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PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1954 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1956]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
of NATURAL HISTORY
and ANTHROPOLOGY
REPORT  FOR  THE  YEAR  1954
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955  To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1954.
R. G. WILLISTON,
Minister of Education.
Office of the Minister of Education,
April, 1955. Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., April 14th, 1955.
The Honourable R. G. Williston, B.A.,
Minister of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report of the activities of the
Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the calendar year 1954.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
G. CLIFFORD CARL,
Director. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
The Honourable R. G. Williston, B.A., Minister.
H. L. Campbell, B.A., M.Ed., Deputy Minister and Superintendent.
PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
Staff
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
Charles J. Guiguet, M.A., Biologist.
Wilson Duff, M.A., Anthropologist.
William A. Hubbard, M.A., Botanist.
Frank L. Beebe, Illustrator and Museum Technician.
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Senior Stenographer.
Betty C. Newton, Artist.
Sheila Y. Davies, Clerk.
Mary Eleanore Wheeldon, Clerk.
E. J. Maxwell, Attendant.
George A. Hardy, Entomologist (part time).
Totem-pole Restoration Programme
Mungo Martin, Chief Carver.
David Martin, Assistant Carver.
Henry Hunt, Assistant Carver (part time). PROVINCIAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
Objects
(a)  To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the Province.
(_>) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
Province.
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to
the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge regarding
the same.
(Section 4, "Provincial Museum Act," chapter 273, R.S.B.C. 1948.)
Admission
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, on week-days, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.,
and on Sunday afternoons, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. CONTENTS
Page
Report of the Director  9
New Exhibits  9
Special Exhibits  9
Field Work and Out-of-Province Travel  9
Education  11
Museum Lectures  11
Other Lectures  11
Extended Open Hours  12
Publications  12
Motion Pictures  13
Attendance  13
Building Maintenance and Alterations  14
Staff Notes  14
Obituaries  14
Report of the Botanist  14
Report of the Biologist  16
Report of the Anthropologist  18
Activities  18
Totem-pole Restoration Programme  20
Accessions  20
Article—" The Natural History of the Forbidden Plateau Area," by George A. Hardy 24
Article—" Undescribed Mammals (Peromyscus and Microtus) from the Islands of
British Columbia," by C. J. Guiguet  65
Article—" The Green Turtle in British Columbia," by G. Clifford Carl  77
Article—" The Birds of the Cariboo Parklands:  A Supplement," by J. A. Munro  79
Publications of the Provincial Museum  86  REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
FOR THE YEAR 1954
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
NEW EXHIBITS
As an addition to the new mammal exhibits planned for the main floor and partly
as an experiment, Mr. Beebe designed and completed a small-scale habitat display of
moose. The animals were modelled in styrfoam, an industrial plastic extremely light in
weight yet remarkably strong, and are displayed against a curved background painted to
show mountain country in early spring (see illustration).
A full-size replica of the common dolphin has also been modelled in styrfoam by
Mr. Beebe and now hangs among other marine mammals above the light-well on the
upper floor.
In the botanical section an exhibit has been arranged by Mr. Hubbard and Miss
Newton to illustrate various means of seed-dispersal among plants, and near the entrance
to the Indian exhibits a pictorial display showing steps in the removal of totem-poles from
the Queen Charlotte Islands has been arranged by Mr. Duff.
During the year an electric guessing game was set up on the main floor featuring
some of the common sea-shells. The game is designed so that the subject-matter can be
changed when desired.
SPECIAL EXHIBITS
In April and May several examples of wood sculpture, the work of Carola Bartl,
were on display. Miss Bartl, a recent arrival from Oberammergau, Germany, has
achieved a high degree of skill in carving animals in various types of wood. Some of her
work may be seen in Provincial parks.
A demonstration hive of honeybees was installed again on the main floor, this year
through the courtesy of Mr. G. V. Wilkinson, of the Victoria Bee Keepers' Association.
The exhibit proved to be one of the principal attractions, as it has in the past.
FIELD WORK AND OUT-OF-PROVINCE TRAVEL
In addition to the more or less regular field work being carried out in the Victoria
area, surveys were carried out as follows:—
May 18th to 25th:  Mr. Duff visited Skidegate Mission in company with Dr.
Peter Kelly to make preliminary arrangements for the purchase  and
removal of certain Haida totem-poles.
June 21st to July 5th:  Mr. Duff returned to the Queen Charlotte Islands to
supervise the preparation and removal of six Haida poles.
June 29th to July 3rd: Messrs. Guiguet, Hubbard, and Beebe visited Solander
Island and the Bunsby Islands in the vicinity of Cape Cook, west coast of
Vancouver Island.
September 5th to 13th and October 15th to 18th:  Mr. Duff took part in an
archceological survey along a portion of the east coast of Vancouver Island
as noted in a later section.
We are greatly indebted to the Federal Fisheries Department, which provided transportation for the Museum party to and from the west coast islands, and to several other
organizations and individuals as acknowledged in other sections of the Report. B  10
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Early in the year the Director made an extended lecture tour through the United
States (sponsored by the National Audubon Society), during which time he was able to
visit the following institutions: Pioneer Memorial Museum (Salt Lake City); Museum
of Anthropology, University of Utah (Salt Lake City); Colorado Museum of Natural
History and Denver Art Museum (Denver); Nebraska State Museum of Natural History
and State Historical Museum (Lincoln); Museum of the Academy of Science and Letters
(Sioux City, Iowa); American Museum of Atomic Energy (Oak Ridge, Tenn.); Tulane
University, Odenheimer Aquarium, Exhibit of Natural Resources, Museum of Middle
America Research Institution, and Louisiana State Museum (New Orleans); Louisiana
(Photo by G. C. Carl. J
Moose—a habitat group in miniature, by F. L. Beebe.
State University and Museum (Baton Rouge); Texas Memorial Museum (Austin);
Houston Museum of Natural History (Houston); Louisiana State Exhibit Museum
(Shreveport); Museum of the University of Oklahoma (Norman); Oklahoma A. and M.
College (Stillwater); Museum of Texas Technical College (Lubbock); Museum of Folk
Art (Santa Fe, New Mexico); Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History (Santa Barbara, Calif.); University of Washington (Seattle, Wash.).
On June 3rd, 4th, and 5th the Director attended the annual meeting of the Canadian
Museums Association, which was held in Winnipeg, Man., in conjunction with the meetings of the Learned Societies. En route a stop-off was made at Regina, Sask., to confer
with Mr. Fred Bard, Director of the Provincial Museum of Saskatchewan, and to inspect
the new museum building under construction. The many courtesies extended during this
visit were greatly appreciated. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B  11
EDUCATION
Museum Lectures
Motion-picture programmes were again presented to school-children of the Greater
Victoria area as follows:—
Date
Topic
Attendance
March 6th „.
March 13th-
March 20th..
March 27th-
April 3rd	
April 10th	
' Once upon a Time "...
' Voice of the Deep "—
' Nature's Creatures ".
' Hidden Treasure "	
' To Every Creature "_
' Native Peoples"._	
700
607
580
614
451
512
We are pleased to express here our thanks to the Audio-Visual Education Branch
of the Greater Victoria School Board for distributing the tickets to the schools, and to the
British Columbia Electric Railway Company for granting special travel privileges to
school-children attending the lectures.
A similar series of films was presented to the general public on Sunday afternoons
during the above period. More than 2,000 persons attended the six programmes. We
are indebted to the British Columbia Electric Company and the Imperial Oil Limited for
the loan of certain films used on these programmes.
Other Lectures
During the year the Director gave lectures and film-shows to the following groups:
Victoria Junior Chamber of Commerce (wives); Chi Rho Club, Christ Church Cathedral;
Saanichton Girl Guides; Gordon Head School; Victoria Chapter, P.E.O.; Victoria and
Island Branch of the Agricultural Institute of Canada; Oak Bay Junior High School;
Fairfield United Church Men's Club; Professional Photographers' Association of British
Columbia; Victoria Y's Men's Club; Sidney Girl Guides; Margaret Jenkins School;
St. Paul's Church Men's Group; Victoria Aquarium Society (two lectures); Canadian
Museums Association (Winnipeg); United Commercial Travellers; Oak Bay Kiwanis;
Victoria Natural History Society; Cadboro Bay Men's Club; Duncan Rotary Club;
Victoria Kiwanis Club; Elk Lake Girl Guides; Vancouver Natural History Society;
Victoria Musical Arts Society; Golden Age Club; Fall Institute (Campbell River);
Metchosin P.-T.A.; Professional Engineers (Vancouver Island Division); St. Michael's
School; Victoria Electric Club; Victoria Horticultural Society; St. Margaret's School;
Quadra School P.-T.A.; Young Adults, Y.M.C.A.; St. John's Older Young People; View
Royal Garden Club; Quadra Island P.-T.A. and Quadra Island School; Campbell River
Elementary-Junior-Senior School; Willow Point School; Courtenay and District Fish and
Game Association; Colwood Community Club; Victoria Girl Guides; Department of
Education personnel; and the general public in the Museum.
In addition to lectures given to local organizations, the Director gave a series of
public lectures under the sponsorship of the National Audubon Society in more than thirty
cities in Eastern and Southern United States during the early part of the year. Thirty-six
programmes were presented to more than 20,000 persons.
The Director also conducted a course on the " Natural History of British Columbia,"
given at the Victoria Summer School for teachers, during which more than twelve lectures
were given. He also contributed to an evening course, " British Columbia, Before and
After," given by Museum staff members under the auspices of Victoria College.
A new series of lectures by specialists in the various fields of science was organized
by Mr. Duff early in the fall season under the title of "Technical Talks." The first
lecture, " Some Aspects of Cartographic Design," by A. L. Farley, geographer of British
Columbia Lands Service, was given on December 10th. B 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Other staff members contributed lectures, as noted in other parts of this Report.
Not noted elsewhere are several lectures and demonstrations of falconry given by Mr.
Beebe to schools, Fish and Game Associations, and other groups.
Extended Open Hours
For many weeks during the tourist season the Museum building was reopened in the
evening from 7 to 10 p.m. (except Sundays) to accommodate the many visitors witnessing
the flag-lowering ceremonies in front of the Legislative Buildings at sunset each day and
others not able to visit during the normal hours of opening. The response was sufficient
to justify the small additional expense of employing an evening attendant.
PUBLICATIONS
The following have originated from the Museum during 1954:—
By G. Clifford Carl—
" The Hammerhead Shark in British Columbia."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 11,
No. 4, p. 37.
" Tanks that Catch the Eye."   Fin Fare, Bull., Victoria Aquarium Society, Vol.
5, No. 2, pp. 9-10.
By Wilson Duff (editor)—
"Anthropology in British Columbia, No. 4," 1954. Contents: "Anthropological Research and Publications, 1953-54 "; "An Archeological Survey
of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys of British Columbia," by Warren W. Caldwell; " Some Aspects of Prehistoric Coastal-Interior Relations
in the Pacific Northwest," by Charles E. Borden; "A Scottsbluff-Eden
Point from British Columbia," by Wilson Duff and Charles E. Borden;
"An Okanagan Winter Dance," by Norman H. Lerman; "John Henry
Sewell, 1885-1953," by Charles E. Borden.
By Wilson Duff—
"A Heritage in Decay, the Totem Art of the Haidas."   Canadian Art, Vol. 11,
No. 2, Winter, 1954.
"Preserving the Talking Sticks."    Powell River Digester, Vol. 30, No. 6,
November, 1954.
By G. A. Hardy—
"Nesting of the Mourning Dove on Vancouver Island."   Murrelet, Vol. 35,
No. l,p. 13.
By William A. Hubbard—
"Seed Dissemination."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 10, No. 8, pp. 97-98.
"Floral Emblems."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 26-29.
By C. J. Guiguet, illustrated by F. L. Beebe—
" The Birds of British Columbia:  (1) The Woodpeckers; (2) The Crows and
Their Allies."    B.C. Provincial Museum Handbook No. 6, pp.  1-51,
October.
In addition to these, Mr. Guiguet and Mr. Beebe have continued to contribute a
weekly illustrated article on British Columbia birds to the Victoria Daily Colonist, and
material which had already appeared in newspaper form has been revised with a view to
publishing in booklet form.
Mr. Hubbard and Mr. Beebe also produced a short series of weekly articles on
spring wild flowers which appeared in the Victoria Daily Times.
During the year the text material on " The Mammals of British Columbia " has been
mostly completed by Mr. Guiguet and Dr. I. McTaggart Cowan, and a start was made in
the preparation of distribution maps for this publication. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B  13
MOTION PICTURES
The policy of gathering material on film has been continued; to the footage on hand
more material has been added, including shots of marine life, birds, mammals, and insects.
A new lecture film based on the relation of water to wildlife has been commenced for
future use.
While supervising the removal of totem-poles from Indian villages in the Queen
Charlotte Islands, Mr. Duff took motion pictures for the television division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. The material obtained was used on programmes from
coast to coast.
ATTENDANCE
The number of visitors to the Museum during 1954 is summarized as follows:—
Registered
January   725
February   1,114
March  5,095
April  3,295
May  3,252
June  6,608
July   11,743
August  12,144
September   5,243
October   1,817
November  985
December  563
Totals.
53,184
Estimated
966
1,485
6,793
4,393
4,336
8,810
15,657
16,992
6,990
2,422
1,313
750
70,907
The 3,464 children who attended the Saturday morning film programmes and the
2,005 persons who attended the Sunday afternoon programmes in March and April have
been included in the above numbers. In addition, thirty school classes totalling upwards
of 1,000 students visited the Museum during the year, bringing the estimated total to
about 72,000.
The attendance record for the month of July has been broken down by Mr. Maxwell
as follows:—
Residence Registration
British Columbia  2,726
Alberta   578
Saskatchewan  324
Manitoba  229
Ontario  472
Quebec   122
New Brunswick  12
Nova Scotia  29
Prince Edward Island 12
Newfoundland  11
Total  4,515
Residence Registration
Washington   1,730
Oregon   995
California   2,483
Other States  1,898
Alaska  5
Great Britain  76
Other countries  41
Total      7,228
Grand total 11,743
The sum of $318.29 collected by the Solarium donation-box during the year was
turned over to the Queen Alexandra Fund for Crippled Children. B  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
BUILDING MAINTENANCE AND ALTERATIONS
More Venetian blinds were installed early in the year, so that now all windows on the
first and second floors are equipped with blinds of this type, except in some offices where
they are not required.
Following the replacement of most of the water-pipes by new installations, the washrooms and portions of the basement hallway were repainted in March.
Later in the year, work was started on remodelling the interior of the cottage on
Superior Street formerly used as a workshop and storage-room. Certain partitions were
removed, windows were replaced, wallboard, new flooring, lighting, and plumbing were
installed, with the result that we now have a well-lit studio and workshop combined with
proper storage space for field-work equipment and a metal-lined room to house dermestid
beetles used in preparing skeletons. We are indebted to the Department of Public Works
for these changes which have greatly improved our working conditions. By the end of
the year Mr. Beebe had moved his studio equipment from the basement room in the main
Museum building to the new quarters.
STAFF NOTES
On June 15th Mr. George Hardy, formerly Botanist and Entomologist on the
Museum staff, returned on a part-time basis to take care of the large Provincial insect
collection, to work up new material, and to prepare manuscripts for publication. By the
end of the year a report on the natural history of the Forbidden Plateau area was almost
ready for final typing.
During the summer Mr. Fen Landsdowne acted as student assistant and Mr. J.
Moffat and Mr. R. Burns were relief attendants.
OBITUARIES
We regretfully record here the passing of Dr. Alice Ravenhill on May 27th, 1954,
in her ninety-sixth year. During the last two decades of her long and active life, Dr.
Ravenhill became much interested in native Indian arts and crafts, and through her efforts
the B.C. Indian Arts and Welfare Society was founded. She also produced several publications, two of which have been published by the Department of Education—" Native
Tribes of British Columbia " (1938) and "A Corner Stone of Canadian Culture " (1944).
The latter has been one of the Museum's most popular publications; it has been reprinted
several times. Even though confined to her bed during the last seven years of her life, she
maintained an active interest in the affairs of the Museum.
On April 26th there occurred the death of Dr. J. B. Munro, recently retired Deputy
Minister of Agriculture, to whom we have been indebted for providing us with a demonstration hive of bees which has been a feature attraction on the main floor each summer.
On November 25th there passed away Mr. J. R. J. Llewellyn Jones, formerly of Cobble
Hill, B.C., who had donated many beautifully prepared insects to our collection and
maintained a close association with the Museum for many years.
REPORT OF THE BOTANIST
One field-trip was undertaken this year to Solander Island, which is located just off
Cape Cook. This tiny island contains comparatively few plants, but is inhabited by a
great number of sea-birds. The plants collected are listed below.
Agrostis exarata Trin.
Calamagrostis inexpansa A. Gray.
Stachys palustris L.
Muhlenbergia richardsonis (Trin.) Rydb. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 15
Festuca rubra L.
Potentilla villosa Pall.
Sagina saginoides (L.) Brit.
Ccelopleurum longipes C. & R.
Hordeum nodosum L.
Sanicula arctopoides Hook. & Ain.
Conioselinum Gmelini C. & R.
Montia sibirica (L.) Howell.
Saxifraga newcombei Small.
Mimulus guttatus Fisher.
Archillea millefolium L.
Rubus spectabilis Pursh.
Unifolium dilatatum (Wood) Howell.
Plantago maritima L.
Elymus canadensis L.
Lolium perenne L.
The interesting feature of this island is the fact that it is completely devoid of trees.
It has been suggested that one of the causes for the failure of trees to establish themselves
is the wind. The wind probably carries the seed from Vancouver Island to Solander, but
very likely carries it off again before it has time to become located and germinate. Another more plausible theory is that competition is too great for the establishment of tree
seedlings. Because of the high nitrogen content of the soil due to the large bird population, the growth of grass is extremely luxuriant, practically eliminating any chance for
tree establishment.
Work was started on "The Grasses of British Columbia." It is hoped that this
manuscript will be published in 1955, as one of the present handbook series.
We have been fortunate in obtaining a collection of plants from the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. The collections were made by Mr. B. Sizer during the
course of the 1953 Federal-Provincial weed survey.
Another collection received this year was from Mr. L. G. Sugden. Most of these
plants were collected in the vicinity of Williams Lake.
Another interesting collection was received from the British Columbia Department
of Agriculture. The collection was made by Mr. D. Faris during the course of the 1954
Federal-Provincial survey in the Lower Fraser Valley. These plants will be numbered
and filed next year.
In the latter collection are a number of plants that are of especial interest. One,
Polygonum perfoliatum L., a native of Eastern Asia, is new to Canada. The only other
North American record is from Pennsylvania State, where it is established in nurseries
and where it is showing signs of becoming a troublesome weed. Another, the leopard-
bane of gardens, Doronicum pardalianches L., was collected near Agassiz in natural
habitat, and these specimens appear to be the first for North America. A third, commonly called elecampane, Inula helinum L., was found east of Cloverdale. It is becoming
evident that the flora of the Lower Fraser may well contain more adventives than any
other area of equal size in Canada.
Recorded accessions for the year 1954 amount to 150 sheets of specimens.
As we were able to obtain eight new herbarium cases during the year, we have been
able to list and file a great number of plants previously labelled and catalogued. This
work has been efficiently attended to by Mrs. S. Davies.
The wild-flower exhibit of seasonal flowers was maintained as usual. This exhibit
was kept in good condition by a weekly field-trip to outlying districts of Victoria. A small
amount of botanical material was also collected for the National Museum at Ottawa. B  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A lecture was given to the Summer School students in July on elementary botany,
illustrated with living plant specimens. Two night-school lectures were given at the
Museum on the ecology of British Columbia before and after the advent of the white man.
Other duties of the botanist have been the identification of innumerable plants and
mushrooms either sent in or brought in by the general public.
Miss Betty Newton completed twenty-nine wild-flower studies in colour, to augment
the Susan Stoker collection of flower paintings.
REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST
Field work in 1954 included small mammal and avian investigations on Solander
Island, off Cape Cook, west coast of Vancouver Island. On this expedition, June 29th
to July 3rd, we also made preliminary investigations on the Bunsby Islands at the mouth
of Ououkinsh Inlet in the same general area. These preliminary investigations revealed
the presence of small mammals on the Bunsbys; consequently these islands are next on
our agenda of west coast zoological exploration.
No small mammals were discovered on Solander Island, and no signs of cuttings,
droppings, or runways were present. Twelve dozen snap traps set along the south side of
the island were untouched during the one night we were able to set them on the island.
There is little doubt that Peromyscus and Microtus are absent from this remote island.
The sea-birds found nesting included large numbers of tufted puffins, Cassin auklets,
and boreal petrels, while glaucous-winged gulls, black oyster catchers, pigeon guillemots,
and pelagic cormorants were nesting in smaller numbers. Passerine birds were represented by fox sparrows and song sparrows, and though no nests were discovered, it was
evident that these birds were nesting. There was evidence also that peregrine falcons
utilize this island as an aerie, and, in fact, a large adult female was seen on several
occasions and two " plucking stations" were located. No young birds or occupied nests
were seen.
Rhinocerous auklets were present in the water surrounding Solander Island, but we
found no evidence of a breeding population of these birds nor ancient murrelets nor
marbled murrelets.
Unfortunately we were without an entomologist on this expedition, and little time
was available for the collection of insects. However, a small collection of isopods, centipedes, and millipedes was made.
Investigations instituted three years ago in Oak Bay with regard to speciation of
coastal white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are now completed in the initial
phase. Successful introductions of single mated pairs of Peromyscus maniculatus from
Vancouver Island were made on each of five islands, all of which now harbour appreciable populations of these mice. The next phase in this research involves the collection
and study of series of these mice at five-year intervals in order to determine if any appreciable morphological changes are taking place. A sixth island has been set aside as a
" control" unit, and a continual flow of live mice from Vancouver Island is being maintained thereon.
A short field-trip was undertaken during the open season on Vancouver Island wapiti
in order to secure skulls for systematic research now under way at the Provincial Museum
in regard to this species. Fourteen skulls were secured through the co-operation of Game
Management Biologist Don Robinson and Game Warden Charles Estlin. We now have
sufficient material from Vancouver Island, but difficulty in securing adequate material
from the Olympic Peninsula has been encountered. The Museum is most anxious to
compare the Vancouver wapiti with specimens of Cervus canadensis roosevelti of the
Olympic Peninsula in order to determine if these animals are indeed of the same sub-
specific status. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B  17
In November, at the invitation of the Dominion Wildlife Service, the Museum
Biologist accompanied Mr. Ron Mackay, of that service, and Mr. Don Robinson, of the
British Columbia Game Department, on a short waterfowl investigation to the Tofino
mud-flats. In the course of this operation, three flocks of trumpeter swan were recorded.
Hunting-pressure observations, in which the party was mainly interested, were greatly
curtailed due to the inclement weather at the time of our visit. Strong south-east winds,
torrential rains, and floods resulted in an almost complete absence of hunters from the
area at that time.
When possible one day per week was allocated to field work on Vancouver Island
in order to keep a record of conditions and movements of local birds and mammals.
Due to the pressure of other commitments, this work was greatly curtailed this year.
Two handbooks on British Columbia birds were completed this year and made
ready for publication, one appearing in print in November. An additional fifty species
of birds were written up during the year, bringing the total to 130 species so far prepared
for this handbook series. Some of these articles have appeared as weekly outdoor features
in a local newspaper. Several short papers were prepared for scientific periodicals during
the year, some of which have appeared in print. Work was continued on the major
publication, " Mammals of British Columbia," and this special publication is now nearing
completion despite the many difficulties encountered in allocation of time by the authors,
Dr. Cowan and the Museum Biologist. The manuscript is at the stage where the authors
must work together, and as one is stationed at Vancouver and one at Victoria, this is
usually difficult.
New subspecies of small mammals discovered and collected on the Scott Islands
have been described, and the paper appears elsewhere in this publication.
Early in the year the Museum Biologist was asked to initiate a natural-history radio
programme involving three five-minute broadcasts weekly. Eighty-four programmes were
produced at radio station CKDA in Victoria dealing with many phases of activity in the
wildlife field; conservation, life-histories, game management problems, education, sport-
fishing reports, hunting reports, and information pertaining to outdoor sports in general
were featured.
Guest speakers included Dr. I. McTaggart Cowan on education, Dr. G. C. Carl on
marine mammals and fish, Dr. James Hatter and Biologists Don Robinson, George
Mitchel, and Ernest Taylor on game management, Biologist Stewart Smith on fisheries
management, Mr. Ron Mackay on waterfowl management, Mr. Wilson Duff on anthropology, Mr. Frank Beebe on the sport of falconry, Mr. Dave Gray on the bucktail fly and
fishing reports, and Dr. David Turner on the British Columbia Resources Conferences.
Most of these specialists have appeared on the programme several times during the year.
Mr. Don Robinson, Regional Game Management Biologist for the British Columbia
Game Commission, was heard regularly, keeping sportsmen and naturalists posted on the
many aspects of deer, elk, and blue grouse management problems on Vancouver Island.
Routine curatorial activities dealing with nearly 16,000 scientific-study skins of birds
and mammals, specimen preparation, preparation and rearrangement of exhibits, cataloguing and indexing of material, specimen identification, lecturing, research, writing, and
the host of minor activities associated with museum work, combined with the field activities, completely utilized the Biologist's time during the year 1954.
Five hundred and eighty specimens from the scientific-study collections of birds,
mammals, amphibians, and plants went out on loan or were returned in the current year
by the following institutions: University of California, United States Department of
Interior, University of Washington, University of British Columbia, United States Fish
and Wildlife Service, University of Georgia, Royal Ontario Museum, University of
Kansas, British Museum, and Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa.
