Oakalla Prison Farm and Young Offenders' Unit  18
Psychologist's Report  25
Report of Protestant Chaplain  26
Report of Roman Catholic Chaplain  29
Report of the Librarian  30
Staff-training  33
Nelson Gaol  34
Kamloops Gaol  36
Prince George Gaol  39
Forestry Camp  40
Report of Probation Branch  46
Appendix—Statistics of Institutions  49  Report of the Inspector of Gaols, 1952-53
Hon. R. W. Bonner, Q.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—It is my pleasure to submit the Annual Report covering the Provincial Gaols
for the year ended March 31st, 1953. In doing so, I would like to comment briefly on
several developments which took place during the period under review.
Changes in personnel and appointments to new positions, especially on the staff of
the Inspector of Gaols and at Oakalla Prison Farm, which were further implementations
of recommendations made in the 1950 Report, are probably the most significant. Mr.
H. G. Christie succeeded Mr. J. Millman as Warden on January 1st, 1952, Mr. Millman
being appointed to the position of special consultant meanwhile. Mr. Christie's appointment carried with it a letter of reference which stressed the introduction into our largest
gaol of a modern treatment approach to the problems confronting us as soon as it was
humanly possible to make the change. A full-time Medical Officer, in the person of
Dr. R. G. E. Richmond, was also appointed, and the positions of Psychologist and Social
Worker were filled. Rev. W. D. G. Hollingworth and Rev. E. F. Mclntyre joined the
staff as Chaplains, thus providing a service to the gaols which had been recommended
for some time past.
The October riot at Oakalla Prison Farm, while proving embarrassing at the time,
seems to have been to some extent part of a continent-wide wave. It did, however, point
up local contributing factors which you, Sir, were quick to order remedied. At the time
of writing, the extension of the housing facilities at that institution which were started
within a few months after the riot are not yet complete, but with their completion, I am
happy to say, the overcrowded condition at our main gaol will be considerably alleviated.
Your prompt action in allocating additional staff to both the Men's and Women's Sections
at Oakalla Prison Farm has also made it possible to introduce a much more efficient
standard of supervision, and has enabled us to move in to a modern staff-training
programme, together with a greater emphasis on treatment. There are, of course, still
many improvements which need to be made in the main section of Oakalla Prison Farm.
These, however, are being given consideration, and plans are being prepared for alterations, some of which, I am happy to say, are already under way. I am confident that
by the time another Report is presented I will be able to point with satisfaction to the
completion of many of these improvements which have been the subject of recommendations for many years.
The programme at the Young Offenders' Unit has progressed favourably. During
the year, many of the difficulties of organization mentioned in the 1951-52 Report have
been ironed out. The results of the special treatment programme, which is the basis of
emphasis in this special unit, so far are satisfying, and I feel the experience gained by the
staff who have been specially selected will prove very valuable later as a matter of research
for the treatment and training institution which you and your Government are planning
for construction in the Fraser Valley.
It is gratifying to note that at last the entire building in Nelson is available for gaol
purposes. Needed improvements in that institution have been carried out, thus relieving
a situation which was cause for considerable worry. While this facility is far from what
we would like to see, we can at last report some definite progress. In addition, prospects
for improvements at Kamloops and a new gaol at Prince George appear good.
Once again I am happy to include a report concerning the forest-camp project.
This year two camps were conducted, Mr. R. M. Deildal again being in charge, with an
assistant stationed in each of the camps under his supervision. This type of a programme
for the rehabilitation of younger and more reformable offenders, I feel, is well worth
while.   It is not without its difficulties, however.   Mr. Deildal's experience this year, given Z 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in the attached resume, together with certain other details which he has given me in the
form of a research project which he did concerning the programme, will, I am sure, prove
valuable should we at a later date enter into an all-year-round programme of this nature.
This year, for the first time, this Report includes a statement from the Medical
Officer, Psychologist, the Chaplains, and, as last year, a report from the Gaol Librarian
and the Staff-Training Director. All of these, I feel certain, will provide not only
interesting reading, but contribute to a document which I hope can be considered as of
some value in penological literature.
The Provincial Probation Branch continues to move forward; while no new branch
offices were opened during the year, there has been considerable increase in the use of
the services of this department. The attached statistical summaries will help to give
a picture of the increase which has taken place over the years since the inception of the
Branch in 1942.
I am also enclosing statistical reports covering all phases of the programme of the
gaol service. Particulars regarding personnel, statements of expenditure, and costs per
capita covering Oakalla Prison Farm, both Men's and Women's Gaols, Young Offenders'
Unit, Nelson, Kamloops, and Prince George are all included.
Conclusion
I would be negligent were I to close this Report without some mention of the
co-operation which has been given us by the many agencies and individuals who have
given of their time and effort, and, on occasion, of their substance, toward the extension
of the new programme. There is evident an increasing awareness of the humanitarian
and economic value of an enlightened approach to the treatment of the offender. Also
evident in a most gratifying manner is the willingness of so many people to help us in
our efforts.
Again, particular mention should be made and thanks expressed to the John Howard
Society, the Elizabeth Fry Society, the Salvation Army, clergy of the various denominations, Probation Officers, and social workers, and also others who have interested themselves in individual inmates, particularly those who have provided employment for those
newly released. The Wardens, executive officers, matrons, and guards of all our gaols,
and the staff of the Corrections Office and Probation Branch, are all once again to be
commended for the loyalty with which they have carried out their duties.
In closing, I would like to make the following recommendations:—■
(1) The construction of the new gaol, as recommended in the Commission
Report, should be pushed forward without fail.
(2) Every effort should be made to improve facilities at Kamloops, and plans
under consideration for the construction of a new gaol at Prince George
should be expedited.
(3) It is highly desirable that the Women's Gaol be removed from Oakalla
Prison Farm to a separate site, and that a new institution be built with
greater accommodation, possibly of a cottage type, but certainly of a type
allowing for segregation.
(4)
That the present Women's Gaol building
be converted to
a gaol hospital.
(5)
That a new kitchen, storeroom, and plate
-shop be constructed at Oakalla
without delay.
(6) That the Probation Branch be expanded,
as requests for a
furtherance of
this service come in from various parts of the Province.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. G. B.
STEVENS,
Inspector of Gaols and Provincial Probation Officer. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53
Z 9
.
OAKALLA PRISON FARM
Men's Section
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the annual report for the Oakalla Prison Farm for
the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1953.
During the past year Oakalla Prison Farm has had great difficulty in maintaining
the same standard of operation it has held for the past forty years. Its population rose
to double the prison's normal capacity of 400 to 500. Admissions rose to an all-time
high of over 7,800 for the year, and the daily population at its highest point was over
1,000 inmates. The main building for men, a tribute to its builders, is almost the same
as the day it was constructed in 1914, but the locking system and other equipment is in
a sad state of disrepair. The cell locks, long obsolete and worn, can be opened at will
by any prisoner with any intelligence or experience. The kitchen, with its absence of
proper drainage and conveniences to handle up to 3,000 meals a day, is quite inadequate.
The shortages of staff over the years have resulted in a system which has had to use
inmate trusties to do work which would normally be the responsibility of staff. The
dependence of the prison on this large group of inmates gave them a knowledge and control which matched, if not surpassed, that of staff in many areas. It is, admittedly, much
cheaper and easier to run a prison with a large number of inmate trusties, who have
methods of their own and can be bought or bribed to use that control, than it is to
run a prison with a small and poorly paid staff. The results, however, are far from
wholesome.
The riot in October, although to some extent part of a continent-wide wave, was
not lacking in local causative factors. Over 900 inmates were crowded into an institution which should have housed half the number. This crowding of two men into a cell
in an institution where there was only work and vocational activities for a quarter of the
inmates and no recreational facilities of any consequence caused a very unwholesome
situation and much unrest. The institution's attempt at some segregation' was also a
causative factor. It is comparatively easy to maintain an outward appearance of harmony
in a prison by placing the young with the old and interspersing sex problems, drug addicts,
and the other problems throughout the rest of the population so that they can mix and
supplement each other's needs. It is much more difficult to segregate and control. At
the time of the riot, an attempt had been made to segregate the drug addicts in order that
their drug traffic could be isolated, if not actually restricted. An attempt had also been
made to segregate the teen-agers from the aged and degenerate. These restrictions of
freedom, particularly to the addict who previously had been able to obtain and distribute
drugs weekly, coupled with the elimination of the hundred or more trusty positions, represented a loss of inmate-control and a more restricted life. The South Wing prisoners
who were waiting trial, appeal, or transfer to the Penitentiary, having little to lose and
much experience in the arts of the convict, started the riot by breaking out of their cells,
overpowering the three guards on duty, barricading themselves into the wing, and proceeding to tear out all the iron railings, beds, and toilet facilities. Except for diversionary
activities, such as lighting mattresses and causing a general uproar in the other wings and
the Women's Gaol, serious damage was confined to the South Wing during the hour they
were allowed to consider the error of their decision. Given every opportunity to settle
the matter peacefully, it was decided that, in the interests of all concerned, the riot should
be brought under control quickly and decisively rather than prolong it by the use of
threats and bargaining. Force was used, and all active participants overcome and punished before the day was out.   A number of staff received minor bruises, and two staff Z 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
members received severe injuries, one requiring operative treatment. No inmates were
injured. The fact that inmates were using steel pipe railings, chains, and pieces of metal
beds as weapons and still were not hurt is a tribute to the discipline of those staff involved,
many of whom received injuries in the act of forcing the prisoners back into controlled
confinement. After the riot, the new Government in power allocated additional staff in
both the Men's and Women's Sections of Oakalla, which made it possible to introduce a
much better standard of supervision and an improved staff-training programme. The
planning of temporary accommodation, in order to eliminate overcrowding until the proposed institution in the Valley was completed, was a heartening indication of a possible
improvement in prison conditions. It is hoped that separate institutions for young men
and women away from the Oakalla grounds, repairs and replacements of obsolete and
worn-out equipment, a new kitchen, adequate fire protection, adequate staff and salaries,
and the commencement of industries to offset the cost of these necessary improvements
will be in the mind of the Government in planning the work of the new year.
Before reporting in detail on the various activities throughout the institution, I would
like to express, on behalf of all staff, our thanks to the various forces and agencies whose
co-operation we have enjoyed during the past year. We would most particularly like to
extend our sincere thanks to the people of the Province, who, through their churches and
service organizations, and as individuals, have given us a measure of understanding and
support which has been unprecedented. To the Government representing these people,
which has so far shown every indication of a desire to bring about prison reform, and
which necessarily holds the key to many of our problems, may we express, in addition to
our hopeful thanks, a reassurance of our understanding during the times when support
may have to be tempered with restraint because prisons are only part of the bigger problems of development and welfare.
Respectfully submitted.
Hugh G. Christie,
Warden.
Women's Section
H. G. Christie, Esq.,
Warden, Oakalla Prison Farm.
Sir,—I hereby submit a report of the work and activities of the Women's Gaol for
the fiscal year 1952-53.
Population
The average daily population was 65.233, with an average monthly population of
1,984.166.
Culinary
A total of 71,625 meals were served. The usual extra rations were served at Easter,
Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year's Day.
Edibles canned consisted of 96 quarts of beet pickles.
Arts and Crafts
Old material and scraps made into rugs, slippers, etc., 188 articles. New institutional material made into aprons, uniforms, shorts, sport shirts, nightgowns, etc., 386
articles. Alterations on inmates own personal clothing, 62 articles. Inmates own materials consisted of the following: Knitting, crocheting, embroidery, tatting, 407 articles;
leatherwork, 215 articles; shellwork, 206 articles; Dresden figurines, etc., 46 articles;
copperwork, 19 articles; upholstery, 5 articles; lamp-craft, 6 articles; wood-burning,
138 articles; personal sewing, 53 articles; personal slippers, 50 pairs. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z  11
Practice work included art, costumes, crocheting, knitting, lamp-craft, leather-work,
petit point, picture-framing, rug-making, tatting, upholstery, shellwork, wood-burning,
and figurine-moulding.
Progress during the second year of operation has been fairly satisfactory. Cramped
conditions hamper the work, and there are very few facilities for rug-making, quilting,
and weaving.
The articles entered in the annual Pacific National Exhibition last August through
the auspices of the Elizabeth Fry Society were awarded the Bronze Medal award and a
Second Prize award in the Hobby Show.   Another display of available articles was presented recently by the Elizabeth Fry Society at a social tea.
Repairs done for the Men's Gaol were as follows:—
Socks  16,516
Pants     5,699
Shirts     2,729
Undershirts     2,269
Shorts         958
Drawers        484
Jackets         381
Coveralls         220
Laundry-bags   37
Total   29,293
Young Offenders' Unit mending consisted of the following:—
Socks  1,317
Pants  647
Shirts i  456
Undershirts   62
Shorts  106
Sweat-shirts   9 6
Miscellaneous  92
Total   2,776
New Haven mending consisted of the following:—
Socks  1,357
Pants   95
Shirts  178
White pants and jackets  43
Pyjafna tops and bottoms  95
Miscellaneous  166
Total   1,934
Work for the Women's Gaol was as follows:—
New work  1,090
Repairs  2,174
Total      3,264
Laundry
During the year 33,458 articles were laundered. We received a new washing-
machine on April 23rd, 1952, which made a vast difference, but our mangles have been
a constant problem. Z 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Health
General health of inmates was good. It is indeed a great asset to have Dr. Richmond
on our staff as psychiatrist and medical officer on twenty-four-hour call.
A doctor and nurse from the Provincial Venereal Disease Clinic made weekly visits.
There were three inmates infected with syphilis, and thirty-four with gonorrhoea. The
thirty-four inmates with gonorrhoea were treated with procaine penicillin and two received
streptomycin.
Nine inmates were hospitalized during the year.
Tickets of Leave
During the year four inmates benefited by tickets of leave.
Church Services
The attendance at the weekly church services is good. There are Roman Catholic
morning services each Sunday and afternoon Protestant services.
Major and Mrs. Wagner, of the Salvation Army, are continuing to do valuable work
in rehabilitating inmates by accommodating them at the receiving home, which has been
named in honour of Catherine Booth, until they find employment. Mrs. Wagner helps us
out greatly in any required transporting of inmates to trains, boats, buses, etc. She also
nurses some of the girls when necessary and obtains financial assistance for them.
Correspondence Courses
The following courses were taken: Typing, Record-keeping, Art 10, Art 39, and
Journalism.   One course was completed—Record-keeping, Grade A, with 5 credits.
Twenty-one girls took courses during the year, and at the present time thirteen girls
are working on the above-named courses.
Moving of the school from the upstairs hall to the day-room made a great improvement, but there should be one room set aside for the school alone. Thus equipment would
not have to be moved daily from room to room, and better control could be kept over the
school supplies.
Indoor Recreation
During the periods of indoor recreation the girls spend a great deal of time playing
ping-pong.   Cards, checkers, and other such games are also popular.
Library
Each group spends two hours per week in the library, at which time each girl is
encouraged to read a good book, and books are discussed and evaluated. Books are
issued once a week. The circulation of books seems to have decreased somewhat, now
that the girls do not have as much time to themselves. However, almost every girl reads
at least a little, and the good books are always in demand. The average monthly circulation has been 569 books.   Books in the library were as follows:—
Books in the library  1,025
New books  36
Discards   24
—       12
Total books  1,037
We appreciate the splendid co-operation which Mr. Egilson, the librarian, has
shown us. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1952-53 Z 13
Shows, Concerts, and Meetings
Rev. Hollingworth, through the facilities of the National Film Board, brings a
moving-picture show to the girls every third Wednesday. These shows are always well
attended and enjoyed by the girls, even though we do not have a room suitable for showing a picture.
Mrs. Weldon, of the W.C.T.U., brings a group of talented entertainers out once a
month, and this, too, is enjoyed by the girls.
The Oakalla Women's Alcoholics Anonymous group holds a meeting every Sunday
evening. These meetings are usually attended by over two-thirds of the girls, and it is
felt that not only the alcoholics but many of the drug addicts have benefited from the
philosophy of the Alcoholics Anonymous and from the personalities of the members
who come out.
Recreational Shift (3 to 11 p.m.)
In October, 1952, six groups were set up to facilitate a group programme on the
afternoon shift. One group is for new admittances, one is for non-addicts, and the
other four are for addicts. There is a group matron in charge of each group, and the
girls remain in their respective groups under supervision of their group matron at all
times until they are locked up at 8.30 p.m.
At first the activity was left up to the individual groups, but this did not prove to
be satisfactory. Therefore, there was set up a schedule of group activity for each group.
Each group, except Group 6 (the Admitting Group), has two hobby-work periods, one
library period, three outdoor recreation periods, and three indoor recreation periods—
each period consisting of two hours. Besides this, each group spends one day per week
in the kitchen preparing the evening meal and the night nourishment. The rest of the
time is taken up by community activities. For example, each Saturday evening the girls
from all groups get together in the day-room for a sing-song or the like. Every Sunday
evening the Alcoholics Anonymous holds a meeting, usually attended by more than two-
thirds of the girls. The actual activities of this shift can best be described under the
following headings:—
Hobby Work.—In January, 1953, through the efforts of the Alcoholics Anonymous
and other private donations, there was set up a hobby-work project on a very small scale.
Since that time, through the sale of the finished goods and again with the help of the
Alcoholics Anonymous, this project has been built up until there is now quite a lot of
supplies for the girls to choose from. During this afternoon hobby-work programme
the girls are doing wood-burning, copper-tooling, Dresdenwork, picture-framing, and
leather work.
Especially during the winter months there was a great deal of enthusiasm for this
type of activity, and the results have been excellent. It is hoped that in the very near
future our fund will be large enough to purchase several small radios to use in the group
programme. This project is entirely self-supporting, and the girls have not been asked
to buy the materials, but merely to make two (and sometimes three) of each article, one
of which they keep for themselves. Many girls have willingly made articles without
taking any for themselves in order to build up a larger stock of supplies.
Outdoor Recreation.—During the summer months the girls were taken for walks,
on picnics, to the lake for swimming, to the orchard to pick fruit, and so on. These
outings were enjoyed by everyone and were very much missed when the cold weather
set in. However, the use of the Quonset hut gymnasium has been invaluable. The girls
have the use of the gymnasium every day from 3 to 6 p.m. and on special occasions in
the evening. Miss Walton, from the Pro-Rec, came out once a week and took the girls
to the gymnasium. She showed them the fundamentals of basketball, volleyball, and
badminton, all of which have been very popular with the girls. There has been a great
deal of group competition in these games in the gymnasium.   A number of girls especially Z  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
interested in basketball formed a team and practised a great deal until they were able
to play a visiting team. On March 25th, 1953, a visiting team came in to play, and
although the girls lost the game, they had a thoroughly good time. With the coming of
nicer weather, the girls have all been eager to start softball, and it is hoped that this
sport will permit a great deal of group competition and perhaps further opportunity to
play outside teams.
The girls have also enjoyed watching the soccer games almost every Saturday and
Sunday all winter.
Discipline
The percentage of drug addicts and the number of inmates are still increasing
steadily, which has made it absolutely impossible to segregate the various types of inmates.
The conduct for the past year has been fairly good in spite of all of these adverse
conditions. During the year twenty-two were crimed. This consisted of being confined
to their rooms or the building, a lecture of reprimand from the Warden, or loss of
remission, which is usually ten days. The latter seems to be the most effective means of
punishment.
Recommendations
We are in desperate need of the completion of the extension to the building over
the kitchen. The number of prisoners with long sentences is still increasing, and the
sentences are becoming longer. Single cells are much more satisfactory for these prisoners, but there are far too few. We are still transferring large numbers of inmates to
our overflow annex at Prince George. We are using every available space to the best
possible advantage, but still we have little space left for arts and crafts activities. The
machines, rug-frames, quilt-frames, etc., require a great deal of space, which we cannot
spare until the extension to the building is completed.
Space is still limited and facilities inadequate for all projects and activities.
Summary
We feel that in spite of all of our handicaps we have had wonderful co-operation
from female staff, male staff, outside societies, churches, and also most of the inmates,
enabling us to have a fairly progressive year.
The arts and crafts programme which the Elizabeth Fry Society fostered is a great
asset and has definitely aided in improving the behaviour and contentment of the inmates.
In conclusion, Sir, I wish to thank you and all of your administrative staff for your
valuable advice and assistance with all of our numerous problems.
Respectfully submitted.
E. Inkster,
Matron-in-Charge.
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the annual report on the operation of the Young Offenders'
Unit for the year ended March 31st, 1953.
The year commenced with an inmate population of seventy. The average population for the year was sixty. The general behaviour of the inmates has been very satisfactory, due to the fact that a full programme was in operation throughout the year. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z  15
Custody
Custody continued to improve throughout the year, with the number of escapes being
reduced to three, two of the escapees being recaptured and returned to Oakalla Prison
Farm. An in-service training course was given by Professor E. K. Nelson, Assistant
Professor of Criminology at University of British Columbia, which proved of great benefit.
Health
The prison physician has been busy with inmates, and the general health of the
inmate population has been exceptionally good. The services of the Out-patient Department, Vancouver General Hospital, have been utilized to great advantage and have been
greatly instrumental in assisting in the general rehabilitation of the youths sentenced to
prison.
Food
The high level of daily food rations was continued. During the year a Mess
Committee was formed, being composed of representatives from the units. The Chief
Custodial Officer met with these inmates periodically, and together they were able to
improve the issuance of meals. I believe this is something new in penology, at least in
this Province, if not in Canada.
Maintenance of Buildings
During the year the hallways and corridors were painted, as were most of the units.
The Quonset huts housing the upholstery and radio shops were insulated, which made
