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Department of Agriculture FORTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT 1953 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1954

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 r
PROVINCE   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FORTY-EIGHTH
ANNUAL REPORT
1953
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture for the year 1953.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., February 16th, 1954.  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF,  1953
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable W. K. Kiernan.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss P. Hetherington.
Deputy Minister:
*W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Administrative:
Miss A. E. Hill, Departmental Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
N. L. Camsusa, Administrative Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Statistics:
G. H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
Markets:
*M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Horticulture:
*R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*J. A. Smith, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*Alan E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*W. D. Christie, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
*M. P. D. Trtjmpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
*G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, New Westminster, B.C.
*W. F. Morton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*E. M. King, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Apiary:
I. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, R.R. 6, New Westminster, B.C.
Plant Pathology:
*W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
*I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
Live Stock:
*W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector.
*F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria, B.C.
A. I. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola, B.C.
A. P. Newhouse, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, B.C.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.
5 CC 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock—Continued
P. G. Lawrence, Brand Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Iohn C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
I. I. Carney, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
R. L. Lancaster, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
W. R. Le Grow, D.V.M., V.S., M.S., Ph.D., Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Supervisor, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
I. A. Mace, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
Harry Iohnson, Inspector, Dairy Herd Improvement Associations, Victoria, B.C.
Dairy:
*F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
*G. D. Iohnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*H. Riehl, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*D. D. Wilson, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Poultry:
*G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
*W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
W. I. Wakely, B.A., M.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
*H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
Field Crops:
*N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster, B.C.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Iohnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Women's Institutes:
,        Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Soil Survey:
*C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*R. G. Garry, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*J. D. Lindsay, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*W. D. Holland, B.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*A. I. Green, B.S.A., M.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
Agricultural Development and Extension:
*William MacGillivray, Director, Victoria, B.C.
*G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.
*J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
*S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
*G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
*P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Mission, B.C.
*Frank Martin, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C.
*I. C. Ryder, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*R. C. Bailey, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon, B.C.
*M. I. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
*J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*A. R. Tarves, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 7
Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued
*K. R. Iameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
*R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. lohn, B.C.
*A. M. Iohnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, B.C.
*J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
*H. R. Anderson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson, B.C.
*I. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
*A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
*I. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
*W. G. Duncan, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*D. C. Crossfield, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.
*Miss E. L. R. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria, B.C.
*G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
*A. D. McMechan, B.A.Sc, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
Gordon MacDonald, Accountant, Federal-Provincial Farm Labour Service, 411 Dunsmuir Street,
Vancouver 3, B.C.
I. R. Caverhill, B.A.Sc, Assistant Director, Land-clearing Division, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent, Land-clearing Division, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
H. Barber, Accounts, Land-clearing Division, 411 Dunsmuir Street, Vancouver 3, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Report of Deputy Minister   11
Report of Statistician  17
Report of Markets Branch  23
Report of Horticultural Branch  28
Report of Apiary Branch  57
Report of Plant Pathology Branch  62
Report of Provincial Entomologist  67
Report of Dairy Branch  73
Report of Poultry Branch  81
Report of Live Stock Branch  90
Report of Field Crops Branch  127
Report of Farmers' Institutes  139
Report of Women's Institutes  144
Report of Soil Survey Branch  151
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  161
Appendices—
No. 1. Plants Manufacturing, Processing, and Distributing Dairy Products during 1953
196
No. 2. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock, December 1st, 1952, to November 30th, 1953	
No. 3. Beef Carcasses Graded in British Columbia, December 1st, 1952, to
November 30th, 1953	
No. 4. Average Prices for Cattle, December 1st, 1952, to November 30th,
1953	
198
199
200
No. 5. Okanagan Falls Cattle Sale, December 8th, 1953  200
No. 6. Provincial Dairy-herd Improvement Associations  201
No. 7. Annual Summarized Report for 1952 of Average Production of All
D.H.I.A. Milking Periods Completed during the Year  202
No. 8. Average Prices for Lambs, December 1st, 1952, to November 30th,
1953  202
No. 9. Average Prices for Hogs, December 1st, 1952, to November 30th,
1953  203
No. 10. Dairy Herds and Premises Inspected and Graded under the "Milk
Act " from December 1st, 1952, to November 30th, 1953    204
No. 11. List of Licensees  205
No. 12. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1953  209
No. 13. Agricultural Lime  210
No. 14. Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings from British Columbia
Elevators, January 1st to October 31st, 1953  211
I-  Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Forty-eighth Report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1953.
The Report, as submitted, contains a detailed review of each of the branches constituting your Department. Items not dealt with in the reports as mentioned are as
follows:—
STAFF CHANGES
Appointments.—Mrs. M. M. Craik, January 12th; Mrs. D. Lam, March 1st; Mrs.
S. D. Fisher Fleming, March 1st; Miss M. C. T. Zubek, March 10th; A. J. Green, April
14th; J. H. Neufeld, April 1st; C. V. Faulkner, April 1st; Mrs. J. Stewart, May 1st;
H. Johnson, June 1st; W. J. Wakely, May 19th; Miss V. L. Matte, May 12th; R. C.
Bailey, June 1st; Miss C. Farion, September 8th; G. Beatty, September 18th; A. P.
Newhouse, September 14th; Mrs. S. M. Crooks, September 21st; E. M. King, November
1st; W. G. Duncan, October 14th; Mrs. J. P. Holder, November 1st; Mrs. M. L. Harvey,
November 17th; Dr. W. R. Le Grow, November 23rd.
Transfers.—Miss B. Hanneson, February 28th; L. R. Stewart, March 22nd; Miss
J. King, June 13th; C. B. Allan, September 21st.
Resignations.—A. E. Donald, January 31st; Miss E. O. Farion, January 31st;
Miss V. Allan, February 28th; R. H. McMillan, April 14th; Dr. J. G. Fowler, June 15th;
U. J. G. Guichon, June 30th; Dr. A. S. Clerke, July 31st; Mrs. B. Motherwell, June
30th; R. S. Berry, August 15th; Mrs. M. M. Craik, August 15th; D. M. Hamilton,
September 18th; Miss M. C. T. Zubek, September 5th.
Superannuation.—A. J. Hourston, March 31st; B. Hoy, September 30th; J. M. G.
Smith, September 30th; T. S. Crack, September 30th.
PUBLICATIONS
The following is a list of new and revised publications printed in 1953: —
Agricultural Statistics Report, 1951.
Climate of British Columbia, 1952.
Feed Formulas for Poultry, 1952 (P.C. 37).
Okanagan Valley:   Settlement Series No. 3.
Onion Thrips (E.C. 10).
Poultry-disease Chart.
Propagation and Grafting of Fruit-trees (H.C. 42).
Strawberry Culture (H.C. 58).
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands:   Settlement Series No. 6.
Stored Product Insects and Their Control in B.C. (E.C. 1).
Spray Chart—Control of Small-fruit Pests and Diseases, 1954-55.
Spray Chart—Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases, 1954.
AGRICULTURAL LEGISLATION
New agricultural legislation dealt with at the First Session of the Twenty-third
Parliament of British Columbia was as follows:   " An Act to amend the ' Beef Cattle
11 CC 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Producers' Assistance Act,' " " An Act to amend the ' Stock-brands Act,' " " An Act to
amend the ' Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act,' " " An Act to amend the ' Farmers'
and Women's Institutes Act,' " " An Act to amend the ' Horned Cattle Purchases Act,' "
"An Act to amend the ' Pound District Act,' " and "An Act to amend the ' Trespass
Act.' " The only agricultural legislation passed at the First Session of the Twenty-fourth
Parliament of British Columbia was " An Act to amend the ' Farmers' Land-clearing
Assistance Act.'"
SUMMARY OF ALL AGRICULTURAL LEGISLATION
The following is a summary of the " Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1948,"
relating to agriculture, with the 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, and 1953 amendments included.
This has been prepared by L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.
"Department of Agriculture Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 9.—"An Act respecting the Department of Agriculture," and provides for the establishment of the Department, and sets out the duties and powers of the Minister and Deputy, and outlines,
generally, regulations for the working of the Department.
"Agrologists Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 10.—"An Act respecting Agrologists,"
and in accordance with this Act the practice of agrology becomes a recognized profession. Provision is made for the incorporation of agrologists into the British Columbia
Institute of Agrologists, and certain provisions are set out regarding membership.
"Animals Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 12.—"An Act to prevent certain Animals
from running at Large, and respecting Injuries by Animals of a Domestic Nature."
This Act prohibits swine, stallions, and bulls running at large, except in certain districts
which may be defined by Proclamation. Municipal rights are unaffected by provision
of this Act. This Act also provides for the killing of dogs worrying domestic animals,
and for complaints where dogs have worried sheep or bitten persons, and for killing of
said dogs. The Act also deals with the liability of owners of animals unlawfully at large,
the impounding of animals, and licences to shoot wild horses and stallions; and empowers
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to make regulations for the purpose of carrying into
effect the provisions of the Act.
"Apiaries Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 14.—"An Act for the Suppression of
Disease among Bees," and provides for the appointment of Inspectors, appointment of
bee-masters, destruction of diseased bees and infected hives, inspection of apiaries,
registration of apiaries, and the right to enter premises and apiaries.
"Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 25.—"An Act
regarding Provision for the Granting of Assistance to Beef Cattle Producers in the
Province," and provides that every packer, dealer, or commission firm, who buys or sells
a bovine for slaughter, shall deduct from the purchase price and pay to the Minister the
sum of 30 cents; also, that every person, including every co-operative association, shall
pay the sum of 30 cents for each bovine shipped outside the Province; and empowers
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to make regulations as to procedure to be followed.
This Act does not apply to registered pure-bred cattle sold for breeding purposes.
"Beef Grading Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 26.—"An Act respecting the Grading of Beef," and provides that the Minister of Agriculture, subject to the approval of
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, may make regulations establishing grades for beef
carcasses; provides for the inspection, grading, marking, and advertising of beef carcasses.
"Stock-brands Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 34.—"An Act respecting the Marking of Cattle and Horses," by which provision is made for application, restriction, registration, and inspection, and transfer of brands, sale of stock, slaughtering of cattle,
slaughter-house licences, slaughter of horses for animal food, beef-peddlers' licences,
licence to deal in hides, sale of hides, business of stock-dealer, inspection and shipment DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC  13
of stock, hides, and beef, and the keeping of records of cattle, beef, and hides purchased;
and further provides that the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make such regulations
as may be deemed necessary, including regulations prescribing forms to be used, and
for the purpose of regulating and controlling the slaughtering of horses, and the sale and
shipment of horse-meat.
"Cattle Lien Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 40.—"An Act respecting Agistors of
Cattle and Keepers of Livery-stables," by which provision is made for a lien on cattle and
effects for value of food furnished, and provides that cattle or effects of debtor may be
detained, and the responsibility of persons detaining same, and power to sell and disposition of balance of proceeds if owner cannot be found.
"Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 67.—"An Act to
prevent the Spread of Contagious Diseases among Animals," by which provision is made
for the appointment of Inspectors, duties of Inspectors, quarantine, disposal of diseased
animals and disinfection of premises, compensation to owner, and identification and
testing of animals, and penalties for violation of any of the provisions.
"Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 80.—"An Act
for the Regulation of Creameries and Dairies," by which provision is made for the
licensing of creameries and dairies, plans, specifications, location, quantity of product to
be handled, treated, processed, or manufactured, to be submitted to the Minister; qualifications and examinations of milk-testers, milk-graders; creamery operators to employ
official cream-graders. Constitution of cream-grading districts, appointment and duties
of Provincial Dairy Inspectors, power of Inspectors to prohibit the sale of dairy products.
"Dairy Industry (British Columbia) Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 90.—"An Act
respecting the Dairy Industry," and provides that every provision of the " Dairy Industry
Act" of Canada, and amendments thereto, and regulations thereunder enacted or made
before the 23rd day of March, 1935, except any provisions or amendment of section 5,
shall have the force of law in the Province; the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has
power to proclaim amendments and regulations of said " Dairy Industries Act" in force
in the Province, also to revoke same.
"Eggs Marks Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 104.—"An Act respecting the Marking
of Eggs," and provides that every egg-dealer who keeps, or has in his possession, or under
his control, any eggs which have been imported into Canada, and which are not marked,
shall mark each egg with the words " Produce of," followed by name of country of origin;
further provides for marking of receptacles containing foreign eggs, posting notices of
sale or use of Chinese eggs, and penalties for offences.
"Farmers' and Women's Institutes Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 117.—"An Act
respecting Farmers' and Women's Institutes," and provides for grants and appropriations
for educational work, organization of District Institutes, appointment of Superintendents,
Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes, Provincial Women's Institute; and for the making
of rules, orders, and regulations by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council.
"Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 118.—"An Act
authorizing the Borrowing of the sum of Five hundred thousand Dollars, and to authorize
the Government to clear Land " empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to borrow
or raise from time to time a sum of money not exceeding the net sum of $500,000 for
the purpose of the purchase of machinery and equipment suitable for the clearing and
development of land for agricultural purposes, and for the housing, maintenance, repairing, and renewing such machinery and equipment, renting of machinery and equipment,
and the making of regulations by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council as to form and
terms of contracts, inspection, and valuation of land in respect to contract.
"Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey Grades Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 133.—"An
Act respecting the Grading of Fruit, Vegetables and Honey," and empowers the Minister
of Agriculture, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, to make CC 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
regulations establishing grades for any fruit, vegetable, and honey; and provides for the
inspection, grading, packaging and packing, marking, handling, shipping, transporting,
or advertising of fruit, vegetables, and honey within the Province.
"Fur-farm Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 134.—"An Act respecting Fur-farms,"
and provides for the licensing of fur-farms, feeding of fur-bearing animals, cleanliness,
inspection, quarantine, keeping of records, appointment of Inspectors, and administration
by the Live Stock Commissioner; also provides that the Lieutenant-Governor in Council
may make regulations in respect to licence fees, sanitation, recording of brands or marks,
and to regulate or prohibit transportation of animals and pelts.
"Goat-breeders' Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 136.—"An Act for the
Protection of Breeders of Goats," and provides that no person shall keep, stand, or offer
for public service any buck unless it is pure-bred, and is enrolled in the Department of
Agriculture; also for the enrolment of buck, transfer of enrolment, and duties of owners,
and penalties.
"Grasshopper-control Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 137.—"An Act to provide for
the Control of Grasshoppers," and provides for the constitution of control areas, Control
Committee, and powers of said Committee to expend money advanced by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council, the employment of servants and workmen, purchase of poisons,
the placing or setting-out of poisons, the keeping of records of work done, and cost and
expenses incurred; also provides for assessment of lands in control area to repay
advances, and further provides that the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make such
regulations as are deemed necessary to carry into effect the provisions of the Act.
"Hog Grading Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 146.—"An Act respecting the Grading of Hogs," and provides that, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council, the Minister may make regulations establishing grades for hog carcasses, inspecting, grading, and marking of hog carcasses, appointment of Inspectors, powers of
Inspectors, and penalties.
"Horned Cattle Purchases Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 148.—"An Act respecting
the Disposition of Deductions made on the Purchase of Cattle with Horns," and provides
that every dealer who purchases cattle with horns shall pay the vendor $1 per head less
than the current market price, and remit same to the Minister. Money collected to be
used for payment of administration expenses, and for the improvement of live stock,
appointment and powers of Inspectors; the Lieutenant-Governor in Council is empowered
to make regulations. This Act does not apply to registered pure-bred cattle sold for
breeding purposes.
"Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 149.—"An
Act for the Protection of Horse-breeders," and provides that every person standing or
travelling any stallion for profit or gain shall enrol same annually in the Department, fees
for enrolment, transfer of ownership, examinations of stallions, classes of stallions in
designated areas, lien on colt for amount of service fee and costs, penalties; and empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to make such regulations as deemed necessary for carrying into effect provisions of the Act.
"Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter
200.—"An Act respecting the Transportation, Packing, Storage, and Marketing of Natural Products." The purpose and intent of this Act is to provide for the control and
regulation in any or all respects of the transportation, packing, storage, and marketing of
natural products within the Province, including the prohibition of such transportation,
packing, storage, and marketing in whole or in part; also provides for the constitution
of marketing boards, powers of boards, and the making of such regulations by the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council as are deemed necessary.
"Milk Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 208.—"An Act respecting the Production and
Sale of Milk for Human Consumption," and provides that the Lieutenant-Governor in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC  15
Council may prescribe standards for stables, barns, milk-houses, and other premises on
a dairy-farm, and for the equipment and utensils used therein; further provides for the
appointment of Provincial Inspectors, powers of Inspectors, inspection of cattle, premises,
and milking methods, grading of dairy-farms (A, B, or C, and ungraded). Grade A may
supply milk for human consumption without pasteurization; Grade B after pasteurization; Grade C after pasteurization for a period of thirty days only unless up-graded;
ungraded milk shall not be supplied until classed A or B. The Act authorizes municipalities to regulate the milk-supply within the municipality, and further provides that no
person suffering from certain diseases may be employed on or in any dairy-farm or
premises where milk for human consumption is obtained, produced, handled, or sold.
"Oleomargarine Act," 1949, Chapter 48.—"An Act respecting Oleomargarine,"
and provides that where oleomargarine is served in public eating-places the words " oleomargarine is served here as a substitute for butter " must be displayed in a conspicuous
place; that oleomargarine and butter shall not be mixed for sale or use in public eating-
places; and provides for the packaging and licensing to manufacture or sell wholesale,
and for the making of regulations by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council regarding issue
of licences, term thereof and fee, standards of quality, and respecting any other matter
necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.
"Plant Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 254.—"An Act to provide for the
Protection of Plants and to prevent the Spreading within the Province of Insects, Pests,
and Diseases destructive to Vegetation," and empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council to make such regulations as are considered expedient to prevent the spreading
within the Province of any insect, pest, or disease destructive to vegetation, and further
provides for the appointment of Inspectors, power of Minister to direct spraying of trees,
taxation of owner for expenses incurred, and licence to sell nursery stock.
"Certified Seed-potato Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 257.—"An Act to facilitate
the Growing of Certified Seed-potatoes," and provides for the constitution of seed-potato
control areas; appointment of a Seed-control Committee; functions, powers, and duties
of the Committee; restriction of growing to authorized varieties; and empowers the
Lieutenant-Governor in Council to make such regulations as are necessary to carry into
effect the provisions of the Act.
"Poultry and Poultry Products Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 258.—"An Act
respecting Poultry and Poultry Products," and empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council to make regulations for the classification of eggs, dressed poultry, live poultry
according to prescribed standards; regulating inspection, grading, packing, labelling,
branding, and marking of poultry products; shipment, transportation, purchase, and sale
of same; appointment of Inspectors, powers of Inspectors, and penalties.
"Pound District Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 259.—"An Act respecting Pound
Districts," and empowers the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to constitute as a pound
district any part of the Province not within the limits of a municipality; the impounding
of animals running at large within pound districts; appointment of pound-keepers, duties
of pound-keepers, payments of charges on impounded animals, sale of impounded animals, complaints of owners, and offences and penalties.
"Seed-growers' Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 299.—"An Act to facilitate the Growing of Pure Seed of Vegetable and Field Crops," and provides for the constitution of seed-control areas by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, constitution of
Seed-control Committee; functions, powers, and duties of Committee; restriction of
seed-growing to authorized varieties; offences and penalties.
"Sheep Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 303.—"An Act for the Better
Protection of Sheep, Goats, and Poultry." This Act makes it an offence for keeping of
unlicensed dogs, and provides for killing of unlicensed dogs, killing of dogs worrying
sheep, dog licences, recovering of damages for sheep, goats, and poultry killed by dogs; CC 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and further provides for claims against dog-tax funds where owner of dog or dogs is
unknown. The Act further provides that municipalities may, by by-law, provide for the
licensing of all dogs within the municipality, and for the collection of licence fees. The
Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make such regulations as are considered necessary
for carrying into effect the provisions of this Act.
"Stock-breeders' Protection Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 314.—"An Act for the
Protection of Breeders of Live Stock," and provides for the registration and certificate of
breeding, publication of certificate necessary to enable the owner to collect fees, and
penalties for misrepresenting breeding.
"Live Stock and Live-stock Products (British Columbia) Act," R.S.B.C. 1948,
Chapter 315.—"An Act respecting Stockyards and Live-stock Exchanges," and provides
that Federal enactments are given force of law in British Columbia until the same is
repealed by the Parliament of Canada or revoked by the Governor-General in Council.
"Threshers' Lien Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 337.—"An Act respecting Threshers' Liens," and provides that threshers of grain shall, from the time of commencement
of the threshing, have a lien upon the grain for the purpose of securing payment for the
threshing; and further provides for the enforcement of lien by taking of grain, option of
the kind of grain taken, determination of quantity to be taken, and priority of lien.
"Trespass Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 343.—"An Act to prevent Trespass on
Enclosed Lands, and to afford to Owners and Occupiers of Land Summary Remedy in
certain Cases of Trespass." This Act defines lawful fences, trespass and prosecutions,
entrance of land surveyors, trespass of cattle, liability of owner of cattle for damage to
enclosed land, and adjudication on disputes.
"Veterinary Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 356.—"An Act respecting the Practice
of Veterinary Surgery," and provides for the constitution of the Veterinary Association
of British Columbia, corporation, members, qualifications for registration, and management of Association.
"Noxious Weeds Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 362.—"An Act respecting Noxious
Weeds," and provides for the destruction of noxious weeds and weed-seeds, prevention
of distribution of weed-seeds, appointment of Noxious Weeds Inspectors, duties of
owner or occupier of land, duties imposed on municipalities, Department of Public
Works, and person responsible for construction-works, railway companies, or irrigation
districts; and further provides for the constitution of weed-control areas, constitution of
Weed-control Committees, and duties of Committees; and empowers the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council to make regulations necessary for the purpose of carrying into effect
the provisions of this Act.
" Wool Grades Act," R.S.B.C. 1948, Chapter 368.—"An Act respecting the Grading of Wool," and provides that, subject to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council, the Minister may make regulations establishing grades for wool, inspection,
grading, packages and packing, marking, handling, shipping, transporting or advertising
of wool within the Province, the appointment of Inspectors, powers of Inspectors, and
penalties.
CONFERENCE OF PROVINCIAL MINISTERS AND DEPUTY MINISTERS
The fourth annual conference of Provincial Ministers of Agriculture and their
Deputy Ministers was held in the Province of Quebec at the invitation of the Honourable
Mr. Laurent Barre, Minister of Agriculture for Quebec. The dates of the meetings were
September 2nd to 10th, 1953.
Those in attendance were the Honourable A. W. Mackenzie, Minister of Agriculture, Nova Scotia; F. W. Walsh, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Nova Scotia; the
Honourable C. C. Baker, Minister of Agriculture, Prince Edward Island; W. R. Shaw,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Prince Edward Island; the Honourable C. B. Sherwood, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC 17
Minister of Agriculture, New Brunswick; J. K. King, Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
New Brunswick; the Honourable Laurent Barre, Minister of Agriculture, Quebec; Rene
Trepanier, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Quebec; the Honourable F. C. Thomas,
Minister of Agriculture, Ontario; C. D. Graham, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Ontario;
J. R. Bell, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Manitoba; the Honourable I. C. Nollet,
Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan; W. H. Horner, Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
Saskatchewan; the Honourable D. A. Ure, Minister of Agriculture, Alberta; O. S.
Longman, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Alberta; and W. H. Robertson, Deputy
Minister of Agriculture, British Columbia. There was no representation from the Province of Newfoundland. The Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture for
British Columbia, and the Honourable R. D. Robertson, Minister of Agriculture for
Manitoba, were unable to attend.
The first part of the conference was devoted to visiting agricultural areas adjacent
to Montreal.   The latter part of the conference was held in the Parliament Buildings,
Quebec City.   The agenda for these meetings was as follows:—
Unfinished business of 1952.
Report on meeting with Right Hon. J. G. Gardiner, Minister of Agriculture,
Ottawa.
Dairy industry:   Its possibilities;  organization of production and distribution
in view of the future;   new outlets;   dairy substitutes;   feeds;   freight
assistance.
Live stock: Live-stock stability; marketing of live stock and live-stock products
(poultry and eggs).
Health of animals:  Cattle, poultry; relations with the Federal Government.
Relations between the Federal and the Provincial field work and extension
services (boundary-lines between Federal and Provincial services).
-   Soil conservation:   Drainage; soil reclamation.
Farm engineering.
Federal-Provincial conferences.
Agricultural schools (assistance to veterinarians).
Next conference.
A detailed report of the matters discussed is on file.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. ROBERTSON,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS
G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician
SYNOPSIS OF AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA, YEAR 1952
Preliminary estimates indicate that the aggregate value of agricultural production in
British Columbia for 1952 amounted to $141,402,677, as compared with the revised
estimate of $144,380,443 for 1951.
The estimated 1952 cash income to British Columbia farmers from the sale of farm
products was $108,264,000. This amount was only 6.6 per cent below the revised and
all-time high cash-income estimate of $115,949,000 established in 1951. The maintenance of farm cash income at near-record levels can be attributed to increases in receipts
from the sale of field crops, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products, which offset to a con- CC  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
siderable extent a decline in cash returns from live stock and some live-stock products.
A general and substantial drop in average live-stock prices, together with lower marketings of all classes except hogs, accounted for the significant decline in live-stock receipts
in 1952.
Preliminary estimates indicate that farmers' net income from farming operations in
British Columbia for 1952 amounted to $48,267,000. This figure was 22 per cent below
the record high income of $61,827,000 for 1951. The decline from the level reached in
1951 was the net result of a drop of 4.4 per cent in gross farm income and an increase
of 10.8 per cent in farm operating and depreciation charges.
Gross farm income for 1952 is estimated at $126,313,000, as compared with the
record high of $132,129,000 reached in 1951. The decline, for the most part, was the
result of slightly lower returns from the sale of farm products. Income in kind, comprising the value of produce grown by farm operators and consumed on the farm, together
with an imputed rental value of farm homes, is placed at $15,333,000 in 1952, as compared with $15,094,000 the year previous.
The estimated total value of imports of agricultural products during 1952 is placed
at $98,021,792, as compared with $103,917,652 in 1951, a decrease of $5,895,860 or
5.6 per cent.
The total value of exports is placed at $33,736,826 in 1952, as compared with
$35,306,684 in 1951, a decrease of $1,569,858 or 4.5 per cent.
HORTICULTURAL CONDITIONS
Horticultural crops came through the winter in good condition. At Interior points
there were some sub-zero temperatures in January, but they were of short duration and
no serious injury was reported. Snowfall was heavy, which prevented penetration of
frost into the soil. Owing to the ground not being frozen, most of the water from melting
snow went into the ground and a good supply of moisture was present in the soil for early
spring growth.
No extreme temperatures were recorded on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. With few exceptions in low-lying and wind-swept areas, crops wintered well.
Frosts were experienced in the Okanagan during early May and damage was reported most severe in southern districts, but the over-all damage was not heavy. Some
frost-damage to raspberries and the early bloom of strawberries was reported from scattered areas in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island, but this had little effect on yield.
The weather was generally cool during May, June, and July. From the middle of
August to the end of October temperatures were above normal and precipitation was
less than average.
The hot, dry weather experienced from the middle of August to harvest was not
favourable to the sizing and colouring of late apples and pears, but was beneficial in so
far as the ripening of tomatoes and harvesting of fruit and vegetable crops were concerned.
Tree and Small Fruits
Tree-fruits.—All tree-fruits produced a larger crop than in 1951, with the exception
of pears and plums. The apricot-crop was the largest ever harvested, but size ran small.
This small size could be attributed to trees weakened by frost in the 1950 freeze and to
inadequate thinning. Peaches were considerably heavier than last year, but, as with
apricots, a high percentage ran to the smaller size. Owing to the heavy crop of pears in
1951, this year's crop was somewhat below that of last year. Though considerably below
normal, the cherry-crop almost doubled that of last year. The Kootenay crop showed
remarkable improvement in quality over last year.
Small Fruits.—Strawberries, raspberries, and loganberries came through the winter
in good condition.   There was some damage by spring frosts in low-lying areas, but DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1953 CC 19
damage was not general. Growing conditions were satisfactory, and the crops of strawberries and loganberries exceeded last year's production. Prices were considerably below
those of last year, but the berries were of good quality and found a receptive market.
Blueberries and cranberries are becoming of increasing importance in the Fraser
Valley.    The acreage in crop and tonnage harvested is increasing yearly.
The total production of all fruits in 1952 amounted to 390,204,000 pounds, valued
at $23,641,765, as compared with 315,252,000 pounds, valued at $20,258,739, in 1951,
indicating an increase of 74,952,000 pounds or 23.7 per cent in volume and $3,383,026
or 16.7 per cent in value.
The total production of apples for 1952 is estimated at 266,086,000 pounds, as
compared with 214,216,000 pounds in 1951, an increase of 51,870,000 pounds or
24.2 per cent.
The 1952 peach-crop is estimated at 27,208,000 pounds, as compared with
22,176,000 pounds in 1951.
The 1952 apricot-crop was the largest on record. Production for the current year
is placed at 12,174,000 pounds.
The 1952 pear-crop is estimated at 25,436,000 pounds, down 5,752,000 pounds
from the previous year.
The 1952 cherry-crop is estimated at 6,640,000 pounds, 86.5 per cent above that
of 1951.
Production of prunes for the current year is estimated at 13,870,000 pounds, as
compared with the 1951 production of 12,392,000 pounds, an increase of 1,478,000
pounds.
Production of strawberries in 1952 is estimated at 16,274,000 pounds, as against
10,268,000 pounds in 1951, an increase of approximately 58 per cent.
The 1952 raspberry-crop is placed at 9,464,000 pounds, as compared with
9,884,000 pounds in 1951, a decrease of 420,000 pounds.
The 1952 loganberry-crop is estimated at 1,240,000 pounds, about 40 per cent
greater than in 1951.
Vegetables
The acreage of vegetables in 1952 was about the same as in 1951. Cool weather
in July and August was not favourable to hot-weather crops in the Interior, and prospects
for a large tomato-crop were not good, but a change in the weather in late August from
cool to hot sunny days, followed by a frost-free September, was very favourable to
ripening and harvesting. In favourable locations, harvesting continued until after
October 25th.
Harvesting conditions were generally favourable to all vegetable-crops, and the
market and prices were satisfactory.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1952 was 93,831 tons, of a value
of $8,423,589, as compared with 77,973 tons, valued at $7,706,376, in 1951, an
increase of 15,858 tons or 20.3 per cent in volume and $717,213 or 9.3 per cent in value.
Hothouse tomatoes produced in 1952 amounted to 2,042 tons, as against 1,959
tons in 1951, an increase of 83 tons.
Field tomatoes produced in 1952 amounted to 24,609 tons, valued at $1,866,158,
as compared with 15,416 tons, valued at $1,535,885, in 1951, an increase of 9,193 tons
or 59 per cent.
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1952 is estimated at 2,846 tons, as
against 3,329 tons for the previous year, a decrease of 483 tons or 14.5 per cent.
Hothouse cucumbers produced in 1952 amounted to 325 tons, up 11 tons over the
1951 production.
An increase of 45 tons is recorded in the quantity of field rhubarb produced.   The
1952 crop amounted to 600 tons, valued at $42,538. CC 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Production of corn in 1952 is estimated at 10,620 tons, as against 6,021 tons in
1951, an increase of 4,599 tons or 76 per cent.
Production of green peas amounted to 7,911 tons in 1952, as compared with 6,766
tons for the year previous, an increase of 1,145 tons or 16.9 per cent.
Of the other vegetable-crops, the following showed an increase in volume of production over the previous year: Asparagus, green beans, beets, cabbage, cauliflower,
lettuce, mushrooms, onions, and parsnips. On the other hand, such crops as carrots,
celery, peppers, spinach, and pumpkin, marrow, etc., recorded decreases.
Field Crops
The 1952 crop-year was one of the best in recent years for general field crops.
In no area were there bumper crops, but yields were average or above average and
quality was good. Pastures throughout the Province remained fairly good up until July,
when some areas experienced drought, and they dried up during August into September.
There was no prolonged drought as in 1951.
In spite of the large carry-over of crops to be threshed last fall in the Peace River,
spring weather turned favourable and all threshing was completed under good conditions,
and there was about a normal acreage of grain seeded in this area. The wheat acreage
was down somewhat but this was made up in increased plantings of coarse grains,
particularly barley. There was a slight increase also of fall rye in the Peace River this
year, although this crop continues to be of minor importance. Yields throughout the
district were slightly below average, with wheat approximately 23 bushels per acre.
Although some districts did experience light frosts, the majority of the crop came off in
good condition and graded an average of about No. 4. Barley averaged about 35 bushels
per acre and oats around 50 bushels.
Elsewhere, in the Creston Flats and the North Okanagan, yields of fall and spring
cereals were good, including an average oat-crop in the Fraser Valley.
Hay-crops generally were good, particularly in the Fraser Valley, where the dairymen went into the winter with ample reserves of feed. The dry summer conditions did
curtail a heavy second cut of hay in many districts, notably the Central Interior, in the
North Okanagan and the Kootenays. However, in most sections good weather prevailed during harvest, and the hay was of excellent quality.