We wish to acknowledge the continued voluntary co-operation of the many citizens
of this Province who contribute annually to our biological collections and knowledge, B 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
especially members of the Dominion Fisheries Department — Mr. A. J. Whitmore,
Mr. H. E. Palmer, and Capt. C. W. Earnshaw and the crew of the " Howay "; members
of the Victoria Branch of the Game Commission—Inspector George Stevenson, Game
Wardens Joseph Jones, R. Sinclair, and Don Kiers; Game Warden W. Webb and Constable D. Drapper, Royal Canadian Mounted Police; Mr. Bruce Irving, of Pender Island;
Messrs. George Hillier and Vince Madden, of Ucluelet; Mr. Bert Robson, of Atnarko;
Mr. Len Newbigging, of Victoria; Mr. Don Robinson, of the British Columbia Game
Commission at Nanaimo; Game Warden Charles Estlin, of Courtenay; Mr. R. H.
Mackay, of the Canadian Wildlife Service; Mr. Gordon Pike, of the Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo; and many others whom we may have failed to mention here.
REPORT OF THE ANTHROPOLOGIST
ACTIVITIES
A major part of the Anthropologist's work during the year involved efforts to salvage
totem-poles from old native villages of the Province. Early in the year he joined with
officials of the University and the Indian Affairs Branch to form a Totem-pole Preservation Committee, the object of which is to stimulate and co-ordinate totem-pole salvage
and restoration projects in British Columbia. Officials of Powell River Company Limited
invited the Anthropologist to submit a plan for the salvage of the last six totem-poles in
the Haida villages of Skedans and Tanoo, and agreed to finance the project by means of
a grant to the Committee.
In May the Anthropologist and Rev. Dr. Peter B. Kelly went to Skidegate for a week
to find the native owners of the six poles and obtain permission to purchase and remove
them. On June 21st, all preliminaries completed, he returned to the Queen Charlottes
for two weeks to undertake the salvage operation. A Skidegate seine-boat and crew
were hired for the work; the poles were carefully lowered, cut into sections, crated, and
taken to Aero Camp, Cumshewa Inlet, for shipment south. Three of the poles were
shipped to Vancouver for storage at the University; the other three came to this Museum.
A large part of the cost of shipping was kindly donated by Union Steamships Limited.
The project received considerable publicity in the press, on radio, and on television.
Mr. Bill Reid, a C.B.C. announcer of Haida descent, gave his time to take part in the
project, and prepared two radio reports and two interviews which were broadcast.
Photographs and movies taken by the Anthropologist were widely publicized; the latter
were televised on two occasions. The six poles are now safely in storage, and it is planned
to have copies of them carved during the coming year.
Another field project in which the Anthropologist participated was an archaeological
survey of the area between Nanaimo and Sayward, which was undertaken by Dr. Herbert
C. Taylor, Jr., of Western Washington College of Education, Bellingham. Two periods
were spent in the field. During the first, September 5th to 13th, he and Dr. Taylor were
accompanied by Dr. Douglas Leechman, of the National Museum of Canada; during the
second, October 15th to 18th, five student archaeologists participated. Several reports
and articles based on this field work are now being prepared jointly with Dr. Taylor.
At the invitation and expense of the Canadian National Railways, the Anthropologist
made two trips to Jasper, Alta., early in the year to direct the restoration and repainting
of the Jasper totem-pole. This pole was moved to Jasper from Masset, Queen Charlotte
Islands, in 1919, and is one of the largest and finest totem-poles in existence.
Educational work was carried out both in and outside the Museum. Some twenty
school classes (700 pupils) made supervised visits to the Museum to see the Indian
exhibits, and were given talks and demonstrations. Several other visiting groups were
given guided tours. Late in the year the Anthropologist participated in a Victoria College
evening course being given by the Museum staff, and also organized a new series of REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B  19
" Technical Talks " to be given monthly during the winter in the Museum by professional
workers in various fields. Lectures and film-shows outside the Museum were given to
eleven service clubs or other such groups in the Victoria area, and also to the people of
Skidegate village, University summer classes in anthropology, the Northwest Anthropological Conference, and the Jasper National Park Kiwanis Club.
A good deal of work was done during the year in reorganizing the anthropological
collections in storage and on display. This became possible when a new storage-room
in the basement of the finance building was made available. Ten packing-cases of Indian
material which had been stored in the bomb-proof Topaz Avenue vaults since the war
were moved to the new storeroom and unpacked. Many large items crowded in the
display-rooms  were likewise  stored, and several exhibits were  " weeded out"  and
(Photo by Wilson Duff.)
Removing a totem-pole from the abandoned village of Tanoo, Queen Charlotte Islands,
June, 1954.
reorganized. Considerable time was spent organizing the archaeological collections; in
this work Mrs. Eleanore Wheeldon gave much assistance. Routine accessioning and care
of the collections also took time. A loan of thirty objects of Indian art was made to the
Arts Centre of Greater Victoria for a special exhibition during the summer.
Visits of anthropologists, writers, and news and television photographers were frequent during the year. Most were drawn by the presence of Mungo Martin and the
totem-carving programme. Every effort was made to assist such visitors. In addition,
a large amount of correspondence crossed the Anthropologist's desk. Close contact with
other anthropological institutions was maintained. In May the Anthropologist attended
the Northwest Anthropological Conference in Vancouver, where he presented a paper
on " Totem-pole Preservation in British Columbia " and showed movies on totem-poles.
The presence of the Kwakiutl carvers has allowed the continued recording of
Kwakiutl music and ethnology.    The tape recordings of the house-warming potlatch B 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
last winter were edited, and a full description of the events and translations of the speeches
was written. In addition, more songs have been obtained on tape, and more information
on Kwakiutl ethnology gathered.
A number of publications or articles were prepared by the Anthropologist during
the year, and a larger number are still in preparation. "Anthropology in B.C. No. 4 "
was prepared for publication and distributed in December. Two articles on totem-pole
salvage were published elsewhere. In preparation, with Dr. H. C. Taylor, Jr., are three
articles based on archaeological and historical research on Eastern Vancouver Island.
A study of the population of the native tribes, including research on early Hudson's Bay
censuses and a systematic tabulation of Indian Department census figures, is nearing
completion. Two maps, to be published in the forthcoming "Atlas of B.C. Resources,"
are being prepared. One, on the distribution of the aboriginal population, will be based
on the population study just mentioned; the other, on tribal distribution, is already
completed.
TOTEM-POLE RESTORATION PROGRAMME
The carving programme in Thunderbird Park continued in operation through its
third year. Mungo Martin and David Martin worked steadily throughout the year, and,
in addition, donated funds allowed the employment of Henry Hunt for the period April
9th to June 12th.
Replicas of two Haida, two Tsimshian, one Kwakiutl, and one Bella Coola totem-
pole were carved. The Haida poles are large house frontal poles collected by Dr. C. F.
Newcombe in 1911 (Museum No. 1307 from Cumshewa and No. 1391 from Tanoo).
The Tsimshian poles are tall memorial columns, collected from the Upper Skeena village
of Kitsegukla in 1952. These are the pole of Tupesu (see Barbeau, C. M.: Totem Poles
of the Gitksan, page 69 and Plate XI, Figure 7), and the second pole of Wistis (ibid.,
page 36 and Plate V, Figure 2). The Kwakiutl pole is Museum No. 1854, a large
Quatsino house-post, and the Bella Coola pole is a grave-marker, No. 2310. At year's
end, preparations were under way to erect these poles and others in the park.
The problem of storage was eased somewhat when part of a corrugated-iron shed
on Superior Street was made available for totem-pole storage.
It is again a pleasure to acknowledge a good deal of public support for the programme. In the spring Mr. Paul Arsens, of Victoria, staged a two-week " potlatch "
in his two restaurants, during which funds were raised for the Thunderbird Park Fund.
Mr. Arsens donated one day's proceeds of his restaurants to the Fund. With this Fund,
Henry Hunt was hired as an apprentice carver for over two months. MacMillan &
Bloedel Limited continued to donate the logs being carved into totem-poles.
ACCESSIONS
By the end of 1954 the catalogued accessions stood as follows: Indian material,
7,960; plants, 24,619; mammals, 5,806; birds, 10,105; reptiles and amphibians, 888;
fishes, 768.   The following new materials have been added:—
ANTHROPOLOGICAL ACCESSIONS
The B. F. Cryer Collection.—(Gift.) A small collection of archaeological materials
from the Chemainus area, donated by Mrs. B. F. Cryer, Victoria.
The Dr. Garnet Montgomery Collection.—(Gift.) A collection of implements made
by the Alaskan Eskimos, donated by Dr. Garnet Montgomery, Qualicum Beach. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 21
Haida
Hand-hammer.   O. F. L. King, Victoria.
" Soul catcher."   Mrs. J. G. Fordham, Victoria.    (Purchase.)
Goat-horn spoon.   Mrs. J. G. Fordham, Victoria.    (Purchase.)
Argillite dish.   Mrs. J. G. Fordham, Victoria.    (Purchase.)
Silver spoons with incised Haida design, four.    Mrs. J. G. Fordham, Victoria.
(Purchase.)
Woven spruce-root rain-hat.   Mrs. F. W. Skinner, Victoria.
Tsimshian
Sheep-horn spoons, two.   Mrs. J. G. Fordham, Victoria.    (Purchase.)
Kwakiutl
Skull and mandible.   B. A. McKelvie, Victoria.
Nootka
Small wood carvings, two.   Miss Mary F. Dawson, Victoria.
Bottles covered with woven basketry, three.   From collection of J. B. Munro
Provincial Archives)
Coast Salish
Stone hammer.   In Cryer collection.
Stone hammer fragments.   In Cryer collection.
Stone club.   In Cryer collection.
Rubbing-stone.   In Cryer collection.
Antler wedges, four.   In Cryer collection.
Nephrite celts, seven.   In Cryer collection.
Bone harpoon-barb.   In Cryer collection.
Ground slate knives, nine.   In Cryer collection.
Ground slate whetstone.   In Cryer collection.
Ground slate lances, five.   In Cryer collection.
Ground slate points, twelve.   In Cryer collection.
Stone hammer.   W. W. Chittenden, Sardis.
Nephrite celt.   W. W. Chittenden, Sardis.
Soapstone bird-shaped bowl. W. W. Chittenden, Sardis.
Skull and other bones.   W. Kennedy, Victoria.
Bone barbed harpoon.   W. Kennedy, Victoria.
Skeleton.   Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Victoria.
Ground slate knife.   V. N. Bigwood, Victoria.
Ground slate knife.   A. H. Pullinger, Langford.
Ground slate point.   A. H. Pullinger, Langford.
Paddle for racing-canoe.   O. H. Thames, Bowser.
Ground slate point.   Mrs. G. Netzer, Victoria.
Ground slate blade.   Mrs. G. Netzer, Victoria.
Ground slate knives, two.   Mrs. G. Netzer, Victoria.
Bone pin carved as lizard.   Gary Leboutillier, Victoria.
Interior Salish
Complete skeleton.   R. C. Thurber, Victoria.
Skull.   Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Blue River.
(per b 22 british columbia
Dene
Beaded tobacco-bag.   Miss Mary F. Dawson, Victoria.
Beaded bag.   Miss Mary F. Dawson, Victoria.
Carrier
Woven spruce-root baskets, two.   From collection of J. B. Munro (per Provincial
Archives).
Miscellaneous
Twenty-six mounted photographs of Indian subjects from I. W. Powell collection.
Mrs. J. G. Fordham, Victoria.
Painting of Mungo Martin by Miss B. C. Newton, Victoria.
Alaskan Eskimo
Harpoons, two.   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
Bow and wrist-guard.   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
Boat-hook.   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
Decorated staff.   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
Atlatl darts, two.   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
" Bull roarer " (?).   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
Arrows, five.   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
Leister.   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
Lances, two.   Dr. Garnet Montgomery collection.
ZOOLOGICAL ACCESSIONS
Mammals
By gift-
Miss Sandra Bastin, Victoria, one silver-haired bat.
A. J. Braun, Oliver, one hoary bat.
British Columbia Cement Company, Victoria, whale jaw-bones.
British Columbia Game Department, Victoria, two cougars.
Brian Car, Victoria, one piece of whale-bone.
A. Garcin, Victoria, one embryo-whale specimen.
H. F. Hughes, Dawson Creek, one Canada lynx.
Dan Leavens, Pender Harbour, one mouse, one shrew.
Fred Sherman, Victoria, one mink.
G. Buchanan Simpson, Cowichan Lake, one mink.
Mrs. W. C. Strand, Errington, one big brown bat.
Birds
By gift—
D. Anderson, Ladysmith, one mallard, one pintail drake.
Cowichan Field-Naturalists' Club, Duncan, per J. A. Flett, one box of bird-
skins.
C. Fewang and N. Sistern, Victoria, one red-breasted sapsucker.
Lawrence Fletcher and Michael Corry, Victoria, one bush-tit nest.
Eric H. Garman, Victoria, one dwarf hermit thrush.
R. E. Heald, Victoria, one nest of water ouzel.
Mrs. M. I. Newton, Victoria, one sparrow-hawk.
Mrs. P. T. Rowe, Victoria, one saw-whet owl.
E. Vickerman, Saanich, one owl.
Bruce Wilby, Victoria, one saw-whet owl. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 23
Amphibians and Reptiles
By gift-
Richard Ballandine, Victoria, one garter-snake.
Mr. and Mrs. Banning, Victoria, two garter-snakes.
W. N. Burgess, Port Alberni, one green turtle.
J. M. Chapman, Mill Bay, one alligator.
H. R. Foxlee, Robson, one alligator-lizard.
Carl Gustaffson, Victoria, collection of tadpoles.
Bruce Irving, South Pender Island, one coast garter-snake.
Gailynne Ross, Victoria, one painted turtle.
Cory Small, Victoria, one alligator-lizard.
G. Sutcliffe, Belton, Texas, two horned lizards.
Fish
By gift-
Arthur Ives, Victoria, one grunt-fish.
F. C. Rumsby, Victoria, one sailor-fish.
Invertebrates
By gift-
Gary Brander, Victoria, collection of leeches.
Jerry Brohman, Victoria, one armadillo bug.
Terry Clement, Campbell River, one red rock-crab.
E. Fisher, Victoria, one California prionus.
Lawrence Fletcher and Michael Corry, Victoria, spider eggs.
Barry Gerrard and John Power, Victoria, one green grasshopper and three red
grasshoppers.
G. H. Larndner, Errington, collection of spiders.
Tom Ramsay, Victoria, one polyphemus moth.
Andrew Romage, Victoria, one horntail.
PAL-EONTOLOGY
By gift-
Ronald Nicholson, per R. K. Bradley, Westview, two fossil bivalves.
Victor Parrell, Port Alberni, one fossil bivalve.
Miscellaneous
By gift—
Cowichan Field-Naturalists' Club, Duncan, per J. A. Flett, Langford, collection
of books. B 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE FORBIDDEN PLATEAU AREA
VANCOUVER ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA
By G. A. Hardy, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
CONTENTS
Page
Introduction  24
Description of the Area  26
Location and Size  2 6
Topography  26
Geology  27
Climate  28
Life Zones  28
Plants  30
Miscellaneous Invertebrates  45
Sponges  45
Bryozoa, Moss Animals  45
Leeches  45
Molluscs   45
Crustaceans  46
Insects  47
Vertebrates  55
Fishes  55
Amphibians    56
Reptiles  57
Birds  57
Mammals  61
Bibliography  62
INTRODUCTION
The Forbidden Plateau is one of the most outstanding recreational areas on Vancouver Island. Situated only a short distance from the Island Highway and yet accessible
only by trails, this park-like area has become more and more popular as an outdoors
resort.
The name itself is intriguing and undoubtedly attracts many visitors who otherwise
would pass it by. Based upon Indian legends which attribute mysterious and supernatural powers to the area, the name suggests a " taboo " which arouses the curiosity.
The Plateau was supposed to be the sequestered spot of medicine men; women and
children disappeared when they visited the area; an unknown tribe was believed to live
there. Such beliefs served to mark this upland area of lakes and mountains as forbidden
ground.
Previous to 1925 the Plateau area was known only to prospectors and timber-
cruisers, but since that time its recreational possibilities have been recognized and an
increasing number of persons have visited the district each year.
The recreational possibilities of the Forbidden Plateau area, of which natural history
plays an important part, and the policy of the Provincial Museum to provide information
to the public in this sphere of activity, suggested that a natural-history survey of the
region would be of interest to residents and visitors.
Accordingly, a number of visits to this region have been made by Museum members
so that the necessary information could be obtained. The first of these, in 1943, was
made to the Plateau proper, with a base camp at Croteau Lake.    The results of this REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 25
aft* r^P^^^L, ;•
„ . (B.C. Government Travel Bureau.)
Hatrtngger Lake, Forbidden Plateau; Mount Albert Edward
in the background.
and Mount Regan
32
■ ■■ ■    ■:  ■:<■" ■■'■ ■'■'   ■ . .'   •     ' ■
- (B-C. Government Travel Bureau.)
Manwood Lake and Kwai Lake Forbidden Plateau; Cruickshank Canyon
in right background. B 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
survey were published in the original report (see Report of the Provincial Museum for
1943) and form the basis for the present account. More material has been added as
a result of extending the survey beyond the official boundaries of the park for the purpose
of this revision, as will be mentioned later, and further records have been made available
by recent publications as listed in the Bibliography.
More recently, during each of the years 1950 to 1954, inclusive, George A. Hardy,
Botanist and Entomologist at the Provincial Museum, made short trips to the Plateau
Lodge where the fauna and flora, particularly in the lodge area, was intensively studied;
records and other information obtained on these trips are also incorporated into the
present account.
DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA
Location and Size
The Forbidden Plateau is a district the centre of which lies approximately 16 miles
west of Courtenay, Vancouver Island. In area it comprises about 100 square miles.
Boundaries have not been defined, since the Plateau lies within the Esquimalt and
Nanaimo Railway land grant. However, in 1929 the greater part of the district known as
the Forbidden Plateau was taken in as a part of the Strathcona Park Reserve in order to
protect its wildlife population. The boundaries of this reserve were fixed by Order in
Council approved January 17th, 1929, as follows:—
" Commencing at a point on the easterly shore of Buttle Lake where the easterly
boundary of Strathcona Park intersects the said easterly shore of said lake; thence in
a straight line in an easterly direction to the top of Mount Washington; thence in a
straight line south-easterly to the top of Mount Beecher (Becher); thence astronomically
west to the easterly boundary of Strathcona Park; thence northerly, following said
easterly boundary to the point of commencement."
Since the 1943 expedition, which went into the Plateau via Dove Creek, a more
accessible route from Courtenay is by way of a good motor-road up to the Forbidden
Plateau Lodge, at an elevation of 2,100 feet and a distance of 13 miles. The lodge is
efficiently operated by Mr. and Mrs. T. G. S. Chambers, who provide every convenience
for would-be explorers into the Plateau itself.
As many visitors do not wish to proceed beyond the lodge, it is thought that by
extending the coverage of the survey eastwards down to and including the lodge area,
and by summarizing its natural history, this report would appeal to a wider public and
be of more general use to all visitors.
Accordingly, the area covered by the present survey is now extended to include the
ridge dominated by Mount Becher on the west, the Comox Overlook down to the 2,100-
foot level, the headwaters of Boston Creek, the Forbidden Plateau Lodge site, Trickle
Creek, and the upper reaches of Browns River and Waterways River.
The new area also includes Woods Mountain, Little Woods, part of a broad ridge
extending in a roughly north-south direction, along and over which the trail from the
lodge leads to Mount Becher and the interior of the Plateau.
A forestry lookout is maintained on Woods Mountain at an elevation of 3,500 feet—■
one of the first stations of its kind on the Island.
Headquarters for the interior of the Plateau is at Kwai Lake (formerly Woods
Lake), where a camp is maintained by Mr. and Mrs. Chambers for the convenience of
visitors during the summer months. Kwai Lake lies 12 miles from the lodge. A halfway cabin, also owned and operated by Mr. Chambers, at McKenzie Lake, 7 miles from
the lodge, makes a pleasant break in the journey.
Topography
The use of the term " plateau " for this area is somewhat misleading, since only
a small part of the region is flat or plateau-like.    In general it consists of a series of REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 27
ridges, sloping wet meadows, and open park land at various elevations ranging from
3,500 to 4,000 feet. Towering above these general levels are several peaks, such as
Becher (4,538 feet), Indian Head (4,304 feet), Elma (4,519 feet), Washington (5,415
feet), Brooks (4,960 feet), Strata (4,722 feet), Jutland (6,003 feet), Castle Crag (5,700
feet), and Albert Edward (6,968 feet).
Cutting the southern boundary of the reserve is the deep valley of the Cruickshank
River, which flows at the bottom of a canyon with walls rising almost sheer for over
1,000 feet.
(Photo by G. A. Hardy.)
Comox glacier from the summit of Mount Becher.
Numerous lakes, ponds, and streams form a confusing watershed pattern draining
to the sea by three routes; namely, via Cruickshank River to the south-east, Browns River
to the east, and Oyster River to the north.
Geology
In general terms the rocks of the Forbidden Plateau area fall into two main groups.
The first and older group is an assemblage of volcanic rocks with some interbedded
limestone, argillite, and quartzite, varying in age from late Palaeozoic to Triassic and
possibly Jurassic. These form the greater part of the Plateau. The second group, of
more recent origin, consists of sandstones, shales, and conglomerates of Upper Cretaceous
age—the same as that which contains the important coal-beds of Cumberland and
vicinity.   The sedimentary rocks of this group are found in three isolated areas; the first B 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
includes the height of land between Harris Lake and Goss Creek; the second includes
Strata Mountain and Mount Brooks; while the third consists of Mount Washington.
These more or less pronounced elevations are separated by narrow areas of the older,
underlying rocks exposed along intervening valleys. Fossils may be found in these
Cretaceous sediments, particularly at Limestone Ridge, just west of Helen Mackenzie
Lake and at Mount Strata.
Mount Albert Edward is composed entirely of volcanic rocks, including pillow lava,
andesite, dacite, and breccia cut by a variety of diabase and other basic dykes, all intruded
by two or three small bodies and many associated dykes of granodiorite. A few mineral
deposits of some economic importance occur within the area. These include deposits of
iron pyrites and small amounts of gold, silver, and copper. (Data taken from Gunning,
1931.)
The earthquake of 1946 had several noticeable effects in the Plateau region. In
particular the evidence on the upper reaches of Mount Brooks is very noticeable in that
the limestone formations there show fresh fractures and a mass of recently broken limestone block and debris, as if shattered by a dynamite charge.
The south face of the mountain is scored by a series of nearly horizontal parallel
troughs, suggestive of giant steps; these hold snow that apparently rarely completely
disappears, as they are shaded from the direct rays of the sun.
Climate
There is little information and there are no precise data available regarding the
climate of the Forbidden Plateau area. From our own observations and from details
supplied by others, the climate appears to be more or less typical of sub-alpine regions
with heavy precipitation mostly in the form of snow. Depths of 20 feet are said to be
not uncommon in many parts of the Plateau, and snow is present usually from the end
of September until the end of May. Heavy rains may occur during the remaining
months, although relatively fine weather is usually experienced during the month of
August.
Certain indications of the severity of the winter may be seen in many parts of the
Plateau. For example, the majority of the trees are of small size and have short, bushy
branches characteristic of trees in regions of heavy snowfall. Moreover, the trees and
shrubs growing on hillsides have their main trunks bent sharply down-hill just above the
ground-level. This " elbowed " appearance is very striking on most steep slopes and
apparently is induced by the pressure of snow which tends to slide to the valley below.
The innumerable ponds and lakelets of shallow depth—that is, less than 3 feet—are
devoid of life except for a few insect larvae and occasionally tadpoles of the tree-toad,
Hyla regilla, apparently because they freeze solidly each winter. The banks of many
of these small water-bodies and even of some of the larger lakes are often raised in ridges
to form a lip higher than their surroundings, seemingly by the force of expanding ice.
Despite the heavy precipitation, the Plateau area does not appear to have suffered
from floods and rapid run-offs. On the contrary, much of the area is exceedingly wet
underfoot, even at the end of summer, indicating that the ground-cover is sufficient to
retain and store water for long periods.
Life Zones
Within the Plateau area there are to be found several types of animal and plant life
due largely to the varied climate resulting from differences in altitude between the valley-
bottoms and the mountain-tops. Four belts or life zones may be distinguished; these
are characterized as follows:—
Transition Zone.—This includes the Plateau Lodge area where there is a merging
of the coastal forest fauna and flora with that of the Canadian zone.   The dominant trees REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 29
and shrubs of this zone include Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), western hemlock
(Tsuga heterophylla), red cedar (Thuja plicata), black Cottonwood (Populus tricho-
carpus), red alder (Alnus rubra), smooth maple (Acer glabrum douglasii), Oregon grape
(Berberis nervosa), devil's club (Echinoplanax horrida), salal (Gaultheria shallon), and
red huckleberry (Vaccinium parvifolium). Of birds, the hermit thrush, varied thrush,
and pileated woodpeckers may be mentioned.
(Photo by G. A. Hardy.)
Devil's club, Trickle Creek near Forbidden Plateau Lodge.
Canadian Zone.—The forested belt covering the valleys, low ridges, and lower
slopes of the mountains. The dominant trees in this zone are mountain hemlock (Tsuga
mertensiana), yellow cedar (Chamcecyparis nootkatensis), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga
taxifolia), white pine (Pinus monticola), and lovely fir (Abies amabilis). The dominant
shrubs include rhododendron and several species of blueberries (Vaccinium). Animal
species characteristic of this zone include the deer, bear, red squirrel, white-footed mouse,
ladder-backed woodpecker, whisky jack, blue grouse, northern raven, Oregon junco,
northwestern salamander, and northwestern toad. While many of these plants and
animals are commonly found in this zone, they are not necessarily confined to it but may
be found in adjoining zones as well.
Hudsonian Zone.—A comparatively narrow belt of dwarfed hemlock, yellow cedar,
and juniper in the timber-line region, which is about 5,000 feet in elevation in the Forbidden Plateau. Other dominant plants in this zone are heather (Cassiope mertensiana
and Phyllodoce empetriformis), teaberry   (Gaultheria ovatifolia),  and rhododendron B 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(Rhododendron albiflorum).   Among the animals the marmot is the most characteristic
species found in this zone.