these huts more useful for our training programme. After Christmas we were able to
obtain approximately 12,000 cubic yards of fill for our playing-field, which increased the
width of the field about 40 feet. This was a great improvement, as we will now be able
to have a proper baseball diamond and soccer will be able to be played during the coming
fall season.   The levelling and grading of the field was carried on by the inmates.
Vocational Training
During the past year the following vocational courses were in operation: Motor
Mechanics, Woodwork, Cabinetmaking, Upholstery, Bookbinding, Cooking, Maintenance, Radio Repair and School.
During the year it was necessary to discontinue the diesel class that had been carried
on by the Vocational Officer, as it curtailed his more important duties, such as general
supervision of the vocational programme and also the compiling and recording of inmates'
progress within the vocational programme. These progress reports have been made
regularly and are discussed with the Classification Officer weekly.
All inmates before placement have been given aptitude tests, and by this service a
better placement and classification is possible for all youths who are sentenced to the
institution. It is the consensus of opinion of the executive staff that in the past twelve
months a remarkable progress has been made in vocational training, and the system in
use has made it possible for any misfit to be caught before his placement has been of too
lengthy a duration. The standard of vocational-training instructors has been kept at a
fairly high level, and at the present time all appear to be proficient in their respective
trades. Regular staff-training meetings are held every two weeks and have proved to
be very beneficial to the supervisors in assisting them to straighten out any problems or
situations they may have run into in their work.
The table below shows the manner in which inmates have been occupied during
the year:  PerCent PerCent
Woodwork-shop  16.27 Bookbinding-shop      8.63
Upholstery-shop  16.07 Motor Mechanics Shop 10.86
Kitchen   16.10 Maintenance   17.52
School and Radio ______ 14.50 Sick     0.05 Z 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Socialization
The socialization programme differs from that of the vocational-training programme,
and the Educational Officer is in charge of the programme from 3 o'clock in the afternoon
until 11 o'clock in the evening. The group system has now been firmly established in the
institution. As the boys are brought down from Oakalla, they are placed in a unit which
has a maximum of thirteen boys. From this initial placement the youths are allowed to
choose the unit in which they would like to live. As a member of a group, the youth is
assisted by his unit supervisor to become a member of his group. He is helped to expand
his interest in sports and hobbies, and as a member of the group he must agree with the
other youths' decision as to how and when these various activities will be carried out.
In this particular part of the programme, the supervisor's goal is to elicit as positive a
response as is possible from the youth and to understand his reactions. Thus, in this
part of the programme, the supervisors are constantly helping boys in their relationship
to the other boys as they work or play. The socialization programme has a definite
standard, and all groups are expected to meet this.
In rotation, each unit is responsible for the serving and partial preparation of the
evening meal. They do all the necessary kitchen clean-up following the meal, following
the instructions left by the cook on the termination of his shift. The cleanliness in preparing and serving of meals is strongly stressed at all times, and it is gratifying to note the
response given by all inmates to this direction. All inmates within the unit are urged and
taught to share with the less fortunate inmate. After dinner many types of programmes
are in operation under a group basis. There are discussion groups, for instance, on how
and why they committed the offence which they did, religion, sex, choice of reading
material, and other topics usually suggested by the inmates.
A sports programme has been received whole-heartedly by the inmate population
and has been highly successful. Assistance has been provided on some occasions by
outside experts who act as coaches and umpires. This has proved to be very stimulating.
An umpire school for the youths was of great interest, with twelve inmates attending the
weekly sessions. Many youths who participated in the sports programme at the Young
Offenders' Unit had never taken part in any organized games previous to their arrest.
Baseball, soccer, basketball, and volleyball are many of the games played. During the
past season the unit baseball team has played in an outside league, all their games, of
course, being held at the Young Offenders' Unit. This, however, has been operated on a
privilege basis, and if the general decorum of the inmates was lacking in any way, they
were not allowed to participate in playing the visiting team. During the inclement
weather, a floor-hockey game was devised within the institution, and weight-lifting and
badminton have also been in operation.
A fall and spring track and field day was held which proved to be a huge success,
with all inmates participating. The events included the 100-yard dash, running and
standing broad jump, high jump, discus, and shot-put, with novelty races. For the
evening, hobbies such as leathercraft, coppercraft, model-building, and other hobbies
receive full attention. These were operated on a unit basis, with the inmates being kept
to their own units. Statistics show that approximately 75 per cent of the youths who were
in the institution had never had a hobby of any description prior to their arrest.
The institution library has been used extensively by the inmates. On occasions the
inmates have contributed sufficient funds to secure motion pictures of their own choice,
and in almost all instances they have chosen a better-type film to be shown for the weekend entertainment.
The staff employed for the socialization programme are in most instances university
graduates who have taken either courses in social work or majored in psychology. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z  17
Classification
The Classification Officer is generally responsible for all matters involving consideration of the inmate as an individual. In the first instance, this requires the collection
of as much information as is available on the experiences to which the inmate has been
subject prior to his committal and his reactions to those experiences. This involves
family background, educational experience, previous institutional experiences, record of
delinquency, relationships with family members and adults, health, relationships with
the opposite sex, and all other information which should be taken into consideration in
developing a rehabilitative plan for the inmate.
The emphasis on preparation for release is continued throughout the period of
incarceration. For this purpose the Classification Officer meets with parents and relatives. Emphasis is always given to participation of the boy in planning, and interviews
with parents generally include him. We attempt to emphasize the responsibility of the
boy in the plans which are made for him by clearly indicating throughout that he is the
major participant in the planning.
Employment-planning also presupposes the existence of job-finding resources. While
the National Employment Service has been most co-operative and helpful in this respect,
the rather difficult employment situation in the past year has generally required a more
personalized method of contacting prospective employers. As a result, the most effective
resource in this area is personal contacts of staff members, particularly the Director.
It is also recognized that the feelings of self-respect of the prisoner are particularly
vulnerable on his return to the community. For this reason, every effort is made to assure
that each boy is clothed in a manner consistent with feelings of self-respect when he is
discharged.
Efforts are also made to eliminate physical defects which are treatable and which
have proved an area of extreme sensitivity. In line with this, we have arranged for operations removing hernias, correcting crossed eyes, removing infected tonsils and adenoids,
and, in one case, treating a complicated cataract. Where particular medical attention
would not produce improved results, we arrange for interviews with qualified medical
specialists, who explain the condition to the boy and help him to feel more comfortable
with it.
The Classification Officer is responsible for the censoring of mail and awarding of
telephone calls when they are warranted. He also arranges medical and dental appointments and approves of visits. (We encourage positive visiting to as great an extent as is
consistent with the other requirements of the institution.) The Classification Officer is
responsible for participation in all decisions regarding awarding of penalties. Generally,
penalties consist of loss of privilege. The ultimate sanction involves a return to the
Oakalla Prison Farm main building. To as great an extent as possible, we attempt to
avoid the necessity for penalties by draining off the pressure to misbehave before it builds
up to the point where a penalty is required.
Staff
At the close of the year it was felt that the staff membership was composed of a very
suitable type of person. The socialization supervisors have an excellent educational background, and those who were working on the vocational programme have good backgrounds in trades-training. During the year the Educational Officer resigned to take
a position in Newfoundland and the supervisor-instructor in motor mechanics terminated
his employment to take a position more remunerative.
Employment Secured for Dischargees
Of the 101 dischargees during the past fiscal year, 87 per cent had employment
placements before their release.    The balance were either accepted by their former Z 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
employer or employment had been secured through parents and relatives. In almost
every case the employment placements were secured through the efforts of the staff at the
institution. It was noted that when a prospective employer was contacted in the majority
of cases, he was only too willing to assist as much as possible in the placing of inmates in
employment on their return to society.
General
Before closing, I would like to mention the firms and individuals who have shown
interest in the work being done at the institution and who have donated much needed
material and equipment for the use of the inmates in their vocational and sports programme, and those who have provided entertainment at the institution during the past
year. Space forbids me from naming all these generous-hearted people, who can rest
assured that their efforts were warmly appreciated.
Respectfully submitted.
B. J. McCabe,
Director.
MEDICAL REPORT OF OAKALLA PRISON FARM AND
YOUNG OFFENDERS' UNIT
E. G. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual medical report for the year ended
March 31st, 1953, for the above-mentioned institutions.
Main Gaol
Hospital
With the co-operation of yourself, the Warden, and the authorities in Victoria, we
have been able to make progress in this department. The treatment-room is now illuminated with fluorescent lighting, and we have now available the basic requirements for outpatients' surgery and medication. In the course of time we should obtain an anesthetic
apparatus.   It should be possible, also, in the course of time, to perform minor operations.
Right Wing.—This has been redecorated, and is, as far as possible, supervised by an
officer located there. We are using this wing for purposes of mental observation, and all
inmates withdrawing from narcotics are admitted there.
We have made research into the most helpful means of withdrawing these patients
from their habit without the use of narcotics, and we have found that paraldehyde or
sodium amytol (orally or parenterally) have proved the most satisfactory medication up
to the present, with the addition of intravenous infusions. The average length of time
required for withdrawing is approximately one week.
We have admitted to this wing some of the most difficult behaviour problems in the
institution. Our staff, with the exception of one, has had no psychiatric-nursing training.
Two have had nursing training in the services, and one has been trained in social work.
It is greatly to the credit of the hospital staff that they have so willingly and ably assisted
in what is becoming a treatment unit, not only for medical and surgical cases, but also
for psychiatric cases.
Left Wing.—This has been redecorated; a dish-washing sink for the tubercular
patients has been added, and also chesterfield and arm-chairs for the recreation-room.
Occupational therapy has been commenced, and has so far proved most successful and
is on a sound financial basis. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 19
We have made representations to the effect that it would be more beneficial to tubercular patients to be treated in a tuberculosis hospital. Close liaison has been maintained
with the Division of Tuberculosis Control in Vancouver, and routine chest X-rays have
been carried out in every case of admission to the institution. It appears to me that- the
tuberculosis section of the prison and control unit, under the supervision of Mr. Pearson,
offers valuable service in preventive medicine.
There have been difficulties in transportation for patients to the Division of Tuberculosis Control unit in Vancouver, with consequent delay in obtaining large plates and
stomach washing. However, this is more a domestic matter which can be settled
internally.
Observation-rooms.—Two observation-rooms of three beds each are retained for
the use of the more severe medical and surgical cases. We have, on many occasions,
used the new oxygen-inhalation apparatus.
Tower.—This contains convalescent and more chronically ill patients, and also
those in less serious psychiatric disorder than those in the right wing.
Kitchen.—The hospital cooking is now carried on in the main kitchen, and it
appears, on the whole, to be a satisfactory method. After a great deal of experimentation
and discussion, diets have been reduced to a minimum, and would seem of satisfactory
quality within the limitations of a gaol setting. There will always be room for improvement in this direction.
Office Accommodation.—A group of three offices for the use of the Administrative
Officer, Psychologist, and Medical Officer has been added, with additional accommodation for psychological testing.
Dispensary.—A room in the hospital is now being constructed for use as a dispensary.
Recommendations for the Hospital Unit
1. Bedding is inadequate for hospital use. Sheets should be available for each bed
in adequate supply.
2. Lighting in the wings and tower is entirely inadequate, but it is hoped that
arrangements are now under way for installation of fluorescent lighting at additional
points throughout the wings and tower.
3. Staff:—
(a) It is most necessary that some form of instruction both in general and
psychiatric nursing should be made available.   We are exploring resources.
(b) We are grateful for the help of the Social Worker, who combines his specialty with general nursing duties, but it is felt that with the expansion of
the medical programme into the field of classification there should be a
social worker appointed as such.
(c) The Psychologist, after a period of assisting with the administration duties
in the hospital, is now returning full time to his psychological specialty.
The demands on him are exceedingly high, but he is coping most efficiently.
(d) A new screening procedure for the Young Offenders' Unit and New Haven
will shortly come into operation.
(e) We are at present unable to fulfil the needs of the Courts for psychiatric
assessments, except in a few instances. It is necessary, in my opinion, to
increase the salary of the consulting psychiatrist, Dr. Campbell, in order
that he may devote more time to general Court work instead of being
limited to reporting on those for committal to Essondale and the reports
to higher Courts. Z 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Out-patient Department
As far as possible all admissions to the institution are examined by the Medical
Officer. Documentation has been adjusted to include a more comprehensive survey of
the man's condition on admission, and general medical observation throughout his sentence. Sick parades are conducted in the wings. East and West Wings have two sick
parades each per week, and the South Wing every day. Mr. J. McLeod continues to
maintain the general supervision of the Out-patient Department, and the Medical Officer
has an officer working with him as a stenographer and clerk to the Out-patient Department.    The out-patient treatment is now mainly conducted in the hospital surgery.
Dispensary
This is being moved to the hospital. We have found the appointment of Mr. West-
cott as a full-time pharmacist to have been of very great help. Increase in medication
has been inevitable, it is thought, but the utmost possible economy will be exercised.
The installation of a shock-treatment apparatus will be of great assistance and should
reduce the number of episodes of violence and depression.
Dentist
The dentist has visited throughout the year at two-weekly intervals, and only those
prisoners able to pay for their treatment have received attention. The Medical Officer
has done what has been possible in the way of extracting teeth for the remainder of
those in need of urgent attention. It is very necessary that a dentist be placed on a part-
time salary.
Out-patients' Treatment at Vancouver General Hospital
With a full-time Medical Officer, there is bound to be an increase in the number of
conditions diagnosed as requiring specialist attention. Greater numbers are now referred
to Vancouver General Hospital, and we are much indebted to the authorities there for
their utmost co-operation. We feel that the standard of general health of the inmates
profits from the additional services of this nature, and also these services assist in their
rehabilitation and wage-earning capacities on discharge. Every attempt is made to
restrict the number of visits to specialists to the minimum amount.
Venereal Disease Clinic
The Venereal Disease Control has continued to visit twice a week, and offers an
admirable resource toward the welfare of the inmates themselves and the general community.
Recommendations for General Medical Treatment
1. That there should be a fund for the supplying of glasses and dentures for those
unable to meet the expense themselves.
2. That there should be money available for medical and surgical appliances, such
as trusses, suspensory bandages, and special surgical boots.
3. That a separate room for the dental surgery should be made available. This, it
seems, is already under consideration.
4. That, as soon as it is practical, an X-ray apparatus be installed. This would
save a large number of visits to Vancouver General Hospital. An apparatus similar to
that now in use in the British Columbia Penitentiary would be suitable.
5. That, as soon as possible, and sufficient equipment is available, certain major
operations of a straightforward nature, such as appendectomies and hernia repair, be
carried out in the Prison hospital. This would, it is thought, be an economy because
young and certified surgeons would probably charge less for their operating fee than the REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1952-53
Z 21
cost of maintenance in the Vancouver General Hospital. Surgical sessions for plastic
rehabilitative surgery are now under consideration. A Vancouver plastic surgeon has
offered his services free, and operations would be carried out in the Prison hospital.
6. That there should be a separate and segregated unit with some single protective
rooms for more seriously disturbed inmates. There should also be means for segregating
drug addicts on admission.
Table 1.—Inmates (Male) Admitted to Prison Hospital during the Last Year by Months
Month
Patients
Days
Average Days
April, 1952                          _             	
58
65
50
58
65
72
85
71
90
95
83
98
1,071
712
1,007
1,062
936
956
1,025
698
1,005
919
889
410
18.46
10.95
20.40
July..	
18.32
14.40
13.27
12.05
November -   	
9.83
11.16
January, 1953   '  	
9.67
10.71
6.52
890
10,690
12.01
Table 2.—Inmates (Male) Sent to Vancouver General Hospital Out-patient Department
for X-ray, Specialist Consultation, or Treatment
Month Patients
April, 1952  41
May  31
June   29
July   35
August   71
September   70
October  68
Month Patients
November   70
December  85
January, 1953   87
February   106
March   129
Total
822
Table 3.—Inmates Examined for Tuberculosis and Found to Be Active, Suspect,
or Arrested
Male
Indian
Male
Female
Indian
Female
48
51
39
15
24
24
3
13
2
1
9
2
Total X-rays taken, 4,631.
Staff examined for tuberculosis in November of each year: Active, 1; investigated, 3. Z 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 4.—Diagnosis of Patients Admitted to Prison Hospital and Days Hospitalized
Diagnosis
Number
Admitted
Days in
Hospital
Average
Days
12
8
24
34
4
12
9
5
2
24
3
103
43
22
101
119
18
14
5
Id
2
52
5
18
3
12
12
1
2
14
1
1
2
17
45
9
5
10
9
7
3
1
1
7
10
12
5
3
6
1
1
1
9
1
20
96
62
330
226
65
93
269
47
6
121
21
;,557
608
564
325
670
174
157
29
50
15
2,044
62
131
43
129
84
55
26
104
18
3
10
129
127
235
52
42
63
44
9
2
5
16
93
762
21
144
297
5
78
12
77
90
193
8.00
7.75
13.33
6.64
16.22
Fractures—
7.75
29.88
Ribs   _         —  	
9.40
3.00
Sprains, etc.—
5.04
7.00
15.11
14.13
25.63
3.21
5.63
9.11
11.22
5.80
5.00
7.50
39.30
Injuries—
12.40
7.27
14.33
10.75
7.00
Self-inflicted                   	
55.00
13.00
7.42
18.00
3.00
5 00
7 58
2 82
16 11
1040
7 00
6 28
3.00
2 00
5 00
2 28
9 30
63.50
Burns, etc.—
4 20
48 00
49 50
5 00
78 00
12.00
8 55
90 00
9 65
890
10,690
12 01
Young Offenders' Unit
Medical service to this unit consists of a daily visit by the Medical Officer, and an
average of four inmates is seen on sick parade daily. The general health of the inmates
has been very satisfactory throughout the year—6 were admitted to the hospital in the
main gaol, 403 were sent to Vancouver General Hospital Out-patient Department for
consultant advice, and 212 received dental attention. Owing to the pressure of work, a
small number only of inmates were given psychiatric interviews, but it must be emphasized that seeing the patient on a sick parade is in itself a relationship-forming procedure, REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 23
and it is usually those that are more disturbed mentally who pay frequent visits to the
Medical Officer. Frequent consultations have taken place between the Medical Officer
and the case-worker. It is appreciated, however, that increased psychiatric service is
very necessary.
The manner in which highly disturbed boys have been catered for by the staff is
worthy of praise. For a time one of the units became virtually one for psychopaths, and
it was due to this close co-operation of the whole staff that blending of control amounting
to psychiatric nursing was made possible. Transfers back to Oakalla have been surprisingly few.
Kitchen and Dietary
The kitchen is much too small, and it is excessively difficult to keep it clean. Some
storage cupboards have been added, but storage-space is still inadequate. It has been
noted that the dietitian considers the amount of protein issue to be excessive—that is,
in the form of meat—and it would seem that the meat ration could be reduced, but the
supply of milk is inadequate. Meals on the whole are sufficiently varied and palatably
served.
Living and Sleeping Accommodation
The Medical Officer does a round of hygiene inspection each Saturday morning.
With the able help of Mr. Lane, the senior supervisor, there has been marked improvement in the cleanliness and tidiness of the institution. Bedding on the whole is satisfactory; the providing of some form of night attire would supply a need.
Clothing and Footwear
This is satisfactory. The supply of lighter footwear for leisure hours, such as slippers or light shoes rather than the alternative of rubber shoes, would perhaps prevent
many cases of excessive sweating of the feet and fungous infections between the toes.
Vocational and Recreational Activities
These are of high standard and a most positive factor in rehabilitation.
General Observations
This unit is a pioneer establishment and points the way to expansion of such facilities.
The expense and effort expended by the Department justifies a comprehensive scheme
for after-care, which will be increasingly necessary as indefinite sentences come into
operation. The advent of the parole board in the Young Offenders' Unit has marked
another progressive step in the penal administration of British Columbia. It is attended
by the case-worker, Medical Officer, and Psychologist, and also the Director of the unit.
This group of advisory officers is something new to the board, and it will be interesting
to observe reaction.
Oakalla Prison Farm Women's Quarters
A daily visit is paid by the Medical Officer to see those complaining sick, and one
afternoon a week is set aside for personal interviews.
The general health of the inmates has been satisfactory. One death occurred on
the way to Vancouver General Hospital in the ambulance. An autopsy showed pneumonia, consequent on drug addiction.
Medical Facilities
There has been no shortage of pharmacy supplies. The building is overcrowded,
and, therefore, it has not been possible to set aside rooms for a hospital unit. This is
especially necessary for those on admission who are under segregation and treatment for Z 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
drug-withdrawal symptoms.   The situation will be relieved to some extent by the erection
of new huts.
Kitchen
This is inadequate to cater for the present numbers, more especially as regards
storage-space; increased cooking and refrigerating facilities have been added. It is considered that much credit is due to the matrons in charge of catering and cooking. The
quality of the food is good, as is also the cooking, and the kitchen is kept scrupulously
clean. Here, as in other parts of the Gaol, attempts have been made to eliminate cockroaches.
Sleeping Accommodation
This is overcrowded, partly explaining the untidiness and scraps of food and general
garbage which are sometimes seen in the rooms. In spite of these difficulties, it is felt
that the rooms could be kept cleaner.   Bedding appears adequate.
Clothing
This is satisfactory on the whole, but in many instances the women are without
essential garments of underclothing.
Storage-space
This is quite inadequate.
Bathing Facilities
Inadequate for this large number of inmates.
Laundry Facilities
These appear adequate.
Occupational Therapy
This is of a high standard.
Tuberculosis and Venereal Disease Control
Tuberculosis Control continues to maintain supervision of all inmates in this aspect.
Venereal Disease Control continues weekly clinics.
As in the men's prison, various methods of treatment of drug-withdrawal have been
explored; in serious cases, oxygen and intravenous saline and glucose have been administered. On the whole it has been found that the women require less medication, and
