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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st 1952 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1954

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. R. E. SOMMERS, Minister DR. C D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1952
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.
1953  Victoria, B.C., March, 1953.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1952.
R. E. SOMMERS,
Minister of Lands and Forests. The Honourable R. E. Sommers,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1952.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester. (Photograph courtesy of G. O. Everell.)
Successful experimental use of commercial helicopter for transporting prefabricated
lookout building, Beaver Bluff, Prince Rupert Forest District.  CONTENTS
Item
1. Introductory.
Forest Surveys and Inventory-
Forest Surveys	
Forest Inventory	
Page
11
16
16
18
3. Forest Research  3 3
Weed-killing Experiments  34
Thinning in Douglas Fir   35
Formation of Heart-wood in Douglas Fir  36
Chemical Debarking  38
Commercial Thinning in Douglas Fir  39
Commercial Thinning in Hemlock  39
Seed-tree Study  40
Rodent Biology  40
Direct Seeding  40
Chemical Germination Tests  40
Cone-crops  41
Growth-study Plots .  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  45
  45
Field-nursery Experiments.
Neutralizing Alkaline Soil	
Alder Shavings as Soil Amendment	
Composts from Wood-waste	
Morphological Analysis of Nursery Stock
Field Survival of Treated Nursery Stock..
Ecological Investigations of Coastal Forests  47
Adaptability of Tree Species to Forest Sites  49
Thinning Lodgepole Pine  49
Forest Site-types of Southern Interior  51
Volume-table Construction  52
Ecological Investigations in Spruce-Balsam Forests  53
Cutting Methods in Overmature Spruce-Balsam  57
Factors Affecting Reproduction of Spruce and Balsam  57
Survival of Spruce Transplants in a Sub-alpine Region.-.  57
Logging and Sawmill Studies  59
Forest-insect Investigations at Bolean Lake  60
Pathological Studies at Bolean Lake  60
Research Publications  61
Reforestation	
Forest Nurseries.
Seed Collections-.
Reconnaissance and Survey Work
  62
  62
  62
  62
Planting  62
Preparation of Planting Areas  64
Plantations  64
Plantation Improvement  64
5. Parks and Recreation	
  65
Administration and Development  65
Planning :  69
Reconnaissance and Inventory  69
Wildlife Management  72
Engineering and Architectural Design  72 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Pace
6. Forest Management  73
Management Engineering  74
Forest-cover Maps  75
Aerial Photographs  75
Silvicultural Fund  75
7. Working Plans  77
Forest Management Licences  77
Public Working-circles  77
Farm Wood-lots  77
Tree-farms  77
8. Forest Protection  78
Weather  78
Fires  78
Occurrences and Causes  78
Cost of Fighting Fires  79
Damage  79
Fire-control Planning and Research  79
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers  79
Visibility Mapping  80
Lookout Photography  80
Modern Aids to Fire-fighting  80
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  81
Fire-suppression Crews  81
Aircraft  82
Roads and Trails  82
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling .  83
Fire-law Enforcement  84
Forest Closures  84
Co-operation—Other Agencies  84
9. Forest-insect Investigations  85
Forest-insect Survey  85
Special Studies  86
10. Forest-disease Investigations  90
Forest-disease Survey  90
Nursery, Seed, and Cone Diseases  91
Diseases of Immature Forests  91
Diseases of Mature and Overmature Timber  92
11. Forest Ranger School  93
Extra Courses  94
Further Use of School Buildings and Facilities  94
Building and Grounds  94
Acknowledgments  95
12. Engineering Services  96
Civil Engineering  96
General Engineering  96
Road Reconnaissance  96
Location Surveys  98
Road Construction  98
Mechanical Section  100
Equipment Selection  100
Inspection and Maintenance  101
Structural Design and Construction  102
Forest Service Marine Station  105
Radio  106 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
Item Page
13. Grazing  110
Introduction  110
General Conditions  110
Administration -_  111
Grazing and Hay Permits  111
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees  111
Co-operation.  112
Range Improvement  112
Range Reconnaissance  113
Miscellaneous  114
Live-stock Losses  114
Diseases of Live Stock  114
Markets and Prices  114
Prosecutions  114
14. Forest Accounts  115
15. Public Relations and Education  116
Press and Radio  116
Publications and Printing  116
Photography and Motion Pictures  116
Exhibits  117
Signs and Posters  117
Co-operation  117
Library  117
16. Personnel  119
17. Personnel Directory, 1953  120
18. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  125  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
Legislation and Administration
No amendments to the " Forest Act" were introduced during the 1952 Session of
the Legislature. Revised regulations with respect to forest protection, particularly
regarding precautionary measures for power-saws, were established prior to the commencement of the fire season.
A major change was effected in the administrative set-up of the Service. In place
of a single Assistant Chief Forester, two officers were appointed at that level—one in
charge of Technical Planning and the other in charge of Operations. An Engineering
Division was established and certain functions of the Forest Protection—mechanical
equipment, radio, the Forest Service Marine Station, and structural design and construction—and the Management Divisions—location and construction of access roads—were
transferred to the new Division. The direction of the sustained-yield programme—
forest management licences, public working-circles, farm wood-lot licences, and tree-
farms—was allocated to a newly created Working Plans Division.
Forest Surveys and Inventory
The Division completed the second year of the initial five-year programme under
the Federal-Provincial Agreement for Inventory. Employing 278 persons on forest
surveys, 38,045,000 acres were covered on special cruises and on the Columbia, Fraser,
Peace, and other Coastal Drainages. Detailed report on the survey of Region 7 is
included, and other regions will be covered as the work is completed.
A revised forest inventory has been derived, incorporating the results of the standard forest-survey programme completed during the year with data compiled from aerial
photographs in the course of a three-year reconnaissance survey. The revised inventory,
included in this Report in detail, shows a total of 41,889,273 acres of mature timber
carrying 116,293,941,000 cubic feet.
Forest Research
The research programme of the Service was maintained at high intensity throughout
the year. This programme has two general objectives—first is the collection of basic
information about the forests, how they grow, at what rate they are growing, the physical
and chemical characteristics of the wood itself, and the characteristics of the trees, and,
second, the practical side of forestry studies, to endeavour to find solutions to the many
problems involved in the management of the forests. Studies have been proceeding over
a period of years, and plots are re-examined at periodic intervals and the changes in
growth noted. There are over 2,000 individual sample plots of varying sizes from
milacre to several acres in area scattered over the Province for the purpose of studying
growth and yield of the various forest types; studies in thinning and pruning young
stands; studies on cut-over land to determine the rate of natural regeneration following
logging; studies designed to determine the number of seed-trees necessary for prompt
and adequate restocking; studies of the amount and periodicity of seed-crops of the
various species; studies of the effect of selective cutting;  and studies in slash-disposal.
Reforestation
Seedling production from the three Coast nurseries totalled just over 6,000,000
trees during the year. The new nursery in the East Kootenay developed satisfactorily,
and half of the available 1-year-old yellow-pine seedlings were transplanted.   Seed-beds
11 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
at all four nurseries were sown for a total production of 10,000,000 young trees in 1954.
Difficulties were encountered from drought, loss of soil fertility, prevalence of birds, and
other factors.   No seeds were collected due to poor cone-crops of all species.
A total of 23,300 acres was examined or rechecked to determine stocking or suitability for planting. During the year the Division planted approximately 4,250,000
trees on 4,865 acres, while industry and other planters used 1,851,000 trees on 2,295
acres.
Snags to the number of 95,751 were felled on 9,517 acres of plantable and adjacent
areas. Twelve miles of old logging grades were converted to truck use and 180 miles
of existing roads maintained.
Survival on 1951 plantations was 58 per cent, and a recheck of 1949 plantations
showed survival of 63 per cent. These low figures reflect the long drought during the
summer of 1951.
Thirty-nine acres of old plantations and adjoining areas of natural reproduction
were cleaned of competing deciduous growth and pruned to 6 feet.
Parks and Recreation
The year marked a change in park-development whereby the accent was removed
from major construction projects and turned toward improving basic services, picnic-site
development, landscaping, and other phases of park and recreational programme. There
were few changes in personnel, outstanding being the placing of a Recreational Officer in
the Fort George and Prince Rupert Districts and the allocation of a full-time research
assistant in biology to Wells Gray Park.
Additional picnic-sites were created in several of the Island parks. Major share of
the work on Vancouver Island fell to Miracle Beach, which was extensively developed
during the year. Increased parking was provided on Mount Seymour and skiing facilities
expanded. Considerable development was undertaken at Cultus Lake, which is becoming increasingly used.
Improvements in Manning Park included alterations to the main lodge and personnel
building, landscaping, additional motel units, roads, and a bridge across the Similkameen
River.
Work continued on the car-road to Silver Star Park and the road to Clearwater Lake,
Wells Gray Park.
One Class " C " park, at Golden, was created during the year, additional acreage
added to four existing parks, and one park reduced in size. At the end of the year there
were sixty-five parks with a total area of slightly over 9,000,000 acres.
Forest Management
Although the estimated value of the forest crop, $496,506,550, was some $8,000,000
below the all-time record established in 1951, the total cut exceeded any previous year,
being only 62,000,000 board-feet below the 5-billion mark. Fir constituted 41 per cent
of the total, with hemlock (19 per cent), cedar (14 per cent), and spruce (13 per cent)
following.   The cut increased in all five forest districts.
There was a drop in the number of timber sales granted, to 2,594, and also a reduction in the value. Stumpage prices fluctuated widely, with the weighted average for the
year up 18 per cent over 1951 to $9.33 per thousand feet, board-measure. The 2,282
mills (including 59 shingle-mills) operating during the year constitute an all-time record.
The Silvicultural Fund was utilized in the three Interior districts on slash-disposal,
hazard reduction, snag-falling, and road construction and maintenance. A total of
16,199 acres on ninety-four timber sales covering 60,167,000 f.b.m. was selectively
marked for cutting. Studies of cat-logging, thinning, patch-logging, felling and bucking
costs, and direct seeding were made. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
13
Reconnaissance or location surveys were carried out on 129 miles of access roads,
and, of this total, 12 miles of construction were completed and right-of-way cleared on a
further 7 miles.
A total of 1,304 forest-cover maps were revised; instruction given at nine points in
forest atlas revision, mapping, and map organization; and 46,900 aerial photographs
added to forest district libraries.
Working Plans
Three additional forest management licences were granted during the year, bringing
the total to thirteen, comprising 1,943,200 acres of productive forest land, with an
allowable annual cut of 69,672 M cf. Another ten management-licence applications
have been approved, subject to submission of satisfactory working-plans. Thirty public
working-circles have been delineated containing 7,740,000 acres of productive forest
land. Twenty of the thirty working-circles are under regulation with cut-control ledgers
set up.
Five farm wood-lots have been granted and three tree-farms certificated.
Forest Protection
The fire hazard during the 1952 season was an improvement over 1951, due to the
late spring conditions and better distribution of rainfall; nevertheless, number and cost of
fires were above the decennial average. Hazard period continued to an unusually late
date in October, resulting in 196 more fires in that month than in the previous year.
There were 1,914 fires—33.8 per cent caused by campers and smokers, 22.5 per
cent by lightning, and 13.3 per cent by railway operations. Lightning-caused fires were
responsible for nearly 60 per cent of the Forest Service costs of fire-fighting, due primarily
to inaccessibility. Acreage burned during the year was 152,400, less than half the decennial average.
The Provincial fire atlas was brought up to date, including intentional slash burns.
Visibility mapping and lookout photography were continued. Fire-weather records and
investigations were extended, and fire-hazard broadcasts twice daily were initiated in the
Vancouver District.
Fifteen fire-suppression crews were in operation, and they fought 192 fires in
addition to spending 27 per cent of gross time on improvements and maintenance. Six
pontoon-equipped aircraft were under charter, and 2,320 hours' flying were logged without accident.
One hundred and eighty-nine miles of road and trail were constructed and 1,750
miles maintained. Spring slash-burning cleaned 3,200 acres, and 39,720 acres were
disposed of in the fall. Cost of control and damage done was high due to dry weather
in the fall, resulting in a number of costly escape fires. Thirty-three escaped fires burned
10,744 acres of forest-cover, 2,000 of them carrying merchantable values.
Forest-insect Investigations
The Forest Zoology Unit, Science Service of the Canada Department of Agriculture,
contributed a statement on their activities for inclusion in the Report.
Although the long forest closure hampered insect-survey activities, 6,685 survey
returns were received, showing marked increases in some potentially destructive insects.
Evidence showed that the hemlock looper, the black-headed budworm, and the hemlock
sawfly are on the increase. Population of the spruce budworm dropped during the year.
Outbreaks of bark-beetles in pine, spruce, and Douglas fir were reported.
Experimental work on chemical control of bark-beetles and ambrosia-beetles was
continued. Improved methods must be developed in systematic insecticide studies, but
penetrating sprays showed effective results against bark-beetles. Benzene hexachloride
proved effective against ambrosia-beetles in log-rafts. 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest-disease Investigations
The unit of Forest Pathology, Science Service of the Canada Department of Agriculture, contributed a statement on their work for inclusion in the Report.
Collections submitted for examination numbered 2,736. These included sapsucker
damage to western hemlock, industrial-fume injury to Douglas fir, western hemlock, and
other species, and a new rust on Sitka spruce.
A survey of prevalence of needle cast on western larch in the Nelson District was
made. It is believed that most of affected trees are capable of recovery. Lodgepole pine
in the Kamloops District was found to be heavily infected with dwarf mistletoe.
Studies were undertaken in nursery, seed, and cone diseases, particularly root-rot in
ornamental cypress. Studies were also continued in root-rot of immature Douglas fir
stands and in pole-blight of western white pine. Evaluation studies of resistance of
selected white-pine specimens to blister-rust were continued.
Damage caused by Indian-paint fungus on western hemlock and other species in the
Interior was found to be more widespread than previously appreciated. It has also been
found to constitute a major decay in old-growth timber on the Lower Coast.
Forest Ranger School