Arctic-Alpine Zone.—The treeless zone on mountain-tops above timber-line, ranging above 5,000 feet in the Forbidden Plateau area. Dominant forms in the plant
kingdom here include Saxifraga tolmiei, Spiraea pectinata, Arenaria verna, Erigeron com-
positus, Phacelia sericea, Lomatium martindalei v. angustatum, and Phlox diffusa, such
as are found near the summit of Mount Albert Edward. Here also are found ptarmigan,
pipits, and rosy finches among the birds.
PLANTS
The following list includes all plants up to date as collected or recorded from various
sources, chief of which is the Museum personnel. Most identifications are by George A.
Hardy or by specialists consulted by him, and acknowledged under the species involved.
Those followed by the initials L.J.C. were reported by Lewis J. Clark, while the initials
K.C. refer to K. Christiansen.
The arrangement is based on Henry's " Flora of Southern British Columbia and
Vancouver Island," 1915, with slight changes in some instances. Common names are
given wherever possible. Most of the species mentioned, may be seen in the Museum
herbarium.
Alg-E
The following list is taken from G. H. Wailes and L. H. Tiffany (1929) :—
Ccelastrum microporum Naegeli.   Forbidden Plateau.
Microspora pachyderma (Wille) Lagerheim.
Closterium parvulum Naeg.
Closterium striolatum Ehr.
Closterium subtruncatum W. & G.S.W.
Closterium tumidulum Johnson.
Closterium ulna Focke.
Cosmarium amcenum Breb.
Cosmarium blytti Wille var. noveesylvce W. & G.S.W.
Cosmarium botrytis Manegh.
Cosmarium brebissoni Manegh.
Cosmarium cucumis Corda.
Cosmarium hammeri Reinsch.
Cosmarium galeritum Nordst.
Cosmarium humile (Gay) Nordst.
Cosmarium margaritatum Roy & Bliss.
Cosmarium pseudoexiguum Racib.
Cosmarium pygmeum Archer.
Cosmarium rectangulare Grun. var. hexagonum W. & G.S.W.
Cosmarium speciosum Lund.
Cosmarium speciosum var. rostafinski (Gutw.) W. & G.S.W.
Cosmarium subcucumis Schmid.
Cosmarium tumidum Lund.
Euastrum elegans (Breb) Kuetz.
Mesotcenium mirificum Archer.
Netrium digitis (Ehr.) Itzig. & Roth.
Netrium oblongum (De Bary) Lutkem.
Netrium oblongum var. cylindricum W. & G.S.W.
Pleurotcenium coronatum Rabenh.
Pleurotanium trabecula (Ehr.) Naeg.
Sphcerozosma excavatum Ralfs. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 31
Staurastrum alternans Breb.
Staurastrum gracile var. coronulatum Boldt.
Tetmemorus laivis (Kuetz.) Ralfs.
Bulbochcete intermedia var. depressa Wittrock.
(Edogonium pyrulum var. amplius W. R. Taylor.
(Edogonium tapeinosporum Wittr.
Dinobryon sertularia Ehr.
Peridinium inconspicuum Lemm.
„,
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Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis).
(Photo by G. A. Hardy.)
Tribonema bombycinum (Ag.) D. & S.
Tribonema bombycinum f. tenue Hazen.
Chroococcus turgidus (Kuetz) Naeg.
Oscillatoria sancta Kuetz.
Rivularia biasolettiana Menegh.
The following is from Carl (1943) :—
Glceotrichia echinulata (J. E. Smith) P. Richter.
A colonial alga of the blue-green group found free-floating in Croteau Lake and no
doubt in other lakes of the district.
Sphairella nivalis (Bauer) Summerfelt.   Red Snow.
The patches of " red snow " commonly seen on Mount Albert Edward are produced
by large numbers of minute, spherical plants, probably of the above species. B 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Lichenes: Lichens
Usnea florida Arn.   Old Man's Beard.
A light-green lichen hanging in festoons from tree branches and dead snags.
Alectora jubata (Linn.).
A dark-brown or black lichen frequently seen intermixed with the above-mentioned
species.
Hepatic-E: Liverworts
The following list of liverworts known to occur in the Forbidden Plateau area was
kindly supplied by the late Mrs. Hugh MacKenzie, of Victoria, B.C.:—
Lephozia Kunzeana (Hub.) Evans.
Lophozia alpestris (Schleich.) Evans.
Diplophyllum taxifolium (Wahl.) Dum.
Marsupella emarginata (Ehrh.) Dum.
Marsupella sullivantii (De Not.) Evans.
Ophioglossace-e: Adder's Tongue Family
Botrychium silaifolium Presl.   Grape Fern.
Polypodiace-E : Fern Family
Cryptogramma acrostichoides R. Br.   Parsley Fern.
Croteau Camp; dry ridge.
Struthiopteris spicant (L.) Scot.   Grape Fern.
Paradise Meadow.
Polypodium vulgare var. hesperium (Maxon) Nels. & McBr.   Polypody Fern.
Mount Becher, Cruickshank Canyon (L.J.C.).
Adiantum pedatum aleuticum Rupr.   Western Maiden-hair Fern.
Mount Becher Trail, Browns River.
Athyrium filix-femina L. Roth.   Lady Fern.
Croteau Lake; damp hillside.
Dryopteris dryopteris L.   Oak Fern.
Croteau Camp; damp hillside.
Asplenium viride Huds.   Green Spleenwort.
In vertical face of rock (K.C.).
Polystichum lonchitis (L.) Roth.   Holly Fern.
Mount Brooks, Lake Beautiful.
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh.   Bladder Fern.
Paradise Meadows.
SELAGINELLACE-E
Selaginella wallacei Hieron.
Lycopodiace-E: Club Moss Family
A few specimens of club mosses were collected; these were identified as follows by
Mrs. Hugh MacKenzie:—
Lycopodium annotinum L.
Lycopodium clavatum L.   Common Club Moss.
Croteau Camp.
Lycopodium lucidulum L. var. occidentale (Clute) L. R. Wilson.
Lycopodium alpinum L.
Mount Albert Edward. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 33
Lycopodium obscurum L.
Lycopodium complanatum L.
Lycopodium inundatum L.
Coniferze: Pine Family
Juniperus communis var. montana Ait.   Juniper.
Mount Albert Edward; not common.
Chamcecyparis nootkatensis (Lamb.) Spach.   Yellow Cedar.
Common throughout the lower parts of the Plateau.
Pinus contorta Dougl.   Scrub Pine.
Lone individuals were seen at Paradise Meadows and stunted forms were present
on Mount Albert Edward.
Pinus monticola Dougl.   Western White Pine.
Common.
Abies amabilis Forbes.   Lovely Fir.
Common.
Pseudotsuga taxifolia Lamb.   Douglas Fir.
Dominant in the lodge area; or it was before logging operations were undertaken.
Tsuga heterophylla Sarg.   Western Hemlock.
Abundant at the lodge level.
Tsuga mertensiana Carr.   Mountain Hemlock.
Common.
Sparganiace-E: Bur-reed Family
Sparganium simplex Huds.   Bur-reed.
Croteau Lake; backwater.
Gramine-e: Grass Family
The grasses, sedges, and rushes have kindly been identified by Mr. J. W. Eastham,
formerly Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver.
Danthonia intermedia Vasey.   Wild Oat-grass.
Paradise Meadows and Murray Meadows.
Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv.   Reed Bent Grass.
Murray Meadows and Paradise Meadows.
Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahl.) Scheele.   Mountain Hair Grass.
Murray Meadows and Mount Albert Edward.
Agrostis exarata Trin.   Spike Redtop.
Murray Meadows; alpine form.
Agrostis thurberina Hitchc.   Thurber Redtop.
Murray Meadows.
Hierochlce odorata (L.) Beauv.   Sweet Grass.
Murray Meadows.
Phleum alpinum L.   Mountain Timothy.
Murray Meadows.
Glyceria pauciflora Presl.
Murray Meadows.
Poa alpina L.   Alpine Meadow-grass.
Mount Albert Edward (L.J.C.). B 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CyperacE-e: Sedge Family
Carex mertensii Prescot.   Merten's Sedge.
Mount Becher Trail.
Carex Iceviculmis Meinsh.   Smooth-stemmed Sedge.
Mount Becher Trail.
Carex hindsii Clarke.   Hind's Sedge.
Paradise Meadows and Croteau Lake; lake-shore.
Carex physocarpa Presl.
Paradise Meadows and Croteau Lake; lake-shore.
Carex pyrenaica Wahl.   Pryenaen Sedge.
Mount Albert Edward.
Carex nigricans Mey.   Blackish Sedge.
Mount Albert Edward; lower slope.
Carex limosa L.   Shore Sedge.
Panther Lake.
Carex cephalantha (Bailey) Bicknell.   Larger Stellate Sedge.
Panther Lake.
Carex spectabilis Dewey.   Showy Sedge.
Half Dome Ridge.
Eriophorum polystachion L.   Cotton Grass.
Croteau Camp.
Scirpus ccespitosus var. callosus Bigel.  Tufted Club-rush.
Paradise Meadows.
Juncace/e:  Rush Family
Luzula piperi Coville.   Piper's Wood-rush.
Half Dome Ridge and Mount Albert Edward; between rocks.
Juncus mertensianus Bong.    Merten's Rush.
Paradise Meadows and Croteau Lake; lake-shore.
luncus drummondii Meyer.   Drummond's Rush.
Mount Albert Edward; in rocky earth pocket.
Juncus ensifolius Wiks. Three-stamened Rush.
Croteau Lake; along shore.
Liliace-E: Lily Family
Trillium ovatum Pursh.
Lodge area.
Smilacina racemosa L.   Solomon's Seal.
Trickle Creek.
Smilacina sessilifolia Nutt.   Nuttal's Solomon's Seal.
Croteau Camp; in woods.
Streptopus curvipes Vail.   Twisted Stalk.
Meadow Lake (L.J.C.).
Streptopus amplexifolius D.C.   Twisted Stalk.
Lodge area.
Veratrum viride Ait.   False Hellebore.
Croteau Lake.
Tofieldia intermedia Rydb.   False Asphodel.
Murray Meadows, Paradise Meadows, and Croteau Lake. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 35
Stenanthium occidentalis (Gray) Rydb.   Mountain Bells.
Paradise Meadows and Croteau Lake; wooded hillside.
Allium crenulatum Wiegard.   Fringed Onion.
Mount Becher.
Lilium columbianum Hands.   Wild Tiger-lily.
Paradise Meadows.
Clintonia uniflora (Schult.) Hunth.   Queen Cup.
Lodge area.
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Mount Becher Trail; bunchberry in foreground.
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(Photo by G. A. Hardy.)
ORCHIDACE-E
Habenaria stricta Lindl.   Slender Bog Orchid.
Croteau Camp; bog.
Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Hook.   Boreal Bog Orchid.
Croteau Camp; lake-shore.
Listera nephrophylla Rydb.   Heart-leaved Twayblade.
Meadows; wooded slope.
Peranium decipiens (Hook).   Rattlesnake Plantain.
Lodge area.    (L.J.C.).
Spiranthes Romanzoffiana Cham.   Ladies' Tresses.
Brink of Cruickshank Canyon and Paradise Meadows. B 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Salicace-E: Willow Family
Salix mackenziana (Hooker).    (Identified by Dr. C. R. Ball, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C).
Murray Meadows and Croteau Lake; not common.
Salix scouleriana Hook.   Scouler's Willow.
Abundant at lodge level.
Salix hookeriana Barr.   Hooker's Willow.
Occasional near lodge.
Salix sitchensis Bong.   Sitka Willow.
Abundant in lodge area.
Salix sp. either mackenziana Barr. or prolixa Anders., not fully determined at this time.
It is abundant in the logged-off area and its lower levels.
Populus trichocarpa T. & G.   Black Cottonwood.
Lodge level.
Betulace/e:  Birch Family
Alnus oregona Nutt.   Red Alder.
Common at lodge level.
Alnus sitchensis (Regel.) Sarg.   Green Alder.
Croteau Camp; fairly common.
Polygonace-e: Buckwheat Family
Polygonum viviparum L.   Alpine Bistort.
Near Croteau Lake and Murray Meadows.
Polygonum minimum Wats.   Leafy Knotweed.
Brink of Cruickshank Canyon.
Oxyria digyna (L.) Camptdera.   Mountain Sorrel.
Half Dome Ridge.
Caryophyllace-E: Pink Family
Cerastium beeringianum C. & S.   Mouse-ear Chickweed.
Mount Albert Edward (L.J.C.).
Silene acaulis L.   Moss Campion.
Mount Albert Edward.
Silene douglasii Hook.   Douglas Pink.
Mount Becher.
Arenaria verna L.   Sandwort.
Mount Albert Edward; summit.
PORTULACACE-E
Lewisia columbiana (Howell) Rob.   Bitter-root.
Mount Becher, common on rocks at 3,500-foot level and up.    First reported by
K. Christiansen for interior of plateau.
Montia parvifolia (Dougl.) Howell.   Miner's Lettuce.
Mackenzie Lake (L.J.C.).   Mount Becher and at lower elevations.
NYMPHACE-E
Nymphcea polysepala (Englm.) Greene. Yellow Pond-lily.
Shallow ponds off Becher Trail. These plants are small and poorly developed compared to the same species at lower levels. Possibly it has reached its altitudinal limit
here at 3,000 feet. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 37
Ranunculace-e: Buttercup Family
Anemone multifida Poir.   Wind Flower.
Mount Albert Edward; near summit.
Caltha leptosepala D.C.   Mountain Marsh Marigold.
Croteau Lake.
Ranunculus eschscholtzii Sehl.   Buttercup.
Mount Albert Edward (L.J.C.).
Ranunculus flammula reptans Mey.
Pond and wet places at lower levels.
Trollius laxus Salisb.
Murray Meadows; in marshy ground.
Aquilegia formosa Fischer.   Columbine.
Panther Lake; in flower by lakeside.
Actaea arguta Nutt.   Baneberry.
Mount Strata.
Coptis trifoliata Salisb.   Gold-thread.
Paradise Meadows.
BERBERIDACE-E
Berberis nervosa Pursh.   Oregon Grape.
Lodge level, Mount Becher Trail.
Achlys triphylla D.C.   May Leaves.
Trickle Creek, Mount Becher Trail.
Crucifer-E: Mustard Family
Arabis drummondii Gray.   Drummond's Rock-cress.
Mount Strata.
Cardamine oligosperma Nutt.   Rock Cress.
Paradise Meadow (L.J.C.).
Erysimum elatum Nutt.   Western Wallflower.
Mount Albert Edward, Mount Becher;   a sweet-smelling, conspicuous, yellow flower.
Droserace-e:  Sundew Family
Drosera longifolia L.   Sundew.
Paradise Meadows;  a sticky secretion on the leaves serves to trap insects which in
part supply the plant with nourishment.
Crassulace/e: Orpine Family
Sedum diver gens Wats.   Stonecrop.
Mount Albert Edward and Cruickshank Canyon.
Saxifragace-E: Saxifrage Family
Ribes bracteosum Dougl.   Stink Currant.
Trickle Creek.
Ribes lacustre Poir.   Swamp Gooseberry.
Mount Strata; rock-slide.
Parnassia fimbriata Banks.   Fringed Grass of Parnassus.
Murray Meadows, Paradise Meadows, and Croteau Lake.
Mitella pentandra Hook.   Mitrewort.
Croteau Camp; streamside. B 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Tiarella laciniata Hook.   Cut-leaved Tiarella.
Lodge area.
Tiarella trifoliata L.   Three-leaved Tiarella.
Lodge level.
Tiarella unifoliata Hook.   Simple-leaved Tiarella.
Croteau Camp; damp woods.
Heuchera glabra Willd.   Smooth Alum Root.
Mount Albert Edward (L.J.C.).
Boykinia occidentalis T. & G.   Western Boykinia.
Trickle Creek.
Leptarrhena amplexifolia (Sternb.) Ser.   Pear-leaf.
Mount Albert Edward (L.J.C.).   Common along streams at altitudes of 3,500 feet
and over.
Saxifraga bongardi Presl.   Pursh.   Bongard's Saxifrage.
Lodge area.
Saxifraga bronchialis var. austromontana (Wiegand) Piper.
Mount Albert Edward; crevices of rock near summit.
Saxifraga tolmiei T. & G. Tolmie's Saxifrage.
Mount Albert Edward and Mount Strata.
Saxifraga ferruginea Graham.   Rusty Saxifrage.
Mount Becher, Comox Overlook.
Saxifraga lyallii Engler.   Lyall's Saxifrage.
Lake Beautiful (Mrs. Stevens).
Saxifraga mertensiana Bong.   Merten's Saxifrage.
Half Dome Ridge (L.J.C.).
ROSACE-E
Prunus emarginata Dougl.   Wild Cherry.
Slope east of lodge.
Rubus pedatus Smith.   Creeping Raspberry.
Croteau Lake.
Rubus macropetalus Dougl.   Trailing Blackberry.
Abundant at lodge level.
Rubus leucodermis Dougl.   Black-cup.
Vicinity of the lodge.
Rubus strigosus Michx.   Wild Raspberry.
Lodge area.
Rubus spectabilis Pursh.   Salmonberry.
Mount Becher Trail, lodge level.
Rubus parvifiorus Nutt.   Thimbleberry.
At lodge level.
Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt.   Woodland Rose.
Lodge level.
Sanguisorba sitchensis Meyer.   Burnet.
Murray Meadows and Paradise Meadows; both white and dark purple flowers are
represented.
Holodiscus discolor (Pursh).   Ocean Spray.
Lodge level, its altitudinal limit.
Spircea pectinata T. & G.  Comb-leaved Spirea.
Mount Albert Edward and Croteau Lake. Spiraea douglasii var. Menziesii Presl
Panther Lake.
Potentilla palustris L.
Panther Lake.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
Hardhack.
B 39
Marsh Cinquefoil.
Potentilla diversifolia Lehm.
Plateau above Cruickshank Canyon, Croteau Camp, and Mount Albert Edward.
Aruncus Sylvester Kost.   Goats' Beard.
Trickle Creek.
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Pond on summit of Mount Becher.
(Photo by G. A. Hardy.)
Sibbaldia procumbens L.   Sibbaldia.
Mount Albert Edward.
Sorbus occidentalis Wats.   Mountain Ash.
Lodge area.
Sorbus sitchensis (Piper).    Sitka Mountain Ash.
At lodge level, where it reaches its near altitude limit, mingling with the western
mountain ash of the higher levels, which reaches its near lower limit in the vicinity of the
lodge, or about the 2,000-foot mark.
Amelanchier florida Lindl.    Saskatoon.
Brink of Cruickshank Canyon. B 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Leguminos-e:  Pea Family
Lupinus latifolius Agh. var. columbianus (Hel.).    Lupine.
Croteau Camp and Half Dome Ridge.
Empetrace-E:   Crowberry Family
Empetrum nigrum L.    Crowberry.
Mount Becher, Paradise Meadows, and Mount Albert Edward;  locally common.
Callitrichace-e:  Water Starwort Family
Callitrichaz autumnalis L.
Ponds on summit of Mount Becher. Occasionally to be seen in a continuous layer
on the bottom of dried-up ponds.
Celastrace-E:   False Box Family
Pachystima myrsinites Raf.   False Box.
Edge of Cruickshank Canyon.
Acerace/e:  Maple Family
Acer glabrum ssp. douglasii (Hook.) Wesml.   Smooth or Dwarf Maple.
Near Browns River.
Hypericace-E:   St. John's Wort Family
Hypericum perforatum L.    Common St. John's Wort.
Introduced near lodge.
Hypericum scouleri Hook.   Scouler's St. John's Wort.
Lodge area (L.J.C.).
VlOLACE-E
Viola palustris L.    Marsh Violet.
Murray Meadows (L.J.C.).
Viola sempervirens Greene.    Evergreen Violet.
Mount Becher Trail.
Viola sempervirens ssp. orbiculoides M. S. Baker.
Near summit of Mount Becher.
Viola glabella Nutt.    Yellow Violet.
Mount Becher Trail.
Viola adunca Smith.    Blue Violet.
Mount Becher, where it is associated with V. orbiculoides.
OnagracE/E:  Evening Primrose Family
Epilobium angustifolium L.    Fireweed.
Abundant in the logged-off areas. A small patch of a white-flowered form flourishes
from year to year near the lodge. This is well established and in 1952 occupied an area
of about 60 square feet.
Epilobium latifolium L.    Broad-leaved Willow Herb.
Mount Albert Edward.
Epilobium alpinum L.    Alpine Willow Herb.
Croteau Lake; streamsides. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 41
Umbellifer-E:   Parsley Family
Lomatium martindalei var. angustatum C. & R.    Alpine Fennel.
Mount Albert Edward.
Heracleum lanatum Mich.   Cow Parsnip.
Murray Meadows, Mount Becher.
Araliace-e:   Gensing Family
Echinopanax horridum (Smith) Dec. & Planch.   Devil's Club.
Lodge area, Boston Creek.
Cornace-e:  Dogwood Family
Cornus unalaskensis Ledeb.    Bunchberry.
Near Croteau Lake, lodge area. Very abundant in the logged area and along the
forest trails, where it forms dense mats of considerable extent, and trailing up old stumps
and dead trees.
Ericace/e:  Heath Family
Vaccinium parvifolium Smith.   Red Huckleberry.
Abundant near lodge.
Vaccinium occidentale A. Gray.    Western Bog Bilberry.
Mount Albert Edward, Croteau Camp, and Paradise Meadows.
Vaccinium ccespitosum Mich.   Dwarf Bilberry.
Croteau Camp, plateau above Cruickshank Canyon, and Paradise Meadows.
Vaccinium deliciosum Piper.    Blue-leaved Bilberry.
Croteau Camp.
Vaccinium ovalifolium Smith.    Tall Blue Bilberry.
Croteau Camp, Mount Albert Edward, and Mount Becher Trail.
Vaccinium membranaceum Dougl.    Mountain Bilberry.
Croteau Camp, Mount Albert Edward and summit of Mount Becher; close to tree-
trunk in shade.    Leaves were also found in the crop of a blue grouse.
Pyrola asarifolia Michx.    Wintergreen.
Croteau Lake.
Moneses uniflora (L.) Gray.    Single Delight.
Woodland trails near lodge.
Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt.    Prince's Pine.
Lodge area.
Chimaphila menziesii Spreng.    Menzies' Pipsissiwa.
Near lodge.
Pyrola minor L.    Lesser Wintergreen.
Half Dome Ridge.
Pyrola secunda L.    One-sided Wintergreen.
Croteau Lake; damp woods.
Cladothamnus pyrolceflorus Bong.    Copper Bush.
Croteau Lake and Mount Becher Trail, along streams.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng.    Kinnikinick.
Croteau Lake.
Gaultheria shallon Pursh.    Salal.
Lodge area.
Gaultheria ovatifolia Gray.    Western Teaberry.
Croteau Camp and Paradise Meadows, on stream-bank.   Frequent at the lodge level. B 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cassiope Mertensiana Don.    Moss Heather.
Common in all areas; flowers, white.
Phyllodoce empetriformis Don.    False Heather.
Common; flowers, pink.
Phyllodoce glandulifiorus (Hook.) Cov.    False Heather.
Half Dome Ridge; flowers, greenish-yellow.
Kalmia polifolia Wang.    Pale Laurel.
Croteau Camp and Mount Becher.
Menziesia ferruginea Smith.    False Azalea.
Lodge area and Mount Becher Trail.
Rhododendron albiflorum Hook.    White-flowered Rhododendron.
Croteau Camp; common, forming dense thickets.   A large proportion of the leaves
show a brilliant yellow spotting.
Allotropa virgata T. & G.    Barber's Pole.
Woods, Boston Creek.
Hypopites hypopites (L.).    Small Pinesap.
Croteau Lake; in woods.
Primulace-E:   Primrose Family
Dodecatheon Jeffreyi Moor.    Shooting Star.
Paradise Meadows, McKenzie Lake.
Trientalis arctica Fisch.    Northern Star Flower.
Paradise Meadows.
Gentianace_e:   Gentian Family
Gentiana sceptrum Pall.    Swamp Gentian.
Paradise Meadows; common.
Menyanthes trifoliata L.    Buckbean.
Woodland ponds off Mount Becher Trail.
Menyanthes crista-galli L.    Deer Cabbage.
Crouteau Lake.
Polemoniace-e:   Phlox Family
Phlox diffusa Benth.    Phlox.
Mount Albert Edward.
HydrophyllacE-E: Water-leaf Family
Romanzoffia sitchensis Bong.    Cliff Romanzoffia.
Mount Albert Edward; among rocks at summit.
Phacelia sericea Gray.    Grey Phacelia.
Mount Albert Edward; near summit.
Scrophulariace-E:   Figwort Family
Pentstemon menziesii Hook.    Menzies' Beard-tongue.
Mount Strata, Mount Albert Edward, and Mount Becher; rock-slide.
Pentstemon diffusus Dougl.    Spreading Beard-tongue.
Mount Strata and Mount Becher; rock-slide.
Veronica alpina L.    Alpine Speedwell.
Croteau Lake and Half Dome Ridge. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 43
Veronica americana Schwein.    Brookline.
Croteau Lake.
Mimulus langsdorfi Donn.    Langsdorff's Monkey Flower.
Murray Meadows.
Mimulus moschatus Dougl.    Musk Flower.
Damp places near lodge.   At one time this species was famed for its pleasant scent.
This scent seems to have completely vanished in the present-day species.
Castilleja miniata Dougl.    Common Paint-brush.
Half Dome Ridge and Croteau Camp.   Agrees with crispula of Piper.
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Phlox douglassi on Mount Becher.
-■---■■_■
(Photo by G. A. Hardy.)
Castilleja rhexifolia Rydb.    Paint-brush.
Croteau Lake.
Castilleja angustifolia var. bradburyi Fern.
Mount Becher.
Pedicularis bracteosa Benth.   Bracted Lousewort.
Croteau Camp; lake-shore.
Pedicularis racemosa Hook.    Leafy Lousewort.
Paradise Meadows and Cruickshank Canyon brink.
Pedicularis ornithorhyncha Benth.   Bird's Bill Lousewort.
Mount Albert Edward, Half Dome Ridge, and Mount Becher. B 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LENTIBULARIACE-E
Pinguicula vulgaris L.    Butterwort.