withdrawal symptoms disperse more rapidly. It is the practice to segregate addicts on
admission for approximately three days. In one case only has a container with narcotics
in been recovered from the intestinal tract. The treatment of very disturbed inmates
and those awaiting transfer to the Provincial Mental Hospital requires a separate unit in
an especially protective environment both from noise and physical injury.
The transmission to a programme of group treatment is taking place without undue
disturbance and, it is felt, reflects a great deal of credit on the staff.
Respectfully submitted.
R. G. E. Richmond,
Medical Officer.
■ REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1952-53
Z 25
PSYCHOLOGIST'S REPORT
E. G. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The full-time Psychologist was transferred to the staff of the Inspector of Gaols
on July 15th, 1952. On expiration of his annual three weeks' holiday, he took up his
duties at Oakalla Prison Farm. Due to the exigencies relative to the developments taking
place at Oakalla Prison Farm, the Psychologist was assigned duties other than those generally associated with his work. For example, he was required to assist, to some extent,
in laying the groundwork for an envisioned classification and treatment programme by
taking on work in the hospital setting of an administrative and social-work nature. In
addition, he devoted some of his time to instructing and testing of the in-service training
classes. He further attempted to maintain his part of the psychological services which had
formerly been rendered by him as a member of the Provincial Child Guidance Clinic staff.
He also assisted in the screening of candidates for the Young Offenders' Unit. Some
service was furnished to the consulting psychiatrist, Dr. E. A. Campbell, limited, however,
by the pressure of other work. In concert with the Warden and the Medical Officer, the
Psychologist helped in planning a number of changes or modifications in the Prison hospital. He submitted a rough plan of hospital alterations, which was approved by the
Warden, and which was subsequently carried out under the Psychologist's administration,
as follows:—■
(a) A hallway converted to a dispensary.
(b) A new lighting system installed.
(c) Additional office-space provided.
(d) Sundry other recommendations implemented.
The following are some statistics covering Psychologist's services:—
Tests Administered at Oakalla Prison Farm
Male—
Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale	
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability	
Kuder Preference Record	
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory	
Minnesota Multi-phasic Inventory.
  26
  6
  11
  15
  9
Shipley-Hartford Deterioration Scale  4
  1
  16
  16
  5
  1
  4
Draw-a-Person Personality Test
Bennett Hand-Tool Dexterity Test __
Perdue Pegboard 	
Bennett Mechanical Comprehension.
Ishihara Color Vision Test	
Female—Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale.
Tests Administered at New Haven
Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence	
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability..
Otis Mental Ability Test	
Mental Health Analysis	
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory	
Interviews at Oakalla Prison Farm
Male—
Re classification, general
Re screening, Young Offenders' Unit..
10
9
1
41
38
33
213 Z 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Male—Continued
Re screening, New Haven  38
Re personal-problem investigation  97
Re state of mind  40
Re vocational guidance  3
Re social-history information  1
Female—
Re personal-problem investigation  17
Re state of mind  6
Re social-history information  1
Tests Administered to Officers
Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence  2
Otis Mental Ability  83
Henmon-Nelson Test of Mental Ability  72
Lee-Thorpe Interest Inventory  158
Kuder Preference Record  1
Respectfully submitted.
R. V. McAllister,
Psychologist.
REPORT OF PROTESTANT CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit this, my first, report as Protestant Chaplain, Provincial Gaol
Services, for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1953.
As I am the first to hold this appointment, the first year of my work has been spent
not merely in the routine duties of a chaplain, but also in attempting to estimate and
comprehend the role of a chaplain in a modern correctional institution, and in putting
into operation those programmes and policies most likely to be of assistance in a treatment setting, keeping in mind that, of all rehabilitation agencies, religion is first in importance, because it is most potent in action upon the human heart and life.
In attempting to do this, I wish to acknowledge much valuable assistance from
yourself, from Warden Hugh Christie of Oakalla, Mr. B. J. McCabe of the Young
Offenders' Unit, and Mr. Rocksborough-Smith of New Haven.
Of particular assistance was the opportunity afforded me of sharing in the senior-
staff conferences at Oakalla each Tuesday and Thursday. The presence of Professor
Nelson, of the University of British Columbia, at many of these conferences afforded an
opportunity of well-rounded discussion on treatment procedure as it could be applied to
local situations. These informal but informative conferences enabled me to relate my
work to that of others in the institution.
Routine duties may roughly be classified under three general divisions: (1) Religious, (2) Interviews and Counselling, (3) Welfare.
Religious
Services of Worship
Services of worship are held regularly each Sunday in all institutions in the Vancouver area. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 27
At 9 a.m. I conduct the service at New Haven, at which all Protestant inmates are
present.
At 10 a.m. I conduct the service at the Young Offenders' Unit for all who are
disposed to attend. The attendance here is only fair, due to a number of small difficulties
which I anticipate will shortly be overcome. On Easter Day I was assisted by the choir
of West Burnaby United Church and on Mother's Day by the choir of St. Paul's Presbyterian Church. At these services, inmates were present in large numbers and were most
appreciative.
At 1.15 p.m. a service is held in Oakalla, at which I am always present, and which
I arrange through co-operation with various religious denominations. These services
are very well attended and appear to be welcomed by the inmates. The Salvation Army
conducts the service on the first Sunday of each month, the Anglican Church on the
second, the United Church of Canada on the third, and the Union Gospel Mission on the
fourth. When there is a fifth Sunday, the Baptist and Presbyterian Churches alternate.
A similar service is held at 2.15 p.m. in the Women's Gaol, conducted by those who take
the Oakalla service.
A special service was held in Oakalla on Remembrance Day, November 11th, at
which I was assisted by Hon. Major Rev. Stanley Higgs and a soloist. Some 200 men
were present, most of whom were veterans. Remembrance Day services were also conducted by myself at the Young Offenders' Unit and at New Haven.
On Christmas Eve, holy communion was administered to six inmates at Oakalla,
and on Christmas morning I conducted a Christmas service at which 250 inmates were
in attendance. Christmas services were also held at Young Offenders' Unit and New
Haven.
An interesting experiment was tried in Oakalla on two Sunday evenings, one month
apart, based on a " hymn-sing " programme. These were conducted by Mr. J. B. Taylor,
of the Vancouver Central Y.M.C.A., and proved so popular that it is contemplated having them once each month commencing in October, 1953.
Discussion Groups
For several months religious discussion groups were held weekly at the Young
Offenders' Unit and New Haven. These were based on the " Padre's Hour " type of
meeting used successfully in the armed forces. Discussions on the A B C's of the Christian faith and similar topics proved to be a source of interest and evoked a warm response
on the part of inmates.
Religious films were also used as a basis of discussion. Some twenty-one films,
loaned by the British and Foreign Bible Society, were shown and then discussed, thus
opening the way for a frank appraisal of the part religion can play in a person's life.
During the Lenten season a series of films was shown on the life of Christ, which were
well received in both the Young Offenders' Unit and New Haven.
At Oakalla one Saturday evening two scientific-religious films were shown by a
representative of the Moody Bible Institute and were favourably received by a capacity
audience.
Public Relations
Believing in the importance and necessity of receiving the support and prayers of
an enlightened and informed church-going public, I have endeavoured to accept what
invitations I have received to speak on my work. As a result, I have spoken to seventeen
different groups—men's clubs, Young People's Societies, Young Adult Groups, Women's
Missionary Societies, the Y.M.C.A., the Elizabeth Fry Society, the Vancouver District
W.C.T.U. I have also attended regular meetings of the executive of the Vancouver
Council of Churches, of which I am a member, and also the Youth Welfare Committee
of the Vancouver Parent-Teacher Association. Z 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Interviews and Counselling
It is my privilege to interview each new arrival at the Young Offenders' Unit, New
Haven, and the Women's Gaol. The information I received is filed away for personal
reference and affords an opportunity of a better understanding of the individual. It is
regrettable that the large and rapid turnover of inmates at Oakalla makes it impossible
for me to interview each new arrival there. However, I do receive a large number of
requests for interviews on personal problems from inmates at Oakalla, and, as a result,
opportunities are presented to me to counsel a considerable number. My daily record
shows 840 conferences or interviews at Oakalla for the twelve months, 128 at Young
Offenders' Unit, 194 at the Women's Gaol, and 123 at New Haven. This record includes
interviews on religious matters along with all others.
Welfare
Under this heading is included helpful service which is rendered for an individual
or a group.
1. I was pleased to be instrumental in securing through the Kiwanis Club of Vancouver a piano for the Young Offenders' Unit. This was presented by Mr. Milton Owen,
Q.C., president, at a concert given by the club on April 18th, 1952. A three-piece
chesterfield was also made available free of charge for the TB. Block at Oakalla through
the donation by a furniture company in Vancouver.
2. Through conference with the National Film Board, arrangements were made for
weekly showing of educational films in both Oakalla and the Women's Gaol throughout
the fall, winter, and spring months. With the assistance of three projectionists from the
Vancouver Film Council, these programmes proved to be very popular and were a factor
in the maintenance of morale.
3. Secular concerts of high calibre were held periodically in Oakalla, and as there
is no officer delegated to this duty, the Chaplain arranged for these and was always
present.
4. At Christmas an inmates' concert was arranged for Christmas Day. This was
held in the large Quonset hut from 2 to 4 p.m., with the entire prison population of
Oakalla and the Women's Gaol present. Considerable talent was uncovered, and the
programme was well received. Special entertainment films for Christmas and New
Year's Eve were also shown in the Quonset hut.
5. As no other facilities were available, the Chaplain undertook to purchase Christmas cards for inmates who desired them. A total of 1,764 cards was sold on a non-profit
basis, and many inmates expressed appreciation of the opportunity to secure them.
6. During the course of lectures on staff-training, I was afforded the opportunity
of being given one hour each week to explain to each class the function of a chaplain in
a modern correctional institution, and to show how the staff can assist the Chaplain in
his work. This has had many desirable results, and increased co-operation on the part
of the staff has been most evident.
7. While the Chaplain is not a social worker, occasions arise when an outside visit
by the Chaplain on behalf of an inmate will be of help. Sixty-six of these outside visits
were made during the year.
8. Regular visits were made to the hospital and the TB. Block, and to outside hospitals as occasion demanded.
9. As sponsor of the Alcoholics Anonymous group, I have attended meetings regularly, which are held on Sunday afternoons at 2.30 p.m. in Oakalla. It is proposed to
hold a regular mid-week meeting in the near future and to elect a steering committee to
plan all meetings. The Alcoholics Anonymous programme is worthy of full support in
that it appears to be making a unique and valuable contribution to members through its
technique and group therapy. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53
Z 29
Summary
It is acknowledged that whatever progress has been made in this department during
the past year has been made possible only through the co-operation of the Vancouver
Council of Churches, the John Howard Society, the Salvation Army, the Elizabeth Fry
Society, together with the assistance of the officers and staffs of the institutions concerned.
Mr. Hugh Christie, Warden of Oakalla, in particular has been most helpful in his advice
and co-operation.
It is too early yet to assess the value and lasting quality of a chaplain's work, but
I have received many expressions of appreciation from inmates since discharged who
have seen fit to write or telephone me, which has led me to believe that the work of a
chaplain is vital in these institutions.
In conclusion, Sir, may I again extend my sincerest thanks to you for your encouragement, advice, and support during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. D. Grant Hollingworth,
Protestant Chaplain.
REPORT OF ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPLAIN
E. G. B. Stephens,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith is the report of the Roman Catholic Chaplain for the fiscal year
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953.
Oakalla Prison Farm
Interviews	
Average attendance at church on Sunday	
Clothes distributed	
Financial assistance received	
Receptions at holy communion	
  476
  130
     33
     19
  211
Beads and rosaries distributed         78
Young Offenders' Unit
Interviews 	
Average attendance at church	
Receptions at holy communion
Women's Gaol
133
11
22
78
Interviews 	
Average church attendance  19
Receptions at holy communion  57
Rosaries and prayer books distributed to Catholics  46
New Haven
Interviews
Average church attendance-
23
5
Rosaries and books distributed to each Catholic member     15
Instruction period weekly.
Respectfully submitted.
Roman Catholic Chaplain. Z 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN
E. G. B. Stephens,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The general situation is much the same as it was last year. There have been
no basic changes in any of the institutions as far as library methods and procedures are
concerned. There has been no extension made in the use of library services, nor has any
attempt been made to introduce any innovations. This does not mean that no progress is
being made; it merely means that anything which is developing is evolving rather than
springing full blown on the scene at once. Cases in point are staff and technical libraries,
which will be dealt with more fully in their proper place.
The backlog of work which I mentioned in my last report is still my basic and most
important problem. It is one which will be with me for some time to come, but which
will eventually disappear as help becomes available.
The most important development which occurred in the department in the course of
the year, as far as the library is concerned, has been the establishment of the bindery at
the Young Offenders' Unit. This will not only make possible a considerable saving as far
as binding costs are concerned, but will also provide an additional teaching programme for
individuals interested in this type of work. It will be necessary, however, to provide outside work for the bindery. When the backlog of work awaiting rebinding is completed,
there will not be sufficient work from the institutional libraries to keep the bindery operating on a full-time basis. However, that is a situation which lies in the future and which
will be dealt with in due course.
Purchasing for the different libraries to the extent of their library appropriation has,
of course, been taken care of.
Men's Prison Library, Oakalla Prison Farm
$
During the course of the fiscal year 183 new books were catalogued and placed into
circulation. In the same period 622 books which had been sent to the bindery for rebinding were received back and processed and placed on the shelves once more.
During the course of the year Mr. H. G. Christie assumed charge as Warden at
Oakalla. It was his wish that the library be moved from its location in the centre hall up
to the chapel. Since the books were to be moved, I decided I would take inventory, but
this had not been completed when the fiscal year ended.
To fit the library into the chapel it was necessary to place the shelving on three walls
of the room. From the custodial point of view, this move was necessary; from the library
point of view, it was something less than desirable. This was because the books were available to anyone with access to the chapel, and on such occasions as the inmates did frequent
the chapel, either for religious services or entertainments such as movies, the books offered
a great temptation, too great in many cases to be resisted, and many books were found
straying. The number of such is, of course, difficult, if not impossible to determine. Even
when books were not removed from the library, they were pulled off the shelves and, when
replaced, stuck back at random.
The life of a mimeographed library catalogue is from six to eight months' duration,
for reasons which I mentioned in my last report. Another mimeographed library catalogue was now necessary. During the late fall and early winter months another catalogue
was worked at and completed.
In the course of the year Dr. R. G. E. Richmond and Mr. R. V. McAllister were
appointed as resident physician and psychiatrist and resident psychologist respectively.
As the positions were new, there were no basic reference books in either field, and not too
much was possible in the matter of purchasing such material.   A very small number of REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 31
medical and psychological books were purchased; these will provide a nucleus which will
be added to as the occasion arises.
The Warden also required books for the staff-training course which he had initiated.
Due to an error in requisitioning procedure, these books had not made their appearance
by the end of the fiscal year. In connection with the staff-training course I was required
to give a one-hour lecture per week on the place of the library in the institution. I welcomed this, as it gave me an opportunity to present my point of view to the staffs concerned, and also to acquaint them with some of the problems facing institution libraries.
One difficulty on the whole matter of staff libraries is that so far it has not been
possible to obtain a decision on what general policy is to be applied. There are basically
two schools of thought on the subject. One is to the effect that there should be a central
library and all the institutions should draw books from this one source. The other thinks
that there should be small libraries in each institution, each one autonomous. As is usual
in a matter of this kind, it seems that the solution will be not either/or, but a combination
of the two. Either one offers difficulties which a combination of the two would solve or
at least lessen. In the case of one central library, the fact which is lost sight of is that
there are certain works which are basic and of a reference nature. These should be available to be consulted by staff at all times. Works of this kind should form a reference
section in each institution, but should be kept to a minimum. Magazines also should be
available to each institution. The advocates of the autonomous institutional library lose
sight of the fact that only basic material can, with any profit, be placed in each collection,
whereas in a central collection many volumes which would be too expensive for the
amount of use they would receive, can, when spread over the whole department's reading,
be quite profitably purchased. In this way a much wider selection would be available to
interested personnel, even if it is not available in the institution concerned. These same
arguments hold true for staff technical libraries. However, a decision as to what was to
be done in this regard had not been made by the close of the fiscal year.
Women's Prison Library, Oakalla Prison Farm
During the course of the year this library received a total of forty-five new books and
had five books rebound. Library management and procedures remain the same in the case
of this institution.
Young Offenders' Unit
In the course of the year the library received a total of seventy-six new books.
The most important event as far as the library is concerned is the establishment of
the bindery in this institution. The situation at the beginning of the fiscal year was that
we had the machinery-and equipment for a bindery, but we did not have a person to run
it. The reason for this was that there was no provision in Estimates for a binder previous
to the beginning of the fiscal year. The department was fortunate enough to secure the
services of Mr. H. H. Peters, who is a very competent and capable bookbinder.
In the course of the fiscal year he rebound 622 books for the Men's Prison Library,
5 for the Women's Prison Library, and a total of 164 bound and rebound volumes for his
own institution. The great majority of these were periodicals which were bound into
volumes. This is the only binding of periodicals that has so far been done. The departmental institutional libraries do not, however, provide enough work for the bindery to
operate on a full-time basis; it will be necessary for some outside additional work to be
provided.   This is a matter that still requires a satisfactory solution.
During the course of the year the library was moved from the upstairs corridor
corner, which it had occupied since the institution opened, to shelving in the room which
is being used also as classroom and chapel. Since the original library was considered
a part of the Oakalla library system, it had never had a card catalogue of its own. Now
that the Young Offenders' Unit was independent, it was necessary to create this.   This Z 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
may seem like a small undertaking, but it was a project that took almost two months of
work to complete.
The system of book borrowing and procedures for the use of the library by the
inmates remains the same. It is not as satisfactory as it might be, but seems the only one
that at present can be worked out to fit the treatment programme in operation.
Forestry Camp
Once more a selection of pocket books was supplied for the use of inmates sent to
forestry camp.   This had proved satisfactory last year and was repeated.
New Haven
During the course of the year this library received a total of fifty-eight new books.
In this institution, library management and procedure remains the same.
Women's Gaol, Prince George
During the course of the year a total of fifty-one books was catalogued and sent up
to the institution. These are the first books that have been catalogued for the library.
I have not seen this library personally, and can only gather how conditions are from
letters and secondary sources.
Men's Gaol, Nelson
During the course of the year a total of twenty-eight books was catalogued for the
library. As the books which had constituted the old library had been almost completely
destroyed, it was felt that it was best to make a fresh start, and a card catalogue was commenced for the institution.   I have not seen this library personally either.
The Industrial Schools
During the course of the year the two Schools received a total of 384 new books:
the Girls' Industrial School received 158 and the Boys' Industrial School 226. In the
case of both of these institutions a card catalogue has been begun. The two Schools have
appreciated the work that I have been able to do for them.
Both Schools have decided to establish staff libraries. Some books have been
ordered and some have arrived, but they will not be catalogued in time to appear in this
report.
The Future
This has not been a good year in terms of actual accomplishments. The reasons for
this have been many; some of them are inherent in the position itself; some of them the
result of conditions which have not been satisfactorily overcome. It has proved impossible
to get any stenographic help, and it has been equally impossible to obtain any inmate help
from the institution where my office is located. The backlog of work which I mentioned
in my last year's report is still with me and shows no signs of diminishment after another
year. The bindery, which came into operation in the course of the year, has also brought
its minor problems. Any special project, even if it be a mimeographed catalogue for the
Men's Prison Library, and certainly something like a card catalogue for the Young
Offenders' Unit, interferes with the normal routine of cataloguing and reduces the number
of new books which can be made available to the libraries over the year. The most
serious problem, and indeed the only one worthy the name at present, is the matter of
getting this backlog of work catalogued so that it will be possible to work in terms of the
present rather than the past. Once that difficulty has been surmounted, there will doubtless be others to take its place.
There has been little done in the fields of staff and technical libraries, and this for
reasons to which I refer elsewhere.   It is, however, a matter which cannot be handled on REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 33
an individual basis, but must be the result of co-operation and the pooling of ideas between
the parties concerned. A piece-meal programme cannot be as satisfactory as one which
is carefully planned and organized.
It is difficult to forecast what developments are likely to occur. It seems likely that
there will be considerable increase in staff and technical libraries. It may be that there
will be changes in procedure in the various institutional libraries. This depends entirely
on treatment programmes and departmental policies. It may be there will be a closer
intermeshing of library and educational facilities as an educational programme emerges
in some tangible form.
These are fields of speculation, but fields in which library can conceivably play a part.
The path of education and enlightenment is often tortuous and difficult in the extreme.
Books are only helpful and useful to the extent that the individual is able to make use of
them. They can be matched to every level of human intelligence; they can help to break
down the walls of prejudice and misunderstanding; they can show new vistas of intellectual freedom undreamed of. They can do all these things, but only if the individual
is both able and willing to use them.
Respectfully submitted.
KONRAD IGILSON,
Librarian.
	
