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Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare For the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1954

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 PROVINCE   OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of   the   Department  of
Health and Welfare
For the Year Ended March 31st
1953
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1953  Victoria, B.C., December 17th, 1953.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and
Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1953, is herewith respectfully submitted.
E. C. MARTIN,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., December 17th, 1953.
The Honourable E. C Martin,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1953.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. W. GRIFFITH,
Deputy Minister of Welfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Letter of Transmittal  3
Letter of Transmittal  4
Letter of Transmittal  7
Assistant Director of Welfare  10
Regional Administration—
Region I  17
Region II  19
Region III  20
Region IV  22
Region V :  24
Region VI  26
Divisional Administration—
Family Division—
Social Allowances  28
Mothers' Allowances  3 3
Family Service  40
Child Welfare Division  46
Old-age Assistance and Blind Persons' Allowances Boards and Cost-of-living
Bonus  58
Medical Services Division  73
Institutions—
Industrial School for Boys  77
Industrial School for Girls .  83
Provincial Home   88
Welfare Institutions Licensing Board  91
Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control  98
Social Service Department, Division of Venereal Disease Control  100
Psychiatric Division—Social Services, Provincial Mental Health Services  102
Hospital Consultation and Inspection Division, Hospital Insurance Service  116  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
E. W. Griffith, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
of the Department of Health and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1953.
The year under review in the following pages marks the tenth anniversary of the
Social Welfare Branch, and I trust that a brief resume of the activities of these ten years
will prove of interest to the readers of this Report.
Prior to 1943 there were three administrations and field staffs serving welfare needs
of the people of this Province. These were the Welfare Branch field staff, serving
mothers' allowances, child welfare, and destitute poor and sick; the Old-age Pension
Board, whose staff dealt only with old-age pensioners; and the Unemployment Relief
Branch, whose staff was engaged in unemployment-relief matters. There was an
unavoidable duplication of field services at times, and much thought was given as to
the best manner in which this could be eliminated and yet give a better and more efficient
service. Consequently, on March 1st, 1943, the Social Assistance Branch came into
being under the Assistant Deputy Provincial Secretary. The three field staffs were
amalgamated, and the policy was that every social worker be able to give a generalized
welfare service throughout the Province. For ease of over-all administration, the
Province was divided into five geographical regions and each placed under a senior
official designated as Regional Supervisor.
At this time many of the workers in the combined staffs had not had formal social-
work training. To overcome this and to enable them to implement the policy of carrying
a "generalized case-load," certain steps were necessary and were taken: Appointment
of a training supervisor to direct in-service training courses, arrangements for periodic
case-work institutes, regional and general administrative conferences, publication and
distribution of a staff bulletin, establishment of a library and distribution of social-work
publications through field and divisions, appointment of a Research Consultant in 1944.
One of the most significant events in the field of social welfare in British Columbia
was the passing of the " Social Assistance Act " by the Legislature in 1945. This Act
lays down the principle of granting assistance on the basis of need and outlines the duties
of municipalities in respect to granting social assistance if they are to receive reimbursement from the Province for the cost of such assistance. This Act has been cited as one
of the most progressive pieces of legislation on the continent.
In October, 1946, the health and welfare administrations were amalgamated into
the Department of Health and Welfare under the Minister of Health and Welfare.
A Deputy Minister of Health and a Deputy Minister of Welfare were placed in charge
of the Public Health Branch and the Social Welfare Branch respectively. It was at this
time we ceased to be known as the Social Assistance Branch. This departmental status
was indicative both of the rapidly growing population and of the tremendous expansion
in health and welfare services since World War II. To provide these services meant
further reorganization and integration of welfare programmes, and in 1946 we embarked
on the policy of decentralization of supervision and administration. This policy has
been progressively implemented in so far as staff and restrictions of legislation permit.
Case-work supervisors were assigned to district offices in each region for the direct
guidance and supervision of social work in their respective areas. In addition, three
Field Consultants were assigned to designated areas of the Province to ensure uniformity
of practice and to co-ordinate the work of the case-work or district supervisors with the
L U 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
programmes of the divisions comprising the Branch. The Regional Supervisors became
known as Regional Administrators, and became the liaison between municipalities and
the Branch. At about this time was issued our first Policy Manual, to facilitate conformity and uniformity of practice.
During the years 1947 and 1948 the former Supervisors' Council was formed into
a much more descriptive and vital body; namely, the Planning Council of the Social
Welfare Branch. As implied by the name, the senior officials of the Branch meet not
less often than every two months to discuss ways and means whereby better social services
can be given more efficiently. Our Branch publication, " The Bulletin," became the
monthly staff journal and was renamed " British Columbia's Welfare." It assumed its
place, rightfully I believe, as one of the best publications of its kind in Canada. The
administration of the Industrial Schools and the Provincial Home, Kamloops, were
included in the Branch.
In May, 1949, arrangements were completed whereby recipients of social assistance
and their dependents would receive free medical attention in their homes, hospitals, or
the doctor's office. To the best of my knowledge, this medical-services plan is second
to none in Canada and was only brought about by the sympathetic and whole-hearted
co-operation of the members of the medical profession in British Columbia. This,
coupled with the fact that recipients of social assistance receive doctors' prescriptions
free of charge and free hospitalization coverage, assures that health needs are being well
provided for.
The administration of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act " passed to the
Branch on April 1st, 1950. The purpose of this legislation is to authorize Government
control through a system of inspections and licensing of institutions that provide service
with or without charge for underprivileged persons or persons in need of special
protection.
In the ensuing pages will be found the reports of the various heads of divisions and
Regional Administrators. Each of these officials has been encouraged to present the
record of his or her administrative responsibilities in the manner he or she deems suitable.
It will be evident, however, that emphasis is being placed on the rehabilitative phases
of social services, Whether it be in the Industrial Schools, Child Welfare, Family, Psychiatric, or Tuberculosis Divisions. One great handicap we are experiencing is the
inability to obtain trained social workers in the numbers to meet our needs. There is
no immediate prospect of amelioration of that condition as I can see, and our in-service
training programme must needs continue.
In my opinion a very fine compliment was paid our Branch when we were
approached by the National Film Board, who wished to produce a film on social welfare
services in Canada. Because of our " pioneering " in social welfare services and because
of the comprehensive coverage given by each district office, our Branch was selected as
having the most to offer. The film " A Friend at the Door " was the result, and its
premiere was at the Canadian Conference on Social Work held in Vancouver in May,
1950. This film was exceptionally well received and has been exhibited not only in
Canada, but in other countries as well. It is still in much demand by other social welfare
administrations, I am told.
It will be interesting to note that in April, 1943, the Social Welfare Branch had
twelve district offices, and only the largest municipalities maintained social welfare
offices. In 1949 there were twenty-seven district and thirteen municipal offices, while
in March, 1953, there were thirty district and sixteen municipal welfare offices. This,
I believe, illustrates how social welfare services have expanded to meet the needs of the
increased and increasing population of our Province.
During the past two years another demand is being made on the time and energies
of the officials of our Branch.   I refer to civil defence.   In formulating plans to deal with REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 9
any major disaster of whatever origin, welfare services will be greatly in demand. Special
training courses have been held in Ottawa and Vancouver, which have been attended
by those of our officials who could be spared. The cheerfulness with which they have
accepted this additional duty is heartening to the administration and speaks well of their
sense of responsibility as Canadian citizens.
For the first time in the Report of our Branch there will be found a report from
the Inspector of Hospitals. While this official is not an employee of this Branch, nevertheless parts of her duties are closely integrated with our work. With the kind permission of the Commissioner of the Hospital Insurance Service we are able to include the
report of the Inspector of Hospitals relating to those phases of her duties in which we
share responsibility.
In the Annual Report for 1948 there was embodied a historic review of the social
services of the Government of British Columbia up to that time. In the preceding paragraphs some of the events mentioned in that Report have been reiterated, but I have
endeavoured to bring the reader up to date in developments since then as briefly as
possible.
In the life of a Government service, ten years is but a short time. It is only when
one looks back to 1943 and considers the heterogeneous nature of the welfare services
then in operation can the progress which has been made be fully realized. In fact, to
have amalgamated them within one administrative structure is no small accomplishment.
In one of the foregoing paragraphs I referred to " pioneering " in social welfare services.
My reference was to the " generalized case-load " and " decentralization of supervision."
Our experiments along these lines have been carefully studied by other administrations,
and in " Methods of Social Welfare Administration," United Nations, Department of
Social Affairs, New York, 1950, appears the following: "This (British Columbia's
experiment) is one of the outstanding developments in the field of social welfare administration and organization in Canada. By pooling all the social work staffs of various
Government agencies and then assigning them to the posts for which they are best fitted,
the welfare administration gains much in flexibility, adaptability and ability to meet heavy
pressures in one branch or another at a given time." Progress has been made during
these ten years, and it has only been possible through the hard work and loyalty of every
member of our Branch in whatever capacity and the fullest co-operation of the municipalities in our Province. It is a pleasure to have this opportunity of acknowledging and
thanking not only our own staff, but other Provincial Government officials and municipal
officials who have contributed so greatly in building the social welfare services in British
Columbia.
Possibly a decade is too short a period in which to have established a tradition, but
in any event I believe that the policy or underlying philosophy of our Branch is firmly
settled. In the reports of the divisions of our Branch I believe there is ample evidence
that, with the means at our disposal and within the limits of our individual abilities, each
member of our staff is doing his utmost to help the other person help himself.
Respectfully submitted.
C. W. LUNDY,
Director of Welfare. U 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE
I beg to submit the following report for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1953:—
MAINTENANCE OF PERSONNEL
The provision of staff to administer the comprehensive social legislation of this
Province is a major administrative responsibility, calling for a close relationship with the
Civil Service Commission. That that relationship remains cordial and based on a mutual
understanding of the many problems involved is a matter to be acknowledged with
gratitude. Within this office the work of a necessary routine nature, implicit in managing
a staff of professional, institutional, and clerical workers numbering 522, has continued
to be time-absorbing, at times to the detriment of the more important aspects of the
personnel job.
Industrial Schools
A major new undertaking in this year has been the effort to reorganize and reclassify
the thirty-four staff members of the Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools. With the
full co-operation and sanction of the Civil Cervice Commission, further establishments
for professionally trained staff have been created for the two Schools, while the experienced men and women without training now employed have been brought within the job
classifications and salary schedules of the Field Service staff. These changes, together
with the appointment of a Director of Industrial Schools, provide the necessary groundwork for the development of more adequate treatment programmes in these two institutions. That some of the newly created professional positions cannot be immediately filled
because of the lamentable absence of social workers having the qualifications, or inclinations, necessary for this exacting institutional work presents a considerable problem,
though not necessarily an insurmountable one. For though the work and working
conditions are demanding, the professional challenge within this developing field of institutional treatment for delinquent or highly disturbed children is a professional frontier
which should eventually attract those having the requisite training and talent.
Divisions of the Branch
The staffing of two of the major Divisions of the Branch—the Family Division and
the Child Welfare Division—relates to larger administrative considerations. The Family
Division, decentralized except for the administration of the " Mothers' Allowances Act,"
assumes now almost entirely the functions of policy-making, programme development,
and consultation. The Child Welfare Division, which continues to exercise centralized
controls in certain sections of its administration, must be staffed to carry out these
administrative or legislative functions, as well as those concerning policy, programme,
and consultation. The necessity of having skilled, experienced staff for these Divisions
will be obvious. The personnel problem here is one of judicious promotion. The policy,
however, of open competition for available positions, advertised throughout the Branch
by the Civil Service Commission, has been followed.
" Direct Service " Divisions
The Psychiatric Division (the social services within the Provincial Mental Health
Services) and social services within the Tuberculosis and Venereal Disease Divisions
may be defined as the Divisions of the Social Welfare Branch giving a direct case-work
service to individuals and their families. All three work under the direct authority of
the separate administrative heads of the Divisions referred to. The administrative ties
with the Social Welfare Branch are those concerning policies which pertain to the REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U  11
resources of this Branch, concerning personnel, and standards of performance as revealed
by staff evaluations. The provision of adequately trained professional staff in the
numbers required to meet the ever-increasing needs of the Psychiatric Division in particular has occupied much time in planning and negotiation. Satisfactory objectives
have been set; the issues are those of maintaining a balance between the needs of the
other parts of the total service of the Branch and of attracting to these specialized services
social workers having the desired qualifications.
The Field Service
The staff problems of the largest operation of the Branch—the Field Service—have
been those of keeping pace with the ever-increasing demands of the public for services.
Along with these growing demands for the statutory social welfare services, this year the
administration of the Branch has been well aware of an increase in additional services for
other agencies, which makes further demands upon the Field Service staff. Civil Defence
welfare services claim time and thought, a form of community organization not heretofore
assumed, as such, in the regions of the Branch. The desirable growing enfranchisement
of our Indian population adds new problems to be met. Though the change to the Old
Age Security programme lessens the administrative responsibilities of this Branch with
respect to the financial needs of the aged, it has in no way lessened the social welfare
responsibilities to this large section of the population. These few examples will suffice
to reveal the types of administrative and social problems which have had to be considered
in the past year with respect to staffing.
A thorough study was initiated this year through the Planning Council on the
pressing matter of curtailment of services, each Division giving the matter serious thought.
A second study of the staff situation was also begun in the Planning Council. Though
incompleted at the end of this year, discussion to date has revealed clearly that pressures
upon the staff in the field have been acute. While additional staff is urgently required, the
conclusion has none the less been drawn that more active steps must be taken to hold the
staff now employed, utilize them to the best possible advantage, and develop their
potential skills to the utmost. More frequent contacts with members of the staff by this
office to deal with misconceptions regarding their present status and future prospects in
the Branch, and other problems, have been seen as a need. Systematic reviews of caseload and reapportionment of districts and case-loads by district supervisors and Regional
Administrators will be involved. Of major importance is the necessity to step up the
already established methods of staff development in the Branch, particularly those which
are designed for supervisors. These are the areas of personnel management which have
not had sufficient attention in the year under review. With concern being expressed over
the falling-off in enrolment in our Canadian schools of social work this year, leading to
the assumption that this Branch, as other agencies, will not have a sufficient source of
supply for replacing staff and for new positions, the necessity of overtaking these areas
of personnel work in the ensuing year is obvious.
Municipal Growth
It is always encouraging to report the development of municipal social welfare
services, and this year the Municipalities of Richmond and West Vancouver opened
their own offices, appointing professionally trained men as administrators.
Terrace
This year a new office was opened in Region V at Terrace, to meet the growing
demands of that northern community and its environs, booming because of the vast
industrial development in that area. U 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONNEL
In-service Training
Two in-service training courses were conducted this year, one consisting of eight
members and the other of sixteen.
Regional Staff Meetings
The practice of holding annual staff meetings by regions was firmly established this
year. The utmost participation of the staff in planning the agenda of these meetings
and in preparing papers and material for discussion resulted in successful meetings, having
the optimum value in staff development. Divisional heads were present to play consultative and leadership roles in discussion, and a member of the general administration
attended for the purpose of discussing administrative and personnel problems.
Bulletin and Library
" British Columbia's Welfare " was published in ten issues during the year, its
mailing-fist reaching 950. Many of the articles appearing this year were written by the
staff, one or two of which were subsequently reprinted in other journals. This medium
of staff development continues to be of the utmost value to the widely scattered staff of
the Branch. The library has been augmented this year by forty-two new books and
pamphlets. Circulation of only 276 books suggests that reading as a medium of staff
development needs to be given more consideration in the ensuing year.
Conferences
The Canadian National Conference on Social Work held in Quebec City in June,
1952, was attended by nine delegates from the Branch. In September the Western
Regional Conference of the American Public Welfare Association met in Victoria. This
marked the first time this association had convened in a Canadian city, and the whole
affair was a signal success. As chairman of the Conference, the Assistant Director had the
privilege of directing the many local committees required to arrange details. The faithful
work of many of the senior and junior members of the staff, the assistance of Federal
Government and City of Victoria social workers, and several from private agencies must
be acknowledged as contributing greatly to the success of this Conference.
Civil Defence
Courses of training in Civil Defence welfare services, conducted in Ottawa by the
Federal Civil Defence organization, were attended by six senior members of staff. The
training supervisor participated in two of such courses as a part-time instructor.
STATISTICS
Personnel
Growth of Professional Staff.—This year is the tenth year of operation of the Social
Welfare Branch. Table I below tells its own story of growth in numbers of staff in that
ten-year period. This table also reveals the turnover of staff in that period. It will be
seen that in that decade the staff has been increased 200 per cent, but in order to achieve
this a total of 509 appointments had to be made. However, the statistics for the year
1952-53 show the turnover of staff to be slightly under 15 per cent. This is lower than
it has ever been, and it is hoped that the downward trend will continue.
Summary of Degrees and Training.—Table II reveals the calibre of staff in terms
of training at least.   The percentage of university-trained staff has been maintained at REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 13
70 per cent this year, as in the past five years.   There are serious doubts as to whether
this percentage can be maintained in ensuing years because of the falling-off of the
enrolment in the university schools of social work.
■
Table I.—Growth of Professional Staff, 1943-53
Men
Women
University
Trained
In-service
Trained
University
Trained
In-service
Trained
Total
2
100
29
65
38
260
1
11                  80
Staff appointed, January, 1943, to March 31, 1953	
84                 509
102
44
94
56
298
188
95                589
Resignations, January, 1943, to March 31, 1953 	
61                349
Total staff ,	
58
38
110
34                240
Actual increases, January, 1943, to March 31,1953	
56
9
72
23                160
1
Table II.—Summary of Degrees and Training of Professional Staff
as at March 31st, 1953
Men
Women
Total
16
3
24
5
7
3
1
37
14
4
54
20
16
2
3
31
30
7
78
25
One vear at School but no decree or
23
5
4
In-service trainees _ :	
68
Totals	
96
144
240
Case-loads
The constant review of case-loads is the surest means of gauging staff needs. Quite
as necessary as a review of numbers of cases is a consideration of kinds or classification
of services given. One family unit may be in receipt of more than one categorical service
(that is, shared service).
It has been said that much of the work with the aged calls for a minimum of professional service. However, the time and skill involved in placing an old person safely
in a boarding home can be as great as the time involved in placing a child in a foster
home. Many of the same professional methods are utilized in this " separation process."
Much professional thought and skill is demanded in effecting the rehabilitation of the
incapacitated; every family in receipt of a Social Allowance or Mothers' Allowance
must be regarded as demanding much time and thought from the social worker. The
needs and problems of children always demand the professional skills, time, and effort
of the social worker. Hence, little of the generalized work of the Provincial social
worker can be thought of as purely routine, although much routine is nevertheless
involved.
Table III gives a breakdown of the various services of the Branch. The services of
the Child Welfare Division are services to children, including case-work services to unmarried parents, foster-home care, adoption placements, and other special services.
. U  14
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Breakdown of Case-load1 by Categories of Services as at March 31st, 1953
Category of Service Number
Family Service  1,438
Mothers' Allowance  477
Social Allowance  9,157
Blind Persons' Allowance  432
Old-age Assistance .  9,628
Old Age Security Bonus and Health Services  33,437
Child Welfare Division  4,609
Tuberculosis Division   327
Psychiatric Division  346
Collections  155
Hospital Clearance  28
Provincial Home  7
Provincial Infirmary  11
Welfare Institutions  '.  268
Total  -  60,320
1 Case-load is the total of family units and services.
Tables IV and V show the distribution of the professional staff—that is, social
workers, district supervisors, and supervisors in divisions and institutions—as at
March 31st, 1953. These tables also show the average size of case-load per social worker
and the average number of social workers per district supervisor. In both tables, only the
Provincial members of the Branch are given; municipal staffs are not included. The
social workers and district supervisors in the Provincial district offices for the most part
carry a generalized load; that is, all the fourteen categories of services listed in Table III.
In the amalgamated district offices (the large municipal offices where maintenance of
social-work staff is shared on a 50-50 basis with the Province) some carry all categories
and others only Social Allowance, Mothers' Allowance, and Old-age Assistance. It will
be noted that in a few of the Provincial and amalgamated offices there is a departure
from the generalized load. In these instances, certain workers have been assigned the
" specialized case-load " of Old-age Assistance, leaving the remaining workers all the
other categories. This division of work permits some specialization within the generalized
service.
Table IV.—Distribution of Professional Staff, Showing Salary Classification and Average
Size of Case-load as at March, 31st, 1953
Social Workers
Average Size of Case-load1
Location
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
Arith.
Average2
Spec.
Case-load3
Av. Case-load
Less Spec.
Case-load*
30
55
37
45
11
235
339
591 (10)
1,389 (3)
158 (10)
8
5
139 (3)
Totals	
43
137
11
	
i Case-load is the total of family units.
2 This is obtained by dividing the total case-load by the total number of social workers in the office,
s Specialized case-load is a one-category case-load; namely, Old-age Assistance.
i This is obtained by deducting specialized load from total load and then dividing remainder by the number of
workers carrying all remaining categories.
5 Section B (amalgamated district offices) shows only the Provincial social workers and supervisors.
Figures in parentheses indicate the number of district offices involved. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U  15
Table V.—Distribution of Professional Staff (Supervisory), Showing Salary Classification
and Average Number of Social Workers Supervised as at March 31st, 1953
Location
Social Workers
(Supervisory)
Average Number
of Social Workers
Supervised
Average Size
of Case-load
Grade 4
Grade 5
Supervised
16
5
7
1,303
1
5             11
2,070
C. Divisions and institutions	
5      |      28      I
1                1
1 Section B (amalgamated district offices) shows only the Provincial social workers and supervisors.
Figures in parentheses indicate the number of district offices involved.
N.B.—Tables IV and V are complementary.
PLANNING COUNCIL AND COMMITTEES
The Planning Council has met regularly each month during the year, alternating the
place of meeting between Victoria and Vancouver, Regional Administrators in distant
regions also alternating in attendance.
Early in the year a study was made of the value and effectiveness of the Council as
then instituted, and certain revisions were made as a result. The practice was introduced
of circulating to the members the monthly reports submitted by each Division to the
Minister, these reports being discussed at each meeting. Several committees were
appointed to make special studies of such matters as the use of the Social Service Index,
methods of circulating changes in the Policy Manual, improvement of statistical cards,
forms, and face-sheets.
Toward the end of this year the two separate committees set up to further the
development of treatment programmes in the Industrial Schools were amalgamated. As
a result of this committee's recommendation, the Deputy Superintendent of Child Welfare
was released to give full time to the implementation of the objectives.
The Bursary Committee considered several applications for bursaries, awarding
four, in the amount of $600, to in-service-trained staff to assist in financing their first
year of training at the University of British Columbia School of Social Work.
As the first part of this report suggests, the matter of maintaining an adequate
number of adequately trained staff for the several operating parts of the Social Welfare
Branch is an administrative task of considerable proportions. Though there have been
many problems associated with the current, and probably continuing, shortage of professionally trained staff, solid gains may nevertheless be reported in both numbers and
quality of staff employed.
The chief indicator of the progress made in any one year toward reaching objectives
in standards of service is the morale of the staff itself. No department of government
could have a more conscientious or devoted group of senior officials than this Branch.
As their separate reports in this Annual Report will indicate, the public may be assured
that, by their thought and diligence, the services for which they are responsible are being
carried out far beyond the call of duty.
Throughout the whole Branch this same sense of dedication to the service can be
readily seen. Professional or ethical considerations give impetus to this quality, for the
social worker, like the doctor, nurse, or teacher, has an obligation to put into practice
the philosophy and principles of his profession. In the Social Welfare Branch the social
worker finds every encouragement to utilize his professional knowledge and much help
given to developing his professional skills. Again the work done is more than just the
call of duty, but is also a spirit of service which is reflected, too, in the splendid corps of U 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
clerical workers. The public, as the administration of this Branch, can be proud of the
social workers in its service and can rely on them to the utmost to remedy and relieve
human suffering.
Respectfully submitted.
Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 17
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
REGION I
I beg to submit the annual report for the fiscal year 1952-53, which outlines statistical information and briefly the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in Region I.
During the year the geographical boundaries of the region were altered by the
changing of the northern boundary-line on the west coast of the Mainland to exclude
the territory of Ocean Falls, Bella Bella, Bella Coola, Namu, and Rivers Inlet. These
areas are now served by the social worker from Region II.
Region I covers Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, the Mainland coast north-west
from Sarah Point to Bayles Point and adjacent islands in the area, approximately 13,000
square miles, with an estimated population of 200,000 people. Of this number, 10,986
families and single persons were being served in March, 1953, by the Social Welfare
Branch staff. Without too detailed a breakdown, Table I shows the major categories
of services rendered and the number of services in each category under the administrative
offices as at March 31st, 1953.
Table I.—Analysis of Case-load1 by Major Categories of Services in the District
Administrative Offices of Region I as at March 31st, 1953
.
Category
Alberni
Courtenay
Duncan
Nanaimo
Saanich
Victoria
District
Victoria
City
Total
Family Service -  - -
Mothers' Allowance... __ 	
47
7
99
3
123
282
84
33
51
4
171
8
126
515
193
52
26
6
79
10
134
482
101
30
62
6
278.
12
285
1,039
204
49
5
179
19
164
999
17
29
7
161
10
237
1,033
109
35
4
17
493
34
488
2,260
85
219
52
1,460
96
1,557
6,610
691
Child Welfare
Institutions _
301
Totals 	
678
1,120
868
1,935
1,383
1,621
3,381
10,986
1 Case-load is the total of family units and services.
The handling of the above cases with all the social problems taxed the staff to the
utmost. At the close of the period under review, the field staff consisted of twenty-eight
social workers and four supervisors. Of the number of Child Welfare cases listed, there
are 134 children in adoption homes on adoption probation and 141 in foster-home care.
These numbers do not include children cared for in the Greater Victoria area, as this
area comes under the jurisdiction of the Victoria Family and Children's Service.
The number of municipalities which, under the provisions of the " Village Municipalities Act," are obligated to contribute to welfare costs was increased in January, 1953,
by the inclusion of the Village of Qualicum Beach. This municipality, for the purposes
of welfare services, accepted the per capita plan whereby our Branch will look after the
social welfare work in the municipality on the basis of 15 cents per capita of the population per annum.
The following table shows the status of the areas in the region (under the " Social
Assistance Act") regarding social welfare administration, also figures on population
(1951 Census) and welfare case-loads in each listed organized area:— U 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Analysis of Case-loads in the Municipalities of Region I as Related to the
Administrative Plan (Section 6 of the Regulations under the "Social Assistance
Act ") as at March 31st, 1953.
Population,
1951 Census
Welfare Services
Per
Capita
Plan
Amalgamated
Plan
Welfare
Case-Ioadt
Village of Campbell River-
City of Cumberland	
City of Courtenay_—_	
City of Port Alberni	
City of Alberni.-—	
City of Nanaimo -	
City of Ladysmith -	
Municipality of North Cowichan .
City of Duncan - _ 	
Village of Lake Cowichan 	
Municipality of Esquimalt .
Municipality of Central Saanich-
Municipality of Oak Bay _	
Village of Qualicum Beach	
Municipality of Saanich_	
City of Victoria..
Case-load in organized territory	
Case-load in unorganized territory...
Total case-load for region .
1,958
860
2,527
7,800
3,302
10,601
2,083
6,636
2,753
1,601
10,085
2,058
11,969
743
28,249
50,774
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
71
51
96
296
159
766
115
272
136
44
262
92
284
36
1,383
3,381
7,444
3,542
10,986
1 Case-load is the total of family units and services.
The placing of elderly persons in nursing or boarding homes, or finding alternate
care by homemakers or housekeepers, continued as a never-ending problem. In the
region there is accommodation in registered private hospitals for 259 persons, and accommodation in registered boarding homes for 490 persons. There are 347 persons in these
establishments for whom the Branch contributes either wholly or partially. The majority
of these persons are in residence in the lower end of the Island, due to there being no
registered homes in the northern section.
The Welfare Branch launch, M.V. " Sheily," with skipper and accompanying social
worker, travelled over 5,000 nautical miles in servicing the persons who reside in the
northern section of the region and in the Gulf Islands, which are only accessible by water.
Economic conditions in the region in the early part of the year were reasonably good.
This was the result of favourable weather conditions, which permitted most trades and
industries to operate. There was a short shut-down period at the turn of the year, but
early resumption of logging and lumbering operations increased employment and output
in the allied industries. Industrial disputes occurred on Vancouver Island, with resultant
loss of production and time-loss in man-work days. Major industries involved were
woodworkers, painters, fishermen, and carpenters.
In conclusion, may I say that the members of the Branch in the region, in cooperation with municipal employees, have, during the year immediately past, conscientiously endeavoured to meet the needs of the persons requiring our services. I gratefully
acknowledge the co-operation given by other agencies, private and voluntary, who have
in numerous ways been helpful.
Respectfully submitted.
