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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST 1955 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1956

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. E. SOMMERS, Minister DR. C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1955
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956  Victoria, B.C., February, 1956.
To the Honourable Frank Mackenzie Ross, C.M.G., M.C.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1955.
R. E. SOMMERS,
Minister of Lands and Forests. The Honourable R. E. Sommers,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1955.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester. CONTENTS
Item Page
1. Introductory  9
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  15
Forest Surveys  15
Forest Inventory  15
3. Forest Research  23
Experiment Stations  23
Field Programme  23
Investigations and Advisory7 Service  27
Co-operation  27
Research Publications  28
4. Reforestation  29
Forest Nurseries  29
Seed Collections  29
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  29
Planting  30
Preparation of Planting Areas  30
Plantations  32
Plantation Improvement  32
5. Parks and Recreation  33
Administration  33
Reconnaissance and Inventory  33
Planning and Development  34
Vancouver Island Parks  34
Mainland Parks  36
Wildlife Management  38
Changes in Park List  38
Additions  38
Deletions  39
Park List, 1955  39
Recreation Land Reserves  39
Park Attendance  40
6. Working Plans  41
Forest Management Licences  41
Public Working Circles  43
Farm Wood-lot Licences  44
Tree-farms  44
7. Public Relations and Education  45
Radio  45
Publications and Printing  45
Photography and Motion Pictures  45
Film Library  45
Signs and Posters  46
Co-operation  46
Exhibits  46
Library  46
8. Forest Management  48
General  48
Market Prices and Stumpage Trends  49
Forest-cover Maps  50
Aerial Photographs  50
Forest Management Licence Administration  50
Silvicultural Fund  50 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
9. Grazing  52
Introduction  52
Administration  52
Grazing Permits  52
Hay Permits  53
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  53
Live-stock Counts  53
Trespass  53
Range Management  54
Range Surveys  54
Range-readiness Studies  54
Range Improvements  55
Plant Collections  56
Range Research  56
Co-operation  56
General Conditions  57
Markets and Prices  57
Live-stock Losses  5 7
Diseases of Live Stock  57
10. Engineering Services  58
Engineering Section  58
General Engineering  59
Road Reconnaissance  60
Road Location  60
Road Construction  61
Mechanical Section  62
Equipment Selection  63
General Supervision  65
Structural Design and Building Construction Section  65
Forest Service Marine Station  68
Marine Work  68
Prefabrication  69
Machine-shop  70
Radio Section  71
11. Forest Protection  74
Weather  74
Fires  74
Occurrences and Causes  74
Cost of Fire-fighting  75
Damage  75
Fire-control Planning and Research  75
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  75
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography  75
Protection Planning in Working-circles  75
Miscellaneous (Air-photo Mosaics)  76
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  76
Fire-suppression Crews  76
Aircraft  76
Roads and Trails  77
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  77
Fire-law Enforcement  78
Forest Closure  78
Co-operation—Other Agencies  78 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
Item Pa™
12. Forest-insect Investigations  79
13. Forest-disease Investigations  83
Forest-disease Survey  84
Nursery, Seed, and Cone Diseases  85
Diseases of Immature Forests  86
Diseases of Mature Forests  87
14. Forest Ranger School  88
Extra Courses  8 8
Buildings and Grounds  88
Acknowledgments  89
15. Forest Accounts  90
16. Personnel  91
Organization  91
Services  91
Communications and Training  91
Establishment, Recruitment, and Staff Turnover.  92
Classifications, Salaries, and Working Conditions  92
Youth Training Programme .  9 3
17. Personnel Directory, 1956 ;  94
18. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  101  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
The most casual perusal of this Report will give ample evidence of the increases in
the volume and diversity of Forest Service activities during the past year. The volume of
total cut, values of production, revenues, expenditures, work load, and other phases of
activity all show an upward trend that, in some instances, borders on the phenomenal.
Legislation
During the session of the Legislature early in the year the " Grazing Act," administered by the Grazing Division of the Service in respect to Crown range, was amended to
permit the removal and seizure of stock in trespass on Crown range.
A number of amendments, generally minor in character, were made in the " Forest
Act." In the case of Crown lands in a forest management licence held under provisions of other Acts, use and occupancy was made subject to the " Forest Act" rather than
the will of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, and such use and occupancy is to be in
accordance with the principles of sustained-yield forest management. The provision for
giving permission to cut timber within a forest management licence, to an established
operator—other than the management licensee—who has been dependent on timber incorporated within the licence, was further controlled. Another amendment limited the area
subject to enactments respecting compulsory reforestation of alienated land to that portion
of the Province west of the Cascades.
A series of amendments terminated the operations of the Forest Protection Fund and
made funds required for that purpose the subject of an annual vote of the Legislature and
derived from the Consolidated Revenue Fund in an amount not less than $2,000,000.
Tree-farms were included in the forest-land tenures subject to forest-protection taxation.
Forest Surveys and Inventory
In the fifth year of financial contribution from the Canadian Government to carry
on the forest-resources survey, a field crew of 232 covered 22,457,200 acres in the Fraser,
Homathko, Dean, and other drainages. The report includes revised figures on the King-
come region (No. 50) and divides the Bella Coola, Lower Skeena, and Nass regions (Nos.
54, 64, and 75) into Coastal and Interior areas. These are the only regions that occur in
both areas.
Progress was made with the production of standard cubic-foot volume tables for
twenty-two species and net-volume factors applicable to losses from decay, culling, and
felling breakage.
Forest Research
Emphasis was placed on completing compilations and reports on projects on which
field-work data had accumulated.
Youth-training crews at Cowichan Lake and Aleza Lake Experiment Stations performed road development, slash-disposal, and maintenance work.
Studies comprised a reconnaissance of regeneration in the Queen Charlotte Islands;
thinning in a 14-year-old plantation near Campbell River; reconnaissance at the northern
limit of Douglas fir on Gardner Canal; rodent-control and direct seeding of Douglas fir;
genetics in Douglas fir; the survey of cone production on Vancouver Island; the identification and distribution of spruce in the Interior; seed production and factors affecting
reproduction in the spruce-balsam forest type; seed production in relation to climate;
regeneration studies under different harvesting treatments in spruce-balsam in the Kamloops Forest District; a regeneration study in mature cedar-hemlock in the Nelson Forest 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
District; and soil fertility at Forest Service nurseries. A partial-cutting experiment in
mixed wet-belt forest in the Nelson Forest District was damaged by wind. Permanent
growth-and-yield plots were remeasured.
Reports were prepared on improving volume-cruise estimates on timber sales, on a
simplified computing of log-scales, and on analysis of marked and diameter-limit timber
sales.
Co-operation was extended to United States agencies in provenance studies on yellow
pine and Coast Douglas fir, and with Norway on aspen.
Thirty-three research projects are listed as active during the year. Four research
notes, two technical publications, and one technical paper were produced, and one technical publication produced in 1954 and not previously reported is listed.
Reforestation
The extreme cold of early November did extensive damage in the three Coast nurseries. These nurseries had previously shipped 6,983,000 seedlings and the East Kootenay
nursery 310,500. Seed-beds were sown to produce 6,000,000 trees on the Coast and
1,000,000 in the Interior in 1957.
Seed-collecting was fair to poor, with only 200 pounds of Douglas fir being secured
on the Coast and no seed in the Interior. Competition for seed has resulted in excessive
prices and unwarranted mutilation of seed-trees.
Regeneration surveys of 8,300 acres on the Coast showed acceptable stocking on
most of the acreage. A further 31,000 acres in the Lower Fraser Valley was reconnoitred.
In the East Kootenay a detailed examination of a further 27,423 acres was completed.
On the Coast the Service planted 3,425 acres with 2,184,600 seedlings and industry
7,076 acres with 4,623,400 seedlings. In the Interior 405 acres were planted. Reforestation crews felled 73,566 snags during the year on 6,838 acres.
Survival on 1954 plantings was 85 per cent, a slight decrease from figures of the
preceding year. Survival on the 1952 spring plantations had dropped from the 74 per
cent noted in 1954 to 68 per cent. Examination of fall-planted sites showed generally
poorer survival than spring-planted projects.
Parks and Recreation
Increased use and established facilities in partially improved parks are resulting in
greatly increased maintenance costs in relation to development costs, thereby limiting the
moneys available under the present allotments for the latter work. This resulted in the
major effort during the year being concentrated on Champion Lakes Park in the Nelson
Forest District.
Youth-training crews are admirably adapted to park development, and 136 boys were
employed. The park acreage was reduced to less than at any previous time since 1940.
Recreational values were assessed in seven areas applied for as forest management
licences, along the shore-line of four of the larger lakes, and in numerous other localities
along highways and elsewhere.
Heavy use of the smaller parks has resulted in serious wear to the forest-cover,
necessitating measures to curb and direct activities. General maintenance and expansion
were carried out in the Vancouver Island and Mainland parks and are reported in detail
for each area.
Wildlife studies included research on moose, mountain-cariboo, and grizzly bear in
Wells Gray Park, mule deer in Manning Park, moose ranges in the Cariboo, and preliminary reconnaissance of wildlife in Champion Lakes, Mount Robson, and Tweeds-
muir Parks.
Six Class "A" and two Class " C " parks were established, one Class " C " cancelled,
four parks increased in size, and two reduced during the year. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 11
The acreage of the seventy-five existing parks at the end of the year was 7,997,618.
The additional area of land reserved for recreation at that time was 779,482 acres. Estimated park entries during the year were 1,560,000 people. Citizens of British Columbia
represented from 81 to 91 per cent of the total, the majority of the remainder being from
the United States, with roughly 2V_; per cent from elsewhere in Canada.
Working Plans
Early in the year the Government announced that, pending submission of a report
by Chief Justice G. McG. Sloan as sole Commissioner of the Royal Commission on
Forests and Forestry, issuance of further forest management licences would be held in
abeyance. Prior to this decision, four new forest management licences had been awarded
during the year, bringing the total to twenty-three with a productive forest area of
4,685,492 acres and an allowable annual cut of 170,530,000 cubic feet. Seventeen additional applications have been approved with 1,454,972 productive acres and 54,011,000
cubic feet capacity. One hundred and four other applications are in various stages of
review. Three new public working circles—the Arrowhead, Narcosli, and Similkameen—
were created, and an existing one—Cariboo—was subdivided to form the Quesnel Lake
and Williams Lake Working Circles. The total thereby increased from twenty-nine to
thirty-three, containing 9,328,447 productive acres with annual capacity of 189,400,000
cubic feet. Four farm wood-lot licences were awarded and three new tree-farms certified,
bringing cumulative totals of these forms of sustained-yield forests to twenty-nine and
fifteen respectively.
Public Relations and Education
Radio education on forest-fire prevention was continued at the customary level
and, through the co-operation and generosity of CFJC, Kamloops, a special series of
programmes on resource conservation was broadcast under the title of "Conservation
Council." Production of publications and other printed matter was somewhat increased.
A considerable increase in photographic work was achieved, as well as some extension in
library services. A theatre trailer was produced urging care with fire, and this was projected in fifty-four theatres to an estimated 300,000 people. The highway-roadway-sign
project was more than doubled, and progress in production of Ranger-station and other
signs maintained. The lecture service to schools reached a larger audience due to the
fact that work was concentrated in the large metropolitan centres.
Forest Management
The total cut for the year—over 6 billion feet—and the total value of production—
over $630,000,000—created new records. Douglas fir was the leading species, with 39
per cent of the total cut, followed by hemlock, 20 per cent; cedar, 15 per cent; and
spruce, 13 per cent. The remaining 13 per cent was derived from balsam, lodgepole pine,
larch, white and yellow pine, and other species in that order. Approximately 70,000,000
cubic feet were cut on forest management licences.
The cut in all forest districts except Vancouver showed increases. Timber sales were
in greater number than ever before, with an estimated value of over $45,000,000. There
were 2,561 operating mills—another record. Registered timber marks totalled 4,968.
Stumpage prices remained high and stable, with fir and cedar showing increase.
Forest-cover maps numbering 1,031 were revised, and 26,488 aerial photographs
were added to Forest and Ranger District libraries.
Grazing
Forest range-lands increase the Province's live-stock production and aid the ranching
industry economically.   They require good grazing management to obtain maximum 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
sustained use of the forage-crop without jeopardy to other forest uses, to attain equitable
distribution of grazing privileges, and to correlate good range management with other
requirements of live-stock production.
Range-administration duties increased during the year and will continue to do so
as existing ranges become stocked to near full capacity. There is increasing demand of
areas for other uses—logging, recreation, land settlement, wildlife, and domestic water
requirements.
Fewer grazing permits were issued than in the preceding year, but the number of
animals was higher and permitted range-use increased 7.8 per cent. Hay permits increased in number but tonnage was lower. Due to lower prices for live stock in 1954,
grazing fees were down for cattle and horses, but remained the same for sheep.
Primary grazing surveys covered 640,410 acres during the year. Range-readiness
studies were carried out to determine an average readiness date for the areas covered.
Some $35,000 was disbursed by the Range Improvement Fund on a wide diversity of
projects.   More range-seeding was accomplished than in any previous year.
Studies of biological control of goatweed were continued in co-operation with Federal officers. Chemical control efforts were limited. Wild-horse disposal was continued.
Damage from grasshoppers was light.
The weather during the year was generally inclement, with cold weather persisting
later than usual in the spring and severe winter conditions developing earlier.
Cattle shipments were down, as were cattle and sheep prices, and wool prices.
Losses to natural causes were again lighter, but cattle-rustling was unusually high. There
were no new outbreaks of disease amongst stock.
Engineering Services
Funds allotted for forest-development roads exceeded $1,000,000 and expanded
operations permitted construction of 27 miles of road, over five times the programme
accomplished four years earlier in the first year of operations. A broad programme of
general engineering was also completed. Road reconnaissance covered 140 miles, and
road location 36.3 miles.
The fleet of vehicles was increased to new figures, and a new type of vehicle—a
muskeg tractor for use particularly on bad terrain—was tried out. The number of lighting
plants was increased.
The new Forest Service office building at Prince Rupert was completed, and
numerous offices, warehouses, garages, and Ranger and Assistant Ranger residences
designed and built, construction being by both contract and Forest Service crews. New
types of trailers and launches adapted to particular needs were designed and built.
Boat maintenance is taxing the capacity of the Marine Station to the detriment of
new construction, but some new building was accomplished. The woodworking shop
carried out a heavy programme of production in sectional buildings, office furniture,
boxes and crates for equipment, signs, exhibits, portable bunk-houses, and other items.
Machine-shop production included fire-finders, epidiascopes, and office and field equipment such as radio-antenna fittings, pump adapters, hose fittings, valves, strainers, and
numerous other small items.
Sixty-eight new transmitting units were added to the Service radio network, to bring
the total sets to 880. The first F.M. network in the Interior was established in the
Kamloops Forest District, but due to lack of power at key points and other difficulties
the circuit is still primarily seasonal.
Protection
Fire danger during the year was below normal due to low temperatures and favourable precipitation occurrence.   The number of fires was below the ten-year average.   Fire- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 13
fighting costs were correspondingly low, although double that of the previous year.
Major expenditures were for lightning-fires. A total of 46,694 acres were burned, 87 per
cent in the Prince George District; of this latter, 80 per cent was not commercial forest.
Work was maintained on the fire atlas and fire-statistics ledger. One crew was in
the field on visibility mapping and lookout photography. Twenty-seven possible lookout-
sites were examined, and six primary and two secondary sites recommended. Field work
in protection planning was completed in four public working circles. Fire-weather
records and studies were maintained.
Sixteen suppression crews were in the field. These fought 158 fires, and held all
but five to less than 5 acres in area. A total of 2,280 flying-hours were logged under the
protection flying contract.
One hundred and forty miles of protection-roads and 220 miles of trail were built,
to bring the total mileage of these arteries to 1,386 miles.
Spring slash-burning was limited due to wet weather, but fall burning conditions
were favourable and results uniformly successful. Accidental slash-burn acreage was
the lowest on record.   Snag-falling by the Forest Service totalled 11,651 acres.
There were eighty-three prosecutions for infractions of fire laws. One general
closure was imposed in the Vancouver District and three recreational closures in the
Nelson District. Honorary Fire Wardens appointed numbered 981, and Fire Prevention
Officers 1,065.
Forest-insect Investigations
Three insects—the black-headed budworm, the spruce budworm, and the Douglas-fir
beetle—were of major interest during the year. The first noted severely defoliated about
one-half of 1,600 square miles known to be infested on Vancouver Island. Natural
control factors seemed ineffective. The trend indicates an increase in severity and range.
Improvement is expected, however, on infested areas in the Queen Charlotte Islands.
On the Lower Mainland the spruce-budworm outbreak covered some 170 square
miles for the third or fourth year of defoliation. The attack is believed to be on the
wane.    The two-year-cycle spruce budworm also continued to decrease.
The Douglas-fir beetle caused widespread damage, notably in various parts of the
Vancouver, Kamloops, and Prince George Forest Districts, and the situation is becoming
critical around Lac la Hache.
Western-hemlock looper populations decreased. Bark-beetles on Engelmann spruce
have practically disappeared.    Studies were continued on ambrosia beetles.
Forest-disease Investigations
Outbreaks of new diseases were not encountered, but additional damage through
occurrence of known diseases was reported. The forest-disease survey disclosed an
apparently new species of needle-damaging fungus, and first North American, first Western North American, and first British Columbian records respectively of three different
diseases.
Infection by needle-cast diseases was generally lower than in 1954, although three
different forms caused defoliation on the Lower Coast, on the Queen Charlotte Islands,
and in the Interior respectively.
Damping-off losses in Forest Service nurseries were studied. Investigation of Poria
weirii root-rot, pole-blight of western white pine, and resistance of white-pine strains to
blister-rust continued. Studies of logging and post-logging damage in the Prince George
Forest District and of techniques in the orderly removal of mature hemlock on Vancouver
Island were commenced.
Indian-paint fungus investigations were continued. In all, twenty-three projects
were under consideration, with field work for four of these being terminated. 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Ranger School
The eighth class to be enrolled in the school, comprising three Forest Assistants and
eighteen Assistant Rangers, commenced their studies in January. They will complete
their nine-month course in April, 1956. No changes were made in the basic curriculum,
but the subject material of many courses was revised. Following the spring term of the
regular class, a six-day course for lookout-men in the Vancouver Forest District was
given to sixteen students, who subsequently were appointed to stations for the summer
fire season.
Forest Accounts
Value and volume of business established a new record for the year, 23.8 per
cent higher than the previous record of 1953. Forest revenues for the year totalled
$23,127,037.10.
Centralization of divisional accounting functions in the Victoria head office was
initiated in October.
The Vancouver Log Salvage District was extended early in December, with consequent increase in salvage permits to a total of 315.
Personnel
Three new Ranger districts were created—two in the Prince Rupert and one in the
Prince George District. The official scaling staff was reorganized. A survey was made
of the organizational and staff efficiency of the Service. The permanent establishment
was approved with 804 employees. During the year 148 new Civil Service appointments
were made and 122 employees left the Service. Staff turnover increased 3.5 per cent
to an average of 16.1, with an extreme turnover of 79.2 per cent in the clerical and
draughting group of the Prince George District. There were numerous new classifications
developed, together with salary adjustments. The Youth Training Programme employed
236 boys during July and August on road and trail maintenance; camp-site, picnic-
ground, and park development;  and research projects.
Co-operation
Through the courtesy of the Forestry Zoology and Pathology Units (Victoria, B.C.),
Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, an account
of those phases of forestry in British Columbia is included in this Report. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 15
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
The Division completed the fifth year during which financial assistance from the
Canadian Government has aided the forest resources survey according to the specifications of the Agreement for Inventory implemented under the Canada Forestry Act.
With this help, to date, air photography, interim maps, and the required field work have
been accomplished for most of the Province south of the 56th parallel. Continued assistance will extend this phase of the work to cover all the remaining accessible forest areas
and provide the more intensive planning data required for the development, management,
and protection of Crown forest units.
FOREST SURVEYS
In the 1955 field season, 232 persons were employed on the work which, when
compilations are completed, will provide maps and forest data of the following areas:—
Fraser drainage  (Chilcotin, West Road River, Ootsa       Acres
Lake)      7,558,000
Other coastal drainages (Homathko, Dean, North Coast) 14,408,000
Special cruises (Morice, Willow, Naver, and taxation)       491,200
Total  22,457,200
FOREST INVENTORY
With this Report are statements showing the forest resources of the Province,
subdivided into the Coastal and Interior areas, and a progress change sheet showing
revised totals. Similar detail for the other regions may be found by referring to the
1953 and 1954 Annual Reports.
Progress was made during 1955 with the production of standard cubic-foot total-
volume tables, loss factors, and the compilation of samples. This will enable future
statements to eliminate much of the aerial reconnaissance data which was used to
produce the 1953 statement.
Standard volume tables have been prepared in interim form for all but two of the
commercial tree species in the Province. The working plan proposed in the 1952
Annual Report was followed. Old data and data available from outside the Service
were used, and many new measurements were taken by forest survey parties. The tables
present cubic-foot volumes of the entire peeled stem by 2-inch d.b.h. classes and 10-foot
height classes. Along with these total volumes are presented factors which, when applied,
give gross merchantable volumes to three arbitrary but realistic standards of utilization.
Field measurements are still being collected, and it is planned that finalized tables based
on additional data and experience will be published. One of the interim tables, for
Interior Douglas fir, is included with this Report to indicate the form of presentation.
Interim tables in the same form are available for the following:—
Table No.
1.—Douglas Fir, Coast, Immature (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) (trees up
to 140 years included in data).
2.—Douglas Fir, Coast, Mature (over 80 years).
3.—Douglas Fir, Interior (all ages).
4.—-Red Cedar, Coast, Immature (Thuja plicata Donn.) (up to 140 years).
5.—Red Cedar, Coast, Mature (over 80 years).
6.—Red Cedar, Interior (all ages).
7.—Western Hemlock, Coast, Immature (Tsuga heterophylla Sarg.)  (up to
140 years).
8.—Western Hemlock, Coast, Mature (over 80 years). 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table No.
9.—Western Hemlock, Interior (all ages).
10.—Balsam, Coast (Abies amabilis Forbes) (all ages).
11.—Balsam, Interior (Abies lasiocarpa Nutt.) (all ages).
12.—Sitka Spruce, Immature (Picea sitchensis Carr.) (up to 140 years).
13.—Sitka Spruce, Mature (over 80 years).
14.—Spruce, Interior (Picea Engelmanni Parry, P. glauca Voss, and P. mariana
B.S.P.) (all ages).
16.—White Pine, Coast and Interior (Pinus monticola Dougl.) (all ages).
17.—Lodgepole Pine, Interior and Coast (Pinus contorta Dougl.) (all ages).
18.—Western Yellow Pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) (all ages).
19.—Western Larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) (all ages).
20.—Cottonwood, Coast and Interior (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) (all
ages).
21.—Red Alder, Coast (Alnus rubra Bong.) (all ages).
23.—Birch, Coast and Interior (Betula papyrifera varieties)  (all ages).
24.—Aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) (all ages).
Insufficient data was available to prepare Tables 15 and 22 (yellow cedar and
broadleaf maple).
Additional factors to aid in applying the new volume tables have been compiled
from the tree measurements obtained. They are presented in preliminary form in a table
accompanying this Report, indicating, by the forest-inventory area-reference system, the
average values in different zones of the Province of the further losses to be expected
when mature timber is harvested. They are applicable to gross merchantable volumes
of " close " utilization standards (1-foot stump height, 4-inch top diameter inside bark)
and are shown in three parts successively accumulative, namely: (1) Actual volume of
decayed wood; (2) waste of sound wood resulting from the arbitrary culling of logs
greater than 66 per cent defective and trees greater than 50 per cent defective, based on
a minimum log length of 16 feet; and (3) felling breakage. These factors have been
worked up by diameter classes by species and the average shown in the table to illustrate
the results. Information on total volume and the various losses present in the stand or
resulting from utilization and extraction standards is essential to control the non-sampling
error associated with the use of volume tables as a tool in cruising. FOREST RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, AS AT DECEMBER   31st, 1955
(In acres and thousand cubic feet.)
Coastal Area
17
Region
Ownership
Acres
Mature Volume
Immature (Acreage by Age-classes)
N.S.R.
Total
Total
Name
No.
F
C
H
S
B
Pw
Py
Pi
Cy
L
Cot
Other
Deciduous
Total
l'-20'
21'-60'
61'+
Total
Productive
Bella Coola
54
64
75
OVf-iyfl
815,436
11,284
67,649
3,440
224,937
6,262
26,112
917
1
653,593      831,949
11,290         9,073
62,4821       72,291
2,753|         3,536
292,206
4,224
23,654
1,942
388,199
3,495
26,304
1,656
21,244
279
1,994
32
60,635
1,619
4,552
412
13,858
170
1,106
203
4,640|    2,491,261
460|         36,872
1,880        220,375
190|         11,641
24,458
590
3,605
630
36,399
1,372
7,248
967
22,902
1,880
3,698
120
83,759
3,842
14,551
1,717
8,551
1,059
2,112
907,746
16,185
84,312
5,157
Crown granted
Licences and leases.
Canada control	
1
Totals  	
897,809
258,228
730,118
916,849
322,026
410,65.1
	
23,549
67,218
	
15,337
7,170     2,760,149
29,283
j 45,986
28,600
103,869
11,722
1,013,400
Crown   ,
T nu/pr Skeena
422,350
19,240
10,020
25,890
401,470
28,980
12,840
21,780
1,137,290
47,870
28,350
15,380
375,790
13,120
14,940
3,390
517,240
16,900
13,910
8,150
3,690
140
140
720
82,640
6,710
1,710
6,120
46,180
1,430
14,080
70
8,280
320
770
10
2,572,580
115,470
86,740
55,620
320
120
7,530
790
670
2,640
160
170
10,490
1,070
840
20,210
5,700
680
670
453,050
26,010
11,540
26,560
Crown granted _
	
Licences and leases    .
Canada control
Totals	
477,500
465,070   1,228,890
407,240
556,200
4,690
97,180
61,760
9,380     2,830,410
440
8,990
2,970
12,400
27,260
517,160
Crown	
Crown granted
Licences and leases
Canada control	
344,357
1,960
4,580
6,267
139,612
974
1,713
4,076
712,396
2,426
6,735
11,520
232,026
761
12,891
9,292
247,803
725
5,910
4.183
8,620
10
290
390
19,846
266
5
224
23,940
46
6,215
7,024
5,100
10
360
390
1,389,343
5,218
34,119
37,099
5,163
230
16,911
10,892
32,966
230
97,827
545
350
5,923
475,150
2,735
4,930
13,630
	
160
1,280
1,440
Totals	
Crown	
Crown granted
Licences and leases
Canada control     ,   ,.
I
357,164
146,375
733,077
254,970
258,621
9,310
20,341
37,225
5,860     1,465,779
5,553
16,911
12,172
34,636
104,645
496,445
R C  Coast
7,874,882
964,723
1,527,408
63,733
2,984,752
3,353,984
867,434
33,786
9,294,822114,546,898
1,082,455   2,658,407
2,372,600   3,604,924
52,2071       66,026
2,808,653
51,405
551,416
20,034
6,020,0851   127,844
755,660)   103,782
1,447,055 j     44,884
26,6711          558
76,266
13,867
6,949
1,207
1,159,835
155,787
235,165
9,336
112,311
4,560
24,951
7,608
263,876| 37,395,342
15,304|    8,195,211
64,6261    9,220,004
5,360 j       222,793
355,268
275,061
49,940
6,753
768,727
456,268
93,087
16,994
318,2391  1,442,234
89,741 j     821,070
39,800      182,827
3,984|       27,731
896,994
487,439
309,290
29,445
10,214,110
2,273,232
2,019,525
120,909
	
Totals
10,430,746
7,239,956
12.802.084120.876.255
3,431,508
8.249.4711   277.068
98,289
1,560,123
149,430
349.1661 55.033.350
687,022
1,335,076
451.7641  7.473 .862
1,723,168
14,627,776
Interior Area
54
64
75
Crnwn                             	
136,770|       78,4571       78,110
mm
84,905
1
57,5231       51,491
100|              60
1      _____   .
27,423
40
8,823
386,732
200
275,379|     126,776|       38,615
256|            640|            384
120|              30|
440,770
1,280
150
122,956
100
700,496
1,480
150
Crown granted...     	
	
Canada control
 	
Totals
136,870|       78,457|       78,110
84,905
57,6231       51,551
27,463
8,823
 	
386,932
275,7551     127,446        38,999
442,200
123,056
702,126
Crown _
T rturf*r Slceena
226.6131                   1     147.3601     654.710
192,450|     293,920
5,360|       10,260
490|            760
1,200|         1,880
7,690
40
11,070
740
20
50
	
6,190
100
10
20
3,180|    1,316,570
901         42,690
10           3,000
20|           7,380
3,990|         3,636|         4,220
770|         1,180               60
11,846
2,010
9,780
2,610
10
10
248,239
10,120
400
Crown granted.
Licences and leases
Canada control.
5,500]                     j          6,580
19,520
1,560
3,840
390]                                    150
	
960|                     |              370
50|. ] |...   ....
50
1,020
Totals.
233,4631 „                      154,460
679,630
199,500|     306,820
7,730
11,880
6,320
3,300
1,369,640
4,810|         4,816          4,280
13,906
12,410
259,779
Crown .
Crown granted
1,554,006|-.                      162,982
2,692,626
49,580
5,004
1,025,174|  1,498,812
22,8701       19,755
1,611|         1,033
136,445
4,850
50,844
2,119
861
14,660
1,810
5,581,543
102,544
9,123
36,590|    j 50,487j       62,562
        |_.                           1,670
149,639
1,670
410
85,892
2,433
160
1,789,537
27,480
6,220
73,3771                 1         1^560
Canada control
5,650]                     |              614
.'..]!                          410
Totals
1,583,033|_                       165,156
2,747,210
1,049,6551 1,519,600
141,295
53,824
16,470
5,693,210
36,590     j 50,487        64,642
151,719
88,485
1,823,237
Crown	
Crown granted ,,.
B.C. Interior	
29,035,814| 6,418,272| 4,607,3931 9,678,422
606,426|     539,160|     113,880      138,432
238,433]       78,260|     183,697      120,089
218,536]       90,760|       11,134|       21,112
29,403,812| 12,832,320
225,4711       90,981
234,0011       83,845
92,179|       14,922
277,6471   390,856
13,363]     48,920
14,0311       4,180
49 j     22,571
9,870,245
87,981
17,180
62,761
16,679|   470,506
7991     29,582
130]       3,273
91 j     17,776
955,044
11,524
2,845
1,073
840,057
10,424
4,434
796
75,761,253
1,310,517
745,965
335,224
4,044,808118 358,699111,101,506
127,177|  1,042,618|     767,269
17,198 j       59,926|       40,626
12,564|     159,280|       97,460
33,505,013
1,937,064
117,750
269,304
9,405,377
663,327
29,963
42,284
71,946,204
3,206,817
Licences and leases  . |
Canada control      ... ~
386,146
530,124
Totals
30.099.2091 7.126.4521 4.916.1041 9.958.055
29.955.463113.022.0681    305.0901   466.527
10,038,167
17.6991   521.137
970,486
855.7111 78.152.959
4.201.747I19.620.523112.006.861135.829.131
10,140,951
76,069,291
I                   I
Note.—1. These tables incorporate a separation of total inventory of the three regions in the Province which occur in both Coastal and Interior areas.  The 1953 Forest Service Annual Report contained a key-map showing the area reference system of the
forest inventory by regions.
2. Other Coastal regions are as follows:   1-11, 27-32, 49-53, 61-63.   These regions fall wholly within the Coastal area.
3. Other Interior regions are as follows:  12-26, 33-48, 55-60, 65-74, 76-88.  These regions fall wholly within the Interior area.
PROGRESS CHANGE TO BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST RESOURCES AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1955
(Last report February 1st, 1955 (see 1954 Forest Service Annual Report).)
(In acres and thousand cubic feet.)
Region
Ownership
Acres
Mature Volume
Immature (Acreage by Age-classes)
N.S.R.
Total
Total
Name
No.
F
C
H
S
B
Pw
Py
PI
Cy
L
Cot
Other
Deciduous
Total
l'-20'
.jr-60'
61'+
Total
Productive
Kingcome           —   _
50
Crown  	
Crown granted-
166,581
530
14,016
95
1         1
35,190|     418,920      661,640
190|            450]         2,500
4,2401       30,790 j       41,220
20|            140|            260
1                 1
100.7601      133.1501      12.100
58,370
10
1,160
..    	
180
10
1
9,280]    1,429,590
10|           3,440
480[         97,810
 |              450
1                 1
6,152|         1,529        16,615
  | |	
24,296
77,175
310
4,787
630
268,052
840
140|            130
11,800          8,120
101              20
   _ __
Licences and leases
Canada control
.....    |   	
892|         2,2991            715
5|              30]              10
3,906
45
22,709
770
i — .
1     ..
Totals
i                                       •                                   1
181,222
39,640
450,300
705,620
112,710|     141,420]     12,100
59,540
	