The total gross value of the prinicipal field crops produced on farms in British
Columbia in 1952 is now estimated at $35,568,000, as compared with $31,715,000 in
1951, an increase of $3,853,000 or 12.1 per cent.
The total area planted to the principal field crops in 1952 was 580,500 acres, as
against 574,900 acres in 1951, an increase of 5,600 acres.
Wheat production in 1952 is estimated at 1,973,000 bushels from 85,800 acres,
as compared with 2,525,000 bushels from 101,000 acres in 1951—yields yer acre of
23 and 25 bushels respectively. Oats yielded 5,300,000 bushels from 100,000 acres,
a yield per acre of 53 bushels, as compared with 4,738,000 bushels from 103,000 acres
or 46 bushels per acre in 1951. The yield of barley is estimated at 1,622,000 bushels
from 50,700 acres, as compared with 1,284,000 bushels from 32,100 acres in 1951,
the average yields being 32 and 40 bushels respectively.
Production of mixed grains is estimated at 125,000 bushels from 2,400 acres or
52 bushels per acre, as compared with 110,000 bushels from 2,300 acres or 48 bushels
per acre in 1951.
The 1952 flaxseed-crop is estimated at 90,000 bushels, as compared with 67,000
bushels produced in 1951.
Grain-crops aggregating a total of 9,239,000 bushels were produced in 1952, as
against the 1951 production of 8,832,000 bushels.
Tame hay yielded 788,000 tons from 315,000 acres or 2.50 tons per acre, as compared with 560,000 tons from 311,000 acres or 1.80 tons per acre in 1951.   The yield DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC 21
of fodder-corn is estimated at 45,900 tons in 1952, up 3,700 tons from that of the
previous year.
The production of all fodders amounted to 833,900 tons, valued at $20,704,000,
as compared with 602,200 tons, valued at $16,662,000, in 1951.
Potatoes yielded 79,650 tons from 10,200 acres, as against 58,800 tons from
9,800 acres in 1951—yields per acre of 7.80 and 6 tons respectively.
DAIRYING
Climatic conditions in the Province throughout the year were very satisfactory and
contributed in some measure to the high level of milk production in 1952.
The numbers of milk cows on farms at June 1st reached a total of 84,000, while
numbers of dairy heifers were estimated at 26,600. The former represented an increase
of 1,100 or 1.3 per cent over the previous year, while the latter advanced 800 or 3.1 per
cent.   An increase of 11.7 per cent in the number of calves on farms between June 1st,
1951 and 1952, indicates the possibility of rising milk-cow numbers.
The increase in cow numbers, coupled with satisfactory weather conditions, was
reflected in a considerable increase in total milk production over the previous year. The
total milk production for 1952 is estimated at 650,259,000 pounds, an increase of
25,027,000 pounds or 4 per cent above the 1951 total. Of this amount, approximately
50 per cent was used in fluid sales, 11 per cent in the form of milk and cream on farms,
3 per cent in dairy-butter production, and 36 per cent in dairy factories used in the
manufacture of creamery butter, factory cheese, concentrated milk, and ice-cream.
During 1952 the butter output of creameries was 3,670,000 pounds, as against
2,666,000 pounds in 1951, an increase of 1,004,000 pounds or 37.6 per cent. The
average price for the year was 62.5 cents per pound, compared with 65.5 cents in 1951.
Cheddar-cheese production is estimated at 466,000 pounds, as compared with
557,000 pounds in 1951, a decrease of 91,000 pounds. The average price for the year
was 34 cents per pound, compared with 40.7 cents in 1951.
Production of ice-cream during 1952 exceeded that of any previous year.    The
1952 production is placed at 2,964,000 gallons, as against 2,892,000 gallons in 1951,
an increase of 72,000 gallons.
The output of the condenseries in 1952 was 37,550,000 pounds, as compared with
39,805,000 pounds in 1951, a decrease of 5.6 per cent. Fluid sales of milk and cream,
the latter expressed as milk, are estimated at 322,805,000 pounds, as compared with
325,859,000 pounds in 1951, a decrease of 3,054,000 pounds. The average price of
fluid milk to producers increased from $3.98 to $4.16 per 100 pounds in 1952.
The total farm value of milk production in 1952 amounted to $25,787,000, an
increase of $1,860,000 over that of the preceding year.
Farm income from sales of dairy products is estimated at $23,244,000, as against
$21,462,000 in 1951, an increase of 8.3 per cent.
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY
The winter of 1951-52 was cold with plenty of snow. Feed-supplies were
adequate, and cattle came through the winter in good condition. Spring opened moderately early, and cattle were on range by April 1st in most areas. After good spring growth
the summer turned dry, and grasshoppers were a real problem in some areas. Most
cattle came to market in good finish, and more yearling cattle were slaughtered than in
past years.    Cattle population showed an increase of approximately 5 per cent.
Cattlemen co-operated very well in the matter of marketing during the period of
glut following the closure of the United States market as a result of the foot-and-mouth
disease outbreak on the Prairies. British Columbia accepted all live stock possible from
selected areas on the Prairies for slaughter during the quarantine period, which helped CC 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
to relieve the pressure considerably. Centres such as Williams Lake and Okanagan
Falls, where sales of cattle are regularly held each fall, arranged to hold two sales. This
helped to take care of the surplus cattle and got more back on to feed.
Cattle prices dropped considerably, as was to be expected. Canada had to find
a place for at least 100,000 head of cattle which formerly went to the United States.
Quite a few of these cattle were returned to our Canadian farms, and, of course, this
tended to depress the market. Prices in the United States were considerably lower on
account of droughts extending over quite large areas, necessitating very heavy marketings
of cattle.
Sheep numbers have gone up some 13 per cent, due to the very high prices which
obtained for both lamb and mutton and also for wool. This situation has eased considerably, and it is expected sheep numbers will not increase so rapidly. There is little
likelihood of lamb and mutton ever being in surplus.
Swine production is not one of our big live-stock efforts. In some areas it could
very well be extended considerably, but before such a programme could be undertaken,
considerable basic work should be done. Hog numbers increased by 34 per cent during
the year.
The downward trend in horse numbers, evident since 1942, continued, with
a further falling-off of 6 per cent in comparison with last year. The estimated number
of horses on farms at June 1st, 1952, was 34,100, as against the 1951 census of 36,100.
The estimated total number of cattle and calves on farms at June 1st, 1952, was
338,200, an increase of 5 per cent over the Census of Agriculture figure of 321,300
at June 1st, 1951. Milk cows were higher in number by 1 per cent, while other cattle,
including calves, increased 6 per cent.
The estimated number of sheep on farms at June 1st, 1952, is placed at 76,500,
an increase of 13 per cent over the census figure of 67,500 for June 1st, 1951.
The number of hogs on farms at June 1st, 1952, estimated at 66,000, was 34 per
cent higher than the census figure of 49,400 for June 1st, 1951.
The total value of all live stock on farms at June 1st, 1952, was $57,609,000,
a decrease of 11.4 per cent from the 1951 value of $65,027,000. Numbers of all
classes of live stock except horses were higher than the census numbers of 1951. In each
case, however, average values well below the record or near-record levels of the previous
year more than offset the increase in numbers.
From the poultry survey it is estimated that the total number of all classes of
poultry on farms at June 1st, 1952, was 4,186,000, an increase of 12 per cent from the
Census of Agriculture figure of 3,729,000 at June 1st, 1951.
There were 3,840,000 hens, cocks, and chickens on farms in the Province at
June 1st, 1952, as compared with 3,452,000 on the same date in 1951, an increase of
11 per cent.
The estimated number of turkeys at 300,000 showed an increase of 23 per cent
over last year. During the same period, geese increased 50 per cent and ducks
25 per cent.
The total estimated value of farm poultry at June 1st, 1952, was $6,567,000, as
compared with $5,756,000 at June 1st, 1951.
Total egg production for 1952 is estimated at 25,069,000 dozen, of a value of
$10,862,000, as compared with 25,432,000 dozen, valued at $13,839,900, in 1951,
a decrease in quantity production of 363,300 dozen.
Poultry-meat production in 1952 amounted to 23,191,000 pounds, as against
17,944,000 pounds in 1951, an increase of 5,247,000 pounds or 29.2 per cent.
MISCELLANEOUS
Production of honey in 1952 was 800,000 pounds, as compared with 1,500,000
pounds in 1951.    The average yield per colony was 34 pounds below the yield of the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC 23
previous year. The decrease was largely attributable to unfavourable weather conditions
during the nectar-gathering season, as well as to the sharp decrease in the numbers of
bee-keepers and apiaries.
Wool production during 1952 amounted to 316,000 pounds, an increase of 47,000
pounds or 17 per cent over the revised figure for 1951. Due to a sharp drop in average
prices from 67 cents a pound in 1951 to 35 cents a pound in 1952, the total value of
the shorn-wool crop was only $111,000, as against $181,000 in 1951.
The yield of tobacco is estimated at 125,000 pounds from 94 acres or 1,330 pounds
per acre, as compared with 187,000 pounds from 150 acres or 1,248 pounds per acre
in 1951. The average price of 35.2 cents per pound was about 1.7 cents per pound lower
than in the year previous.
Growing conditions for hops were generally satisfactory this season. Production
for 1952 is placed at 2,028,000 pounds from 1,422 acres, as against 1,901,000 pounds
from 1,449 acres in 1951—yields per acre of 1,426 and 1,312 pounds respectively.
The average price per pound was 70 cents, as compared with 75 cents in 1951.
Growing and harvesting conditions were very satisfactory, and seed-crops were
gathered in excellent condition. The total value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop
seed production for 1952 amounted to $1,393,148, as compared with $1,065,953 in
1951, an increase of $327,195 or 30 per cent.
The total value of bulb production for 1952 is estimated at $255,675, a decrease
from the year previous of $11,200.
Margarine production for 1952 is placed at 8,440,900 pounds, as against 8,767,000
pounds in 1951, a decrease of 326,100 pounds.
The revenue derived from fur-farming is estimated at $1,274,000, an increase of
$478,000 over the revised figure for 1951.
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
GENERAL
In general, agricultural marketing conditions throughout British Columbia during
1953 can be described as fairly satisfactory. While the over-all economy of the Province
maintained a satisfactory rate of expansion, soft spots developed in some directions.
A somewhat similar pattern developed within the agricultural industry.
Declines in price levels for beef and potatoes were in large measure responsible for
a drop of between 5 and 10 per cent in the farm prices index during the year. A similar
decline was registered in the wholesale price index for farm products.
At the same time the price index of commodities and services used by farmers was
slightly more than 2 per cent below the level set in 1952. While farm-labour wage rates
advanced fractionally during the year, lower levels in farm living costs, some equipment
and materials used in farm production were registered.
The economic position of agriculture relative to the rest of the Province's major
industries has caused some concern this year. Farmers generally have been faced with
decreased net returns in the face of higher fixed costs of production. Much of these
latter increases can be attributed to such factors as higher transportation and handling
costs, which are tied closely to increased labour rates.
In those agricultural areas close to large urban centres the continuing pressure
exerted by the population increases in the latter continued to push land taxes upward,
further aggravating the farm economic status. CC 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
While much of the foregoing can be said to reflect the widespread inflationary forces
of the post-war era, the rapidly expanding industrial development in this Province is also
exerting new pressures upon our agricultural economy. Industrial expansion means
a greater domestic market for farm products, but it also entails increasing prices of farm
lands, and consequent increasing charges levied against those lands for additional services, including roads, schools, etc.
Thus much of British Columbia's available agricultural land, always severely limited
in extent, is now the object of rapidly increasing competitive factors for land use. As
a result, the Province's farm economy is experiencing an accelerated change of pace,
wherein greater efficiency of production, aimed at increased returns per acre, is the
overriding consideration.
FEED-GRAIN MOVEMENTS
Feed-grain shipments into British Columbia from the Prairies continued during the
year at levels close to those set in 1952, when an average of 16,000 tons per month were
imported under provisions of the Federal Freight Assistance Policy.
Up to the end of October a total of $1,355,333.27 had been paid out by the Federal
Treasury in freight assistance for shipments totalling nearly 135,000 tons.
As in former years, shipments of wheat lead all grains, followed by oats, mill-feeds,
and barley.
Since the Freight Assistance Policy was first inaugurated in October, 1941, as
a war-time measure, a total of close to $19,500,000 has been paid out in freight assistance
on nearly 3,000,000 tons of feed-grains shipped into the Province. The average rate
per ton has amounted to $6.70, 62 cents more than the all-Canada average.
FEED PRICES
Price levels for basic live-stock feeds showed some fluctuation during the year, but
these were, for the most part, of a comparatively minor nature. Feed-oats registered
a further decline of 11 per cent from the 1952 average price, and barley dropped sharply
during the latter part of the year by as much as 20 per cent from the midsummer high.
Wheat maintained a steady tone throughout, being only fractionally higher than in
the preceding year.
The price declines in coarse grains were reflected to some extent in slightly lower
prices for dairy and poultry mashes.   Concentrates were also lower than 1952 averages.
While Prairie grain production maintained near-record proportions, resulting in
heavy carry-overs, feed prices generally have not registered significant declines in relation
to live-stock prices.   This is due in large measure to continued high handling costs.
Hay production in all parts of the Province was again heavy for the second consecutive year. As a result, prices declined under sluggish demand, dropping below $20 per
ton on farms. Alfalfa hay also dropped by about 10 per cent from 1952 levels, being
quoted at $44 per ton delivered for second cut at coastal points.
FRUIT
Commercial fruit production was generally satisfactory this year, with values maintained at firm levels for most items. Gross value has been placed at close to $25,500,000,
an increase of about 13 per cent over the 1952 total. Of this figure, tree-fruits accounted
for $19,500,000, up 7 per cent, while small fruits jumped sharply by 27 per cent to
a value of $5,600,000. The latter increase was brought about almost wholly by a strong
demand for raspberries, in which production was up by about one-quarter over the
preceding year.
The Okanagan and Kootenays apple-crop was down slightly this year, but quality
and size were reasonably satisfactory.    Markets opened on a firm tone, which was DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 25
maintained at levels slightly above those realized in 1952. While Western Canadian
markets were rather sluggish for a time during early fall, demand in major United States
outlets was steady throughout. Now absorbing about 2,000,000 boxes annually, the
United States has assumed a major role as the leading export market for British Columbia
apples. Monetary difficulties have continued to effectively bar entry into the once-great
United Kingdom market.
Soft-fruit values were up substantially from 1952 levels, with the exception of
prunes. Production of the latter was down sharply this year, and quality was generally
disappointing. Peaches made a gratifying come-back from depressed price averages of
the preceding year. Apricots also moved at considerably firmer prices following the
reduced returns realized from the bumper 1952 crop.
With production at close to the preceding year's levels, pears and cherries registered
satisfactory price gains, the former up nearly 50 per cent.
In small fruits, the strawberry deal was marred by unseasonably wet weather at
harvest-time in the Fraser Valley. As a result, production declined slightly. Prices for
both fresh and processed berries were up moderately.
The 1953 raspberry-crop showed an over-all increase of about 25 per cent and met
with an unusually strong demand, boosting prices to levels one-third above those realized
during the preceding year.
Still expanding in volume, the blueberry industry enjoyed a buoyant market again
this year. Especially encouraging has been the public reception to quick-frozen packs,
both on domestic and export markets.
The 1953 Okanagan apple-juice pack was reduced this year, standing at 263,700
cases as of December 1st. This was a decline of 25 per cent from the 1952 pack.
Output from the latter was insufficient to meet market demand, stocks being depleted
at most points by midsummer.
FIELD CROPS AND VEGETABLES
Following two successive years of record high prices, potatoes dropped to levels
less than one-half those established for the 1952 crop-year. Acreage and production
were up by close to 15 per cent, but a similar pattern set in all major producing areas
of the continent resulted in glutted markets and consequent depressed prices.
The early-potato deal was severely hit by heavy United States imports, and the
resultant depressed tone carried over into late potatoes. Sales were maintained, but at
prices too low to provide encouraging net returns to growers.
A substantial tonnage of the 1952 crop, stored in anticipation of higher returns
during the early spring months, was successfully handled. The expected price rise did
not materialize, however.
Due largely to unfavourable weather conditions, this year's tomato-pack was down
about 10 per cent from the near-record 1952 figure. Prices, influenced somewhat by
slightly reduced cannery offers, were also down. The canned-pack carry-over was
substantial.
Onion production registered a sharp increase, but prices remained low despite
steady demand. Quality suffered from a neck-rot condition, resulting in reduced pack-
out from storage stocks.
Carrots produced one of the brighter spots in the vegetable industry, moving steadily
at reasonably firm prices.    Production was nearly double the 1952 total.
Cabbage prices were generally depressed, but cauliflower met a ready market at
fairly good levels.
The canning-pea crop was quite satisfactory, with yields reaching as high as
2>Vi tons per acre. Prices paid to growers averaged between $85 and $90 per ton for
all grades. CC 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Well over one-quarter of this year's crop was diverted to the quick-freeze trade,
a phase of the industry which has grown rapidly during recent years.
Seed-peas brought an average of 8 cents per pound in the Fraser Valley.
In the Okanagan, production of dried peas was double that of the previous year,
with close to 3,000,000 pounds, valued at 4 cents per pound.
The bean harvest was also satisfactory, and brought prices of close to $100 per ton
on an average to growers.   Again a substantial percentage was frozen.
Lettuce production declined this year, but prices were maintained at generally good
levels.
On balance, the vegetable industry realized returns of about 5 per cent above those
of 1952. Net returns to growers are expected to show little change, however, owing to
increased fertilizer and other production and handling costs.
LIVE STOCK
The live-stock marketing picture was highlighted by the continued steady decline
in beef prices. Medium steers, which at the beginning of the year were averaging around
$21, had by late autumn dropped below $17. This represented a decline of better than
20 per cent, and was nearly 50 per cent below the average prevailing in early 1952.
Shipments of cattle to stockyards were up about 30 per cent in numbers over 1952,
but packing-houses reported little change in volume during the year.
Good and choice calves followed a price pattern much similar to cattle, although
the decline was not as sharp until late summer.
Decreased volume of beef and veal exports was in large measure responsible for this
year's relatively depressed price structure. High consumer purchasing power provided
good domestic market demand at prices too high to permit excessive export shipments.
Heavy marketings of United States beef on the domestic market held prices below those
levels which could attract Canadian offerings.
Prices paid at cattle auctions reflected the lowered market level this year. The
Christmas Fat Stock Show at Kamloops saw car-lots averaging $21.12, a decline of
22 per cent from the 1952 average at this sale.
While beef declined, hog prices rose during the year. By August, B 1 hogs were
bringing around $33. Prices dipped slightly during the ensuing months, but were still
35 per cent above January levels.
Unlike beef, exports of hogs and pork products were maintained at volumes close
to those recorded in 1952. This factor, coupled with a sharp decline in hog production
in Eastern Canada, resulted in a relatively firm market.
Sheep and lamb marketings were fairly steady during most of the year. Prices
followed a normal pattern, reaching a top of about $24 for good handyweight lambs in
midsummer, declining to around $ 18 by late autumn.
PACKAGING
In the merchandising of British Columbia fruits and vegetables, packaging continues
to play an ever-increasing role. Experiments with different types and styles of paper-
board containers have been carried out by B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, with a view to
improving upon the long-familiar wooden box and crate.
Many different models have been examined, but most have been discarded as
unsuited in one or more respects to trade requirements.
Two paper-board types have gained acceptance, however. These are known by the
names " Tray-Pak " and " Handi-Pak." The first is a slotted container having an inside
liner and utilizing pressed-pulp trays to take individual tiers of apples. The second is
a die-cut box having no lid and used for apples, peaches, plums, etc. One of its principal
features is that it stimulates impulse buying. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 27
Such packages have several advantages over the standard wooden box. Among
these are lower cost, lighter weight, and the fact that they lend themselves readily to
" dressing up."
However, the wooden box is by no means a thing of the past. It still has a number
of points in its favour, and the introduction in recent years of the " junior " wooden box,
a half-size wooden box, has had a favourable market reception.
Plastic containers have also become firmly established in the pre-packaging industry
for fresh produce. Pliofilm and polyethylene bags have gained wide acceptance for sales
of small-quantity lots.
Also firmly established is the pre-cutting and packaging in cellophane of various
popular cuts of meat and poultry.
Pre-packaging has developed as an integral part of the present-day trend toward
self-service merchandising. While opponents to the pre-packaging idea maintain that
the practice increases costs, those who favour it insist that it actually increases sales
volume. In any event, much of its current popularity can be traced directly to public
demand for service of this type.
CEREAL GRAINS
Grain-crops generally were fair to good in the Province this year, but prices displayed
a weakened market tone. In the major Peace River growing area, a 1,250,000-bushel
crop was expected to bring initially about $1.11 per bushel. Oats were down in production by about 1,000,000 bushels to a 1,275,000-bushel total. The average price was
43 cents at harvest. Barley production also declined about 25 per cent to 1,300,000
bushels, selling at about 64 cents per bushel.
In Central British Columbia, wheat, mostly Grade 3 or 4, averaged $50 per ton,
while oats and barley eased $3 and $5 per ton to $31 and $33 respectively. Quality and
yield were about average.
FORAGE-CROPS
Further price declines featured the market for forage-crop seeds this year. The
supply picture was influenced strongly by carry-overs in many lines, and fairly good
crops this year prevented any appreciable price rises.
Sweet clover rose fractionally to 4 cents per pound, but all other major seed varieties
either remained largely at 1952 levels or declined slightly.
Alfalfa weakened from last year's 15-cent average to as low as 12 and 13 cents
this year. Brome also dropped about 1 cent from the 4-cent figure established in 1952.
Altaswede followed a similar trend, easing from last year's 19 cents to 17 and 18 cents.
The red clovers remained unchanged, double cut holding at 21 cents, but alsike
dropped sharply to as low as 6 cents, barely more than half the 1952 price. Creeping
red fescue declined several cents to about 27 cents, while timothy held fairly steady at
7 and 8 cents, down very slightly from the preceding year.
Sugar-beet seed production in the Fraser Valley was up slightly this year to about
550,000 pounds on a cleaned-seed basis.   The grower price was 15 cents per pound.
POULTRY AND EGGS
The poultry industry realized one of its better years during 1953. Following a slow
start, in which hatchings were below the 1952 rate, the industry gathered momentum
and, by autumn, numbers of chicks hatched were up 7 per cent.
Turkey-poult hatchings were down about 26 per cent during the same period,
however.
Egg production was down close to 12 per cent, forcing prices upward to a high of
over 70 cents per dozen wholesale for Grade A Large by fall. Prices throughout the
year averaged approximately 25 per cent higher than those realized in 1952. CC 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Production of poultry-meat, particularly broilers, increased slightly, but heavy
imports kept prices down. A similar situation influenced the turkey trade. Turkey
prices were up on an average of 10 cents per pound over the preceding year, but United
States imports prevented any further increases.
The generally higher price structure, coupled with further declines in feed prices,
added up to a prosperous twelve months for the industry, with the outlook favourable
for the immediate future.
MARKETING BOARDS
Early in the year, as a result of a survey carried out in the Lower Mainland and
on Vancouver Island into operations of the B.C. Coast Vegetable Marketing Board,
a plebiscite was held among growers to determine whether or not a majority favoured
continuance of the scheme under which the Board has operated since 1934.
In a vote conducted upon mailed ballots, growers endorsed the scheme by a sweeping
majority. The actual count was: For, 606; against, 68. There were 69 rejected ballots.
This represented a 90-per-cent affirmative vote, a sharp gain from the 69-per-cent
sustaining vote obtained in a previous plebiscite conducted in 1938.
Acting upon a resolution passed by the annual convention of the British Columbia
Fruit Growers' Association, the British Columbia Fruit Board submitted a request for
an amendment to the British Columbia Fruit Scheme, in which the word " producing "
would be eliminated from paragraph 2 (d).
This was granted by Order in Council. The same paragraph 2 (d) now reads:
" ' Grower' means any person operating an orchard of one acre or more . . . " By so
altering the wording, those persons who have planted orchards which are not yet of
bearing age are brought under provisions of the Scheme.
The British Columbia Fruit Board also amended the Board's regulations in respect
of fruit shipments in the Creston area. Persons in that area may now transport or make
gift shipments of not more than five standard containers per day of regulated products, of
which not more than two shall be cherries. Such shipments are limited to a total
of twenty standard containers in any one week.
After having served as Board Chairman for many years, George A. Barrat submitted
his resignation this year, to take effect in January, 1954.
Also resigning this year was T. Wilkinson, Chairman of the B.C. Interior Vegetable
Marketing Board at Kelowna.   He was succeeded by R. C. Stockton, of Kamloops.
ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES
The regulations covering fruit and vegetables, pursuant to the " Fruit, Vegetables,
and Honey Grades Act," were revised this year. The revision was confined to the
incorporating of the regulations as of 1944 with subsequent amendments. In all, 1,500
copies of the revised regulations, together with the Act, were published in convenient
booklet form for distribution.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
Due to the unusually dry weather in the fall of 1952 most orchards went into the
winter very dry. Fortunately the winter was mild, with no sub-zero temperatures reported
in any of the tree-fruit areas. The winter snowfall was lighter than usual, and some fears
were held that irrigation-water would be short;   however, the cool spring prevented
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 29
a rapid run-off and showery weather in late May and June helped to conserve water-
supplies, and no shortages of irrigation-water occurred.
The showery weather during and after the blossoming period was favourable for the
development of apple-scab and also seriously interfered with spraying operations.
Apple-scab was a serious problem in all the Interior orchard areas and has caused quite
serious losses in the Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Creston areas. Pin-point scab is reported
from the Oliver-Osoyoos areas for the first time.
Spring frosts caused little or no damage in the Interior, but in the low-lying areas of
the Fraser Valley a sharp frost on May 29th not only damaged other crops, but practically
wiped out the entire crop of cranberries.
Hail-storms caused serious losses in the Okanagan, with only a few districts reporting
no hail. With more hail insurance in force this year and a ready outlet for apples for
processing, the financial loss from hail should not be as serious as in former years when
little or no hail insurance was in force.
From a grower's standpoint, the season was not too favourable. Cool, backward
weather in the early spring slowed up early-seeded crops such as onions and carrots and
delayed the transplanting of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, and cantaloupes.
With the exception of a short spell of cool, showery weather in late August and early
September, tree-fruits were harvested under favourable conditions.
The following table, compiled by M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at
Penticton, compares the blossoming-dates of tree-fruits for the past five years:—
Fruit
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
Apricots.-
Cherries-
Peaches...
Pears	
Prunes —
Apples..—
Apr. 17
Apr. 24
May 1
May   3
May   8
Apr. 29
May 9
May 11
May 14
May 15
May 18
Apr. 19
Apr. 29
Apr. 30
May 7
May 6
May 12
Apr. 18
Apr. 25
Apr. 29
May 4
May 4
May 10
Apr. 8
Apr. 24
Apr. 24
Apr. 30
May 2
May   9
HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Tree-fruits
With the unsatisfactory results of the stone-fruit crop in 1952, the British Columbia
Fruit Growers' Association asked for a Stone-fruit Committee to be set up to advise the
industry in general, and those in the stone-fruit sections in particular, what should be
done to improve the quality of this very important crop.
Accordingly, a committee of three well-qualified and experienced men were chosen
for this task. One represented B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, one the Federal Fruit Branch,
and one the Provincial Horticultural Branch.
This Committee acted in an advisory capacity only and did no field work. Meetings
were held, as far in advance as possible of the maturing and harvesting of all the stone-
fruits, with packing-house personnel, fruit inspectors, fieldmen, B.C.F.G.A. officials, and
Horticultural Branch members. At these meetings, standards of maturity were discussed,
using the kind of fruit under discussion as specimens to illustrate the maturity desired,
and by visual instruction during the packing operations, leaving no doubt in anyone's
mind what the standard should be.
Naturally such a move was questioned by some, but with the results of 1952 still
fresh in everyone's mind, there was a real effort on all sides to turn out a better product.
The Committee did excellent work, and it is felt by the industry as a whole that the results
obtained were well worth the effort. Weather conditions also helped with the cherry and
apricot harvest, and the quality of these two crops this year was better than any that has
left the Okanagan Valley in years.   It was also well received by the trade, and sold readily CC 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in the face of strong competition from imported fruit because of the better grading and
evener maturity throughout the pack.
Peaches harvested during the warm weather were quite satisfactory, but unfortunately a cool, showery spell in late August and early September slowed up colouring, and,
as a result, a lot of the later peaches were soft, showed very little colour, and were not
of good quality.
Prunes, about the same time (late August and early September), developed a
shrivelled condition around the stem-end which often extended well into the flesh of the
prune, rendering them useless either for fresh shipments or processing. The loss in the
Okanagan from this source is estimated at around 40 per cent. So far the cause of this
condition has not been determined, but a committee is undertaking some investigational
work.
This same prune shrivel was also serious in the State of Washington, but, oddly
enough, the Creston district shipped a crop of fine-quality prunes without any trouble
either in the orchard or on the market.
Some felt that the trouble was caused by the cool weather at blossoming-time, but
since the Creston district also experienced this same weather, there must be some other
cause or causes, so far not determined. This is about three years out of five when prunes
have suffered from either gumming or shrivel, and, as a result, many growers are pulling
them out and replanting to something else. It has been reported that the early strains
have not suffered to the same extent as the old-type Italian prune.
Apricots.—The crop, though not as large as last year, made better size and the
quality was better than average. New plantings since the 1950 freeze are now starting
to bear and will soon replace the older trees that in many cases still show the effects of
winter-injury.
Cherries.—The cherry-crop was slightly down in quantity, but greatly improved in
quality over 1952. Although there was some rain during the harvesting period, the loss
from splitting was below average, except in the Oliver district.
Peaches.—This year's crop was about the same as last year. Early peaches made
good deliveries, but later varieties showed a lack of colour and a tendency to softness.
With the new plantings since 1950 now starting to bear, a 25-per-cent increase in tonnage
can be expected by 1955, provided, of course, normal winters are experienced.
Plums and Prunes.—Plum yields are on the decrease. There are very few new
plantings, and many of the older trees are beyond profitable bearing. A special effort
had been made early this season by all the horticultural staff to impress on the growers
the need for better pruning, more fertilizer, and to pay special attention to mite-control.
Until late August the prune-crop never looked more promising—the trees were a good
colour, wood-growth normal, and the foliage free of insect pests, especially mites—then
the fruit shrivelled as described above.
Pears.—The pear-crop is up over last year by approximately 125,000 boxes, with
a general improvement in size. As in past years, the District Horticulturists in the pear
areas have assisted the Pear Committee in setting the picking-dates for Bartlett, Flemish
Beauty, and Anjou. The results of this work are now showing up in a more uniform
pack in so far as maturity is concerned, and with fewer claims for poor condition on
arrival.
Apples.—The yield for 1953 will be less than last year by approximately 600,000
boxes. This is due to the weakened condition of many trees still suffering from the 1950
freeze, unsettled cool weather at blossoming-time, and the Delicious variety not sizing;
also Jonathan and Yellow Newtown in many orchards were definitely off this year.
In addition, apple-scab was so serious in some orchards a lot of the fruit was discarded
in the orchard at harvest-time. Although the new stop-drop spray 2,4,5 T.P., was widely
used, the natural drop, where no stop-drop sprays were used, was not as heavy as last
year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 31
Grapes.—The crop this year, according to the estimate, will be approximately
100,000 pounds over last year's record yield. The market has been favourable, and it
should be a favourable year for the grape-grower.
Small Fruits
Strawberry and raspberry production for the Interior shows an increase over last
year, gained chiefly in the Salmon Arm and Creston districts. The Fraser Valley shows
a slight decrease in strawberry production, while raspberries show an increase of around
121,000 crates over last year. Loganberries, blackberries, black and red currants, and
gooseberries also show a slight increase. However, blueberries show an increase of
14,000 crates (22,400 in 1952 as against 36,000 in 1953). Cranberries are almost
a complete failure due to frost. Filberts show an increase of 100,000 pounds over
last year.
Wet weather during the strawberry season not only interfered with picking, but the
general quality was down, curtailing shipments as fresh fruit. Losses from mould and
rot were high, amounting to possibly 20 per cent. However, the cool season delayed
ripening, and with a reduced crop the market stiffened for processed berries. The current
year's crop has practically all been sold at this time, at a price of 14 cents per pound
to the grower for processed berries.
Although weather conditions were not too favourable for the raspberry harvest,
the crop was picked and handled without too much loss and, as mentioned above, shows
' an increase of 121,000 crates for the Fraser Valley.
On Vancouver Island the strawberry-crop was up over 1952 by five carloads to
the fresh market; in addition, 96,000 pounds were shipped to Olympia, Wash., for
quick freezing. The mild winter was favourable for loganberries, and the crop was
approximately that of last year—nine cars.
J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist, Creston, reports that the trend toward increased
acreage of black currants in the Creston district has come to an abrupt end, at least
temporarily. With European berries underselling the local product, many growers
refused to pick their crop, and several acres of black currants have been pulled out in
the Creston area during the last few months.