E. L. RlMMER,
Regional Administrator. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U  19
REGION  II
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region II for the fiscal year 1952-53:—
The geographic boundaries of this region were altered during the year. On May
1st, 1952, the Fraser Valley area of Region II was organized as Region VI. As at
August 1st, 1952, the western area of Region V, which had been administered by
Region II, was again amalgamated with Region V. As now constituted, Region II
covers the Lower Mainland to the Pitt River on the north side of the Fraser River and
takes in the Municipality of Delta on the south side of the Fraser River. Also, the region
encompasses the west coast of the Province north to and including Ocean Falls.
Two new municipal offices were established during the year. On April 1st, 1952,
Richmond Municipality opened an office and the Provincial Department ceased to carry
the social work in that area on the per capita payment basis. Two workers were transferred to Richmond from the Vancouver district office. The municipality subsequently
hired one of these people as its Social Welfare Department administrator. On May 1st,
1952, West Vancouver Municipality opened its own office under the administration of
a social worker who had been working in that municipality as a Provincial employee.
The opening of these two offices resulted in changes in the Vancouver District office,
where staff was reduced. However, as the supervisory duties had increased, it was
necessary to place an additional supervisor in this district.
On February 1st, 1953, our district supervisor in Burnaby Municipality resigned
from the Provincial staff to accept the position of municipal administrator. However,
he continued to act as supervisor for a temporary period.
There has been deterioration in the nursing-home situation during the past year.
Two nursing homes have closed, with the result that there are sixty-five less beds of this
type available. In one case the licence was revoked, and it was necessary to find placements for fifteen cases. In the other case the property was sold to make way for a large
department store and fifty patients had to be placed. We are in need of more nursing-
home beds to alleviate the acute lack of this type of accommodation in this area. At
present the supply of beds cannot meet the demand, and the placement of individuals
needing this type of care is a constant problem. In an attempt to solve the situation,
we have been supplying housekeeping services wherever possible, but this is only a
partial solution, and more beds must be found.
During the year there has been an increase in the accommodation available for
individuals in need of boarding-home care. Although there are several boarding homes
for tuberculosis cases in Vancouver City, there is only one home which will give care to
an individual with a positive sputum. Therefore, our resources are limited for the
individual who has received maximum benefit from sanatorium care and, although still
having a positive sputum, requires placement in a boarding home.
A new policy has been worked out with the Children's Aid Society for the placement
of babies in the New Westeminster area. The Children's Aid Society faces the problem
of finding homes for twenty to thirty babies each month. In order to help alleviate this
problem, the following policy is now in effect: In situations where the Children's Aid
Society is working with the unmarried mother and where Child Welfare Division is
making the adoption placement, and when the Social Welfare Branch, New Westminster,
is agreeable, the Children's Aid Society may take non-ward consents admitting the child
to the non-ward care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare. The child will then be
taken by the Children's Aid Society to New Westminster and turned over to the Social
Welfare Branch, Court-house, New Westminster. From this point the Superintendent
will accept full responsibility for the child and the Children's Aid Society will continue
to work with the mother. U 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Social Allowance case-loads throughout the region have shown a gradual
decrease during the year.    There were the usual seasonal fluctuations, but the general
trend was downward in case-load numbers.
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Sadler,
Regional Administrator.
REGION III
I beg to submit the following report, which gives a summary of the activities of the
Social Welfare Branch in Region III for the fiscal year 1952-53:—
The geographical boundaries are the same as in previous years, and the population
is increasing in most districts. It was found necessary to appoint an additional social
worker in the Kamloops office in order to give adequate coverage in that area due to the
increase in the volume of work. During the year Princeton became incorporated as a
village municipality, and is now administering and assuming its share of social welfare
costs. The revenue from land taxation of the Village Municipality of North Kamloops
reached the point whereby the village became responsible for its share of social-assistance
costs. There is now a total of eighteen municipalities in this region which are administering and sharing in the cost of social services. Fourteen of these municipalities are
receiving their social services from the Provincial staff on the per capita basis. The four
largest municipalities have their own welfare officers, who give coverage to residents
of the municipalities who are applying for, or are in receipt of, some form of financial
assistance. The other services, including Child Welfare, are given by the Provincial staff
on a similar basis to unorganized territory and those other municipalities who are on the
per capita basis. During the year 9,073 cases received some form of social service.
There were three district supervisors, four municipal welfare officers, fourteen social
workers, and a clerical staff of fifteen, plus the Regional Administrator caring for the
work of this region. There was a considerable turnover in staff during the year. Such
personnel changes invariably resulted in the supervisors and other staff members having
to assume additional responsibility until the new social workers became familiar with the
programme, the district, and local conditions.
Employment conditions generally have been good in most industries, and due to
the mild winter most operations continued throughout the year. The trans-mountain
pipe-line gave employment to many in the Kamloops-North Thompson area. Economic
conditions in the logging areas, however, were perhaps not as good as formerly, on
account of the decline in the price of lumber and the American railyard strike, which
delayed shipments of timber products. Unemployment insurance benefits provided an
income for the vast majority of unemployed employables, and there were fewer requests
from this group for financial aid than in the previous year. For all those engaged in
agriculture throughout the region, 1952 was a favourable year. The crops and markets
were good, and most growers and ranchers enjoyed good returns for their efforts.
The number of single persons and family groups receiving Social Allowance payments declined steadily, and this was partially due to the introduction of the Old-age
Assistance. In March, 1951, a total of 1,113 cases was in receipt of Social Allowances.
In March, 1952, the figure dropped to 884, and in March, 1953, to 824. In March,
1951, Social Allowance expenditures amounted to $48,266.64; in March, 1952, to
$45,068.05; and in March, 1953, to $47,751.96. It will be noted that there was not a
corresponding decrease in the expenditures as compared to the reduction of cases granted
Social Allowance during March of each of the three years. With sixty fewer active cases
in March, 1953, as compared with March, 1952, the expenditures were $2,000 greater. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 21
This variation is attributed to the fact that the Social Allowance grants to individuals
were increased. Considerable time is being expended by the social workers in an effort
to rehabilitate persons in the border-line employment and handicapped groups. This is
frequently difficult in a rural setting as people are reluctant to leave an isolated area where
they have lived for many years to seek more selective employment in a larger centre.
However, some success in these efforts has resulted, and the time spent has been worth
while, not only from a financial point of view, but because of the moral uplift given to the
handicapped, who in many cases had become resigned to remain on public assistance,
with little or no thought being given to the possibility of regaining their independence.
There continues to be a large number of foster-children in this region, and as at
March, 1953, there was a total of 260 children in foster homes. Of this number, 160
have been in their present foster homes for a period in excess of one year. This is most
encouraging, as it indicates a degree of stability in the foster-home programme. Some
of these children have been in the same homes for as long as thirteen years. Increased
efforts are being made to place children who are adoptable, and who will never be
returned to their own parents, in prospective adoption homes instead of temporary foster
homes. A number of such youngsters are eventually adopted by their foster-parents. In
this region there were 255 children provided for in adoption homes which came under
supervision during the year. It is understood, of course, that when the adoption is completed, the file is closed; and consequently children adopted in one year are not carried
over in the records the following year.
There is a considerable amount of time consumed by social workers in dealing with
complaints under the "Protection of Children Act." Hopefully, good preventive work
being done with the parents results in the children remaining with them, and avoids the
necessity of legal removal and foster-home placement. There are still numbers of young
women seeking help from our office under the "Children of Unmarried Parents Act."
Many of these girls have come from other Provinces and perhaps only to remain here for
their confinement.   Frequently, the baby is taken into care and placed for adoption.
Applications for Mothers' Allowance in place of social assistance were very much on
the decline, until the recent changes were introduced, when municipalities were asked to
accept 50 per cent of the increase in Social Allowance payments. There was a tendency
for some municipalities to have mothers with children apply for Mothers' Allowance in
place of Social Allowance in order to relieve the municipality of financial responsibility,
although there was little or no difference to the applicants as to which form of assistance
they received. The change in the method of sharing costs—80 per cent Provincial and
20 per cent municipal—which will become effective on April 1st, 1953, is expected to
result in a decrease in the number of applications for Mothers' Allowance which are submitted through municipal offices.
During the fiscal year 1952-53, in this region 1,408 persons were drawing Old-age
Assistance and 3,847 Old Age Security cases were receiving cost-of-living bonus and
medical coverage, as well as 1,113 cases in receipt of Social Allowance. As could be
expected, a fair number of elderly people whose health is failing, and who did not have
relatives able to care for them, required boarding- and nursing-home care. While there
were no licensed nursing homes in this region, there were a number of individual nursing
cases being provided for in private homes. In addition, there were a considerable number
of elderly persons receiving boarding-home care. Homes which are caring for two or
more social-assistance cases are, of course, licensed under the " Welfare Institutions
Licensing Act." The majority of boarding-home cases in this region are, however, being
cared for in unlicensed private homes accommodating one person. From the point of
view of the well-being and happiness of the elderly individuals in need of boarding- or
nursing-home care, it has been preferable, in most instances, to place them in their own
familiar community where they have their friends.    There is need for a nursing home U 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
which could provide care for chronic cases requiring complete nursing care, and who at
present remain in hospitals awaiting beds in one of the infirmaries.
Each year more interest is being shown by service clubs and other local groups in
the welfare programme. This increased interest is principally due to the conscientious
work and interpretation staff members have given to the various communities. Now
local service clubs are asking what projects they might participate in, as they have certain
funds at their disposal. One local service club spent over $1,000 for the benefit of
children in the largest foster home. This expenditure covered the installation of water,
lights, and telephone. Another group assisted a recently widowed mother with five small
children in completing the home her husband had under construction at the time of his
sudden death. Several service clubs have made substantial donations for children's
clothing and Christmas hampers for both needy and elderly folk. Certain funds have also
been provided to enable foster-children to obtain a higher education. In addition, Youth
Anonymous Fund has been drawn upon to provide such courses as hairdressing, business,
and radio mechanics to foster-children. The service clubs invariably are composed of
business men and women who are potential employers. Through these sources the district offices have been successful in getting part-time, seasonal, and steady employment
for foster-children who have attained an employable age. The Forest Service, with its
fire-suppression crews and other projects, is an excellent resource, and each year employs
a number of boys. Some of these boys who were engaged in this summer-holiday
employment are now following this work as a full-time occupation. Some of the larger
centres have central welfare committees, whose membership consists of representatives
from various service clubs, to co-ordinate voluntary relief-giving, and valuable help has
been obtained for emergency cases from these sources. In small communities where
disaster has struck, such as fire, invariably the community will rally to help and co-operate
with the Branch to the fullest extent of their ability. Instances are recalled in the past
year where the Department has purchased the material and the community residents have
formed work clubs and actually rebuilt the home. It is felt that communities need to be
encouraged to take responsibility for their own residents, as far as possible within their
means, and by so doing they retain a local spirit which may be lost when government
assumes full responsibility.
There are many ways of interpreting the social welfare programme in the community. Good results have been accomplished when workers are accepted as part of the
community. Members of the staff have been invited to participate in local functions, such
as speaking at an annual High School Career Day, addressing such groups as nurses,
teachers, Parent-Teacher Associations, numerous service clubs, church groups, and other
such organizations.   On occasions the staff has participated in radio forums.
I continue to receive the fullest co-operation from the various organizations, municipal and other Government bodies, both Federal and Provincial, and with their help the
burdens were lightened, and I feel the people and communities have benefited from these
combined efforts.
Respectfully submitted.
F. G. Hassard,
Regional Administrator.
REGION IV
I submit herewith my annual report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region IV during the fiscal year 1952-53:—
There have been no changes in the geographic boundaries of this region, which
comprises the south-eastern corner of the Province.    The area served covers approxi- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 23
mately 28,000 square miles, and the population is roughly 90,000. The major industries
are mining, lumbering, and agriculture. In the summer of 1952 the price of base metals
started a downward trend, and by the end of that year very few lead-zinc mines remained
in operation. This, naturally, had an adverse effect on economic conditions in the base-
metal mining areas, notably the Kaslo-Slocan and Salmo-Ymir areas.
During the year 1952-53 seven district offices were maintained in this region, with
district supervisors' headquarters in Cranbrook, Nelson, and Trail. At the beginning
of the year under review, the regional office located suitable accommodation apart from
the Nelson district office, and in Grand Forks the district office there moved to more
satisfactory quarters in the Post Office Building.
In this region all organized areas operate on the per capita basis. There were ten
municipalities, one district municipality, and nine incorporated villages in Region IV
during the period covered in this report. The relationship with all municipalities within
the region remained at a satisfactory level.
The staff of social workers as at April 1st, 1952, numbered seventeen, of whom
thirteen were professionally trained or experienced. At March 31st, 1953, there were
sixteen social workers, of whom only nine were professionally trained or experienced.
The other seven were in-service-trained, but six of these received their in-service training
during that year.
Supervisory staff remained as established the year previous—one supervisor in
Cranbrook supervising the Cranbrook, Fernie, and Creston offices, one in Nelson for the
Nelson and New Denver workers, and the other in Trail covering the Trail and Grand
Forks staffs.
Turnover of social-work staff during 1952-53 was particularly heavy, with twenty
such changes taking place in this region. Two social workers obtained leave of absence
to attend university, five resigned, one was seriously injured in a car accident and was
transferred out of the region after a long period in hospital, two were transferred to other
regions, and there was one transfer within the region. There were seven new appointments, and one social worker was transferred into the region.
In the East Kootenay the staff situation became most serious. The generalized
worker in Fernie was transferred in early October, 1952, to Penticton. The worker who
covered the Old-age Assistance load in Cranbrook and Fernie was absent from his caseload because of attending the in-service training course in November, 1952. On November 17th, 1952, a worker was seriously injured in a car accident while on duty, caused
by hazardous early winter road conditions which prevail throughout this area. As a
result, she was off duty for an extended period, and upon her recovery early in 1953 she
was transferred, as her doctor recommended, to a district where strenuous driving conditions did not exist. It was not until March, 1953, that replacements of workers from
the February in-service training course were made in the Fernie and Cranbrook offices.
During the period from October to March the district supervisor in Cranbrook found it
necessary to carry cases in the areas short-staffed. In addition to his supervisory duties,
he had 149 cases active in November, 101 in December, 117 in January, and 92 in February. This supervisor, who had just returned from sick-leave a short while before this
acute situation evidenced itself, deserves high praise for the service he was primarily
responsible for maintaining during this difficult period.
During the year under discussion an appointment was made of an Old-age Assistance
worker to the Grand Forks office, to cover the old-age work in the Trail and Grand Forks
districts. Each of the supervisory areas of Region IV now has a specialized worker for
old-age pensioners, and his case-load varies between 600 and 700 each.
The percentage breakdown of the case-load in Region IV is as follows, approximately: Old-age Assistance, 44 per cent; Social and Mothers' Allowances, 35 per cent;
Child Welfare, 14 per cent; Family Service, 5 per cent; and miscellaneous, 2 per cent. U 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Numerically the total case-load in Region IV at April 1st, 1952, was 4,968, including
shared services, and at March 31st, 1953, this total had increased to 5,084. Excellent
work was done in the field of foster-home finding, despite staff changes in every district
office of the region, and twenty-two new foster homes were approved during 1952-53.
The average case-load of the generalized workers during this period was 165,
excluding New Denver, where the concentration of Japanese, though decreasing, made
this load a heavy one of approximately 360 cases. Unfortunately the plan to establish
New Denver as a two-worker office did not materialize.
On the outskirts of Nelson stands Mount St. Francis, an infirmary operated by the
Sisters of St. Anne, which accommodates some ninety-eight patients. Of these, the
Branch was active on seventy-six cases as of March 31st, 1953, and it is estimated that
over half of one social worker's time is spent on work in connection with the Mount
St. Francis patients—admissions, visits, and so forth.
As mentioned in previous Reports, this region has two principal ethnic groups—
the Doukhobors and the Japanese. In Trail there is a growing population of Italian
immigrants—persons sponsored by their Canadian-Italian relatives already established in
great numbers in Trail. The Japanese population at New Denver is rapidly decreasing,
and practically all those remaining there are those who are in receipt of Government
assistance. The population of Doukhobors in this region, however, is large, possibly
7,000 or more. The process of assimilation of the Doukhobors has been slower than
one might have expected. The Sons of Freedom faction has continued to demonstrate
its resistance to Canadian manners, customs, and legislation.
Respectfully submitted.
J. W. Smith,
Regional Administrator.
REGION V
. I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region V for the fiscal year 1952-53:—
The past year has been one of considerable activity, both within the sphere of the
Branch and within the economy of the region.
On August 1st, 1952, the western part of the region—Prince Rupert, Terrace, and
Smithers districts—formerly part of Region II, was returned to Region V, giving the
region an area of approximately 300,000 square miles and a population of approximately
75,000.
The vast distances, travel conditions, and extremes of weather continue to be a
problem in carrying out services in Region V. Methods of transportation are greatly
improved. This year saw the completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to Prince
George and also the opening of the John Hart Highway from Prince George to Dawson
Creek. It also saw the start of construction of a Canadian National Railways branch
line from Terrace to Kitimat. However, in spite of these improvements, travelling still
takes a large part of the social worker's time. In the administration of the seven district
offices in the region, a visit to each by the Regional Administrator requires a round trip
of 1,800 miles.
An increase of case-loads of about 15 per cent accrued during the year. This was
accounted for, almost entirely, by an increase in Blind Persons' Allowance, Old-age
Assistance, and Old Age Security bonus, as well as in Child Welfare services. There
was a drop in the number of Social Allowance and Mothers' Allowance cases. The
increase in the Child Welfare services required in this region is of major concern.
Because of pressure of work the field staff are only giving the minimum services possible. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 25
It is felt that this will have an adverse effect on the amount of services required in the
future. The following table is a comparison of the total case-load for the region, by
categories, for the months of March, 1952, and March, 1953:—
Comparison of Case-load,1 by Categories, of Region V as at March 31st
for the Years 1952 and 1953
Category of Service Mar., 1952 Mar., 1953
Family Service  245 243
Mothers' Allowance        10 7
Social Allowance      651 614
  661 621
Blind Persons' Allowance        27 65
Old-age Assistance       305 433
Old Age Security Bonus   1,136 1,357
  1,468         1,855
Adoption Homes Pending  53 89
Adoption Homes Approved  33 27
Children in Adoption Homes  96 104
Children in Care  150 169
Foster Homes Pending  21 36
Foster Homes Approved  108 98
Protection of Children  37 66
Children of Unmarried Parents  84 85
Special Services      2
      582             676
Tuberculosis Division   31 36
Child Guidance Clinic      	
Crease Clinic  16 16
Provincial Mental Hospital   __:  17 24
Collections   26 33
Hospital Clearance  4 •                    5
Provincial Homes  6 5
Provincial Infirmary  10 6
Welfare Institutions  13 12
 123             137
Totals   3,079 3,532
] Case-load is the total of family units and services.
The staff situation in this region has improved somewhat, although the turnover
in staff, both social worker and clerical, has a tendency to slow the work output. Some
of the reasons for the staff turnover, noted during the year, are marriages, higher salaries
being paid outside the Government service (particularly stenographic and clerical),
inadequate housing, high cost of living, and domestic responsibility.
Social work in this region is carried out by the Social Welfare Branch. This pertains
to all the organized areas as well as to unorganized territory. Because of tax revenue,
several municipalities are now required to make suitable provision for their poor and
destitute; Prince Rupert, Prince George, Dawson Creek, and Quesnel are such municipalities. In view of the industrial developments taking place and the increasing tax
revenues in this northern part of the Province, it is expected that by next year a few more
municipalities will be required to make similar provision.
Efficiency of administration has been improved somewhat by the opening of sub-
offices in Vanderhoof and Fort St. John, where the social worker has regular office days U 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in  each month,  thereby  saving much  travelling time for clients  and  social worker.
Improved accommodation has been obtained for the Quesnel office.
The tremendous economic growth of Central Northern British Columbia continues
to affect the volume of work.   Movements of people, the expansion of villages and towns,
inadequate housing, and turnover in staff would seem to be some of the problems which
will affect services for some time.
Respectfully submitted.
R. I. Stringer,
Regional Administrator.
REGION VI
I beg to submit the annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region VI for the fiscal year 1952-53:—
Region VI, which was formerly the eastern portion of Region II, was set up as a
region on May 1st, 1952. Its boundaries, based on population concentration, extend
roughly from Pattullo Bridge to Boston Bar, including both sides of the Fraser River and
covering approximately 1,000 square miles. The total population is approximately
113,000. It is primarily an agricultural area with growing subsidiary industries and some
logging and sawmill operations. This has been a particularly good year in the Fraser
Valley, due to ideal growing conditions. The region enjoys the advantages of a rural
area, yet is close enough to Vancouver to make use of available resources there.
The greater part of the area within the region is organized territory. Within this
organized area lie twelve municipalities. Three of the municipalities have amalgamated
social welfare offices, while the remaining nine are served from Provincial Social Welfare
Branch offices and pay for this service on a 15-cents-per-capita-of-population basis.
The six offices referred to above are staffed by three district supervisors, one of
whom is also a municipal administrator; two other municipal administrators, both of
whom carry case-loads; seventeen social workers (salaries of three paid by municipalities) ; and a clerical staff of fourteen, six of these being municipal employees.
The total regional case-load increased by 407 during the year and reached 6,828 by
March 31st, 1953. While services to the aged accounted for 70 per cent of the total
number served, the remaining 30 per cent, consisting mainly of Social Allowance and
Child Welfare cases, constituted the more intensive and time-consuming service. Factors
affecting the weighting of this portion of the case-load were the heavy turnover of cases
and the increasing number of children in foster homes. There were 239 children in care
during the year and 182 on March 31st, 1953, as against 152 on March 31st, 1952.
Another difficult factor was the staff turnover, as there were twelve replacements during
the year.
In December, 1952, a report was presented to the Council of the Municipality of
Langley concerning the disbursement of social services within the municipality. The
report brought out the fact that during the month of October, 1952, a total of approximately $33,872 was received by or on behalf of persons within the municipality. The
Federal share of this cost was $21,116; the Provincial, $11,699; and the municipal,
$1,057 plus administrative costs. The total municipal case-load was 818, the population
of Langley being 12,267. As Municipal Councils are apt to think in terms of costs of
Social Allowance only, because they are responsible for its administration, it is important
that they be kept informed of the total expenditure and services rendered. It is hoped,
therefore, that it will be possible to report to other Municipal Councils in a similar
manner this next fiscal year. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 27
Transients and unemployed employables continued to create a distressing problem
during the winter months. Private resources were utilized to the full, but the feeling was
prevalent that this was a responsibility that should be assumed by some level of government.
The staff, as in all areas of work, shared fully in the responsibility of planning and
preparing for the annual staff meeting, which was held on January 26th, 27th, and 28th,
1953. The papers presented by the staff and the discussion around these, and the
institute led by Miss Phyllis Burns of the Canadian Welfare Council, were of a high order.
I can speak with assurance for the whole staff in emphasizing the value of these annual
meetings to the staff and hence to the service given clients.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary K. King,
Regional Administrator and Consultant. U 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FAMILY DIVISION
I beg to present the report of the Family Division, which is concerned with those
services of the Social Welfare Branch rendered within the provisions of the " Social
Assistance Act," the " Mothers' Allowances Act," and the Family Service programme
for the fiscal year April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953.
SOCIAL ALLOWANCE SECTION
The total case-load on March 31st, 1953, shows a decrease, although not so great
as at the end of the previous fiscal year, of approximately 2.5 per cent. This is attributed
for the most part to the provisions of the " Old-age Assistance Act " because most persons
in the Social Allowance case-load become eligible for Old-age Assistance at 65 years
of age.
There has, however, been a greater fluctuation in the monthly case-load totals
during the past year, with the October, 1952, total dropping to the lowest figure since
November, 1949.
Case-load
The comparative statement of the case-load for the month of March in the past
three years is as follows:—
Table I.—Case-load
March. 1951
March, 1952
March, 1953
3,068
6,878
7,428
2,870
6,615
6,176
2,855
Dependents   _ _ 	
Single recipients-	
6,886
5,535
Totals	
17,374
15,661
15,276
Table II.—Case-load on a Monthly Basis
Heads of
Families
Dependents
Single
Recipients
Total
April, 1952	
May, 1952__ __
June, 1952 _.
July, 1952	
August, 1952.	
September, 1952
October, 1952--
November, 1952.
December, 1952.
January, 1953	
February, 1953-
March, 1953	
2,837
2,759
2,701
2,652
2,606
2,552
2,525
2,502
2,618
2,724
2,841
2,855
6,528
6,408
6,307
6,199
6,148
6,081
6,033
5,967
6,238
6,520
6,824
6,886
5,775
5,667
5,477
5,417
5,293
5,219
5,204
5,295
5,424
5,502
5,542
5,535
15,140
14,834
14,485
14,268
14,047
13,852
13,762
13,764
14,280
14,746
15,207
15,276 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 29
Of the case-load of 15,276 as at March 31st,  1953, the regional totals are
follows:—
Table III.—Regional Totals of Individuals in Receipt of Assistance
as at March 31st, 1953
as
Region I—
Alberni  .__
Courtenay
Duncan	
Nanaimo ..
Victoria
Unorganized
Territory
34
275
55
236
150
Alberni City   .	
Campbell River
Courtenay ___	
Central Saanich
Cumberland 	
Duncan  	
Esquimalt   	
Ladysmith
Organized
Territory
52
38
30
3
21
21
45
16
12
Lake Cowichan  	
Nanaimo     —_     172
North Cowichan  ___	
Oak Bay .... ____	
Port Alberni   _	
Qualicum Beach 	
Saanich ___  	
Victoria —-	
Region II—
New Westminster
Vancouver 	
750
47
179
1,226
Burnaby ._  597
Coquitlam    220
Delta     107
New Westminster     615
North Vancouver City ._._  145
North Vancouver District   152
Port Coquitlam      52
Port Moody __  30
Richmond  _  187
Vancouver   3,876
West Vancouver     66
Westview   9
1,976
226
6,056
Region III—
Kamloops -
Kelowna
Penticton —
Revelstoke
Salmon Arm
Vernon 	
6,282
363
       21
258
Coldstream 	
        13
180
       22
64
Glenmore   -	
          6
93
Kamloops  	
      155
176
Kelowna 	
      118
Merritt .—_	
        37
North Kamloops   	
72
        17
Peachland 	
1
Penticton _ _	
      112
Princeton 	
24
Revelstoke  	
        16
27
Salmon Arm District  	
66
        65
        22
Vernon   — _.
      119
Region IV—
Cranbrook
Creston	
Fernie   _
Golden 	
Grand Forks
Kaslo 	
Nelson _____	
New Denver .
Trail 	
1,134
131
143
83
58
112
256
340
161
154
1,438
913
2,047
Cranbrook    ._.. 37
Creston Village      29
Fernie     62
Grand Forks  _  27
Greenwood  — -  24
Kaslo  _  7
Kimberley  -  :~ 32
Nelson  _    80
Rossland    36
Trail -- - -  65
Warfield   _  0
399
1,837 U 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table 111.—Regional Totals of Individuals in Receipt of Assistance
as at March 31st, 1953—Continued
Region V—
Unorganized
Territory
284
Quesnel 	
Organized
Territory
6
      317
62
        63
60
83
--     150
        70
97
Smithers	
Chilliwack City 	
0
82
Region VI (established May, 1952)—
Abbotsford ■ 	
1,049
        52
225
     1,274
54
        94
184
146
Hope — _	
Kent  	
33
9
Langley  	
      175
116
149
151
Mission Village  _	
25
7
-
63
748
1,714
     1,860
Totals -_-  4,743
10,533 15,276
By region the case-load is divided as follows: Approximately 13 per cent of the
recipients reside in Region I, 41 per cent in Region II, 14 per cent in Region III, 12 per
cent in Region IV, 8 per cent in Region V, and 12 per cent in Region VI.
The distribution of case-load between organized and unorganized territory shows
only a slight variation from the last fiscal year. Approximately 31 per cent reside in
unorganized territory and 69 per cent in organized territory.