190
9,770
1,531,290
7,049
3,858
17,340
28,247
82,902
292,371
Crown
Revised B C totals
36,910,696
1,571,149
1,765,841
282,269
9,403,024] 13,902,215
3,893,144| 1,196,335
945,694| 2,556,297
124,546]       63,341
24,225,320
2,796,839
3,725,013
87,138
32,212,465118,852,405|   405,491
276,876|     846,641 j   117,145
785,417]  1,530,900]     58,915
112,213|       41,593|          607
390,856
48,920
4,180
22,571
9,946,511
101,848
24,129
63,968
1,176,514
156,586
235,295
9,427
470,506
29,582
3,273
17,776
1,067,355
16,084
27,796
8,681
1,103,933
25,728
69,060
6,156
113,156,595
9,505,728
9,965,969
558,017
4,400,076119,127,426|11,419,745 (34,947,247
402,238|  1,498,886|     857,010| 2,758,134
67,138|     153,013]       80,426      300,577
19.317]     176,274|     101,444]     297,035
10,302,371
1,150,766
339,253
71,729
82,160,314
Crown grafted
5,480,049
Licences and leases
Canada control
2,405,671
651,033
Totals  . -
40.529.955114.366.408117.718.188
30,834,310
33.386.971121.271.5391   582.1581   466.527
10,136,456
1.577.8221   521.137
1,119,916
1.204.8771133.186.309
4.888.769120.955.599112.458.625138.302.993
11,864,119
90,697,067
1  INTERIM CUBIC-FOOT VOLUME TABLE FOR INTERIOR DOUGLAS FIR (ALL AGES)
(British Columbia Forest Service, 1955.)
19
Total Height (Feet)
Basis
Number
of Trees
D.B.H.
Curved
Average
Height
Merchantable Volume Factors
Close Utilization
Intermediate Utilization
Rough Uti
lization
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1
100
1
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
|
1 180
190
200
D.B.H.
Stump
Height
(Ft.)
Top
D.I.B.
(In.)
Per Cent
Merchantable
Stump
Height
(Ft.)
Top
D.I.B.
(In.)
Per Cent
Merchantable
Stump
Height
(Ft.)
Top
D.I.B.
(In.)
Per Cent
Total Volume Entire Stem (Cubic Feet)
•
Merchantable
Short
Tall
Short
Tall
Short
Tall
2
0.1
0.2
0.7
1.4
0.3
1.1
2.2
3.7
5.5
0.5
1.5
3.0
5.1
7.7
10.4
13.7
17.3
21.3
25.8
30.3
0.6
0.7
0.8
2.8
3.3
6.8
3.8
7.5
8.7
14.4
21.3
16.0
23.7
17.7
26.3
36.0
28.8
39.5
51.8
42.9
56.3
71.3
87.7
60.9
77.1
94.8
114
135
82.9
100
123
145
132
155
181
209
238
269
301
334
370
408
446
486
527
571
614
661
708
756
806
857
911
140
166
193
223
254
287
321
357
395
435
476
518
562
610
656
705
756
807
861
915
972
206
237
270
305
342
380
420
463
507
552
598
649
698
751
804
858
916
973
1,034
323
362
402
445
491
536
584
633
687
739
795
852
909
970
1,031
1,096
24
44
337
278
293
294
317
321
290
219
149
106
86
87
53
36
14
12
7
3
1
1
2
1
2
2,977
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
18
32
43
54
62
70
76
83
89
94
100
105,
no'
114
119
123
126
129
131
134
135
137
138
138
139
139
139
139
139
139
1.0
1.0
4.0
4.0
8
65
85
90
92
94
18
69
87
92
94
95
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.0
6.4
6.8
7.2
7.6
8.0
8.4
8.8
9.2
9.6
10.0
10.4
10.8
11.2
11.6
12.0
4
46
73
85
89
92
93
94
94
94
95
7
52
76
87
91
93
94
95
96
96
96
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.2
2.3
2.5
2.7
2.8
3.0
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.7
3.8
4.0
4.2
4.3
4.5
4.7
4.8
5.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.8
9.6
10.4
11.2
12.0
12.8
13.6
14.4
15.2
16.0
16.8
17.6
18.4
19.2
20.0
20.8
21.6
22.4
23.2
24.0
1
26
57
72
80
84
86
86
86
88
88
8
4
0.3
0.7
1.1
1.6
2.2
2.9
2.0
4.0
6.7
9.8
13.4
17.6
22.3
27.4
33.0
39.0
2.4
4.9
8.1
11.9
16.5
21.6
27.4
33.7
40.7
47.9
55.9
64.4
	
6
5.8
9.6
14.2
19.6
25.7
32.7
40.1
48.4
57.0
66.5
76.6
87.3
98.6
8
2.3
11.2
16.7
22.8
29.9
37.9
46.6
56.3
66.3
77.4
89.2
102
115
129
12.8
18.9
26.0
34.2
43.2
53.2
64.1
75.7
88.3
102
116
131
147
5
10
3.5
33
12
4.7
6.2
7.9
9.7
11.7
13.8
7.6
29.3
38.5
48.7
59.9
72.4
85.3
100
115
131
148
165
184
203
32.7
42.9
54.2
66.7
80.4
94.9
111
128
145
164
184
205
226
61
14
9.9
47.3
59.9
73.6
88.8
105
122
141
160
181
203
226
250
275
301
76
16
18
12.5
15.4
18.5
21.9
65.6
80.7
■  97.5
115
134
154
176
198
222
247
274
302
330
359
95
95
96
96
96
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
97
84
87
20
22
106
125
146
168
191
216
242
269
297
328
358
90
90
24
35.4
40.8
46.4
45.5
52.4
59.7
67.6
75.6
84.0
92.9
157
181
206
233
261
291
322
354
169
90
26
195
222
251
281
90
28
30
73.3
82.8
92.8
103
114
96
96
95
95
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
94
89
8
32
110
123
86
34
143
163
312
346
85
36
136
158
180
85
38
150
164
174
190
199
218
237
257
279
300
322
345
369
393
418
444
224
245
267
249
273
297
322
381
417
454
492
85
40
387
422
458
496
534
574
615
657
701
745
791
85
42
328
356
386
415
446
390
423
459
494
531
569
607
648
689
732
85
44
290
389
422
454
85
46
314
338
364
389
415
443
471
501
349
534
85
48
376
404
433
462
493
524
557
574
618
662
706
754
801
851
85
50
489
84
52-
478
524
559
596
634
673
84
54
56
58
60
512
544
579
615
97
97
97
97
94
94
94
94
84
83
83
83
Basis of table:   2,977 trees;  2,227 measured by Forest Surveys Division and 750 by others.   Regions sampled:   Similkameen, Okanagan, Granby, Kootenay, Yahk, Elk, Windermere, Slocan, Kettle, Nicola, Shuswap, Spallumcheen, Upper Arrow, Tranquille, Cariboo, Quesnel,
Nehalliston, Stuart, Parsnip.
Trees measured in one-tenth sections above breast height by Forest Surveys Division and in 16-foot logs by others.
Log volumes calculated by Smalian formula;   top volumes 0.4 times basal area times length of top;   1.0-foot stump cubed as a cylinder
Table prepared by converting d.b.h. outside bark, total height, and total volume to logarithms, and solving by least squares.   Formula derived:   Log V=—2.69354-f 1.76225 Log D-f-1.12989 Log H.
Approximate standard error of estimated total volumes for single trees:   ±15.9 per cent;  table values are 1.09 per cent low.
Extent of basic data indicated by block.
Factor X total volume
 = Merchantable volume to the utilization limits shown.
100
Merchantable volume factors obtained from freehand curves of per cent merchantable, by each standard, plotted over d.b.h.   Factors for trees shorter or taller than curved average height are given separately up to the d.b.h. class wheie difference is less than 1 per cent, and
thereafter combined.  INTERIM NET-VOLUME FACTORS1 APPLICABLE TO PROVINCIAL INVENTORY2 GROSS CUBIC-FOOT VOLUME SUMMARIES COMPUTED ON THE BASIS OF
CLOSE UTILIZATION STANDARDS* FOR THE TREE SPECIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
21
Species
14
Zones 1 and 2'
Decay8
Tree
Class
l11
Tree
Class
2ia
Tree
Class
Q18
Decay and Waste9
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage10
Tree     Tree
Class    Class
1 2
Tree
Class
0
Zone4e
Decay
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Decay and Waste
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Zone 56
Decay
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Decay and Waste
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
Tree I
Class I
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Zone 6*
Decay
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Decay and Waste
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Decay, Waste, and
Breakage
Tree
Class
1
Tree
Class
2
Tree
Class
0
Douglas fir	
Western red cedar
Western hemlock..
Balsam sp.	
Sitka spruce	
Interior spruce sp.
Yellow cedar	
White pine	
Lodgepole pine	
Yellow pine	
Larch	
Cottonwood	
Alder	
Maple	
Birch	
Aspen	
.98
.89
.93
.92
.74
.82
.87
.69
.77
.98
.89
.93
.92
.74
.82
.89
.71
.79
.98
.93
.96
.92
.82
..88
.89
.79
.85
.99
.95
.97
.94
.86
.90
.91
.83
.81
.73
.76
.60
.46
.51
.55
.41
.46
.32
.27
.29
.02
.02
.02
.00
.00
.00
.77
.60
.65
.53
.25
.32
.50
.22
.29
.77
.60
.65
.53
.25
.32
.50
.22
.87
.82
.84
.71
.62
.65
.66
.57
.60
.87
.70
.76
.71
.41
.51
.68
.38
.48
.92
.75
.81
.80
.49
.60
.77
.46
.57
.92
.75
.81
.80
.49
.60
.77
.46
.96
.88
.93
.88
.73
.82
.83
.68
.77
.79
.76
.77
.56
.41
.53
.53
.38
.50
.84
.74
.78
.65
.47
.54
.62
.44
.51
.84
.74
.78
.65
.47
.54
.62
.44
.98
.89
.93
.92
.74
.82
.87
.69
.77
	
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.93
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.90
.82
.71
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.79
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.91
.88
.90
.78
.73
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.75
.70
.73
.97
.90
.93
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.76
.82
.87
.73
.81
.73
.76
.60
.46
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.99
.85
.92
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.67
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.98
.92
.96
.92
.80
.88
.89
.77
.85
.98
.92
.96
.92
.80
.88
.89
.77
.85
.98
.92
.96
.92
.80
.88
.89
.77
.99
.94
.96
.94
.84
.88
.89
.79
.83
.94
.91
.92
.84
.78
.80
.81
.75
.77
.99
.99
.98
.94
.94
.87
.96
.96
.92
.94
.94
.92
.84
.84
.71
.88
.88
.80
.91
.91
.89
.81
.81
.68
.85
.85
.77
.99
.97
.98
.94
.97
.87
.96
•.97
.92
.94
.90
.92
.84
.90
.71
.88
.90
.80
.91
.87
.89
.81
.87
.68
.72
.55
.70
.44
.17
.41
.39
.12
.36
.72
.28
.40
.44
.02
.03
.41
.00
.00
.72
.55
.70
.44
.17
.41
.41
.14
.38
.72
.55
.70
.44
.17
.41
.41
.14
.95
.87
.89
.86
.71
.74
.81
.66
.69
.95
.87
.89
.86
.71
.74
.83
.68
.71
	