Hairtrigger Lake, Kwai Lake, and wet ground.    The thick, slimy leaves serve as
insect traps.
RubiacE-E: Madder Family
Galium trifidum L. var. pacificum Wiegand.    Small Bedstraw.
Paradise Meadows.
Galium triflorum Michx.    Sweet-scented Bedstraw.
Lodge area.
CAPRIFOLIACE-E
Symphoricarpos racemosa Michx.
Mount Becher Trail.
Sambucus glauca Nutt.    Blue-berried Elder.
Near lodge, where it reaches its upper limit.
Valarianace-E.    Valerian Family
Valeriana sitchensis Bong.   Valerian.
Mount Albert Edward and Croteau Lake.
Campanulace-E:   Bluebell Family
Campanula rotundifolia L.    Bluebell.
Lake Beautiful, Mount Strata, and Mount Albert Edward. •
Campanula scouleri Hook.    Scouler's Bluebell.
Lodge area.
ComposiT-e:  Compositae Family
Erigeron salsuginosus (Richards.) Gray.    Aster Fleabane.
Croteau Lake, Half Dome Ridge, Mount Albert Edward, and Mount Becher.
Erigeron compositus Pursh.    Dwarf Mountain Fleabane.
Mount Albert Edward.
Erigeron compositus var. trifidus (Hook.) Gray.
Mount Albert Edward (L.J.C.).
Solidago corymbosa Nutt.   Northern Goldenrod.
(S. multiradiata var. scopulorum Gray and S. algida Piper, synonyms.)  Mount
Albert Edward.
Achillea borealis Bong.    Northern Yarrow.
Mount Albert Edward; near summit.
Petasites frigida (L.) Fries.    Alpine Coltsfoot.
Murray Meadows.
Arnica latifolia Bong.    Broad-leaved Arnica.
Mount Albert Edward and Croteau Camp; stream side.
Arnica mollis Hook.    Hairy Arnica.
Mount Albert Edward.
Senecio triangularis Hook.    Spearhead Ragwort.
Croteau Lake.
Senecio pauciflorus Pursh and
Senecio pauciflorus Pursh. var. fallax Greenm.   Few-flowered Ragwort.
Mount Albert Edward and Half Dome Ridge.
Luina hypoleuca Benth.   Silver-back.
Plateau above Cruickshank Canyon. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 45
Antennaria media Greene.   Alpine Everlasting.
Mount Albert Edward; near summit.
Antennaria parvifolia Nutt.   Everlasting.
Summit of Mount Becher.
Anaphalis margaritacea var. subalpina Gray.   Alpine Pearly Everlasting.
Mount Strata.
Agoseris aurantiaca (Hook.) Greene.   Golden Agoseris.
Mount Albert Edward.
Aster foliaceus Lindl.   Leafy Aster.
Paradise Meadows.
Hypocharis radicata L.   Hawk-weed.
Introduced; near lodge.
Hieracium gracile Hook.   Mountain Hawkweed.
Mount Albert Edward (R.C.) and Mount Becher.
MISCELLANEOUS INVERTEBRATES
Sponges
Spongilla probably lapustris (Linn.).   Fresh-water Sponge.
Green, finger-like colonies of sponges were seen in several lakes, particularly Panther
Lake and Lady Lake. In most cases the colonies were attached to submerged stones or
sticks in water of medium depth.
Bryozoa, Moss Animals
Plumatella repens var. fructosa (Allman).
Colonies of this fresh-water bryozoan were found attached to stones and other supports in the shallows of Upper Lake Beautiful. These colonies resemble many-branched
rootlets, brownish in colour and forming small mats about one-quarter inch in thickness.
Cristatella mucedo Cuvier.
Colonies of this moss animal have the appearance of small gelatinous masses; they
were found fastened to stones in association with the above-mentioned bryozoan.
The Bryozoa were identified by Dr. Mary D. Rogick, of the United States National
Museum.
Leeches
Helobdella stagnalis stagnalis (Linn.).
Specimens of this leech from Lady Lake were identified by Dr. Percy Moore, of the
United States National Museum.
Molluscs
Ariolimax columbianus (Gould).   Pacific Giant Slug.
Many of these large slugs were seen on the Dove Creek Trail, but no specimens were
observed on the Plateau itself.
Prophysaon andersoni (Cooper).   Anderson's Slug.
Several specimens of this slug were found under decaying wood on damp hillsides
near Croteau Lake. The specimens may be recognized by the diamond-mesh reticulations, the two dark bands on the mantle, and the light dorsal stripe posterior to the mantle.
The largest specimen measured 1 Vz inches in length.
Monodenia fidelis fidelis (Gray).   Common Snail.
This large land snail was seen on several occasions in various parts of the Plateau,
usually in damp woods. B 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pisidium casertanum (Poli) and
Pisidium medianum Sterki.   Fresh-water Clam.
These two species of small clams have been tentatively identified by Mr. H. B.
Herrington, of Keene, Ont. Specimens were found in the silt in Lady Lake and in Croteau Lake; they are probably present in most of the lakes in the Plateau area.
In Croteau Lake these molluscs formed part of the diet of salamander larvae.
Crustaceans
With the exception of the bottom-loving amphipods ("shrimps") the Crustacea of
the Forbidden Plateau lakes are almost entirely composed of free-swimming forms such
as water-fleas and copepods. These, together with other free-floating minute animals and
plants, are usually termed " plankton " and provide a source of food for fish, particularly
in the fry and fingerling stage. Samples were obtained from a few representative lakes on
the Plateau by towing a fine-meshed net through the water or by pouring water through
the net. Of the following records, those from McKenzie, Woods, Beautiful, Meadow,
and Mariwood Lakes, and Mount Becher Pond are from samples collected in 1936 by
Dr. W. A. Clemens, formerly of the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia; the remainder are from collections made by G. C. Carl in 1943.
Water Fleas (Cladocera)
Sida crystallina (O. F. Miiller).
McKenzie, Kwai, Beautiful, Meadow, and Mariwood Lakes.
Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Lieven).
McKenzie Lake.
Holopedium gibberum Zaddach.
Panther and Croteau Lakes.
Daphnia longispina (O. F. Miiller).
Panther and McKenzie Lakes; Mount Becher Pond.
Simocephalus serrulatus (Koch).
Mount Becher Pond.
Scapholeberis mucronata (O. F. Miiller).
Panther, McKenzie, Kwai, Beautiful, Meadow, and Mariwood Lakes.
Bosmina obtusirostris Sars.
Panther, Croteau, McKenzie, Kwai, Beautiful, and Mariwood Lakes.
Acroperus harpae Baird.
Croteau, McKenzie, and Kwai Lakes.
Alona affinis (Leydig).
Panther, Kwai, and Mariwood Lakes.
Alona costata Sars.
Beautiful and Mariwood Lakes.
Chydorus spharicus (O. F. Miiller).
Croteau, McKenzie, Beautiful, and Meadow Lakes; Mount Becher Pond.
Polyphemus pediculus (Linne).
Panther, Croteau, McKenzie, Kwai, and Beautiful Lakes; Mount Becher Pond.
Copepods
Diaptomus shoshone Forbes.
Panther, Croteau, and McKenzie Lakes.
Diaptomus oregonensis Lilljeborg.
McKenzie Lake. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 47
Cyclops viridis Jurine.
Panther Lake.
Cyclops serrulatus Fischer.
Croteau, McKenzie, Kwai, Beautiful, and Meadow Lakes.
Cyclops albidus Jurine.
Croteau, Kwai, Beautiful, and Meadow Lakes; Mount Becher Pond.
Amphipods
Hyalella azteca Saussure.   Fresh-water Shrimp.
Shrimps were seen and collected in Lady Lake, Panther Lake, and Upper Lake
Beautiful, where they were found among the stones in shallow water. Stomachs of trout
taken from Upper Lake Beautiful contained numbers of shrimps, indicating that these
crustaceans are an important article of food.
INSECTS
Records of insects of the Forbidden Plateau were obtained from the following
sources: Collections made by the Museum party in 1943; specimens collected by Mr.
J. D. Gregson, Director of the Livestock Insect Laboratory, Kamloops, in 1930-31;
butterflies and moths obtained by the late J. R. J. Llewellyn Jones in 1947 and 1948;
beetles and stoneflies collected and recorded by R. Guppy (Schmid and Guppy, 1952);
dragonflies recorded by F. C. Whitehouse (1941); stoneflies recorded by W. E. Ricker
(1943); and additional butterflies and moths collected by G. A. Hardy, 1950-54.
We are indebted to Dr. T. N. Freeman and Dr. D. F. Hardwick at Ottawa, Mr. H. B.
Leech at Berkeley, Calif., and to Mr. Wm. Downes of Victoria, B.C., for identification
of specimens.
Orthoptera (Straight-winged Insects)
Locustida: Locusts, Grasshoppers
Camnula pellucida (Scudder).   Clear-wing Grasshopper.
Trimerotropis suffusus (Scudder).   Snapping Locust.
Both common on summit of Mount Becher.   August, 1951.
Odonata: Dragonflies
Engallagma cyathigenum (Chap.).   Forbidden Plateau, 3,200 feet.   August 26th, 1937.
/Eschna juncea L. (race americana Bartenof).   Forbidden Plateau, Courtenay, 3,200 feet.
Mschna palmata Hagen.   3,200 feet.
Somatochlora semicircularis (Selys).
Somatochlora albicincta (Burm.)
Sympetrum pallipes (Hagen).
Sialidce (Alder Flies, Dobson Flies)
Chauliodes disjunctus Walker.   Dobson Fly.
With a wing expanse of 5 inches, this is the largest insect in the district. A fine
specimen was collected by Mrs. W. V. Hardy near the lodge, August 15th, 1953.
The larva is aquatic, living in mountain streams; when available, it is considered to
be a fine trout bait.
Plecoptera: Stoneflies
Isocapnia sp. possibly /. spenseri s. thuja; from a specimen taken by J. D. Gregson, and
now in the Canadian national collection.
Kathroperla perdita Banks.   6,000 feet, J. D. Gregson. B 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Trichoptera: Caddis Flies
Rhyacophila norctua Ross.
Dolophilodes pallidipes (Bks.).
Polycentropus flavus Bks.
Polycentropus remotus Bks.
Mystacides alafimbriata H. Gr.
Limnephilus fuscoradiatus Schm.
Limnephilus lopho Ross.
Clistoronia magnifica Bks. Very conspicuous during August at dusk.
Chyranda centralis Bks.
Hesperophylase designatus Walk.
Ecclisomyia conspersa Bks.
COLEOPTERA(BEETLES)
Carabidce: Ground-beetles
Pterostichus castaneus Dej.
R. Guppy, 1950.
Pterostichus brunneus Dej.
R. Guppy, 1950.
Carabus tadatus Fab.
Bembidium incertum (Mots.).
R. Guppy, 1950.
Dytiscida: Western Beetles
Agabus tristis Aube.
Croteau Lake, September 1st, 1943.
Agabus vancouverensis Leech.
July 7th, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Agabus hypomelas Mannh.
R. Guppy, 1950.
Acilius semisulcatiis Aube.
Mount Stratta, July 20th, 1931.   J. D. Gregson.
Gyrinidce: Whirligig Beetles
Gyrinus picepes Aube.
Croteau Lake, September 1st, 1943.
Staphylinida: Rove Beetles
Anthobium species?
A tiny beetle that swarms on all flowers.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Tilea cavicollis Four.
R. Guppy, 1950.
Isomalus mancus.
Lycidce: Net-winged Beetles
Eros hamatus (Mann.)
Common everywhere.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Cantharida: Leather-winged Beetles
Podabrus piniphilis (Esch.).
Very common.   R. Guppy. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 49
Elateridce: Click-beetles
Etenicera (ludius) resplendens Esch.
From fish stomach and on herbage.
Etenicera lateralis LeC.
From fish stomach.  Panther Lake, August 24th, 1943.
Etenicera angusticollis Mann.
From fish stomach.   Panther Lake, August 24th, 1943.
Etenicera bombycinus Geog.
Common.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Etenicera lobatus Mann.
Common everywhere.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Etenicera sagitticolis Esch.
Local.   R. Guppy.
Etenicera lutescens Fall.
Rarely met with.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Etenicera uliginosa Van D.
A new record from Vancouver Island.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Eanus striatipennis Brown.
New to Vancouver Island.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Eanus granicollis Van D.
New to Vancouver Island.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Dalopius tristis Brown.
Very common everywhere.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Megapenthes stigmosus LeC.
On flowers of Anaphalis margaritacea.
Buprestidm: Flat-headed Borers
Buprestis ueviventris (LeC).
R. Guppy, 1950.
Melanophila fulroguttata drummondi (Kby.).
July 7th, 1931.   J. D. Gregson.
Byrrhidm: Pill-beetles
Byrrhus kirbyi LeC.
Mount Albert Edward, July 27th, 1931.   J. D. Gregson.
Cucujidos: Cucujid Beetles
Cucujus puniceus Mann.
July 11th, 1930.   J. D. Gregson.
Coccinellidte:
Lady-bird Beetles
Hippodamia tredecim-punctata (L.).
R. Guppy, 1950.
Hippodamia quinquesignata Kby.
July 26th, 1931.  J. D. Gregson.
Scarabceidce
: Dung Beetles
Aphodius congregatus Mann.
A mountain representative of our common small dung beetles.   R. G B 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cerambycidce: Long-horned Beetles
Tragosoma depsarium Harrisi LeC.
This large brown beetle occasionally comes to artificial light at the lodge.
Rhagium lineatum L.
Croteau Camp, July 11th, 1930.   J. D. Gregson.
Pachyta armata LeC.
Murray Meadows, August 31st, 1943.   On flower of Veratrum viride on Mount
Becher by R. Guppy, 1950.
Evodinus vancouveri Csy.
Croteau Camp, July 11th, 1930.   J. D. Gregson.
Anoplodera dolorosa LeC.
Common on flowers of Anaphalis margaritacea and Achillea millifolium at the lower
levels, Croteau Camp, July 10th, 1930.   J. D. Gregson.
Anoplodera crassipes LeC.
Common on flowers at the lower levels near the lodge.
Anoplodera aspera LeC.
Mariwood Lake.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Anoplodera tibialis (LeC).
On flowers at the higher levels.   Guppy records it from Mount Becher and McKenzie
Lake, 1950.
Leptura propinqua Bland.
Mount Becher, a mountain species.
Leptura chrysocoma Kby.
Common on flowers everywhere except at the higher levels.
Ulochtetes leoninus LeC.   Bumble-bee Longhorn.
Closely resembles a bumble bee in both flight and appearance. Generally seen
buzzing about newly felled fir logs. One was taken on the Mount Becher Trail, flying
about a fallen Abies amabilis, August, 1951.
Chrysomelidce: Leaf-eating Beetles
Donacia gemari Mann.
Locally plentiful at McKenzie Lake among sedge.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Syneta simplex LeC.
Rare.   R. Guppy.
Syneta carinata (Mann.).
Galerucella decora carbo LeC.
A willow leaf-defoliator.   R. Guppy, 1950.
A Itica tombacina Mann.   Fireweed Beetle.
R. Guppy, 1950.
Dyslobius verrucifer Csy.
Mount Becher.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Dyslobius decoratus LeC.
McKenzie Lake.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Scolyticke: Bark Beetles
Pseudohylesinus nobilis Sw.
Under bark of hemlock.   R. Guppy, 1950.
Pythidce
Priognathus monilicornis (Rand).
Mount Albert Edward, July 21st, 1931, J. D. Gregson. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 51
Curculionidce: Weevils
Rhyncholus brunneus Mann.
Bugs
Chlorochroa uhleri Stal.
Mount Albert Edward, July 21st, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
Aradus heidmanni Bergr.   Fungus Bug.
Mount Albert Edward, July 21st, 1931, J. D. Gregson.
LEPIDOPTERA (BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS)
Rhopalocera (Butterflies)
Papilionidaz: Swallowtails
Papilio zelicaon Luc.   Mountain Swallowtail.
Summit of Mount Becher down to the lodge area.
Parnassius clodius claudianus Stick.   Apollo Butterfly.
The dark Vancouver Island and Lower Fraser Valley form. Common on the open
meadows.
Pieridce
Colias occidentalis Scud.   Western Sulphur.
Several specimens presumed to be of this species were seen flying near the summit
of Mount Becher, August 7th, 1952. One alighted on the flower of a phlox, but was too
wary to be taken.
Neophasia menapia F. & F.   Pine White.
Abundant in 1943, particularly around pine-trees. Several adults were taken on
the snow-fields of Mount Albert Edward.
Pieris napm L.   Cabbage White.
Recorded by Jones (1949) on the slopes of Mount Becher.
Satyridw: The Satyrs
(Eneis nevadensis F. & F.   Great Arctic.
Summit of Mount Becher.
Nymphalidai: Brush-footed Butterflies
Speyeria hydaspe rhodope Edw.   Dusky Silver-spot Fritillary.
The characteristic phase of Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser Valley.   The
latter is the type locality.
Speyeria rhodope ab. gregsoni Gund.
J. D. Gregson took it in 1931 on Mount Washington, described by Gunder in 1932.
Boloria epithore Edw.   Western Meadow Fritillary.
A typical west coast butterfly. To be found in moist open meadows in hilly situations
from Alaska to California.
Polygonia satyrus Edw.   Brown Comma.
Mount Becher Trail and lodge area.
Polygonia oreas silenus Edw. Western Comma.
Woodland trail to Mount Becher and near the summit.
Nymphalis milberti Godt.   Milbert's Tortoise-shell.
Mount Becher Trail just above the lodge.
Vanessa cardui L.   Painted Lady.
Near the summit of Mount Becher. This cosmopolitan butterfly is very erratic in
occurrence; in some years it is to be seen everywhere, in others it is completely absent. B 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Basilarchia lorquini burrisoni Mayn. White Admiral.
In the lodge area a fairly common butterfly which feeds, in the larval stage, on
willows.
Lycamidte: " Blues," " Coppers," and " Hairstreaks "
Strymon melinus atrofasciata McD.   Grey Hairstreak.
Frequenting the flowers of the pearly everlasting, Anaphalis margaritacea, bordering
the old logging-trails in late July and early August. This is the western race of a species
found throughout temperate America.
Strymon sylvinus Bdv.   Sylvan Hairstreaks.
Similar in appearance and habits to the former, only the underside is spotted with
black, wherever melinus is streaked. This species seems to occur a little later in the
season, around the middle and end of August and the beginning of September.
Lyctena mariposa Reak.   Dusky Copper.
A mountain species ranging from British Columbia to California. The clear ashy
grey of the underside of the hind wings is very distinctive.
Lycama helloides Edw.   Purple Copper.
Much more common than the former and chiefly at lower altitudes.
Plebeius melissa Edw.   Orange-margined Blue.
Mount Becher and Comox Overlook.
Plebeius aquilo megalo McD.   Cascade Blue.
Essentially a northern species, occurring from Labrador to Arctic America; the race
megalo is the south-western mountain form found on most of the high mountains in the
Province.
Plebeius icarioides montis Blkmre.   Blackmore's Blue.
Assumed to be this form but not definitely determined. Frequenting lupine flowers
on Mount Brooks, Comox Overlook (Hardy), Mount Becher (Jones).
Hesperidce: Skippers
Erynnis persius Scud. Variable Dusky Wing.
A sight record, presumed to be this species, was obtained on the summit of Mount
Becher.
Hesperia comma manitoba Scud.   Canadian Skipper.
Also based on a sight record on the summit of Mount Becher.
Heterocera (Moths)
The following list includes what will eventually prove to be only a small number of
the species that should occur here, as all the species recorded from Southern British
Columbia in the most recent list of moths (Jones, 1951) will likely also be found in the
Forbidden Plateau district.
While a few moths may be seen flying by day, the majority are night fliers, and are
often attracted to artificial light.
Sphingidce: Hawk-moths
Smerinthus cerisyi opthalmicus Bdv. The Eyed Hawk Moth.
Lodge light, June, 1952.   Mrs. Chambers.
Nycteolidce: Midget Moths
Sarrothripus columbiana Hy. Edw.   Variegated Midget. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 53
Phalcenidce: Owlet Moths
Merolonche ursina Sm.  The Little Bear.
Flying by day on summit of Mount Becher, also at the lodge light.
Euxoa perfusca cocklei Sm.   Cockles Dart.
Lodge light, August 3rd to 8th, 1952.   Apparently the first record for Vancouver
Island.
Euxoa messoria Harr.   Reaper Dart.
Lodge area.
Euxoa tessellata Harr.   Striped Cutworm.
Lodge area.
Euxoa colata Grt.   Oregon Dart.
At lodge light, August 4th, 1952.   Also a first Vancouver Island record.
Agrotis vancouverensis Grt.  Vancouver Dart.
At light.
Eurois asticta subjugata Dyar.   Great Brown Dart.
Ochropleura plecta L.   Flame-shouldered Dart.
At lodge light.   A circumpolar species.
Diarsia esurialis Grt.   Hungry Dart.
Graphiphora oblata Morr.   Ruby Dart.
Graphiphora flavotincta Sm.  Yellow-tinted Dart.
Protolampra rufipectus Morr.   Red-breasted Dart.
Lacinipolia cuneata Grt. Western Polia.
Anarta melanopa Icerta Sm.   Black-mooned Anarta.
A day-flying species; closely resembles the rocks on which it often rests.
Pseudorthodes communis Dyar.   Common Stylus.
Zosteropoda hirtipes Grt.   Angled Straw.
Leucania farcta roseola Sm.   Rosy Wainscot.
Oncocnemis chorda extremis Sm.   Marbled Beauty.
Near summit of Mount Albert Edward, August, 1943.   Mrs. G. C. Carl.  The first
record for Vancouver Island.
Sympistis wilsoni B. & B.   Columbian Arctic.
Taken by J. R. J. Llewellyn Jones on Mount Becher, July 9th, 1947.
Lycanades pulchella Sm.   Purple Swallow.
Lodge light (Jones).
Septis lignicolora Gn.  Wood-coloured Quaker.
Septis castanea Grt.   Chestnut Quaker.
Septis finitima cerivana Sm.   Pale-bandad Quaker.
Agroperina dubitans cogitata Sm.   Ruby Quaker.
Crymodes devastator Brace.   Glassy Cutworm.
Aseptis binotata Wlk.   Red-spot Quaker.
Aseptis adnixa Grt. Twin-spot Quaker.
Oligia indirecta Grt.   Common Quaker.
Hyppa xylinoides Gn.   Common Hyppa.
Zotheca tranquilla Grt. Western Elder Moth.
Syngrapha orophila Hamp. Yellow-winged Y.
Lake Beautiful.   July, 1948 (Jones).
Syngrapha celsa Hy. Dew.   Plain Silver Y. B 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Autographa metallica Grt.   Shaded Gold-spot.
Lodge area.
Autographa californica Speyer.  Common Silver Y.
Lodge area.
Melipotis juncunda Hbr. The Puritan.
Lodge light.
Synedoida diver gens Behr.   Divergent Arches.
The colour of this pretty day-flying moth closely resembles the ground or rocks on
which it often rests. It flies rapidly and erratically, making it difficult to catch. Lodge
area, Comox Overlook, and the lower slopes of Mount Becher.
Lasiocampidce
Malacosoma pluvialis Dyan.  Tent-caterpillar.
Geometridce: Loopers
Chlorosea banksaria Sperry.   Bank's Emerald.
Lodge area.
Neodezia albovittata Gn.  White-striped Black, " Razzle-dazzle."
Razzle-dazzle aptly describes its appearance when in rapid flight, the blurring effect
on the eyes making it very difficult to gauge its exact position when trying to net it.   Fairly
common in the forested portion of the Mount Becher Trail.
Triphosa luesitata Gn.   Brown Tissue.
Eupithecia columbiata Dyar.   Columbia Pug.
Eupithecia cretaceata Pack. White Pug.
Eustroma semiatrata Hist.   Clouded Brown.
Diactinia silaceata albolineata Pack.   Small Phoenix.
Plemyria georgii benesignata B. & McD.   Eyed Carpet.
Dysstroma sobria Swett.   Sober Carpet.
Dysstroma citrata Linn.   Dark Marbled Carpet.
Ceratodalis gueneata Pack.   Plain Wave.
Hydriomena furcata Thun.   Common Highflyer.
Xanthorhce incursata harveyata C. & S. Vancouver Carpet.
Woods along Mount Becher Trail.
Xanthorhce pontiaria Tayl.   Chalky Carpet.
Mesoleuca ruficillata Gn.   Red-fringed Carpet.
Lodge area.
Epirrhoe sperryi Herb, (tristata L.).
Mount Becher Trail.
Epirrhoe alternata Mull.   Striped Carpet.
Euphyia multiferata Wlk.   Many-lined Carpet.
Eulype hastata gothicata Gn.   Black Spear-mark.
Mount Becher Trail (Jones).   A day-flying species.   Common along the woodland
part of the trail.
Venusia cambrica Curt.  Cambric Wave.
Recorded by Jones near McKenzie Lake, July 23rd, 1948.   Also at the lodge light.
Deilinia pacificaria Pack. Western Wave.
Semiothisa granitata Gn.   Spotted Granite.
Neoalcis californiaria Pack.   California Carpet. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 55
/Ethalura anticaria Wlk.   Smokey Carpet.
Euchlama tigrinaria sirenaria Sthn. Variable Thorn.
Campaza perlata Gn.   Pale Emerald.
Philedia punctomacularia Hist.   Chain-spotted Girdle.
At rest on alder trunk near the lodge, where it looked like a splash of mud. September, 1951.
Pero giganteus Grossb.   Grant Umber.
Pero occidentalis Hist. Western Umber.
Enypia pachardata Tayl.   Pale-grey Girdle.
Lodge area; Mount Becher.
Tabanidce: Horse-flies
Large numbers of a small tabanid fly were found in trout stomachs taken from fish
caught at Circle Lake on August 29th, 1943.
Fleas
A few specimens of fleas collected from some of the mammals taken in the Forbidden Plateau area were sent to Mr. George P. Holland, of the Science Service, Ottawa,
who has identified them as follows:—
Opisodasys keeni (Bak.).
