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Report of the Lands Service containing the reports of the Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch, and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1954

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. R. E. Sommers, Minister C. E. Hopper, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the Lands Service
containing the reports of the
Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch,
and Water Rights Branch
together with the
Dyking Commissioner, Southern Okanagan Lands Project,
and University Endowment Lands
Year Ended December 31st
1953
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
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/>^ _-i'-  Victoria, B.C., January 29th, 1954.
To Colonel the Honourable Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December 31st, 1953.
R. E. SOMMERS,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 29th, 1954.
The Honourable R. E. Sommers,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended December
31st, 1953.
C. E. HOPPER,
Deputy Minister of Lands.  CONTENTS
Fade
1. Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands  9
2. Lands Branch—
(a) Lands Branch  13
(b) Land Utilization Research and Survey Division  27
(c) Land Inspection Division   28
(d) Land Surveyor  31
3. Surveys and Mapping Branch  35
(a) Legal Division  41
(b) Topographic Division  48
Surveys—
(1) Control Survey of North-eastern British Columbia  49
(2) Nakina River Area___  57
(3) Parsnip River Triangulation  61
(4) Penticton-Osoyoos Area  62
(5) Smith River Area  62
(c) Geographic Division  64
(d) Air Division  75
4. Water Rights Branch  91
5. Dyking Commissioner  131
6. Southern Okanagan Lands Project  139
7. University Endowment Lands  145
8. Land Settlement Board  151
9. Mail and File Room  155  REPORT OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA
LANDS SERVICE
C. E. Hopper, Deputy Minister of Lands
In reviewing, in summary form, the activities of the British Columbia Lands Service
for 1953, my first duty is the honour of writing into the official record a word of appreciation for two senior officers of the Service who retired during the course of the year.
George P. Melrose retired in June from the position of Deputy Minister of Lands.
A graduate of the University of New Brunswick, in 1914, with the degree of Bachelor
of Science in forestry, he joined the British Columbia Forest Service in June of the same
year. He served as District Forester at Vernon, Kamloops, and Nelson. From 1936 to
1946 his headquarters were Victoria and his position that of Officer in Charge of Operations and Assistant Chief Forester. In 1946 he became Deputy Minister of Lands and
played a major role in the years following, when the Province experienced the greatest
economic and industrial activity and development in its history, in all phases of which
land and water resources were the keys to progress. His services were in constant
demand both in and out of his office, and from June, 1951, to January, 1952, Mr. Melrose served as Chairman of the United Nations Technical Mission to the country of
El Salvador in Central America.
G. Bruce Dixon, B.Sc, PEng., retired in March, 1953, because of impaired health.
Since appointment in 1921, he had served continuously as Inspector and Commissioner
of Dykes. The people of the Fraser Valley especially will not forget the eventful years
of his long term of office and his arduous efforts in their behalf, notably during and
following the disastrous flood of 1948, classed as a national emergency.
The rapid pace of resource development which has characterized the post-war years
continued unabated during 1953 in British Columbia, in terms of disposition of Crown
land and water. Indeed, in real-estate business done, new records were set. Hydro-
power, pulp and other forest categories, oil-pipeline and railway construction, and permits
for petroleum and natural-gas geological exploration in North-eastern British Columbia
made business brisk in all branches of the British Columbia Lands Service. Consider
this wide and large-scale business expansion together with the great increase in population
in British Columbia, which can be stated in round figures as 50 per cent since 1939,
and the extent of individual demand for purchase and lease of Crown land becomes
apparent.
The details of work accomplished in 1953 by the British Columbia Lands Service
can be read in the reports of the branches and divisions which follow. However, attention can be called in this review to the general organization of the Service and to a few
of the significant accomplishments which stand out in the operations of the past twelve
months.
The four branches of the British Columbia Lands Service and their main functions
are as follows:—
(1) General Administration is associated with the office of Deputy Minister,
and involves responsibility for the British Columbia Lands Service as
a whole. Under his personal direction also is the administration of special
Acts, through agencies set up for that purpose. The most important Acts
are the " Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act," the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act," the " Irrigation Assistance Loan Act," the " Soldiers' Land Act," the " Land Settlement and Development Act," the
" University Endowment Act," and the " Industrial Development Act."
Mail and files, property, and accounts are clerical sections of
Administration. Q 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(2) The Lands Branch, directed by the Superintendent of Lands, has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown lands under the
" Land Act."
(3) The Surveys and Mapping Branch, under the Director, who is also the
Surveyor-General for the Province, carries out the legal, topographic,
geographic, and aerial surveys required by the Government as a whole,
and prepares maps, plans, photos, and similar documents, based upon
surveys.
(4) The Water Rights Branch Comptroller is charged with administering the
" Water Act " and with carrying out survey, research, hydraulic engineering, and investigation pertinent to the water resources of British Columbia.
A selection from the British Columbia Lands Service highlights for 1953 appears
here to provide ready reference to the sections of this 1953 Annual Report:—
University Endowment Lands.—The last of the residential building lots have been
sold, and plans are being pushed forward to complete the subdivision of a further
200-acre block of land.
Southern Okanagan Lands Project.—-In 1953 the largest renewal yet made to the
Oliver domestic water system was completed, and for 1954 the replacement of the main-
canal bottom ranks high as a special project.
Commissioner of Dykes.—In the administration of the dyking and drainage districts
of the Lower Fraser Valley, the problems of erosion, drainage, and taxation received
close attention.
The Lands Branch.—Total collections for the year were $3,705,480.02. This is
a record, and represents a gain of $945,000 over 1952.
Easements were granted for the Crown land crossed by the right-of-way of the
now-operating Trans-Mountain Oil Pipe Line, connecting Edmonton, Alta., with
Burnaby, B.C.
Disposition of Crown land during the year covered 3,679 town lots, the alienation
of 139,000 acres of other lands, and the establishment of 332 reserves, 164 of these
being for the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public.
The Land Inspection Division prepared 2,152 reports for the Superintendent of
Lands, dealing with purchases, leases, pre-emptions, subdivisions, reserves, and " Veterans' Land Act" matters.
The Water Rights Branch.—With the issuance of more than 1,000 water licences
throughout the Province, a total of over 14,500 licences is presently active, yielding in
annual fees a total of about $700,000.
The Water Resources Section of the Branch carried out a wide variety of investigations and study, including questions and problems relating to irrigation, drainage, and
dyking; domestic water-supply; hydro-electric power and flood-control; ground-water;
international waters; snow surveys;  and sedimentation surveys.
The Surveys and Mapping Branch.—This largest of the branches contributed a
record addition to the monumental work of mapping, photographing, and documenting
the land and water surface of British Columbia. Without the basic and essential survey
and data which results from research, the orderly and proper development of Crown
land and its natural resources could neither be planned nor accomplished.
The second of a series of five notes describing, in capsule form, the major units
of the British Columbia Lands Service outlines the organization and functions of the
Surveys and Mapping Branch. It appears facing the report of the Director. The first
note, discussing the Lands Branch, appeared in the Annual Report for 1952 facing the
report of the Superintendent of Lands, and is reprinted in this Report. LANDS BRANCH Note 1
THE LANDS BRANCH
At the time of the Fraser River gold-rush in 1858 the demand for land in British
Columbia was greatly intensified and pre-emptions predated surveys. Within four years 254
pre-emptors had taken up more than 50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer of real
estate and provide for the registration of titles, the "Land Registry Act" was passed in 1860.
The Government of the Province of British Columbia was now in the real-estate business in
a big way; the more than 366,000 square miles of land and water that constitutes British
Columbia was the real estate in question.
With the entrance of British Columbia into Confederation in 1871, the demand for land
quickened to a rush, and over the next thirty years the land-settler (and the promoter) succeeded the gold-miner in importance. Railroads were built and land grants passed, cities came
into being, and companies became established.   Land was at the core of all developments.
The task of land administration became very heavy and necessitated the formation of
a Department of Lands in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the Department of
Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests exercises control of more than 90 per
cent of the surface of British Columbia.
How does the Lands Branch fit into the total organization of the British Columbia Lands
Service of to-day? The relation may be expressed briefly. The Lands Branch has jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the disposition of Crown land, and is charged with so
administering and disposing of the land that the general welfare, present and future, of
the Province must be protected at all times.
When an individual, or group, desires to purchase or lease Crown land, the application is
directed to the Superintendent of Lands, head of the Lands Branch. His authority governs
the following matters:—
Sale, lease, and pre-emption of Crown lands for such purposes as agricultural, industrial, commercial, and home-sites.
Preparation and issuance of Crown grants under the " Land Act," the " Mineral Act,"
and the " Taxation Act."
Preparation and issuance of right-of-way easements for power, telephone, pipe lines,
etc.
Reservation of suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, use and
enjoyment of the public, forestry experimentation, fisheries research work, highways, etc.
Granting railway rights-of-way under various Statutes.
Protection of historic sites from alienation.
Reservation and conveying of Crown lands for such purposes as school-sites, cemeteries, and fair grounds.
Leasing of land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites, booming-
grounds, canneries, oyster and other mollusc fisheries,  and for boat-houses,
quarry-sites, cattle-ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft bases.
To  perform  these  and  other  functions  efficiently,  the  Lands  Branch  works  in  close
co-operation with a great number of other agencies, such as municipal and city administrations,
town-planning authorities, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Branches of Water Rights
and Surveys and Mapping within the British Columbia Lands Service, and all the departments
in the Government of the Province, notably Public Works, Education, and Attorney-General.
Outside  the   Provincial   departments   there  is   much   business  transacted  with   Federal
departments, such as the Department of National Defence, the Veterans' Land Settlement Act
administration, the Public Works Department, and the Indian Affairs Branch of the Department
of Citizenship and Immigration.
Direct service to the people of British Columbia is the first duty of the Lands Branch and
this takes the bulk of the time of the Lands Branch personnel. Associated with this prime
duty is the important function of the maintenance of the records, which in many cases are the
only ones in British Columbia, showing the correct legal status of the surface of the Province.'—
Reprinted from 1952 Report. LANDS BRANCH Q 13
LANDS BRANCH
R. E. Burns, Superintendent of Lands
Notwithstanding the activity which has taken place in the disposition of Crown lands
within recent years, the returns of the operations for 1953 as set out in the statistical
tables, submitted herewith, show the continued demand for Crown lands within the
Province.
The work of this branch also involves the activities of the Land Settlement Board,
the Land Inspection Division, University Endowment Lands, Southern Okanagan Lands
Project, the Land Utilization, Research, and Survey Division, and the Departmental
Surveyor.    Separate reports are submitted covering these divisions.
While the year 1952 showed increased activity in the sale of town lots, the number
in 1953 was far in excess. Special reference is made to the number of lots sold at Prince
George, totalling 1,330, an increase of 266 over 1952.
The total area of all lands deeded by Crown grant was 99,036.36 acres, being an
increase over 1952.
The year 1953 saw the completion of the Trans-Mountain Oil Pipe Line and the
flow of oil from Edmonton to the tank-farm at Burnaby. The part played by the Lands
Branch in this industrial highlight was the issuance of easements for the Crown lands
crossed by the right-of-way through the Province.
Increased industrial development in the Province has resulted in applications for
easements for transmission rights-of-way by the British Columbia Electric Company
Limited, the West Kootenay Power and Light Company Limited, and the East Kootenay
Power Company Limited.
Agricultural settlement continues chiefly in the Peace River District, but disposition
of Crown lands in that area by pre-emption has been restricted to zoned areas to ensure
reasonable transportation facilities and discourage indiscriminate settlement.
Owing to the increased demand for summer-home sites on lakes, it has been
necessary, where physical conditions warrant, to confine lands disposed of for this purpose
to a maximum lake-frontage of 5 chains.
The Lands Branch, in co-operation with the Parks Division of the Forest Service,
continues to reserve parcels of land considered as having potential value as parks and
recreational sites or public camping-grounds.
In the reservation of lands for various departments of the Federal Government,
a large proportion of same comprised lands for the use of the Department of Transport
for defence purposes.
Reservations of Crown lands for all purposes totalled 332, an increase of 130 over
1952.
With the development of the Province, the administration of foreshore is becoming
increasingly important. During 1953, of a total of 353 leases issued, 101 covered
foreshore areas.
In continuing assistance for the rehabilitation of war veterans, special parcels of
land were disposed of to the Director, Veterans' Land Act, in the Prince George area.
Approximately 77 acres were granted for development into small holdings, to provide
settlement for fifty veterans.
Important legislation passed was the " Land Act Amendment Act, 1953," whereby
the right of the Crown to a conveyance of lands by virtue of a provision inserted in
a Crown grant was extinguished.
The Land Series Bulletins, giving information to incoming settlers covering the
different portions of the Province, are in the course of revision and printing. The bulletin
covering the Peace River District is already in circulation. At present these bulletins
number thirty-four, but on revision will be reduced to ten, resulting in economy in the Q  14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
cost of printing, while containing complete and up-to-date information. The present
bulletins were prepared some twenty-five years ago and cover various parts of the
Province, with geographic boundaries. The new bulletins will cover areas, with boundaries, according to land recording districts as established under the provisions of the
" Land Act."
The strong start in the microfilming of old and obsolete files to provide needed
storage-space is worthy of note. A large number of files have been destroyed, under
authority of the " Public Documents Disposal Act."
Pursuant to an amendment to the " Coal Act," the transfer was completed of all
documents and files from the Lands Branch to the Department of Mines.
The Department's total collections for the year reached an all-time high of
$3,705,480.02. In comparison, the recorded collections for 1952 totalled $2,761,152.78,
and the average for the past ten years (1944 to 1953, inclusive) amounts to $1,554,529.01.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Collections
Table 1.—Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1953
" Land Act"—
Land leases, rentals, fees, etc    $350,623.93
Land sales      594,055.08
Sale of maps and aerial photos        39,514.11
Water rentals and recording fees      700,289.17
Miscellaneous receipts   6,171.87
Petroleum and natural gas (three months)   1,246,056.57
Coal, and coal and petroleum (ten months)        12,093.15
  $2,948,803.88
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project      $91,009.43
Houses, South Vancouver  360.00
  91,369.43
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act"        609,577.39
Refunds—advances and votes  55,729.32
Total collections  $3,705,480.02 LANDS BRANCH
Q 15
CHART 1. SOURCES OF COLLECTIONS,  1953
SEE TABLE   1   FOR DETAIL?
Table 2.—Summary of Total Collections for Ten-year Period
1944-53, Inclusive
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
$595,117.61
846,456.33
992,201.70
1,770,413.49
975,772.41
1,045,969.03
1,159,988.86
1,692,737.85
2,761,152.78
3,705,480.02
Total           $15,545,290.08
Ten-year average, $1,554,529.00. Q 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 3.—Sundry Revenue for the Year Ended December 31st, 1953
Collections under " Land Act"—
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc  $266,341.54
Crown-grant fees  20,940.00
Occupational rental  14,733.93
Improvements   35.00
Royalty   5,570.55
Reverted mineral claims  5,519.11
Sundry   37,483.80
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act"—Leases and fees _-_	
Collections under " Coal Act"—Licences, leases, and fees	
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act"—
Leases, permits, and fees  $1,245,711.57
Sundry   345.00
$350,623.93
5,211.50
6,881.65
     1,246,056.57
  $1,608,773.65
Note.—"Coal and Petroleum Act" and "Coal Act," ten months' collections;
'Petroleum and Natural Gas Act," three months' collections.
TotaL
Table 4.—Summary of Sundry Revenue Collections for
Ten-year Period 1944-53, Inclusive
Total
Ten-year average, $607,049.04.
$182,782.73
199,042.61
207,696.63
262,760.93
288,901.91
322,683.92
387,435.19
916,338.98
1,694,073.93
1,608,773.65
$6,070,490.48
Table 5.—Miscellaneous Collections, 1953
Collections under " Houses, South Vancouver "—
Principal 	
Interest 	
Administration	
Taxes 	
Insurance 	
$360.00
Refunds—Advances and votes.
$360.00
55,729.32
Total  $56,089.32 LANDS BRANCH
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Q Q 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 7.—Country Land Sales, 1953
Surveyed—
First class   16,952.75
Second class  34,711.77
Third class  19,212.99
 70,877.51
Unsurveyed  15,689.42
Total _____  86,566.93
Table 8.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1953
Land Recording District
Alberni                                   	
Number of Sales
                      19
Atlin ______                      	
Cranbrook     	
_            36
Fernie                             .        _.____..
                       28
Fort Fraser     _—          	
                     112
Fort George                  -     . _
____   ____   ___                    308
Golden .         	
_.__                ___         28
Kamloops                      _   _   -   -
46
Kaslo                            _       _      _
        ______         36
Lillooet             	
          78
Nanaimo             	
____                 52
Nelson _               	
             111
New Westminster          	
          46
Osoyoos            	
        22
Peace River      -
234
Prince Rupert            	
                       49
Quesnel           -
___.                          117
Revelstoke                      -    - -
_   __,                       43
Similkameen                   	
44
Smithers       .__..           	
                        213
Teleeranh Creek                   	
Vancouver     __ _               _. _   	
103
Victoria              __          	
18
Total 	
  1.743 LANDS BRANCH
Q 19
Anaconda	
Athalmer	
Barriere	
Beaton	
Beaverdam Lake
Bedwell Bay	
Bella Coola	
Burns Lake	
Camborne 	
Campbell River
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1953
Number
  4
         14
  2
  3
  4
  6
  7
  4
  20
  24
Cascade  455
Castlegar 	
Clinton	
Cluculz Lake	
Coalmont 	
Cranberry Lake __
Cranbrook 	
Creston 	
Dawson Creek ._..
Digby Island	
Ferguson 	
Fernie 	
Fort Fraser	
Fort St. James _~
Fort Steele	
Fraser Lake	
Gibsons Landing
Golden 	
Hansen Lake	
Hazelton	
Hedley 	
Hope 	
Hope Point	
Hosmer 	
  6
  15
  2
  5
  1
  4
  2
  1
  2
  9
  11
  34
  18
  28
  5
  11
  35
  9
  133
  3
  6
  5
  4
Houston   133
Huntingdon 	
Kimberley 	
Lillooet 	
Lone Butte	
Marysville 	
Masset	
Merritt 	
Midway	
McBride	
Nanaimo 	
Nelson	
New Hazelton __
New Westminster
Olalla 	
Pitt Lake	
11
46
9
4
10
5
4
15
4
5
13
70
26
66
4
Value
$90.00
190.00
150.00
400.00
400.00
415.00
455.00
350.00
105.00
11,150.00
3,654.00
4,100.00
835.00
435.00
250.00
540.00
430.00
1,250.00
800.00
340.00
45.00
500.00
1,000.00
1,425.00
325.00
125.00
1,150.00
625.00
925.00
885.00
150.00
2,575.00
390.00
95.00
3,275.00
435.00
995.00
45.00
150.00
435.00
165.00
275.00
525.00
780.00
940.00
2,270.00
580.00
9,410.00
495.00
761.00 Q 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1953—Continued
Poplar Creek	
Port Alberni	
Port Coquitlam 	
Port Edward	
Pouce Coupe 	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Qualicum Beach	
Queen Charlotte City
Quesnel 	
Revelstoke 	
Sandon 	
Shawnigan Lake	
Sidney 	
Smithers 	
Squamish 	
Stewart 	
Telkwa 	
Terrace 	
Trail	
Tulameen 	
Vananda 	
Vancouver 	
Vanderhoof 	
Walker Hook	
Westview 	
Wilmer	
Windermere 	
Yale 	
Ymir 	
Miscellaneous 	
Totals
Number
Value
49
490.00
3
1,870.00
85
775.00
1
220.00
5
241.79
1,330
127,063.00
22
7,175.00
2
375.00
15
420.00
6
750.00
33
625.00
15
1,500.00
5
825.00
4
600.00
432
19,310.00
7
770.00
8
685.00
7
110.00
9
1,695.00
7
4,200.00
15
800.00
2
150.00
2
400.00
83
4,370.00
70
560.00
50
14,125.00
28
225.00
3
75.00
5
561.85
31
1,380.00
82
2,535.00
3,679
$252,971.64
Table 10.—Land-sales Collections, 1953 (Collections under "Land Act"
(Principal and Interest))
Country lands—
Reverted  $148,879.18
Crown      255,520.48
—  $404,399.66
Town lots     181,531.17
Surface rights of mineral claims         8,073.25
Former Dominion  	
Pre-empted lands  	
Indian reserve cut-off	
Total  $594,004.08 LANDS BRANCH
Q 21
CHART 2.  SOURCES OF  LAND  SALES  COLLECTIONS,   1953
SEE TABLE   10  FOR  DETAILS
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
Table 11.—Summary of Land Sales for Ten-year Period
1944-53, Inclusive
Total.
Ten-year average, $440,617.22.
$215,409.40
294,034.56
368,088.19
■ 811,752.23
379,650.48
375,254.88
366,458.62
382,256.61
619,263.14
594,004.08
$4,406,172.19 Q 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Leases
Table 12.—New Leases Issued, 1953
Number Acreage
Hay and grazing  166 38,828.84
Agriculture     18 3,901.00
Quarrying—sand, gravel, etc.     14 1,353.31
Home-site        8 84.95
Booming and log storage     45 942.09
Oyster, clam, and shell-fish       9 211.86
•    Cannery    	
Foreshore—miscellaneous      48 244.89
Miscellaneous     45 522.61
Totals  353 46,089.55
Table 13.—Temporary Tenure Leases Renewed, 1953
Number  75
Acreage  2,842.70
Table 14.—Land-use Permits Issued, 1953
Number  28
Acreage      130.43
Table 15.—Licences of Occupation Issued, 1953
Number  18
Acreage        35.17
Table 16.—Easements Granted, 1953
Number
Power and telephone lines, etc.     10
Oil pipe-lines       7
Miscellaneous       5
Total      22
Table 17.—Assignments Approved, 1953
Number
Leases, land-use permits, licences of occupation, etc.  130
Table 18.—Sundry Lease Collections ("Land Act ")
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc.  $266,341.54
Occupational rentals       14,733.93
Royalty          5,570.55
Total   -_- $286,646.02 LANDS BRANCH
Q 23
Table 19.—Summary of Home-site Lease Collections for Ten-year
Period 1944—53, Inclusive
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
Total
Ten-year average, $2,110.57.
$2,162.11
2,751.67
2,109.86
2,932.25
2,265.74
1,926.99
2,040.33
2,123.65
1,398.80
1,394.30
$21,105.70
Pre-emptions
Table 20.—Pre-emption Records, 1953
Land Recording District
Pre-emption Records
Allowed
Pre-emption Records
Cancelled
Certificates of Improvements Issued
Number
Ten-year
Average
Number
Ten-year
Average
Number
Ten-year
Average
_._.__
0.3
0.4
7
5
1
7
11
2
3
4
48
14
5
3
1.0
1.0
0.1
7.9
25.4
2.5
8.3
21.6
1.9
0.9
6.4
2.2
44.2
21.5
5.2
2.1
2.5
2
5
4
3
4
3
47
8
1
0.1
Atlin      	
0.1
0.7
|          0.1
1       !           5.5
0.1
6.1
6
5
1
31
9
12.4
3.1
4.0
16.1
0.8
0.1
2.2
1.4
74.1
0.5
18.8
0.1
1.8
2.0
1.0
12.0
1.8
Kamloops  	
7.0
0.1
Lillooet _ _
8.7
1.0
0.6
3.9
2.9
49.5
0.6
12.3
1.9
2.5
1.3
1.3
Victoria  _  	
0.3
Totals  	
53
144.7
110
154.7
77        1        114.8 Q 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Crown Grants
Table 21.—Crown Grants Issued, 1953
Purchases (other than town lots)  733
Town lots  624
Pre-emptions   8 8
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  112
Mineral claims (reverted)   118
University Endowment Lands  10
"Public Schools Act"  14
"Veterans' Land Settlement Act"  10
Home-site leases   14
Supplementary timber grants  14
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  29
Surface rights ("Mineral Act")  56
Miscellaneous   7
Total   1,829
Certified copies of Crown grants issued, 3.
Table 22.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1944  ——     „ miii i, u  1,528
1945 IMI I II Ill-MMMMMMMI 1,817
1946 m—i mi ■imii iiwiii miiim—m— 2,203
1947 mm ■■!■_■■ iimim —     imiii i   2,577
1948 riniri__iiBMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii_iiB_«_«M8MaM_yB_M_a 2,063
1949 HHHHI_______IIH--_______BI_____H 1,602
1950 __H__-H_HHIH__H 1,580
1951 iiiiiinii-ii—i-Miw—m—__ora 1,740
1952 ___a_H____________H____HBH 1,872
1953 ■a__»HIM--iHE__H_HHHI 1,829
Total  18,811
Ten-year average, 1,881.
Table 23.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1953
Acres
Purchases of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots) 66,272.03
Pre-emptions  13,516.62
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  5,004.28
Mineral claims (reverted)   4,267.72
" Public Schools Act"  39.02
Supplementary timber grants  5,495.53
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  3,050.84
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act"  1,168.34
Home-site leases  161.37
Miscellaneous   60.61
Total     99,036.36 lands branch
Reserves
Table 24.—Reserves Established, 1953
Use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  164
British  Columbia Public Works Department   (rights-of-way,
gravel-pits, warehouses, etc.)   51
Federal Government (defence purposes, wharf-sites, etc.)  38
Miscellaneous (Forest Service Ranger Stations, road access, reforestation, etc., Game Commission, water-power projects) 79
Q 25
Total
332
Sundry Collections, 1953
Table 25.—Collections under the "Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
Principal     $9,264.55
Interest       1,476.13
Lease rentals  889.00
Realizations        2,509.37
Water rates—
Oliver domestic  $16,219.96
Irrigation     60,650.42
     76,870.38
Total   $91,009.43 Q 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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c LANDS BRANCH Q 27
LAND UTILIZATION RESEARCH AND  SURVEY DIVISION
D. Sutherland, B.S.A., P.Ac, Director
As a result of the transfer of the technical staff of the Division to other duties, field
activities had to be curtailed. The work that was done was directed to clearing up projects
that were under way.
A comprehensive report on the Doukhobor lands brings together the findings of
a field study conducted jointly by this Division and the Doukhobor Research Committee.
It contains an inventory of the land and buildings acquired by the Government under the
" Doukhobor Lands Acquisition Act," 1939, and proposals for a proper disposition in
accordance with the general recommendation made by the Consultative Committee that
ways be found to return the lands in question to the Doukhobors now in occupation.
A summary of the findings of the field survey was presented in the 1952 Report, and the
work since the first of this year was devoted to compiling a report of all the findings
and conclusions, and to preparing six map folios, each containing a complete set of hand-
coloured soil and land classification maps at a scale of 1 inch to 400 feet, and a set of airphoto mosaics to illustrate present land use.
A two-man party went to the Peace River District to make a reconnaissance of two
fringe areas which have been held under reserve from settlement pending study and
recommendations as to their settlement potential. The areas are 82,000 acres bounded
by the Beatton and Doig Rivers, 20 miles north-east of Fort St. John, and 118,000 acres
lying 80 miles north of Fort St. John between Umbach Creek and Beatton River, north of
Blueberry River to the 57th parallel. Summary reports and maps filed with the Division
at the close of the field season are the source of the information that follows.
The Doig " triangle " is a flat-lying plateau at 2,000 feet elevation. The soils are
variable, with bogs, muskegs, and poorly drained areas prevalent. A deposit of sand
covering 10,000 acres is lacking in fertility and too droughty for cultivation. Of 17,000
acres classed as marginal arable, only 6,000 acres are considered to offer a fair chance of
success for cultivation. The cover consists of moderately dense stands of aspen, spruce,
and pine under 6 inches in diameter. Some park land is found on the west side of the
" triangle," where aspen dominates. Grass is fairly abundant in these park-land areas,
which offer good grazing under cover.
In view of the isolation, poor access, poor drainage, high development costs, and the
small proportion of suitable, arable soils, it is recommended that the settlement reserve be
continued and that agricultural ventures in the area be restricted for the time being to
grazing under a lease or " community pasture " arrangement.
In the area surveyed north of Blueberry River the soils are better than in the Doig
" triangle," with poor drainage again the main limitation. There are 35,000 acres of
bog soils scattered throughout the area but concentrated to some extent in the north half.
Grey-wooded soils occupy a major portion of the upland at about the 2,400-foot elevation. They are found under the heaviest cover and have the restricted drainage and low
fertility common to this group of soils. The arable soils are found on the benches along
the creeks. These areas, consisting of degraded black and semi-bog soils, are suitable
for development, although they contain portions which are not adequately drained.
Practically all the cover in this block of land is fire-killed, having been burned over
several years ago, though willow and aspen seedlings are appearing amongst the deadfalls.
Grass is fairly abundant, but grazing is restricted by the volume of dead wood on the
ground. Heavy stands of dead timber cover 38,000 acres, and treed bogs cover 35,000
acres, the two accounting for 62 per cent of the area surveyed.
The fair to good arable land was estimated at 23,000 acres, while an additional
12,000 acres were rated marginal arable. The remainder—70 per cent of the total—is
non-arable. Q 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
There are thus 35,000 acres, mostly in the south half of the surveyed area, that have
possibilities for settlement. Consideration might be given to lifting the reserve from an
area of about 65,000 acres lying between Umbach Creek and Beatton River and south
of an east-west line drawn 4 miles north of Township 112. At the same time, consideration ought to be given to the requirements of the area for schools, roads, and amenities,
should it be settled, also to the distance of 150 miles to rail-head and its significance as
related to marketing.
Besides the reconnaissance surveys, twenty-six farm units in Townships 84, 85, and
86, Ranges 13 to 16, inclusive, were described in detail. These farm units are located in
the district north of Clayhurst, where the surveys were made in 1952. The selections
represent the best of the available Crown and reverted land in the area, and bound copies
of the farm-unit reports on file in Victoria and Fort St. John will provide a valuable
reference for land-seekers.
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
L. D. Fraser, B.Sc.A., P.Ag., Chief Land Inspector
The position of the Land Inspector as a liaison officer between the public and the
Lands Service general office has become progressively important with the expanding
economy of British Columbia. This is emphasized by the increased number of general
inquiries from the public seeking expert advice on land and settlement problems through
the Inspector. In this regard the Land Inspector not only is familiar with local land use,
but also has a working knowledge of over twenty British Columbia Statutes relative to
land matters and is therefore in a position to greatly assist the Land Commissioner, who
is the official agent for the Department in dealing with applications under the provisions
of the "Land Act."
The duties of a Land Inspector are varied and oftentimes complex. He deals not
only with matters pertinent to routine land applications, but he is also called upon to
exercise a high degree of tact and diplomacy while gathering the necessary data for his
reports on applications involving a number of protestants and conflicting opinions on
optimum land use. Special attention is given to timber and grazing values, soil, climate,
domestic and irrigation water, and the suitability of an area for the purpose required on
all applications. The Land Inspector often enlists the co-operation of officials of other
Provincial departments as well as Federal and municipal agencies in determining the
highest economic use and conservation of our Crown lands. In this respect, special
attention is given to town planning where it has been found necessary to provide an
orderly and systematic plan for the natural growth of our communities to forestall fortuitous development.