.95
.87
.89
.86
.71
.74
.81
.66
.69
.95
.87
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.95
.87
.89
.86
.71
.74
.81
.66
.69
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.87
.89
.86
.71
.74
.83
.68
.71
.95
.87
.89
.86
.71
.74
.83
.68
.71
.95
.87
.89
.86
.71
.74
.83
.68
.60
.60
.60
.25
.25
.25
.20
.20
.20
.73
.57
.60
.46
.20
.25
.43
.17
.22
.60
.60
.60
.25
.25
.25
.22
.22
.22
.60
.60
.60
.25
.25
.25
.22
.22
.87
.29
.57
.51
.79
.85
.85
.87
.77
.38
.71
.22
I Derived as averages for all ages (81 years and over for coniferous species, 41 years and over for deciduous species), sites and stand conditions in natural stands sampled in the zones indicated.   The factors indicate the percentage of volume recoverable when allowances are made for the losses shown.
- Provincial inventory summaries are quoted less deductions for decay only; therefore, usable species should be further reduced for waste and breakage to obtain current sawlog recovery potential.
3 Close utilization standards defined as the volume between a 1-foot stump and a 4-inch top diameter inside bark.
* Zone 1 includes Regions 61, 62, 63, 64 (Compts. 7, 9-21 excluded), 75 (Compts. 1-10, 15-17, 83-110 only); Zone 2 includes Regions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 49 (Compts. 29-31, 34-40 excluded), 50, 51, 52, 53, 54 (Compts. 83-100 excluded).
5 Zone 4 includes Regions 55, 56, 57 (Compts. 1, 2, 4 excluded), 58 (Compt. 1 excluded), 59, 60, 66 (Compts. 68-75, 78-82, 90 excluded), 67 (Compts. 13-16 excluded), 68, 69, 74.
0 Zone 5 includes Regions 13, 25, 33, 34, 35, 36, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49 (Compts. 29-31, 34-40 only), 54 (Compts. 83-110 only), 58 (Compt. 1 only), 57 (Compts. 1, 2, 4 only).
7 Zone 6 includes Regions 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44.
8 "Decay" represents the actual volume of decayed wood.
0 "Waste" represents the sound waste between a 1-foot stump and a 4-inch top diameter inside bark resulting from the arbitrary culling of logs greater than 66 per cent defective and trees greater than 50 per cent defective, based on a minimum log length of 16 feet.
10 "Breakage" represents felling breakage only.
II Tree Class 1—living trees bearing no visible signs of decay.
13 Tree Class 2—living trees bearing one or more visible signs of decay (i.e., conks, blind conks, scars, fork or crook, frost crack, mistletoe trunk infections, rotten branches, or broken top).
13 Tree Class 0—all living trees regardless of pathological classification.
14 Minor products excluded.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 23
FOREST RESEARCH
During the year, emphasis was placed on completing compilations and reports on
a number of projects on which several seasons' field work had accumulated. This has
resulted in a number of research notes being prepared for publication and special reports
for in-service distribution. During this period, nine parties were active in the field and
one man placed on a special assignment for the Management Division.
EXPERIMENT STATIONS
At the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, maintenance work called for slashing
and scarifying the fire-line, digging out ditches, and painting of buildings. The major
work project consisted in cleaning up the slash following logging on a 30-acre block, in
preparation for future plantations in connection with genetic studies. The work was carried out by a crew of ten boys employed under the Youth Training Programme and
Station personnel.
Further progress was made at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station in the line of road
development. Considerable gravelling was done, two fills were completed, and extensive
cribbing done of a hill where slides have caused much trouble. A Youth Training crew
of ten boys assisted in this development work. Logging on the area was hampered by
adverse weather conditions, and two active timber sales have yet to be completed.
FIELD PROGRAMME
A reconnaissance of regeneration on recently logged-over land in the Queen Charlotte Islands showed that, where seed sources were available, satisfactory restocking could
be expected, but a period of ten years might be required. There is a danger of dense
brush and alder growth suppressing seedlings under certain conditions. A visit was made
to the United States Forest Service field-research centre at Hallis, Alaska, to become
familiar with their studies in the same forest type and under a similar climatic influence.
A new thinning study was initiated near Campbell River in a 14-year-old Douglas-
fir plantation to test if there is a systematic relationship between growing space and increment. Sixteen sub-plots were established in a 22-acre area for this purpose. A number
of other thinning experiments were re-examined and marked for further thinning. 1'he
thinning experiment in 55-year-old hemlock, started in 1953 on Thurlow Island, has now
been completed. The project was supplemented by a partial logging-time study, the results
of which have been published.
The ecological programme in Coast forests was limited to a reconnaissance at the
northern limit of Douglas fir in the Gardner Canal area and to the establishment of plots
to determine the effect of slash-burning upon forest soil productivity. The main effort
was in consolidating previous studies in the form of reports and in planning for an extension of the ecological studies in the field of meteorology with the intent of determining
climatic relationships to tree-species distribution.
Studies of rodent-control and direct seeding of Douglas fir continue with satisfactory
progress. A new repellent is being tried against tetramine as used previously. An interim
report on this subject has been published. Direct sowing of treated Douglas-fir seed has
been tried, using seed-spotting implements, but up to the present these have not proved
satisfactory. A new implement is being designed by the Engineering Services Division of
the Forest Service in an attempt to find a more satisfactory tool. Preliminary plot studies
on cone stimulation by the use of fertilizers were under observation.
Genetic studies are being continued. Following the selection of good and poor
phenotypes in an open-grown Douglas-fir stand, seed was collected and planted. These
seedlings will be transplanted and studied over a number of years.   Ordinary 1-0 stock 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
s'.
Thinning in a 15-year-old plantation.     Control plot (upper picture) carries 738 stems per acre.
Thinned and pruned plot (lower) carries 600 stems per acre. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
25
was potted in preparation of root-stock for grafting of scions this coming spring. Seed
was also collected for a provenance trial of strains from the entire Pacific Northwest. Thus
a genetic programme is gradually developing.
The annual survey of cone production on Vancouver Island was continued, and
crops can be described generally as poor.
A report has been compiled summarizing field studies undertaken in 1952 and 1953
on factors affecting the production of heart-wood in second-growth Douglas fir. The study
revealed that on similar sites the age of tree, crown size, and rate of growth in diameter,
height, and volume are all important factors. It appears that, by appropriate silvicultural
treatments, heart-wood formation may be increased or decreased according to product
desired.
The study on the identification and distribution of spruce in the Interior of British
Columbia is now being compiled. The results show that while Picea glauca and P. Engel-
manni both occur in British Columbia, there are many variants of intermediate character
that cannot be satisfactorily classified as one or the other.
Detailed studies on seed production and factors affecting reproduction in the spruce-
balsam forest type are being continued at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station. Another
study deals with seed production in relation to climate. Eight sites adjoining weather-
recording stations in the Central Interior are now under annual observation. Initial
ecological studies have been completed, and a report on the mature spruce-balsam forests
now being prepared describes the vegetational characteristics and the site quality, species
composition, and stem-size distribution of the forest-cover on six of the forest associations
identified in the Prince George Forest District.
In the Kamloops Forest District a number of small investigations were made.
Regeneration studies were carried out in spruce-balsam areas where logging varied from
clear felling, clear felling with burning, and clear felling in patches to clear felling in
strips, as well as in areas scarified by various methods, and one area cut under a shelter-
wood system. In no case has satisfactory stocking occurred. Logging, however, was only
completed recently. Seed-dispersal studies in a spruce-balsam stand revealed a poor
cone-crop in 1954. Cone-crops for various species in various parts of the Kamloops
Forest District were generally poor for Engelmann spruce and Ponderosa pine but fair
for Douglas fir. An interim examination was made of a spruce-balsam stand logged in
1941 according to varying intensities of cut. The results have yet to be compiled. A reexamination of several spruce plantations revealed survival varying from 30 to 71 per
cent. More detailed studies will be required to determine the more important factors
influencing mortality.
In the Nelson Forest District a partial-cutting experiment of a mixed wet-belt type
was heavily damaged by a freak wind-storm, and a number of plots have had to be abandoned. They will be replaced in 1956. Cost figures from a time study of the logging
operation are now being compiled. A regeneration study in a mature cedar-hemlock type
was started on two areas, one clear-cut and the other clear-cut and burned. Seed-traps
of a new design were laid out to observe the pattern of seedfall for the different species.
An over-all problem analysis of the wet-belt type, as found in the Nelson and Kamloops
Forest Districts, was made to determine the major problems that should be considered in
a future research programme.
Soil-fertility studies are being continued at the various Forest Service nurseries.
Particular attention is being given to the problem of maintaining organic matter. The use
of sawdust, shavings, and green manure crops is being investigated.
A number of permanent growth-and-yield plots were remeasured in 1955, sixty-nine
being in the lower coastal region. 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
275
250
225
UJ
_i
Q_
_>
<
C/.
CD
CD
X
rt
CO
UJ
5
LU
CO
a_
UJ
CQ
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0
30 40
DAYS
Poison.
Control.
Course of germination of Douglas-fir seed (poisoned and untreated) at different temperatures. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
27
INVESTIGATIONS AND ADVISORY SERVICE
A report was prepared for the Management Division dealing with improving volume-
cruise estimates on timber sales through stricter control of both sampling and non-
sampling errors. Another report, prepared for the Supervisor of Scalers, deals with a
new, simplified technique of computing log-scales, which, it is believed, will result in
considerable economy of time. A third study dealt with an analysis of marked and
diameter-limit sales in Interior Douglas-fir types of the Kamloops Forest District, and a
report was prepared for the Management Division outlining observations and conclusions.
A considerable number of inquiries on statistical analysis and techniques from industrial foresters and foresters from other government services and divisions were dealt with.
Technical advice and field assistance were given to several private and industrial
foresters in connection with thinning regimes. These thinnings are for demonstration
rather than research purposes.
CO-OPERATION
An effort was made to collect yellow-pine cones and vegetative material from some
nine geographic regions in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts for a provenance
study being initiated by the California Forest and Range Experiment Station of the United
States Department of Agriculture. Due to the poor seed-year only one collection was
made. The Division is also co-operating with the Oregon State Board of Forestry in provenance study of Coast Douglas fir, and again only one seed collection was made. In both
cases an effort will be made to complete the collections in 1956. Aspen cuttings and
pollen were shipped to Professor H. H. Heiberg, Norway, for tree-breeding experiments.
A paper, entitled " Thinning of 55-year-old Hemlock for Pulpwood," was presented
to the Pacific Logging Congress in Victoria.
A new type of seed-trap of pre-crimped 28-gauge galvanized iron folded to make one
24- by 24- by 10-inch frame. Top and bottom ]/_-inch-mesh wire netting with a layer of fibre-
glass cloth resting on the bottom netting to catch the seeds.    Total cost, approximately $3.30. 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TABULATION OF ACTIVE RESEARCH PROJECTS,  1955
Experimental
Plot No.
Nature of Project
Location
64
66
204
205
226
227
274
283
365
368
370
371
373
378
382
383
386
387
388
390
419
423
428
434
435
436
437
440
462
463
464
469
470
Thinning in Douglas fir	
Thinning in Douglas fir	
Thinning and pruning in Douglas fir..
Thinning and pruning in Douglas fir-
Seed production-
Seed production	
Group seed-tree study.. _	
Thinning in Douglas fir_  	
Thinning in Douglas fir  	
The adaptability of tree species to forest sites..
Partial-cutting study-
Cutting methods in overmature spruce-balsam	
Ecological investigations in spruce-balsam forests-
Ecological investigations in Coast forests	
Nursery fertility studies	
Nursery fertility studies     —	
Accuracy control on timber-sale cruises	
Factors affecting reproduction of northern conifers-
Commercial thinning in western hemlock	
Direct seeding, Meade Creek-
Heart-wood formation in relation to silvicultural practice-
Direct seeding, Cowichan Lake  _
Survival of spruce transplants..
Field survival of experimental nursery stock	
Thinning in yellow pine .	
Cone-stimulation study 	
Direct seeding, Nimpkish..
A study of the distribution of white and Engelmann spruce-
Cedar-hemlock problem analysis.  	
Stevens Creek regeneration study-
Determination of site index by internodal growth-
Thinning in Douglas fir   	
Direct seeding, Bear Creek  	
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Slocan Lake.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Vancouver Island.
Cranbrook.
Green Timbers.
Kamloops.
Prince George.
Thurlow Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Kamloops.
Cranbrook.
Cranbrook.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Interior B.C.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
" Estimation of Site Quality in Juvenile Douglas Fir Stands," by G. C. Warrack and
A. R. Fraser.   Research Note No. 28.
"Some Aspects of Red Cedar Regeneration in the Coastal Forests of British Columbia," by R. L. Schmidt.   Research Note No. 29.
" Partial Time-study of a Second Growth Hemlock Thinning," by R. Borzuchowski.
Research Note No. 30.
"The Use of Tetramine in the Direct Seeding of Douglas Fir in Coastal British
Columbia," by J. M. Finnis.   Research Note No. 31.
" Regeneration Problems and Their Silvicultural Significance in the Coastal Forests
of British Columbia," by E. H. Garman. Technical Publication T. 41.
" Inbreeding Experiments with the Douglas Fir," by A. L. Orr-Ewing. Forestry
Chronicle 30:7-16, 1954.   Reprinted as Technical Publication T42.
" Some Factors Affecting Reproduction of Engelmann Spruce and Alpine Fir," by
J. H. G. Smith. Technical Bulletin T. 43.
" Growing Green Manure Crops," by H. Knight, in Tree Planters Notes, U.S. Forest
Service, Washington. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
29
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
The annual accomplishment of any reforestation programme is subject to the whims
of the weather, and any sudden influx of birds, rodents, insects, or disease. The early and
extreme cold weather in November has done considerable damage to the planting stock in
our Coast nurseries. An accurate estimate cannot be made until the start of the next
growing season, but indications point to a minimum loss of 20 per cent and as much as
50 per cent at one nursery. Cool moist weather on the Coast early in the growing season
was favourable for weed growth, and weeding costs were higher than usual.
During the year Green Timbers nursery shipped 2,263,000 trees to Forest Service
projects and logging companies. Seed-beds were sown to produce 2,000,000 seedlings
in 1957. No progress has been made in the eradication of creeping cress (Raduculata
sylvestris), although some control of its spread from seed is possible by using 2-4D in
stove-oil spray when flowers are in bloom. To reduce hand-weeding, numerous commercial weed-killers were applied to the seed-beds both before and after emergence of
seedlings, with little or no success.
The Campbell River nursery shipped 2,272,500 trees to various projects in that
area, and seed-beds were sown to produce 2,000,000 trees in 1957. Trees lifted from the
new area were the best planting stock that has been produced at this nursery for a number
of years.
The Duncan nursery shipped 2,447,500 trees, and seed-beds were sown to produce
2,000,000 seedlings in 1957. Increase in losses from damping-off fungus were apparent
this year but are still not severe enough to warrant sterilizing the soil. A small greenhouse was added to the nursery for seed-testing and a shed constructed for storage of
covering-soil.
The East Kootenay nursery shipped 310,500 trees in the spring to various projects,
but no shipments were made in the fall due to weather conditions. Annual rainfall of
only 7 inches was 50 per cent below the average. Seed-beds were sown for the production of 1,000,000 trees but were severely damaged by birds before effective control could
be established.   Another four-car garage was constructed for storing project equipment.
Experimental soil-fertility work was continued at all nurseries and is reported in
detail elsewhere in this Report by the Research Division under the heading of " Nursery
Fertility Studies."
SEED COLLECTIONS
The 1955 cone-crop on the Coast was fair to poor, with patches of good crops in
localized areas at the lower elevations on Vancouver Island. Approximately 100 pounds
of seed was obtained by a reforestation crew at 1,500 feet in the Cowichan Valley, and
an additional 100 pounds from 1,000 feet was purchased in the Cumberland area. This
will make it possible to start planting some of the higher logged-and-burned areas in the
spring of 1958.
In the Interior, the yellow pine and Douglas fir cone-crop was very poor and no
seed was obtainable.   Sufficient supplies are on hand to maintain nursery production.
The shortage of forest-tree seed with increased demand over the past few years has
caused keen competition between seed-dealers, resulting in an excessive increase in prices
paid to collectors and unwarranted mutilation of trees on both private and Crown lands.
This will necessitate the setting-up of rigid controls for all cone-collecting which may be
done in the future.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Detailed regeneration surveys were completed over a total of 8,300 acres on the
Coast.  The greater part of this acreage was on Cracroft Island, where part of the area 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
burned by the disastrous fire of 1951 was intensively examined. This examination revealed that only 300 of the 5,800 acres covered were not acceptably restocked. It appears
that there was a good cone-crop on hemlock and cedar seed-trees in 1951 and, although
most of these trees eventually died as a result of the fire, the cone-crop matured and produced sufficient seed to restock most of the area in the spring of 1952.
During the fall, 31,000 acres in the Lower Fraser Valley were reconnoitred. Two
areas which require some planting were found and will be planted, at least in part,
although measures will have to be taken to control deciduous brush.
Continuation of the regeneration survey of the East Kootenay District by the
detailed examination of 27,423 acres has brought the area covered in this programme
up to a total of 98,000 acres. Compilation of the results of this survey indicate that
some 60,000 acres (62 per cent) require planting. To do this will require 39,000,000
seedlings, 76 per cent of which should be ponderosa pine.
A comparison of the costs per acre for regeneration surveys shows a cost of 14
cents per acre for the East Kootenay area and 17 cents per acre for the logged-and-
burned Douglas fir types of the lower Coast.
PLANTING
The spring planting programme started late in February, but a heavy snowfall
closed all projects for ten days, and work commenced again on March 9th to continue
until the middle of April, with the planting of 1,700,000 trees on 2,545 acres. In the
fall an additional 880 acres was reforested with 472,000 seedlings. During the year,
logging companies planted 5,270 acres with 4,000,000 trees on their own lands, of which
2,100 acres were done by the Forest Service under contract to the Elk River Timber
Company.
In the East Kootenay area 270 acres were planted in the spring with 200,000 trees,
but drought conditions made it impossible to do any fall planting. An additional 100
acres were planted on Forest Management Licence No. 9 in the Okanagan.
Total planting for the year in all regions was 6,910,000 trees on 10,596 acres.
(See page 106 of Appendix for statistics of planting over past ten years.)
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS
Some fifty men were employed during the summer and fall on snag-falling, construction, and road projects.
Snag-falling was carried on in the Campbell River area and at Great Central Lake.
Reforestation crews felled 73,566 snags over an area of 6,838 acres.
Two garages were constructed for the purpose of truck storage during winter months.
At Cowichan Lake a three-car garage was built, using cedar logs and shakes. A four-
car asbestos-siding garage was constructed at the Campbell River nursery.
Due to the increase in population in the Campbell River area, travel on Forest
Service roads within the Sayward Forest has increased greatly. These roads provide the
only access to popular fishing-spots and hunting-grounds. Originally these roads were
planned primarily for planting purposes but, due to the amount of use they now receive,
it is necessary to improve and maintain them with a view to more permanency.
During the year 15 miles of old railroad grades were converted to truck-road and
approximately 1 mile of new road was constructed. Maintenance was done on some
130 miles of existing road. This maintenance included chemical spraying of brush on
57 miles of road in the Sayward Forest at a total cost of $30 per mile. It was found
that alder on untravelled forest roads had reached such a size in five to seven years that
it prevented the passage of a 3-ton truck carrying the spray equipment. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
31
Thirteen-year-old  plantation   from   2-0   seedlings  grown   at   Quinsam   Nursery   (Campbell
River).    Car is stationed at point where lower picture was taken in 1 943, one year after seedlings
were set out. 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PLANTATIONS
Re-examination of survival plots established in the 1954 spring plantations on Vancouver Island disclosed an average survival after one year of 85 per cent. This percentage represents an average of 675 trees per acre which, with approximately 330 naturally
established seedlings, makes up a total stand of 1,005 trees per acre. The 85-per-cent
average survival represents a slight decrease from the 89-per-cent average of the previous year.
The re-examination of the 1952 spring plantations revealed that the survival had
decreased from 74 per cent in 1953 to 68 per cent in 1955. This 6-per-cent reduction
in the number of living planted trees, although disappointing, was to be expected.   The
1953 examination classified 5 per cent of the living trees as " poor " or " alive but not
likely to survive."
Final examination of three 1951 fall plantations revealed an average survival of
46 per cent, only 1 per cent lower than the survival after one season. This poorer survival is typical of plantations established in the fall. Normally, only those areas at high
elevation or on exposures covered by snow until late in the spring are planted during
this season.
The 1953 fall plantations showed a survival of 82 per cent on a favourable site
and 47 per cent on a poor site. A survival of 82 per cent is gratifying when compared
with the spring planting survival of 85 per cent for the same growing season. In addition, 900 plots were established in the current year's plantations for subsequent examination.
Examination of a comparison test of various classes of 2-0 Douglas fir begun in
1954 has produced some results, although these are still inconclusive. Indications are
that in a favourable year all classes of stock survived very well, with an average of 97
per cent even although planted on a hot southern exposure. Normal 1-0 stock planted
on the same site had a survival of only 77 per cent. By way of comparison, it is interesting to note that average survival on a near-by large-scale planting project was 87 per
cent for ordinary 2-0 stock.
In the East Kootenay District, analysis of survival information collected to date on
all plantations indicates an average survival for spring plantations of 54 per cent as compared to 19 per cent for fall plantations. An average survival of 72 per cent secured on
the 1954 spring plantations is the best yet recorded, and is evidently a direct reflection
of the cool, moist weather during most of the growing season.
Fencing a portion of the 1954 seedlings has revealed that part of the mortality is
due to grazing animals. After two growing seasons, seedlings on fenced plots are significantly better than on unfenced plots, with survival rates of 57 and 42 per cent respectively.
PLANTATION IMPROVEMENT
A small crew was employed between the spring and fall planting periods to do
further rehabilitation work on the Campbell River Experimental Forest. Three miles
of old railway grade, which had been previously slashed, were reconverted to truck-road
and one-quarter mile of new road was constructed to join up these grades. The whole
forest was examined intensively in order to assess the older plantations and draw a plan
for the unplanted portions.
At Green Timbers nursery two new exotic plantations were established on an area
previously cleared of a Sitka spruce trial, which failed due to repeated attacks of the
spruce weevil. Redwood and Scots pine are the new species being tried. Two plantations of failed lodgepole and yellow pine were cleared during the year and will be
replanted with Scots and red pine. Drainage in the plantations is being improved by
cleaning ditches and replacing culverts along the old grades. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 33
PARKS AND RECREATION
The partially improved parks, such as Mount Seymour, Manning, and Wells Gray,
now require costly projects in their next stage of development. Undertaking any one of
these under the present allotment would have brought improvement work elsewhere
almost to a standstill. Because these parks in their present state are fulfilling an important
part in the recreational needs of their respective areas, the main effort of the year centred
in the hitherto undeveloped Kootenay region. Champion Lakes Park, some 20 miles
from Trail, is situated at 3,500 feet elevation in the Bonnington Range. To reach it by
way of a modern highway, constructed across a heavily forested mountain-side with
numerous rock outcrops, was a major undertaking. The slashing was completed, and
approximately 80 per cent of the necessary 6-mile-long road was constructed by early
winter.
Each year sees steadily increasing use of the expanding park facilities. The effect of
this is apparent each succeeding year, as the ratio of maintenance expenditures to development costs swings more and more heavily to maintenance.
The serious lack of park facilities in the popular Okanagan Valley was alleviated by
the purchase of 198 acres of lakeside land between Summerland and Peachland.
For the first time since the inauguration of the Youth Training programme, there
was no increase in the number of youths employed from the previous year. A drop from
148 in 1954 to 136 this year resulted from facing increased operating costs on a fixed
budget. It has been found that camps of up to twenty-four youths operate successfully
and economically. Maintenance work in the more heavily used parks appears to offer
an ideal summer programme.
One significant point is that the total park acreage for 1955 is less than at any time
since 1940. This has resulted in part from the elimination of the flood area in Tweeds-
muir Park and through other park-boundary adjustments.
ADMINISTRATION
Headquarters personnel were increased by one graduate geographer, who is presently
working on research projects. Mount Robson Park was given closer administration
through the appointment of a park supervisor, and the important Vancouver Island parks
now are being staffed for the whole year.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY
Recreational values of lakes and streams were assessed within seven units under
application for forest management licences. Shore-line reconnaissance undertaken included Harrison, Adams, Barriere, and Babine Lakes. Possibilities for roadside parks
were explored on new highway locations between Christina Lake and Kinnaird, Williams
Lake and Macalister, and along Howe Sound. The south-east coast of Vancouver Island,
the Okanagan Valley, and Christina Lake are areas requiring recreational outlets. They
have been reconnoitred and found lacking in suitable Crown land. These districts were
studied again and, irrespective of status, all land suitable for park needs was tallied.
On Quesnel Lake a small park-site near the end of the main road-access was selected
to serve as a base for use of smaller lake-front reserves set aside three years ago. Both
established reserves and potential recreational sites between Burns Lake and Prince
Rupert were examined and necessary boundary adjustments and new areas established.
Park boundaries were finalized in the field for three multi-use park-sites now reserved in
the lower Coastal area. An additional sixteen areas scattered throughout the Province
required study and reporting. Most are sites suggested by various agencies or members
of the public as being desirable for park status. 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Park-visitor studies, based on a representative sample of interviews, were conducted
in Miracle Beach Park and Little Qualicum Falls Park to learn some specific details about
park-users. Information thus derived will indicate the suitability and adequacy of existing
facilities and help direct planning for meeting requirements of land and facilities. Two
geographers are continuing research on the demands and needs of the public.
Shore-line reconnaissance on Babine Lake.
PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
Planning activities centred in the southern extension of Garibaldi Park, Champion
Lakes Park, and, finally, at the new acquisition on Okanagan Lake. Two planning crews
operated during the summer. The landscape crew spent the bulk of the season making the
small parks along Okanagan Lake ready for use.
VANCOUVER ISLAND PARKS
Continuing heavy use of these attractive parks has resulted in serious wear to the
forest-cover. To check this, a seven-man crew worked until April on a concentrated
effort to curb and direct visitor activity through the placement of barriers. At the same
time all park facilities requiring renovating were given attention. The park supervisors
continued this work through the summer season, and will remain in their parks throughout
the winter, to meet the increased maintenance required.
- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
35
Englishman River Falls Park.—The parking-lot was improved by the addition of fill
and grading. Two key view points, guard-rails, and a stair system were reconstructed in
stone masonry.
Ivy Green Park.—A complete new plan was carried out in a ten-week period by a
development crew. This included a road and trail system with parking for 105 cars, a
picnic area with 34 tables, and a camp-ground of 11 sites. The result of this development
was a large and immediate increase in park use.
A group-picnic site in Ivy Green Park.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.—A hazardous view point, near the upper falls, was
reconstructed in masonry and pipe railing.
Miracle Beach Park.—The beach reclamation project continued, with the collecting
of survey data on the sand encroachment. A Youth Crew of twelve boys materially
assisted the park staff in maintenance, trail construction, and the completion of the campsite area which now totals 160 units.
Stamp Falls Park.—The Canada Department of Fisheries completed the Stamp Falls
fishway.
Roadside Picnic-sites.—The eleven small roadside picnic-sites constructed last year
were used for the first time. Two additional employees were secured for part-time supervision and maintenance of two of these sites and the remaining sites delegated to the
permanent staff in adjacent parks.
Langford Workshop.—The workshop output, being directly related to park development, was reduced by 30 per cent compared with the previous year. Among the major
standard items manufactured were 253 tables, 146 fireplaces, and 12 entrance signs. The
close of the year saw an additional 96 tables under construction.   Many lesser items filled 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
out the programme for the six-man staff.   Among these were garbage-cans, toilets, incinerators, notice-boards, signs, and wood carvings depicting forest and wildlife scenes.
MAINLAND PARKS
Champion Lakes Park.—Of the 6 miles of new road undertaken from Provincial
Highway 3a to the park boundary, 80 per cent has been completed. This involved the
excavation of 118,000 cubic yards of material, the placing of 2,032 lineal feet of culvert,
and the construction of a 57-foot trestle bridge across Beaver Creek, for which 400 feet
of creek relocation was necessary. Within the park, clearing and grubbing were completed
for a 160-car parking-lot. Two Youth Crews, located in the park, engaged in trail work,
slash-disposal, and beach-clearing. An over-all development plan was drawn up for the
entire park.  The preliminary survey for the water system was completed.
Chasm Park.—The necessary field work was completed for a development plan.
Cultus Lake Park.—Services at the Maple Bay area were extended by additional
tables and fireplaces. Field surveys were completed toward the extension of two existing water systems.
Garibaldi Park.—Through arrangement with the Attorney-General's Department,
convict labour was engaged in clearing 3 miles of 100-foot-wide right-of-way for a new
road to Alouette Lake. They also constructed a thirty-man camp in this area for use
by the development crew. Key areas adjacent to the lake were mapped as a basis for
development planning. Access to the Black Tusk area was improved by reconstruction
work on the trail system and by the addition of standard signs. The possibility of a road
to this exceptionally fine alpine area was further investigated and found feasible on an
11-mile route with a maximum grade of 8 per cent.
Kelowna Park.—A survey and development plan was made in the early spring and
followed by a soil-treatment programme requiring the mulching of 800 cubic yards of
sawdust with the topsoil. Further landscaping improvement was made by planting 460
trees.   American linden, green ash, and Siberian elm were the main species used.
Kokanee Creek Park.—A Youth Crew was engaged on park maintenance, while
the remainder of the work was restricted to a preliminary survey for a water system.
Manning Park.—The Pinewoods concession remained open throughout the year,
with winter interest centred on the new ski tow, sleigh-riding, and ice-skating. Development was confined to completing the Coldspring camp-site of forty-three units and beginning construction on park entrance portals. The Coldspring development brings the
number of camping areas within the park to five, providing a total of approximately
ninety units. Maintenance, beyond the routine programme, included redecking the Cam-
bie Bridge and providing two metal porches at the entrances to Pinewoods Lodge to
reduce the ice hazard.
No fires occurred in the park due to the favourable weather, and it was only necessary to open Windy Joe Lookout for approximately four weeks. Four Youth Crews in
two groups were employed on camp-site maintenance, reconstruction of the Lightning
Lakes Trail, and assisted the park staff in completing the Coldspring development.
Canam Mines, on the west boundary of the park, reopened operations with road, tunnel,
and building construction.
Mount Robson Park.—The park headquarters was moved from its former site on
the western boundary to a more central location at Red Pass Junction, where it was
reorganized as a combined office and residence in an existing building. A Youth Crew,
centred at Robson River, engaged in improvements to the Berg Lake Trail, clean-up of
Red Pass Townsite, and the completion of the Mount Robson camp-site.
Investigations were carried out by the Engineering and Wildlife Sections—the former
with regard to the water-supply potential for Red Pass, and the latter with regard to the
wildlife potential.   An effort was made to record the game-kill, and the results showed REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
37
a moderate take of moose, goats, elk, deer, bear, ducks, and geese. Fishing was reported
as fair in the rivers.
Five large mountaineering parties totalling 200 individuals headquartered at Berg
Lake.   Approximately twenty cars a day were noted on the road system within the park.
Mount Seymour Park.—Winter maintenance was successful in keeping the 8 miles
of highway open. The third and final asphalt treatment was applied during the summer.
Construction was begun on a 20-yard sand-hopper, which was 80 per cent completed.
A Youth Crew located at the upper level engaged in picnic-site and trail renovation.
In addition, they assisted the park staff in the maintenance of the road ditches and culverts.    A preliminary survey toward a sewage-disposal system was completed in the
 :...^.,.:.:.^i&.i*:-:„iSfiiSs!^^^_aJS____
Members of a youth crew receive instruction in the operation of a fire-pump.
spring. A detailed site-plan was made for a proposed lodge. The four ski tows were
operated by a concessionaire during the season without major breakdown or serious
accident, and were used extensively.
Peace Arch Park.—The normal blooming periods were much later than usual because of the unusually cold spring. However, the eventual display was very pleasing,
with flowering shrubs, trees, and masses of annual flowers thriving to near perfection.
A soil analysis was made for the lawns, which resulted in changes in the fertilizing
programme. The Canadian Customs at Douglas report that north-bound traffic through
the park was 1,276,387 persons, while south-bound traffic was 1,303,557 persons.
Roberts Creek Park.—This beach development and camp-site area brought much
favourable comment during its first season of use.   The present preponderance of local 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
visitors will drop as the park becomes better known to the touring public. A temporary
water system at the camp-site is expected to be replaced following a more detailed survey.
Wells Gray Park.—During the greater part of the year the British Columbia Power
Commission was engaged in drilling operations and in constructing a " cat" trail to
Helmcken Falls in their continuing power-site investigations. Fire occurrence was up
from the previous year, with nine fires reported, and suppression measures taken on
four of these. Total acreage damage was slight, due to prompt and efficient spotting,
coupled with favourable weather. The Azure Lookout was manned for a two-month
season, and proved very effective in spotting fires in the Clearwater Lake area. Further
engineering studies were carried out on the proposed bridge over the Clearwater River.
Maintenance of trails, roads, and service buildings was assisted by a Youth Crew, which
also aided in the suppression work. Work done on the Upper Clearwater road by the
Department of Highways has resulted in noticeably increased park use.
Penticton Highway Picnic-sites.—The three picnic-sites were 90 per cent completed
by a combined group made up of one Landscape Crew and one Youth Crew. Ninety
tables were installed, along with barrier posts, toilets, and trails. In addition, a tree-
planting and irrigation programme was carried out. The areas again were closed to the
public to protect the landscaping.
Roadside Development.—Youth Crews under headquarters jurisdiction were employed on maintenance or development work in the major parks.
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
The aims of all wildlife-section activities are to devise management procedures for
use in parks in particular, and elsewhere in general, where the wildlife resource contributes to recreation.
Continuing research in Wells Gray Park on moose, mountain-caribou, and grizzly
bear provided more information on how to manage these formerly little-understood
species. Research on mule deer in Manning Park is seeking basic information relative
to the successful management of both deer and forests in mountainous terrain. Preliminary wildlife reconnaissances were conducted in Champion Lakes Park and parts
of Mount Robson and Tweedsmuir Parks. A tour of moose ranges in the Cariboo region
with a biologist from the Game Department has resulted in a new method for taking
inventory of such ranges.
CHANGES IN PARK LIST,  1955
Additions
Champion Lakes Park established as Class "A" park, 3,520 acres. Order in Council
No. 581, approved March 12th, 1955.
Kokanee Creek Park established as Class "A" park, 14 acres. Order in Council No.
796, approved April 5th, 1955.
Little Qualicum Falls Park enlarged by the addition of 42.6 acres, now 249.5 acres.
Order in Council No. 1072, approved May 6th, 1955.
Ivy Green Park increased by addition of 1.26 acres, now 52.1 acres. Order in
Council No. 1115, approved May 13th, 1955.
Kelowna Park established as Class "A" park, 2.74 acres. Order in Council No.
1355, approved June 4th, 1955.
Wells Gray Park increased by 135,529 acres through redefinition of boundaries,
now 1,300,854 acres.
Wasa Park established as Class "A" park, 86.6 acres. Order in Council No. 2391,
approved October 4th, 1955.
McBride Community Park established as Class " C " park, 70.8 acres. Order in
Council No. 2384, approved October 4th, 1955.
) REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1955 39
Mount Assiniboine Park increased by addition of 50 acres, now 12,850 acres. Order
in Council No. 2784, approved December 5th, 1955.
Colleymount Community Park established as Class " C " park, 26 acres. Order in
Council No. 2812, approved December 6th, 1955.
Antlers Beach Park established as Class "A" park, 2.5 acres. Order in Council No.
2996, approved December 29th, 1955.
Okanagan Lake Park established as Class "A" park, 197.67 acres. Order in Council
No. 3006, approved December 29th, 1955.
Deletions
Mount Bruce Park (Class "C") cancelled. Order in Council No. 795, approved
April 5th, 1955.
Keremeos Park (Class "A") reduced in area by 670 acres, total area now 50 acres.
Order in Council No. 1458, approved June 10th, 1955.
Tweedsmuir Park (Class "B ") reduced in area by 1,156,500 acres, now 2,299,500
acres.   Order in Council No. 1538, approved June 18th, 1955.
PARK LIST, DECEMBER 3 1st, 1955
Number Acreage
Class "A"  38 1,429,352.55
Class "B"  5 6,034,240.00
Class " C "  31 4,105.95
Special Act  1 529,920.00
Totals  75 7,997,618.50
RECREATION LAND RESERVES, DECEMBER 3 1st, 1955
1955 Total
Areas reserved under the " Land Act"     40 351
Departmental (map reserves)   130 451
Designated recreational areas within forest reserves .___    17 115
Reservations for potential Class "A" parks1       7 7
Totals   194 924
1 The greater portion of the reserve acreage occurs in this category, namely, 358,483 acres.
The total area placed under reservation in 1955 was 364,255 acres.    This brings
the grand total of recreation land reserves to 779,482 acres. 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PARK ATTENDANCE, 1955
Vancouver Island parks-
Miracle Beach 	
  115,587
Little Qualicum Falls  68,482
Ivy Green  65,426
Elk Falls  62,634
MacMillan  48,760
Stamp Falls  46,081
Englishman River Falls  35,491
John Dean  34,400
MacDonald   3,881
480,472
Lower Mainland parks—
Cultus Lake  105,027
Mount Seymour  240,376
Peace Arch  108,000
Sechelt and Roberts Creek       4,095
Other parks—
Interior parks
26,200
457.508
Estimated attendance at sites where no count was kept, and
additional allowance for correction in some counts...
Estimated total park attendance	
Prince George District (two sites)      11,800
Nelson District (four sites)      23,500
Kamloops District (twenty sites)      65,987
137,487
494,533
1,560,000
Attendance at Provincial parks registered a great increase over 1954. Total visitors
at Vancouver Island parks increased by 59 per cent, while the number of campers showed
a gain of 73 per cent. All parks shared in the increased attendance, and where new
facilities were provided the increase was phenomenal.
A continued trend toward increased park use is shown by the fact that at Little
Qualicum Falls and Miracle Beach Park 60 per cent of all campers were in the park for
the first time, and in the case of day visitors first-time persons made up 42.9 per cent and
34.2 per cent respectively of this group. Estimates from the district offices indicate that
the increase recorded on Vancouver Island was general throughout the Province.
Surveys of park use indicate that Provincial parks are visited predominantly by
residents of British Columbia.
PER CENT OF VISITORS AT PROVINCIAL PARKS,
BY PLACE OF RESIDENCE
British
Columbia
Other Canadian Provinces
United States
Little Qualicum—
Campers	
Day visitors-
Miracle Beach—
Campers..	
Day visitors—
81.0
81.8
86.7
91.1
2.0
7.3
2.6
2.2
17.0
10.9
10.7
6.7
Where Provincial parks have been established, they become an important element
in the general tourist attractions of an area. On Vancouver Island, tourists accounted
for between 33V_ and 45 per cent of day visitors at the parks. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
41
WORKING PLANS
Some phases of this Division's work were necessarily curtailed because of the Royal
Commission on Forests and Forestry.
Following the award of four forest management licences during the early part of the
year, bringing the total to twenty-three, the Government established the policy of holding
all forest management licence applications in abeyance, pending the submission of the
Commissioner's (Chief Justice Gordon McG. Sloan) report.
At the year's end there were thirty-three public working circles under regulation, as
compared with twenty-nine at the end of 1954. Newly created sustained-yield units were
the Arrowhead Working Circle in the Nelson Forest District, the Narcosli Working Circle
in the Prince George Forest District, and the Similkameen, Quesnel Lake, and Williams
Lake Working Circles in the Kamloops Forest District. These last two were formed by
the division of the former Cariboo Working Circle, a step considered desirable for administrative reasons.
Forest management licences awarded and in operation now comprise 4,685,492
acres of productive forest land with an annual allowable cut of 170,530,000 cubic feet.
The total area of public working circles in operation is 9,328,447 acres, with an annual
allowable cut of 189,400,000 cubic feet. The total area under the two forms of management is 14,013,939 acres with a combined annual allowable cut of 359,930,000 cubic feet.
Consideration of farm wood-lot licences was somewhat limited because of the higher
priority assigned to other Divisional activities. Only four such licences were awarded
during the year. Three new tree-farms were also certified.
FOREST MANAGEMENT LICENCES
Four management licences were awarded during the year, bringing the total to
twenty-three, as listed below:—
F.M.L.
No.
Forest District
Name of Licence
Licensee
Productive Forest
Area
Annual
Allowable
Cut
1
Columbia Cellulose Co., Ltd. 	
Elk Falls Co., Ltd	
Acres
795,268
280,558
100,085
3,881
81,410
297,945
121,154
89,530
170,633
49,287
64,787
15,497
37,880
86,980
90,837
115,570
46,479
155,500
190,880
263,560
461,766
276,645
889,360
MC.F.
22,000
2
Vancouver	
Nelson	
Vancouver 	
Prince George	
Vancouver	
Vancouver.	
Duncan Bay  	
Little Slocan	
Blind Channel 	
MacKenzie-Cariboo	
15,000
2,000
208
3
Passmore Lumber Co., Ltd   	
5
6
Western Plywood (Cariboo) Co., Ltd	
2,500
18,000
8,500
1,260
7
8
Salmon River 	
Boundary Creek	
Okanagan (West)	
Toba	
Carmi 	
Salmon River Logging Co., Ltd. 	
Boundary Sawmills Ltd -  	
9
Kamloops	
Vancouver	
Nelson 	
Vancouver	
1,680
1,900
800
10
11
12
Bendickson Logging Co. (1939), Ltd	
Galloway Lumber Co., Ltd	
833
13
Bull River 	
Spillimacheen..	
Inkaneep 	
357
14
Nelson     	
2,400
538
15
Oliver Sawmills Ltd	
16
1,000
1,500
2,500
10,000
13,962
25,492
16,100
22,000
17
Vancouver	
Kamloops _    ..
Vancouver	
Vancouver _
Vancouver	
Vancouver- 	
Nelson	
Totals..	
Knight Inlet	
Evans Products Co., Ltd  _	
Clearwater Timber Products Ltd	
Tahsis Co., Ltd	
18
19
Tahsis 	
Tofino -	
Alberni.	
20
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd	
21
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd	
22
B.C. Forest Products Ltd	
23
4,685,492
170,530
Note.—Variations in figures given for the first nineteen licences, when compared with the 1954 Annual Report, are
in most cases the result of improved inventories and changes in the licensee's private ownership. 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Seventeen applications have been approved, contingent upon submission of a satisfactory working plan, as follows:—
Applicant
Location
Approximate
Productive
Forest Area
Approximate
Annual
Allowable
Cut
Vancouver Forest District
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd 	
F. & R. Logging Co., Ltd  	
Mission, Corporation of District of—	
Moore-Whittington Lumber Co., Ltd	
Kamloops Forest District
B.C. Interior Sawmills Ltd 	
Shuswap Timbers Ltd..
Vernon Box & Pine Lumber Co., Ltd..
Nelson Forest District
Galloway Lumber Co., Ltd.—	
Prince George Forest District
Church Sawmill Ltd __ 	
Eagle Lake Sawmills Ltd _.
Penny Spruce Mills Ltd 	
Shelley Development Ltd. _	
Sinclair Spruce Lumber Co., Ltd. -	
Upper Fraser Spruce Mills Ltd	
Prince Rupert Forest District
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd	
Alaska Pine & Cellulose Ltd	
Allison Logging Co., Ltd.- 	
Kitimat Pulp & Paper Co., Ltd	
Totals„_ 	
Scattered coastal blocks1
Phillips Arm	
Mission - 	
Nitinat Lake 	
Kamloops	
Shuswap Lake	
Falkland 	
Bull River2
Seebach Creek-
Olsson Creek	
Slim Creek	
Averil Creek	
Torpy River	
McGreggor River-
Queen Charlotte Islands-
Scattered coastal blocks1..
Bella Coola 	
Kitimat.  	
Acres
192,320
9,360
16,113
35,593
94,557
14,490
29,275
39,220
55,058
106,688
46,340
85,693
68,540
42,602
133,937
106,501
16,460
362,225
1,454,972
MC.F.
11,700
333
425
1,667
890
385
600
360
1,775
3,066
2,180
2,805
2,129
1,258
8,000
2,700
518
13,220
54,011
1 Blocks fall within both Vancouver and Prince Rupert Forest Districts.
2 Extension to Forest Management Licence No. 13.
In addition, there are approximately 104 applications for forest management licences
in various stages of review. Twenty-eight of these have completed the necessary
advertising.  i REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 43
PUBLIC WORKING CIRCLES
There are thirty-three public working circles under regulation with cutting-control
ledgers in operation.   The following table shows their distribution by forest districts: —
Annual Allow-
Name of Public Productive Area able Cut
Working Circle (Acres) (MC.F.)
Vancouver Forest District—
Barclay  47,665 2,500
Broughton   404,349 13,000
Cape Scott  70,150 2,250
Chilliwack   57,630 2,330
Fraser Canyon  192,644 6,000
Kyuquot   362,635 19,650
Redonda   375,985 17,000
Sayward   114,860 2,500
Sechelt  297,080 15,000
Prince Rupert Forest District—
Babine  541,400 6,900
Rivers Inlet  177,560 6,330
Smithers   506,810 4,500
Kamloops Forest District1—
Barriere   140,461 1,800
Niskonlith   219,700 2,350
Quesnel Lake  726,067 5,760*
Salmon Arm   78,250 1,520
Similkameen  262,796 3,000
Spallumcheen   551,627 9,700
Williams Lake  505,040 6,300!
Prince George Forest District—
Cottonwood   379,000 5,000
Crooked River  500,000 6,030
Narcosli  236,733 3,000
Naver   242,930 6,720
Purden Lake   170,700 5,350
Stuart Lake  350,000 4,310
Westlake   200,000 3,700
Willow River  305,930 7,000
Nelson Forest District—
Arrowhead   79,975 2,000
Edgewood   151,820 2,800
Kettle   510,140 4,400
Nakusp  94,460 2,200
Slocan  187,195 2,500
Upper Kootenay  286,855 6,000
Totals  9,328,447 189,400
1 Cariboo Public Working Circle,  as shown in  1954 Annual Report, has  been  divided into Quesnel Lake  and
Williams Lake Public Working Circles. r
44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FARM WOOD-LOT LICENCES
Total number of farm wood-lot licences awarded by districts is as follows:—
Vancouver District  10
Prince George District  3
Kamloops District  9
Nelson District  6
Prince Rupert District  1
Total.
29
Twenty-two additional applications are on hand and under review.
TREE-FARMS
Three tree-farms were certified by the Forest Service during the year, bringing the
total number to fifteen.   These are listed below:—
No.
Owner
Location
Productive
Forest Area
1
T. G. Wright                              	
Acres
263
2
165
3
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd.
22 671
4
9,138
8,408
2,335
8,042
52,494
6,553
2,347
463
5
Western Forest Industries Ltd	
6
Sooke —           	
7
g
Elk Falls Company —	
R. J. Filberg              -            	
E. & N. Railway Land Grant   	
9
Scattered blocks, Vancouver Island and adjacent islands
Sechelt               .                       .  —              -	
10
Canadian Forest Products Co., Ltd	
F. D. Mulholland       -   .
11
12
Knight Inlet                                                  —                   	
489
13
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd 	
83,740
14
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd. .         	
28,677
15
157
Total. — 	
225,942
A good start was made on analyses of some of the more important forest regions, with
careful consideration being given to the forest resources of each region and established
wood-using industries. The results of these studies will serve as a basis for consideration
of forest management licence applications on hand and the need for public working circles
in all forest districts.   This work will be continued during 1956. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 45
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
RADIO
Radio outlets were again utilized as one of the main channels for informing the public
of the importance of forest-fire prevention. Using all stations throughout the Province,
a campaign of thirty-two flash and sixteen spot announcements was undertaken. A variation in style was introduced in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts, where the
stations and District Rangers collaborated in securing the services of interested local
persons in recording the broadcasts. Indications are that the introduction of known
names and voices enhanced the interest in the broadcasts, and thanks are tendered to
the radio stations for their efforts in this development. Only limited need for special
high-hazard broadcasts occurred, due to generally favourable fire conditions. The Kamloops radio station, CFJC, initiated and broadcast a special series of programmes entitled
" Conservation Council," as a public service, in the interest of informing the public of
the importance of protecting the forests, wildlife, grazing, waters, soil, and other natural
resources.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The Annual Report of the Service for the calendar year 1954 was edited, synopsized,
printing supervised, and distributed. A calendar for the ensuing year, automobile and
other decals, 120,000 blotters, scribblers for distribution in the schools, a third booklet
in the Illustrated Forest Activities series (Protecting the Crop), and a special leaflet on
wood-carving in the Provincial parks were produced.
In the publication field, service to other divisions included the editing, supervision
of printing, and distribution of four research notes, four protection bulletins, and one
technical bulletin. Reprints and revised editions of a number of other prior publications
were also produced. These included the roadside picnic- and camp-site folder, the
Provincial parks folder, the personnel bulletin on the Forest Service, as well as two
general bulletins, one Forest Topic leaflet, the motion-picture catalogue, and two miscellaneous publications. Additional supplies of protection and special-purpose posters
were produced.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
The work of this unit was somewhat disrupted through the extended absence of the
head photographer due to serious illness. Under this difficult condition, with assistance
in the laboratory and field from temporary technicians at intervals, the assistant photographer maintained commendable services. The following work was accomplished: 7,829
prints were produced in the darkroom; 137 rolls of exposed film were developed; 688
negatives were taken; 24 copy negatives were made; 22 prints were secured from commercial laboratories; 1,541 new negatives were added to the Division files; 250 feet of
16-mm. Commercial Kodachrome film was shot; 4 rolls of 35-mm. colour film were
processed in the darkroom.   There are at present 300 35-mm. slides in the slide library.!
Film Library
The public made good use of the films available for loan free of rental charges.
Audience figures increased by approximately 12 per cent over the previous year, to
187,537. These figures include attendances in the schools serviced by two school
lecturers, but do not include showings of prints of five Forest Service productions lodged
with British Columbia House in London, England. These five films were shown an
aggregate of 101 times to 12,537 people. The library commenced the year with sixty-four
titles, two were withdrawn during the year, and nine new ones added, making a total of
seventy-one available for loan at the year's end. All but one of these were in circulation
during the year.    (See Table 65 of the Appendix.) 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Arrangements were made with a commercial agency for the production of a 35-mm.
motion-picture trailer and for its projection in fifty-four theatres throughout the Province
during the fire season.
SIGNS AND POSTERS
Additional Ranger stations were equipped with the new white and green plywood-
plastic signs and reflecting-fabric protection signs provided for a number of Ranger
districts, to the extent that funds permitted. Designs were drafted for forest district and
Ranger district boundaries, and the requirements of the Service for these signs were
determined.   Designs were drafted for a number of new display posters.
The placement of roadway signs, urging care with smoking materials, on the main
highways was extended. The message—" KEEP B.C. GREEN—USE YOUR ASHTRAY "—was painted at 152 locations on Vancouver Island and the southern Mainland,
at an average cost of $33.53 per sign.
CO-OPERATION
The Division continued co-operation with the British Columbia Branch of the
Canadian Forestry Association in lecturing on conservation in the schools. The association provided the services of its railway conservation car in the months of September to
November and gave ninety-nine showings to 6,390 people; their three school lecturers
spoke to 9,245 people in twenty-six schools. The two lecturers from this Division gave
352 programmes in 203 schools, to total audiences of 56,760 pupils and teachers, as well
as nine special programmes to non-school audiences totalling 491.
Articles on forestry and the forest industries were prepared for the press, trade
journals, and other publications. Assistance was extended to authors and others in
providing background material, data, and photographs for articles, and in editing their
manuscripts.
There is a steady demand for literature from pupils in schools, the majority in
British Columbia, but also from other Canadian Provinces, other Commonwealth countries, the United States, and other foreign countries. Members of the Division staff
delivered addresses or projected film programmes to a variety of audiences—service clubs,
Chambers of Commerce, Scout and Guide meetings, Parent-Teacher Associations, and
others. The member of the Division staff attached to the Parks and Recreation Division
accompanied a goodwill cavalcade through Washington State and addressed a number of
the host groups on this tour. Tours were arranged for visiting officials to forestry and
forest-industry projects, and these on occasion were guided by Division personnel.
EXHIBITS
The Service exhibit in the British Columbia building at the Pacific National
Exhibition was expanded by the addition of a model lookout, and, through the co-operation of the Parks and Recreation Division, a demonstration of wood-carving techniques
was maintained throughout the two weeks of the exhibition. The exhibit was staffed
from noon to closing-time by Division personnel each day during this two-week period.
LIBRARY
The library completed another year of high circulation volume. A revision of the
circulation list increased the number of those receiving library-accession lists to 280. In
an effort to relieve the pressure of requests from the districts for library loans, a beginning
was made toward setting up district libraries. The librarian visited the Kamloops District
office and listed the publications on hand, preparatory to the provision of adequate
quarters for housing the library. A visit was also made to Green Timbers to examine the
Ranger School library. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 47
An interesting development during the year was the re-establishment of book
exchanges with two scientific organizations in the U.S.S.R. Books and magazines in the
Russian language are now being received in the library. Arrangements have been made
for Forest Service personnel to translate such texts as may be of interest. At the year's
end, the library also completed arrangements with the Forest Products Laboratories of
Canada to receive from them the Monthly Report of Translations Initiated and
Completed, chiefly on forest-products research and forest utilization.
Approximately 100 interlibrary loans were received from seven Canadian and
American libraries. Two extensive bibliographies were prepared by the librarian for use
during the hearings of the Royal Commission on Forestry. Once again the Youth Training Crews throughout the Province were provided with magazines during July and August,
when these camps are in operation. Routine improvements in filing and cataloguing
methods were made during the year as time allowed. A small stock of books and
pamphlets in the Forest Surveys and Inventory Division was catalogued and processed
for the use of the Division. Amongst the regular services provided by the library may be
mentioned the daily clipping service, supervision of the Engineering Services Division
library, filing of Centralized Title Service cards, and assistance in the proof-reading of
Forest Service publications. A statistical analysis of the library's work appears as Table
66 of the Appendix. 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST MANAGEMENT
GENERAL
The total estimated value of all products for the year amounted to $631,699,562.
This was an increase of $103,676,779 over 1954 and was due primarily to the increased
cut of lumber and higher unit values. The industry as a whole had an extremely good
year.
The total cut for the Province amounted to 6,109,000,000 board-feet, in comparison
with 5,567,000,000 board-feet in 1954. This is an increase of 542,000,000 board-feet
over the previous year and is the highest cut recorded to date in any one year. It is
interesting to note this cut is just double that attained ten years ago in 1945.
Water-borne shipments for 1955 were 1,413,000,000 board-feet. This was a
decrease of 167,000,000 board-feet from 1954. Shipments to the United Kingdom
remained the same, the loss being due to lower water-borne shipments to the United
States.
The statistical tables in the Appendix of this Report supply details of the Forest
Management Division during the year. In commenting on these tables, the following
highlights are worthy of mention.
Of the total production of 6,109,000,000 board-feet, which includes all products,
Douglas fir again readily maintained its leading position in volume cut by species, namely,
approximately 2,382,000,000 board-feet or 39 per cent of the total. Other important
species in order of output were hemlock, cedar, and spruce. The cut of these species
amounted to 1,227,000,000 board-feet, or 20 per cent, hemlock; 898,000,000 board-
feet, or 15 per cent, cedar; 782,000,000 board-feet, or 13 per cent, spruce; as compared
with 23, 15, and 11 per cent respectively during 1954. Other species in order of
importance were balsam, lodgepole pine, larch, white pine, yellow pine, cypress, and
miscellaneous hardwoods.
All forest districts except the Vancouver Forest District participated in the increased
production. The latter district suffered a loss in scale of approximately 78,000,000
board-feet, whereas the Prince Rupert Coast area had an increase of approximately
12,000,000 board-feet. There were two significant developments during the year;
namely, the increased interest in the North Coast region and the successful driving of the
Fraser River north of Hope. As a result of this latter development, there has been keen
interest shown on the part of mills in Vancouver for timber stands adjacent to the Fraser
north of Hope. The cut in the Interior increased by 608,000,000 board-feet and now
represents 36 per cent of the total cut for the Province. Ten years ago in 1945 the cut
from the Interior was only 19 per cent of the total, which indicates the large expansion
of the industry in this part of the Province.
On the basis of origin of the cut, 4,473,000,000 board-feet or 73 per cent originated
from Crown lands, and, of this total, 2,870,000,000 board-feet or 62 per cent originated
from timber sales, as compared with 70 and 59 per cent during 1954. Old Crown grants
accounted for 1,073,000,000 board-feet.
The sustained-yield programme was carried forward during the year, so that there
are now 14,318,939 acres being operated under working plans, with an approximate cut
of 186,779,133 cubic feet and 301,319 Christmas trees. Most of the public working
circles are becoming fully committed, and in some areas the effect of the restricted cut
is being felt by the wood-using industries.
Timber sales awarded, including cash sales, numbered 3,372, an increase from
3,010 in 1954. The estimated value of sales made amounted to $40,507,422.12, which
is approximately double that for 1954. This was due to the larger volume sold and also
to the increase in stumpage rates. It should be noted, however, that in view of the provision for sliding scale of stumpage in timber-sale contracts, the actual revenue derived REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
49
from any timber sale can differ considerably from the estimated revenue at the time the
sale is made. The total number of timber sales in existence as at December 31st, 1955,
was 8,371, as compared with 7,617 at the end of 1954. The total area held under timber
sales is 2,789,657 acres, and moneys held as guarantee deposits on timber sales at
December 31st, 1955, amounted to $10,760,505.55.
The number of mills operating throughout the Province reached an all-time high
of 2,561, including seventy-two shingle-mills. The biggest increase was in the Kamloops
Forest District, with fifty-eight additional mills over 1954.
The total log exports amounted to 89,000,000 board-feet, in comparison with
141,000,000 board-feet for 1954. Of the total, 74,000,000 board-feet came from old
Crown grants carrying export privileges, leaving 15,000,000 board-feet from other areas
exported under permit. The value of minor products marketed outside the Province
amounted to $8,778,455.   This is an increase of $2,170,804 from 1954 shipments.
Timber sales to the number of 3,354 were cruised, having a total area of 1,077,986
acres. This represents an increase of 269 in number and 296,321 acres. This increase
alone was more than the total acreage cruised during 1945, and over the last decade the
acreage cruised has increased fourfold.
The volume of logging inspections again increased, with a total of 22,355 inspections
made during the year. This does not keep up with the increased work load, so that the
standard necessary to maintain adequate supervision continues unsatisfactory.
As a matter of record, 4,968 registered timber marks were issued during the year,
in comparison with 4,280 in 1954.
MARKET PRICES AND STUMPAGE TRENDS
Coast log-market prices remained at a relatively high level throughout the year, with
fir and cedar prices showing increases of about $10 per thousand board-feet. Log prices
had reached a higher point in 1951, but the 1955 prices were more stable. After deducting an amount sufficient to cover anticipated costs of extraction and delivery of the timber
to market-point, plus a reasonable allowance for profit, the balance of the selling price
is the amount that can be bid for stumpage. The increase in log-market prices, therefore,
has a very great effect on the average stumpage rates bid. The weighted-average price bid
for all species on Coast timber sales was $5.88 per hundred cubic feet, in comparison with
$3.93 for 1954.
In the Interior, average net prices received for dressed lumber were at their highest
level since 1951. Prices for all species recovered from the low levels of 1953, but those
for Douglas fir showed the greatest gain. The average stumpage prices bid for all species
on Interior timber sales increased to $4.91 per hundred cubic feet from $3.22 for 1954.
With twenty-three forest management licences now awarded in the Province,
stumpage appraisals for management-licence cutting permits are assuming increasing
importance.
A number of requests for information to be presented to the Royal Commission on
Forestry were received during the year. These, including a brief covering details of
British Columbia Forest Service stumpage-appraisal methods, consumed a great deal of
time and prevented the completion of reports on mill-studies and logging-production
time-studies previously carried out in the field.
Nevertheless, field time-studies were continued on logging operations in the Prince
George District, and a preliminary analysis of data obtained under twelve different sets
of conditions failed to disclose any important and consistent difference in production rate
in felling and skidding from stands on which approximately 50 per cent of the merchantable volume was cut on an individual-tree selection basis, compared to cutting to a
12-inch diameter limit. 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST-COVER MAPS
In the course of the year, 1,031 forest-cover maps were revised as follows: Victoria,
352; district offices, 439; Rangers' offices, 240. Included in the Victoria total are 180
maps from private industry and the Forest Surveys standard series covering forest
management licences on which cutting-permit history, etc., is being maintained.
Instructions covering standard procedure for filing maps, plans, and air photos, and
the card-indexing and revision of cover maps were forwarded to all district offices and
instruction given in this regard at each of the above offices. Progress having been made
at district offices, it is planned to extend this requirement to offices of District Rangers.
Instruction in district-report mapping was given Forest Service personnel at the
Ranger School and at district offices, as follows: Ranger School, 21; Nelson District
office, 3; Prince Rupert District office, 3; and Prince George District office, 3.
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS
During the year, 26,488 aerial photographs were added to district office and District
Ranger office libraries, as follows: Vancouver, 7,538; Prince Rupert, 4,102; Prince
George, 3,136; Kamloops, 8,897; Nelson, 2,815. Air-photo index maps have been
issued with air photos and filed at all offices concerned. The filing and card-indexing of
air photos has been started at district offices and will be extended to offices of District
Rangers.
FOREST MANAGEMENT LICENCE ADMINISTRATION
Four new forest management licences were awarded during the first seven months
of 1955, to bring to twenty-three the number of management licences being administered.
These twenty-three licences have a productive forest area of 4,685,492 acres and are
being managed on a sustained-yield basis. In 1955 ninety-one cutting permits were
issued, which resulted in a cut of about 70,000,000 cubic feet for this form of tenure.
SILVICULTURAL FUND
The programme implemented during 1955, through money from the Silvicultural
Fund, included stand treatment, silvicultural studies, planning in working circles, slash-
disposal projects, road location in working circles, and co-operative studies with the
Forest Pathology Unit, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. The following is a summary of work accomplished in the four Interior forest districts—Prince
Rupert, Prince George, Kamloops, and Nelson.
The main effort during the year has been centred on stand treatment. In the four
Interior districts a total of 287 sales were treated, involving 58,316 acres. Considerable
improvement has been effected in the actual techniques of individual-tree selection as
a result of a systematized training programme, but further improvement is possible,
especially in stream-lining both field and office procedures; however, it is gratifying to be
able to report that personnel at all levels are beginning to grasp the necessity for determining a precise objective in deciding the treatment to be accorded an individual stand,
and the equally important factor that, having once decided upon the objective, it must
then be carefully recorded so that all future planning may be tailored accordingly.
In the Nelson District, a study of cutting methods in second-growth timber was
continued and, as a result of the experience gained, considerable progress has been made
toward the formulation of a set of preliminary rules governing individual-tree selection
in similar stands.
All of the Interior districts continued to make progress in the field of planning in
public working circles, and crews were actively engaged in timber-sale layout work. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
51
Throughout the Province, slash-disposal crews continued to carry out a hazard-
reduction programme, treating old mill-settings and fire-proofing areas of heavy slash.
In all, some 675 acres were treated, in addition to which 26 miles of old roads were either
repaired or rebuilt.
As in the past, a free exchange of information concerning insect outbreaks was
carried on between the Forest Service and the Forest Zoology Unit, Science Service,
Canada Department of Agriculture; particularly noteworthy was the technical assistance
rendered in connection with the increase in the Douglas-fir bark-beetle population in the
vicinity of Lac la Hache. 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING
INTRODUCTION
The forest lands of British Columbia produce wealth in many forms. In addition
to timber, forage usable by domestic live stock is one of the more important products of
Interior Dry Belt forest lands. In these areas, grazing has long been recognized as a
major forest use. Forest range lands, used in conjunction with open grassland and hay-
lands, play a vital role in the ranching industry. Without them, most ranching enterprises
could not operate on an economic basis, and the live-stock production of this Province
would be seriously curtailed.
Forage, like other products of the forest, is a renewable resource and responds to
management, whether good or bad. Under good grazing management, forest ranges can
continue to produce forage indefinitely and, in many cases, forage production and utilization can be increased. On the other hand, poor management results in deterioration
of the forage-crop and may result in damage to other functions of the forest.
In common with most other forest uses, grazing on Crown lands is administered by
the Forest Service. Briefly, the objectives of the Service in this facet of forest administration are: (1) To obtain maximum sustained use of the forage-crop without jeopardy to
other forest uses; (2) the equitable distribution of grazing privileges to promote stable,
economic ranching units; and (3) to co-operate with the ranchers in correlating good
range management with the numerous other requirements of live-stock production. The
accomplishment of these objectives involves a wide variety of activities, the performance
of which during 1955 are outlined herein.
ADMINISTRATION
Due partly to a continuing increase in the demand for range and partly to the
increasing pressure of competing land uses, range-administration duties were heavier
during 1955. As ranges become stocked to near their full capacity, additional range
allocations must be carefully considered to ensure that overstocking is not permitted.
More intensive management practices must be required of all permittees to secure
maximum proper use of the range. Further, the correction of any existing malpractices
which result in less than maximum forage production becomes imperative.
Coinciding with the greater demand for range forage is the increase in other, often
conflicting, forms of land use, such as logging, recreation, land settlement, game, and
domestic water requirements. More careful planning and field supervision is now
required to properly correlate grazing with these other land uses and to avoid conflict.
During the year it became necessary to commence protecting sources of water
required for stock on the range in certain critical areas. Where there is a strong competing demand for water, water licences are now obtained under the provisions of the
" Water Act" to cover those sources of water considered essential to good range management. Special effort was also directed toward the reduction of conflict between logging
and grazing interests.
Early in the year a brief on forest grazing was prepared and presented to the Royal
Commission on Forests and Forestry. Several live-stock associations and individual
ranchers also presented briefs on this subject.
Grazing Permits
The privilege of grazing a certain number of live stock for a definite period over
a specified area of Crown range is allocated by the Forest Service through issuance of
grazing permits to qualified applicants. Where necessary, specific management practices
to be followed are outlined in the permits.   A permittee may be the sole user of a range REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
53
unit or may graze his stock in common with a number of other permittees, depending
upon the size of the unit and the number of stock allowed each permittee.
During 1955 a total of 1,705 grazing permits were issued, authorizing the grazing
of 121,284 cattle, 3,575 horses, and 22,560 sheep on Crown range. Although the
number of permits issued was down slightly from the figure for 1954, the number of
cattle permitted was up by 9,517 head, or over 8.5 per cent. The numbers of horses and
sheep under permit were down slightly from 1954 figures, but total permitted range use
still increased by 7.8 per cent.
The tabulation on page 144 shows a breakdown of the above figures by forest districts and a comparison of those for the past ten years.
Hay Permits
A total of 203 hay permits were issued, authorizing the cutting of 2,077 tons of hay
and 24 tons of rushes from natural meadows on Crown range. This represents a small
increase in the number of permits but a decrease in tonnage from 1954. High water-levels
again prevented the cutting of a number of normally productive meadows.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
In order to avoid instability in the industry, Crown forage is not sold to the highest
bidder, as is timber. Grazing fees are derived from a base fee which is related to 1939
live-stock prices. Grazing fees for each year have the same ratio to the base fee that the
average live-stock prices for the immediately preceding year have to the corresponding
average prices for 1939. Grazing fees, therefore, vary annually according to fluctuations
in live-stock prices. For 1955 the fees per head per month were 13 cents for cattle,
16Va cents for horses, and 3 cents for sheep. This represents a drop from fees charged
in 1954 of 7 per cent for cattle and horses, and reflects the drop in prices which occurred
during that year. The fee for sheep remained the same both years. Hay-cutting fees,
which are not on a sliding scale, remained at $1 per ton. Reference is made in another
section of this Report to a further drop in live-stock prices during 1955. This will result
in a further reduction in grazing fees in 1956.
The drop in fees, combined with a shorter grazing season, resulted in a slight
reduction in total billings of grazing fees in 1955, in spite of the fact more stock was on
the range. The figures for this year and the past ten years appear in the table on page 144.
Grazing-fee collections were reasonably good, and only a slight increase in outstanding
accounts occurred.   Considerable time and effort were required to maintain this situation.
Live-stock Counts
Stemming from the necessity of closer control of live-stock numbers on crowded
ranges and for other reasons, more than the usual number of live-stock counts were
carried out in 1955. As a convenience to both the stockmen and the Service, such counts
are normally made during the winter months when stock is in the feed-yards.
Trespass
As usual, a number of cases of trespass on Crown range occurred during the year.
For the most part, these were corrected promptly when brought to the attention of the
owners of the stock concerned.   No prosecutions for violations were undertaken.
An amendment to the " Grazing Act " passed at the 1955 session of the Legislature
permits the removal and seizure of stock in trespass on Crown range. This legislation
will be useful in dealing with trespassing animals of unknown ownership and in cases
where an owner of offending stock fails to remove same from the range when directed to
do so and in spite of impending Court action. In many cases the immediate removal of
trespassing stock from the Crown range is imperative to protect both the forage and the 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
legitimate permittees depending on the use of same.   No trespassing stock was seized
during 1955.
RANGE MANAGEMENT
Range management involves many factors. The growth and reproductive requirements of the forage plants must be met. Grazing at a time when forage plants or the soil
will be damaged and general or localized overgrazing must be avoided. The requirements
and limitations of the stock itself must be considered. Grazing and any other existing
land uses must be correlated. Once a suitable management plan has been devised, it is
the responsibility of the permittee to manage his stock on the Crown range in accordance
with the conditions specified in his grazing permit.
Range Surveys
Range surveys are an essential first step in range management. Range surveys
involve the assembly of facts and information on soil, forage production, condition and
current trend of soil and forage, developments and improvements needed, relation of
grazing to other uses, best season of use, the class of stock for which the range is most
suited, and any special management problems. Management plans are devised on the
basis of this information in co-operation with the live-stock operators. Follow-up, on-
the-ground inspections are required to determine the adequacy of the initial plan and to
make any revisions necessary.
During 1955 the following areas were covered by primary grazing surveys:—
Acres
White Lake-Keremeos Stock Ranges (part)     86,000
Green Lake and North Bonaparte Stock Range (part)  264,650
Kettle River Stock Range (part)  149,600
Windermere Stock Range (part)  140,160
Total  640,410
This programme required approximately 300 man-days in the field. Numerous
range inspections were carried out during the grazing season.
The compilation of grazing-survey maps and reports is a time-consuming job which
is carried out mainly in the office. A shortage of office help has resulted in this phase
of range-survey work lagging behind the field work. A concerted effort was made during
1955 to rectify this undesirable situation, and it is anticipated that all final mapping and
report work will be up to date before the 1956 field season.
Range-readiness Studies
The date on which a range becomes properly ready for use varies from year to year
according to weather conditions. Wherever possible, a range should not be grazed before
it is properly ready for use in any year. Where variable turnout dates from year to year
cannot be effected, it is necessary to determine the average date of range readiness for
the area concerned. To this end, permanent plots have been laid out on a number of
ranges on which forage development and soil conditions are observed and recorded
periodically from the time snow disappears until the range is ready for use. These
observations over a number of years make it possible to determine the average date of
range readiness for the area concerned. They also make it possible to predict range
readiness with a reasonable degree of accuracy some time in advance each year, a matter
of considerable importance to the permittees where variable turnout dates are in effect.
A number of the range-readiness study-plots have now been under observation long
enough to yield valuable information, and adjustments in turnout dates in several areas
are now indicated and will be effected as soon as possible.   There is still a lack of this REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
55
information for a large percentage of our ranges, and an intensification of this phase of
range management is required.
Range Improvements
Most Crown ranges require some improvements before they may be utilized fully
and properly by domestic live stock. Money for this work is provided from the Range
Improvement Fund, set up under the provisions of section 14 of the " Grazing Act."
During 1955, $35,641.13 was spent from the Fund on range-improvement work, as
follows:—
5 stock-bridges      $470.30
7 cattle-guards      1,486.14
1 holding-corral        105.00
19 drift-fences      4,092.85
1 hazard-removal —.       220.15
6 holding-grounds         621.86
2 meadow improvements        222.07
4 mudhole-fences      1,114.01
17 range-seedings   2,232.60
20 stock-trails  5,633.77
7 water developments  800.15
1 weed-control measure  620.71
Wild-horse disposal  1,512.50
Machinery and equipment (purchase)  301.30
Maintenance and operation of equipment  971.13
Materials on hand not yet assigned to projects  1,311.20
Supervision, surveys, and technical studies  12,012.78
Storage facilities for range-improvement equipment and
material   1,912.61
In addition to the above projects, authority was extended to stockmen to construct,
at their own expense, the following improvements: 2 breeding-pastures, 1 corral, 4 drift-
fences, 2 grazing-enclosures, 1 holding-ground, and 1 stock-trail.
As usual, most of the projects listed were constructed under contract by live-stock
associations or individual ranchers. In some cases, full costs were charged to the Range
Improvement Fund, while in others costs were shared by the benefiting stockmen,
according to circumstances.
The work accomplished during 1955 was considerably less than planned. This was
due almost entirely to an extremely late spring and early winter, preventing the stockmen-
contractors from completing their projects during these periods when work is normally
slackest on the ranches.
Although all other categories of improvements were reduced, more range-seeding
was done during 1955 than in any previous year. With the exception of several trial
seedings carried out on open grassland and flood lands, all of the seeding was on logged-
over forest land. Excellent results are being obtained, and a further expansion of the
seeding programme on this type of site is anticipated. The above-noted cost covers
the purchase price only of some 4,750 pounds of suitable grass and legume seed. Actual
seeding was carried out by co-operating stockmen and Grazing Division personnel.
Preliminary surveys and site selection, supervision, and necessary continuing studies are
also carried out by Grazing personnel. Although less supervision is now required in
those areas where seeding has been carried out for several years and the co-operating
groups of stockmen have gained experience in this type of work, considerable supervision
and assistance by Grazing Division personnel is required in those areas where forest-
range seeding is being carried out for the first time.   Dry grassland seedings of previous 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
years continue to show up poorly, and extensive seedings of this type will not be
undertaken until further information is obtained from small-scale trials.
The weed-control project noted above is a continuation of the goatweed (Hypericum
perforatum) control project reported on in previous years. As it has proven impractical
to eradicate this weed under range conditions through the use of chemicals, chemical
control work was limited during 1955 to infestations considered particularly dangerous as
sources of further infection. Studies on the biological control of this weed are being
continued by the Division of Entomology of the Science Service, Canada Department of
Agriculture, with the Forest Service co-operating. Results to date have been disappointing, but the Chrysolina spp. beetles, which are being used in this study, continue to show
some increase in numbers. Some defoliation of the goatweed plants occurred in 1955,
and it is still hoped that biological control will finally prove effective. One new release
of beetles was made in the vicinity of Zamora.
During the winter of 1954-55 all of the Kamloops and Nelson Grazing Districts
were closed to horses. Wild, useless, and unwanted horses remaining on the Crown
range during the closed periods were disposed of by rounding up and shipment for
slaughter wherever possible. Shooting was confined to those situations where round-up
and shipment was not practical. A total of fifty-eight round-up licences and twenty
shooting licences were issued. Two hundred and thirteen horses were cleared for shipment and eighty-four were shot on the range. A bounty or subsidy of $5 on mares and
geldings and $7.50 on stallions was offered on horses shot or rounded up and shipped for
slaughter. The cost of this work, previously noted, includes only bounties and subsidies
claimed, the cost of supervising the programme being included under the general heading
for this item. The control of unwanted horses on the range is considered very necessary,
as these animals, if left unchecked, increase rapidly in numbers and, through year-long
grazing, cause severe damage to the range.
Plant Collections
To aid in plant identification, an essential in range management, a reference
herbarium is maintained in both the Kamloops and Nelson offices. Additional specimens
were added to these plant collections during the year.
Range Research
The Forest Service depends on the findings of the Dominion Range Experiment
Station at Kamloops for the solution of troublesome range problems. This station has
now been established for a sufficient period so that much valuable information is becoming available. Information of use in the management of the Crown range is first applied
on a field-trial basis, usually in co-operation with the station. If successful, the new
practices are then extended, such as has been the case with forest-range seeding. A tremendous amount of research is still required to solve the numerous problems confronting
the range-livestock industry.
CO-OPERATION
The effective administration of the Crown range would be impractical without the
co-operation of the stockmen. This is achieved through the medium of organized livestock associations. There are now forty-eight approved, local, range-livestock associations. Excellent co-operation was received from these groups during the year in dealing
with a wide variety of problems. Close contact was also maintained with the British
Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep Breeders'
Association on matters of policy affecting the whole industry. A total of 122 association
meetings were reported, of which 117 were attended by Forest Officers. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 57
GENERAL CONDITIONS
Range-livestock production, in common with most other phases of agriculture, is
profoundly affected by weather conditions. The winter of 1954-55 remained very mild
until the end of February. Unusually cold weather then occurred and subnormal
temperatures persisted until the end of May. On the earliest range, forage-growth
commenced at least two weeks later than normal and rate of growth was much retarded
by continuing cool weather. This constituted a serious situation in view of the generally
poor hay harvest in the summer of 1954. Due to depleted hay-supplies, much stock had
to be turned out on the range before it was ready for use. In many cases, stock was in
poor condition at time of turnout. Some losses of new-born calves and lambs were
reported due to the very cold weather in March.
Heavy rains occurring in June and July resulted in excellent forage-growth on lower
and mid-elevation ranges. However, the heavy snow-pack on high-elevation ranges was
slow in disappearing and many alpine ranges could not be grazed until mid-July, from
two to three weeks later than usual. Warm, clear weather commenced in mid-July in the
southerly part of the Province and in early August farther north and persisted until
mid-September. Some lower ranges became rather dry toward the end of this period,
but there was no shortage of green forage on the timbered ranges and, with few exceptions,
stock came off the range in generally good condition. Although some early-cut hay was
spoiled by rain, hay production was generally good and of fairly good quality. Some
silage was also put up. Mid-September snow-storms in the alpine ranges forced the
removal of sheep to lower elevations some two weeks earlier than normal.
Severe winter conditions developed early in November and have persisted to the end
of the year. This forced the commencement of winter feeding much earlier than normal.
A number of late-fall grazing permits had to be cancelled, and much privately owned
late-fall range was unusable.
Grasshoppers did not become a serious problem on the range in 1955, and damage
by these pests was light.
Good ranch labour is still difficult to obtain and hold on the ranches. The present
relatively low prices being received by live-stock producers make it difficult for them to
compete with the high wages and working conditions offered in other industries. This
is a serious matter, as good, reliable personnel are required to properly handle stock on
the range.
Game and other wild animals are often a problem in range management. In some
areas, big-game populations, particularly elk, have increased to the point where they are
making extremely heavy demands on range forage. In some critical areas, extensive
damage to hay-stacks is reported. Beaver have been responsible for flooding a considerable number of formerly productive meadows.
Markets and Prices
Cattle shipments were down slightly from last year, while sheep shipments remained
about the same. Both cattle and sheep prices showed a further decline. Wool prices
also dropped.
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock on the range due to poisonous weeds, mudholes, and predatory
animals were again lighter than usual. Highway traffic and careless hunters caused some
losses. Theft of stock on the range continues to be a problem, and there were an unusually
high number of prosecutions for cattle-rustling during the year.
Diseases of Live Stock
Although there were a few herds still under quarantine for various reasons, there
were no new outbreaks of disease necessitating adjustments in the use of Crown range
during the year. 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ENGINEERING SERVICES
Money allotted for the construction and maintenance of forest-development roads
in public working circles exceeded the million-dollar mark for the first time in the history
of the Service. The Engineering Section expanded operations and constructed 27 miles
of road, as compared with approximately 12 miles the previous year. Activities of the
Mechanical and Marine Sections remained at normal level, with no outstanding events to
report. In the structural field the completion of the Prince Rupert District office highlighted the year's work, and the installation of a new high-frequency network from Oliver
to Kamloops through the Okanagan Valley was the outstanding feature of the work of
the Radio Section.
ENGINEERING SECTION
No special assignments occurred and, as a consequence, it was possible to concentrate
efforts on the survey and construction of forest-development roads. The higher standard
of surveying required on the high-class roads under construction and proposed at the
present time resulted in less over-all mileage but more useful locations and designs.
Production from Service construction forces was more than twice that of the previous
year, and five times greater than the programme of four years ago, the first full year of
construction. A significant expansion of the construction programme was anticipated
from the award of a contract for a 10-mile section of the Naver road, but results to date
have been disappointing, largely due to continuing adverse weather conditions in the
Prince George District. There is little doubt, however, that contracts will in the future
account for a major part of any speeding-up of the rate of road construction in public
working circles.
Due to the urgent demand for the opening-up of mature timber stands, presently
inaccessible, in the vicinity of Prince George, both survey and construction work was
concentrated in that district. Fifty-four miles of preliminary lines, 7 miles of location
survey, and 13 miles of road construction were completed in the area.
The following table shows the work accomplished during the first five-year period
of the forest-development road-construction programme.
Forest-development Road Programme in Public Working Circles, 1950-55
Forest or Public Working Circle
Forest District
Class of
Road
Reconnaissance
Location
Survey
Construction
5
3
4
5
2
3
4
2
3
2
3
3
4
5
4
3
3
5
3
5
3
5
Miles
23
17
10
4
29
8
15
26
16
20
61
14
21
20
25
12
20
7
20
20
13
10
Miles
21.2
12.1
8.9
3.9
29.0
7.5
14.9
26.0
16.0
20.4
14.0
14.0
7.0
16.0
Miles
10 1
Kamloops   -	
Fort George - - 	
12.1
Naver	
21.6
7.5
17 0
Willow	
Fort George 	
Nelson - 	
Fort George —	
7 5
Vancouver .,	
Kamloops - - —	 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
59
Completed forest-development road in the Naver Provincial Forest.
General Engineering
Work undertaken during the year included:—
(1) Design, and award of a contract for, the construction of a creosoted-timber
bridge having a length of 128 feet and a main span of 60 feet. (This
bridge will span Naver Creek on the Naver forest-development road at
Mile 12.2.)
Partially designing a bridge over the Willow River. This structure will
have a 140-foot truss, constructed of creosoted timber and steel members
to obtain the best use of both materials.
Designing, and calling of tenders for, a mooring-basin, dock, and parking
area at Fisherman's Cove, West Vancouver. This installation will facilitate log-scaling in the Howe Sound area and will provide space for the
berthing of Forest Service vessels.
Investigating possible water sources, designing and supervising construction for an 80,000-gallon concrete-paved reservoir having a polyethylene
plastic waterproofing membrane incorporated into its construction.
(5) Investigating and designing a water-supply system for Alexis Creek and
Kamloops Ranger stations.
Assisting the Structural and Marine Section in the design of the structural
frame of a warehouse and garage at Prince George and in other problems.
Enlarging the soil-engineering programme.
Continuing the study of clearing costs. Sufficient data have been obtained
to make feasible the contracting of clearing operations on the basis of
fixed payment for clearing particular areas. Application of this data and
close supervision on one project resulted in the saving of about $15,000.
(2)
(3)
(4)
(6)
(7)
(8) 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(9) Development of methods for the calculation of maximum stream run-off
and selection of required culvert sizes. Designs have been made for
increasing the capacities of culverts by improving the shapes of headwalls
and entrances. To increase culvert capacities, experimental installations
were made using tapered end sections.
(10) The lands title service was continued, and the following work accomplished:  Completed Pending
Purchasing private land for administrative sites 17        10
Reserving Crown land for administrative sites 36        27
Purchasing private land for rights-of-way  19 7
Reserving Crown land for rights-of-way  22        12
Totals  94        56
Of the 150 areas processed, the main new administrative sites included
Lumby, Oliver, Slocan City, Pemberton, Telegraph Creek, Lower Post,
Sayward, and Telkwa. The rights-of-way through private lands were
established for several forest-development and forest-protection roads,
telephone-lines, etc.
Road Reconnaissance
Reports were compiled on 140 miles of preliminary route lines established by
reconnaissance, and a brief summary was prepared for the remaining 20 miles covered
during the previous field season. Field work was completed and reports commenced on
the following:—
(1) Twenty-four miles of preliminary route lines in the Willow River Public
Working Circle, extending the road system located and under construction.
(2) Preliminary investigation for the development of the Purden Lake Public
Working Circle and establishment of the route for 25 miles of road.
(3) Investigation of the proposed Weedon Lake forest-development road and
its extension into the timber areas tributary to Carp Lake in the Carp Lake
Public Working Circle.   The route was defined for 5 miles.
(4) Reconnaissance was made of the area between Babine and Tochcha Lakes
in the Babine Public Working Circle, and the route for 12 miles of
proposed road outlined.
Road Location
Quantity analyses, designs, and plans for 12.3 miles of road in the Naver Public
Working Circle and 24 miles in the Willow River Public Working Circle were completed
in early spring. During the rest of the year, field work was completed and office design
commenced on:—