On the basis of legal residence as determined under the " Residence and Responsibility Act," the distribution is as follows:—
Table IV.—Legal Residence of Social Allowance Recipients, March,
1951-53
March, 1951
March, 1952
March, 1953
10,867
6,507
9,653
6,008
9,081
Provincial responsibilities  _	
6,195
17,374
15,661
15,276
Table V.-
—Comparative Table on Percentage Basis
March, 1951
March, 1952
March, 1953
Per Cent
62.55
37.45
Per Cent
61.63
38.37
Per Cent
59.45
40 55
The percentage distribution based on legal residence of recipients has shown a slight
variation from last year, with an increase in Provincial responsibilities and a corresponding
decrease in municipal responsibilities. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 31
The following table outlines the expenditures made by the Social Welfare Branch
during the fiscal year for Social Allowances, medical services, and other charges:—
Table VI.—Expenditures by the Province for Social Allowances,
Medical Services, etc., 1952—53
Fiscal Year
1950-51
Fiscal Year
1951-52
Fiscal Year
1952-53
ii Cases who are the responsibility of a municipality (80 and 50
per cent paid by the Province)1	
2. Cases who are the sole responsibility of the Province (100 per
$2,082,944.80
1,367,185.71
730,455.56
10,613.71
324,354.44
3,834.63
17,071.80
1
1
$2,242,944.68    j    $1,744,098.77
1
1,609,975.17    |      1,457,025.51
3. Repatriation, transportation within the Province, nursing- and
boarding-home care (other than TB.), special allowances and
1
i
874,343.22    j      1,005,371.49
4. Emergency payments, such as where a family may lose its home
1
26,183.43    |          31,564.08
5. Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis, boarding-, nursing-, and private-home cases
(b) Transportation of tuberculosis cases _ _	
(c) Comforts allowances for tuberculosis cases	
1
349,544.35             346,035.85
5,893.59    |            4,825.54
17,945.86    |            19,256.50
$4,536,460.65
$5,126,830.30    |    $4,608,177.74
6. Administration, hospitalization, social allowances re Japanese
indigents*  	
$207,306.94
40,000.00
$180,662.81
$55,233.60
$167,306.94
$180,662.81    |        $55,233.60
$1,050,421.89
$1,739,807.50    |    $3,560,296.40
$1,145,982.34
$1,269,457.90    |    $1,648,966.07
Totals	
$6,900,171.82
$8,316,758.51    | 	
$9,872,673.81
1 Increases granted April 1st, 1951, and April 1st, 1952, placed on a 50-50 shareable basis with municipalities.
2 This heading in 1952-53 Estimates changed to "Administration and Operation of Sanatorium, Project, and Pavilion
for Japanese at New Denver."    Social allowances, etc., for Japanese were paid out of the Social Allowance Vote.
3 1950-51 and 1951-52 figures cover hospital insurance premiums (including co-insurance), while the figures for the
present fiscal year represent hospitalization payments on an actual cost basis rather than on a premium basis.
Some of the significant changes in the Social Allowance programme during the past
year have been as follows:—
(1) Effective April 1st, 1952, the Social Allowance scale in which the Province
shares with municipalities for municipal responsibilities on a percentage
basis was increased by $2.50 per month for Group 2, and $2.50 for each
additional dependent over Group 2. This increase was again shareable
on a 50—50 basis, as was the increase effective April 1st, 1951, and was
optional for the municipalities. Again the result was that some municipalities did not implement the provision for the increase, thus creating
a further lack of uniformity in the amount of allowances granted throughout the Province. The basis of sharing other costs remained the same,
however, on an 80-20 basis, such costs being transportation charges,
emergency health aid, boarding- and nursing-home care, and TB. extras.
For Provincial responsibilities the cost is always 100 per cent chargeable
to the Province.
(2) For administrative purposes a new region was created in the Province
covering the Fraser Valley area, formerly a part of Region II. This
region, to be known as Region VI, came into being on May 1st, 1952.
(3) In order to protect the confidence of an unmarried mother who finds it
necessary to apply for Social Allowance, and whose application must be
referred to another local area for acceptance of responsibility, it was
agreed that the reason for application need not be specified other than
as illness. U 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(4) Effective October, 1952, the quota of patients for whom the Social Welfare
Branch will share in the costs of their rehabilitative treatment in the
Western Rehabilitation Centre was increased from nine to twelve at any
one time. In practice this quota is divided proportionately between
arthritic patients and paraplegics, or otherwise orthopaedically handicapped.
(5) As in past years, a Christmas bonus was granted to recipients of Social
Allowance and Mothers' Allowance of $5 to heads of families and $2 to
single recipients.
(6) It was announced in March, 1953, that effective April 1st, 1953, and the
new fiscal year, the basis of sharing Social Allowance costs with municipalities would revert to 80-20 for the maximum allowance as effective
April 1st, 1952.
(7) In March, 1953, it was also announced that effective April 1st, 1953,
there would be an increase in indigent burial rates to a maximum of $80
for an adult burial.
(8) An agreement was reached between the Federal and Provincial Governments in respect to welfare assistance and hospitalization costs to immigrants to be effective retroactively to April 1st, 1952; such welfare
assistance and costs to be shared equally by the two levels of government
where the application for welfare assistance or medical treatment has been
approved or hospitalization guaranteed within twelve months following the
entry into Canada of the immigrant. This is indeed a forward step in
assisting new Canadians who find themselves in financial need for maintenance or medical and hospital expenses within a short time of arriving in
Canada and before they have had an opportunity to build up any reserves
or insurance benefits themselves.
Rehabilitation
As in the past, the Branch has tried to place emphasis on the rehabilitative aspects
in the granting of Social Allowance.
One such case will serve as an example:—
Mr. D., aged 52, had suffered from an arthritic condition for some years which had necessitated several applications for assistance to maintain himself, wife, and three children for
temporary periods of unemployment. He was described as an independent person who had
shown resourcefulness in finding casual employment when his condition permitted, but his usual
occupation, which was of a manual nature, was proving too difficult for him to continue in view
of his physical condition.   He had received high-school education.
On the occasion of his most recent application for assistance he was helped and encouraged
to have extended medical treatment. As his physical condition improved, he himself began to
explore alternative possibilities of employment within his capabilities and indicated a desire to
learn industrial first aid, which his attending physician agreed was within his physical ability.
Supplementary assistance was given with tuition fees, books, and other incidentals and transportation, to enable Mr. D. to take a course in industrial first aid, while Social Allowance continued in pay for him and his family. All costs were shared by the responsible municipality.
At the end of the course several opportunities were available to him, and he finally obtained
employment in a large local firm where his job was to be first aid and some office duties.
In this way a family who could have been an intermittent and long-term charge on the
municipality and Province for public assistance, with the consequent disappointments and frustrations to themselves in their lack of independence, were helped and supported in their plans
for physical and economic rehabilitation. This plan was not achieved by financial assistance
alone, but was the result of close co-operation with community health agencies and resources
and employment services, as well as the organization which gave him his training, and by his
own keen participation in the plan.
The plan finally embarked on was Mr. D.'s own, and the social worker participated only
where Mr. D. needed help. Social Allowance was used merely as a tool to help him, so that
he maintained the incentive tp plan for himself and act readily on his own behalf when he
demonstrated his ability to do so. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 33
In many other cases, assistance in rehabilitation plans included special grants, with
incidental expenses such as training fees, books, car fare, uniforms, equipment, or
clothing for a new job placement. Such rehabilitation plans covered training or retraining
in a variety of courses; for example, practical nursing, welding, barbering, mechanical
draughting, hairdressing, radio servicing and television, timekeeping, and business courses.
In one instance a short refresher course in music was provided. This enabled a mother
with two dependents, after several years on public assistance, to take a school-teaching
position which required her to teach music, as well as other subjects.
Western Society for Rehabilitation
This is a phase of the Social Allowance programme which is always reviewed with
great interest. During the year under review some twenty-seven persons received
in-patient treatment and training at the Western Rehabilitation Centre under the
Provincial quota. Nine of these were total Provincial responsibilities, and the remaining
eighteen were municipal responsibilities in which the Province shared 80 per cent of the
cost of rehabilitation. Some of these twenty-seven were later discharged to out-patient
care, and, in addition, the Province participated in whole or in part in the cost of
out-patient treatment for another thirteen patients.
Some resident trainees remain for as short a period as a month, while others remain
for many months, dependent on the degree of their handicap and their continuing need for
training. Many received vocational training while in the Centre, while others undertook
vocational training after their discharge.
Some are discharged to immediate employment, while others later are able to enter
employment compatible with their ability and handicap. Others, for whom employment
was not the immediate or ultimate goal, were discharged to their homes with improved
ability to care for themselves, thus lessening the prospect of institutional or nursing-home
care, which at best can be no substitute for living in the family group.
General Comments
During the year under review three more municipalities, because of increases in their
current tax revenue, were added to the list of those already participating in the administration of Social Allowances under the provisions of the " Social Assistance Act" and
regulations. The participating municipalities now number seventy-six—thirty-five cities,
twenty-eight districts, and thirteen village municipalities. Of these, seventeen have their
own social welfare departments and the remaining fifty-nine purchase the service from the
Province. In addition, there are thirty-six village municipalities which, because their
current tax revenue is less than $12,500, are not required to be responsible for their own
social welfare costs and are regarded as unorganized territory for social assistance
purposes.
There have been no amendments to the " Social Assistance Act" or regulations
during the past fiscal year.
On five occasions a Board of Review has been established in accordance with
section 13 of the regulations, whereby any applicant for or recipient of Social Allowance
may apply for a review of any decision which he considers affects him adversely to the
Director of Welfare, who then establishes such a Board of Review to hear the appeal.
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES SECTION
The case-load for the year has continued to fall, although the 7-per-cent reduction
is less than for the preceding fiscal year, when an 11.6-per-cent decrease was reported.
3 U 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Comparative Statement of Case-load
As at March, 1951  569
As at March, 1952  503
As at March, 1953  470
On a monthly basis the case-load figures for this fiscal year are as follows:-
Table 11.—Monthly Case-load, April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953
Month
Number of
Allowances
in Pay
Number of Persons
Mothers
Children
Incapacitated
Husbands
ApriL
May„..
June-
July.-
August	
September-
October	
November-
December—
January	
February-	
March	
499
488
488
480
487
487
483
478
480
470
471
470
499
488
488
480
487
487
483
478
480
470
471
470
1,067
1,042
1,048
1,025
1,047
1,046
1,042
1,044
1,046
1,020
1,013
1,009
91
94
96
90
100
100
101
101
103
101
100
103
Notwithstanding the decreased total case-load, the volume of applications and
reapplications and grants has remained relatively high. During the year 163 applications and reapplications were received and 118 grants made. This represents an approximate 13-per-cent increase in the case of the first and a 9-per-cent increase in the second
over the previous year. Cancellations showed a decrease, totalling 151, as against 169
for the previous year. This increased activity is likely a reflection of the policy established last year of sharing increases in Social Allowances on a 50-50 basis rather than
on the 80-20 basis established for the maximum allowance up to March 31st, 1951. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 35
Table III.—Statement of Applications Considered and Decisions Made
Applications pending as at April 1st, 1952     18
New applications received during year  137
Reapplications received during year     26
Total   181
Decisions—
Grants  118
Refusals   39
Withdrawn   8
165
Applications pending as at March 31st, 1953     16
Total   181
Reasons for refusals—
Mother's earnings in excess  1
Unearned income in excess  1
Not legally separated  3
Husband not totally disabled one year  6
Disability of husband did not arise in British Columbia  1
Not legally married  2
Desertion eligibility requirements not met  6
Assets in excess  2
Property in excess  7
Property not used as home  5
Mother unable to qualify under section 3 (c) (4) of the
" Mothers' Allowances Act "  2
Mother unable to qualify under section 3 (c)  (2) of the
" Mothers' Allowances Act "  1
Mother unable to qualify under section 7 of the " Mothers'
Allowances Act "  2
Total     39
Reasons for applications pending—
Documents and medical report required i_ 11
Awaiting information re assets  1
Information re other income  1
First investigation report not received  3
Total   16
: U 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Reasons for Cancellation of the Allowances
Social Allowance preferable  2
Mother deceased  2
Mother remarried  30
Left British Columbia  5
Mother in hospital indefinitely  1
Grandmother in nursing home indefinitely  1
Mother's earnings in excess  39
Mother ineligible under section 7 of the " Mothers' Allowances
Act"   3
Husband not totally disabled  7
Husband released from Penitentiary  2
Husband returned to Province  1
Only child deceased    1
Only child removed  1
Only child 18 years of age  13
Only child under 16 left school  6
Only child under 18 left school  11
Older children maintaining  10
Assets in excess  5
Property not being used as home  1
Unearned income in excess  6
Mother separated from husband  1
Withdrawn   3
Total   151
Of the cancelled cases, the length of time each family had been in receipt of Mothers'
Allowances is as follows:—
Years____    1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9 10 11  12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cases— 50 19 10   868764375491111 _    1
Total cases, 151.   Average length of time on allowance, 5.25 years.
It is interesting to note that for the first time since March, 1946, the average length
of time in receipt of allowance has dropped below six years.
There may be several reasons for this. Employment opportunities may be more
plentiful and wages higher. Alternatively, many mothers who are obviously experiencing difficulty in managing on the Mothers' Allowance grant are seeking employment
which offers a greater income and which will permit them to have a better standard of
living. Finally, there is evidence of some change in the philosophy of assistance-giving,
and which it has been said " balances the value of independence to the family against
the need for the mother's presence in home " once the children are attending school and
no longer require her continuous care.
The " status " of the mother is the term used to define the section of the " Mothers'
Allowances Act" or regulations under which she qualifies for Mothers' Allowance. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 37
Table V.—Status and Number of Mothers and Dependents in Receipt
of Allowance as at March, 1953
Status of Mother in Accordance with Eligibility
Number of Children
Qualifications Set by the Act
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Total
111
4
23
7
10
2
13
1
92
3
7
24
5
7
7
12
52
1
2
11
1
1
1
4
4
27
1
6
1
1
7
1
2
2
1
1
5
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
289
6
17
69
Incapacitated husbands away (hospital or institution, etc.)
14
20
2
15
Deserted 	
Section 7 (b), regulations to " Mothers' Allowances Act "_
37
1
171
157
77
43
7
11
3
1
470
From this table the following totals are derived:—
Table VI.—Number of Individuals for Whom Allowance Granted
Mothers       470
Husbands         69 *
Children  1,009
Total  1,548
1 This figure applies to those incapacitated husbands residing in the home and who are included in the Mothers'
Allowance grant. In addition, there are the 14 husbands in hospital or institution or cared for elsewhere and 20
husbands who are in receipt of Old Age Security, Old-age Assistance, or Blind Pension (total, 34), who are not included
in the Mothers' Allowance.
The percentage of one-child cases (36 per cent) has decreased slightly since last
year, while the two-child cases have remained the same (33 per cent). Together they
represent 69 per cent of the case-load. Of the 118 grants made during the year, 36 were
one-child cases and 39 two-child cases, or 63 per cent of the grants.
Costs of Mothers' Allowances
The total payments to Mothers' Allowance recipients decreased this year. The
increase in the Supplementary Social Allowance reflects the general increase granted
April 1st, 1952, but the amount paid from the statutory Mothers' Allowance fund
decreased to a greater extent. Each increase since 1948 has been paid from Social
Allowance funds, and it is therefore necessary to show the costs in two separate
statements.
' U 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Mothers' Allowance Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953
Amount of allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowance
April, 1952  $22,533.60
May, 1952   21,951.05
June, 1952  21,876.65
July, 1952  21,650.70
August, 1952   21,898.34
September, 1952  21,989.91
October, 1952  21,707.11
November, 1952  21,882.11
December, 1952   21,766.31
January, 1953  21,160.16
February, 1953  21,167.06
March, 1953   21,293.26
  $260,876.26
Reconciliation with Ledger Account in Controlling and
Audit Branch: Amount advanced by Minister of
Finance   $260,876.26
The books and records of the Director of Welfare respecting Mothers' Allowances, for the fiscal year ended March
31st, 1953, have been examined under my direction.
C J. FERBER,
Comptrolier-General.
Table VIII.—Financial Statement of Supplementary Social Allowances Paid to Recipients
of Mothers' Allowances (Vote 153) for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1952, to March
31st, 1953.
Amount of allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowance
April, 1952  $12,803.00
May, 1952   12,435.45
June, 1952  12,479.35
July, 1952  12,323.50
August, 1952   12,434.85
September, 1952  12,476.75
October, 1952   12,289.50
November, 1952  12,426.25
December, 1952   12,412.97
Christmas bonus  2,400.00
January, 1953   12,014.63
February, 1953   12,031.75
March, 1953   12,048.85
$150,576.85
Reconciliation with Ledger Account in Controlling and
Audit Branch: Amount advanced by Minister of
Finance   $150,576.85
The books and records of the Director of Welfare respecting Supplementary Social Allowances paid to recipients of
Mothers' Allowances, for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1953, have been examined under my direction.
C J. FERBER,
Comptroller-General. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Table IX.—Statement Showing per Capita Cost
U 39
Fiscal Year
Total
Expenditure
Population
at June of
Each Year
Per Capita
Cost to the
Province
1950-51	
$397,679.20
415,592.62
411,453.11
1,138,000
1,153,000
1,165,000
$0.35
1951-52                    	
.36
1952-53 	
.35
Mothers' Allowance Advisory Board
The Advisory Board held no meeting during the fiscal year under review.
General Comments
No amendments were made in the " Mothers' Allowances Act" or its regulations
during the year.
At this time it would again seem wise to comment on the present function of this
legislation and its future implementation. As the Act stands now, some of its provisions
have remained unchanged in intent for over thirty years, and, in fact, some present
provisions are even more restrictive than those in the original Act passed in 1920. It
therefore becomes increasingly difficult to administer legislation which has not kept pace
with modern social welfare philosophy and practice. Does the Province any longer need
this categorical and restrictive form of assistance? The hope has been voiced many
times that consideration be given to the repeal of this Act. No known hardship would
ensue to recipients, who would benefit equally under the provisions of the " Social
Assistance Act," and it has been suggested some might even be in a better financial
position on Social Allowance in view of local social welfare programmes of special
supplementation.
Alternatively, if it is considered that this form of welfare legislation should remain
in existence, then it is hoped that some consideration may be given to a revision which
will bring it into line with present-day thought and practice so that it will more competently fulfil its original intent to meet the need of mothers with children where the husband
is absent from the home or unable to support his family.
One other question arises. If the case-load continues to decrease, and the trend of
the past few years gives no indication of any change in the downward trend, at what
point does it become worthy of consideration as to the need of continuing this special
provision for such a small proportion of the social welfare total case-load?
As in the past few years, the resource of Mothers' Allowances is one used almost
entirely in organized areas.   The following table illustrates this point:—
Table X.—Proportion of Applications and Grants in Organized Territory
Total applications and reapplications received   163
Applicants residing in organized territory  156
Applicants having legal residence in organized territory   152
Total grants made during year  118
Recipients residing in organized territory-  113
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory   113
Allowances in pay as at March 31st, 1953  470
Recipients having legal residence in unorganized territory      57
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory   413 U 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
From these figures it is apparent that 95.7 per cent of applicants for Mothers'
Allowances lived in organized territory and 93 per cent had legal residence in organized
territory. Of the grants made, 95.7 per cent showed legal residence in organized territory. Of the recipients of Mothers' Allowance as at March, 1953, 87.8 per cent had
legal residence in organized territory.
One final comment relates to the scale of allowances. The rate was increased,
effective April 1st, 1952, by $2.50 per month for a mother and one child and $2.50 for
each additional child and the incapacitated husband living in the home and in receipt
of allowance. There are, however, still indications in the reports which are received of
the difficulties experienced by the mothers who are trying to manage on Mothers' Allowance. Some, of course, can supplement the allowance by part-time earnings or have
the help of older earning children living in the home. Many others, because of the age
of their children, their own ill health, or responsibility for care of a disabled husband,
have no such opportunity or advantage.
Although this comment is made here in relation to Mothers' Allowances, it would
apply equally to Social Allowances, which are granted to a far greater number of family
groups. Under the decentralized programme, however, the Division does not receive
regular reports on Social Allowance cases; therefore, it seemed wise to include the
remarks in this section, as they can be based on the much more detailed knowledge of
the cases possible because of the frequent and full reports received on Mothers' Allowance families. The most skilled case-work can be of little avail if the greatest concern
and frustrations of the family are focused on the primary problem of budgeting to meet
the basic necessities of life within a minimum income.
It is therefore hoped that some consideration may be given to increasing the scale of
allowances for both Social Allowance and Mothers' Allowance recipients to make these
allowances more nearly compatible with other forms and rates of assistance.
FAMILY SERVICE SECTION
As it has been defined before, and as the name implies, Family Service is service to
and for families, including individual persons within or without the family group. This
service is basic to all aspects of social welfare, but by categorical definition refers to those
cases where no financial aid is needed or given or is only incidental to the major social
problem. Such problems may be many and varied, such as marital discord or separation,
desertion or divorce, behaviour and personality difficulties, problems of relationships, or
problems created by age, by mental or physical handicap, or unsatisfactory home conditions, but primarily the maladjustment is social rather than economic.
The underlying philosophy of such a service is that the family is the primary and
most important unit of society, and every help should be given to encourage family
unity. Many families have problems to a greater or lesser degree, and their ability to
meet these problems is equally varied. Sometimes the skill of the social worker with
knowledge of human behaviour, and causes and effects of divergence from the normal
pattern, is needed to assist the family to recognize and face the situation and help them to
minimize or resolve the problem within their capacity to do so. Not all families can
totally resolve their problems, but they can be helped to a happier and more satisfactory
family life by individual treatment of their problem and by a skilful and selective use of
community resources.   This is the major purpose of Family Service.
The Family Service case-load in the district and municipal offices remained at a
fairly constant level for most of the year, but as at March, 1953, showed an increase of
seventy-seven over the same month of the preceding year. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 41
Table I.—Total of Family Service Cases from April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953
April, 1952  1,323
May, 1952  1,296
June, 1952  1,278
July, 1952  1,298
August, 1952  1,319
September, 1952  1,345
October, 1952  1,345
November, 1952  1,389
December, 1952  1,373
January, 1953  1,420
February, 1953  1,394
March, 1953  1,438
OTHER SERVICES
Family Allowances
Inquiries from the Family Allowances Division of the Department of National
Health and Welfare concerning family situations in which the use of or eligibility for
Family Allowances or the proper payee in cases of family separation are channelled
through the Family Division. These are then directed to the various Social Welfare
Branch or municipal offices or to private agencies in the Greater Victoria and Vancouver
areas.
For the past fiscal year the number of these requests decreased slightly, although the
number of completed reports remained within one of the number for the previous year.
The number carried over into the present fiscal year was just under half of last year's total.
Table II.—Requests Received from Family Allowances Division,
April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953
Pending as at April 1st, 1952     77
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1952, to March 31st,
1953, by months—
April   25
May   33
June   28
July   21
August   26
September   20
October  48
November     28
December  40
January   17
February   20
March       23
— 329
Total case-load
406
Cases completed within fiscal year  _  368
Cases pending as at April 1st, 1953       38 U 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
These requests for reports were directed as follows: —
Table 111.—Requests to District Offices and Other Agencies
Pending as at April 1st, 1952     89
Requests forwarded during fiscal year April 1st, 1952, to March
31st, 1953, by regions—
Region I1     62
Region II*  131
Region III     41
Region IV     28
Region V     26
Region VI     41
  329
Total number of requests  4182
1 Includes referrals to private agencies in Victoria and Vancouver.
2 The difference in this total as compared with requests received is accounted for by the fact that one request from
the Family Allowances Division may require two or more separate reports from more than one office or agency.
Table IV.—Requests Completed within Fiscal Year, by Regions
Region I  67
Region II  147
Region III  40
Region IV  32
Region V  3 2
Region VI  50
Total  ..  368
Total number of requests  418
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1953     50
During the past year we have undertaken third-party administration of Family
Allowances in four cases. This step is only undertaken after serious consideration in
cases where there is a serious misuse of Family Allowance by the recipient, and where the
children might otherwise not receive the benefit of the allowance granted on their behalf
if administration were not put into effect. During the period of administration every
effort is made to encourage and direct the mother in budgeting and proper use of the
allowance, and as soon as it is considered reasonable and proper, it is recommended that
the mother again be made the direct payee of the allowance if other plans are not made
for the children meanwhile because of unsatisfactory home conditions.
Old Age Security
The Family Division is also the referral channel for requests of the Old Age Security
Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare, to assist elderly persons in
their application for Old Age Security. This includes assistance in completing the application form, as well as in obtaining necessary documents and required proofs of age and
residence in support of their application.
The fiscal year under review is the first full year of this service, and the following
tables show the volume of these requests:— REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 43
Table V.—Requests Received from Old Age Security Division from April 1st, 1952,
.
to March 31st, 1953
Pending as at April 1st, 1952     4
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1952, to March 31st,
:
.
1953, by months—
April __
May ___
June -__
July -__
August
September
  1
  28
  11
  8
  7
  1
October  7
November   4
December   3
January 	
February  1
March   2
— 73
Total case-load  77
Cases completed within fiscal year  68
Cases pending as at April 1st, 1953     9
Table VI.—Requests to District Offices
Pending as at April 1st, 1952     4
Requests  forwarded  during  fiscal  year  April   1st,   1952,  to
March 31st, 1953, by regions—
Region I   10
Region II   20
Region III  12
Region IV     6
Region V  10
Region VI  15
— 73
'
Total number of requests  77
Table VII.—Reports Completed by Regions
Region I -
Region II
Region III
10
22
12
Region IV     6
Region V      6
Region VI  12
Total   68
Total number of requests  77
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1953. U 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Tribunals
During the year the co-operation of the Social Welfare Branch was given to the Old
Age Security Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare in yet another
service, to assist in the completion of applications for Old Age Security where satisfactory
documentary proof of age is lacking although there seems little doubt that the applicant
is over 70 years of age.
Under the regulations to " The Old Age Assistance Act" there is provision that if
after thorough search and inquiry the Regional Director of Old Age Security is unable
to obtain from the applicant or elsewhere satisfactory evidence as to the age of the applicant, he may submit the case, together with any relevant documents, to a tribunal. The
tribunal consists of a member designated by the applicant, a member designated by
the Regional Director of Old Age Security, and a third member as chairman, chosen by
the other two members. The tribunal considers all facts, information, and documents
available, and renders its opinion as to the age of the applicant.
Requests for tribunals are made to the Family Division and then directed to the
appropriate Regional Administrator, who acts as the member designated by the Regional
Director for the tribunal, or appoints someone in the welfare service to act for him. The
Regional Administrator is responsible for arranging the hearing of the tribunal. The first
such requests were made in June, 1952.
Requests for tribunals for persons who are in the Provincial Mental Hospital or
Home for the Aged at Essondale, the Homes for the Aged at Vernon and Terrace, or the
Colquitz Mental Hospital are sent direct to the institutional authorities, with a copy to the
Social Welfare Branch Regional Administrator, who either acts himself or appoints
someone to act as representative of the Regional Director of Old Age Security.
Since June, 1952, the volume of referrals for tribunals has been as follows:—
Table VIII.—Requests Received from Old Age Security Division for Tribunals from
June 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953, by Months
June   6
July 	
August     1
September   3
October  4
November   19
December   7
January   7
February    8
March     14
Total requests     69
Home for the Aged, Vernon     2
Home for the Aged, Terrace  26
Essondale Mental Hospital _.  13
Colquitz Mental Hospital     2
—    43
Total  :   112 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 45
Table IX.—Tribunals Completed by Regions
Region I      7
Region II  37
Region III     3
Region IV  15
Region V     5
Region VI     2
Totals  69
Colquitz Mental Hospital  2
Essondale Mental Hospital  13
Home for the Aged, Vernon  2
Home for the Aged, Terrace  26
43
Total
9
50
5
15
31
2
112
Legal Aid
Although the incidence is not high, the Family Division also acts as the channel for
referrals from the Social Welfare Branch field service of cases known to them who might
benefit from the legal-aid service provided by the Law Society of British Columbia, which
is Province-wide, with the exception of the Cities of Victoria and Vancouver, where the
local Bar Associations have provided this service for several years or more. The Branch
need only repeat its appreciation of the availability of this service.
CONCLUSION
In the combined efforts to give a welfare service under the provisions of Social
Allowance, Mothers' Allowance, and Family Service, the Family Division wishes to
express its appreciation and thanks to the social workers, district supervisors, Regional
Administrators, and consultants, without whose help the programme of the Branch and
the work of the Division could not be accomplished. The Family Division wishes also
to express its appreciation of the co-operation of the municipal welfare departments, other
Governmental departments (Federal and Provincial), and the private agencies who have
helped by advice and service in the past year.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Marie Riddell,
Provincial Supervisor, Family Division.
■
:
■ U 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION
I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Child Welfare Division for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1953.
During this fiscal year 202 children from 144 families were apprehended under
the " Protection of Children Act." Ninety-three of these have been made wards of the
Superintendent of Child Welfare. Five were returned to their homes under supervision, as provided for under section 8 (5) (a) of the Act; twenty-five were presented
in Court, and the applications withdrawn because satisfactory plans for the children's
care had been achieved by their families. Seventy-nine remain in our care as at March
31st, 1953, with the applications still before the Court pending completion of the committal or other disposition.
As further provided for under the " Protection of Children Act," 293 children from
250 families were taken into care at the request of a parent or parents during some family
crisis. Fifty-nine wards of a Children's Aid Society or other Province were also admitted
to care because the foster-family had moved into Social Welfare Branch areas of supervision, and nineteen boys and girls were committed to the Superintendent during the
year under the "Juvenile Delinquents Act." ■-.••,.
CHILDREN DISCHARGED FROM CARE
Sixty-nine wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare under the " Protection of
Children Act " were discharged during the fiscal year. Nine of these returned to their
homes when the parents' unopposed applications for rescinding of the order were granted
by the Court. Twenty-six wards were legally adopted, twenty-seven reached their
majority, three married, and the guardianship of three was transferred, as provided
under the Act, from the Superintendent to a Children's Aid Society. One ward, a baby,
born with a serious physical condition, died, and a 19-year-old girl (a non-ward) was
killed in an automobile accident. Nineteen wards under the "Juvenile Delinquents
Act " were returned to their own homes with the approval of the Court, and 309 children
in non-ward care were discharged to their parents or placed with adoptive parents.