The following table indicates the actual production of tree and small fruits in 1952
and the estimated production for 1953:—
Kind
Year
Production
Kind
Year
Production
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
Boxes
6,335,383
5,687,000
149,096
88,700
605,634
744,500
Crates
126,296
130,100
924,676
651,600
1,360,409
1,354,600
608,684
524,000
331,996
328,200
Strawberries  	
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
1952
1953
Crates
904,086
890,600
525,768
648,400
68,885
89,500
42,526
52,800
4,352
4,500
8,892
8,900
Blackberries ., -
Prunes 	
Gooseberries -—	
4,062
4,700
Lbs.
2,587,161
2,690,000 CC 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Vegetables
The estimated vegetable acreage for 1953 shows a decrease of 2,226 acres from
that of 1952.
The season has not been too favourable for the vegetable-grower, both from the
standpoint of growing conditions and returns.
Because of the poor quality of tomatoes toward the end of the season, the canneries
closed earlier than usual, leaving quite a tonnage unpicked.
The onion acreage was increased this year, and up until harvest-time the prospects
appeared bright for a big crop of good-quality onions. Due to unsettled weather at
harvest-time, with frequent light showers, proper curing in the field was almost impossible, and, as a result, there is quite a high percentage of neck-rot showing up in storage
at this time.
The potato acreage is slightly below last year, and although yields and quality have
been good, prices throughout the season are considerably below those of last year.
The canning-bean acreage was about the same as last year, with yields generally
better than in 1952.    Prices remained at about the same level.
Asparagus acreage, especially in the Okanagan, is showing a steady increase and
is rapidly becoming an important crop in the Interior. Prices remain steady with an
active demand.
Producers of dried peas and beans enjoyed a good year, and although prices are
slightly below last year's, increased yields will more than make up the difference. Peas
were down one-half cent and beans 2 cents per pound, and this year will be 4 and 10 cents
respectively.
The following table gives the acreage and value for 1952 and the estimated acreage
and value for 1953:—
Crop
1952
Acreage
Asparagus _	
Beans, dried-	
Beans, green	
Beets —	
Cabbage—	
Carrots	
Cauliflower	
Celery  	
Corn	
Cucumbers	
Lettuce _	
Onions 	
Parsnips -	
Peas, dried _
Peas, green..	
Potatoes	
Spinach	
Tomatoes _
Turnips	
Totals-.
187.00
61.00
1,280.50
381.25
740.00
!,120.75
431.75
630.50
!,471.75
498.75
769.50
797.75
128.00
789.00
1,086.00
,619.75
468.25
1,400.25
381.00
Value
1953
Estimated
Acreage
3
31,242.75    1 $9,636,341.87
$42.
18.
441,
128,
198.
343.
198,
189.
341.
446.
491,
612.
53.
54.
734.
3,904.
123.
1,246.
65.
,273.401
.331.83
,329.39
,598.80
,872.18
,790.35
,247.72
,745.74
760.31
,888.41
,919.88
,262.85
683.70
,060.00
,763.43
236.00
,866.07
,042.51
,669.30
200.00
64.00
1,338.50
382.75
584.50
945.75
430.75
631.50
2,149.00
487.00
737.50
987.25
111.00
829.00
4,037.00
11,524.75
468.25
2,766.75
361.00
29,016.25
Estimated
Value
$132,080.00
10,180.86
468,353.40
218,040.00
277,620.00
550,800.00
252,150.00
212,760.00
319,625.00
438,352.00
461,622.50
780,230.00
60,500.00
116,155.44
711,237.50
3,872,316.00
157,493.45
747,117.00
119,160.00
$9,905,793.15
Crop reduced by frost.
Vegetable- and Flower-seed Production
Although the vegetable- and flower-seed situation is still not too favourable, it is
encouraging to note there is a steady improvement, as shown in the following extracts
from the report of J. L. Webster, Horticulturist, Vancouver:—
" The following table is set forth to show the trend in production during the past
three years. (Note.—Final compilation of 1953 yields and total value are not completed
until February.) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 33
Vegetable-seed Production (Estimates) for 1953 as Compared
to 1951 and 1952 Yields
Kind
1951
1952
1953
(Estimated)
Lb.
372
10,000
120,791
8,055
37
9,711
674
2,359
357
697
4,609
50
15,343
Lb.
250
11,000
92,250
14,480
30
6,280
200
20,000
1,430
380
8,080
50
5,040
2,000
2,570
2,538,246
93
210
10,098
Lb.
200
12,000
144,200
5,300
750
13,500
400
20,000
1,300
205
16,500
20
22,850
30,000
1,327
2,280,836
25
92
9,016
2,132
171
52
31,404
356
100
700
2,910,000
175
250
26,000
400
248
770
51,900
610
53
11
200
700
56,600
500
Dills
20
30
2,498,466
2,766,279
3,262,800
" Comments on the Trend in Vegetable-seed Production in the Province.—Canning-
and garden-pea seeds continue to be the most important items, both from the standpoint
of volume and total value. The volume of canning seed exceeds that of garden seed.
Both areas of production—namely, North Okanagan and Creston flats—experienced
good growing conditions with resulting high yields. The 1953 acreage of peas was somewhat greater in the North Okanagan because of the previous dry fall, which prevented
the seeding of the usual acreage of winter wheat.
" Garden- and canning-bean seeds, as noted, are estimated slightly above 1952.
However, very unfavourable threshing weather has resulted in considerable loss due to
high moisture content and mould, which will reduce the final yield. This condition was
noted both at Grand Forks and in the Kamloops area. Harvesting conditions were
similar in 1948 and 1949, and growers now realize that beans must be harvested in early
September, regardless of the percentage of immature pods on the plants. Some growers
are rather disappointed with the crop and may not grow again in 1954. There was some
increase in bacterial blight found in the fields, and this office will be bringing in new
stock from Idaho with a view to multiplying same, if free from the disease.
" Sweet-corn seed shows a slight increase over 1952, although drying is not yet
completed. The main varieties produced were Golden Bantam and Dorinny. No hybrid
seed was grown this year. Hybrid varieties are used almost exclusively for canning, and
the demand for open-pollinated varieties is now largely confined to the home-gardener.
In this connection, seed of some inbred lines secured from Purdue and Lafayette are on
hand in this office to commence production of Golden Cross Bantam, Spancross, and
Marcross, if growers can be interested in producing same.
" Onion-seed volume was up 15,000 pounds above 1952, which is the first increase
in volume since 1946. With the price of onion bulbs down this fall and seed prices up,
a further substantial increase should be forthcoming in 1954.
" Carrot-seed volume is some 5,000 pounds higher than the previous year. However, with only a very small tonnage of roots in the hands of seed-growers this fall, and CC 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
prices of marketable roots quite high at present, we cannot hope for too much increase
in seed production of this item in 1954.
" The radish-seed estimate is up more than 10,000 pounds, with more of this seed
being grown in the North Okanagan.
" The Dutch growers in the Bulkley area, who have for some years produced a
considerable volume of spinach seed, are no longer producing. This is due to the low
price of Dutch imports. Only 400 pounds of seed was produced in the Fraser Valley.
While spinach seed does well in the North Okanagan, the Coast, or Bulkley Valley, it
has been a consistent failure in the Grand Forks area.
" Swede-turnip seed, at 56,600 pounds, showed an increase, with the majority of
the seed being produced from field-overwintered roots in the Fraser Valley. Almost all
this production is sealed as registered and sold principally in Eastern Canada. Of interest
is the fact that the production of Swede seed in the Maritimes is gradually decreasing,
due largely to their higher cost of production. Under Maritime conditions, the turnips
must be removed from the field, stored, and transplanted out in the field the following
spring. In the Fraser Valley, the seed is sown in August or early September and winters
through satisfactorily in all but low or flood locations. The seeding-date is important,
as large turnips from normal June seedings are frequently killed by freezing and thawing
while small plants, and those resulting from late September seedings are frequently heaved
out and frozen.
" Production of lesser items of vegetable seed, such as beet, cabbage, cauliflower,
asparagus, leek, melon, parsnip, tomato, etc., was about the same as last year, with minor
variations up or down.
" Total production of almost all items could be substantially higher if prices paid
by the firms were increased slightly. Farmers have not been too keen to grow any worthwhile acreage of items that require much hand-labour.
"Discussion on the Vegetable-seed Marketing Situation.—There has been an improvement in the over-all picture with respect to the marketing of B.C.-grown vegetable
seed. Prices are, on the average, slightly higher than for the past two to three years
and demand definitely stronger. Onion seed has doubled in price since last year, and
peas and several other items are in strong demand.
" While the vegetable-seed situation is improved in Canada and the United States,
the export market to Europe and the United Kingdom is still not too favourable because
of the difference in exchange value as between the dollar and practically all European
currency.
" However, some onion, carrot, and lettuce seed is being exported to Holland, which
country appears to be in a better trading position than some others. It is very possible
that the United Kingdom will soon be in a position to purchase more seed from Canada,
especially in items such as onion, carrot, and others, which are not grown in sufficient
volume in that country.
"Flower Seed.—Flower-seed growing, a small but interesting phase of seed production, is definitely established in the Province, principally on the southern part of
Vancouver Island, at Grand Forks, and in one or two other Southern Interior districts.
Peak of production was in 1947, when total contract value reached $167,144. It was
estimated at that time that the retail value of the above would exceed $700,000.
" Flower-seed acreage for 1953 was up slightly from the previous year, and, judging
from crops harvested, total production should show an increase over the $52,655 value
of 1952.
" Flower seed is grown only on contract basis for three firms in the Province. One
local contract firm maintains a fairly complete line of kinds and varieties, with over 300
items grown in the Province. Other firms or individuals grow fewer items in greater
volume, chiefly for the large American firms. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 35
"Prices of flower seed declined noticeably in 1948, due to competition from Dutch
and American seed. However, some recent advance in prices has encouraged greater
production of several items, particularly those which cannot be harvested by machinery
in California.
"During the 1953 season, heat-loving items such as portulaca, cosmos, zinnia, etc.,
were very late in blooming and gave poor yields.  Plants made little growth until mid-July.
" Birds, variously identified as crested goldfinch, goldfinch, and linnet, have caused
heavier losses to late-maturing flower-seed crops at Grand Forks and on Vancouver Island
than in any other year. A wide range of flower kinds were attacked, with cosmos and
marigold most affected. Approximately $1,000 damage was done in Grand Forks and
$3,000 damage on Vancouver Island."
Hops
The market for hops has not been favourable, and, as a result, one company has
removed its entire acreage in Sumas Prairie, and the total production for the Fraser Valley
this season will be about 75 per cent of the 1952 crop. At Kamloops, another important
hop area, some 80 acres were not operated this season.
The reason for the decline in British Columbia production is apparently due to large
surpluses of American hops. These are being offered at rather low prices (some as low
as 30 cents per pound), permitting the importation of American hops on a profitable
basis after allowing 12 cents duty, freight, and other costs.
HOLLY
Considerable interest is being shown in the production of holly. There are several
plantings of over 5 acres each now being grown in the Fraser Valley, while on Vancouver
Island the holly-producers have formed a co-operative to properly market the crop and
keep the members informed on what is new in the industry, through field-days and reports
on what is being done in other parts of the Northwest where this crop is grown.
More attention is being paid to the better varieties and types, and some of these new
varieties that show promise of earlier bearing and earlier maturity are now being planted.
Tobacco
The only commercial acreage devoted to tobacco in British Columbia is in the
Fraser Valley. According to W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist at Abbotsford, the
crop is down this year. At the present time there is an estimated 73 acres grown, with a
yield of 80,000 pounds. The drop in acreage is the result of low prices last year and the
increasing costs for labour in handling the tobacco-crop.
Mushrooms
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford, reports as follows:—
" The production of mushrooms is another specialized horticultural crop in this
district and has developed into sizeable proportions.   In 1952, production was a little
short of 1,000,000 pounds, which means that approximately 40 tons are marketed
monthly."
Flower Production
Flower production continues to be an important industry on Vancouver Island and
in the Fraser Valley. Starting soon after the new year of 1953, King Alfred daffodils,
forced in greenhouses, made their appearance in volume. These flowers were mainly
grown from local-grown bulbs produced by grower-forcers. Tulips started to make their
appearance toward the latter part of January.
However, the bulk of the cut flowers moved just before the Easter week-end. At
this time the outdoor daffodils were at their best, and seven chartered aeroplane loads CC 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
each containing 29,000 dozen blooms, were sent to Eastern Canadian markets from Vancouver Island. In addition to these shipments, large numbers of blooms were sent to the
Prairies and to the Interior of British Columbia by rail. Several varieties of narcissi were
included in these shipments; however, King Alfred daffodils made up the greatest percentage.
Tulips, which were slowed down somewhat by the dull spring, were at their best for
the Mother's Day trade.
In addition to the blooms forced in greenhouses, one or two growers forced blooms
under batteries of lights in closed buildings, the heat from the lights providing sufficient
heat to maintain the required temperature.
The fall months brought forth the usual showing of outdoor chrysanthemums, which
moved quite readily through the local wholesale florist. Following the outdoor 'mums,
the greenhouse varieties made their appearance early in November, and at the time of
writing this report there is a fairly heavy cut in prospect for the Christmas trade.
Carnations are grown on an almost the year-round basis by specialists in this type
of flower.
Gladioli from the Fraser Valley and the Interior, as well as peonies (mostly from
the Okanagan), also contribute to the general economy of the commercial flower-grower.
HORTICULTURAL SURVEYS AND FIELD INSPECTIONS
Bulbs
A survey of the bulb industry was completed this season, and the following table
shows a breakdown by types and acreage of the various bulbs produced in the Province.
At the present time, 191 growers (Vancouver Island, 84; Lower Mainland, 81; Okanagan, 17; and Kootenays, 9) are producing the crop in various parts of the Province. As
will be seen by the table giving comparative acreages, there has been a steady increase in
acreage since 1929, when the first survey was made:—
British Columbia Bulb Survey, 1953
Vancouver
Island and
Mainland
Totals for British
Fraser Valley
Okanagan
Kootenay
Total
Variety
Victoria and
Island Points
Acreage
Approx.
Quantity
Acre-
age
Approx.
Quantity
Acreage
Approx.
Quantity
Acreage
Approx.
Quantity
Acreage
Approx.
Quantity
Acre-   Approx.
age    Quantity
1
140.69| 14,069,000
61.44) 6,094,000
1.99 j       60,500
5.85]     585,000
19.92J 2,969,000
2.00|       20,000
8.52[     212,400
0.25 j         1,000
 -|   --
121.41
25.78
6.51
47.50
8.10
4.00
28.53
20.88
7.83
12,141,000
2,578,000
260,000
4,750,000
1,212,500
40,000
713,313
83,500
47,000
1
0.25J       25,000
7.231     723,000
 1 	
0.39
1.13 j
0.17 j
0.30|
 1
39,000
113,000
6,500
30,000
122.05
34.14
6.68
82.91
8.10
4.13
31.12
26.98
13.16
12,205,000
3,414,000
266,500
8,291,000
1,212,500
41,250
778,063
107,900
79,000
i
262.74|26,274,000
Tulips	
Hyacinths	
Gladioli	
Iris (bulbous)..
Iris (others)
95.581 9,508,000
8.671     327,000
88.76| 8,876,000
28.02J 4,181,500
35.11
0.13
3,511,000
 	
1.250
 1
6.13]       61,250
39.64|     990,463
2.551       63,750
6.10J       24,400
4.80        28,800
1
0.041
 [
1,000
27.231     108,900
0.531
1
3,200
13.16|       79,000
1929
TOT
  1
AL BULB ACRE
4cres
59.33               194
00.00               194
03.50               194
09.62               194
49.50               195
57.62               195
15.50
AGES
3	
Acres
   360.62
5
7	
9	
482.75
- 559.62
1933
1935
   451.70
1 	
421.79
569.93
1939
3
1941 ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 37
Greenhouses
The greenhouse survey for 1953 is compared with that of 1951 in the table given
below. It will be noted that there is an increase of 124 growers and 128,990 square feet
of glass. This is not all due to new construction and new growers. The increase in both
growers and area is largely made up of small-plant houses in the Interior that have not
been recorded previously, although there has been some new construction, chiefly in the
Fraser Valley. Such plant-houses are largely used by the grower for producing tomato,
cucumber, and cantaloupe plants for his own use, and when the crop is grown the houses
remain idle for the rest of the year.
Greenhouse Survey
1951
1953
District
Number of
Growers
Area in
Sq. Ft.
Number of
Growers
Area in
Sq. Ft.
•
263
218
60
14
1,758,357
2,432,505
363,442
41,994
273
210
184
12
1,819,012
2,359,668
Okanagan       	
Kootenay      	
511,989
34,619
Totals 	
555
4,596,298
679
4,725,288
Average age of houses:   15.72 years.
Type of heating:   Hot water, 71.15 per cent;   hot air, 23.03 per cent;   steam, 0.97 per cent;   no heat, 4.85 per cent.
Method of glazing:   Lapped, 62.84 per cent;  butted, 37.16 per cent.
At this time it is of interest to note the changes taking place in the Fraser Valley,
and the following is taken from the report of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist
at Abbotsford:—
"A few years ago the cities and towns were small, and just beyond the business
centres were fairly large farms comprising the rural population. During the past ten
or twelve years there has been a marked increase in industrial and commercial development. This expansion started in the vicinity of the larger centres, but is now spreading
beyond these boundaries. Housing has become a major problem and is resulting in the
development of new subdivisions and the breaking-up of many farms into small holdings.
This type of development has absorbed some the best agricultural land.
" This district is gradually becoming a metropolitan area, with industries and commercial enterprises extending beyond the boundaries of Greater Vancouver and New
Westminster into what was considered rural districts a few years ago. To-day it is
becoming difficult to differentiate between the suburban and rural areas. People living
on small holdings and part-time farmers are, in many instances, travelling 20 to 40 miles
daily to places of employment.
" Land values showed a marked rise immediately following the last war, and while
during the past few months the sale of farms has been a little slower, prices remain at
a fairly high level.
" The proposed development of Annacis Island, adjoining New Westminster, as
an industrial site by British capital will be a project of commercial importance, but, on
the other hand, this is an island with excellent possibilities for intensive agricultural
production."
Nursery Inspection
To comply with the "Plant Protection Act," 149 licences were issued to nurseries
and nursery agents, at a cost of $5 each.
Inspection of all nurseries in the Province was carried out by the staff of the Horticultural Branch, either at the time of digging or previous to shipping. The following
table summarizes the work for 1953:— CC 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Nursery Inspection Report, 1953
Trees
Number
Inspected
Number
Passed
Number
Condemned
61,072
26,846
13,065
23,200
41,197
14,689
22,2541
57,275
26,616
12,932
22,097
38,423
13,886
22,254i
3,797
230
133
1,103
2,774
803
Nil
Totals                            —     -
202,323
193,483
8,840
1 Of the above totals, 19,000 consist of seedling stocks for budding in the 1953 season.
Thirty-one inspections were made, and 4.36 per cent of the stock was condemned.
Ever since nursery stock has been grown, there have been complaints of nursery
stock arriving not true to name. Quite often this is not known until the trees come into
bearing. From the results of work done at the Dominion Experimental Station, Sum-
merland, a key has been worked out for the identification of the more commonly grown
varieties of tree-fruits during the growing season while still in the nursery row. With
this information, a trained inspector can now go through a nursery and show the operator
where his varieties are mixed, and the trees can either be broken, if only a few, or
properly labelled and left until digging-time if there is any quantity.
This season a start was made on summer inspection, K. Lapins, from the Sum-
merland Station, acting as instructor. All the nurseries in the Okanagan were inspected,
and because of lack of time only the chief tree-fruit nurseries on Vancouver Island and
the Lower Mainland were visited. W. F. Morton, District Horticulturist, Kelowna;
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford; and Alan E. Littler, District
Horticulturist, Victoria, visited the nurseries in their respective areas and received instructions on methods of identification.
Should this method of summer identification be followed up, it should help very
considerably in keeping varieties together and avoiding some of the mistakes being made
at present. However, unless the nurseryman is very careful at shipping-time, varieties
could again easily become mixed when orders are being made up, especially when several
varieties are going out in one bundle. It is expected this work will be continued, and
our staff will soon be able to take over and provide this inspection service.
Fire-blight Inspection
The annual inspection for fire-blight was carried out as usual. This disease was
not serious, due partly to weather conditions at blossom-time and partly to blossom
sprays using Bordeaux mixture 1-1-100. The annual inspection also not only eliminates
a large percentage of the hold-over cankers, but is also of educational value to the grower
on the best methods of handling this disease.
The following table shows the acreage inspected:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
Fire-Blight Inspection, 1953
CC 39
District
Total
Inspected
Inspected
and Passed
Not Passed
Acres
57.21
29.20
10.00
1,000.00
4.500.00
6,015.00
400.00
208.00
1,935.50
227.75
650.00
90.00
Acres
56.30
29.20
10.00
1,000.00
4,000.00
6,015.00
398.00
208.00
1,889.50
217.75
650.00
90.00
Acres
0.91
500.00
2.00
46.00
10.00
Totals                                       	
15,122.66
14,563.75
558 91
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
Pruning Demonstrations
Pruning demonstrations have been given throughout the Province when called for,
and the following table indicates the districts, number of demonstrations held, and the
attendance for 1953:  Number of Number of
Demonstrations Pupils
Vancouver Island  14 504
Lower Mainland   17 573
Okanagan  22 397
Kootenay  2 31
Totals  55 1,505
Tomato Demonstration-plots
In addition to the 3-acre plot established in Kelowna in 1952, two more plots were
set up this year at Vernon and Kamloops, to try by visual education to show the tomato-
growers in these areas what can be done by better farming methods. The results from
the Kelowna plots are quite interesting, as the following, taken from the report of W. F.
Morton, District Horticulturist at Kelowna, indicates:-—
"Although the 1953 season was much too cold for vine crops, the plot yield was
much larger than 1952. The crop harvested this season was 16,885 pounds, or 6,410
pounds more than last year.
" The canner to which the grower ships closed down earlier than in 1952. A sample
picking of mature green and ripe fruit was made on October 9th. From the sample it was
estimated that 6 tons of tomatoes were unharvested. The yield may be estimated as being
9 tons larger than last year.
" Three hundred plants grown in 3-inch veneer bands were set out in part of the
demonstration-plot to check whether or not growers could expect sufficient increase in
yield and earliness to warrant the increased cost of banded plants. Yield records were
kept on the banded and unhanded portions of the plot and on a near-by lot on similar
soil, with the same fertilizer treatment and of the same variety but without a preceding
cover-crop. The table below summarizes the information from these records. Calculations have been made to show yields on an acre basis. CC 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Yields in Pounds per Acre of Wisconsin 55 Tomatoes
Picking-dates
Plot 1
(Banded Plants)
Plot 2
(Unbanded
Flat-grown
Plants)
Plot 3
(Growers' Field
Unbanded
Flat-grown Plants
—Better Plants
than Plot 2)
Lb.
1,464
366
Lb.
358
Lb.
2,580i
1,668
6,966
September 1 Oth      	
6,587
10,248
3,539
7,616
224
3,965
September 24th -
September 29th 	
6,771
2,064
25,436
15,702
13,278
i Up to September 9th.
" Growers were invited to see the plots on August 21st. Eleven growers were in
attendance, and the purpose of the plots was discussed. Information gathered from
the plots this year will be given out at the vegetable-growers' meetings this winter."
Since the plots at Vernon and Kamloops were only set up this season, yields are
the only point of interest at present.
At Vernon, growing the Gem variety, the yield was 11,070 pounds. The cover-
crop plots were seeded to sweet clover at 10 pounds per acre, and the 3 acres received
400 pounds of 16-20.
At Kamloops the plot was seeded to Ladino clover but was smothered out by weeds,
and a crop of Hungarian millet was seeded in midsummer to take its place. The variety
grown this season was Gem and yielded 7,100 pounds.
Tomato Variety Trials
This season a test-plot was set out at Kamloops using ten varieties of ten plants in
four replicated plots. The test was set up to compare some new varieties for earliness and
yield against the two standard varieties being grown in the Kamloops district—Clarke's
Early and Moscow.
R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops, assisted in this work, which was
a co-operative experiment with the Westminster Canners Limited and using land provided
by the Federal Range Station which also supplied tillage and irrigation equipment. He
reports as follows:—
" The varieties under test were as follows: Long Red, Early Prolific Hybrid, Red
Jacket, Wasach Beauty, Early Delicious Hybrid, Gem, Breeders Hybrid, Clarke's Early,
Largo Hybrid, and Moscow.
"The plants were set out May 14th, 7>Vi feet on the square; no starter solution was
used and no previous fertilizer treatment. The first picking was made August 12th, and
the yields by variety for the season were as follows: Wasach Beauty, 463 pounds; Early
Delicious Hybrid, 451 pounds; Early Prolific Hybrid, 336 pounds; Red Jacket, 332
pounds; Clarke's Early, 320 pounds; Moscow, 310 pounds; Gem, 252 pounds; Long
Red, 201 pounds; and Largo Hybrid, 108 pounds."
Blossom-thinning Trials
In this connection, I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist at Salmon Arm, makes the
following comment:—
" While being a great aid in apple production, the continued usage of the presently
recommended blossom-thinning materials serves only to emphasize their inadequacies.
There is an urgent need for a material that allows a latitude of timing and at the same DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 41
time performs in a predictable manner. An accelerated programme with this objective
in view is urgently required."
More information on the chemical and mechanical thinning of tree-fruits is being
called for by the growers. In past years chemical thinning of stone-fruits has not proved
efficient, and the results have been anything but consistent. This year more attention was
paid to the removal of the blossom by mechanical means. High production costs place
this investigational and demonstration work in one of the top positions of importance to
the tree-fruit industry, in reducing production costs and at the same time enabling the
grower to produce a profitable crop both in size and quality.
More work was done this past season with blossom-thinning sprays, and, in addition,
several demonstrations of the mechanical removal of blossoms were held, the methods
used being outlined in the reports following. Considerable interest was shown by those
attending. These demonstrations were of very real assistance to those growers who had
never tried these methods and were doubtful how to proceed.
A. W. Watt, of Summerland, reports on the pre-blossom and blossom thinning of
peaches as follows:—
"Purpose of Work.—This work was undertaken to study and demonstrate the use
of brush thinning as an orchard practice in this area. The work with chemicals was added
and was chiefly to explore the possibilities of DN289, maleic hydrazide and naphthalene
acetamide, for peach-thinning.
"Equipment.—The work was carried out in the Caldwell Brothers orchard, Summerland. The growers' sprayer was used. It was a Myers gun machine developing 500
p.s.i. and having No. 8 disk openings.
"Materials.—Materials used are tabulated below:—
Name
Description
Source
Wettable powder containing 40 per cent sodium
salt of maleic hydrazide
36 per cent triethanolamine salt of dinitro-ortho-
sec-butyl phenol
Naphthalene acetamide 2.14 per cent active ingredient
DN289                         	
ACP Amid-Thin-_	
American Chemical Paint Co., Ambler,
Pa., and Nile, Calif.
"Procedure.—A block of mature Vedette peach-trees was selected in the Caldwell
orchard. On April 22nd, when about 30 per cent of the blossoms were open, three
Vedette trees were thinned, using a bunch of long apricot prunings which had been
wired together to form a long brush. Your assistant carried out this thinning with the aid
of a short ladder. About 50 per cent of the blossoms were removed from the trees, and
the remaining flowers were left as evenly spaced as possible, though no attempt at a
definite spacing was made-. The object was to remove the excess bloom on the tree as
quickly as possible. Thinning of the three trees by this method took eighty minutes or
an average of twenty-six minutes per tree.
"A fourth Vedette tree, the same size as the previous trees, was blossom-thinned
by hand. In this tree the thinning was done by brushing the opening flowers off with
the fingers. Here an attempt was made to space the remaining flowers about 4 inches
apart.   The time required for this single tree was ninety minutes.
" On April 24th the spray treatments were applied, using the sprayer described
above. Each plot consisted of two half-trees. The unsprayed half of each tree was
left as a check. In addition, one whole tree was left unsprayed, acting as a check. These
checks were used for comparison with the brush-thinned trees as well. All trees were
as near as possible to each other and all were Vedettes. The treatments are outlined in
the table below:— CC 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Plot No.
Material
Type of Sprayer
Amount per 100 Gal.
Est. Amt.
per Acre
I
1 | Maleic hydrazide..
2 | DN289 	
3 | Amid-Thin.	
I	
Myers gun..
Myers gun..
Myers gun.
20 oz. (500P.P.M.)..
20 fluid oz	
20 fluid oz	
240
240
240
" Only the south half of each tree was sprayed. Weather was dry and warm with
a slight breeze. Some rain fell on April 27th and 28th. Check-trees were hand-thinned
later when the fruit was about 1 inch in diameter.
" Results.—Although they carried a good commercial crop, the brush-thinned trees
were slightly over-thinned. The hand blossom-thinning gave no advantage over the
brush thinning and required approximately three times as long to do. Fruit on the
blossom-thinned trees was four or five days earlier than that on the checks. A disadvantage of the brush thinning was the rather uneven distribution of fruit, which left some
limbs with very little fruit and often left too many fruits on the ends of whips.
" The work with chemicals gave the following results:—
" Plot No. 1:  Maleic hydrazide severely over-thinned the tree and caused the
stunting and malformation of leaves.
" Plot No. 2:  DN289 caused slight over-thinning.
" Plot No. 3:  Naphthalene acetamide produced no thinning effect.   The trees
had to be hand-thinned later on.
" Conclusions.—Only one of the chemicals tried yielded results. DN289 was an
effective thinning agent this year. However, DN289 may be as susceptible to climatic
variations as the other dinitro materials, in which case it will be necessary to thoroughly
investigate it over a period of several seasons.
" For the time being, brush thinning during the pink and early bloom stage seems
to be the most effective method of reducing labour costs of peach-thinning. It does not
seem practical to spend too much time trying to do a complete thinning job with the
brush method. Around twenty minutes should be long enough for a grower to spend
on the average-sized tree. This should leave an excess of bloom to allow for a quick
hand thinning after the fruit has set, at which time the grower could remove cull fruit."
Work done on blossom-thinning in the Oliver district is taken from the report of
D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist, as follows:—
" Blossom-thinning of Stone-fruits.—Due to the low price received by the growers
for the 1952 stone-fruit crop, considerable interest developed in mechanically thinning
the blossom of these crops in 1953. Demonstrations were held on a number of ranches
for individual growers, and two special demonstrations of peach-thinning were held, at
which over fifty people attended. All methods which at present appear to hold merit
for the job were demonstrated; namely, brushing the buds off with fingers, with brushes
made of prunings or pieces of rubber tire, and thinning with a stream of water under
500 to 600 pounds pressure.
" Throughout the district all methods were tried by the growers, and during the
year this official inquired as to the feelings of the growers regarding preferred method.
Most growers felt that the method with the most merit was with a brush made of prunings. In all cases the growers felt convinced that the early thinning helped both from
the standpoint of saving labour and of obtaining size. Generally, the growers feel that
a rough job during thinning followed up in more detail in May or June is best.
"A few growers used brushes and other methods of thinning apricots. This official
brush-thinned one tree and left its neighbour of approximately the same size and crop
as a check. Thinning by brush with no follow-up amounted to thirty-five minutes. The
check-tree required approximately an hour and a half to thin. Ten boxes were picked
off the experimental tree and twelve off the check-tree in the first two pickings, leaving
approximately a half-box on each for the last picking.    The experimental tree ran 99 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 43
per cent of the preferred size of 1% inches, while the check ran 71 per cent preferred
and 2 per cent below Wi inches on a count of 100 fruits per tree. It is felt that in this
area most growers will rely on knocking the fruit off later with a rubber hose or hand
thinning for this crop. In most locations the frost-hazard makes brush thinning of
apricot blossom more of a risk than the grower wants to take."
To try to get better size on prunes, in addition to the fertilizer trials reported elsewhere, W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, reports as follows on his
results with blossom-thinning of prunes:—■
" Chemical Blossom-thinning Sprays
" Variety.—Italian prunes.
"Place.—Allingham Orchard, Oyama.
"Date of Application.—May 6th, 1953.
" Weather.—Very warm with a slight overcast and a light west wind.
" Blossom Development.—Eighty to ninety per cent full bloom.
"Materials.—Twenty per cent liquid concentrate of sodium salt of dinitro-ortho-
cresol (Elgetol) at various concentrations.
"Purpose.—To determine the amount of blossom-thinning material required to
thin prunes.
"Equipment.—Gun machine, Hardie, Government machine.
" Method.—Experiment consisted of four main plots with seven trees in each plot.
Of the seven trees sprayed in each plot, two were blossom-thinned in 1952, and the
remaining five trees were sprayed for the first time in 1953. In addition, four trees that
were sprayed in 1952 were not sprayed in 1953, to determine the effect of the spray
material on the following year's crop.
"Results.—The results were as follows:—
Plot
No.
Material Used and Rate per 100 Gal.
Av. No. of
Boxes per
Tree
No. of
Prunes
per Lb.