The sixth class to receive training, to the usual number of twenty, entered for their
first term in January. The class consisted entirely of personnel in the Assistant Ranger
group, and some changes in school instruction methods were necessary to offset the lack
of practical experience amongst this group.
A special one-week course for lookout-men of the Vancouver District was given
in early May. The annual meeting on management problems was held at the School in
mid-April, and in early August a meeting of forest-tree nurserymen was sponsored by
the Nursery Practice Committee of the Western Forestry and Conservation Association.
Engineering Services
This new Division, established during the year, absorbed the personnel previously
engaged under other divisions in civil, mechanical, structural, and radio engineering.
Direction of the Forest Service Marine Station became a responsibility of the Division.
The civil engineering section, in addition to numerous special projects, completed
140 miles of road reconnaissance, 85 miles of road survey, and 17 miles of road construction, plus clearing 7 miles of right-of-way.
Continuing expansion in the work of the Service, particularly the Parks and Recreation, and Surveys and Inventory Divisions, necessitated a considerable increase in the
type and number of vehicles owned by the Service. A number of special trailers were
designed and constructed under direction of the Division technicians. Inspection of
vehicles and other automotive equipment was handicapped by loss of mechanical supervision staff.
An extensive construction programme was undertaken, although not at the high
level of the previous post-war years.
The Marine Station worked throughout the year at maximum capacity. Twenty-
one complete launch-overhauls were undertaken, two Assistant Ranger boats built, a
special high-speed Ranger boat of plywood-hull construction was designed by the Division
and built under contract. This boat was developed for use in comparatively sheltered
inland waters.
The Marine Station woodworking plant produced sectional buildings, prefabricated
lookout cabins, office and lookout furniture, directional signs, and a miscellany of other
carpentering items.
Rate of expansion in the radio section of the Division was accelerated during the
year, as typified by the acquisition of 109 new units of different types as well as 80 trans- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
15
receivers of the " walkie-talkie " type.   These additions brought the total network of the
Service to 697 units.
Under the heavy load of a lengthy and bad fire season the system provided excellent
communication. Numerous improvements were inaugurated at individual locations
throughout the Province.    Research continued in F.M. propagation on Vancouver Island.
Grazing
Approximately three-quarters of the animals raised in British Columbia for food
use Crown range, and grazing values of these ranges are vital to the live-stock industry.
At present, some 8,000,000 acres are grazed.
The winter of 1951-52 was longer than normal in most areas and forage growth
delayed. Summer precipitation was below normal, but forage growth good due to heavy
winter snows. The mild weather of autumn and early winter enabled later range use at
all elevations.   Hay yield and quality was above normal.
Grasshopper damage was severe. The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease created
management difficulties, and loss of the United States market resulted in lower prices to
the producer.   The goatweed-control project was continued.
The administration of Crown range becomes increasingly voluminous and complex.
Applications for grazing permits, range management plans, and range survey and improvement programmes all require greater supervision.
Grazing and haying permits and related fees were at a new high. The range-
improvement programme was expanded through availability of increased funds. More
pilot range-seedings were undertaken. Horse-control was continued, and this problem
is now largely solved, although continuous effort must be maintained.
Range surveys were stepped up, and over a million acres covered during the year.
Forest Accounts
Despite forest closure and loss of production due to the lengthy strike, the year
resulted in a record volume of business. Decentralizing of accounting procedure and
extension of machine billing was undertaken. Extensive checking of mill records for
price data and scaling irregularities was maintained.
Public Relations and Education
Increased funds made it possible to substantially expand the radio broadcasts during
the fire season. Keeping pace with increased production of reports and other material
by other divisions, there was an increase in the number of publications edited and distributed. The co-operative project with the Canadian Forestry Association to provide
lectures in the schools was continued. Library and photographic services increased
during the year. The Division organized and directed a number of special projects during
the year, particularly a two-week tour of the Province by a group of Commonwealth
foresters who had been delegates to the Sixth Commonwealth Forestry Conference. 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
Aided financially by the Federal-Provincial Agreement for Inventory implemented
under the Canada Forestry Act, the Division completed the second year of the initial five-
year plan to obtain a survey of the forest resources of the Province to the specifications
of the agreement.
FOREST SURVEYS
In the 1952 field season, 278 persons were employed on forest-survey parties, and
work was done to provide maps and forest data, when compilations are complete, of the
following areas:—
Acres
Columbia  drainage   (Okanagan,  Upper Arrow,  East
Kootenay)      3,607,000
Fraser drainage   (Canyon,  LiUooet,  Cariboo,  Prince
George)  21,496,000
Peace drainage (Parsnip)      1,516,000
Other   coastal   drainage   (Mainland   Coast,   Skeena,
Babine)   10,951,000
Special cruises        475,000
Total  38,045,000
Included with this Report is a key-map indicating the areas covered by the field
work hatched on the index-map showing the numbering of the regions which comprise
the area reference system for the inventory. The 1952 coverage, together with previous
coverage not yet reported, has resulted, to date, in the whole or partial survey of the
following regions: Nos. 7, 10 to 14, 17, 18, 21 to 23, 25 to 27, 30 to 40, 46 to 54, 56,
57, 60, 64 to 69, and 75. The results of the survey of each region will be reported
individually as soon as possible. Accordingly, the results of the work done in Region
No. 7 are presented below, together with a key-map showing the compartment numbering
system. The following data are for the whole of this region; however, similar data are
available for each compartment shown on the key-map. The volumes of merchantable
timber presented for this region are in thousands of board-feet to conform with the
maps produced by the survey and to conform with the board-foot summaries produced
by the previously reported surveys of the other regions on Vancouver Island.
Region No. 7 (E. & N. Railway Land Grant)
(Volumes in thousand board feet—M f.b.m.)
Species
Land Status
Crown
Land
Crown Grants
and Indian
Reserves
Owned by
E. & N. Rly.
Totals
Douglas fir ___	
Western red cedar.
Western hemlock...
Sitka spruce .
Silver fir (balsam)	
Western white pine..	
Lodgepole pine	
Yellow cedar (cypress)..
Cottonwood 	
Broad-leaf maple.
Alder.	
Totals.
Acres...
179,890
18,520
99,580
750
20,170
6,890
650
1,510
240
620
3,270
332,090
11,473
6,995,810
1,232,860
3,824,280
17,570
771,760
193,890
1,910
59,070
1,480
5,680
16,650
8,767,940
1,874,040
7,810,810
10,780
2,839,520
408,140
3,910
238,790
270
680
1,920
13,120,960
21,956,800
290,417
478,710
15,943,640
3,125,420
11,734,670
29,100
3,631,450
608,920
6,470
299,370
1,990
6,980
21,840
35,409,850
780,600 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
17
COMPARTMENT  KEY   MAP
REGIONS - 5  CLAYOQUOT,    6 JUAN de FUCA.
7   E&N.   ind   8   GULF  ISLANDS
P   A   C   I   F    I
OCEAN
•VICTOR/
The classification of areas is as follows:
Productive forest land—
Mature timber
Immature timber-
1-5 years 	
6-10 years 	
11-20 years _.
21-40 years _
41-60 years ~
61-80 years ~
81-100 years
101 years 	
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged
Logged and burned .
Burned 	
Non-commercial, deciduous _
Non-commercial, coniferous
Non-commercial, mixed	
81,189
101,040
114,530
154,081
83,690
22,910
4,310
250
69,400
202,630
16,900
32,370
26,350
12,580
Acres
780,600
562,000
360,230
Total, sites of productive quality .
1,702,830 r
18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Acres
Brought forward  _   _ 1,702,830
Non-productive and non-forest land—
Cultivated, towns, etc. _          76,600
Barren, scrub, and alpine    214,210
Swamp and water     —   -   63,210
Total, non-productive sites — _ — _ -— —     354,020
Total area of region           2,056,850
FOREST INVENTORY
The Division completed a three-year programme to utilize the recently available total
vertical aerial-photograph cover of the Province to obtain for the first time a reconnaissance survey based on a recapitulation of the existing cruise data by the distribution and
occurrence of productive forest land as recorded by the camera and reliably positioned on
the map. The result of this survey and the results of the standard forest-survey programme summarized during the year have been incorporated in the revised statement of
the forest resources of each of the regions of the Province which is presented in this
Report. The portion of the Province for which data have been obtained from standard
forest surveys is shown hatched on the accompanying key-map. In general, the " existing
cruise data," used to compile the inventory of the remaining portion of the Province, are
at least 15 years old and indicate comparatively low average volumes, which can be
expected to increase when checked or surveyed by standard forest surveys in the future.
On the other hand, the acreage of mature timber and other productive forest land recorded for this portion has been determined by inspection and interpretation of the photographs, and, although this work was done by experienced men, the photographs used were
of small scale, and field-checking may tend to reduce the acreage of productive area,
especially at the upper elevations where the scrub-line is difficult to determine from this
class of photography. These two factors might, therefore, tend to be compensating; but,
otherwise, the indications are that the present statement is not showing the full footage of
mature timber and that, as more of the Province is covered by standard forest surveys,
the total will increase.
In order to compile additional statistics required to satisfy the terms of the Federal-
Provincial Agreement for Inventory, and to adjust the summary to the boundaries of the
area reference system, a recompilation of the field work done in some of the regions prior
to the inception of the Agreement was necessary and has been presented in the inventory
statement as an interim summary based on the occurrence of general types in which tallies
of merchantable trees 11.1 inches in diameter and over, breast high, were made and a
correlation between these types and the occurrence of trees of lesser diameters worked
out. The inventory statement, therefore, presents the merchantable volume of trees 9.1
inches in diameter and over, breast high, for all areas covered by field surveys, subject to
corrections in some of the regions when it is possible to obtain the additional field data
required to summarize the regions to the accepted standard. For this and several other
reasons, such as the gradual reduction of non-sampling errors, growth, and drain, the
inventory statement cannot be considered to be other than that which was compiled at the
time, for the purpose, by the methods practicable in view of the available time and manpower. The inventory statement must be changeable, even from year to year, and the
details presented for any one region can be expected to change if it is possible to improve
the summary. FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1952
19
Crown-grant Mature Volume and Area Classification of Productive Forest Land by Regions and Land Administration Classes
(In thousand cubic feet and acres.)
Region
No.
Land Administration
Class
Acres
Volume
H
B
Pw
Py
Pi
Cy
Cot
Other Deciduous
Total
Immature by Age-classes (Years)
1-20     !    21-60
I
61+
Total
N.S.R.
Total
Productive
fc
Quatsino..
Nimpkish..
Kyuquot—
Sayward..
Clayoquot..
Juan de Fuca..
E. & N. Railway Belt-
Gulf Islands-
North Shore-
Harrison—
Fraser South..
Skagit	
Similkameen..
Okanagan	
Granby	
Rossland	
Kootenay	
Yahk	
Eik	
Flathead	
Windermere	
Slocan	
Lower Arrow	
Kettle	
Pennask	
Fraser Canyon	
LiUooet	
Seechelt	
Powell	
Coast Islands	
Loughborough	
Toba	
Bridge	
Nicola	
Long Lake	
Monte Hills	
Shuswap	
Spallumcheen—
Upper Arrow	
Duncan	
Upper Columbia
Columbia, Big Bend..
Momich	
Celista	
Niskonlith..
Tranquille-
Cariboo	
Chilcotin.—
Knight
Kingcome..
Gilford	
Seymour	
Rivers	
Bella Coola..
Westroad	
Quesnel	
Nehalliston..
North Thompson-
Upper Fraser	
Nechako	
Kitimat	
Moresby	
Graham !	
Lower Skeena	
Upper Skeena	
Babine	
Morice 	
Stuart	
Parsnip	
Pine	
Kiskatinaw-
Beatton	
Peace	
Omineca—
Nass_
Stikine..
Finlay_
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
Management licences-
Other	
Totals.
Other-
Other..
Management licences-
Other	
Totals-
Other-
Watershed-
Other	
Totals-
Management licences-
Watersheds .	
Other	
Totals.
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other.
Other-
Provincial park-
Other	
Totals-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other..
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Management licences-
Other	
Totals-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Provincial parks-
Other	
Totals-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other.
Other.
Other.
Other-
Provincial parks-
Other :—
Totals-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other-
Other.
Other-
Management licences-
Other i—
Totals-
Other-
Other-
Totals Crown-granted-
Provincial parks	
Management licences...
Watersheds	
Other .
5,574
20,344
1,000
1,980
25,918
10,312
8,275
2,269
2,980
21,290
9,260
2,960
2,269
12,689
1,190
25,047
2,960
6,530
5,476
30,160
26,237
74,729
11,831
679,477
35,636
339,270
59,820
2,767,040
766,0371 3,166,130
23,9871
16,7671
2,628 j
2,188]
5231
I
310|
9,670
9,980
43,755
17,340
3,900
57,024
2,240
8,574
2,250
19,750
1,368
1,630
3,722
40,024
600
8,470
5,120
270
40
7,157
1,680|
2,2601
11,3301
26,6201
22,4221
5,3O0|
22,254|
6,810|
4,300|
I
600|
2,200|
2,800|
500
19,326
22,750
162,744
36,695
922
500
1,300
2,620
3,290
11,774
2,330
11,595
200
21,399
21,599
6,624
19,510
13,685
8,105
990
750
25,020
3,975
8,538
4,180
14,765
100
710
410
4,023
76
2,300
2,3761
201
49,531
10,240
4,130
1,820
7,090
120
15,058
15,178
16,783
10,358
86
7,462
740
2,557
77
12,812
630
408
1,998
32,321
642
8,245
7,360
390
90
11,210
7,1971       11,300
638
3,908
9,459
60,210
3,079
1,629
20,432
1,163
422
246
386
632
31,420 2,795
203
26,076
16,585
95,506
15,875
685
15
107
6,250
2,082
5,611
23]
21,958
21,981
1,182
2,892
2,684
40
157
6,460
36,610
43,070
16,430
11,540
2,310
2,310
24,540
527
26,150
26,677
75,570
5,580
745,350
826,500
7,712
32,980
1,550
590
910
948
961
1,064
12,621
319
3,111
200
548
26
593
4,073
9,130
810
40
5,407
5,447
2,326
2,642
426
140
1,019
2,021
3,903
3,284
357
136
493
35,413
165
299
400
315
3,067
5,194
2,972
11,330
17,100
47,800
400
1,060
64,900
27,540
22,190
5,930
5,930
24,540
237
34,620
34,8571
I
225,330]
12,900|.
2,070,110|
2,308,340
414
35,190
3,140
830
760
233
275
17,408
34
310
334
30
161
2,663
15,680
580
100
5,189
5,2891
I
1,630]
1,131|
801]
1,5401
3,508|
3,707 j
I
95|
24|
119|
I
17,772|
—i
731
2,463
102
406
508
2,180
10,562
11
13,225
626
558
33,905
884
91
8
1,100
1,108
640]
6451
1,940|
4781
2,6711
9,155|
1,292]
I
461
1131
159
380
2,739
209
26,953
2,688
3,060
69,373
3,349
328
1,247
69
2,597
1,460
1,970
900
140
140
1,900
1,300
1,300
130
2,490
2,620
4
810
30
350
50
191
1,315
1,506
1,585
1,018
3,810
28,139
915
10,310
3,871
1,060
630
541
381
1,923
29
264
4,220
140
132
132
209
16
1,087
1,243
3,450
322
3,799
3,009
805
2,708
613
1,972
2,585
22,433
718
5,111
4,601
6,137
17
274
375
119
92
1,776
4,367
1,315
6,628
66
15,413
15,479
6,345
41,090
6,097
10,307
1,980
2,710
18,683
1,569
6,135
2,281
11,797
70
581
852
7,921
23
789
2,6661
8121
1,683,716|
1,110|
80,4191
13,021
1,589,166|
3,770,477
389
340,360
65,296
3,364,432
1,176,190
459
82,078
6,107
1,087,546
221
2,731,881|
14l]
242,599|
13.137J
2,476,0041
279,935]
870 j
553
	