In summary, a total of 1,850 children were in the care of the Superintendent of
Child Welfare during the year, and 1,385 are still in care as at March 31st, 1953. The
status of these children is as follows:— __.    , _
Children in Care Children in Care
Status during Fiscal Year at Mar. 31, 1953
Wards under P.C.A  852 783
Wards under J.D.A  73 54
Wards of a C.A.S. or O.P  192 154
Children before Court, P.C.A  133 103
Non-wards   600 291
Totals  1,850 1,385
One thousand one hundred and nine of the 1,385 children in care as at March 31st,
1953, are being cared for through Child Welfare Division placement resources throughout all parts of the Province. Two hundred and thirteen are being provided care upon
request by a Children's Aid Society; twenty-five are in correctional institutions, and
seven are in the Provincial Mental Hospital. Thirty-one are in other Provinces with
relatives or with foster-parents who moved out of British Columbia after the child was
placed with them but who had become too attached to him to consider leaving him behind.
CARE OF CHILDREN BY CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETIES
The total number and status of children in the care of the Children's Aid Societies
during the fiscal year and as at March 31st, 1953, were as follows:— REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
During Fiscal Year
U 4?
Agency
Total
Wards
Non-wards
Before Court
1,712
,•    727
410
1,085
427
126
485
194
257
142
106
Victoria Children's Aid Society     '
27
As at March 31st, 1953
1,296
564
237
977
409
126
208
108
91
111
47
20
The cost and distribution of cost of maintaining children in Child Welfare Division
foster homes, Children's Aid Societies (including physically handicapped children),
and sundry expenditures relative to the care of children during the fiscal year were as
follows: —
Gross cost of maintenance to Provincial Government of children
in Child Welfare Division foster homes  (including
physically handicapped children)     $422,090.18
Less—
Municipal 20-per-cent share for children with municipal residence     $33,935.21
Parents' contributions        11,376.85
Received from other Provinces         5,134.23
Received from Children's Aid Societies
for their children in care of Child
Welfare Division       32,212.78
Received from Fairbridge Farm School
and Federal Government       20,816.18
Miscellaneous collections         6,472.63
Sundry refunds          1,745.07
■       111,692.95
Net cost to Provincial Government     $310,397.23
Cost of maintenance of children in the care of
Children's Aid Societies chargeable to Provincial Government  $405,070.71
Refunds to municipalities, 80 per cent of maintenance of children in care of Children's Aid
Societies chargeable to municipal governments      380,275.26
$785,345.97
Carried forward  $785,345.97    $310,397.23 U 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Brought forward  $785,345.97    $310,397.23
Less—
Paid by municipalities for
Child Welfare Division children in Children's Aid Societies.- $10,645.97
Parents' contributions        6,457.12
Paid by other Provinces .___      7,452.66
Paid by Fairbridge Farm
School and Federal
Government      14,287.73
Children's Aid Societies—      1,088.21
Miscellaneous refunds  691.82
Sundry  refunds   (C.A.S.
wards)   428.00
       41,051.51
       744,294.46
Gross transportation of children       $5,050.68
Less—
Reimbursements from parents, etc        $393.90
Sundry refunds  202.15
  596.05
  4,454.63
Gross cost for hospitalization of infants     $26,220.00
Less sundry refunds  148.00
         26,072.00
Grants to institutions  1,300.00
Net cost to Province $1,086,518.32 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 49
FAMILY ALLOWANCES FOR FOSTER-CHILDREN
During the year a total of $33,970.56 was received by the Division from the Family
Allowances Branch of the Federal Department of Health and Welfare, and $29,603.41
was disbursed on behalf of children in the care of the Superintendent, as follows: —
Foster-mothers received  $17,801.00
Adoptive mothers received  1,206.37
Children's own mothers received  2,410.22
Transferred to Children's Aid Societies  1,209.01
Refunded to Family Allowance Board  70.00
Recreational, including such items as skates, skis, sports
equipment, bicycles, musical instruments, camp
and other summer vacations, and Guide and Scout
uniforms   4,144.16
Music lessons  263.14
Gifts   397.25
Special clothing  383.83
Watches   290.32
Pens and pencils  69.02
To children after discharge and, for a few,  special
spending money  569.00
Special transportation  24.45
Special school dues  8.00
Luggage    47.86
Typewriter  75.00
Permanent waves and cosmetics  52.02
Zipper cases and loose-leaf binders in excess of reasonable price  77.90
Two chests of drawers and four plywood chests  76.83
Special frames for glasses  54.65
Transferred  to  Superintendent  of Child  Welfare  in
Alberta  82.55
Jewellery   17.46
Miscellaneous    273.37
Total   $29,603.41
As at March 31st, 1952, there was a balance of $23,652.71 held in trust for children,
and as at March 31st, 1953, an amount of $28,019.86 was being held for 828 children.
In addition to the Family Allowances received in the Division for children, allowances are paid direct by the Family Allowances Branch to foster-parents for some 450
children who have been in their foster homes over a year. Family Allowances have
become a most constructive resource in work with children, and many have learned to
keep close track of their expenditures and to budget their trust accounts with thought and
considerable business acumen. One 11-year-old boy, who had accumulated more than
enough to buy his own bicycle, wrote with the foresight of a mature financier requesting
that he be sent the balance of his account because he was " financing part of my brother's
bike at a reasonable rate."
HEALTH SERVICES FOR CHILDREN
The children have had a minimum of illness or accident this year, although, as
reported earlier, one of the babies died as a result of a congenital illness and one of the
older girls was killed in an automobile accident.   Doctors in communities throughout the
4 U 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Province are giving the several hundred children excellent medical care, and have a deep
confidence in this service. When children require treatment not available in rural areas
or in the smaller centres, the local doctor arranges referral to a specialist or appropriate
medical centre in Vancouver, and many have benefited from such services this year.
Several have had extensive surgery for crippling conditions, two are taking a muscle-
retraining course, one boy is being given help through speech therapy, and another is in
Vancouver receiving psychotherapy available only at the Coast.
INCREASED NUMBER OF CHILDREN TAKING EDUCATIONAL
AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING
Each year more boys and girls enroll for vocational training or advanced education,
and this year eight successfully completed their courses and are employed in their chosen
field. Two others are attending the University, and one girl has almost completed her
nurse's training. Two boys are progressing well in a radio technician's course, and one
girl is training to be a missionary. Many of these boys and girls are financing their educations by their own summer earnings and scholarships, but in the payment of some of
the tuition fees involved the Division is indebted this year to the same group of private
citizens who have helped its children so generously in the past.
This steady increase in the number of children who, upon reaching their teens, are
capable of the concentration necessary in the learning of new skills and knowledge in
preparation for their adult life is one of the most encouraging indications among many
that case-work services to children and their families are improving steadily.
RESOURCES FOR PLACEMENT OF CHILDREN
Most of the children are cared for in foster homes, and the Superintendent has reason
to be proud of the large number of homes of good standard which have been opened
throughout the Province. With some 1,250 children placed in Social Welfare Branch
areas, an average population per home of 1.60 children is being maintained. There is
still, however, not a sufficient variety of homes to permit the Division to meet the very
special and extraordinary needs of some children, nor as yet is there enough workers'
time available to give them always the help and guidance they should have. A number
each year fail to find the permanency and security which should be theirs, and, as a result,
they know too frequent replacements. These have been reduced some since the Child
Welfare Division Foster Home Review was done in 1950, and there has been, since then,
too, a satisfactory increase in the numbers of foster-children under 6 years of age who
have been placed successfully in adoptive homes or adopted by their foster-parents. Still
more can be accomplished in this direction, however, as the needs of children become
better known and understood in communities and as greater stability in staff is achieved.
PUBLICATIONS
A Manual for Foster-parents was written and published by the Division this year,
which has proved to be helpful to foster-parents as well as to workers in the finding of
new foster homes. The Division is most appreciative of the interest and help given by
the staff of the Queen's Printer in this project. The cover, which they so attractively
designed, and the well set-up pages of the Manual have received much admiration and
favourable comment from agencies in all parts of the country.
The Superintendent also prepared a paper on child welfare in British Columbia, with
emphasis on adoption placement, at the request of the National Children's Adoption
Association in England. This was ably read on our behalf in London at the agency's
annual meeting by Miss M. J. Smith, Head of the School of Social Work, University of
British Columbia, and was well received. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 51
IMMIGRANT CHILDREN
Included in the total number of children in the care of the Superintendent during the
year are sixty-six boys and girls from Fairbridge Farm School and fifteen Jewish overseas
children. The girl whose death was previously reported was one of the former. Three
other Fairbridge girls are now married, and one 16-year-old boy, finding it beyond his
capacity to live in a foster home, returned to the Fairbridge Farm School to live with the
last remaining cottage parents at the School, and he hopes to find employment in the
near-by community. Forty-eight boys and thirteen girls from Fairbridge remain in care
at the beginning of the fiscal year, and while two of the boys are in the Boys' Industrial
School and one has been A.W.O.L. for some months now, generally the group is doing
well in their foster homes, their schools, their jobs, and their communities.
During the year eight of the remaining fifteen Jewish overseas children were discharged from care. The following excerpt from the Vancouver Children's Aid Society's
final report about these young people tells rather vividly what they have achieved:—
"Of the eight boys and girls discharged during the year, all have reached their
twenty-first birthday. Three of these are still attending University and maintaining themselves. One has his Bachelor of Social Work degree and will be taking his Master of
Social Work next term; one is studying architecture; and the third is in his last year of
law. Another girl graduated as a nurse and was married early in March this year. A boy
completed his apprenticeship as a dental mechanic, is fully self-supporting, and is holding
a good job in his trade. One boy is foreman for a packing concern; one joined the
Canadian Army; and another, after taking out his Canadian citizenship papers, has been
accepted into the Royal Canadian Air Force officers' training station in Toronto, where he
hopes to become a pilot."
As at March 31st, 1953, the original number of forty-six Jewish overseas children
who came to British Columbia in 1948 is reduced to seven. The project, in its entirety,
is an outstanding example of what can be achieved with children in foster-home placement
when they are welcomed by a community and become an integral part of its life, as these
children have within the Jewish community of Vancouver. Those who have not acted as
foster-parents have generally supported the project financially, or have voluntarily given
their professional services to the children. Others have found employment opportunities
in businesses for boys and girls, or have been instrumental in arranging apprenticeship
training or providing tuition fees for those going on to professional education. Perhaps
of all the placement-of-children projects the Child Welfare Division has undertaken in
British Columbia, this of the Jewish overseas children must be considered the most truly
successful. The life of the Jewish community has been enriched by the experience, and
they have set a pattern of accomplishment through concerted community effort which
holds real inspiration for all communities interested in the welfare of children.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE "ADOPTION ACT"
There were 1,137 notifications of intention to adopt received during the year by the
Superintendent of Child Welfare as required under the "Adoption Act." Six hundred
and twenty-two of these families resided in areas served by the Social Welfare Branch,
and 515 in those served by a Children's Aid Society. Nine hundred and twenty-seven
adoptions were completed during this period by order of the Supreme Court. Four hundred and sixty-five of these were in Social Welfare Branch regions, and 462 in a Children's
Aid Society area. In addition, we participated this year in twenty applications to adopt
children born in British Columbia but who were on adoption probation with families
residing outside the Province. Thirteen of these were finalized by Court order in the
Province or State of residence, and seven are pending completion. U 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHILDREN PLACED BY AGENCIES WITH ADOPTIVE PARENTS
Child Welfare Division placed 270 children with adoptive parents during the year;
the Vancouver Children's Aid Society placed 254; the Catholic Children's Aid Society,
38; and the Family and Children's Service of Victoria, 42. This is a total of 604 children
placed with adoptive parents by authorized child welfare agencies during the twelvemonth period and represents an increase of 93 children placed by agencies over last year's
figure. Throughout the six Social Welfare Branch regions there are 457 families awaiting
placement of a child as at March 31st, 1953.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE "CHILDREN OF
UNMARRIED PARENTS ACT"
There were 1,508 registrations of children born out of wedlock made with the
Division of Vital Statistics this year. Six hundred and nine of the unmarried mothers
involved applied or were referred to a Children's Aid Society for help in planning, and
452 to a Social Welfare Branch office. A large percentage of unmarried mothers request
adoption placement for their child, and, in order to protect them against making so serious
a decision when fearful of the future and heavily pressed socially and economically, there
have been considerably increased facilities this year for the temporary care of babies.
There are now several foster homes throughout the Province which are specially chosen
and subsidized for this purpose, and workers are endeavouring to maintain a maximum
population of two infants to a home in order that each may receive the individual mothering he requires. These foster homes have proven to be a valuable resource in work with
unmarried mothers. They have also been used to good purpose in arranging adoption
placements when the adopting parents have to travel great distances for their baby or
when the legal aspects of the placement present complications, and delays in finalizing
the placement cannot be avoided.
COLLECTIONS UNDER "CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED PARENTS ACT"
The sum of $50,599.21 was paid to the Superintendent of Child Welfare on orders,
agreements, and settlements under this Act during the year. This is an increase of
$11,507.56 over last year, and is the highest amount ever collected in any one year since
the Act was passed. Some of the increase is due to the number of settlements which have
been accepted in preference to long-term payments. In the main, however, it seems
largely the result of payments being made with greater faithfulness and reflects favourably
on the interpretation of responsibility and on the help given by workers to fathers of
children born to unmarried mothers.
SERVICES TO SUPREME COURT AND OTHER DEPARTMENTS
During this year, at the request of the Supreme Court, ninety-six investigations,
twenty-three of which are still in process of completion, were made with regard to disputes
over custody of children. Twenty of these were carried out by the Social Welfare Branch,
and seventy-six by Children's Aid Societies. Twenty-three inquiries were made for the
Division of Vital Statistics in support of applications for the legitimation of children.
Twenty-one of these were done by a Children's Aid Society. Forty-six studies of homes
of relatives applying to bring a child to Canada were made at the request of the Canadian
Department of Immigration, and eleven are pending completion. Twenty-six of these
were made by a Children's Aid Society. Sixty-three cases of repatriation of children were
carried, twenty-two of which are still awaiting disposition. Plans were handled for
twenty-six of these boys and girls by a Social Welfare Branch district office, and for thirty-
seven by a Children's Aid Society. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 53
TEN YEARS OF AMALGAMATED SERVICES
At the end of the fiscal year 1952-53 the Social Welfare Branch has completed ten
years of amalgamated services. By way of recognition of this milestone, the remainder
of this annual report will review some of the changes which have occurred in legislation
and practice in child welfare, and, where possible, to measure what progress has been
made in programme development during this time.
Amendments to the " Protection of Children Act "
The " Protection of Children Act," which replaced section 3 of the " Infants Act "
on March 18th, 1943, has, during these ten years, proven to be a sound and reasonably
simple piece of legislation to administer. The necessity of establishing residence, as
defined under the " Residence and Responsibility Act," for each child brought before a
Court was for a long time a most time-consuming and costly aspect of its administration.
This was eased considerably by the 1947 amendment to subsection (11) of section 32,
whereby the Provincial Government assumed 80 per cent of the per capita costs of maintaining wards formerly borne in total by municipalities. More recently, too, although
not as yet incorporated in the Act, the Provincial Government has accepted financial
responsibility for children born to unmarried parents taken into non-ward or ward care.
This policy has not only simplified Court procedure in these applications, but, by protecting, as it does, the identity of the unmarried mother, it has increased the Division's
helpfulness to her and to her child.
These two changes in policy have corrected to a large extent a difficult financial
situation which had prevailed for municipalities since the passing of the first " Infants
Act." The case which sharply pointed up the problem and in many ways precipitated the
1947 amendment was one in which eight children, under 10 years of age, were committed
to the Superintendent following a widowed mother's death. The municipality involved
was small, and the obligation of meeting the yearly cost of maintenance until each child
reached the minimum age of 18 years was realistically quite beyond its limited financial
resources. By assuming the major portion of the cost of maintaining wards and, more
recently, the cost of maintaining children born out of wedlock, the Provincial Government
in British Columbia is following the general trend apparent across Canada in which the
senior Government in Provinces is more and more recognizing and accepting through
legislation and practice a major responsibility for the welfare of children and their families.
Changes in Administration of the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act "
In the administration of the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act" the changes to
be noted during the past ten years are in practice rather than in legislation. The more
frequent and constructive use of settlement, the added efforts made to assist the child's
father to recognize better his responsibility as a parent, and the greater emphasis now
being placed on helping both the mother and father to plan carefully together for their
child's future are the chief trends to be observed.
Collections for maintenance under the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act " have
actually varied very little throughout the ten years, as will be seen from the following:—
Year Collections Made Year Collections Made
1943_44  $35,614.63 1948-49  $33,492.35
1944_45  34,013.48 1949-50     38,511.95
1945-46  32,012.75 1950-51     38,644.14
1946-47  27,633.85 1951-52     39,091.65
1947-48  26,744.68 1952-53     50,599.21
During the past ten years there has been an increasing number of unmarried mothers
decide upon adoption placement for their child, and this is one of the reasons for the com- U 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
paratively small variation in yearly collections. Another is the fact that, despite the
population increase and the expanding industrialization of the Province during these
years, the numbers of children born out of wedlock yearly have not appreciably increased.
This is particularly apparent from the figures released by the Division of Vital Statistics
for the past five years.
Children Registered as Born Out of Wedlock, 1947 to 1953
1947-48  1,226 1950-51  1,262
1948-49  1,320 1951-52  1,371
1949-50  1,379 1952-53  1,508
While these figures are reassuring to a point, they still represent a large number of
children whose future must inevitably be fraught with uncertainties. There is a large
number of adoptive parents awaiting placement of a child, and the Division is therefore
able to plan with reasonable assurance of security for many of them, but this constitutes
a solution for only a part of the problem. The fact that many unmarried mothers and
fathers are still in their teens or early twenties more than suggests that there are factors
in the family and community life of our Province which are not conducive to happy and
wholesome relationships. Some of these are apparent in many of British Columbia's new
and rapidly developing industrial areas, as well as in urban centres, in the inadequacy of
housing for family living, the absence of community planning, the frequent lack of wholesome recreational facilities, and, most regrettable of all, in the seeming unawareness of
responsibility which is to be met at times in those in a position to help remedy such conditions.
The Social Welfare Branch has been disappointed during the last ten years, and
especially so with regard to the newer towns and cities of the Province, that there has not
been a more concerted effort on the part of responsible citizens and organizations in these
communities to resolve some of these handicaps to good family living. No one of them
is necessarily a cause for delinquency or unconventional behaviour, but each does contribute often to family breakdown. It is to be hoped, when the time comes to review the
next ten years' progress, that an increased citizenry interest in community affairs can be
reported, and that it can then be said the thriving towns and cities of British Columbia
are in fact centres where the cultural, educational, recreational, and spiritual well-being
of families and children is of prime concern to the entire community.
Growth and Continuing Lacks in Resources for Placement and
Care of Children in Ten Years
The Superintendent of Child Welfare, in her annual report for the year 1943-44,
said: " There are 183 children in rural foster homes being paid for through Child Welfare
Branch office." These children were in foster homes in the Okanagan, and the report
goes on to say: " This (the Okanagan) is our only developed area at the present time,
and it will mean increased concentration on the finding of foster homes on the part of the
field if we are to care adequately for our own children." This " increased concentration "
was unquestionably given by the field, for to-day there are well-established foster homes
in each region, and each region is able to plan within its own boundaries for the majority
of children they admit to care. This year 1,109 of our children were placed in Child
Welfare Division homes, and only 276 were in the care of a Children's Aid Society upon
request. We do not have a record of the number of foster homes in use in 1944, but
to-day there are over 1,000 families throughout the Province acting as foster-parents to
children.
Impressive as this growth is, the Branch is still unable to say there are facilities to
meet the needs of all children needing placement.   There continues to be a shortage of REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 55
Roman Catholic foster homes, and children of mixed racial origin must still be termed
" hard to place." Better plans are being made for more children of Indian or part-
Indian background, but there are still too many without permanency in their foster-
home placement.
The Superintendent's 1944 report makes reference to this same lack of resources
for planning for the Indian child, and in ten years not much progress has been made in
this connection. The amendments to the "Indian Act" and the 1949 amendment to
the " Provincial Elections Act" have brought about changes in the traditional way of
life of the native Indian, and there must continue to be social casualties during this
period of adjustment unless more guidance and help is given the group than is presently
available to them. The Indian Department has assisted most willingly in planning for
some children of Indian heritage who have had to be brought into the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, but present policies with regard to enfranchisement and
reservation-living entitlement present many limitations. Families with Indian status may
not accept into their homes children who are of Indian extraction but who do not have
Indian status, and should such a child be taken through private arrangement by a family
with Indian status, his Indian status would not be assured even should they subsequently
legally adopt him. The Superintendent suspects there is a number of good adoptive
and foster homes to be found throughout the Indian reservations of this Province and
sincerely hopes, with the understanding and help of the Indian Department and of the
Indian bands concerned, that before too long these can be made available to the children
in care who so urgently need them.
Ten years ago the Superintendent wrote of children in care, too upset by their life
experiences to be helped through foster-home placement. Child-placement services will
probably always know such boys and girls because children in an agency's care are
children who have known the unparalleled dismay of loss of family. As can be expected,
some do not survive such an experience emotionally, and the Department is still finding
resources to help them woefully lacking. Inevitably, some of these young people find
their way into the Boys' or Girls' Industrial School or other correctional institution.
One or two each year become acutely mentally ill and are committed to the Provincial
Mental Hospital. Others know a series of foster-home placements—each as unsuccessful
as the last, not only because of the child's pitiful inability to live at peace with himself
or others, but also because of the Branch's own limitations in skills and in resources.
In the total population of children in care, these boys and girls number a comparative
few, but always their future is bleak. Some gains in treatment have been made in the
last ten years, and the Social Welfare Branch must courageously build on these in the
future if it is to be of greater help to some of the children who come into care than it
has been to those in the past.
Improved Medical, Hospital, and Dental Services
During these ten years remarkable advances have been made by the Branch with
regard to the provision of medical services for persons in receipt of social assistance
and children have benefited accordingly. There is no longer need for workers to ask
doctors to treat children free, or at a reduced charge, as had to be done until 1949.
Since that time all are included in the Branch's agreement for service with the College
of Physicians and Surgeons, and they are provided full medical coverage at rates acceptable to the College.
With the exception of children who come into care at the request of their parents,
children have also been protected by British Columbia hospital insurance coverage since
the inception of the plan. Their dental care is not yet as complete as the Branch wants
to see it, but this is a gap in services to all children which it hopes to see corrected in
the not too distant future. U 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Review of Foster-home Rates
In 1944 the average rate paid for a foster-child was $4.70 a week if clothing was
supplied by the Child Welfare Division, and $5.52 a week if supplied by foster-parents.
Three increases were allowed up to 1950, but the rates seemed never to keep abreast of
the rapidly advancing cost of living, and this inevitably and detrimentally affected the
finding of foster homes throughout the Province. Early in 1951 a committee comprised
of staff members from the Children's Aid Societies, the Social Welfare Branch district
offices, and the Division studied the problem, and as a result of their efforts the rates as
shown below were approved by all agencies as sufficient to provide a basic minimum
standard of maintenance for children in foster homes at that time. The Child Welfare
Division made all rates exclusive of the cost of clothing. Per Week
Birth to 5 years, inclusive  $5.60
6 to 11 years, inclusive     5.95
Boys 12 to 13 years, inclusive     7.00
Girls 12 to 13 years, inclusive     6.30
Boys 14 years and over     7.70
Girls 14 years and over     7.00
These rates prevail to-day, but once more have become insufficient to cover the
costs of maintenance. An upward revision must be implemented in this next fiscal year
if the Branch is to care adequately for the children entrusted to it.
Family Allowances, Effective July 1st, 1945
The payment of Family Allowances to agencies by the Department of National
Health and Welfare on behalf of children in care was a welcomed development in the last
ten years, and, as will be seen in the previously reported expenditures for this fiscal year,
the money is used in many and varied ways by children in foster homes. The Federal
Department's decision to limit the use of the allowances to the provision of articles and
projects not ordinarily included in an agency's budget has proven to be sound, and, as a
consequence, the Superintendent's responsibility for meeting the costs of maintenance and
care of children has not in any way been lessened with the advent of Family Allowances.
Inter-agency Relationships
Perhaps one of the most important accomplishments during the past ten years has
been the improved relationships which have been built among the staffs of the Division,
the Children's Aid Societies, the municipalities, and the Social Welfare Branch district
offices. Gradual decentralization of parts of the child welfare services to the Field during
this time has proved constructive, and as staffs stabilize and become stronger, further
plans in this direction will be implemented. An over-all raised standard of work and
improved relationships have resulted thus far, and much of this has been achieved
through the liaison function between Field and Division, which has been carried out by
the three Field Consultants.
Future Financing of Children's Aid Societies
It is apparent from the failure of Community Chest drives in recent years that voluntary funds will not be subscribed to support services provided by Children's Aid Societies,
but which services are essential, and are by Statute a Government responsibility. This
has brought sharply into focus the question of the division of responsibility which should
exist between Governments and Children's Aid Societies. Two grants have been made to
Children's Aid Societies during the past five years as a means of meeting a deficit, but this
is not a satisfactory method of meeting the problem.   The boards of the three agencies REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 57
and the Superintendent of Child Welfare are studying the question and later will consult
with all other agencies involved, in the hope that a sound and business-like formula can
be achieved for the future financing of Children's Aid Societies.
Briefly, in the foregoing, the Division has tried to present the major developments
in child welfare during the past ten years. There are others which could have been cited
as showing progress, as well as some which inevitably carry with them more negative
aspects. All in their different ways serve to chart the course for the years ahead. Canadian child welfare legislation generally has been progressive and far-seeing in its provisions for the protection of children, and British Columbia has not lagged in this
connection. In the administration of child welfare Statutes, too, it has tried to maintain
policies which allow room for planning according to the individual needs and interests
of each child involved. This goal presently is not always reached, but the framework of
child welfare services throughout the Province holds promise and wide scope indeed for
expansion and development in the future.
CONCLUSION
In ending this report the staff and I wish to express appreciation for the help and
support received during the year from Children's Aid Societies, other departments of
Government, municipal staffs, the staffs of the Social Welfare Branch district offices
throughout the Province, and to foster-parents. There never seems a fully adequate way
to say "thank you" to foster-parents, but the Child Welfare Division is at all times
conscious of their outstanding contribution to the well-being of children, and it is not only
deeply grateful to them, but proud to be able to share its work and plans with them.
Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. U 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
OLD-AGE ASSISTANCE AND BLIND PERSONS' ALLOWANCES BOARDS
GENERAL
In strong contrast with 1951-52, the year under review was one of relative quiet.
There were no changes in legislation or regulations. Gradually the monthly rate of
receipt of new applications for old-age assistance and blind persons' allowance decreased
from the initial peak of nearly 4,000 in November, 1951, to 264 in March, 1953. With
the clearing of the back-log of applications received when the new legislation first came
into force, the administration returned to " normalcy."
When last year's report was made, it was too early to see the effects of the new
legislation, as it had been in force only three months. It is still not possible to make
any comparative analysis or to indicate any specific trends, but a few observations can
be made.
There have not been as many applications for old-age assistance as might have
been expected. On June 1st, 1951, when the last census was taken, there were 52,927
persons in British Columbia between 65 and 69 years of age. This number would have
increased considerably by March 31st, 1953. Up to that date, however, after the Act
had been in operation for a year and three months, the total number of applications
received was only 12,085, or 22.83 per cent of the number eligible from the point of
view of age in 1951. In this connection it may be interesting to recall that, as at December 31st, 1951, 46.17 per cent of all the persons in British Columbia of 70 years of age
and over were in receipt of old-age pension. Before the " Old-age Assistance Act"
came into force, it seemed natural to suppose that the percentage of the younger age-
group (65 to 69 years) applying for assistance would not be as high as that of the older
age-group, but the difference has proved to be greater than most people had anticipated.
The employment situation has doubtless been largely responsible for this. A higher
proportion of the people over 65 years than usual have been able to remain in employment in recent years and thus have not found it necessary to apply for assistance. Moreover, because we have experienced such an unusually long period of high employment,
it is quite probable that a fair number of those over 65 years who are not now employed
because of illness or other causes were able to accumulate in past years enough savings
to enable them to get along without assistance, and the fact that application for old-age
assistance involves a means test encourages them to try to " get by " until they are 70
years and will be eligible for the non-means test Old Age Security.