Av. Size
Remarks
Sprayed 1952 with VA pt. Elgetol _ _
Sprayed 1952 with VA pt. and 1953 with Vz
pt. Elgetol   	
Sprayed 1953 with Vi pt. Elgetol	
Sprayed 1952 with VA pt. Elgetol - 	
Sprayed 1952 with VA pt. and 1953 with V*
pt. Elgetol-  	
Sprayed 1953 with % pt. Elgetol  -
Sprayed 1952 with 1% pt. Elgetol	
Sprayed 1952 with 1% pt. and 1953 with 1
pt. Elgetol  	
Sprayed 1953 with 1 pt. Elgetol ._	
Sprayed 1952 with 2 pt. Elgetol -	
Sprayed 1952 with 2 pt. and 1953 with VA
pt. Elgetol    -
Sprayed 1953 with VA pt. Elgetol  	
Check (no treatment)  	
8.5
22
18
4.8
15
20
6.0
18
5.8
13
24
16
4.8
12
6.0
19
5.5
14
2.8i
13
4.4
20
VA"
Wis"
VA"
VA"
1%6"
VA"
VA"
Wm"
VA"
l%e"
l7/i<i"
VA"
VA'
Heavy crop.
No leaf-curl.
Slight curl on leaves.
Heavy crop.
No leaf-curl.
Moderate to severe leaf-curl.
Heavy crop.
No leaf-curl.
Moderate to severe leaf-curl.
Very heavy bloom with heavy
crop.
No leaf-curl.
Moderate to severe leaf-curl.
Poor colour and size.
i Small trees.
"Discussion.—1. During the blossom period it was observed that all trees that were
spray-thinned in 1952 showed a greater amount of bloom than those unsprayed.
" 2. During the season it was observed that moderate to severe leaf-roll occurred
on trees that were sprayed for the first time in 1953. This follows the same pattern that
occurred in 1952. Trees that were sprayed in 1952 and again in 1953 showed no sign
of leaf-roll. CC 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" 3. All trees that were sprayed in 1953 matured their fruit seven to ten days earlier
than the unsprayed checks.
" 4. It was observed that all sprayed trees finished their normal drop by the end
of July. The unsprayed checks were still dropping their fruit at the end of August.
Some shrivel was noticed on the unsprayed checks but none was in evidence on the
sprayed trees.
" 5. Trees that were sprayed in 1952 but not in 1953 set a very heavy crop, but
the size was small.
" 6. Trees that were sprayed in 1952 and again in 1953 responded to a lesser degree
to the thinning action of Elgetol. This would suggest that prune-trees may build up a
tolerance to Elgetol on the second year.   This will be investigated further in 1954.
"Conclusion.—Blossom-thinning for prunes in the Vernon-Oyama-Winfield areas
will be recommended for a limited trial. Certain prune blocks will be selected and
sprayed then observed throughout the summer. The recommendation will be three-
quarters of a pint of Elgetol per 100 gallons of water at 80 per cent bloom."
Blossom-thinning trials on peaches and prunes were also conducted by M. P. D.
Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, and the following is taken from his
report:—
" On Peaches
"A series of two-tree plots was set up on Lot 152 of the Kaleden Estates to make
preliminary comparisons of several types of peach-thinning. The trees were six-year-old
Veterans of medium size.   Details of plot treatments were as follows:—
" Plot No. 1  (Water-sprayed):   The swirl plate was removed from the gun
and the pressure raised to 600 pounds.   The trees were then sprayed on
April 24th at full bloom and hand-thinned on June 25th.
" Plot No. 2 (Pre-bloom Hand-thinned):   Buds in balloon stage were thinned
7 inches apart by hand on April 21st.
"Plot No. 3 (Check):   Fruit was conventionally hand-thinned on June 19th.
" Plot No. 4 (Pre-bloom Brush-thinned):   A faggot of apricot prunings was
made and used as a brush to knock off about 60 per cent of the blossoms.
Blossoms were in the balloon stage.    Time was April 21st.
" Plot No. 5 (DN289 Spray):   The Dow Chemical Company material DN289
was applied as a spray at the rate of one-half pint per 100 gallons.   Time
of application was April 23rd, when the blossoms were 80 to 85 per cent
open.   This was followed up with additional hand thinning on June 25th.
" Plot No. 6 (Maleic Hydrazide Spray):   Forty per cent maleic hydrazide at
the rate of 20 ounces per 100 gallons was sprayed on April 24th, when
the blossoms were 100 per cent open.
" Results are shown in the following table, denoting treatment, time spent in hand
thinning, and the yield in number of cherry-pails per tree:—
Plot No.
Treatment
Tree
Total Hand-thinning Time
Yield
1
A
B
A
B
A
B
C
A
B
A
B
A
B
25
ISVz
2
17
Check                            -    .            - - .
15
3
14
UV2
17'/4
4
2VA
DN289 spray	
23
5
18
21
6
9
12V4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 45
"Discussion of Results.—From the results it may be seen that the pre-bloom brush-
thinning technique involved relatively little time for thinning yet gave consistently higher
yields. Field observations indicated that the peaches were equal, if not superior, in size
to peaches in any of the other plots.
" The use of water at high pressure failed to give the results desired, as subsequent
hand thinning of the fruit required more time than did the pre-bloom brush thinning.
" The same holds true for the DN289 spray. In fact, it appears that the DN289,
at the strength used, produced no thinning effect whatsoever. It should be noted here
that DN289 was also applied to two peach-trees in the Coss orchard when the blossoms
were 65 per cent open and to two peach-trees in the A. K. Robertson orchard when the
blossoms were 90 to 95 per cent open. The degree of thinning in these cases was also
negligible.
" The maleic hydrazide spray over-inhibited the growth of peaches. There were
too many peaches that set but failed to develop so that yields were reduced.
" From these preliminary experiments the indications appear to be that pre-bloom
brush thinning or even pre-bloom hand thinning are far superior to any other type of
peach-thinning tried.
" On Prunes
" Preliminary trials to check the possibility of thinning prunes with chemicals were
initiated in the George Howard orchard, Penticton. Three two-tree plots of prunes were
sprayed on May 1st when approximately 75 per cent of the blossoms were open. Details
of the spray applications were as follows:—
" Plot No. 1:  DN289 at the rate of one-third pint per 100 gallons.
" Plot No. 2: Elgetol at the rate of three-quarters of a pint per 100 gallons.
" Plot No. 3:  Elgetol at the rate of one-half pint per 100 gallons.
"Plot No. 4: Check. Adjacent trees not sprayed.
" Field observations indicated that some thinning had been attained on each of the
sprayed trees, regardless of material or rate used. Second, the sprayed prunes matured
approximately one week earlier than the unsprayed prunes. Moreover, 85 per cent of
the prunes on the sprayed trees graded out as the new Select grade, which required a
minimum diameter of l1/^ inches, while prunes on the adjacent unsprayed trees were
graded as Domestic grade.
" Yield results were recorded by the grower but became lost. However, it appeared
that yields were not reduced seriously, and that the premium price paid on Select grade
prunes made up for any reduction in yield."
The blossom-thinning work with apples continued in all districts as in past seasons.
Since the results of this work are more or less the same, only the results in one district are
being used in this report. The following is taken from the work done by M. P. D.
Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton:—
" On Apples
"The chemical-thinning demonstration-plots set up in 1952 were continued with
some modifications.   Details of the work were as follows:—
"Place.—Robertson orchard, Lot 170, Kaleden.
" Variety.—Winesap, very heavy bloom.
"Equipment.-—Conventional gun sprayer, Bean 20. Concentrate sprayer, Turbo-
Mist.
" Plot Arrangement:—
"Plot No. 1:  May 8th, six trees, gun sprayer.   Elgetol (20 per cent sodium
salt of dinitro-o-cresol), IVi pints per 100 gallons.
"Plot No. 2:  May 8th, twenty trees, concentrate sprayer.   Elgetol, 15 pints
per acre. CC 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Plot No. 3: May 8th, six trees, gun sprayer.   Dinitrosol (20 per cent sodium
salt of dinitro-o-cresol containing petroleum hydrocarbons), 1 pint per
100 gallons.
"Plot No. 4:  May 8th, six trees, concentrate sprayer.   Dinitrosol, 10 pints
per acre.
" Plot No. 5: May 15th, six trees, gun sprayer.   Parmone (naphthalene acetic
acid), 6 ounces per 100 gallons.
"Plot No. 6: May 15th, six trees, concentrate sprayer.   Parmone, 60 ounces
per acre.
" Plot No. 7: Check, one tree, no spray.
" Weather Conditions.—-Very warm up to and including May 6th.   Heavy rain on
May 7th.   Clear on May 8th until 11 a.m., then cloudy with intermittent rain.   No rain
from May 9th to May 13th.   Light rain on May 14th.  Clear on May 15th.
"Hand Thinning.—Additional hand thinning was done by the owner, and the time
required per tree was recorded and averaged.
"Sizes.—At harvest-time one tree from Plot No. 7, four trees from Plot No. 2, and
three trees from each of the remaining plots were selected. The apples, in ten boxes from
each tree, were counted and averaged for respective plots.
"Results.—The average number of minutes for hand thinning, number of apples
per box, and yield per tree were calculated for each plot and are shown in the following
table:—
Plot No. and Summarized Treatment
Average Time
for Hand
Thinning
(Minutes)
Average
Number of
Apples per
Box
Average
Number of
Boxes per
Tree
1. Elgetol (gun). 	
2. Elgetol (concentrate)..
Dinitrosol (gun)_
Dinitrosol (concentrate)..
Parmone (gun)~
Parmone (concentrate)..
7. Check (no spray)	
24Vi
18
21
20
15
11
27
" Discussion of Results.—In considering the results it should be kept in mind that
each tree was heavily spurred.   This condition did not permit adequate spray thinning.
" The hormone sprays produced inconsistent results, and it is felt that they cannot
be compared to the other materials.
" In Plot No. 5, where parmone was applied with the gun machine, the trees have
been getting weaker in the last two years so that they never did completely overcome the
' wilt' that developed. Consequently, low yields and small-sized apples were produced.
In Plot No. 6, where parmone was applied with the concentrate machine, the rate of
application was apparently too great and caused excessive ' wilt.' The trees in this plot,
while they were in good vigour before the spray was applied, never did completely recover
from this ' wilt.' In addition, the trees were definitely over-thinned, as indicated by the
small amount of time required for additional hand thinning and by the low yield per tree.
"Dinitrosol applied with the concentrate machine apparently produced the best
all-round results. The trees were definitely affected by the spray, but the effect was not
persistent. Elgetol applied with the concentrate machine produced comparable results,
so that any differences could be considered insignificant. The bottoms of the trees, with
either treatment, appeared to have been over-sprayed and probably caused a reduction
in yield of two or three boxes per tree.
" Elgetol applied with the gun machine does not appear to have given as good results.
However, there are two comparatively large trees in this plot which help raise the average
yield for the plot and also necessitate more time for hand thinning.   Dinitrosol applied DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 47
with the gun did not give consistent results, as seen in the size of apple.   No reason for
this drop in size can be found.
" The check-tree indicates that either dinitro material used was superior to no spray
in so far as time required for hand thinning and size of apple are concerned. It is unfortunate that only one tree was available for this plot because it did have a higher yield,
although it is doubtful if this higher yield offset the combined factors of time necessary
for hand thinning and the size of apple produced.
" The foregoing experiments were carried out in co-operation with the Summerland
Entomology Laboratory."
Fertilizer Trials
In addition to the long-term fertilizer plots with apples set up at Kelowna in 1928
in the Butler orchard, long-term plots with prunes have been set up at Keremeos, Penticton, Naramata, and Oyama, the latter plot being set up this year and the others in 1949.
Grapes are also included in long-term trials at Westbank and Winfield. Since this is the
first season for these plots, there is nothing significant to report at this time.
In addition to the tomato plots established at Kelowna, Vernon, and Kamloops on
a five-year basis, there are further trials with asparagus, potatoes, carrots, and strawberries.
Prune plots conducted by M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist, Penticton, are
reported on as follows:—
" The prune fertilizer plots set up in 1949 were continued. Fertilizers, manure, and
sawdust were again applied to respective plots.
" There are no results this year from the plots in the Barker orchard at Keremeos,
as frost developed just after the fruit had set and killed the crop on the lower two-thirds
of the trees.
" The yields and relative size ranges obtained from the plots in the Orr orchard at
Naramata and the Harris orchard at Penticton are presented in the following tables:—
" Orr Orchard, Naramata
Plot
No.
Material and Rate per Tree
Average Yield.
per Tree (Lb.)
Average
Number of
Prunes per
Pound
Ammonium sulphate, 6 lb 	
Ammonium sulphate, 8 lb	
Ammonium sulphate, 10 lb	
16-20-0,10 lb.; potassium sulphate, 4 lb..
Ammonium sulphate, 6 lb.; sawdust	
Check 	
94.5
58.7
80.6
105.7
115.4
85.6
12.0
12.6
11.6
12.1
11.3
11.8
" Harris Orchard, Penticton
1
172.2
236.0
216.1
146.7
138.0
13 1
2
14.4
3
13 8
4
16-20-0,10 lb..-	
13.9
5
Check                     	
12 9"
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist at Vernon, reports on fertilizer trials on
grapes as follows:—
" Variety.—Concord.
" Place.—Husband ranch, Winfield.
" Date of Application.—December 3rd, 1952.
" Purpose.—Determine a satisfactory fertilizer for grapes.
" Soil Types.—Sandy loam, clean cultivation. CC 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Irrigation.—Furrow.
" Size of Plots.—Fifteen vines, 10 by 8 spacings or 544 vines per acre.
"Results.—Results for 1953 are as follows:—
Plot
No.
Material
Rate per
Vine
Yield per
Vine
Yield per
Acre
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Shavings and sulphate.-
21-0-0 — -	
21-0-0—	
16-20-0. 	
16-20-0	
8-10-5 	
8-10-5  	
Vitalerth (5-10-5)-
Vitalerth (5-10-5)-.
No fertilizer 	
Lb.
VA
Vi
1
1
VA
VA
2
VA
2
Lb.
18.1
16.5
18.6
23.4
21.3
23.2
18.1
25.6
33.3
23.4
Tons
4.9
4.4
5.0
6.3
5.7
6.2
4.9
6.9
9.0
6.4
"(Note.—The above results are based on one year's trial. This experiment should
be carried on for at least three years and possibly five. It will be noted that Vitalerth is
on top at present.    Fertilizer will be applied again this fall.)"
Fertilizer work was started this season with asparagus, and two plots have been set
out—one at Armstrong and the other at Okanagan Landing. The plots at Armstrong are
without irrigation, while those at Okanagan Landing are under sprinkler irrigation. The
results, as reported by W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist at Vernon, are as
follows:—
" Variety.—Mary Washington.
" Place.—W. Johnston, Armstrong.
"Dates of Applications.—Spring application, March 31st, 1953; summer application, June 26th, 1953.
" Purpose.—To determine the effect of various fertilizers on asparagus yields.
"Results.—The following table shows the results:—
Plot No.
Material
Rate per Acre
Cost per Acre
Yield per Acre
1
33 0-0 - 	
Lb.
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
$22.50
45.00
21.25
42.50
25.90
44.40
Lb.
4,095
2
3
33-0-0-  -
16 20-0 	
3,660
3,615
4
16-20-0
3,475
5
6 10-10                                   „  	
3,600
6
6-10-10               	
3,240
7
Check      -	
3,615
Size of plots, one-twentieth of an acre.
" Fertilizer was applied as follows: The first application in early spring and the
summer application immediately after the cutting season is over. The above plots are
not under irrigation and are part of a mixed farm worked under dry-farming methods.
From results obtained this season, they appear a little confusing in regard to yields,
but we expect this will adjust itself next season.
" Variety.—Mary Washington.
" Place.—A. Woodcock, Okanagan Landing.
"Dates of Applications.—Spring application, March 31st, 1953; summer application, June 26th, 1953.
" Purpose.—To determine the effect of various fertilizers on asparagus yields. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
Results.—The following table shows the results: —
CC 49
Plot No.
Material
Rate per Acre
Cost per Acre
Yield per Acre
1
2
33-0-0   	
33 0-0                                                             	
Lb.
500
1,000
500
1,000
700
1,200
$22.50
45.00
21.25
42.50
25.90
44.40
Lb.
3,225
3,455
3
4
16-20-0        	
16-20-0   _            - :	
2,450
3,755
5
6-10-10 - -	
3,780
6
6 10-10                                   - 	
3,480
7
Check        — 	
3,010
Size of plots, one-twentieth of an acre.
"(Note.—The above plots are under sprinkler irrigation, and fertilizer is applied
in two applications—one in early spring and the second immediately after the cutting
season is over. We do not expect to get average results until the second or possibly the
third year.)"
The following results with fertilizers also undertaken by W. T. Baverstock were as
follows:—
" Onions
" Variety.—Yellow Globe Danvers.
" Place.—Harry Ujiye, Vernon.
"Date of Application.—April 8th, 1953.
" Purpose.—Comparison of chemical fertilizers at various rates on onions.
Plot No.
Material
Rate per Acre
Cost per Acre
Yield per Acre
1
16-20-0   -               	
Lb.
500
1,000
500
1,000
500
1,000
$21.25
42.50
19.25
38.50
28.50
57.00
Tons
17.8
2
16 20-0                                  	
19.2
3
8-10-5    -  	
20.6
4
8 10-5                         -	
21.0
5
6 30-15                                         	
21.3
6
7
6-30-15 -       - 	
Check  	
21.7
17.3
Size of plot, one-half acre.
"(Note.—The above plots were treated for onion-maggot, using chlordane broadcast prior to seeding. This is the first year for the above experiment, and from results
obtained in the above trial, it is doubtful if the double dose was justified in that very little
increase was obtained. This experiment should be carried for another two years before
general recommendations from the above treatment can be made.)"
Heavy applications of high-nitrogenous fertilizers were blamed for the high incidence
of tomato breakdown in parts of the Okanagan in 1952. To prove or disprove whether
or not nitrogen was to blame, W. F. Morton, District Horticulturist at Kelowna, directed
trials on plots operated by the local high-school students taking Vocational Agriculture.
He reports as follows:—
" Tomato Storage Trial.—A further test on the susceptibility of tomatoes to breakdown because of the use of various fertilizers was tried with fruit from plots run by the
high-school Vocational Agriculture classes.
" The following are the various fertilizer treatments:—
Plot No.
Treatment
Amount (Lb. per Acre)
1
2
Sulphate of ammonia  -     —
8-10-5                     —. 	
750 ) Equivalent in nitrogen.
1,969 f
500 "1
250 !■ Equivalent in nitrogen.
190 j
3
8-10-5     -     - -
4
16 50-0                   —          — -	
5 CC 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Samples of mature green and turning tomatoes were picked September 22nd and
stored in a cool cellar until ripe on September 29th.
"All fruit held up very well, and no significant difference in the amount of breakdown of fruit from the various treatments could be detected."
Strawberries.—I. C. Came, District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, set up two fertilizer
plots this season. One is at Salmon Arm, using certified plants without irrigation, and
the other is at Scotch Creek on Shuswap Lake, the grower using his own plants, the
plots furrow-irrigated. Although the plots have only had one season, from the results
this year they do support the recommendation by the Branch for certified planting stock.
Mr. Carne reports as follows:—
" The present fertilizer recommendations call for an application of 8-10-5 at
700 pounds per acre in the spring followed by 120 pounds of ammonium nitrate after
harvest. As soil-moisture and rainfall are often lacking during the immediate post-
harvest period, a fertilizer programme was drawn up to explore the possibilities of applying fertilizer in the late fall or early spring.
" In five of the plots outlined below there is a duplication. The Holder planting is
at Salmon Arm and is located on a light sandy soil without the benefits of irrigation.
These plants are certified British Sovereign from the Fraser Valley. The Imai planting
is at Scotch Creek, which is opposite the Sorrento Ferry. This planting is made up of
local plants. Both plantings are of the same age; namely, first crop this season. Also
both plantings received good cultural care.
" The following is an outline of the experiment:—
Plot
No.
Fertilizer Used
Amount
(Lb. per Acre)
When
Applied
Yield
(Crates per Acre)
Remarks
1
8-10-5  	
33 0 0                           	
700
120
700
200
1,000
200
400
400
I1)
Spring	
Fall	
Imai                    Holder
255                        550
222                        633
234            |           655
243            |           536
198                        480
312
240
2
8 10-5                             	
3
33 0 0                           	
Spring 	
Spring	
Fall    	
Fall -	
Fall 	
4
44-10-10       	
5
33 0-0               	
6
16 20-0               	
33 0-0                           	
Best-quality
Fall 	
i Three inches deep over crowns.
" No conclusions may be drawn from this year's results as to the merits of any one
fertilizer. The outstanding difference in yields between the certified plants on the Holder
lot and yields on the local plants of the Imai planting is highly significant."
Sweet-potato and Lima-bean Trials
In an endeavour to find other crops that could be grown profitably, tests that have
been conducted over the past three years with the above two vegetables were continued
this year. However, the cold, backward spring and cool summer was very unfavourable
and neither crop amounted to much. The sweet-potato tubers were generally small and
of little, if any, commercial value. The lima-bean plots at Kamloops ripened very
unevenly and were so badly damaged by frost on September 20th the crop was not
harvested. The lima-bean plots at Cawston were not as good as last year, and the first
picking was made September 22nd, the beans frozen and held for cooking tests later on.
In all, three varieties of sweet potatoes were grown—namely, Ranger, L-240, and Early
Port—while seven varieties of lima beans were under test—namely, Thorogreen Improved, Allgreen, Henderson's Bush, Fordhook, Clarke's Bush, Utah Selection, Thorogreen Green-seeded. The trials were under the direction of R. M. Wilson and M. P. D.
Trumpour. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 51
Weed-control
Greenhouse Soil
To test the material MC-2 (98 per cent methyl bromide, 2 per cent chloropicrin)
as a weedicide and soil fumigant, trials were undertaken by R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops, who reports as follows:—
" MC-2 was applied at different rates to the greenhouse soil to test the material as
a weedicide, a growth-promoting agent, and as a soil fumigant for diseases and pests as
claimed by the manufacturer.
" Under a plastic cover with soil-moisture at an average level, and soil-temperature
between 45 and 50 degrees, the following applications were made:-—■
" March 9th:   VA pounds per 100 square feet.
" March 6th:  2 pounds per 100 square feet.
" March 11th:  4 pounds per 100 square feet.
" March 7th: 5 pounds per 100 square feet.
" March 8th:  5 pounds per 100 square feet.
" March 10th:  6'/4 pounds per 100 square feet.
" Planting was done about four days after each application.
"Results.—When examined on April 17th, the plants were about 5 inches tall. No
difference was apparent between the 2- and 5-pound treatments and the untreated soil.
At the VA-, 6V*-, and 4-pound rate a slight yellowing was noted.
" The results were negative with respect to weed-control. It is also claimed that
plant emergence, growth, and uniformity are improved by preventing injury from soil
pests and competition from weeds. However, no improvement could be seen on the
treated plots. In the field, treated and untreated plants fared equally well with respect
to verticillium wilt or other soil-borne diseases.
" Since the grower had received the MC-2 and equipment late in the season, he was
anxious to have the applications made before adequate soil preparations could be made
and before soil-temperatures were sufficiently high. Temperatures should be not lower
than 50° F. and preferably above 60° F. Low soil-temperatures most likely accounted
for the fact that the material did not bring positive results on the treated soil."
Nursery Stock
The same official also tried MC-2 to try to correct a damping-off in nursery seedlings, with the following results:—
"At Westsyde Nurseries near Kamloops, M. McPhee for several years has had
difficulty with damping-off diseases attacking field-sown apple seed.    Rarely has the
number of established seedlings exceeded 10 per cent of the seed planted.    This year
MC-2 was tried as a control for damping-off organisms at the following rates: —
"April 16th:  Plot No. 1, 4 pounds per 100 square feet of soil.
"April 17th:  Plot No. 2, 4 pounds per 100 square feet of soil.
"April 18th:  Plot No. 3, 2 pounds per 100 square feet of soil.
"April 18th:  Plot No. 4, 2 pounds per 100 square feet of soil.
"April 18th:  Check, no treatment.
"With soil temperature at only 49° F. applications were made, since further delay
would probably have spoiled the seed, some of which had commenced to germinate.   It
is likely that soil-temperatures rose slightly under the plastic cover sealed over the treated
plot.   Seeding was done about five days later.
"Results.—Observations at later intervals revealed that a damping-off occurred in
all plots, although the check or untreated soil had the greatest loss.
" In June it was noted that at the 4-pound rate there was about a 30-per-cent stand
of seedling plants, at the 2-pound rate about 25 per cent, and on the check-plot about 10
per cent. CC 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Variation in the size of plants was noted. The largest were on the check-plot, the
intermediate on the 2-pound plot, and the smallest on the 4-pound plot. The treatment
may have inhibited biological activity in the soil and the rate of growth.
" Weed-growth was considerably reduced in the treated plots.
" In order to obtain soil-temperatures about 60 degrees or higher, possibly MC-2
should be applied during the first week of September or before."
Strawberries
The following is taken from the report of I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist at
Salmon Arm, on weed-control in strawberries:—
" The control of weeds in strawberries during the summer months is often difficult
and costly. To alleviate this situation, a small-scale demonstration using Crag Herbicide 1
was laid out in the Nabata lot at Magna Bay and in the Pfoh lot at Salmon Arm. The
material was applied on May 13th at 3 pounds to 100 gallons by means of a hand-sprayer
at the rate of approximately 65 gallons per acre. On June 13th it was noted that the
treated rows, which were uncultivated, were completely free from weeds while the checkrows were heavily infested with lamb's-quarters plants 1 inch high, although these rows
had been cultivated twice in the interim. No cultivation was necessary in the treated rows
until after the harvest was completed. Similar results were noted in the Nabata lot at
Magna Bay.
" No injury to the strawberry plants was noted. This material appears to have
promise and further work is planned."
Corn
Trials were continued with the amine form 2,4-D to control weeds in corn. The
work was done by W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist at Abbotsford, and he reports
as follows:—
" 2,4-D in the amine form has been used with success for several years and was
used again this year. With this material, calibration of spray equipment and application
of an exact amount of material per acre is absolutely essential, and a small error may
result in poor weed-control or crop damage.
" Many farmers find it difficult to apply this material properly, and for this reason
a demonstration-plot was sprayed this spring, using a dinitro amine material (Premerge)
which need not be applied with such care. This was applied as a pre-emergence treatment
just when the first few corn shoots were showing above the soil. Weeds in the treated
area were mainly hemp-nettle, pigweed, smart weed, corn-spurry, and grasses. All of the
broad-leaved weeds and corn-spurry were adequately controlled; there was no effect on
grasses. Slight burning of the corn was noticeable on the first leaves in areas where plants
had commenced to emerge from the soil. This injury was of a superficial nature and the
growth of the corn was in no way affected.
"Although the dinitro amine at about $6 per acre is more expensive than the 2,4-D,
which costs less than $1 per acre for material, the dinitro is effective on a wider range
of weeds and is a much more practical method of weed-control. This treatment will be
recommended during the coming season."
Chemical Weed-killers in Vegetable-crops
As reported on by J. L. Webster, Horticulturist, Vancouver:—
" While considerable time has been spent during the past six years on experimenting
with and demonstrating various chemical weed-killers on vegetable-seed crops and commercial vegetables, lack of time prevented any worth-while work being done in 1953.
" Some observations were made on treatments on onion, asparagus, peas, sugar-beet,
and turnips, and assistance given to growers as to time and rates of application. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC 53
"A close contact has been kept on the use of I.P.C. for the control of grass and
chickweed in 300 acres of fall-seeded sugar-beet and some 30 to 50 acres of fall-seeded
Swede turnip. The above acreage is all grown for seed in the Fraser Valley.
" Rye-grass and chickweed grow strongly during the winter months wherever temperature is over 40° F. and rapidly take possession of row-crop lands, causing the loss of
considerable sugar-beet- and turnip-seed acreage each year.
" Very satisfactory control has been obtained with one application of I.P.C. at 5 to
6 pounds per acre, applied from October 1st to 20th, depending on the growth of the
grass and chickweed seedlings. Results have been so outstanding that the use of I.P.C.
is becoming standard practice where chickweed and grasses are noted in these crops
during October."
Tests are under way in the Vernon area for the control of hoary cress and diffuse
knapweed. The outline and the results of this year's work is taken from the report of
W. T. Baverstock, as follows:—
"This was a co-operative effort put on by the British Columbia Department of
Agriculture and the Pacific Coast Borax Company. These plots were located as follows:
(1) Hoary cress on the C.P.R. right-of-way in the City of Vernon; (2) diffuse knapweed
on the Vernon-Kelowna Highway, 7 miles south of Vernon.
"Materials Used.—(1) Polybor-chlorate 88 at 2, 3, 4, and 5 pounds per 100 square
feet; (2) concentrated borascu at 6, 7, and 8 pounds per 100 square feet.
" Material was applied by hand on March 13th, 1953. Plots were checked periodically throughout the growing season and the following observations were recorded: —
"Hoary Cress.—This weed was not completely eradicated in any of the plots
by either weed-killer. It was only at the higher rates that any noticeable
control was noted. As these materials remain effective in the soil for as
long as three years, some control from the one application should show
up this coming season (1954).
" Diffuse Knapweed.—This weed was completely killed out in all plots by both
materials at all concentrations. This would suggest that diffuse knapweed
can be easily controlled along roadsides and other places where soil
sterilants can be safely used."
Minor Elements
With continued cropping, particularly in the irrigated areas, deficiencies of such
elements as boron, zinc, manganese, magnesium, and iron are becoming more widespread
each year. A lot of research and demonstration work has been undertaken on the best
methods of control, and, with the exception of iron, the other deficiencies can now be
quite easily corrected. Investigational work has reached the point where a spray programme is now carried on the annual spray calendar outlining the necessary control
measures.
In connection with correcting iron deficiency, A. W. Watt, District Horticulturist
at Summerland, has applied the iron-chelated compound Sequestrine and the fritted
materials to the soil in some local orchards this fall.
This season I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist at Salmon Arm, used a new material
on strawberries in the Salmon Arm area called Sequestrine. He reports the results of
this test as follows:—
" Strawberries in several isolated locations in the Salmon Arm and Magna Bay areas
are severely affected by lime-induced chlorosis. Although the growers are well aware
that these soils are not suitable for strawberry production, they occasionally occur in one
sector of a planting.
"A material known as Sequestrine, containing iron, was made available by Dr.
C. G. Woodbridge, of Summerland.    This material was applied by means of a hand- CC 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sprayer at the rate of 1 teaspoon per gallon to strawberries at Magna Bay and Salmon
Arm. The plants were severely affected by the time of application, on June 12th. One
application was made at Magna Bay, but a second application was made at Salmon Arm.
In neither case was there a noticeable improvement. Further observations in literature
indicate that this material should have been applied much stronger. Further work is
planned for next year."
In trials with two iron compounds in the Oliver district the following is taken from
the report of D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist at Oliver:—
" On the C. Ireton ranch, Oliver, there are a number of chlorotic pear-trees, and
on two such trees it was decided to try ferric ammonium citrate as a spray material for
the correction of this disorder. Four applications of 1 ounce in 2 gallons of water per
tree in a hand-sprayer were made on July 7th, 15th, 27th, and August 6th. A very
slight indication of a response was noted following the first application, and slightly more
following the second. The last two applications did not seem to make any noticeable
difference.
" G. Garry, of the British Columbia Soils Branch, obtained a supply of Ferrogrene,
the trade-name of another soluble iron compound, and 42.5 grams were given this office.
This material was applied in 2 gallons of water to one pear-tree on the Ireton lot on
July 7th. This material appeared to give a better response to the tree than two applications of 1 ounce each of ferric ammonium citrate, but it caused slight burning of the
foliage. It is hoped to try both of these materials again in 1954, starting much earlier
in the growing season."
New Varieties of Small Fruits
Strawberries
British Sovereign is still the most widely grown variety in the Province and, over
the many years it has been grown, has proved to be an excellent commercial variety.
However, newer varieties are being introduced and their behaviour as to productivity,
shipping, eating, and processing qualities, as well as susceptibility to virus troubles, are
being closely watched by members of the staff wherever they are being grown.
W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist at Abbotsford, makes the following observation on a new variety, Northwest, and on a new ever-bearing, Red Rich:—
" Considerable interest has been shown in the new variety Northwest, which is a
firm, attractive berry, well suited to shipping in crates. Plants were imported this spring
from the Lynden-Everson area in Washington by the Pacific Co-operative Union, and a
few individual growers also imported plants for trial. There are in the neighbourhood
of 25 acres of this variety in the district.
"A new variety, Red Rich, has been tried by a few growers on a small scale and
appears to be far superior to the present stock. There is a ready market for a limited
tonnage of ever-bearing strawberries, and a few growers intend to put in an increased
acreage of the Red Rich variety as soon as planting stock is available."
A variety called Climax is reported on by A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist at
Victoria, as follows:—
" The Climax variety has been planted on several farms and appears to show
promise. The planting under observation during the past two years has been on the
farm of Herb Young, Keating. The planting of Climax on this farm is in a hollow where
drainage is poor. However, up until this fall there has been no sign of injury to the
plants due to unfavourable conditions.