278,512
9,120
25,690
34,810
7,960
10,170
1,870
1,870
11,360
28
23,520
23,548
50,530
1,500
548,120
600,150
625
18,570
980
500
210
54
213
267
23
176
3,046
8,072
122
1,222
596
167
460
332
246
181
115
1,171
6,670
160
10
341
351
597
214
625
276
1,020
19
988
4,598
320
687
85
513
598
6,313
213
2,823
509
205
150
675
1,950
3,672
135
2,310
20
5,926
5,946
2,624
15,299
717
12,605
26,433
1,914
2,513
1,026
2,708
73
170
203
13
767
780
836,044
159
59,673
1,528
774,684
110
460
570
1,190
400
110
110
370
410
410
9,590
1,320
87,900
98,810
42
990
50
10
10
3
6
237
94
7,661
36
70
128
20
460
150
10
65
65
266
1,911
776
290
46
28
74
2,151
54
186
117,622
49
9,700
1,320
106,553
180
27
70
97
850
70
10,890
73
3,224
11,810
30
20
24
1,992
3,297
11,876
2,318
957
326
158
355
340
52
498
5,963
2,016
261
1,314
962
387
4,706
1,511
925
30
30
493
6,193
1,180
42
2,786
982
860
176
78
3,566
42
158
14,403
1,880
19
1,342
27
16
411
6
1,348
778
7,871
18
427
75
139
10,432
12,593
4,551
301
1,061
1,460
4,220
610
4,370
4,980
1,080
930
440
440
2,780
2,620
2,620
11,720
1,180
115,130
128,030
4,220
24
10,842
3,651
358
185
11,217
1,574
6,287
8
388
133
1,398
29
29
44,609
73
44,536
121,457
40
850
97
120,470
3,420
70
20
37
155
780
70
10
10
786
312
1,502
808
56
6
7,450
318
318
156,660
12,330
1,180
143,150
90
90
40
10
50
30
50
170
30
6,756
7,282
206
8,236
1,536
2,490
1,668
30
149
1,451
30
553
1,828
34
2,370
20
29
6,460
141
108
39
186
4,960
14
1,520
"20
41
506
19
36,562
36,562
12,518
40
12,478
710
1,120
35,510
119,090
1,830  154,600
260
410
10
77,900
55,800
13,770
10
130
144
1,960
13,770
72,150
6,439
120,900
2,104
250
20
4,260
127,339
713,280
82,390
6,351,300
4,530 7,146,970
58,328
103,030
11,250
6,770
9,030
770
1,250
2,460
40
40
99
180
370
10
110
170
46
126
3,207
135
10
410
254
12
10
101
10
465
21,878
22,343
38,884
23,897
8,581
91,518
4,423
24,554
6,055
16,987
2,700
2,522
5,093
48,619
1,631
17,031
47,910
2,170
240
22,396
22,636
5,404
7,911
14,541
33,828
67,690
3,615
8,609
44,879
10,616
11,233
1,458
3,470
4,928
86,952
1,432
35,796
32,905
122,107
20,461
2,331
1,500
5,916
6,550
9,681
36,933
4,639
19,890
257
48,036
48,293
12,921
91,591
13,504
63,962
5,350
6,334
158,132
7,901
20,350
6,239
25,357
151
1,151
1,036
10,129
113
5,629
 I                 191                  10
5,742
j
._  .... _               	
	