REPORT ON IN-SERVICE TRAINING ACTIVITIES IN PROVINCIAL
INSTITUTIONS DURING THE YEAR 1952-1953
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The report period constituted the second year in which a full-time staff member of the University of British Columbia had managed in-service training operations
within the correctional institutions of the Province. It was the first year in this assignment
for the present incumbent of the position, hereafter referred to as the Training Officer.
A sound basis for training had been established by Mr. Christie in the previous year, and
response to the current programme generally was enthusiastic, although varied as between
different institutions and staff groups.
The major training effort was centred at Oakalla Prison Farm, with special attention
to the indoctrination of a large group of newly appointed custodial officers. A total of
166 Oakalla officers completed a forty-hour training cycle in thirteen evenly divided
groups scheduled at weekly intervals. The course was divided into sections on custody
and treatment after prolonged discussion with senior staff members regarding the optimal
content and approach. Officer J. C. Cook undertook the instruction of a range of subjects
involved in custodial practice, receiving assistance from certain other officers who presented such topics as prison records, Court procedure, and use of weapons. The Training
Officer furnished each group a series of lectures on human behaviour as related to penal
treatment programmes, with supplementary sessions in special areas of subject-matter
being provided by the Warden, Medical Officer, Chaplain, Psychologist, and Librarian.
An appraisal of the efficacy of the training programme through rating scales and
other data obtained from the trainees indicated that the benefits of the course were very
real. There was evidence that a few members of each group failed to profit from the
technical material offered, while a small percentage of the officers possessed attitudes
inimical to the philosophy of modern correctional treatment; but the great majority of
the participants conscientiously worked for a better understanding of the ways in which Z 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
custody and rehabilitation can be integrated in the prison situation. It seems significant
that, in the spring of 1953, a group of Oakalla officers requested that the University
provide an extension course in correctional programmes, and that there were twenty-five
paid registrants from the Prison and the Women's Building when this course was begun
by the Training Officer in April of that year.
As an adjunct to classes held at Oakalla, the Training Officer met twice each week
throughout the academic year with key administrative and professional staff members of
the prison. Although only a part of these discussions was devoted specifically to in-
service training, various matters involving institutional practice and policy were explored
with seeming profit. Corollary to these discussions, individual contacts developed
through which the Training Officer was able to offer consultative service to variSus
workers within the prison. The Warden of Oakalla firmly endorsed and actively participated in staff-training activities of both the formal and the informal variety.
Somewhat more specialized and diversified instruction by the Training Officer was
provided the staff members of other Provincial institutions, in the following amounts:
Young Offenders' Unit, 25 sessions; New Haven Borstal, 12 sessions; Women's Building, 10 sessions. The method of approach ranged from formal lectures on human
behaviour to informal discussions of institutional problems. A considerable amount of
consultation with individual staff members took place from time to time, and a high degree
of co-operation was received from the heads of all of the programmes involved.
Experience gained during the report period suggests certain steps for further development of staff-training. Recent literature on the correctional field should be made available to workers on a systematic basis to supplement material offered in training sessions.
There should be a greater implementation of principles established in training groups
through follow-up on the job and a closer integration of training and supervision. It
would be helpful to recognize officially the consultative role of the Training Officer in
order that a more broad and flexible service might be offered by him. Staff-training
should occur during regular and fully compensated duty hours to the greatest possible
extent.
Considerable training will be necessary for newly recruited workers at Oakalla
during the next year, while the basic goal in working with the balance of the Prison staff
will be the consolidation and more detailed consideration of material which has already
been laid out as a general background. A variety of methods will be employed in the
smaller institutions, most of them aimed at developing greater effectiveness in the use of
human relations by staff members for the rehabilitation of offenders.
Staff-training has become an accepted part of most forward-looking correctional
programmes, recognizing, as it does, that our greatest reservoir of resources for coping
with the offender lies in the strengths of workers rather than the buildings and programmes
which they operate. In-service training has as its major purpose the careful development
of these strengths.
Respectfully submitted.
Elmer K. Nelson,
Assistant Professor of Criminology,
University of British Columbia.
NELSON GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I herewith submit the report of the Nelson Provincial Gaol for the fiscal year
ended March 31st, 1953. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1952-53 Z 35
Administration
Over the past year the number of inmates received has increased. This increase has
been brought on largely by the unemployment situation in this particular district. One
of our biggest problems heretofore was that of the management of our kitchen, which had
to be left to the mercy of trusties. With the employment of Cook-Guard G. J. Verkerk,
this problem has been solved.
Staff Changes
Staff changes during the fiscal year are as follows: First-class Guard A. Niven promoted to Deputy Warden, Grade 1; Second-class Guard J. H. McGinn promoted to first-
class guard; Second-class Guard W. H. Sharun promoted to first-class guard; Third-class
Guard F. H. Doyle promoted to second-class guard; Fourth-class Guard D. J. Potosky
promoted to third-class guard; and G. J. Verkerk appointed to the position of cook-
guard, fourth class.
Population
The population at the beginning of the year stood at 35. During the year 577
inmates were received and 567 discharged, leaving a total of 45 at the beginning of the
1953-54 fiscal year. The peak of the Gaol population was 60 and the lowest count was
29. The daily average for the year was 57.6, as against 30.7 last year, an increase of
26.9.
Welfare and Recreation
There have been little changes in the recreational programme as against last year,
due to the fact that facilities have not been increased in any way. We still are able to
provide an hour of exercise in the small exercise-yards and radio is still being used, being
controlled from the main office by staff members on duty during the evening. All lights
are turned out at 9 p.m. daily.
Religious Services
The Salvation Army still conducts services every Sunday morning for the male population, and, more recently, women representatives from that organization have been
attending Sunday afternoons for an hour to conduct services for the female population.
The Pentecostal Assembly visits on the second Sunday of each month, and Roman
Catholic inmates still have their services conducted by local representatives of that
denomination.
For years religious services were held in a small room adjoining the cell block downstairs. With the removal of the R.C.M.P. headquarters from the Gaol Building it was
possible to set aside part of the space thus made available for the use of this part of our
programme. Since this move has been made, attendance and interest in the church
services has greatly improved, and the surroundings now are much more in keeping with
this aspect of the rehabilitative programme.
Medical Care
We have again been fortunate in the general health of all inmates. Only two cases
were hospitalized for short periods of time at the local hospital. Each inmate on admission automatically receives X-rays for tuberculosis. So far there have been no serious
Cases reported. Since the R.C.M.P. offices moved from the Gaol Building and the necessary alterations have been made, a separate office has been set aside for the use of the
doctor. This has greatly facilitated the routine examinations of inmates, and has also
enabled this member of the staff to have some privacy, which had been heretofore denied
him.
Farm Work
Labour in the Gaol garden this year produced vegetables to the estimated value of
$496.45.   While this is a decrease in value over last year, approximately the same amount Z 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
was produced.   There has been some decrease in the price of vegetables locally, but the
total weight regarding produce was the same.
Maintenance and Construction
During the past year considerable improvement and alterations have been made in
the buildings, some of this work having been done by outside contracts. The balance of
work was done by the inmates. All the downstairs portion of the building, the upstairs
office, hallways, etc., were cleaned and repainted. Fluorescent lighting was installed both
downstairs in the laundry and kitchen and in the office on the main floor. Old electrical
wiring has been discarded and replaced with new wiring. The overloaded circuits have
been eliminated and additional circuits installed, thus cutting down the danger of fire.
New Duroid shingles were applied to the Gaol roof, and the entire outside surface of
the building was given a three-coat paint job, thus giving the old building a much brighter
and cleaner look.
A start has been made on the installation of a new fully automatic oil furnace. This
work is not quite completed at the time of making this report, but it is gratifying to have
this improvement under way, as it will be a tremendous advance over the old hand-fired
coal furnace, which has caused us so much trouble in the past. All doors and gates, both
inside and out, were equipped with new double-locking insert locks, and the entire locking
system was modernized, thus cutting down on the number of keys required to be carried.
All windows in the front and side offices were covered with a heavy wire mesh, and
window-panes of plain glass were replaced with translucent glass. At the same time
considerable work was done in the office. For example, a new locker was installed for
every member of the staff, a new counter in the administration office, doors and doorways
were altered and modernized, a new shower-room was completed and is now in operation.
This is a tremendous asset, giving us adequate bathing facilities for inmates.
Discipline
There have been thirty-one breaches of the Gaol Rules and Regulations during the
past year. Most of these are of a minor nature, and have been dealt with through the
imposition of minor sanctions.   In very few instances have any of these offenders repeated.
A. Tulloch,
Warden.
KAMLOOPS GAOL
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Kamloops Provincial
Gaol for the year ended March 31st, 1953.
Population
The summary of annual statistics, attached hereto, shows a marked increase from
the previous year both in prisoners received and total number of days' stay. The following synopsis, taken from the annual statistics of both years, is of interest:—
Received
(Male and
Female)
Transferred
to Oakalla
Prison Farm
Discharges
(Male and
Female)
1951 52.    ~            	
1952-53                         -   -         	
i
810                       108
1.092           1               109
808
1,090 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 37
The numerous construction projects in this area have drawn a large number of
transient workers; this, coupled with an ever-increasing population of the city, is in my
opinion the reason for this large increase in prisoners.
Maintenance and Construction
We completed during the year several projects for the Public Works Department
on the grounds, roads, and lawns adjacent to the Provincial offices, Health and Welfare
Building, Provincial Home, and Kamloops Gaol, as follows:—
(a) The prisoners, under staff supervision, laid 2,000 lineal feet of cement
road curbing, 400 lineal feet of retaining-wall, and a cement walk from
the road into the main entrance to the Gaol.
(b) The grounds, lawns, and flower-gardens adjacent to the new Welfare
Building were replaced after the building was completed, and a 200-
lineal-foot retaining-wall was laid from the road to the creek.
(c) In March, 1953, we removed all trees and stumps from the centre boulevard between Fourth and Fifth Avenues on Columbia Street (Trans-
Canada Highway). This project was undertaken owing to the Provincial
Public Works being unable to use heavy equipment because of the heavy
traffic and the trees having grown up through the power-lines feeding the
hospital. We completed this project in one week, using ten men and our
small tractor.
The prisoners, under staff supervision, removed all trees, stumps, and other debris
from the Provincial Home cemetery prior to the regrading and landscaping of this area.
We have worked in conjunction with the Provincial Home Superintendent, Mr. J. Shil-
land, to improve and beautify this cemetery area for the past years. The grounds will be
ready for seeding in the fall, and we then will be able to lay out our roads and install a
sprinkling system.   The prisoners excavated and refilled eighteen graves during the year.
The Provincial Home, Provincial offices, and Provincial Gaol lawns and flower-
gardens have been maintained and improved, also the lawns, flower-gardens, and hedges
at the Provincial Court-house at First Avenue and Seymour Street have been maintained
under staff supervision, with the assistance of Mr. A. Merridew, Provincial Home gardener.
We have remodelled the Gaol kitchen, laying a new cement floor, installing mono-
metal sinks and drain-boards. A new serving-table was obtained from the Public Works,
and the kitchen was redecorated a deep-cream colour. This will provide better sanitary
and working conditions.
The prisoners, during the fall and winter months, with the help of a Forest Service
bulldozer, rebuilt and enlarged a parking area. This area will be used to accommodate
heavy equipment for all Provincial departments.
Farm and Gardens
The farm, under the supervision of the Deputy Warden, had a very successful year.
The garden produced an abundant crop of vegetables of all types; the surplus vegetables
that we were unable to use were sold to the Provincial Home and Kamloops Hospital.
This revenue amounted to $180.
The main crop was stored in our root-house and provided vegetables for the Gaol
kitchen. The apple-crop was divided between the Gaol and the Provincial Home, and
we had apples from this source until the end of February, 1953 (approximately 300
boxes).
The prisoners, under staff supervision, stacked and baled approximately 30 tons of
alfalfa hay for the Tranquille farms. Z 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
We reclaimed, broke, and recontoured approximately 2 acres of land on the farm
by removing several headlands and filling in two gullies. This land will be planted in
potatoes next spring.
Medical Care
The health of the prisoners held at this Gaol during the year has been very good.
We have had no epidemics of any disease. The doctors of both clinics have been used
to treat and diagnose all prisoners requiring medical care.
Welfare and Recreation
The Gaol library is the only recreation facility we have at this institution. I have
not requested that radio be installed owing to the extensive alterations required after the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police move to barracks being provided for them by the City
of Kamloops.
Escape and Recapture
On September 1st, 1952, John A. Dudoward escaped from the Kamloops Gaol.
He was recaptured by the Deputy Warden, assisted by Constable G. Rasmussen of the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, on the Gaol property the same day.
Discipline
I had occasion to discipline two male prisoners during the year for offences under
the Gaol Rules and Regulations, but, in general, satisfactory discipline was maintained
both at work and in the Gaol proper.
Fire-fighting
The Forest Service telephoned my office on September 5th, 1952, asking for
assistance to fight a fire in the hills to the south of the City of Kamloops. The Gaol
staff and all able-bodied inmates (fifteen men) fought this blaze until it was brought
under control. I have on file at this office a letter of appreciation for the assistance we
gave at this fire.   The letter is signed by Mr. H. A. Ferguson, Forest Ranger, Kamloops.
Summary
I would draw your attention to the omission in my report to any reference to the
Gaol proper. This was done to bring to your attention that we have been unable in the
past year to change any part of it owing to the increase in population and the fact
the Kamloops Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police occupies a portion
of the cell accommodations.
I must again stress, as in my last report, the need for a new institution of this type
in the central and south portions of the Province—a site accessible by road but still
isolated from the general public. I have brought to your attention in the past the
conditions that confront us in performing our daily work at this point. The close
proximity of other offices, institutions, and the general public to our institution is, in my
opinion, detrimental to the well-being of all concerned. The removal of the Kamloops
Detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police from the building will only give us
temporary relief for a short time until we are again in the position of being overcrowded.
I appreciate that the Department has considered and taken preliminary surveys of
this condition, and I hope that again I can employ your good offices to rectify this
condition that has existed for such a long period of time.
In closing I would draw your attention to the able manner in which my deputy,
Mr. J. D. H. Stewart, and the guards under his command have performed their appointed
duties during the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
W. T. Teal,
Warden. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 39
PRINCE GEORGE GAOL
Men's Gaol
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the annual report of the Prince George Provincial
Men's Gaol for the fiscal year 1952-53.
This institution was full nearly all the year and crowded most of the time. Average
daily population during the year was 24.85 prisoners. Escorts were regularly sent to
Oakalla Prison Farm, 291 prisoners being sent during the year.
We had a serious escape on December 4th, 1952, when four prisoners obtained their
freedom by sawing through the bars. The gaol plan states the bars are saw-proof steel.
However, this is not the case, as the bars are soft iron. At that time two outside patrols
were made during the night by the man on duty. We now have two men on duty on each
shift, and outside patrols are made hourly, so we should have no more trouble of that
kind. These escaped prisoners were apprehended by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
after they had been free twenty-four hours. These men were charged with breaking gaol
and eventually were sentenced to one year imprisonment each.
There were three inmates sentenced to short terms of solitary confinement during
the year. It was difficult for the guard on duty to keep proper control of the inmates with
only one guard on shift.   This has since been remedied.
Two guards were suspended for negligence due to the escape. One was reinstated
and one was dismissed. Other than that there were no serious infractions of the Gaol
Rules and Regulations. The guards have worked well during the year. They are able
men in the handling of prisoners. The large turnover of prisoners here necessitates a lot
of clerical work.
During the year the Public Works Department installed a Monel metal double sink.
The Electrical Energy Commission installed a blower fan for air-conditioning the main
cell-room. These were very necessary improvements and are a great help in keeping the
Gaol clean.
The Gaol garden was quite a credit to the institution and had a very good display
of flowers. The vegetables grown were sent to the Women's Gaol. The garden kept
an average of four inmates busy during the growing season. Inmates from the Men's
Gaol also prepared and planted a lawn and garden at the Women's Gaol. They also
assisted the Public Works Department in repairing the Women's Gaol fence that blew
down. A small carpenter-shop was set up in the garage, and a considerable amount of
work was done for the Men's and Women's Gaols here.
The Gaol had a good year, but is very inadequate for the number of prisoners it
is called upon to accommodate.
Wm. Trant,
Warden.
Women's Gaol
Sir,—I herewith submit the annual report of the Women's Gaol at Prince George
for the fiscal year 1952-53.
This institution has had an average year. Our average monthly inmate count
varied from a high of 46.7 in July, 1952, to a low of 25 in March, 1953.
The main infractions of Gaol Rules were in August, when two girls escaped from
the Gaol and were captured several days later, and in January when two girls escaped Z 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and returned voluntarily by taxi a few hours later. Several minor infractions of rules
were punished either personally in some cases and generally in others. General punishment took the form of cutting down entertainment and changing evening lock-up hour
from 9 to 8 p.m.
Church services are still being held once a month by the Salvation Army, which
seems to be the only denomination with any enthusiasm for gaol work.
Medical work is all under Dr. J. G. McKenzie's able care. We had several mental
cases to contend with without the proper facilities or staff to do so, but were fortunate
that no injuries were received by either staff or inmates.
Handicrafts were rather a financial burden for the Head Matron during the year, as
there was no grant to cover it. The Fall Fair in Prince George again had a stall of very
good exhibits of work done by the girls.
Some repairs have been done on the premises. One-quarter of the fence blew
down in a high wind, and after this was repaired the whole fence was strengthened.
The roof was resurfaced and again proved unsatisfactory. New sinks which were
put in the laundry and kitchen are very satisfactory. The rotunda floor was resurfaced.
More repairs are to be done during 1953-54.
Transfers from Oakalla Women's Gaol are being received at intervals. Two of
these groups appeared to be made up of girls who had proved fractious inmates in that
institution. On arrival here they seemed to settle down very well. Medical expenses
incurred through transfer has been quite heavy at times.
The granting of amnesty has brightened many days, especially for those inmates
doing eighteen months or more.
We trust that during the following year more of the much needed repairs will be
done to the building, which will improve conditions for the staff and inmates.
F. Zepik,
Matron-in-Charge.
SENIOR SUPERVISOR'S REPORT OF REHABILITATION
FORESTRY CAMP PROGRAMME,  1952
E.G.B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The following report on the rehabilitation forestry-camp programme conducted in the Nelson Forest District during the summer of 1952 is respectfully submitted.