" In regard to its productivity, Climax produces about the same volume as British
Sovereign; however, it is about ten days later in starting and carries on about ten days
later at the end of the season.   For this reason, this variety may be suitable for prolonging DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 55
the season but would not come in for the high early price. There is also a tendency for
Climax to bear a second crop in September and October, but this fact does not appear
to affect the volume of the spring crop."
The following observations made by G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at New
Westminster, on several varieties are taken from his report:—
" The following strawberry varieties are being grown on the farm of J. B. Harrison,
Lulu Island:—
" Tokyo.—Size and flavour of fruit not as acceptable as British Sovereign. Flesh
is white, which makes it unattractive to the jam industry. This season, this variety
exhibited more vigour than British Sovereign. This was especially evident where the
British Sovereign and Tokyo were growing in soils infested with red-stele.
"The following strawberry varieties were planted in the spring of 1953. Since
fruiting was not permitted, observations can only be made on the plant vigour:—
"Climax No. 12.—Vigour good.
"4502-18.—Exceptionally strong vigour; runners and flower-clusters were numerous.
"Auckincruise.—Vigour generally poor; a few scattered plants exhibited medium
vigour.
" Agassiz No. 42.—Medium vigour.
" Agassiz No. 55.—Good.
"Agassiz No. 41.—Very weak vigour.
"Agassiz No. 44.—Medium.
"Agassiz No. 53.—Strong to exceptional vigour.
"Agassiz No. 58.—Strong vigour.
"Agassiz No. 59.—Medium vigour.
"Sparkle.—Medium vigour, runner development good.
"Maine No. 55.—Medium to good vigour.
" Orland.—Medium vigour.
"Red Crop.—Weak vigour.
" Fairland.—Weak to medium vigour.
" Temple.—Medium to good vigour.
"July Moon.—Medium to good vigour.
"Monmouth.—Weak vigour.
" Vermillion.—Medium vigour. This variety started very strongly in the spring, but
fell off as the season progressed.
" Red Wing.—Weak to medium vigour.
"Rich Red.—Medium vigour, runner development very weak. Ever-bearer. Fruit,
during the warm weather, compares favourably with British Sovereign in size, colour,
and flavour.
"Gem Everbearing (Mass.).—Very weak vigour.   Fruit flavour very tart."
In the Creston district, J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist, reports on new varieties
under trial as follows:—
"Strawberry Variety Trial.—A small strawberry variety trial was run on the G.
Popoff farm at Thrums, the object being to find an early variety to replace Narcissa, an
early berry which does not yield well and which lacks quality. In this trial, plants of
Elgin, Dresden, Princess Stephany, and Pathfinder were set out in 1952. The writer did
not observe the fruit produced last summer, but the grower was pleased with Pathfinder.
He stated that this variety ripened a full two weeks before British Sovereign and bore a
good crop of firm fruit of attractive colour. The grower plans on setting out an acreage
of this variety as there is a good market for strawberries in Nelson and Trail, and
premium prices can be obtained for early berries." CC 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Raspberries
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford, reports as follows on the
raspberry situation as it appears in the Fraser Valley:—
" The Newburgh raspberry is, at the present time, the most profitable variety to
grow. It produces heavy crops of large berries which are easy to pick. The quality,
however, is not as good as desired by some markets.
" Since the decline of the Cuthbert variety as a commercial raspberry, no variety
has proven successful for any length of time. While the Washington could be the leading
raspberry, the planting of this variety on many of our berry soils seems inadvisable, due
to some problems whose causes have not been determined.
" The Willamette variety is being planted, but, in some instances, difficulties are
being experienced.
" Several seedling varieties are being tested at the Dominion Experimental Farm at
Agassiz. One variety, to be known as Siefred, will be sold during the coming year. Mr.
Siefred, has had this variety under observation for several years and during the past two
years has been growing it on a commercial basis, extending his acreage to 15 acres. The
variety is satisfactory under the conditions where it is being grown, but more extensive
tests and observations are necessary before it can be recommended officially.
" The Canby red raspberry, recently originated at the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, is reported as being worthy of consideration, and plants will be obtained
for testing in this district during the coming year."
Loganberries and Other Brambles
As reported by W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist at Abbotsford:—
" There are only a few plantings of loganberries in this area, and it is probable that
the acreage will be decreased. Crops on some of the lowland sites in the Sumas Prairie
region have been unsatisfactory, and it is probable that these plantings will be taken out.
Loganberries in other locations, particularly on the better highland soils, appear to do
well. Prices during the past season have been low, and there does not appear to be any
prospect of an increased demand in the near future. Growers obtained a price of about
9 cents per pound this year, as compared to 1.1 Vi cents last year.
" There is considerable interest in the growing of boysenberries, and during the past
two seasons there has been a good demand for this variety. The boysenberry is a rather
unpredictable cropper in this district and is subject to winter-injury, although in favoured
spots it grows well. Following the mild winter of 1952-53, there was good growth and
a heavy crop was produced. It is expected that the acreage of this variety will be increased during the coming year.
" Other varieties of brambles which have been introduced to the district during the
past few years include Cascade, Chehalem, and Nectarberry. Thornless boysenberries
are also grown. Cascade is a high-quality fruit of the blackberry type, but it is very soft
and therefore does not lend itself to commercial handling methods. It is suitable for
roadside sales and local markets, and also for home use. Chehalem is a highly flavoured
blackberry of the dewberry type; it is firm and a good producer. It is doubtful, however,
if there will be any commercial plantings made of this variety unless the blackberry situation as a whole shows improvement. Nectarberries appear to be indistinguishable from
boysenberries, and the thornless boysenberry is smaller fruited and less attractive than
the standard variety."
Thornless Loganberry.—Observations on the behaviour of this new strain of thornless loganberry are from the report of A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist at Victoria:—
" This variety has been grown previously but did not produce a very satisfactory
crop. In 1949 a new strain was obtained by the Experimental Station at Saanichton
from the State of Oregon.   From this nucleus a supply was built up and distributed to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC 57
several growers on the Saanich Peninsula. The year 1953 was the first year that any
real appraisal could be made on a fairly large scale. Plantings on the farms of Dixon
Holloway, East Saanich Road, and R. E. C. Stephens, Goldstream, were observed and
appeared to yield equally as well as the thorny type. The cane-growth is stout and
vigorous, and this variety appears to show promise."
NEWS LETTER, BROADCASTS, CROP REPORTS, PUBLICATIONS,
AND MEETINGS
The Horticultural News Letter is issued bi-monthly from May through September.
All the horticultural offices co-operate in forwarding crop estimates, vegetable acreages,
and general crop conditions. The News Letter is compiled in the Kelowna office under
the direction of the Supervising Horticulturist.
Through the co-operation of the B.C. Tree Fruits Limited and the British Columbia
Fruit Growers' Association, information dealing with sprays is transmitted to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation for the farm broadcast at noon during the spraying season. B.C. Tree Fruits Limited also allows us time on its regular Thursday programme
broadcast at noon over CKOV and in the evening over CKOK, Penticton. This latter
station also broadcasts a short daily comment from material provided by the Penticton
office.
Fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates, in co-operation with the Statistics Branch,
were issued as required. Final production figures were compiled and forwarded to the
Statistics Branch.
No publications have been issued this year, but a new bulletin on vegetable varieties
is now in the printer's hands and should be ready for distribution shortly. A new bulletin
on grape-growing is being written, and the following publications are now being revised:
Horticultural Circular No. 55, Raspberry Culture; Horticultural Circular No. 58, Strawberry Culture; Horticultural Circular No. 43, Gardening on a City Lot; and Horticultural Circular No. 65, Tomato-growing in British Columbia.
Apart from the regular Chautauqua meetings, which were well attended again this
year, members of the staff have attended various growers' meetings and floral-society
meetings throughout the season. Also in the promotion of horticultural societies, quite
a number of the staff have been very active in their communities.
CHANGES IN STAFF
After forty-two years' service with the Horticultural Branch, Ben Hoy, Provincial
Horticulturist, was superannuated or September 1st and was replaced by R. P. Murray,
formerly Supervising Horticulturist at Kelowna. J. A. Smith, District Horticulturist at
Kelowna, was promoted to Supervising Horticulturist for the Okanagan. W. F. Morton,
formerly Assistant District Horticulturist, has been promoted to District Horticulturist
for the Kelowna area. On November 1st E. M. King was appointed Assistant District
Horticulturist at Kelowna.
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH, 1953
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon
During 1952 it was reported that 1,668 beekeepers were operating 13,600 colonies
of bees in British Columbia. Since that time careful survey by inspectors and a complete
revision of our card-filing system now indicates that during 1953 a total of 1,507 beekeepers were operating 11,568 colonies. Although the number of beekeepers is less by
only 161, it has been found that many of the beekeepers in the ten- to twenty-five-colony CC 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
group have reduced their colony holdings to the two- to five-colony group. On the other
hand, many of the commercial beekeepers are expanding their apiaries, and 1954 should
show a further reduction in numbers of beekeepers, coupled with a considerable increase
in the numbers of colonies. This slight decline of only 161 beekeepers, together with a
levelling-out of producing colonies only, indicates a definite trend toward specialization
of the beekeeping industry in British Columbia.
The total honey-crop during 1953 was 1,184,200 pounds, and was greater than the
1952 crop by 229,970 pounds. This increase in production would have been much
greater had weather conditions throughout the Province been more suitable. The month
of June was notable for being an extremely cool and wet month, and beekeepers were
forced to feed colonies during the entire month. In most areas the honey flow started
later than usual. This was particularly noticeable in the Peace River area, where the main
honey flow did not commence until the first week of August. The confining weather
resulted in increasing swarming, and the attendant problems of swarm control, particularly in package bees where packages were most often installed on comb foundation and
during poor flying weather.
Of the 11,568 colonies of bees in British Columbia, 3,500 were package bees and
the remaining 8,068 were over-wintered colonies, or increase made from over-wintered
colonies. Approximately 750 extra queens were ordered from the Southern States to
replace failing or unsatisfactory queens.
MARKETING
The demand for British Columbia honey remains brisk, and beekeepers are experiencing little difficulty in selling their crop. Most sales from the commercial producers
are made in bulk containers of 60 to 70 pounds. Producers are becoming more aware
of marketing factors and salesmanship. Large quantities of honey are being produced in
the Prairie Provinces and sold on the British Columbia market in direct competition to
British Columbia honey. This is resulting in a definite effort on the part of British Columbia beekeepers to improve their methods of merchandising and marketing. There
has been a slight rise in the over-all average price of honey per pound, and the Provincial
average shows the price from producer direct to consumer to be 21 cents per pound.
DEMONSTRATION APIARY
A small demonstration apiary was set up in Vernon to carry out observations on
manipulations, removing the honey-crop, swarm control, new equipment, and hybrid
strains of honeybees. Six queens of the co-operative breeding plan being conducted
jointly by the United States Department of Agriculture, the Canada Department of Agriculture at Ottawa, and the Guelph Agricultural College were purchased from Rossman
Apiaries at Moultrie, Georgia, and introduced to established colonies. Results were
encouraging, particularly from the aspect of swarm control. This work was satisfactory
in every respect, and is to be continued during 1954.
POLLINATION
In order that pollination might be considered in the economics of beekeeping, it
was suggested that all Provincial apiarists conduct a survey to ascertain how many beekeepers were receiving remuneration from colony rentals to fruit and seed growers for
the purpose of pollination only. The value of honeybees as pollinators cannot be clearly
shown without complete removal of all colonies from fruit- and seed-growing areas. Such
a move is, of course, not possible. Beekeepers are alarmed at the complacence of many,
but not all, fruit-growers toward this aspect of keekeeping. Many fruit and seed growers
expect exorbitant returns of honey from the beekeeper as payment for apiary locations
in or adjacent to their orchards or fields. r
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 59
The following table indicates the districts in British Columbia where honeybees are
actually rented by growers for pollination purposes only, and indicates the beginning in
the Province of a better understanding of the value of honeybees as pollinators first and
honey-gatherers second.
District
Crop
Number of
Colonies
Rental
Charged per
Colony
Total
Similkameen.-
Kootenays	
Central Okanagan -
North Okanagan.—.
Vancouver Island-
Total..
Fruit	
Alsike—
Fruit	
Fruit.	
Greenhouse cucumbers-
108
12
10
25
$6.00
2.50
5.00
5.00
$648.00
30.00
50.00
125.00
$853.00
INSPECTION WORK
Once again inspection work was given priority over all other phases of services
from this Branch. A policy of promptly answering any emergency calls from beekeepers
was followed, together with a concentrated clean-up of one or two areas by our inspection staff. This has resulted in the locating and burning of a great number of infected
colonies and old equipment. Efforts were concentrated on the Thompson Valley, at
Kamloops and Ashcroft, and the Fraser Valley area of Lillooet. Results were extremely
satisfying and indicated the need for future work of this nature in other higher-producing
areas. Routine inspection work has been carried out in most areas of the Province,
such as the Okanagan and Kootenay Valleys, Peace River District, Lower Mainland,
and Vancouver Island. H. Boone, C. C. Heighway, I. Lewis, and K. Simons carried out
part-time inspection work under the beemaster system, and both the writer and Mr.
Thorgeirson carried out full-time inspection. Our inspection service would be entirely
adequate with further consideration being given to the needs of the Peace River area,
as the result of the expansion programme at present under way in that district.
DISEASE CONTROL
Facilities are available at the office in Vernon for diagnosing samples of disease,
and fifty-three samples of suspected comb and smears were analysed for beekeepers.
American foul brood (Bacillus larva) still presents the major disease problem to
beekeepers in this Province. Large quantities of old unused beekeeping equipment which
was found to be heavily infected with American foul brood spores in scales were burned.
The concentrated inspection of entire areas resulted in the locating and treating of these
potential sources of infection.
District
Type of Disease
Total
Number
of Cases
A.F.B.i
E.F.B.
Nosema
Others
Fraser Valley, Vancouver, and Vancouver Island	
49
105
2
1
100
15
Sac-brood3
Sac-brood2
Sac-brood2
51
100
121
i All live colonies and old equipment infected with American foul brood were burned in accordance with the
"Apiaries Act."
2 Colonies mildly infected with sac brood were too numerous to mention, and this disease was widely scattered
throughout the Province.
European Foul Brood (Bacillus alvei)
Only three cases of this disease were reported. Requeening of infected colonies
with young queens generally cleans up this infection, which is not nearly as serious as
American foul brood. CC 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Nosema (Nosema apis)
One outbreak of this disease was reported from the Peace River area. Others were
located at Vernon and Kamloops. These were of minor importance, however, and, with
exception of the Peace River outbreak, did not result in any serious weakening of apiaries.
Sac Brood
This disease has been unusually active and widespread this season. The slow
build-up of colonies during cool weather was largely responsible. As is usual, this disease
all but disappeared during the honey-flow.
There were widespread cases of chilled brood which seriously handicapped some
colonies. Beekeepers were advised against choosing exposed apiary locations and adding
supers too quickly.
INSECTICIDE POISONING
There was the usual incidence of spray poisoning, but at no time during this season
has it reached alarming proportions. Field bees of apiaries in Vernon were slightly hit,
but colonies recovered quickly. Parathion appears to have been the most serious of
these insecticides, but at no time has it reached the deadly proportions of the arsenical
sprays. Unlike the arsenical sprays, parathion does not result in high brood mortality
in colonies, thereby permitting a colony to make comparatively rapid recovery from its
losses in field bees. Three samples of poisoned bees were sent to the Canada Department
of Agriculture, Ottawa, for analysis.
EXTENSION
The distribution of information on beekeeping has been accomplished through press
articles, lectures, demonstrations, coloured slides, films, radio talks, and talks to service
clubs. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation farm broadcast is planning to include the
beekeeping aspect in its " Carson Family " programme. Short courses on beekeeping
which were held in Victoria, Duncan, Penticton, and Creston were much appreciated by
beginners and experienced beekeepers alike. Field-days were held at all the beekeping
centres throughout the Province, and were well attended. Once again the writer and
V. E. Thorgeirson judged the honey sections at the Pacific National Exhibition, Interior
Provincial Exhibition, Salmon Arm Fair, and Burnaby, Langley, and Coquitlam Fairs.
Invitations were received from many other local fairs, but time would not permit acceptance of these.
BULLETINS AND PUBLICATIONS
With the assistance of George Calver, Departmental Agricultural Extension Engineer, plans are at present under way for designing simple but practical extracting-houses
of two types: (1) The one-story house employing honey pumps, and (2) the two-story
house employing the gravity system. These plans are being eagerly awaited by many of
our commercial beekeepers, and will do much to improve the generally unsatisfactory
standard of honey houses throughout this Province. The construction and maintenance
of honey houses which will meet with the basic needs of any commercial producer of
honey and still meet with sanitary regulations is of the utmost importance. This matter
is at present being impressed on beekeepers in this Province, and is in line with the
general trend throughout Canada of better extracting and storage facilities for honey.
Six issues of "Bee Wise" were published during 1953, and the demand for other
material dealing with the subject of beekeeping in British Columbia remains good. The
revision of Bulletin No. 92 should be completed by the spring of 1954, and will fill a gap
in our present list of publications available to the beekeeper. r
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 61
In addition to numerous visitors and telephone calls, the office handled 756 letters
in and 1,307 letters out.
APIARY LEGISLATION
As the Peace River area has been a disease-free area in so far as honey bees are
concerned, the recent programme of expansion has prompted the placing of a quarantine
on that district in accordance with subsection (2) of section 9 of the "Apiaries Act."
That this quarantine has been justified can be appreciated when we consider that upwards
of 2,000 colonies were recently established in that area without one single outbreak of
American foul brood being reported. A similar quarantine which had been placed on
the New Westminster Land District was deemed to have served its purpose, and was
therefore lifted. This quarantine had been put into effect on April 2nd, 1936.
APIARY PESTS
The effective control of wax moth (Galleria mellonella) still requires constant attention. The elimination of old unused brood combs and continued seasonal use of combs
are two methods employed in controlling this pest. A member of the wasp family,
believed to be Polistes species, has presented a difficult problem to beekeepers in the
Vancouver area and particularly on Vancouver Island, where whole colonies were
invaded and destroyed by this pest. Good beekeeping practices are recommended as
the first requisite in controlling the invasions of this wasp. It is recommended that colonies must be strong, populous, and queenright, and, where wasps are particularly active,
entrance blocks should be applied with the entrance confined to a minimum, thereby
permitting the colony to defend itself more effectively.
GRADING OF HONEY
Samples of honey have been received at this office for classifying and grading.
Several infractions of Provincial grading regulations were handled jointly by our own
Apiary Inspectors and officers of the Federal Department of Agriculture. This system of
enforcing grading regulations has been quite satisfactory. Beekeepers are now becoming
aware of the important part grading regulations play in marketing and merchandising
of honey.
HONEY-CROP REPORT
The following statement summarizes the honey-crop situation for 1953:—
District
Bee-keepers
Colonies
Crop
Average
186
146
211
339
586
39
690
413
1,082
1,147
5,736
2,500
Lb.
24,150
14,455
108,200
51,615
603,280
382,500
Lb.
35
35
100
45
112
153
Totals	
1,507
11,568
1,184,200
80
Value to Producers.—1,184,200 pounds of honey at 21 cents (wholesale), $248,682;  11,842 pounds of beeswax at 48
cents per pound (wholesale), $5,684.16. CC 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A.
The average damage to agricultural crops from plant diseases was slight. The
general health of the fruit-trees was the best since the severe low-temperature injury of
January and February of 1950. The following diseases caused severe damage in some
localities: Prune-shrivel in the Okanagan, little-cherry in the Kootenays, apple-scab in
the Kootenays and Northern Okanagan, brown-rot of peaches in the Kootenays, club-
root of crucifers in the Lower Fraser Valley, and dry-berry of loganberries in the Saanich
Peninsula. Moderate damage was caused by coryneum blight of apricots in the Southern
Okanagan, yellow-rust of the Washington raspberry, red-stele and powdery mildew of
strawberries at the Coast, powdery mildew of apples in the Okanagan and at the Coast,
frost-injury to strawberry plants in the Okanagan, verticillium wilt of tomatoes, excess
of toxic salts in greenhouse soils at the Coast, black-knot of plums at the Coast, late
blight of potatoes at the Coast (5 to 10 per cent), bacterial canker of tomatoes at Grand
Forks, winter-killing of altaswede and alsike in the Peace River area, and root-rot of
Lawson's cypress at the Coast.
The Province continues to be virtually free of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes. It has
been detected in slight amounts in the White Rose potato-crops of ten growers in the
Fraser Valley.
A better control for scab and powdery mildew of apples is still needed. Compared
to last year, the apple-scab situation was greatly improved in the Penticton area.
APPLE-SCAB
Apple-scab caused considerable economic losses to growers in the Kootenays and
Arrow Lakes, at Creston and Grand Forks, in the Northern Okanagan (from Kelowna
to Salmon Arm), and in the Fraser Valley.
Wet weather during May and June was favourable for the development of this
disease. Growers in some districts had difficulty in keeping up with the spray schedule
because of either rain or wind. J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist at Creston, made a
survey of the apple-orchards, and reports: " The timing of sprays meant the difference
between good or poor control where the sprays were applied thoroughly." He also mentions the following observations which contributed to unsatisfactory control in some
orchards: (1) Using a low-grade lime-sulphur, and not testing same with a hydrometer;
(2) allowing too long an interval between spray applications; (3) travelling at too high
a rate of speed with concentrate sprayers; and (4) not enough care taken in checking
the output of concentrate machines to make sure that the spray mixtures were up to the
required strength.
Tests were conducted at Creston, Sunshine Bay in the Kootenays, North Broadview
in the Northern Okanagan, and at Sumas in the Fraser Valley. J. E. Swales and I. C.
Carne, District Horticulturists at Creston and Salmon Arm respectively, co-operated
with Dr. D. L. Mcintosh, of the Canada Plant Pathology Laboratory at Summerland.
The plots at Sumas were established in co-operation with the Horticultural Office in the
Fraser Valley. The Turbo-Mist concentrate sprayer was used at Creston and at North
Broadview.   A gun sprayer was used at Sumas.
In the plots at Creston (Table No. 1), Manzate gave the best control. Captan
compared favourably with the materials now recommended; that is, lime-sulphur and
ferbam-wettable sulphur. Captan caused a slight " shot-holing " on the Delicious foliage,
but not on the Mcintosh. Better control would likely have been obtained if the period
between sprays during the early part of the season had not been too long. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 63
Table No. 1.—The Result of Spraying Mcintosh and Delicious Apples for Scab, Using
Different Fungicides, in the Pre-pink, Pink, Calyx, and Four Covers, at Creston
Percentage of
Material and Rate of Application in Amounts per Acre Clean Fruit
Check (none)      0
Crag, 6 qt.; plus hydrated lime, 1 lb.  15
Lime-sulphur, 8 gal.; plus dinitrocresol 40 per cent, 3 lb.; plus
hydrated lime, 6 lb.  21
Ferbam, 101b  31
Captan, 10 lb  32
Ferbam, 4 lb.; plus wettable sulphur, 12 lb.  33
Manzate, 10 lb  50
The result of combining blossom-thinning sprays with a fungicide on the control
of apple-scab is shown in Table No. 2. The addition of the fungicide Crag to the Elgetol
blossom spray appears to give a slight increase in the percentage of clean fruit. Further
tests will be necessary to determine if the combination of the fungicide and the blossom-
thinning spray is worth while. The application of a fungicide in the cluster-bud and pink
stages in the Northern Okanagan appears to be important.
Table No. 2.—The Result of Combining Blossom-thinning Spray with Fungicide on the
Control of Scab on Mcintosh Apples at North Broadview in the Northern Okanagan
Treatment
Percentage of
Clean Fruit
-    0.0
Check (no treatment) 	
Lime-sulphur, cluster-bud and pink; Crag, 3 covers  83.5
Lime-sulphur, cluster-bud and pink;   Crag, 3  covers;   plus
Elgetol blossom spray  88.3
Lime-sulphur, cluster-bud and pink;   Crag, 3 covers;   plus
Elgetol and wettable sulphur; blossom  89.9
Lime-sulphur, cluster-bud and pink;   Crag, 3 covers;   plus
Elgetol and Crag; blossom  93.2
Elgetol and Crag; blossom; Crag, 3 covers  61.2
Elgetol and wettable sulphur; blossom; Crag, 3 covers  53.6
Elgetol; blossom; Crag, 3 covers  45.9
Crag, calyx; Crag, 3 covers  61.6
In the northern areas of the Okanagan the scab fungous spores were discharged
earlier than usual in the pre-pink. This necessitated an earlier spray than is usually
required for control. Dr. D. L. Mcintosh, of the Canada Plant Pathology Laboratory,
Summerland, has offered to examine leaves forwarded to him by District Horticulturists,
in order that growers may receive advance notice when the spores are discharging and
are likely to cause infection.
The recommended control for apple-scab for 1954 in the pre-pink and pink stages
is: (1) For hand gun sprayers, per 100 gallons of spray mixture, lime-sulphur, 2 gallons,
or wettable sulphur, 3 pounds, plus ferbam, 1 pound, and (2) for concentrate sprayers,
given in amounts per acre, lime-sulphur, 8 gallons, or wettable sulphur, 15 pounds, plus
ferbam, 5 pounds; and in the calyx and cover stages, for hand or gun sprayers, per 100
gallons of spray mixture, lime-sulphur, 1.5 gallons, or wettable sulphur, 3 pounds, plus
ferbam, 1 pound, or ferbam, 2 pounds, and for concentrate sprayers, in amounts per acre,
lime-sulphur, 8 gallons, or wettable sulphur, 15 pounds, plus ferbam, 5 pounds, or
ferbam, 10 pounds.
The above recommended sprays were applied in gun sprayers, in the Sumas plots at
the Coast, and gave satisfactory control. CC 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF FRUIT-TREES
In the Interior fruit-growing areas there has been a partial change made in the
recommendation, in order to prevent the occurrence of certain disorders caused by lack
of one or more elements. Any or all the materials shown in Table No. 3 may be applied
with DDT sprays, but are not recommended for use with other insecticides, or with
fungicides.
Table No. 3.—The Amount of Materials Needed to Add, per 100 Gallons of Spray,
per Concentrate Spray per Acre, for Each Element
Dilute Spray        Concentrate
per 100 Gal.     Spray per Acre
Element (Lb.) (Lb.)
Boron (soluble boron compound)  Va 2
Manganese (manganese sulphate)   Va 2
Zinc (zinc oxide)   Va 2
Magnesium (magnesium sulphate)   aVt. 20
These recommendations are based on the experimental work of Dr. C. G. Wood-
bridge, of the Canada Plant Pathology Laboratory, Summerland, in co-operation with the
Provincial Department of Agriculture.
LITTLE-CHERRY
Little-cherry has not been detected outside of the Kootenays and Arrow Lakes area.
It was not found during an inspection of a number of orchards in the Okanagan from
Osoyoos to Kelowna. This year, little-cherry caused much greater damage in the Creston
area than in the previous year, when most of the fruits appeared to be practically normal
in size.
BLACK-KNOT OF PLUMS
The black-knot of plum eradication programme in the Fraser Valley was continued.
In order to reach the plum and prune growers with control measures for black-knot, the
following publicity campaign was adopted: Press releases were issued to newspapers,
and to radio stations CBU (Vancouver) and CHWK (Chilliwack); recordings of interviews and talks were made for station CHWK; articles were sent to Horticultural Societies, Farmers' Institutes, Farm Radio Forum groups, commercial agricultural firms, and
to Veterans' Land Act offices; and displays were set up in store windows in Chilliwack,
Mission, Abbotsford, and Agassiz.
PRUNE-SHRIVEL
In the Okanagan, prune fruits shrivelled and softened as the fruit approached
maturity. The cause of the trouble is not known. The estimated loss is severe—about
40 per cent.   Shrivel of prunes was not observed in the Kootenays nor at the Coast.
YELLOW-RUST ON RASPBERRY
Yellow-rust on the Washington variety appears to be becoming of increasing importance. More growers are spraying for this disease each year. The plantings which were
sprayed, as recommended in the spring of 1953, were almost entirely free of yellow-rust.
The recommended control is as follows:—
Spray Period
(1) Delayed dormant (green tip or bursting-bud
stage)
(2) Late April to early May  (when blossom
buds separate)
Control
Lime-sulphur, 6 gal.;
water, 94 gal.
Ferbam, 3 lb.; water,
100 gal. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
STRAWBERRY-PLANT CERTIFICATION
CC 65
This project was carried out with the co-operation of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising
Horticulturist, and W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist, Abbotsford.
The total number of applications for certification was sixty-nine—thirty-nine passed
and thirty were rejected. The number of strawberry plants certified was approximately
3,000,000, which was less than the number certified in 1952.
STRAWBERRIES AT WYNNDEL
The certified strawberry plants from the Fraser Valley continue to help in the
rehabilitation of the strawberry industry at Wynndel and Creston. Since we found the
cause of the decline in 1950, there has been a steady increase in production each year.
The industry is now showing confidence, and a big increase in acreage is planned.
The certified plants have given the most satisfactory results when grown in comparative isolation from local plants that are heavily infected with a virulent virus disease.
Many of the growers, however, are still not using the certified plants to the best advantage. Some of the growers who run short of the certified stock fill in with the local
diseased plants. Other growers plant the certified plants only a few feet away from a
patch of old plants which are usually about 100 per cent infected.
RED-STELE OF STRAWBERRY
In an effort to find a practical control for red-stele-infected land, we are endeavouring to find a suitable resistant variety and also a cheap chemical method of treating the
soil.
None of the varieties under trial for a number of years—for example, Temple,
Pathfinder, and Sparkle—have proven to be satisfactory. Pathfinder has found favour
with a few growers because of its earliness. A newer variety, Climax, developed in
England for red-stele resistance, appears to show some promise at several farms in its
first year under observation. On one farm, Climax, grown under poor drainage conditions, yielded as well as British Sovereign grown under better drainage conditions. The
Climax is about ten days later in starting production and carries on about ten days later.
This variety will have to be promising for a number of years before we will be able to
recommend it.
In May, 1952, a chemical method of treating red-stele-infected soil with Dithane
D-14—recommended in Massachusetts, U.S.A.—was tested on two affected farms in
the Fraser Valley. On the first farm, in a 1-year-old planting, Dithane was used at the
rate of 2,000 gallons per acre, at a strength of 1.5 per cent solution, applied in 10-inch
squares to a depth of 6 inches. On the second farm the young affected plants were
removed. The soil was treated with Dithane D-14, at the rate of 4,000 gallons per
acre, at a strength of 1.5 per cent solution, applied in 10-inch squares to a depth of 6
inches. Healthy young plants were then replanted in the treated area. An examination
of strawberry plants in the spring of 1953 snowed that Dithane D-14 was not an effective
control under coastal conditions of British Columbia.
FROST-INJURY OF STRAWBERRIES
Considerable frost-injury occurred in the crowns of strawberry plants in the Okanagan from Osoyoos to Kelowna. The greatest damage was noticed at Westbank, at the
higher elevations, where many of the plants were killed. Apparently there was no snow
cover for most of the winter. Some frost-injury also occurred at some of the higher
levels at the Coast.
CLUB-ROOT OF CRUCIFERS
Club-root of cabbage and other crucifers appears to be spreading in the Fraser
Valley.   In April a press release was issued, stating the seriousness of the disease if it
3 CC 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
once becomes established and how to avoid introducing it into the farm or garden. Two
film-trailers on club-root were prepared and shown at movie-houses in Marpole, Burnaby,
Brighouse, Cloverdale, Langley, Mission, and Chilliwack. The trailers are both 45 feet
in length, last approximately half a minute on the screen, and illustrate, with a picture
of a young cabbage plant, how club-root affects the roots of a plant.
LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES
Late blight was more widespread and severe in the Fraser Valley, Courtenay, and
Terrace districts than it has been for the previous four years. The estimated loss to
growers in these areas would be approximately 5 to 10 per cent.
Late blight was first reported in a cull pile on Lulu Island. A press release was
issued on June 27th, cautioning growers to watch for the disease and advising them to
apply recommended fungicides.    Late blight did not become widespread until the fall.
BACTERIAL RING-ROT OF POTATOES
British Columbia continues to be virtually free of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes.
There was no rejection due to ring-rot of any potatoes entered for certification.
Ring-rot has been detected in slight amounts on ten farms in the Fraser Valley, in
White Rose potatoes grown for the commercial market. The seed used on the affected
farms was not certified. Crops under detention—about 835 tons—are being disposed
of, in paper bags, to non-agricultural areas. The sale of these crops is expected to be
completed not later than January 31st, 1954. No ring-rot was found on the two farms
which grew affected crops last year.
No ring-rot was detected in any imported carloads or truck-loads entering British
Columbia in the 1952-53 crop-year. At the Coast, 159 carloads were imported from
Alberta, ten from Washington, and one from Oregon. Imported carloads and truck-
loads of potatoes were inspected at Prince George, Cranbrook, Nelson, Penticton, Abbotsford, Vancouver, and Victoria.