(1) Seven miles of final location on the south main branch and 2.4 miles on
the Pitoney Lake extension of the Willow River forest-development road.
(2) Twelve and seven-tenths miles of final location extending the Morice River
forest-development road from Mile 28.5 to its terminus at Mile 41.2 on
the north shore of McBride Lake. This road will develop that part of the
Morice River watershed east and south of the river, comprising some
173,000 acres of productive forest land.
(3) Approximately 15 miles of final location of the White River road in the
Upper Kootenay Public Working Circle. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
61
In spite
satisfactorily :-
(1)
Road Construction
of a short construction season, the following projects progressed very
The Morice Forest-development Road.—During the winter, 14 miles of
right-of-way was cleared to Mile 18. The subgrade was completed from
Mile 0 to Mile 17, with the further construction of 14 miles. This involved
the placement of approximately 200,000 cubic yards of common material,
60,000 tons of pit-run gravel, and 2,900 feet of wood-stave culvert from
12 to 84 inches in diameter. This work was performed by the Department's personnel and some gravel-trucks rented for part of the season.
BaT
"•"-*■*...
^#'
-"• ••
Assembly of a large creosoted wood-stave culvert, Morice Forest development road.
(2) The Willow River Forest-development Road.—Thirteen miles of main-
road right-of-way was cleared under equipment-rental agreements supervised by Forest Service personnel, and an additional 3 miles was cleared
by the Department's personnel. Subgrade construction was completed on
IVz miles of the Willow west road by the Department's employees. This
involved the placement of approximately 145,000 cubic yards of common
material, 5,400 cubic yards of solid rock, 21,000 tons of pit-run gravel,
and 1,500 feet of wood-stave and metal culverts from 12 to 30 inches in
diameter.
(3) The Stone Creek Forest-development Road.—Utilizing Forest Service
and rented equipment, clearing and subgrade construction were completed
from Mile 11 to Mile 14.5. This involved the placement of approximately
35,000 cubic yards of common material and 3,500 tons of pit-run gravel.
(4) The Naver Creek Forest-development Road.—Approximately 55 acres
between Mile 12.21 and Mile 19.5 have been completed under the contract for construction from Mile 12.2 to Mile 22.4. Subgrade construction
between Mile 12.21 and Mile 14.2 involved the placing of approximately 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
36,000 cubic yards of common material, 1,800 tons of pit-run gravel, and
192 feet of wood-stave culvert from 12 to 30 inches in diameter.
(5) Road Maintenance.—Most forest-development roads are turned over to
the forest districts and maintenance checked by the Engineering staff. The
following roads were maintained by equipment from the Engineering
Section pending transfer of jurisdiction to the respective forest districts:—
(a) Twelve miles of the Naver Creek forest-development road were
gravelled where necessary. Additional culverts were placed and the
surface graded once a month during the summer hauling season. Approximately 10,000 tons of %-inch crushed gravel were stock-piled at Mile 12
for future maintenance.
(b) The Stone Creek forest-development road was in good condition
and only required grading of the 11 miles built in previous years.
(c) The 3 miles of the Morice forest-development road built in 1954
were maintained for construction and public traffic.
(d) Supervision was supplied for extensive maintenance and improvement to the Aleza Lake Experimental Station road.
The low-bed truck-trailer unit, operated by the Engineering Section for special heavy
hauling throughout the Forest Service, transported equipment and supplies ranging from
wood-stave and steel culvert stock to cabin cruisers and 30-ton tractors; freight amounted
to approximately 135,000 ton-miles.
MECHANICAL SECTION
Forest Service Mechanical Equipment
Total Units,
Jan. 1, 1955
Removed
from Service
New
Purchases
Total Units.
Dec. 31, 1955
Sedans and coaches..
Coupes 	
Suburban-
Station wagons—four-wheel-drive..
Land rovers—four-wheel-drive	
Willys jeeps—four-wheel-drive	
Willys pick-ups—four-wheel-drive 	
Dodge power wagons—four-wheel-drive..
V_-ton pick-ups  	
%-1-ton pick-ups  	
2-3-ton trucks—-   -	
Heavy-duty (24-40,000 G.V.W.) trucks-
Austin countryman—  	
Thames estate wagon 	
V.-l-ton panel deliveries. 	
Sedan deliveries  	
Tankers, cranes, etc   —
Tractors.  	
Graders   -
Scrapers—self-propelled..
Power-shovels. —
Outboard motors	
Fire-pumps	
Chain-saws  	
Lighting plants.
High-pressure fire-fighting units 	
Snow-ploughs (Sicard)—rotary blower-
Snow sedan—propeller-driven 	
Speeders—railway 	
Trailers—low-bed   _.
Trailers—dwelling, bunk-house, etc—	
Trailers—miscellaneous..— - —
Air-compressors  	
Gas-powered rock-drills - —	
Muskeg-tractors (personnel carrier)	
Yarders   - — -
Crushing plants...	
Mechanical wheelbarrows -
47
73
39
20
35
9
83
18
224
53
52
14
48
1
27
7
5
44
16
3
2
294
559
306
58
18
1
1
20
7
67
58
6
5
1
1
10
2
17
3
12
6
4
2
7
18
11
2
33
14
3
1
4
12
2
2
1
15
54
35
4
15
1
18
21
2
10
51
60
41
25
53
6
82
20
211
67
55
15
29
1
31
19
5
43
18
4
2
307
606
341
62
33
1
1
20
8
85
79
8
5
1
1
1
20 report of forest service, 1955
Equipment Selection
63
The Forest Service vehicle-replacement policy is undergoing a gradual revision due
to changing economic conditions. Increased labour and parts costs bring about a situation
where it is frequently more economical to replace than to repair, and higher salaries have
placed a greater value upon the productive time of personnel. This, in turn, demands a
greater availability of motor-vehicle equipment, and down-time for minor repairs which
was accepted as normal in the past has now become a burdensome factor. This situation
has resulted in the need for earlier trade-in of service equipment. There has been a steady
increase in the size of the motor-vehicle fleet each year since 1946, with the peak year for
purchase of new units being 1951. It follows that replacement requirements have also
increased and will continue to do so at least until the 1951 peak has been absorbed, when
it may be expected that replacement demands will level off.
Thirty-foot Forest Service dwelling-trailer.
An examination of the vehicle list for the past year or two will show a trend away
from coupes, which were formerly the type of vehicle most used by Rangers, to sedan
deliveries, panel deliveries, etc. These latter units combine comfort and good appearance
as well as providing increased cargo-carrying space for Ranger equipment. There is also
a steady increase in the number of four-wheel-drive units purchased. This type of vehicle
has proved most useful for year-around operation, through snow or mud, on low-class
ungravelled side-roads. To further illustrate the type of roads and trails negotiated (in
daily work), mention should be made that the two northern districts find the need of a
front-mounted power-winch in conjunction with all their four-wheel-drive vehicles. When
J 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
it becomes necessary to penetrate undeveloped forested areas, as for instance on road
surveys, the four-wheel-drive unit with winch becomes inadequate, especially in rainy
weather or in areas of poor drainage. In an attempt to solve this difficulty, the Forest
Service this year purchased a light-weight tracked vehicle known as a " muskeg tractor."
Initial experience has been so satisfactory that two more units are contemplated, and a
trailer unit will be tried out also.
The four-wheel-drive principle has been extended to cover the grader field, and the
Forest Service purchased its first of this type during the year. The grader in question also
has independent front- and rear-wheel steering, and it is expected that this combination
of traction and control should be of special value on Forest Service trails and fire-access
roads, which are usually narrow and winding.
■'J—M
Big equipment is needed for the economical construction of forest-development roads.
Lighting-plant requirements continue to increase. Larger Ranger-station establishments with their Assistant Ranger and other staff are now requiring 10-kilowatt plants.
Twenty-five- and 30-kilowatt plants have been purchased for the Engineering Section,
and a 100-kilowatt plant is in use at Manning Park. A somewhat new departure is being
tried out with some living-trailers for marking crews being supplied with 1,500-watt
lighting plants.
One item of interest was the lighting-plant replacement at Thurston Bay. The
original installation combined a water-driven Pelton wheel with 100-volt d.c. generator.
Trouble had been experienced for many years with voltage-control and commutator-
burning troubles. Eventually the generator became unserviceable, and investigations were
started with the idea of using an a.c. generator with a Pelton-wheel governor plus the
usual constant-voltage control, but inquiries showed that a change-over of this nature
could become very expensive. The final solution was quite simple. An over-compounded
d.c. generator, custom rewound, was installed in place of the old one.   From late reports REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
65
it appears to be operating satisfactorily and is undoubtedly the cheapest and most efficient
source of electric power in use by this Service to date.
In the chain-saw field, the Vancouver-pioneered and -manufactured direct-drive idea
seems to be gaining general acceptance, and the light-weight one-man saw is capable of
remarkably fast cutting-speeds and performances even in logs of diameters up to twice the
length of the cutting-bar and chain.
A new and larger truck and low-bed trailer was purchased for the Engineering Section. Both units were supplied by Vancouver manufacturers. The truck is powered with
a 235-horsepower turbo-charged diesel engine, and the low-bed trailer is of 30 tons
capacity, made of light-weight alloy steel. The Engineering Section also added two 200-
horsepower tractors, and an 8-10-yard powered scraper, with overhung engine and a
grid-roller, to their road-construction equipment. The year has been one of very slow
deliveries due to strikes both on this continent and abroad. This has caused some disruption to project programmes.
General Supervision
Supervision of the maintenance of mechanical equipment continues as one of the
main functions of this Section. Procedure for this work remains along the same general
lines as in recent years, with some refinements in the matter of reports and records which
enable the headquarters office to maintain closer touch with the districts and divisions.
Advantage has been taken of several manufacturers' service-schools and courses to assist
in maintaining knowledge of current product changes and repair procedures, the information so obtained being then passed on to the district mechanical supervisors.
The repair and maintenance facilities of the Engineering Section, whose road-
building activities are covered elsewhere in this Report, have been augmented with more
equipment and personnel, with the result that it is able to handle an even greater proportion of its own repairs, almost to the exclusion of outside shop facilities. More welding
equipment has been added, and lathes, drill-presses, etc., are being acquired, and, in
general, repair facilities have been expanded. The parts problem has grown to the point
where a parts-man is used full time at each of two camps, and a fair stock of parts is
kept on hand.
A meeting of all supervisors was held, partly at the Forest Service Marine Station
and partly in Victoria, during the latter part of March. Annual meetings of this kind
serve an admirable purpose, providing a chance to pool information on operating and
maintenance difficulties and the methods found successful in correcting such problems.
At the meeting the work of the Safety Committee, its aims and intentions, were restated
and clarified. Highway loading regulations were discussed, with particular reference to
Forest Service truck and transport axle-loadings, as this once-neglected subject is now
receiving more and more attention from the Department of Highways.
Considerable time has been spent upon the revision of the mechanical-equipment
section of the Forest Service manual. The result, when printed, should do much to guide
all those concerned with mechanical matters, from the acceptance of equipment, through
its operating life, to final disposal.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SECTION
No major new project was undertaken by this Section during the year, but close
liaison was maintained with the Chief Architect's office with regard to the adequate
housing of district staff at Kamloops and Prince George. The new office accommodation for the District Forester's staff at Prince Rupert was completed and occupied in the
fall, and reports received indicate the layout has proven very satisfactory.
The majority of the work done by the Section consisted of calling for tenders for
standard buildings at various centres throughout the Province. The location and status
of these projects is shown in the accompanying chart, which includes the status of last 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
year's uncompleted work. The only non-standard buildings undertaken this year were
a large vehicle-storage garage and workshop for Prince George, which is at this time
out to tender, and a cone-drying kiln building designed for the Reforestation Division.
This latter building has been erected by its own project crew.
A considerable amount of study was put into the results of our prefabricated housing programme of last year, and it was found that, in some cases, the cost of shipping
the packaged house from the Marine Station and erecting it on the site was as great, if
not greater, than framing the building from local materials.   It was also found that these
Front entrance to Prince Rupert Forest District headquarters building.
buildings were being used for continuous occupancy, when they were designed only for
summer occupancy. As a result, a slightly larger residence was designed with a view
to framing from local materials for year-around occupancy, and the prefabricated smaller
model is reserved for part-time occupancy.
The Section again undertook the design, purchase, and inspection of the Department's trailer requirements in conjunction with the Mechanical Section, and the following units were put in service: Five 4-man units for tree-marking crews in the Prince
George District, two 4-man units for tree-marking crews in the Prince Rupert District,
three 2-bedroom living-quarters units for key personnel in forest-development road-construction camps, four single-bedroom living-quarters units for key personnel in forest-
development road-construction camps, and three 2-man units for use in conjunction with
graders in the improvement of forest-protection facilities in Kamloops, Nelson, and Prince
Rupert Districts. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
67
The foregoing trailers were all built by open contract but, as a result of the great
demand for this type of accommodation, a new type—a compromise between trailers
and conventional skid-type camp buildings—was evolved by this Section, and two units
built at the Forest Service Marine Station, for the housing of personnel in the forest-
development road-construction camps. Briefly, the design endeavours to retain the mobility of trailers while dispensing with fairly costly running-gear for each unit, by providing a common towing-chassis for several units in the same area.
During 1955 the marine-design facilities of this Section were concerned with evaluation of the new-type 32-foot launch designed the previous year for a district supervisor
in the Vancouver District. Great interest centred on this craft as it provides the basis
for a new and faster type of Assistant Ranger's launch to meet ever-growing demands
on the time of our field staff. As a result of several months' use of the " Forest Supervisor," the basic design was adopted with an addition of 2 feet in length, and construction of the first new Assistant Ranger's launch was put in hand. Delivery will be made
in April, 1956. Also, as a result of experience with the " Forest Supervisor," plans are
being drawn up for a new class of 40-foot Ranger's launch in the same 20-knot category,
and construction of the first vessel will commence early in 1956.
An 18-foot hull was designed for either outboard or inboard power, and three such
boats were built for various lakes in the Vancouver and Kamloops Districts. Next year's
estimates call for several 23-foot high-performance cabin runabouts capable of road
transportation, and some preliminary drawings have been prepared for consideration by
Divisional and District Foresters.
Other miscellaneous-design projects included various road signs, storage-boxes, and,
particularly, a revised standard hose-coupling.
Houston  Ranger-station  residence. 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Building and Construction Undertaken during 1955
Location
Project
Construction
Agency
Stage of
Construction
Fort St. John..
Houston	
Lillooet 	
Lumby	
Lund_. 	
Prince Rupert..
Quesnel Lake-
Smith ers	
Trout Lake	
Alexis Creek	
Barriere_.	
Bella Coola	
Campbell River.
Canyon Creek-
Chief Lake.. „
Cranbrook	
Fort St. James...
Fort St. James—
Fort St. John	
Golden	
Kamloops	
Kitwanga	
Lumby  	
Merritt	
Oliver	
Pemberton	
Pendleton Bay—
Pendleton Bay—
Prince George—
Quesnel ...	
Sayward-	
Sechelt. _..
Sechelt	
Slocan City	
Southbank	
Summit Lake.	
Telkwa... 	
Thurston Bay....
Residue of 1954-55 Programme
Office and stores building	
Re side nee 	
Office and stores building-
Office and stores building..
Office and stores building._
District office 	
Marine ways	
Warehouse and garage	
Resi dene e	
Programme for 1955-56 Fiscal Year
Residence	
Residence  	
Residence  	
Four-car garage 	
Residence    	
Residence  	
Four-car garage.     __	
Resi dence    	
Office and warehouse .
Residence 	
Warehouse 	
Water system	
Two-car garage..—	
Residence 	
Residence	
Office and garage-
Residence	
Residence 	
Two-car garage	
Garage-
Residence. 	
Office and garage-
Warehouse	
Renovations to office and stores building _
Office and stores building  _	
Residence     	
Moving office	
Office and stores building	
Two residences _ __
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract.	
Contract	
Contract	
Forest Service.
Forest Service.
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service
Forest Service.
Contract	
Contract	
Contract  _
Forest Service
Contract	
Forest Service
Contract __	
Forest Service.
Forest Service
Forest Service
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract—	
Forest Service
Contract. 	
Contract-	
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Abandoned.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Preparing plans.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Tenders called.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Tenders called.
Work proceeding.
Awaiting land purchase.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Awaiting land purchase.
Work proceeding.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
Marine Work
Maintenance of launches and small boats used by the Forest Service is nearing a
full-time occupation for the marine subsection, leaving comparatively few man-hours
available for the construction of new craft. The marine ways were occupied forty-five
times and twenty-two major launch overhauls were completed, together with twenty-six
less-important jobs.
Due to dry-rot, major rebuilding was carried out on the forepart of the " Syrene "
and the stern section of the "Forest Surveyor." New engines were installed in the
" Forest Surveyor " and " Red Cedar," both of which were big jobs because of the necessity of cutting away housework before removal and installation of the engines. This was
also necessary on the "B.C. Forester" for the installation of new tanks. The landing
craft, L.C. No. 1, which was badly damaged at Nakusp, was brought in, the hull repaired,
and a new deck house installed. Modifications improving comfort and (or) performance were made to the new launches "Lodgepole," "Forest Supervisor," and "White
Spruce II."
Small-boat repairs included work on fifty such craft for Forest Surveys and Inventory
Division and work on miscellaneous dinghies, river-boats, and a canoe. Alterations to
the propeller shaft, engine-beds, struts, and rudder of the " Tachi III" at Stuart Lake REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
69
were carried out in the middle of May.   Shortly thereafter the 40-foot vehicle-barge and
the combination towboat-cruiser " Lodgepole " were launched at Likely.
Although man-hours available for new construction were limited and, to some extent,
new work was only used as " fill-ins " between repair jobs, it was possible to carry out
some important projects. A new 30-foot Assistant Ranger vessel, of which the 32-foot
" Forest Supervisor " is the prototype, is now 40 per cent completed. With some changes
incorporated in housework design and the use of noise insulation materials, this vessel
should be more comfortable than her predecessor, without loss of speed. Also new this
year is the 18-foot fast plywood runabout, three of which are in operation and another
three under construction.  The construction of a 40-foot scow-type float for Lund is the
Landing-craft adapted at Forest Service Marine Station, for use by fire-fighting crews
on Interior lakes.
first of its type for the Forest Service. After prefabrication the float was dismantled and
all material given the full-cell creosote treatment. This float is very rugged and should
give trouble-free service for years. Other new work accomplished included three 14-foot
sectional boats of new design, a 9-foot planing dinghy, ten cabinets for Mark IV epidiascopes, thirty cabinets for Mark VII Ranger-model epidiascopes, and various other crates
and small jobs.
Prefabrication
The woodworking shop has been fully occupied in the construction of sectional
buildings, furniture, tool-boxes, pump, outboard, and lighting-plant crates, boxes for chain
saws, hygrographs, fuel-moisture scales, and miscellaneous equipment. In rebuilding the
Manning Park signs, heavier and weather-resistant materials were used, which, together
with the latest type of Scotchlite, produced a sign second to none. Two new features this
year were the exhibit for the Pacific National Exhibition and two portable bunk-houses.
The former, constructed to specifications submitted by the Public Relations Division and
erected in the British Columbia Building at the Pacific National Exhibition, is a replica 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
of the 8- by 8-foot lookout tower. Like all lookout buildings, it was prefabricated, but,
unlike the standard building, it has a plexiglass roof and is wired for flood-lighting. If
necessary it can be dismantled for movement to any location in the Province. The two
portable bunk-houses resemble a trailer without wheels. Constructed of plywood and
aluminium, completely insulated and equipped with an air-conditioning-heating unit, these
units will provide sleeping accommodation for up to six men under all weather conditions.
A summary of projects includes the following items: 10 32-foot Assistant Ranger residences, 4 20- by 24-foot sectional prefabricated buildings, 3 14- by 14-foot cabin-type
lookout buildings, 1 special P.N.E. exhibit, 65 pieces of office furniture, 30 sets of lookout-
building furniture, 229 crates and special shipping boxes, and 110 Ranger-station, road,
and other signs.
Machine-shop
In the machine-shop, pump overhauls were down slightly, lighting plants normal,
and chain-saw overhauls up. Manufacture of office and field equipment in this department has reached a point where it could constitute a department unto itself. Work varies
Walking-stick seed-spotter, designed and built
at Forest Service Marine Station.
from simple machining of castings, such as pump adaptors, to the building of an intricate
piece of equipment, such as the fire-finder or epidiascope. Pump adaptors, suction-hose
fittings, foot-valves, strainers, expander-ring tools, radio-antenna fittings, fuel-moisture
scales, log-scale computors, paper-corner punches, fire-finders, parts for epidiascopes,
and numerous small items such as launch name-plates, special brackets, and so forth
have been manufactured or are in the process of being manufactured from patterns made
at the station. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 71
Improvements were incorporated in the fire-finders, notably in the traverse and
elevating mechanism. The log-scale computors originally designed as a portable instrument for light duty have been revamped for use in the scaling offices in place of the table-
desk model formerly manufactured in the carpenter-shop.
Development of an improved type of seeding-tool was undertaken. This new device
may well prove to be a real time and money saver in seeding operations on forest lands
which have not restocked naturally with desirable species of trees. The seeder permits
controlled and positive depositing of seeds on selected seed-spots by means of an adaptation of the well-known air-gun principle with an automatic recharging mechanism, the
whole piece of equipment being actuated with a minimum of effort. Seed has become
scarce, and consequently valuable, so it must be conserved as much as possible. To meet
this problem, an improved type of metering-head ensures that a pre-determined number
of seed will be deposited from a reservoir according to the germination index of the
particular seed-lot being used. The natural stickiness of the seed has been offset by dusting
the already pelletted seed with aluminium powder, which is itself believed to be an added
deterrent to rodents. Field tests with this device (which is of walking-stick length) will
continue during 1956.
RADIO SECTION
The year proved an active one in radio communication, with the emphasis on very
high frequency development. Sixty-eight new transmitting units of all types were added
to last year's 812 sets, making a total at the end of 1955 of 880 units. Of the new installations, amplitude-modulated (A.M.) mobile, both amplitude- and frequency-modulated
(F.M.) portables, and frequency-modulated station sets accounted for the majority.
New Radio Units, 1955-56
Portable—
Model B  20
Portaphones, F.M.     9
— 29
Mobile—
A.M., Type MBL 25  15
F.M., Type CT43G-1     2
— 17
Fixed-station units, A.M.—
LRT 80F 80-watt     2
LRT 100F 100-watt     1
— 3
Fixed-station units, F.M.—
140 BR 60-watt  10
80 BR 30-watt     2
41 BY 10-watt     4
— 16
Marine—MRT 25F     3
1955 total  68
Not counted in total above are twenty LWP light-weight portables.
As a result of reconnaissance work carried out in 1954, this year saw the installation
of the first Forest Service F.M. network in the Interior. Extending from Oliver to Kamloops, and taking in the main Ranger and Assistant Ranger stations throughout the
Okanagan Valley, the new network consists of seventeen stations, including repeaters on
Campbell, Silver Star, and Begbie Mountains. The Kamloops-Clinton circuit, successfully
tested the previous year, proved unusable during the hot weather, though it is hoped that 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
this circuit will be completed by further experiments with beam-antennas. Lack of power
on Silver Star Mountain, and the inaccessibility of the road to the summit, postponed
repeater installation, and heavy snow-storms up to and even after July 1st prevented
installation work and the carrying of a motor-driven power plant to the lookout. Until
power is wired to the top, as is at present planned by the British Columbia Power
Commission, and until the road is completed, the entire Okanagan network must be
considered seasonal.
On the Coast, while funds were not sufficient to develop the existing V.H.F. network
further, all lookouts between Victoria and Nanaimo were equipped with portable V.H.F.
sets, permitting them to carry on conversation with their respective Ranger stations at
any time of day without interference to or from the balance of Vancouver District stations.
As an adjunct to F.M.-equipped lookouts, the same sets in their light-weight form, which
normally can be expected to have a range of only 2 to 3 miles on the level, were employed
over distances of 20 to 30 miles. This was done by mounting permanent V.H.F. whip
antennas on cars and trucks and carrying, as part of the car equipment, an F.M. set which
could, at any time, be attached to the permanent aerial. Personnel travelling the roads
below were, therefore, nearly always in contact with at least one lookout and could obtain
information on fires or suspected fires as often as desired.
Elsewhere, communication was normal without significant changes. It was noticeable, however, that increasing use in all districts was made of mobile transmitters, which
are proving their worth more and more each year. These 20-watt sets have been able to
maintain reliable contact over distances in excess of 100 miles, and on occasions over
several times this distance.
In the Prince Rupert District, space was allowed in the new office building for a
separate radio-room and an adjoining maintenance-room, bringing the headquarters radio
station up to the improved standard of other districts. The location of the new building
created a problem in planning an aerial system, but, by the addition of two new 80-foot
steel towers and the continued use of the old one, a much-needed bi-directional system
was created which should, when complete, improve the Victoria-Rupert circuit while
giving good radiation into the main group of district stations to the north-east.
In Prince George the impending loss of Carney Hill as a remote-receiver site threatened the communication of the whole district. An agreement with the city averted this
danger, and our site has been moved to its new position beside the city reservoir, with
increased tower-height to compensate for the excavating of the hill-top. During the year
the Prince George radio section was responsible for installing a four-channel 100-watt
station at Cassiar for the Department of Mines, this station having supplied the only reliable communication between this isolated area and the outside via Forest Service stations
at Prince George and Morice.
In Vancouver the long-expected complete change-over from 3430 kilocycles to 3245
kilocycles did not materialize when it was discovered that there would be a clash in
frequencies between our stations and those of United States Forest Service units in
Washington and Montana. At the end of 1955 it is not known what the final outcome
of this projected change will be.
At Victoria the early part of the year was devoted mostly to preparatory work for
the Kamloops V.H.F. installation, as a result of which the entire V.H.F. change-over was
completed by Victoria personnel in slightly over a month. During the summer, with all
Victoria technicians except one in the field, maintenance of existing facilities precluded
any extensive laboratory work though a number of V.H.F. beam-antennas were designed
and built. In addition, a remote telephone unit was designed to give the Forest Service
Marine Station office radio contact with Victoria through the Vancouver District radio
station, this design being constructed and installed in November. At the end of the year,
laboratory work in progress includes 100- and 200-watt transmitters to replace obsolete
units, the design for a modern Ranger-station remote-control a.c. receiver, and the design REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
73
for two multi-channel remote receivers also replacing obsolete sets. V.H.F. experimental
work continues when time permits, the present project being to establish a second
F.M. circuit between Victoria and Vancouver by means of a 40-megacycle beam from
Gonzales Hill.
The radio-channel situation remains unchanged since 1954, with only one district
likely to be affected by new Department of Transport regulations. At the same time the
gradual replacement of our present system of V.H.F. equipment prepares us for future
complications in the event that further frequencies are withdrawn or changed. 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
The year 1955 was the third in succession with below average fire-danger. Below
normal temperatures and rainfall over the greater part of the Province in April, and the
coldest May on record, resulted in a late spring. The usual spring flash-hazard condition
in the two northern forest districts extended well into June.
Two weeks of rainless weather over the entire Province during the first half of June
was finally ended by general severe thunder-storms over the three Interior forest districts
on the 22nd and 23rd of the month. Strong, gusty winds accompanied the thunder-storms
in the West Kootenays. Soaking rains occurred in the Prince George area during the last
few days of the month.
July was cool, with rainfall generally above normal and mostly concentrated in the
last week. Two to three weeks without appreciable rain occurred in the middle of the
month over the Cariboo region. Lightning activity set some fires in the Kamloops Forest
District on the 16th and 17th and in the Nelson Forest District during the last two weeks
of the month.
Although August was one of the driest on record over Southern British Columbia
and over the Peace River section, below normal temperatures and high overnight relative
humidities helped to keep the fire-danger from becoming critical. Elsewhere north of
latitude 52, the weather remained cloudy with fairly frequent rains until the middle of
the month.
The dry spell did not break until almost the middle of September over the whole
Province, by which time conditions had occasionally become critical over the southern
part of the Province during brief periods with low overnight relative humidities.
The most notable feature of the 1955 fire season was the absence of any extended
period of low overnight relative humidities, in spite of the six- to seven-week dry period
in the late summer. As a result, fuel moistures did not drop to dangerous levels, and
deciduous vegetation remained green throughout the greater part of the summer.
FIRES
Occurrence and Causes
The number of fires recorded was below the ten-year average. The occurrence by
months deviated somewhat from the normal. In May and August there were less than
the normal number of fires; in June and September there were more.
Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year        Percentage of
Forest District Period 1946-55 All B.C.
Vancouver  4,022 27.82
Prince Rupert  654 4.52
Prince George  1,518 10.50
Kamloops   4,821 33.34
Nelson   3,444 23.82
Totals  14,459 100.00
The principal cause of fires was lightning, which accounted for 30 per cent, followed by railways operating and smokers, each with 15 per cent, and campers accounting for 14 per cent. Fire occurrence from lightning increased by 2 per cent above the
ten-year average, whereas fires caused by smokers and brush-burning decreased 2 per
cent each.   Fires by other causes followed the normal pattern. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
75
Cost of Fire-fighting
The 1955 fire-fighting costs amounted to $74,063, or $208,728 less than the ten-
year average, although they were double the 1954 costs. For further tables of costs,
see Tables 59 and 61 of the Appendix, and also Table 45 for cost to other agencies.
The major expenditures on suppression were on fires caused by lightning, being
41 per cent of the total, although that cause represented only 30 per cent of the total
number of fires. This is understandable, as lightning fires usually occur in isolated areas
which are difficult of access. Campers' fires were responsible for 14 per cent of the total
fire-fighting cost, and smokers' fires 15 per cent.
Damage
The total area burned was estimated to be 46,694 acres (see Table 58). This is
only 19 per cent of the average annual acreage burned in the last ten years. Of the area
burned, the Prince George Forest District accounted for 40,632 acres or 87 per cent.
It should be noted that 32,689 acres or 80 per cent of the area burned in the Prince
George District was non-commercial cover, grazing or pasture land, or non-productive
sites. The largest fire was in the Peace River area in the Prince George Forest District,
being over 11,000 acres. The total damage to forest-cover was only 29 per cent of the
ten-year average.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The Provincial fire atlas has been brought up to date, and the 1,384 accidental fires
for the year have been plotted, plus 174 intentional slash-burns in the Vancouver Forest
District. The fire-statistics ledgers and fire-classification atlas for all five forest districts
are currently being brought up to date. A start has been made this year in supplying
district offices with copies of some of the protection data, comprising, essentially, fire
occurrence, fire classification, lookout-coverage overlays, and fire statistics, which will
be used to bring the district records up to date.
Visibility Mapping and Lookout Photography
One two-man crew was in the field during the 1955 fire season for the combined
job of visibility mapping and lookout photography.
In the visibility-mapping portion of the job, twenty-seven possible lookout-sites were
examined. The final recommendation was three primary lookouts for the Vancouver
Forest District and three primary and two secondary lookouts for the Kamloops Forest
District.
In lookout photography, eighteen lookout points were photographed—ten in the
Vancouver Forest District, seven in the Kamloops Forest District, and one in the Prince
George Forest District.
Protection Planning in Public Working Circles
Preliminary field work was carried out in four public working circles this year—two
in Kamloops Forest District and one each in Prince George and Nelson Forest Districts.
Preliminary reports for protection plans are currently being compiled on these working
circles.
The low-cost fire-protection access-road programme was continued this year in the
Spallumcheen Working Circle, with approximately 15 miles of road being built. 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Miscellaneous (Air-photo Mosaics)
Coverage has been extended over a large portion of the Kamloops Forest District,
with thirty-seven additional mosaics completed this year, making a total of 107 available
for use in the Vancouver and Kamloops Forest Districts.
FIRE-WEATHER RECORDS AND INVESTIGATIONS
Routine observation and reporting of weather observations continued as in the previous season, with the following exceptions. The Model 8 burning-index meter developed by the United States Forest Service Forest Fire Laboratory staff at Missoula, Mont.,
was given a limited trial in the Nelson Forest District this season, and plans are under
way for more extensive trials next season. A provisional ten-day fire-weather reporting
form was used on a trial basis in the Prince Rupert Forest District this season, and it is
intended that this form will be in wider use next year.
During 1955, 488 sets of fuel-moisture indicator sticks were distributed, of which
316 went to industrial operators. This represents an increase in use by industry of 100
per cent in the last five years. Experiments with small test fires and studies of the
behaviour of heavier indicators of fuel moisture were continued at the Langford test-site.
Again this season, through the co-operation of one of the operators on Vancouver Island,
it was possible to observe the behaviour of slash burns in the Ladysmith area in relation
to the moisture content of heavier fuels as measured by weighing 3-inch logs and as
indicated by a commercial moisture-meter.
Results of one study were published by the Meteorological Division of the Department of Transport as Technical Circular No. 216, "Lightning Fires over Southeastern
British Columbia."
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Sixteen suppression crews, averaging ten men each, were again employed during
the summer. These crews were in the field for an average of 100 days during the fire
season. They attended 158 fires, of which 97 per cent were held to a spread of less
than 5 acres. When not fighting fire or on fire stand-by, the crews worked on improvements and training.
Analysis of Suppression-crew Fire-fighting Activities
Size of Fire When Attacked
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
lA Acre
or Less
Over V4
Acre to
1 Acre
Over 1
Acre to
5 Acres
Over 5
Acres to
50 Acres
Over 50
Acres
Spot (up to Vi acre)	
Over Vt acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres-
Over 50 acres   	
Totals.
107
25
20
3
3
106
19
10
158
135
12
AIRCRAFT
Protection flying was continued under contract with Pacific Western Airlines Limited who supplied six float-planes. A total of 2,280 flying-hours were logged throughout
the Province during the period from April 15th to November 15th.
Forest District
Base
Type of Aeroplane
Hours
Flown
Beaver 	
Fairchild71c    	
344
428
Beaver  	
388
611
Nelson 	
509
Total.	
2,280 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
77
In addition to carrying out fire patrols and cargo-parachuting in fire suppression, use
of the aeroplanes was made by other divisions of the Service. The Engineering Services
Division, Parks and Recreation Division, Surveys and Inventory Division, and the Grazing
Division used the aeroplanes in their work.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The Service continued to add to the network of roads and trails throughout the
Province as shown in the table below.
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
94.60
346.25
Miles
17.60
122.50
Miles
28.05
111.25
Miles
140.25
580.00
440.85
140.10
139.30
720.25
93.75
681.50
89.25
312.25
37.50
171.75
220.50
1,165.50
Total trail construction and maintenance-	
775.25
401.50
209.25
1,386.00
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
The continued moist spring weather combined with below average temperatures and
hours of sunshine precluded much spring burning. July had rainfall far in excess of the
average, with the result that the forest floor was thoroughly moist to depth. August was
a very dry month, and a gradual drying of all openings developed, with the result that by
early September a hazardous condition had developed in all open areas, necessitating the
imposition of a forest closure from September 5th to September 13th.
Generally speaking, timber stands of even moderate density were reasonably safe
and, during the period from about September 19th to September 30th, conditions were
almost ideal for the burning of slash. Opportune burning operations were uniformly
successful, with some very successful burns obtained on open or southerly exposures.
Through overcaution, some operators failed to take advantage of these favourable conditions at the time, and are now left with a carry-over of unburned slash. These circumstances point out the need for reliable rating of hazard conditions, with emphasis on
purely local conditions rather than a generalized rating over a large area. The gradual
trend toward better utilization and improved logging methods is reflected in the increasing
acreage on which either no burning is required or only spot burning at landings. Only
199 acres of slash, the second lowest figure on record, were burned accidentally in 1955,
attributable to the comparatively wet season.
No slash-disposal has been required to date on the north end of Vancouver Island, a
policy warranted in view of generally inclement weather conditions and lack of extreme
hazard. However, in recent years, large areas of contiguous slash have been created
which could be subject to the drying effects of wind and solar radiation. A slash-disposal
officer will inspect major operations in the area during the spring of 1956, with the object
of discussing the problem with the operators and instituting a planned and orderly abatement programme.
Snag-falling assessments were made on 1,840.5 acres, and accounts covering 453.5
acres were cancelled, the operators having later completed snag-falling. Snag-falling
contracts were let during the year covering 3,940 acres, the majority of which were in the
Sayward Forest, with one contract in the Haslam Lake area. In addition, Reforestation
Division crews felled snags on 6,838 acres on the Coast and 833 acres in the Interior
preparatory to planting. A further 40 acres were felled by the Parks and Recreation
Division in Manning Park. 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
The eighty-three prosecutions were almost double the ten-year average. The unusually large number of prosecutions was due in most part to the forest closure in the
Vancouver Forest District. The prosecutions are further analysed in Table 62 of the
Appendix.
FOREST CLOSURE
Four regional closures were imposed during the fire season. Three of these were
recreational closures in the Nelson Forest District and the other was a general closure in
part of the Vancouver Forest District. A fifth closure which had been put into effect in
1953 to protect an uncompleted access road was also in effect and was lifted at the close
of the fire season. The table below shows the effective dates.
Forest Closures, 1955
District
Effective
Date
Termination
Date
Koch Creek-
Horsefly Lake-Quesnel Lake Road..
Part of Vancouver Forest District, general closure..
Wilson Creek	
Arrow Park Creek-
Nelson	
Kamloops .
Vancouver.
Nelson	
Nelson	
August 18	
Sept. 24, 1953
September 5„.
September 8—
September 8—
September 16.
October 11.
September 13.
September 16.
September 16.
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES
During the 1955 fire season, 981 Honorary Fire Wardens accepted appointment.
These public-spirited citizens take voluntary action on fires which occur in their vicinity,
and their invaluable aid in reporting and fighting fires is acknowledged with appreciation.
In addition, there were 1,065 Forest Fire Prevention Officers appointed under section
123 of the "Forest Act." These men, appointed at the request of their employers, have
the same authority as a Forest Officer on the particular operation with which they are
concerned. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
79
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS*
The black-headed budworm, spruce budworm, and Douglas-fir beetle commanded
more than usual attention during 1955, due to continuing or developing situations of
destructive activity.
The black-headed budworm outbreak in hemlock on Northern Vancouver Island
assumed major proportions, and every effort was made to determine the extent, severity,
and trend of the outbreak. Although this insect had been increasing in numbers for
several years, conspicuous defoliation did not occur until 1954. In 1955 the known
infestations covered about 1,600 square miles, with moderate to severe defoliation occurring over more than half of this area. Almost without exception the top third of the
crowns were the most severely defoliated, and in some instances from 5 to 20 feet of
the tops were completely stripped.   Natural control factors were apparently ineffective.
Egg of black-headed budworm on a hemlock needle.    Insert shows the egg greatly enlarged.
Eggs are laid in the fall and hatch the following spring.
An egg-survey carried out in the fall of 1955 indicates that about two-thirds of the
area will be moderately to severely attacked again in 1956, barring an unforeseen collapse of the infestation due to the intervention of natural control factors. The areas in
danger of a moderate to heavy attack in 1956 will, in general, be subjected to their second
year of serious defoliation if the population develops as predicted. Past records of outbreaks suggest that this should not cause heavy tree mortality, though top-killing could
be extensive. It was recommended that widespread control action does not seem necessary in 1956 to prevent serious tree mortality, but this recommendation was qualified to
the extent that aerial spraying might be considered for the protection of extremely valuable stands, which should not be exposed to the risk of serious injury through inaction.
Hemlock in the Queen Charlotte Islands experienced severe defoliation by the black-
headed budworm in 1955, particularly on Moresby Island. However, late-season sampling showed a large decrease in the number of larva, and pupse and a marked scarcity
of eggs.   Little or no defoliation is expected on the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1956.
* Prepared by R. R. Lejeune, Forest Zoology Unit (Victoria, B.C.), Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Small infestations occurred in the Interior, between Miles 15 and 22 and Miles 40 and
45 on the Big Bend Highway.
The spruce-budworm outbreak in the Lillooet River and Lake country and the
Fraser Valley-Nahatlatch River areas covered about 171 square miles in 1955. This
was the third, and in some instances the fourth, year of severe defoliation. The loss of
current year's foliage was slightly less than in 1954, and there was little back-feeding on
the old foliage. Some top-killing is expected, but tree mortality, if it occurs, should be
limited to the dry sites. The budworm population is believed to have passed its peak,
and the trend is toward a gradual decrease in the intensity of the infestation.
Populations of the two-year-cycle spruce budworm in Central British Columbia
continued to diminish.   Since 1955 was the off-year for feeding, little defoliation occurred.
Gallery system of the Douglas-fir beetle.    The vertical gallery, in which the eggs are laid, is constructed
by the adult beetles and the larvae form the mines leading away from the egg gallery.
The Douglas-fir beetle continued its widespread destruction of groups of trees in
various parts of the Province, notably in the Kamloops, Prince George, and Vancouver
Forest Districts. In the Interior a critical situation is developing in an area of about
200 square miles around Lac la Hache, which apparently suffered winter injury during
1952-53. Douglas-fir beetle populations subsequently began to build up in the weakened stands. The number of trees infested during 1955 provides grounds for suspecting
that the increasing beetle populations could become epidemic in the near future. Recommendations were submitted on procedures that should be followed to utilize the timber,
to provide some control of the beetle populations, and to protect residual and adjacent
stands.
On the Coast, new attacks by this beetle took place in the Nimpkish Valley, although
the situation was no worse than in 1954. Disease is believed to be responsible for severe
mortality of larval broods in some instances. Some of the timber killed during the past
two years is being salvaged. New attacks were also observed at Woss Lake, north of
the Nimpkish Valley, and in the Lillooet and Anderson River valleys.
There was a general decrease in western-hemlock looper populations during 1955.
The heaviest infestation covered a 1-square-mile area of mature and overmature hemlock south of McBride in the Prince George District.    The infestation on overmature REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
81
cedar, 3 miles south of Penny, decreased in intensity, and the Eaglet Lake-Fraser River
infestation collapsed.   Elsewhere in the Province, populations were light.
Infestations of bark beetles on Engelmann spruce that have occurred during the
past two or three years in the Nelson Forest District have practically disappeared. A trap-
tree programme at Cold Creek appears to have been quite successful. In June, 1955,
six groups, each consisting of twenty-five trees, were felled at ^-mile intervals. The
trap-trees absorbed heavy populations of bark beetles, whereas no standing trees in the
area were found to have been attacked.
Fully grown larva (or grub) of the Douglas-fir beetle, and adult beetle.
Research projects were continued on ambrosia beetles, the Douglas-fir beetle, the
hemlock looper, insect pathology, and the Douglas-fir needle miner, and studies of the
spruce budworm were started.
Ambrosia-beetle studies were concerned with testing new formulations of insecticides and with fundamental studies on ambrosia-beetle behaviour, attack patterns, distribution of over-wintering populations, and responses of beetles to wood extracts.
Ethylene dibromide added to a stable emulsion of lindane was effective in reducing 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
damage after beetles had entered the wood. Because adult beetles over-winter in the duff
in the area containing infested logs and in the immediately surrounding timber margins,
the hazard to attack in any given setting will probably be influenced by proximity to
logging operations of the preceding year. Extracts of volatile substances removed from
the sap-wood of logs susceptible to ambrosia beetles attracted beetles under certain cage
conditions, whereas extracts from unsusceptible logs failed to do so.
Douglas-fir beetle studies in the Interior are planned to show to what extent various
types of host material—i.e., green standing trees, wind-throws, slash, and cull logs—
affect population increases. In this work the importance of diameter, bark thickness,
density of attack, parasites, predators, and disease on brood survival is being studied.
Investigation of the effect of factors such as light, temperature, humidity, and food
on mating and egg-laying of the western-hemlock looper were undertaken. The need
for understanding how these factors operate is based on the belief that they are critical
influences in promoting outbreaks.
New records were obtained on the distribution and incidence of termites, powder-
post beetles, and carpenter ants. Numerous inquiries were handled for information on
termites and powder-post beetles.
During 1955 a 7-acre tract of land near Victoria was purchased as a proposed site
for a new forest biology laboratory, greenhouses, insectary, and other auxiliary buildings.
A combined workshop and garage is under construction at the Vernon laboratory. One
additional research officer was added to the staff at Victoria, and one administrative
officer position was established, with headquarters at Victoria, to aid in the performance
of administrative functions and in the further development of the work of the Forest
Biology Division in British Columbia. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
83
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
Although no outbreaks of new disease were encountered in 1955, additional reports
of damage from previously known diseases were received. These reports served to
emphasize regional problems of decay in old growth and local problems of various natures
in young growth.
Continued excellent co-operation was experienced from the British Columbia Forest
Service and forest industry in regard to survey and research activities conducted throughout the Province. The Forest Service was most helpful in submitting reports of new or
unusual disease occurrence and in assigning personnel to assist in various co-operative
field activities.
A specially equipped trailer was purchased during the year for use as a field laboratory. This equipment has filled a long-standing need in relation to studies conducted at
locations remote from headquarters and has overcome many of the sampling problems
previously encountered.
Two new projects were initiated during 1955, bringing the total number currently
under consideration to twenty-three. Field activities relating to four projects were terminated.   All projects are listed below.
Project No.
Title of Project
Location
51.01.03
51.01.12a
51.01.12b
51.01.20
51.02.081
51.02.13
51.04.021
51.04.04
51.04.06
51.05.02
51.06.07 >
51.06.09
51.21.01
51.21.07
52.01.01
52.02.01
52.21.02
53.01.0U
53.01.0lB
53.03.031
53.03.42
White-pine blister rust  	
Pole blight of pine (biological studies)-	
Pole blight of pine (progress and control studies)..
Root ecology of white pine  	
Decay in Abies, Kitimat-
Suspect analyses, alpine fir  	
Rhabdocline needle-cast of Douglas flr.-
Poria root-rot of Douglas fir 	
Root ecology of Douglas fir	
Keithia blight of cedar	
Decay in hemlock, Kitimat	
Ecology of Echinodontium  	
Forest-tree rusts..  	
Phytophthora root-rot of cypress-
Forest-disease survey-
Reference collections (culture)..
Hypodermatacea; of conifers..
Damping-off of coniferous seedlings..
Seed microflora	
Hemlock deterioration..
Spruce-balsam deterioration-
Priority of cutting, hemlock forests	
Logging damage, spruce-balsam forests-
Coast-Interior.
Nelson-Kamloops.
Nelson.
Nelson.
Prince Rupert.
Prince George.
Coast-Interior.
Vancouver.
Vancouver.
Vancouver.
Prince Rupert.
Coast-Interior.
Coast-Interior.
Vancouver.
Coast-Interior.
Coast-Interior.
Coast-Interior.
Coast-Interior.
Vancouver.
Vancouver.
Prince George.
Vancouver.
Prince George.
1 Field work terminated.
Publications pertaining to forest-disease conditions in British Columbia distributed
during 1955 included the following:—
McMinn, R. G.: The root system of second-growth Douglas fir.  In Can. Dept.
Agr., For. Biol. Div., Bi-monthly Prog. Rept., 11 (3) :3.   1955.
Salisbury, P. J.:  Parasitism of Phytophthora spp. isolated from root rots of
Port Orford cedar in British Columbia.   In Can. Dept. Agr., For. Biol.
Div., Bi-monthly Prog. Rept., 11 (5) :3-4.   1955.
Ziller, W. G.: Studies of western tree rusts.   II. Melampsora occidentalis and
M. albertensis, two needle rusts of Douglas fir.   Can. J. Bot, 33:177-188.
1955.
Ten interim reports were prepared for regional distribution or technical reference
during 1955.
* Prepared by R. E. Foster, Forest Pathology Unit, Forest Biology Division, Science Service, Canada Department
of Agriculture, Victoria Laboratory. 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST-DISEASE SURVEY
During the year, 2,018 collections of diseased material were submitted to the laboratory for examination. Although many of these submissions duplicated previous collections, additional information of value was gained in relation to host, distribution, and
damage. A number of new records were obtained. Collections on Abies, for example,
included an apparently new species of needle-damaging fungus, a first North American
record of a fungus associated with terminal die-back, a first western North American
record of a needle-cast disease, and a first record for British Columbia of a stem canker-
producing organism. These and other collections received verify the value of the forest-
disease survey in regard to the detection of new and noteworthy diseases.
Mobile trailer unit adapted to meet field-laboratory requirements.
Infection by needle-cast diseases was generally less severe than during 1954. Needle-
cast of larch, caused by Hypodermella laricis v. Tubeuf, appeared to be the only representative of this group causing severe local defoliation. Infection by needle-rusts, on
the other hand, was notably more severe than in previous years. Needle-rust of spruce,
caused by Chrysomyxa ledicola Lagerh., caused appreciable damage throughout the
northern part of the Province, especially on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Needle-rust
of alpine fir, caused by Pucciniastrum epilobii Otth., was responsible for severe defoliation in many parts of the Province, particularly in the vicinity of Smithers, Prince George,
Quesnel, and Kamloops.
An unusual condition of leader damage to Douglas fir was reported in the Nitinat
Valley and at Bear Creek on Vancouver Island. Both affected areas were of high site-
quality, as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of annual leader growth in excess of
3 feet. Toward the end of the growing season, leaders of trees 10 to 20 years of age
were found to wilt and break at the base, resulting in multiple growth and distorted stem
development. In the two areas examined, both involving several hundred acres, as many
as 50 per cent of the trees were damaged. The damage was attributed to a physiological
condition and is believed to be more widespread than presently reported. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
85
Some time was spent in the development of sampling techniques designed to appraise the occurrence and importance of Poria root-rot of Douglas fir on different growing-
sites. Initial steps were also taken in regard to the development of a programme of
periodic inspections of exotic forest plantations. Major attention to date has been
directed to the compilation of essential data relating to the location, species composition,
age, origin, and extent of plantations in the Coast region, but it is planned to extend the
programme to include all important plantations in the Province. Regular surveys can
then be undertaken to detect the possible presence of foreign pathogens and to evaluate
the susceptibility of exotics to native insects and disease.
NURSERY, SEED, AND CONE DISEASES
Studies of root-rot of ornamental cypress were continued. Although this disease
constitutes an important problem in nurseries and outplantings of ornamental Chamai-
cyparis spp., there is no evidence of spread to natural stands of any of the susceptible
native forest-tree hosts.
Damping-off losses remained at an endemic level at all Forest Service nurseries
during 1955. The losses at Duncan, however, approached a significant level, with 11
per cent early and a further 10 per cent late post-emergence damping-off recorded in
check-plots. The presence of Rossilinia needle disease during the winter of 1954 was
responsible for an average cull of 3 per cent of Douglas-fir seedlings at Duncan during
1955. This constitutes the first record of the damaging occurrence of this fungus in
British Columbia.
S-fS-'^-W
.;;: :   :
Shelter built to simulate drought conditions in studies on western white pine
in the Nelson Forest District. 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS
Investigations were continued on Poria weirii root-rot of Douglas fir. A total of
fifteen fir and three cedar were examined in two plantations 10 years of age and in a
natural stand 40 years old. These studies were designed to examine the normal and
abnormal rooting characteristics of fir in pure and mixed stands, and to study the behaviour of root-rot under varying conditions of site and age.    The preliminary analysis
Equipment used in studies to determine the influence of temperature and moisture
on rootlet mortality on western white pine.
of data indicates that the disease is capable of spreading from tree to tree through the
superficial contact of roots as small as 1 centimetre in diameter. Some indication also
was gained that spread might be slower in a mixed stand of fir and cedar than in a
pure stand of fir. Studies are to be continued to verify these and other findings that
may provide a better appreciation of the conditions favouring the development and spread
of root-rot, and hence its control.
Further studies were made of the pole-blight disorder of western white pine.   Additional samples of the roots of healthy and diseased pine were obtained under varying REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
87
conditions of age and site. An experiment was initiated to study the effect of increased
soil temperature on root mortality, and an attempt was made to produce pole-blight
symptoms through the construction of shelters simulating drought conditions. Permanent plots established in 1950-51 in thinned and natural stands affected by pole-blight
were remeasured and analysed during the year to appraise the effects of thinning and
the normal progress of the disease. Thinning was found to be ineffective in retarding
the progress of the disease. Intensification of pole-blight has continued on all sample
plots, and cumulative mortality appears to have reached an important level.
Scions from selections of seven western white pine were grafted and outplanted on
Vancouver Island in connection with studies of resistance to the blister-rust disease.
A total of forty-seven selected trees are now under test. Eight selections of Pinus strobus
received from Ontario also were grafted and planted.
Field work directed to the study of the ecology of the root systems of second-growth
Douglas fir was temporarily postponed during 1955. Field work was terminated on
Rhabdocline needle-cast of Douglas fir and Keithia blight of western red cedar.
DISEASES OF MATURE FORESTS
A project was initiated in spruce-balsam forests in the Prince George Forest District
in co-operation with the Forest Service. This study was designed to appraise logging
and post-logging damage in selectively cut stands. Major attention was directed to the
examination of scars to determine the incidence of decay and volumetric loss. Samples
were obtained of stands with previous selective cutting dates of two, five, and fifteen
years. Additional samples are contemplated in residual stands of different composition,
site, and cutting history.
Field work was initiated on a study of hemlock forests on the west coast of Vancouver Island. This study is intended to develop techniques of possible value in the
orderly removal of mature forests through appreciation of defect, mortality, and succession to less desirable forest growth. Preliminary investigations were carried out at Sarita
River, Franklin River, and Kennedy Lake.
An examination was made of a 120-year-old Douglas-fir stand near Courtenay
reported to have an excessive incidence of butt-rot. The occurrence of excessive cull
was confirmed and traced to the occurrence of basal scars resulting from ground fires
in 1872 and 1896. Fifty-nine per cent of the living firs on three sample plots were
scarred, and of these, 85 per cent were infected with butt-rot. There was evidence,
moreover, of a substantial volumetric loss through wind-throw and breakage, most of
which was attributed to basal decay. These data emphasize the importance of fire scars
as factors contributing to the abnormal development of decay in young stands of merchantable size.
Studies of the Indian-paint fungus were continued in Coast and Interior forests.
Two hundred and fifty temporary plots have been examined to date in a survey to
appraise the habitats associated with varying degrees of occurrence of this fungus.
A number of stands showing substantial loss from this fungus have been discovered in
the Lower Coast region.
Studies of decay in balsam fir and of deterioration in wind-thrown spruce-balsam
forests in the Prince George Forest District were temporarily postponed during 1955. 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
The eighth class enrolled in January, 1955, and is due to graduate in April, 1956.
Although there has been no departure from the curriculum as revised in 1953, there
has been considerable revision in the subject material of many of the courses.
This is a continuing process, made necessary because of the ever-increasing trend
by the Forest Service toward more intensive forest management, with its attendant changes
in policy and administration, all of which directly affect the work of the Forest Ranger.
The task of the School in this connection is, however, greatly assisted by the current
programme of manual revision being carried on by most divisions of the Service, and, in
addition, by the noticeably increased familiarity of the field staff with the more technical
aspects of forestry, which is reflected in the students at the School.
Subjects given during the year were as follows: —
First Term—Spring, 1955
Subject Days Allotted
Scaling  14
Mathematics—Review     5
Surveying—Mapping      6
Mensuration      6
Fire Law—Operation Procedure  16
Preliminary Fire Organization  13
Public Relations—Public Speaking     6
Field-trips, visitors, examinations     6
Total days  72
Second Term—Fall, 1955
Subject Days Allotted
Surveying, Mensuration, Photogrammetry  21
Botany, Dendrology  9
Pathology   3
Entomology  4
Public Relations (including Business English, Personnel Management)   4
Forest Inventory—Mapping  3
Fire Suppression  18
Examinations, field-trips, visitors  9
Total days  72
EXTRA COURSES
A six-day course for lookout-men followed the spring term. Sixteen men completed
the course and later were appointed to stations in the Vancouver Forest District.
During the spring term a three-day course was given to each of two groups of scalers
from the Vancouver District to familiarize them with the functions of the Forest Service
as a whole, together with special subjects relating to their particular work.
BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS
During the summer recess the usual maintenance was carried on, and the painting
of the administration building was completed.
I REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
89
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The co-operation of the Faculty of Forestry of the University of British Columbia,
for the use of their camp facilities and their assistance at the University forest at Haney,
is appreciated. Thanks are due also to lecturers provided by the following agencies:
Forest Pathology and Forest Entomology Units, Science Service, Canada Department of
Agriculture; National Film Board; the St. John Ambulance Society; Air Division, Survey
and Mapping Branch, Lands Service, British Columbia Department of Lands and Forests;
and lecturers from other divisions of the Forest Service. The co-operation of the Forest
Products Laboratory, Canada Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources,
Vancouver, is also acknowledged. 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST ACCOUNTS
During 1955 the value and volume of business dealt with by this Division increased
to record high levels, as will be seen by reference to the various financial tables appearing
elsewhere in this Report.
Revenue was considerably in excess of the amount anticipated, being 28.3 per cent
greater than the total for 1954 and 23.8 per cent greater than that for 1953, which was
the previous record year. This can be attributed to many factors, the chief of these being
the record volume of all forest products cut, the upward revision of sliding-scale stumpage
prices on many existing timber sales due to rising market prices, and increased stumpage
prices bid on new timber sales. Other important factors were the absence of any prolonged forest closures or strikes in the industry which would curtail production. Collections continued at a high rate to the end of the year, and there was no indication of any
significant change in the near future.
In accordance with instructions from the Department of Finance, centralization in
the headquarters Accounts office of expenditure-accounting for all Victoria divisions
was undertaken, commencing October 1st, with absorption of vouchering and payroll-
preparation functions from all divisions to be completed by February 1st, 1956. Preparation of the expenditure section of the accounting manual was in progress, as well as
revision of the existing revenue section.
Issuance of log-salvage permits was accelerated as a result of extension of the Vancouver Log Salvage District, effective December 3rd, to include all waters between
Vancouver Island and the Mainland.   By December 31st, 315 permits had been issued.
Five field auditors were kept fully occupied checking mill records for collection of
selling-price data and unreported scale. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 91
PERSONNEL
ORGANIZATION
Three new Ranger districts were manned during the year—one each at Smithers
and Burns Lake in the Prince Rupert Forest District, and one at Quesnel in the Prince
George Forest District. The new districts were created by splitting former overloaded
districts. A reorganization of the official scaling staff took place with the creation of
four field Scaling Supervisor and two Scaling Dispatcher positions under the direction
of the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent of Scaling, Coast Region.
SERVICES
The functions of personnel administration carried out by the personnel office
remained substantially the same as in the previous year; namely, employment office for
staff recruitment, selection, and placement, and handling of inquiries, correspondence,
and documents regarding employment; information bureau for inquiries regarding location or service of present and former employees; personnel records office; administrative office dealing with leave, retirement, efficiency ratings, establishment control, work-
organization advice, salary, and classification administration; liaison office for resolving
Forest Service personnel matters with the Civil Service Commission and British Columbia
Government Employees' Association; communication centre for instruction, training,
and promulgating of personnel policies and information; employee-counselling service
and personnel-research centre. At the commencement of hearings of the Royal Commission on Forestry in February, a brief on Forest Service organization was presented.
The Personnel Officer continued as a member of the Professional Salaries Board, which
this year drew up a professional employees' classification rating system acceptable to the
Board and the Civil Service Commission. The Board also prepared a brief to the
Government on professional salaries.
During the first seven months of the year a survey was carried out at the direction
of the Government under the supervision of the Civil Service Commission to investigate
organizational and staff efficiency throughout all Government departments. Seconded
to the Civil Service Commission as a team to survey the Forest Service were the Personnel
Officer as Chairman, the Forest Counsel (replacing the Departmental Comptroller, who
was taken ill early in the survey), and a member of the Department of Finance Audit
Branch. The survey team visited all divisional and forest district offices prior to presenting its report at the end of July.
During the year, discussions and negotiations were carried on with the British
Columbia Government Employees' Association in some nine matters of grievance, of
which six were satisfactorily settled and three were still unsettled at the end of the year.
COMMUNICATIONS AND TRAINING
The efforts of the previous year to maintain and develop improved communication
and understanding within the Forest Service were severely curtailed due to the Personnel
Officer's appointment to the Civil Service Commission's staff survey of the Forest Service.
No new issues of "Personnel Notes" were prepared, and staff-change bulletins were
suspended for eight months. No Ranger meetings were attended and no part taken in the
annual Assistant Ranger examinations.
However, personal contacts were partially maintained by attendance at most other
major meetings in the Forest Service. Talks were given at the District Foresters' meeting
and to the Ranger School class. Including the staff-survey visits, thirteen district field-
trips were made, averaging nine days in each forest district, including visits to several
Ranger offices not previously visited. Twenty-one per cent of the Personnel Officer's time
in 1955 was spent in district visits. 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Arrangements were made for thirty-two senior executive and supervisory personnel
to attend a one-day course in Human Relations, Man Management and Supervision
presented through the British Columbia Safety Council and the University Extension
Division. The Personnel Officer attended the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the
Pacific Northwest Personnel Management Association as a panel chairman.
ESTABLISHMENT, RECRUITMENT, AND STAFF TURNOVER
The permanent Civil Service establishment approved for the Forest Service by the
Legislative Assembly for the fiscal year commencing April 1st, 1955, was 804, with one
additional position provided under the Salary Contingencies Vote. This latter position
and five others were approved by Order in Council and filled during the year. During
1955, 148 persons received Civil Service appointments and 122 left the permanent
Service. Two twenty-five-year service badges were presented. There were eight retirements during the year. Forty-two transfers of permanent staff took place. Permanent-
staff turnover for the year averaged 16.1 per cent with heaviest losses in the Prince George
and Prince Rupert areas, followed by Vancouver. There was a 4.2-per-cent turnover in
technical staff, 10-per-cent turnover in professional staff, and 30.5-per-cent turnover of
clerical and draughting staff. Turnover of the latter group in the Prince George District
reached 79.2 per cent by the year-end. The loss of seventeen professional men with an
aggregate of over sixty-seven years' of experience with the Forest Service was seriously
aggravated by extreme difficulty in recruiting, due primarily to non-competitive salaries
offered.
After some years with few fatalities, the Forest Service suffered an unprecedented
year of loss, through fatal accident, of eleven men. Eight were workmen's compensation
cases and three occurred off the job. Of the eight, three were lost in a missing aircraft,
three were drowned, one was killed by a falling snag, and one became lost in the woods
in winter.   Maximum assistance was rendered to dependents.
Some 450 applications for employment were handled by correspondence apart from
Youth Training Camp applications, and many interviews were held with applicants for
work. Written examinations were held for one promotional position, and oral examinations at panel interviews were employed in filling twenty-two positions. The personnel
office also participated in making selections for fifty-eight other Civil Service positions.
At the annual spring examination for Assistant Rangers, 146 candidates sat, of
whom 49 passed.
CLASSIFICATIONS, SALARIES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS
A new classification involving four grades of engineering aide was implemented by
the Civil Service Commission prior to the field season and replaced former grades of
rodmen, chainmen, levelmen, and instrumentmen. New field positions and classifications
were created as a result of reorganization of the Vancouver scaling staff in an effort to
raise scaling standards through improved training and supervision.
Numerous individual position-classification reviews were carried out. Of the sixty-
nine which were submitted to the Civil Service Commission for approval of reclassification, sixty-two were approved, three were rejected, and four were still unresolved at the
year-end. During the year two merit increases were withheld. One dismissal by Order
in Council was required.
Negotiations were carried on for adjustments in Marine Station hourly rates for
tradesmen, and new rates were set for launch personnel, both permanent and casual, and
for all grades of mechanics and mechanical superintendents. Representations were made
to adjust clerical and stenographic rates in the northern districts and Vancouver in
particular to reduce the high turnover of staff. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 93
Effective April 1st, 1955, the Government announced a general policy of a forty-
hour week for most grades previously on a forty-four-hour week. New leave regulations
were approved for outside staffs, permitting proportional leave after one month of service
without a preliminary qualifying period. Overtime regulations and their application to
various groups in the Forest Service which are partially governed by weather and other
conditions of employment were revised, and progress was made in establishing uniform
practices throughout the Service in the matter of standard work-weeks for groups such as
cooks, suppression crews, patrolmen, foremen, and survey parties. Effective January 1st,
1956, the Federal Government granted our requests for the extension of unemployment
insurance coverage to forestry workers, and agreement was reached on the details of this
extension to all Forest Service non-Civil Service employees except casual fire-fighters.
YOUTH TRAINING PROGRAMME
The Youth Training Programme was again responsible for the operation of youth
crews widely distributed throughout the Province. Two crews, each of ten boys, were
assigned to the four Interior forest districts; one crew of ten boys was placed in both the
Aleza Lake and Cowichan Lake Forest Experimental Stations. The Parks and Recreation Division had twelve crews—ten of twelve boys and two of eight boys each. The
crews, for the most part, lived in tents with lumber floors, in which small stoves were
placed to provide warmth and shelter during inclement weather. The food provided was
plain, wholesome, and varied, dependent on the capability of the cook. Each crew
was under the immediate direction and supervision of a foreman, who was responsible
to the forester in charge of the district or division concerned. Tools suitable for woods
and carpentry work are placed at each camp. Transportation was generally of the Vi-ton
pick-up type, with which food and materials were transported as required. It was also
available in cases of emergency. Altogether the Forest Service had 236 youths placed
in twenty-two camps throughout the Province. Funds would not permit employment
of more boys, though 836 applications for employment were received. Fifty of the
applicants were under age.
In the early stages of the project, when crews were established at site of development,
they were given instruction on the various tools to be used—axe, saw, shovel, mattock,
and tools used in rough carpentry work. After this training the boys were put to work
developing picnic-sites, camp-sites, and parks. In addition, some trail and light road
maintenance and construction was carried out. No work of a nature beyond the physical
capabilities of youths of this age-group was attempted. Educational programmes were
conducted as part of the project. The youths were told of the work carried on by the
Forest Service, and a career in the Service was explained to them at both professional
and practical levels.
Recreational periods were arranged weekly in which boating, fishing, swimming,
and games were participated in by the crews. Sport equipment such as quoits, softball,
and volleyball were provided and, where possible, games were arranged in competition
with local teams.
When possible, organized trips were arranged to industrial operations—sawmills,
pulp-mills, mines, and logging operations—to further the boys' knowledge of our industries and resources.
One of the most valuable assets of the programme is to instruct the crew members
in the art of living and working in the woods. Also the blending of the varied personalities into a functional and co-operative group is a very valuable asset in the carrying-out
of the programme. 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Dr. C. D. Orchard _
Hicks, W. V.	
MacLeod, D	
Rhodes, A. E......
Robertson, D	
Cooper, C	
Williams, W. J.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1956
VICTORIA OFFICE
 Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
..Departmental Comptroller.
.Assistant to Comptroller.
.Chief Accountant.
..Assistant Accountant.
.Forest Counsel.
-Personnel Officer.
McKeever, A. E   Assistant Personnel Officer.
F. S. McKinnon.-
Pogue, H. M..
Silburn, G.
.Assistant Chief Forester i/c Technical Planning Branch.
..Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division.
..Forester.
Cliff, H. N Assistant Forester.
Abernethy, G. M Assistant Forester.
Allison, G. W Assistant Forester.
Bradshaw, M. W...
Breadon, R. E	
Browne, J. E	
Calder, C. J	
Highsted, CJ	
Jones, R. C	
Lyons, E. H	
McLaren, J. G.	
Small, P..
Vaughan, E. G.
Wright, N. R.—
Fligg, D. M	
Horth, A	
Leahy, P. M...
Macdougall, D.
-Assistant Forester.
-Assistant Forester.
-Assistant Forester.
-Assistant Forester.
..Assistant Forester.
..Assistant Forester.
..Assistant Forester.
-Assistant Forester.
..Assistant Forester.
-Assistant Forester.
—Assistant Forester.
.Assistant Forester.
..Assistant Forester.
...Assistant Forester.
-Assistant Forester.
McMinn, A. R Assistant Forester.
Robinson, A. B Assistant Forester.
Brahniuk, F   Forester-in-training.
Clouston, R. W Forester-in-training.
Dixon-Nuttall, M. F Forester-in-training.
Elliott, R. J Forester-in-training.
Finding, S. L.
Goddard, W. D.
Jelinek, J. J	
Marshall, J. E.—
Spriggs, W. M..__.
Vyhnanek, J	
West, P. H	
Zachary, M	
Rhodes, C. J. T.Smith, S..
Bailey, W. M	
McKibben, A. M.
Spilsbury, R. H._
Fraser, A. R	
Warrack, G. C...
Decie.T. P..
_Forester-in-training.
.Forester-in-training.
.Forester-in-training.
-Forester-in-training.
..Forester-in-training.
.Forester-in-training.
.Forester-in-training.
-Forester-in-training.
..Chief Draughtsman.
.Chief Clerk.
.Senior Clerk (Compilation).
..Mechanical Superintendent.
.Forester i/c Research Division.
.Assistant Forester (Technical Adviser).
.Assistant Forester (i/c Cowichan Lake Experiment
Station).
-Forester-in-training   (i/c Aleza  Lake  Experiment
Station). REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
95
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Garman, E. H	
Orr-Ewing, A. L..
Clark, M. B.
.Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Assistant Forester (Genetics).
Assistant Forester (Research Officer, Kamloops).
Schmidt, R. L Assistant Forester (Ecology).
Finnis, J. M Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Borzuchowski, R Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Stewart, M Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Arlidge, J. W. C...
Knight, H. A. W...
Prochnau, A	
Roberts, E. A...
Hellenius, R. A	
Goward, Miss R Clerk.
_ Forester-in-training (Ecology).
..Forest Agrologist (Soils).
..Forest Agrologist (Silviculture).
Foreman, Cowichan Lake Experiment Station.
.Foreman, Aleza Lake Experiment Station.
McWilliams, H. G.
Bamford, A. H	
Whiting, E. G	
Grainger, W. D...
.Forester i/c Reforestation Division.
Assistant Forester.
.Assistant Forester.
.Assistant Forester (Cranbrook).
Berg, W. E Nursery Superintendent (Cranbrook).
Long, J. R Nursery Superintendent (Duncan).
Turner, W Nursery Superintendent (Quinsam).
Wells, T Nursery Superintendent (Green Timbers).
Piatt, L. V Technical Forest Assistant.
Oldham, E. G.
Velay, C. J..._
Brooks, L	
Ahrens, R. H.
Edwards, R. Y.Shaw, D. A	
Rolls, W. E	
Lyons, C. P	
McGowan, E. A.
Ritcey, R	
Hartman, F	
Lowrey, R	
Macnab, G. F	
Taylor, G. D...
Macmurchie, D. L...
Boyd, R. H	
Cook, L. E	
Johansen, O. N	
Fenner, C. A	
McFarland, F. J	
Rainbow, F	
Kristjanson, S. J	
Nicholson, C. S	
Darkis, C	
Hall, J	
Holme, W	
Stephinson, C.
Lewis, C	
Nielsen, C	
Guthrie, S	
Rosen, T	
R.
Green, D. E	
Moore, J. W	
Shaw, L. A	
Heggie, W. R. C.
Park, S. E	
—Forester i/c Parks and Recreation Division.
...Assistant to Forester i/c.
-Assistant Forester (i/c Planning).
-Assistant Forester (i/c Reconnaissance and Inventory).
...Research Assistant (i/c Wildlife).
...Assistant Engineer (i/c Operations).
...Assistant Engineer (i/c Engineering and Design).
...Assistant Forester (Special Projects).
...Assistant Engineer (Office Engineer).
..Resident Biologist (Tweedsmuir Park).
...Resident Forester (Wells Gray Park).
...Assistant Forester (Planning).
...Assistant Forester (Reconnaissance and Inventory).
..Research Assistant (Reconnaissance and Inventory).
...Technical Forest Assistant (Administration).
..Park Officer (Manning Park).
.Park Officer (Wells Gray Park).
.Park Officer (Mount Seymour Park).
..Park Officer (Garibaldi Park).
-Park Officer (Cultus Lake Park).
..Park Officer (Miracle Beach Park).
-Park Officer (Peace Arch Park).
..Park Officer (Mount Robson Park).
..Supervisor (Vancouver Island Parks).
...Park Officer (Elk Falls Park).
...Park Officer (Little Qualicum Falls Park).
..Park Officer (Stamp Falls Park).
...Park Officer (John Dean Park).
...Park Officer (Englishman River Falls Park).
...Park Officer (Ivy Green Park).
..Park Officer (Roberts Creek Park).
...Park Officer (Tweedsmuir Park).
...Project Foreman.
...Foreman (Langford Workshop).
-Clerk (Accounts and Records).
...Clerk (attached from Public Relations and Education) . 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Hughes, W. G Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
Carey, D. M Assistant Forester (Public Working Circles).
Burrows, I. R Assistant Forester (Management Licences).
Young, W Assistant Forester (Management Licences, Working Plans Analysis).
Tannhauser, J. R Assistant Forester (General).
Judd, P. H Assistant Forester (Farm Wood-lots, Tree-farms).
Mellander, C. P . Clerk.
Druce, E Forester i/c Public Relations and Education
Division.
Monk, D. R Public Relations Officer.
Golding, R. C. T Photographer.
Jones, T. C Technical Forest Assistant (School Lecturer).
Hall, R. F Technical Forest Assistant (School Lecturer).
Guthrie, Mrs. I. V Forest Service Library.
Foord, M. W Clerk (Motion-picture Library).
R. G. McKee Assistant   Chief   Forester   i/c   Operations
Branch.
Stokes, J. S Forester i/c Management Division.
Marling, S. E Forester.
Hope, L. S Forester.
Reid, J. A. K Assistant Forester (Appraisals).
Corregan, R. W Assistant Forester.
Bancroft, H. C Assistant Forester.
Collins, A. E Assistant Forester (Cover Maps).
Glew, D. R Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
Axhorn, C. P Chief Clerk (General).
Chisholm, A Chief Clerk (Timber Sale Administration).
Pendray, W. C Agrologist i/c Grazing Division.
Greggor, R. D Forester i/c Engineering Services Division.
Crowe, A. B Mechanical Superintendent.
Gilbert, H. F Assistant Mechanical Superintendent.
Playfair, G. A Radio Superintendent.
Chorlton, D. J Assistant Radio Superintendent.
Taylor, J. H Superintendent of Construction.
Paynter, J. W Technical Draughtsman.
Slaney, F. F Chief Engineer.
Hemphill, P. J. J Construction Engineer.
White, R. G Assistant Engineer.
Doyle, P Assistant Engineer.
Williams, C. P Assistant Engineer.
Waelti, H Assistant Engineer.
Nordlund, K. N Assistant Engineer.
Bryant, R. F Assistant Engineer.
Scarisbrick, R. G Design Engineer.
Gower, L. E Assistant Engineer.
Thomas, R. D Surveys Engineer.
Jacobsen, J. M Assistant Engineer.
Forsberg, R. H Assistant Engineer.
MacDonald, R. L Assistant Engineer.
Kelly, R. L Engineering Assistant.
Adams, D. J . Draughtsman.
Johnson, F. E Technical Forest Assistant (Land Titles).
Foxgord, J. E Senior Clerk.
Hill, H. H Superintendent, Forest Service Marine Station.
Shaw, W. H Clerk, Forest Service Marine Station. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
97
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Dixon, A. H Forester i/c Ranger School (New Westminster).
Kirk, A. J Assistant to the Forester in Charge.
Pedley, J. A Forester (Special Duties).
Finlayson, D.A Clerk.
Cameron, I. T. Forester i/c Protection Division.
Nelson, F. H Forest Protection Officer.
Henning, W. G Assistant Forester.
Moyes, E. A Assistant Forester (Research).
Turner, J. A Meteorologist.
Stringer, A Chief Clerk.
VANCOUVER DISTRICT
D. B. Taylor District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B Assistant District Forester.
McRae, N. A. (Management);  Charnell, G. S.;
Hubbard, T.;  Johnston, G. R.;  Gill, R. G.;
Tuttle, W. F.; Williams, F. S.; Webb, R. A._...Assistant Foresters.
Holmberg,   J.   H.    (Operations);    Neil,   P.;
Haddon, C. D. S.; Morrison, R. H; Owen,
D. H Forest Protection Officers.
HIady, E.;  Scholefield, A.;  Rogers, G Foresters-in-training.
Robinson, J. H.; Tannock, F.; Wagner, C. J Ranger Supervisors.
Evans, C Mechanical Supervisor.
Armstrong,   C.   L.   (Superintendent);    Munn,
H. A. D. (Assistant) Scalers.
Marriott,   G.   L.;    McNary,   E.   C;   Clutter-
buck, F Inspectors of Licensed Scalers and Export.
Coles, L.; Galbraith, G. A Scaling Dispatchers.
Dunn, H. J Tabulating Supervisor.
Benwell, S. A Chief Clerk.
Barrett, R. J. (Chilliwack); Ginnever, A. F. W.
(Hope);  Wilson, R. (Harrison Lake);  Rockwell,   I.   (Mission);   Aylett,   R.  W.   (Port
Moody);    Henderson,   J.   E.   (Squamish);
Chamberlin, L. C. (Sechelt);  Briggs, B. T.
(Madeira Park); Jones, R. W. (Powell River);
Winslow, J. R. (Lund);   McKinnon, C. G.
(Thurston Bay E.); Webster, J. B. (Thurston Bay W.);  Greenhouse, J. P. (Chatham
Channel); Bell, P. A. (Echo Bay); Anton-
elli, M. W. (Alert Bay);  Lorentsen, L. H.
(Port Hardy);  Hollinshead, S., and Carra-
dice,    J.    (Ranger—Grade    1)     (Campbell
River);   Silke, S.  (Courtenay);   Glassford,
R. J.  (Parksville);   Haley, K.  (Nanaimo);
Rawlins,   W.   P.   (Duncan);   Frost,   S.   C.
(Ganges);    Mudge,    M.    H.    (Langford);
Morley, K. A.  (Lake Cowichan);   Brooks,
F. T. (Alberni); Ormond, L. D. (Tofino) Rangers. 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT
P. Young District Forester.
Bennett, C. E Assistant District Forester.
Knight, E. (i/c Management); Morton, W. D.
(Management, Cruising); Grant, D. T. (Protection  Planning);   Schutz,  A.  C.   (Public
Working Circles);  Gilmour, J. (Silvicultur-
ist);  Munro, J. F. (Management Licences).... Assistant Foresters.
Strimbold, S. T Forest Protection Officer.
McDonald, J. A. D.  (Operations);   Waddell,
J. K. (Management) Foresters-in-training.
Campbell, W. H.  (Management Appraisals);
Dahlie, C. (Project Supervisor) Technical Forest Assistants.
Whitehouse, W. D.;  Smith, D. R Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Pavlikis, N. A Scaler.
MacPherson, A. C.  (Coast);   Antilla, W. A.
(Interior) Ranger Supervisors.
Thompson, H. W Mechanical Supervisor.
Smith, C. V Chief Clerk.
Mackie,  B. A.   (Ocean Falls);   Tourand,  A.
(Queen   Charlotte   City);    Brooks,   R.   L.
(Prince  Rupert);   Taft,  L.  G.   (Terrace);
Hamblin, R. A.  (Kitwanga);   Petty, A. P.
(Hazelton); Mould, J. (Smithers N.); Clay,
W. D. (Smithers S.); Keefe, J. J. (Houston);
Kullander, M. O. (Pendleton Bay); Gibson,
C.  L.   (Burns Lake N.);   Hesketh,  F.  G.
(Burns Lake  S.);   Lindstrom,  W.   (South-
bank); Pement, A. R. (Atlin) Rangers.
PRINCE GEORGE DISTRICT
W. C. Phillips District Forester.
Young, W. E. L Assistant District Forester.
Bruce, J. B. (i/c Management); Mason, N. V.
(Silviculture); Trew, D. M. (Management
Licences); Selkirk, D. R. (Public Working
Circles); Isenor, M. G. (i/c Protection);
Sutton, R. C. (Protection) Assistant Foresters.
Robbins, R. W. (Management); Talbot, G. P.
(Management); Armit, D. (Management);
Decie, T. P. (Research, Aleza Lake Experiment Station) Foresters-in-training.
Willington, L. A. (Protection); Reaugh, I. F.
(Stand Treatment); Thomas, P. R.; Nor-
heim, B., and Sandborg, C. W. (Working
Circles); Flynn, D. M. (Cruising) Forest Assistants.
Layton, H. R.; Threatful, N Inspectors of Scalers.
MacKenzie, R. A.; Smith, W. W Ranger Supervisors.
Galinis, J Radio Technician.
Watts, C Mechanical Supervisor.
Carter, R. B Chief Clerk.
French, C. L. (McBride); Baker, F. M.
(Penny); Kerr, R. D. (Prince George);
Moen, A. E. (Prince George); Northrup,
K. A. (Fort St. James); Kuly, A. (Quesnel);
Barbour, H. T. (Pouce Coupe); Bailey, J. D.
(Aleza Lake); Graham, G. W. (Vander-
hoof); Cosens, A. S. (Fort St. John); McQueen, L. (Fort Fraser); Irwin, K. L. (Summit Lake); Meents, G. E. (Quesnel); Angly,
R. B. (Prince George); Anderson, O. J.
(Hixon); Mitchell, B. A. (Quesnel); Thor-
ston, S. H. (Quesnel) Rangers. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
99
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT
L. F. Swannell..
Johnston, J. R.
Robinson, E. W. (i/c Management)	
Kerr, M. L. (Management, Timber Sales); Robinson, J. L. (Management, Timber Sales);
Robson, P. E. (Management, Timber Sales);
Neighbor, B. E. (Christmas Trees, Farm
Wood-lots); Parlow, A. L. (i/c Silviculture);
Milner, L. J. (Silviculture); Lehrle, L. W. W.
(Management Licences); Groner, A. (Working Plans); Bodman, P. B. (Operations);
Broadland, T. R. (Recreation Officer); Clark,
M. B.  (Research Officer);   Boulton, G. B.
(Management, Timber Sales)	
Johnson, I. B. (i/c Protection); Noakes, H. S..
DeBeck, H. K. (i/c Grazing); Wallace, M. T.;
Smith, E. R.;  Pringle, R.;  Murray, W. K. _...
Mayson, H. G.  (Operations);   Gibbs, T. L.
(Operations);    Downing,   C.   R.   (Silviculture); Huffman, C. H. (Marking)	
Charlesworth, E. A.; Hewlett, R. C	
Fraser, D. P.; McGuire, C. L; Specht, A. F....
Stewart, W. J	
Cowan, W. P	
District Forester.
..Assistant District Forester.
Forester.
.Assistant Foresters.
.Forest Protection Officers.
Assistant Forest Agrologists.
Forest Assistants.
.Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
.Ranger Supervisors.
.Mechanical Supervisor.
Chief Clerk.
Specht, G. H. (Lumby); McKenna, L. J. (Birch
Island); Noble, J. (Barriere); Paquette, O.
(Chase); Boydell, J. (Salmon Arm); Jones,
G. G. (Sicamous); Cameron, A. G. (Lillooet) ; Johnson, M. A. (Vernon); Scott,
E. L. (Penticton); Dearing, J. H. (Princeton); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Petersen,
K. N. (Kamloops N.); Cawston, J. B. (Williams Lake); Hamilton, T. J. (Alexis
Creek); Hewlett, H. C. (Kelowna); Cook,
L. E. (Wells Gray Park); Williams, R. V.
(Merritt); Hill, A. F. (Blue River); Collins,
B. G. (Enderby); Boyd, R. H. (Manning
Park); DeWitt, D. O. (100 Mile House N.);
Campbell, H. W. (Kamloops S.); Weinard,
J. P. (Horsefly); Hammer, H. B. (100 Mile
House S.)	
Rangers. 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
NELSON DISTRICT
H. B. FORSE..
.District Forester.
(To be appointed) Assistant District Forester.
Payne, J. C. (Management); Waldie, R. A.
(Management); Hall, J. G. (Management,
Working Circles); Bishop, W. G. (Management Licences) Assistant Foresters.
Couling, H. L Forest Protection Officer.
Gavin, H. C. R. (Management, Cruising);
Hepper, W. H. (Recreation Officer); Hough,
W. S. (Management); Joyce, J. F. (Management); Grainger, W. I. (Christmas
Trees).
Milroy, J. E	
Bawtree, A. H	
Barnes, J. N. (Operations); Malenka, D. (Management, Cruising); Chase, L. A. (Protection) ; Fisher, S. F. (Management, Cruising) ; Palethorpe, G. C. (Protection); Sand-
berg, H. (Management, Christmas Trees);
Burbidge, M. (Public Working Circles)	
Killough, J. F.; Hill, F. R.
-Foresters-in-training.
Assistant Forest Agrologist.
Forest Agrologist-in-training.
Christie, R. O.;  MacDonald, J. P.;  Kettleson,
O. J	
Lees, J	
Koski, V._
-Technical Forest Assistants.
Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Hopkins, H. V. (Invermere); Humphrey, J. L.
Fernie); Connolly, J. (Golden); Gierl, J. B.
(Cranbrook E.); Ross, A. I. (Creston);
Stilwell, L. E. (Kaslo); Ben well, W. G.
(Lardeau); Larsen, A. J. (Nelson); Robinson, R. E. (New Denver); Raven, J. H.
(Nakusp); Wood, H. R. (Castlegar); Reid,
E. W. (Grand Forks); Uphill, W. T. (Kettle
Valley); Cartwright, G. M. (Canal Flats);
Old, F. G. (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. G.
(Edgewood); Jupp, C. C. (Elko); Reaney,
R. J. C. (Spillimacheen); Bailey, J. F. (Cranbrook W.); Ivens, J. H. (Beaverdell); Webster, G. R. (Slocan City); Jackson, R. C.
(Revelstoke)	
.Ranger Supervisors.
-Mechanical Supervisor.
-Chief Clerk.
Rangers. APPENDIX  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955 103
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
General
Table No. Page
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1955  105
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1946-55  106
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1946-55  107
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1946-55  107
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.), 1946-55  108
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1954-55,
(A) inF.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  109
7. Species Cut, All Products, 1955, (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet-  110
8. Total Scale of All Products,  1955  (Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts), (A) inF.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  111
9. Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1955 (by Months and Forest Districts)  112
10. Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced Royalty and Stumpage,
1948-55, in M Cubic Feet  114
11. Number of Acres Managed and Operated under Approved Working Plans,
1946-55  115
12. Total Scale of All Products from Managed Lands, 1946-55  115
13. Logging Inspection, 1955  116
14. Trespasses, 1955  116
15. Pre-emption Inspections, 1955  116
16. Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land
Act," 1955  117
17. Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1955—  117
18. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1955  117
19. Timber-sale Record, 1955  117
20. Timber Sales Awarded by Forest Districts, 1955  118
21. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-timber
Cruised on Timber Sales in 1955, per C CF. Log-scale  119
22. Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
timber Scaled on Timber Sales in 1955, (A) per MB.F. Log-scale, (B)
per C CF. Log-scale  120
23. Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1955  121
24. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1955  122
25. Export of Logs (inF.B.M.), 1955  122
26. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1955 123
27. Summary for Province, 1955  123
28. Timber Marks Issued, 1946-55  124
29. Forest Service Draughting Office, 1955  124 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Finance
Table No. Page
30. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as Compiled from
Taxation Records  125
31. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  125
32. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records  125
33. Forest Revenue  126
34. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1955  127
35. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1954-55—  128
36. Forest Revenue,  (A)  Fiscal Year 1954-55,  (B)  Fiscal Years  1936-37 to
1954-55 129-130
37. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1954-55  130
38. Scaling Fund  131
39. Silviculture Fund  131
40. Forest Reserve Account  131
41. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  132
42. Forest Development Fund  132
43. Forest Protection Fund  133
44. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1955,
by the Forest Service  134
45. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by Other Agencies,
1955 .  135
Forest Protection
46. Summary of Snag-falling, 1955, Vancouver Forest District  135
47. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1955, Vancouver Forest District  135
48. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1955, Vancouver Forest District 136
49. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1955, Vancouver Forest District  136
50. Summary of Operations, 1955, Vancouver Forest District  137
51. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1955, Vancouver Forest District __  137
52. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-55  138
53. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1955  138
54. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1955  138
55. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years   139
56. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1955  139
57. Damage to Property other than Forests, 1955  139
58. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1955  140
59. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1955  140
60. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  141
61. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1955  141
62. Prosecutions, 1955  142
63. Burning Permits, 1955  142
Ranger School
64. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1955  143
Public Relations
65. Motion-picture Library  143
66. Forest Service Library  144
Grazing
67. Grazing Permits Issued  144
68. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  144 (I)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
Distribution of Personnel, 1955
105
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Prince
Rupert
George
2
2
8
12
1
2
3
14
17
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
4
1
2
3
30
23
2
1
4
24
29
2
7
14
38
2
1
1
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
14
2
2
10
62
2
2
21
1
2
3
23
2
2
1
7
3
15
4
12
	