Catallagia charlottensis (Bak.).
Malarceus telchinum (Roths.).
Monopsyllus w. wagneri (Bak.).
All taken from Vancouver Island white-footed mice from Croteau and Mariwood
Camps.
Thrassis spenceri (Wag.).
From Vancouver Island marmot taken on Mount Washington.
VERTEBRATES
Fishes
Salmo gairdneri kamloops Jordan.   Kamloops Trout.
The many lakes of the Plateau were apparently originally barren of sport fish, possibly because of insurmountable falls between them and the sea. A stocking programme
therefore was commenced in 1929 when the Dominion Department of Fisheries planted
40,000 eyed eggs of Kamloops trout from Lloyd's Creek Hatchery in Panther Lake.
This initial introduction was followed by other plantings from Penask Lake Hatchery
as follows:—
In 1930: Circle, 40,000; Francis, 10,000; Isabella, 20,000; Johnston, 40,000;
Mariwood, 10,000; McKenzie, 40,000; and Meadow, 40,000.
In 1931:  Amphitheatre, 40,000; Battleship, 30,000; Bell, 20,000; McPhee,
10,000; Moat, 30,000; Rolland, 60,000; and Syms, 10,000.
In 1932: Amphitheatre, 30,000; Battleship, 30,000; McPhee, 24,000; Moat,
30,000; Isabella, 10,000; Johnston, 3,000; Mariwood, 30,000; Mclntyre,
30,000; Summit, 6,000; and Sunrise, 30,000.
In general the plantings have resulted in successful introductions; many of the lakes
now provide excellent sport-fishing and in many the trout appear to be maintaining the
population by spawning in the tributary streams.   In addition to the lakes into which eyed
eggs were placed, the following bodies of water now contain trout:  Croteau, Beautiful,
Upper Beautiful, Helen Mackenzie, Pierce, and Lady. B 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In most lakes the fish are of small size, measuring between 8 and 10 inches in length.
Large fish up to 15 pounds are reported to be present in Circle Lake and in Moat Lake.
An examination of stomach contents of a number of trout taken in Panther, Beautiful, and Circle Lakes during the last week of August, 1943, revealed that the fish at that
season were feeding mostly on insects taken from the surface of the water. The following
kinds of insects were found:—
Panther Lake: Winged ants, wasps, leaf-hoppers, ground-beetles, click-beetles,
stone-fly.
Lake Beautiful: Winged ants, ichneumon flies, horse-flies, click-beetles, Dobson fly.
Circle Lake: Midge flies, horse-flies.
Stomachs from Lake Beautiful trout also contained numbers of fresh-water shrimp
(Hyallella azteca), indicating that these Crustacea form an important part of the diet of
the fish in this body of water.
Cottus sp.   Sculpin.
An unidentified species of fresh-water sculpin is reported by Mr. Clark to be present
in Panther Lake from observations made in 1942. No specimens were seen when a
search was made in 1943.
This fish, if present, is probably the only species native to the area.
Amphibians
Ambystoma gracile gracile (Baird).   Northwestern Salamander.
The northwestern salamander appears to be abundant in the Forbidden Plateau area.
The larvae are particularly noticeable along the margins of lakes, especially by flashlight
at night. At this time many larvae from 3 to 6 inches in length may be seen lying motionless on the bottom or slowly moving along looking for food. When disturbed they dash
off suddenly to disappear into the mud or under stones or other cover. At first sight they
may be momentarily confused with fish but are easily distinguished by the presence of
two pairs of legs and by the feather-like gills on either side of the neck.
The larva, apparently transform to the adult stage toward the end of summer; eight
or ten individuals, each still with gill-stumps showing, were found under logs and bark
along the shore of Croteau Lake over a period of a few days during the last week in
August.
Adults measuring about 5Vz inches in length were found in several instances under
logs on damp hillsides not far from the lake-shore. The colour patterns of these varied
somewhat, a typical salamander being chocolate brown with bronze-coloured irregular
spots on sides of head, body, and legs, with slate grey on the under-parts.
The greenish jelly-like remains of egg-masses of this salamander were observed in
Panther Lake and in many ponds at Paradise Meadows; larvae were collected in the latter
area and in Croteau Lake. The main food of the larvae in Croteau Lake appeared to be
small clams (Psidium casertanum and P. medianum) which were abundant in the bottom
ooze.
Ambystoma macrodactylum macrodactylum Baird.   Long-toed Salamander.
An individual of this brightly coloured salamander was found associated with a
northwestern salamander under a log on a damp hillside near Croteau Lake on August
24th. The species has previously been reported from Forbidden Plateau by Brown and
Slater (1939).
In life the present specimen was dark chocolate in colour with a bright greenish-
yellow stripe down the back from the back of the head to the tip of the tail. Small
irregular spots of the same colour were on the head and limbs while the sides and under-
surfaces were speckled with small, whitish spots. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 57
Taricha granulosa granulosa Skilton.   Rough-skinned Newt.
Mr. Clark reports finding a newt in the stomach of a trout taken from Circle Lake.
Bufo boreas boreas Baird and Girard.   Northwestern Toad.
By far the most widely spread amphibian in the area is the common toad. Individuals were seen in almost all parts of the Plateau, even near the summit of Mount Strata
(at about 4,600 feet), in the rock-slide at the base of Strata, and on Mount Washington.
They were common along most trails and in thickets, sometimes some distance from
ponds or lakes.
No tadpoles of the toad were seen, but the adults probably spawn in both ponds and
lakes soon after the ice leaves. Mr. J. Ward, of Dove Creek, reported seeing a migration
of young toads across the trail some years ago toward the end of summer.
Hyla regilla Baird and Girard.   Pacific Tree-toad or Tree-frog.
The tree-toad is common throughout the Plateau, particularly along lake-shores and
stream edges. Adults were heard croaking on many occasions, and both juveniles and
adults were observed.
Tadpoles were numerous in small ponds in various parts of the Plateau; they were
often seen crowded together in the shallow water of the margin, supposedly to take advantage of the warmer water, sunshine, and possibly greater food-supply. Larvae with hind
legs about half developed were present in most pools; tadpoles changing to the adult stage
were seen in only a few cases. Since the majority of the individuals were just beginning
to show development of the hind limb, it seemed likely that many would be killed by the
first freeze-up, which usually occurs by mid-September.
Several tadpoles were seen in a small stream draining into Circle Lake, a most
unusual habitat for this species. It is possible that they originated from a near-by pond
draining into the stream. Adults seen in a pond on the summit of Mount Becher in September, 1951, had colours matching the dead sedges among which they hid.
Reptiles
The reptiles are apparently represented in the area by garter snakes only, and these
appear to be rare, since only two have been seen—one at Lake Beautiful in 1942 (L. J.
Clark) and a large one on the Mount Becher Trail at the 2,000-foot level in September,
1951 (Hardy).
Birds
Only a very incomplete idea of the bird-life of the Forbidden Plateau area can be
gained by short visits and at only one season. However, the impression gained was that
birds were remarkably few in number of species, despite the wide range of habitats and
the apparently abundant food-supply. Common birds, such as robins, thrushes, golden-
crowned sparrows, and woodpeckers, which one might expect to find in numbers, appeared
to be either absent or extremely rare. Only a few water-birds were observed. The
following annotated list is based on the first report (Carl 1943), Sutton's published
records for Paradise Meadows (1936), and observations made in 1950 to 1954.
Gavia sp.    Loon.
An unidentified loon was seen flying on one occasion over Croteau Lake and was
heard in other parts of the Plateau.
Ardea herodias fannini Chapman.    Northwest Coast Heron.
Herons are reported as being occasionaly seen.
Branta canadensis (Linnaeus).    Canada Goose.
A flock of nine geese was seen or heard several times in 1943. The birds were
first observed on Kwai Lake on August 25th; they were seen or heard in flight on several
later occasions, but not within range so that they could be identified as to subspecies. B 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Glaucionetta clangula americana (Bonaparte).    American Golden-eye.
Three golden-eyes were seen on Lower Lake Beautiful on August 25th, 1943, and
a pair was observed on Hairtrigger Lake the following day. An immature bird, possibly
a female, was present on Croteau Lake. It apparently was unable to take off from the
water.   On July 22nd, 1951, a female and eight well-grown young frequented Kwai Lake.
Astur atricapillus striatulus Ridgway.    Western Goshawk.
A goshawk was seen on more than one occasion during the 1943 visit.
Accipiter velox velox (Wilson).    Sharp-shinned Hawk.
Several sharp-shinned hawks were seen. On one occasion a pair were observed
harrying two ravens which had been feeding upon a deer carcass at the foot of Mount
Strata (1943).
Aquila chryseetos canadensis (Linnaeus).    Golden Eagle.
Pearse (1943) provides a possible sight record of this bird near Mount Albert
Edward in August, 1924.
Haliceetus leucocephalus alascanus Townsend.    Northern Bald Eagle.
Two immature individuals were seen soaring over the western slope of Mount Elma
(1943).
Falco columbarius suckleyi Ridgway.    Black Merlin; Black Pigeon Hawk.
A black merlin was seen to chase Canada jays into cover on one occasion near the
1943 camp. A second individual was seen pursuing a blue grouse near the summit of
Mount Washington.
Falco sparverius Linnaeus.    Sparrow Hawk.
Heard and seen near Trickle Creek.
Dendragapus fulginosus fulginosis (Ridgway).    Blue Grouse;  Sooty Grouse.
Blue grouse are common; individuals and small flocks were seen in all parts of the
Plateau.    Males were heard hooting on several occasions.
Bonasa umbellus bunnescens Conover.    Ruffed Grouse .
One individual only was seen below Paradise Meadows (1943).
Lagopus leucurus saxatilis Cowan.    Vancouver Island White-tailed Ptarmigan.
Ptarmigan are present on Mount Albert Edward above 5,000 feet elevation. In
1943 a hen bird with three three-quarters-grown young was seen on the lower reaches
of the ridge leading to the summit and two other adult birds were seen higher up, one
almost at the peak. The adults were in preliminary winter plumage; that is, as follows:
Ground colour of back and sides of breast rich brown mottled with black; feathers of
wings, belly, legs, and tail, white. The coloration of the juveniles was brownish with
dark and light brown barring on the head, neck, and breast; the wing feathers only were
white.
Fulica americana Gmelin.   American Coot.
Coots or mud-hens were seen on McKenzie Lake by Mr. C. P. Lyons about September 23rd, 1941.   They are probably regular visitors.
Columba fasciata fasciata Say.    Band-tailed Pigeon.
Two individuals were seen at Croteau Lake.    Sutton (1936) reports them to be
present at Paradise Meadow.    Occasionally seen in small flocks near the Forest Lookout,
1951-52.
Chordeiles minor (Forster).    Nighthawk.
Often seen near the lodge, where they swoop down on insects attracted by the
artificial lights. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 59
Nephcecetes niger borealis (Kennerly).    Black Swift.
Swifts were seen on one occasion, near the summit of Mount Washington. They
probably also occur in other parts of the Plateau near the high peaks where strong
updraughts carry food in the form of insects to a high elevation.
Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin).    Rufous Hummingbird.
A hummingbird was seen at Panther Lake and at Half Dome near the lower slopes
of Mount Albert Edward.    Common about the lodge.
Megaceryle alcyon caurina (Grinnell).    Western Belted Kingfisher.
Kingfishers are reported to be present by Mr. C. P. Lyons.
Colaptes cafer cafer (Gmelin).    Red-shafted Flicker.
Several flickers were seen during 1943, but they do not appear to be common.
Ceophlceus pileatus (Linnaeus).   Pileated Woodpecker.
Lodge district.
Picoides tridactylus fasciatus Baird. Alaska Three-toed Woodpecker; Ladder-backed
Woodpecker.
This species has been reported from Paradise Meadows by Sutton (1936). It may
be distingushed by the black back banded with broken white bars and by the presence
of three instead of four toes; the male has a yellow cap. A single bird, possibly of this
species, was seen near Croteau Lake on August 30th, 1943.
Empidonax hammondi (Xantus).    Hammond Flycatcher.
This small flycatcher has been reported from Paradise Meadows by Sutton (1936).
Nuttallornis borealis (Swainson).    Olive-sided Flycatcher.
Woods in the lodge area.
Perisoreus obscurus griseus Ridgway.   Canada Jay; Whisky Jack; Camp-robber.
Jays are one of the most noticeable birds in the Plateau area due to their bold nature
and fearless behaviour around camp. Their graceful gliding flight from tree to tree and
the variety of their cries make them interesting if not welcome visitors.
Several immature birds of the year were noted at Croteau Camp; in these, the head
and face were dark instead of light grey as in the adult.
Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri (Gmelin).     Steller Jay.
Individuals were seen on the trail below Paradise Meadows but none was noted on
the Plateau.
Corvus corax principalis Ridgway.    Northern Raven.
Ravens were one of the most conspicuous birds in the district, owing to their large
size and raucous calls. A pair was observed almost daily at the 1943 camp and others
were seen in all parts of the Plateau, even near the summit of Mount Albert Edward.
On one occasion a pair was disturbed in the act of feeding upon a dead deer near the
foot of Mount Strata. As they wheeled overhead they were attacked by a pair of sharp-
shinned hawks which they easily eluded.
Penthestes rufescens rufescens (Townsend).    Chestnut-backed Chickadee.
Chickadees were numerous in the area; they were seen in all the wooded sections of
the area, usually in flocks.
Sitta canadensis Linnaeus.    Red-breasted Nuthatch.
Nuthatches were heard calling " quank, quank " in all parts of the Plateau, usually
in company with chickadees. No specimens were collected for identification; it is
believed those of the Plateau belong to this species, since birds of this species are known
to occur in Mount Arrowsmith vicinity. B 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Certhia familiaris occidentalis Ridgway.    Brown Creeper.
With a flock of chickadees, on Mount Becher Trail.
Cinclus mexicanus unicolor Bonaparte.    American Dipper.
Dippers are occasionally seen along streams.
Mannus hiemalis pacificus (Baird).    Western Winter Wren.
Winter wrens appeared to be common in the area.
Turdus migratorius propinquus Ridgway.    Western Robin.
A robin was heard on only one occasion. They appear to be uncommon in the
Plateau area.
Ixoreus ncevius ntevius (Gmelin).    Pacific Varied Thrush.
Several birds were seen about Croteau Camp.
Hylocichla guttata nanus (Audubon).    Dwarf Hermit Thrush.
One individual only was seen, near Croteau Lake (1943).
Regulus satrapa olivaceus Baird.   Western Golden-crowned Kinglet.
These birds were noted on several occasions, often associated with chickadees.
They were also observed at Paradise Meadows by Sutton (1936).
Anthus spinoletta rubescens (Tunstall).    American Pipit.
Pipits were seen in a flock on the slope of Mount Albert Edward at about 5,000 feet
elevation in 1943. In all likelihood these birds breed in this region. They are easily
distinguished by the long bill, the long hind claw, and the skylark-like habit of mounting
and singing high in the air.
Dendroica auduboni (Townsend).    Audubon Warbler.
A flock was seen at Kwai Lake, September, 1951.
Dendroica townsendi (Townsend).    Townsend Warbler.
Warblers of this species have been reported from Paradise Meadows (Sutton, 1936).
Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis.    Hepburn Gray-crowned Rosy Finch; Leucosticte.
Several rosy finches were observed on Mount Albert Edward in 1943, one of them
at the very summit. The birds were exceedingly shy, flitting from rock to rock or diving
from the sheer face into space at the approach of a human. This bird is not likely to be
confused with any other in this habitat; it is easily recognized by the suffusion of light
rose colour over rump, flanks, abdomen, and the greater part of the wings. It probably
breeds on Mount Albert Edward.
Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson).    Northern Pine Siskin.
Several flocks of siskins were seen about the 1943 camp and in other parts of the
Plateau.
Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus.    Red Crossbill.
Reported at Kwai Lake by Mrs. D. Stevens, September, 1951.
Pipilo maculatus oregonus Bell.    Oregon Towhee.
Lodge area.
Junco oregonus oregonus (Townsend).    Oregon Junco.
Juncos were common; a flock visited the 1943 camp almost daily in the early
morning. Fledglings just learning to fly were seen at Croteau Lake on August 29th.
A nest with four eggs was seen on the lower slopes of Mount Becher, July 20th, 1952.
Zonotrichia leucophrys.   White-crowned Sparrow.
Lodge area. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 61
Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas).    Golden-crowned Sparrow.
Lodge area.
Melospiza melodia morphna Oberholser.    Song Sparrow.
Thickets in lodge area.
Mammals
Myotis lucifugus (LeConte).    Little Brown Bat.
Bats, possibly of this species, were seen at Panther Lake on two occasions; no specimens were obtained for positive identification. Bats were also seen around the lodge
fights in 1950-54 where they were attracted by the insects there.
Euarctos americanus vancouveri Hall.    Vancouver Island Black Bear.
Bears are common throughout the Plateau area. Signs of their presence were seen
in almost all parts, and individuals were seen at Panther Lake and at Paradise Meadows.
In the blueberry season bears are commonly seen in the open feeding upon the fruit;
one was met with near the lodge in September, 1950, thus engaged.
Martes caurina vancouverensis Grinnell and Dixon.   Vancouver Island Pine Marten.
Marten are probably occasionally present in the Forbidden Plateau area. An individual was seen on the Dove Creek Trail below Camp 5 by Mr. Clark in 1942.
Mustela erminea anguirue Hall.   Vancouver Island Weasel.
An individual in summer pelage was found one morning at the 1943 camp, drowned
in a water-bucket. The animal had apparently fallen in while examining a freshly used
landing-net hanging on the cabin wall above the bucket.
Canis lycaon crassodon Hall.   Vancouver Island Wolf.
Wolves apparently pass through the district occasionally. From the presence of
tracks and a " deer kill " a wolf was known to have been present in the Plateau in 1936
according to Mr. Ward.
About 1933 Mr. J. Cecil (" Cougar ") Smith, of Campbell River, shot a female at
Mount Washington and reared four cubs found in the litter.
Felis concolor vancouverensis Nelson and Goldman.   Vancouver Island Cougar.
Cougars are apparently occasionally present in the Plateau area. Fresh tracks were
seen on Mount Elma and on the trail below Paradise Meadows, and the remains of a deer
possibly killed by a cougar were seen on Paradise Meadows.
Marmota vancouverensis Swarth.   Vancouver Island Marmot.
Marmots are known to be present on Mount Washington and Mount Strata within
the Plateau area. The colony on Mount Washington appears to be quite small, occupying
an area of open country on the southern slope at about 5,000 feet elevation. Here there
are a number of burrows and other signs of marmot activities.
The animals are very dark in appearance; except for a white spot on the forehead
and a white streak down the midline of the belly, the fur is almost black with a few
grizzled hairs around the shoulders of adults. A large male may be over 2 feet in length.
Their chief food appears to be blueberry shrubs (Vaccinium). Like other ground-
squirrels, this rodent has a loud chirping call and a piercing whistle of alarm. Only one
burrow appeared to be occupied in the small colony on Mount Strata slope. A lone
individual was seen there in 1942 by Mr. Clark, but no animals were noted in 1943.
Sciurus hudsonicus lanuginosus Backman.    Vancouver Island Red Squirrel.
Squirrels were not commonly seen, although heaps of cone fragments and ground
workings at the bases of trees were numerous; individuals were observed on only a few
occasions. ...... 	 B 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Castor canadensis leucodontus Gray.    Vancouver Island Beaver.
A beaver presumed to be this subspecies was seen swimming in one of the small
lakes off the Mount Becher Trail not far from the Forest Lookout. As beaver do not
appear to have established themselves permanently here, it is presumed that the one seen
was a wanderer from the Puntledge River, where it is known to occur.
Peromyscus maniculatus interdictus Anderson.    Vancouver Island White-footed Mouse.
Several mice of this subspecies were taken at Croteau and Mariwood Camps. They
are apparently common in the Plateau area, but appear to be most abundant around the
cabins, where they occasionally do some damage to foodstuffs and stored blankets.
The original specimens described by Anderson (1932) were collected on the Forbidden Plateau by Mr. Hamilton M. Laing, of Comox.
Microtus townsendi ssp.    Meadow Mouse.
Burrows, runs, droppings, and an abandoned nest indicated that meadow mice were
present at Paradise Meadows, but no specimens were taken. On a geographical basis
it is likely that M.t. laingi Anderson is the subspecies occurring here.
Ondatra zibethica osoyoosensis (Lord).    Rocky Mountain Muskrat.
Signs of muskrat activities in the form of cut grasses and sedges and burrows in
the bank were noted in sloughs at Paradise Meadows.    One individual was seen in 1943.
The muskrat is not native to Vancouver Island; it was introduced some years ago
and is spreading through all water systems suitable to its well-being. It has apparently
reached Paradise Meadows within recent years since it has not been noted previously.
Odocoileus hemionus columbianus (Richardson).    Coast Deer.
Deer are common throughout the Plateau region. Lone individuals and groups of
two or three were seen on several occasions.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anderson, Rudolph Martin. 1932. Five New Mammals from British Columbia,
Ann. Rept. Nat. Mus. Canada, 1931, pp. 99-119.
Brown, Walter C, and Slater, James R. 1939. The Amphibians and Reptiles of
the Islands of the State of Washington. Occ. Papers Dept. of Biology, Coll. of
Puget Sound, No. 4, pp. 6-31.
Carl, G. Clifford. 1944. The Natural History of the Forbidden Plateau Area, Vancouver Island. Rept. of the Provincial Museum for 1943, British Columbia,
pp. 18-40.
Cowan, Ian McTaggart. 1939. The White-tailed Ptarmigan of Vancouver Island.
Condor, Vol. 41, pp. 82-83.
Gunder, J. D. 1932. New Rhopalocera (Lepidoptera). Can. Entomologist, Vol.
64, No. 12, pp. 276-284.
Gunning, H. C. 1931. Buttle Lake Map-area. Vancouver Island [Geology]. Summ.
Rept. Can. Dept. Mines, 1930, Part A, No. 2292, pp. 56a-78a.
Guppy, R.    1950.    Personal letter, Prov. Museum.
Jones, J. R. J. Llewellyn. 1949. Some Lepidoptera from the Forbidden Plateau
District of British Columbia.    Rept. of the Provincial Museum for 1948, pp. 47-48.
  1951. An Annotated Check List of the Macrolepidoptera of British Columbia.    Ent. Soc. B.C., Occas. Paper No. 1.
Pearse, Theed. 1943. Golden eagle on Vancouver Island, B.C. Can. Field-Nat.,
Vol. 57, Nos. 4 and 5, p. 96.
Ricker, Wm. E. 1943. Stoneflies of Southwestern British Columbia. Indiana Univ.,
Pub. Sc. Ser. No. 12, pp. 1-145. IJ-5'30
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Schmid, F., and Guppy, Richard. 1952. An Annotated List of Trichoptera Collected
on Southern Vancouver Island.    Proc. Ent. Soc. B.C., No. 48, pp. 41-42.
Sutton, George Miksch.   1936.   Birds in the Wilderness.   Macmillan Co., pp. 1-200.
Swarth, Harry S. 1912. Report on a Collection of Birds and Mammals from Vancouver Island.    Univ. Calif. Pub. Zool., Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-124.
Wailes, G. H., and Tiffany, L. H. 1929. Some Alga, from British Columbia.
Museum and Art Notes, Vol. IV, 1929, pp. 3-10.
Whitehouse, F. C. 1941. British Columbia Dragonflies (Odonata), with Notes on
Distribution and Habits.   Amer. Midland Nat., Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 488-557. B 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 65
UNDESCRIBED MAMMALS   (PEROMYSCUS AND MICROTUS)
FROM THE ISLANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
By C J. Guiguet, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
The earlier work by McCabe and Cowan (1945) revealed the unusual potentialities
for study of the extent of short-term evolutionary change in isolated populations of small
mammals available on the islands off the coast of British Columbia.
Since 1948 the Provincial Museum has been undertaking a series of insular explorations largely centred in the archipelago skirting the north and west coasts of Vancouver
Island. These expeditions have brought to light several populations with very distinctive
characteristics. These populations are described and named below.
In 1949 and 1950 the Scott Island group was visited. This is composed of five
islands extending seaward from Cape Scott, the northernmost tip of Vancouver Island
(see Fig. 1). Cox Island, the one nearest Vancouver Island, is separated from it by a
deep strait 7 miles in width. It is 2Va miles long by Wz miles wide. Elevations run to
655 feet, and the vegetation is typical coast forest association. Half a mile to seaward
lies Lanz Island, similar in size and general ecology (Fig. 2).
Seaward of these two larger islands lies Beresford Island (Fig. 3) and Sartine Island,
formerly called the West and East Haycocks. They are 2V_. miles southwest of Lanz
Island and are separated from each other by AVz miles of open water. Sartine is one-
half mile in length and 200 yards wide with an altitude of 350 feet. Beresford is only
400 yards long and roughly oval in shape. Its shores rise abruptly to 300 feet. Both are
precipitous. Beresford bears a few wind-wracked Sitka spruce, but Sartine is treeless.
Both are clothed in a dense vegetation of shrubs, forbs, and grasses dominated by Rubus
spectabilis (Beresford) and Elymus mollis (Sartine).
Triangle Island (Figs. 4 and 5), the outermost of the group, lies 26 miles off Cape
Scott, where it rises as a sheer-sided pinnacle from deep water to a summit 690 feet above
the sea.   Its greatest dimension is three-quarters of a mile.
This is an area exposed to the full sweep of the Pacific Ocean, the currents sweeping
past the islands reaching velocities of 3 knots; storms are frequent and fierce.
The present understanding of the geology of the region involves a maximum submergence of the entire coast-line during the Vashon glaciation of between 700 and 800
feet. If this interpretation is correct, it follows that none of these islands can be regarded
as having a relic population surviving since pre-Vashon periods.
The geological history and possibilities for recolonization of the islands subsequent
to their emergence are fully discussed in McCabe and Cowan (op. cit.) and Carl, Guiguet,
and Hardy (1951). Raft transport of populations from the mainland coast is the most
probable source of stocks, with incidental transport in native canoes another strong
possibility.