From Table I of the Statistics, it will be noted that 15.5 per cent of the applicants
whose cases were finalized during that period were ineligible. Under the former " Old-
age Pensions Act" most of the applicants found ineligible were so because they had not
yet reached the required age. From Table III of this report, however, it will be seen
that the greatest cause of ineligibility for Old-age Assistance is excess income. This is
not surprising, considering the employment conditions already referred to and the fact
that the new Act deals with a younger age-group. Further emphasis is given to the point
by the fact that, of the 20.14 per cent who withdrew their applications, the great majority
did so because they came to a realization during the investigation of their cases that they
were likely to be found ineligible because of income.
Table X gives some hint of the housing situation. Only 41 per cent of the recipients
own their own homes, and from Table XI it will be noted that approximately 86 per cent
of the homes owned by recipients have an assessment of less than $1,000. This would
seem to indicate that the majority of the recipients' homes are probably old and not
too satisfactory.
It is interesting to note from Table XIII that 82.23 per cent of the recipients are
receiving the full $40 a month. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 59
From Table VI it will be seen that only 7.63 per cent of the recipients were born
in British Columbia, and only 22.57 per cent in other parts of Canada. More than two-
thirds of them, therefore, were born outside Canada.
RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS
Prior to January 1st, 1952, British Columbia had reciprocal agreements with
Alberta, Saskatchewan, and the Yukon Territory covering the payment of supplementary
allowances or cost-of-living bonuses to old-age or blind pensioners who moved from one
jurisdiction to another. With the coming into force of the new legislation for the aged
and blind on that date, however, these agreements ceased to operate, and consideration
had to be given to the possibility of entering into new agreements in harmony with the
altered situation.    Subsequent negotiations on the subject resulted as follows:—
Alberta.—By Orders in Council dated April 1st, 1952, and May 13th, 1952, British
Columbia entered into an agreement with Alberta whereby Alberta undertook to pay on
behalf of British Columbia a cost-of-living bonus not in excess of $10 a month to eligible
British Columbia recipients of Old Age Security, Old-age Assistance, or Blind Persons'
Allowance living in Alberta, and British Columbia undertook to pay on behalf of Alberta
a supplementary allowance not in excess of $10 a month to eligible Alberta recipients
of Old Age Security, Old-age Assistance, or Blind Persons' Allowance living in British
Columbia.   This agreement was made effective retroactively as from January 1st, 1952.
Saskatchewan.—By Orders in Council dated April 1st, 1952, and May 2nd, 1952,
British Columbia entered into an agreement with Saskatchewan whereby Saskatchewan
undertook to pay on behalf of British Columbia a cost-of-living bonus not in excess of
$10 a month to eligible British Columbia recipients of Old Age Security, Old-age Assistance, or Blind Persons' Allowance living in Saskatchewan, and British Columbia undertook to pay on behalf of Saskatchewan a supplementary allowance of $2.50 a month to
eligible Saskatchewan recipients of Old Age Security or Blind Persons' Allowance living
in British Columbia.
Subsequently, Saskatchewan decided not to pay its supplementary allowance to any
person moving from Saskatchewan to British Columbia on or after January 1st, 1953,
and British Columbia decided not to pay its cost-of-living bonus to any person moving
from British Columbia to Saskatchewan after that date. This change did not affect those
who were already receiving a supplementary allowance or bonus, however.
Yukon Territory.—No new reciprocal agreement has been concluded with the
Yukon Territorial Government.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING THE PERIOD FROM
JANUARY 1st,  1952, TO MARCH 31st,  1953
Following will be found a graphic presentation of the various aspects of Old-age
Assistance since the coming into force of the " Old-age Assistance Act" in January,
1952.
The broken dotted line shows the cost of Old-age Assistance in units of 20,000 per
square. This line shows a rapid rise in the first few months and a lesser one in the
following months. This is due to the initial large number of applications granted at the
beginning of 1952, when the Act first came into force. The monthly increase in cost is
smaller than it would be otherwise because of the fact that recipients are transferred to
Old Age Security as soon as they become 70 years of age.
The line-graphs showing the number of applications received, the number granted,
and the number refused are worked out in units of 200 per square inch.
It will be seen that during the first few months' operation of the Act there was an
initial high peak in the number of applications received and granted. This was, of course,
to be expected. U 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The line-graph showing the number of applications granted remains above the line-
graph showing the number of applications received from February around to December.
This is, of course, due to the fact that the great number of applications received when
the Act first came into force could not all be processed at once. It took about ten months'
administrative work to bring operations back to normal; that is, to a point where the
number of applications received exceeded the number granted. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
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STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1953
Old-age Assistance
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received  3,644
Number of applications granted  5,427!
Number of applications not granted   (refused,  withdrawn,
etc.)    ,  993
1 Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous
(a) British Columbia—
Number of B.C. recipients returned to British Columbia 29
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  2
Number of deaths of B.C. recipients  261
Number of B.C. recipients suspended  264
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to other Provinces 89
Number  of  B.C.   recipients   transferred  to   Old  Age
Security   1,480
Total number of B.C. recipients on payroll at end of
fiscal year  7,410
(b) Other Province-
Number of new " other Province " recipients transferred
to British Columbia      182
Number of " other Province " recipients reinstated  1
Number of " other Province " recipients suspended  3
Number of deaths of " other Province " recipients  8
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred out
of British Columbia        31
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred to
Old Age Security  7
(c) Total number of recipients (B.C. and " other Province ") on
payroll at end of fiscal year  7,685
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number Per Cent
Not of age  140 14.10
Unable to prove age  73 7.35
Not sufficient residence  7 0.71
Income in excess  347 34.94
Unable to prove residence  3 0.30
Receiving War Veterans' Allowance  2 0.20
Information refused   27 2.72
Applications withdrawn   200 20.14
Applicants died before grant  60 6.04
Whereabouts unknown  20 2.02
Eligible for Old Age Security  101 10.17
Miscellaneous   13 1.31
Total       993        100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
u
63
Male ....
Table IV.-
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—Sex
of New Recipients
Number
  2,503
Per Cent
46.12
53.88
Female
  2,924
Total  _.:  5,427        100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
Married  2,376 43.78
Single        700 12.90
Widows   1,190 21.93
Widowers        360 6.63
Separated      717 13.21
Divorced           84 1.55
Total   5,427        100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
British Columbia      414 7.63
Other parts of Canada  1,225 22.57
British Isles   1,755 32.34
Other parts British Empire        43 0.80
United States of America :      486 8.95
Other foreign countries  1,504 27.71
Total   5,427        100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of Assistance
Number Per Cent
Age 65   1,655 30.49
Age 66       938 17.28
Age 67   1,037 19.11
Age 68       981 18.08
Age 69       816 15.04
Total   5,427        100.00
Table VI11.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 65         25 9.58
Age 66         44 16.86
Age 67         53 20.31
Age 68         64 24.52
Age 69         75 28.73
Total       261        100.00 U 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IX.—With Whom New Recipients Live
Number Per Cent
Living alone   1,733 31.93
Living with spouse  1,881 34.66
Living with spouse and children      486 8.96
Living with children      729 13.43
Living with other relatives      193 3.56
Living with others      235 4.33
Living in public institutions      122 2.25
Living in private institutions        48 0.88
Total   5,427        100.00
Table X.—Where New Recipients Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house   2,262 41.68
In rented house       721 13.29
In children's home      821 15.13
In home of other relatives      135 2.49
Boarding       157 2.89
In boarding home        34 0.63
In housekeeping room       588 10.83
In single room (eating out)      195 3.59
In rented suite      344 6.34
In institutions       170 3.13
Total   5,427 100.00
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Recipients
(a)  Holding real property of value—                              Number Per Cent
$0   3,297 60.75
$1 to $250      130 2.40
$251 to $500      333 6.14
$501 to $750      457 8.42
$751  to $1,000      408 7.52
$1,001 to $1,500      425 7.83
$1,501 to $2,000      202 3.72
$2,001 and up      175 3.22
Total   5,427        100.00
(b)  Holding personal property of value—
$0   2,852 52.55
$1 to $250  1,587 29.24
$251 to $500      425 7.83
$501 to $750      237 4.36
$751 to $1,000      113 2.08
$1,001 to $1,500      132 2.43
$1,501 to $2,000        57 1.05
$2,001 and up        24 0.46
Total   5,427 100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 65
Table XII.—Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces Whose Assistance
Was Granted by British Columbia and Is Paid by This Province
Alberta
17
Saskatchewan     9
Manitoba     8
Ontario   11
Quebec     1
New Brunswick  —
Nova Scotia    2
Prince Edward Island  	
Newfoundland	
Northwest Territories	
Yukon Territory	
Total
48
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Recipients According to the Amount of
Assistance Received (Basic Assistance, $40)
Amount of Assistance Per Cent
$40  83.23
$35 to $39.99  3.52
$30 to $34.99  3.81
$25 to $29.99  3.01
$20 to $24.99  1.94
Less than $19.99  4.49
  100.00
Total
Blind Persons' Allowances
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received	
Number of applications granted..
     77
     971
Number of applications not granted (refused, withdrawn, etc.)    12
i Includes some left over from previous year.
■ U 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. recipients suspended  16
Number of B.C. recipients reinstated  11
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to other Provinces  2
Number of B.C. recipients returned to British Columbia	
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to Old Age Security  20
Number of deaths of B.C. recipients  16
Number of deaths of " other Province " recipients  	
Number of "other Province" recipients transferred to British
Columbia   8
Number of "other Province" recipients  transferred out of
British Columbia or suspended  7
Number of " other Province " recipients reinstated  3
Total on payroll at end of fiscal year—
British Columbia  434
Other Province  51
Total   485
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number Per Cent
Not blind within the meaning of the Act     4 33.34
Income in excess     1 8.33
Applications withdrawn     1 8.33
Eligible for Old Age Security     2 16.67
Died before grant     1 8.33
Receiving War Veterans' Allowance     1 8.33
Information refused     2 16.67
Total   12 100.00
Table IV.—Sex of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
Male  57 58.76
Female      40 41.24
Total   97        100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Recipients
Number Per Cent
Married  29 29.90
Single   44 45.36
Widows     9 9.28
Widowers      5 5.15
Separated      9 9.28
Divorced      1 1.03
Total  97 100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 67
Table VI.-
British Columbia	
Other parts of Canada
British Isles	
-Birthplace of New Recipients
Number
  49
  22
     9
Other parts of British Empire  ____
United States of America     4
Other foreign countries  13
Total
97
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of Allowance
Number
     4
  10
Age 21 	
Ages 22 to 30	
Ages 31 to 40  13
Ages 41 to 50  17
Ages 51 to 60  22
Ages 61 to 69  31
Total
97
Per Cent
50.52
22.68
9.28
4.12
13.40
100.00
Per Cent
4.12
10.30
13.40
17.53
22.68
31.97
100.00
Table VIII.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number
Age 21 	
Ages 22 to 30	
Ages 31 to 40     1
Ages 41 to 50     1
Ages 51 to 60     4
Ages 61 to 69  10
Total
16
Per Cent
6.25
6.25
25.00
62.50
100.00
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
Living
Table IX.—With Whom New Recipients Live
Number
with parents  14
alone :  19
with spouse	
with spouse and children.
with children	
with other relatives	
  21
  8
  7
  11
with others  13
in public institutions  1
in private institutions  3
Per Cent
14.43
19.59
21.65
8.25
■   7.22
11.34
13.40
1.03
3.09
Total
97
100.00 U 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table X.—Where New Recipients Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house  22 22.68
In rented house  27 27.84
In rented suite     6 6.19
In children's home     8 8.25
Boarding   11 11.34
With member of family  13 13.40
In housekeeping room     2 2.06
In boarding home     1 1.03
In institutions     4 4.12
In single room (eating out)     3 3.09
Total   97 100.00
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Recipients
(a) Holding real property of value—                              Number Percent
$0   77 79.39
$1 to $250     4 4.12
$251 to $500  	
$501 to $750     3 3.09
$751 to $1,000       1 1.03
$1,001 to $1,500     9 9.28
$1,501 to $2,000     2 2.06
$2,001 and up     1 1.03
Total  97 100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value—
$0   66 68.04
$1 to $250  21 21.66
$251 to $500     5 5.15
$501 to $750     3 3.09
$751 to $1,000 .  	
$1,001 and up     2 2.06
Total   97 100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 69
Table XII.—Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces Whose Allowances
Were Granted by British Columbia and Are Paid by This Province
Alberta  	
Saskatchewan
Manitoba	
Ontario 	
Quebec	
1
New Brunswick	
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island
Newfoundland	
Northwest Territories
Yukon Territory	
Total
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Recipients According to the Amount
of Allowance Received (Basic Allowance, $40)
Allowance
$40	
$35 to $39.99 _.
$30 to $34.99 __
$25 to $29.99 -.
$20 to $24.99 __
$19.99 and less
Per Cent
94.47
1.15
0.92
0.47
2.07
0.92
Total   100.00
Cost-of-living Bonus and Health Services
New Applications
Number received  2,727
Number granted bonus and health services  1,261
Number granted bonus only  656
Number granted health services only  92
Number who died before application was granted  29
Number of applications withdrawn  70
Number of applicants ineligible  463
Number of applications pending  156
Total   2,727
General Information
Former old-age pensioners still receiving cost-of-living bonus
on March 31st, 1953  22,718
Old-age Assistance recipients transferred to Old Age Security
receiving cost-of-living bonus on March 31st, 1953     1,254
New Old Age Security pensioners receiving cost-of-living
bonus on March 31st, 1953     2,273
Blind persons in receipt of Old Age Security receiving cost-
of-living bonus on March 31st, 1953       226 U 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
" The Old Age Assistance Act," Year Ended March 31st, 1953
Total amount paid recipients in British        Assistance ^ow-Sce_fy Total
Columbia  $3,406,802.45     $643,137.05 $4,049,939.50
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Overpayments refunded  $3,013.09 $1,111.76 $4,124.85
Miscellaneous refunds  76.67 10.00 86.67
Totals  $3,089.76 $1,121.76 $4,211.52
Net amount paid to recipients in British
Columbia   $3,403,712.69     $642,015.29 $4,045,727.98
Add amount paid other Provinces on account of recipients for whom British
Columbia is responsible  20,058.97 1,649.20 21,708.17
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of recipients for whom
other Provinces are responsible  42,429.64 2,767.08 45,196.72
Less amount refunded by Federal Government      1,701,854.47        1,701,854.47
Total amount paid by British
Columbia   $1,679,487.55     $640,897.41  $2,320,384.96
" The Blind Persons Act," Year Ended March 3 1st, 1953
Supplementary
Allowances Allowances Total
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia $222,135.03    $51,382.10 $273,517.13
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Estates of pensioners       $4,392.29        $4,392.29
Overpayments refunded  337.94 $140.00 477.94
Totals       $4,730.23 $140.00      $4,870.23
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia   $217,404.80    $51,242.10 $268,646.90
Add amount paid other Provinces on account
of recipients for whom British Columbia is
responsible   477.67 160.00 637.67
Less amount received by British Columbia on
account of recipients for whom other Provinces are responsible         2,058.37        1,512.50        3,570.87
Less amount refunded by the Federal Government  -     163,011.65         163,011.65
Total amount paid by British Columbia      $52,812.45    $49,889.60 $102,702.05 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Old Age Security Pensioners—Supplementary Allowances,
Year Ended March 31st, 1953
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia   _ $3,103,934.24
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Overpayments refunded   $4,305.19
Miscellaneous refunds  100.00
Total  $4,405.19
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia.___ $3,099,529.05
Add amount paid other Provinces on account of
recipients for whom British Columbia is responsible   30,211.40
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of recipients for whom other Provinces
are responsible         144,005.03
____________________________________________
Total amount paid by British Columbia      $2,985,735.42
U 71
" The Old Age Pensions Act," Year Ended March 31st, 1953
Supplementary
Pensions Allowances
Total
Total amount paid pensioners in British Columbia    $4,154.36    $594.80      $4,749.16
Less amount  of  refunds  from  pensioners  and
estates—•
From estates  $93,882.57    $103.23    $93,985.80
Overpayments refunded       2,665.63        63.97        2,729.60
Miscellaneous refunds   40.00        10.00 50.00
Totals  $96,588.20    $177.20    $96,765.40
Net balance of pensions in British Columbia   $92,433.84!  $417.602  $92,016.24!
Add amount received from other Provinces on account of pensioners for whom they were responsible   54.23        29.44 83.67
Less amount refunded to the Federal Government    70,210.91           70,210.91
Total balance for pensions in British
Columbia    $22,277.16! $388.162 $21,889,001
i Credit. 2 Debit. U 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Administration Expense
Salaries and special services :  $159,527.84
Office expense  40,919.81
Travelling expense   649.09
Incidentals and contingencies  291.04
Equipment and furniture   1,108.37
Rentals   14,312.55
Total      $216,808.70
Summary
Cost-of-living Bonus
" Old-age Pension Act "  $388.16
" Old-age Assistance Act"  640,897.41
" Blind Persons' Allowances Act "  49,889.60
Universal Old Age Security  2,985,735.42
As per Public Accounts  $3,676,910.59
Administration and Assistance
Administration   $216,808.70
" Old-age Pension Act " : (Credit) 22,277.16
"Old-age Assistance Act"  1,679,487.55
" Blind Persons' Allowances Act "  52,812.45
As per Public Accounts  $1,926,831.54
CONCLUSION
In concluding its report, the Board wishes to express its sincere appreciation for
the loyal and efficient work of the staffs of its own office and the field service during the
year and for assistance extended so freely by other departments of the Government and
many outside agencies.
Respectfully submitted.
J. H. Creighton,
Chairman. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 73
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION
I wish to present a few highlights in the activities of the Medical Services Division
of the Provincial Department of Health and Welfare for the fiscal year 1952-53.
During this period $1,971,696.52 was spent throughout the Province at an administrative cost of $43,839.28. Table I indicates how this money was spent. (Please note
the method of presenting costs was changed this year as this gave a truer picture of the
actual amount of money spent. In previous reports only the amount the Provincial
Government contributed was quoted.) Of this amount, the Provincial Government
contributed $1,648,966.07, plus an administrative cost of $43,839.28; the municipalities
and other sources contributed $322,730.45.
Table I.—Breakdown of Expenditures for Fiscal Year 1952—53
Expenditure
Municipalities and
Other Sources
Provincial
Government
Suspense. _ _ _	
Medical—
$2,642.73
$2,505.32
$137.41
1,001,409.34
1,122.21
2.278.96
10,232.25
610,344.11
9,119.84
35,738.36
1,470.00
6,305.39
65,234.70
3,709.12
346.49
12,709.80
5,482.71
366.70
15,467.06
1,156.75
207.98
1
\          124,528.38
J
Other _  	
10,024.27
530,673.93
Dental—
1,470.00
26.00
1,591.40
6,279.39
63,643.30
Transportation—
3,709.12
346.49
Other- 	
387.70
108.00
12,322.10
5,374.71
Physiotherapy __	
366.70
3,379.96
12,087.10
$1,971,696.52
$322,730.45
$1,648,966.07
The present per capita payment is $18.50 per year. The increase from $14.50 to
$18.50, plus the larger numbers covered, explains the increase in payment to the Medical
Association. The relationship between the Social Welfare Branch and the Canadian
Medical Association (British Columbia Division) continues to be most amicable and
co-operative.
The question of costs of drugs and medicines continues to disturb. This is somewhat
mitigated by the fact that greater numbers are utilizing this service and more expensive
types of drugs found needed are being prescribed. It is interesting to compare and
contrast the cost in the treatment of a case of pneumonia a few years ago with that of
to-day: a few aspirins, sweat powders, mustard plasters, inhalations, cough syrups, and
the individual's resistance (which on account of his age was usually very low) in contrast
to the treatment to-day with antibiotics and the new chemicals, which are rather expensive.
This has removed pneumonia from the category as referred to by Sir William Osier as
" The captain of men of death." A most interesting study in comparison of costs follows
in Tables II and III. U 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Comparative Study of Six Months' Drug Charges, Welfare
Cases in British Columbia
Drug
B.C.
Formulary No.
Average Cost
Fourth Quarter,
1952
First Quarter.
1953
1-49
50-60
70-99
100-139
140-169
170-239
240-269
260-269
270-299
300-329
330-369
370-399
400-486
$1,776
1.647
2.335
1.695
1.213
2.479
1.273
2.981
1.92
2.094
1.42
1.959
3.008
0.876
$1,729
Blood.. 	
1.638
2.321
Digestive  	
Eye—	
Hormones   _ _	
1.664
1.217
2.69
1.241
Obstetrics  —	
2.978
1.961
Respiratory	
Skin	
2.011
1.42
1.930
2.988
1.504
2.059 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 75
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o 0 > 0 U 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
There has been progress in the arrangements for prophylactic dentistry. The
Medical Services Division has hopes of completing plans in the next few months through
the Dental Division of the Provincial Department of Health and Welfare to provide this
service for welfare pre-school children and as many of school age as can be handled by
practising dentists throughout the Province. Requests for this type of dentistry are
coming to the Division at an increasing rate, which but adds to the stimulus to proceed
with plans. It is the opinion of the Medical Director that it will take several years of
careful planning to provide adequate service. All this depends directly on the increase
throughout the Province in the numbers of practising dentists. When the initial agreement has been completed and allowed sufficient time to function properly, there will be
established in perpetuity treatment for these cases. This service can be expanded
according to the availability of dentists.
The Western Society for Rehabilitation continues to give excellent assistance to the
handicapped. When closer study from a medical-social view-point can be given cases,
a greater demand will be made on this society. Illustrative of the Division's thinking
are:—
(1) The cases taught self-care who otherwise would be occupying beds in
institutions; e.g., the post-poliomyelitis cases, the arthritis cases. This
service enables these people to be kept at home in their own surroundings.
(2) Those who are suffering from a permanent handicap are given an opportunity for re-education and retraining to become self-supporting. One
could not quote a better example than of Mr. X, who, brought down from
the upper country for admission to the Infirmary, was admitted to the
Vancouver General Hospital for complete investigation and transferred
to the Western Society for Rehabilitation for two months' treatment and
returned to his home and to his job.
It is certain that this approach must be carried out on a wide basis if the Branch
hopes to deal with the ever-growing problem in a sane manner. The Medical Director
is somewhat perturbed by the absence of some form of over-all Provincial planning which
interlocks all phases of this problem, such as convalescent institutions, chronic hospitals,
custodial institutions (infirmaries, nursing homes, and boarding homes), and adequate
home nursing services. To deal successfully with this problem, it would seem that the
resources and efforts of various interested departments or branches of Government and
private agencies should be integrated.
The Medical Services Division is most appreciative and thankful for the assistance
and co-operation given by the Vancouver General Hospital and its staff, the British
Columbia Cancer Institute and its staff, the executive of the British Columbia Division of
the Canadian Medical Association, and the British Columbia Pharmaceutical Association.
Respectfully submitted.
J. C. Moscovich, M.D.,
Director. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 77
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS
Herewith I respectfully submit the forty-ninth annual report of the Provincial
Industrial School for Boys, covering the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1953.
With an average daily population of 100.6 boys, the buildings and equipment were
taxed beyond capacity and our programme conducted under rather adverse conditions.
It is evident that good work has been accomplished and considerable progress made in
the development of policy and programme with the view to the anticipated move to
the Brannen Lake School for Boys, where, with adequate facilities and beautiful surroundings, the School should be better able to fulfil its function as a modern training
and treatment centre.
One hundred and forty-one boys were admitted during the year, 23 or 16.3 per
cent being recidivists. Seventy were 14 years of age and under, while 71 were 15
years of age and over—3 boys were 10 years of age, 5 boys were 11 years of age,
12 boys were 12 years of age, 13 boys were 13 years of age, 37 boys were 14 years
of age, 35 boys were 15 years of age, 27 boys were 16 years of age, and 9 boys were
17 years of age upon admission. Inmate-days for the year totalled 36,721, an increase
of 5,856 over the previous year. The following figures show the high and low population by months during the year, releases and admissions being responsible for the
fluctuation:—
High
(Boys)
129
126
126
121
April, 1952	
May 	
June 	
July 	
August   100
September   92
October  90
November   78
December     83
January, 1953   97
February   107
March   108
Low
(Boys)
104
116
117
98
90
83
78
67
76
80
94
100
The total admissions represent forty different Juvenile Court areas and all regions
of the Province, domicile being 25 from Region I, 69 from Region II, 10 from Region
III, 3 from Region IV, 15 from Region V, 15 from Region VI, and 4 from outside
Provincial limits. The charges resulting in commitment were largely offences against
property, which numbered 115, offences against persons, which numbered 5, while
21 were miscellaneous, such as truancy, vagrancy, incorrigibility, etc.
During a boy's stay in the School his social workers maintain constant liaison with
one of the social-work agencies who will assist in the boy's rehabilitation upon release.
From this agency it is possible to obtain the necessary social data regarding the boy's
background, and it is with this agency that his workers jointly plan for release and aftercare. The following summary is the case-load analysis of agencies doing pre-release
planning and post-release supervision for the boys admitted during the year:—
Boys
Provincial Probation Branch  43
Social Welfare Branch  35
Children's Aid Society  12
Catholic Children's Aid Society     4
Vancouver Juvenile Court  29
Victoria Juvenile Court  10
Victoria Family and Children's Service     4
New Westminster Social Welfare Department     2
Direct cases      2 U 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
One hundred and fifty-five releases were completed during the year, and the average
length of stay in the School was approximately nine months.
TREATMENT SECTION
Progress continues in the development of an adequate treatment programme to
meet the needs of those committed to care. The establishment was increased by seven
new staff appointments in order to meet the requirements and provide necessary supervision.
The programme of in-service training of staff appears well worth while and is
reflected in the attitudes of the men toward the boys in their care. The increase in the
daily population and the overcrowded quarters have been a handicap in many respects,
and certain features of group living which the School would like to promote are almost
impossible for the time being.
HEALTH SERVICES
Realizing that little can be accomplished in changing behaviour patterns if the
patient is ill or emotionally disturbed, the School attaches major importance to the
health and physical well-being of the boys. Many are found to be in need of medical
care upon admission, and practically all are in need of dental care. Admission routine
includes a complete and thorough physical examination, including X-ray and laboratory
tests.
The health services during the year have been heavier than usual, as will be noted
by the following figures:—
Eight medical and thirty-six surgical cases required a total of 281  days'
hospitalization.
Two hundred and seven boys attended dental clinic at the Vancouver General
Hospital for a total of 376 individual appointments.
Thirty-two boys received a total of fifty-two treatments through the Vancouver
General Hospital Out-patients' Clinics.
One hundred and fifty-one boys were examined at the New Westminster Chest
Clinic.
Thirty-three appointments were made with eye specialists, and ten boys with
impaired vision were supplied with glasses.
The services of the Crease Clinic were called upon for twenty-seven diagnostic
X-rays and eight laboratory tests.
Five hundred and eighty-four cases of minor illness and accident were taken
care of by the school nurse and medical officer.
ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL
Many revisions have been made in the academic and vocational section in order
to bring it in line with the other departments of the School. It is realized that the
academic programme is only one factor in the over-all treatment, and rehabilitation of
the boy and close co-operation with other departments is essential, especially with that
of the social workers. This co-operation consists of case conferences, reporting by the
teachers of any unusual behaviour patterns, recommendations by the social workers,
and, in general, an integrating of the academic programme with the other activities of
the School.
Educational visits were made to many industrial plants as in past years, the boys
being very interested and gaining much from these visits. Utmost courtesy and consideration have always been extended by the personnel of the plants visited.
In accordance with new regulations, school continued through the twelve-month
period under the direction of the regular staff.   During the summer months, emphasis REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 79
was placed on remedial education and helping those who had not passed to higher
grades at the end of June. The extra tuition enabled the majority to obtain the credits
necessary for promotion. In addition to the above, a sketching class was formed and
a nature-science group made several field-trips.
Sixty-five boys were eligible for promotion at the end of June. Of these, forty-
two received a complete pass and ten others were promoted at the close of the summer
session, making a total of fifty-two promotions from sixty-five pupils.
A total of 144 boys was enrolled during the fiscal year, 64 being on the roll as at
April 1st, 1952, and 80 new boys being enrolled during the twelve-month period. The
average I.Q. of the total number was 91. Five boys were in Grade IV, 16 boys in Grade
V, 21 boys in Grade VI, 28 boys in Grade VII, 32 boys in Grade VIII, 30 boys in
Grade IX, 2 boys in Grade X, and 10 boys in a special grade. Twelve boys took
correspondence courses to supplement credits for regular courses taught.
Auditory and visual aids continue to play an important part in our educational
programme, as do vocational films and musical recordings. Visits to industrial plants
were arranged to correlate with class work actually in progress.
Two hundred and three boys participated in the activities of the craft-shop, and
148 were enrolled for motor mechanics. Capacity classes were held in both shops daily,
with experienced craftsmen in charge. The interest and student participation was most
gratifying. In order to partially relieve the overcrowding, we were able to transfer the
tailor-shop to a smaller room in another building and incorporate the space made
available as part of the woodwork-shop. This enabled the administration to increase
the size of the various classes and to permit a more varied programme.