112
4
3
37
23
119
5
51
5
42
4
8
2
45
15
4
64
Total
Continuously Employed
Chief Forester, Assistant Chief Foresters, and Division
Foresters.
Forest Counsel and Personnel Officer	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters-
Foresters and Assistant Foresters 	
Agrologists and Assistants	
Engineers and Assistants  —
Forest Protection Officers 	
Supervisor of Rangers	
Rangers..
Supervisor of Scalers and AssistantS-
Scalers, Official-
Sealers, Official, temporary and students.—
Comptroller and Audit Assistants 	
Engineering, Mechanical and Radio-
Technical Forest and Public Relations Assistants _
Reforestation, Parks, Research, and Survey Assistants.
Nursery Superintendents  -	
Draughtsmen-
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers  _
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
Station   ._ 	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians- _
Launch Crewmen   	
Assistant and Acting Rangers..
Dispatchers..
Cruisers, Compassmen, and Marking Crewmen-
Truck and Tractor Operators  	
Foremen   	
Miscellaneous 	
Total, continuous personnel .
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers	
Patrolmen   	
Lookoutmen    —
Dispatchers and Radio Operators..
Fire-suppression Crewmen-
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc..
Cruisers and Compassmen	
Truck and Tractor Operators... 	
Student and Survey Assistants	
Silvicultural Crewmen	
Foremen  	
Youth Training Programme-
Miscellaneous  	
Total, seasonal personnel-
Total, all personnel	
2
10
4
3
28
6
53
65
6
94
2
14
37
19
18
4
1
1
373
14
3
32
5
70
9
16
150
117
83
148
5
5
5
5
17
19
1
2
4
5
6
3
3
2
20
20
24
6
523    |      200    |     217
!
I
2
13
5
2
3
23
2
4
28
37
6
24
164
15
49
9
1
17
10
20
11
338
134
4
14
37
16
32
6
20
6
151    |
402
1
15
160
" 5
176
122
285    I   1,488
14
2
10
115
9
21
10
14
107
14
55
69
7
31
30
115
4
55
317
5
58
23
169
38
104
49
18
72
599    |   1,535
36
37
135
41
151
402
13
44
161
20
35
256
185
1,516
3,051 106
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h REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
109
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia
during Years 1954 and 1955 in F.B.M.
(6A)
(All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
1954
1955
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
3,674,155,996
323,824,921
3,595,748,638
335,893,492
78,407,358
12,068,571
Totals, Coast
3,997,980,917
3,931,642,130
66,338,787
179,203,994
446,033,592
618,255,759
325,948,345
216,145,984
609,359,407
893,391,529
458,662,838
36,941,990
163,325,815
275,135,770
132,714,493
1,569,441,690
2,177,559,758
608,118,068
5,567,422,607
6,109,201,888
541,779,281
541,779,281
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia
during Years 1954 and 1955 in Cubic Feet
= lcu. ft.)
<6B)
(All products converted to cubic measure.)
Forest District
1954
1955
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
612,359,333
53,970,820
599,291,440
55,982,248
13,067,893
Prince Rupert (C.) 	
2,011,428
Totals, Coast
666,330,153
655,273,688
11,056,465
31,165,912
77,571,060
107,522,741
56,686,669
37,590,606
105,975,549
155,372,440
79,767,450
6,424,694
28,404,489
47,849,699
23,080,781
272,946,382
378,706,045
105,759,663
939,276,535
1,033,979,733
94,703,198 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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2 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
111
(8A)
Total Scale of All Products, 1955, in F.B.M. (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
Timber licences.
Timber berths —
Timber leases —
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences
Hand-loggers' licences .
Farm wood-lots -	
Timber sales 	
Pulp-timber sales. 	
No mark visible	
Management licences-
Miscellaneous 	
733,355.
84,821.
136,837
35,866
13,961
25
331.
1,106,607
86,807
59,022
46,837
11,722,815
38,235
1,145,204
21
6311	
886|100.
 I 98.
8051 —
462| 25.
513|    7
279,900|.
477,966|
113,8511
970,253|139,632,905
550,0911	
542,004,604
863,1081 51
632,624| 2
080,380
939,973
10,795,021
7,327,217
I
3,316,446) 36,523,692
10,012,269
9,889
685,992,067
18,087,913
5,159,274
Sub-totals, Crown lands.
Federal lands 	
Crown grants—
To 1887 	
1887-1906 	
1906-1914 	
1914 to date	
2,304,476.
32,994:
1,035,399
66,274
37,766,
118,838,4191  11
383!312,610,608|193,i
030|    6,100,508
|
,005]
,015|
7861
691,493
224,891
561,272,046j722,577,858
16,279,212
857,2811
,406,662|
,518,718|
,399,715|
367,279
,774,897
,087,424
573,310
645,069
3,643,694
43,225,288
13,226,924
427,861
294,732,073
29,876,201
3,809,343
786,102,370
108,060,489
137,265,837
68,146,795
49,439,025
139,733
341,520
2,869,939,788
98,550,091
86,807,805
194,725,085
73,705,944
378,596,094)4,473,224,482
1,447,504]     64,046,145
33,461,273 2,669,233 jl,072,960,102
16,232,4571 42,111,183|    129,036,665
26,476,389| 12,653,385!     88,833,869
78,364,340J 21,185,439!   281,100,625
Totals.
3,595,748,6381335,893,4921216,145,984
I I
609,359,407|893,391,529|458,662,838|6,109,201,888
I I I
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Government is shown
under the heading " Federal Lands."
N.B.—For details of material actually scaled in cubic feet and units of measurement other than f.b.m., see Table 9.
Total Scale of All Products, 1955, in Cubic Feet (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
(8B) (Conversion factor:   Coast—6 f.b.m. = l cu. ft.;   Interior—5.75 f.b.m.-rl cu. ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Prince
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
1
m.225.996      1.953.803
6,650
I
199.166         576.773
6,351,946
2,300,335
74,411
131,314,334
14,136,883
22,806,329
5,977,816
2,326,843
4,314
55,272
184,434,648
14,467,968
1,741,264
18,178,482
22,880,740
5,379,983
11,357,799
5,912,994
18,975
16,828,376
8,239,837
23,289
24,283,983
94,261,670
1,720
119,302,968
56,992
51,257,752
490,369,397
14,467,968
16,425,015
16,425,015
9,837,077
7,806,252
4.310.518
8.883.544
1.877.395
3.145.724
5.195,861
662,494
33,250,119
1,272,104|       511,300
1,274,299]       897,265
12,423,714
Sub-totals, Crown lands..
384,079,398
5,499,005
172,566,501
11,045,669
6,294,465
19,806,403
52,101,768| 33,685,477
1.016.7511     1.256.503
97,612,530
125,665,714
2,831,167
5.819.352
65,842,799
251,740
464,214
7,323,684
2,200,589
3,684,424
758,987,686
10,855,166
Crown grants—■
To 1887   	
142,880
567,777
253.119
99.706
179,092,653
1887-1906	
1906-1914.	
	