REORGANIZATION
Prior to 1953, land-examination work was handled jointly by the Forest Rangers
and Land Inspectors. However, subsequent to World War II, activity increased tremendously in land sales and leases, and this activity persists. Similarly, activity increased in
forestry work, which required the Rangers to devote more of their time to their own
duties, especially during the summer months when land-examination work could be done
to the best advantage. Therefore, in order to offer the public the service required, the
Inspection Division was reorganized and assumed the responsibility of handling over 95
per cent of land inspections. The remaining few are handled by the Forest Service in the
coastal areas where boat service is necessary. It also does some land-examination work
in the eastern portion of the Province. LANDS BRANCH Q 29
STAFF
As mentioned, the Division was reorganized early in the year and the field staff
increased from nine to fourteen Land Inspectors, in addition to employing one university
graduate and one undergraduate as Assistant Land Inspectors.
The following staff changes were effected during the year: D. Borthwick, B.S.A.,
P.Ag., acted as Assistant Chief Land Inspector; J. S. Gilmore, B.S.A., P.Ag., R. E.
Gordon, B.S.A., and G. H. Wilson, B.S.A., were transferred from the Land Utilization,
Research, and Survey Division to the Land Inspection Division early in March and posted
to Pouce Coupe, Vanderhoof, and Fort St. John, respectively; R. F. Gilmour, B.S.A.,
M. Martinuik, B.S.A., and W. A. Minion, B.S.A., were appointed Land Inspectors and
stationed at Quesnel, Vancouver, and Kamloops, respectively.
The following transfers were effected within the Inspection Division: F. M. Cunningham, B.S.A., P.Ag., from Nelson to Prince George; C. T. W. Hyslop, B.S.A., P.Ag.,
from Prince George to Kamloops and later to Kelowna; W. R. Redel, B.A.Sc, P.Ag.,
from Quesnel to Nelson; D. E. Goodwin, B.S.A., P.Ag., from Pouce Coupe to Courtenay.
Inspection personnel remaining unchanged were D. G. Havard, B.S.A., Smithers;
H. L. Huff, B.S.A., P.Ag., New Westminster; A. F. Smith, B.S.A., P.Ag., Williams Lake;
and J. S. D. Smith, B.S.A., P.Ag., Clinton.
J. D. Kidd, B.S.A., was posted as Assistant Land Inspector at Fort St. John, and
J. W. A. Palmer, second-year engineering student, was posted as Assistant Land Inspector at Alexis Creek.
OFFICES
In order to offer the public the best possible service, new offices were opened at
Courtenay, Vancouver, Kelowna, Vanderhoof, and Fort St. John. These were in addition
to established offices at Pouce Coupe, Prince George, Smithers, Quesnel, Williams Lake,
Clinton, Kamloops, Nelson, New Westminster, and Victoria.
ADMINISTRATION
By reducing each Inspector's territory to an economic operating unit and by increasing the staff and offices accordingly, the Inspection Division has shown a marked
improvement with regard to shortening the length of time necessary to process an application. This has also been materially aided by the creation of a special draughting section
in the Legal Division for the purpose of making plans and map sketches for the Inspection
Division.
A comprehensive recording system, pertinent to the disposition of all requests for
examinations, has been set up under the direction of the Chief Land Inspector. This has
been found necessary to control the work programme of the various Land Inspectors, as
well as examination requests channelled through the Forest Service.
DIVERSITY OF WORK
There is a great diversity in the types of examinations carried out by the Land
Inspectors. For example, on the coastal areas foreshore leases for booming and log
storage, industrial and commercial purposes, oyster and shell-fish culture, etc., demand
major attention as compared to the importance placed on grazing leases in the Interior
and agricultural land for farming purposes in the Peace River District. An increasing
number of inspections are made pertaining to the purchase or lease of small acreages (5
to 40 acres) for home-site purposes, hunting- and fishing-cabin sites, public camp-sites,
and commercial resorts. Most of these are assocated with tidal waters, lakes and their
tributary streams.
The following table indicates the variety and numbers of inspections carried out
during 1953:— Q 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Land Inspections, 1953
Purchases—
Agricultural  447
Home-sites   186
Industrial and commercial  66
Camp-sites and resorts  93
Wood-lots  5
Miscellaneous  46
Grazing  58
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural  50
Home-sites   34
Industrial and commercial 1 30
Quarrying—sand, gravel, limestone, etc  17
Fur-farming  1
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  167
Miscellaneous  7
901
306
495
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage     40
Industrial and commercial     28
Oyster and shell-fish     10
Miscellaneous     16
        94
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc        29
Pre-emptions—
Applications     58
Annual inspections  437
Subdivisions—
Valuations      24
Selection Crown's quarter-interest       1
Survey inspections     13
Plans cancellation       2
        40
Reserves         38
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "        15
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification     11
Valuations       9
        20
Miscellaneous inspections      214
Total  2,152
SUMMARY
The year 1953 has been very good from the standpoint of work accomplished,
although weather conditions in the late fall were not as favourable as they were in 1952.
It can easily be appreciated that the volume of field work completed is determined to
a great extent by weather conditions, since much of the Crown land is in outlying areas
serviced only by dirt roads, and in many instances there is no road access whatsoever.
At November 30th, 1953, there were 360 outstanding land examinations.   The majority LANDS BRANCH
Q 31
of these are of very recent origin, and, due to weather conditions, field examinations will
have to be deferred in most cases until spring.
In addition to completing a large back-log of outstanding land inspections, the staff
was able to examine an extensive number of pre-emptions that had not been inspected
for several years, especially in the Peace River District. Many of these pre-emptions
were cancelled for non-compliance with residence duties. It is interesting to note that at
November 30th, 1952, approximately 590 pre-emptions had not been examined; this
figure had been reduced to approximately 150 as of November 30th, 1953.
In the coastal area of the Province there has been increased interest and demand
for log booming and storage leases by the tow-boat industry and logging companies.
There has been a continued demand for grazing leases and renewal of existing leases
in the Cariboo-Kamloops-Okanagan areas, with increasing complexity of grazing problems. The demand for agricultural land in these areas has not been from new settlers,
but mainly by established ranchers.
During the past year there has been an unprecedented demand for summer-home
sites on lakes in the Chilcotin area. Many of these applications have come from United
States citizens.
The heavy demand for Crown lands south of the Peace River in the former Dominion
Block has tapered off due to the shortage of suitable agricultural land in that area. North
of the Peace River, in the vicinity of Fort St. John, there is a continued influx of settlers
on agricultural land, many of whom are moving in from Saskatchewan.
The demand for Crown lands continues steady in the Kootenay, most of the applications being for agricultural or home-site purchases by local residents.
There has been a steady demand for Crown lands contiguous to the northern line of
the Canadian National Railway, highlighted by heavy sales of town lots in Prince George
and the sale of agricultural parcels in the rural areas along the line.
It is most gratifying to the Chief Land Inspector to report from personal observation
and information obtained from other agencies competent to so appraise the work of this
Division that its value is being increasingly appreciated by prospective settlers, farmers,
ranchers, and sportsmen.
The maintenance of the good work now being done and the development of our
services to meet rapidly changing conditions in the over-all expanding economy of British
Columbia will require the continued co-operation of all the various agencies concerned
to ensure maximum efficiency of effort in the task in which we are now engaged.
LAND SURVEYOR
P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S.
Field work was started early in April with the survey of additional lots to the subdivision of Block 10, Hope Townsite, made in 1952, and two lanes were delineated. Also
in April alterations were made to a subdivision in Clinton Townsite by adding a road
allowance.
From early May until early July about 2,500 lots in Prince George, surveyed over
forty years ago, were reposted and alterations made in Blocks 334 and 335; also a preliminary survey of 3 miles of the Vanderhoof Highway was made.
In July a preliminary survey was made covering the road from the forestry station at
Pendleton Bay to Johnson Bay, Babine Lake (3 miles), and the tying-in of ten land-use
permits in connection with the eight sawmills located there.
From the latter part of July until September 4th, operations were in Kootenay
District.   At Monroe Lake a small district lot fronting on the lake was surveyed.   At Q 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Pendleton Bay, Babine Lake.
Matthew Creek, near Marysville, eight lots were laid out, as had been requested by the
Land Inspector. At Stevens Lake (also called Rock Lake or Lazy Lake) ten water-front
home-sites were posted, also two large areas for the use of the public. At Corbin, southeast of Michel, ten lots were surveyed; five of these are at present occupied, and the other
five should have a ready sale, as the area is in beautiful mountain scenery, 5,000 feet
above sea-level, and is popular with the people from the coal-mining towns of Blairmore,
Coleman, and Hillcrest, in Alberta, who drive here at week-ends.
:±  ''..,-,
Corbin coal mine, abandoned.
Further work was then requested in the Prince George and Babine Lake areas.
Near the former an acreage subdivision was made in District Lot 913, and at the latter
ten district lots were surveyed to cover land-use permits.
A few smaller jobs were executed on Vancouver Island at the end of the year. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Note 2
THE SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Because the activities of man are kept orderly through a well-defined system of land
surveys, the Surveys and Mapping Branch is called upon to act as the connecting-link that binds
together many primary operations within departments of government and between government
and the general public.
Specifically, through land surveys, Crown and other lands, including water, are located and
identified accurately on the surface of the Province, and so made ready for alienation in any of
a variety of different ways. Further, a background of suitable maps and survey data is provided
to assist in the intelligent development of lands so acquired, and in the wise administration of
the natural resources associated with them.
In post-war years a great upsurge in the economic development of British Columbia's
natural resources has taken place. Each year shows increased activity in the disposition of
Crown lands for various purposes, ranging from the smallest individual application for a home-
site to industrial requirements involving many square miles of land.
In any of these transactions the Surveys and Mapping Branch plays an important part,
because it has the responsibility of clearing, as to status, all such applications for Crown lands,
whether small or large. This function involves complete record-keeping of all official survey
data by all sources, including a graphic record of all Crown-land alienations, whether surveyed
or unsurveyed.
Equally important, on the other hand, is the responsibility for the establishment, extension,
and recording of mapping control. These basic duties prescribe, among other things, the preparation of basic triangulation networks and aerial photography at suitable scales, the making of
control traverses, the delineation and maintenance of interprovincial boundaries, and the production of standard photo-topographic mapping, interim base-mapping, and cadastral surveys of
Crown lands.   The data are then condensed and presented in lithograph map form.
The main objectives, then, of the Surveys and Mapping Branch are first to provide
complete, accurate, and readily available maps on adequate scales with allied data, for
administrative control of resources and Crown-land transactions, and, secondly, to maintain this information up to date by keeping abreast of continuous cultural development.
A survey inventory of such a standard is obviously of primary advantage in encouraging
the present development of our natural resources, and further developments which seem "just
around the corner."
A brief summary of the functions of the Branch follows, and the breakdown is provided
by Divisions:—
/. Administration.—General co-ordination of the four Divisions of the Branch, being
Legal, Geographic, Topographic, and Air; delineation and maintenance of boundaries under
the Provincial Boundary Commissioner—namely, (a) Alberta-British Columbia Boundary and
(6) British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary.
//. Legal Division.—Regulations for surveys under the various Provincial Acts, such as
Land, Land Registry, Mineral, Petroleum and Natural Gas; instructions to British Columbia
land surveyors regarding surveys of Crown lands and subsequent check of field-notes and plan
returns of same; preparation and custody of official plans; preparation and maintenance of
Departmental reference maps, mineral reference maps, and composite (cadastral) maps; clearance by status of all applications concerning Crown lands; field surveys and inspections of
Crown lands, highway rights-of-way, etc.; preparation of legal descriptions as required; operation of blue-print and photostat sections.
///. Geographic Division. — Map compilation, drawing, editing, and reproduction; map
checking, distribution, geographical naming—Gazetteer of British Columbia; trigonometric
computation and recording of same; geographic information, such as Lands Bulletins; special
services, such as outlining electoral and school districts and checking road maps; general liaison
between this Department and Federal and other mapping agencies on exchange of survey and
mapping data.
IV. Topographic Division.—Propagation of field control—namely, triangulation, traverses,
photo-topographic control; compilation and fair drawing of manuscripts for standard topographic mapping; special field control for composite and multiplex mapping and other special
projects.
V. Air Division.—Aerial photographic operations involving maintenance and operation of
three aircraft; photographic processing, air-photo distribution, and Provincial air-photo library;
compilation of interim aerial base maps, primarily for British Columbia forest inventory; tri-
camera control propagation; multiplex aerial mapping of precise large-scale detail projects;
instrument-shop for repairs, maintenance, and development of technical equipment. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 35
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., B.C.L.S., F.R.G.S., Director,
Surveyor-General, and Boundaries Commissioner
The functions and structure of this Branch, as briefly summarized on the opposite
page, result from growing and widening needs of the Province, combined with a propitious
and remarkable evolution in survey techniques.
PAST AND PRESENT
From her earliest colonial days, British Columbia has exhibited a vigorous appreciation of surveys and mapping. The office of Surveyor-General was one of the first to be
established, along with those of Attorney-General, Colonial Secretary, and Treasurer,
almost a century ago. The first incumbents, in addition to initiating a system of surveys,
exerted great influence on constitutional and economic policy in this new bulwark of
British sovereignty on the north-west coast of America. loseph Trutch, Surveyor-General
from 1864 to 1871, was a chief negotiator for British Columbia's entry to the Canadian
Confederation, after which he became the first Lieutenant-Governor.
At first the emphasis was on surveys of settlers' lots, town-sites, and routes for road
and rail access to the new empire guarded on the east and on the west by formidable
mountains. Surveys for a land-settlement boom which followed railroad construction
culminated about 1913, when parties under some seventy-five land surveyors were
deployed sporadically throughout the Province, in areas considered favourable for settlement, at a cost of 6 per cent of the Provincial budget.
Checking the surveyors' field-notes and compiling official plans therefrom, in the
Survey Branch at Victoria, was a big job. In addition, it was expedient, in fact indispensable, to draw and keep up to date a series of Departmental reference maps at a scale
of 1 mile per inch to show at a glance the day-to-day status of all land with respect to
survey, Crown grant, lease, pre-emption, timber disposal, mineral claim, reserve, or
vacant. These duties continue undiminished in the present day, and, together with many
others of a cadastral and statutory character, are performed by the Legal Division.
By the year 1912 demands for geographic maps by land-seekers and by various
government departments concerned with natural resources were so articulate that a
Geographic Division was established to specialize on map compilation, reproduction, and
distribution, as well as to provide other geographic services, all of which are in greater
demand and variety to-day than ever before, as may be observed in relevant pages of this
Report.
Those early maps were characterized by blank areas either mute or marked only
" unexplored." Detail shown on other portions of the maps was compiled " from the
best information available," which eloquence might have implied the whole range of
reliability from route or lot traverses by competent surveyors to mere trappers' tales.
Another deficiency of the maps was the lack of topography showing contours of the land.
This is a serious omission in British Columbia, where factors of environment and our
adaptation to it are dictated by absolute and differential elevation above sea-level.
The complex enormity of contour mapping in mountain terrain by archaic methods
precluded any fulfilment of this important need until Deville's method of photo-topographic mapping with survey cameras on mountain stations was introduced and had
proved its worth after 1888 in the eastern Rockies along the Canadian Pacific Railway;
in 1893-95 on the Alaska Panhandle boundary survey; and in 1913-21 on the Alberta-
British Columbia Boundary along the Rocky Mountain divide. The Provincial Survey
Branch first adopted Deville's method in 1914, in the important Okanagan Valley, where
a reliable topographic map was needed for planning irrigation development. Continuation of this specialized work led to the formation of a Photo-topographic Division in the Q 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
early 1920's. Known to-day as the Topographic Division, staffed by a second generation
of surveyors, using both ground and aerial photographs, controlled rigorously by field
triangulation, traverse, and levels, it continues a programme of standard topographic
mapping on modern lines, accelerated by air transport, including helicopters, radio communication, and greatly improved survey instruments.
The fourth and youngest member of the family is the Air Division, which, in keeping
with the times, is also the largest. Baptism did not occur till 1947, but its conception,
embryology, and heathen infancy go back to the pioneer days of air-photo mapping in the
early 1930's. Of all technical developments which have contributed to the advance of
modern surveying and mapping, aerial photography has been unquestionably the most
significant and revolutionary. The harvest of over 20,000 new aerial photographs garnered each year by the Air Division is indispensable to the operations of all Divisions of
the Branch, to many other government services, and to private industries.
The Surveys and Mapping Branch in 1953 is thus a large complicated organization
compared to what it was prior to the end of hostilities in 1945. Its present size, of some
200 personnel, and character, however, simply reflect the magnitude and diversification of
present-day life in the Province. What would Sir James Douglas, first Colonial Governor,
think if he could see the extent of land settlement as portrayed on our current Departmental reference maps? What would be the thoughts of the explorer Sir Alexander
Mackenzie if he could see to-day's pattern of triangulation connecting the coastal net at
Bella Coola eastward across the mountains to the Interior, to the eastern Rocky Mountain
foot-hills, and beyond? What would be the reaction of David Thompson, who explored
the Columbia River (1807-11), if he could scan the complete drainage pattern of his
great river system as portrayed in entirety on Map 1a, and piecemeal on the standard
topographic map-sheets? If Colonel Moody and his Royal Engineer surveyors could
view the Fraser Canyon as revealed in perfect miniature by our stereoscopic aerial photographs, they would see a fourfold competition for right-of-way, the big river taking its
turbulent first choice, two transcontinental railways swapping sides for second and third
choices, and the modern Trans-Canada Highway meandering left and right, up and down,
for a precarious fourth choice of right-of-way through the narrow defile. If Sir Joseph
Trutch, colonial Surveyor-General and first Lieutenant-Governor, could have accompanied the boundary survey party last winter, he should have witnessed the planting of an
historic bronze monument at British Columbia's north-east corner, the intersection of
two Provincial boundaries on east and north distinguishing British Columbia territory
from adjacent components of the Canadian Confederation, whose motto, " ad mare usque
ad mare," he helped to realize by adding British Columbia's " splendor sine occasu."
THEORY AND REALITY
In surveying a province or a nation there is, in theory, a logical sequence of operations, which is rarely, if ever, amenable to practical application. The ideal, after obtaining complete high-altitude air-photo cover, would be first to establish an over-all framework of primary control (triangulation, precise traverse, base-lines), and then, on this
permanent and solid structure, carry out detail surveys for topography and cadastral lot
systems in local areas, not necessarily contiguous, but in response to economic stimuli.
In this way every surveyed location is, in the first instance, incorporated once and for all
within the over-all datum, and, if adequately monumented, protected, and recorded, need
never be re-established, and will serve as a permanent evidence of survey and a basis for
all further work. In a young country, especially if large, rough of terrain, and sparsely
populated, a lack of capital, insufficient foresight, preoccupation with bread-and-butter
problems result in survey activities being done, not according to a grand plan as described,
but piecemeal, for the pressing local needs of settlement, transport, and resource exploitation. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 37
The progress of surveys in British Columbia has been like living in a partly built
house, trying to get ahead with a bit of major construction here, a bit of finishing or roofing there, as opportunity affords, and at the same time doing a bit of maintenance or
repair as necessity insists. In spite of this, our major control framework, consisting
mainly of triangulation and to a lesser extent of precise traverse and base-lines, is at last
beginning to take shape, as may be seen by a perusal of the key-map, Appendix 2, which
is worthy of some study. On this map the primary control structure, established by the
Federal Geodetic Survey of Canada, is shown in solid purple lines, and may be noted
entering from the east along the 49th parallel, following up the coast and into Yukon,
then arching back across Northern British Columbia, south-eastward along the Alaska
Highway to Dawson Creek, and passing out again to rejoin the national datum in Alberta.
Primary cross-members of this main circuit extend north through Central British Columbia
to Prince George and west to Smithers, whence precise traverse connects through to the
Coast net along the Skeena River. Another primary leg continues from Prince George
to reconnect at Dawson Creek, and still another from Williams Lake vicinity east and
north out through the Yellowhead Pass. The very important northern loop was only
completed in 1953 along the Alaska Highway between Muncho Lake and Fort St. John.
The closing adjustment derived from preliminary computations for this loop, some 2,000
miles in perimeter, is quoted as 92 feet, a truly amazing degree of accuracy and a tribute
to the splendid work of the Geodetic Survey of Canada, who have truly brought British
Columbia into the Canadian Confederation from the survey standpoint and, in co-operation with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, have incorporated British Columbia and all other parts of Canada into the great continental North American datum (1927).
The next class of triangulation in order of precision is our own Provincial standard,
shown in solid red lines on the same key-map. These systems serve to break down the
geodetic base into smaller loops and routes, serving local needs of Provincial mapping.
Noteworthy are two connections from the Coast to the Interior—one near Howe Sound,
another near Bella Coola; the Hazelton-Atlin net completed this year; one along the
Rocky Mountain Trench; and others. Local work was done this year at each end of the
Rocky Mountain Trench to make better connection to the geodetic structure. One of
the most important and interesting extensions of our Provincial standard triangulation
during 1953 was the new structure north of Fort St. John, over low timbered country
ordinarily considered unsuitable for triangulation, by the energetic and enterprising use
of towers. This work is described in detail elsewhere in the Report, and was designed to
provide control for surveys of petroleum and natural-gas locations.
The patterns shown in green on the triangulation map are earlier Provincial work,
done with old-design instruments incapable of the precision commonplace with modern
optical reading theodolites. Although now considered of substandard accuracy, much
of this early work will survive in the detail control picture. Done under the arduous
conditions of earlier days, without any of the modern facilities, it played a vital role in
opening up the Province for development. We owe a great debt to the pioneer surveyors
who blazed those first trails into the great unknown.
THE YEAR 1953
In addition to the extension and strengthening of the survey control structure already
described, there was a variety of other activities and accomplishments worthy of brief
mention here, being more fully described in the submissions by the Divisions. Significant
was the completion of field work on right-of-way surveys of the Hope-Princeton Highway
and Cariboo Highway south of Lac la Hache. Good progress in this type of work was
also made on the John Hart Highway and the Alaska Highway. These, being in the
category of precise traverse, are fully monumented and tied at intervals wherever feasible
to the triangulation datum.    Following, as they do, our main highways, often through Q 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
newly accessible country, where interest in settlement is active, they constitute a very
important base upon which to build up cadastral lot surveys consequent upon the disposal
of Crown lands.
From experience gained during recent years in the survey of highway rights-of-way,
a new set of Surveyor-General's instructions was drawn up and issued under the date of
June 1st, 1953. These instructions embody valuable suggestions from officials of the
Department of Public Works, British Columbia land surveyors, and staff of our Legal
Division.
The right-of-way survey for the Trans-Mountain Oil Pipe Line is another important
project in the category of legal surveys, being now almost completed after nearly two
years of intensive effort by all concerned. The survey follows the long pipe-line through
British Columbia for some 500 miles from Yellowhead to Burnaby. Done at company
expense, under the direction of British Columbia land surveyors, it also involved a great
deal of work in this Branch at Victoria and in the offices of Land Registrars at Kamloops
and New Westminster. Being the first survey of its kind in British Columbia's history
(and we hope not the last), and the necessity on the company's part to have the easements
registered prior to construction, engendered a great many problems of procedure, interpretation, and clarification of statutory requirements, drawing up suitable instructions
for survey, checking and approving plans, and restoration of survey monuments disturbed
by construction. Now that the excitement is subsiding, with only clean-up operations
remaining, a word of appreciation is in order for the efforts by Canadian Bechtel Limited
for its co-operative attitude and efforts to meet all the requirements of the survey, to the
Inspector of Legal Offices, and to the Land Registry Offices concerned for their valuable
advice and efforts to facilitate processing of the large volume of survey plans in a way
which has been a great help to the Surveyor-General's staff in Victoria.
A by-product derived from experience with the Trans-Mountain Oil Pipe Line
survey has been a set of Surveyor-General's instructions for survey of rights-of-way
(other than highways), which was issued under the date of July 15th, 1953, and which
should clarify procedures to all who may be concerned with these matters in the future.
A Beaver aircraft on floats, CF-FHF, acquired in a damaged condition by the Air
Division two years ago and rebuilt by the mechanical staff at the Provincial Government
hangar, Patricia Bay, was launched during the summer, certified airworthy, and proceeded
immediately on photo and transport work in connection with the survey operations in
North-eastern British Columbia. This aircraft, equipped with camera-well and parachute-
hatch, will be a vital factor in transport and supply of field survey parties, with photography as a secondary role.
Further application of tricamera aerial photography to propagating control for
interim air-photo mapping has confirmed the value of this technique; connection from
control on the West Coast 100 miles across the mountains to Interior triangulation in
four stages closed to a precision of 1/2300; an impressive accuracy for a method based
on graphic point identification on vertical and oblique photos, and done entirely in the
office, except for the photo flights over the area.
The Geographic Division has embarked on a programme of new regional maps to
cover the Province in six sheets, at a scale of 10 miles per inch. The first, of Southeastern British Columbia, is well along, and should appear in the coming year. A new
feature will be a realistic portrayal of topography by a special hachuring technique being
executed by Howard N. Davis, the artist responsible for the popular " Picture Map of
British Columbia " published early this year by the British Columbia Natural Resources
Conference. He is collaborating with A. Farley, geographer. Work on the new Geographic Gazetteer of British Columbia was completed during the year, and now in the
printer's hands at Ottawa it should make its debut early in 1954.
The main effort of the Topographic Division being diverted to triangulation in
North-east British Columbia, only one field party, under A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., could SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 39
be deployed for standard topographic work, and it completed the five-year programme
of mapping between Hazelton and Atlin along the favoured route for a possible highway.
Compilation of some of the map-sheets controlled will be held up, however, until the
Air Division can obtain suitable air-photo cover of the areas, existing photography not
being up to the standard required.
PROVINCIAL BOUNDARIES
Field work on the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary was completed by a party
under George Palsen, D.L.S., A.L.S., on January 21st, 1953. Compilation of maps and
preparation of final report are in progress, and when completed, legislation for statutory
authorization of the boundary as surveyed will be prepared for submission and enactment
first by the two Provincial Governments concerned and then by the Federal Government.
The party under Mr. Palsen, after establishing the north-east corner of British
Columbia at the end of the east boundary, turned westward on the location of the British
Columbia-Northwest Territory Boundary along the 60th parallel of latitude for a distance of 47 miles, when spring thaws forced a shut-down and withdrawal from the
area on March 15th. The same surveyor is again in the field this winter, and early in
1954 hopes to continue the north boundary survey westward across a gap of some 30
miles to join up in the portion established by N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., in 1952
on Petitot River. The survey by Mr. Palsen was necessarily carried out in winter on
frozen ground due to the prevalence of muskeg and swamp.
A summer party under W. N. Papove, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., A.L.S., carried the British
Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territory Boundary westward from Mr. Stewart's 1952
section to Liard River, and thence west to Beaver River, a total distance of 51 miles,
part of which had been covered with a preliminary line by Mr. Stewart. Mr. Papove, by
commendable enterprise and stint of great physical effort, succeeded in tying his portion
of the boundary survey to the Canadian Army triangulation net which extends from a
geodetic base north-easterly across the 60th parallel. This provides a very important
connection to the North American geodetic datum for this portion of our north boundary,
and by virtue also of a special tie made to geodetic control at Smith River by a party
under W. Stilwell, D.L.S., of the Topographic Division, late in October of this year, will
save the expense and time in running a trial line over a 65-mile gap westward to connect
with the boundary established eastward to Smith River by A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.,
D.L.S., in 1950.
ADMINISTRATION
Efforts to improve co-ordination among the various Divisions in the Branch for
concerted co-operative efforts in many important operations and problems have brought
good results. A number of standing committees on which each Division is represented
have been set up, having regular meetings and keeping record of proceedings. A general
steering committee, of which the Director is chairman, including the Chiefs and Assistant
Chiefs of Divisions, meets fortnightly or oftener and reviews all operations, current
developments in the work, standard procedures, etc. A standing personnel committee
reviews all matters implied by the name, such as vacancies, transfers, attachments, promotions, job specifications, staff relations, and so on. A small base-map committee
ensures uniformity and eliminates duplication of effort in base-sheet preparation for .he
various kinds of maps produced in the several Divisions.
Examples of co-operative effort this year are many, some of which have been mentioned. The Topographic Division established a special net of local control in the
Osoyoos area by triangulation for a series of detail composite map-sheets being compiled
by a section of the Legal Division. For this project the Air Division took special aerial
photographs, and is doing a portion of the mapping by multiplex. The instrument-shop, Q 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
supervised by the Air Division, services all survey instruments for all Divisions, and is
establishing a precise distance base for calibrating measuring-tape used by all field survey
parties of the Branch. The Geographic Division acts as a central intelligence depot for
all recorded survey control, co-ordinates, etc., and handles the final mathematical computations and adjustments, as well as channelling all correspondence with outside agencies
relevant to survey control. The survey regulation of permit locations under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act" in North-east British Columbia is a co-operative effort among
all Divisions—the Topographic Division establishing the field control; the Geographic
Division balancing the computations; and co-ordinate routing of permit corners, licences,
and leases from descriptions and priorities worked out by the Legal Division. The Air
Division is supplying station identification aerial photographs, and attempting to augment
general air-photo cover over the area where most needed, and would do more if it were
not hard-pressed with a back-log of other commitments accumulated by two successive
years of exceptionally poor photographic weather.
STAFF
The post-war expansion curve of total staff strength in the Branch, covering a period
of eight years, definitely flattened off in 1953 at a gross of just over 200 souls. For an
organization of this size, it is not significant to quote comparative totals to the last unit
because there is always a small proportion of turnover, due to the processes of attrition,
with replacements pending, and in a few cases subject to review or even disallowed
according to policy laid down. The heaviest restrictions have been applied to temporary
personnel, a pool which has been useful for coping with seasonal or short-term peaks in
the work-load, and which also serves as a valuable proving-ground from which to draw
the most likely replacements for vacancies occurring in the permanent staff.
There were regrettable losses of a number of individuals by retirement, death, and
resignation. Of the last category, no doubt, some were influenced by prospects of higher
remuneration for their talents outside, combined with some measure of uncertainty at
prospects for advancement within the Service. Three senior and experienced British
Columbia land surveyors resigned to enter private practice—one from the Legal Division
and two from the Topographic Division. One professional geographer resigned from the
Geographic Division, and the position, as such, has been eliminated from the establishment in accordance with a Departmental directive.
John Macallan, Chief Draughtsman, Legal Division, retired near the year's end on
superannuation, having entered the Service in 1920, after a fine record of service which
will cause his absence to be regretted. The sudden death of Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S., at
his desk in the Geographic Division on January 9th, 1953, was a grievous loss to the
Branch, and details of his commendable services to British Columbia are given in the
report of that Division.