A bacterial ring-rot directive for imported potatoes was issued in September, 1953,
and was forwarded to importers and wholesalers in the Province.
PHYTOPHTHORA ROOT-ROT OF LAWSON'S CYPRESS
In co-operation with P. J. Salisbury, of the Forest Biology Laboratory, Science
Service, Victoria, experiments on the control of phytophthora root-rot of Lawson's
cypress have been initiated. In a preliminary field test of two partial soil sterilizers,
seven out of eight Lawson's cypress remained apparently healthy, from October to July,
in contaminated soil that had been treated with chloropicrin, while eight out of eight
Lawson's cypress died in the same period in contaminated soil that had been treated
with Dithane D-14. Although chloropicrin appears to have given temporary protection,
it would be surprising if it gave continued protection.
The possibility of finding resistant seedlings is also being investigated. Seedlings
are being produced from forest-grown seed imported by us. These seedlings will be
tested for differences in susceptibility to root-rot.
REVISIONS
Diseases of Fruit-trees (Horticultural Circular No. 73:1-60).
The Diseases of Narcissus, Tulip, Iris, and Hyacinths and Their Control (Bulb Production Series No. 2:1-14).
Damping-off of Vegetables and Flowers (Horticultural Stencil No. 14:1-3).
Tomato Mosaic and Streak (Horticultural Stencil No. 19:1-3).
NEW PUBLICATION
Moss in Lawns (Horticultural Stencil No. 20:1-2). DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 67
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST
C. L. Neilson, M.S., Entomologist, Vernon
The year 1953 did not produce any great increase in insect activity over 1952.
Perhaps the two insects which were in outbreak proportion and most widespread
were the black army cutworm and the forest tent-caterpillar. There were increased
grasshopper-control measures in the Vernon and Kamloops districts. Cutworms, other
than the black army, were again present throughout the Province, but on a reduced scale.
Local outbreaks of sod webworms occurred in the Fraser Valley, and pine-leaf needle-
scale, woolly aphis, bud moth and mites in the Okanagan. New distribution records were
secured for tuber flea-beetle in the Fauquier and Grand Forks districts; for carrot rust-fly
at Kamloops, Lavington, and Summerland; and for the black vine-weevil in strawberries
at Creston.   Inquiries regarding household pests were again numerous.
One of the entomological highlights of the year was the joint meetings of the third
annual meeting of the Entomological Society of Canada and the fifty-second annual
meeting of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, which were held on October
19th to 21st in Victoria.
A few of the highlights in economic entomology in British Columbia during the
year were:—
(1) An improved control for narcissus bulb-fly and strawberry root-weevil
with aldrin or chlordane.
(2) Widespread use of aldrin and chlordane as soil insecticides for tuber flea-
beetle control in Interior British Columbia.
(3) Increased use of the insecticides methoxychlor and malathion in the control of orchard insects.
(4) An attempt to control black-fly in the Cherryville district.
(5) New spray equipment used in grasshopper-control operations.
(6) Revision of the tree-fruit and small-fruit spray calendars.
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata)
This beetle was again present throughout the potato-growing areas of the East and
West Kootenay districts. Populations were higher than last year, but little loss was suffered, particularly when growers dusted their crops. The co-operative parasite study
started in 1951 with the Canada Biological Control Laboratory, Vancouver, was continued in 1953. Larval collections were made in both the East and West Kootenay
districts twice during the summer. These will be dissected to determine whether or not
there is any increase in the percentage parasitism later in the season. The collections of
larva? made in 1952 showed that the dipterous parasite Phorocera doryphorm Riley was
widely distributed and of considerable importance. Of the ten larval collections, all were
parasitized, the majority of them over 30 per cent, with a high of 72 per cent parasitism
in a collection of thirty-two Colorado potato-beetle larvee from East Cranbrook.
Grasshoppers
The main grasshopper areas during 1953 were roughly confined to Interior British
Columbia, with a few spotty infestations in the Rock Creek and East Kootenay districts.
Hatching was prolonged, and consequently many nymphs were late in reaching maturity.
This would tend to reduce egg-laying.
In Interior British Columbia three grasshopper-control zones were active—Nicola,
Thompson Valleys, and Vernon. The main species of grasshopper was Melanoplus
mexicanus, with localized areas of Camnula pellucida.   In the Alkali Lake and Riske CC 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Creek area, Dr. R. H. Handford of the Canada Field Crop Insect Laboratory, Kamloops,
reported the presence of several large egg-beds of Camnula pellucida, which are capable
of producing severe local infestations in 1954.
In these zones, control was almost exclusively with aldrin sprays and was applied by
aircraft and ground equipment, using broad-jet weed-sprayer nozzles. Populations were
lower in the South Okanagan and East Kootenay than in 1952.
Cutworms
The red-backed cutworm (Euxoa ochrogaster) outbreak of 1951 and 1952 continued, but was not as serious as in the previous two years. DDT and chlordane dusts
were again used in quantity, with good control reported in most instances. The black
army cutworm (Actebia fennica), which appeared in the Prince George area in 1952,
was in outbreak numbers over a much wider area in 1953. Damage began to occur in
mid-April in the North Okanagan to forage and grain crops. Similar damage appeared
from this time until the last week of June throughout other areas of Central British
Columbia, Interior British Columbia, and the East Kootenay, Once growers were made
aware of the infestation and its possibilities of damage, control measures were started.
Good control of the cutworms was secured by the application of sprays (mainly with
weed-sprayers) of 50 per cent wettable DDT, 4 pounds per 100 gallons of water, and 2
to 3 ounces of actual aldrin per acre.
Carrot Rust-fly (Psila rosce)
In addition to the usual infestations of this pest, new records of its distribution were
obtained. These areas include Kamloops, Lavington, and Summerland. An infestation
in parsnips was reported from Nelson. Further research work was carried out by the
Federal Field Crop Insect Laboratories of Kamloops and Agassiz.
Flea-beetles
Flea-beetles were present on crucifers and potatoes. Those on crucifers were local
in character, and did not cause any great concern. In the Cariboo, H. R. McCarthy
reports very heavy populations of the western flea-beetle, Epitrix subcrinata, on potatoes.
Damage was confined to the foliage, but was severe enough in some instances to stunt the
plant-growth badly. The tuber flea-beetle, Epitrix tuberis, was again widespread. Most
of the commercial acreage in Interior British Columbia was treated with either aldrin or
chlordane as a soil insecticide, and only a very few cases of poor control resulted. These
are believed to be due to insufficient mixing of the insecticide with the soil. At the Coast,
control was largely secured by foliage dusts or sprays.
i Crucifer Pests
There were local infestations of the cabbage seed-pod weevil, Ceutorrhynchus
assimilis, in radish at Armstrong and in cabbage in the Abbotsford district. The cabbage-
maggot continued to be of major importance, particularly on Vancouver Island and in
the Fraser Valley. Annual controls with dusts or dips are necessary to produce a good
crop. The turnip-maggot was of considerable importance, and many inquiries regarding the new control were received. Directives for control were issued to the Interior
Vegetable Marketing Board and the District Agriculturist at New Westminster for the
Pemberton area.
Cabbage-worms and cabbage-aphids were present throughout the Province, as usual.
Onion-maggot (Hylemia antiqua)
Some difficulty occurred with this pest in Interior British Columbia. The new
seed treatment with aldrin caused some poor germination and loss of crop.   This was
-I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 69
due to the use of an untried formulation rather than the one recommended.   Growers
who used the DDT seed treatment obtained excellent control of their onion-maggot.
White Grubs
White grubs are an annual pest of such crops as potatoes, turnips, and perennial
flowers. No undue outbreak occurred during 1953, and reports of heavy damage appear
to be less frequent since soil insecticides and soil fumigation are being used over greater
areas.
Wireworms
Apart from the usual infestations of wire worm, a heavy infestation was reported
from Smithers and the Kispiox Valley, and a light infestation at Golden. At Agassiz a
14-acre field was reported by Dr. K. M. King (1952) as being infested with the species
Agriotes obscurus L. Control experiments were conducted on the species this year by
Dr. King.
Hessian Fly (Phytophaga destructor)
Light infestations occurred in the Enderby-Armstrong district, and also in a field
of wheat at Glenmore.
THERIVID/E
Heavy infestations of therevid larva? were present in an oat-field at Armstrong and
in a strawberry planting at Salmon Arm. No noticeable damage occurred, but the growers concerned were very anxious about their crops.
Onion-thrips (Thrips tabaci)
Onion-thrips were again present in quantity throughout Interior British Columbia.
Control measures were necessary, and a few growers in the Okanagan and Grand Forks
districts suffered appreciably because of their failure to apply control measures promptly.
Earwigs (Forffcula auricularia)
Earwig populations increased over most of the Province where they were present,
and were a real problem in homes, gardens, and orchards. The soft-fruit growers in the
South Okanagan suffered considerably more loss from this pest than usual.
Corn Earworm (Heliothis armigera)
Infestations of corn earworm occurred at Cawston and Creston. Infestations were
as high as 20 per cent.   No control measures were applied by growers.
Miscellaneous Pests
Other pests reported in localized areas included: (1) Coulee cricket, Peranabrus
scabricollis (Vernon); (2) wheat-midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Nelson); (3) wheat
joint-worm (Edgewood); (4) pea-weevil, Bruchuspisorum (Armstrong); (5) pea-moth,
Laspayresia nigricana (Fraser Valley); (6) sod web worms (Fraser Valley, centring on
Chilliwack); (7) march-fly larvae (Fraser Valley in pastures); (8) parsnip webworm,
Depressaria heracliana (Vernon); (9) lygus bugs (general infestation); (10) aphids
on celery, species unknown (Kelowna and Armstrong); (11) slugs (Salmon Arm-
Vernon), damaging potatoes, otherwise general; (13) sowbugs, general and mainly
annoying to householders; (14) blister-beetles (Ashcroft, Armstrong, Kamloops); (15)
seed-corn maggot (Interior British Columbia, Kootenay); (16) crickets, Acheta assimilis
(Vernon); (17) horn-worms (general, but not in outbreak); (18) desert corn flea-
beetle (Armstrong). CC 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Orchard Insects
This portion of the insect work is largely reported by Provincial Horticulturists and
will be found elsewhere. In general, the orchard pests are well in hand, and, apart from
the usual pests listed on the spray calendar, there was little in the way of new pests.
The exceptions are green peach-aphid and lecanium scale on apricots in the South
Okanagan and caterpillars (red-humped, yellow-neck, and tent). There was better
control of codling-moth and eye-spotted bud-moth than in 1952, due no doubt to better
and more extensive spraying. Experiments started with eye-spotted bud-moth in two
orchards at East Kelowna were discontinued due to lack of infestation. There was no
recurrence of the black cherry fruit-fly (as in 1951) in the Bear Creek district after the
spraying programme of 1952.   No spraying was done in 1953 for this pest.
HOUSEHOLD AND STORED PRODUCTS
Carpet-beetles
The majority of the carpet-beetle infestations occurred as usual in the vicinity of
Vancouver.   Other inquiries were made from Kamloops and Vernon.
Drug-store Beetle (Stegobium paniceum)
This household pest was brought to the laboratory by two Vernon householders, and
one from Oyama.
Termites
The termite, Reticulatermes sp., did considerable damage to a house in Kelowna.
Other inquiries regarding this pest came from Comox, Ruskin, and Winfield.
Wasps
Wasps were particularly numerous throughout the Province, and were a constant
source of annoyance to householders.
Miscellaneous Inquiries
These included bedbugs, black widow spiders, dog-fleas, clothes-moths, house-flies,
sphinx moths, box-elder bugs, carpenter ants, clover-mites, flesh-fly larva? (Wolfartia
sp.); on dogs and children, psychodida? flies, wood-borers (Xylotrechus undulatus), and
ticks
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
Strawberries
The main pests continued to be weevils, white grub, crown moth and mites. The
strawberry root-weevil (Brachyrhinus ovatus) was prevalent throughout the Province.
The black vine-weevil (Brachyrhinus sulcatus) infestations continued to be serious on
Vancouver Island and in the Fraser Valley, and this pest was also found for the first time
damaging plants near Creston. During the year a new control by the use of aldrin or
chlordane as a soil insecticide was released by the Canada Fruit Insect Laboratory of
Victoria. Growers in the Magna Bay area used aramite dusts and sprays almost exclusively for the first time to control two-spotted mites. Apart from some slight burning of
foliage, which occurred very early and caused no deleterious effects, growers achieved
good control with one or two applications.
Currants and Gooseberries
Reports of infestations of the currant-borer (Ramosia tipuliformis) were received
from Langley and Powell River. The currant fruit-fly (Epochra canadensis) was present
over most of the Province, but infestations were normal. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 71
Brambles
The main pests of brambles were fruit-worm, root-borer, cane-maggot, mites, and
sawfly. The Canada Fruit Insect Laboratory of Victoria reported the orange tortrix as
causing damage to raspberries and loganberries for the first time on Vancouver Island.
Infestations of all of these insects were present in varying percentages, but no undue
increase in numbers occurred. Research work is continuing on the pests by the
Fruit Insect Laboratory at Victoria. Large numbers of the green rose chafer-beetle
(Dichelonyx backi) were present on raspberries in the Smithers district in mid-June, but
apparently were causing no damage.
FLOWERS AND SHRUBS
Narcissus Bulb-fly (Lampetia equestris)
This is an annual pest of narcissi and daffodils in commercial acreages on Vancouver Island and in the Fraser Valley. Similarly, it is a pest of flower-gardens throughout
British Columbia, and each year requests are received for control measures. During
the past year the Canada Fruit Insect Laboratory of Victoria has released new control
measures involving aldrin and chlordane, used either as a dust on the newly planted
bulbs or as an emulsion. The emulsion treatment involves soaking the bulbs prior to
planting.
Rose Insects
The rose-weevil (Rhynchites bicolor), rose leaf-hoppers, and aphids were sufficiently abundant to cause their usual concern to gardeners.
Miscellaneous
Other inquiries concerning insects attacking flowers and shrubs included:—
(1) Scale on caragana, species unknown—Vernon.
(2) Millipeds and collembola  associated with narcissus bulbs—Penticton,
Salmon Arm.
(3) Calligrapha californica, a beetle attacking dahlia leaves—Boswell.
(4) Lilac leaf-miner (Gracilaria syringella)—Okanagan.
(5) Grape leaf-hopper (Erythroneura sp.)—Okanagan.
(6) Greenhouse white fly—Vancouver.
(7) Lygus on chrysanthemums—Vernon.
Fall Webworm (Hyphantria textor)
The severe outbreak of 1952 continued throughout Interior British Columbia in
1953, and native tree hosts were devoid of leaves in early summer and entirely webbed.
Forest Tent-caterpillar (Malacasoma disstria)
These caterpillars were in outbreak numbers throughout Central British Columbia,
and native trees were leafless by mid-June. The outbreak was less severe in the Lower
Fraser Valley.
Pine-needle Scale (Phenacapsis pinifoliai)
Infestations of this scale continue to be severe throughout the Okanagan. Householders are particularly anxious about control measures as many of these native trees are
a part of their landscape gardens and furnish shade as well. Control is difficult because
of the size of many of the trees, and several instances of trees being killed by this scale
have been reported. CC 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LIVE-STOCK INSECTS
The only work done on insects affecting live stock was with black-fly. A report by
the Live Stock Branch covers the warble-fly campaign. The Canada Livestock Insect
Laboratory at Kamloops continued and increased its research on warbles, and added
materially to our knowledge of the biology of the flies.
Ticks
There was an increase in infestations of both the paralysis tick, Dermacentor
andersoni, and the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, in Interior British Columbia.
Black-flies
During the spring and summer a co-operative project on black-fly control was
carried out with Mr. Curtis, of the Veterinary and Medical Entomology Laboratory,
Kamloops, in the Cherryville district. Preliminary studies of life-history and species
were made in several streams in the area, and then these streams were treated with DDT
emulsion. Cattlemen in the district reported a marked drop in black-fly populations,
but there was still too large a population to call the control entirely effective. This was
attributed to (a) the possibility of two or three species being involved, and a consequent
need for varying the dates of stream treatment, or (b) lack of treatment of some of
the streams close enough to their headwaters.   The project will be continued in 1954.
Miscellaneous Live-stock Insects
Requests for information regarding the following live-stock insects were received:
(1) Hog-lice (Lavington); (2) sheep-ked (Coldstream); (3) horn-flies (Cranbrook);
(4) cattle-lice.
GENERAL
1. Teaching Agricultural Entomology at the University of British Columbia during
January, February, and March.
2. Article entitled " Government Sponsored Advisory Services " published in the
1953 March-April issue of Agricultural Institute Review.
3. Entomological circulars "Woolly Aphis" and "Onion Thrips " revised and
published.
4. Entomological circular " Stored Product Insects and Their Control in British
Columbia " completed and published. This is a new publication, and was a co-operative
effort by Provincial and Federal officials.
5. Preparation and release of press articles on grasshoppers, turnip root-maggot,
tuber flea-beetle, earwigs, and black army cutworm.
6. Radio broadcasts over C.B.C. Farm Broadcast and CJIB (Vernon) on grasshoppers.
7. Talks on " Garden Insects " to Oliver Horticulture Club; " Black Army Cutworms " to Grindrod Farmers' Institute; " Entomological Services " to District Farmers'
Institute at Fort Fraser; " Beauty Spots in British Columbia," slides to Vernon Nature
Study Club; " Entomology and Agriculture " to Vernon Vocational Agriculture students;
" Small-fruit Insects " to Salmon Arm small-fruit growers; " Fruit Insects " at Fleetwood
(community near Langley).
8. Assistance in the revision of (a) Tree-fruit Insect Pest and Diseases Calendar
for 1954, and (b) Small-fruits Insects and Diseases Calendar for 1954. Also met with
the Insects and Diseases Committee of the British Columbia agronomists to discuss proposed changes if a new Field Crop and Vegetable Insect and Diseases Calendar were
issued in 1954.   The calendar is not to be revised until 1955. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 73
9. An exhibit, " Insects and Their Control," was placed and staffed at the Courtenay,
Duncan, and Cobble Hill Fall Fairs.
10. Assistance and advice to Vernon Grasshopper-control Zone.
11. Attended the following: Pacific Northwest Vegetable Insect Conference (Portland) ; third annual meeting of the Entomological Society of Canada and fifty-second
annual meeting of the Entomological Society of British Columbia (Victoria); Okanagan
spray meetings; Vernon and Kamloops Grasshopper-control Zone annual meetings.
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner
From the standpoint of production, 1953 will go down in history as a very favourable
year. Total milk production is estimated to show an increase of 10 per cent over the
650,259,000 pounds produced in 1952. This will give a figure exceeding 700,000,000
pounds, making an all-time record for milk production in this Province.
VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Statistics for 1952 give the farm value of milk production as $25,787,000 and the
total value of dairy products as $36,759,000. These totals should be slightly higher
for 1953.
UTILIZATION OF MILK IN PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
MILK (1952 STATISTICS)
Per Cent
Fluid sales, milk and cream  49.64
Creamery butter  13.22
Factory cheese  1.23
Concentrated milk and ice-cream  21.15
Dairy butter  3.38
Used on farms and for other purposes  11.38
100.00
It is expected that 1953 statistics will show a higher percentage of milk utilized for
butter and other factory products, due chiefly to increased production.
NUMBERS OF DAIRY CATTLE ON FARMS
The Dominion Bureau of Statistics' June survey shows the following number of dairy
cows, heifers, and calves on farms in Canada and in British Columbia, 1952 and 1953:—
June 1st
Dairy Cows1
Change
Dairy Heifers2
Change
Calves3
Change
Canada—
1952    .   _         	
Number
2,968,000
3,146,000
84,000
94,000
Per Cent
6.0
11.9
Number
922,000
941,000
26,000
26,000
Per Cent
2.1
Number
2,310,000
2,447,000
80,000
81,000
Per Cent
1953 	
British Columbia—
1952  -   .
5.9
1953	
1.2
1 Dairy-cow numbers include all breeds (grade and pure-bred) kept mainly for milking purposes.
2 Heifer numbers include all breeds (grade and pure-bred) being raised mainly for milking purposes.
3 Calves reported on farms are those being raised for both beef and dairy purposes. CC 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
DAIRY PLANTS
In operation during 1953 were 15 creameries, 3 Cheddar-cheese factories,
2 powdered-milk plants, 1 evaporated-milk plant, 89 large and small milk-pasteurizing
plants, 35 ice-cream manufacturing plants (mostly included in creameries and milk
plants), and around 245 to 250 counter-freezers for ice-cream which are not licensed
by this Branch.
CREAMERIES
Fifteen creameries were making butter during the year, but, unfortunately, the
Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Association, in operation since 1922, closed
down in September (chiefly due to a greatly reduced cream-supply), leaving only fourteen
butter-factories in operation at present.
Our peak year of creamery-butter production was 1945, when 6,205,000 pounds
were manufactured. From 1945 creamery-butter production decreased until 1951, when
we reached our lowest make in thirty years of 2,666,000 pounds. Since 1951 the trend
has been upward again—3,670,000 pounds in 1952, and present figures indicate a
45-per-cent increase, which will bring production for 1953 close to 5,420,000 pounds.
The upward trend in butter production is due chiefly to an increased milk-flow, also
butter prices remaining at a fairly high level. Market information gives prices to the
consumer in Vancouver as 69% cents in January, February, and March, dropping to
64% cents during the summer months, and rising to 68 Vi cents in October and November.
However, as the consumer seldom buys at a fraction of a cent, a fair average would be
65 cents to 75 cents per pound, much the same level as in 1952.
CHEESE-FACTORIES
The number of cheese-factories in operation remains at four, as in 1952, being
located at Armstrong, Salmon Arm, Edgewood, and Nanaimo. The Nanaimo factory
is known as a farm cheese plant and only operates periodically during the year. The
Edgewood factory has changed from a private company to a farmers' co-operative, and
latest reports indicate consideration is being given to the making of a Danish blue-vein
cheese in place of Cheddar. There has been a good demand for the cheese produced.
Approximately 600,000 pounds were made during the year, being an increase of around
30 per cent over 1952. About 3,500,000 pounds of cottage cheese was made, which is
a slight increase over 1952. British Columbia ranks first among the Provinces in the
production of this product and produces over one-third of all the cottage cheese made
in Canada.
IMPORTS
British Columbia imports annually (mostly from other Provinces) around 20,000,000
pounds of creamery butter, 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 pounds of cheese, 5,000 to 6,000
cases of condensed sweet milk, 150,000 to 260,000 cases of evaporated milk, and
1,000,000 to 1,500,000 pounds of milk powder. These figures are averages taken from
1949, 1950, and 1951 statistics.
EXPORTS
Exports of dairy products are comparatively small, being made up chiefly of
evaporated and powdered milk.
CONCENTRATED-MILK PRODUCTS
There are two milk-powder plants in operation (one very small), and one evaporated-
milk plant. Reports to date indicate powdered-milk production will be up 70 per cent
and evaporated-milk production up approximately 20 per cent. From 12 to 14 per cent
of our total milk production goes into concentrated products. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 75
ICE-CREAM
Thirty-five large and small ice-cream plants have produced around 3,000,000 gallons
of ice-cream, being an increase of a little over 1 per cent over the figure for 1952. British
Columbia stands third among the Provinces in ice-cream production.
SHORT COURSE IN DAIRYING
The seventh annual short course in dairying offered jointly by the Department of
Dairying, University of British Columbia, and the Dairy Branch, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, was given at Acadia Camp, University of British Columbia, November
2nd to 28th of this year. The following sixteen students attended: Mrs. Attie Hettinga,
Oliver; Angus Maxey, Vancouver; Lawrence Filiatrault, Quesnel; Bent Fenger, Courtenay; Alex. Speirs, Victoria; James Annable, Victoria; Vernon Seaman, Trail; Charles E.
Wakefield, Powell River; Dean R. Andrew, Duncan; Hugh G. Hustler, Salmon Arm;
J. A. DeClark, Ladysmith; L. A. Bowser, Kelowna; Jacob Doell, Colony Farm; D. J.
Burgess, Vancouver; L. Stoddard, Duncan; and E. Jensen, Vancouver.
As in past years, suitably inscribed certificates will be issued by the University to all
students successfully passing the examinations.
George Patchett, Senior Inspector with this Branch, was in charge of the course.
The annual banquet for the students attending the course was held in the faculty
dining-hall, University of British Columbia, Wednesday, November 18th, and was well
attended by representatives of the dairy industry, the Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister
of Agriculture, being the guest speaker.
The purpose of these short courses is to give men and women working in dairy plants
greater knowledge and more interest in the work they are doing from day to day and
thereby helping to improve the quality of dairy products. To date, 134 students from
all parts of the Province have attended these courses, and it is felt that the effort has been
worth while.
Grateful acknowledgment of services rendered is herewith made to all those who
helped to make this year's short course a success.
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
The following licences and certificates of proficiency were issued during 1953:
Creamery or Dairy Licences, 103; Milk-testers' Licences, 128; Combined Milk-testers'
and Cream-graders' Licences, 41; Certificates of Proficiency, 13. Twenty-eight examinations were given for Milk-testers' Licences. It is interesting to note that the numbers
of Creamery or Dairy Licences and Certificates of Proficiency issued were the same as in
1952. This is also the case in respect to the number of examinations given for Milk-
testers' Licences.   For list of licensed dairy plants see Appendix No. 1.
OLEOMARGARINE LICENCES
Five firms (the same number as last year) were issued licences to manufacture
oleomargarine in 1953. These were: Canada Packers Limited, Consolidated Enterprises
Limited, Kraft Foods Limited, Nova Margarine Limited, all of Vancouver, and Went-
worth Canning Company of British Columbia (now called Westminster Foods Limited),
New Westminster.    Twenty-two licences were issued to wholesalers of oleomargarine.
OLEOMARGARINE PRODUCTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lb. Lb.
1949  3,459,725      1952  8,440,866
1950  5,734,290      1953  8,500,000!
1951  8,767,117
1 November and December estimated. CC 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Imports during the last two years have about equalled production, resulting in a total
consumption of close to 16,000,000 pounds or a per capita consumption (based on the
Dominion Bureau of Statistics' estimated population of 1,230,000 for 1953) of just over
13 pounds. This is nearly 3 pounds greater than the average of 10.5 pounds for the
eight Provinces of Canada in which oleomargarine was sold in 1952.
INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES
Six Dairy Inspectors are at present employed by this Branch, and it has already been
suggested that another could be used to good advantage in the Cariboo and Central
British Columbia.
Following are excerpts taken from the Inspectors' annual reports.
George Patchett, Vancouver and Gulf Islands:—
" The year 1953 has seen an increase in dairy production in this area. Prices for
milk and other dairy products have maintained a constant level and feed prices have been
somewhat lower, resulting in a slightly wider margin of gross profit for producers. This
extra revenue has, in a large measure, been used to improve equipment necessary to
quality improvement and more economical production. New dairy utensils, refrigerated
coolers, and irrigation equipment have been installed on many farms. Expanding farm
electrification and land-clearing have also been factors in this programme. With the
advent of compulsory quota systems of milk-buying in Milk Board areas, it is expected
that more milk will be produced in winter months.
" Continued co-operation among officials of this Branch, the Live Stock Branch, and
the Health Branch has resulted in a marked improvement in the quality of milk received
by the distributing plants throughout this district and more especially where mechanical
refrigeration of the cooling systems on the farms has been employed.
" The task of drafting legislation to concur with that of other Provinces across
Canada was completed in the spring. This work was painstaking and time-consuming,
but was well worth the effort.
" The first high-temperature short-time pasteurizer on Vancouver Island has been
installed in a Victoria milk plant. Paper bottles for milk are receiving more and more
acclaim, and some fairly expensive machinery has been purchased for use in this field."
D. D. Wilson, Vancouver Island and Saltspring Island:-—■
"My work, which began with the Department of Agriculture in September, 1952,
has divided itself into three main categories. The first is that which has had to do with
the regulations under the 'Oleomargarine Act'; the second, the work in the newly
formed and growing laboratory, both with oleomargarine and dairy products; and, third,
my work with the dairies of the Vancouver Island area.
" The search for a satisfactory test for the detection of vegetable oils continues to
go on, and it has been suggested that the addition of a tracer substance added to vegetable
oils would provide the most practical method of control. In this respect, Mr. Tomlinson
and Mr. Davies, of the Food and Drugs Division, suggested that a water-soluble dye
be included in the oleomargarine. The feasibility of this idea has been further substantiated by Dr. Atack, president of the Dye and Chemical Company of Canada. Mr. Rini,
of the Kraft Foods Company, undertook to make, in its pilot plant, samples of oleomargarine containing a water-soluble dye. These experiments using tartrazine were
not too satisfactory, as too large an amount of the dye was used, which gave the finished
product a greenish tinge. Since then a more satisfactory dye has been suggested (sunset
yellow), which we feel is the answer to the problem.
" Restaurant inspections show that approximately 27 per cent of the eating-places
on the Island have been in violation of the ' Oleomargarine Act.' Most offenders plead
ignorance of the law as their excuse. A few have been waiting for enforcement of the
law before complying with the regulations. The following table summarizes the conditions found at restaurants after first inspections: — DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 77
"Compliance of Restaurant Operators with Regulations under the 'Oleomargarine Act,'
Vancouver Island, November, 1953 "
Practices
Number of
Restaurants
Percentage
241
43
38
15
3
66.4
Serving oleomargarine—
11.91
10.5
Mixing—
J-27.3
4.11
0.8 J
340
100.0 "
N. H. Ingledew, East and West Kootenays:—
" This year's work has been influenced to a large extent by the unsettled conditions
prevailing in the dairy industry throughout the Province, and the pattern of the work in
this area has had to be adjusted from primarily one of inspection to one of giving
assistance and advice as to production and marketing of dairy products.
"The year 1953 has been an exceptional one for milk production in the entire
East and West Kootenay area. Winter production was at an all-time high, and surpluses
commenced early in February and lasted throughout the year. This steady production
has resulted from (a) an unusual mild winter, followed by a wet spring, which produced
extremely good pasture and grass conditions; (b) a gradual trend toward winter milk
production, which is the result of a strong educational programme; (c) a gradual trend
toward increasing the size of dairy herds in the area, in an attempt to make more
economical units; and (d) a gradual slow-down in the mining and lumbering industries
has caused an increase in the one- and two-cow man, who is making a definite impression
on the fluid-milk market.
" In conjunction with this all-round increase, two areas, Creston and Inonoaklin
Valleys, which formed milk-marketing co-operatives toward the end of 1952, have tremendously increased the year-round milk production in their respective areas.
"All these factors, then, have placed the Kootenay area in a position where it is no
longer dependent on outside supplies of milk, but is now, and I believe will be, self-
sufficient the year round in milk requirements.
" Due to the fact that in the past years there have been distinct periods of shortage
in the whole area, and due to the fact that in the past, in order to maintain milk-supplies
in these short periods, definite contracts were required between distributers, a situation
has developed within the area where, for example, Grand Forks may be in surplus supply
while Cranbrook is short. This Department has spent considerable time discussing this
situation with the various organizations concerned, and an agreement has been worked
out between the contracting parties for the reshuffle of this milk to the temporarily short
districts.
" Because of this increased year-round production and because of transportation
difficulties, the farmers in the Inonoaklin Valley are now unable to get any of their milk
on the fluid market in Trail. This milk has been absorbed in Cheddar-cheese production
at Edgewood, but due to a drop in price of cheese to wholesalers, it is becoming increasingly difficult to pay the producers a decent return on cheese milk. This situation has
received considerable thought from our Department, and every effort is being made to
create interest in and obtain finances for the establishment of a blue-cheese factory in
this area. It is felt that an isolated valley of this nature, with a limited production of
approximately 5,000 pounds of milk per day, would make an exceptional district for
the establishment of a specialized-cheese factory.
" Plant inspections have been carried out with a view to improving the quality of the
product, increasing the number of products available, and increasing the service that the CC 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
dairies are able to give to the public. In the outlying areas this is the only way that the
local dairy will be able to compete with the influx of dairy products in paper containers
from the highly competitive large plants.
" Resazurin tests, sediments, temperatures, and butter-fat check tests have been
carried out systematically throughout the year, with reports being sent to the producers
concerned. In the more isolated areas this work has been followed up with farm visits
in an effort to help the producer with his problems."
H. Riehl and K. G. Savage, Greater Vancouver:—
"During the year 1953 the Inspectors in the Greater Vancouver area have continued the approach to the inspectional routine which was more or less implemented
during 1952. The objectives of this approach have been to attempt a more close integration between the bacteriological reports submitted from various health laboratories on
the finished products and the actual plant practices that are carried out within the dairy
plants themselves.
" This over-all picture has resulted in a partial abandonment of the more stereotyped inspection and has, it is believed, resulted in a more personal approach to the
inspectional problems. When difficulty has arisen, in so far as the bacteriological picture
is concerned in any of the particular plants in this area, the avenue of approach was one
based upon an attempt to correlate this unfavourable bacteriological analysis with some
difficulty connected with the plant operation. It should be noted that, when such
difficulty occurred in a country plant, an attempt was made, while the Inspector concerned was in the area, to visit the farmers in that area who had perhaps been in touch
with this office in regard to fat-test complaints, watering of milk, quality problems, etc.