63,875
1.178.243
112,1861    2,823,036
633,6861    4,604,590
7,517,441    13,628,581
21,936,227
15,164,692
1914 to date	
1,899,953|    1,406,508
47,943,310
Totals 	
599,291,441
55,982,248] 37,590,606
1
105,975,549|155,372,440| 79,767,450
1
1,033,979,734
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Government is shown
under the heading " Federal Lands."
N.B.—For details of material actually scaled in units of measurement other than cubic feet, see Table 9. 112
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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H 114 department of lands and forests
Volume of Wood Removed under Relogging at Reduced
(10> Royalty and Stumpage, 1948-55, in M Cubic Feet
Salvage Wood Salvage Wood
(MCu. Ft.) (MCu. Ft.)
1948  727      1953 1,053
1949  549      1954 1,888
1950  324      1955  1,209
1951  420 	
1952  732 Total 6,902 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
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(13)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Logging Inspections, 1955
Forest District
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, 1955-  	
Totals, 1954- 	
Totals, 1953 	
Totals, 1952	
Totals, 1951 	
Totals, 1950	
Totals, 1949 	
Totals, 1948	
Totals, 1947	
Totals, 1946.  	
Ten-year average, 1946-55-
Type of Tenure Operated
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
Totals
Number of
Inspections
1,377
882
1,506
2,330
723
1
2
1,484
321
478
1,760
630
2,862
1,205
1,984
4,017
1,353
10,300
1,618
3,159
2,079
5,199
6,818
3
4,673
11,421
22,355
5,855
3
4,874
10,732
21,011
5,851
3
4,859
10,711
20,656
5,822
6
5,710
11,458
20,264
5,448
6
4,766
10,220
17,754
5,189
6
3,812
9,007
16,221
6,405
7
4,440
10,852
15,483
4,847
5
3,982
8,834
15,432
4,428
5
3,190
7,623
13,876
3,627
6
3,021
6,654
12,974
5,429
5
4,333
9,751
17,603
(14)
Trespasses, 1955
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58
105
123
79
558
722
1,428
2,474
916
1,717,588
444,990
1,234,534
603,354
218,239
10,252
52,695
321,377
34,106
39,996
19
1
1,566
21
175
630
50
66,975
	