It is not my present purpose to discuss the evolutionary forces that have operated to
guide the development of the populations that now inhabit the islands, but gigantism is
general, and the several populations bear characteristics, some of them unique, that set
them apart more widely than named subspecies of what is presumed to be the same
species inhabiting the continental mainland.
Two potential species stocks exist, Peromyscus maniculatus and Peromyscus sit-
kensis. When the latter species was described, the true characteristics of the north coast
races of maniculatus were unknown. Recent work cited above has extended our knowledge of the range of variation in the two species until it must presently be admitted that
the qualitative and quantitative characteristics used in separating these two are now in
doubt.   However, some breeding experiments of a limited scope have been undertaken B 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
using stocks of Peromyscus maniculatus from the central British Columbia coast and
islands and P.s. prevostensis from Frederick Island, Q.C.I., B.C. These experiments
indicate an antipathy between animals of the two species of comparable size with no
hybrid litters produced. It is suggested that the genetic affinities of these species and of
several other insular populations from the same region can only be determined in the
laboratory.
Also, investigations on the Queen Charlotte Islands have revealed sitkensis as a
relatively implastic species. Populations have been discovered on Frederick Island,
Hippa Island, and Kunghit Island, islands of small size along a coast-line of 150 miles
and completely isolated from one another. Yet these populations are indistinguishable
from one another, a situation most unlikely in the highly plastic maniculatus.
(Photo by G. C Carl.)
Fig. 2. Forest association, Lanz Island:   Sitka spruce, hemlock, and salal.
Thus, in the meantime, although there are now no consistent morphological characteristics that can be used to separate all members of the two species, it seems desirable to
retain the established nomenclature until sound reasons appear for altering it.
The small mammal fauna of the Scott Island group is comprised of Peromyscus on
all islands, Microtus on Triangle, and Sorex on Cox where only one specimen was taken.
Of these, the Microtus of Triangle Island and the Peromyscus on Triangle, Sartine, Beresford, and Cox Islands appear to be distinctive. They are characterized and named below.
Microtus
Triangle Island is alone among the five islands in supporting a population of
Microtus. The species represented is M. townsendi that elsewhere ranges on the mainland
from northern California to Burrard Inlet and on Vancouver Island throughout its length.
It occurs on Hope, Hurst, and Nigei Islands adjacent to Port Hardy, Vancouver Island.
The new race is the largest member of the species so far described and may be known as— REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 67
Microtus townsendi cowani* ssp. nov.
Type.—Adult female, skin and skull, British Columbia Provincial Museum No.
5460, taken June 28th, 1949, on Triangle Island, B.C., 129° 5' west, 50° 55' north.
Diagnosis.—Dorsal colour dark, grizzled grey-brown, under-parts grey, faintly
washed with pale buff in some individuals. Chin white, tail tip white, 88 per cent of the
sample of twenty-three specimens have a white blaze on the crown behind the eyes. These
white markings particularly noticeable in all immature individuals taken and in most
adults—reduced to a few white hairs in some adults. Skull large and robust with broad
rostrum.
Comparisons.—M.t. cowani is most like M.t. laingi but differs from that race (the
largest previously described (see Anderson, 1943)) in larger size, more robust build, and
in the white markings described above. Pelage in the sample taken has a peculiar coarse
woolly texture not apparent in other series of townsendi examined; this characteristic is
apparent in all age-classes, including very young animals. In body colour somewhat
darker than M.t. laingi below, more grizzled above. Differs from mainland and southern
insular forms in much larger size, darker colour below, and in characteristic white
markings.
Measurements.—There are no significant differences in size between males and
females of this subspecies. Measurements of eighteen specimens, fully adult, are: Total
length, 219.5 mm. (202-235); tail length, 69.7 mm. (61-75); length of hind foot, 28
mm. (27-29); basilar length of hensel, 32.1 mm. (30.4-33.3); zygomatic width, 18.1
mm. (17.0-19.4); interorbital breadth, 4.3 mm. (4.0-4.6); mastoid breadth, 13.8 mm.
(13.0-14.2); length of nasals, 9.2 mm. (8.7-9.7); width of nasals, 4.2 mm. (4.0-4.8);
width of rostrum, 6.3 mm. (5.9-6.8); length of upper tooth row, 7.6 mm. (7.0-8.1);
width of brain case between squamosal fenestra, 11.2 mm. (11.0-11.7).
Distribution.—Known only from the type locality, Triangle Island, B.C.
Specimens Examined.—Triangle Island, 23; Hope, Negei, and Hurst Islands, 12;
Vancouver Island, 20; Lower Mainland, 12; Bowen Island, 1.
Peromyscus
In analysing the characteristics of the Peromyscus populations on these islands, three
external measurements and twelve cranial dimensions have been used. Each has been
subject to the usual statistical treatment leading to the comparison of means by the
" student" . test at the .01 level of probability. In addition to comparison of these island
populations inter se (Table 1), they have each been compared at the .01 level with populations of P. maniculatus from Port Hardy and Cape Scott, the nearest adjacent point on
Vancouver Island; with a series from Neckis River on the mainland, representing P.m.
macrorhinus; and with topotypes of Peromyscus sitkensis prevostensis from the Queen
Charlotte Islands.  The results of these comparisons are shown in Table 2.
It will be apparent from these comparisons that we are dealing with populations
differing widely from those already described. For instance, the least differentiated population (Lanz Island) is significantly different from P.m. interdictus on adjacent Vancouver
Island in eleven of the sixteen characteristics examined, from macrorhinus in seven of the
sixteen, and from sitkensis in nine of them.
Comparing the populations on the five islands—Triangle, Sartine, Beresford, Lanz,
and Cox—between themselves, the mice of Lanz and Cox are found to differ significantly
in only five quantitative characteristics of fifteen treated. In colour they are indistinguishable, and it seems best to regard them as but slightly differentiated varieties of a single
race. The other islands support populations differing greatly not only in the number of
variates involved in differences, but in the degree of these differences.   It is therefore
* Named after Dr. I. McT. Cowan, head of the Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the scientific knowledge of wildlife in British Columbia. B 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
'! ""'•iS:B''^:r::""-l\&0^W
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Fig. 3.  Beresford Island and associated rocks.
(Photo by G. C.Carl.)
: ' v- ■ ;- ■"
(Air photo by Royal Canadian Air Force.)
Fig. 4. Triangle Island from the air. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 69
concluded that Triangle, Sartine, and Beresford are each inhabited by distinctive subspecies of Peromyscus while the two closely approximated islands adjacent to Vancouver
Island (Cox and Lanz) support another.
It is of first importance to decide whether these insular populations represent the
species maniculatus or sitkensis. As has been explained above, it is most difficult to
decide on morphological grounds. For instance it will be seen from Table 2 that the new
subspecies differ in their general dimensions of body and skull less from sitkensis than
they do from the other races of maniculatus used in comparison, except in the case of
Lanz and Triangle with Neckis River, which differ in about the same number of criteria.
However, Dr. Cowan points out that the differences between the new forms and P. sitkensis prevostensis involve several changes in cranial proportion not indicated in comparison with P. maniculatus, which suggests the operation of different relative growth
forces. For example, the new forms are larger than P.m. interdictus in all but one of the
characteristics in which they differ, and from P.m. macrorhinus in all but least interorbital
width in each instance and nasal length (Beresford), length of palatal slits (Beresford),
and least width of the maxillary plate of zygoma.
On the other hand, in comparison with sitkensis the new populations are larger in
some features and smaller in others.
It is therefore suggested that the new races seem morphologically more closely
related to maniculatus than to sitkensis. Furthermore, the geographical proximity to the
range of maniculatus, the lack of possibility of a relic fauna surviving, along with the
occurrence on the island of a race of Microtus townsendi—a species of Vancouver Island
and the Puget Sound lowlands—lend emphasis to the conclusion that the Peromyscus
fauna of these islands is southern in affinity, and thus maniculatus. The new subspecies
are here described and named:—
Peromyscus maniculatus triangularis ssp. nov.
Type.—Adult female, skin and skull, British Columbia Provincial Museum No.
5454, taken June 29th, 1949, on Triangle Island, B.C.
Diagnosis.—A very large Peromyscus, resembling P.m. pluvialis in colour, with back
and sides dull brownish-buff, the general hue cold, lacking the warmer tones of sitkensis.
Under-parts grey, whitish in inguinal region. Tail brown above, grey beneath. A distinctive feature is a white blaze present on the forehead of all the young individuals taken
and in about 80 per cent of the series of sixteen adults.
Measurements.—No significant size differences between the sexes. Total length,
231mm. (215-239); tail, 121mm. (111-125); hind foot, 28 mm. (27-29); for cranial
measurements see Table 3.
Comparisons.—Does not differ in external measurements from the race on Sartine
Island but is significantly smaller than it in basilar length, greatest cranial length, zygomatic width, palatal length, diastma, maxillary tooth row, and in post-palatal length. At
the same time triangularis is larger than the Sartine race in interorbital width, nasal length
(.05 level), and maxillary plate of the zygoma. The differences between triangularis and
the other races are more extensive and can be read from Table 1.
Distribution.—Confined to Triangle Island, B.C.
Peromyscus maniculatus sartinensis ssp. nov.
Type.—Adult male, skin and skull, British Columbia Provincial Museum No. 5632,
taken June 22nd, 1950, on Sartine Island, B.C.
Diagnosis.—A very large Peromyscus slightly more reddish in dorsal colour than
triangularis and somewhat nearer white beneath. No white blaze on forehead. Skull
larger than any other Peromyscus, save only geographically remote species californicus. B 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
IIW-WHBwE-B_____I^^^^M
(Photo by G. A. Hardy.)
Fig. 5. Precipitous slopes predominating all approaches on Triangle Island.
Fig. 6. Field-mice (Microtus townsendi): (a) M.t. tetramerus (Rhoads) from southern
end of Vancouver Island, (b) M.t. laingi Anderson from north end of Vancouver Island
(c) M.t. cowani from Triangle Island. :■
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 71
Measurements.—External measurements of fourteen adults are: Total length, 236
mm. (225-250); tail, 118 mm. (112-125); hind foot, 28 mm. (27-29); cranial
measurements are given in Table 3.
Comparisons.—Distinguishable from all other races but triangularis in its large size,
and from that race in the cranial features described above. Externally the brighter colour
and absence of white blaze separates this race from triangularis. Quantitative comparison
with other races is made in Tables 1 and 2.
Peromyscus maniculatus beresfordi ssp. nov.
Type.—Adult male, skin and skull, British Columbia Provincial Museum No. 5575,
taken June 21st, 1950, on Beresford Island, B.C.
Diagnosis.-—A large Peromyscus but smaller than triangularis and sartinensis.
Dorsal colour brighter and more reddish than either of the two above-described races.
Dorsal stripe prominent, broad and dark. Under-parts white. Upper tail dark brown,
under tail white.   Interparietal broad.
Fig. 7. White-footed mice (Peromyscus): (a) P. maniculatus austerus (Baird) from
the Lower Mainland, (b) P.m. macrorhinus (Rhoads) from Northern Mainland, (c) P.m.
angustus Hall from coastal Vancouver Island, (d) P.m. interdictus Anderson from interior
Vancouver Island, (e) P.m. triangularis from Triangle Island.
Measurements.—Twelve adults of both sexes measure: Total length, 225 mm.
(223-237); tail length, 116 mm. (112-122); hind foot, 26 mm. (25-27).
Comparisons.—The dark dorsal stripe and dark upper surface of tail are uniformly
distinctive from triangularis and sartinensis. In external dimensions it is smaller than the
two above named and yet larger than the Lanz-Cox Island population.   It differs further r
B 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA
from this population in the darker dorsal stripe and more reddish colour of the sides.
The details of cranial comparisons are given in Tables 1 and 2.
Distribution.—Confined to Beresford Island, B.C.
Peromyscus maniculatus carli* ssp. nov.
Type.—Adult female, skin and skull, British Columbia Provincial Museum No
5608, taken June 21st, 1950, on Cox Island, B.C.
Diagnosis.—External dimensions like that of interdictus from the northern end of
Vancouver Island; smaller than macrorhinus. Smaller in external dimensions than the
other subspecies on the Scott Islands. Colour of sides duller and less reddish than beres-
fordi. Dorsal stripe apparent but blending at the edges into general colour of back. Skull
long and relatively narrow, palatal slits relatively large.
d
Fig. 8. White-footed mice (Peromyscus): (a) and (b) P. maniculatus carli from Cox
and Lanz Islands respectively, (c) P.m. beresfordi from Beresford Island, (d) P.m. sartinensis from Sartine Island, (e) P.m. triangularis from Triangle Island.
Measurements.—Average and extreme measurements of twenty-seven adults from
Lanz Island are: Total length, 209 mm. (189-223); tail, 105 mm. (94-113); hind
foot, 26 mm. (23-27).
Comparisons.—Smaller than the other races on the Scott Island group but with a
rostrum longer than beresfordi, the race nearest in size, while the other cranial features
are mainly smaller. Quite similar in general features to some populations of macrorhinus
but smaller in total length and tail measurements and having hind foot longer and skull
narrower.   Quantitative comparisons with other races are given in Tables 1 and 2.
* Named after Dr. G. Clifford Carl, Director of the Provincial Museum of British Columbia, leader of the 194.-50
expeditions to the Scott Islands, in recognition of his outstanding contributions in the field of wildlife education. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 73
Distribution.—Found on Cox and Lanz Islands of the Scott Islands group, British
Columbia.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author gratefully acknowledges the co-operation and assistance of the following:
Miss Y. Henrion, for statistical treatment of the raw data; Dr. I. McT. Cowan for his
encouragement and assistance in analysing the data and in preparing the manuscript in
reference to Peromyscus; Dr. G. Clifford Carl, Mr. George A. Hardy, and Mr. Frank L.
Beebe, for assistance in preparation of specimens; and Miss Betty Newton, for assistance
in preparation of the tables for publication. In addition, the author is deeply grateful to
Captains Redford, Ernshaw, and Gay and crews of the Federal Fisheries patrol vessels
who so ably carried out the difficult landings on these relatively inaccessible islands.
LITERATURE CITED
Anderson, R. M., and Rand, A. L.    1943.   Townsend vole (Microtus townsendi) in
Canada.  Can. Field-Nat, 57:73-74.
Carl, G. Clifford; Guiguet, C. J.; and Hardy, George A.   1951.   Biology of the
Scott Island Group, British Columbia.   Annual Report of the Provincial Museum
of British Columbia for 1950, pp. 21-63.
Dalquest, Walter W.    1948.   Mammals of Washington.   Univ. Kansas Pubis., Mus.
Nat. Hist, 2:349-352.
Hall, E. Raymond, and Cockrum, E. Lendell.    1953.   A Synopsis of the North
American Microtine Rodents. Univ. Kansas Pubis., Mus. Nat. Hist., 5:373-498.
McCabe and Cowan.    1945.   Peromyscus maniculatus macrorhinus and the Problem
of Insularity. Trans. Royal Can. Inst., 25, Part 2, 117-212. B  74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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H         &0         PQ         U REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 77
THE GREEN TURTLE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
By G. Clifford Carl, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
A small specimen of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, was donated to the
Museum by Mr. W. Norman Burgess, of Port Alberni, B.C., in December, 1954. The
turtle was found on the beach at Spring Cove, on the west side of the entrance to Ucluelet
Inlet, by Mr. Tom Kimoto, of the fishing-vessel "Le Perouse," on December 6th, 1954.
It appears to be the first record of this turtle for British Columbia or, for that matter, north
of Southern California. Presumedly it can be assigned to the subspecies C. mydas agassizi
Bocourt, the East Pacific green turtle.
(Photo B.C. Government Travel Bureau.)
Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) found at Spring Cove, near Ucluelet, Vancouver Island.
When the reptile was found by Mr. Kimoto, it was near the high-tide mark on a
gravel beach and was covered with oil and slime from a near-by reduction plant. Apparently it was in a weakened condition because it died a week later at Port Alberni at the
head of Alberni Canal, where it was being held in temporary confinement. It measured
18% inches in length of carapace and weighed 32 pounds. A number of small barnacles,
Balanus crenatus Bruguiere, the largest being 4 millimetres in diameter, were attached to
the upper surface of the carapace.
The normal range of this sea-turtle is " Tropical Pacific coasts of the Americas,
straying northward to the California coast" ("Check List of North American Amphibians and Reptiles," K. P. Schmidt, 1953).  The northernmost previous record appears to B 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
be "the bays of San Diego County " (" Reptiles of the Pacific World," Arthur Loveridge,
1945). The Atlantic counterpart of this species is occasionally carried northward in the
Gulf Stream to Long Island and the shores of Massachusetts.
The green turtle sometimes attains a length of 4 feet and a weight of 500 pounds,
but the average size of those finding their way to the food market is between 50 and 70
pounds. The flesh is highly esteemed as food; the fat is greenish in colour, which gives
the turtle its common name.
Another marine turtle, the Pacific leather-back (Dermochelys coriacea schlegeli
Garman) has been recorded previously from British Columbia (see Report of Provincial
Museum for 1930) and is represented in the Museum collection by a carapace. Large
turtles are sighted almost each summer off the west coast of Vancouver Island, and one
was reported near Denman Island and off Cordova Bay on the east coast of the island in
1947 (see Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1947, and B.C. Provincial Museum Handbook No. 3, 1951). Such turtles were formerly considered to be leather-backs, but since
the green turtle has now been found in British Columbia waters, sight identifications will
have to be made with caution.
We are indebted to both Mr. Kimoto and Mr. Burgess for turning the specimen over
to the Provincial Museum, and to Mr. I. E. Cornwall, of Victoria, for the identification
of the barnacles. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 79
THE  BIRDS  OF  THE  CARIBOO  PARKLANDS:    A  SUPPLEMENT
By J. A. Munro
A paper describing the bird life and ecology of the Cariboo Parklands Biotic Area,
British Columbia (Munro, Can. Journ. Research D, 23:15-103, June, 1945) lists a total
of 212 species and subspecies of birds for that area. The present contribution, which
records several forms not hitherto reported, more precise information concerning some
of the less common forms, and additional life-history data, is a supplement to the earlier
paper.
Trumpeter Swan.   Olor buccinator (Richardson).
Two immature birds, considered to be young of the previous year, were seen on
Rush Lake, May 6th and 20th, 1946. These birds when first seen were feeding in water
about 2 feet deep, " tipping up " in the manner of pond ducks. They were relatively
fearless, as so often is the case with trumpeter swans, and when disturbed by my continued
approach paddled slowly toward the opposite shore.
White-fronted Goose.   Anser albifrons (Scopoli).
A flock of seven was seen at close range, May 19th, 1946, on a small plateau lake
west of Alkali Lake. This represents the second record for the region.
Lesser Snow Goose.   Chen hyperborea (Pallas).
The following are additional sight records for the Lac la Hache Valley in the year
1946. On April 26th a flock of twenty alighted on a pasture near the 122 Mile Ranch
buildings and remained in the vicinity for two days. Grain was put out for them and,
perhaps because of this, they became used to the presence of people and allowed an
approach to within 30 yards or so. Sometimes they swam in 122 Mile Creek in company
with tame white ducks. During this two-day period approximately 100 snow geese in
small flocks flew north over the ranch buildings. The above information was supplied by
the owner of the ranch, Mr. F. G. Forbes.
At 105 Mile Lake, May 4th, a single immature snow goose accompanied a flock of
sixteen cackling geese. Four days later at the same place, one, presumably the same bird,
was observed feeding over a grassy slope with thirteen Canada geese and one cackling
goose.
On May 13th a flock of fifteen alighted on an open pasture at 116 Mile, and as I
walked toward them and reached a point where I was about 60 yards distant they stopped
grazing. When I was 10 yards closer the flock rose, circled the field, and alighted again.
Upon approaching them twenty minutes later they flew to the near-by Lac la Hache
and alighted there. Later it was learned that the flock had been using this pasture for
two weeks. Three immature birds that reportedly had frequented one of the small lakes
on the plateau west of Alkali Lake for approximately two weeks were seen by me on
May 19th.
Gadwall.   Anas strepera Linnaeus.
On May 19th, 1946, close observations were made of at least two pairs in a round-
stem bulrush marsh bordering a stream that drains Alkali Lake to the south. Once two
males and a female were seen in display flight. This and more recent observations in the
Williams Lake region indicate a local increase of the species. There are no records for
British Columbia north of the Cariboo Parklands.
Barrow Golden-eye.   Bucephala islandica (Gmelin).
On a small lake near Alexis Creek, May 27th, 1946, a pair of Barrow golden-eye,
drifting about on still water close to shore and about 100 feet from where I stood above
them on a hillside, were studied carefully through 7x35 binoculars. Under these exceptionally favourable conditions of observation was seen an exhibition of the courtship ritual B 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
carried to the climax which took place in this manner: The female lay motionless, neck
outstretched and body submerged to a depth which showed only the top of the head and
line of the back above the surface. The male swam about within a few feet, stretching his
neck and bowing in characteristic fashion for approximately ninety seconds. He then
approached the female from behind, mounted, and grasped her crest feathers in his bill.
The female then submerged completely. Coition completed, a matter of seconds, the
female appeared to slide out from under the male. She immediately stood upright and
flapped her wings several times.
Red-breasted Merganser.   Mergus senator Linnaeus.
At Lac la Hache, May 8th, 1946, two adult males and one female together were
examined through binoculars as they swam close to shore. This represents the second
record of the species in the Cariboo Parklands.
Cooper Hawk.   Accipiter cooperi (Bonaparte).
In June, 1947, a pair of Cooper hawks, the male in fully adult plumage, the female
in the plumage of the first year, nested on a Douglas-fir ridge at Lac la Hache near 120
Mile. The presence of the pair was first detected through the sudden appearance of the
male coming toward me in response to a succession of " squeaks." It was not demonstrative, as nesting Cooper hawks usually are, and only once gave the familiar cackle. The
location of the nest was about 10 feet from the top of a 60-foot fir. The female was on it
and invisible from below when I first visited the site on June 5th. Not until the tree was
pounded vigorously several times did she leave.
Sparrow Hawk.   Falco sparverius Linnaeus.
An observation of the behaviour of a pair of sparrow hawks in the act of copulation
is quoted from my field note-book: "Lac la Hache, May 22, 1946. A female sparrow
hawk stood on the tip of an upright branch near the top of a tall, dead Douglas fir. From
the distant woods, about one-half mile away across an open prairie, a male flew directly
to the tree, hovered for a few moments over the female then, with no further preliminaries,
descended and coition took place. The male then flew to another upright branch and
remained there."
Blue Grouse.   Dendragapus obscurus (Say).
Specimens from Clinton and Hanceville were incorrectly referred to in my earlier
paper as D.o. richardsonii Douglas.   The current identification is D.o. pallidus Swarth.
The Hanceville specimens are extreme examples of the pale coloration characteristic of
this race.
European Partridge.   Perdix perdix (Linnaeus).
During the winter of 1947-48 a flock of ten, later reduced to eight, was seen frequently by Mr. F. G. Forbes and others along the shore of Lac la Hache near 122 Mile.
None has been reported subsequently.
Long-billed Curlew.   Numenius americanus Bechstein.
An adult female, probably on migration, was collected at 122 Mile, Lac la Hache,
May 17th, 1950.
Dowitcher.   Limnodromus griseus (Gmelin).
One was seen in company with a single greater yellow-legs on the edge of a flood-
pond at 105 Mile, May 3rd, 1946.   This is the only spring record known to me.
Herring Gull.    Larus argentatus Brunnich.
It was stated in my earlier paper that the only known breeding colony of herring
gulls in the Cariboo Parklands is at Bridge Lake. Since that was written a pair nested
at 108 Mile Lake in two successive years—1947 and 1948. This lake had been visited
regularly in previous years and it was certain that no herring gulls had nested there. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 81
On June 27th, 1947, when two of us paddled around this lake, a pair of herring
gulls was seen in flight and alighting on the water after short intervals in the air. As we
approached the smallest of three islets—one of boulders and lacking trees or brush—
the gulls became excited, flying overhead and calling raucously. When one of us landed,
the smaller gull, undoubtedly the female, swooped down repeatedly, thus indicating the
position of the nest in a dense growth of silver-weed (Potentilla anserina). The nest
was lined with dry grass-roots, silver-weed stems, aspen leaves, and several Canada goose
feathers, and contained a single egg of the dark olive-brown type. This nesting was not
successful. On June 12th, when the nest was next visited, it was found that the egg had
been punctured on both sides and the contents eaten, perhaps by a crow. The gulls
were not on the lake.
The following year a pair nested on the same island and on almost precisely the
same site among thick silver-weed. On June 23rd the nest contained the fragments of
two eggs. One, which was broken in half and showed a thick integument attached to
the inner side of the shell, evidently had hatched. The second, also broken, appeared to
have been infertile and the contents had drained out, or had been eaten. Beside the
nest was a small trampled place in the vegetation, evidently the resting-place of the male.
While the nest was being examined, the gulls defended the nest-site in the manner common to the species; that is, they circled overhead making a continual outcry and swooping
toward me. Evidently the single young bird was concealed somewhere on the island,
but we did not succeed in finding it.
Mourning Dove.   Zenaidura macroura (Linnaeus).
The species was recorded on the basis of two occurrences, namely, at Clinton and
at Buffalo Lake. More recently Mr. Mario Reidemann has reported that at least one
pair of mourning doves nested at Alkali Lake in several successive years.
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker.    Sphyrapicus varius (Linnaeus).
The subspecies Sphyrapicus varius nuchalis Baird reaches the northern periphery
of its nesting range in the Cariboo Parklands Biotic Area and, like other migrant bird
species near the limits of an extended range, is subject to wide fluctuation in numbers.
Thus the period 1936-45 was one of relative abundance—at no time is the species so
common as it is in the Dry Forest Biotic Area to the south. In 1946 I was unable to
locate a single individual in the Lac la Hache Valley, whereas the ensuing four-year
period, 1947 to 1950, was one of expanding population.