The experiment conducted in 1951, wherein a group of young offenders were
removed from Oakalla Prison Farm and allowed to serve a portion of their respective
sentences in a forestry camp, was considered to be successful. It was therefore decided
that the programme should be continued and expanded during the summer of 1952. Preliminary discussions were held between officials of the Corrections Branch and officials
of the British Columbia Forest Service of the Department of Lands and Forest, and it
was proposed that two camps should be operated in the Nelson Forest District. Each
camp was to care for a total of twelve inmates.
Administratively the programme was set up on a basis similar to that of the 1951
experiment. The camps were established and equipped by the British Columbia Forest
Service, who provided the tents, tools, vehicles, and provisions for the operation of the
project. In each camp the Forest Service appointed a foreman and cook, who were
under the direction of the Forest Rangers of the area. The foreman had the responsibility of directing the work projects, and, in addition, he was in charge of all the camp
equipment. He also had the responsibility of supervising any other Forest Service
personnel who might be working in the camp area. REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 41
I was detached from the Provincial Probation Branch, and, under the direction of
the Inspector of Gaols, was given the responsibility of supervising the inmates of the
camps. The twenty-four inmates were released in my custody under the provisions of
the " Ticket of Leave Act," and I was responsible for all matters pertaining to discipline,
custody, programme, and rehabilitation planning. Two recent graduates of the University
of British Columbia were given temporary appointments to the Corrections Branch for
the camp period. Each was made a supervisor of a camp of twelve inmates. To these
men I delegated some of my authority and responsibilities.
Aims of the Programme
In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the limitations of our
penal institutions to provide segregation and individualized treatment for offenders, training for rehabilitation, and the fostering of good work habits. It was hoped that in the
camp setting the young offenders so chosen would benefit from the healthful outdoor
life and remunerative and constructive work. Through individual case-work counselling,
it was hoped that they might be helped in their readjustment after their release. As well
as relieving the congestion in Oakalla Prison Farm and the Young Offenders' Unit, the
scheme was seen as a means to reduce Government expenditure in the treatment of
offenders. Normally, the Forest Service would have to pay wages of approximately $10
a day per person for the work that was done. The inmates were paid at the rate of $3
a day. This represented a saving of many hundreds of dollars to the Forest Service.
Once the inmates were in camp, the costs to the Corrections Branch were considerably
less than they would have been had the inmates remained incarcerated in a penal institution. The major costs borne by the Corrections Branch were salaries of the three
supervisors, transportation costs to the camp, and payment for medical and dental treatment for the inmates.
The Camps
Rehabilitation Camp No. 1 was situated on a forest access road about 6V2 miles
south of the Monashee Pass Road (Highway No. 6). The camp was on the upper
reaches of the Kettle River in the mountain range between the Okanagan and Arrow
Lakes. The nearest town to the west was Lumby, about 60 miles away, and to the east,
Edgewood, on the lower Arrow Lake, about 50 miles from camp. This camp was under
the supervision of the District Forest Ranger in Edgewood.
Our second camp was situated about 35 miles south of Rehabilitation Camp No. 1
along the Kettle River. It was situated at the north end of the Christian Valley, approximately 50 miles north of Rock Creek. Geographically the camps were not too far
apart, but to travel between them I had to go through Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton, Rock
Creek, and up the Christian Valley, a distance of approximately 250 miles. Rehabilitation Camp No. 2 was in the district supervised by the Forest Ranger stationed at
Kettle Valley.
The camps were similar in most respects. Each was located beside the Kettle
River, which provided a constant supply of cold, pure water, even during the dry period
of the summer. There were four tents for the inmates, and in each camp the supervisor
had a tent to himself, which he used as an administration tent. The cook and foreman
shared a tent. The bunk-tents were 12 feet by 14 feet, with wooden floors and wooden
sides to a height of 4 feet. Over the roof was a canvas fly which made the tent weatherproof. Each bunk-tent had a small heater-stove, three army-style beds, with a mattress,
pillow, pillow-slip, five blankets, and a set of sheets to each bed. The kitchen and mess-
hall of each camp was composed of two tents similar in construction to the bunk-tents,
set end to end. The dining-tent had a long table seating all twelve inmates and the
supervisor, and the kitchen-tent had a small cook-stove, gas-drum for hot-water storage,
and a small metal sink at one end.   A work-table was on one side and shelves for supplies Z 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
at one end. Between the two tents there was a coal-oil refrigerator. The kitchen served
excellent food all summer. The Forest Service placed no limit on the amount or expense
of the food provided, and during the summer we received excellent meat, fresh fruit and
vegetables in season. Although both camps were quite isolated, contact was maintained
between the camps and with the District Forester by means of a Forest Service radio
transmitter and receiver set.
Selection of Inmates
The twelve inmates of Rehabilitation Camp No. 1 were selected from the inmate
population of the Young Offenders' Unit at Oakalla. In Rehabilitation Camp No. 2,
five of the boys came from the Young Offenders' Unit and seven from the main gaol.
The ages of the boys ranged from 15 years to 24 years, although most of them were from
17 to 20 years of age. The majority of the inmates were serving their first gaol sentences,
although nearly all had records of delinquency as juveniles. All were serving sentences
of at least one year. The offences for which these boys had been sentenced included
auto theft, breaking and entering, theft over $25, and contributing to the delinquency of
juveniles. The average intelligence of both groups probably ranged somewhat lower
than the average for the general population. The average educational level was probably
around Grade VIII. We were not provided with a social history on each inmate, but
through subsequent interviews we found that nearly all showed histories of varying
inadequacies in the home situation from which they had come.
All the boys showed varying degrees of emotional immaturity. The greatest number
presented primary behaviour disorders rather than serious neuroses or pre-psychotic
behaviour. About half the inmates came from urban environments, and the remainder
came from small towns in this Province and Alberta. Many had histories of poor work
habits, with frequent changes of employment. During our interviews we found that in
the past the usual reason given for quitting a job was because of the individual's inability
to get along with his employer. Quite a few of the boys had come from homes with
marginal standards of living. A surprisingly large percentage, however, seemed to have
come from homes where their material needs had been adequately met.
Replacements
During the last summer, one youth escaped custody and three others were transferred back to gaol. This reduced our inmate population to twenty in the two camps.
Both camps were short-handed in labour, and progress on the work project was affected
adversely. These boys were not replaced, and this led to understandable complaints
from the Forest Service. In the future we can expect that there will be an occasional
escape and that once in a while we will have to transfer an inmate back to the institution,
either because of a serious misdemeanour or through need of medical attention that
cannot be provided in the camp setting. It is therefore suggested that we provide for
the replacement of inmates who might escape or be transferred back to gaol.
Work
In Rehabilitation Camp No. 1 the main project for the summer was the continuation
of falling, slashing, and burning of trees on the right-of-way for the access road that the
camp for the summer of 1951 had begun. At Rehabilitation Camp No. 2 the main
project was one of road-building, although during the first few weeks the inmates slashed,
cleared, and burned trees on the right-of-way. The Forest Service sent in bulldozers,
graders, and gravel-trucks to work on the actual construction of the road. The inmates
assisted by swamping on the trucks, spreading gravel, etc. In both camps the inmates'
labour was used in the construction of fire-trails. Both camps were classified as suppression camps, and were at all times prepared to go out to fight forest fires.
After our experiences during the past two summers, we are convinced that the work
programme is of prime importance in the forestry-camp scheme.    A great number of REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 43
youngsters involved in delinquent behaviour present poor work histories, and there is
no doubt that those who cannot discipline themselves to working eight hours a day are
more prone to get into trouble. It was therefore a disappointment to find that the work
projects in each camp had not been properly laid out. In Camp No. 1 the foreman was
not well part of the time and could not give his group as much supervision as he had
done in the previous summer. The supervisor appointed by the Corrections Branch had
had no experience in the woods and was not qualified to direct the work project during
the foreman's absence. This resulted in little progress being made for weeks at a time.
The Ranger, Mr. Haggart, remarked at one time that the group was making about half
as much progress as should be expected. This was unfortunate, because it had been
proven during 1951 that with adequate supervision from both the foreman and supervisor the inmates could be expected to do almost as much as a regular crew of men.
In Rehabilitation Camp No. 2 progress on the work programme was even more
disappointing. With an inefficient foreman to start with, very little work was done
during the first two weeks. The second foreman was a man who had given long and
faithful service to the British Columbia Forest Service, and was quite efficient on the job.
He had a good understanding of what was required of him, and he was also efficient in
handling the men. However, the main project was one of road-building, for which heavy
machinery was used. Nearly all the work activities of the camp were dependent upon
the progress of the machinery. Evidently the foreman was not given the authority to
direct the Forest Service personnel employed to operate the road-building equipment,
with the result that he was unable to properly organize the work programme. At different
times the caterpillar tractor, trucks, and grader broke down, and the work became very
disorganized. The foreman was in a position where he had to use his imagination and
invent jobs to keep the inmates busy. This was very unsatisfactory, because, although
he did his best to keep the boys busy, he was unable to avoid some idleness. As a result
of this, discipline on the job was more difficult to maintain.
The fostering of good work habits is one of the best ways we can help to rehabilitate
young offenders. Thus a properly organized work programme is of major importance
in the forestry programme. It is therefore very important that in future camps we have
the work properly organized and adequately supervised by trained personnel. I am convinced that in a well-run camp of this sort the inmates can be expected to do at least
90 per cent as much work as we expect from a normal crew.
Camp Routine
The camp routine was much the same in both camps. The average day began with
the flunkey awakening all the staff and inmates at 6.45 a.m. Breakfast was at 7.30,
and everyone was ready for work at 8 o'clock. Before beginning work, the inmates were
obliged to make their beds and clean up the tents and the tent areas. The morning work
period continued from 8 until 12 o'clock, with usually two or three breaks for smoke
periods, since smoking on the job was discouraged because of the fire-hazard in the bush.
The afternoon work period was from 1 until 4.30 p.m., with suitable smoke periods.
Supper followed from 5.30 to 6 o'clock. During the evenings the boys rested, read, or
engaged in various recreational activities. During this period the supervisor's time was
at their disposal for counselling and discussion of various problems. The commissary
and library were open after supper each day. The day ended at 10.30 p.m. with lights
out in the sleeping-tents. Certain variations, however, were allowed for non-work days
There was no stipulated time for lights out on the day preceding a non-work day.
Medical and Dental Services
In Rehabilitation Camp No. 1 the medical services required during the summer
were given by Dr. Norvell in Edgewood.    For emergency dental extractions, two of the Z 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
boys were taken to Vernon. The safety measures were fairly carefully observed on the
job, and there were no serious accidents. Two boys, however, sustained cuts to their feet,
and prompt medical attention was received in both cases, and the boys were off work
only for a few days. The inmates were in receipt of Workmen's Compensation benefits,
and each of these boys received a small cheque. In Camp No. 1 all the inmates had
come from the Young Offenders' Unit at Oakalla. Prior to their removal from gaol,
they had been examined by doctors and dentists and were physically fit for camp.
In Rehabilitation Camp No. 2, however, the situation was very different. Seven
of the inmates had been removed from the main gaol of Oakalla and five from the Young
Offenders' Unit. The boys from the main gaol had not had proper medical examinations
before coming into camp, and some were in very bad dental shape. For treatment we
had to transport the inmates over 75 miles to either Greenwood or Osoyoos. Two trips
were necessary because of accidents, and a number of trips were taken for emergency
dental treatment. The supervisor and the camp foreman were not very experienced in
distinguishing malingering from legitimate complaints, with the result that far too many
trips to town were made. The Forest Service officials were understandably very annoyed
with this situation, and felt that the camp vehicle was used too much for what they considered unnecessary trips. In the future we should first make sure that all candidates
for the forestry camps are given a clean bill of health, both physically and dentally. In
order to avoid malingering, I would suggest that any inmate who complains of illness
and misses more than two or three days from work should be transferred back to gaol
for treatment. In the camp setting there are not the facilities for caring for sick people,
and the only practical alternative is their return to the institution.
Discipline
In some respects the camp discipline was an improvement over that of the 1951
scheme. In 1951, because of the newness of the experiment, many situations and
problems occurred which had not been previously anticipated. This necessitated many
impromptu rules and regulations which were unpopular and difficult to enforce. Prior
to the programme of last summer, we could foresee many of the problems, and therefore
started off the programme well equipped with rules and regulations. The lines of
authority in the camps between the Corrections Branch personnel and the Forest Service
people were more clearly defined, and each had a greater understanding of the other's
position. In many respects we were far less lenient than during the 1951 programme,
but, at the same time, each inmate knew where he stood and seemed to be more content
with the limitations imposed on his conduct. Neither of the junior supervisors had had
previous experience in managing groups of men, and both had difficulty in maintaining
control of the boys and were inclined toward leniency. However, they showed some
improvement as time went on. In Camp No. 1 the foreman and supervisor frankly
disliked each other, and there was little co-operation between them. The inmates were,
of course, aware of this discord, with the result that the camp discipline was adversely
affected. In Camp No. 2 the inmates exploited the leniency of the supervisor, and,
although they did not quite get out of hand, discipline was far from satisfactory each
time I arrived in camp. During the first six weeks of the scheme there were two inmates
from Camp No. 2 whose conduct deteriorated and whose work habits became progressively worse. They began to defy the foreman's authority and neglected to obey his
instructions. On August 4th a crisis occurred in which these two inmates took a very
defiant attitude toward the foreman and actually threatened him with bodily harm.
I was not in the camp at the time, but was contacted by radio and made an emergency
trip to the scene. After hearing all the complaints, I decided to return the two to Oakalla
Prison Farm. Both boys had been repeatedly warned that they must behave themselves
and do their share of the work.   A few days later a boy at Camp No. 1 who refused to REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 45
carry out the foreman's instructions, and, in addition, was malingering by pretending
illness in order to avoid work, was returned to gaol. During the latter part of the camp
programme we had fewer difficulties with discipline in both camps. On June 30th
Mr. Turpin took his group to Vernon on a recreational trip. While there one boy
absented himself without permission. He was recently apprehended and is now in the
Prince Albert Penitentiary.
Case-work Services
One of the very important aspects of the scheme is to give guidance to the boys in
their various personal problems, to come to some understanding of the underlying and
multiple causes of their delinquency, and to help them make a more adequate personal
adjustment, thus enabling them to more adequately meet the demands of the society they
return to when they leave the camp. This year, case-work counselling was not carried
out to the same extent as during the 1951 experiment. Neither of the supervisors had
formal social-work training, nor its equivalent, and counselling was a secondary service
offered to the inmates. I think that in the future we should emphasize this feature of
the scheme.
The camp situation provides an ideal environment to carry out a treatment programme. It is an authoritative setting, and a skilled case-worker, or group-worker, has
an excellent opportunity to observe the inmates at work, in their recreational periods,
and in their interpersonal relationships. I would strongly urge that in the future we
appoint supervisors who are graduates in criminology or social work. They should have
a thorough grasp of modern penalogical theory, and at the same time should be old
enough and sufficiently experienced in the handling of men to maintain good discipline.
Before an inmate is sent to camp, it would be advisable to provide us with social histories
with as much information as possible about the inmate's previous social environment,
school record, Court record, and work history.
Preparation for Discharge
As mentioned before, the inmates were released from the institutions to my custody
under the provisions of the " Ticket of Leave Act." At the end of the camp programme
they were released on parole to serve the unexpired portions of their respective sentences
under the supervision of officers from the Provincial Probation Branch. The preparation
for that eventual discharge began very early in the camp programme. Through interviews
with the boys, and through our observations of their conduct at work and at play, we
became very familiar with each individual and his idiosyncrasies. In every case, successful rehabilitation centred around employment, and we made special efforts to find suitable
jobs for the boys to go to after discharge. In our efforts we had excellent co-operation
from the Special Placement Section of the National Employment Service. The British
Columbia Forest Service offered employment to some of the boys, and the others were
placed through the efforts of the Probation Officers on our staff. By the date of discharge,
September 30th, each boy had a suitable job to go to, except for three who lived in
Vancouver. Within a few days we managed to find satisfactory employment for these
boys. As previously mentioned, the inmates were paid for their work at the rate of $3
a day, and all their earnings were deferred until discharge. We had learned from our
experiences in 1951 that allowing the inmates to have money provides a constant source
of trouble. Another important reason for deferring their pay was to enable each inmate
to have a sizeable sum of money in the crucial period of adjustment after discharge.
On September 30th each boy received a cheque for about $90. In the middle of October
he received the balance of his pay for the sum of approximately $100. This money
helped the boys through the period from the time they left camp until they received their
first pay cheques from their employers. Z 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
In conclusion, I wish to emphasize the need for early and thorough preparation
before the start of our next camp, with improved methods of administration, selection
of staff, etc. I am confident that the rehabilitation forestry-camp project will eventually
become a valuable adjunct to those other institutions concerned in the treatment of
criminal offenders.
Respectfully submitted.
R. M. Deildal,
Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
REPORT OF PROBATION BRANCH
E. G. B. Stevens, Esq.,
Inspector of Gaols,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Sir,—The annual report of the Provincial Probation Branch is submitted with
pleasure.
This year has primarily been a year of consolidation, although staff changes necessitated the movement of some perosnnel. In June, 1952, Mr. D. Guest joined the staff of
the Vancouver office. For the summer months Mr. Guest replaced Mr. Deildal during
the period he was in charge of the forest-camp project. In February, 1953, Mr. D. L.
Clark transferred to the Gaol Service as social worker at Oakalla Prison Farm, and the
vacancy left at the Penticton office was temporarily filled by Mr. Deildal moving to
Penticton.
The following statistical reports show a slight increase over the previous year in the
number of offenders placed under the Branch's supervision and a definite increase in
the number of pre-sentence reports prepared where the offender was dealt with by the
Court in some way other than by the use of probation. This increased use of the Probation Branch's services is regarded as a healthy, encouraging indication that the Courts
of the Province are becoming more aware of the efficacy of individualized treatment of the
offender.
Provincial Probation Branch Statistics
as
3
T
cn
as
■■*
4
Os
f
as
7
oo
■**
o
I
as
Os
2
r.
1
1
V.
u
1-2
■a a
°§
New probation cases  - —	
63 |    60
24 1    56
46
57
31
105
50
84
142
61
117
158
35
122
1
276 j 350
36 |    28
1
262     349
455
14
461
591
33
472
598
46
638
2,844
Pre-sentence reports prepared in cases
49
54
Total cases where services given
136
170     134
239
320
315
574
727
930
1,096
1,282
5,923
	