	
$82,216.92
$26,411.78
3
1
$30,704.08
3,244
1,575
4,032
$50,185.21
158
10,806
$22,665.50
Totals, 1955
499
6,098
4,218,705
458,426
1,607|     963[14,100| 66,975| 5,607
4
$212,183.49
  .
Totals, 1954
463
5,910
4,373,368
266,856
270| 5,083114,914] 119,364] 9,750
7
$198,220.15
Totals, 1953	
446
10,188
4,072,874
466,401
230,636
2,917| 6,335|16,314|116,368|30,663
4
$221,000.12
Totals, 1952	
419
5,768
372,788
24,247,327
272,770
1.147| 5,237|10,921|227,267| 3,991
13
$312,774.33
Totals, 1951
454
5,999
24,545,775
159,064
1,779|20,976|28,121
13,325
41
$237,588.00
	
Totals, 1950	
276
3,072
 |12,753,405
360,190
1,475]  1,806| 6,312] 75,309| 7,550
16
$87,589.23
Totals, 1949    .
418
4,132
20,419,563
244,655
1,2981 3,514| 9,022| 34,070| 8,785
28
$81,923.27
Totals, 1948   	
312
3,062
11,738,855
470,674
3,569|18,211] 3,711| 11,135] 4,100
8
$59,654.37
Totals, 1947	
316
5,132
 |17,234,601
659,621
5,5991 5,235115,416|439,554] 17,506
15
$74,761.43
Totals, 1946   	
226
2,568
7,084,343
1,760,574
1,469] 2,900|10,148| 41,377(35,997
8
$27,530.63
Ten-year average,
1946-55 	
383
5,193
3,259,4341|14,811,284i
1
488,347
!      1      1       1
2,113   7,026|12,898|113,142]13,727
1           1             1
14
$151,322.50
1 Cubic feet—four-year average
(15)
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert
feet t
Pre-
.m.—eight-year average.
emption Inspections,
1955
5
Total.
5 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
117
(16)
Areas Examined by the Forest Service for Miscellaneous
Purposes of the "Land Act," 1955
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
1
1
40
395
1
12
9
799
690
22
15
517
503
35
25
1,356
146
1,734
Totals	
2
435
1
146
21
1,489
37    |       1,020
60
3,090
(17)
Classification of Areas Examined by the Forest Service, 1955
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-
agricultural
Land
Merchantable
Timber
Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land
Acres
1,356
1,734
Acres
37
190
Acres
1,319
1,544
Acres
153
608
M F.B.M.
1,036
8,475
Totals 	
3,090
227
2,863
761
9,511
(18)
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1955
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pol=«
Piip<j          <_ora-
<T in Ft 1       wood
(Lin. Ft.)     (Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes.
Posts,
Shakes,
etc.
(No.)
Saw-
timber
(MCu.
Ft.)
954
580
696
787
337
148,552
100,457
206,907
426,681
195,389
70,624 |      6,266
2,058,540 |      4,222
164,610 j   —
6,620
20,655
115,750
35,000
400
355,743
Prince Rupert	
100,751
263,562
6,093,670 1      1,485
1,498,007  |      4,846
205,400
261,020
286,736
Nelson. 	
2,500
124,729
Totals, 1955 _	
3,354
1,077,986
9,885,451  |    16,819
145,525
501,820
1,131,521
Totals, 1954
3,085
781,665
10,532,164 |    76,859
76,310
1,127,346
697,421
Totals, 1953
2,579
719,234
12,887,882 |    12,328
141,313
694,182
561,601
Totals, 1952	
2,340
1,029,199
2,543,890 | 40,005,329 |    13,405
989,144
518,652
1,188,361
Totals, 1951. 	
2,704
934,475
6,577,298 | 20,674,280 |    25,630
316,954
432,000
Totals, 1950—  	
2,196
333,435
1,777,025  |    7,388,875  |    24,522
123,091
352,440
Totals, 1949 	
1,638
269,576
1,355,342 |    9,599,176 |    57,002
170,475
738,510
Totals, 1948-   .	
1,851
346,648
1,817,737  |    7,603,641  |    44,726
180,602
1,947,010
Totals, 1947  .—
1,960
361,834
1,481,715 | 23,015,436 |    50,346
299,501
1,064,125
	
Totals, 1946 	
2,059
362,587
1,230,716 [ 40,760,769 |    90,078
216,892
2,718,706
	