28
19,054
960
164
17,930
9,303,009
2,180
749,143
88,829
8,462,857
490
93
1,906
7,574
583
145
3,278
9,480
588
637
60
5,960
354
80
133
3,278
j 100
412
18,895
6,020
323
620
29,581
213
258
1,033
9,565
;|9,307|  30,201
35,362]
1,4951
176,4451
10,478
4,144
185,965
10,598
307
754
23,319
213,302
17,032
3,227
137
18,057
320
102
2,740
200,587
34,186
49,487
550
61,038
399
68
5,960
2,842
2,430
17,311
2,865
9,261
1,946
6,313
18,379
'5,951
1,290
2,640
580
118
9,435
; 9,5531
I
! 2,680
7,1471
1,535
: 1,822]
8951
5,8251
1,310|
I
144|
170|
314
647
3,514
90
120
1,523
1,336
443
8,447
6,465
6,465
1,351
4,101
2,460
25
50
600
1,960
19
2,966
4,089
358
6,574
5,295
4,880
175
1,000
1.175|
I
6631
24,380
17,769
6,664
1,714
8,991
913
18,110
6,028
8,860
16,382
9,842
72,722
33,153
33,966
75
78,671
9,402
29,577
13,948
14,439
7,600
3,870
21,500
10,330
2,479
6,858
18,110
69,830
4,653
32,636
9,222
8,528
1,015
22,435
10,107
6,260
8,370
1,410
540
9,337
1,420
3,063
1,798
890
35,509
1,540
13,855
37,668
20,865
4,910
2,603
15,121
540
942
2,060
33,371
34,004
45,792
1,069
1,093
9,269
17,724
2,853
380
2,590
3,380
640
44,556
21,066
1,080
80
1,050
10,362
1,710
320
7,210
21,420
1,660
46,008
8,156
630
77
2,822
8,391
32,592
600
12,215
2,464
5,151
9,057
15,132
12,815
22,620
42,411
54,086
20
75
1,114
7,513
28,128
39,344
52,902
7,717
2,330
25,638
25,886
19,032
56
525
2,949
15,132
6,526
53,514
47,347
90
226
4,227
8,379
4,372
25,420
5,059
897
33,528
27,653
24,888
24
8,384
3,474
1,316
8,384
296
2,396
7,667
10,063
942
782
140
9,371
9,511
681
2,065
48,041
50,106
46,147
6,393
385,729
438,269
68,987
59,378
2,401
88,086
1,632
170
26,810
26,980
81,120
33,693
17,360
114,619
42,375
42,494
1,090
Illili
19,509
35,890
22,327
26,650
7,600
5,160
32,510
12,320
2,597
16,833
19,430
4,100
10,210
2,740
2,950
70,415
35,544
61,469
39,632
26,690
6,220
3,840
24,560
28,400
5,210
700
9,800
24,800
2,300
90,564
32,736
1,800
200
2,650
6,622
13,985
50,096
600
33,812
34,412
30,497
100,026
103,893
110
100
50
1,940
13,700
36,526
43,716
81,288
16,865
3,585
65,740
58,834
48,800
80
700
12,333
13,033
2,275
417,5281
2461
36,1451
1.907|
379,2301
1,380,397
3,271
15,448
4,764
1,356,914
762,395
1,093
387
1,787
759,128
2,560,320
4,610
51,980
8,458
2,495,272
1,836
6,829
9,806
34,840
8,665
6,999
347
315
7,051
7,366
3,674
125
25,692
25,817
37,464
1,899
280,911
320,274
20,444
22,521
7,989
38,801
1,563
4,590
4,590
22,895
1,500
5,560
1,729
250
1,350
9,898
100
4,130
3,790
2,940
370
228
1,680
1,908
300
450
400
6,054
1,760
1,430
300
1,900
2,200
3,780
2,920
4,600
950
4,265
44,646
18,253
9,404
455
18,691
19,146
17,044
3,380
98,780
102,160
158,340
20,123
1,346,117
1,524,580
113,418
98,666
13,018
129,075
3,718
480
41,070
20
~30
1,159
9,878
16,390
5,700
5,700
1,910
22,756
37,335
220
9,010
1,430
6,110
11,226
1,810
784
10,725
187,157
64,660
21,270
250
1,565
1,565
175
966,149
300
39,843
2,024
923,982
41,550
147,770
52,533
21,260
177,203
46,344
51,318
3,340
124,152
30,775
37,520
26,149
70,804
8,200
17,420
40,570
12,960
2,865
25,670
28,535
5,780
12,770
14,520
29,970
98,891
39,294
68,529
61,886
33,500
11,950
4,740
28,660
33,400
40,410
3,620
10,300
48,726
25,050
254,258
73,696
2,722
700
3,970
2,620
3,320
19,555
26,193
78,081
800
60,911
61,711
39,031
142,292
154,913
8,435
1,090
800
35,970
19,105
51,174
59,122
97,863
17,749
15,020
252,897
123,904
74,093
330
776
16,198
16,974
2,275
195
5,210,185
6,020
172,242
23,503
5,008,420  21
FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1952—Continued
-
Timber Licence and Lease Mature Volume and Area Classification of Productive Forest Land by Regions and Land Administration Classes
(In thousand cubic feet and acres.)
e&aw
Region
No.
Quatsino	
Nimpkish	
Kyuquot	
Sayward	
Clayoquot	
Juan de Fuca	
Gulf Islands	
North Shore	
Harrison	
Fraser South	
Similkameen	
Rossland	
Kootenay	
Yahk	
Elk	
Windermere	
Slocan	
Fraser Canyon	
LiUooet	
Seechelt	
Powell	
Coast Islands	
Loughborough	
Toba	
B ridge—	
Shuswap	
Spallumcheen	
Upper Arrow	
Duncan	
Upper Columbia	
Columbia, Big Bend
Momich	
Celista 	
Niskonlith	
Cariboo	
Chilcotin	
Knight	
Kingcome	
Gilford	
Seymour	
Rivers	
Bella Coola	
North Thompson	
Upper Fraser	
Nechako	
Kitimat	
Moresby ....
Graham	
Lower Skeena	
Upper Skeena	
Stuart	
Nass	
10
11
13
16
17
18
19
21
22
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
68
75
Land Administration
Class
Acres
Management licences	
Other	
Totals	
Other	
Provincial parks	
Other	
Totals	
Management licences	
Other	
Totals I—
Provincial parks	
Other	
Totals	
Other	
Other	
Provincial parks	
Watersheds	
Other _
Totals	
Other 	
Other	
Provincial parks	
Other	
Totals	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other 	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Management licences	
Other	
Totals	
Management licences	
Other	
Totals	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Provincial parks	
Other	
Totals	
Provincial parks	
Other	
Totals-	
Other	
Other..:.	
Other H
Other....-	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Management licences	
Other	
Totals .	
Other	
Other 	
Other	
Other  '.	
Other 	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other	
Other !	
Total licences and leases
Provincial parks	
Management licences _.
Watersheds	
Other	
78,938
58,765
Volume
137,703
160,327
128
104,313
104,441
22,724
40,163
5,8611
132,9721
138,833
206,553
500
2,082
594
43,885
23,153
4,386
2,260
2,260
800
590
5,965
7,574
70
23,774
40,060
38,340
12,600
1,035
5,623
3,6001
55,3661
58,966
7,240
3,700
5,160
47,230
27,265
1,800
33,814
6,450
40,264
3,300
18,060
21,360
400
3,900
100
160
1,540
12,782
1,500
39,250
40,750
42,700
44,330
80,921
42,621
36,119
200
109,850
81,737
80,150
10,900
100
820
7,380
1,834,480
47,445
147,047
594
1,639,394
H
10,5901
5,6501
16,240
121,160
330
102,970
103,300
5,940
39,450
62,887        45,390
8,290
143,330
151,620
169,330
1,171
240
120
21,570
46,5611       21,930
29,300
6,560
. 881
881
5
157
980
101
10
27,401
47,323
34,190
5,210
2,250
8,428
6,658        10,678
2,431
22,345
24,776
8,076
2,136
1,473
16,449
4,136
195
12,600
2,288
14,888
296
1,233
1,529
137
2,767
39
138
939
283
214
1,512
1,726
42
22,760
32,233
12,903
1,468
199
580
64
82,010
112,480
194,490
346,020
180
157,920
158,100
34,020
63,920
97,940
7,160
226,390
233,550
305,050
16
5,760
660
100,050
106,470
47,020
4,720
492
166
813
100
21,331
28,871
87,160
25,170
1,060
6,376
7,436
6,947
112,380
119,327
7,774
1,566
13,725
15,592
1,642
20,894
1,237
22,131
3,770
17,900
21,670
76
656
1,958
16,807
3,083
105,799
108,882
77,524
50,990
59,057
38,218
14,892
56,550
94,573
85,506
12,920
26
2,088
942,873
22,637
22,937
120
897,179
2,489,065
37,764
232,919
660
2,217,722
253,100
132,000
B
Pw
385,100]
I
511,550[
I
310|
272,9801
273,290
45,910
74,880
120,790
16,490
300,890
317,380
537,810
41
4,190
1,190
83,450
88,830|
I
37,570|
6,200]
632
195
97
22
50
12,450
21,637]
100,060|
33,930|
I
3,4001
8,6391
12,039|
3,9951
60,125
64,120
4,688
1,206
17,842
13,636
1,678
5,885
226
6,111
1,876
10,046
11,922
97
206
1,636
16,776
3,060
57,441
60,501
26,832
91,016
59,349
6,065
8,733
153,997
217,306
170,770
29,980
73
9,196
3,433,409
28,751
366,906
1,190
3,036,562
6,590
3,050
9,640
19,480
20
12,090
12,110
370
2,490
2,860
690
11,400
12,090
20,380
1
30
10
2,090
2,130
1,550
560
1,387
1,387
228
164
5,835
20,786
30
357
818
28,370
11,100
70
59
1291
I
631
5,347
1,0031
861 j
2,781]
9,364|
3,169]
1,0451
I
32,976|
6,976
39,952
2,393
10,610
13,003
308
6,682
48
403
4,205
237
2,735
2,592
38,518
28,016
34,750
75,278
117
45,965
132,364
125,974
15,430
37
704
13,730
152,330
69,630
221,960
243,760
80
130,290
130,370
22,640
31,750
54,390
7,450
131,530
138,980
261,990
2,140
750
38,680
41,570
8,980
2,080
393
393
32
67
819
4,713
6,118
13,068
39,520
13,050
300
679
979
1,238
23,120
5,410]       24,358
1,309
495
1,128
6,436
1,305
232
6,184
2,074
8,258
675
2,896
3,571
150
2,010
604
7,220
1,040
25,08B
2,9721       26,128
15,114
53,292
23,706
5,320
30,110
IB
51,022
14,676
40
100
6,394
754,686
37,496
10,065
10
707,115
1,465,819
16,922
202,631
750
1,245,516
1,500
1,490
Py
2,990
9,970
10
5,390
5,400
630
1,940
2,570
310
6,210
6,520
8,670
20
20
10
2,130
2,160
1,510
150
21
21
254
66
183
8
10
557
2,514
690
150
10
215
225
25
1,384
1,409
341
9,249
3,107
132
1,836
267
2,103
231
963
1,194
71
103
12
31
15
696
711
3,965
67,066
2,428
2,876
10
61,752
PI
532
532
63
82
1,193
7
Cy
Cot
1,080
420
420
30
30
190
220
90
176
176
5
1,823
1,784
230
30
32
32
125
1,697
196
966
1,162
470
470
426
15
10
1,804
413
7,946
90
30
140
5
366
290
1,877
532
1,345
21,099
372
20,727
7,940
13,350
21,290
36,010
10
14,450
14,460
14,020
15,770
29,790
440
21,280
21,720
28,960
610
80
9,240
9,930
3,440
3,228
1,106
9,860
3,620
10
10
106
809
4,979
4,979
10,682
4,669
2,273
4,969
8,284
8,379
1,730
26
230,330
1,060
21,970
80
207,220
Other Deciduous
30
30
80
20
37
100
3,757
17
420
510
250
30
7,375
597
23
788
7
795
12,280
2,560
Tot.il
526J340
340J210
14,840
11,010
7,080
866J550
1,300,040
940
703,590
7,080
170
180
704,630
123,p00
230,880
350
100
4,270
354,080
40,930
845.B30
4,370
12,910
230
315
1,312
650
14,090
6,236
10
20
1,490
886,260
1,345,290
1,249
13,000
2,840
258,730
1,520
2,310
610
186
1,160
260
10
10
90
1,700
6,665
4
200
780
12
360
274,570
131,980
20,990
3,390
3,}90
1,<j80
983
14,389
27,481
200
71,862
115,523
301,750
92,770
7,100
24,438
31,538
14,699
224,701
239,400
22,850
4,810
8,525
82,lk4
41,342
4,947
81,359
14,041
95,400
9,241
44,118
53,359
839
12,850
87
138
5,673
46,131
7,649
198,245
205,894
132,786
261,575
208,453
101,634
146,404
423
313,963
452,527
390,629
89,740
181
1,246
38,320
11,936
11,936
24,938
788
24,150
66,427
110
12,450
20
53,847
9,509,525
148,860
872,754
2,840
8,485,071
Immature by Age-classes (Years)
1-20
1,995
384
21-60
2,379
574
574
1,780
4,706
6,486
76
1,974
2,0501
I
1,4561
1,365 j
I
147]
549
696
86
528
840
840
620
64
32
1,435
4,020
3,310
235
3,910
4,145
1,910
6,605
8,515
1,775
340
1,081
1,706
100
311
55
3661
12
12
25
3,130
544
13,938
14,482
6,620
100
3,595
617
324
210
2,300
2,660
111
21
78,176|
534|
20,4021
57.240J
14,106
1,975
61 +
16,081
7,079
2,997
2,997
190
1,681
1,871
18
1,519
1,537
3,671
735
125
1,588
6,025
7,738
3,062
2,034
50
50
284
688
2,674
15,820
132
2,412
3,500
4,305
2,580
3,240
2,394
2,468
4,862
1,090
4,245
5,335|
375
3,500
2,100
23,169
6,564
400
8,365
1,265
9,630
120
120
5,173
300
1,570
200
2,867
3,067
40
4,082
1,070
3,349
65
1,200
1,500
670
416
252
1,136
Total
1,136]
10,953]
I
	