By reason of necessity, a number of key supervisory positions in the Branch have
been occupied in acting capacities by specially selected and well-qualified senior members of the staff, and it is desirable to have these officially confirmed with the appropriate
promotions at an early date in the interests of the Service. In particular, these remarks
apply to the Acting Assistant Director, one Acting Chief of a Division, and three Acting
Assistant Chiefs of Divisions.
During the year considerable attention has been given to the training of junior staff,
with the purpose of accelerating their progress to greater output of competent work. The
Civil Service Commission has given valuable co-operation in authorizing courses of study,
arranging examinations, and offering the necessary incentive by reclassifying successful
candidates. Consideration might also be given to entertaining some concern for the cadre
of senior staff who are carrying the heavy load of responsibility in a very creditable
manner.
Detail reports by the Divisions follow. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 41
LEGAL DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief, Legal Division
The Legal Division, under the direction of the Surveyor-General, is responsible for
the survey of all Crown lands of the Province. This entails the issuing of instructions to
the surveyor employed to make the survey and the checking and plotting of his returns,
in the form of field-notes or plans. Included in these are all right-of-way surveys, such
as transmission-lines and oil pipe-lines.
During the year 473 sets of field-notes were received in this office, and duly checked,
plotted, and indexed; these were received from seventy-one British Columbia land surveyors and covered 391 surveys made under the "Land Act" and 101 surveys made
under the " Mineral Act."
There were 128 plans received from surveyors covering surveys made under the
" Land Registry Act." These were also duly checked and indexed, and certified copies
deposited in the respective Land Registry Offices.
This Division is entrusted with the safe-keeping of all field-notes and records of
surveys of Crown land. At the present time there are approximately 91,562 sets on
record in our vaults.
In order that a graphic record may be kept of alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands, a set of reference maps must be maintained covering the whole
Province. These show all cadastral surveys which are on file in the Department. The
work of keeping these maps up to date by adding new information as it accrues, and of
renewing the master tracings when they become worn by constant handling, forms a
considerable portion of the work of this Division. It is noted with serious concern that
maintenance of these maps has fallen somewhat behind because of the pressure of other
work.
From information and facilities maintained in this Division, it is possible to give
an up-to-the-minute status on any parcel or tract of Crown land in the Province.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands, or foreshore, which are received
by the Lands Branch, are channelled through this Division for clearance. The orderly
processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be made from the
reference maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans, and in some instances
these can be very time-consuming. A synopsis of the clearances processed during the
year will be found in Table A attached.
During the year this Division has co-operated with other departments of Government in the preparation and checking of legal descriptions.
It has been necessary during the year to obtain from the various Land Registry
Offices 4,434 plans; copies of these have been made, indexed and filed as part of our
records.
The ozalid and blue-printing establishment, which is maintained by this Division,
has processed a large volume of work during the year. Prints are made, not only for all
Divisions of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, but for all other departments that avail
themselves of this service. The total number of prints made this year was 100,106, in
the preparation of which 84,338 yards of paper and linen were used.
The service that the Photostat Room renders to all departments of Government,
and to the general public, remains at the same high level. During the year 13,223 photostats have been made. The work of producing all topographic manuscripts on film
positives is progressing, but not as quickly as was hoped, for the reason that this section
is running to peak capacity on current requests and requirements. The new adapter-back
for the photostat machine, purchased this year, has proved invaluable in certain aspects
of the work, especially in the making of film negatives. The siphon print-washer has
tended to speed up the processing of the photostats. Q 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
During the year new metal trays and pigeon-holes necessary for the orderly filing
of our records were installed in the new vault. These have been put in use and will
relieve the crowding of plans in our main vault.
The Composite Map Section of this Division, which is compiling and tracing maps
of the more thickly subdivided areas of the Province, on a scale of 1 inch to 500 feet,
has had a successful year. The compilation and tracing of fifteen sheets covering the
Nakusp, Needles-Fauquier, and Summerland areas have been completed.
The main project this year has been the compilation of forty-five map-sheets covering the area from Kelowna to Vernon. The tracing and final checking of these sheets
should be complete by February, 1954.
The necessary field work was completed this fall of the Penticton-Osoyoos area
and the area from Gibsons Landing to Sechelt. It is hoped to start the compilation of
the twenty-two sheets covering the Penticton-Osoyoos area early in the new year.
Composite maps are proving invaluable to Provincial Assessors and municipal
officials, who appreciate very much this aspect of the work of this Division.
Another section, composed of three draughtsmen, charged with the task of preparing
land-inspection sketches, is working to peak capacity, but is still not able to meet the
demand. The Land Inspection Division and the Land Inspectors in the field are pleased
with the quality of these sketches, and it is understood that the extra amount of information which is being incorporated into them is tending to speed up the examination of the
applications in the field.
As a result of the experience gained during the past few years in connection with
the survey of highway rights-of-way, and after careful and lengthy study by the various
survey authorities, it was considered advisable to revise and reissue instructions regarding
the legal survey of highway rights-of-way. The new instructions provide general clarification, and at the same time offer some simplification in the matter of monumentation
and survey methods.   These instructions became effective on June 1st, 1953.
Instructions covering the survey of rights-of-way (other than highways) crossing
Crown lands have been prepared in order to establish a uniform method of survey and
to define the necessary type of plan; these instructions became effective July 15th, 1953.
At the end of April R. E. Chapman, B.C.L.S., resigned from the staff of this Division to enter private practice.
On November 30th J. Macallan, Chief Draughtsman of this Division, retired on
superannuation, after completing thirty-three years' service.
FIELD WORK
W. A. Taylor, B.C.L.S., Acting Assistant Chief, Legal Division
Field surveys carried out by and at the expense of this Division are done by both
Departmental surveyors and private surveyors engaged for the season. The types of
surveys done this year have been varied.
Highway Surveys
These surveys have been made over newly constructed and permanently located
highways, where the bulk of the lands are held by the Crown, and where control for mapping and future alienations is necessary. This usually includes tying the survey to the
existing triangulation net and may require numerous ties to existing surveyed lots. Six
parties were engaged in this work this year, under the direction of British Columbia land
surveyors, two of whom are Departmental surveyors and four in private practice.
C. R. Leak, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., surveyed 47 miles of the Alaska Highway from Mile
304 to Mile 351 and, in addition, a gravel-pit site and three lots at Mile 293, also a group
of seventeen lots at Mile 295. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Q 43
A. C. Pollard, B.C.L.S., surveyed 46 miles of the Alaska Highway from Mile 351 to
Mile 397. His season's work included the surveys of fourteen gravel-pit sites along the
route and seventeen lots north of Mile 397 as far as Lower Post. This survey closes the
gap in the Alaska Highway from Mile 0 to Mile 532. There are approximately 90 miles
remaining to be surveyed to the northerly boundary of the Province.
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., surveyed 36 miles of the John Hart Highway from
Mile 124 at Azouzetta Lake to Mile 160 at Cottonwood Flat. In addition, several gravel-
pit and camp sites were surveyed for the Department of Public Works and a Ranger
Station site was surveyed at Big Boulder Creek for the Forest Service.
A. D. Ross, B.C.L.S., surveyed 30 miles of the John Hart Highway from a connection to Mr. Campbell's work at Mile 160 to Little Prairie. The road location in this area
passes through a great many old surveyed lots which necessitated considerable work in
making ties to corners.
J. H. Drewry, B.C.L.S., P.Eng., surveyed part of the Cariboo Highway from Maiden
Creek to Cache Creek and did certain revision work on the portion of the highway
between Clinton and Maiden Creek. This should prove a valuable control and re-
establishment survey, as Mr. Drewry passed through some extremely old surveys which
were almost obliterated, the restoration of which can be quite time-consuming.
G. T. Mullin, B.C.L.S., surveyed 15 miles of the Hope-Princeton Highway from
Tower Ranch to Friday Creek. This joins the work done in previous years, which progressed from Hope and Princeton toward this link.
Crown-land Surveys
D. Cran, B.C.L.S., of Fort St. John, carried out extensive surveys in the Peace River
District. Twenty-three sections were surveyed into quarter-sections in the Upper Cache
Creek area. In the Upper Halfway country, eight lots were surveyed, with an aggregate
area of 2,900 acres and necessitated 6 miles of river traverse. One lot was surveyed on
the Carbon River. Along the Alaska Highway, six sites for gravel-pits or bridge-sites
were surveyed from Kiskatinaw River to Mile 63.
Survey party crossing Halfway River at Wagner's Ford, Peace River
District, September, 1953. Q 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
F. H. Nash, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., surveyed sixteen lots in the Peace River District, in
the vicinity of Little Prairie on the John Hart Highway. These lots are all under application to purchase.
Subdivisions, Re-establishment, Inspection Surveys
Three Departmental surveyors were engaged on these types of surveys.
R. W. Thorpe, B.C.L.S., surveyed in various parts of the Province this year. These
surveys included a water-drainage easement in the Kootenay District, Ranger Station sites
at Chief Lake, north of Prince George, and at Stamp Lookout on Vancouver Island. Two
subdivisions were laid out—one at Canim Lake in the Lillooet District and another at
Summit Lake on the John Hart Highway. A boundary re-establishment amounting to 3
miles of fine was carried out just outside the boundaries of the City of Prince George.
A foreshore reserve was surveyed in West Vancouver. A control traverse from Sechelt
to Gibsons Landing tied into the hydrographic triangulation net, frequently tied to
cadastral surveys en route, and included restoration of several original survey corners by
permanent monuments. He also completed the survey of a section of the Alberni Highway on which he had been previously engaged.
D. W. Carrier, B.C.L.S., who in previous years had been engaged in highway
surveys, was transferred to this more general type of surveying. He commenced with a
subdivision of some Crown land within the City of Prince George, followed by a Ranger
Station site at Hixon Creek north of Quesnel. He surveyed a block of seven lots at
Sheridan Lake in the Lillooet District and another quite extensive subdivision for
summer-home sites at Chain Lake, east of Princeton. A small subdivision to validate
some occupiers of Crown land at Jessica on the Kettle Valley Railway was made, as well
as a survey on Anarchist Mountain for the purpose of acquiring title to a piece of land
for a camp-site. Mr. Carrier also carried out a reposting survey of some corners of Lot
87 in the Malahat District, west of Shawnigan Lake, which is held by the Crown. He
was also engaged in a control survey from Penticton south to the Provincial Boundary
for composite mapping control, which was a joint field effort of the Legal and Topographic Divisions.
South-west corner post of Lot 5681, Cariboo District, in the
vicinity of Tete Jaune. Surveyed in 1911 by M. W. Hewett,
B.C.L.S. Note original bearing-trees after being chopped out
this year. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 45
W. A. Taylor, B.C.L.S., whose time was spent mostly within the office on supervision and administrative duties connected with field surveys, carried out some miscellaneous surveys—a Crown lot west of Quesnel, a reserve for a park-site at Lochore
Creek on the Lytton-Lillooet Road, a Ranger Station subdivision survey at Duncan, a
survey of some accreted land on the shore of Okanagan Lake south of Kelowna, a small
subdivision on Jewel Lake near Greenwood, dedication of a lane in the University
Endowment Lands, and an investigation survey into reported Crown land on the shore
of Kootenay Lake in the vicinity of Balfour, which was found not to exist. An inspection
survey of a reported error was carried out at Woods Lake in the Okanagan, which proved
very enlightening, and it is hoped in the future more of this type of work will be done.
In addition to the foregoing miscellaneous Departmental surveys, G. T. Mullin, who
was mainly engaged on highway-survey work throughout the summer, did considerable
engineering survey work in the early spring in connection with the laying-out on the
ground of the previously approved plan of the subdivision of Units 3 and 4 of the University Endowment Lands.
Table A.—Summary of Office Work for the Years 1952 and 1953
Legal Division
1952 1953
Number of field-books received  363 473
lots surveyed  386 420
lots plotted  434 430
lots gazetted  376 391
lots cancelled  46 34
„        mineral-claim field-books prepared  132 101
,,        reference maps compiled or renewed  14 22
„        applications for purchase cleared  2,675 2,318
„        applications for pre-emption cleared  107 111
„        applications for lease cleared  782 1,035
„        coal licences cleared  3 8
„        water licences cleared  55 46
timber sales cleared  4,192 5,327
„        free-use permits cleared  359 302
„        hand-loggers' licences cleared  12 58
„        Crown-grant applications cleared  1,901 1,768
„        petroleum and natural-gas permits cleared 298 61
„        reverted-land clearances   840 572
„        cancellations made  912 1,138
„        inquiries cleared  706 1,001
„        placer-mining leases plotted on maps  182 70
„        letters received and dealt with  12,517 12,827
„        land-examination sketches (nine-month period)   Nil 1,192
„        Crown-grant and lease tracings made  1,347 1,191
„        miscellaneous tracings made  73 95
,,        Government Agents' tracings made  346 289
photostats made  7,945 13,223
blue-prints made  108,826 100,106
„        documents consulted and filed in vault  55,132 51,610 Q 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1953
LEGAL   DIVISION
SURVEY   AND MAPPING   BRANCH
BLUEPRINTS MADE
TRACINGS MADE PLOT'S, GAZETTED
p&63
" -o- -fSjtc,
***___..——.•*
REFERENCE
MAPS
COMPILED &   4
TRACED
COMPOSITE
MAP5
COMPLETED Topographic Division
Control Survey, North-eastern British Columbia
Station Lime—tower 81  feet high, situated north of Doig River near the
Alberta-British Columbia Boundary. Q 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief, Topographic Division
It is highly gratifying to watch a specialized group such as the Topographic Division
receive a change-of-plans order for an area totally different to any previously tackled,
and still function smoothly. After organizing for a normal photo-topographic season
during the spring, it suddenly became imperative that horizontal control be established
in the area bounded by the 120th meridian of longitude on the east, the former Dominion
Peace River Block on the south, the Alaska Highway on the west, and the 60th parallel
of latitude on the north, the survey to commence at the south end of this rectangular-
shaped block. The decision to expend a large amount of effort and money on this task
was reached only after all alternative means were studied and weighed against the need
for survey control in this hitherto untouched area. This decision by the Director, which
in the spring appeared to some people as a gamble, has now proven more than justified.
Indeed, considering the enormous expenditures and explorations in this huge area by oil
companies, including the development of the Fort St. John gasfield, our survey control
work has only begun.
E. R. McMinn, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., of this Division, was given charge of the task, the
size of which meant using all the staff except one group of six, who continued with their
originally planned area.
The north-eastern portion of British Columbia, relatively flat and sporadically covered by muskeg, constituted an area totally unsuitable for normal triangulation. Yet
for an area of this size, triangulation was the one means that could embody the necessary
speed with the required accuracy. Not having bare hills or rock bluffs in strategic places,
it was therefore decided to build substitutes. Wooden towers were the answer, or rather
two towers built one inside the other. The outer is to support the instrument-man; the
inner to ensure rigidity for the transit. Station Blue, the first tower built, was 86 feet to
the platform and 105 feet to the top of the signal flag.
The accuracy obtained for this triangulation, which extended north almost to the
58th parallel of latitude, proved to be of standard second-order quality. This surprised
nearly everyone, but was very gratifying to those in charge and to the builders.
To transport the men from site to site in the muskeg areas, a helicopter was chartered from Okanagan Helicopters Limited. This type of operation, so different to the
previous years' mountain work, actually was ideal for the helicopter because the lower
elevation meant more power in reserve. Over 400 hours were flown, and in many
instances stations were occupied that normally could only have been reached when the
ground was frozen. Many new problems in field work were met, and experience was
gained which will be to advantage in continuing this work farther north in similar
country.
The regular topographic party under A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S., completed near
Atlin the last section of the western highway route which was started in 1949 at Hazelton.
This party had the use of a helicopter for a period in August to enable it to complete
the rugged section in the southern part of the assigned area. Horses were used for
transportation during the rest of the season. The lack of satisfactory air cover for this
operation hampered the field work, which must be designed for the air pictures and has
restricted the mapping operations this winter.
F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S., was in charge of a triangulation group north of Fort McLeod
and later took charge of a control party in the Penticton-Osoyoos area.
W. H. Stilwell, D.L.S., was attached to the McMinn survey in the Peace River area
and in October was sent north again to make a triangulation tie to N.6 astronomic pier
near the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary in the vicinity of the Smith River Airport. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 49
The Division's winter programme of mapping has been altered by the decision to
leave the mapping of the North-eastern British Columbia area to our Federal counterparts, the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys. They have the means at their
disposal to produce contoured National Topographic Series sheets, using our work and
existing surveys as horizontal control and the barometric heights they obtained this year
by helicopter for vertical control.
This year, for training purpose, the Division has two men attached to each of the
multiplex and computing sections; A. F. Swannell is using four men on the part of his
Atlin work covered by good photography; the other ten men are completing miscellaneous map-sheets; namely, the Squamish, Trout Lake, Salmo, Chamiss Bay, and
Courtenay sheets.   An output of seven sheets is planned.
In August of this year S. L. Clarke was promoted to the position of Chief Draughtsman of the Topographic Division. The draughting staff is responsible for the preparation
of the original base sheets showing rectangular and geographic grid lines. Following the
surveyors' compilations thereon, in pencil, of stations, contours, and water features, the
draughtsmen ink this data, adding the names and various lot boundaries, etc. After the
lots are compiled and plotted, the manuscripts are ready for the final check. The complement of the office is one Chief Draughtsman, three senior draughtsmen, and four other
draughtsmen.
To date forty-six of the old photo-topographic manuscripts and forty-six of the new
topographic manuscripts have been completed. These are now either published in
lithograph form or in the course of being published. This year twelve manuscripts were
completed and sent to Ottawa for the purpose of lithography. At this point I might
mention that Ottawa has three of the old photo-topographic manuscripts and forty-two
of the new topographic manuscripts on hand which are in various stages of final draughting prior to publication.
From the result of surveyors' 1952 field work and compilations, the draughting-
room this year inked thirty-four manuscripts, with one still being in hand. At the present
time the total of unfinished manuscripts now stands at eighty-seven sheets and thirty part
sheets. A large percentge of these require only a very small amount of work and checking
to complete.
The various surveyors at the present time are in the course of compiling fifteen
manuscripts.
I wish to advise that copies of the above-mentioned manuscripts can be obtained on
request; these are shown on the index of topographic manuscripts which is attached to
this Report. A new index of manuscripts has been prepared this year and will provide a
clearer picture of what is available.
Some topographic manuscripts have been prepared in part from multiplex plots;
namely, the Trout Lake sheet (82K/11 WVi, 82 K/12), Salmo sheet (82 F/3), Galiano
Island sheet (92B/14).
Cadastral surveys were plotted on twenty-five " blue pulls " of Federal Government
manuscripts, in accordance with a standing arrangement; twelve of these were on a scale
of 1 mile to 1 inch and the balance on a scale of 4 miles to 1 inch.
Forest wooded areas cover information for the Hope sheet (92 H) (4 miles to 1
inch) was prepared for Ottawa, this being the first such request on this scale.
A complete report from each party chief follows.
CONTROL SURVEY OF NORTH-EASTERN BRITISH COLUMBIA
By E. R. McMinn, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
The task of establishing survey monuments in the 20,000-square-mile area between
the Alaska Highway, the Alberta Boundary, and the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest
Territories Boundary was assigned in April, with the intent that from a large template Q 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
assembly controlled by these surveyed points, an accurate planimetric map could be
compiled. These ground control points would also serve to locate the oil-exploration
permits which cover the entire area. In this assignment the major problem was the
featureless character of the muskeg country, which problem was solved by the use of a
helicopter for access and by using towers for a triangulation scheme.
Fig. 1
. surveys and mapping branch q 51
Terrain
The area covered this year is drained southerly by the Beatton and Doig Rivers
to the Peace River and northerly by the Sikanni Chief and Fontas Rivers to the Liard
River. The elevation above sea-level of the Fort St. John plain is about 2,000 feet,
rising to the north to the divide at 3,500 feet in 100 miles and thence sloping gradually
to the extensive water-soaked area of the Fontas River at 1,500 feet. Easterly near the
Alaska Highway are the abrupt escarpments of an ancient 4,000-foot plateau, deeply
cut by the canyons of the Sikanni Chief, Buckinghorse, and Trutch Rivers. There are
many small shallow lakes, each surrounded by an area of water-weeds and muskeg.
On the low ridges is a solid growth of poplar, jack-pine, and spruce, averaging 8 inches
in diameter and 60 feet high. The lightning fires each summer have left large tracts of
standing fire-killed trees. A sandstone cap shows at the cliff-edges of the plateau
remnants, overlying great beds of clay which cover the rest of the country. Some valleys
and old lake-beds have about 8 inches of black soil formed under grass-land conditions,
but the forested areas have a bleached sandy loam over the impervious subsoil. In the
burned areas there is a rapid growth of poplars, fireweed, and grass. The muskegs are
generally frozen at a depth of 2 feet, and travel on foot in summer is not feasible.
Drinking-water is either muddy if the stream has a flow or brown and foul if stagnant.
Several cases of severe blood poisoning with running skin sores were believed caused by
drinking or washing in this muskeg water. The insect nuisance was only moderately
bad because of the dry, cold spring. However, at some tower-sites the biting, crawling,
or stinging flies were particularly bothersome. One man was hospitalized with poisoning
from insect bites.
Climate
The climate of this region shows the typical extremes of heat and cold of the continental interior. Precipitation is 17 inches annually, with 9 inches of this falling as rain
in the spring and summer. The more or less permanent snow-blanket in winter is a foot
deep in the south to 3 feet in the north. Summer frosts can be expected, especially in
the valley-bottoms, and are caused by polar air-masses from the north-east. Chinook
thaws, raising the temperature from 0° to 40° F. in a few hours, are characteristic. The
mean high and low temperatures for the last ten years are 84° and —44° F. Much of
the rain falls as deluges over small areas during spectacular summer thunder-storms.
Access
The John Hart Highway has connected this Peace River-Fort Nelson country with
the rest of the Province, although to an interesting extent the socio-economic ties are
still with Edmonton and Alberta. From rail-head at Dawson Creek, the 1,523-mile
Alaska Highway has made this northern part of the continent accessible to tourist and
commercial traffic. This all-weather gravel road is maintained by the Canadian Army.
A system of Department of Transport airports are serviced also, at Dawson Creek, Fort
St. John, Fort Nelson, and Watson Lake. Secondary airports are located at Beatton
River and Smith River, and emergency airstrips have been made along the Alaska Highway. The road to Beatton Airport from Mile 73 is 67 miles long. This road, like the
other ungravelled roads near Fort St. John, becomes impassable when wet.
The Northwest Communication Service, operated by the Canadian National Railways, provides telephone and telegraph services along the Alaska and John Hart Highways and connects with the Alaskan and the Canadian Army Signal Corps systems in
more northern areas.
Between the Peace and Fort Nelson Rivers there are no navigable streams of note.
Of the many muskeg lakes, only a few offer safe landings for float-planes. In the winter,
travel by dog-team or tractor-train is usual, and in this connection the hundreds of miles
of bulldozed seismic-line roads are important. Q 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Topographic Division
Control Survey, North-eastern British Columbia
Aerial view of Station Gulf—tower 83 feet high, situated at the junction of Beatton River and
Nig Creek beside a bulldozed line used for seismic surveys in winter.
View from Station Quartet—tower 47 feet high, situated on the height of land north of Beatton
River, looking north toward the low hills near the Sikanni River canyon. surveys and mapping branch q 53
History
The region was first explored by the fur-traders, who maintained the trading-posts
established by Mackenzie and Fraser. The Klondikers of 1898 improved the trail to Fort
Nelson, whence river transportation was possible. The first professional examination of
this north-east corner was made by G. B. Milligan for the British Columbia Department
of Lands in 1913-14. In his report he discussed the prospects of agriculture, lumbering,
mining, and oil exploration. Most important in the history of settlement is the selection
of this area in 1907 by the Dominion Government as a settlement block under the Railway
Belt agreement. Settlers began arriving in 1912, with the promise of a railway to sustain
them. A second wave of settlers came in 1920 under the "Soldier Settlement Act."
People continued to arrive during the depression and, to some extent, left when outside
conditions improved. A settlement of 1,000 Sudeten Deutsch near Dawson Creek has
proved extremely successful. At present, under the " Veterans' Land Act," and with the
boon of powered and clearing equipment, most of the good land in the original Block
has been taken up.
Agriculture
The agricultural practices in the Dawson Creek-Fort St. John area are ably described
in the 1948-51 Report of the Land Utilization Division, and its findings apply in part to
the northern areas. At present the only cultivated fields north of the original Block are
in the creek-valleys north of Blueberry River. Definitely there are many more acres
south of the Fontas River which could be farmed, but will not be until economic conditions
create a market. Possibly this condition may be the industrialization of Northern British
Columbia and of Alaska. The land and the climate dictate the crops which may be best
raised. The task of teaching the mechanics of this principle to the grain and seed
producers, who are gamblers rather than farmers, is that of the District Agriculturist.
Milligan, in his 1913 report, discussed the utilization of muskeg lands for agriculture.
He pointed out the usefulness of forest fires in destroying by crown fires the coniferous
trees, thus enabling the deciduous poplars and the weeds to grow. He went on to explain
that once the insulating moss is burned off the muskegs, they thaw and drain, thus
permitting growth of humus-forming vegetation. He also drew attention to the fact that
the agricultural land is the drained land near the streams, and that the perma-frost areas
of muskeg which lie in shallow depressions between the streams could easily be drained
by short ditches at the stream-banks.
Water-supply is an important problem in much of the area. Small streams dry up
and the rivers are in deep-cut trenches. Wells are often inadequate or salty. Most farms
have a reservoir or scoop-out and also cut and store ice for domestic and agricultural use.
Best agricultural practice indicates that the soil should first be improved by legume
crops and grasses. Thus live-stock raising would be a natural thing. Sheet-erosion and
gullying, a too-common result of a summer thunder-shower, would also be controlled to
a large extent by a grass-land economy. Grain and grass-seed growing, while common
and successful, do not build a stable economy. Diversity of farming effort, such as
dairying, poultry-keeping, and hog-raising, is needed. The crop rotations that will build
up and protect the thin and vulnerable topsoil can only be done under a system of mixed
farming.
Wildlife
The muskeg land still produces a fur-crop from the several valuable trap-fines in the
area. During the summer, foxes, wolves, beaver, and black bear were seen. Weasels,
chipmunks, rabbits, and grouse were common, and black bear became a nuisance.
Grizzly bear were reported, and one was seen. Surprisingly, a herd of mountain-goat live
along the cliff-edges of the Sikanni Chief Canyon, 50 miles distant from the Rockies. No
fish were caught, although grayling and jackfish are reported to come up the rivers. Q 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Oil and Natural Gas
Exploration drilling was carried out in 1922 by the British Columbia Government
in the Peace River area and again in 1942, but the present-day gas and oil field was not
developed until 1951-52, and 1953. Eighty-four wells have been drilled; thirty-six
are oil-wells, thirty-four are gas-wells, and fifteen were abandoned. Nearly three trillion
cubic feet of natural gas are indicated, and plans are being made to pipe-line this source
of energy south to Pacific Northwest markets. All of the 20,000 square miles of this
north-east corner of British Columbia are or have been held in exploration permits under
the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act."
:•:.-:.:
«_.-•
Texaco gas-well at the head of Nig Creek, 10 miles west of the Beatton River Airport Road,
drilled to a depth of 1 1,000 feet. The dark pool is a mixture of oil and water pumped from the
well.
Lumbering
Portable sawmills operate in the small stands of merchantable spruce near the
Alaska Highway. At Mile 100 is a large planer-mill, and shipments from there are made
by truck to rail-head at Dawson Creek. In the inaccessible parts of the area surveyed
only scattered stands of sizeable spruce were found. In the bottom land of the Sikanni
Chief Valley northward to Fort Nelson occurs the only extensive stand of timber.
Between the muskegs the spruce and pine grow in dense stands to heights of 80 feet, but
for the most part the area is burnt over by lightning fires before growth to this extent
is reached.
Preparations
This survey task represented a change from the ordinary summer work of the
topographic surveyor.    Furthermore, except for the Atlin party, the entire resources of SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 55
the Division were to be used. The assignment required mapping control and ground
monuments, so, although a map could be made using existing control and photography
and certain photogrammetric bridging equipment, the establishing of survey monuments
demanded that field surveys be made. These could be made by winter or summer work,
by traverses or by triangulation, using towers. Despite the adverse findings in the history
of triangulation by towers in inaccessible country, it was judged to be the only practical
technique to employ.
The requirement for slotted-template control of 5,000 aerial photographs far exceeds
that which could be had economically by building towers, but it was felt that with a large
template assembly, a lower proportion of control points would produce the required
accuracy. Furthermore, because of the lack of experience in this kind of country, much
of the planning would depend on field reconnaissance. For instance, the availability
of helicopter landings was a problem which had to wait for solution, and difficulty here
could actually halt the operation. At this stage also a good deal of reliance for transport
and reconnaissance was placed on the Beaver float-plane which became available some
two months behind schedule. The use of helium balloons, aluminium towers, observing-
lights, pack-horses, and radar measuring devices were considered.
Personnel assigned to the author were F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S., A. D. Wight, B.C.L.S.,
and W. H. Stilwell, D.L.S., together with twelve instrument-men, a three-man helicopter
crew, radio-man, computer, two cooks, and twenty other men, a total of forty-three.
The helicopter contract with Okanagan Air Services was for 330 hours or three months.
Eight vehicles were to be used to transport men and survey equipment to the Fort
St. John area.
A test-model tower was built near Victoria simply to discover any unforeseen
problems in building towers of poles found on the site. A scheme of testing the accuracy
of observing on helium balloons could not be carried out, failing the arrival of the equipment. The idea of aluminium towers or strut-supported masts was abandoned as being
too expensive.
Progress of Field Work
Reconnaissance by Tower-sites
A day-long reconnaissance of the area in the Anson aircraft on May 14th enabled
the author to get a lasting impression of the country and of the survey task as related to it.
The party left Victoria on May 20th and was in camp at Blueberry River on May 25th.
The first attempts at finding tower-sites with the helicopter were ended abruptly by
becoming lost and partially convinced that tower-building was hopeless. However, ten
towers were commenced, averaging over 80 feet each. At this stage in June the tower-
building was in danger of being abandoned in favour of an attempt at traversing. The
first towers, however, proved to be stable and intervisible, and the tower-building went
on with enthusiasm.
The tower-sites were chosen by reconnaissance, using the helicopter. Intervisibility
was tested by hovering below the top of the slight rise selected. The height of trees,
suitability of camp-site, and nearness of landing-place were noted. The " recce " man
then selected a further site some 10 miles distant on the first visible horizon and they
flew directly to it. Several sites must always be selected at the same time. In a short
time the flat featureless country became fairly well known, and each tower-site (marked
by dropping rolls of paper) could be accurately described.