It has been observed that a certain nesting-tree, usually as aspen, may attract a
breeding pair for several successive years. Thus at 103 Mile Lake an aspen, measuring
10 inches in diameter at the base, was occupied in 1947, 1948, 1949, and had also been
used once earlier. The 1947 nest entrance was eight feet above ground. Three feet above
and a little to the left was a second nest entrance, occupied in an earlier year, as has been
noted. On June 14th young could be heard in the nest; the female flew out when the
tree was tapped and returned soon after to feed the young at the nest entrance. The male
then appeared, and one or other of the pair flew to the nest with food every five minutes,
approximately, during the half-hour I remained there. Soon the first uneasiness showed
at my presence disappeared; several times both parents alighted on the nesting-tree while
I stood about 5 feet from it taking photographs.
On June 22nd, 1948, when next I visited the nesting-tree, it was noted that a new
nest had been excavated 18 inches above and a few inches to the right of the 1947 nest.
The nest contained young that could plainly be heard, but none appeared at the entrance.
The 1947 nest was occupied by a pair of tree swallows.
In 1949 a fourth nest was excavated, with its entrance 6 inches above the 1947 nest
entrance; that is, between the nest of 1947 and that of 1948. On May 13th a female
flew out when the tree was tapped.    No further observations were made. B 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Hairy Woodpecker.   Dendrocopos villosus (Linnaeus).
A typical example of the race, D.v. septentrionalis (Nuttall), undoubtedly a migrant,
was taken at 120 Mile, Lac la Hache, October 8th, 1946. This is the only known record
of the subspecies in the Cariboo Parklands. The resident subspecies is D.v. monticola
Anthony.
Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker.   Picoides arcticus (Swainson).
At Lac la Hache, October 3rd, 1952, two were seen in a group of Douglas fir near
the lake at 120 Mile, and one of them, a male, was collected. This is the second specimen record for the region.
American Three-toed Woodpecker.   Picoides tridactylus (Linnaeus).
A male and female were collected near 103 Mile Lake, May 5th, 1947. These are
typical examples of the subspecies P.t. fasciatus Baird, and represent the only specimens
known to have been taken in the Cariboo Parklands to that date.
Western Kingbird.    Tyrannus verticalis Say.
One pair was recorded on the Alkali Lake Ranch, May 18th, 1946; these reportedly
arrived on April 25th.
Horned Lark.   Eremophila alpestris Brehm.
The subspecies E.a. arcticola Oberholser was noted in my earlier paper as common
in autumn but recorded only once in spring. Additional spring records are: Elliott
Lake, May 5th, 1947—100±, one specimen taken; Lac la Hache at 122 Mile, May
17th, 1950—3, sight record.
Raven.    Corvus corax Linnaeus.
In late October, 1948, Mr. Ian McMillan, of Shandon, Calif., saw ravens on several
occasions at a place about 13 miles north-east of Clinton. He reported (personal letter)
that " ravens were common where we killed our moose. What was probably the same
group of six to ten was seen at various times and especially on our return to the moose
carcass. On one occasion, when we returned to pack in a moose, the liver and heart
which had been left on a log were gone and a group of about six ravens was flushed from
the spot. The guides knew of no such occurrences in the past and were surprised at the
presence of so many of these birds." This would seem to be the first reliable record of
ravens in the Cariboo Parklands.
Other subsequent records concern a flock of six seen in January, 1950, by Mr. Tom
Barton on the winter hay-meadows of the 122 Mile Ranch, and one heard by me at
Lac la Hache, September 10th, 1951.
Black-capped Chickadee.    Parus atricapillus Linnaeus.
Until recently the black-capped chickadee, from early April to late October, was one
of the commonest members of the bird population in a habitat of mixed lodgepole pine
and aspen. Deciduous woodlands along lake-shores was another favoured habitat.
It was an ordinary event in autumn to call up a score or more at one place, by means of
the pygmy owl call, and to equal or exceed that count at many other places during
a morning's walk.
For a long period (1931-49) the numerical status of the species appeared stable
enough so that through the years one neither remarked a scarcity nor an excessive abundance. The bird was ubiquitous and taken for granted. That was so in the summer
of 1949. In the spring of 1950, however, some accustomed element in the woods was
lacking—something that vaguely troubled me for a time until I realized that the black-
capped chickadee was missing. The familiar voice no longer was heard, and none of the
customary lures attracted a single individual. In the following year some recovery took
place, but the species continued to be scarce, neither had it built up to normal proportions by September, 1952. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 83
Possibly this unusual reduction in numbers may be attributed to the low temperature,
unparalleled in many previous years, which persisted for several weeks in the winter of
1949-50. For example, at Lac la Hache a January reading of minus 65° Fahrenheit
was recorded, and temperatures farther south in British Columbia also were unusually
low. It has been observed that the winter status of the species in the Cariboo Parklands
is not known; however, this is not important to the argument because whether the Cariboo Parklands population wintered there or many miles farther south, they still would
have been subjected to extremely low temperatures.
Mountain Chickadee.    Parus gambeli Ridgway.
What has been said concerning the decline in numbers of black-capped chickadees,
following the abnormally cold winter of 1949-50, applies equally to this species. Observations at Lac la Hache in September, 1952, indicated that the population was recovering
but had not yet reached normal proportions.
Brown-headed Chickadee.    Parus hudsonicus Forster.
At Lac la Hache in lodgepole-pine habitat on October 4th, 1952, and again on the
following day, a flock of six to eight of this species, in company with black-capped
chickadees, came under observation. One specimen taken on each of these days represent the first records for the Cariboo Parklands Biotic Area. Both are males, one apparently adult; the other, with skull granulation approximately 50 per cent, is a bird of the
year. The pileum of the younger bird closely matches the Chaetura Drab of Ridgway,
while that of the adult is slightly darker; otherwise the plumages are nearly identical.
Except for the darker shade of the pileum, the Lac la Hache specimens resemble three
specimens in my collection from Creston, British Columbia, identified as P.h. cascadensis
Miller. Compared with atypical specimens of P.h. columbianus Rhoads from Monashee
Pass, British Columbia, the Lac la Hache specimens are more richly brown on flanks and
darker on the pileum and on the back.
Brown Creeper.    Certhia familiaris Linnaeus.
Known to be rare in the region.   A specimen taken at Lac la Hache, October 16th,
1946, and reported as Cf. montana Ridgway (Munro and Cowan, "A Review of the
Bird Fauna of British Columbia," B.C. Prov. Mus. Spec. Publ. No. 2, 1947), proves on
further study to be an example of the eastern race, Cf. americana Bonaparte. There are
two additional sight records of single birds at Lac la Hache, namely, October 10th, 1946,
and October 3rd, 1952.
Catbird    Dumetella carolinensis Linnaeus.
One was seen in the brush along the shore of Lac la Hache numerous times in the
summer of 1946. On June 20th, 1947, in the thickets along the San Jose River where
it enters Williams Lake, one was seen and another heard singing. In 1948 the population at the same place was estimated to be six pairs. The additional records seem to
indicate a definite increase of numbers in a species formerly considered scarce.
American Robin.   Turdus migratorius Linnaeus.
An adult male taken on migration at Lac la Hache, October 12th, 1946, is a typical
example of the subspecies P.m. migratorius Linnaeus that occupies a wide area in British
Columbia north of the Cariboo Parklands. It is one of a number of forms which
apparently have colonized the northern regions by invasion from the east. The subspecies nesting in the Cariboo Parklands is nearest to T.m. propinquus Ridgway.
Varied Thrush.    Ixoreus ncevius (Gmelin).
Recorded previously on the basis of sight records only. On May 6th, 1947, an
adult male was collected near Murphy Lake, 140 Mile. That the species nests in the
region was indicated by the actions of a pair at McArthur Slough, 120 Mile, June 3rd,
1947, that became much disturbed at my presence and were believed to be defending B 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
young in the nest.    This seemed to be substantiated when a week later I collected a
juvenile male in the first plumage near the same place.
Veery.    Hylocichla fuscescens (Stephens).
On June 20th, 1947, one was seen, and at least two others were heard singing, in an
area along the San Jose River which also was occupied by a catbird population, as
has been noted. As with the catbird, so with the veery; both these characteristic
Dry Forest Biotic Area species have recently become more plentiful. The particular
section in which they nest is separated from their centre of abundance by many miles of
unsuitable teritory not occupied by them. It seems likely that both reach this remote
nesting-ground by way of the Fraser River route which, because of its relatively low
elevation and affinity with the Dry Forest Biotic Area, provides the only attractive means
of entry.
Yellow-headed Blackbird.   Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Bonaparte).
Annual counts of the yellow-headed blackbird indicate that the population is far
from being stable. The year 1942, one of relative abundance, was followed by a year
of scarcity, and in general only the most acceptable marshes were occupied by nesting
colonies. The 1947 population was notably large, and invasions of marginal nesting-
grounds, not usually occupied, were observed. Nesting colonies in the preferred marshes
showed increases over those of 1942. Thus at Watson Lake the population of adults
on June 13th, 1942, was twenty-six, while on June 19th, 1947, totals of thirty-seven
adult males and twenty adult females were counted. Another example is 103 Mile Lake,
where in 1942 and 1947 the populations were twenty-four adults and approximately
forty adults respectively. While the 1947 population would seem to have reached a peak,
not all nesting was successful. Thus on a marsh along the San Jose River at 130 Mile
there were, in addition to twelve breeding pairs established on territories, thirty additional
females associated in one flock that preserved its unity both during feeding periods and
when settled in the marsh vegetation. Hostility toward these surplus females was
exhibited by the nesting males. During the height of the nesting season it was common
to see vagrant flocks, composed chiefly of males, in attendance on cattle and acting in the
same manner as cowbirds.
The following year, 1948, the population was again at a low ebb, with nesting
colonies even smaller than in 1943. For example, the 103 Mile Lake colony was
reduced to five pairs, and other colonies in the Lac la Hache Valley were similarly
reduced.
The status of the species west of the Fraser River in the Chilcotin section of the
Cariboo Parklands remains in doubt. On May 27th, 1947, two pairs were recorded at
Canyon Lake near the village of Alexis Creek; one other, a female, was seen the same
day close to the village. This bird accompanied a small group of Brewer blackbirds of
both sexes, and several times she displayed before one or another of the males.
Cowbird.    Molothrus ater Boddaert.
Relatively common in 1947 along the Cariboo Highway. Two males and two
females were seen accompanying cattle at 134 Mile on June 19th, and on June 20th
a total of twelve was counted between 122 Mile and Williams Lake.
Rosy Finch.    Leucosticte tephrocotis (Swainson).
The occurrence of the species in spring was recorded April 27th, 1945, when a
flock of five was observed walking along the edge of the ice on Lac la Hache, which, on
that date, extended about 50 feet out from shore. On the two days following, a flock
of about 50 was noted at the same place, apparently attracted by the numerous midges
that swarmed there. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 85
American Goldfinch.    Spinus tristis (Linnaeus).
Two were seen on the Alkali Lake Ranch, May 18th, 1946, where it is reported
to be a regular summer visitant.
pallidus Mearns.
On geographical probabilities the subspecies is S.t.
White-winged Crossbill.    Loxia leucoptera Gmelin.
Recorded again, and specimens taken, at Horse Lake, September 9th, 1951.
species was noted that year as common elsewhere in central British Columbia.
The
Lark Sparrow.    Chondestes grammacus (Say).
An adult male with fully developed testes was collected at 130 Mile, May 11th,
1946. The subspecies is Cg. strigatus Swainson. This is the first record of the species
for the Cariboo Parklands.
Golden-crowned Sparrow.    Zonotrichia coronata (Pallas).
An adult male collected at 122 Mile, Lac la Hache, May 22nd, 1950, represents the
first record for the species in the Cariboo Parklands.  REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 87
PUBLICATIONS OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
The following is a list of publications which have been issued by the Provincial
Museum or which have been prepared by members of the staff for publication elsewhere.
Copies of some of these publications are still available; these are marked in each case
by a sales price, and copies may be obtained by application to the office of the Provincial
Museum, Victoria, B.C. Orders by residents of the Province of British Columbia should
include the 5-per-cent sales tax.
ANNUAL REPORTS
Annual Reports of the Provincial Museum, commencing for the year 1912.   When available:  Paper covers, 15 cents; bound, 50 cents.
FIELD-TRIP REPORTS—GENERAL
Report on Atlin expedition, 1914.    (Birds, mammals, fishes, and insects.)    E. M.
Anderson.    Provincial Museum  Report  for   1914,  pp.   7-27.    King's  Printer,
Victoria, 1915.
Report on field work in Okanagan and Shuswap districts, 1916.   (Birds and mammals.)
J. A. Munro.    Provincial Museum Report for 1916, pp. 12-18.    King's Printer,
Victoria, 1917.
Report on a collecting trip to Garibaldi Park, B.C.    (Plants, insects, amphibians, birds,
and mammals.)    G. A. Hardy.    Provincial Museum Report for 1926, pp. 15-26.
King's Printer, Victoria, 1927.    15 cents.
Fauna of the former Dominion Peace River Block, British Columbia.    M. Y. Williams.
Provincial Museum Report for 1932, pp. 14-24, 3 plates, list of insects by G. J.
Spencer.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1933.    15 cents.
The vertebrate fauna of the Peace River district of British Columbia.    I. McT. Cowan.
Occasional Papers, British Columbia Provincial Museum, No. 1, pp. 1-102, 8 figs.,
2 maps.    Victoria, 1939.
Report on a collecting trip to the Lac la Hache area, British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl
and George A. Hardy.    Provincial Museum Report for 1942, pp. 25-40.    King's
Printer, Victoria, 1943.    15 cents.
Some accounts of the flora and fauna of the Driftwood Valley region of North Central
British Columbia.    J. F. and T. C. Stanwell-Fletcher.    Occasional Papers, British
Columbia Provincial Museum, No. 4, pp. 1-97.   Victoria, May 1943.
The natural history of the Forbidden Plateau area, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
G. Clifford Carl.    Provincial Museum Report for 1943, pp. 18-40, 1 plate, 1 map.
King's Printer, Victoria, 1944.
Flora and fauna of Paradise mine area, British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl and George
A. Hardy.    Provincial Museum Report for 1944, pp. 18-38, 1945.    15 cents.
A report on a study of Jordan Meadows.    G. A. Hardy.    Provincial Museum Report
for 1948, pp. 20-46, 1949.    15 cents.
Biology of the Scott Island group, British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl, C. J. Guiguet,
and George A. Hardy.    Provincial Museum Report for 1950, pp. 21-63, 1951.
15 cents.
MAMMALS
Preliminary list of the mammals of British Columbia.    J. Fannin.    Bulletin of Natural
History Society of B.C., pp. 5-8, Victoria, 1893.
Game of British Columbia.    J. Fannin.    Bureau of Provincial Information, pp. 1-32,
Victoria, 1903. B 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Mammals collected in the Okanagan Valley, April, May, and June, 1913.    E. M. Anderson.    Provincial Museum Report for 1913, pp. 18-19.    King's Printer, Victoria,
1914.
Some notes on the earlier known history of the Chiroptera (bats), with a list of those
species occurring in British Columbia.    F. Kermode.    Provincial Museum Report
for 1920, pp. 14-16.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1921.    15 cents.
The life history and distribution of marmots.    F. Kermode.    Provincial Museum Report
for 1920, pp. 16-19.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1921.
A remarkable case of external hind limbs in a humpback whale. Roy Chapman Andrews.
Provincial Museum Report for 1921, pp. 9-11, 2 plates.    King's Printer, Victoria,
1922.
British Columbia white bear  (Ursus kermodei).    F. Kermode.    Provincial Museum
Report for 1924, pp. 9-13, 1 plate.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1925.
The sea-otter (Enhydra lutris lutris L.).   W. A. Newcombe.   Provincial Museum Report
for 1928, pp. 12-14, 1 plate.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1929.
Nesting habits of the flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus.   I. McT. Cowan.    Journal of
Mammalogy, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 58-60, 1936.
Mammals of the Alta Lake region of South-western British Columbia.   Kenneth Racey
and I. McT. Cowan.   Provincial Museum Report for 1935, pp. 15-29, 5 plates.
King's Printer, Victoria, 1936.   15 cents.
Notes on some mammals in the British Columbia Provincial Museum, with a list of the
type specimens of North America recent mammals in the Museum.   I. McT. Cowan.
Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 50, pp. 145-148, 1936.
A new race of Peromyscus maniculatus from British Columbia.    I.  McT.  Cowan.
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. 50, pp. 215-216, 1937.
The distribution of the flying squirrels in Western British Columbia, with a description
of a new race.   I. McT. Cowan.   Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. 50, pp. 77-82, 1937.   15 cents.
What causes freak antlers?   I. McT. Cowan.   Angler and Hunter, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 7-8,
January, 1938, Kamloops.
Fur cycles and the fur trade, 1827-1857.    I. McT. Cowan.   B.C. Historical Quarterly,
Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 19-30.   Victoria, January, 1938.
The stomach contents of sperm whales caught off the west coast of British Columbia.
Lewis L. Robbins, Frances K. Oldham, and E. M. K. Geiling (Department of
Pharmacy, University of Chicago). Provincial Museum Report for 1937, pp. 19-20,
1 plate.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1938.    15 cents.
Mountain sheep of British Columbia.  I. McT. Cowan.   Game Trails in British Columbia,
December, 1938, p. 8.
Geographic distribution of color phases of the red fox and black bear in the Pacific
Northwest.   I. McT. Cowan.   Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 202-206,
1938.
Notes on the hares of British Columbia, with the description of a new race.   I. McT.
Cowan.   Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 240-243, 1938.
Mammals of the mountain tops.   I. McT. Cowan.    Game Trails in British Columbia,
May, 1938, pp. 12-13, 25.
The sharp-headed finner whale of the eastern Pacific.    I. McT. Cowan.    Journal of
Mammalogy, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 215-225, 3 plates, 3 figs., 1939.   15 cents.
Two mammals new to the known fauna of British Columbia.    I. McT. Cowan and
J. Hatter.   Murrelet, Vol. 21, p. 9, 1940.   5 cents.
Distribution and variation in the native sheep of North America.    I. McT. Cowan.
American Midland Naturalist, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 505-580, 4 plates, 1 fig., 1940.
30 cents. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 89
Fossil and subfossil mammals from the Quarternary of B.C.   I. McT. Cowan.   Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 3rd Series, Section 4, Vol. 35, pp. 39-50,
1941.
Insularity of the genus Sorex on the north coast of British Columbia.   I. McT. Cowan.
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. 54, pp. 95-108, 1941.
10 cents.
The Vancouver Island marmot.    G. Clifford Carl.    The Victoria Naturalist, Vol.  1,
No. 6, pp. 77-78, 1944.
A winter record of the big brown bat.   G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2,
No. 2, p. 26, 1945.
The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) in British Columbia waters and
vicinity.   I. McT. Cowan and G. Clifford Carl.   Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 59,
No. 5, pp. 170-171, 1 plate, 1945.
A school of killer whales stranded at Estevan Point, Vancouver Island.   G. Clifford Carl.
Provincial Museum Report for 1945, pp. 21-28, 1946.
Sharp-headed finner whale stranded at Sidney, Vancouver Island, British Columbia.
G. Clifford Carl.   Murrelet, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 47-49, 1946.
The Alaska fur seal industry and Canada's interest.    G. Clifford Carl.    Provincial
Museum Report for 1946, pp. 21-24, 12 figs.   Victoria, 1947.   15 cents.
Mammals of Vancouver Island.   G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 1,
pp. 4-9, 1947.
Observations  of birds and mammals in Central British Columbia.    J.  A.  Munro.
Occasional Papers No. 6, British Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-165, figs.
1-52, January, 1947.
Marine mammals of British Columbia—a potential resource.   G. Clifford Carl.   Second
Resources Conference, 1949, pp. 275-278.
Killer whales.   G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol 5, No. 7, p. 80, 1949.
Migrating mice mystify Museum.   G. Clifford Carl.   Vancouver Daily Province, October
21st, 1949.
Mice and men.   G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 62-65, 1949.
An account of wolverine attacking mountain goat.   C. J. Guiguet.   Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 9, No. l,pp. 7-10, 1952.
Status of birds and mammals of the Osoyoos area in May, 1951.   C. J. Guiguet.   Report
of the Provincial Museum for 1951, pp. 25-38, 1952.
Three cetacean records from British Columbia.    I. McT. Cowan and C. J. Guiguet.
Murrelet, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 10-11, 1952.
California sea lion (Zalophus californianus (Lesson)) in British Columbia.  C. J. Guiguet.
Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 67, No. 3, p. 140, 1953.
BIRDS
Check list of British Columbia birds. J. Fannin. Pp. 1-49, 2 plates. Queen's Printer,
Victoria, 1891.
Catalogue of British Columbia birds. F. Kermode. Pp. 1-69. King's Printer, Victoria,
1904.   25 cents.
Report on birds collected and observed during April, May, and June, 1913, in the
Okanagan Valley, from Okanagan Landing south to Osoyoos Lake. E. M. Anderson. Provincial Museum Report for 1913, pp. 7-16. King's Printer, Victoria,
1914.
Notes on the Chinese starling (Acridotheres cristatellus). F. Kermode. Provincial
Museum Report for 1920, pp. 20-21.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1921.
The Lichtenstein kingbird on Vancouver Island. F. Kermode. Condor, Vol. 30, p. 251,
1928. B 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A study of the rhinoceros auklet and other birds in British Columbia, 1929.   Rev. C. J.
Young.   Provincial Museum Report for 1929, pp. 16-19, 1 plate.   King's Printer,
Victoria, 1930.    15 cents.
Nesting colonies of the double-crested cormorant in British Columbia.    J. A. Munro.
Provincial Museum Report for 1936, pp. 26-30, 3 plates.   King's Printer, Victoria,
1937.   15 cents.
Additional breeding colonies of the herring gull in British Columbia.   I. McT. Cowan.
Murrelet, Vol. 18, Nos. 1-2, p. 28, 1937.   5 cents.
The house finch at Victoria, British Columbia.   I. McT. Cowan.    Condor, Vol. 39,
No. 5, p. 225, 1937.   5 cents.
Distribution of the races of the Williamson sapsucker in British Columbia.    I. McT.
Cowan.   Condor, Vol. 40, pp. 128-129, 1938.
The white-tailed ptarmigan of Vancouver Island.   I. McT. Cowan.   Condor, Vol. 41,
No. 2, pp. 82-83, 1939.
Nesting of the western grebe in British Columbia.    J. A. Munro.   Provincial Museum
Report for 1938, pp. 16-17, 1 plate.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1939.    15 cents.
Black phcebe in British Columbia.   I. McT. Cowan.   Condor, Vol. 41, p. 123, 1939.
5 cents.
Pentadactyly in a spotted sandpiper.   I. McT. Cowan.   Murrelet, Vol. 21, p. 6, 1 fig.,
1940.   5 cents.
Two apparently fatal grouse diseases.   I. McT. Cowan.   Journal of Wildlife Management,
Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 311-312, 1 plate, 1940.   10 cents.
Winter occurrence of summer birds on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.   I. McT.
Cowan.   Condor, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 213-214, 1940.   5 cents.
Bird records from British Columbia.    I. McT. Cowan.   Murrelet, Vol. 21, pp. 69-70,
1940.   5 cents.
Studies of waterfowl in British Columbia: The grebes.  J. A. Munro.  Occasional Papers,
British Columbia Provincial Museum, No. 3, pp. 1-71, December, 1941.   50 cents.
Notes on some pelagic birds on the coast of British Columbia.    Patrick W. Martin.
Condor, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 27-29, 1942.   10 cents.
Another record of the king eider in British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl.    Murrelet,
Vol. 23, May-Aug., p. 62, 1942.   5 cents.
Northern bald eagle.   Frank L. Beebe.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 20-21,
1944.
Northern shrike.    George A. Hardy.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 25, 1945.
Observations of birds and mammals in Central British Columbia.    Occasional Paper
No. 6, British Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-165, figs. 1-52, January, 1947.
A review of the bird fauna of British Columbia.    J. A. Munro and I. McT. Cowan.
Special Publication No. 2, British Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-285, figs.
1-42, December, 1947.   Price:   Soft cover, $2.50;  hard cover, $3.50.
Bird notes from Saanich, Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia.    Murrelet,
Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 37-38.   Sept-Dec, 1947.   1948.
Dabblers and divers.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 69-70, 1948.
Belted kingfisher and nighthawk.    G. A. Hardy.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 5, No. 9,
pp. 101-104, 1949.
The trumpeter swan.    C. J. Guiguet.    Museum and Art Notes, Vol. 1, No. 1  (2nd
Series), pp. 32-34, 1949.
Kennicott's screech owl on British Columbia coastal islands.   C. J. Guiguet.   Canadian
Field-Naturalist, Vol. 63, No. 5, pp. 206-207, 1949.
The shoveller and the pintail.   C. J. Guiguet.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 6, No. 3, p. 25,
1949.
Glaucous-winged gull and Bonaparte's gull.    George A. Hardy.    Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 97-98, 1950. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 91
George A. Hardy.
C. J. Guiguet.
Victoria Naturalist,
Victoria Naturalist,
Guiguet.    Victoria
A day with the birds in a Saanich garden
Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 52-53, 1950.
The marbled murrelet and white-winged scoter
Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 37-40, 1950.
Bird news from Provincial Museum field notes, October.    C. J.
Naturalist, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 54-56, 1950.
Notes on the common murre nesting in British Columbia.    C. J. Guiguet.   Murrelet,
Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 12-13, 1950.
An annotated list of the birds of the East Kootenay, British Columbia.   Walter B. Johnstone.   Occasional Paper No. 7, British Columbia Provincial Museum, December,
1949.   1950.   75 cents.
The birds and mammals of the Creston region, British Columbia.    J. A. Munro.
Occasional Paper No. 8, British Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-90, 16 figs.,
August, 1950.   75 cents.
Notes on blue grouse.   C. J. Guiguet.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 49-50,
1951.
Yellow-shafted flicker and pileated woodpecker.   Frank L. Beebe.   Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 40-41, 1952.
The European starling on Vancouver Island.   C. J. Guiguet.   Canadian Field-Naturalist,
Vol. 66, No. l,p. 37, 1952.
European starling.    C. J. Guiguet.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 9, No. 2, p. 22, 1952.