598
598
392
143
535
576
576
81
446
1,803
2,249
3,601
3,276
4,380
4,380
16
278
956
200
86
191
1,410
950
405
405
1,500
4,760"
2,150
3,634
880
4,514
108
1081
6,473
175
56
845
901
5,998
4,226
655
700
140
170
28
147
17,237
2,359
19,596
18,032
4,169
4,169
2,362
6,530
8,892
94
4,069
4,163
5,208
2,100
718
1,588
8,377
10,683
6,749
5,838
5,270
5,270
920
1,030
3,630
16,020
250
2,603
3,500
5,740
8,010
7,500
2,629
6,783
9,412
3,000
10,850
13,850
2,150
5,000
7,200
26,400
8,270
500
12,310
2,200
14,510
240
240
11,646
N.S.R.
500
4,700
800
17,650
18,450
6,620
140
13,675
1,687
7,899
930
4,200
4,300
840
555
420
161,299
8,508
20,847
1,588
130,356
64,522
4,080
2,429
58,013
303,997
13,122
43,678
1,588
245,609
15,668
16,058
Total
Productive
31,726
28,165
6
5,586
20,924
2,400
11,028
13,428
36,734
814
444
16,337
17,595
38,349
6,732
710
1,130
1,840
700
309
300
13,400
4,310
933
53
5,4201
5,420
1,650
80
1,320
3,080
900
3,980
150
800
950
1,100
1,100
5,780
5,780
110
2,840
250
10,805
1,300
35,433
6,750
690
900
350
111,843
77,182
189,025
206,524
134
114,068
5,592|     114,202
I
6,117
14,807
31,203
61,500
92,703
8,355
148,069
156,424
248,495
2,600
3,614
2,626
68,599
74,839
68,251
16,956
2,970
6,400
9,370
1,720
1,620
9,595
23,594
950
2,982
27,274
46,100
59,750
24,410
4,597
12,459
9861       17,056
6,600
71,636
78,236
11,040
8,780
13,680
73,630
35,535
2,300
49,204
9,550
58,754
3,450
19,100
22,550
1,100
400
15,546
100
160
2,040
18,582
2,300
62,680
64,980
49,320
44,580
97,436
44,558
54,823
200
112,080
121,370
91,200
12,430
655
2,140
7,730
301,898]
7,160|
28,498 j
444|
265,796|
2,440,375
67,727
219,223
2,626
2,150,799  FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AT DECEMBER 3 1st, 1952—Continued
Dominion Control Mature Volume and Area Classification of Productive Forest Land by Regions and Land Administration Classes
(In thousand cubic feet and acres.)
23
Region
No.
Land Administration
Class
Acres
Volume
H
B
Pw
Py
Pi
Cy
Cot
Other Deciduous
Total
Immature by Age-classes (Years)
1-20
21-60
61+
Total
N.S.R.
Total
Productive
a
Quatsino	
Nimpkish	
Kyuquot	
Sayward	
Clayoquot	
Juan de Fuca	
E. &N. Railway Belt.
Gulf Islands	
North Shore	
H arrison	
Fraser South	
Skagit	
Similkameen	
Okanagan	
Yahk	
Elk	
Windermere	
Lower Arrow	
Pennask	
Fraser Canyon	
Lillooet	
Seechelt	
Powell	
Coast Islands	
Loughborough	
Toba	
Bridge	
Nicola	
Shuswap.
Spallumcheen	
Upper Columbia	
Columbia, Big Bend.
Momich	
Celista	
Niskonlith	
Tranquille	
Cariboo	
Chilcotin	
Knigbt	
Kingcome	
Gilford	
Seymour	
Rivers	
Bella Coola	
Westroad	
Quesnel	
Nehalliston	
North Thompson	
Nechako	
Kitimat	
Moresby	
Graham	
Lower Skeena	
Upper Skeena	
B abine	
Morice :	
Stuart	
Parsnip	
Peace	
Omineca	
Nass	
Stikine	
Finlay	
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
18
19
21
23
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
37
38
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
73
74
75
76
77
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves |
Indian reserves..
Indian reserves -
Indian reserves |
Indian reserves .
Indian reserves S
Indian reserves
Indian reserves 1
Indian reserves |
Indian reserves
Indian reserves I
Indian reserves...
Indian reserves |
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
National parks...
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves.
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves..
Indian reserves...
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves 1
Indian reserves 1
Indian reserves |
Indian reserves -
Indian reserves 1
Indian reserves..
National parks ...
National parks...
Indian reserves _.
Indian reserves_
Indian reserves 1
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves |
Indian reserves|
Indian reserves ...
Indian reserves I
Indian reserves.
Indian reserves.
Indian reserves._
Indian reserves |
Indian reserves!
Indian reserves .
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves I
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves I
Indian reserves.
Indian reserves 1
Indian reserves _
Indian reserves I
Indian reserves .
Indian reserves 1
Indian reserves.
Indian reserves..
Indian reserves-
Indian reserves f
Total Dominion control
National parks	
Indian reserves	
782
95
853
25
1,939
2,531
3,090
1,988
110
2,105
485
6,970
18,650
66,560
19,160
2,820
40
617
50
3,530
15,050
8,350
300
47,800
17,890
9,800
7,300
24,093
6,710
350
850
515
1,810
5.340
590
1,050
1,700
2,100
6,565
230
1,610
26,810
1,457
1,640
3,420
750
15,428
150
342,058
132,250
209,808
60
10
470
180
2,510
18,720
4,357
60
1,240
50
7,860
3,180
16,239
12,636
2,739
40
1,691
19
980
10,621
4,522
12
4,343
15,060
3,730
18,145
3,048
235
43
100
2,990
111
345
2,053
281
25
757
1,080
70
1,370
10
4,030
3,410
2,650
446
80
870
60
15
800
970
256
59
6,812
252
21
9,071
170
375
2,095
650
13,873
3,929
83
2,729
170
694
21,920
381
1,788
139,462]
20,5821
118,880
81,189
9,092
72,097
2,240
340
2,220
70
4,050
5,340
4,600
41
220
1,440
120
415
229
760
531
44
3,652
9,257
~39
294
1,126
314
7,163
4,196
4,747
282
2,454
19,470
1,342
135
15,593
92,724
9,672
83,052
40
10
90
70
190
50
20
310
43
50,415
716
4
240
3,316
2,164
18
451
21,584
2,628
4,396
294
894
67
53
102
6,577
2,537
269
381
1,185
1,166
2,030
164
1,512
4,600
527
1,298
2,861
524
10,241
167
1,310
210
1,100
40
2,020
3,000
530
130
210
70
50
1,851
50
11
250
40
14
1,112
1,245
46
4,684
349
1,244
92
421
135
4,397
2,033
122
481
25
2,570
10,020
631
792
1,007
544
4,819
42
124,2051
74,627 j
49,5781
47,697
6,884
40,813
10
30
30
50
370
20
10
20
10
39
603
603
3,960
6,968
248
2,736
3,803
2,990
671
95
1,145
22,616
248
22,368
40
530
3
30,656
1,654
314
21,298
1,954
231
5,371
383
467
15
13
210
120
192
936
720
83
1,696
1,161
60
115
15
100
10
100
10
470
270
250
10
30
150
68,2371
53,9081
14,3291
10
95
81
485
416
666
4
6,170
76
9,403
9,403
160
17,616
17,776
17,616
160
150
40
20
62
30
10
60
204
41
90
90
20
40
50
240
10
3,330
910
20
37
30
10
60
80
6
24
10
30
7,163
58
11
390
4,930
670
5,420
130
10,900
15,010
27,170
4,865
510
7,340
1,270
12,750
10,468
117,440
17,852
3,791
2,430
2,528
136
15,872
18,399
7,530
509
51,930
23,259
21,850
9,490
20,567
3,515
1,088
3,839
1,282
32,715
16,398
596
1,051
3,911
2,432
12,818
616
4,664
63,020
2,964
3,921
5,844
1,139
40,185
224
7,870|
7,870]
5,4561
 1
5,456
617,238
192,629
424,609
213
87
110
2,230
1,268
6
39
4,930
490
60
1,200
395
735
442
4,246
380
20
490
85
928
45
640
268
380
770
170
447
25
50
1,864
58
196
50
531
2,060
36
25,944
575
25,369
397
143
105
344
5
849
2,270
3,439
506
119
947
40
690
7,430
7,750
59,391
240
4,640
6,000
1,185
1,580
60
227
278
1,614
2,315
350
2,007
380
6,370
850
1,770
2,400
3,379
6,723
540
160
225
1,057
2,043
1,600
3,262
25
150
7,001
3,702
1,440
2,424
90
2,070
168
150
204
53
17
391
90
942
248
158
3,930
9,220
6,550
19,817
100
210
1,535
1,150
9,759
2,940
765
2,330
300
3,548
3,239
315
840
1,192
300
2,851
40
3,380
6,118
160
1,030
60
2,709
72
370
60
610
196
105
431
22
1,350
4,590
5,649
506
373
1,144
8,900
10,400
13,980
7,750
79,208
300
5,940
6,000
1,580
1,790
60
962
720
5,860
3,850
1,500
12,146
400
9,800
1,700
4,100
2,700
6,927
10,890
900
800
500
380
2,667
3,405
1,900
6,560
40
50
150
50
12,245
9,878
1,600
3,650
200
5,310
240
2,580
300
153,104]
66,611]
86,493
86,7961
23,522|
63,274
265,844
90,708
175,136
246
169
346
140
547
1,125
1,300
692
7,530
2,893
206
2,440
3,370
80
470
300
100
1,020
992
150
160
1,400
100
300
500
300
100
30
100
1,430
138
100
1,010
100
680
400
200
7,085
500
38,749
1,480
37,269
1,638
460
1,304
596
2,508
5,006
8,980
7,637
1,308
10,008
4,522
206
18,310
32,420
13,980
7,750
145,848
300
25,570
6,300
4,500
2,850
60
2,571
920
9,550
18,900
9,850
12,446
400
59,000
19,590
100
4,100
12,500
7,300
31,320
18,100
1,550
800
1,450
895
1,840
8,107
5,425
1,188
1,800
1,900
9,670
6,705
280
1,760
27,540
14,102
11,718
1,600
7,070
950
12,395
240
18,508
300
150
646,651
224,438
422,213  25
FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1952—Continued
Crown Mature Volume and Area Classification of Productive Forest Land by Regions and Land Administration Classes
(In thousand cubic feet and acres.)
Region
No.
Land Administration
Class
Acres
Volume
Immature by Age-classes ("i
'ears)
N.S.R.
Total
F
C
H
S
B.
Pw
Py
PI
Cy
1
Cot
Other Deciduous
Total
1-20
21-60
61+
Total
Productive
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
127,778
138,595
18,860
14,590
147,550
257,600
393,720
321,890
10,400
9,790
234,890
180,030
2,370
3,240
14,590
28,770
18,090
7,810
840,470
823,720
7,591
1,586
20,020
11,815
27,611
13,401
9,676
14,691
165,065
166,687
other
Totals
Other
266,373
139,092
12,632
469,610
33,450
115,120
8,440
225,380
405,150
192,380
22,900
684,650
715,610
402,330
.   33,320
1,314,830
20,190
15,260
1,120
35,760
414,920
190,360
17,480
697,970
5,610
6,750
420
12,980
43,360
16,600
1,440
69,060
|
25,9001 1,664,190
12,380      951,710
1,130        86,250
43,550| 3,084,480
9,177
31,835
5,152
508
24,997
41,012
15,253
508
31,040
24,367
22,685
8,775
331,752
177,030
13,140
509,425
530
1
10,101
I
12,575
other
300
1    •     -
3,468
Total*
482,242
98,260
49,893
74,057
233,820
344,200
19,210
36,460
707,550
83,000
73,840
66,080
1,348,150
297,770
157,230
130,260
36,880
10
3,320
2,240
715,450
102,970
86,830
66,480
13,400
18,010
1,630
1,780
300
1,260
70,500
19,600
24,100
21,470
|
44,680| 3,170,730
400      867,220
2,840      369,000
480|     325,590
2,575
952
12,269
2,555
25,505
4,160
5,948
2,652
3,468
1,810
217
86
31,548
6,922
18,434
5,293
8,775
8,576
10,123
39,594
522,565
113,758
78,450
118,944
.
-
Other
	
340
 ]    	
222,210
32,928
344,405
399,870
14,630
117,560
222,920
40,610
637,330
585,260
97,320
776,050
5,570
3,000
22,170
256,280
53,870
391,270
21,420
940
10,370
1,600
65,170
3,890
71,890
1	
3,7201 1,561,810
1
3,8101     218,070
14,420| 2,041,060
15,776
1    603
4,202
12,760
61
5,111
2,113
1,145
30,649
664
10,458
58,293
2,039
13,954
311,152
35,631
368,817
1
-     .--»-    1       -   -
Other
Totals
377,333
640
270,581
132,190
7,330
86,900
677,940
584
455,910
873,370
290
667,810
25,170
445,140
6
341,120
11,310
75,780
18,230
6
17,920
2,259,130
8,216
1,645,810
4,805
j 1,160
5,172
145
6,808
1,145
60
3,775
11,122
205
11,743
15,993
65
26,363
404,448
910
308,687
_
	
	
Other
17,560
7,900|	
180
50,510
Totals	
271,221
33
11,440
94,230
40
51,640
456,494
30
8,580
668,100
180
17,560
_
341,126
230
3,240
7,900
1,340
.
180
50,510
10
1,100
17,926
1,654,026
490
89,600
1,160
200
6,953
3,835
11,948
200
118,941
26,428
6
38,650
309,597
239
169,031
E. & N. Railway Belt
_
Other
23,520
10
.
140
... .|              30
81,027
34,914
3,000
Totals   ...
11,473
13,490
21,686
36,461
64,391
51,680
31,015
8,710
6,150
31,450
8,610
1,789
53,850
107,370
141,120
23,700
943
42,070
72,190
132,140
10
m
28
960
1,030
2,920
3,470
62
20,670
34,400
67,270
1,340
454
670
570
2,810
140
1,110
301       90.090
81,227
23,001
306
250
2,017
34,914
13,223
2,259
3,152
3,000
970
1,245
119,141
37,194
3,810
3,402
36,415
38,656
2,256
12,136
4,897
22,862
169,270
52,940
37,632
44,760
123,668
..
34,291
132,970
232,850
394,100
North Shore
5,420
10,840
14,120
10
610
270
2,170
Watersheds
Other
-      -
30
50
50
28,424
5,974
122,538
320
28,058
46,310
130
46,110
302,340
230
41,130
246,400
730
46,510
4,910
..       .
2,530
122,340
290
11,210
4,050
1,700
.   .    ..
80
400
30,380
20
1,540
60
3,O50|     759,920
201         1,420
3,630|     154,790
2,573
33,835
115
18,183
7.219
43,627
115
38,237
39,895
206,060
435
117,880
Other
	
-
	
30
11,128
18,926
51,585
Totals.
Other	
28,378
41,362
12,278
88,261
46,240
63,660
6,640
67,880
41,360
39,140
4,410
101,120
47,240
59,090
17,430
193,460
2,530
3,060
60,640
27,770
11,500
24,740
47,420
146,350
1,700|.  .
1
1,020]	
1,680 L
2,09o|       .   .
400
510
1,510
340
1,560
%      150
110
1,640
30
420
3,650|     156,210
1
9,190|     200,980
1
■    50]     140,280
120|     548,000
1,128
3,537
4,608
24,317
18,298
9,902
4,514
20,326
18,926
10,150
16,002
54,816
38,352
23,589
25,124
99,459
51,585
35,966
7,405
36,062
118,315
100,917
44,807
223,782
390
7,230
Other
Totals
100,539
47,952
412,298
74,520
18,584
277,008
105,530
210,890
88,410
29,230
346,278
193,770
8,296
80,505
3,770
466
873
1,850
3,705
271,725
1,750
7,620
&•:■
1701      688.280
28,925
25,694
309,228
24,840
17,136
70,818
124,583
42,830
759,564
43,467
4,205
85,211
268,589
94,987
1,257,073
11,220
39,315
71,501
1.039.294
1,910
2,170
5,490
14.020
120,096
330,240
460,250
2,090
347,330
295,592
600
121,644
1,910
30
7,947
2,170
20
375,508
540
160,527
88,801
330
23,350
1,339
50,535
275,430
510
73,948
5,490
14,0201 1,110,795
20         2,660
3411     467,109
334,922
137,232
1,160
221,090
330,240
2,190
237,340
802,394
3,350
637,680
89,416
10,860
127,102
1,352,060
16,300
1,112,112
	
610
Other
.   _ ....    j       36,018
42,190|         1,144
179,250
349,420
36,858
125,905
122,244
23,736
59,856
7,977
413
20,902
20
11,706
161,067
2,167
13,028
23,680
361
2,517
36,018
5,160
13,966
74,458
2,993
9,297
42,8001         1.144
3611     469.769
179,250
26,234
213,157
222,250
20,614
231,299
239,530
641,030
46,848
444,456
137,962
1,600
3,500
1,128,412
85,306
573,861
.
4,447
	