Tower Construction
The towers were built by three men. Their equipment consisted of single- and
double-bitted axes, swede saws, hammers, 100 pounds of 4-, 6-, and 8-inch spikes, wire, Q 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
hundreds of feet of rope and blocks, fallers' helmets, climbing-spurs, and their own good
spirits. They had a tent, sleeping-bags, air-mattresses, and a forestry-type radio. The
towers were built double, with an outer platform for the observers and an inner tripod
for the instrument; the two parts could not touch even at ground-level. The most
economical shape, using standing trees if possible, was a double triangle, as this eliminated one side and interior bracing in each structure. The cotton signal was erected over
the tripod head and a pipe post plumbed in on the ground. Additional poles were used
to buttress the tripod, but no ladders were built because the structure could be climbed
as it was on the cross-bracing. Forty-three towers totalling 3,017 feet were built, the
highest being 92 feet. Eight geodetic stations and two ground stations were also
occupied.
A 200-horsepower Bell helicopter used as transport solved the access problem.
I believe that helicopter transport is too easily taken for granted. We tend to forget in
the simplicity of the deed that in removing the access difficulties in mountains or muskeg,
helicopters make possible jobs that are otherwise not possible. Our machine was
piloted by Bill McLeod and Art Coles and serviced by Rod Fraser, three able representatives of Okanagan Air Services. The move to one tower station with three men
and 500 pounds of equipment took three trips. Eight to twelve such parties were maintained all summer.
Problems of Observing
As the frost left the ground some settling was observed, especially of the legs that
had been dug in. This meant that the verticality of the structure must be tested on each
day of observing. High winds caused a swaying of the tripod, but the vibration caused
by breezes did not affect the instrument work. Lightning and rain storms made the
tower untenable. June and July are the best observing months because the north-east
and north-west light of dawn and evening can be then best used. Smoke from forest and
moss fires, of course could black out the whole country. Another problem of observing
was the fact that the ray was never more than a few hundred feet above ground for all
of its' 5 to 20 miles of length and hence suffered the full effects of heat haze and refraction.
The sun almost invariably had to be from the observer to the target, a factor that made
horizon closures difficult. A test with night-lights, using Coleman gas-lanterns, proved
effective, although trouble was experienced from ground-fogs. At each station azimuth
bars were placed in order to supply azimuth to future land surveys. Reading angles on
this job was difficult even for our most experienced men, who, although familiar with
the normal observing hazards, were sometimes baffled by the difficulties of judging
distance, of finding direction or locating landmarks, and by the tricks of the critical light.
Supply and Communications
Operations through the summer were carried out from two base camps—Blueberry
River and Beatton River, both on the airport road. With the float-plane, camps could
be more advantageously placed at suitable lakes and thus save helicopter time. The
Beaver could also make gasoline caches at other lakes for the helicopter and could be
used to transport men from lake to lake, there to be carried to tower-sites by the
helicopter.
Supplies were brought in from Fort St. John, a 150-mile trip twice a week. On
rainy days the gumbo road added to driving hazards.
Each fly camp had a 21/i-watt radio set, and the 25-watt set at base camp kept
a twelve-hour-a-day, on-the-hour watch. Each evening a general call was attended by
all camps, and the day's work discussed and plans made. The base camp kept a schedule
with the Department of Transport, the British Columbia Forest Service, and Victoria. surveys and mapping branch q 57
Work Accomplished
The triangulation net expanded from the Canadian Geodetic Survey work presently
being completed along the Alaska Highway and was brought northward, over a width
of 100 miles, to just south of the 58° parallel. Six geodetic stations bound the western
limit, and a tie was made to the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary at Monuments 100-1
and 101-3. There is a considerable area in the south-east which was by-passed this
season because of the difficulties it presented, and a boundary tie could well be made
in this section. At least three stations must be reoccupied for the sake of strengthening
figures or correcting errors. Ties were made to geodetic bench-marks for elevations, and
Lot 1477 (Beatton Airstrip) was tied to the net. Using the Beaver aircraft, identification photographs of all stations were taken at such a height that the contact scale will
equal the scale of the mapping photography, thus easing the problem of transferring
control points.
During the season, contact was kept with an Army survey party under W. O.
O'Donnell, who was obtaining control for four 1-mile map-sheets around Beatton Airport.
The Department of Mines and Technical Surveys also had a large helicopter party, under
A. C. Tuttle, operating in the area for two weeks getting heighting control. It would
appear that the mapping of this area is under consideration by the Department of Mines
and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, and to this end the co-ordinates, elevation, and photo-
identification of our stations have been supplied to this agency.
The writer believes that the continuation of this work in the 1954 season will require,
for efficient operation, the full-time use of the Beaver aircraft, a helicopter contract of
about 500 hours, and a party of forty men. This work is, of course, extremely costly,
and its worth must be judged against the expense. It is believed that the organization
described will produce the most for the required expenditures. Base camps should be
established at a series of lakes, resulting in saving of helicopter time. Despite the
obstacle of the 40 miles of flat muskeg on either side of the Sikanni Chief-Fontas
line, and which will have to be bridged by several 100-foot towers, it felt that the
59° parallel and the Kotcho Lake hills could be reached.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF NAKINA RIVER AREA
By A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
Field work was completed this summer for maps of the Topographic Series covering
the proposed western highway route. This project was initiated in 1949 by this Division,
and the starting-point was Hazelton.
This season vertical and horizontal control was obtained in approximately 800 square
miles of territory, involving Map-sheets 104 N/2, BVi 104 N/3, and WVi 104 N/7.
Additional control was obtained on the half map-sheet to the west (EVi 104 N/6), and
existing control on Map-sheet 104 N/1 was strengthened, making an added area of
300 square miles. With the previously credited area already controlled, this totals
11,000 square miles for the five-year project. Besides the area controlled for mapping,
main triangulation to Provincial standards was carried northerly from geodetic positions
near Hazelton. Last year one party worked southward from geodetic positions in the
Yukon, and, with the four quadrilaterals observed this summer, the 450-mile net is now
completed and preliminary computations of it prove very satisfactory.
This season a total of ninety-seven stations was occupied, comprising nine main
triangulation stations and the remainder secondary stations. Ties were made to two of
R. W. Thistlethwaite's astro-fixes, and one cadastral tie was made to an Indian reservation at Kuthai Lake. At each station occupied, besides the angular measurements,
a complete horizon round of photo-topographic pictures was taken and, where possible,
the station identified on air views. Q 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
- 59 30
NFORD
Main   Triangulation
Secondary     Control
Astro  Fixes      by   R. Thistiethwaite
Fig. 2
The party for the full season consisted of the writer, one assistant and two observers,
four survey helpers, two packers, and a cook. This unit was broken down into three
observing parties, each consisting of an instrument-man, his assistant, and a general
handyman who acted as fly-trip chef and tended the two horses taken along on these
sorties. During the helicopter operation the party divided into four observing parties
of two men each. Three of these detachments were transported into position by the
helicopter, from where four or five stations were accessible on foot. The fourth unit
acted as a contact and supply group, and when the helicopter was not in use, and weather
permitted, occupied " day " stations. One extra observing party of two men from the
North-eastern British Columbia party was with us for one week during this helicopter
operation.
On-the-job transportation was provided by twelve pack and two saddle horses hired
from F. C. Callison, of Atlin. Bulk supplies, brought in from Atlin by these horses,
included gasoline for the helicopter. Some of the supplies were flown in to our main
camp at Taysen Lake by seaplane chartered from Peterson Air Service at Atlin.
During the first two and a half weeks in August a helicopter, chartered from
Okanagan Helicopters Limited, gave access to stations in the south-west corner of the
area, which is segregated by the deep canyons of the Nakina River and its tributaries.
This gave us direct access into this region, rather than a time-wasting circuitous entry by
horses.
The weather was more favourable than in 1952. It was less cold and free from
snow, with the exception of a few flurries in early September. Observing opportunities
and photographic weather were nevertheless limited. Each day ground-fog did not
dissipate until 10 a.m., and 2 p.m. saw the arrival of squalls and thunder-storms. In all,
out of the ninety-seven days in the field, there were thirty-two rainless days, many of
which were heavily overcast. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Topographic Division
Survey, Atlin Area
Q 59
Upper Horsefeed Creek valley, looking south-easterly from Triangulation Station Incline.
Dry Lake, looking easterly from Triangulation Station Ignore.     Note old Dominion
Telegraph Trail on far side of lake. Q 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Access and Physical Features
Access may be gained by seaplane to any of the lakes in the vicinity. Peterson
Air Service maintains a float-plane service at Atlin in the summer. In the winter floats
are replaced by skis, take-offs being made from the airstrip at Atlin.
On the ground, access may be had to the area by road from Atlin via Warm Bay
on Atlin Lake to O'Donnel River. From here the old Government Telegraph Trail
continues in a south-easterly direction and approximately bisects the project area. To
the north a mining-road reaches the headwaters of O'Donnel River via Spruce Creek,
and from this road's terminus horses may be taken anywhere in the region.
The aforementioned Telegraph Trail also divides the area in aspect as well as in
area. To the south of the trail the country is mountainous^ with wooded slopes and
well-rounded bare tops, ranging in elevation from 5,000 to 6,000 feet, and becoming
more rugged and with sharper peaks to the extreme south of the area.
To the north of the trail and west of the 133° meridian lies a plateau country. From
Chikoida Mountain a wide valley runs northerly and is occupied by Bell, Llangorse, and
Angel Lakes. This valley is flanked on the west by McMaster Mountain and on the
east by a high ridge containing Llangorse and Sanford Mountains.
A line from Nakina Lake due north again divides the mountainous country to the
west, from a lower tree-covered rolling hill terrain to the east, which is sprinkled with
numerous lakes, Nakina and Dizella being the largest.
The O'Donnel River drains the extreme north-easterly part of Map-sheet W/i 104
N/6 and is part of the Yukon River watershed. Llangorse Lake lies at the summit of
an imperceptible divide; its waters flow northerly. The remainder and bulk of the
drainage flows southerly and is part of the Taku River watershed, mainly being the waters
of the Nakina River, whose chief tributary, the Silver Salmon River, enters from the
north-west. Sloko River, with its tributary Nakonake River, merges with the Nakina
River in the south-west and becomes the Taku River. These two rivers, the Sloko and
Nakonake, are the only glacial-fed streams of the whole area.
The outstanding topographic feature is the Nakina River canyon. This canyon
commences just north of the trail crossing, extending down-stream to where the Silver
Salmon River enters. It increases in depth down-stream, and in places the river is
undermining its walls of limestone. The tributaries of the Nakina River in this section
enter the main stream through canyons and flow for a considerable distance in similar
sharply cut canyons.
Another unique feature of the area is Dry Lake, situated at the summit between the
two Nakina River crossings which the trail makes. This lake is 1 mile long and has no
outlet, its water seeping away underground through a large hole near the west end of
the lake.   By September the lake has either dried up or becomes a series of small pools.
With the exception of the Nakina River canyons, the country is excellent for horse
travel, as horses may be taken practically anywhere, and feed is abundant in the wide
valleys and above timber-line.
Geology of Areas within Map-sheet 104 N
The area mapped is underlain chiefly by rocks of the Cache Creek group, of Permian
age. The Cache Creek group in the region consist chiefly of chert, argillite, limestone,
and greenstone. Chert and argillite are very widespread. The thick limestone of the
middle division of the group is prominent in a belt passing immediately north of Silver
Salmon Lake, and forming most of the canyon of Nakina River and a large part of the
mountains lying between that river and Nakina Lake. Thick greenstone is found in
a belt through Mount O'Keefe and Focus Mountain (Station Salmon), and passes just
north of Station Iwanna. It also occurs at Chikoida Mountain, Nakina Lake, and parts
of Table Mountain. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 61
The Cache Creek group is intruded by major bodies of granitic rocks, chiefly
granodiorite, at McMaster Mountain, Mount Llangorse, Chikoida Mountain, and a
mountain immediately south of Station Iwanna. The intrusions are surrounded by haloes,
typically about one-half mile wide, of quartzite, quartzbiotite schist, etc., derived from
the intruded sediments.
The thick greenstones of the Cache Creek group are commonly intruded by very
small bodies of serpentinite. Large bodies of peridotite and serpentinite occur at Chikoida
Mountain. A huge dyke of partially serpentinized peridotite half a mile wide cuts
through O'Keefe and Focus Mountains, passes immediately north of Station Iwanna, and
continues south-eastward beyond the area mapped.
Little prospecting has been done in the areas mapped, and none is now in progress.
In the writer's opinion, only the peridotite bodies (asbestos) and possibly the greenstone
areas are favourable for prospecting.
[Reference:   Geological Survey of Canada, J. D. Aitken.]
Forest-cover
With the exception of the northern slopes, which are spruce-covered, the forest-cover
is predominantly pine. Species also noticed were balsam, grand and Alpine fir. Valleys
are covered in part by poplar and aspen, and fringing some of the streams an occasional
cottonwood occurs. In the valleys and lower regions there are many large meadows with
a profuse growth of grass. Timber-line is delineated at 4,500 feet elevation. Those
sections apart from the meadows, which are void of trees at and below timber-line, are
covered with dense scrub birch or willow.   Berried bushes are scarce.
Wildlife
South of the telegraph-line the animal life of sizeable species is mountain-goat and
Fannin sheep. To the north, besides these, there range moose and caribou. Bear, both
black and grizzly, were seen, and there are the predators, wolves, coyotes, and foxes.
Other animals seen were rabbit, beaver, mink, wolverine, hoary marmot, gopher,
ground-squirrel, squirrel, and lemming.
Bird-life is fairly plentiful. Franklin's grouse predominates in the valleys, especially
near the edges of the meadows. At and above timber-line, ptarmigan are abundant.
Wild ducks and geese were seen occasionally, but the common loon is the chief water-bird.
Catches of fish from the lakes comprised trout, pike, and grayling. Sockeye and
spring salmon run up the Silver Salmon River and spawn in Kuthai Lake.
Conclusion
This uninhabited area is likely to remain so. The summer season is fairly short, and
there is no economic reason for settlement. Only a small stretch of merchantable timber
was noted in the Nakina River valley above its canyon. From geological information
there seems little, if any, chance under present economy for mining activity to take place.
So it would appear that the limited trapping possibilities will provide all the yield from
this section of country. There is the attraction for big-game hunters, of course, but even
this is not exceptional.   It is a summer grazing land, but at the present nothing more.
PARSNIP RIVER TRIANGULATION TIE
By F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S.
Under instructions from the Surveyor-General a strong tie was to be made between
two triangulation stations of the Geodetic Survey of Canada and two Provincial stations
of the Rocky Mountain Trench triangulation system. Q 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
To carry the value of the base given by the two Geodetic Stations Wheel and Plateau
to the Provincial base of Stations Wheel and Dave, two quadrilaterals were used.
Our party consisted of two two-men instrument crews, a pilot, and a mechanic.
For transportation we used a Bell helicopter, a Land Rover truck, and a Mercury sedan.
Our base camp was conveniently located at Tudyah Lake. The helicopter pilot and
the writer were able to carry out aerial reconnaissances of the area, and also to resignal
and recairn all the stations in conjunction with these flights.
Considerable difficulty was encountered when these stations were to be reoccupied
for the reading of angles, as icing conditions made flying hazardous and visibility was very
poor due to local rain and thunder storms. Because of these conditions and the time of
the year, there was always a danger of having observing parties stranded on the mountains.
However, with the pilot as a recorder, it was possible to occupy some of the stations
during brief clear periods; this kept our flying-hours to an absolute minimum.
We were able to assist A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., to tie his John Hart Highway
right-of-way survey to the existing triangulation system by connecting the latter to certain
Canadian Geodetic Survey bench-marks along the highway which Mr. Campbell had used.
CONTROL SURVEY OF THE PENTICTON-OSOYOOS AREA
By F. O. Speed, B.C.L.S.
Under instructions from the Surveyor-General, control was obtained for composite
mapping of the Penticton-Osoyoos area at a scale of 500 feet to 1 inch.
The resultant maps will show the surveys of district lots and subdivisions, filed in
the Lands Branch and in the Land Registry Office at Kamloops.
As most of the required control was located in the valley, a network of triangulation
stations along the valley-sides was found to be most suitable. Three two-man crews
erected and occupied these network stations, while three men located and tied in survey
lot corners and air-photo points to valley stations.
As the area from Penticton to the south end of Vaseaux Lake is to be plotted by the
multiplex method, the pattern of control and cadastral ties were obtained in a manner
requested by the Air Division. This resulted in twelve main network stations and thirteen
valley stations which tied in both the required air-photo points and seven lot corners.
Also five extra mountain stations were required to extend control and to tie our network
to the existing Provincial system.
In the remaining southern portion, a more extensive control pattern was obtained,
as this area will be plotted by the slotted-template method. This finally resulted in twelve
main network stations and twenty-seven valley stations, which tied in the required number
of picture points as well as fifteen lot corners. The air-photo identifications of thirteen
cadastral lot ties were checked, and ten bench-mark monuments were tied in to our
triangulation system.   A total of sixty-seven stations was occupied.
Minor difficulty was experienced in obtaining poles with which to build signals, and
some interruption of observing was caused by the destruction of these signals by high
winds.   Rattlesnakes and scorpions were encountered on numerous occasions by the crew.
SMITH RIVER TRIANGULATION TIE
By W. H. Stilwell, D.L.S.
In order to facilitate next year's field work on the final gap in the boundary survey
of the 60th parallel between British Columbia and the Yukon, it was necessary to tie the
precise Astronomic Station N 6, which governs the west end of the gap, to the Geodetic
Survey net through the Triangulation Station Beacon (unoccupied) at the Smith River
Airport, some 8 miles to the south of the boundary.   The determination of the geodetic SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Q 63
STXxruxrLerL ELm_clJ
A      Main    Triangu/at ion
•     Secondary     Trian gu lotion
o    Secondary   Triangulation   for
Photo  and Cadas tro I   Control
MILES  A 3        2
49 00-
I NTERNATIO NAL
BO U M DA R V
119 30'
O       /
-49 00
Fig. 3 Q 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
position of N 6 enables the survey to commence on a true bearing and distance, and will
eliminate the necessity of a preliminary traverse between N 6 and the precise Astronomic
Station F 1, which has been tied into the Army triangulation net, at the eastern end of
the gap.
The triangulation survey was made by a party of seven men, using three vehicles
equipped with four-wheel drive and power-winches for transportation to and from Smith
River Airport. The three observing parties were as follows: G. Alston-Stewart, K.
Bridge, and S. Creasser, who occupied Smith (primary) Station; G. New, R. Petkovich,
and G. Miller, who established Triangulation Station Snow and made the tie to the 60th
parallel boundary survey; and the writer, who did the necessary work at Beacon
(unoccupied) Station. G. Alston-Stewart and the writer also made five ties of triangulation stations to Alaska Highway right-of-way traverse monuments between Mile 67
and Mile 138.
The country covered by this operation was heavily overgrown with jack-pine, spruce,
and poplar, with willow and alder along the banks of Smith River. Tractor-trails and
blazed trails led to both Snow and Smith. New's party had access to a trapper's cabin
and were protected from the snow and subzero temperatures, but Stewart's party had
only a light tent and were consequently working under the handicap of being continuously
cold and uncomfortable. The writer had accommodation at the airport. In spite of the
weather the results were quite satisfactory, the triangle closure being +2.1" for the
triangle Smith-Beacon-Snow.
Two Wild T 2 transits and one Kern were used for the work and, though not
winterized, performed quite well under the subzero conditions, with only a slight stiffness
of motion around the horizontal and vertical axes being noticed, insufficient to cause any
difficulty in making the pointings. The camp equipment and clothing were adequate for
the temperatures encountered, but changes in both would be required for more severe
temperatures. The forestry-type transmitter-receiver sets again proved to be invaluable
for the purpose of keeping the parties informed on the progress of the work and for
passing instructions.
The writer wishes to acknowledge, with thanks, the courteous hospitality extended
to the party by the members of the staffs of the Department of Transport and Royal
Canadian Air Force at the Smith River Airport.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. H. Hutchinson, Chief, and Provincial Representative,
Canadian Board on Geographic Names
The principal function of the Geographic Division continues to be the production
and distribution of lithographed maps of the Province. In addition, however, it is becoming increasingly important, with the continuing industrial expansion in the Province, to
anticipate demands for particular types of maps and try to be in a position to fill them.
This situation is by no means new; it has arisen before, but the demands which were met
at the time were simpler and, having been met, remained stable for some time. Current
demands are for more detail in maps of a larger scale, and for fulfilment of more varied
requirements. Parallel with this new trend, it is, of course, essential that current maps
be revised, and that every effort be made to meet demands for maps in any area with
coverage on some scale at least, even though not perhaps ideal for the purpose required.
The total of map demands has continued to be high over the past year, and the
programme of map production has been full.   Field-trips were again undertaken to obtain SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 65
culture checks for the National Topographic 2-mile Series begun last year, and by the
geographers in connection with the revision of the Land Series Bulletins.
The various activities within the Division are more completely dealt with under the
following separate headings.
ADMINISTRATION
Quarters are still somewhat cramped in all sections, and map-storage and record
space presents a problem in spite of the fact that some extra was acquired during the year.
There have been, perhaps, more than normal changes in personnel, resignations
having resulted from such causes as marriage, enrolment at university, return to a teaching
career, and enlistment in the armed forces. A keen loss is felt in the very untimely death
of Hugh Pattinson, of the Trigonometric Control Section, and in the resignation of Ted
Browne from the same office, two very well-known and popular members of the staff.
Mr. Pattinson, a British Columbia land surveyor, had been with the Division for about
ten years, and for many years previously was engaged in triangulation work throughout
the northern part of the Province. His experience on triangulation and in private practice
was of great value in his work here. Mr. Browne had been with the Department for many
years and contributed greatly to the work of the Division.
On the credit side, we have been fortunate in obtaining the services of two draughtsmen with cartographic experience, and in arranging the transfer from another Division
of one man with some experience in computing.
COMPUTATIONS
The Trigonometric Control Section, more generally referred to as the Computing
Section, has completed another full year in spite of having been handicapped during
a large part of the time by a staff shortage.
Before giving details of the work of this Section, it would no doubt be advisable to
once again summarize its functions:—
(1) Calculations of positions and elevations of new triangulation stations from
surveyors' field work.
(2) Adjustment of triangulation networks between fixed control points and
adjoining nets with one another.
(3) Collecting and indexing of all triangulation data covering the whole
Province.
(4) Dissemination of triangulation-control data in response to requests.
Following the close of the 1953 field season, elevations and preliminary co-ordinates
were determined for stations set by surveyors in the following areas:—
(a) Atlin Lake South (portion of) by A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
(b) Peace River area by E. R. McMinn, B.A., B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
In all, preliminary co-ordinates for 103 stations and 131 station elevations were
determined, the latter involving the adjustment of 835 difference-of-elevation calculations.
Last year it was reported that two triangulation gaps were closed —one in the Sechelt
Inlet-Howe Sound area, and the other in the Tweedsmuir Park-Bella Coola Valley area —
but details of the closures obtained were not at that time available. The details referred
to are shown in the statistical tables which follow in this report, together with those of the
Telegraph Creek-Atlin gap, a network of approximately 240 miles which was closed
this year.
In addition, considerable work has been done in connection with a plan for determining the relative positions of the large number of permits issued under the regulations
of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Control in the north-eastern part of the Province.
Petroleum and natural-gas exploration permits cover large areas, and in unsurveyed
territory are described by metes and bounds, points of commencement being referred to
3 Q 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Geographic Division
Regional Studies
View looking toward Alkali Lake, Lillooet District. Natural grass land in the lower parts
grading into open park land and forest at the higher elevations is typical of the area. Alfalfa-
fields in the foreground are under irrigation.
View near Quesnel, looking west over Fraser River. A farmstead, typical for this area,
occupies the river terrace in the foreground. The gently rolling, tree-covered upland surface
shows beyond the river. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Q 67
some recognizable or fixed point. Since the boundaries thus described are in many cases
20 or more miles in length, convergence of meridians and the curve of parallels become
significant, as in townships. It was therefore suggested by the Surveyor-General, and
agreed to by the Controller of Petroleum and Natural Gas, to interpret descriptions of
permits as follows: All north and south boundaries as following meridians and all east
and west boundaries as being chords of parallels. Permits adjoining prior locations would
conform in boundary with that of the prior location in so far as it was a common boundary.
In this way a permit described as an apparent square would, in fact, have its northerly
boundary slightly shorter than its southerly counterpart. The adoption of the plan made
it possible to plot all locations and to calculate geographic positions for corners where
required in the event of a survey being required.
Commencement has been made on such computations, giving also the positions of
available permanent survey monuments close enough to certain permits to be of use as
references for any survey of the permit boundaries. Initially, this necessitated the adjustment of a large part of the Alaska Highway right-of-way survey between ties to geodetic
control, since many of the permit descriptions are referred to permanent monuments
along the Alaska Highway.
Much remains to be done, but a good start has been made and a path opened up
for continuation of the work.
Requests for control from Federal and other sources have continued in approximately
the same volume as previously, and are included in the statistical tables.
GEOGRAPHERS
The geographers have carried out regional geographic studies in the central and
southern parts of the Province. These studies have provided considerable information
of a practical nature, essential to the preparation of the new Land Series Bulletins.
Besides their use by all departments of the Provincial Government, these bulletins are
of prime importance to persons desiring information on various areas within British
Columbia, and are of special interest to new settlers.
In addition to work on the Land Series Bulletins, an extensive basic land-use
mapping project has been undertaken in co-operation with the Fraser River Basin Board.
This mapping will yield primary information fundamental to the over-all resource
development within the Fraser River watershed.
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMING AND MAP-CHECKING
The new Geographical Gazetteer (the manuscript for which has been in Ottawa for
some time) is now in the course of being printed, and is expected to be available in
January, 1954. A periodic supplement containing additional information is planned,
and no doubt the first of these will closely follow the publication of the parent volume.
Namings on fifty-six map-sheets and charts were checked and recorded during the
year in conjunction with the Canadian Board on Geographical Names at Ottawa.
The work of checking and revising maps of various Provincial and Canadian
Government agencies preparatory to the printing of same is steadily increasing. This
constitutes the checking of all Topographic Division manuscripts prior to their being sent
to Ottawa, checking colour proofs of first editions received from Ottawa, and checking
of reprints for major corrections and revisions. In addition to the maps printed by this
Division during the year, thirteen map-sheets from the Topographic Division and twenty-
four Canadian Government maps were checked prior to printing.
As has already been mentioned, culture checks were again carried out this year in
the field in connection with l-inch-to-2-miles mapping for Map-sheets 92 H/SE (Princeton), 92 H/NE (Tulameen), and 92 I/SE (Merritt), comprising an area of approximately 4,600 square miles.    The checks were facilitated by the use of a Land Rover Geographic Division
Field Culture Check
Aerial photograph of Merritt.
MiWiiT *- ■ i
Section of buried Trans-Mountain Oil    Road to Nickel Plate mine from Princeton-Penticton Highway.
Pipe-line south of Stump Lake. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Q 69
four-wheel-drive vehicle, which made it possible to reach points inaccessible to a conventional-type car or truck. Up-to-date photographs were obtained from the Air Division;
these show developments of very recent nature, such as the Trans-Mountain Oil Pipe Line
and highway improvements and changes.
MAP COMPILATION AND REPRODUCTION
Fifteen maps were published by this Division during the past year, and fourteen
more are in hand, which indicates a very full programme. Included are maps classified
as " General," such as the reprint of 1 J, a one-sheet map of the Province; " Regional,"
which includes maps such as 2c, northerly Vancouver Island at a scale of 1 inch to
4 miles; maps in the National Topographic Series at a scale of 1:250,000, and another
group in that series at a scale of 1 inch to 2 miles.
In addition, sixteen maps at scales of 1 inch to 1 mile and 1:50,000 were reproduced
and printed by the Canadian Government at Ottawa from manuscripts compiled and
drawn by the Provincial Topographic Division from surveys carried out by it in the field.
Of these, eleven are first editions, two are reprints without revision, and three are second
editions.
Twenty-seven maps of parts of the Province, including some in the 1:250,000 series,
some 1 inch to 2 miles, and others in the 1-inch-to-l-mile and 1:50,000 series, were
printed by Canadian Government agencies at Ottawa from surveys conducted in British
Columbia by those agencies. For thirteen of these we hold major stocks, and all but
seven of the twenty-seven have been overprinted, showing lot surveys. Details of these
sheets, whether with lots or without, may be obtained from the Index to Published Maps
included in this Report, and titles and scales of those published in 1953 from the statistical
tables which follow, including a list of some forty maps at scales of 1 inch to 1 mile and
1:50,000, which are in hand at Ottawa to be printed from manuscripts prepared by the
Topographic Division.
In reporting on the activities of this Division, it should be explained that, for all new
Canadian Government maps of British Columbia on which lot overprints appear, an
advance copy of each map in the form of a mounted blue is sent from Ottawa. On these,
in the case of purely Canadian Government maps, the Topographic Division compiles
and draws the lots in pencil, and the Geographic Division makes the fair drawing and
sets up the lot numbers in appropriate sizes and styles of type. For Topographic
Division manuscripts printed at Ottawa the same procedure is followed by this Division
but, since the lot compilation has already been done by the former, it is merely brought
up to date, if necessary, in our draughting office. In the past year a total of twenty-seven
mounted sheets was handled in this way, which added considerably to the volume of work
completed by the Map Compilation and Reproduction Section.
Miscellaneous draughting and special work for other departments is also undertaken
by the Geographic Division, and this year included the preparation on five of the National
Topographic 1-mile series maps of Vancouver Island of a special fire-control overprint
for Departmental use by the British Columbia Forest Service, also the preparation of
maps to accompany newly revised Land Series Bulletins to be published shortly. In
addition, 2,060 man-hours were spent on similar miscellaneous smaller jobs, and their
value is shown in the accompanying statistical tables.
As an added service, the Division has prepared three films based on Map 1 j, scale
of 27 miles to 1 inch, from which prints can be made showing land districts, forest
districts, and registration districts under the " Bills of Sale Act." For details and prices
see the Index to Published Maps.
Assistance has again been given by our map editor in the assembling, editing,
producing, and distributing of the Annual Report of the Lands Service. Q 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
MAP DISTRIBUTION—PUBLIC RELATIONS
The following changes relating to map distribution were put into effect during the
month of March:—
(1) Mail orders were required to be accompanied by correct remittances.
(2) An upward revision in the prices of certain maps.
(3) Per dozen, reduced rate to the public and free distribution of Pre-emptors'
Series maps discontinued.
In addition, all correspondence relating to accounts and refunds is now undertaken
by the Lands Accounting Division, and, as a result, the volume of correspondence as
shown in the statistical tables appears less than in 1952. However, apart from accounts,
general correspondence has risen by approximately 10 per cent.