"A new programme in respect to oleomargarine has been instituted. A complete
list of all the restaurants in Vancouver has been received from the City Health Department, and a start has been made toward visiting each restaurant on the list. A card
index system being used in Victoria has now been adopted in this office, and, over
a period of time, we should have fairly complete records. The new form letter now
being drawn up in Victoria will also greatly facilitate this work.
" The year 1953 has seen a continuation of routine cryoscope checking as a means
of detecting water adulteration. The basic picture is similar to former years in that the
percentage of water added has decreased with individual farmers. In addition, there
were fewer warnings sent this year than previously, although more shippers (offenders in
previous years) were detected and suspended. It is our intention to again routinely
check all shippers early in the new year coinciding with quota establishment. Summary
of cryoscope tests is as follows:—
Number of tests carried out  615
Number of shippers in each class—
Under 3 per cent added water     26
3 to 5 per cent added water     13
5 to 10 per cent added water     17
10 to 20 per cent added water       2
Number of warning letters mailed     17
Number of offenders suspended on rechecking     15
Percentage of shippers watering milk     10.6
" The R. & R. Trucking Company started its tank pick-up operation about four
weeks ago, and the milk-shippers presently shipping by this system are as follows:
Wynn G. Fadden, H. Muhleman, Henry T. Janzen, Ted Porter, Melvin Stewart, and
Stewart & McNeil.
" Originally these shippers anticipated receiving a bonus for their milk over and
above the Milk Board price. However, this idea was not successful, and they are now
shipping to Palm Dairies at the straight Board rate. Apparently, there are more tanks
on order and the R. & R. Trucking Company is most hopeful that its routes will develop. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 79
" The two main problems of this particular programme are to ensure properly trained
drivers regarding milk-grading and also to see that the milk samples, whether for butter-fat
composites or for bacteriological work, are taken in the proper manner. A standardized
procedure is being worked out now and should be in operation by the first of the year."
G. D. Johnson, Interior:—
" During 1953, inspection and instructional work was carried out at milk-processing
and dairy manufacturing plants in the Okanagan, Cariboo, Peace River, Central British
Columbia, and Similkameen districts, with emphasis being given to the improvement of
milk quality for fluid purposes. Notable results were made in this endeavour, in that
practically all the milk used for fluid purposes and cheese-manufacturing in the Okanagan
is now being purchased on a grade basis, with the plants concerned running fortnightly
Resazurin tests. The practical results have shown that the quality of milk for both cheese
and fluid purposes has improved tremendously during the past year, and the co-operation
at the plants has been greatly appreciated. Another endeavour to improve milk quality
has been the introduction and steady publicity given the producer to install mechanical
refrigerated milk-coolers. This effort has produced fair results, and it is expected that
greater response will be made next year.
" In addition to the above programme, co-operation was received from the health
units in picking up additional samples to recheck results obtained at the plants. These
reports, in addition to all bacteriological reports covering all plants, proved of great
assistance in improving conditions at the plants, and in following up any problems located
during inspections.
"A washed- and unwashed-butter project promoted by the Canada Department of
Agriculture was carried out at Salmon Arm each month from July to November, inclusive,
affording an opportunity to give instruction in milk and cream grading, butter and cheese
manufacture at this plant. The results of this project have not been ascertained, but the
conclusion drawn by the writer was that unwashed butter would probably not hold its
flavour after storage, cutting, and retailing.
" The plant operated by Northern Dairies Limited at Quesnel was closed during the
year. Two new dairies were in operation during 1953, as follows: Riverside Dairy,
McBride (fluid-milk pasteurizing and ice-cream manufacturing), and the Nechako Valley
Dairy Limited, Vanderhoof (fluid-milk pasteurizing).
"Average prices for commodities, net to the producer and wholesale and retail at
the plants throughout the area inspected, are as follows:—
Commodities
Producer
Plant
Wholesale
Retail
Fluid milk	
Butter-fat for ice-cream..
Butter-fat for butter	
Butter-fat for cheese	
i4.15 per cwt., 3.5 per cent with 6 cents differential for 70 per cent of production  	
;0.70perlb    	
.57 per lb _ __.	
.62 per lb	
$0.18
1.40 per gal.
.60 per lb.
.36 per lb.
0.20 at 3.5%
.63 per lb.
.45 per lb.
" The above prices have taken into account hauling charges, bonuses, and deductions
for revolving shares, etc., but do not reflect the variations in surpluses or fluid-milk prices,
which range as high as $5.10 per hundredweight for 3.5 per cent milk with a 10.7 cents
differential net to the producer, or the retail price of milk as high as 31 cents per quart.
" The build-up of population is continuing in Central British Columbia, and although
milk production is not keeping abreast of this trend, much greater interest is being taken
by both present producers and probable producers in increasing dairying in the area from
Prince George to Hazelton. Some increase has been noted during the past year, and this
activity will increase. CC 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Feed conditions generally are reported as good, with heavy grain-crops being
reported in the Armstrong area and normal grain and hay crops in most other areas.
The wet fall in the Peace River district slowed up the harvesting where there would
otherwise have been a normal to better than normal crop. It is anticipated that there
will be no shortage of feed during the 1953-54 winter.
" The green pasture programme which has been operating in the Okanagan during
the past year has resulted in a slightly longer lactation period, enabling a longer period
of milk production, and has also stimulated interest in dairying. It is anticipated that
with this programme only in its infancy, far greater results will be experienced in the
next few years.
" In summarizing the past year's efforts and results, it is felt that all dairy products
manufactured have shown a marked improvement in quality. This can be attributed to
the co-operation existing between the dairy-farmers and dairy-plant operators, assisted
by the health units and the Department of Agriculture."
SUMMARY OF PLANT INSPECTIONS, TESTS MADE,
AND MEETINGS ATTENDED
Dairy-plant inspections      881
Farms visits      464
Butter-fat check tests  7,362
Resazurin, sediment, and temperature tests  3,495
Milk samples tested for added water  1,188
Warned for adulteration        60
Licences suspended        20
Reports and test cards sent to milk and cream producers  3,789
Meetings attended      144
Visits to oleomargarine plants        30
Public eating-places visited re " Oleomargarine Act "      639
LEGISLATION
The " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act" and regulations thereunder were
amended in March of this year, bringing this Act and regulations more in line with the
" Canada Dairy Products Act " and covering such items as imitation dairy products and
remade or reconstituted milk.
MILK BOARD PRICES, 1953
Milk Board prices to the producers in the Lower Fraser Valley area and on
Vancouver Island have remained the same as last year—$5.03 and $5.90 respectively
for 3.5 per cent milk. Prices above the producer level in these areas were decontrolled
on October 1st, 1953. Fluid-milk prices to the producers in other parts of the Province
not under control ranged from $4.50 to $5.50 per hundredweight, depending on the
supply and demand.
SUMMARY
Favourable weather conditions, resulting in a better than average feed-supply, in
conjunction with an increased dairy-cow population and a reasonably fair price for milk
and cream, have resulted in a year of peak production. Greater stress should be laid on
the value of milk as our most economical source of protein and our chief source of calcium
by increased publicity through the press and over the radio.
Sixteen million pounds of oleomargarine consumed annually has cut down the per
capita consumption of butter from over 28 pounds to nearly 20 pounds. The total
consumption of butter has not decreased so much, due to the considerable increase in
population.
A steady demand for milk and milk products at fair prices to the producer and to
the consumer should assure an optimistic outlook for the dairy industry. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 81
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., P.Ag., Poultry Commissioner
Conditions in the poultry industry in 1953 were definitely better than in 1952, due
to better average prices for eggs. Egg prices to producers have averaged several cents
per dozen more than in 1952.
Prices for fowl and chicken have averaged about the same, but broiler prices have
been depressed several times during the year.
MARKETING
The increased consumption of poultry-meat in recent years continued in 1953, but
there was some recession in the volume of broilers marketed during the last three months
of the year, probably due to heavier production of baby chicks, as will be shown in
Table No. 4 of this report.
A new organization was established in the Okanagan Valley, under the name of
Okanagan Poultry Products Association, to publicize fresh eggs produced in that area.
This organization has been advertising Okanagan brand eggs on local radio stations with
considerable success.
On Vancouver Island the Vancouver Island Poultry Co-operative Association continued to expand its activities for commercial poultry-producers in that area.
The consumption of eviscerated and cut-up poultry continues to increase, and
indications are that this trend will continue with chickens and turkeys. The marketing
of New York dressed chickens and turkeys is rapidly decreasing in favour of the
eviscerated product.
Inspector Gasperdone reports that there is an increasing demand for eviscerated
and cut-up poultry in the Interior, and the trend will undoubtedly spread over the
Province.
The marketing of eggs and poultry is shown in Table No. 1 for the years 1949 to
1953, inclusive.
Table No. 1.—Marketing of Eggs and Poultry, 1949-53
Year
Egg Receipts at Registered
Egg-grading Stations
(Cases)
1949  515,944
1950  410,752
1951   404,552
1952  480,830
1953   442,952
Receipts of Dressed Poultry
at Registered Poultry-packing
Stations
(Lb.)
8,332,158
9,027,541
8,619,525
10,684,000
11,278,398
Data on imports and exports of eggs for the five-year period 1949-53 is shown in
Table No. 2.
Table No. 2.—Imports and Exports of Eggs and Poultry
Year
Imports of
Eggs
Exports of
Eggs
Imports of
Poultry
Exports of
Poultry
1949....
1950....
1951...
1952.._
1953....
Cases
66,143
146,893
80,100
60,000
85,817
Cases
39,172
8,834
13,122
11,906
2,670
Lb.
1,137,161
855,765
2,075,799
980,724
2,443,245
Lb.
604,573
48,007
28,113
67,412 CC 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The area on Vancouver Island under the Dressed Poultry Regulations of the
" Poultry and Poultry Products Act" was extended during the year to include all of
Vancouver Island from Victoria to approximately Parksville.
Also during the year a change was made in the Dressed Poultry Regulations to read
as follows: " In any advertisment pertaining to dressed or eviscerated poultry wherein
the price of such poultry appears, the grade and price of that poultry shall be stated in
letters of equal size and prominence."
POULTRY-FLOCK APPROVAL
The year 1953 completed nineteen years of continuous poultry-flock approval and
pullorum-testing of chicken flocks, and eight years of approval of turkey flocks.
This project has been a major project of the Poultry Branch during this nineteen-
year period. Inspectors W. H. Pope, W. J. Wakely, H. Gasperdone, Fred Wilkinson,
H. K. Arnould, Victor North, and H. E. Upton were all busy on this project for varying
periods of time. The testers employed were William Brookes, S. R. McAninch, Allan
Mufford, C. W. Wood, Allan McDonald, Harold Hamre, and Akrel Dalgaard.
A one-day conference of all Inspectors and testers was held in August, including
Canada Department of Agriculture Inspectors, to review the project and outline any
proposed changes.
Technical aspects of the programme were supervised by Dr. J. C. Bankier and,
during his absence from the laboratory, by Dr. I. W. Moynihan, of Canada Department
of Agriculture.
Table No. 3.—Statistical Data
on Flock Approval, 1935-53
Year
Number of Flocks
Approved
Number of Birds
Pullorum-tested
Percentage
of Reactors
to Pullorum
1935                                        	
117
127
143
149
194
194
244
331
572
512
631
715
561
538
508
474
398
453
636
43,074
77,493
93,008
92,178
115,543
121,954
158,867
197,127
362,414
371,655
433,724
477,724
430,439
334,667
347,268
253,848
300,000
234,602
276,521
6 09
1936                                                              	
2 42
1937                                                    	
3 47
1938                                                        _	
2 00
1939                                                          	
1 84
2 65
1941                                                               	
2 59
1942                                                           	
2 66
1943                                                 	
2.79
1944                                            -    -----	
1 30
1946                                                                -
1947                                                                               .     	
1948 	
1949   -  ...
0 13
1950                                             	
0 046
1951                                         -      	
0.22
1952 ■
0.001
1953                                                                     	
0 28
Inspector Gasperdone reports on the flock approval in the Interior as follows:-
Table No. 4.—Three-year Summary of Interior Flock Approval
Total
Flocks
Approved
Average
Flock
Males Banded
Females Banded
R.O.P.
Approved
Hens
Pullets
1951-52.     	
1952-53 _.	
87 (659)i
75 (584)i
32,543 (320,552)»  |    374(486)!
26.355(234.464)!   [    351(401)1
1,180
1,006
1,356
628
453
120
3,950
3,229
3,298
26,785
21,667
23,431
1953-542        	
65                1    28.205                       1    434
1
1 Corresponding figures for Province of British Columbia.
2 Testing for 1953-54 not yet complete—about 13 flocks and approximately 3,500 birds remaining to be tested. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC 83
Table No. 5.—Three-year Summary of Birds Approved by Breed
1951-52
1952-53
1953-541
14,653
10,780
2,954
1,269
1,025
77
335
240
1,210
10,964
8,162
1,781
1,517
1,637
98
192
2,004
12,258
7,925
702
2,624
2,591
93
14
378
1,620
Totals
32,543
26,355
28,205
1 Testing for 1953-54 not yet
complete—about 13 flocks and approximately 3,500 birds remaining
HATCHERY OPERATIONS
to be tested.
The hatchery season was better than in 1952, with a considerable increase in number
of chicks hatched to September 30th; namely, for broiler chicks. The data show
6,342,362 chicks hatched in British Columbia to September 30th, 1953.
Table No. 6.—Production and Distribution of Chicks Hatchea
Year
Chicks
Hatched
Chicks
Exported
Chicks
Imported
Chicks
Destroyed
Chicks Sold in
Province
1947	
8,523,781
5,620,312
6,306,342
4,770,978
6,234,426
5,852,539
7,018,569
1,947,733
1,171,079
1,598,215
642,949
750,991
522,746
346,669
164,343
39,087
78,085
93,815
117,684
1,411,406
1,196,154
896,450
962,468
595,950
5,328,985
1948	
1949               _
3,292,166
3 889 762
1950               	
3,259,376
5,005,169
4,643,765
6,059,470
1951               	
1952  	
1953.  	
155,340
180,382
841,368
792,812
Data on imports and exports of hatching-eggs show 32,760 eggs imported and
96,710 eggs exported in 1953.
Table No. 7.—Chicks Hatched by Breeds, January 1st to June 30th, 1953
New Hampshires
Chicks
  2,370,843
S.C. White Leghorns  1,173,690
Crosses  1,372,997
Light Sussex      100,3 8 2
S.C. Rhode Island Reds        24,528
White Plymouth Rocks        67,771
Miscellaneous      106,965
Total  5,217,176
THE TURKEY INDUSTRY
The turkey industry was in a stronger position in 1953 than 1952 owing to increasing
consumption of turkey-meat and reduction of turkey poults hatched all across Canada.
Turkey-producers expect several cents per pound more for their turkeys this year than
they received in 1952.   Feed costs have also been reduced over 1952.
L CC 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table No. 8.—Production and Distribution of Poults
Year
Poults                        Poults
Hatched                    Exported
Poults
Imported
Poults Sold In
Province
1947                   	
346,121                          37,963
257,438                          93,206
387,234                        128,975
441,121                          96,185
356,069                          50,237
464,202                        156,252
345,519                          165,716
264
308,442
164,232
260,294
347,630
305,832
1948   -	
1949	
2,035
2,694
1950	
1951	
1952    	
6,600
17,560
314,550
197,363
1953 —	
Data on imports and exports show 172,536 turkey-eggs imported into British
Columbia and several thousand turkey-eggs exported. In 1952 a total of 292,756
turkey-eggs were imported.
TURKEY-FLOCK APPROVAL
The approval and pullorum-testing of turkeys is being affected by imports of poults
from the United States as some breeders have decided to discontinue their breeding
operations and import their poults.
Table No. 9.—Turkey-flock Approval, 1946-53
Year
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
Number of Turkey
Flocks Approved
.                                73
Number of Turkeys
Pullorum-tested
21,313
24,757
36,479
45,364
25,667
28,220
17,631
18,764
                           80
  100
                         100
.     _                               67
53
                         55
     44
The turkey-producers in British Columbia had an opportunity to attend the annual
convention of the Canadian Turkey Federation held at Victoria in September.
POULTRY-DISEASES
Respiratory diseases continue to be the major disease problem confronting the
poultry industry. Bronchitis and chronic respiratory disease (C.R.D.) are the two
diseases causing most of the trouble.
Newcastle disease is not a serious disease in areas or in flocks where the recommended vaccination programme has been followed out. The disease broke out in the
Okanagan in September, and vaccine distribution depots are being set up in that area.
Table No. 10.—Data on Newcastle Disease
Year
Poultry
Flocks
Destroyed
Turkey
Flocks
Destroyed
Number of
Chickens
Destroyed
Number of
Turkeys
Destroyed
Number of
Eggs
Destroyed
Compensation
1950                                          	
331
156
42
1
14
1
509,225
274,552
69,328
11,639
23,822
1,933
335,049
153,914
32,968
$717,533.07!
65,464.22=
279,327 151
1951                                        	
1952                                                 	
13.700.952
85,500.86
4,507 88
[
1 Chickens.
- Turkeys. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
BRONCHITIS SURVEY
CC 85
During the year a survey of infectious bronchitis was made on Vancouver Island,
Lower Mainland, and the Interior. The staff of the Poultry Branch co-operated with
Dr. I. W. Moynihan, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, in making this
survey.   The results are tabulated as follows:—
Total number of premises visited      188
Total number of blood samples taken  3,252
Total number of pooled samples      311
Results from 188 premises: 22 or 11.71 per cent negative; 166 or 88.29 per cent
positive.   These results are classified as follows:—
(a) Lower Mainland area (227 pooled samples taken from 2,400 birds on
145 premises): 7 or 6.21 per cent negative; 138 or 93.79 per cent
positive.
(b) Vancouver Island area (68 pooled samples taken from 697 birds on
29 premises): 14 or 48.27 per cent negative; 15 or 51.73 per cent
positive.
(c) Interior (16 pooled samples taken from 155 birds on 14 premises):
1 or 7.14 per cent negative; 13 or 92.86 per cent positive.
Recommendations were issued to flock-owners as a result of this survey.
VACCINATION
The vaccination programme with live virus Newcastle-disease vaccine (Blacksburg
Bx) has made steady progress during 1953, with increased quantities of vaccine being
used in most areas.
In some districts the programme has not been adopted, and outbreaks of Newcastle
disease occurred. Some difficulty also occurred in flocks where the baby chicks were
vaccinated but later vaccination was not done.
A total of five meetings of the British Columbia Poultry Disease Committee were
held during the year dealing with poultry-disease problems, including vaccination. As
a result of recommendations of this Committee, the British Columbia Poultry Industries
Council issued a circular on vaccination, of which over 10,000 copies were sent to producers in British Columbia.   The circular was worded as follows:—
POULTRY DISEASES COMMITTEE
Newcastle Vaccination
(1) Vaccination and re-vaccination at the ages indicated below is absolutely essential:
2-3 days of age.
10-12 weeks of age
5-6 months of age.
(2) In spite of the fact that most poultrymen realize the seriousness of this disease, many fail to
take full advantage of the vaccines which are available for its control.
(3) There is still considerable loss from Newcastle Disease in non-vaccinated flocks, and in
flocks which have not been re-vaccinated at the proper time.
(4) Birds can be vaccinated when in production. The drop in production, if any, from vaccination will be insignificant compared to the drop in production associated with natural infection
in non-vaccinated birds.
(5) Complete instructions regarding the method of applying the vaccine is enclosed in each
package, and should be read carefully. If in doubt about any point, contact either your
Provincial Animal Pathology Laboratory, Veterinarian, Poultry Branch Office or District
Agriculturist.
During the year a total of approximately 250 permits for Newcastle vaccine were
issued from the office of the Poultry Commissioner. Ocular vaccine from Lederle
Laboratories was distributed and spray vaccine from Connaught Medical Research
Laboratories. CC 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The vaccine is distributed through local veterinarians in each district or pharmaceutical stores in areas where no veterinarian is available.
Table No. 11.—
-Data on Vaccination
Year
Number of
Chicken Flocks
Vaccinated
Number of
Turkey Flocks
Vaccinated
Number of
Chickens
Vaccinated
Number of
Turkeys
Vaccinated
443
1,311
36
46
236,700
743,818
38,086
1951 (Dovle-Wrieht)   	
30,873
19532	
1 Eight hundred and twenty permits issued.
2 Approximately 250 new permits issued.
The distribution of vaccine is taking an increasing amount of time of the office staff
of the Poultry Commissioner. During 1953 weekly lists of permits issued to poultrymen
were sent to Dr. T. Childs, Veterinary Director-General at Ottawa; Dr. F. W. B. Smith,
Health of Animals Division in British Columbia; and W. H. Robertson, Deputy Minister
of Agriculture.
The report of the Veterinary Director-General for the year ended March 31st, 1952,
states as follows: " In British Columbia particularly, the bold and extensive use of this
vaccine on chicks has apparently solved the Newcastle-disease problem."
Vaccine sold during the year will amount to approximately $20,000.
"SOUR EGG" PROBLEM
This research project began in 1952 by the British Columbia Research Council and
was continued in 1953 under the supervision of Dr. Paul Trussell, Head, Division of
Applied Biology.
A total of four meetings of the Sour Egg Committee were held during the year, and
the project reviewed from time to time.
Financial contributions to this project were forwarded by Canada Department of
Agriculture, British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Poultry Testing Fund, and
other contributors.
The staff of the Poultry Branch have co-operated with Dr. Trussell in this project,
and the following extract from his report outlines the investigation to date:-—
"Summary.—1. A study has been made of bacterial spoilage in eggs from ninety-
four farms in the Lower Mainland area of British Columbia. The eggs were representative of product normally going to market except that heavy dirties were excluded. Fifteen
dozen eggs from each farm were stored at 60° C. for six to seven weeks and then examined for both non-fluorescent and fluorescent spoilage by use of black-light illumination.
Information on egg production and egg-handling operations was obtained from each farm.
"2. Less than 1 per cent infection was found in eggs from twenty-nine farms (30.8
per cent) and more than 1 per cent infection in sixty-five farms (69.2 per cent). The
spoilage ranged from 0-25.8 per cent in eggs of individual farms, and the average spoilage
for all farms was 3.19 per cent.
"3. Non-fluorescent bacteria exclusively caused spoilage of 28.8 per cent of the
rotten eggs. Eggs spoiled by non-fluorescent bacteria only were found on 18.1 per cent
of the farms, eggs spoiled by fluorescent bacteria (and possibly non-fluorescent organisms) on 25.6 per cent of the farms, and eggs separately spoiled by both non-fluorescent
and fluorescent bacteria on 50 per cent of the farms.
"4. The average spoilage in eggs from farms using dry-cleaning methods was 1.34
per cent and from farms using wet-cleaning methods 4.48 per cent. On farms using dry-
cleaning methods, the bacterial spoilage of eggs did not exceed 5 per cent, whereas on DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 87
farms using wet-cleaning methods 37 per cent of the farms had more than 5 per cent
spoiled eggs.
"5. Eggs from Leghorns had an average spoilage of 3.84 per cent; from New
Hampshires, 1.49 per cent; from cross-breeds, 3.58 per cent; and from mixed flocks,
4.17 per cent. Dry-cleaned eggs from Leghorns, New Hampshires, and cross-breeds
were spoiled to the extent of 1.35 per cent, 1.29 per cent, and 1.47 per cent respectively.
Wet-cleaned eggs from Leghorns, New Hampshires, cross-breeds, and mixed flocks were
spoiled to the extent of 5.83 per cent, 1.48 per cent, 5.67 per cent, and 4.68 per cent
respectively.
" 6. Eggs from eight farms using mechanical dry cleaners had a spoilage of 1.3 per
cent, and eggs from a similar number of farms using wet washers, 7.7 per cent. The
calculated increase in spoilage caused by wet washing of eggs by all methods was 9.54
per cent, and for mechanical wet washing, 9.0 per cent.
" 7. The spoilage of eggs was not correlated with the age of the birds, or with the
frequency of egg collections from the nests (heavy dirty eggs excluded).
"Conclusions.—1. A survey of eggs from ninety-four farms located in the Lower
Mainland area of British Columbia, which produces about 80 per cent of the eggs of the
Province, has shown that bacterially spoiled eggs come from nearly all farms and that
about 70 per cent of the farms are submitting eggs to market that are infected with
spoilage bacteria to the extent of 1 per cent or more. Measures to control bacterial
spoilage of eggs must therefore be applied to the egg-producing industry as a whole.
" 2. Present methods of wet cleaning of eggs, both manual and mechanical, are
responsible more than any other factor for causing spoilage of eggs.
"3. Although eggs mechanically washed may be free from infection by spoilage
bacteria in some cases, generally eggs mechanically washed are more subject to bacterial
spoilage than eggs cleaned by any other method.
"4. Eggs from New Hampshires are less susceptible to spoilage by bacteria than
eggs from Leghorns and cross-breeds, and wet washing of eggs from New Hampshires
does not significantly increase spoilage by bacteria.
" Recommendations.—Recommendations that would lead to the control of infection
in farm eggs are premature at this time, since certain aspects have not been adequately
studied. For example, although in previous work (first report) heavy dirty eggs have
been shown to carry spoilage bacteria, it is now known how serious this source of infection is in market operations. Consequently, no recommendations can be made covering
heavy dirty eggs. Furthermore, possibility of combating bacterial spoilage in eggs by use
of various sterilizing treatments has not been fully considered. However, in view of the
seriousness of this problem and particularly in respect to the economic aspects of the
industry, some recommendations are justified in order to reduce the high level of infected
eggs appearing on the market.
" These recommendations are:—
"(1) Excepting in cases where mechanical washers are used, that all producers be strongly urged to clean eggs by dry methods and not by wet
methods.
"(2) Since some producers with mechanical wet washers are shipping eggs
free from infection, operators of mechanical washers should be requested
to operate their machines according to manufacturer's  instructions.
Particularly the temperature of the washing water, as it makes contact
with the egg, should be between 120° and 130° F., and the eggs should
be subsequently dried in accordance with instructions  covering the
equipment.
"(3)  That the further use of mechanical wet washers be discouraged.
"(4) That the soaking of eggs in water or any solution of water be strongly
discouraged.
I CC 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The above recommendations are intended only to reduce bacterial infection of
eggs, and not to eliminate it. A more intensive study is planned on mechanical wet-
washing methods, so as to determine whether or not the various types of mechanical wet
washers can be operated so as to avoid increasing the bacterial spoilage of eggs."
POULTRY CONFERENCES
A number of very important poultry conferences were attended during the year and
participated in. They can be listed in the following order:-—
(a) Pacific Dairy and Poultry Congress held in Seattle during March, at which
your Poultry Commissioner gave a paper on "Canada's Poultry Meat
Production and Consumption Trends." A report on this was submitted
for the month of March.
(b) National Poultry Conference at Ontario Agricultural College in June.
This conference had representatives from every Province except Newfoundland and several officials from Canada Department of Agriculture.
(c) Poultry Science Association Annual Convention at the University of
British Columbia in August. This meeting had over 700 visitors and delegates from the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. The Convention
was most successful.
(d) Breeders' Round-table Conference held at the University of British
Columbia in August, with a good attendance of breeders and scientific
investigators from Canada and the United States.
(e) R.O.P. Federation meeting at the University of British Columbia in
September.
(/) Canadian Hatchery Federation meeting held in Victoria in September,
with a good attendance from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan,
and Manitoba, and representatives from Ontario, Washington, and
Oregon.
(g) Canadian Turkey Federation Annual Convention held in Victoria in September, with a good attendance of turkey-breeders from Ontario to British
Columbia.
(h) British Columbia Institute of Agrologists annual meeting at Kamloops in
May.
(/) British Columbia Federation of Agriculture annual meeting in Victoria
in November.
MEETINGS
The staff of the Poultry Branch attended many meetings during the year of poultry
and turkey producers, Farmers' Institutes, produce-dealers, hatcherymen, committees
dealing with poultry problems, etc.
A very successful series of meetings was held during November in the Okanagan
attended by Dr. J. C. Bankier, Animal Pathologist. Meetings were held at Armstrong,
Salmon Arm, and Kelowna, where the problems of Newcastle disease and bronchitis were
discussed.
Your Poultry Commissioner also attended annual meetings of several Agricultural
Associations and other organizations during the year.
Inspectors W. H. Pope, W. J. Wakely, and H. Gasperdone attended several field-
days during this year giving demonstrations on culling, etc.
BABY-CHICK SHOW
The first combined baby-chick and poult show to be held in Canada was staged in
New Westminster from April 6th to 8th by the West Coast Poultrymen in co-operation
with the New Westminster Kiwanis Club. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 89
This proved an excellent means of advertising the poultry industry and featured
decorated Easter-egg competition, a glass-topped incubator showing chicks hatching,
coloured baby chicks, almost 100 entries of baby chicks and poults, and cooking demonstrations each afternoon featuring eggs and poultry.
The staff of the Poultry Branch co-operated with the West Coast Poultrymen in this
event.
BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY INDUSTRIES COUNCIL
The Council continued very active during the year in connection with poultry-
disease problems, vaccination, " sour egg " research, floor prices for eggs, etc.
The British Columbia Poultry Industries Council has accomplished a great deal for
the poultry industry and is one of the most active organizations in Canada.
WATERFOWL
Increased production of ducks and geese continued but has begun to level off after
several years' increase.
It is interesting to note that waterfowl may be included in the pullorum-testing programme owing to problems arising from increased production and hatchery operations
across Canada.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Your Commissioner continued as a director of the Pacific National Exhibition during
1953 in the capacity of Chairman of the Junior Farmer Committee and Vice-Chairman
of the Poultry Committee.
Almost 500 4-H Club members and Future Farmers of Canada attended the Pacific
National Exhibition, with 250 additional visitors from 4-H Clubs and Future Farmers
of America from Washington State.
PROVINCIAL TOURS
Visits were made to producers in the Okanagan during May and to Vancouver
Island producers during October. These visits were made with Inspectors H. Gasperdone and W. H. Pope.
POULTRY SHORT COURSES
Inspector W. H. Pope spoke at poultry short courses in the Okanagan in March,
and attendance at the meetings was very good.
POULTRY SHOWS, TURKEY SHOWS, ETC.
Inspectors of the Poultry Branch assisted in judging at fall fairs and poultry shows
throughout the Province. Assistance was also given to the dressed-turkey show held in
Victoria on November 26th and the turkey show in New Westminster, November 28th
to 30th and December 1st and 2nd.
It is considered that these shows do a good job for the industry in publicizing British
Columbia turkeys, chickens, etc.
BRITISH COLUMBIA LIME COMMITTEE
Your Poultry Commissioner continued as Secretary of the British Columbia Lime
Committee until March 31st, when E. C. Hughes was appointed Secretary. This completed almost thirteen years as Secretary of this Committee.
This work was enjoyed, but became too heavy with increased responsibilities in
the work of the Poultry Branch. CC 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
BULLETIN SERVICE, ETC.
Several bulletins were reprinted during the year, and Circular No. 37, " U.B.C.
Feed Formulas for Poultry," was revised by Professor Biely and Mrs. March of the
University of British Columbia Poultry Department.
A new circular entitled " Poultry Disease Chart" was issued during the year in
place of reprinting the poultry-disease bulletin.
A large volume of mimeographed material was prepared in all Poultry Branch
offices. Inspector Pope reports over 2,000 of these, 675 letters received with 595 replies,
and 422 visits to producers.
In co-operation with the Agricultural Engineering Division of the Department, plans
were prepared for poultry-houses and equipment as follows: A plan for a 500-bird
house for Coast and Interior areas; a plan for a 40-bird laying-cage; a plan for an
800-bird community laying-cage; a plan for a 500-bird nest both for the Coast and
Interior; a plan for a 3,500-bird broiler house; central roosting-rack; community nest,
etc.
Material was supplied to radio stations, daily and weekly newspapers, and farm
press.
The " Farm News Items " are usually issued every Monday from the office of the
Poultry Commissioner to the radio stations and press.
WORLD'S POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
Your Commissioner continues as one of the two representatives from Canada on
the Council of the World's Poultry Science Association. However, with the increased
membership in Canada, it is anticipated that a third member will be appointed.
The Tenth World's Poultry Congress will be held in Edinburgh, Scotland, in August,
1954, and many countries are making plans to have representatives attend.
A meeting of Canadian members of the association was held in Guelph, Ont., in
June, and a campaign inaugurated for increased membership, with your Commissioner
as Chairman.
STAFF CHANGES
Inspector R. H. McMillan left the Department on April 1 st to become Poultry Commissioner for Alberta. This was a tribute to him and to the training he received in the
Poultry Branch.