Because of the increase in daily population and the necessity to find more activity
outlets the motor-mechanics instructor was put on a full-time instruction schedule in
place of his former part-time schedule.   This has proved most helpful.
Practical and theoretical training in all phases of gardening and agriculture has
proved popular with a large number of pupils. Vegetables raised provide the needs of the
School during the summer months, and the flowers propagated help beautify the grounds.
It has been the experience of the School that this form of activity is of great help in the
treatment of certain types of disturbed youngsters, who derive satisfaction from working
in close contact with nature.
Experience in tailoring is available for a small group of boys. The tailor-shop,
while small, does a big job in providing most of the clothing requirements, bed linen,
towels, etc., and also all major clothing repairs. A few boys each year choose this
department as their place of work. They receive expert instruction and become proficient in the operation of power-machines. The following articles are but part of the
goods produced during the year: 456 pairs of overalls, 93 pairs of tweed pants, 361
pairs of cotton shorts, 96 dish towels, and 84 aprons. To this may be added many other
items, such as the care of boys' personal clothing upon admission and discharge, entailing
the cleaning, pressing, and repair of 187 garments, the care of all slipper and boot
repairs, etc.
SOCIAL CASE-WORK
The case-work section expanded considerably. Following the addition of a third
social worker, service to the boys was intensified and increased generally. The security
wing of the School was changed from one strictly for custody to one of treatment and
custody and became an integral part of the social case-work section. A programme
counsellor, with abilities in the educational and crafts field, was appointed to conduct
a constructive programme in the unit. This effort has proved well worth while, although
handicapped by the overcrowded quarters.
During the year the services of the Child Guidance Clinic were called on for 77
full psychiatric and psychological examinations, 19 special projective vocational tests, U 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
etc., 137 psychiatric interviews, and 114 case conferences. Within the School the
social workers have held 1,338 supportive interviews, 340 intensive interviews, 224
case conferences, 399 consultations with staff, 307 supervision periods, 13 Court attendances, 15 hospital visits, and 72 committee meetings.
SOCIAL GROUP WORK AND RECREATION
The programme of activities in a training-school must include recreational and
creative opportunities to help make up for the earlier lack of these in the lives of the
boys who come into care. Therefore, the School endeavours to provide a stimulating,
enriched programme in as large a variety as possible. The School family is divided into
seven friendship groups, with a counsellor in charge of each, and many programme
features are conducted on a group basis. Dormitory space is allocated to each group,
which permits the group leader to meet with his boys and discuss the day's events before
" lights out." At general assembly the boys gather in groups, and at meal-hours each
group has its own table. The result of this and other positive elements in the programme
has been a noticeably happier and more hopeful attitude on the part of the boys.
An itemized list of the various activities and the attendance would be too extensive
to include in the space available, but the following will serve to illustrate the variety.
Special celebrations were held on July 1 st, Labour Day, Remembrance Day, Thanksgiving, Hallowe'en, and Christmas, suitable recognition being made on each occasion
and some of the boys participating in the community celebrations when deemed advisable.
Many favourable comments have been made by the general public who have met the lads
on these occasions.
Other outstanding events included a visit by " disk jockey " Jack Cullen of Radio
Station CKNW, the Rhythm Pals of Radio Station CKWX, entertainers from the McLeod
Studio, and many others, who have come to the School and provided evenings of
enjoyable entertainment, which were greatly appreciated.
The Shriners, Rotary and Kiwanis Clubs of New Westminster and Vancouver, the
New Westminster Parks Board, and the New Westminster Y's Men's Club have generously
provided tickets for circuses, ice carnivals, sportsmen's show, and numerous hockey,
lacrosse, football, and basketball games, etc.
A group attended the Indian opera " Tzinquaw," the Indian boys coming away with
increased feelings of self-worth and those of other backgrounds with increased respect
for the Indian culture. Thirty models constructed by the boys were entered in the British
Columbia Older Boys' Parliament Hobby Show, where a fair share of prizes went to the
School. Repairing and making toys for distribution through the Community Chest to
needy children continues to be a popular activity. The facilities of the School have been
taxed to the utmost to provide places where groups may get together and carry out their
many activities.
Teams representing the School have played many home and visiting games with
teams from Vancouver, New Westminster, and surrounding district, displaying commendable sportsmanship and ability. Swimming and diving, indoor and outdoor games,
field-days, hikes, overnight camps, etc., have played an important part in the programme
of this section.
Religious services are held each Sunday for both Catholic and Protestant boys, the
former attending services at Port Coquitlam, while the latter meet in one of the schoolrooms. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 81
STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Parental Relationships
With mother and father living  67
With mother and father living but separated  21
With mother living and father dead  11
With father living and mother dead  8
With mother and father separated, mother remarried  19
With mother and father separated, father remarried  2
With mother and father separated, both remarried  3
With father dead and mother remarried  4
With mother dead and father remarried  1
With both parents dead  2
With whereabouts of parents unknown  3
Total
141
Movement of Population, April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953
Number in School, April 1st, 1952  104
Number absent without leave, April 1st, 1952  19
Number in Oakalla, April 1st, 1952  3
Number of new admissions during year  118
Number of recidivists during year  23
267
Number of releases during year  155
Number absent without leave, March 31st, 1953	
Number in Oakalla, March 31st, 1953	
Number in Crease Clinic, March 31st, 1953	
Number on extended leave, March 31st, 1953	
4
1
2
4
166
Number in School, March 31st, 1953  101
Expenditure and per Capita Cost
Salaries	
Office and school expense	
Travelling and transportation	
Heat, light, power, and water	
Janitor's supplies and maintenance of grounds
Laundry 	
Provisions 	
Clothing, shoes, dry-goods, etc	
Medical, surgical, and dental	
Other hospitalization	
Vocational and recreational supplies	
Office furniture and equipment	
Furnishings and equipment	
Automobiles and accessories	
Incidentals and contingencies	
51
31,495.75
2,538.39
5,123.59
4,796.17
2,520.77
2,470.43
40,198.49
10,602.84
6,915.85
3,806.15
2,789.06
644.58
3,868.65
1,527.18
1,582.02
Carried forward
$220,879.92 U 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Brought forward  $220,879.92
Less—
Rent collected  $350.00
Unemployment insurance deductions 1  165.36
Meal tickets I  3,13 8.00
Maintenance   2,441.38
Workmen's Compensation Board  882.74
Miscellaneous   1.20
Increase in inventory  3,449.44
       10,428.12
$210,451.80
Public Works expenditure         7,004.50
$217,456.30
Cost-of-living bonus         7,827.32
Public Works cost-of-living bonus  204.00
$225,487.62
Per Capita Cost
General operating expense  $5.92
Cost-of-living bonus       .22
Total per capita cost  $6.14
CONCLUSION
There are so many individuals, departments of Government, and agencies, public
and private, with whom the School works that it is apt sometimes to take their efforts for
granted. I would be remiss in my duty if I did not take this opportunity of expressing
deep appreciation to each and every one for the many services rendered and kindness
shown on behalf of the boys, and to say that while their names may not appear in print,
nevertheless their work and co-operation have helped immeasurably, and to them is
extended grateful thanks.
Respectfully submitted.
George Ross,
Superintendent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 83
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
I respectfully submit the thirty-ninth annual report for the Provincial Industrial
School for Girls.
On the whole, I feel this has been a progressive year, heading toward the ultimate
goal of treatment and training rather than mere custody. Building on the foundation
laid last year, there has been growth in co-operation and development of planning closely
with private agencies and welfare branches.
ADMISSIONS
This year shows an increased admission, with a total of sixty-two. The greatest
number of these came quite naturally from Region II, where is found the densest
population. Ages of these girls are more closely grouped, only 1 per cent being under
14 years, as compared with 15 per cent last year. However, the greatest group appears
in the 14- and 15-year ages, these forming 40 per cent of the total. Twenty-four per
cent were in the 17-year group, as against 10 per cent in this class last year. This has
given two quite distinct groups for planning suitable programmes around school, vocational training, and hobbies. Charges included 32 per cent for incorrigibility, which
frequently includes other forms of delinquency leading to the final charge. Sixty-three
per cent were charged with various offences, including vagrancy, intoxication, and sexual
immorality.
HEALTH
Generally speaking, health has maintained a high standard this year. However, the
School was faced with a new and difficult situation this year, which may well be
included in a report on health. Four girls were committed during the year who were
drug addicts. These were not cases, like several others, who had merely experimented
with drugs, but were all habitual users of heroin. Once more the administration was
faced with the problem of segregation quarters, adequately staffed. As the latter appeared
difficult, if not impossible, one girl undergoing severe withdrawal symptoms requiring
constant and vigilant supervision, was transferred to Oakalla and thence to a private
sanatorium. She escaped from there in a few days, and was returned to the School.
The four girls were a constant problem for many months, and exerted detrimental
influence on the entire group.
The regular team from the Division of Venereal Disease Control visited the School
weekly, and all medical requirements were attended by the School's physician. As
before, chest X-rays are routine, with diagnostic X-rays for all Indian admissions.
Dental work was done at Capitol Hill School Clinic, and several sets of dentures were
provided—some by parents, some by the School—this work being done by arrangements
other than the School clinic, which provides only for fillings and extractions. Optical
and continuous medical-treatment cases attended the Out-patients' Department of the
Vancouver General Hospital.
CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC
The previously instituted policy of early presentation of all girls to this Clinic
continued with good results. The girls who are well prepared for presentation there
find much help in adjusting to their individual problems, while interpretation of various
cases to staff has made it possible for them to assist in guiding girls who turn to them
for advice and counsel.
TRAINING AND PLACEMENT
There were forty-four releases during this year, the majority to their homes or care
of relatives.   One of these was /., an attractive, nicely spoken girl, charged with theft. U 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Her greatest handicap was extreme jealousy, and her demand for the most and the best
for herself. Her sharp tongue and extreme jealousy created great difficulty, and cost her
popularity with the group. Assistance from Child Guidance Clinic and plain discussion
with staff members did much to overcome her unpleasant characteristics. Upon release
she was placed in employment with a large firm in Vancouver, where she remained for
nine months. During that time she visited the School on many occasions, and appeared
happy, popular, well dressed, and a charmingly normal girl. She has since changed her
employment, continues happy, and a credit to herself and to the School.
Another girl, A., was charged with incorrigibility and committed as the result of
a broken home. She was vulgar and common, but quite striking looking, and pathetic
in her attempts to put on a veneer of ladylike behaviour. This girl was intelligent and
made every effort to benefit from suggestion and instruction. Upon release she was
committed to and placed under supervision of the Superintendent of the Catholic
Children's Aid Society. Employment was found for A., and then began a series of ups
and downs. After several months, during which time A. narrowly escaped difficulty
with the authorities, she found a job to which she was suited, and when the School heard
from her recently, she was happy and self-supporting.
Girls placed in employment upon release meet with varied success. Under close
supervision they appear to make success of placements, but do not always remain so.
C. is a case in point. She was released to an excellent job in a hospital, and suitable
living-quarters, but did not remain in either long, returning to her home town, with
resulting recommittal.
PROGRAMME
Both Protestant and Roman Catholic girls attended community churches of their
own faith. Groups from various outside churches brought regular Sunday afternoon
services to the School.
School was carried on as usual, with all girls of legal school age attending regularly
under direction of a qualified teacher. Quite a number of over-age girls attended part
time, taking partial grades in high-school subjects or typing and shorthand. The class
in ceramics was well attended, and the School was able to purchase its own kiln for
firing of articles made by the girls. A part-time art-teacher held classes weekly, and
quite a gallery of pictures now adorns the dining-room. Finger painting and artificial-
flower making were two more hobbies enjoyed by numbers of girls.
Bowling, swimming, and movies are weekly events, looked forward to with
enthusiasm. The first two are privileges earned, and the movie is attended by all.
Popular sports include badminton, baseball, volley ball, and track events.
GENERAL
The staff owes its thanks and appreciation to all the outside groups, who have done
much to make life in the School so much more homelike and normal. Under the best
of conditions, institutional living takes on a certain routine colouring, and the interest
and enthusiasm of outside friends, organizations, and agencies have done much to
alleviate this.
Within the School setting the staff has tried to have the traditional home holidays
celebrated in the spirit of the day. Hallowe'en was a wonderful masquerade party, with
weird, elegant, and fanciful costumes and the customary games and refreshments.
Christmas was celebrated with all of the girls and staff together. Some of the girls
could have gone home, but all agreed that the spirit of the day called for some sacrifice
for others, so everyone stayed on for Christmas. Decorations of greens, holly, and
candles sparked a day of happiness, beginning with presents stacked under the tree,
heaps of mail before the fireplace, buffet breakfast, bountiful dinner, and fun for all. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 85
New Year's Eve was the scene of a delectable buffet supper provided by the father
of one of the former girls.
This report is presented in the hope that the administration's present programme,
directed, as is that of the Boys' School, toward individual treatment and greater vocational
training, may develop steadily in the Girls' School throughout the next fiscal year.
STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Population of School, March 31st, 1953
On roll, April 1st, 1952  33
Girls admitted during year, April 1st, 1952, to March 31st,
1953    62
— 95
Officially released  44
Transferred to other institutions with subsequent official release from Girls' Industrial School     5
Transferred to other institutions but not officially released
from Girls' Industrial School within the year   1
Transferred out of British Columbia     1
— 50
Total unreleased, March 31st, 1953  45
Places of Apprehension
Region I   12
Region II   30
Region III     5
Region IV     3
Region V     7
Region VI     5
Total  62
Offences Committed
Offences against property     4
Offences of incorrigibility   19
Other offences  39
Total.
62
Parental Relationships
Normal homes   18
Broken homes  3 8
Adoptive homes     6
Total.
62
.
I U 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ages of Girls Admitted
1951-52 1952-53
(Percent) (Per Cent)
12 years  2.04 1.6
13 years  12.24                	
14 years  18.36 20.9
15 years  28.57 20.9
16 years   28.57 32.2
17 years   10.20 24.2
Expenses and Revenue Statement of School, March 3 1st, 1953
Total inmate-days from April 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1953  12,175
Per capita cost, one year     $2,127.22
Per capita cost, one day  $5,828
Operating expenditure by voucher—
Salaries    $42,396.98
Office and school supplies, etc.—
Postage, office and school supplies      $594.33
Telephone and telegraph        287.14
  881.47
Travelling expenses  984.87
Farm operations  576.74
Furnishings, equipment, etc.          1,438.82
Office furniture and equipment  322.94
Clothing—
Clothing  $ 1,962.11
Boots and shoes        210.69
       2,172.80
Janitor's supplies  617.61
Fuel, light, and water-—
Fuel  $3,499.04
Water         306.50
Light and power     1,267.10
       5,072.64
Provisions—
Groceries    $6,440.93
Meat   2,350.08
Fish  322.97
9,113.98
Medical attendance, medical supplies, hospitalization, and
dental cost—
Medical attendance      $675.00
Medical supplies         490.51
Hospitalization and surgery     1,472.74
Dental cost       790.00
Eyes examined and glasses provided  42.75
       3,471.00
Good Conduct Fund  346.64
Incidentals and contingencies  310.93
Vocational and recreational supplies  863.32
Total expenditure for year by voucher  $68,570.74 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Brought forward
U 87
$68,570.74
5,228.00
Inventory, March 31st, 1952       1,681.98
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department)—
Salaries   $3,480.00
Repairs      1,748.00
$75,480.72
Less proceeds from sale of meal tickets  $1,113.50
Less rent  268.55
Less proceeds from sale of garden produce  146.87
Workmen's Compensation Board refund  317.68
Less Court order maintenance for inmates  250.00
Less inventory, March 31st, 1953.
$2,096.60
2,675.36
4,771.96
$70,708.76
Reconciliation
Total expenditure as per Public Accounts  $66,474.14
Add Public Works expenditure       5,228.00
A dd inventory as at March 31 st, 1952       1,681.98
$73,384.12
Less inventory as at March 31st, 1953       2,675.36
Expenditure (as above)  $70,708.76
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Ayra E. Peck,
Superintendent.
■
I U 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL HOME, KAMLOOPS
I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Provincial Home for the Aged
and Infirm, Kamloops, for the fiscal year 1952-53.
IMPROVEMENTS TO THE INTERIOR OF BUILDINGS
Each year certain improvements have been carried out in the renovation of the
buildings comprising the Provincial Home, and during the fiscal year further improvements have been made. On account of the continued overflow of sick-ward patients, the
sick ward proper was expanded to include the room utilized in the past as the chapel
and entertainment room, which necessitated installing Venetian blinds, new lighting
fixtures, and the whole being redecorated in light pastel shades in keeping with the sick
ward proper.
A new sitting-room was provided upstairs, immediately above the front entrance, for
the inmates; also a sitting-room was provided for the staff, immediately above the office,
these rooms being decorated appropriately.
The lower main hallway, which was modernized last year, was painted a bright light
colour, and the upper half of the upstairs hallway was decorated in a light-green pastel
colour, but unfortunately neither hallway has been completed to date.
No. 3 Ward on the lower floor, including the barber-shop, was decorated throughout
in a light colour, which brightened this ward considerably.
EXTERNAL IMPROVEMENT
The Provincial Home cemetery was regraded and extended in preparation of further
improvement to this area.
EQUIPMENT
Ten new hospital beds were installed in the expanded sick ward, and all beds in the
sick ward and sick ward annex, Ward No. 11, were equipped with new spring-filled
mattresses, protected by plastic envelopes, which have proved very satisfactory.
All inmates' rooms were equipped with new upholstered chairs with variated
combination of colours, plus minor equipment, all of which impressed the appearance,
comfort, and standard of the Home in general.
ENTERTAINMENT AND VISITORS
The distinguished visitor of the year was the Honourable Clarence Wallace,
Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, who was accompanied by William Manson,
vice-president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, Vancouver, attended by Col. M. W.
Turner, O.B.E., CD., aide-de-camp to His Honour.
Throughout the year, concerts were given by the Elks' Band, High School Orchestra,
Junior and Senior High School Girls' Choirs. The annual entertainment event of the
year was the Christmas concert by the Elks' Concert Party and Band.
Weekly picture shows are exhibited in the Home, and religious services are conducted
by various denominations several times a week.
As in the past, I believe, this fiscal year may be considered another year of progress
in the physical and moral welfare of the men of the Provincial Home. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 89
FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR APRIL 1st, 1952,
TO MARCH 3 1st, 1953
Expenditure for the Fiscal Year Ended March 31st, 1953
Salaries  $74,802.44
Cost-of-living bonus  5,434.87
Expenses—■
Office expense  748.96
Heat, light, power, and water  14,364.55
Maintenance  828.92
Laundry   741.25
Provisions   32,346.96
Clothing, shoes, dry-goods, etc  2,745.97
Medical and surgical  5,575.52
Other hospitalization  3,722.25
Transportation of inmates  594.76
Burials   1,250.00
Furnishings, equipment, etc  989.24
Incidentals and contingencies  103.04
$144,248.73
Less board ($2,094) and rent ($683.75)         2,777.75
$141,470.98
Inmate-days
Inmates in the Home, April 1st, 1952  129
Inmates admitted during the year     52
  181
Inmates discharged     35
Inmates deceased     34
     69
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1953   112
Total number of inmate-days  43,468
Expenditures by Department of Public Works
Maintenance and repairs     $13,401.07
Summary
Provincial Home expenditure  $141,470.98
Public Works expenditure       13,401.07
Total expenditure   $154,872.05
Cost per capita: $154,872.05-f-43,468=$3.56289. U 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Paid to Government Agent, Kamloops
Pensions      $57,032.70
Reconciliation
Net expenditure as per Public Accounts     $80,556.95
Add maintenance receipts       66,845.18
$147,402.13
Add Public Works expenditure       13,401.07
$160,803.20
Less pensioners' comforts         5,931.15
Total expenditure (as above)  $154,872.05
Respectfully submitted.
J. M. Shilland,
Superintendent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 91
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS LICENSING BOARD
I herewith submit the annual report of the administration of the "Welfare
Institutions Licensing Act" for the year 1952. As licences are issued on the basis of
the calendar year, this report covers the period from January 1st, 1952, to December
31st, 1952.
More comprehensive and broader regulations to the Act were passed early in the
year, which have helped greatly with the administration and also will be a means of
raising standards of all licensed institutions.
LICENCES
The total number of cases dealt with during the year was 716. There were 423
licences issued. Of these, 80 were new licences and 343 were renewals. During the
year 66 licensed institutions closed. At the end of the year the total case-load was 459,
made up of 357 licensed institutions and 102 pending applications.
It may be of some interest to note that in the ten-year period between December
31st, 1942, and December 31st, 1952, the number of licensed institutions increased
from 46 to 357. Also, seven types of care are now covered by licence, while in 1942
only four types were licensed.
BOARD MEETINGS
The Welfare Institutions Licensing Board held eight regular meetings and one
special meeting during the year. This special meeting was called in order to further
clarify section 31 (b) of the regulations, which refers to the qualifications of supervisors
of pre-school projects. Attending this meeting were representatives from the various
groups interested and active in pre-school education, and also Dr. Harold J. Johns,
Director of Vocational Guidance, Department of Education. With the helpful advice
of these groups, and especially of Dr. Johns, the Board was able to arrive at acceptable
qualifications, which have since become effective.
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS FOR CHILDREN
A. Full-time Care of Children
Institutions for Child-care
There are ten licensed institutions for the full-time care of children; this is one less
than last year. Fairbridge Farm School, located at Duncan, Vancouver Island, closed
early in the year, and the few children in this school were taken in care by the Superintendent of Child Welfare. This school, which was supported by funds from England,
was unable to get sufficient money to carry on due to the restrictions on bringing money
out of England.
With the exception of two of these licensed institutions, specialized care is given
and the child's stay in the institution is of short duration. Institutions such as Rosary
Hall at Williams Lake and Notre Dame at Dawson Creek are, in reality, large boarding
homes for children who live in outlying areas where there are no schools. Children
staying in these institutions usually spend their week-ends and vacations with their
parents.
St. Christopher's School, for the training of intellectually retarded boys, is another
institution giving special services. Admission to the school is upon recommendation of
the Child Guidance Clinic, and boys admitted range in age from 5 to 14 years. Training
is given in school work, housework, and crafts, each boy working at his own level. The
capacity of the school is twenty boys. The society operating this school, when funds
are available, plans to build a new school where about fifty boys can be accommodated. U 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
There is a gradual improvement in the type of service being given by our institutions;  also more and better-trained staffs are being employed.
To-day it can be said that " orphans' homes " are a thing of the past, but the institutions for children have an important place in present-day service to children. Institutional care is increasingly needed for certain types of children, including some emotionally
disturbed children, mentally retarded children, some children with physical handicaps
for whom short-time care is needed, and adolescents who need and can benefit from
group care.
Number of institutions licensed in 1952  10
Number of children cared for  613
Total days' care  122,139
Private Boarding Homes
There were fewer licensed private boarding homes in 1952 than in the previous
year. One of the reasons for this decrease is that the Children's Aid Societies in Vancouver have been encouraging persons to board only one child. Homes in Vancouver
where only one child is boarded are required to have a permit from the city health
department. These homes are inspected before the permit is issued and are under the
supervision of the Children's Aid Societies and the public health nurse.
Licensing of private boarding homes is done in co-operation with the Children's
Aid Societies, Health Services, municipal authorities, and the Welfare Institutions Office.
The Children's Aid Societies in Vancouver and the Family and Children's Service in
Victoria have the responsibility of recommending the homes for licence in their areas
and also for supervision after licensing. In other parts of the Province this work is done
by the social workers of the Provincial Social Welfare Branch.
Section 13 of the new regulations now controls the number and age of children in
a licensed home. This section states: "... the number of children cared for in any
licensed home shall not exceed five, no more than three of whom shall be under the age
of six years."
There is in Vancouver a Private Boarding Home Committee which is under the
chairmanship of Dr. Stewart Murray, Senior Medical Health Officer, Vancouver, and
having representatives from the two Children's Aid Societies, Foster Day Care Association, Metropolitan Health Committee, and the Welfare Institutions Office. This Committee meets bi-monthly to discuss the private boarding-home situation in the city. It
deals with all difficulties which may arise concerning the private boarding homes, decides
upon policy, and works toward improved standards and better methods of control.
The co-operation of the press, especially in Vancouver, in referring all advertisements to board children to the Welfare Institutions Office has helped greatly in controlling
the private boarding-home situation.
Care must be taken to see that only persons who are suitable and have some understanding of the needs of children are recommended for licence. If a good job is not done
in licensing, then children's private boarding homes may become a menace and cause
a great deal of serious trouble.
Number of children's boarding homes licensed in 1952  37
Number of children cared for        149
Total day's care  27,581
B. Day Care of Children
Foster Homes for Day Care
Children of mothers who must of necessity work are cared for in Vancouver in
foster day-care homes under the supervision of the Foster Day Care Association, a Com-
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 93
munity Chest agency. Homes used for this type of care are located in all Vancouver
districts, but special effort is made to get homes near the child's own home or the mother's
place of employment. Mothers needing day care for their children are required to register
with the Foster Day Care Association, and services of this agency are given to the mother
and her family and also the foster home. The cost of care is reasonable, and if the mother
cannot afford to pay the full charge, the agency helps. A kindergarten teacher visits
each home weekly, the agency supplying the necessary toys and other equipment.
In areas where there is no special agency set up to give foster day-care service, the
responsibility for supplying this service is generally assumed by a local welfare agency.
In Victoria it is the Family and Children's Service, and in the Province the district social
worker of the Provincial Socal Welfare Branch assumes this responsibility.
Requests for day care for children of mothers who do not need to work to supplement the family income but who want to work are increasing. As the Foster Day Care
Association does not extend its services to these mothers, consideration may soon have to
be given to a day-care programme which will include these children. While everyone
agrees that it is important for mothers to stay at home and that their most important job
is to care for their children, should disapproval be shown about a mother going to work if
good care for her children can be provided and she prefers it that way?
Number of foster homes licensed  28
Number of children cared for        293
Total days' care  22,502
Kindergartens, Play-schools, etc.
The number of licensed pre-school projects still continues to increase, and these are
located in all parts of the Province. The progress made in this work during the year has
been encouraging and gratifying.
The new regulations to the Act set out minimum standards for pre-school projects as
well as general qualifications for supervisors. In order to further clarify section 31 (b),
which deals with qualifications of supervisors, the Welfare Institutions Licensing Board
consulted with representatives from the British Columbia Pre-school Education Association, Kindergarten Teachers' Association, and the Co-operative Play Groups Associations,
the three groups interested and active in this work, and also with Dr. Harold Johns,
Director of Vocational Guidance, Department of Education. Agreement was reached as
to the required qualifications of a supervisor in charge of any pre-school project.
Persons wishing to qualify as supervisors can do so by taking courses at the Vancouver and the Victoria night-schools or at the Summer School (Department of Education), Victoria. In July of this year a three weeks' demonstration and methods course in
pre-school education was given in Vancouver, sponsored by the Adult Education Department of the Vancouver School Board. Registration was limited to twenty-five persons,
and there was a full attendance.
In order that persons in outlying areas interested in pre-school education may have
the benefit of training, the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia
has agreed to give, by correspondence, a home-study course in pre-school education.
A committee is at present preparing this course, and it is hoped that it will be ready in a
few months.
It cannot be stressed too strongly that anyone wishing to work with pre-school children should have training and experience in this field. The following words of the
Honourable Paul Martin, Minister of National Health and Welfare, bear this out:—
" The test of any civilization is what is done about its children. To-day's children
will to-morrow be asked to solve the problems of the world. Whether they will succeed
in doing this constructively and creatively will depend directly on the attitude and stability
which they are developing to-day. U 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" To the pre-schooler, play is the very breath of life. He finds mental and emotional
ease as he works out his problems in play, and he integrates the solutions which seem to
him most effective in a pattern of living."
Number of pre-school centres licensed in 1952  146
Number of children registered :       7,401
Total days' care  554,173
MATERNITY HOMES
The three licensed maternity homes appear to meet the need for this particular
service in our Province. While there was an increase in the number of mothers given care
over the previous year, there were fewer babies in the homes. These homes are comfortable and well managed and continue to give a valuable and most needed service to the
unmarried mother. All homes work closely with the Children's Aid Societies and other
welfare agencies in helping the mother to plan for her future and the care of her baby.
The three homes licensed for this purpose are Maywood Home in Vancouver, established
and operated by the Salvation Army; the United Church Home in Burnaby, under the
auspices of the United Church of Canada; and Our Lady of Mercy Home, Vancouver,
which is for girls of the Roman Catholic faith.
Number of homes licensed in 1952  3
Number of mothers cared for        214
Number of infants cared for        221
Total days' care  26,941
AGED-CARE
Each year there is a gradual increase in the number of licensed boarding homes for
the care of our older citizens. There is also a general improvement in all aspects of
boarding-home care. The new regulations have greatly contributed to improvement of
standards.
During the year an addition was added to Fair Haven, the United Church Home in
Burnaby. There is accommodation now for forty persons. Under construction is a
twenty-four private-room addition to Normanna in Burnaby. This home is operated by
the Norwegian Old People's Home Association.