Ten-year average, 1946-55..
2,377
621,664
2,397,675! | 18,235,300 |    41,172
i                      1
265,981
1,009,479
894,7261
1 M B.M.—seven-year average; M cu. ft.—four-year average.
(19)
Timber-sale Record, 1955
Forest District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Sales
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Area Paying
Forest Protection Tax
(Acres)
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver 	
709
554
662
808
397
668
406
446
519
337
1,957
1,516
1,576
2,268
1,054
459,302
340,255
449,098
1,032,254
508,748
387,568
321,012
397,601
1,022,657
496,131
$4,223,791.79
864,904.91
1,360,194.82
2,829,383.75
1,482,230.28
Prince George  -
Totals	
3,130
242
2,376
8,371
2,789,657
2,624,969
$10,760,505.55
Cash sales—	
Total sales 	
3,372 118
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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3,121,200.42
5,555,938.97
11,394,315.78
6,685,498.03
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(24)
department of lands and forests
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1955
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
M B.F.1
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.F.i
Vancouver  	
359
323
730
735
342
9,679
3,009
6,060
5,766
3,502
67
1,734
5
65
100
46
92
81
85
480
317
459
540
489
1
4
3
19
Totals, 1955	
2,489
28,016
72
1,804
404
2,285
3
19
Totals, 1954 	
2,346
25,602
57
1,108
367
2,281
13
22
Totals, 1953- 	
2,413
23,300
59
1,121
286
2,186
12
47
Totals, 1952 	
2,223
23,433
59
1,173
332
2,092
24
117
Totals, 1951 ....
2,100
21,748
60
1,169
294
1,474
16
78
Totals, 1950—	
1,826
19,143
65
1,234
234
1,462
11
25
Totals, 1949 	
1,671
19,082
61
1,101
314
2,373
17
73
Totals, 1948  	
1,671
18,570
68
1,209
179
840
11
51
Totals, 1947 	
1,634
17,546
73
1,230
143
754
6
14
Totals, 1946 	
1,228
15,256
59
1,238
115
741
8
24
Ten-year average, 1946-55
1,960
21,170
63
1,239
267
1,649
12
47
1 Capacity of shingle-mills formerly shown in M shingles now shown in M B.F.
<25)                               Export of
Logs (in
F.B.M.), 1955
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir                                      	
3,380
538,113
946
321,366
1,571,445
2,833,424
30,936
2,862,418
4,123,903
11,630,435
90,682
41,155,201
3,702,522
1,306
72,932
962,261
7,791
7,768
216
9,401,250
15,003,278
195,496
45,301,246
16,974,165
16,981,956
23,881
17,129
1,326
20,754
71,528
3,444
75,000
17,344
1,338,755
55,541
445,098
5,151
1,367
69,747
1,427,628
60,311
520,098
5,151
1,367
Totals, 1955 _   .
906,141
7,468,949
58,863,477
16,974,165 |      4,754,796 |    88,967,528!
Totals, 1954    	
3,948,345
19,595,544
90,691,771
17,465,267
9,274,995
140,975,922
Totals, 1953...	
5,341,576
15,853,076
74,187,464
18,974,550
5,788,905
120,145,571
Totals, 1952	
4,732,890
15,944,292
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660
124,996,218
Totals, 1951  	
5,901,140
12,229,159
51,669,605
10,202,844
2,224,693
82,257,441
Totals, 1950...	
8,659,552
21,625,295
88,031,088
19,210,615
137,526,550
Totals, 1949	
6,392,228
21,382,979
103,550,707
14,228,041
145,553,955
Totals, 1948	
9,380,092
31,127,805
106,739,296
16,367,096
163,614,289
Totals, 1947...  	
7,156,095
21,100,803
52,368,152
7,552,386
88,177,436
Totals, 1946 	
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200
Ten-year average, 1946-55
5,926,111
18,381,297
73,916,683
17,327,416
4,641,0102
117,875,011
1 Of this total, 73,843,819 f.b.m. were exported from Crown-granted lands carrying the export privilege;   15,123,709
f.b.m. were exported under permit from other areas.
2 Five-year average. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1955
123
(26)
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
Railway-ties, etc., 1955
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles.	
Piling	
Pulpwood..
Posts	
Shakes	
Blanks	
Christmas trees .
Maple burls	
Prince Rupert—
Poles 	
Railway-ties_
Fence-posts.-
Prince George—
Poles _	
Railway-ties	
Fence-posts	
Kamloops—
Poles and piling..
Fence-posts	
Christmas trees...
Nelson—
Poles and piling.
Orchard-props.—
Corral-rails	
Mine-timberS-
Mine-props—
Cordwood	
Fence-posts—
Hewn ties	
Hop-poles.-
Anchor-blocks ...
Christmas trees ..
„lin. ft.
..cords
..pieces
..cu. ft.
Jin. ft.
..pieces
Jin. ft.
..pieces
lin. ft.
.cords
..pieces
lin. ft.
..cords
Total value, 1955	
Total value, 1954—
3,787,038
411,842
24
24,033
16,370,151
15,133
134,152
1,892
1,940,925
76,502
4,792
153,775
56,680
89,290
5,881,190
3,362
535,028
5,593,046
670,000
70,565
368,177
225
31
5,523
9,577
2,097
360
1,453,592
$1,675,227.75
172,094.76
480.00
6,729.24
2,455,522.65
9,836.45
167,690.00
4,730.00
679,323.75
113,987.98
2,396.00
40,331.75
90,688.00
13,393.50
918,921.90
84,050.00
120,381.30
1,374,401.00
10,050.00
847.00
22,091.00
2,745.00
442.00
176,736.00
17,239.00
7,340.00
270.00
610,509.00
2,972,162
27,827
24
9,929
14,994,646
15,133
134,152
1,892
1,552,750
61,345
2,817
3,125,840
499,159
4,456,158
670,000
31
1,526
1,362,262
679,317
359,519
14,104
388,175
76,502
4,792
92,430
56,680
86,473
2,755,350
3,362
35,869
1,136,888
70,565
368,177
225
3,997
9,577
2,097
360
91,330
$8,778,455.03
$6,607,651.56
131,559
24,496
1,375,505
(27)
Summary for Province, 1955
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
Poles and piling          lin. ft.
17,767,816
368,177
670,000
70,565
24
225
31
8,885
118,115
16,370,151
15,133
142,759
2,122,772
2,097
360
1,892
$4,860,300.91
22,091.00
10,050.00
847.00
480.00
2,745.00
442.00
260,786.00
22,518.74
2,455,522.65
9,836.45
221,914.98
898,580.30
7,340.00
270.00
4,730.00
55.3662
Orchard-props        „
0.1145
0 0096
Pulpwood         cords
Mine-props  —     „
Cordwood  -       „
0.0055
0.0313
0.0050
Fence-posts      pieces
0.2565
27,9721
0 1121
2 5280
10 2362
Hop-poles      „
0.0836
0 0031
Maple burls  cu. ft.
0.0539
$8,778,455.03
100 0000 124
(28)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Timber Marks Issued
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Ten-year
Average,
1946-55
631
200
176
473
70
3
8
15
2,637
35
738
191
176
489
75
8
9
18
2,469
32
1
791
156
150
439
82
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
549
169
165
505
69
5
8
32
2,591
33
4
4
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
696
201
204
538
62
8
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
381
134
136
409
95
10
3
24
2,881
63
3
528  |
175
160
485
69
1
1
30
2,786
44
1
609 |
218
171
653
95
2
10
31
3,130
43
6
653
Crown grants, 1887-1906	
Crown grants, 1906-1914 —   .
165
506
78
Pre-emptions under sections 28
and 29, " Land Act"      	
4
Timber berths	
6
24
2,719
Special marks and rights-of-way
49
2
1
Totals	
4,248
4,206
4,301
3,763
4,134
5,458
4,428
4,139
4,280
4,968
4,392
Transfers and changes of marks
486
655
745
550
752
1,086
983
744
780
867
765
(29)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1955
Month
Number of Drawings Preparec
or Tracings Made
Number of Blue-prints or
Ditto-prints Made from
Draughting Office Drawings
Timber
Sales
Timber
Marks
Examination
Sketches
Miscellaneous
Matters
Total
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
Total
32
28
27
25
22
28
32
38
38
37
36
38
324
215
184
127
99
72
152
210
246
314
229
137
	
15
169
132
173
120
140
134
120
52
58
64
67
371
412
343
325
241
240
318
368
336
409
329
242
624
722
557
664
675
524
953
710
647
941
951
726
1,280
1,120
1,170
1,000
880
432
1,280
1,520
1,710
1,665
1,725
1,756
1,904
1,842
1,727
1,664
1,555
	
956
July
2,233
2,230
	
2,357
2,606
2,676
2,482
Totals 1955
381
2,309
1,244
3,934
8,694
15,538
24,232
Totals, 1954                	
274
1,983
574
2,831
6,275
9,920
16,195
Totals, 1953..                -   -
270
1,823
382
350
2,825
6,976
6,989
13,965
Totals, 1952.	
491
2,827
1,387
1,068
5,773
18,924
10,320
29,244
Totals, 1951                	
1,008
3,196
1,336
1,891
7,431
17,540
19,360
36,900
Totals, 1950
828
2,050
1,108
805
4,791
13,759
16,599
30,358
Totals, 1949   ..           ...
514
1,547
988
353
3,402
10,184
10,344
20,528
Totals 1948
681
2,300
1,247
241
4,469
13,625
12,959
26,584
Totals, 1947	
500
2,223
1,238
290
4,251
12,026
9,844
21,870
Totals, 1946       ~       	
604
1,931
1,028
525
4,088
9,113
7,300
16,413
Ten-year average, 1946-55.
555
2,219
734
4,379
11,712
11,917
23,629 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
125
(30)
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1955.     .                                                                 	
783,517
801,983
757,516
718,284
682,746
631,967
597,790
571,439
596,900
601,148
591,082
571,308
543,044
527,995
543,633
549,250
719,111
756,328
766,413
Acres
221,934
236,350
201,264
203,249
191,435
207,308
172,024
158,120
153,072
146,331
142,504
134,194
125,313
112,834
105,541
103,486
89,209
106,833
96,598
Acres
429,350
429,037
444,014
433,496
410,037
378,985
340,200
326,738
354,207
364,556
357,037
345,378
325,996
322,306
335,468
338,419
338,794
344,858
363,693
Acres
69,822
69,416
27,692
29,418
31,333
8,635
30,625
25,485
26,591
23,125
21,536
20,816
20,205
20,072
26,016
24,852
153,032
157,508
153,566
Acres
62,411
1954.                                          	
67,180
1953.                   	
84,546
1952      .
1951                                                  	
52,121
49,941
1950  —        	
1949       -  	
1948 	
1947
37,039
54,941
61,096
63,030
1946                   .                            	
67,136
1945 	
70,005
1944     	
1943	
70,920
71,529
1942   	
72,781
1941..    	
1940                                                 	
76,608
82,493
1939.
138,075
1938  -   —	
1937
147,129
152,556
<31> Acreage of Timber Land
District Acres
Alberni  92,268
Comox   157,473
Cowichan   149,172
Fort Steele  6,400
Kettle River  853
Lillooet  2,554
Nanaimo   159,046
Nelson  49,334
by Assessment Districts
District Acres
Omineca  160
Prince George  960
Prince Rupert  34,988
Princeton  555
Revelstoke  33,190
Slocan  38,227
Vancouver  1,828
Victoria   56,509
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
(32) as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year Area (Acres)
1955   783,517
1954  801,983
1953  757,516
1952  718,284
1951  682,746
1950  631,967
1949   597,790
1948   571,439
1947  596,900
1946 601,148
1945   591,082
1944 571,308
1943  543,044
1942  527,995
1941  543,632
1940  549,250
1939  719,112
1938   754,348
Year Area (Acres)
1937  743,109
1936   515,924
1935   535,918
1934  557,481
1933   567,731
1932  552,007
1931   602,086
1930  629,156
1929   644,011
1928  671,131
1927  690,438
1926  688,372
1925   654,016
1924  654,668
1923  883,344
1922  887,980
1921   845,111 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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129
(36 A)
Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1954-55
Timber-licence renewal fees  $373,071.39
Timber-licence transfer fees  1,300.00
Timber-licence penalty fees  4,138.31
Hand-logging licence fees       	
Timber-lease rentals  72,671.28
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest  56.82
Timber-sale rentals  247,380.27
Timber-sale stumpage  15,705,042.71
Timber-sale cruising  163,571.02
Timber-sale advertising  29,952.90
Timber royalty  2,305,576.38
Timber tax	
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund) _
Exchange 	
Seizure expenses 	
General miscellaneous	
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees
Interest on timber-berth rentals	
Transfer fees on timber berths	
Grazing fees and interest	
28,816.38
10,192.61
43.14
1,086.85
87,698.23
19,851.56
10.92
84.74
80,289.80
Taxation from Crown-granted timber lands
Taxation collected under authority of " Es-
quimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt
Land Tax Act"	
Taxation collected on forest land (section
32a, "Taxation Act") 	
Taxation collected on tree-farm land (section 33a, "Taxation Act") 	
$19,130,835.31
621,527.16
879,822.00!
513,398.602
5,250.143
$21,150,833.21
Ten-year Average
$385,276.36
2,826.35
4,822.14
154.05
52,186.09
55.90
112,900.36
6,481,669.10
56,914.38
12,547.63
2,412,372.57
23,716.31
2,829.13
81.35
964.58
33,260.56
18,668.73
30.41
75.29
53,902.83
$9,655,254.12
418,185.06
1 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last five fiscal years.
2 Collection of this tax authorized in the 1954-55 fiscal year.
3 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last two fiscal years. 130
(36B)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Revenue by Fiscal Years
Fiscal Year
Direct Forest
Revenue
Taxation from
Crown-granted
Lands
Taxation Collected under
Sees. 32a and
33a of " Taxation Act"
Taxation Collected under
Authority of
" E. & N. Railway Belt Land
Tax Act"
Total
1954-55                                        	
$19,130,835.31
17,578,625.58
18,016,025.17
13,703,715.41
10,089,884.69
8,331,497.19
7,977,676.22
7,010,038.77
4,880,232.89
4,352,179.14
4,017,653.53
3,703,703.13
3,519,892.44
4,057,437.86
3,549,931.53
3,236,731.36
2,982,702.42
3,257,525.05
3,001,054.84
$621,527.16
612,865.29
588,821.78
484,475.51
440,213.07
445,632.68
453,980.08
253,345.02
237,506.83
244,980.89
213,912.46
203,457.36
206,146.21
211,410.13
224,652.87
267,290.48
241,109.96
269,285.54
299,992.41
$518,648.74
$879,822.00
863,116.21
418,395.59
972,156.13
345,220.16
$21,150,833.21
1953-54                  	
19,054,607.08
1952-53. _               ..
19,023,242.54
1951-52	
15,160,347.05
1950-51
10,875,317.92
1949-50                  	
8,777,129,87
1948-49
8,431,656.30
1947-48    .        	
-
7,263,383.79
1946-47.—  	
1945 46
	
5,117,739.72
4,597,160.03
1944-45
	
4,231,565.99
1943-44
3,907,160.49
1942-43  	
3,726,038.65
1941-42     ...
	
4,268,847.99
1940-41	
3,774,584.40
1939 40	
	
3,504,021.84
1938-39.   ..    -
3,223,812.38
1937-38	
1936-37.     	
	
3,526,810.59
3,301,047.25
(37)
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1954-55
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
Vancouver-
Prince Rupert-
Prince George..
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Victoria	
Totals-
Reforestation and forest nursery-
Provincial parks	
Forest management	
Forest research  	
Public relations	
Ranger SchooL.
Canadian Forestry Association-
Office furniture and equipment-
Rentals 	
Boys' training camp-
Engineering services-
Forest Protection Fund1	
Forest Reserve Account1	
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1-
Forest Development Fund1	
$397,923.54
237,936.38
251,130.27
347,800.83
319,896.31
442,042.51
$1,996,729.84
Grand total..
$134,814.26
79,799.19
72,865.81
90,142.65
95,088.22
349,468.68
$822,178.81
$532,737.80
317,735.57
323,996.08
437,943.48
414,984.53
791,511.19
$2,818,908.65
409,752.68
749,921.48
151,781.30
55,964.08
47,672.51
68,683.30
6,000.00
39,593.15
60,891.04
126,171.88
286,127.26
2,080,837.10
995,629.56
46,304.25
364,910.47
1,309,148.71
1 With the exception of these items, all figures are net expenditures,
and statements of these funds will be found in this Report.
Items marked are actual gross expenditures REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1955
(38) Scaling Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1954 (credit) 	
Collections, fiscal year 1954-55	
131
$149,589.01
715,175.90
$864,764.91
Expenditures, fiscal year 1954-55  $743,945.05
Less refunds         3,402.38
Balance, March 31st, 1955 (credit) 	
Collection, nine months, April to December, 1955
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1955.
Balance, December 31st, 1955 (debit)	
740,542.67
$124,222.24
505,019.29
$629,241.53
669,988.05
$40,746.52
(39) Silviculture Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1954 (credit) ___
Collections, fiscal year 1954-55	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1954-55  $894,457.13
Less refunds         5,627.05
$365,676.11
1,132,854.60
$1,498,530.71
Balance, March 31st, 1955 (credit) 	
Collections, nine months to December 31st, 1955
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1955  $944,528.31
Less refunds         2,028.35
888,830.08
$609,700.63
660,601.30
$1,270,301.93
Balance, December 31st, 1955 (credit)
942,499.96
$327,801.97
(40)
Forest Reserve Account
Credit balance at March 31st, 1954
Less excess of disbursements transferred from Vote 234, during
1954-55  $534,012.90
Less balance in Fund taken to revenue (Fund abolished by chapter 11, 1 954)     240,531.63
$774,544.53
774,544.53
Balance at March 31st, 1955
Nil 132 department of lands and forests
(4]> Grazing Range Improvement Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1954 (credit)   $29,642.90
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")    46,867.01
Other collections  196.75
$76,706.66
Expenditures, April 1st, 1954, to March 31st, 1955 __    46,501.00
Balance, March 31st, 1955 (credit)   $30,205.66
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")    40,144.90
Other collections  48.00
$70,398.56
Expenditures, April 1st, 1955, to December 31st, 1955    26,829.99
Balance, December 31st, 1955 (credit)   $43,568.57
<42> Forest Development Fund
Amounts borrowed under authority of "Forest Development Fund Loan Act, 1948 "—
Fiscal year 1950-51  $35,000.00
Fiscal year 1951-52  45,000.00
Fiscal year 1952-53  185,000.00
Amounts advanced under authority of the Legislature—
Fiscal year 1953-54  345,104.72
Fiscal year 1954-55  312,207.48
Nine months to December 31st, 1955  279,022.39
Total gross expenditures—
Fiscal year 1950-51     $7,958.84
Fiscal year 1951-52     71,986.26
Fiscal year 1952-53  161,378.25
Fiscal year 1953-54  365,883.00
Fiscal year 1954-55  364,910.47
Nine months to December 31st, 1955- 349,780.75
$1,201,334.59
Less collections (under authority of section 164 (4), " Forest Act") and loan repayments—
Fiscal year 1952-53  $10,582.22
Fiscal year 1953-54     20,778.28
Fiscal year 1954-55     52,702.99
Nine months to December 31st, 1955-    70,758.36
$1,321,897.57
154,821.85
     1,167,075.72
Balance, December 31st, 1955 (credit)        $34,258.87 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
(*3) Forest Protection Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1954 (credit) 	
Government contribution  $2,000,000.00
Collections, tax        404,672.31
133
$476,456.48
Expenditures, 1954-55
Less refunds	
$2,127,624.40
46,787.30
2,404,672.31
$2,881,128.79
2,080,837.10
Balance, March 31st, 1955 (credit)       $800,291.69!
1 Fund abolished.   Excess of disbursements in Vote 244, 1955-56, to be carried to Fund on March 31st, 1956, and
balance remaining at that date to be taken to Consolidated Revenue. 134
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
by Other Agencies, 1955
135
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire
Prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
$203,963.00
30,003.00
16,000.00
2,285.00
9,050.00
$200,374.00
33,285.00
8,720.00
43,360.00
42,068.00
$23,178.00
17,970.00
2,720.00
9,942.00
5,467.00
$39,881.00
7,800.00
4,000.00
6,559.00
29,700.00
$467,396.00
89,058.00
31,440.00
Kamloops 	
62,146.00
86,285.00
$261,301.00
$327,807.00
$59,277.00
$87,940.00
$736,325.00
Ten-year average, 1946-55	
$193,482.28
$285,024.09
$256,416.85
$53,478.80
$788,402.02
<46> Summary of Snag-falling, 1955, Vancouver Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 19551  84,484
Logged in snag-exempted zone2  2,740
Logged in small exempted operations2  1,949
  4,689
Assessed for non-compliance, less 495.5 acres subsequently felled  1,345
     6,034
Balance logged acres snagged, 1955  78,450
1 Approximate figure only, compiled prior to end of calendar year.
2 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1955, Vancouver
<47) Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1955  84,484
Area covered by full hazard reports  73,308
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-
disposal1     2,740
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from
slash and snag disposal)     1,949
  77,997
Slash created too late to be dealt with in 1955     6,487
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act." 136 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1955, Vancouver
(48> Forest District
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1955 19551 Total Acres
Broadcast burning     2,856 3,795 6,651
Spot burning  15,465        16,370        31,835
Totals  18,321        20,165 38,486
1955 reports not recommending slash-disposal  34,822
1955  slash examined for snags but exempt from  slash-
disposal   1,652
1955 slash in zone completely exempted  2,740
1955 slash on very small operations exempted without special examination  297
Total area of slash dealt with, 1955  77,997
1 Above table does not include the estimated 6,487 acres (see Table 47) created too late to be dealt with in 1955.
Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1955, Vancouver
<49> Forest District
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table 48)  38,486
Acres of Slash
Type of Disposal Prior to 1955 1955 Total Acres
Spring broadcast-burning _ 7.0 40.0 47
Spring spot-burning1  468.0        468
Fall broadcast-burning ______ 1,596.0 2,335.0 3,931
Fall spot-burning2  10,431.5 9,793.5 20,225
Total   burning   completed   12,502.5      12,168.5 24,671
Burned by accidental fires  199
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc  Nil
Total  24,870
Balance reported slash not yet abated  13,616
Slash created, 1955—acres assessed  Nil
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with, 1955  6,487
Total area of slash carried over to 1956 for disposition   20,103
1 Actual area burned in spring spot-burning, 52 acres.
2 Actual area burned in fall spot-burning, 3,930 acres.
The above figures do not include 1954 slash-burn reports received too late for inclusion in 1954 Annual Report,
2,940 acres. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1955
137
<50> Summary of Operations, 1955, Vancouver Forest District
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District  1,249
Intentional slash-burns  174
Operations on which slash was disposed of by lopping,
scattering, land-clearing, etc	
Operations on which slash was accidentally burned	
Operations not required to burn.
Nil
7
694
Operations  granted total exemption under subsection
(3), section 113, "Forest Act"  265
Operations where compensation assessed or security deposit posted     35
Operations in snag-falling only area     76
Operations pending decision re assessment or further
time for disposal     40
  L2911
1 Difference noted above is accounted for by slash on some operations being disposed of by both accidental and
intentional means and some operators conducting both spring and fall burns.
Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1955, Vancouver
(51> Forest District
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1955  12
Net damage to forest-cover  $526.00
Net damage to cut products  Nil
Net damage to equipment and property  1,991.00
Total damage  $2,517.00
Cost oj Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Cost per     Cost per
Total Cost Acres M B.F. Acre
(a) Spring broadcast-burning     $130.00 47 $0.07 $2.76
(b) Spring spot-burning     1,209.00 468 0.09 2.58
(c) Fall broadcast-burning ____ 13,698.44 3,931 0.09 3.48
(d) Fall spot-burning  34,957.44 20,225 0.06 1.72
(a) and (c) based on volume of 40 M B.F. per acre.
(b) and (d) based on volume of 30 M B.F. per acre. 138
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(52)
Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-55
Acres of Slash Burned
Accidentally Intentionally
1955.
1954.
1953.
1952.
1951..
1950.
1949_
1948..
1947_
1946_
1945_
1944.
1943..
1942..
1941.
1940..
1939-
1938.
1937..
1936_.
1935_
1934-.
199
38,486
225
41,596
17
22,220
3,856
39,064
11,614
10,436
1,700
25,389
1,468
53,543
2,215
30,652
2,663
34,414
2,174
25,498
3,897
46,467
5,121
27,278
2,046
40,013
4,504
80,226
3,385
5,524
2,265
33,034
1,930
51,603
35,071
50,033
3,015
27,516
1,340
7,691
11,783
13,239
4,927
15,935
(S3)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1955
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
1
3
2
9
5
33
16
35
33
16
72
28
57
120
81
61
11
33
168
87
70
5
11
111
68
81
10
15
87
40
2
1
4
5
3
319
74
158
533
300
23.05
5.35
11.42
38.51
21.67
Totals
4
16
133
358
360
265
233
15 ■
1,384
100.00
0.29
1.16
9.61
25.87
26.01
19.15    | 16.83
1.08
100.00
	
Ten-year average, 1946-55
10
47
202
191
396
400    |     175
25
1,446
	
0.69
3.25
13.97
13.21
27.39
27.66
12.10
1.73
100.00
	
<54>                        Number
AND
Causes of
Forest Fires,
1955
Forest District
on
i
1
3
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9
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208
165
15
14
44
99
23
143
7
13
35
8
57
14
6
83
46
18
7
9
8
5
6
4
6
1
7
20
8
17
32
12
2
8
5
47
8
11
45
23
2
6
22
14
6
319
74
158
533
300
23.05
5.35
11.42
38.51
21.67
Totals 	
418
195
206
206
47 |     24
89
15
134
50
1,384
100.00
30.20
14.09
14.89
14.89
3.40 |  1.73
6.43
1.08
9.68
3.61
100.00
Ten-year average, 1946-55—.
407
208
211
248
77 |     16
80
15
150
34
1,446
	
28.15
14.38
14.59
17.15
5.33
1.11
5.53
1.04
10.37
2.35
100.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1955
<55>        Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years
139
Causes
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
Total
Lightning 	
Campers  	
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
597
174
184
171
47
10
83
10
116
28
116
157
118
120
63
11
64
12
82
21
418
195
206
206
47
24
89
15
134
50
4,072
2,079
2,110
2,483
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)
Road and power- and telephone-line
769
156
Industrial operations       	
Incendiarism..	
Miscellaneous (known causes).	
Unknown causes
800
150
1,500
340
Totals	
1,707
1,332
799
1,701
1,515
1,923
1,914
1,420
764
1,384
14,459
(56)
Fires Classified by
Size and
Damage, 1955
Total Fires
Under Va Acre
Va to 10 Acres
Over 10 to 500
Acres
Over 500 Acres
in Extent
Damage
Forest District
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533
300
23.05
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38.51
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265
42
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350
218
83.07
56.76
44.30
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72.67
28.04
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71
13.79
33.78
28.48
28.70
23.67
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22
9
4
8.14
?
34.88
33.72
11.63
13
1
1
8.23
0.19
0.33
86.66
6.67
6.67
9
Kamloops	
Nelson	
5
1
Totals 	
1,384
100.00
9451 |100.00
338| |100.00
86| |100.00
15| _|100.00
1,305|   58|   21
Per cent	
100.00
	
68.28| |	
24.42| |	
6.21| 1	
1-09|- 1	
94.29|4.19|1.52
Ten-year average, 1946-55
1,446	
844
1
1	
418
|
150
34
1,337
69
40
100.00
58.37
28.91
10.37
2.35
92.4614.77 2.77
(57.>                  Damage to
Property Other than Forests, 1955
L
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscel-
aneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
$19,585.20
2,112.00
450.00
425.00
4,520.00
$29,670.80
75.00
$49,256.00
$2,242.00
990.00
6,145.00
5,520.00
76 78
$40.00
100.00
160.00
$15.00
440.00
60.00
1,000.00
3.50
1.54
5,500.00
9.58
8 60
Totals   	
$27,092.20
$300.00 |    $35,245.80
$1,515.00 |    $64,153.00
100.00
42.23
0.47 |             54.94
2.36 |           100.00
Ten-year average, 1946-55	
$157,078.72
$20,774.80 | $178,290.23
$21,379.75 | $377,523.50
	
41.61
5.49
47.24
5.66
100.00
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 137.) 140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<58>      Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1955—Part I1
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
a
p
"S.'S
za
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M3 u
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Salvable
Volume
of Timber
Killed
a)
00
rt
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za
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41
00
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is
oi 3
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P>>
Acres
7
225
25
201
28
MB.F.
50
2,331
26
2,300
107
MB.F.
$
443
2,483
636
1,641
418
Acres
MB.F.
$
Acres
108
299
2,498
1,322
71
$
6,316
1,580
6,112
50
49
1
500
2
1,400
444
44,482
10,673
35
1,303
Totals	
486
4,814
1,615
5,621
100
502
1,844
4,298
68,886
1.04
90.56
33.55
6.18
0.21
9.44
2.03
9.21
75.72
Ten-year average, 1946-55
7,054
69,712
36,685
116,209
1,482
3,081
8,155
30,448
126,209
2.83
95.77
52.62
37.12
0.59
4.23
2.61
12.21
40.31
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 137.)
<5S>     Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1955—Part II1
Forest
District
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
Noncommercial
Cover
Grazing or
Pasture
Land
Nonproductive
Sites
Grand totals
■_
_
0> 3
OD 5
°s
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m. n
o 3 3
i-t rtCQ
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3       00
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<(a
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00
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Vancouver  	
Acres
199
36
45
132
59
Acres
2
25
21
Acres
1
2
5,300
23
25
$
26
453
3,291
1,681
575
Acres
197
33
20,369
252
192
$
49
8
4,989
73
1,401
Acres
26
23
7,816
1,225
84
$
1
1
477
170
5
Acres
94
6
4,504
163
956
$
20
1
1,126
38
235
Acres
634
624
40,632
3,388
1,416
MB.F.
50
2,331
526
2,302
107
$
6,855
9,058
Prince George	
Kamloops..     	
56,401
14,720
3,937
Totals..	
471
48| 5,351
6,026
21,043
6,520
9,174
.      654|  5,723
1,420
46,694
5,316
90,971
1.01
0.10] 11.46
6.62
45.06
7.17
19.65
0.72|  12.26
1.56
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average,
1946-55	
5,199
2,549
1
22,739(25,253
93,056
24,788
50,425
1
3,155)36,380
9,254
249,332
72,793
313,023
2.09
1.021    9.12
8.07
37.32
7.92
20.23
1.011  14.59
2.96
100.00
100.00
100.00
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 137.)
(59)
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and
Total Damage, 1955
Causes
Fire Causes
Area Burned
Forest Service Cost
Total Damage
Number
Per Cent
Acres
Per Cent
Amount
Per Cent
Amount
Per Cent
418
195
206
206
47
24
89
15
134
50
30.20
14.09
14.89
14.89
3.40
1.73
6.43
1.08
9.68
3.61
4,155
13,094
275
965
1,902
281
485
739
14,338
10,460
8.90
28.04
0.59
2.07
4.07
0.60
1.04
1.58
30.71
22.40
$30,372.60
10,194.91
45.18
11,116.75
1,696.92
4,962.26
6,348.65
450.69
4,501.83
4,373.81
41.00
13.77
0.06
15.01
2.29
6.70
8.57
0.61
6.08
5.91
$27,347.00
25,510.00
415.00
37,951.00
10,800.00
5,518.00
22,230.00
4,230.00
5,380.00
15,743.00
17.63
16.44
0.27
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-
24.46
6.96
Road   and  power-  and  telephone-line construction.-.	
Industrial operations	
3.56
14.33
2.73
Miscellaneous (known causes)
3.47
10.15
1,384
100.00
46,694
100.00
$74,063.60
100.00
$155,124.00
100.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1955
141
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P- (64)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1955
Enrolment at Ranger School, 1955
143
Forest District
Forest
Assistants
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks          Total
Graduations
Vancouver	
2
1
—
5
3
2
4
4
—
5
3
4
5
4
--
Nelson	
—
Attendance, 19551	
3
18
—
21
Attendance, 1954 ,
—
20
....
20
20
Attendance, 1953 	
—
21
21
20
—
20
20
Attendance, 1952  	
20
—
20
—
Attendance, 1951  	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1950 	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949 	
'   3
2
16
—
21
....
Attendance, 1948 -	
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947 	
8
12
....
20
20
2
9
9
—
20
20
1 New class, 1955-56, will not graduate until 1956.
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course.
(65)
Motion-picture Library
Stock Records
Year
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
75
9
9
75
76
75
8
7
74
71
74
3
6
77
72
77
80
24
8
64
64
64
2
New films added during year -
Films in library at December 31st	
3
80
79
9
71
70
Circulat
;on Re
rords
Number of loans made during year
Number of film loans during year
(one film loaned one time)	
Number of showings during year —
Number of audiences—
Adults 	
Children .     —
164
328
371
11,940
10,408
10,285
235
632
812
8,009
25,362
24,351
436
1,122
1,293
21,633
20,455
42,930
397
1,075
1,505
14,568
24,031
87,506
416
1,046
1,880
26,988
95,102l
43,282
461
1,057
2,943
13,542
264.2451
26,706
492
1,218
2,764
13,655
157.0852
59,182
490
1,158
2,288
12,640
118.6222
43,099
422
1,474
2,664
12,333
102,0131
429
1,280
1,998
14,353
131,8441
Totals          	
32,633
57,722
85,018
126,105
165.3721
304,493!
234,396s
174,367s
Including attendances of lecture tour of two school lecturers.
1 Including attendances of lecture tour of three school lecturers.
Loaned and Leased Films, 1955
Title
Number
of
Showings
Number in Audience
Adult
Children
Mixed
Total
245
548
44,199
9,265
90
316
44,657
10,294
I 144
(66)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Service Library
Classification
Items Catalogued and Indexed
Ten-year
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950 I 1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1946-55
12
126
79
51
1,523
14
231
90
72
1,798
39
123
140
72
3,543
36
100
153
80
2,074
27 |      23
62 j    109
140 |    152
102 j    110
1,960 | 2,650
9
122
337
115
2,203
41
484
90
111
66
1,800
62
246
92
124
127
932
55
190
94
136
141
1,090
32
Government reports and bulletins
179
137
97
Serials1— .       —	
l7957
1 Previous to 1953 included with periodicals, bulletins, and reports.
<67> Grazing Permits Issued
Forest District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,220
432
53
106,306
13,395
2,583
2,535
902
138
21,074
1,470
Prince George  	
16
Totals, 1955  	
1,705
121,284
3,575
22,560
Totals, 1954  	
1,750
111,767
3,738
24,909
Totals, 1953    	
1,730
108,894
4,133
23,172
Totals, 1952        ..   	
1,621
104,610
4,040
23,565
Totals, 1951   - - -	
1,561
100,082
4,350
22,282
Totals, 1950
1,562
98,484
4,650
23,100
Totals, 1949                               -	
1,496
101,349
5,029
25,842
Totals, 1948                                                       	
1,444
110,333
6,644
29,444
Totals, 1947                                                     	
1,322
105,723
5,513
25,289
Totals, 1946
1,378
106,273
6,025
31,274
N.B.—Some of the figures in this table for the years 1946 to 1951, inclusive, have been revised and differ from those
shown in previous Reports. Past tables have shown net figures for some years and gross figures for others. This table
shows the total number of permits issued and the net number of live stock covered for each of the years listed.
(68)
Grazing Fees Billed and Collected
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collected
Outstanding
1955              -
$76,061.32
80,191.97
95,088.64
125,495.09
108,400.14
80,178.43
27,819.65
28,960.42
28,584.74
30,120.38
$75,250.32
85,043.96
102,460.00
110,731.32
106,161.36
74,305.08
28,299.94
27,089.74
29,203.74
31,412.24
$16,577.24
1954                                   	
15,766.24
10 ..
20,618.23
1952     	
27,989.59
1°51
13,225.82
1950       .
10,986.74
1949                                   	
5,113.39
1Q48
5,597.18
1947                              _     	
3,726.50
1«46
4,345.50
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1956
1,360-256-9083  

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