Slightly more than 40,000 maps were distributed during the past year, and some
92,456 maps were added to our stock during the same period. By reference to the
above-mentioned tables, it will be seen that map distribution has dropped approximately
15 per cent from last year's total, but the total value of maps issued has increased nearly
7 per cent, both changes perhaps resulting from items (2) and (3) above.
Again referring to the tables, map-stock additions show an increase of 100 per cent
over 1951 and 20 per cent over 1952, all of which adds to the previously mentioned
need for more storage-space.
The new Index to Published Maps, which was distributed for the first time with
the 1952 Report, has proved its worth without any doubt. Showing, as it does, all
published maps available from this Division (whether published in British Columbia
or at Ottawa) with information regarding lot overprints, contours, prices, etc., it greatly
assists those ordering maps and is self-explanatory, which simplifies the answering of
inquiries. A new edition of this index in green, to more readily distinguish it from the
1952 edition, accompanies this Report.
STATISTICAL
Computations
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
Provincial Main ___ __	
Provincial Main— __ —
Provincial Main 	
Provincial Main __	
Provincial Main	
Provincial Main ___ ___ _.	
Provincial Main __ — —
Provincial Main _ _ _	
Provincial Coast..—  	
Provincial Secondary __	
Provincial Secondary	
Provincial Secondary  —
Canadian Hydrographic Survey-
Canadian Hydrographic Survey-
Howe Sound - — 	
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary-
Cariboo  —_  	
Atlin Lake  _ —_ —
Peace River    _	
Telegraph Creek-Atlin Lake 	
Lower Post  	
Parsnip River _.
Fisher, Dean, Labouchere, and Burke Channels 	
Meziadin Lake-British Columbia-Alaska Boundary .
Mahood Lake    _ _
Osoyoos-Penticton- 	
Salmon Inlet _ _	
Haro Strait- _ _	
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
18
65
80
21
55
51
6
7
84
27
22
19
21
33 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Computations—Continued
Triangulation Closures
Q 71
Location of Network
Telegraph
Creek to
Atlin Lake
Sechelt Inlet-
Howe Sound
Tweedsmuir
Park-
Bella Coola
Number of stations _
Number of figures-
Average closure per triangle —	
Maximum closure any one triangle   _   __
Average correction after adjustment to observed angles 	
Maximum correction after adjustment to any one observed angle-
Error in azimuth on closing line.   	
Error in length on closing line..
Approximate length of network in miles..
31
17
3.34"
9.90"
0.75"
3.56"
10.37"
3.3'or 1:15,000
240
11
6
3.20"
6.05"
1.04"
2.90"
7.09"
2.74'or 1:15,400
50
13
7
3.98"
8.56"
1.40"
4.83"
4.46"
19'or 1:85,800
100
The following tables give comparisons with the previous five-year period:—
Computations
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
Triangles adjusted by least squares   .
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates
Ties to cadastral surveys  ____ 	
480
806
231
205
1,214
419
13,365
115
686
826
224
606
1,120
469
14,485
146
512
1,137
326
528
1,888
924
16,373
212
696
1,431
248
439
1,676
586
18,049
225
614
1,484
170
643
1,342
506
19,391
272
509
1,300
189
131
Index cards—
1,561
450
20,952
Requests for control attended to „.__ 	
287
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
i
63    j
7,060    j
401
1
62
4,671
375
63
5,457
831
49    j
3,686    j
298    |
1
39
6,403
252
56
Number of names checked   _	
Number of new names recorded   ,  ., _._.
7,052
351
Map Stock and Distribution
Maps issued to departments and public 	
28,673
24,228
$9,935
31,789
33,251
$11,512
34,244
36,021
$11,794
41,581
45,369
$14,205
45,724
73,981
$13,450
40,733
92,456
$14,184
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
Letters
Letters received and attended to .
5,234
4,987 Q 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Maps
Published during 1953
Name
Map No.
Scale
Remarks
Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Surveys
and Mapping Branch, Victoria
1j
R.M.
R.M.
92 F
93 D
92 K
103 H & G (pt.)
103 P & O (pt.)
2c
3c
3f
3g
3j
4c
92 C/8, 9
92C/11, 13, 14
92E/9
92E/16
92H/4
92L/1
92L/2
92L/8
93 A/5
93 A/6
92 H/3, E. Vi
92 H/3, W. Yi
93 G/14, E. 1/2
93 G/14, W. 1/2
93 J/3, E. Vi
93 J/3, W. 1/2
104 & 114, E. 1/2
94 L
94 M
94 A
104 J
104 O
82 L/N.E.
82 N/S.E.
82 N/S.W.
82 N/N.E.
92 I/S.E.
92 I/N.E.
94 A/S.E.
94 A/S.W.
92G/1
92G/2
83D/16, W. Vi
93 P/8, E. Vi
93 P/9, E. Vi
93 P/9, W. 1/2
93 P/15, E. 1/2
93 P/15, W. Vi
94G/10, E. 1/2
94G/10.W. 1/2
94G/11.E. i/2
104H/1.E. 1/2
104H/1,W. 1/2
1 in. to 27 mi.
1 in. to 27 mi.
1 in. to 27 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 4 mi.
1 in. to 3 mi.
1 in. to 3 mi.
1 in. to 3 mi.
1 in. to 3 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:1,000,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, small revision.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint with revision.
Provincial Government Topographic Manuscripts Reproduced
and Printed by the Canadian Government, Ottawa
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Maps Reproduced and Printed by the Canadian
Government, Ottawa
First edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
Yoho                                      	
Second edition.
Third edition.
Second edition.
Reprint with revision.
Third edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Reprint, no revision.
Reprint, no revision.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Maps—Continued
In Course of Compilation
Q 73
Name
Map No.
Scale
Remarks
Maps Being Reproduced for Printing by Surveys
and Mapping Branch, Victoria
lJ
IE
IK
2f
5d
92 M
92 P
93 K
93 L
82 E/N.W.
82 E/S.W.
92 H/S.E.
92 H/N.E.
92 I/S.E.
92B/13
92 C/16
92F/8
92G/4
92 F/9, E. 1/2
92 F/9, W. Vi
92 G/5, E. Vi
92 G/5, W. Vi
92 0/2, E. Vi
92 0/2, W. Vi
93 B/9, E. Vi
93 B/9, W. Vi
93 B/16, E. 1/2
93 B/16, W. 1/2
93 J/2, E. 1/2
93 J/2, W. 1/2
93 L/2, E. 1/2
93 L/2, W. Vi
93 L/7, E. Vi
93 L/7, W. 1/2
93 L/8, E. Vi
93 L/8. W. 1/2
93 L/9, E. 1/2
93 L/9, W. Vi
93 L/10. E. Vi
93 L/10, W. Vi
93L/11,E. Vi
93L/11, W. 1/2
93 L/14, E. Vi
93 L/14, W. Vi
93 M/5, E. 1/2
93 M/5, W. 1/2
93 M/12, E. Vi
93 M/12, W. 1/2
103 P/9, E. Vi
103 P/9, W. 1/2
103 P/10, E. 1/2
103 P/14, E. Vi
103 P/15, E. 1/2
103 P/15, W. Vi
1 in. to 30 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 10 mi.
1 in. to 4 mi.
1 in. to 4 mi.
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1:250,000
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 2 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1 in. to 1 mi.
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
Reprint with revision
Provincial   Government   Topographic   Manuscripts   Being
Reproduced for Printing by the Canadian Government,
Ottawa.
Houston, east half.   _ _____	
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition. Air Divisi
ivision
Steveston, with salmon-canning and fish-reduction plants along water-front.
Pine River, showing ox-bow lakes formed and in the process of
being formed, near John Hart Highway. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Q 75
AIR DIVISION
A. C. Kinnear, B.C.R.F., Assistant Chief
In spite of the continuing poor air-photographic weather during the summer of 1953,
we are pleased to report that the productivity of the Division remained high throughout
the year.
The production of interim maps for the Forest Service inventory programme continues at an ever-increasing rate. As this form of mapping in the southern portion of
the Province is nearing completion, it would be well, now, to recapitulate the progress
made toward satisfying the original request.
The area originally requested was from the height of land north of the Canadian
National Railway (Prince Rupert-Yellowhead line) to the United States Boundary and
from the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary to the coast, requiring approximately
178,000 square miles of interim mapping. Of this area, final linen tracings showing all
cadastral survey information and topographic planimetry, for an area of nearly 56,000
square miles, has now been turned over to the Forest Survey and Inventory Division.
An additional area of some 27,000 square miles has had the topographic features
delineated in pencil, and is in the stage of being checked against available control before
final inking. In still another stage of production is an area of approximately 29,000
square miles, for which principal-point laydowns are available.
This year's requirement of some 33,000 square miles has nearly 9,500 square miles
available in the principal-point laydown stage, and the remaining 23,500 square miles
is in various stages of work. An index map showing the progress of this mapping is
shown in Appendix 6. The balance of 33,000 square miles, to complete the area originally requested, will be undertaken during 1954-55.
The ever-increasing demands being made on the Multiplex Section by other branches
and departments of the Government prove the necessity for this large-scale detailed
mapping work.
As mentioned in the Division's 1952 annual report, the training of junior personnel
continues to be of paramount importance. This year a voluntary training programme
in draughting and surveying was arranged through the co-operation of the Civil Service
Commission with the International Correspondence School. At present, thirteen members of this Division are enrolled, and the results so far have been very gratifying.
Details of the activities of the various sections follow.
FLYING OPERATIONS
A. S. Lukinuk
Two important features of air operations for 1953 were the addition of the Beaver
aircraft, equipped for photographic work, and continuation of the generally adverse
photographic weather from the previous two seasons.
Between April 1st and November 23rd, 16,304 aerial photographs were taken,
comprising 28,000 square miles of basic vertical photography, twelve precision multiplex
projects, and thirty miscellaneous projects of a special nature.
A higher per-unit charge for 1953 has resulted from an increase in maintenance
costs, together with a lower net accomplishment, despite an extended season in the field.
The Beaver aircraft, in addition to servicing and supplying survey parties in the field,
is available for lower-altitude flying and special photographic projects. Inasmuch as
the aircraft was not ready for operations until midway through the season, annual expenditures chargeable to this machine have been distributed on a basis of an estimated 300
hours' flying annually and 5,000 exposures for a full season's photography. (See
Appendix 2, Part 2.) Q 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Camera maintenance and calibration, including particularly refocusing with a modified lens housing, are receiving the full attention of the Instrument-shop. Although this
involves a noticeable increase in camera-maintenance charges, shown in Appendix 1,
it will ultimately broaden our current range of flying opportunity, especially for multiplex
demands.
Experiments in taking oblique aerial views from hand-held cameras are continuing
with excellent results. Many points of interest are recorded by these incidental views,
some of which are in this report.
Complete overhaul of aircraft is being handled almost entirely by the staff and shop
at Patricia Bay. The year's servicing included overhaul and installation of five 450-
horsepower P. & W. Wasp Junior engines. Serviceability of aircraft in the field—a major
factor during the summer's operations—was admirably maintained by the field aircraft
mechanics, with a minimum loss of four and a half photographic days for all aircraft.
AIR-PHOTO LIBRARY
R. A. Paine
During the year there has been, with one exception, a complete change-over in the
staff of the Air-photo Library, with, of course, accompanying difficulties. However,
we trust that the high standard of service and usefulness of the library has been sustained.
As in the previous year, new photography required for mapping as well as for the
library was ordered to establish and maintain an up-to-date stock of aerial photographs.
This system has proven very satisfactory and allows the almost immediate indexing of
photographs, as well as permitting the work in Base Maps Section to proceed with
dispatch.
Contrary to last year, it was found necessary to re-establish a modified system of
priorities in furthering orders for reprints. In cases of urgency it was the practice to sell,
or otherwise make available for permanent use, the library copies and then order
replacements.
With reference to the accompanying tables and graph, it is probably obvious that
figures and tables cannot fully portray the activity of any office. Frequently each day
representatives of companies or Government departments call on the library staff to help
in the perusal of photographs. Such visits may never result in a requisition for a loan
or reprints, but, nevertheless, have been of great service to the public. surveys and mapping branch q 77
Loan Traffic, 1953
Photographs
Private  Issued Returned
Individuals   4,400 4,591
Companies and organizations  2,097 2,095
Forest industries   2,161 2,242
Mining industries  947 936
Oil and natural-gas industries  364 332
Schools and universities  1,877 1,863
Commercial air-survey companies   2,631 2,618
Real-estate companies  172 172
Totals  14,649 14,849
Federal Government agencies—
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys   612 659
Department of National Defence  248 248
Department  of  Fisheries,  Boards   and
Commissions   198 198
Department of Agriculture  99 94
Miscellaneous  19 28
Totals  1,176 1,227
Provincial Government agencies—
Surveys and Mapping Branch  10,545 11,617
Water Rights Branch  1,301 1,958
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)   326 342
Forest Surveys  1,467 1,444
Forest Protection   1,395 1,390
Forest Engineering Service  353 353
Parks Division  788 775
Forest   Service   (districts   and   miscellaneous)   1,171 1,215
Department of Mines  1,461 1,762
Department of Finance  446 450
Department of Public Works  994 909
British Columbia Power Commission  683 722
Regional Planning  410 433
Miscellaneous  219 153
Totals  21,559 23,523
Grand totals  37,384 39,599 Q 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Summary of Loan Traffic, 1953
Photographs
Issued Returned
Out on loan, December 31st, 1952  30,040 	
Loaned out during 1953  37,384 	
Returned during 1953  39,599
Outstanding mapping loans to 1953 written
off (these are being replaced in A.P.L.)   24,796
Totals, December 31st, 1953  67,424 	
Net photographs out on loan, December 31st,
1953  3,029
Totals  67,424 67,424 surveys and mapping branch q 79
Orders for Reprints from British Columbia Air-photo
Negatives, 1953
Photographs
Private                                                                                        Requisitions Reprints
Individuals   540 3,589
Companies and organizations  111 3,044
Forest industries  151 4,806
Mining industries  36 754
Oil and natural-gas industries  6 2,193
Schools and universities  24 612
Commercial air-survey companies  16 1,638
Real-estate companies  21 131
United States Government  2 251
Totals  907 17,018
Federal Government—
Department of Agriculture  20 796
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys   10 1,067
Department of National Defence  13 1,672
Department of Fisheries, Boards and Commissions   7 34
Miscellaneous  8 80
Totals  58 3,649
Provincial Government—
Library copies  12 13,951
Surveys and Mapping Branch  359 93,090
Water Rights Branch  34 3,048
Land Inspection Division  13 1,275
Lands Branch (miscellaneous)   11 153
Forest Surveys   26 7,491
Forest Service (districts)   27 17,332
Forest Engineering Service  22 445
Forest Service (miscellaneous)  46 551
Department of Agriculture  8 435
Department of Finance  32 1,343
Department of Mines  5 133
Department of Public Works  33 1,872
Provincial Government (miscellaneous) __ 28 237
Totals  656 141,356
Grand totals  1,621 162,023 Q 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
AIR PHOTO LIBRARY TRAFFIC
10
a
z
<
»/_
=>
o
I
t-
LOANS FROM  LIBRARY
35.
DEMANDS  FOR  REPRINTS
20.
1/1    t c
0 15.
Z
<
v.
1 10.
PRODUCTION OF 9"x9" PRINTS
Totals included for December, 1953, are based on estimates.
Figures for 1952 revised. surveys and mapping branch
Library Copies, Aerial Photographs of British Columbia
Q 81
Federal
Provincial
Total
On hand, December 31st, 1952	
206,181
117.
164,110
13.951
370,291
Total photographs of British Columbia on hand December 31st, 1953
206,293
178,061
384,354
THE USES OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS
R. J. Cosier
Aerial photographs were and are taken to facilitate the mapping programme of the
Province. However, when the usefulness of these photographs becomes known to the
general public as well as to Federal, Provincial, and municipal agencies, the demand for
them increases tremendously.
To illustrate this point, 20,160 prints were produced in 1947 in the Photographic
Processing Laboratory. In 1952 the figure soared to a record 165,976 prints, and this
year the figure is expected to reach at least 150,000.
A search into the files of the air-photo library reveals, in an interesting way, why
there is a demand for such a large number of prints.
As pointed out, the original idea was to supplement the mapping programme. The
number of new prints required for this purpose in 1953 was 58,279. A far greater
portion, 91,721 reprints, was purchased by Federal, Provincial, and municipal agencies,
schools and universities, companies, and the general public. A breakdown of these orders
for reprints can be found in the Air-photo Library section.
New flying this season resulted in the addition of 13,951 new photographs to Provincial Air-photo Library files. Further, a total of 34,811 photographs were printed as
replacements to the library.
Charged to the District Forester at Kamloops were 7,790 photographs. These
photographs are used for reference purposes in management planning, in forest protection, and in grazing reconnaissance. The District Forester at Prince George used 2,265
photographs, some of which were used in an assembly of available data on the Cottonwood Public Working-circle in order to compile a management plan. Other District
Foresters at Vancouver, Nelson, and Prince Rupert required 3,082, 2,049, and 725
reprint photographs respectively.
Directly connected with the forest inventory programme was the purchase of 7,491
prints by Forest Surveys. These prints are an aid in plotting forest types on forest-cover
maps.
The Land Inspection Division ordered 1,275 reprints, which it found invaluable in
inspections concerning purchases, leases, pre-emptions, subdivisions, and reserves, and
to aid in the settling of land disputes.
Field and office staff of the Water Rights Branch were greatly aided by 3,048 photographs. They were used in map compilation, in surveys of rivers and lakes, in irrigation
and power investigations, in snow and sedimentation and dyking and drainage studies, in
matters pertaining to the domestic water-supply, and in dam inspections. It is obvious,
too, that aerial views are of inestimable value in studying flood damage and methods of
flood-control.
Too much emphasis cannot be stressed on the need for aerial photographs in forest-
protection work. Immediately at the outbreak of a forest fire, photographs are consulted
by the nearest Forest Ranger for fire-control intelligence. Mosaics are made from aerial
photographs by the Forest Protection Division to aid in pin-pointing fires. Q 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Department of Finance ordered 1,343 reprints. The value of aerial photographs
to this Department lies in their use by the Assessors for taxation assessment and reassessment of land. Photographs were also required by timber-land appraisers for field use in
the interior of the Province for assessment studies. It is fairly obvious that a comparison
of photographs, both past and present, of the same area will be extremely valuable in
assessing land improvements. The camera does not lie.
If space permitted, these illustrations of the uses of aerial photographs by Provincial
Government offices could be multiplied. The Public Works Department uses photographs
in investigation reconnaissance for road locations; so does the Department of Mines.
The Department of Agriculture makes a study of lands to determine their suitability for
irrigation purposes. Field parties of the Parks Division do reconnaissance work to determine if an area has park suitability. The Regional Planning Division of the Department
of Municipal Affairs studies community layout and density and makes a plan in the office
before going into a district. In all these cases, photographs are used. In the case of
Regional Planning Division the photograph acts directly as a reference map.
The Federal Government in 1953 purchased 3,649 photographs. Of these, the
Department of National Defence at Ottawa required 1,672, mainly for the use of field
survey parties. Another 437 photographs were obtained in order that the 1:50,000 maps
along a section of the Alaska Highway be revised to show the latest changes in road
location, buildings, and other culture.
The Department of Mines and Technical Surveys undertook some preliminary
surveys of Indian reserves, while Topographical Surveys did field control in British
Columbia this summer.   For these purposes, 1,067 photographs were ordered.
Aerial photographs, 796 in number, were used by the Department of Agriculture for
field work, for pin-pointing farm areas and for determining drainage rights.
The British Columbia-Alberta and the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary Commissions used 983 aerial views, which assisted greatly in work which
involved surveying boundaries and fixing positions. Photography, constantly revised, is
of immeasurable value in mapping.
The Department of Fisheries requires photographs for various reasons. Some of
these are mapping, assembling mosaics—a recent one was the fish-culture development
project at Seton Creek—also for clarifying controversial points.
An aerial photograph is a great time-saver. Confucius said, " One picture is worth
one thousand words "; perhaps, then, one aerial photograph is worth one thousand
minutes spent on the ground. Or, to quote Goethe, " Was im Leben uns verdriesst Man
im Bilde gern geniesst," which, translated, means, " What vexes us in life pleases us in a
picture." The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of British Columbia attempted
to prove this, at least in part, by acquiring enlargements of photographs for the purpose
of a house-numbering scheme. Houses and lot-lines were identified from these enlargements rather than from on the ground itself.
Schools and universities spent $122.40 in obtaining 612 photographs in 1953. The
faculty and students of the University of British Columbia, of course, were the chief users.
Some of the reasons they are in demand are interesting, for example:—
(1) For reprinting in a brochure explaining a course of photogrammetry.
(2) By a Geographic Club in preparation for what was reported to be the first
cartographic display ever staged in Canada.
(3) For teaching photogrammetry to a new group in engineering.
(4) For individual student assignments; for example, one student has to complete a study of wintering diving ducks near Ganges Harbour.
(5) By students in the preparation of theses.
Turning to private industries and companies, we find, ironically enough, that some
of the largest orders came from outside the Province.   The largest order, for 1,843 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH Q 83
reprints, came from an oil company in Alberta. These prints were required for geological
exploration. A large geogrammetric-survey firm purchased 1,364 photographs, also for
geological purposes. Another large order, for 921 prints, was placed by a Saskatchewan
Federated Co-operative which has a mill in British Columbia.
A celanese development company obtained 481 reprints for its timber-cruising programme. A lumber company at Nelson bought 528 prints to provide photographs of
lot-lines for its cruising department. A commercial air-survey company purchased 1,505
prints, including 187 film positives. Some of these photographs were for the use of clients
of this company, which was unable to supply the required photography. An exploration
company secured 488 photographs for mining work in the Smithers and Quesnel River
areas. A large grocery concern recently purchased photographs of several towns and
cities and found them useful in determining locations for retail food-markets. One real-
estate company, ordering 111 photos, found that aerial views provided its clients with a
much better picture and more detailed information of land. Special users, and only a
sampling of them have been noted, declare that aerial photographs are invaluable in their
survey and research programmes.
Private individuals have discovered unique uses for aerial photographs. In some
cases the reasons for purchase are not given, and so remain obscure or even mysterious.
The chief user, for example, was a North Vancouver resident who has written several
letters to the Air-photo Library and has acquired 526 reprints. As yet, however, he has
kept his reasons for their use a closely guarded secret. But most individuals explain their
request or order. A registered forester near Kamloops, for instance, purchased 501
photographs, some of which were to be used in locating the main logging-roads.
Others who have used photographs in smaller quantity include an innkeeper near
Penticton who recently purchased two photographs to display them in his inn and entice
fishermen to Oyama Lake, where he rents cabins and boats; a trapper who wished to
make a detailed study of his trap-line area and to improve his trail facilities; a member
of a shooting club to determine the permanent location of a shooting range near Ocean
Falls; an R.C.M.P. officer who submitted an aerial photograph instead of writing a
lengthy description of an area in reporting on a case; and an administrative assistant at
British Columbia House in London who sought aerial views of his property near Sidney
so that he could plan the layout of his future home well in advance.
Hunters, fishermen, prospectors, and out-door people in general have come to rely
on photographs more and more for identification purposes. Boy Scout leaders are using
photographs in planning their summer projects.
Orders for aerial photographs are not restricted to Canadian users. Many letters
have reached the Air-photo Library from all parts of the United States, whilst a few have
been received from England. The United States Government in 1953 purchased 251
reprints.
This service rendered by the Air-photo Library is seldom publicized, except for an
occasional paid advertisement or a reproduction in a newspaper or magazine under a
credit line. Apparently publicity is not needed, however, when it is considered that in
1953 requests for reprints reached 150,000 and for photographs on loan 37,384. Under
the impetus provided during World War II military operations, and the tremendous
survey and research programmes inaugurated since those years, the aerial photograph
has quickly and quietly become recognized all over the world as an indispensable tool in
natural-resource exploitation and the cultural development of nations. Q 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING LABORATORY
T. H. Bell
The Processing Laboratory of the Air Division forms the necessary connecting-link
between the flights of the Air Division's photographic crews and the identification of
points, features, and contours of the terrain by photogrammetrists in their work of producing maps.
The demand for large quantities of 9- by 9-inch standard prints and other photographic products presupposes an efficient laboratory where photographic production on
a large scale is of the utmost significance in the rapid compilation of serviceable maps of
varying degrees of accuracy.
This accuracy variation is governed by the requirements and the speed of map
production.
Experiments have been carried out in the use of " automatic dodging." This is the
use of positive transparencies in place of the necessary skilful hand-shading of each
negative, to provide a print of even tone and maximum detail throughout.
Full use of this method, however, would pose a series of interesting mechanical
problems, as well as to require additional space to accommodate and handle equivalent
to twice the quantity of air firms; that is, one positive transparency for each air film.
Such a method of production would be a progressive step.
It has been necessary to allot one small darkroom to the Multiplex Section on a
temporary basis for processing diapositive plates.
The production record shows the large quantities of photographic products of the
Processing Laboratory.   Most of the production is on a priority basis and often required
urgently, and is processed, with due regard for quality and accuracy, as rapidly as facili
ties permit.
Production Record
1946-50
1951
1952
1953
1,010
192
161
162
. —
2
13
7
542
830
605
235
238,867
112,435
165,976
150,000
39,370
921
135
1,155
102
3,079
1,849
1,568
2,200
3,297
4,656
3,445
1,650
96
78
3
110
88
185
100
210
164
84
114
58
190
2,451
1,446
1,569
1,450
Grand
Total
Processing Completed
Air films (Eagle V rolls, 60 feet)i	
Air films (K 20 rolls, 20 feet)..
Mountain-station films (No. 118, six exposures)2	
Printing Completed
Standard prints (9 by 9 inches).	
Contact prints (5 by 5 inches) 	
Contact prints (20 by 25 inches)  	
Enlargements (various sizes to 30 by 30 inches)	
Mountain-station enlargements (11 by 14 inches)2 ._._
Lantern-slides (2 by 2 inches)   	
Autopositive films (various sizes to 30 by 48 inches)..
Miscellaneous photographs and copies..
Contact positives from air negatives (5 by 5 inches)..
Requisitions completed  	
1,525
22
2,212
667,278
41,581
102
8,696
13,048
287
583
420
190
6,916
i Rolls averaging 115 negatives.
2 For Topographic Division.
MULTIPLEX SECTION
W. K. MacDonald, D.L.S.
New quarters were made available early in May, and the fifteen additional projectors
purchased in 1952 were placed in production.
The Section is now equipped with thirty-five projectors carried on three ten-projector
bars and four three-projector bars manned by eleven operators. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Q 85
A description of the year's operations is a prosaic one of continuous production and
is summarized in the following table:—
Square
Miles
Name
Authority
Scale
Vert. Int.
State of
Completion
50.0
59.0
9.0
176.8
139.0
54.8
90.5
10.2
30.0
120.0
50.0
Kitimat  	
Moran Pondage..
Doukhobor Lands (1952)-
Trout Lake 	
Gulf Islands _
Sayward Forest.
Goldfields __	
Agassiz —
Doukhobor Lands (1953).
Brooks Peninsula._	
Delta Municipality- ___.
Department of Mines
Water Rights Branch.
Water Rights Branch-
Department of Mines
Topographic Division
Topographic Division
Department of Mines
Water Rights Branch .
Water Rights Branch
Topographic Division
Water Rights Branch .
1,300 ft./in.
50 ft.
500 ft./in.
20 and 40 ft.
400 ft./in.
5 ft.
1,000 ft./in.
50 ft.
1,320 ft./in.
50 ft.
1,320 ft./in.
100 ft.
1,320 ft./in.
100 ft.
200 ft./in.
5 ft.
400 ft./in.
5 ft.
1,320 ft./in.
50 ft.
100 ft./in.
2 ft.
Per Cent
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
15
30
TRICAMERA control section
J. W. Shaw
An area of approximately 11,000 square miles mentioned in the 1952 Report was
covered with tricamera control, using 281 tricamera assemblies. Starting from coastal
hydrographic-survey control, a distance of 100 miles was bridged, closing on four geodetic
stations and indicating an accuracy of 1:2,700. A total of 103 minor control points was
established.
Self-explanatory forms have been in use for computing the internal and external
geometry of the tricamera assemblies. These forms have been continually under revision,
and a number of short cuts have been devised.
It is anticipated that with the use of the new tricamera mount it will be necessary
to compute the internal geometry for only three tricamera assemblies in sixty, whereas to
date it has been necessary to compute every one.
It has been found that a visual horizon cannot be identified accurately enough for
use in working with tricamera photography, so that all horizons are now computed from
peaks of known height.
Control for Map-sheet 93m is in hand, and an area of approximately 5,000 square
miles will have been covered with tricamera control when it is completed next year.
INSTRUMENT-SHOP
E. A. Rothery, F.R.I.C.S., B.C.L.S.
During the year fifty-six transits and six levels were overhauled. In addition, minor
repairs to smaller survey instruments were made.
An important and intricate task was the reset of the optics by modifying the cones of
the air cameras. In this work the cones are carefully machined and the optics realigned
on an optical bench.
In addition, the mechanical and electrical parts of the cameras are being thoroughly
overhauled.  This includes the rewinding and rebuilding of the motors. Q 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Among the usual assortment of jobs was the making of a view finder, complete with
mount, for the Beaver aircraft, and the designing and making of a new tricamera mount
of tubular steel.
The shop layout was radically modified in order that the optics of air cameras and
optical survey instruments could be repaired more efficiently.
Appendix 1.
APPENDICES
-Operations Costs and Distribution
Total Cost
Distribution
Ansons
Beaver
$5,652.00
22,783.07
21,545.16
28,977.52
7,802.38
7,694.86
$3,768.00
17,123.36
15,799.44
23,334.83
6,241.71
6,382.54
$1,884.00
5,659.71
5,745.72
5,642.69
1,560.67
1,312.32
Salaries: Supervisor of Air Operations, Party Chief.
Sundry office expense.
Gas, oil.    Oxygen.
Salaries:  Pilot, " M " engineer.
Insurance: Aircraft, personnel.
Aircraft depreciation (Beaver).
Equipment and modifications.
Running repairs and parts.
Stock and supplies.
Salaries: Shop supervisor, "M" engineers, electrician.
Air-frame overhaul.
Engine overhaul.
Hangar (rent, utilities, insurance).
Salaries: Party Chief, camera operator, trainees-
Insurance: Aircrew.
Field expenses: Personnel, transport.
Miscellaneous.
Salaries:  Camera technician, camera operators, machinists, electrician.
Replacement parts and stock.
Capital expenditures.
Air testing.
Film.
Processing:  Darkroom, annotation.
Prints (1 set, 9 by 9 inches).
$94,454.99
$72,649.88
$21,805.11 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Q 87
Appendix 2.—Cost Summary, by Projects, of 1953 Air Division Photographic
and Flying Operations
Part 1.—Ansons
Aircraft-
hours
Number
of Photos
Accomplishment
Total Cost
1946-52
Sq. Mi.