It is gratifying to note that organizations planning homes are providing more private-
room accommodation, realizing that this makes for better living conditions and a happier
atmosphere.
Homes operated by private individuals are also improving, and from experience and
observation it can be stated that most of these persons are not boarding older people
purely for profit. The majority of licensees show a sincere interest in the welfare of the
old people and in many cases are the only family which the old folks have.
The public generally is taking more interest in the welfare of our aging citizens.
The Vancouver Committee on the Welfare of the Aged is studying plans for housing,
recreation, education, and employment of older citizens.
In most of our licensed homes some form of recreation is provided by church groups,
service clubs, school groups, and others. The older people are showing increased interest
in plans for their own recreation. Among the older people there are many ardent chess,
cribbage, checkers, and bridge players, and competition becomes quite keen at times.
Around the homes many of them keep busy with gardening, carpentry, painting, or other
light work. Movies are also shown in most of the homes, and the guests in one of our
homes are taken for a bus ride twice a year—once at Christmas to see the decorations
and the other in the summer to see the gardens. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 95
In our licensed boarding homes we are trying to maintain a good living standard for
the comfort and happiness of our older citizens.
Number of homes licensed during 1952  110
Number of persons cared for       2,630
Total days' care  533,660
UNEMPLOYED ADULTS
There are four homes licensed for unemployed adults; all are for girls. Their purpose is to provide a home for girls who are looking for employment and are living away
from their families. All four homes are in good residential districts, are comfortable and
homey, and give to the girls who are fortunate to be their guests an experience in group
living. While there is supervision, the rules and regulations are anything but strict. This
type of home has proved both popular and successful for older adolescent girls.
The Rainbow House in Victoria is operated by a non-denominational religious group
and is interested in the teen-aged girl. Bethel Home, under the auspices of the Mennonite
Church for girls of that faith, and the Residential Club, run by the Sisters of Service, a
Roman Catholic sisterhood, are located in Vancouver. The Young Women's Lodge,
under the direction of the Salvation Army, is in Prince Rupert and was opened as a home
for native girls.
These homes have proved so successful for older adolescent girls that it is unfortunate that similar homes have not been opened for boys of this same age-group.
Number of homes licensed during 1952  4
Number of persons cared for        455
Total days' care  15,464
SUMMER CAMPS
And Nature, the old nurse, took
The child upon her knee,
Saying, " There is a story book
Thy Father has written for thee."
" Come, wander with me," she said,
" Into regions yet untrod;
And read what is still unread,
In the Manuscripts of God."
Camping is a real worth-while social experience. It is being out of doors with others
and having fun. It brings memorable experiences, comradeship, opportunities for development, and spiritual growth for every camper. The licensed camps have provided this
experience for hundreds of boys and girls throughout our Province.
All camps are inspected at the beginning of the camping season by the Provincial
Health Branch, and this inspection has been the means of improving health and sanitary
conditions of camps. Due to the large number of camps located in the Howe Sound area,
the Provincial Health Branch for the past two years has appointed a special Sanitary
Inspector to carry out inspections. The social workers of the Provincial Social Welfare
Branch report annually on all camps in their particular areas.
In order to train camp counsellors, the British Columbia Camping Association sponsored a Camp Counsellors' Institute in May. There were more than 100 persons registered, and outstanding people in the camping field were in charge of the various sessions.
The Institute was well supported and proved most successful. A similar Institute is
planned for next year.
Through the Camp Referral Programme in Vancouver, a holiday at camp is made
possible for many children who otherwise could not afford to go. Several hundred more
children attended camp this year.   The British Columbia Camping Association, in co- U 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
operation with the Vancouver Community Chest and Council, publish annually a camp
directory, which gives information on all camps which have membership in either organization. The Family and Children's Service, Victoria, has its own camp, Sunshine Camp,
located at Sooke, Vancouver Island.
Number of summer camps licensed in 1952  33
Number of children cared for       9,572
Total days' care  203,234
CONCLUSION
Sincere thanks and appreciation are extended to all who helped with the administration of this Act.
STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Table I.—A Comparative Summary of Information Regarding Premises
Licensed under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act "
1949
1950
1951
1952
Children—Total Care (Excluding Summer Camps)
Number licensed—
Institutions __ -	
Boarding homes	
Capacity—
Number of children under care .
Number of days' care	
Women—Maternity1
Number licensed..
Capacity-
Number of persons under care~
Number of days' care —	
Adults—Infirm and Unemployable
Number licensed  —
Capacity    —
Number of persons under care 	
Number of days' care _	
Number licensed..
Capacity-
Adults—Employable
Number of persons under care _
Number of days' care	
Number licensed._
Capacity-
Children—Day Care
Number of children enrolled._
Number of attendance-days.—
Number licensed_
Capacity  _ 	
Number of persons attending-
Number of attendance-days....
Summer Camps
10
57
683
923
189,311
3
106
522
31,055
92
1,417
2,127
405,437
4
58
474
14,835
116
3,104
3,566
408,803
25
1,909
8,005
117,023
10
55
685
882
165,953
3
116
457
28,983
108
1,585
2,366
436,487
4
58
412
15,738
127
3,228
5,771
422,379
27
1,970
7,678
102,314
11
49
613
814
151,165
3
116
460
29,758
120
1,809
2,723
513,114
4
58
352
14,174
144
3,697
7,118
497,055
32
2,258
8,957
152,230
10
37
667
762
149,720
3
116
435
26,941
110
1,740
2,630
533,660
4
58
455
15,464
174
4,119
7,694
576,675
33
2,463
9,572
203,234
1 Mothers and infants are included in the above figures.
Table II.—Case-load Showing the Total Number of Separate
Licences, Applications, and Inquiries, 1952
Section A
Brought forward from 1951—
(a) Licensed welfare institutions  343
(b) Pending applications     89
Total case-load on January 1st, 1952  432 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 97
Brought forward  432
Section B
New cases received during 1952  284
Total case-load for 1952  716
Section C
Cases closed in 1952—
(a) Licensed welfare institutions     66
(b) Pending applications  191
Total subtractions  257
Case-load as at December 31st, 1952  459
Section D
Breakdown of case-load as at December 31st, 1952—
(a) Licensed welfare institutions—
(1) Children's boarding homes  35
(2) Children's institutions   8
(3) Maternity homes  3
(4) Boarding homes for the aged  79
(5) Institutions for the aged  26
(6) Hostels for unemployed  4
(7) Kindergartens, play-schools   142
(8) Homes for foster day care  26
(9) Summer camps  33
(10) Composite licences under (1), (3), and
(6)       1
  357
(b) Applications pending  102
Total case-load carried into 1953  459
MEMBERS OF BOARD
The following are the members of the Welfare Institutions Licensing Board for
1952:—
Chairman:  Mr. C. W. Lundy, Director of Welfare.
Members:   Dr. G. Elliot, Assistant Provincial Health Officer, Department of
Health; Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent, Child Welfare Division; Mrs.
Edith Pringle, R.N., Inspector of Hospitals; Mr. J. Sadler, Administrator,
Region II, Social Welfare Branch.
Chief Inspector:  Mrs. Edna L. Page.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Edna L. Page,
Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions. U 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF
TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control, for the fiscal year 1952-53:-—
For the greater part of the year there was much movement of patients between the
units following the opening of the new 264-bed Pearson Tuberculosis Hospital in Vancouver. Although this unit was not officially opened until May, the first patients were
admitted in April. By the end of May the St. Joseph's Oriental Hospital in Vancouver
and the New Denver sanatorium for Japanese patients had been closed, and the patients
transferred to the Pearson Hospital. In June the female ward at the Willow Chest Centre,
which had occupied the top floor of one of the Vancouver General Hospital buildings,
was moved to the new unit, and in January the male ward, which had been housed in
temporary buildings on Vancouver General Hospital grounds, was also transferred to the
Pearson Hospital. This left at the Willow Chest Centre the main surgical and special-
treatment centre for the Division with a bed capacity of 119, the diagnostic clinic for
out-patients, and the survey unit for the metropolitan area of Vancouver. These changes
called for reorganization of the Social Service staff.
Willow Chest Centre was reduced to two case-workers—one for the patients in
hospital and the other for the out-patient clinic. By diverting one worker full time to
this clinic, a co-ordination of the services given by the Social Service Department was
achieved. Formerly, this responsibility had been shared by all the social workers at the
Willow Chest Centre on the basis of health-unit areas. Now the one worker became the
liaison between the Division of Tuberculosis Control and the health and welfare agencies
in relation to the problem of TB. patients in metropolitan Vancouver.
Two workers from the Willow Chest Centre were transferred to the Pearson Hospital. During the year, service to the patients at the Jericho Beach Hospital was reduced
to part time, and when the fifth worker was appointed in February, 1953, bringing the
staff to full strength, she divided her time between the Jericho Beach unit and a small
group of patients at the Willow Chest Centre. In addition, one of the workers from the
Division of Tuberculosis Control staff filled in at the Vancouver clinic of the Division of
Venereal Disease Control when that Division was without social-work staff for a three-
month period.
During the year there were serious staff difficulties at both Tranquille Sanatorium
and Vancouver Island Chest Centre, when the former was without social-work staff for
three months and the latter for six months. On an emergency basis the Provincial Supervisor spent some time at Tranquille Sanatorium while the Vancouver Case-work Supervisor undertook to give a limited service to the patients in the Vancouver Island Chest
Centre by short visits twice a month. By September well-trained staff had been appointed
to both Tranquille and the Vancouver Island Chest Centre, and pressure on the administrative staff of the Department was considerably relieved.
By February the patients were settled in the various units, and with full staff in
the Social Service Department the workers' case-loads averaged between 120 and 130
patients. All newly admitted patients were being seen as soon after admission as possible, at which time the patients' family circumstances were discussed and any problems
dealt with by referral to the community agencies or other sources of help. The patients'
reactions to hospitalization were reviewed and support given by the worker to patients
who were having difficulty making the adjustment to the group living that is part of long-
term hospital care.
By the end of the year the Social Service Department in the Division began to
examine its services, and the first step was a time study covering a four-week period
undertaken by the workers in the Vancouver area to determine the proportion of time REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 99
that was being devoted to the various aspects of the social worker's job in the hospital.
This evaluation process is continuing, and it is hoped that non-essential services can be
eliminated in order that more of the workers' time may be devoted to the patients' problems in inter-personal relationships that come with long-term illness.
Because the Division of Tuberculosis Control has no facilities for hospital treatment
of children with tuberculosis, the resources of the Vancouver Preventorium are utilized.
Although the Preventorium is a privately financed institution, admissions to it are
approved by the Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Control, and the Division is
represented on its medical advisory board. Over the years the Social Service Department
of the Division has been called upon from time to time to assist the matron when difficulties have arisen around discharge planning, but the policy has never been clearly defined.
This year, responsibility for service to the Preventorium was delegated to the Willow
Chest Centre in-patient social worker, and regular weekly visits to the matron at the
institution have been established. Case records are now set up in the TB. Social Service
Department on every child admitted to the institution, and previous social-agency contacts
with the family are cleared. In this way it has been possible to enlist the co-operation of
the appropriate health and welfare agencies interested in planning for the child's eventual
discharge from the Preventorium.
In a number of conferences during the year, efforts were made to bring about a
more effective working relationship between the child-caring agencies in Vancouver and
the Division of Tuberculosis Control regarding children coming into care because of the
incapacitation of the parent by tuberculosis. In a study made by the Vancouver Children's Aid Society of the problem of children in non-ward care for extended periods, it
was found that there were fifteen children in the group who were in care because of
tuberculosis of the parent. In these cases the medical resources of the Division of Tuberculosis Control, which were available to the children's agency through the Social Service
Department of the Division, had not been adequately utilized to arrive at the plan which
would provide the greatest protection of the child of the parent suffering from this long-
term disabling condition. This pointed up the need for more joint planning between the
health and welfare agencies.
The Social Service Department of the Division of Tuberculosis Control continued to
participate in the Division's education programme for affiliate nursing students, and a
discussion with the Provincial Supervisor was included in the orientation in tuberculosis
control of new public health staff. The purpose of this discussion was to give the health
worker a better understanding of the welfare programme in general and specifically as it
related to the tuberculous patient. It was emphasized that only through the co-operation
of the health and welfare workers at the local level can the greatest service be rendered
to the patient in need.
Again the TB. Social Service Department was represented by the Provincial Supervisor at the annual institute of the Provincial Department of Health. In this way, contact
with the personnel of the Department of Health throughout the Province was maintained
and strengthened.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Enid S. Wyness,
Provincial Supervisor, TB. Social Service. U 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF
VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Section
of the Division of Venereal Disease Control for the fiscal year 1952-53:—
For a three-month period during the year there was no case-worker at the Vancouver clinic, and service on a part-time basis was provided by Social Service staff from the
Division of Tuberculosis Control. In spite of this staff difficulty, counselling service was
continued for the patients reporting to the Vancouver clinic for treatment, and there
were 805 patient-interviews carried out by the Social Service Department during the year.
In addition, this Department participated in the educational programme for student-
nurses, public health workers, and professional staff in allied fields undertaken by the
Division of Venereal Disease Control.
In work with the patient-group, at the termination of each interview the clinic
social worker recorded her assessment of the patient and his capacity to utilize this
counselling service, and the following criteria were taken as a guide:—
Group I.—This person is capable of taking responsibility for himself, he is
functioning adequately in his life situation, and his infection has been
acquired as the result of an episode that is out of character with his
behaviour pattern.
Group II.—This person has capacity to take responsibility for himself, but
he needs help in defining this; he also lacks knowledge about the venereal
diseases and about sexual behaviour in general.
Group 111.—This person manifests real conflict in some area of his fife, and
his promiscuous behaviour is symptomatic of this stress.    The pressure
may be external because of the life situation in which he finds himself, or
it may be within the personality structure of the individual.
Group IV.—In all of his personal relationships this individual functions on a
casual level, and his sexual behaviour follows the same pattern.   His roots
are shallow and he does not want to or is not capable of assuming personal
responsibilities.    His goal in life is ill defined, but he is not in conflict
about himself or his situation.
Group V.—This is the chronic-problem person whose fife is disordered and
whose promiscuous behaviour is part of that way of living.   He exists on
the fringe of crime, and authority is his natural enemy.
In the twelve-month period under review, out of the total 805 patient-interviews,
rating of the patient by the social worker was recorded in 660 cases.   Of the remainder,
70 had been rated in a previous interview, 42 required no service other than referral to
some other medical resource, 14 were not venereal-disease patients, and 19 were not
given a rating.
Of the 660 who were rated, 104 were considered to come within Group I. For these
patients the counselling interview was an opportunity for the patient to review his
behaviour in the light of his goal in life, and thus the total treatment process became sex
education with real meaning for the patient as a person.
There were 163 patients classified as Group II, and here again the social worker's
interview was geared to make the learning process a personal experience which would
enhance the patient's capacity to meet future situations in his life.
Among the 148 rated in Group III were most of the social ills, including marital
conflict, personality disorders, alcoholism, adolescent revolt against parental authority,
illegitimate pregnancy. With some, the basic problem was too deep-rooted for any
effective help to be given in one interview, but most of these people derived some comfort
from sharing their problems with the case-worker.    The interview was a sorting-out REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 101
process, and the patient was encouraged to utilize the resources available in the community for meeting his particular kind of need. Some of these patients continued their
relationship with the clinic social worker after medical treatment was completed. It is
from this group of patients that most of the referrals were made from the Social Service
Department to the psychiatric consultant.
The 208 patients considered to come within the Group IV classification represented
almost one-third of the total number rated. While these people represent a continuing
problem in venereal-disease control because of their way of living, they can be helped
to assume more responsibility in the epidemiological control of these diseases. For these
patients the counselling interview was directed toward emphasizing the importance of
the infected person in the control process, since he alone has the vital information about
his sex partners that starts the epidemiological investigation. With this positive approach
to the patient the control programme became a combined operation of patient and staff,
and this gave the patient some status. For many of them status is a rare and satisfying
experience.
There were thirty-seven patients considered to fall in Group V. This number was
small because most of the chronic-problem patients report to the treatment centre at the
city gaol rather than to the Vancouver clinic. There is very little that counselling can
do for this group, except to give these people the experience of courtesy and acceptance.
Like children, they respond to kindness by co-operating to the maximum of their limited
ability.
In summary, the twelve months' experience in the use of this rating scale indicates
that about two-thirds of the patient-group derive benefit from the counselling service.
The other one-third corresponds roughly to the proportion of the patient-group who have
repeated venereal infection.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Enid S. Wyness,
Provincial Supervisor, V.D. Social Service. U 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PSYCHIATRIC DIVISION
I beg to present the annual report of the social workers of the Psychiatric Division
working in the Mental Health Services of the Province of British Columbia for the fiscal
year 1952-53:—
A. SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENTS, PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL,
HOMES FOR THE AGED, AND CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
MEDICINE.
The report of the Social Service Departments for the past fiscal year is here presented
and considered under three sections:—
I. Changes in the organizational structure and administrative responsibilities
in social services.
II. Review of social services to patients over the past fiscal year.
III. Social service trends as seen in relation to the service needs of patients and
their families.
The social-work job all the world over is concerned with helping people to make
conscious adjustments and adaptations to their life situations, individually, through group
experience, and by the provision of social-welfare resources in the community.
Functions and processes, such as teaching, supervision, administration, and research,
have evolved. The basic principles and methods contained in these functions are in
process of continuous restatement and refinement to the end that social work make as
effective a contribution as possible in the service of people and in the service of the health
and welfare agencies.
The social-work job in the psychiatric hospitals and clinics is generically the same as
the aforedefined but with these additional skills and responsibilities: A knowledge of the
content of the problems dealt with in psychiatric hospitals and clinics; an ability to use
the social-work skill in a collaborative working relationship with the many other professional disciplines in the psychiatric setting—all of whom are also concerned with the
specific problem as presented by the individual patient. In short, the essence of the social-
work job in the psychiatric hospital and clinic setting is the effective incorporation of its
skills and body of knowledge into hospital and clinic practice.
Over the past fiscal year, in their work in the Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease
Clinic, the social workers have been purposefully studying how best to incorporate social
work into the purpose and services of each setting; how best to dovetail social-work effort
to achieve therapeutic unification to the end that patients are better served.
I. Changes in the Organizational Structure and Administrative Responsibilities of the Social Services, Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease
Clinic.
In May, 1952, a decision was made whereby the existing Social Service staff at the
Provincial Mental Hospital was divided into two separate Social Service Departments—
one located in the East Lawn (Women's Section) and Centre Lawn (Admission Section);
the second department located in the Crease Clinic on Wards East 2, East 4, Centre 4,
and West 4.
II. Review of Social Services to Patients over the Past Fiscal Year
1. Social Service Department, Provincial Mental Hospital
There are two sections to this Department—one concerned with admission (intake
and reception services around the admission of patients), brief case-work services to
patients and families, as well as selection and referral of patients and families to longer-
term case-work services given by the second section, the Continued Case Work Services
Section. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 103
The present Social Service staff at the Provincial Mental Hospital consists of one
social worker in the Admission Section, who is supervised by a case-work supervisor
having responsibility for all the social services given at the time of admission both in the
Hospital and the Clinic, and six social workers in the Continued Case Work Services
Section in the Provincial Mental Hospital and one case-work supervisor over this Section.
(a) Work of the Admission Section, Social Service Department, Provincial Mental
Hospital, April, 1952, to March, 1953.—Social services during the admission period are
directed to assisting in the interpretation of hospital services and programme to patients
and families. This will often entail helping the family to deal with problems arising out
of the admission of the patient. Help will also be given to the relative and patient, with
their feelings of uncertainty and worry arising out of the fact that hospitalization has to
be considered. The whole focus during this period is in establishing a relationship with
the family which encourages them and helps them to see the hospital and the patient's
need for treatment or a period of care in a positive non-rejecting way. With the growth
of this feeling, the'family can play its part in the patient's treatment programme and finally
be ready to receive the patient on discharge from hospital and help him in his adjustment
to family and community life.
During reception into hospital, the patient himself is helped to accept his need for
hospital care. Attempts are made to relieve the patient, if at all possible, of the fears
and threats embodied for him in the security-setting of the mental hospital. At this time
the social worker, along with the other disciplines, explains hospital routines and procedures and helps the patient to understand that the social worker serves as a link between
him, his family and community. It is important that family life and community ties be
maintained. The admission and reception of the patient sets the whole tone of his
response to treatment. During the admission period the social worker begins the social
study of the patient, his interpersonal and interfamilial relationships, his experiences,
and his ways of feeling, thinking, and responding to these experiences.
Table I.—Report of Admission Section, Provincial Mental Hospital, April, 1952,
to March, 1953
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Total
Total admissions to Provincial Mental
Hospital-
86
32
7
11
15
11
4
105
41
11
9
20
29
6
101
37
18
15
24
18
10
133
51
20
9
18
11
4
112
46
17
6
21
30
4
102
40
23
7
17
34
8
147
61
42
13
37
33
8
101
57
31
18
25
37
12
107
34
21
21
14
42
10
116
48
14
16
23
15
12
101
40
12
8
20
17
10
121
37
38
23
27
31
12
1,332
524
Interviews with patients at time of ad-
254
Interviews with psychiatrists at time of
156
Brief social  services  to  relatives  and
261
308
Ward rounds following admission cltaics
on admission-	
100
Table I records the year's activity of the social worker on admissions in the Provincial Mental Hospital.    In review, the table shows that an average of 111 patients are
admitted monthly to the Provincial Mental Hospital;  some 39 per cent (524) of all
patients admitted yearly are being extended social services at the point of their reception
into hospital.   The social worker on admissions is active with the following patients:—
(i)  The Young Psychotic.—This is the largest group to which social services
are being extended at the point of the patient's reception.   These patients
and their families are in great need of long-term case-work services.
A large number of the patients in the young psychotic group are transfers
from the Crease Clinic at the point where the four-month treatment has U 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
lapsed with relatively little change in the pattern of the patient's illness.
To this transferred young psychotic group the social worker in the Admission Section serves as a liaison between the Crease Clinic Continued
Case Work Services worker and the Provincial Mental Hospital Social
Service Department.   This transferred group of patients needs the understanding and supportive help of the social worker for the very fact that
they have failed to respond to treatment at the Clinic is distressing and
disturbing to them.   Often this transfer is felt to be rejection of the patient,
(ii)  The Older Group of Mentally III.—Included in this group are a large
number of readmissions, which patients come to the Admission Section
for an interim evaluative study.    The social worker assesses again the
family situation, discusses the patient's prognosis with the psychiatrist, thus
determining what the extent of Continued Case Work Services is likely
to be, and then through conference transfers the patient to this Section,
(iii)  The Mentally Retarded Patient over the Age of 6 Years.—To this group,
brief case-work services are given by the social worker on admission to the
patient's family at the time of reception.   Parents of these patients require
much help with their sorrow and interpretation around why their child
must be committed to a mental hospital before entering The Woodlands
School,
(iv)  The Alcoholic Patient.—The psychiatrist treating this group of patients
often requests the social worker on admissions to undertake a social diagnostic study so that he may assess whether the patient is suitable or ready
for the extensive treatment programme in the alcoholic clinic.
The table further shows that 261 families were given brief case-work services, that
354 interviews were held with patients at the time of reception, and that the collaborative
function of social worker at the time of admission was furthered through 156 interviews
with the psychiatrists and attendance at 100 clinics and ward rounds.   In the ward round,
presided over by the clinical director, the individual and social dynamics which go to
make up the patient, his illness, and his total response to life are studied.   It is here that
the social worker on admissions makes her contribution out of her study of the family-
patient-community interrelationship.   Here, too, the social worker gains in understanding
of psycho-dynamics and patient-care needs in hospital.
(b) Work of the Continued Case Work Services Section, Social Service Department,
Provincial Mental Hospital, April, 1952, to March, 1953.—In this Section, case-work
services are brought to the patient during his treatment period along with correlative
family therapy. Another service is that of pre-convalescent planning, as well as the service of convalescent care. This latter involves after-care social services to the patient on
extended visit (probation), besides case-work services of an after-care nature to the
voluntary patient discharged in full of hospital care.
Dr. Alan A. Lieberman, of Elgin State Hospital, Elgin, 111., has recognized that " the
social worker's contribution to therapy in work with the mentally ill will be primarily in
his understanding of human relations, and he will strengthen the healthy aspects of the
patient's personality in order to enhance adjustment to reality problems."
Throughout the treatment period the social worker is concerned with all aspects of
the patient's relationship with medical and nursing staffs, with other patients, family,
friends, and community. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 105
Table II.—Report of Continued Case Work Services Section, Social Service Department,
Provincial Mental Hospital, April, 1952, to March, 1953
Treatment
Pre-
convalescence
Convalescence
Total
1,116
1,327
1,341
525
138
42
474
270
636
258
60
27
867
471
375
57
9
15
607
2,457
2,068
2,352
840
Conferences with other disciplines, etc	
Conferences with community agencies.-—	
207
84
Total number of interviews in Continued Case
Work Services Section         —-  	
4,489
1,725
1,794
	
8,008
108
Table II records the total number of patients (607) referred during the past fiscal
year to the Continued Case Work Services Section of the Social Service Department,
Provincial Mental Hospital.
During the treatment period of hospital care, the social worker's contact with the
patient on the ward is directed toward building a supportive, understanding relationship
through which the patient is helped to hold to whatever reality functioning he may possess.
Interest in wife, husband, children, and parents, etc., is maintained, besides which the
patient is helped to work through those problems of which he is aware and about which
he expresses concern.
During the treatment period, 607 patients and families received case-work services
involving 4,489 interviews. Some 24.8 per cent of these were directly with patient.
Some 29.5 per cent of all interviews were extended to retaining the interest of the family
and friends in the patient. This is accomplished by familiarizing the family with the
nature of the illness, its treatment, hospital routines; by helping the relative with his
own feeling about mental illness and the mentally ill patient. In this way is the family
helped to see what it can do in becoming a part of the treatment programme and rehabilitation planning. Some 29.8 per cent of all interviews were directly concerned in conferences with the psychiatrist; 14.7 per cent with nursing, occupational therapy, etc.;
and 0.93 per cent with community agencies. The latter interviews show the extent of
the social worker's collaborative working relationship with the other professions during
the treatment period.
As the patient approaches the termination of treatment, a review of the content
and meaning of the patient's living experiences before hospitalization and during hospital
care is undertaken by the treatment team in hospital. At this time some attempt is made
to pool together and arrive at some social rehabilitation programme for the patient.
During the past fiscal year, 1,725 interviews were extended in case-work services to
patients during the period of pre-convalescence. Of these, 27.4 per cent of all interviews
were directly with patients; 15 per cent with family; 36.8 per cent with psychiatry; 18.4
per cent with nursing, occupational therapy, etc.; and 1.5 per cent with community
agencies.
Convalescent care is the re-establishment of the patient in the community. During
this period the patients on probation remain the responsibility of the hospital. The social
worker assists in the discharge of this responsibility by supervising the patients, by making available for the use of the patients all the resources in the community helpful to
their readjustment. The family is helped to understand the patient. The patients are
helped to regain economic security by helping them to locate work and by encouraging
the interest and acceptance of the employer-group. Besides the latter committed patient-
group, social workers also bring similar convalescent services to the voluntary patient
discharged in full of hospital care. During the past fiscal year, 768 patients were referred
for convalescent services.   Some 1,794 interviews were directed to helping these patients. U  106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Some very significant developments have taken place during the past year in the
Continued Case Work Services Section of the Social Service Department, Provincial
Mental Hospital. In spite of the large number of referrals and staff shortages, two social
workers began to work full time on two wards. The appointment of social workers at
ward level is the only soundly efficient operative level for social work in the large Provincial mental hospital. Working at this level the social worker collaborates closely with
nursing, psychiatry, psychology, and occupational therapy in a " total push " relationship.
This relationship brings added skills and vitality to the understanding, treatment, and
planning for a more dynamic ward life for the patients. The social worker's responsibility on the ward has been directed toward establishing a case-work relationship focused
on helping the patients to move in a meaningful way to ward activities such as occupational and industrial therapy; to be a liaison person between the hospital and the patients'
relatives; to bring to the other professions working on the ward pertinent information
regarding family relationships; and to secure and bring into play rehabilitative resources
for the patients.
2. Social Service Department, Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine
There are two sections to this Department—one concerned with admission (intake
and reception services at the time of the admission of the patient), brief case-work services
to patients and their families, as well as selection and referral of patients and families to
longer-term case-work services given by the second section, the Continued Case Work
Services Section.
The present Social Service staff at the Crease Clinic is made up of two social workers
in the Admission Section, who are supervised by the case-work supervisor in charge of
all admission services at the Provincial Mental Hospital as well as Crease Clinic; five
social workers in the Continued Case Work Services Section in the Crease Clinic; and
one case-work supervisor who has responsibility for the supervision and co-ordination
of the work of this Section.
The Social Service Department of the Crease Clinic has had 1,100 patients referred
for service over the past fiscal year.