16,770
40,990
	
51,600
Other
176,709
Totals	
162,763
15,900
2,280
315,542
83,592
158
281
64,407
21,315
8,157
897
89,810
11,706
9,857
1,324
114,478
15,195
8,872
190
98,193
2,878
1,322
208
34,325
4,447
3,643
390
39,942
19,126
11
~'ili
17,898
12,290
57,760
790
336
,.
228,309
32,810
239,391
13,456
10
1P6.675
251,913
491,304
70,184
210
565,467
5,100
600
1,360
52,907
659,167
86,684
3,850
933,916
50,962
105
301,067
5,766
95
157,725
11
3,725
3,648
511,737
Other
48,959|    _
317,822
241,448
8,000
194,662
64,688
74,632
3,388
81,199
90,707
35,410
2,284
23,649
115,802
4,297
85
1,344
98,383
149,917
5,508
314,887
34,533
22,868
1,367
42,124
40,332
6,397
17,909
15,463
3,736
64,476
3,955
49,295
200.159
515,385
573,756
17,891
106,685
301,172
698,905
1,450
376,750
157,820
192,380
10,360
86,692
565,677
891,285
11,810
463,442
54,267
71,451
937,766
1,204,184
19,810
671,324
Yahk
137
.
Elk
.
1,304    ..   _
u
other
402
904
133,073
31,005|
628,587
13,220
Totals
Other.
202,662
89,258
374,798
78,226
149,340
17,758
173,083
84,587
10,533
25,933
1,429
320,395
175,934
171,722
49,430
53,003
2,609
42,817
43,491
18,393
45,162
33,890
27,261
2,309
32,626
402
904
137,028
32,309
4,396
102,793
3,620
13,118
5,425
62,260
646,478
243,471
537,098
185,320
264,615
23,086
285,908
378,200
68,443
538,577
75,466
252,210
48,926
284,908
97,052
9,697
161,683
68,046
475,252
121,320
730,914
154,821
337,314
69,894
433,050
13,220
691,134
210,578
1,149,032
332,476
487,554
87,652
607,583
34,215
47,343
2,300
1,140
43,180
30,654
11,309
85,104
20,968
148,142
Other
Other
Other
150,795
11,110
40,180
7,110
81,020
3,603
43,260
64,723
3,973
15,181
1,580
3,792
.
2,309
14,257
499
120
150
43,320
99,429
900
33,710
46,390
. 6,150
15,008
	
Kettle 2
3,324
48,303
	
j
Other
652
	
	
1,450
190,841
M
387,619
183,020
21,083
309,276
88,130
188,675
212,434
22,531
382,197
3,973
640
161,359
21,951
236,942
45,426
127,446
2,568
557
6,250
34,935
24,399
42,650
22,650
55,288
16,566
50,164
51,627
99,626
	
67,685
652
5,071
3,026
6,900
308,994
503,341
531,565
98,154
814,695
169,110
94,501
333,834
326,194
124,090
502,944
518,335
124,090
1,450
128,414
5,500
695,235
1,034,368
312,610
21,083
353,612
Other
Other
Provincial parks
Other
420
80,842
28,837
111,162
97,640
2,587
439
26,099
1,189
4,249
	
18,336|.   ..     .    '
271
9,354
28,062
37,416
6,920
Totals
330,359
151,170
91,330
34,913
85,845
404,728
188,250
50,840
46,941
167,247
258,893
354,900
196,460
42,618
107,731
139,999
417,970
209,180
74,383
63,043
6,807
109,510
70,110
739
1,390
77,938
152,810
99,220
4,357
13,075
18,7751    .
1
3.2001       .     *
271
2,120
520
10
3,174
5,438
40,950
35,400
110
4,630
1,520
6,050
2,480
912,849
1,280,390
667,620
169,800
359.453
9,354
41,420
28,420
26,106
37,221
28,062
87,640
94,320
36,042
12,092
54,510
15,400
7,954
37,416
183,570
138,140
62,148
57,267
6,920
21,490
9,530
5,756
10,825
374,695
356,230
239,000
102,817
153,937
1,890
752
2,753
'
	
.     _
Other
70
860
120,758
24,860
145,150
214,188
13,279
55,481
150,349
39,949
217,591
137,426
23,755
142,587
2,129
1,714
17,835
17,432
8,001
52,994
3.5051	
3,184
110
70
__
8601     529.253
63,327
39,045
18,541
48,134
21,395
7,954
119,415
60,440
30,290
16,581
500
1,280
256,754
85,800
176,720
62
907
86,760
other
j            _    1
487,395
11,749
Totals   _
170,010
43,220
86,810
68,760
38,318
98,700
257,540
39,664
106,839
166,342
30,943
69,555
19,549
6,103
15,597
60,995
3,983
24,806
969
574,155
119,011
315,497
57,586
6,232
58,671
33,144
2,028
13,779
90,730
8,260
72,450
1,780
2,075
13,790
262,520
53,555
173,051
Tnha
j
Other
Totals
Other
Other
Other
other
130,030
371,165
113,335
55,935
65,236
251,248
441,475
296,451
198,166
257,760
98,250
137,018
247,570
75,580
139,920
58,757
101,058
225,083
48,205
19,808
70,289
25,207
146,503
3,560
100,498
21,700
53,410
2,885
13,520
2,820
105,179
97,912
33,175
123,157
217,190
76,638
28,789
30,733
169
3,570
65
50,093
72,847
12,790
30,616
50,115
27,492
434,508
64,903
15,807
100,397
86,761
35,737
24,633
71,301
338,464
175,453
127,095
82,242
146,488
80,710
146,468
257,467
133,918
194,694
355,196
380,477
229,716
165,831
126,211
239,030
15,865
42,662
4,600
6,686
6,500
31,122
3,470
226,605
560,295
375,402
196,539
266,430
637,566
825,422
526,167
366,097
405,331
373,178
99,353
22,802
1,020
3,787
8,337
14.652
7,758
11,023
442,384
112,459
191,860
65,494
409,236
781,447
466,009
522,320
46,071
170,706
70,312
170,061
270,788
32,687
15,557
70,055
33,774
13,560
13,122
1,222
10
73,196
110,810
175,973
156,335
195,672
7,671
33,290
65
547
11,365
60
50
420
27,869
other
52,102
109,745
156,625
173,209
58,910
1,244
	
3,167
68,978
5,467
4,550
13,107
9,326
54,263
38,736
4,333
4,829
Other
Other
Other
1,085
1,779
13,730
39,636
87,713
2,100
21,360
35,898
aii
	
2,102
30
609,179
153,234
Other
Totals
356,010
74,250
461,270
95,496
37,540
53,197
203,343
49,091
419,405
60,154
15,257
233,315
293,828
49,813
264,240
77,607
17,356
74,267
|4,344
1,778
21,360
15,509
2,295
15,213
2,132
762,413
9,162
228,730
12,345
32,146
127,349
6,555
18,600
365,241
18,900
55,824
57,258
2,900
54,876
778,509
96,050
571,970
173,130
1,080,997
Other
5,078
535,520
250,423
69,356
93,082
201,764
1,207,138
622,890
170,440
142,750
7,900
91,500
90,737
113,951
20,779
62,537
170,605
621,068
372,765
137,399
3,183
1,128
1,539
468,496
110,638
23,489
3,030
248,572
178,140
18,346
454
314,053
151,151
84,395
112,412
43,960
37,436
801
40,265
56,591
1,249
3,831
91,623
68,924
42,314
35,537
6,744
349
43,067
64,638
5,479
50,228
23,138
17,508
1
1,254,127
654,068
198,933
223,907
294,322
838,866
429,674
549,271
482,182
40,290
435,311
5,078
44,491
122,998
49,584
57,242
99,566
803,589
1,815,350
61,983
9,340
2,925
6,300
25,155
88,640
39,690
124,130
150,935
684,926
539,798
38,336
74,724
211,638
89,274
181,372
250,501
1,488,515
2,723,295
109,530
18,050
11,700
32,050
57,776
142,375
41,032
21,546
668,020
M
604,436
199,662
296,000
452,265
2,717,243
4,055,645
283,020
161,000
19,600
125,000
Other
31,264
9,055
403
Other
Other
Other
496
3,707
9,497
68,387
960
59
5,827
63,516
111,975
54,799
9,961
!   594
259
81
1,289
21,590
709,460
3,050
200
Other
Other
Other
Management licences
Other
368,147
9,211
8,710
7,956
24,225
177,758
186,139
16,237
251,905
135,074
163,329
16,116
112,874
3,624
8,043
1,529
fiilforrl
819
1,525
	
...
13,645
1,450
99,400
253,106
493,384
108,020
929,713
2,667
156
161,591
74,820
295,372
268,142
449,031
538,690
74,498
651,228
128,990
144,092
612,209
81,059
860,660
5,080
19,051
270,240
32,409
393,290
55,707
76,469
286,661
35,690
442,673
1,370
13,645
60,397
70,664
1.
475,601
749,196
1,944,095
324,060
2,729,874
32,181
21,920
4,110
195,448
103,745
9,225
2,344
43,750
21,920
4,660
244,310
278,978
1,450
144,600
275,026
499,834
416,642
1,275,319
Other
Other
■ 450
290
17,159
29,917
1,660
8,425
14,066
1,640
550
48,862
107,681
1,790
64,312
66,628
-
Other
.   .   g
38,698
3,970
67,552
Totals
Other
1,037,733
430,603
42,730
1,459,549
370,192
171,898
14,026
1,061,966
725,726
941,719
425,699
210,153
15,493
1,261,535
478,363
7,469
1SP563
398,190
47,076
165,931
4,877
264,610
38,698
22,491
■
	
3,970| 3,053,934
5.611      561.062
299,193
99,031
12,524
183,715
156,543
1,407,578
40,832
684,857
67,552
839,355
9,462
173,370
523,288
2,345,964
62,818
1,041,942
130,940
480,232
2,630
114,472
1,691,961
3,256,799
108,178
2,615,963
Quesnel.                .
3,366
440,768
238,536
	
1
430
32,719
43,155
3,698,324
Other
57
m
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
-
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
Totals
1,502,279
293,909
563,782
1,075,992
62,746
252,584
444,134
126,365
38,764
238,536
72,109
12,545
1,277,028
119,703
573,125
403,153
49,350
175,732
—269,487
3,639
151,085
j—33^49
3,741,479
433,912
1,205,065
=tS£239
l|>2,913
22,056
324,772
1—182T832
789
481,850
"17104,760
22,845
929,535
117,102
57,974
109,512
2,724,141
374,728
1,602,829
Other
530
700
	
Totals
857,691
425,916
42,370
2,660,468
315,330
109,240
3,447
180,140
165,129
193,528
1,012,290
84,654
49,347
934
366,285
692,828
329,835
35,616
6,061,327
225,082
89,865
15,842
2,746,950
530
20,200
700
1,576
I
154,724
2,810
824
1,141,029
 :.       1               l
1,638,977
796,401
61,856
11,819,627
lj_2,913
19,863
1,370
^5,033
346,828
183,179
14,174
362,289
482,639
82,883
17,886
457,133
952,380
285,925
33,430
854,455
167,486
103,720
8,900
180,060
1,977,557
815,561
]
Provincial parks
Other
.   .   .   .
126,398
185,208
3,694,983
Totals	
2,702,838
495,160
724,334
183,587
-
103,908
1,017,483
1,812
752
367,219
33,528
20,155
6,096,943
119,613
280,671
2,762,792
95,147
66,333
1,141,853
48,933
175,831
—	
126,398
185,208|11,881,483
3,021      302,054
6,542|     654,192
36,403
66,885
376,463
368,000
1,145,957
475,019
34,171
1,224,059
887,885
469,056
2,443,703
188,960
164,366
496,322
3,779,683
1,128,582
3,664.359
Other.
.       _._
Totals.       ...
Other	
Other
1,219,494
1,849,974
119,722
132,360
235,160
427,932
103,908
22,414
2,564
832,176
86,526
102,289
161,265
427,584
53,683
1,658,774
287,907
289,739
657,303
1,221,227
400,284
667,460
174,029
190,846
216,523
300,543
161,480
898,387
224,764
3,180
-
11,131
9,5631     956,246
4,420   4,252.458
140,572
2,770
2,410
2,500
1,513,957
3,740
1,270
1,470
150
10,501
1,258,230
8,500
850
130
1,650
3,679
2,912,759
15,010
4,530
4,100
1,800
15,690
660,688
8,630
15,648
6,140
6,130
21,920
4,792,941
154,516
7,232
14,718
28,270
73,120
1,873,614
Moresby
555,694
597,592
1,384,072
2,602,261
139,900
Other
142,600
243,090
465,542
Management licences	
Other
307,503
518,295
2,518
20,362
6,700
34,790
3,990
6,340
1,510
663,092
209,538
1,628,089
588,849
61,290
162,962
1,878,530
277,114
1,598,632
517,066
68,624
794,828
825,798
99,531
1,169,709
1
22,880
17,287
53,557
101,390
41,490
10,330
3,986,333
523,846
3,779,688
1,510
3,944
30,188
10,651
11,834
116,461
5,329
3,946
120,145
17,490
19,724
266,794
28,050
630
124,124
708,632
229,892
2,019,007
	
Other	
	
1,837,627
1,489,583
806,284
1,774,940
1,457,934
488,636
283,770
113,022
451,258
222,976
822,190
1,183,378
9,171
224,252
1,561
5,678
1,875,746
472,796
112,525
863,452
1,065,545
451,150
1,427,372
1,091,578
399,753
561,430
235,049
887,795
117,267
458,621
419,060
1,269,240
587,696
425,236
420,292
1,010,806
117,156
14,359
70,844
1,344,219
869,374
872,631
129,788
266,766
99,076
36,601
156,670
10,887
44,755
9,524
_ .1   	
4,303,534
3,481,850
1,865,158
3,093,131
2,267,419
791,591
717,941
285,947
1,135,288
288.258
34,132
16,702
128,295
612,093
434,142
1,516,702
920,769
696,221
230,970
153,901
345,073
263,099
172,403
10,867
124,091
510,413
48,238
605,991
538,489
267,778
302,038
164,396
451,249
137,174
7,090
924
286,518
1,139,208
482,380
2,185,993
1,794,963
1,071,110
592,231
349,776
884,802
400,273
240,577
81,009
124,754
165,676
57,320
132,560
431,551
821,833
1,052,192
374,998
676,964
137,094
11,500
26,099
2,248,899
2,794,467
1,345,984
4,093,493
Other.
Other               	
	
862
1,195
341,905
6,410
30,931
22,674
7,916
7,179
2,859
11,353
2.883
fe,300
335,705
107,111
59,223
31,479
88,480
Other.
	