W. J. Wakely was appointed an Inspector in May, coming to this Province from
the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH
Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinary Inspector
HORSES
Horse breeding in the Province continues to follow the general pattern of recent
years. There is little interest in draught-horse breeding, and mechanical power is largely
replacing the horse on farms and in industry. Some light draught horses are in use, and,
of course, some saddle-horses are always required about cattle-ranches. The interest
in light horses for riding purposes is keen. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 91
Stallion enrolments for the year were as follows:—
1953:  A, 1; B, 3; C, 0; D, 3; E, 26; F, 3.
1952: A, 2; B, 5; C, 0; D, 6; E, 13; F, 7.
There are three enrolments pending.
BEEF CATTLE
For inspected slaughterings of cattle and calves, see Appendix No. 2. For beef
carcasses graded in British Columbia, see Appendix No. 3. For average prices of cattle,
see Appendix No. 4.
A study of the price picture for the year as shown in Appendix No. 4 will tell the
story as far as market trends are concerned. It is very evident that prices have gone
down considerably, particularly during the latter part of the year. It would seem as
though other markets throughout the country show the same general trend. Marketing
in the United States shows a similar trend. The United States cattle population is at a
record high and marketings have been very heavy, especially in the central cattle-raising
States, where drought has been bad.
BULL TESTING
A second year of this work has been completed, with very satisfactory results. The
work is being carried out under a special committee and under the immediate direction
of Dr. A. Wood, Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of British Columbia. The personnel of the committee is as follows: Len Wood (Chairman), Dr.
A. J. Wood (Secretary), Vernon Ellison, Dr. W. R. Gunn, Tom Willis, Hugh Nicholson,
and Brian K. de P. Chance.
Again it may be said that this work has opened up an entirely new approach to the
problem of beef-cattle production. Certainly this programme is focusing the attention
of cattlemen on the importance of economy of gain. Anyone interested should procure
the complete reports and try to attend the several field-days.
SALES AND SHOW RESULTS
The summarized reports of sales in British Columbia during the year 1953 are as
follows:—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 11th, 1953
Number and Kind
Highest
Price
per Cwt.
Lowest
Price
per Cwt.
1953
Average
1952
Average
Car-lots of fifteen steers..
Groups of five steers _
Spares..
Open singles and boys' and girls' classes..
$23.50
25.00
21.50
60.00
$18.50
18.70
17.30
18.60
$20.26
20.90
19.27
24.31
$35.45
35.82
35.10
41.60
Total head, 408.
Car-lot of fifteen steers, heavy class:  Nicola Lake Stock Farm, Nicola.
Car-lot of fifteen steers, light class: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Champion car-lot: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Reserve champion car-lot:  Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Group of five steers, heavy class: E. M. Hall, Barnhart Vale.
Group of five steers, light class: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Champion group of five steers:  Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Reserve champion group of five steers:  J. W. Lauder, Quilchena.
Single steer or heifer, 1,130 to 1,300 pounds:  Basran Brothers, Kelowna. CC 92
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Single steer or heifer, 1,020 to 1,120 pounds: Harry Hayes, Armstrong.
Single steer or heifer, 900 to 1,010 pounds: Daniel L. Lee, Hanceville.
Single steer or heifer, 860 to 890 pounds:  Len Wood & Son, Armstrong.
Single steer or heifer, 530 to 850 pounds:  Glen Shannon, Knutsford.
Champion animal of the open singles: Len Wood & Son, Armstrong.
Reserve champion animal of the open singles: Mrs. W. J. Taylor, Monte Lake.
Boys' and girls' competition, single steer or heifer, heavy class: Blain Hall, West-
bridge.
Boys' and girls' competition, single steer or heifer, fight class: Verna McLeod,
Bestwick.
New exhibitors drawn from above two classes:  Dennis Lyster, Armstrong.
Champion animal of the boys' and girls' competition:  Verna McLeod, Bestwick.
Reserve champion animal of the boys' and girls' competition: Blain Hall, West-
bridge.
Grand champion animal of the show: Len Wood & Son, Armstrong.
Reserve grand champion animal of the show: Mrs. W. J. Taylor, Monte Lake.
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Eleventh Annual Cattle and Bull Sale
SEPTEMBER 2nd, 1953
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Steers   	
Cows  - 	
Heifers       _	
313
100
112
61
6
5
4
$18.35
14.35
17.10
17.50
12.85
25.00
24.25
$11.00
6.25
13.00
13.75
9.50
20.50
23.75
$15.33
9.19
15.72
17.22
11.82
23.12
23.98
$41,060.77
9,234.29
12,426.53
4,349.15
Bulls. _	
982.43
1,009.67
806.69
Totals
601
	
$70,069.53
SECOND SALE, OCTOBER 21st, 1953
Steers	
204
73
144
197
12
5
2
12
2
$17.25
8.60
16.10
21.00
10.50
14.50
12.00
16.25
370.001
$13.75
5.60
11.50
13.00
10.50
14.50
12.00
16.25
300.0Q1
$15.60
7.42
14.52
16.49
10.50
14.50
12.00
16.25
335.001
$26,949.72
5,417.59
14,243.26
12,935.34
Bulls   	
1,579.73
S. heifers      - 	
Stags    .
Lambs — —
607.55
144.60
170.63
670.00
Totals               	
651
$62,718.42
1
1 Highest, lowest, average price each.
Tenth Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale, October 27th, 1953
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
407
186
25
176
18
162
9
5
$17.80
16.00
10.40
9.10
12.90
17.10
500.001
175.001
$8.70
10.00
9.70
5.60
10.00
13.00
200.001
150.001
$12.05
13.05
9.87
7.27
11.79
15.32
330.0O1
162.001
$51,629.52
18,452.13
3,122.69
Heifers -      	
Bulls    -	
13,887.10
1,998.12
10,171.52
2,970.00
810 00
988
       |
$103,041.08
1 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 93
Sixteenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Stock Sale
OCTOBER 9th, 1953
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
1,220
246
57
502
387
29
16
53
$19.00
12.85
13.50
17.75
17.10
15.25
36.00
1,350.001
$12.00
3.75
13.10
10.00
14.25
11.35
18.50
250.001
$16.53
9.16
13.28
14.85
15.96
11.58
22.88
510.851
$183,740.59
19,590.47
6,826.21
50,924.78
21,647.36
Bulls                                       -	
4,447.47
3,542.76
27,075.00
2,510
	
$317,794.64
1 Highest, lowest, average price each. Of the 59 head of registered bulls offered, 6 were withdrawn. The remaining
53 head sold for $27,503, the highest price being $1,350, paid to Len W. Wood, R.R. 3, Armstrong, for his bull Elwood
Royal Tricaldo No. 324,691.
SECOND SALE, NOVEMBER 7th, 1953
1,087
402
52
43
432
295
$17.75
18.25
12.75
13.25
15.35
12.00
$8.00
10.00
6.00
8.50
6.85
3.00
$14.82
15.13
9.04
10.67
13.00
8.02
$142,392.80
21,355.17
Bulls - 	
6,772.39
4,441.98
41,242.84
23,791.56
2,311
	
$239,996.74
	
Ashcroft Sale, October 1st, 1953
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Cows	
Calves—	
Heifer calves	
Steer calves.—	
Yearling heifers..
Steers - -.
Bulls - _
Heifers	
Mixed calves _
Lambs. —
Ewes_
Totals-
57
47
119
96
8
136
2
35
6
12
$16.25
17.50
21.00
16.75
13.85
17.85
11.00
16.25
16.50
17.00
9.00
$5.25
14.50
10.75
15.25
13.35
12.00
7.75
11.00
16.50
17.00
9.00
$10.71
16.21
15.86
15.96
13.73
15.33
9.38
14.35
16.50
17.00
9.00
$4,395,601
494.901
6,021.451
6,066.18
622.09
16,636.521
167.35
3.053.721
242.55
178.50
87.30
526      I
$37,966.161
1 These totals are incomplete.
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, December 3rd, 1953
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
1952
Average
Total
Car-lots	
Groups of five-
Spares-
Open singles and boys' and girls' entries..
Lambs 	
Totals 	
30
80
10
183
49
$21.50
24.00
22.00
90.00
1.75i
$20.75
16.40
17.60
17.00
.22>/2]
$21.12
20.43
19.75
23.09
44.402
$27.10
26.41
24.38
26.68
33.172
$6,506.98
15,416.05
1,879.86
40,430.58
1,472.19
352
$65,705.66
1 Highest, lowest, average price per pound
1952
Number      Value
Total fat stock  301        $78,732.12
2 Average price each.
Total lambs
20
Total registered stock       4
Total sale
696.35
1,300.00
  325        $80,728.47
Average price of qualified stock per hundredweight, $26.71.
1953
Number Value
Total fat stock  __ 303 $64,233.47
Total lambs     49 1,472.19
Total sale   352       $65,705.66
Average price of qualified stock per hundredweight, $21.10. CC 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
For report on the Okanagan Falls Cattle Sale, December 8 th, 1953, see Appendix
No. 5.
The regular annual Waldo Stock Breeders' Association sale was not held this year.
Cattle from this association were assembled and trucked through to the Calgary market.
This year would have been their twelfth sale. It is hoped that the facilities for the sale
will be retained, since it is a useful asset.
It will be noted that at some centres two sales have been held and that a small local
sale was tried out at Ashcroft.
BULL-CONTROL AREAS
This policy, in our opinion, is one of the best efforts made by the Live Stock Branch
under the authority of the " Animals Act." It offers a specific answer to one of the main
problems facing cattlemen running cattle on the open range. There is evidence that
more groups are becoming interested in the policy.
J. W. Awmack reports briefly as follows on the four control areas in the East
Kootenay:—
"Newgate-Grasmere Bull-control Area.—The Newgate-Grasmere area has twenty-
two bulls on the range. All bulls with the exception of one have been inspected by the
Committee. There has been a general improvement in the quality of the bulls in this
area over the period of time that the bull-control area has been in operation. There has
also been an improvement in the cow-bull ratio. The ratio currently stands at 25:1.
Two community-owned bulls are being run this year.
" Waldo Bull-control Area.—In the Waldo area there are seventeen Aberdeen-Angus
bulls. The cow-bull ratio is 25:1, there being 424 cows. All bulls in this area have
been inspected by the Bull-control Committee. The quality of the cattle in this area has
improved very markedly over the last five years.
"Sand Creek Bull-control Area.—Fifteen bulls are running in the Sand Creek area,
with 430 cows running at large in this area, giving a cow-bull ratio of 28:1. All but
three of the bulls in this area have been inspected by the Bull-control Committee.
" Columbia Bull-control Area.—The Columbia Bull-control Area is not fully active
at the present time, but wishes to maintain its status against future need."
DAIRY CATTLE AND DAIRYING
This section of the greater live-stock industry is trying to get itself adjusted to the
rapidly changing conditions. The business of present-day dairying imposes a wide range
of intimate problems which require consideration by authorities familiar with that particular field if the best results are going to be obtained. Several of our Live Stock Branch
policies are intended to deal with the most important of these problems. The difficulty,
however, is in getting agreement and unified thinking. It is not always possible for an
industry to be successful when it is hampered by many modifying factors. Never before
has there been a greater need for prompt organized action in order for the industry to
maintain its legitimate position. I am pleased to be able to report very satisfactory
improvement in several districts where our Branch policies are being intimately applied.
Clean disease-free cattle, more and better quality cattle, and better attention to production methods are resulting in a greater volume of better quality, cleaner, and safer milk
being offered to the consumer, produced at a proportionately lower cost to the producers.
Additional markets for surplus breeding stock are developing. The international
market is in a fairly healthy state, but if it is to be retained, serious thought must be given
to the several basic items which go to build up confidence in the mind of the buyer.
At home, a very good market is being built up under our Calf and Heifer Placement
Policy.   More will be said about this policy later. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC 95
DAIRY-HERD IMPROVEMENT
This excellent service continues to serve the dairy-cattle industry in a most satisfactory manner. Its popularity continues to increase. We are looking forward to the
time when Dairy-herd Improvement Associations will fall within the boundaries of some
of our disease-control areas. I am satisfied that when this time arrives, the dairy-herd
improvement work will be able to give a more accurate measure of the productive ability
of animals and herds participating.
The Branch has reached another mile-post. On April 30th, 1954, we must part
company with another highly valued and extremely efficient worker in the person of
G. H. Thornbery, our Superintendent of Cow-testing Associations, who retires under
superannuation. It would be entirely impossible for me to properly express our feelings
in this matter. Mr. Thornbery has carried on with the work of herd improvement since
the retirement of the former Dairy Commissioner, the late Henry Rive, under whom this
policy came into being. Mr. Thornbery has devoted his life to the work of herd improvement in British Columbia, with the result that we can justly say that we have in
our British Columbia dairy-herd improvement policy the finest of its kind in the world—
one which has been a model for many other groups to copy. Mr. Thornbery is not only
one of the most efficient workers, but also one of the finest and most kindly and considerate of gentlemen. His whole life and conduct have been a model to all who have had
the good luck to come within the range of his association. We can only wish him many
happy years in which to enjoy a well-earned retirement. We hope that he will come to
see us frequently.   His position will be taken by J. Mace.
The following extracts are taken from the annual report of G. H. Thornbery:—■
" The production end of the dairy industry is still on a 365-day basis, with no
prospect of a five-day week. Weather conditions during the early summer were good
for growing crops but poor for hay-making, and, as a result, there is an ample supply,
but much of it is of inferior quality.   More dairymen are experimenting with grass silage.
" Grains and by-products were 15 per cent lower in cost this fall, but it is noted
that commercial dairy feeds are only down about 6 per cent, which may be a reason why
more dairymen are doing their own mixing.
"A year ago a resolution from the directorate of the Chilliwack Cow-testing Association to change the name from ' Cow-testing ' to ' Dairy-herd Improvement' was sent
to all other Cow-testing Associations with the request that it be discussed at their next
general assembly. It was circularized amongst all members as an extraordinary resolution, and was passed by every organization at its annual meeting. Each association sent
the necessary legal documents to the Registrar of Companies, and the change of name
has been approved.
" The term ' C.T.A.' has been used and recognized in this Province for so long that
it will take some years before it is replaced by ' D.H.I.A.' However, it is the general
opinion of all concerned that the term ' Dairy-herd Improvement' better explains to
those both inside and outside the movement the progressive attitude of a large number
of dairymen in this Province, and, furthermore, it brings about a uniformity in terminology for this project on the North American Continent.
" There are now twenty-one routes operating in fifteen Dairy-herd Improvement
Associations. These contain 490 herds on test, with a total of more than 11,000 cows.
A new route to take care of herds in the Langley and Surrey districts was organized this
summer.
" Plans had been made for an additional route in the same area this fall, but recently
there has arisen an attitude of indecision and uncertainty amongst dairymen on the Lower
Mainland and Vancouver Island, perhaps resulting from a change of policy concerning
the marketing of milk. Because of this, it was decided to delay organizing the route
until the spring of 1954, when it is hoped that the outlook will be brighter. CC 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The work of all the supervisors continues to be of a very high quality. The great
results that have been attained over the years are largely due to the excellent service
rendered to members of Dairy-herd Improvement Associations.
"Attached in appendix form is a list of associations, giving the names of their respective secretaries and supervisors (see Appendix No. 6).
"All routes, with the exception of the one in the Comox Valley, have a full complement of members and are in a very healthy condition.
"There was a total of 8,086 milking periods completed during 1952, and the
average production of this large number of records is milk, 9,382 pounds, and fat,
400 pounds, 4.26 per cent fat. When one recalls that the average of milking periods
completed during the years 1914, 1915, and 1916 was 6,563 pounds of milk and 268
pounds of fat, it is obvious that a great improvement has been made, especially in the
care and management of dairy cattle.
"A summarized report is attached, showing breed averages for 1952 (see Appendix
No. 7).
" On June 1 st Harry Johnson was added to the staff of Dairy-herd Improvement
Services as relief supervisor. Almost his entire time has been taken up in substituting
for supervisors during their annual two-week vacation.
"Certified Records.—During the year 1952 there was a total of 4,618 milking
periods completed that qualified for certification. This is an increase of 50 per cent in
the number of qualifying records in the past four years. A report for 1953 will not
be available until the spring of 1954.
" Calf-tags.—The source of information for most of the daughter-dam pairs, in
respect to grade animals that is compiled in Annual Sire Lists, is obtained from files
showing particulars of animals bearing C.T.A. tags, now known as D.H.I.A. During
the last thirty years the parentage of 34,000 animals has been recorded, and this information has made it possible to evaluate over a thousand dairy sires. During the past
twelve months, 2,400 tags have been allocated to D.H.I.A. routes. This is an increase
of 55 per cent in four years.
" Departmental Subsidies.—Grants to twenty-one routes operated by fifteen Dairy-
herd Improvement Associations during the year under review amount to $38,331.
" R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. Service.—There are now forty-eight D.H.I.A. members who
are taking advantage of the opportunity to have their registered animals on R.O.P.; the
reports for Ottawa are prepared by the D.H.I.A. supervisors.
" The various report forms have been radically changed during the past year, and,
as a result, it will require some time before every Inspector follows a uniform pattern
in providing the necessary information. All reports pass through this office before being
sent on to Ottawa.
" The writer attended a conference at Ottawa in February where representatives of
the four Western Provinces met to discuss the R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. combined service
programme."
Field Work
The success of dairy-herd improvement work in British Columbia is largely due
to three factors:—
(1) A highly selected group of supervisors, who are well trained and interested
in their work.
(2) A comprehensive set of rules and regulations governing all phases of the
project, which are strictly adhered to.
(3) Frequent contacts with supervisors, directors, and members of Dairy-herd
Improvement Associations by a staff member of Dairy-herd Improvement
Services. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953 CC 97
Of these three factors, perhaps the last is the most important, for only by calling on
D.H.I.A. members and supervisors can one keep in touch with association affairs in
general, and the quality of testing and recording.
During the past year a considerable number of herds have been visited, and production certificates brought up to date. Frequent contacts were made with D.H.I.A.
supervisors, and, as a result, a high degree of uniformity has been maintained.
The new route in the area covered by Langley and Surrey was the result of a special
canvass of dairymen in the district to sign up new members.
The annual relief schedule which, for this year, contained twenty routes, occupied
a large portion of one man's time. It is understandable that a D.H.I.A. supervisor does
not appreciate a vacation in the months of January, February, November, or December.
Furthermore, there are four supervisors whose combined years of service number eighty.
These men deserve three weeks' annual vacation. Some consideration must be given
to finding ways and means to provide Mr. Johnson, the relief supervisor, with a part-time
assistant.
The Ton-of-fat Trophy Competition.—The original sponsor of this contest is the
British Columbia Dairymen's Association, which has not functioned during the year under
review. However, the information obtained from competing herds in regard to dairy-
farm operations and methods is of such vital importance to those who are determined
to make a reasonable living from milking cows that the competition is being carried on.
The trophy was won in 1952 by F. J. Smith & Son, of the Langley Dairy-herd Improvement Association. This herd had 58 per cent of completed records belonging to cows
each having a ton or more of butter-fat to their credit. In addition, there were thirty-one
herds competing, each of which had 25 per cent or more of completed records belonging
to cows in this ton-of-fat class.
Meetings, Conferences, and Field-days.—A representative of this staff attended the
following gatherings: The annual meetings of the following Dairy-herd Improvement
Associations: Chilliwack, Comox, Delta, Dewdney-Deroche, Langley, Matsqui, Pitt
Meadows-Maple Ridge, Richmond, Sumas, Surrey, Vancouver Island (South), Vancouver Island (Centre), and the Chilliwack Artificial Insemination Club; field-days
at Chilliwack Dairy-herd Improvement Association and British Columbia Guernsey
breeders' at Haney; annual conference of D.H.I.A. supervisors in New Westminster;
and a special meeting of the R.O.P. Inspectors at the University of British Columbia to
obtain instruction on the new forms from the Chief Inspector, J. A. Steele.
Short Course of Instruction for Prospective D.H.I.A. Supervisors.—It is necessary
to report that the shortage of trained supervisors, which was a serious problem in 1952,
had to be tackled again in 1953. In March an advertisement was placed in the Vancouver daily papers by the Union of Dairy-herd Improvement Associations, inviting
applications from those who wished to attend a training-school. Ninety-one replies
were received. A large percentage were from men lacking the necessary qualifications,
such as dairy-farming experience and some high-school education. After interviewing
all those whose reports were sufficiently good to require further investigation, there was
a class of eight that attended the short course. Six of these men passed all examinations,
and two have been placed on D.H.I.A. routes. Jack Mace trained the class in compilations, rules and regulations, feed valuations, and balanced rations, and Fred Overland
gave instructions in Babcock testing.
Office Routine
There are several projects that require considerable time to carry out, and these
are listed hereunder:—
Annual Dairy Sire Lists.—This entails compiling accounts of dairy sires that have
five or more daughters with production records.    Particulars are given in regard to their CC 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
respective dams' records if there is a minimum of five daughter-dam pairs in a sire's
account.
It is interesting to record that the Annual Twenty-second Lists of Ayrshire and
Guernsey Sires, which contain accounts for 133 sires, have been compiled mechanically
through the use of International Business Machines (I.B.M.) punch-cards. Assembling
the initial material for the I.B.M. requires more time than the system previously in use,
but the work entailed in preparing subsequent lists will be very much curtailed.
D.H.I.A. and R.O.P. Reports of Completed Records. — These reports are coming
in at an average rate of 1,000 a month.
In regard to D.H.I.A. reports, details of non-qualifying records were obtained from
the milking-period book sent in annually by each supervisor. Therefore, the date-line
on any Sire List had to be December 31st of the year for which all milking-period books
had been received.
Commencing this year, reports are sent in to this office of all records as soon as
completed, both qualified and non-qualified.   As a result, the files are always up to date.
The sire files for each of the four dairy breeds are credited with every record
completed by a cow whose sire is known. It is from this information that the Sire Lists
are prepared periodically.
Reports on Sires in Artificial Insemination Clubs.—A close and apparently much-
appreciated contact has been kept with the Artificial Insemination Clubs in the Province
and the Vancouver office of the Canada Department of Agriculture, which is at present
providing the money to buy the bulls.
In regard to this project, J. A. Mace's comments are as follows: " Reports on the
A.I. daughters of sires in use at the clubs have been prepared at approximately six-month
intervals for the guidance of Sire Selection Committees of the various breeds. It is felt
that these reports in their present form of presentation are among the most advanced on
the continent, and provide reasonably quick and authentic information on the performance of these bulls."
Combined R.O.P.-D.H.I.A. Service Reports.—Over 500 of these are coming in
every month. Each report and herd summary is closely checked for accuracy and
uniformity before being forwarded to R.O.P. headquarters at Ottawa. It is not possible
to have this work carried out by clerical assistants.
Annual Statistical Summary.—The milking-period books containing particulars of
production records completed in all routes are sent in annually to this office. A breed
average is compiled from these reports for each route, and a grand average comprising
all routes is prepared.    In 1952 there were 8,086 completed milking periods.
Certificates of Production.—A certificate of production is prepared for every cow
when her initial record meets the qualifying standard of 365 pounds of butter-fat. During
1952 there were 1,888 certificates issued.
Parental Production Summaries.—Complete reports have been prepared on eight
Holstein sires and forwarded to the individuals concerned.
Annual List of Ton-of-butterfat Cows.—The list compiled this year contained the
names of 948 cows. Each one was credited with the total amount of milk and butter-fat
produced during the years on test.
Considerable time is spent in attending to correspondence and writing to supervisors
and officials of Dairy-herd Improvement Associations.
Publications.—Reports and circulars under the following titles have been prepared
for distribution:—
H.I.C. No. 70: The Twenty-first List of Jerseys, containing reports of 137 sires.
H.I.C. No. 72:  The Twenty-second List of Ayrshires, containing reports of 49
sires.
H.I.C. No. 72:   The Twenty-second List of Guernseys, containing reports of
84 sires. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC 99
H.I.C. No. 73: The Fourteenth Annual List of Long-distance Production
Records of One Ton of Butter-fat or More, giving particulars of cumulative milk and butter-fat records for 948 cows.
SUMMARY OF TRANSACTIONS UNDER PURE-BRED SIRES
FOR FARMERS' INSTITUTES POLICY
During the last several years, with markets for agricultural products being quite
good, there have been fewer requests for this service, but recently there would seem to be
indications of a stronger demand for sires under the policy.
Departmental purchases during 1953 were as follows: During 1953 eight (three)
pure-bred sires have been purchased at a cost of $3,000 ($650), with a total freight
charge to this Department of $282.95 ($54.36). These sires were shipped to Cranbrook, Pemberton, Courtenay, Bella Coola, Gibsons, McBride, Newgate, and West-
bridge, there being four Herefords, two Shorthorns, and one Ayrshire, the latter going
to Gibsons.
Initial payments on the above totalled $1,107.54, which, with payments of $1,691.83
received on previous purchases, totalled $2,799.37 ($2,439.71).
Final payments were received on nine sires—one Holstein, one Ayrshire, one
Aberdeen Angus, three Herefords, and three Shorthorns—and the pedigrees transferred
to the new owners.
ROYAL AGRICULTURAL WINTER FAIR, TORONTO,
NOVEMBER 13th TO 2 1st, 1953
I did not attend this event this year so can offer no first-hand opinion. This great
fair is one of the finest of its kind in the world. It offers the very best education possible,
particularly in the field of live-stock production. It is generally looked upon as a livestock exhibition. It, at the same time, enables workers to confer with other workers
from all over the country.
British Columbia sent one carload of Hereford cattle to the Royal Winter Fair,
made up of cattle from Earlscourt Farm, Lytton, and a Hereford steer from L. W. Wood,
Armstrong.   The steer placed sixth in its class.
The following were the wins made by Earlscourt Farm Herefords: Junior yearling
bull, first; senior yearling bull, eighth; mature cows, first; 2-year-old heifers, third;
junior yearling heifer, ninth in class of 24 head; senior heifer calves, sixth and twelfth
in class of 20 head; breeder's herd, ninth; group of three calves, fifth.
A shipment of Holstein and Jersey cattle went from the Fraser Valley to later be
sold in the Sale of Stars. The following were the wins in the dairy-cattle division: In the
Holstein section, in the senior yearling heifer class, Gilmore April Magic placed seventeenth for Leslie Gilmore, Lulu Island, and later sold for $900 in the Sale of Stars;
in the Jersey section, in the 3-year-old milking class, Glendown Showman Sonnet placed
first for William Savage, Ladner, and later sold for $1,700 in the Sale of Stars; in the
senior yearling milking class, Quilchena Siren's Sandmaid placed first and reserve junior
champion for Quilchena Farm, Lulu Island, and later sold for $1,100 in the Sale of Stars.
The British Columbia entries in both beef cattle and dairy cattle for the Sale of Stars
were well received and sold well up to average.
SHEEP
Prices for breeding stock, meat, and wool have been quite satisfactory. There has
been some over-all downward trend, but interest in sheep-raising has increased, which has
helped to bolster prices for breeding stock. Again, since lamb is usually in short supply
and is almost a luxury product, the fall in price has not been as pronounced as might
be anticipated.   For average prices for lambs, see Appendix No. 8. CC 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Compensation Paid under the " Sheep Protection Act " from the Dog Tax Fund
Year
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1949 - -
11
8
1
2
$145.00
135.00
18.00
70.00
191
123
114
120
60
$2,836.50
1,721.00
1,728.00
2,168.00
1,115.30
861
1,371
401
376
883
$1,230.25
1,996.58
673.80
1950  	
1951                     	
1952  -.
1953      -
697.43
1,096.90
SWINE
There is little now to report as far as the industry is concerned. Prices for pork have
improved considerably during the year. Surplus stock of Government-held pork has been
reduced. British Columbia is not a heavy swine-producing Province, since there are no
extensive grain-raising areas and specialized farming dominates the agricultural picture.
For inspected slaughterings of hogs, see Appendix No. 2. For average prices of hogs,
see Appendix No. 9.
APPROVED HERDS
This is a new policy which is intended to encourage the development of herds of
dairy cattle, high in production, and free from disease, where attention is also given to
building up blood fines that have the ability to produce steadily and consistently for
a long number of years.
The work is being started in a very modest way, commencing with but five herds.
These herds are all on Cow-testing Associations. They are carefully managed by owners
who are keen students of their work and who intend to remain permanently in the business. Careful records are kept of everything that happens to all animals in the herd.
Special attention is being given to the appearance of such conditions as sterility, low
conception records, irregularity of heat periods, acetonemia, milk fever; note is taken of
the animal's capacity to handle feed, its general vigour and strength of body conformation,
with particular attention to the type of udder conformation with the idea of getting well-
formed udders, capable of standing up well to normal wear without breaking down or
easily developing mastitis.
While this may seem like seeking for the perfect animal, which is perhaps somewhat
idealistic, it is felt that it is time that more consideration should be given to these very
important items, which are gradually becoming more prevalent and, of course, proportionately more costly to the industry. Heredity may have some bearing on some of these
conditions.   If so, it will eventually show up and can be dealt with.
This policy is built up around the owner and his herd, his own veterinarian, the Live
Stock Branch officers, which includes the Veterinary Inspectors, Live Stock Inspectors,
and the staff of the Dairy-herd Improvement Service.
Several of the herds signed up under this policy will shortly be coming up for
approval. Just recently the first two herds received B.C. Approved-herd Certificates;
namely, C. A. Higginson, 360 Chilliwack River Road, R.R. 2, Sardis, and Howard G.
Rotluff, Turner Road, R.R. 1, Matsqui.
DISEASE
The problem of disease control and eradication becomes vastly more complicated
each year. Present-day methods of marketing and moving of cattle imposes an enormous
burden on our small staff charged with the responsibility of trying to control and eradicate
specific diseases. The people who have been marketing and dealing in live stock for
years seem to have the idea that every other programme must take second place to their DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1953
CC  101
business, and it is going to take some time to convince them that some of their practices
are incompatible with effective disease-control. Disease cannot be controlled and
eradicated with free trading operating over the top of control policies.
Close study of the question of disease permits us to say that the world over, and
especially in America, the stage is set for clean-ups. If we in British Columbia fail to
appreciate that fact, we will suffer the consequences. No single tool in the hands of
live-stock interests in other countries offers a better means for the closing of markets to
importations than the building-up of disease barriers. No work is more essential to the
future interests of the industry; no work is more emergent. The rank and file of the
stockmen, the thinking people within the industry, know the worth of the work. The
vocative, the selfish, and the ill informed will howl for a time, but the weight of opinion
will soon quiet them. We must carry quietly on with the job which we truly know should
be done.
The accomplishments of the year have been greater than I had even dreamed and
give encouragement to even greater efforts. I give credit to a tight little group of loyal,
efficient, and enthusiastic workers.
SPECIFIC DISEASES
Hemorrhagic Septicaemia.—The infective organism that produces the more specific
disease of hemorrhagic septicemia is ever present, waiting for the proper conditions to
strike. We usually get it associated with other infective organisms as a more complex
condition—shipping fever. Present-day " biologies " have improved in effectiveness, and
better education over the years has resulted in a much-improved situation. With a step-up
in trading and dealing, we may expect an increase in the incidence of the disease. Our
cattle do not move great distances to markets.   This helps to prevent serious outbreaks.
Coccidiosis.—This condition is not the worry that it was in the thirties. Special
educational work has helped to remove this disease from the problem field. Recent
observations indicate that clean-ups must go along with better feeding and management.
Necrotic Stomatitis.—Here again good work has accomplished much, but the disease
makes its appearance here and there over the Province from time to time. Once more
dealing and trading in cattle is responsible. The causal organism is the Actinomyces
Necrophorus. This same organism is one of the major causal organisms responsible for
foot-rot in cattle and to some extent in sheep, as well as abscess livers in cattle.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—We have not been confronted with anything of an
epizootic since the outbreak in 1939 and 1940, but there is evidence that more cases are
beginning to appear again.
Caseous Lymphadenitis.—Progress toward the near elimination of this disease has
been made until recently, when it seemed to increase somewhat in incidence this last year.
Importations of old ewes are largely responsible. This practice may have to be brought
under specific control. Some breeders are not sufficiently interested in following suggested
control measures, and here also more intimate inspection at shearing-time may have to
be provided.
Keratitis (Pinkeye).—Research within the last year has perhaps finally uncovered the
cause of this trouble as a specific virus, and is moving toward the production of a suitable
vaccine. In this case, as with most diseases, better sanitation and hygiene are a must in
order to clean out the disease.
Carcinoma of the Eye.—Keratitis seems to encourage the development of eye cancer,
but it is generally felt that there may be an inheritance factor.
Foot-rot in Sheep.—This is a reportable disease under our " Contagious Diseases
(Animals) Act." A very fine job has been done here by our Inspectors in very greatly
reducing the incidence of the disease. Control of importations may be necessary. A great
need for more staff prevents us from doing all we should do to finish the job. CC 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Foot-rot in Cattle.—This disease is generally thought to be less complex than foot-rot
in sheep, and more intimately restricted to the presence of the organism Actinomyces
Necrophorus. This year has shown an upswing in the incidence of the disease in a few
places where importations of mixed lots of cattle were made. Here again "those who
do not listen usually feel."
Liver Abscess.—Caused by the same infection as foot-rot. It is, therefore, usually
more prevalent where foot-rot exists. The losses in condemned livers are quite
considerable.
Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis. — These conditions appear singly or in co