Lin. Mi.
Averages
A. Basic vertical cover (approximately 40 chains to
the inch), 17,500 to 20,000 ft./m.s.l —
Hrs.
80
70
44
21
11
13
6
Vlin.
20
40
50
15
35
45
00
3,032
1,943
1,606
910
332
393
184
7,150
7,200
5,500
3,800
1,250
1,175
525
$15,379.16
12,772.22
8,455.82
4,148.51
2,106.26
2,499.28
1,102.42
Prince George Forest  — —	
Totals _ 	
248
25
8,400
$5.53
26,600
$1.75
$46,463.67
Average cost, approximate  	
$3.08/photo,
$1.28/sq. mi.
4
25
....
78
$9.71
250
$3.03
$757.11
Average cost, approximate __	
$3.29/photo,
$1.73/sq. mi.
____
	
....__..
$1.78/photo,
....
C. Forest inventory projects—
4
13
5
5
40
25
00
40
144
344
111
112
160
300
130
130
$843.08
2,401.43
878.69
982.83
$4.31/lin. mi.
White River           ..         	
Totals  _  	
Average cost, approximate.-.-	
28
45
....
711
$7.18
720
$7.09
$5,106.03
D. Multiplex projects—
Training-school   _ _
Gulf Islands        	
2
6
2
3
2
6
4
2
6
6
1
45
45
30
20
55
05
10
55
40
10
00
80
110
43
88
87
412
25
90
377
219
17
7
500
20
25
80
30
15
3
105
115
90
$501.18
1,148.56
427.53
598.96
533.64
1,330.71
668.50
536.47
1,388.01
1,161.34
170.82
Okanagan - _.
Totals   	
45
15
1,548
$5.47
680
$7.92
310
$9.95
$8,465.72
$3.88/photo,
E. Special projects—
Prince George farm water-supply (Water Rights)
Taxation assessment (Prince George)_ 	
Taxation assessment (McBride) 	
6
5
2
1
5
9
1
3
1
1
1
4
8
2
1
25
40
50
10
25
35
50
50
50
45
15
45
05
30
45
50
50
20
30
293
212
24
26
25
777
453
24
35
23
139
15
21
46
37
466
	
700
50
25
3
15
.____...
190
350
4
4
4
75
10
15
50
25
600
$1,269.95
1,077.33
461.10
205.17
88.16
1,598.26
1,888.80
151.59
161.99
292.55
634.30
130.25
187.45
276.20
305.79
1,188.31
1,139.49
300.97
193.51
$6.46/sq.mi.,
$7.52/lin. mi.
Victoria Inner Harbour 	
Rider to Sinclair Mills (Water Rights) 	
Chilliwack River Road reconnaissance 	
Beatton River reconnaissance (Topographic) ..
Totals	
61
10
2,616
$4.42
793
$2.68
1,327
$5.87
$11,551.17
$2.53/photo,
F. Miscellaneous—■
Maintenance run (CF-FHF) 	
15
18
11
18
50
00
55
55
$269.32!
306.18
202.28 2
(»)
$6.35/sq.mi.,
$5.70/lin. mi.
Air search   	
Totals 	
64
40
	
-
$306.18
452
40
13,353
29,043
1,327
$72,649.88
1 Charged to CF-FHF.
2 Charged to cameras and maintenance.
3 No charge. q 88 department of lands and forests
Appendix 2.—Cost Summary, by Projects, of 1953 Air Division Photographic
and Flying Operations—Continued
Part 2.—Beaver
Aircraft-
hours
Number
of Photos
Accomplishment
Total Cost
1946-52
Sq. Mi.
Lin. Mi.
Averages
A. Basic vertical cover (approximately 40 chains to
the inch), 16,000 ft./m.s.l.—
Hrs.
23
Min.
15
584
$4.30
1,320
$1.90
$2,509.32
B. Multiplex projects—
2
20
22
$10.19
5
$44.84
$224.19
C. Special projects—
6
1
24
8
14
15
6
2
4
35
35
20
30
00
40
55
30
50
168
41
737
438
2,500
140
16
310
$712.48
171.78
2,721.14
1,086.81
1,082.06
1,210.85
534.62
193.23
373.54
Totals	
84
55
1,384
$3.39
2,500
$1.09
466
$4.23
$8,086.51
Average cost, approximate—	
D. Triangulation control—
12
13
12
25
40
05
321
317
323
No. of
Stns.
58
56
53
$1,347.00
1,455.16
1,318.79
Atlin area (Topographic) __	
Totals	
38
10
961
$4.29
167
$24.68
$4,120.95
Average cost, approximate  _.
E. Miscellaneous—
12
13
05
30
$74.67
83.431
25
35
....
$74.67
174
15
2,951
3,8252
167s
466
$15,015.64
1 Charged to aircraft maintenance.
1 Square miles.  Q 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
EZJ
111111111111M11111111111M11111111111 ii 11111111 ii 11111111111 in WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Q 91
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
E. H. Tredcroft, P.Eng., Comptroller
INTRODUCTION
History has shown that title to the use of water becomes increasingly important as
the demand approaches and sometimes exceeds the supply. Our first water laws originated in England, where water was needed, amongst other things, for domestic and
stock-watering use and the generation of mechanical power at mill-sites. Those people
living along the rivers and lakes made early use of the water available, and there developed a recognition of the advantage of position in securing water. This is known as
the riparian right; that is, the right to water within your own property, or to streams
that flow through your own land.
This system of riparian ownership was introduced into North America and was
generally well adapted to the humid eastern areas. However, as man moved westward
across the continent into the more arid regions, a second system of title developed, known
as the appropriation system.
In those early days one of the main uses of water was for mining, and, amongst the
miners, priority of possession, continuity of operation, and limitation of the area that
could be acquired were the basic rules of title to mineral claims. These sames rules were
matched in title to the use of water by priority of appropriation, diligence in construction
and the use of the waterworks, and the restriction of the amount withdrawn to reasonable
needs.   These principles are the underlying basis of our " Water Act " to-day.
THE " WATER ACT "
In this Province the first legislation governing the use of water was contained in
the " Goldfields Act," which was proclaimed by Governor Douglas in 1859, and which
provided water rights for mining purposes.
Later the "Water Privileges Act" of 1892 declared the use of all water, except
that under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government, was vested in the Crown in the
right of the Province, thus denying the principle of riparian rights.
Under the present Act a water licence may be granted for a number of purposes
which, when liberally interpreted, cover almost every conceivable use. These uses, as
listed in the " Water Act," are as follows: Domestic, waterworks, mineral trading (bottling and distributing natural mineral waters), irrigation, mining, industrial, power,
hydraulicking, storage, ffuming, conveying, and land improvement. The priority of any
licence is generally recognized as based upon the date on which it is recorded by the
Water Recorder, but the Comptroller has the power to determine the priority of any
licence issued in respect of an application. The retention of this right is dependent
upon beneficial use, payment of rentals, and the observance of any orders issued under
the " Water Act."
ADMINISTRATION
Throughout the years the Comptroller of the Water Rights Branch and his staff
have administered the "Water Act." However, as early as 1912 it became apparent
that sound water-resource planning required not only a fair licensing procedure according to priority, but also the gathering of basic data to encourage and guide future water
developments.
Thus the two main functions of the Water Rights Branch are the administration
of the " Water Act " and the investigation of our water resources. About one-half of the
staff is employed in each of these two main functions.   During the summer temporary Q 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
help, consisting mostly of University students on field parties, is engaged in field investigations and in assisting the District Engineers at Nelson, Kelowna, Kamloops, and Victoria.   The areas of administration of these district offices are shown on Plate 3.
LICENSING PROCEDURE
Applications for water licences are received by the local Water Recorders, whose
areas of administration are shown on Plate 1, and forwarded to Victoria for processing.
They are then sent to the District Engineer for his inspection, survey, and report. In
the meantime the various water-users who might be affected have been notified by the
applicant. Applications are also brought to the notice of the Deputy Minister of Fisheries, the Deputy Attorney-General, and the Deputy Minister of Agriculture by the
Victoria office.
Providing there are no objections, or if there are any and they are satisfactorily
disposed of, a conditional licence is granted, which allows the applicant to start construction of his works. At a later date, after satisfactory completion of the project, a
final licence may be granted.
The granting of water licences according to priority of applications requires that
certain information and data must be properly recorded and kept up to date.
First, there are available all stream-discharge records made by the Federal Water
Resources Division of the Department of Resources and Development, which include
over 1,200 stations. In some cases, especially for the smaller streams, these records have
been augmented by measurements carried out by engineers of this Branch.
A second requirement is a registering of water licences, including their priority and
their location, which is plotted on ^-mile-to-the-inch maps or, where such maps are not
available, on reference maps.
Stream-discharge records provide us with the total available water in a particular
area, and, with this information, care is taken to see that streams are not over-recorded;
that is, the amount of water licensed is not greater than the amount available.
Plate 2 indicates the number of applications serviced and the conditional and final
licences issued by the Branch over the forty-year period from 1913 to 1953. It will be
noted that the number of applications received of late years has been high, and with
increased population density has come the need for more intensive investigations. In
some areas the total discharge of streams has been fully licensed, and, from time to time,
disputes occur which require detailed surveys and sometimes arbitration by Water Rights
engineers.
Finally, the concept of multiple water use introduced in recent years has required
Water Rights representation on such organizations as the Dominion-Provincial Board
of the Fraser River Basin, the Co-ordinating Committee on Land Reclamation in British
Columbia, and the International Columbia River Engineering Board. water rights branch
Q 93
WATER
RIGHTS
FORTY
BRANCH
YEARS OF
ADMINISTRATIVE
WORK
1
913
-1953
I
1
1
j-
IT
j
-
>
_L
__
—
•-
	
-
-
-
tt
h
r—
u
-
„
™.
<
_n
—,
"i
—
~
<
P
-
-
1
YEARS
_.
o
o
o>
c*
0"
o-
_-
800
-
The
e were 4
955 act!
e Conditional Licences
Nov. 1953
p
600
500
....
-
-
-
'—
~~
—
-
-
_
z
h
T
1
-
~
,
—
—
H
n-
m—i
■*""
-
300
200
100
~
-
___
-
....
_^_
__
_
-
***■
,
600
500
There were 9566 active Final Licences
at end o< Nov.  1953
1
:l" __t                           -p_f
-T Tf        s.
1                r~ ™                                                       P
-i_i                    _J: t~   :~    -i
^_,
_--
:   1           ]     |
-r
m                      T      - ITT 1 Q 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The number of applications, sundry amendments, and licences issued during the last
four years is listed below:—
1950
1951
1952
1953
622
28
15
53
423
577
238
136
673
24
16
19
424
625
224
119
744
23
11
36
397
734
183
147
775
30
22
42
422
766
292
137
Totals	
2,092
2,124
2,275
2,486
Licences issued—
530
520
519
374
663
425
724
363
Totals _	
1,050
893
1,093
1,087
Active licences—
1
1
         1         -
         1        	
1
4,955
9,566
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT OFFICE
(See Plate 3.)
The Kamloops office, under the direction of M. L. Zirul, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., District
Engineer, administers the " Water Act" within the Water Districts of Kamloops, Ashcroft,
Nicola, Lillooet, Cariboo, Quesnel, Barkerville, and Prince George, embracing a large
portion of the southerly central section of the Province. Normal rainfall in this area is
insufficient to sustain crops, and irrigation must therefore be applied. The summer flow
of many streams from which water is taken for irrigation purposes is insufficient to meet
the demand, and storages have been established to retain the spring-freshet water for
later use when it is required.
The largest proportion of licences, especially in the Kamloops, Ashcroft, Nicola,
Lillooet, and Cariboo Districts, are for irrigation, or storage to supplement irrigation.
Cattle-raising is the main industry in these districts, and water is used to the greatest
extent for the irrigation of hay-crops.
In the Barkerville District, which is the historic gold-mining centre of the Province,
and in part of the Cariboo District, the predominance is toward licences for mining
purposes, mainly for placer operations by hydraulicking or ground-sluicing.
In the Prince George District, where the industry is mainly lumbering, the majority
of licences are for industrial purposes, to authorize the use of water to transport logs or
to maintain log-ponds.
The greatest proportion of water obtainable from the streams in the districts where
irrigation is practised is delivered in the spring freshet when the snow is melting, and it
is during this period that those irrigators who depend on storage must obtain most of
their supply for the remainder of the season. The winter of 1952-53 was one of very
light snowfall, coupled with the fact that the preceding very dry fall had caused the
natural soil-water to be greatly depleted. Pastures and range land were exceptionally
dry, and the outlook at the beginning of the 1953 irrigation season was very grim indeed.
However, abnormally heavy rainfall for this district for the month of June greatly
changed the water picture. Irrigators with no water in sight at the beginning of the
season were able to obtain a first irrigation and to fill their reservoirs to capacity, in most
cases, with the run-off resulting from the heavy rains during June, most of which fell in
the form of intermittent high-intensity rain-storms.    June rainfall at the Kamloops WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Q 95
Weather Station amounted to 3.09 inches, compared to a sixty-year average of 1.39
inches, and a total of 6.17 inches for the whole of 1952. Although the rainfall for the
remaining months of the irrigation season was lower than average, no serious deficiency
of supply was experienced. It is to be noted that excellent grain-crops were obtained
from the dry-farming areas surrounding Kamloops as a result of the high June
precipitation.
During the season October 1st, 1952, to October 1st, 1953, 137 applications for
water licences were investigated and reports filed. Conditional licences inspected numbered 114, and, of these, 59 were surveyed for final-licence purposes. Five surveys
covering change of works under existing final licences were conducted.
One water investigation was carried out, that for an irrigation supply for the
Sunnybrae community. The scheme considered is to irrigate approximately 200 acres
of land by pumping from Shuswap Lake.
A marked trend in irrigation has become apparent during the last while. The
development of irrigated pastures at present being encouraged by the Department of
Agriculture under its Green Pastures Programme has increased the interest in the irrigating of lands formerly considered unsuitable for agricultural use either because of the
slope of the land or its roughness. Sprinkler irrigation is being extensively used for this
purpose, although a considerable acreage of irrigated pasture is also served by furrow
irrigation.
KELOWNA DISTRICT OFFICE
(See Plate 3.)
W. A. Ker, B.A.Sc, P.Eng., is District Engineer for the area administered by the
Kelowna office. Comprising in general the southern portion of Central British Columbia,
this district is made up of the following drainage-basins:—
(1) Okanagan River drainage: From the United States Border at Osoyoos
to the divide near Armstrong.
(2) Shuswap River drainage: From Sicamous to the headwaters north-east
of Lumby.
(3) Similkameen River drainage: From the United States Border at Night-
hawk to the headwaters west of Princeton.
(4) Kettle River drainage: From the United States Border at Cascade to the
headwaters near the Monashee Pass.
(5) That portion of the Columbia River drainage from Boat Encampment
down-stream to a point approximately 15 miles south of Arrowhead on
Upper Arrow Lake.
From Plate 3 it will be seen that Kelowna is centrally located for the area served, and
that all important centres are within a four-hour drive of the office, thus making for ease
of administration.
Industry
The principal industries of this district are agriculture, lumbering, and mining, with
agriculture by far the most important.
The Okanagan Valley has long been known for its diversity of agricultural products,
which varies from mixed farming in the northern part to the production of stone-fruit and
the earliest vegetables in Canada in the southernmost parts.
The Similkameen and Kettle River valleys are also basically agricultural areas, of
lesser importance than the Okanagan, but continually expanding.
The mountainous regions separating these valleys form grazing areas for cattle and
sheep. More important than this, however, is the fact that they form the drainage-basins
from which all the irrigation and domestic water is obtained, with storage-dams constructed at suitable locations to conserve the water for use during the dry growing season
in the valleys below. Q 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Revelstoke area is of little importance as an agricultural region, its main
industries being logging and mining.
Climate
The climate, or, more properly, climates, of this district are probably the governing
factor in establishing use of water. Precipitation, ranges of temperature in winter and
summer, and the number of frost-free days are important factors in agriculture, and as
agriculture is the chief industry in the Southern Interior, average figures are given in the
following table for reference:—
Station
Temperature
High
Low
Yearly
Average
Annual
Precipitation
Frost-free
Period
Length of
Growing
Season
Altitude
Revelstoke —
Armstrong—.
Vernon	
Kelowna	
Penticton	
Oliver _ 	
Princeton	
Keremeos	
Grand Forks
Deg. F.
105
105
104
102
105
111
107
106
110
Deg. F.
-30
-44
—31
—24
-16
-23
-42
-22
-38
Deg. F.
44
44
45
46
48
49
42
49
45
In.
40.27
16.89
15.71
12.38
11.35
9.79
14.24
9.90
16.26
Days
Days
126
|   114
194
|   152
200
144
200
1   149
217
|   152
226
85
188
184
221
130
204
Ft.
1,494
1,187
1,383
1,160
1,200
995
2,098
1,165
1,746
It will be seen from the above table that there is a deficiency in precipitation in most
of the southern areas which must be supplemented by irrigation, where possible, to provide
sufficient water during the growing season. The administration and control of this
irrigation-water is probably the most important duty of this office.
Duties
Routine procedures, such as the investigation of new water applications, inspection
and survey of existing licences, regulation and measurement of water in periods of low
flow, constitute the major duties of this office. Added to these are periodic inspections
of storage-dams and other works involving public safety, as well as giving assistance where
required in settling disputes between licensees over water problems. This latter duty is
by no matter of means of minor importance, as there is a saying in this area that there
have been more bitter fights caused by water than were ever caused by whisky.
From time to time the Kelowna office is called on to make various types of engineering investigations requiring written reports, based on the necessary field work, dealing
with preliminary design and estimate of cost for irrigation and domestic waterworks
systems. In some instances, where Government funds are involved, supervision is given
over the actual construction of works.
Another phase of work is acting in an advisory capacity to the various improvement
districts and water-users' communities.
The following routine duties were carried out by the staff of the Kelowna office
during the period from November 1st, 1952, to October 31st, 1953:—
Final-licence survey reports :     93
Apportionments and resurveys of existing licences       4
New applications investigated  143
Routine dam inspections      14
Dam repairs and maintenance inspected       3
New dam construction inspected       5
Dam-sites inspected       2 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Q 97
Engineering studies made and reports submitted, where indicated, are as follows:—
(1) Sutherland Creek waterworks system—report submitted.
(2) Long Lake Creek area investigated for domestic water service—report not
yet completed.
(3) Lumby waterworks system—investigation in progress.
(4) Rutland waterworks system—investigation in progress.
(5) Tulameen wells—supervision of deepening of wells by Government grant
and report submitted.
General
With an abnormally light snowfall in the Okanagan area during the winter of
1952-53, it was anticipated that stream-flows would be deficient, with a resulting shortage
of water for irrigation. However, unusually heavy rains occurring at strategic intervals
throughout the summer months changed the situation to the point where there was actually
surplus water.
The number of applications for water licences dealt with by this office proved to be
a record, with 143 applications investigated. In many cases the applications were made
to validate existing use, indicating that the public is more conscious of the protection
offered by a licence.
NELSON DISTRICT OFFICE
(See Plate 3.)
This district, under the direction of R. Pollard, P.Eng., District Engineer, covers
approximately 25,000 square miles in the south-eastern part of British Columbia, bounded
on the south by the United States and on the east by the Province of Alberta. There are
seven water districts—four in the East Kootenay region, comprising Cranbrook, Fernie,
Windermere, and Golden, and three in the West Kootenay region, namely, Nelson, New
Denver, and Kaslo. There is a distinct difference in climate between the East and West
Kootenay regions, the former having an average annual precipitation of 12 inches, and
the latter 26 inches. In East Kootenay the elevation is generally higher, the winters are
colder, and the summers drier than in West Kootenay; the valleys are wider and the
terrain is considerably more park-like and not so heavily timbered, although logging is
one of the East Kootenay's chief industries.
The application of water to the land is necessary for the production of satisfactory
crops in this area. The duty of water for irrigation varies from 2Vx acre-feet per acre
for the East Kootenay to Wa acre-feet per acre for the West Kootenay. With the
exception of a few somewhat extensive farm areas, most of the farm land in this district
is marginal, composed of narrow strips along rivers and lake-shores near the foot of the
mountains.
In addition to irrigation, water is also used for the development of electric power;
there are large hydro-electric developments, mostly on the Kootenay River, the main
tributary of the Columbia, and many small, individual power installations.
Being a dominantly mountainous region, there are many mining camps using water,
both for power and mill purposes. At present, however, owing to the low price of zinc,
a number of these operations, ranging from 100- to 1,000-ton mills, have closed down.
The irrigation season just concluded had every prospect of water shortage due to
below-normal snow cover. However, a late spring, coupled with excess precipitation in
the form of rain at lower levels and snow in the mountains, provided adequate stream-flow
in most localities.
Several more groups have organized to form water districts, and some twelve
meetings of improvement districts, proposed and actual, were held during the past year.
A total of 104 applications were dealt with; sixteen remain to be reported on.
Sixty-five final-licence surveys were made.   Field work included a number of surveys Q 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
for change of works, apportionment, etc.   The usual rotation orders covering ten streams
were issued.
VICTORIA DISTRICT OFFICE
(See Plate 3.)
Under the direction of District Engineer C. Errington, P.Eng., this area, which totals
approximately 50,000 square miles, covers five water districts—Victoria, Alberni, and
Nanaimo (which include most of Vancouver Island), New Westminster (covering the
Lower Fraser Valley), and Vancouver (which extends from Vancouver northward up
the west coast of British Columbia for a distance of 350 miles, and includes also the
north-eastern section of Vancouver Island).
A large proportion of the population within the Victoria District is situated along
the south-eastern shores of Vancouver Island and in the Lower Fraser Valley, and it is
from these areas that the vast majority of the water licences and other problems pertaining
to this office originate.
In seeking means to increase yields per acre, farmers are turning more and more to
irrigation. Furthermore, this trend is being encouraged by the Department of Agriculture
under its Green Pastures Programme, so that lands formerly considered unsuitable for
agricultural use are now being irrigated; thus, particularly with the recent development
of the portable-pipe sprinkler systems, together with availability of cheap power, irrigation
is rapidly becoming a major farming enterprise in this area.
The average annual precipitation in the south-east section of Vancouver Island
varies from a maximum of 73.07 inches at Cowichan Lake to 19.02 inches at the
Dominion Observatory in Saanich. For the Lower Fraser Valley the range is between
137.22 inches at Coquitlam Lake and 36.99 inches at Steveston.
A first glance at the figures listed above might suggest that extensive irrigation is not
necessary in the Victoria District. However, it should be emphasized that the summer
rainfall is in general low. For instance, at Chilliwack the average precipitation over the
past fifty-one years during the crop-growing season of May to September, inclusive, was
13.28 inches. In this vicinity the consumptive use of most crops would be at least
24 inches. It is apparent, therefore, that an average of 12 inches of water is required
each year from a source other than the normal rainfall. This figure is approximately
constant for much of the Victoria District. Based largely on this assumption, a water
duty of 1 foot per acre has been arbitrarily established to apply to most irrigation licences
which come within the jurisdiction of this office.
Because of the increasing need for irrigation-water during the summer months,
farmers have sought methods of storing some of the excess winter run-off. Small dams
creating 2 or 3 acre-feet of storage are now common on many small watercourses. The
nature of these structures varies from an earth or concrete dam across a well-established
stream to a shallow dugout which stores only surface run-off from the higher slopes.
Dugout reservoirs are common in areas having few natural watercourses, such as the
Saanich Peninsula, where at least fifty such storage-basins are now known to exist.
It may be noted that these structures create a unique problem because many are not
situated on a natural watercourse and, therefore, are not licensed under the " Water Act."
However, when it comes to the attention of this Branch that a potential hazard exists, or
is being created, an inspection is made and engineering advice rendered.
During the season October 1st, 1952, to September 30th, 1953, some twenty-five
investigations and reports were made, covering such items as flooding and stream-
obstruction complaints, advice to improvement districts, etc. New applications received
and reported upon numbered 274.
Two survey parties were continually employed on final-licence surveys during the
summer months; action was taken on 464 conditional licences. Of this total, 240 were
surveyed for final-licence purposes, 89 were recommended for abandonment or cancel- WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Q 99
lation, while the remaining 135 were recommended for an extension of time to complete
the works or other amendment. Seven surveys covering change of works under existing
final licences were conducted.
ADMINISTRATION DIVISION DRAUGHTING SECTION
The function of the draughting-room is to make all entries with respect to applications, licences, changes of ownership, cancellations, and extensions of time in the Stream
List Register, which shows all applications and licences according to streams, to make
all entries in the Storage Register, which lists by stream all storage licences, and to provide and maintain the Water Rights Map Albums containing about 1,500 maps, which
show the locations of all applications and licences.
All water clearances are made by the personnel of the draughting-room. Every
new application must be carefully checked in order to see that the new application will
not be detrimental to existing licences. Also all purchases, leases, reversions, and
Crown grants of land and timber sales are cleared through this office to protect our
licensees with respect to rights-of-way for works, such as pipes, flumes, transmission-
lines, flooding, etc., covered by water licences.
Incorporation of improvement districts imposes considerable work on the part of
the draughting-room in checking petitions and describing boundaries of these proposed
Districts.
A summary of the year's work is as follows:—
Water applications cleared and plotted on maps  775
Conditional-licence plats compiled and drawn  724
Final-licence plats compiled and drawn  363
Water-rights maps compiled and drawn  40
Improvement-district plans compiled and drawn  14
Water clearances (changes of ownership, cancellations, extensions of time), approximately  1,500
Land clearances (purchases, leases, reversions, Crown grants),
approximately   5,000
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
In 1920 the " Water Act" was amended so that a public corporate body, known
as an improvement district, could be incorporated. Improvement districts were first
formed for the purpose of irrigating certain lands in the Okanagan Valley, but since that
time the scope has been broadened, and to-day districts are incorporated for such additional purposes as providing domestic water, fire protection, garbage and sewage disposal,
light and power, street-lighting, and granting aid to hospitals. There are 161 improvement districts functioning at this time (see Plate 4).
The following improvement districts have been incorporated during the past year:
Wellington Fire Protection District, Barrowtown Waterworks District, Cariboo Hospital
Improvement District, Diamond Crossing Fire Protection District, Sunset Beach Improvement District, West Bench Irrigation District, Erickson Irrigation District, Kemp Lake
Waterworks District, Clearbrook Waterworks District, and North Campbell River Waterworks District.
Improvement districts are under the general supervision of the Comptroller of
Water Rights, and the internal affairs of each district are conducted by an elected Board
of Trustees. Before the Trustees can carry out any important matters, a by-law must
be passed by the Trustees and forwarded to the Water Rights Branch for registration
by the Comptroller. The annual statements must also be forwarded to the Water Rights
Branch, where they are examined to ascertain the financial standing of the district. Q 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
-GARBAGE DISPOSAL    4.2%
-SEWERAGE 3.1.%
-HOSPITAL 0.7%
-PARKS 0.49
-SALE OF POWER 1.1%
YEARS 1920
1953 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Q 101
Improvement districts are assisted in their general administration by the officials
of the Water Rights Branch, both in Victoria and at the District Engineers' Offices, particularly in helping the secretary to the Trustees in drafting necessary by-laws, and also
on any technical advice required.
Under the " Improvement Districts Assistance Loan Act," improvement districts
having as their objects the purpose of providing domestic water, irrigation of land, or
sewage-disposal can apply to the Government for a loan. If, on investigation, the plan is
found feasible, a loan may be granted.
Improvement districts providing fire protection, street-lighting, or aid to hospitals
can, with the approval of the Minister of Finance, have their taxes levied and collected
by the Provincial Assessor and Collector, and if a substantial amount of money is needed
to carry out these purposes, the Minister can advance moneys from Consolidated Revenue, to be collected over a period of years.
WATER-USERS' COMMUNITIES
There are forty-five water-users' communities functioning under the " Water Act."
These are small public corporate bodies, incorporated by a certificate of incorporation
issued by the Comptroller of Water Rights, and are made up of six or more persons
holding water licences. The powers of a water-users' community are more restricted
than those of an improvement district, and administration is carried out by a manager,
under the supervision of the Comptroller of Water Rights.
SUPERVISION OF DAMS
The mountainous terrain of this Province imposes strong limitations upon the use
of water. Some of these limitations are as follows: The place of use—that is, almost
all of the Province's population lives and works at low elevations in the Interior valleys
or low plateaux; the time of use—that is, most of the water originates at high elevations
in the mountains, mostly as snow, and this water is only naturally available in the spring
when the snow melts.
Because of these two limitations alone, water-users frequently find it necessary to
construct storage-dams on the small lakes and alpine meadows which often exist at the
headwaters of creeks. These storage-dams provide a very useful purpose in that they
retain a proportion of the freshet flow in order that it can be used during the summer
months when water is needed.
Adequate design, construction, and maintenance are required in the building of
dams to safeguard down-stream developments, such as towns, farm lands, railways and
highways, and other man-made improvements. The effects of a dam failure will, of
course, vary with its location and the amount of water held in storage.
Because of this danger, and as a service to the public, the Water Rights Branch
carries out a programme of public supervision of dams which requires:—
(1) That, prior to construction or issuance of a conditional water licence, an
applicant must submit drawings and specifications which show in detail
the proposed design and manner of construction. These may vary from
a small pencil sketch by the applicant for a small structure to detailed
drawings and specifications by a firm of consulting engineers for a large
structure. The Water Rights Branch reserves the right to decide the
amount of engineering which is required.
(2) That inspections be made during construction by Water Rights Branch
engineers, or by consulting engineers employed by the applicant, and in
some cases also by the Branch.
(3) That post-construction inspections are made as routine, to satisfy that
the operation and maintenance of storage structures is carried out in
a satisfactory manner.
5 *T4-   •
Dam Inspection
La Joie Dam enlargement at British Columbia Electric Company's Bridge River Development.
Cleveland Dam construction for City of Vancouver water-supply, Capilano River. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Q 103  WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Q 105
The Water Rights Branch Dam Inspections Engineer examines the designs and
specifications when submitted. He keeps in close contact with the applicant and his
engineer, inspects the construction of new and reconstructed dams, and keeps records of
the type, dimensions, and deterioration of the storage-works within the Province.
The District Engineers keep careful watch of the operation and maintenance of
existing dams, and also carry out much of the routine examination of such structures.
During the past year sixteen complete designs of storage-works were examined, and
approval or rejection made. The Dam Inspections Engineer carried out 107 individual
field examinations, and a number of inspections were also made by the District Engineers.