6,163
3,684,448
2,381,579
Other	
	
35,897
11,438
56,764
1,928,193
837,796
22,706
157,221
438,928
402,395
2,013,024
Other     .
Management licences	
Other
145,187
70,998
760,343
1,074,267
—	
1,037,002
836,331
9,762
7,438
14,391
33,620
2,740   2,151,386
2,200| 1,781,566
61,084
69,218
1,290,486
2,005,568
918,074
944,737
72,753
99,007
288,613
27,792
53,367
267,153
22,465
384,814
353,953
132,874
28,568
-
216,185
1,873,333
421,808
877,681
1,003,570
1,274,234
152,903
181,890
307,055
21,678
17,370
106,858
7,758
563,786
963,775
417,162
47,176
841,323
95,865
221,282
2,086
5,877
....     _ _
54,279
123,454
71,275
28,787
26,152
54,219
4,963
17,200
48,011
4.9401 3.932.952
130,302
36,329
42,758
744
688
110
4,161
900
183,270
112,278
310,017
3,638
2,408
990
5,945
1,125
8,014
23,029
146,114
3,888
3,784
321,586
171,636
498,889
8,270
6,880
1,100
37,599
62,972
147,712
900
119,279
1,800
2,364,753
Other.   _	
28,760
11,386
22,737
76,987
613
8,014
1,604
118,300
157,192
11,706
1,673,457
1,594,118
208,599
293.844
1,152,682
Finlay  ....	
Sikanni         ,,    _	
Muskwa
Kechika                   	
Atoek                 	
15,941
2,086
2.938
1,591,338
Other   	
	
81,923
225,166
61,698
114,872
3.6551      365.542
291,513
Other	
Other-
Other   ..
Other             —_
Other  _
Other.     .     .
2,481
26,715
1,108
36,185
83,376
24,814
267,145
11,083
671,174
1,215,608
604,583
76,386
27,792
	
1,784
225
6,317
702
11,890
2,250
45,380
900
860
66,117
Taku
10,686
2,217
99,072
85,192
24,183
16,740
	
269,403
6,712
12,156
6,046
764
22,465
JL Jn  	
	
C]7;i99
18
31,864
180
19,750
13,145
449,944
Tiard                  ,.
Fort Nelson   .  _     _.
Petitot   .
	
	
	