	
......
'  1 . ■
74 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1952-53
New Probation Cases
Z 47
Apr. 1, 1951, to
Mar. 31, 1952
Apr. 1, 1952, to
Mar. 31, 1953
Total Cases,
May 1, 1942, to
Mar. 31, 1953
Under 20 years of age	
Between 20 and 25 years of age .
Over 25 years of age..	
496
49
46
481
66
51
Married probationers _
Single probationers	
40
551
54
544
Total probationers-
591
598
2,151
465
228
262
2,582
2,844
New Follow-up Cases
\
22
11
37
9
324
Between 20 and 25 years of age   ;, . 	
102
14
i
3             1
30            |
1
45
22
418
1
33
1
46
440
During the year there was a slight increase in the number of adults placed on
probation. Of the 598 offenders placed on probation, 34.4 per cent were adults. This
increase came from the rural areas, as there were seventeen fewer persons placed on
probation from the Vancouver Police Court during the present year than during the year
previous. This trend seems to be indicative of a greater acceptance of the services the
Probation Officer can give on the part of Magistrates after they have become acquainted
with these services through their duties as Juvenile Court Judges.
The amendment to the Prison and Reformatories Act, assented to in February,
1953, which makes provision for a definite and indefinite sentence for offenders sentenced
to the Young Offenders' Unit of Oakalla Prison Farm as well as New Haven, will in time
increase the work of the Probation Branch, as all inmates from the Young Offenders' Unit
are placed under the supervision of this Branch when they are released on licence. While
the statistical report for the year shows an increase in follow-up cases over the previous
year, it is anticipated there will be a marked increase in the year 1953-54, when offenders
sentenced under this legislation will be released.
Probation supervision has always been regarded by authorities in the corrections
field as a far less costly method of dealing with offenders than institutional care. The
experience of this Branch is no exception, and for the year under consideration the total
cost of supervision per probationer per year amounted to $114.85, as compared to an
institutional cost of between $1,109.60 and $2,444.05 per inmate per year. Not counted
in this figure are costs for the supervision of the follow-up cases shown in the statistical
report, as well as any charge for the more than 600 pre-sentence reports prepared where
probation was not used. In appropriate cases these reports were sent to the institution
concerned to assist the staff in their treatment of the offender. Over and above the actual
savings previously indicated are other savings, more difficult to estimate, but just as real.
One of these is the cost of Provincial social assistance paid to a wife and family when the
husband, who has previously supported his family, is committed to gaol. From the
individual's point of view, a person who has been placed on probation does not carry the
same social stigma as does an offender who serves a sentence in gaol. The individual
has less difficulty in finding employment and in many instances is able to carry on with
the job he held at the time of his conviction.
The head office of the Probation Branch moved to accommodation in the Court-house
in Vancouver in February, 1952.   This new physical location has made possible a closer Z 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
working relationship with the higher Courts in the Vancouver area, and it is believed
that as time goes on more referrals will be given by these Courts. The present office
accommodation, however, is crowded, and space for private interviewing is not sufficient.
It is hoped that in the future more office accommodation can be made available.
In the report for the year 1951-52, attention was drawn to the lack of adequate
facilities for the detention of juveniles pending the disposition of their cases in Juvenile
Court. This unfortunate situation still exists in most rural areas, and the Probation
Officer's work is made more difficult because of the lack of detention accommodation.
As more Probation Officers are placed in the field, it is hoped their efforts, along with
those of various community groups, will find a solution to this pressing need.
As in past years, staff members have addressed various community groups on
problems of juvenile delinquency, child welfare, and correctional treatment. Because
of individual idealism and faith in the work they are doing, these added assignments have
been regarded not as irksome chores, but rather as an opportunity to present a constructive
programme.   Their efforts are to be commended.
Before concluding this report, mention must be made of the valued co-operation
and assistance given to the Provincial Probation Branch by the Police, the Gaol Service,
and other social agencies and services. Without this help our work would be much
more difficult, and our goal—helping convicted offenders to become law-abiding useful
citizens—would not be as completely realized.
Respectfully submitted.
C. D. Davidson,
Chief Assistant Provincial Probation Officer.
1 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53
APPENDIX
Z 49
ANNUAL REPORT ON GAOLS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st,  1953
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Totals
1
$1,064,820.17
827,302.04
$3.93
3.20
1
$54,436.50
41,358.27
$2.71
3.84
$0.59
.73
577
371
1
$32,211.68
27,794.27
$3.03
2.99
$0.59
.65
1,001
810
1
$98,302.09
79,761.55
$4.29
4.20
$1.28
1.24
1,177
1,105
4
2. Total  expenditures  for  gaol  mainte
nance in B.C.—
Year ended March 31st, 1953
Year ended March 31st, 1952   .....
3. Average total  maintenance cost per
day per prisoner—
Year ended March 31st, 1953 .
Year ended March 31st, 1952
Average   dietary   cost   per   day   per
$146,713.58
124,164.67
$6.90
6.97
$1,396,484.02
1,100,380.80
$4.14
4.09
Year ended March 31st, 1953 .
Year ended March 31st, 1952
4. Number of prisoners committed—
Year ended March 31st, 1953
Year ended March 31st, 1952
$0.62
.76
7,017
5,983
$1.05
.97
119
99
$0.83
.91
9,891
8,368
I. Movement of Population, Year Ended March 31st, 1953
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
On register, April 1st, 1952 —  	
Received—
From gaols and lockups , 	
846
5,797
47
9
950
214
57
114
5
74
1,129
38
8
1,037
8,560
98
519
7
51
1,001
1
90
17
1,091
214
Totals -	
7,017
119
577
1,092
1,177
9,982
Discharged—
4,421
51
9
13
11
44
31
6
3
4
13
10
353
3
29
2
158
12
825
148
7
109
675
1
8
159
67
293
2
6,318
83
12
19
22
By death    	
5
190
795
477
950
5
526
By release of Court order (including bail)...
875
1,050
964
10
Totals	
6,922
111
567
1,090
1,205
9,895
On register, March 31st, 1953	
7,863
65
45
27
46
8,046 Z 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
II. Commitments
1951-52
1952-53
Decrease
Increase
14
16
237
1,689
148
4,702
560
26
7,062
363,150
24,342
893
19
11
5
18
19
326
1,947
200
4,690
461
22
8,523
361,761
31,314
1,052
14
14
5
12
99
4
1,389
5
4
Manslaughter.. '	
Crimes-—
Against the person , , ,	
3
89
258
52
Against public order and peace    ,	
1,461
Average number of prisoners per month -
Average number of prisoners per day  	
6,972
159
3
III. Sex
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
1                     1
5,371       |         114      |         379
426      |              |           25
1,001
91
1,003
205
7,868
Female	
747
Totals	
5.797       1          114       I          404
1,092
1,208
8,615
IV. Educational Status
Illiterate	
328
3,548
1,805
116
66
48
137
110
110
47
140
728
216
8
190
781
233
4
795
5,233
2,412
College or university	
175
Totals   	
5,797
114
404
1,092
1,208
8,615
V. Nationality
(Place of Birth)
British—
4,357
593
29
111
1
364
10
991
60
851
150
6,674
814
29
4,979
181
564
32
41
112
1
1
374
13
15
2
1,051
9
30
2
1,001
28
51
128
7,517
Foreign—
United States 	
232
660
Orientals 	
165
41
Totals.	
818
2
30
41
207
1,098
5,797
114
404
1,092
1,208
8,615
VI. Habits as to Use of Intoxicants
310
2,048
3,439
32
73
9
4
•     30
370
5
91
996
9
246
953
360
Temperate	
Intemperate	
2,488
5,767
Totals	
5,797
114
404
1,092
1,208
8,615 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53
VII. Habits as to Use of Drugs
Z 51
.
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
Abstainers —	
5,380
417
114
402
2
1,092
1,165
43
8,153
462
5.797       1          114                  404
1.092      1      1.208
8,615
VIII. Occupations
Agricultural	
116
309
308
2,534
455
34
212
1,123
267
229
210
6
4
64
3
16
21
65
7
35
259
38
705
279
82
8
7
8
91
213
813
39
3
41
884
692
642
Labourers ~	
Mechanics	
3,678
542
37
11
280
1,144
267
229
210
Totals   	
5,797
114
404
1,092
1,208
8,615
IX. Racial
White
5,048
57
625
48
19
109
2
-i      \
351
2
51
705
7
376
802
404
7,015
66
1,458
54
20
1      1        -
	