INTERNATIONAL WATER PROBLEMS
The Columbia is the third largest river on the North American Continent. The
total area drained amounts to 259,000 square miles, of which 15 per cent, or 39,000
square miles, is located in British Columbia, where almost 45 per cent of the total flow
originates. Throughout its length of 1,200 miles, the Columbia falls 2,650 feet, which
is almost evenly divided between the two countries. However, in the United States
much of this head has either been developed or is in the process of being developed
{see Plate 5). The Columbia, like so many of our rivers, has a widely varying seasonal
flow, which is very large in the spring and early summer and tapers off gradually throughout the balance of the year. It is, therefore, obvious that if storage could be provided
to create more uniform flow condtions, it would be of considerable advantage to the
power plants in the United States, and might also make it feasible to build dams and
power plants in British Columbia which otherwise might not be economical. In 1944
the Governments of Canada and the United States requested the International Joint
Commission to determine if further development of the Columbia River was feasible
and in the public interest.
This very complicated problem is being studied by the International Columbia River
Engineering Board, representing Canadian and United States Government departments,
and which, in turn, directs the activities of the International Columbia River Engineering
Committee with its attendant Working Group. The Department of Lands and Forests
is represented on the Committee, and the Water Rights Branch is represented on the
Working Group.
Up to now the activities of the Canadian agencies have largely been devoted to
securing sufficient basic data upon which to base their planning. The first of the tributary rivers to be reported on was the Kootenay, which flows from British Columbia
through the States of Montana and Idaho, returning to the Province to flow into the
south end of Kootenay Lake and again out through the West Arm of Kootenay Lake,
finally joining the Columbia River near Castlegar. After a very thorough exploratory
and investigational programme was completed, the Committee and Board recommended
that the best use of this river could be made by a dam near Libby, Montana, which
would create a lake extending into the Province to the base of the Bull River dam-site.
The latter location is the best dam-site on that stretch of the Kootenay River in British
Columbia, and is located about 1 Vi miles above the confluence of the Bull and Kootenay
Rivers. The Bull River dam, if built, would, in turn, create a lake extending to Canal
Flats. Both of these projects would beneficially affect the plants already established on
the Kootenay River near its confluence with Columbia River and the farming area around
Creston.
In connection with the work of the Committee, the Water Resources Division of
the Federal Department of Resources and Development has been carrying out an extensive programme of surveying and dam-site exploration on the Columbia River where
it appears possible to store a great deal of water. The most spectacular of the dam-sites
appears to be at the Mica Creek site, which is located about 14 miles south of the Big Q 106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Bend of the Columbia River. At this location it may be possible to build a dam 500 to
600 feet high, which would store nearly 15,000,000 acre-feet of water. Other possibilities on the main stem of the Columbia are currently being investigated.
PLATE 5
More recent activities of the Committee have been devoted to the Okanagan River,
where a flood-control project in British Columbia now under construction is claimed to
threaten spawning areas for blueback salmon, which are of importance to fishermen in
the United States. Work is also currently being done on a report and plan of development embracing both the Similkameen and Okanagan Rivers.
WATER RESOURCES DIVISION
The work of the Water Resources Division dates back to 1912, when the first
power investigations were made.   To-day the field has broadened to include irrigation, WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Q 107
PLATE  5A
500 600 700
RIVER    MILES   ABOVE    MOUTH
ground- and surface-water supplies, dyking, drainage, and flood-control, and snow and
sedimentation surveys.
The Chief Hydraulic Engineer is in charge of this Division, under the direction of
the Chief Engineer and the Comptroller; included on the permanent staff are six hydraulic
engineers, three assistant hydraulic engineers, one engineer-in-training, and two senior
draughtsmen.
Water-use Investigations
Water-resource investigations include field surveys and office studies which terminate
in the preparation of an office report. Such reports are available to interested parties on
payment of assembly charges only.
These reports have served as a guide to companies and individuals planning water-
use developments within the Province. Well-known examples include the Alcan and
Campbell River projects, which were originally investigated and reported upon by Water
Rights engineers.
From time to time hydraulic problems arise in the administration of the "Water
Act" which are referred to the Water Resources Engineers for investigation; examples
are the availability of water for licensing and the feasibility of its use for a certain purpose.
Water-supply forecasts based on snow-survey data obtained during the winter
months are made available to the general public, and these are of particular interest to
large water-users in the irrigation and power fields.
Finally, the formation of the Dominion-Provincial Board of the Fraser River Basin
in 1949 has increased the work of the Water Resources Section considerably, and to-day
about one-half its investigations are carried out within the basin. The cost of this particular work is equally shared between the Provincial and Federal Governments, and one
of the main objectives of the Board is to co-ordinate the work of the various government
agencies so that an over-all multiple water-use development plan can be obtained. Q 108
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Okanagan Flood-control Project
'■ "rT'f'll
Skaha Lake control-dam at Okanagan Falls, designed by Water Rights Branch.
Skaha Lake in background. ■ ■
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Q  109
The general areas of investigation within the Province are shown on Plate 6. For
purposes of discussion, the various projects have been divided under two main headings: —
(1) Provincial Investigations.
(2) Dominion-Provincial Investigations Carried Out for the Fraser River
Basin Board.
Provincial Investigations
(a) Okanagan Falls
(See Plate 7.)
Included in the Okanagan flood-control project is the construction of a control-dam
at the outlet of Skaha Lake. The design of this structure and also the designs of a water
system for irrigation, domestic, and fire-fighting supply for Okanagan Falls were provided
by the Water Rights Branch. The construction of the latter was also supervised by this
office, and to-day this system irrigates approximately 245 acres.
(b) Doukhobor Lands Irrigation
(See Plate 15.)
The Crown lands in the Castlegar-Slocan district which in the past have been served
by numerous irrigation systems, many of which are no longer operating, were surveyed in
1952. Parts of these areas are occupied by Doukhobor settlements. The programme of
investigation was completed this year by the survey of Krestova, Upper Pass Creek, and
the Grand Forks areas.
(c) Shawnigan Lake Flood-control
This report describes the winter floods which have caused public damage around the
lake, and includes estimates of costs for maintenance of various lake-level controls.
(d) Water-supply in Prince George Areas
Three separate water-supply systems were investigated in this area, including
Vanderhoof, Decker Lake, and South Fort George.
The Vanderhoof project, which receives its supply from an artesian well within the
village limits, is now nearing completion.
South Fort George, which was provided with an engineering report covering a
ground-water supply, has not yet started construction. It is planned to complete the
report on Decker Lake in the near future.
In addition to the specific areas mentioned above, a further general surface-water
survey was carried out south of Prince George. Many of the farmers in this area find it
necessary to haul their water, and it was hoped some of the larger tributaries of the Fraser
might provide a source of supply closer to home. The investigations to date have not
been encouraging. However, gauging-stations have been placed on the creeks where
possible and further surveys of storage-sites are planned.
(e) Dyking and Drainage Investigations, Lower Fraser Valley
A number of the dyking and drainage systems in the Lower Fraser Valley below
Hope have received the attention of the Water Rights Branch during the past few years.
This summer a physical inventory of this area, covering 194,000 acres and including
about 333 miles of dykes, eighty-six pumps, and several thousand miles of drainage-
ditches, was made.
The conclusion reached was that while the dyke protection from the Fraser River
flooding appeared to be generally satisfactory, winter floods from the surrounding
mountains could not be handled adequately. Q 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PLATE   7
OKANAGAN FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT
OKANAGAN RIVER
CHANNEL IMPROVEMENTS
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Design Capacity
C.F.S.
Okanagan l_.-Shing!e Cr. 2,1 00
Shingle Cr.-EllisCr. 2,400
Ellis Cr.-Skaha L. 2,700
KELOWNA
PROPOSED
Skaha L-Shuttleworth Cr.
Shuttleworth Cr.-Vaseaux Cr.
Vaseaux Cr.-Osoyoos L.
2,700
2,800
3,400
Okanagan Lake Control Dam
(under construction)
Skaha Lake Control Dam
{under construction)
A Drop structures to be
constructed between
Skaha and Vaseaux Lakes
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
Diversion Weir
(to be reconstructed)
Approximately 12 drop structures
suitable to migrant salmon to be
constructed between Oliver
and Osoyoos Lake.
INTERNATIONAL
BOONDARV
SCALE
fet±_y=
6m. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Q 111
DOUKHOBOR LANDS
SURVEY FOR IRRIGATION
1952-53
PLATE  15
Grancf for-As \ Q 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Stream-bank erosion appeared to be the most acute problem in a number of the
dyking districts and one that will require considerable engineering assistance.
The report concludes that improvements to the present system (not including
river-bank protection or engineering investigations) would amount to approximately
$1,600,000.
(/) Salmon River Irrigation and Drainage
This report deals with the availability of water for irrigation along the Salmon River
valley in the vicinity of Falkland and also near Grandview Flats, as well as flood conditions
near Salmon Arm.
Lack of geological information prevents an accurate analysis of ground-water
conditions, and the theories expressed here are to a certain extent speculative. Further
sub-surface exploration is needed to confirm or modify the tentative conclusions.
(g)  Snow Surveys and Water Forecasting
In the past, few, if any, of our streams were developed for maximum use of the
water available, and, as a result, the supply has generally been greater than the demand.
This period is rapidly drawing to a close because our increasing domestic, industrial, and
agricultural requirements are placing greater demands on water and its development.
Consequently, water-users in the Province are becoming increasingly more interested in
snow surveys and the information this science provides for predicting water yields that
can be expected during the snow-melt run-off season, thus allowing best use of water.
This is reflected in the number of snow-course locations requested by various water-
users during the past few years. During the past field season two snow-courses were
located at the request of MacMillan & Bloedel Limited (Harmac Pulp Division) to provide information on run-off to Fourth Nanaimo Lake and Nanaimo River. One of
these courses is located at the 3,300-foot level north of Fourth Nanaimo Lake, and
the other at the 4,500-foot level on Mount Copley. A third course was located in
co-operation with the British Columbia Power Commission at a level of 4,200 feet on
Forbidden Plateau to provide advance run-off information for Campbell River. These
are the first snow-courses to be located on Vancouver Island.
A fourth course was established at an elevation of 5,300 feet in Garibaldi Park as
part of the over-all Fraser River Basin coverage. This course will be representative of
the heavy snow-water yield to the Lillooet and Pitt Rivers and will also provide information for other streams such as the Cheakamus River.
The addition of these four new courses makes a total of seventy-seven active snow-
courses in the Province (see Plate 8).
Six editions of the British Columbia Snow Survey Bulletin were published during
the winter of 1952-53—at February 1st, March 1st, April 1st, May 1st, May 15th, and
June 1st. Near-normal run-offs were predicted in all areas except the Okanagan-
Similkameen, where a run-off well below normal was expected. Fortunately, however,
well above normal rainfall during the spring and summer resulted in the area having
good water-supplies for all uses.
The data for all measurements made since snow surveying began in British Columbia, up to and including 1952, has been compiled and published in a booklet entitled
" Summary of Snow Survey Measurements in British Columbia, 1935 to 1952, Inclusive."
This booklet is available upon request.
The 1953 forecasts were not as accurate as usual, due to the fact that an abnormal
portion of the run-off was due to rain instead of melted snow. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Q  113
Doukhobor Lands Irrigation Surveys
- .   -.:.        . .. .-■:     .
#$■
,.<4 * '
®:!.!/."€'
■    5
list
d>:w
■<;■- ■.■::■;.:■ :..->::, Q 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Accuracy of Forecasts
Stations Forecast
Forecast
(X 1.000 Ac.-Ft.)
Actual
(X 1,000 Ac-Ft.)
Difference
from Actual
(X 1.000 Ac.-Ft.)
Per Cent
Difference
Columbia at Nicholson1...
Columbia at Revelstoke1..
Columbia at Birchbank1...
Kootenay at Wardner1	
Elk at Stanley Park1	
Lardeau at Gerrard1	
Duncan at Howser1	
Slocan at Crescent Valley1	
Inflow to Kootenay Lake1	
Inflow to Okanagan Lake2	
North Thompson at Barriere2..
Inflow to Stave Lake2	
Capilano at North Vancouver2..
Inflow to Powell Lake2	
Inflow to Lois Lake2	
1,940
15,500
35,500
3,660
960
515
1,690
1,712
15,700
170
7,360
860
160
945
243
2,031
16,814
37,367
4,089
1,390
559
1,843
1,777
16,186
293
6,452
1,141
183
934
211
—91
-1,314
-1,867
—423
-430
-44
-153
-65
— 1,486
— 123
+918
—280
-23
+ 11
+32
-4.5
—7.8
-5.0
— 10.3
-31.0
-7.9
-8.3
—3.7
-9.2
-42.0
+ 14.2
-24.5
— 12.5
+ 1.2
+ 15.0
1 Run-off for period April to August, inclusive.
2 Run-off for period April to July, inclusive.
Dominion-Provincial Investigations Carried Out
for the Fraser River Basin Board
The investigations and surveys carried out by the Water Rights Branch can be
divided geographically into the Upper, Central, and Lower Fraser River Basin. One
other investigation carried out over these various areas is sedimentation surveys.
Lower Fraser River Basin
Included in the Lower Fraser River Basin (below Lytton) are the following:—
(a) Harrison River survey.
(b) Agassiz-Harrison ground-water survey.
(c) Lillooet River survey.
(a) Harrison River Survey.—(See Plates 9 and 16.) The need for a large flood-
control reservoir on the Lower Fraser led to the investigation of Harrison Lake. In
1952 a topographical survey was carried out from the lake outlet on Harrison River
down-stream for 4 miles. Three possible dam-sites were surveyed, and topography
taken some 65 feet above the river to the elevation of 100 feet, with control tied to that
established by the Federal Department of Public Works. Morris Creek was also included
in the survey as a possible site for a diversion-tunnel for the lower dam-site.
A plan of Harrison River and Harrison Lake at its outlet has been prepared,
showing 20-foot contours at 500 feet to 1 inch. Also completed are maps of the three
dam-sites at 100 feet to 1 inch, showing 10-foot contours.
Dam-site "A," at the outlet of the lake, appeared to be the most feasible, and a preliminary design was made by P.F.R.A. engineers for a rock-fill dam at this site, which
would store water up to the 62.5-foot level.
Certain preliminary hydrometric studies have been carried out both by the Flood-
control Committee and the Water Rights Branch in connection with Harrison River
discharges. Indications are that further high-water measurements are required to
establish firm discharge curves.
(b) Agassiz-Harrison Ground-water Survey.—(See Plates 9 and 16.) The construction of a dam on Harrison River would necessitate a dyke across the south end of
Harrison Lake to protect Harrison Hot Springs and the low-lying area to the south.
To study the effect of flood-water storage on Harrison Lake and on the ground-water
conditions to the south, a programme of well-level readings was started in 1952. A number of wells were spotted throughout the area, and key ones were picked for further study. Water-supply Investigations
Vanderhoof. Q  116 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Finally, low-level photographs were flown of the country and a 400-feet-to-l-inch
map showing 5-foot contours has been completed of the valley from Harrison to Agassiz.
These maps tie in on the south end with those made by the Federal Public Works Department. A considerable portion of the western mountain watershed has been included,
but unfortunately air-photo coverage did not include the higher eastern areas.
(c) Lillooet River Survey.—(See Plate 14.) During 1953 surveys were completed
on Lillooet River, which enters Harrison Lake at the north end and drains approximately
2,400 square miles of land on the western slope of the Coast Mountains.
A preliminary investigation in 1923 indicated six possible sites for dams on the 30
miles of the Lillooet River between Lillooet and Harrison Lakes.
Plans of these dam-sites have been prepared at 200 feet to 1 inch, showing 10-foot
contours. It is expected that the pondage plans showing 20-foot contours at 500 feet to
1 inch will be available by early spring.
Preliminary studies indicate that dams ranging in height from 300 feet at Section 6
(near Harrison Lake) to 100 feet at Section 1 (near Texas Lake) may be considered.
However, storage may be limited, due to the fact that the river has an average fall of 27
feet per mile, with one small waterfall at the Indian village of Skookumchuck.
During the summer a power-line survey was carried north through the valley by the
British Columbia Electric Company to tie into the Bridge River development. Arrangements were made to keep the line above any prospective high-water level, and, in addition, the company made available its topographic plans.
The data obtained during the summer is now being compiled, and in the analysis
due consideration will be given to the power potential at each site.
Central Fraser River Basin
The Central Fraser River Basin includes the following:—
(d) Lillooet project.
(e) Moran project.
(/)   Soda Creek project.
(g)  Cottonwood Canyon project.
(h) Fort George Canyon project.
(i)   Clearwater River survey.
(d) Lillooet Project.—Surveys carried out by the Branch a number of years ago
indicate a dam-site just above the Pacific Great Eastern Railway bridge at Lillooet which
would be approximately 130 feet above high water and have a crest elevation of approximately 810 feet. A development here, with an estimated regulated flow of 25,000 c.f.s.,
would give approximately 295,000 primary horse-power (100 per cent load factor and
80 per cent efficiency). It is understood that the Federal Water Resources Division has
agreed to carry out river-level readings during the coming year. Preliminary plans for
this project were completed some years ago but require standardization as to sheet sizes
and scale of plans.
(e) Moran Project.—(See Plates 9 and 11.) This dam-site, near Moran Station
on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway about 20 miles above Lillooet, is the major site on
the Fraser River. A dam with crest elevation of 1,540 feet would rise 720 feet above the
present water-level to create a lake extending approximately 165 miles up-stream to a
point not far below the town of Quesnel.
Assuming an up-stream storage of 4,500,000 acre-feet, a regulated flow of 25,000
c.f.s. could be realized, which, with a 720-foot head, could develop 1,636,000 firm horsepower.
Local storage will, of course, revise these figures upward, and since 1951 the Water
Rights Branch has been carrying out pondage surveys of this huge reservoir. At the
present time completed plans are available, at 500 feet to 1 inch showing 20-foot con- WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Q 117
tours, from Moran north to Dog Creek, up to the elevation of 2,000 feet. In addition,
the dam-site itself has been plotted at 100 feet to 1 inch to show 5-foot contours. A preliminary geological report by Dr. V. Dolmage describes the foundation as " highly competent, impervious and insoluble."
During the 1953 season the Water Rights Branch established control for multiplex
mapping to a point 2 miles north of Chimney Creek.   The area north to Quesnel has
KEY MAP
showing map sheets drawn giving detail of
GROUND WATER SURVEY
HARRISON LAKE-AGASSIZ
PLATE
already been mapped by the Aero Surveys Company and the Federal Department of
Public Works, and their plans extend a further 14 miles north to Cottonwood Canyon.
There remain approximately 30 miles of pondage on the Chilcotin River, which it
is planned to complete in 1954, and also a small area on Churn Creek.
(/) Soda Creek Site.—A good dam-site exists at Soda Creek, which would be
alternative to part of the head available at Moran. Development of the Soda Creek site
would require lowering the crest height at Moran by 180 feet. Plans of this area and its
pondage have been completed by the Federal Department of Public Works and Aero
Surveys Company.
(g) Cottonwood Canyon Project.—(See Plates 9 and 11.) This site, second in
importance to that at Moran, is located about 6 miles above Cottonwood River and 14
miles north-west of the town of Quesnel. The canyon cuts through a very hard and durable quartzite with excellent abutment characteristics and has a depth of water of about
60 feet. A 250-foot dam with a crest elevation of 1,850 feet would create a reservoir
extending to Prince George, approximately 73 miles up-stream. Q  118
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LILLOOET  RIVER
STORAGE BASIN SURVEY
1953
Cr: _—
5O0O
Damsites Investigated
Scale    I    I   ?       \       f       I
50000
PLATE   14 WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Q  119
It is estimated that, with 2,500,000 acre-feet of up-stream storage on Stuart and
Babine Lakes and local live storage of 1,600,000 acre-feet, a regulated flow of 18,600
c.f.s. could be obtained during a low-flow year, such as in 1946-47. Ignoring tail-water
variations, the average head which could be maintained was found to be 238 feet, which,
with the regulated flow, would produce 402,000 horse-power.
Dam-site on Fraser River at Moran.
Pondage plans at 500 feet to 1 inch, showing 20-foot contours, have been completed
from Cottonwood Canyon to Prince George, including river contours obtained from
soundings.
West Road River, a tributary of Fraser River above Cottonwood Canyon, would
be flooded by the above project and has, of course, been included in the pondage plans.
A separate report has also been prepared by the Branch showing the hydro-electric power
potential of this tributary, which is in the neighbourhood of 10,000 horse-power.
(h) Fort George Canyon Project.—This site has been considered as an alternative
to full development up to the elevation of 1,850 feet at Cottonwood and would reduce
the full-water reservoir of the latter to 1,790 feet.
While the over-all head for the two projects would remain the same, the reduction
in pondage would, of course, mean a loss in total power production.
As mentioned under Cottonwood Canyon, plans and storage-capacity curves have
been completed for this project.
(/) Clearwater River Survey.—(See Plate 13.) The Clearwater River and its
tributaries and lakes have been the subject of a number of investigations by the Branch
in the past. These include: Clearwater River project (No. 165), prepared in 1923;
Hemp Creek project (No. 168), prepared in 1923; Hobson Lake project (No. 155)'
prepared in 1922; Murtle River project, Site 6, prepared in 1923; Murtle River project!
Site 6, prepared in 1935; dam-sites on the Clearwater, Azure, and Hobson Lakes, prepared in March, 1953. r
Q  120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PLATE II
Key Plan ——	
Moran   Da/asite   Si Pondage
— !_s_J? 3 -
SCALE   IN  MILES WATER RIGHTS BRANCH Q 121
A further reconnaissance survey was made in the fall of 1952 to determine the
feasibility of flood storage and hydro-electric power developments on the Clearwater
River. Two dam-sites—one below the confluence of Hemp Creek and the Clearwater
River, and the other about a mile up-stream from the highway bridge—were investigated.
Following this, a series of bench-marks was established along the Clearwater Road, and
in the spring of 1953 survey parties from the Water Rights Branch and the P.F.R.A.
started topographic mapping.
The original reconnaissance indicated a 500-foot dam immediately below Hemp
Creek would flood Mahood Lake to a depth of some 100 feet and provide over 1,000,000
acre-feet of storage for flood-control (top elevation, 2,100 feet).
However, spirit levels run by the P.F.R.A. indicate that the elevation of Mahood
Lake is 2,068 feet, and not 2,000 as assumed. This fall, soundings of Mahood Lake and
River were run to see if the lake-level could be lowered either by a canal or tunnel.
A plan of the lake soundings has been plotted and sent to the P.F.R.A. for the addition
of its Mahood River survey.
The Branch has also undertaken topographic mapping by multiplex of the Clearwater River from its mouth up-stream to Wells Gray Park, at the scale of 500 feet to 1
inch and showing 20-foot contours. Plans of the two dam-sites at 200 feet to 1 inch,
showing 10-foot contours, are already available. At the same time, P.F.R.A. engineers
have been mapping the upper pondage.
Preliminary estimates indicate that with an available flood storage of 1,200,000
acre-feet, some 171,000 horse-power might be developed at the dam-site below Hemp
Creek in a low-discharge year. Complete control of the Clearwater River might require
double this storage and would produce 285,000 horse-power.
Upper Fraser River Basin
The Upper Fraser River Basin includes the following:—
(/') Grand Canyon project.
(k) McGregor River project.
(j) Grand Canyon Project.—(See Plates 9 and 12.) This project was completed
this season, and indications are that a large storage reservoir can be created by a dam
about 100 feet high at Grand Canyon.
A plan of the dam-sites, including soundings, is available at 200 feet to 1 inch,
showing 10-foot contours. Pondage plans at 500 feet to 1 inch, showing 20-foot contours, have been completed up-stream for 30 miles to Penny. The project terminates
near Urling (68 river-miles from Grand Canyon), and further plans of the reservoir are
now being compiled.
The low river gradient and its meandering course indicate relatively large storage
per foot of dam height, and preliminary estimates place the storage capacity in the neighbourhood of 750,000 acre-feet for top-water elevation of 2,100 feet.
(k) McGregor River Project.—A reconnaissance survey carried out by members
of the Fraser River Basin Board and this Branch in the fall of 1952 indicated two possible
dam-sites are available in the lower canyon of the McGregor River, and that a dam 200
feet high might create a reservoir from 10 to 12 miles long.
Following this, the P.F.R.A. undertook to carry out a preliminary survey of this
project in 1953, and it is understood that the field work has been completed.
Fraser River Sedimentation Surveys
In an attempt to determine the amount of sediment which the Fraser River drainage
system erodes, transports out of its basin, and deposits in its lower reaches, the Water
Rights Branch has completed its third year of measurement of that part of the sediment
load which is carried in suspension. Q 122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PLATE    13
CLEARWATER RIVER
STORAGE  BASIN  SURVEY
1953
/.owes-  Ocrnns/Ve.
/3S3
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Q 123 Q  124 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Due to late delivery of equipment, the 1953 sedimentation-survey season was
delayed and no measurements were obtained before June 1st. After this date regular
samplings were obtained at Hope, near Lillooet, Marguerite, and Quesnel, along with
other measurements at Hansard and Big Bar, all on the main stem of the river. Measurements were also obtained on the Bridge River near its outlet (see Plate 9).
Listed below are the various stations with the number of measurements and samples
taken during 1953:— „   _.    ,
° Number of
Sampling Station Measurements Samples
Hope   12 487
Near Lillooet  9 76
Marguerite   12 192
Quesnel  10 202
Hansard  24 467
Big Bar (Jesmond)   4 66
Bridge River  3 320
Totals  74 1,810
An interim report covering the development and progress of the sediment survey for
the period 1949 to 1952 was completed on April 15th, 1953. The equipment, methods,
and procedures are described in some detail. Data and calculated results are tabulated,
and are also shown in graphical form where applicable.
The Fraser River is not a heavy suspended sediment-bearing river in comparison to
well-known sediment-laden streams such as the Colorado River in the United States.
However, the rate of erosion from certain unprotected areas is probably high. The annual
average suspended-sediment discharge at Hope for the three years of record is 10,600
acre-feet, or 12.4 acre-feet per 100 square miles of drainage area. This is approximately
one-tenth the sediment load per hundred square miles of drainage area carried by the
Colorado. However, much of the Fraser's watershed is protected from erosion by forest-
cover, and, therefore, the rate at which soil is being removed from unprotected areas that
do erode must be high.
Detrimental erosion and sedimentation is, and will continue to be, a serious problem.
Bank erosion is taking place throughout most of the Fraser's length, although it is only
in the more populated area of the lower valley and delta that this problem is causing
serious concern. Navigational channels are continuously silting up, and valuable land
facing on the river is being eroded away.
As yet the data collected are inadequate to allow complete analysis of a watershed
as complex as the Fraser, and a longer and more detailed record is required.
General
It will be noted from the above that the work of the Fraser River Basin Board to
date has been largely stock-taking; that is, collecting together all the basic data which are
required before engineers, biologists, agrologists, and many other scientists can design
structures and systems which will allow the maximum multi-purpose use from each
project.
Much work has been done in collecting data on the storage capacity of these large
multi-purpose reservoirs, but much more data have to be collected in the fields of
hydrometry, meteorology, sedimentation, to mention only the main sciences with which
river management is concerned. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Sedimentation Surveys
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Q 125
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Details of sampling equipment.
Suspended sediment-sampling equipment in operation on Fraser River at Hope. Q 126 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
WATER RESOURCES DIVISION DRAUGHTING SECTION
This draughting section does all the draughting for the Water Resources Division,
and keeps records received from the Federal Meteorological Division and the United
States Weather Bureau.
This section also takes charge of the illustration and preparation of reports made by
the hydraulic engineers.
The large number of high-quality standard-size maps, drawn at a scale of 500 feet
to 1 inch, with a contour interval of 20 feet covering the storage-basin surveys referred
to above, is in itself a considerable achievement.
WATER POWERS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PUBLICATION
In 1924 the Water Rights Branch published in book form a review of all hydroelectric developments in the Province. Because of public demand for this publication,
and because its statistics are now outdated, it has been considered advisable to revise and
republish this book. The book should be off the press during the latter part of 1954. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Q  127
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Erosion on Nicomen Island.    Length of three-quarters of a mile and 50 feet
in width eroded within a year. DYKING COMMISSIONER Q  131
DYKING COMMISSIONER
J. L. MacDonald, B.Sc, P.Eng., Deputy Inspector and Deputy
Commissioner of Dykes
In March of this year, because of impaired health, G. Bruce Dixon, B.Sc, P.Eng.,
Inspector of Dykes and Commissioner, retired after continuous service in these positions
since his appointment in 1921. The people of the Fraser Valley will always remember
the eventful years of his long term of office and his arduous efforts in their behalf.
The following will call to mind a few of the happenings over this period:—
(1) The completion of the drainage system in the Sumas area; the bringing
of the drained land into a cultivated state; and the sale and settlement
of these lands. These operations were accomplished with marked efficiency by a minimum staff.
(2) The Sumas winter flood of 1935, when the Noonsack River in Washington overflowed its banks, pouring its waters into the Sumas.
(3) The difficult years of the thirties, with their financial troubles.
(4) The flood year of 1948, with its disastrous results.
(5) The dyke-reconstruction period from 1948 to 1950 by the Fraser Valley
Dyking Board, of which Mr. Dixon was one of three members.
As an active participant in the above events of history and for his direction of the
affairs of the dyking and drainage districts in the Fraser Valley, Mr. Dixon leaves a
record of accomplishment that is outstanding.
The office of the Dyking Commissioner, under the provisions of the " Dyking
Assessments Adjustment Act," with amendments, administers the dyking districts of
Coquitlam, Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows No. 2, Matsqui, and the drainage districts of
Maple Ridge and Matsqui. Sumas, West Nicomen, Dewdney, and South Westminster
are administered under the " Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act" and additional
Statutes pertaining to each district. The Commissioner acts as receiver for the East
Nicomen District, organized under the provisions of the " Water Act." The assessing
and collecting for the South Dewdney District, organized under the " Water Act," is
done by the Dyking Commissioner's office. The small district of Silverdale Flats, organized under the " Water Act," has applied for a similar arrangement to attend to its
assessing and collecting.
The provisions of the "Dykes Maintenance Act," 1950, are carried out when and
where needed. This Act provides for the inspection of dykes, administered by other
authorities, by the Commissioner of Dykes, to see that they are properly maintained to
prevent failure, with resultant loss and danger to the public. Due to the fact that most
dykes were recently reconstructed or constructed by the Fraser Valley Dyking Board,
not much action has been needed up to the present time to carry out the purpose of this
Act. The time has now arrived when more inspections will have to be made in order
to fulfil the intent of the Act.
The districts in the Kootenay area were inspected this year, with special attention
to the newly reclaimed Duck Lake area.
Early in the spring of this year, meetings were held in the different districts to form
organizations to combat a possible high water. The foremen, patrols, and source of
sand-bags, equipment, and all necessary repair materials were planned. Fortunately,
these organizations did not have to be called on, as the river did not rise to a danger
height.   The river peaked on June 14th at a reading on the Mission gauge of 17.32 feet.
The year's activities were principally routine office administration and maintenance,
consisting of repairs to plant equipment, rockwork on dykes, and improvement of
drainage-ditches.