(a) Work of the Admission Section, Social Service Department, Crease Clinic,
April, 1952, to March, 1953.—The work of this Section in the Crease Clinic began in the
summer of 1951, and by June, 1952, it was felt that the service was accepted by all other
professions and functioning well as a service. During the eight-month period to June,
1952, the Admission Section (then consisting of one worker) received referrals on 175
patients at the time of their reception into the Clinic out of a total of 766 admitted. In
the next four months to October, 1952, these referrals increased to a total of 33 per cent
(518 patients per year) of all patients admitted. As there was one admission worker at
this time, the need was seen for increased staff with a view to covering 50 per cent (800
patients per year) of all patients admitted. In January, 1953, this Section was increased
to two workers.
Table III.—Report of Admission Section
Crease Clinic, April,
1952
i to March, 1953
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Total
Total admissions, Crease Clinic	
Referrals for social-history study 	
Interviews with patients at time of admission            —- -—	
Interviews with psychiatrists and nurs-
107
21
13
25
15
14
12
120
25
25
27
18
19
8
119
32
23
32
21
10
8
83
21
33
26
28
17
4
86
29
21
22
19
11
4
92
23
22
24
23
12
8
94
26
24
28
20
15
12
89
17
20
29
12
14
12
88
81
51
103
9
54
8
129
121
36
101
7
47
8
108
99
32
89
11
23
8
106
78
24
85
16
82
12
1,221
573
324
591
199
Brief services to patients and relatives.....
Ward rounds following admission clinics
318
104 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U  107
Table III records the year's work of the two social workers on admissions. Some
1,221 patients were admitted to the Clinic, and, of these, 573 patients (46.9 per cent)
were extended social services at the time of their reception into the Clinic. Some 318 of
the 573 patients and families were carried in the Admission Section and received
case-work services of an enabling and supportive nature over a brief period. Some 324
patients of the 573 patients seen by Admission Section were helped individually at the time
of their reception into hospital.
The table further indicates that 562 conference interviews were undertaken by the
Admission Section with the psychiatrists and nurses to the furtherance of a collaborative
working relationship, in the light of the best service possible for the patient.
(b) Work of the Continued Case Work Services Section, Social Service Department,
Crease Clinic, April, 1952, to March, 1953.—Case-work services are brought to the
patient in Crease Clinic and his family throughout the period of treatment in hospital, as
well as in planning discharge (pre-convalescent service) and after discharge (convalescent service).
Table IV.—Report of Continued Case Work Services Section, Social Service Department,
Crease Clinic, April, 1952, to March, 1953
Treatment
Pre-
convalescence
Convalescence
Total
Total number of patients referred .
Interviews with patient	
Interviews with family-	
Conferences with psychiatry	
Conferences with nursing..
Conferences with other disciplines-
Conference with other agencies.	
1,590
1.385
1,635
272
48
225
Total number of interviews in Continued Case
Work Services Section _ _	
Total number of ward rounds and clinics..
948
368
795
236
40
336
2,723
768
681
699
18
368
2,534
1,100
3,306
2,434
3,129
508
106
929
10,412
101
Table IV shows that 1,100 patients were active with the Continued Case Work
Section of the Social Service Department of the Crease Clinic. Some 5,155 interviews
(49.5 per cent of all interviews) were extended to the patient and his family during the
period of hospital care. Some 2,723 interviews (26.15 per cent of all interviews) were
extended to the patient and his family in planning for discharge, while 2,534 interviews
(24.4 per cent of all interviews) were given to patients and families following the patient's
discharge in full of the Clinic's service.
It is in the aforementioned post-discharge service that the social workers are seen
operating in an area of service which is an increasing need of patients, that is, an outpatient clinic facility of the Crease Clinic. Over the next fiscal year the demand for this
service is bound to increase.
The Vista rehabilitation centre has continued to make an outstanding contribution
in the rehabilitation of women patients without resources in family or friends, or whose
families are unable to give the supportive help necessary in their rehabilitation. During
the past fiscal year the Social Service Departments of the Provincial Mental Hospital and
Crease Clinic have conferred with the supervisor at The Vista on 201 occasions and made
286 visits to patients in residence at The Vista. The success of The Vista is such that the
possibilities of increasing this type of rehabilitation facility should receive purposeful
thought and study as to ways and means.
(c) Report of Participation in Education and Training of Social Service Departments, Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic.—One of the first responsibilities of
social workers in education is to their own profession—social work. For the past three
fiscal years, under Federal Mental Health Grants, twenty-eight social-work students have U  108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
had their field-work placement in the Provincial Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic.
Although direct responsibility for the supervision of students was with the School of Social
Work Training Supervisor, plans for introduction and orientation to the Social Service
Departments of Hospital, Clinic, and community agencies were evolved with the participation of the Department. The introduction of the students to'interdepartmental cooperation between the Social Service Departments and other departments of the Hospital
and Clinic and policies relating thereto, as well as intercommunity agencies' policies, was
the responsibility of the Social Service Departments. The Social Service Departments
have attempted to help the students feel the basic underlying philosophy of the service
by working closely with them and sharing through staff meetings and special studies. The
contribution of the training supervisor and the students to the growth of the social services
in Hospital and Clinic has been rich and valuable. Fourteen planning sessions around the
training project were held during the fiscal year.
The Social Service Departments have a second responsibility in education and
training which is directed to staff development and training. This is achieved through
two media—social-work supervision and participation in staff meetings. During the past
fiscal year forty staff meetings were held, and the contribution of the social workers in the
organization, administration, refinement of social-work skills and services has been of the
highest order.
(d) Report of Administrative Procedures of Social Service Departments, Provincial
Mental Hospital and Crease Clinic, April, 1952, to March, 1953:—
Admission Sections—
Supervisory conferences  96
Case-assignment conferences  48
Policy conferences with doctors  42
Social-worker staff conferences re assignment of cases  144
Interpretation to public sessions  56
Administrative reports prepared  38
Interdepartmental administrative meetings  36
Supervision of social workers (hours) 216
Ward rounds  101
Staff meetings -  37
Teaching clinics  24
Orientation professional groups  12
Continued Case Work Services Sections—
Supervisory activities—
(a) Supervision of case-workers (hours) 577
(b) Conferences with clinical director on policy matters  72
(c) Conferences with individual psychiatrists  204
(d) Conferences with community agencies re individual
patients  66
Ward rounds ,     96
Staff meetings ? _     40
Medical clinics     12
Educational activities—
(a) Social-work education—
(i) Clinical presentations       4
(ii)  Supervision of students (hours)    24
(b) Nursing education—
(i) Interpretation to psychiatric nurses (hours)     16
(ii)  Interpretation to postgraduate nurses (hours)    12
(iii) Interpretation to affiliate nurses (hours)      9 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 109
Continued Case Work Services Sections—Continued
Educational activities—Continued
(c) Orientations—
(i)  Social workers (hours)     16
(ii)  Psychiatric fellows (hours)       5
(d) Ward-round conferences, Provincial Mental Hospital
and Crease Clinic  208
Clinical conferences     21
III. Social-service Trends in Relation to Patients' Needs
Over the past fiscal year there has been an 11.7-per-cent increase in the number
of patients referred to the Social Service Departments. During the 1951-52 fiscal year
2,100 patients were referred, whereas during the past fiscal year 2,475 patients were
served by social workers. This past fiscal year has seen a 61.1-per-cent increase in casework service interviews to patients in the Hospital and Clinic. In the fiscal year 1951-52,
13,221 service interviews were extended to patients. During the past fiscal year 21,298
interviews were given in the service of patients.
Another very noticeable trend is that of the increasing number of patients referred
to Social Service from the long-term patient-group. Some 267 patients from this group
were referred during the past fiscal year for social case-work services focused on helping
the patient to use more purposefully and effectively the treatment services of the Hospital.
This is a most progressive step in the use of all available professional services in the
mobilization of patients on long-term treatment wards—a mobilization directed to patient
study, treatment, and rehabilitation.
B. SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, THE WOODLANDS SCHOOL,
NEW WESTMINSTER
The report of the Social Service Department of The Woodlands School for the past
fiscal year is herewith submitted for consideration. The report is concerned largely
with:—
I. A review of social services to pupil-patients, with some interpretation
regarding the relationship of these services to the function of social workers in a school for the education and training of the mentally retarded.
II. A review of the beginning of social services directed to the rehabilitation
of the mentally retarded, together with some interpretation as to immediate
basic resources needed to develop a minimal rehabilitation programme.
I. Review of Social Services to Pupil-patients, April, 1952, to March, 1953
The important contribution of social workers in a programme geared to the understanding, education, training, and rehabilitation of the mentally retarded is that of forming
a link between the institutional School, the pupil-patient, his family and community.
This link is forged by purposeful helping and interpretation undertaken by the social
workers. Such help and interpretation is directed toward the development, maintenance,
and furtherance of the responsibility of family and community in the provision of services
geared to the continuing social adjustment of the mentally retarded both within the
School and community.
Social workers begin to help the family at the point when the use of the School is
being considered for one of its members, as well as helping the family with problems
which often arise at the time of admission, discharge, or rehabilitation of the pupil-
patient.
During the pupil-patient's education and training period, social workers help him
to cope with any problem he may face in his relationships within the institutional School. U 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This help may be given to pupils individually by a case-worker or by a group-worker
to groups of pupils. During this period also, social workers help some parents who have
deep feelings about their child's mental retardation. Through this help many parents
can be freed to become active with the School throughout the pupil-patient's training
period and ultimately free to assume their responsibility in his rehabilitation.
1. Analysis of Social Services of an Interpretative Pre-admission Nature Rendered
to Families and Community, April, 1952, to March, 1953
Over the past fiscal year 132 families inquired about the services of The Woodlands
School for the use of a mentally retarded member. All 132 families were interviewed by
social workers. Of this number, 60 families were referred to Social Welfare Branch field
services or other agencies either for help with a family-living problem which was recognized as the problem basic to the family's acceptance and adjustment to the mental
retardation of its member, or referred for help with a serious marital problem which was
seen as the source of the family's unhappiness.
Referral of a family to another agency for service must be done in a way that is both
supporting and mobilizing to the family, as well as informative and helpful to the agency
whose service is being requested. To this end the social workers engaged in 252 referral
services to parents and agencies.
Social services were brought directly within the Department to 72 families seeking
information about the School programme. Some 264 interviews of a helping nature
were given to this group, together with 180 consultative conferences with the School's
psychiatrists in the interest of this group of families.
The social workers in the School recognize that they have a real responsibility to help
parents and relatives as they consider placement in the School for a mentally retarded
member. The aforementioned 444 pre-admission interviews were directed to this end.
Part of the help given by the social workers at this time is directed toward a careful
screening of the applications so that needless commitments not in the interests of the
family and child are prevented.
When the application has been screened, help must be given parents to enable them
to prepare their mentally retarded child for the separation from the home and from the
familiar family ways of doing and living. At The Woodlands School such help to parents
is partly extended through a carefully planned and purposefully directed orientation to the
School, which permits the observation of the School programme and through a helpful
supportive relationship which grows up between the parents and the social worker. The
latter affords the parents an opportunity to recognize or work through to a degree the
feelings of disappointment, often shame, rejection, and guilt, which exist around having
a mentally retarded child, and which become ascendant when the parents seek institutional
care for him. During the past fiscal year 80 parents were oriented to the School and its
programme during this pre-admission period. In summary, during the fiscal year social
workers have given 444 helping interviews to 80 parents prior to the admission of the
child.
2. Analysis of Social Services at the Time of the Pupil-patient's Admission and Reception
to the Provincial Mental Hospital and The Woodlands School, April, 1952, to
March, 1953.
The procedure for the admission of the mentally retarded in operation in the Mental
Health Services is that of committal to the Provincial Mental Hospital under the " Mental
Hospitals Act," with the mentally retarded person remaining in Hospital until a bed
becomes available in The Woodlands School. This procedure has distressed many
parents, and because of this the social workers have felt a real responsibility for support- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U  111
ing and helping parents and relatives both prior to and during the admission of the
mentally retarded family member.
During the month of January, 1953, The Woodlands School began to admit the child
under 6 years directly to the School. At this time also, an additional social worker was
appointed to the staff of The Woodlands School, bringing the number employed to three.
The social workers at The Woodlands School, assisted by the Provincial Mental
Hospital social worker on admissions, have taken responsibility for the reception
into the Hospital of 175 mentally retarded persons. Parents of mentally retarded children
have had 234 helping interviews extended to them at the time of the admission and reception of their mentally retarded family member. Some 223 consultative interviews with
other disciplines and agencies have been undertaken in the interests of parents and pupil-
patients at the time of reception. One hundred and nine studies of the child, the degree
of retardation, his family relationships and experiences have been completed.
From January to March, 1953, some 30 children under the age of 6 years, their
parents and relatives, were helped by social workers at the time of admission to the School.
Some 103 helping interviews were given to parents. In summary, during the past fiscal
year the social workers helped receive into Hospital and School 205 pupil-patients, and
gave the pupils and parents some 560 helping interviews at this time. In all, 1,004
helping interviews, involving patience and skill, have been directed to meeting parents'
feelings about their defective child and about the decision they were reaching to commit.
The goal of social work at the time of admission is to help parents work with the School
staff throughout the pupil's education and training, and see the School as a rehabilitation
process for their child. Only as a last resort must the School be seen by parents as an
institution for the permanent custodial care of their child. Another social-work goal at
this time is to assess through study the rehabilitation potential in the child.
3. Analysis of Case-work Services to Pupil-patients in Residence at The Woodlands
School, April 1952, to March, 1953
The patient and skilful meeting of parents' feelings about their defective child, helping
them to work with the School staff throughout the pupil's education and training period,
is a step-by-step treatment programme undertaken through a team approach by doctors,
nurses, teachers, psychologists, and occupational, industrial, and recreational therapists,
dietitian, and social workers.
Briefly, during the fiscal year 251 pupils in residence were referred to the Social
Service Department. Some 1,244 helping interviews were extended to these pupils.
The social workers, together with other disciplines, participated in 242 clinical study
sessions which were directed to the understanding and formulation of training and rehabilitation goals for pupils in residence. Inter-co-operative conferences with other agencies
directed to planning for specific pupils in residence numbered 24. During the education
period when the mentally retarded child is in residence, social services are directed toward
keeping the interest of the parents and studying and developing the child's rehabilitative
potential.
4. Responsibility Assumed by Social Service Department in Education and Training,
April, 1952, to March, 1953
The first responsibility of social workers in education and training of personnel is
toward their own profession—social work. The social workers at The Woodlands School
during the fiscal year participated in a teaching clinic for sixty first-year social-work
students of the School of Social Work, University of British Columbia. Three second-
year social-work students were oriented for a three-day period. A number of in-service-
trained workers attended a specially arranged teaching clinic. U  112 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Five groups of public health nurses, postgraduate nurses, and nursing affiliates were
oriented to the School programme, as well as to the part played by social services in
a school for the education and training of the mentally retarded.
A group of thirty-five teachers and another group of thirty kindergarten teachers
spent time studying education in this setting and the part social service plays as related
to education.
Four representatives of rehabilitation and social-work agencies spent time in the
Social Service Department, and three service clubs visited to study the school programme.
II. A Review of the Beginning of Social Services Directed to the Rehabilitation of the Mentally Retarded, Together with Some Interpretation as to
Immediate Basic Resources Needed to Develop a Minimal Rehabilitation
Programme.
During the year five pupils were rehabilitated—four into working convalescent care
and one into family convalescent care. Of the four for whom working convalescent care
was planned, two returned to the School before the expiration of the six-month probationary period. The reason for return was due to a temporary breakdown in the pupil's
adjustment to the demands of the job. In the case of one long-institutionalized pupil, the
job selected was beyond his emotional integration to cope with. In the case of the other
pupil, the employer's demands exceeded his comprehension. Lack of praise on the job
also made him unsure of himself and his ability. The latter pupil had also been in the
institution for long years.
Much work is demanded of the social workers in preparing the pupils for placement
in working convalescent care. The pupil must be studied and assessed. Social work
shares a responsibility with other disciplines in study and assessment of pupils for whom
rehabilitation is being planned.
In preparation for rehabilitation of the five pupils, 205 interviews of a preparatory,
supervisory, and supportive nature were given. Employment and financial assistance
agencies were conferred with on 33 occasions. In this preparatory period the psychiatrists were consulted on 165 occasions, psychology on 86, occupational therapy on 19,
recreation and industrial on 45, education on some 81 contacts, and 15 study clinics were
attended by the social workers.
Study and selection of the working home, too, involves careful work on the part of
the social workers. Some 45 visits to assess working homes were undertaken by social
workers.   Contacts with other agencies in assessment of these homes numbered 21.
Some 68 follow-up visits were paid to pupils and employers over the period of
placement.
One 40-year-old woman who had been deserted by both parents on placement in an
orphanage was committed to The Woodlands School about twenty-five years ago. While
in the School her progress had been remarkable from the medical, psychological, and
sociological aspects. When first admitted to the School at the age of 15, she was described as imbecile, given to hysterical attacks and fainting. Pre-rehabilitation study after
her education and training period revealed her to be of dull-normal intelligence. In April,
1952, she approached the Social Service Department, and after numerous interviews with
the pupil and contact with a distant relative a programme for her eventual rehabilitation
was initiated. There was, however, some doubt in the psychiatrists' minds as to this
pupil's ability to adjust to the outside community, having regard to her long residence in
the School, which had not presented her with an opportunity for competition with individuals her own age. Social Service, however, proceeded with the rehabilitation process,
working closely with the pupil, and initiated a programme geared to helping her face the
world with new confidence and reassurance.   The result was a finely integrated person- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH U 113
ality, assured signs of emotional and social maturity, and, most important of all, the
pupil's desire to return to the community.
After four months the National Employment Service was contacted, and after careful
selection by the Employment Service and the School social worker a job on a chicken-
farm was investigated and selected with the co-operation of the pupil and other School
staff. The employer was given a complete picture of the pupil's emotional level, and it
was explained that she would need constant and close supervision, and that she would
need to be trained by simplified methods in order to learn. A visit to the working home
was planned for the pupil and a starting wage of $50 monthly offered.
Since placement, an intensive follow-up programme has been carried out. Employer
and employee were both seen from time to time, and on each occasion highly satisfactory
reports were received. The pupil's enthusiasm and improvement in both appearance and
behaviour was such that when the six months' probationary period was about to expire,
the employers agreed very readily to an extension of probation as everything was working
out well. The pupil has been given increasing responsibilities and has proved reliable in
every respect to date.
A review of the foregoing case-history of the rehabilitation of a pupil indicates the
long, detailed, and skilled work involved.
To ensure the development of this programme, certain basic resources must be forthcoming from the Mental Health Services: Increase of social-work staff; availability of
rehabilitation funds within the Mental Health Services; extension of The Woodlands
School as a midway home for the pupils' use over the early placement period; the gearing
of the School to the early assessment of the rehabilitative potential of the pupils; the continuing study of the pupil directed to formulation and reformulation of education and
training goals in the light of this potential. Early consideration must be given to the
establishment of a midway home at a distance from the institutional School. Following
these resource developments within the School and Mental Health Services, it will be
necessary to develop the understanding, support, and service of community in the field
of rehabilitation of the mentally retarded.
C. SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC
During the 1952-53 year the work of the Social Service Department has continued
to develop along the lines experienced in recent years. The demand from the community
for increased direct service to children and parents has continued, and much of the staff
thinking and energy has been directed to services in this area.
Social-work responsibilities in the Child Guidance Clinic include participation in
diagnostic and consultative services to health and welfare agencies and institutions,
various teaching and educational duties, and services to parents and children seeking
direct help from the Clinic. They also involve work in various joint staff projects and
committees, interpretation and co-ordination with other agencies, and planning and
arranging of services as in Travelling Clinics. Several surveys and research activities
have also been undertaken, including a follow-up study of the effectiveness of Travelling
Clinic services, which is just under way.
There has been some decrease in services to other agencies, except for the Travelling
Clinic, which has continued to take the full time of one staff member of this Department.
In the educational area, social workers have continued to contribute to various professional and community groups and projects. They have also participated in teaching
and orientation of student-nurses and social workers. On several occasions they have
been called upon to teach in-service training class for the Provincial Social Welfare
Branch, and one of the workers has given time to teaching part of a course in research at
the University of British Columbia School of Social Work. They have also introduced a
number of visitors from other countries to social services here.    The Federal mental- U  114 BRITISH COLUMBIA
health project for students training in conjunction with the University School of Social
Work has continued for the second year, with eight students in the campus unit. Lack
of space made location outside of the Clinic necessary, and while this is not desirable it
has worked out quite satisfactorily.
It is expected that the Mental Health Services will gain four master's degree students
from this project after completion of their training. When those coming to the Child
Guidance Clinics have joined the staff, eleven of the sixteen social workers will be people
trained in these student projects of the Mental Health Services.
Direct services to families have again shown a tendency to increase in relation to
other services. The social workers take considerable responsibility in intake. They
obtain information, explore the problem with parents and children, help them toward
good use of Clinic services or referral to a more satisfactory source of help, and they
assess the problem in terms of social and parent-child relationships. A beginning was
made this year in establishment of a social-work intake section, and it is hoped that this
approach can be broadened as a means of giving earlier and more helpful service. The
Social Service Department has also taken part in inaugurating the use of pre-Clinic team
conferences as a part of intake procedure. This is seen as an aid to making early decisions which will facilitate and focus services.
From their continuing case-work help following intake, the social workers contribute
to diagnosis and treatment planning. They also carry a responsibility in most continuing
cases for case-work services to parents and children. They have responsibility for integrating and co-ordinating their work with that of other team members and also for
bringing to the client the community resources which they can use.
The following statistics give some indication of the services given, and they indicate
the continued trend toward more direct and intensive services. In the Vancouver Clinic
there were 344 applications for "direct" help which were handled by the Social Service
Department. The case-count indicates only those cases which were incorporated in caseloads for continued services. The over-all intake was up from the previous year by about
44 per cent (Victoria, 170 per cent, and Vancouver, 15 per cent), and cases carried over
to the next fiscal year were up about 31 per cent (Victoria, 61 per cent, and Vancouver,
24 per cent). Total cases carried increased about 26 per cent (Victoria, 74 per cent, and
Vancouver, 15 per cent), and direct interviews with clients showed an increase of 44 per
cent (Victoria, 216 per cent, and Vancouver, 29 per cent). The steady increase in
numbers has been evident for some years and would seem to reflect increased public
awareness, resulting from the Clinic's growth in ability to give needed services. The
latter part of this fiscal year has particularly seen a considerable increase in applications,
with the result that present facilities and staff are taxed and there is usually a waiting
period for appointments.
One feature of the statistics is the outstanding growth in services at the Victoria
Child Guidance Clinic. This is, of course, a result of the establishment of a full team
there. It was possible to add a second social worker last summer to meet the demands
on the new team, and a third worker is needed in the near future.
While these statistics are focused mainly on case-work services, some indication of
other aspects of social services is given by a total of 1,105 cases from other agencies,
including Travelling Clinics. In addition to the quantitative aspects of these statistics,
there are several figures which, at least, suggest a qualitative interpretation. The number
of case-work interviews has again increased more rapidly than case-count; there is a
considerable increase in inter-professional conferring, and there is an increase in supervisory consultation within the Department. These are aspects of professional practice
which can be expected to reflect in better services to the individual.
At the beginning of the fiscal year there was an unusual turnover of staff in this
Department, resulting in many vacancies.   Replacements were made by the end of the REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 115
summer, and the case-work staff was at that time almost completely new. This, of course,
caused some dislocation, but the new staff made it possible to avoid too much disruption
of services, and they have taken a real interest in their work and in various staff projects.
The members of the staff who left last year were well-trained social workers whose child-
guidance experience contributed to their qualification for the jobs to which they moved.
Higher compensation and the opportunity for advancement were factors in most of these
moves. One of our supervisors moved into administration of a large medical social-
service department and another into the development of a child-placement agency. One
took a position in another Province, and other workers moved to family, children, and
correctional fields in this area.
As social-work services have expanded, the gaps in community resources have
become more and more obvious. The Child Guidance Clinic is often called upon to give
services to severely disturbed children who are in real need of care and treatment in an
institutional setting. Over and over again the need is seen for a residential centre for
these children who cannot respond to help in a normal home or foster-home setting.
There are excellent developments in the correctional field, but the Clinic is still
finding that services are hampered by gaps in this area.
In many cases where there is a necessity for temporary removal from home during
treatment, adequate facilities are lacking. Workers also find a continuing need for
psychiatric out-patient facilities, and are sometimes in the position of giving child-guidance
services where adult out-patient help is greatly needed by the parents. It is hoped that
some of these gaps can be filled in the near future.
The Social Service Department is pleased at the prospect of a new Child Guidance
Clinic building. Efficiency and adequacy of service have been seriously handicapped by
present space and facilities, and it is hoped and expected that the new quarters will
provide the essentials for better service.
Social Services of Provincial Child Guidance Clinics, April, 1952, to March, 1953
Case-work Services
Vancouver
Victoria
1952-53
Totals
1951-52
Totals
157
36
193
200
231
129
360
230
8
2
10
24
17
12
29
23
256
143
399
277
405
177
582
453
210
117
329
267
195
58
253
193
344
7,860
1,555
9,415
6,100
687
47
734
1,017
700
89
789
397
367
63
430
359
757
34
791
677
7014
17
87 Vi
80
320
51
371
275
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal yean	
New cases   	
Reopened during year _ _
Reopened from previous year _	
Total intake 	
Total cases carried _ __   — 	
Cases closed during fiscal year , 	
Cases carried over to next fiscal year	
Number of applications for service	
Total case-work interviews with and regarding clients..
Conferences attended in agency diagnostic service-	
Conferences attended on cases carried by Clinic	
Consultations with team members 	
Periods of supervision  	
Travelling Clinics (total days)	
Cases given service in Travelling Clinics-—	
The foregoing reports of the three separate sections of the Psychiatric Division of
the Social Welfare Branch, which forms an integral part of the Provincial Mental Health
Services, are respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Alice K. Carroll,
Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work. U 116 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HOSPITAL CONSULTATION AND INSPECTION DIVISION OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA HOSPITAL INSURANCE SERVICE
I beg to submit a summary report of the activities of the hospital-clearance programme, for which the services of the Social Welfare Branch through the Field Service
staff are given to hospitals throughout the entire Province of British Columbia for the
fiscal year 1952-53.
In 1937 an arrangement was made between the Provincial Hospital Services Division
and the Provincial Field Service staff to assist the general hospitals in British Columbia
in problems which, while of an administrative nature, nevertheless constituted a social
problem within the community. This arrangement was made with three points of view
in mind:—
(1) From the standpoint of the Provincial Government's interest in hospitals
and to assist in reducing unnecessary hospitalization.
(2) To assist the hospitals in problems they are unable to solve by themselves.
(3) From the standpoint of the field social worker, to ensure that the patient
is really ready to leave hospital, and that such movement and the manner
of making the move is preceded by an official request from the hospital
so to do, and by acquiescence of the attending physician.
Administration of the plan is now under the direction of British Columbia Hospital
Insurance Service, Hospital Consultation and Inspection Division, with the Inspector of
Hospitals acting as the director and liaison between the Hospital Insurance Service and
the Social Welfare Branch.
Referral of hospital-clearance cases is based primarily on residence responsibility:—
(1) Where legal residence is in unorganized territory, the hospital authority
reports the case to the Inspector of Hospitals, submitting the existing form
for that purpose, " Report on Social Problem Case in Hospital," in
duplicate.
(2) Where legal residence is within a municipality, the hospital authority
reports the case to the local municipal authorities wherein the case has
legal residence, submitting the existing form, " Report on Social Problem
Case in Hospital."
During the year 1952 there were 405 cases referred direct to the Inspector of
Hospitals for hospital clearance. Removal of 329 cases was effected by the field social
workers to suitable alternative placement.
As the majority of hospitals in the Province of British Columbia have no established
social-service departments of their own, it is quite understandable and worthy of special
comment that the service given to hospitals through the Social Welfare Branch is a highly
commendable one. It should be borne in mind that the figure given above as 405 does
not in any way constitute the true number of cases handled in the field, as patients with
residence in an organized city or municipal area would not of necessity be known to the
Inspector of Hospitals unless a problem did arise necessitating referral to the Inspector
of Hospitals under Regulation 11 of the regulations under the " Hospital Act."
While the counselling service is given to hospitals by the Inspector of Hospitals and
to the field upon request, the case-work service to the patient is given by the social worker
on the same basis as any other client, and without disruption of service, merely because
the person happens to be a patient in hospital.
The Provincial Field Service also submitted 128 social histories in connection with
Provincial Infirmary applications received for the year 1952. All applications for admission to the Provincial Infirmary are screened through the office of the Inspector of Hos- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
U 117
pitals. It is required that a complete social history in duplicate be obtained with respect
to each Infirmary application, and the field staff compile, upon request, all social histories
in this regard.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Edith Pringle, R.N.,
Inspector of Hospitals.
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1953
710-1253-6919 ■
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