5,797
114      |
404
1,092
1,208
8,615
X. Civil State
3,695
1,139
184
706
73
101
12
292
81
8
23
	
665
263
61
103
777
253
42
136
5,530
1,748
295
1
970
73
Totals         „ '   	
5.797
114
404
1,092
1,208
8,615
XI. Ages
Under 21 years
21 to 25 years _.
25 to 30 years ....
30 to 40 years _..
40 to 50 years _„
50 to 60 years ...
Over 60 years ,.„
Totals
659
91
687
20
829
4
1,189
1
1,141
837
455
28
45
56
138
79
43
15
5.797      |
114      |
404
54
143
166
258
240
181
50
83
170
192
291
235
166
71
1,092
1,208
915
1,065
1,247
1,877
1,695
1,227
591
8,615
XII. Creeds
2,164
733
841
56
976
129
480
62
8
6
9
10
80
243
33
29
8
207
36
21
2
75
5
28
675
137
91
11
58
18
52
4
26
624
114
90
45
65
33
124
19
40
3,703
1,049
1,051
114
United Church   	
12
3
11
1,186
188
695
85
6
80
28
34
2
11
Buddhist ...
2
12
others
16
54
........
134
12
271
Totals	
5,797
114
404
1,092
1,208
8,615 Z 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
XIII. Duration of Sentence
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Total
2,906
457
272
216
90
47
31
16
3
1
824
154
46
37
7
7
1
4
864
130
31
54
34
30
5
9
4,810
1 month and under 2 months 	
1
831
397
636
531
443
227
70
31
45
10
312
87
237
5
21
296
10
67
4
1
36
55
49
113
3
15
4
250
5
7
4
21
16
319
14
67
20
15
4
1
1
Suspended ,_.      ,
57
55
49
128
19
	