Horned lark and eastern kingbird.   C. J. Guiguet.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 9, No. 1,
p. 1, 1952.
Another record of the crested mynah on Vancouver Island.    C. J. Guiguet.    Victoria
Naturalist, Vol. 9, No. 5, pp. 52-53, 1952.
The catbird and varied thrush.    C. J. Guiguet.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 9, No. 6,
pp. 61-62, 1952.
Status of birds and mammals of the Osoyoos area in May, 1951.   C. J. Guiguet.   Report
of the Provincial Museum for 1951, pp. 25-38.   1952.
An unusual occurrence of turkey vultures on Vancouver Island. C. J. Guiguet. Murrelet,
Vol. 33, No. l,p. 11, 1952.
Two common shore birds.    Frank L. Beebe.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 9, No. 8, pp.
85-86, 1953.
Enigma of the marbled murrelet.    C. J. Guiguet.    Victoria Daily Colonist, April 26th,
1953.
The ancient murrelet.   C. J. Guiguet.  Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 68-70,
1953.
Nesting of the mourning dove on Vancouver Island.    George A. Hardy.    Victoria
Naturalist, Vol. 10, No. 4, p. 47, 1953; Murrelet, Vol. 35, No. 1, p. 13, 1954.
The birds of British Columbia:   (1) The woodpeckers;  (2) the crows and their allies.
C. J. Guiguet and F. L. Beebe.   British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook
No. 6, pp. 1-51, 1954.
REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS
Amphibia of British Columbia.   G. A. Hardy.   Provincial Museum Report for 1925,
pp. 21-24.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1926.    15 cents.
A remarkable capture of leatherback turtle off Bajo reef, near Nootka Sound, west coast
of Vancouver Island, British Columbia.   F. Kermode.   Provincial Museum Report
for 1931, pp. 6-7, 1 plate.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1932.   15 cents.
A review of the reptiles and amphibians of British Columbia.  I. McT. Cowan. Provincial
Museum Report for 1936, pp. 16-25.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1937.    15 cents.
Distribution of turtles in coastal British Columbia.    I. McT. Cowan.    Copeia, 1938,
No. 2, p. 91.   5 cents. B 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Longevity of the red-legged frog.   I. McT. Cowan.   Copeia, No. 1, p. 48, 1941.   5 cents.
The long-toed salamander on Vancouver Island.   G. Clifford Carl.   Copeia, No. 1, p. 56,
1942.   5 cents.
The western spadefoot toad in British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl.    Copeia, No. 2,
p. 129, 1942.   5 cents.
The amphibians of British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl.    British Columbia Provincial
Museum Handbook No. 2, pp. 1-62, June, 1943 (revised, 1950).    50 cents.
Northward extensions of the range of Ascaphus.   John W. Slipp and G. Clifford Carl.
Copeia, No. 2, p. 127, 1943.   5 cents.
The reptiles of British Columbia.  G. Clifford Carl.  British Columbia Provincial Museum
Handbook No. 3, pp. 1-60, April, 1944 (revised, 1951).   50 cents.
Vancouver Island snakes.   G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 5-6,
1945.
Notes on the salamanders of British Columbia.   G. Clifford Carl and Ian McT. Cowan.
Copeia, No. 1, pp. 43-44, 1945.
Notes on some frogs and toads of British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl and Ian McT.
Cowan.   Copeia, No. 1, pp. 52-53, 1945.
From fish to frog.   G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 21-24, 1946.
The Pacific leatherback turtle.    G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 4,
p. 47, 1947.
Extensions of known ranges of some amphibians in British Columbia.   G. Clifford Carl.
Herpetologica, Vol. 5, Part 6, pp. 139-140, 1949.
The sharp-tailed snake in British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 50-51, 1949; also Herpetologica, Vol. 6, Part 5, p. 116, 1950.
The western painted turtle gets around.   G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 9,
No. 3, pp. 25-26, 1952.
FISHES
On the occurrence of Benthodesmus atlanticus (Goode & Bean) on the coast of British
Columbia. (Fish.) Dr. C. H. Gilbert, Stanford University. Provincial Museum
Report for 1916, pp. 19-20.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1917.
Further notes on Erilepsis, the giant bass-like fish of the North Pacific. W. F. Thompson,
Stanford University. Provincial Museum Report for 1916, pp. 20-22, 2 plates.
King's Printer, Victoria, 1917.
Some fish records from the coast of British Columbia. I. McT. Cowan. Copeia, 1938,
No. 2, p. 97.    5 cents.
Oceanic fishes from the northeast Pacific Ocean. Wilbert McLeod Chapman (Department of Fisheries, State of Washington). Occasional paper No. 2, British Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-44, Victoria, 1940.
Beware the broken egg! G. Clifford Carl. Progressive Fish-Culturist, No. 53, pp.
30-31, 1941.
Pacific salmon. G. Clifford Carl. The Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 36-38,
1944.
Three apparently unrecorded fresh-water fishes of British Columbia. G. Clifford Carl.
Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 59, No. 1, p. 25, 1945.
Some rarely seen marine fishes. G. Clifford Carl. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 2,
pp. 73-74, 1945.
Some marine fish records for British Columbia. G. Clifford Carl and G. V. Wilby.
Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 28-30, 1945.
The fresh-water fishes of British Columbia. G. Clifford Carl and W. A. Clemens.
British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 5, pp. 1-132, 7 coloured
plates, 62 figs., 1948 (revised, 1953).    50 cents.
The steelhead or rainbow trout. G. Clifford Carl. Victoria Naturalist, Vol 6, No. 1,
pp. 1-2, 1949. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM B 93
The Dolly Varden.  G. Clifford Carl. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 61-62, 1949.
The distribution of fresh-water fishes in British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl.    Report of
the Provincial Museum for 1949, pp. 21-23.    1950.
The thresher shark in British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl.    Canadian Field-Naturalist,
Vol. 65, No. 2, p. 83, 1951.
About salmon fishing.    C. J. Guiguet.    Victoria Daily Colonist, September 13th, 1953.
The hammerhead shark in British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 11, No. 4, p. 37, 1954.
Tanks that catch the eye.    G. Clifford Carl.    Fin Fare, Bull, of the Victoria Aquarium
Society, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 9-10, 1954.
INSECTS AND RELATED FORMS
Catalogue of British Columbia Lepidoptera.    E. M. Anderson.    Pp.  1-56.    King's
Printer, Victoria, 1904.    25 cents.
The Pterophoridae (plume moths) of British Columbia.    E. H. Blackmore.    Provincial
Museum Report for 1921, pp. 34-45, 2 plates.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1922.
15 cents.
Reports and notes on moths and butterflies of British Columbia, with many illustrations.
E. H. Blackmore.    Provincial Museum Reports for the years  1915  to  1923,
inclusive.
Cerambycidae (long-horn beetles)  of Vancouver Island (preliminary annotated list).
G. A. Hardy.    Provincial Museum Report for 1925, pp. 24-33, 2 plates.    King's
Printer, Victoria, 1926.
Cerambycidae of Vancouver Island  (suplementary list).    G.  A. Hardy.    Provincial
Museum Report for 1926, pp. 34-37, 1 plate.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1927.
15 cents.
Buprestidae  (wood-boring beetles)  of Vancouver Island.    G. A. Hardy.    Provincial
Museum Report for 1926, pp. 32-37, 2 plates.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1927.
15 cents.
The Odonata (dragonflies)  of the Canadian cordillera.    E. M. Walker.    Pp.  1-16.
King's Printer, Victoria, 1927.    15 cents.
Check-list of the Macrolepidoptera (butterflies and moths) of British Columbia.    E. H.
Blackmore.    Pp. 1-47.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1927.    15 cents.
Vancouver Island Elateridae (click-beetles).    G. A. Hardy.    Provincial Museum Report
for 1927, pp. 16-17.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1928.    15 cents.
The black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans).    K. Raht.    Provincial Museum Report
for 1934, p. 13.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1935.    15 cents.
Insect and plant associations in the Chilcotin.    R. S. Sherman and Fred Perry.    Provincial Museum Report for 1935, pp. 30-34, 2 plates.    King's Printer, Victoria,
1936.    15 cents.
The black witch moth Erebus odora (L.) in British Columbia.    G. A. Hardy.    Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, Vol. 39, pp. 7-9, 1942.
5 cents.
Notes on some wood-boring beetles of Saanich, Vancouver Island, B.C.    (Coleoptera,
Cerambycidae, and Buprestidae).    G. A. Hardy.    Proceedings of the Entomological
Society of British Columbia, Vol. 39, pp. 9-13, 1942.    5 cents.
Field observations on the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria var. eros Stretch.
George A. Hardy.    Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia,
Vol. 40, pp. 28-29, 1943.
Further notes on the Cerambycidae of Vancouver Island  (Coleoptera).    George A.
Hardy.    Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, Vol. 41,
pp. 15-18, 1944.    10 cents. B 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Some longhorn beetles of Vancouver Island. G. A. Hardy. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2,
No. 6, pp. 88-92, 1945.
A flight of termites.  G. Clifford Carl. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 76-77, 1945.
That flower-butterfly partnership, and other articles. G. A. Hardy. Vancouver Daily
Province, August 25th and October 6th and 20th, 1945.
Notes on the life history of the vapourer moth (Notolophus antiqua badia) on Vancouver Island (Lepidoptera, Liparidae). G. A. Hardy. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, Vol. 42, pp. 3-6, 1945.
Some spring and summer butterflies. G. A. Hardy. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 9,
pp. 142-145, 1946.
The tent-caterpillar situation for 1947. G. A. Hardy. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3,
No. 6, pp. 75-76, 1946.
Some beetles of the families Ceramybcidae and Buprestidae from Manning Park, British
Columbia. G. A. Hardy. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British
Columbia (1947), Vol. 44, pp. 31-34, 1948.
Notes on the life history of Xanthorha defensaria Gn. G. A. Hardy. Lepidoptera:
Geometridae. Proceedings of the British Columbia Entomological Society, Vol. 45,
17-19, 1949.
Notes on the Garry oak looper, Lambdina fiscellaria somniaria Hist. Proceedings of the
British Columbia Entomological Society, Vol. 46, pp. 13-14, 1950.
Notes on Vancouver Island and west coast Coleoptera. G. A. Hardy. Proceedings of
the British Columbia Entomological Society, Vol. 46, p. 18, 1950.
Notes on and additions to the Cerambycidae of Vancouver Island. G. A. Hardy. Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 82, No. 4, pp. 85-86, 1950.
The vapourer moth, Notolophus antiqua badia Hy. Edw. G. A. Hardy. Victoria Naturalist. Vol. 7, No. 7, pp. 79-80, 1951.
The plant and insect world in September. G. A. Hardy. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 8,
No. 3, pp. 27-29, 1951.
Notes on the life history of the February highflyer, Hydriomena nubilofasciata f. vulnerata
Swet. G. A. Hardy. Proceedings of the British Columbia Entomological Society,
Vol. 47, pp. 25-26, 1951.
Here is the painted lady.    G. A. Hardy.   Vancouver Sun, October 11th, 1952.
Wasps.    G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Daily Times, September 10th, 1953.
Notes on some insects from British Columbia. G. A. Hardy. Report of the Provincial
Museum for 1952, pp. 26-29.    1953.
Some conspicuous spiders and insects in British Columbia. G. A. Hardy. A single-
page leaflet illustrated by F. L. Beebe, 1953.
PLANTS
Preliminary catalogue of the flora of Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands.    Pp. 1-87.
King's Printer, Victoria, 1921.
New plants from British Columbia.    Harold St.  John.    Contribution from Botany
Department of the State College of Washington, No. 10.   Also Provincial Museum
Report for 1927, pp. 14-15.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1928.    15 cents.
Reduction of Olsynium (botany).    Harold St. John.    Provincial Museum Report for
1930, pp. 11-13, 2 plates.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1931.    15 cents.
Notes on the flora of the Peace River.    Roy Graham.    Provincial Museum Report for
1933, pp. 13-20, 2 plates.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1934.    15 cents.
List of hepatics of Pacific coast and adjoining territory (botany).    A. H. Brinkman.
Provincial Museum Report for 1933, pp. 24-33.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1934.
15 cents.
The hanging gardens of British Columbia.   A. Nicholls.    Provincial Museum Report for
1934, pp. 15-23, 3 plates.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1935.    15 cents. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 95
Insect and plant associations in the Chilcotin.    R. S. Sherman and Fred Perry.    Provincial Museum Report for 1935, pp. 30—34, 2 plates.    King's Printer, Victoria,
1936.    15 cents.
Hepatics  of the Pacific Coast and adjoining states.    A.  H.  Brinkman.    Provincial
Provincial Museum Report for 1937, pp. 21-23.    King's Printer, Victoria, 1938.
15 cents.
Fifty edible plants of British Columbia.    G. A. Hardy.    British Columbia Provincial
Museum Handbook No. 1, pp. 1-54, December, 1942.    25 cents.
Polygala vulgaris new to the North American flora.    G. A. Hardy.    Rhodora, Vol. 44,
No. 517, pp. 9-10, 1942.
Bracket fungus—the dryad's saddle.   G. A. Hardy.   Canadian Nature, Vol. 5, No. 3,
pp. 80-81, 1944.
Mushroom time.    G. A. Hardy.    The Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 60-64,
1944.
Notes on some unrecorded or little-known British Columbia plants.    J. W. Eastham.
Provincial Museum Report for 1945, pp. 29-30.    1946.
That flower-butterfly partnership, and other articles.   G. A. Hardy.   Vancouver Daily
Province, August 25th and October 6th and 20th, 1945.
Filago arvensis in North America.    G. A. Hardy.    Rhodora, Vol. 47, No. 560, p. 258,
August, 1945.
Spring flowers.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 12-13, 1946.
The devil's club.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 43-44, 1946.
Report of the third annual fungus foray.    G. A. Hardy.
No. 6, pp. 78-79, 1946.
Some mushrooms and other fungi of British Columbia.
Museum Handbook No. 4, pp. 1-96, 1946.    25 cents.
Two interesting fungi from John Dean Park.    G. A. Hardy.
No. 5, pp. 54-55, 1947.
Fourth annual fungus foray.    G. A. Hardy.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 5,
56-57, 1947.
Supplement to "Flora of Southern British Columbia" (J. K. Henry).    Special Publication No. 1, British Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-119, 1947.    $1.
Notes on plants collected in 1947, chiefly in the Rock Mountain Trench, between the
Rocky and Selkirk Mountains of British Columbia.   J. W. Eastham.    Provincial
Museum Report for 1947, pp. 29-32.   1948.
A measure of the fungi.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 40-43,
1948.
Report of the fifth annual fungus foray.    G. A. Hardy.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 5,
No. 6, p. 66, 1948.
Squirrel cache of fungi.    G. A. Hardy.    Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 63, No. 2,
pp. 86-87.    1949.
The shaggy mane, Coprinus comatus Fr.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 6,
No. 4, pp. 38-39, 1949.
Report on the seventh annual fungus foray.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 6,
No. 6, pp. 63-64, 1949.
The red squirrel as a truffle hunter.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 6. No. 8,
p. 92, 1950.
Some wild flowers of a sandy beach.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 7, No. 3,
pp. 28-32, 1950.
The fawn-coloured pluteus, Pluteus cervinus.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 7,
No. 4, pp. 41-42, 1950.
Production by the billion.    G. A. Hardy.    Museum and Art Notes, Art, Historical and
Scientific Association, Vancouver, Vol. 1, No. 2 (2nd Series), pp. 20-25, 1950.
Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3,
G. A. Hardy. Provincial
Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4,
pp. B 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Wild flowers.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 7, No. 8, pp. 91-92, 1951.
The plant and insect world in September.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 8,
No. 3, pp. 27-29, 1951.
The hard-skinned earth star, Scleroderma geaster Fr.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 37-38, 1951.
The dryad's broom.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 8, No. 4, p. 37, 1951.
The recent plant additions to Vancouver Island.    G. A. Hardy.    Victoria Naturalist,
Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 54-55, 1951.
Botanizing along the Big Bend Highway, British Columbia.    J. W. Eastham.    Provincial
Museum Report for 1951, pp. 39-45.    1952.    15 cents.
Eighth annual fungus foray.    G. A. Hardy.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 8, No. 7, pp
81-83, 1952.
Afield with the mushrooms.    G. A. Hardy.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp
37-39, 1952.
Selected list of books pertaining to botany of British Columbia, compiled by G. A. Hardy
Provincial Museum, 1952.
Some early spring flowers in the vicinity of Victoria.    G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist
Vol. 9, No. 8, pp. 87-89, 1953.
Seed dissemination.    William A. Hubbard.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 10, No. 8, pp
97-98, 1954.
Floral emblems.   William A. Hubbard.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 26-29
1954.
MISCELLANEOUS
Preliminary check list of marine shells of British Columbia.   C. F. Newcombe.   Pp. 1-13.
Queen's Printer, Victoria, 1893.   25 cents.
A preliminary catalogue of the collections of natural history and ethnology in the Provincial Museum.   J. Fannin.   Pp. 1-196.   Queen's Printer, Victoria, 1898.
Visitors' guide to the natural history and ethnological collections in the Provincial
Museum.   Pp. 1-92, 34 plates.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1909.
Revised list of British Columbia marine bivalve Mollusca in the Museum collection.
G. A. Hardy.    Provincial Museum Report for 1925, pp. 18-21.    King's Printer,
Victoria, 1926.   15 cents.
Revised list of British Columbia marine univalve Mollusca in the Museum and Newcombe
collections.   George A. Hardy.   Provincial Museum Report for 1926, pp. 28-32.
King's Printer, Victoria, 1927.    15 cents.
An easily made vivarium.    G. Clifford Carl.   Canadian Nature, Vol. 4, No. 1, p. 10,
1942.
Some slugs of British Columbia.    G. Clifford Carl.    Canadian Nature, Vol. 6, No. 1,
pp. 5-6, 1944.
Wildlife and man.   G. Clifford Carl.   The Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 5-6,
1944.
Fairy shrimps, harbingers of spring.   G. Clifford Carl.  The Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 1,
No. 2, p. 19, 1944.
Publications of the Provincial Museum:  A classified list of publications up to December
21st, 1944.   Provincial Museum, March, 1945.
Major Allan Brooks.   G. Clifford Carl.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 8, p. 119, 1946.
In memoriam:  Allan Brooks.   G. Clifford Carl.   Murrelet, Vol. 27, No. 1, p. 14, 1946.
Life in the Museum.   G. Clifford Carl.   The Provincial, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 21-22, 1946.
The scaly crab.   G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 44, 1946.
The Provincial Museum and its relationship to wildlife conservation.   G. Clifford Carl.
Report of the Proceedings of the Game Convention, British Columbia Game
Department, pp. 52-54, 1947. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 97
Triangle Island night life.   G. Clifford Carl.   Vancouver Daily Province, October 15th,
1949.
Nature at home.   G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 15-17, 1949.
A day with the field collector.    C. J. Guiguet.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 5, No. 7, pp.
75-78, 1949.
The museum steps out.    G. Clifford Carl.   B.C. Teacher, Vol. 30, No. 2, November,
1950.
What to look for in December.   G. A. Hardy.   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 7, No. 6, p. 66,
1950.
Simple models as teaching aids:   I, Adaptations in fins of fishes.    British Columbia
Schools, Elementary Edition, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 53-56, 1951.
What to look for in March.    G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 8, No. 9,
pp. 97-98, 1952.
Simple models as teaching aids:  II, Development of the frog.   British Columbia Schools,
Elementary Edition, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 45-48, May, 1952.
Simple models as teaching aids:  III, Morphology of insects.   British Columbia Schools,
Elementary Edition, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 54-59, 1952.
Triangle Island.   G. Clifford Carl.   Pacific Discovery, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 24-27, 1952.
Notes on the industrial plastic " Styrfoam " as a modelling material for museum exhibits.
Frank L. Beebe.   Clearing House for Western Museums Newsletter 163, September,
1953.
Limnobiology of Cowichan Lake, British Columbia.   G. Clifford Carl.   Journal of the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 9, No. 9, pp. 417-449, 1953.
Submarine.    G. Clifford Carl.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 53-54, 1953.
Northern extensions of range of some reptant decapod Crustacea of British Columbia.
Josephine F. L. Hart (volunteer assistant).    Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 67,
No. 3, pp. 139-140, 1953.
Collector's items from commercial fishing-gear.   Lela M. Griffith.   Provincial Museum
Report for 1953, pp. 31-33.   1954.   10 cents.
INDIANS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Guide to the anthropological collection in the Provincial Museum.    C. F. Newcombe.
Pp. 1-56, 26 plates.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1909.
A Haida or Tsimshian doll.   W. A. Newcombe.   Provincial Museum Report for 1928,
pp. 10-11, 1 plate.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1929.    15 cents.
Thunder-bird and whale.    W. A. Newcombe.    Provincial Museum Report for 1929,
pp. 10-11, 2 plates.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1930.   15 cents.
British Columbia totem-poles.   W. A. Newcombe.   Provincial Museum Report for 1930,
pp. 8-10, 9 plates.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1931.    15 cents.
A large Salish earthwork.   Also an unrecorded petroglyph.   W. A. Newcombe.   Provincial Museum Report for 1931, pp. 7-8, 2 plates.   King's Printer, Victoria, 1932.
15 cents.
The native tribes of British Columbia.    Alice Ravenhill.   Pp. 1-142.    King's Printer,
Victoria, 1938.
Indian village constructed at Victoria.    Francis Kermode.    The Island Motorist and
Georgian Circuit Magazine, pp. 11, 13, 1940.
A corner stone of Canadian culture.   Alice Ravenhill.   Occasional Paper No. 5, British
Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-103, 20 plates, March, 1944. 75 cents.
Indian fish traps. A. E. Pickford. Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 4, p. 58, 1945.
Natives of the Pribilof Islands.   G. Clifford Carl.   The Native Voice, Vancouver, B.C.,
Vol. I, No. 2, January, 1947.
Prehistoric cairns and mounds in British Columbia.   A. E. Pickford.   B.C. Historical
Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 4, October, 1947. B 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Archaeological excavation of Indian middens.   A. E. Pickford.   Report of the Provincial
Museum for 1947, pp. 20-28, 4 figs.   1948.
Anthropology in British Columbia No. 1, 1950.   Wilson Duff (editor).   British Columbia
Provincial Museum, pp. 1-45, 1950.   $1.   Contents:—
Research in progress.   Wilson Duff.   Pp. 1—12.
Preliminary report on archeological investigations in the Fraser Delta region.
Dr. Charles E. Borden.   Pp. 13-27.
Archeological remains in Central British Columbia.   J. H. Sewell.   Pp. 28-32.
Bibliography, 1940-1950.   J. Spillius.   Pp. 33-45.
Anthropology in British Columbia, No. 2, 1951.   Wilson Duff (editor).   British Columbia
Provincial Museum, pp. 1-52, 1951.   $1.   Contents:—
Anthropology research and publications.   Viola E. Garfield and Wilson Duff.
Pp. 2-12.
The Cowichan knitting industry.   Barbara S. Lane.   Pp. 14-27.
Notes on Carrier social organization.   Wilson Duff.   Pp. 28-34.
Facts and problems of Northwest Coast prehistory.   Dr. Charles E. Borden.
Pp. 35-52.
Indian natural history.   Wilson Duff.    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 7, No. 8, pp. 92-94;
Vol. 7, No. 9, pp. 103-106; and Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 16-17, 1951.
Thunderbird Park.   Wilson Duff.   Brochure issued by the British Columbia Government
Travel Bureau, 1952.
Review of " Petroglyphs of Central Washington," by H. T. Cain.    Wilson Duff.    B.C.
Historical Quarterly, July-October, 1951, Victoria, B.C.
Review of " The Wolf Ritual of the Northwest Coast," by Alice H. Ernst.   Wilson Duff.
American Anthropologist, Vol. 54, No. 4, p. 568, 1952.
Anthropology in British Columbia No. 3, 1952.   Wilson Duff (editor).   British Columbia
Provincial Museum, pp. 1-56, 1953.   $1.   Contents:—
Anthropological research and publications, 1952. Viola E. Garfield and Wilson
Duff.   Pp. 5-9.
Notes on Coast Salish sea-mammal hunting.   Wayne Suttles.   Pp. 10-20.
Gitksan totem-poles, 1952.   Wilson Duff.   Pp. 21-30.
Results of archaeological investigations in Central British Columbia.  Charles E.
Borden.   Pp. 31-43.
A uniform site designation scheme for Canada. Charles E. Borden. Pp. 44-48.
An archaeological survey in the lower Nooksack River valley.    Richard V.
Emmons.   Pp. 49-56.
The Upper Stalo Indians.    Wilson Duff.    Anthropology in British Columbia, Memoir
No. 1, pp. 1-136, 1953.   $2.
Prehistoric carvings puzzle anthropologists.    Wilson Duff.    Victoria Daily Colonist,
March 1st, 1953.
Will rebuild Indian house.   Wilson Duff.   Victoria Daily Colonist, May 24th, 1953.
Anthropology in British Columbia No. 4, 1953-54.    Wilson Duff (editor).    British
Columbia Provincial Museum, pp. 1-38, 1954.   $1.   Contents:—
Anthropological research and publications, 1953-54.   Wilson Duff.   Pp. 5-9.
An archeological survey of the Okanagan and Similkameen VaUeys of British
Columbia.   Warren W. Caldwell.   Pp. 10-25.
Some aspects of prehistoric coastal-interior relations in the Pacific Northwest.
Charles E. Borden.   Pp. 26-32.
A Scottsbluff-Eden point from British Columbia.   Wilson Duff and Charles E.
Borden.   Pp. 33-34.
An Okanagan winter dance.   Norman H. Lerman.   Pp. 35—36.
John Henry Sewell, 1885-1953.   Charles E. Borden.   Pp. 37-38. REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL MUSEUM
B 99
A heritage in decay, the totem art of the Haidas.   Wilson Duff.   Canadian Art, Vol. 11,
No. 2, Winter, 1954.
Preserving the talking sticks.    Wilson Duff.    Powell River Digester, Vol. 30, No. 6,
November, 1954.
victoria, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1955
1,260-555-5588 

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