A condensed summary of work done in each district follows. Q  132 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Coquitlam Dyking District.—This district is located west of the Pitt River and
includes an area of 3,213.44 acres protected by 8.4 miles of dyke. Drainage facilities
in some parts of the district are far from satisfactory. This is due, in part, to the fact
that, in the past, residents would not agree to donate sufficient width of land to construct
ditches of required width and depth. This attitude is being changed as the inadequacy
of the narrow, shallow ditches is demonstrated. As funds permit, the ditches are being
reconditioned to a proper standard. It was necessary this year to install a temporary
pump and operate it for two months in order to save a large acreage of bean-crops from
seepage waters.
Pitt Meadows No. 2 Dyking District.—This district is bounded by the east bank of
the Pitt River and the north bank of the Alouette at their junction. The area consists
of 1,112.18 acres and has 5.46 miles of dyke. Due to the limited acreage and the high
amount of pumping necessary in this area, the maintenance cost per acre is very high.
The lack of funds for the purpose makes it difficult to keep the 8 miles of drainage-
ditches in shape. Two miles of ditch are being reconditioned this year. All ditches in
the area need cleaning, and before good drainage can be provided, a new ditch, 5Vi
miles in length, will have to be constructed.
Maple Ridge Dyking District.—This district contains 8,382.31 acres with 14.39
miles of dyke and is located east of the Pitt River and north of the Fraser River at their
junction. The drainage in this district has been greatly improved by diverting waters
from the high lands into the Alouette River and preventing them from going into the
district, also new ditches have been dug and existing ones cleaned to better distribution
of the water to the different pumps and flood-boxes. The half-yard dragline worked 100
days this year improving the ditches north of the Lougheed Highway. Next year it is
intended to continue the work in the area south of the highway. There is strong agitation in the district to have certain high lands surrounded by this district included in the
district so that these lands can be assessed to help maintain the works of the district.
This high land at present pays nothing, though its springs and surface drainage goes into
the district and has to be taken care of.
Matsqui Dyking District.—This district is south of the Fraser River between Mount
Lehman and Sumas Mountain. The area is 10,170.73 acres and the length of dyke is
7.21 miles. River-bank erosion is the major problem in this district. Before the high
water this year, protection work was carried out at points extending for a mile at Sumas
Mountain section of the dyke and also some work was done near the Mount Lehman
end. Matsqui is fortunate in having a stock pile of rock suitable for this purpose in a
pit developed last year. It is estimated that 6,000 tons of rock were used this year.
Each year a programme of ditch-cleaning is carried out, the extent of the work depending
on the funds available. The dragline is in the district cleaning and improving ditches at
the present time.    It is intended to clean 3 miles of ditch this year.
Dewdney and South Dewdney Dyking Districts.—These two districts are north of
the Fraser River and are protected by the one dyke 7.4 miles long, starting at Hatzic
Station, going along the banks of the Fraser River to the Nicomen Slough, and thence
along this slough to high land. South Dewdney District is south of the Lougheed Highway, and Dewdney District is north. South Dewdney District is responsible for 34.96
per cent of maintenance costs and Dewdney District 65.04 per cent. Erosion is occurring
at a point on the Nicomen Slough. Logs and brush were anchored at this spot this spring
in order to lessen the effect of lapping water caused by wind and passing boats, also it is
hoped that the logs will encourage sedimentation. This place is being closely watched,
and if the erosion is not checked, other methods will have to be used to combat it.
The two 48-inch axial-flow drainage-pumps installed in 1949 both showed signs of
serious failure this year. The casings and shafts were badly eroded. The advice of the
British Columbia Research Council was sought, and it was not able to definitely state the
cause of the erosion. To quote from its summary: " It is not known whether sand erosion DYKING COMMISSIONER Q  133
or cavitation erosion is the predominant feature in the attack. The possibility of galvanic
corrosion in the casing cannot be neglected." These pumps are now being reconstructed
according to the recommendations given by the British Columbia Research Council, at a
cost of $2,500 per pump.
West Nicomen Dyking District.—This district is bounded by the Dewdney Slough
on the north and the Fraser River on the south. On May 1st of this year the bond issue
of $87,000 was redeemed. This fact should make more money available for maintenance
and improvements in future years. Erosion is a very urgent and serious matter in the
district at the present time. This problem is explained further on in the report.
East Nicomen Dyking District.—This district is adjacent to West Nicomen District
and has the Fraser River on the south and Nicomen Slough on the north. A large area
of the land protected by 5.4 miles of dyke is Indian land, from which no revenue for
upkeep is derived. This necessarily makes the rate high on the 1,180 acres of assessable
land. Like West Nicomen, erosion is acute in this district. To combat this threat of
erosion is too great a task for the district. It will therefore have to be considered along
with an over-all plan for erosion on the river.
South Westminster Dyking District.—The land area in this district is 1,401 acres.
Most of the area is divided into home-sites for industrial workers. There are several
industrial sites and some farms. The assessment is on an acreage basis, with a set minimum assessment of $2. For this reason it has been difficult to collect enough money for
maintenance. The pumping costs and general maintenance have increased, due to the
area itself and the adjacent high lands becoming thickly settled. The majority of the
ditches urgently need cleaning. A start has been made by having the brush and trees
removed from the sides of the ditches, so that when money is available a dragline can
be put in to clean out the ditches. The matter of finances for this district is under consideration, and it is expected that a more realistic method to obtain revenue to carry out
necessary work in the district will be found.
Sumas Dyking District.—This district comprises 28,029 acres protected by 28 miles
of dykes. The district has approximately 75 miles of drainage-ways to maintain. This
year dragline work is being done on the ditches. The amount of this type of maintenance
done each year always depends on the money available. Log-jams on the Sumas River
were cleared for a distance of 4Vi miles from Vye Road north. It is expected to continue
this work southward next year. Considerable work was also done clearing watercourses
and improving ditches in the area east of the Vedder Canal.
In 1951, during the February storm, one of the motor-shafts failed, putting one of
the pumps in the main pump-house out of use, thus causing loss of pumping for several
days at a critical time. For this reason it has been thought advisable to order a new shaft
as a spare that could be used on any of the five pump-motors. Also the four starter coils
for the motors have been in use for several years, and it is intended to have spares in
case of failure. The estimated cost of these replacements is $16,000.
GENERAL IMPRESSIONS
During the year frequent meetings were held in the sundry districts under the
auspices of the local Drainage and Dyking Committees, Ratepayers' Associations, and
Municipal Councils. These meetings were for the purpose of discussing the affairs and
problems of the districts, to receive opinions as to the programme of work for the year,
and to engender co-operation and confidence generally between the districts and the
administration. Certain ideas in regard to dyking and drainage stand out, as they were
forcibly put forth at all meetings. These ideas are in connection with erosion, drainage,
and taxation. As these questions are considered to be of vital importance, the following
comments are given:— Q  134 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Erosion.—The threat of erosion is ever present in the minds of the people living in
the Fraser Valley. Their fears are founded on self-evident facts. Within the memory of
many the Fraser River has washed away vast acres of fertile land, replacing homes and
farms with gravel-bars. This destructive action is continuous. The effects are especially
evident in the districts of Kent, Nicomen Island, Matsqui, and Pitt Meadows. On Nicomen Island the Department of Public Works has had to move a road located outside the
dyke back from the river-bank three times within a year. In this section it is estimated
that a stretch three-quarters of a mile long and varying from 25 to 60 feet deep has eroded
within a year. The distance between the river-bank and the dyke is dangerously short.
At some points the distance is not more than 70 feet. Remedial action will have to be
taken to protect the dyke at this point. In the past similar conditions have been met by
applying rock to the face of the bank, the cost of the work being shared equally by the
Federal and Provincial Governments and the district in which the work was done. The
estimated cost to protect the Nicomen Island stretch with rock is $50,000. The people
in the district feel that even a third of this amount is beyond their capacity to pay. They
are also dubious concerning the effectiveness of the rockwork alone. There are many
examples along the river where rockwork has been done one year, only to be carried out
the next or following years by the unchanged course of the river.
For this reason it is generally believed that no extensive protective dyking operations
should be undertaken without an attempt to confine the river to a central channel, which
possibly could be done by removal of snags, sand-bars, and a system of dams, groins, and
rock protection on the banks. Unless some method to control the channel and currents
of the river is adopted soon, it is feared that the existing protecting dykes will prove
futile and the Fraser will destroy the now valuable land through which it flows.
To find a solution to the problem, which should attempt to control the cause, is
not a simple matter. It will require comprehensive engineering investigation and study.
Corrective measures are beyond the scope of local districts. This subject is of importance
to both British Columbia and Canada. It would therefore seem logical that any study of
the problem should be under the direction of the Dominion-Provincial Fraser River Basin
Board, since this Board acts under the authority of both Governments.
Drainage.—The importance of adequate drainage in present-day agricultural operations is becoming generally recognized by the farmers in the districts. For this reason,
there is necessity not only to keep the existing ditches clean, but to improve them by
deepening and widening. Also there is need to improve the system by new ditches. Where
the new ditches will not benefit the whole area, the cost is charged to the ones directly
benefited. There are never enough funds to do all the work desired in any one year.
To avoid disputes as to which section of ditch is most in need of work, a committee is
appointed with a member from each part of the area. This committee then decides where
the greatest urgency exists.
In general, the people are satisfied with this programme of yearly improvement,
realizing that the amount of work done depends on the amount of tax they pay. A note
of discontent voiced at meetings was that in some sections the Fraser Valley Dyking
Board, in order to strengthen the dyke, filled the borrow-pit which acted as a drainage-
ditch and did not in all instances provide a ditch to replace it. They consider that they
should not be faced with the cost of replacing the borrow-pit ditch.
Taxation.—The most frequently expressed thoughts at meetings on the subject of
taxation were as follows: —
(1) That it was not equitable that the land-owners in the districts should
bear the full cost of the dyking and drainage when the system also protects the transportation and other utility systems.
(2) That high lands with water draining into the system should not be exempt
from a share of the pumping costs. DYKING COMMISSIONER
Q  135
(3) That the basis of taxation should not be on acreage as it is in some districts, but should be on improvements as well or on the assessed value.
(4) That the minimum assessment should be raised from $2 to at least $5.
The opinion has been frequently expressed, both by the people in dyking and
drainage districts administered by Municipal Councils and by people living in unorganized territory, where the dyking and drainage affairs are administered by local boards,
that it would be more efficient if the administration of these districts were done through
the Commissioner of Dykes' office, co-operating with Trustees elected by the district.
The explanation for this opinion in the case of municipalities was that moneys for
dyking and drainage purposes had to come out of general revenue, and that expenditures
necessary to keep the dyking system in repair were often diverted to other pressing
works, such as road-building and paving. Further explanation was to the effect that
when work has to be done, the trained personnel to supervise is often lacking. In the
case of the smaller districts it is seldom that Trustees can be found with both the necessary time to spare from their other interests and experience in administering affairs involving assessing, collecting, and spending public money. In this connection it may be stated
that if the present establishment for engineers for the dyking office was brought up to
strength and one or possibly two clerks were added, the dyking office could handle the
affairs of these additional districts. This would greatly reduce the overhead on the districts now administered, and it is thought that it would be cheaper for the other districts
than at the present. It would also facilitate the operation of the " Dykes Maintenance
Act."
The people concerned are very anxious that the above outlined questions be considered when any pertinent legislation is contemplated. The convictions of the majority
of the people in the districts on these subjects may be summarized as follows: —
They accept the responsibility of keeping the dykes in repair against high water,
but feel that it is impossible for them to combat erosion caused by the river. If this
threat of erosion were made the responsibility of others, then they could direct their
energies to maintaining the dykes and improving the drainage within them. They would
like to have legislation passed that would provide a more just basis of taxation and distribute the cost of upkeep to all interests benefited by the drainage and dyking systems.  SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT Q  138 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
Dam at Mclntyre Bluff, Oliver.
Breaking up and clearing bottom of concrete canal preparatory to pouring new concrete bottom. SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT Q 139
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
D. W. Hodsdon, P.Eng., B.C.L.S., Project Manager
The year 1953 brought the usual leaks and other troubles which are to be anticipated, but there were no complete shut-downs during the season. No. 1 Flume at
Gallagher Lake was again damaged by a rock-slide, but as this occurred on January
20th, and as further winter slides were possible, no attempt was made to make repairs
until just before the start of the irrigation season. On June 5th a large rock broke a
stringer in the trestle of this flume and tilted a complete roof panel upwards at about
45 degrees. It was possible to lower this into position and repair the broken timbers
without shutting off the system.
A peculiar situation arose in May. On May 22nd a portion of a construction cofferdam at Okanagan Falls went out and sent several hundred cubic feet of unwanted water
suddenly on its way south. The Project personnel were alerted, and under normal circumstances no great inconvenience would have been caused. Unfortunately, however,
the unexpected rise of water in the river, Vaseaux Lake, and tributary streams resulted
in a pick-up of moss and lichen from the water's edge which plugged the gates and pump
intakes. Through night work the main and northerly part of the system was kept clear,
but the west lateral and the distribution system south from the head of Osoyoos Lake
were shut off for about eighteen hours until the situation was cleared up.
A lateral which runs along the edge of a high, steep, sandy bank above the Kettle
Valley Railway, and which crosses a gully at one point, gave way on June 8th, was
repaired, and subsequently broke several times within a month or two. It became necessary to bring in the bulldozer, fill the gulch, and replace about 60 or 70 feet of concrete
pipe-line with wood-stave pipe.    This eliminated the trouble.
The Mechanical Inspector for the British Columbia Forest Service made trips in
the spring and December to examine and report on the condition of Project equipment.
On February 26th a delegation of the executive of the local British Columbia Fruit
Growers' Association met with your Project manager to inquire about the possibility of
obtaining water much earlier in the year. This would be required for spray water and
also for the filling of cisterns. Pressure has also been brought to bear to keep the water
in the ditch until a later date. It was explained, and it is a fact, that the design of the
lengthy system is such that it is an unsafe procedure to turn water in until the necessary
repairs have been completed. Similarly, as the weather has a great deal to do with
repairs, and as the fall is the best time to get at them, it is policy to have the water out
as soon as feasible. Last fall being very dry and this spring starting out very warm,
every endeavour was made to start operations earlier than usual. This was actually done,
and on April 7th water had reached the Hester Creek spillway and on April 13th the
Provincial boundary a full week early. Pumps were started May 7th, and shut off at
various dates, the last pump going off on September 29th, this being a much later date
than usual.   The entire system was closed down October 20th.
There were no serious accidents during the year, although two men, through a
timber failure, suffered bruises when they dropped 9 feet from No. 1 Flume trestle.
Three irrigation districts were operated and maintained by the Project in 1953.
The East Osoyoos District and the Osoyoos District were operated in toto. The Black
Sage District was watched and leaks repaired, but no water distribution was made.
WEATHER
The winter of 1952 and the spring of 1953 were generally open. The fall of 1952
was warm and very dry, as was the early spring of 1953. June, however, was colder
than normal and caused some set-back to ground-crops and fruits.    The first frost Q  140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
occurred on October 2nd, and the first snow on December 8th.   The hottest day of the
year, temperature 101 degrees, occurred on August 15th.
On August 19th a heavy rain started, and within three days a record had been set.
For the month the total was 3.34 inches, a little greater than a third of the annual precipitation. August is normally a month of little or no rainfall. The result was doubly
beneficial, as it was possible to shut down all irrigation pumps for a week, and the normal
pumping closure date was extended.
LAND SALES
Auction sales were held of lots on the two subdivisions laid out last year; namely,
Blocks 38 to 42, inclusive, of Lot 77, Oliver Townsite, and a portion of Block B of
Lot 2450 (S.).
Sales to date are as follows:—
Farm lands, 38.16 acres  $1,721.00
Oliver Townsite, twenty-four lots     7,638.00
Osoyoos Townsite, two lots _'_        525.00
Total sales  $9,884.00
WORK DONE IN 1953
The balance of the west lateral siphon was rebuilt, a major replacement. Further
renewal will not again be required for many years.
Construction continued on the main canal bottom in the southern area. A sustained
programme is under way to eventually replace the worst portions of the concrete canal,
which in the Osoyoos area is in bad condition in the undrained clay-subsoil sections.
The usual leaks were repaired as they occurred, and new boxes were built at the grower's
expense when change-over from furrow to sprinkler irrigation made this necessary.
Pitching canals, repairing trestles, painting flumes, cutting and burning weeds, repairing
irrigation pumps, and cleaning the entire system, all normal annual operations, were
carried out.
The largest single construction work was the completion of the Osoyoos irrigation
system, started in the fall of 1952. The diversion-dam on Haynes Creek was cleared out,
the old wooden flume repaired and pitched, and 1,900 feet of 24-inch galvanized-iron
flume built on a low trestle. The main pump-house, which eventually will house a 125-
horsepower and a 50-horsepower pumping unit, was constructed about 180 feet from
Osoyoos Lake, with water being led to the intake by culvert under the highway and by
a dredged canal. From the pump-house, 2,280 feet of 14-inch wood-stave pipe leads to
a 12- by 12- by 12-foot concrete sump. The total dynamic head is 242 feet. This sump
acts as the intake for a 100-horsepower unit pumping against a t.d.h. of 182 feet into the
wooden flume leading from the diversion-dam. All pumps are automatically controlled by
float switches. By a series of valves, gravity water may be used from Haynes Creek for as
long as it is available. When this fails, pumps are started and the source of supply becomes
Osoyoos Lake, and the flow of water is reversed. The distribution system consists of the
flume already mentioned, a few hundred feet of metal pipe from the old works of the
district, but mainly of new wood-stave pipe of appropriate size. Except close to the
flume, the system is pressurized, farm outlets being 2-inch valves.
On March 30th gravity water was turned into the system and was available until
about July 13th. Pumps ran for the first time on that date, and from then until September 27th, when they were shut off for the season. The irrigable area of this district is
approximately 202 acres, of which 98 acres were irrigated this year. SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT Q 141
PROPOSED WORK IN 1954-55
All of the necessary annual work will be carried out, and it is hoped to complete the
reconstruction of the 600 feet of small concrete flume near the Provincial boundary, also
1,100 feet of old metal-pipe lateral must be replaced. The replacement of the main canal
bottom may be considered a major repair, and the 1,100 feet of lateral a major replacement.  Otherwise the 1954-55 work will be routine.
OLIVER DOMESTIC WATER SYSTEM
For the sake of economy it has been decided not to replace any more of the original
4-inch wood-stave pipe this year. To complete the entire replacement started a few years
ago it will be necessary to renew 2,700 feet of 4-inch with 6-inch and about 160 feet of
10-inch wood-stave pipe-line, the latter being located just below the tanks in a steep
side-hill. This is the only unrenewed portion of the main line from pumps to tanks. This
work, however, should not be left later than the 1955-56 fiscal year.
The use of water in 1953 was again too great, and after careful examination it was
decided to allow the original tank to stand for another year, so that present storage in
four tanks is 240,000 gallons. In addition, based on the experience of 1952 and 1953,
it was decided to install a 14-inch pipe, with valve, from the Okanagan River to augment
the supply found inadequate from the well, which has always received its supply from
underground water flowing from the adjacent hillside. This was of benefit, but again
in the summer, in particular when the fruit-processing plant was operating, the supply
became inadequate, mainly because only two pumps with a combined capacity of 750
U.S. gallons per minute could be operated at once. For a short time sprinkling regulations had to be imposed. To overcome this, the Electrical Inspector was interviewed, and
his permission obtained to alter wiring so that all three pumps could be run at one time,
thereby giving a total discharge of 1,000 U.S. gallons per minute. On July 9th this was
accomplished, and at present the situation is satisfactory. It is obvious, however, that
further extensions will strain our pumping capacity.
The largest renewal yet made to the Oliver domestic water system was completed
this summer. A little less than a quarter-mile of 10-inch wood-stave pipe from the pump-
house to the crossing under the irrigation-canal was replaced with 14-inch wood-stave
pipe. The 10-inch pipe removed was about thirty-two years old, and some sections were
still good.   Some 900 feet of 6-inch and 4-inch pipe was replaced by 6-inch pipe.
MARKET CONDITIONS, 1953
This is a matter which, in future, and because of the complicated condition of the
industry, should be omitted from this report and left for more competent authority. There
is only one general statement which can safely be made this year, and that is that the
market for ground-crops in the Osoyoos area in 1953 was definitely poor.
SUNDRY COLLECTIONS, 1953
Principal   $9,264.55
Interest  1,476.13
Lease rentals  889.00
Realizations   2,509.37
Water rates—
Oliver domestic  $16,219.96
Irrigation     60,650.42
  76,870.38
Total   $91,009.43  UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS University Endowment Lands
View looking south from a new apartment building.
HiIMs_______M.
St. Anslem's Anglican Church, dedicated Easter,  1953.
Addition to shopping centre contains a bank and eight stores. UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
Q  145
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson, Manager
As stated in our 1952 report, we had embarked on an extensive programme of
planning for the new subdivision of the University Endowment Lands, and while our
earlier date schedule has not been maintained for various unforeseen circumstances,
fairly good progress has been made. At this time, however, it would appear reasonable
to expect the designs and estimates of costs for the utilities, such as roads, sewers, sidewalks, etc., to be completed by early in 1954. This means we should know fairly early
in 1954 what our programme will be regarding the new subdivision.
LOT SALES
There has been a great number of inquiries and requests for the limited residential
property in the area during the past year. Until we can place the lots of the new subdivision on the market, however, there is no property left to sell. This is a regrettable
situation, which we hope can be remedied in the coming year.
BUILDING
Naturally there was a decrease in the amount of building during 1953, as there
were very few vacant lots left. Despite this, it was gratifying to see so many good homes
erected on most of the remaining unbuilt-on lots. The extent of building is shown in
the statistical report.
In addition to new homes, an attractive unit addition of nine stores was built and
opened in the fall. This has made a marvelous improvement to the shopping facilities
of the area. The group of stores is in an attractive off-street parking setting, set well
back from University Boulevard.
A considerable amount of extra work by way of inspections and approval of plans
was incurred through the construction of a number of outdoor swimming-pools on private
property.
Plans are now completed for demolishing the present service-station in the area
and the erection of a fully modern station. This work should be undertaken early in
1954 and, when completed, will represent one more step toward the completion of an
up-to-date shopping centre.
SEWERS
The temporary sewer outfall at Acadia Road was again damaged by storms during
the past winter and had to be repaired. This problem will be permanently eliminated
by the late spring of 1954, as the Marine Drive trunk sewer contract has been let and
work is now well advanced.
During the past summer two surveys were made with a view to providing sewers
for Blocks 13 to 16, now on septic tanks. It is expected meetings will shortly be held
to decide if and when this work should be done, to eliminate our last serious sewer
problem.
WATERWORKS
The new water-main and storage-tanks produced improvement in the water-supply.
In fact, the gain was so satisfactory that no sprinkling restrictions were required, except
for the heavy consumers, such as the golf-course and farm-land irrigation on the University of British Columbia campus.
TAXATION
Once again we were able to hold the line on taxes by a slight reduction in the general
mill rate.   The combined tax rate for school and general tax for 1953 was 39.33 mills. Q 146
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GENERAL
The Crown grant covering a site of 11.8 acres was issued to the local School Board,
and it is hoped construction of the first unit of a new junior-senior high school will be
commenced early in 1954.
While we have had the usual number of municipal problems to deal with during
the past year, they have only added to our previous convictions that many of our perpetual problems can be safely solved or decided upon when a definite master plan has
been made. In this regard it is fully expected a very careful study will be commenced
early in 1954 to determine long-range policy plans and a master plan, both of which
will embrace the needs of the campus and the residential area. When this is done, we
will have made fundamental land-development decisions which will set the pattern for
many years to come regarding land use in the University Endowment Lands.
CONCLUSION
Dependent upon the results of the policy meeting and studies planned for early in
1954, we should be on the threshold of the greatest development and progress the area
has experienced since its inception. For this reason, it is sincerely hoped the greatest
caution will be exercised in reaching basic decisions. At the same time every effort will
be made to see that no undue delays are permitted, since time is such an important factor
at the present stage of University Endowment Lands development.
STATISTICAL
Table A.—Lot Sales
1951
1952
1953
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
Unit 1	
2
8
$7,200.19
43,711.90
2
7
$4,445.12
50,599.38
2
1
$5,940.00
8,820.00
Unit 2 _ 	
10
$50,912.00
9
$55,044.50
3
$14,760.00
Table B.—Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the Years
Ended December 31st, 1951, 1952, and 1953
1951
1952
1953
Number
Value
Number
Value
Number
Value
61
2
8
7
$954,600
240,000
43
3
1
10
7
$821,900
315,000
57,308
21,700
13
1
3
1
8
$263,000
40,000
Alterations  — 	
8,300
4,750
50,000
Garages, etc  _	
2,700
7,800
16,475
Totals —	
78
$1,205,600
64
$1,223,708
36
$374,225 UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
Q 147
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as  LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD  LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD Q 151
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD
Clara Stephenson, Secretary
The Land Settlement Board was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of
the " Land Settlement and Development Act," superseding the Agricultural Credit Commission and being empowered to carry out the undertakings of said Commission.
Having for its main purpose the promotion of increased agricultural production, the
Board was empowered to advance money by way of loans secured by mortgage, to purchase, develop, and colonize lands considered suitable for settlement, and to declare
settlement areas.
The establishment of settlement areas in Central British Columbia—in the Bulkley
Valley, Nechako Valley, Francois Lake district, and the Upper Fraser River Valley—was
for the purpose of stimulating the development of these districts by bringing the land
within the reach of the actual settler at reasonable prices.
Development areas were established at Merville on Vancouver Island, Camp Lister,
Fernie, and Kelowna. The development area at Kelowna is under lease to a tenant for a
term of years.
The Board has under its jurisdiction the administration of the former Doukhobor
lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the "Doukhobor
Lands Acquisition Act" of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on a
rental basis. They are reserved from sale at the present time.
The Board also holds approximately 9,300 acres scattered through the various parts
of the Province, representing properties on which it held mortgages and to which it obtained title through tax-sale proceedings.   Several of these properties were sold this year.
The Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of the Province, as in
the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's activities and collections for
1953.
During the year, sales made by the Board amounted to $15,313.45. Forty purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and seven borrowers paid up in full
and received release of mortgage.
Collections
Loans   $12,641.39
Land sales  38,545.55
Dyking loan refunds, etc  18,697.90
Foreclosed properties and areas—stumpage, rentals, etc. 16,661.64
Total  $86,546.48
The above figures include proceeds received from the sale and rental of Doukhobor
lands.
REPORT BY I. SPIELMANS, INSPECTOR
As in previous years, the collection of rentals from occupants of Land Settlement
Board lands has constituted the main part of my duties. In addition to rentals submitted
direct to Victoria, the total collections through this office for the year amounted to
$7,220.07, which is an increase over 1952.
The amounts collected by localities are as follows:—
Crescent Valley         $55.00
Perry Siding        135.00
Slocan Park        100.00
Brilliant        745.00
Pass Creek        259.80 Winlaw ___ 	
        470.00
Kamminas            _    — -    	
             75.00
Oteshenie 	
        442.02
Shoreacres _            -
    ...           237.25
Glade       	
        133.20
Krestova    ,    ..... -          ...
        110.00
Ostrov .. ...       	
          52.00
Raspberry   	
        780.00
Grand Forks	
     3,625.80
Total 	
  $7,220.07
In view of unsettled conditions in this area, collections have been difficult.
In the latter part of October a local committee for the co-ordination of Doukhobor
affairs was established in Nelson. I have been requested to act in an advisory capacity,
and have attended all meetings to date.   MAIL AND FILE ROOM
Q 155
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
J. A. Grant
The number of letters recorded in the File Room during 1953 was 111,837, a drop
of 17,535 from 1952. This, however, is no indication of a decrease in the amount of
mail received. It is the result of agreements between the File Room and various divisions whereby certain types of letters were not registered but sent direct to the offices.
The recorded mail jumped from 96,000 in 1946 to 129,000 in 1952, an increase
of 33,000 or 34 per cent. This increase was recorded despite the gradual elimination
of certain purely interval type of letters and forms. It was evident that the continued
acceleration of numbers of letters received required a long hard look at the policy of
recording mail. With this in mind, arrangements were made with the Lands Branch and
Forest Service to stop the registering of letters covering mineral claims, acknowledgments,
cruise reports, inter-office memos., and form letters dealing with timber sales.
The same situation existed with regard to letters outward. All offices were approached, and efforts have been made to record only the most important type of outward
letters.   This has resulted in a considerable drop in the number recorded.
The collections of the Department of Lands and Forests amounted to $23,900,000
in 1953.
At the regular staff meeting of the British Columbia Lands Service, held December
6th, 1952, a Microfilm Committee was appointed by the Deputy Minister of Lands, composed of R. Torrance, J. A. Grant, and Dr. D. B. Turner as Chairman. The Committee
was authorized to make arrangements with W. Ireland, Provincial Librarian, for the
microfilming of obsolete files held in the vaults of the Department and the destruction
of the originals.
This procedure was extremely urgent, as it was estimated that in six months there
would be no more room in the vault for the new files which were being created at the
rate of 10,000 per year.
The Committee was successful in negotiating with Mr. Ireland, who assigned a
microfilming unit to work on the Lands Service files on January 26th, 1953. It was
decided to deal with files from 1906 to 1912, inclusive, as those files occupied vault
space most urgently needed. As a result, 212,327 of these obsolete documents have
been filmed, and 130,384 of the originals already have been destroyed under the authority
of the " Public Documents Disposal Act." It is expected that permission will be
obtained shortly to destroy the remainder.
Translating these figures into terms of vault space, it is noted that 559 feet of
shelving has been made available. This provides room for 1,728 file boxes, capable of
taking care of new " 0 " files for the next three and a half years.
It is expected that when the 1912 files are removed and microfilmed during 1954,
vault space for a further two years will have been produced. The object of the Committee—that is, the creation of file space—has been achieved, thanks to the co-operation
of the Provincial Librarian, Mr. Ireland.
Letters Inward
Branch
1953
1952
10-year Average,
1944-53
1
27,960                    32,321
59,079                    73,807
11,548                    10,727
13,250                    12,517
29,751
56,354
9,388
9,395
Surveys and Mapping Branch    	
111,837
129,372
104,888 Q 156
department of lands and forests
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch
1953
1952
10-year Average,
1944-53
Lands Branch _ _ _	
10,220
8,216
1,548
609
21,251
17,623
2,581
7,576
23,206
14,578
6,129
5,016
Totals	
20,593
49,031
48,929
Miscellaneous Reports Received
Designation
1953
1952
10-year Average,
1944-53
2,842
516
14,643
2,208
3,828
542
20,933
1,963
1,632
839
13,624
1,917
Totals 	
20,209
27,266
18,012
New Files Created
Designation
1953
1952
10-year Average,
1944-53
"0" files    	
4,632
1,238
3,480
5,019
1,815
3,440
4,454
1,261
2,475
Totals -	
9,350
10,274
8,190
VICTORIA. B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1954
1,500-354-6407

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