22
-1
	
       |      	
4
Totals   _	
5,797
114
404
1,092
1,208
8,615
XIV. Previous Convictions
1,966
94
16
3
221
70
431
162
98
77
41
43
41
27
25
18
14
13
7
8
12
9
4
4
7
11
1
4
1
5
24
682
198
107
42
45
14
16
11
9
7
5
3
4
1
5
3
3
4
4
2
6
3
4
2
27
3,394
1	
£20
479
333
239
184
155
150
114
107
85
70
67
1,266
2       	
35
14
15
5
10
10
7
8
4
722
3       .            	
466
4                                              	
1
341
5                                                             	
246
6
222
7
198
8                                                 	
155
9	
	
140
10                                                         	
108
11                                              .          	
86
12  ...	
1
1
1
89
13
61
51
57
46
41
70
44
55
28
53
26
253
81
9
153
72
14
69
15
69
16
2
55
17
49
18
81
20   ..
57
21
	
62
23
35
24                   	
58
26	
28
27    -
285
49
105
60
5
14
Over 60    .....                                 . ...
153
5,797
114      |         404
1,092
1,208
8,615
67.64
21.27       1       45.30
60.50
58.38 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS,  1952-53 Z 53
XV. Offences for Which Prisoners Were Committed and Sentenced during the Year
Commitments
Sentences
Male
Female
Total
Male
Female
Total
(a) Crimes against the person—
1
115
116
1
11
1
2
17
16
11
10
1
2
2
1
1
1
2
117
118
2
12
1
2
17
17
11
10
114
121
1
12
1
2
13
8
10
1
5
2
1
119
123
2
Cutting, wounding, and attempting same-
12
1
2
13
8
10
Rape with assault with intent to rape	
1
Totals  	
301
8
309
283
8
291
(b) Crimes against property—
16
307
167
49
38
172
2
661
156
54
84
47
3
8
11
6
1
1
13
34
3
2
19
315
178
55
39
173
15
661
190
54
87
49
6
432
205
109
52
395
4
818
53
154
175
72
3
7
9
12
1
19
28
3
2
1
9
439
214
121
53
414
4
846
Theft of automobile	
56
154
177
Trespass     	
73
Totals     	
1,753
82
1,835
2,475
85
2,560
(c) Crimes against public morals and decency—
10
18
14
8
4
2
111
2
1
1
1
6
7
4
1
........
11
18
15
8
4
8
118
6
2
8
18
18
7
5
2
111
2
1
1
	
7
7
3
8
19
18
7
5
Inmates and frequenters of houses of ill
9
118
5
Buggery. 	
Habitual criminal  	
1
Totals	
170
20
190
172
18
190
(rf) Crimes against public order and peace—
Breaches of the " Liquor-control Act "
2,699
2
193
240
24
284
6
2
4
28
309
45
2
1
115
7
108
4
3
	
2
75
86
27
2,744
2
3
308
247
24
392
10
2
7
30
384
514
157
3,170
3
6
184
296
22
414
2
38
2
34
334
516
142
195
	
1
170
7
	
........
130
4
2
76
84
26
3,365
3
7
Breaches of the " Narcotic Drug Act "	
Breaches of the " Motor-vehicle Act "	
Carrying of unlawful weapons ._. _.	
354
303
22
544
2
Escaping from prison 	
42
2
Lunatics and persons unsafe to be at large .
	
36
410
Vagrancy.—	
428
130
600
168
Totals  ....   	
4,349
475
4,822
5,163
695
5,858
547
9
556
616
14
630
Grand totals  of   (a),   (£>),   (c),
(rf), and (e)	
7,121
762
7,883
8,710
820
9,529 Z 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
XVI. Employment of Prisoners
(Per cent of population.)
Oakalla
(Men)
Oakalla
(Women)
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
(Men)
Prince
George
(Women)
17.520
0.050
21.00
16.00
63.00
	
22.00
4.00
56.00
10.00
8.00
	
32.00
0.47
2.67
64.86
29.157
2.133
3.055
9.260
14.562
5.492
46.169
1.764
33.78
Sick                       	
2.10
	
3.20
Land and road improvements.—
16.628
	
	
16.270
16.071
16.100
14.500
8.630
10.860
     |       	
     |       	
     |         	
     |       	
     1       	
Sewing classes 	
14.487
20.952
....
36.341
42.80
XVII. Number of Officers and Employees on March 31st, 1953
Oakalla
Young
Offenders'
Unit
Nelson
Kamloops
Prince
George
Men's Institutions
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
1
1
1
3
8
13
116
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
3
8
5
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
1
1           5
1
Deputy Warden, Treatment — 	
1
Chief Gaoler	
Guards, Clerks  	
5
185
29
11
1           8
7
Women's Institutions
1
30
1
1
1
1
9
4
4
Total                           	
31
1
1
|            1
18
216
30
12
9
25 REPORT OF INSPECTOR OF GAOLS, 1952-53
Z 55
IT)
OS
09
a
cj
<
Q
ft)
Q
Z
w
o.
<
w
>h
a.
O
P.
w
0.
D
H
3
Z
W
CM
X
W
Q
Z
<
w
p
z
w
>
w
ft,
o
H
Z
ft.
§
w
<
H
c/3
>
X
a)
od
o c
OE
fD O
z*
O S3
OS
3 a>
r1 rr.
o£
•as
CN OS
oo so r» r-
m cn cN ©
CN Os
00 "t O OS
cn cn
Os t-i
r-cnoooomsor-os-Hr-ocNor-so
nTH^r-MlOOtHOV^St^HOO
i> p" od O r~ "* ** Os t-^ *3- so od i-h" in m*
OsOcNin-^-socNi-icnoosoOr-ooos
cn "n r-^ in sq Os^ cn »-* r-_ r> r-t os r-_ *t. <h
as" ©" od" so" so" "n" ^ os" r-^ ^  ** **/" i-T
r- in cn "tf in  i-h  i-h  cn
Os O Os
m o ^
OS O SO
oo cn m
fN cn
os o cn
--H  GO so
O    l-H
r- os    i
: so o
so r.    :
SO Tj-
l-H    OS
so so
in
so m
©
r- oo
Os m
cn r>
o m © so
i—i
: so
©
cn
o oo cn th in —<
oo Ocot t >*o
oo i-i "3- "^f so in
tN t- os oo
© Os Os (N
in
so
KS j
so
00
SO
os os   :
SO  iH  ^
SO CN OS
*n
\t- cn
oo r-
CN
Os
oo tJ- (N Os
m m tN ©
so t- "*
cn tN so
NOh
SO
r- r-
in r>
so so
©
as
679
030
421
138
CN
CN
g
in
i-h CN  —
cn
09-
m
■— CN i—
fN
■^
Os
r-
cn
82
cn so
m so
** fN
l-H so ©
i-" in Os"
&g-1— m
© m
SO ©
m cn
r- i—
■n m
Tt- oo
in^t—iso cnsosoos©©
r-oomos r~:r~"rir~:rsi'-;
CN h-- in" >* od od r> *tf r-' **
inOooo ©i-tin-rfoocn
in cn Os "n >n      cn ©^ so^ ©
in" in"      i-h" t-T      cn in" cn tn"
oo
tfl-
(N
fnor-.Ttin^osso
osTj-cdcn"(Nin©tn
•^■©fN©fnmr-os
in Os i-i "n i-h ■<*■      —
i-h   cn   l-H   l-H
r- -t os m -rf •"*-
cn os so so cn o
oo © r^ oo
o cN so so
Os t? tr^ tr^
o r- so in
o cn t> oo
cn tN so" cn"
so m
so ©
so
<N
Os O !
fN "d-     I
so r-
r. so
so m
cn
so
SO
fN CN     !
SO SO     !
m        |
*~'
cn
3cnr-cni-HcofNmr-—« r- r- m © ©
nr—oinininoor-i-Hmosoooocn
■^^H-Hsor-sd"—|fnfNcn^Oi-HfnfnsO
iHaiosOHtosMh^r.ostu.
. O O in (N h O 'Tf O^th uin oo t ^o
" so" m" os" 06" inos'fn"Tfko"'n'-H->rfr*
■l r- inr-tNT"".       •-<
m oo cn
r- f o
r- oo so
so cn
r-^fN
■*t od"
tN cn m
in "* so
^h r- tt
U
a
3
O
n     <   ti   > -
I £*?£ <
- ?  co  «    - t
3 .9 S 2 &t
a
a
«       —
o § ja
■O .2 TD
c t; c
« a r3
SZ  <a
2 * s 1»
f S .2 J a s
^r SI ^   w ^«   rax;
-A ^ Lg
■o o oo_   he
[r.   ^   C   c3   O   U
*_, o 2 ?J S x)
Sl£S#fl
>,u p «3-
2oIf 8 S3
jOc!kOO'C
i  u
a c
u  C   u
o  S
5-a »
0
2.
1    M"°
•C o
173
&
o
w
z
<
kJ
ft)
u
Q
Z
<
a.
ft)
Z
o
co
5
Ch
a
o
<
a
p.
o
H
co
O
o
w
o
o.
w
>
xi
l-H
in
Os       cn
©     m
00-
VO        fN
t/3-
m      ©
O      cn
trt-
	
so
in      r>
©        CN
(#
m      ©
i-l          SO
&9-
■*
r-     i-h
6*3-
cn       cn
^H               SO
so      r~-
w
a
D,
X
CD
a
■a
s
KJ
r>
u
£ £
£>.'•$
u   3
o .S
a u
J3   C
a .2
^ a   i
°^ s
o 2-S
bo fe
3 a a
a
y
3 £
5^
"S 5
I5
o g
S c
►•o
S   §
 P
3^
c -: — o
—   a 5 a x
S3 £ -S 1
iS S » «i
On3
mil
^   «S  g
M § =3 —
3 ^"9 'O
"3"" 9 c
g o d o
'_.  H* Q ^^
__  >  ?,  M
O  M -rl -p
M s a a
-a B " «
PIS
i- *
^^
gill
0   g   S   Q
.Si
r-  A  JO  _C
3  3  «  eS
"g o o o
*-*   tr.     ^   &
r>5    f«    CD    <U
o R v v
>. >•■+* cm
C a O O
rt 5 w ,__,
U U   (O ui
xj ^ u U
U   4.    U   1)
OO   M  00  00
ed  g  cd  rt
U   U    fD    CL)
> 5 > >
<<<< VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954
310-154-7137

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0348786/manifest

Comment

Related Items