354,853
146,019
Other
	
1,593
4,324
5,463
11,380
39,948
38,029,019
1,523,651
1,660,798
36,461
34,808,109
9,292,201
680,958
185,996
6,150
8,419,097
12,549,535
681,123
733,663
107,370
11,027,379
19,623,068
781,088
2,667,651
72,190
16,102,139
28,091,028
670,591
793,070
1,030
26,626,337
15,761,151
537,920
1,198,502
34,400
13,990,329
421,921
37,915
4,895
570
378,541
462,523
11,231
7,469
443,823
7,650,711
81,625
79,719
30
7,489,337
954,994
31,679
76,722
10,840
835,753
656,947
946
23,499
834,999
10,927
21,091
565,091
9,067
28,090
270
527,664
96,864,169
3,535,070
5,820,367
232,850
87,275,882
4,2j2,614
300,409
223,953
250
3,708,002
19,236,105
577,842
384,567
3,152
18,270,544
10,903,887
120,439
33,544
34,372,606
998,690
642,064
3,402
32,728,450
8,532,783
366,464
50,620
4,897
8,110,802
80,934,408
2,888,805
Management licences. ..
2,353,482
44,760
Other
632,502
802,981
10,749,904
75,647,361  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
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35,906
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<<HHQi-1'".Ph  FOREST INVENTORY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AS. AT DECEMBER 31st, 1952—Continued
Mature Volumes by Regions
(In thousand cubic feet.)
31
Region
No.
Mature
Acres
Fir
Cedar
Hemlock
Spruce
Balsam
White
Pine
Yellow
Pine
Lodgepole
Pine
Yellow
Cedar
Larch
Cottonwood
Other
Deciduous
Total
1
Quatsino 	
Nimpkish	
Kyuquot	
Sayward	
Clayoquot	
Juan de Fuca	
E. & N. Railway Belt	
Gulf Islands	
North Shore	
Harrison	
Fraser South	
Skagit	
Similkameen	
Okanagan	
Granby	
Rossland	
Kootenay	
Yahk	
Elk	
Flathead	
Windermere	
Slocan	
Lower Arrow	
Kettle	
Pennask	
Fraser Canyon	
LiUooet	
Seechelt	
Powell :	
Coast Islands	
Loughborough	
Toba	
Bridge	
Nicola	
Long Lake	
Monte Hills	
Shuswap	
Spallumcheen	
Upper Arrow	
Duncan	
Upper Columbia	
Columbia, Big Bend	
Momich	
Celista	
Niskonlith	
Tranquille	
Cariboo	
Chilcotin	
Knight	
Kingcome	
Gilford	
Seymour	
Rivers	
Bella Coola	
Westroad	
Quesnel	
Nehalliston	
North Thompson	
Upper Fraser. :—
Nechako	
Kitimat :	
Moresby.	
Graham —-
Lower Skeena 1	
Upper Skeena	
Babine	
Morice	
Stuart	
Parsnip	
Pine	
Kiskatinaw.	
Beatton	
Peace	
Omineca	
Nass.-;	
Stikine	
Finlay	
Sikanni ...
Muskwa	
Kechika	
Alsek	
Atlin	
Taku	
Teslin	
Dease ..	
Liard	
Fort Nelson :.
Petitot	
Totals	
Crown	
Crown granted	
Licences and leases
Dominion control...
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
430,776
309,826
595,811
287,391
530,794
506,542
780,600
39,965
185,976
56,264
48,421
101,062
479,460
411,825
180,103
20,600
375,436
249,653
218,810
91,508
461,108
79,664
150,970
194,563
446,803
207,394
381,709
194,670
104,200
135,230
230,706
143,060
401,245
148,305
78,357
68,986
262,008
510,959
330,526
204,266
446,874
606,190
250,423
70,256
126,108
|p|l,814
1,394,075
666,455
173,252
156,032
142,300
298,941
542,814
1,135,768
433,523
1,514,924
880,990
475,161
2,758,467
1,235,479
1,974,494
202,679
214,870
725,822
1,843,159
1,499,761
810,464
1,793,945
1,458,784
489,346
283,770
113,432
455,281
222,976
§M0,752
918,074
944,907
72,753
99,007
288,613
27,792
. 53,367
267,153
22,465
384,814
353,953
132,874
28,568
41,889,273
38,029,019
1,683,716
1,834,480
342,058
52,730
257,580
346,850
448,220
290,520
301,706
3,236,530
86,074
78,540
80,910
72,090
81,610
319,511
142,207
93,950
249
72,307
76,352
87,245
10,610
179,846
11,750
40,588
90,128
233,632
240,477
463,035
229,840
56,440
237,857
94,193
149,982
269,786
97,026
200,130
61,836
104,172
261,964
53,504
20,425
115,359
95,061
113,951
21,119
106,440
190,920
734,758
391,826
139,258
3,481
4,543
198
184,451
411,665
174,091
1,081,948
339,364
123,325
187,947
107,072
23,059
9,328
347,037
6,410
14,145,013
9,292,201
3,770,477
942,873
139,462
643,790
554,900
878,560
323,180
940,060
791,631
837,760
9,963
441,870
90,800
44,510
106,440
1,910
8,940
22,276
9,713
103,494
36,542
29,044
3,603
43,560
65,271
3,999
640
183,283
292,637
452,160
222,440
163,488
379,252
163,731
4,238
150
75,781
126,556
195,468
161,261
225,988
534,650
110,638
23,730
4,155
180,491
203,261
382,186
532,399
606,525
800,042
446,680
165,637
233,926
1,042,937
2,575
904,680
181,895
189,047
657,594
225,543
1,561
5,769
221,169
16,295,979
12,549,535
1,176,190
2,489,065
81,189
1,167,850
941,760
1,645,850
712,050
1,219,340
1,246,107
2,336,640
1,439
370,640
89,390
66,240
211,650
2,170
20
11,939
10,764
133,405
4,428
1,451
415
34,070
46,724
450
93,453
164,528
534,470
243,690
155,285
232,136
109,969
54,109
129,127
173,769
178,594
66,384
287,523
178,140
18,516
699
137,644
180,750
192,557
171,716
713,059
1,014,419
239,828
84,813
55,792
378,691
53,892
1,844,471
508,183
466,023
1,997,353
1,880,510
473,259
113,772
1,900,788
421,808
61,698
114,872
25,881,082
19,623,068
2,731,881
3,433,409
92,724
31,330
36,720
49,980
8,570
39,230
39,430
2,630
34
7,850
4,160
3,990
88,460
378,711
162,695
16,213
12,910
126,686
156,667
351,491
179,805
223,197
50,090
53,544
45,807
130,085
2,954
7,893
142,340
81,350
2,390
25,168
26,035
57,522
4,146
16,970
3,142
112,210
110,285
37,149
126,910
357,949
352,117
151,151
85,421
128,601
48,855
44,515
818
41,009
61,171
8,224
21,837
317,111
460,619
211,737
1,284,037
709,492
370,930
6,213,311
407,664
725,762
308,537
321,042
555,779
865,585
1,072,978
453,431
1,442,734
1,092,172
400,334
561,430
235,901
895,716
117,267
902,464
1,003,570
1,274,423
152,903
181,890
307,055
21,678
17,370
106,858
7,758,
563,786
963,775
417,162
47,176
29,249,854
28,091,028
279,935
754,686
124,205
673,000
442,290
857,090
312,580
597,500
629,664
604,150
687
182,610
21,670
27,390
193,980
89,511
23,703
3,054
4,400
42,672
23,809
49,426
18,989
47,180
34,350
27,593
35,^81
24,630
48,883
92,188
199,250
112,430
18,802
85,964
31,424
33,098
445
4,590
84
52,255
83,881
14,415
31,535
91,147
101,856
68,924
42,677
41,614
7,253
349
43,968
72,008
82,926
91,718
346,300
507,774
7,604
405,585
231.509
97,809
,808,201
162,235
964,584
876,921
1,271,825
591,001
426,262
424,107
1,011,423
117,326
14,359
22,909
157,221
853,316
95,865
221,3|0
2,086
5,877
2,481
26,715
1,108
36,185
18,110,711
15,761, 1J51
836,044
1,465,819
47,697
9,180
17,910
19,230
24,100
18,230
17,030
100,520
536
7,210
3,280
1,180
3,780
1,369
4,684
3,991
48,059
6,616
410
6,230
15,136
3,164
21,757
4,040
2,050
3,805
2,382
16,164
81,215
37,657
13,982
16,521
26,483
31,264
9,180
545
606
290
2,095
450
530
24,351
607,212
421,921
117,622
67,066
603
58,324
54,862
21,444
11
18,929
15,871
1,062
15,784
1,920
3,844
17,064
58,863
107,135
26,774
1,880
3,963
8,415
18,225
502
5,726
10,370
77,403
978
700
1,576
531,625
462,523
44,609
1,877
22,616
1,790
720
1,600
30
467
11,990
110
620
620
1,850
278,152
74,722
13,604
4,703
66,686
143,518
35,726
78,924
2,330
1,170
52,120
107,473
271
3,530
550
3,258
8,355
25,426
35,170
84
547
14,404
1,112
38,396
20,007
59
6,623
79,319
124,951
59,817
10,079
300
49,194
167,202
271,067
159,136
3,247
1,160,641
229,441
3,210
24,098
71,117
1,357,132
870,948
880,445
129,856
267,154
99'°111
36,734
158,068
10,887
54,713
123,454
71,290
28,787
26,152
54,219
4,963
10,686
2,217
99,072
85,192
24,183
16,740
69,730
53,700
85,990
95,410
100,750
82,360
129,390
43,740
5,100
170
1,750
29,364
6,699
51,740
39,090
130
3,740
8,852
18,719
71,946
76,130
42,889
160,959
15,572
23,107
116,740
17,620
7,861,504
1,351,387
7,650,711
954,994
121,457
156,660
21,099
230,330
68,237
9,403
49,716
65,042
1,033
57,631
205,452
34,816
4,396
122,077
3,650
13,267
69,136
80
3,226
82,813
6,205
4,681
723,221
656,947
36,562
11,936
17,776
90
50
120
310
650
7,620
5,540
1,759
145
499
120
652
6,929
3,480
7,520
1,770
70
50
2,927
1,568
1,950
23,196
132,670
11,836
57,190
862
1,215
6,163
35,897
11,479
57,270
61,429
28,760
11,386
22,737
76,987
613
8,014
1,604
118,300
157,192
11,706
880,325
834,999
12,518
24,938
7,870
42,660
23,670
52,210
4,080
22,780
33,180
4,570
5,340
10,540
13,170
170
14,080
497
150
7,110
186
7,590
2,750
870
530
1,790
5,920
5,663
33,275
195,080
9,726
4,640
11,550
31,255
22,685
7,928
7,179
2,869
11,454
2,883
5,700
15,941
2,086
2,938
3,655
6,712
12,156
6,046
764
656,028
565,091
19,054
66,427
5,456
2,690,270
2,330,320
3,936,480
1,929,790
3,228,440
3,141,665
7,264,230
98,733
1,138,030
306,780
230,010
697,310
1,149,278
519,121
252,206
43,071
607,886
592,568
698,463
249,526
671,525
188,220
267,137
314,087
569,812
605,058
1,049,194
1,632,480
762,560
585,955
819,095
481,141
480,134
153,817
259,550
69,109
426,879
908,470
518,167
538,500
914,671
1,417,697
654,068
201,204
294,403
336,717
981,627
453,788
558,363
529,813
691,250
889,814
2,248,066
3,315,718
566,297
3,762,420
1,691,181
910,956
12,119,478
972,605
4,643,201
1,014,187
999,219
4,297,225
4,314,580
3,506,121
1,871,397
3,125,578
2,268,709
792,742
717,941
286,983
1,145,417
288,258
4,017,199
1,673,457
1,594,370
208,599
293,844
365,542
83,376
24,814
267,145
11,083
671,174
1,215,608
604,583
76,386
116,293,941
96,864,169
9,303,009
9,509,525
617,238  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 33
FOREST RESEARCH
During 1952 an active research programme was carried out in which a number of
new projects were initiated, and continuing projects maintained. Research was carried
out in all forest districts. A special effort was made to encourage co-operative projects
in which Federal services, University organizations, industrial organizations, and other
branches of the Forest Service contributed to various specialized aspects of problems
which could not be undertaken otherwise. It is hoped that this policy may be continued, as the answer to many problems can only be arrived at through considering
various aspects which modify the purely silvicultural view-point.
At the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station, development and maintenance work
were continuing endeavours. Improvement of the fire-protection facilities occupied
a prominent part. A pressure pump was added to the domestic water system, and
a Wajax fire-pump and a Bickle Seagrave fire-pump on a platform trailer were acquired.
A main trail was widened, and bridges and fills constructed so that fire-fighting equipment could be more easily transported in case of need. The old fuel dump was
replaced by a gas-pump and a cement-floored oil-shed. Other construction included
the conversion of a tool-house to a three-man dormitory and the building of a light
rubber-tired arch for the extraction of thinnings.
Current investigations of research work were shown and discussed with over 100
visitors, among whom was a party of thirty-four Commonwealth foresters on a tour of
British Columbia.
Some progress has been made at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station. The access
road was graded and gravelled before the 1952 spring breakup and was left for a year
to settle. A number of minor improvements are needed before it can be used by heavy
vehicles. During the year it was necessary to open up a number of new drainage-channels and ditches to prevent erosion and dry the subgrade of the road.
A residence has been constructed for the resident forest assistant who takes care
of the scaling of timber sales and maintenance of the station property. A new water
system has been constructed, consisting of a ram, pumping into a reservoir from which
a gravity pressure system supplies the needs of the Ranger centre and research residence,
together with hydrants for fire protection.
One new timber sale was made, which was probably the first requiring the new
cubic-foot scale. It is a marked sale in which the objective is to remove high-risk old-
growth spruce and all mature balsam, leaving a thrifty residual stand. Marking includes
two intensities of cut. Close supervision is being provided. It is expected that the sale
will be cut out during the winter period.
A small area was cleared for a nursery. It will be used to study various aspects
of artificial regeneration and for provenance trials.
A start was made on developing a 2,000-acre reserve on East Thurlow Island.
Boundary-lines were blazed, trails cleared, and small bridges and culverts constructed.
Ground was prepared for a tent camp and a small log cabin erected. The area consists
of 55-year-old hemlock and will be used for thinning experiments. It is not planned to
develop a full-scale research station but rather to provide a minimum of facilities for
a periodic but sustained programme of work.
Boys' camps were operated at Cowichan Lake, Aleza Lake, and Thurlow Island
during the summer, and a total of thirty-five boys given employment. They were
engaged in slashing and clearing overgrown trails, constructing small bridges and fills,
blazing boundary-lines, and in camp-maintenance work. In addition, they were assigned
to assist in research projects. During the summer they were given instruction and
practice in fire-fighting and were also conducted on tours of logging and sawmill operations and shown the work of the Forest Service at District and Ranger headquarters. 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Beyond doubt the boys benefited socially, mentally, and physically as a result of group
activity under good supervision.
The re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained with the
remeasurement of seven standard plots on Vancouver Island, twelve standard plots and
one empirical plot of eight sub-plots in Smith and Boswell Inlets, and fourteen standard
plots and two empirical plots of eighty-one sub-plots on East Thurlow Island.
A brief study was made on the efficiency of some specific plot sizes in sampling
some timber types.   A report upon this subject has been prepared for publication.
During the year it was necessary to abandon eleven permanent plots located on
the proposed townsite for the Aluminum Company of Canada at Kitimat. This reduces
the number of permanent growth-plots in Coast forest types from 561 to 550.
The following is a brief statement on twenty-eight studies, active during 1952.
WEED-KILLING EXPERIMENTS  (E.P. 203, SUB-PLOT 2)
Objective.—To determine the effectiveness of Ammate, Esteron 44, and Esteron
245 in controlling woody and undesirable herbaceous vegetation invading a permanent
fire-line.
Location.—Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station.
Work Done.—1. Presence and abundance of seedlings, shrubs, and herbs were
recorded in twenty-seven plots, a minimum of 100 square feet in size.
2. A standard back-pack, hand-operated fire-pump with fine-spray nozzle was used
to apply the herbicides.
3. Chemicals were applied at following intensities:—
Ammate:   1 pound per 1 gallon of water per 100 square feet.
Esteron 44:   3 quarts per 100 gallons of water in one series, and 2 quarts
per 100 gallons in.a second.
Esteron 245:   3 quarts per 100 gallons of water in one series, and 2 quarts
per 100 gallons in a second.
4. The effect was assessed after consideration of kill or damage to foliage, stem,
and root at intervals up to one year following date of spraying.
Results.—1. Kill was speedy and never less than 80 per cent of all herbs, and
woody shrubs followed spraying with Ammate. Seedlings of Douglas fir, western hemlock, broom, Vaccinium, and red alder were eliminated. Salal was seriously set back
or eradicated. A good kill was consistent for all plots, with one plot on a dry knoll with
no shade giving the best result (100 per cent eradication). A year later, annuals and a
few bracken fronds were appearing, and on the dry knoll a current-year seedling appeared
healthy.
2. Esteron mixtures in water were not so effective. Results were very variable, and
no good kill of foliage except for red alder was recorded. Following this spotty kill, all
vegetation was coming back strongly one year later.
Conclusions.—1. Ammate gave promise as a suitable non-selective killer of the
vegetation. Its application by even a coarse spray was apparently sufficient to give a
very serious set-back to all perennial growth.
2. The Esteron solutions in water and in the concentrations used were not so successful as Ammate. Their action is much more subtle and would indicate a need for
further field experimentation to determine improved technique and the results of various
concentrations in other than aqueous solutions.
3. Ammate is expensive (about 20 cents per pound). Although weak solutions
may be effective, extensive spraying would still be a costly item. Restriction of its use
to spot-sprays might be feasible. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 35
Under the site conditions of this experiment, the cost of an Ammate spray using
1 pound per 100 gallons with a coverage of 1 gallon to 100 square feet was $20 for a
distance of 1 mile. The fire-line ran over a steep incline unsuitable for a pressure-spray
machine, and salal, alder, broom, huckleberry, and conifer seedlings were in abundance.
This cost includes material, spray time, walking time, time to refuel five times the 5-gallon
back tank-pump at a depot, and in some instances searching for conifer seedlings. A 10
per cent margin of safety has been added to the estimated cost.
In Technical Note No. 359, Lake States Forest Experiment Station, a cost of $16.24
to spray along 1 mile compares with $39.10 for hand-cutting of brush.
WEED-KILLING EXPERIMENTS (E.P. 203, SUB-PLOT 3)
Objective.—To determine whether dense and vigorous salal can be killed or controlled by the application of one or a combination of the chemicals used in Sub-plot 2.
Location.—Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station.
Work Done.—1. A plot was established under the canopy of a fully stocked
Douglas-fir stand on a site where there was vigorous and dense cover of salal.
2. Treatments were replicated four times and allotted at random. These treatments
were:—
(i) Esteron 44 in water.
(ii)  Esteron 245 in water,
(iii) Combination of (i) and (ii) in (a) water and (b) with diesel oil as
carrier,
(iv) Esteron 44 in diesel oil.
(v) Ammate.
(vi)  No treatment.
3. Concentrations of the solution were: Esteron mixtures, 1 quart plus 1 quart, in
100 gallons of water or diesel oil; Esteron 44 or 245 alone, 2 quarts per 100 gallons
water or diesel oil; Ammate, 1 pound per 100 gallons of water.
Results.—1. An assessment of the effectiveness of the six solutions under test
pointed up a superiority of the Ammate solutions. It is not unlikely that salal can be
eradicated. In others the setback was so serious as to inhibit vigorous recovery for
several years.
2. Esteron combination in diesel-oil carrier was promising and almost as effective
as Ammate. The rate of kill was slower, and one year later recovery of a few plants
(presumably not thoroughly wetted) was observed. A very good check and control of
top foliage was achieved.   The effect of dieseline alone was not tested.
3. Esteron 44 and Esteron 245 in aqueous solutions gave variable and poor results.
Conclusions.—While complete eradication or control beyond a period of a few
years can never be expected, a single application of the more promising chemicals as a
measure of control may have its usefulness in silvicultural practice. Spot or strip spraying of dense salal-sites cover would temporarily alter an unfavourable microclimate,
inhibitive to seedling development, by reducing density of shade, high air-humidity, and
intense root competition. Therefore, in certain localities and conditions the use of
chemical spray may be a logical step in the solution of one problem, dense salal cover,
to the successful regeneration by seeding or planting of sites where intentional burns are
undesirable.
THINNING EXPERIMENTS IN DOUGLAS FIR (E.P. 418)
Objectives.—1. To give a complete explanation of the development of trees
according to the growing-space at their disposal from the time of first canopy closure.
2. To test the hypothesis that there is a systematic relationship between growing-
space and increment. 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Location.—Douglas-fir plantation established 1941 near Cowichan Lake Forest
Experiment Station.
Work Done.—1. After an assessment of site heterogeneity, eighteen plots have
been located on the most uniform portions of land within the plantation.
2. Stand densities have been altered by a first cleaning to the following number of
trees per acre:— Trees
(a)  Plots 1, 9 to 11, 13 to 15  1,200
Plots 2 to 8      600
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Plot 16      400
Plots 12 to 17      800
Plot 18  2,260
3. This work of establishment is currently in progress. Future management of the
plots will be in accordance with the principles outlined by Dr. Craib, formerly of the
Research Division of the South African Forest Service.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE FORMATION OF HEART-WOOD IN DOUGLAS
FIR (PSEUDOTSUGA TAXIFOLIA, BRITTON)   (E.P. 419)
Objective.—To study factors affecting the formation of heart-wood, with particular
reference to the influence of silvicultural practice. To determine whether it would be
possible to increase or decrease the rate of transformation of sap-wood into heart-wood
in the growing tree in order to get the most economical use of one of them. A knowledge
of factors controlling the production of heart-wood could be of commercial value to both
the lumber-producer and the pulp-manufacturer, the former being interested in more
and the latter in less heart-wood.
Location.—The Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station and the Green Timbers
Nursery.
Work Done.—1. Material.—Seven trees, selected on the basis of crown class
(dominant, co-dominant, and intermediate) and grouped as (a) silviculturally treated
(thinned and pruned), and (b) natural, were felled at approximately three- to four-week
intervals in the second-growth Douglas fir at the Forest Experiment Station, Cowichan
Lake. All sample trees were of the same age-class (40 to 42 years) and were growing
on a moss-site within a stand, a part of which contains experimental thinning and pruning
plots (Plot Nos. 204 and 319). It is fortunate that the records for trees felled within
the plots provide an accurate history of treatment and of individual tree-growth. The
trees were not growing very far apart, the maximum distance being 400 yards (approximately).
The dates on which the trees were felled are recorded below.
Tree No.
Crown Class
Date of
Felling
Remarks
41
1
Co-dominant  _	
26/5/52
17/6/52
24/7/52
12/8/52
27/8/52
6/10/52
30/10/52
S.T. (silviculturally treated tree).
2
ES.
Intermediate- _	
S.T.
N.
3
N.
9
S.T.
4
N.
2. Measurements of Sap-wood, Heart-wood, and Intermediate Zones.—Measurements were taken from the standing and felled trees. Before felling, the north side of
the stem was marked on the bark. Each tree was cut at 2.5-foot intervals up the stem,
starting from ground-level. Some small deviations from the exact heights were made to
avoid knot-swelling, except when a disk through a knot was desired. A disk, about half
an inch thick, was cut from the top of each 2.5-foot billet, and additional disks were also REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 37
taken from breast height (4.5 feet) and other heights along the stem; e.g., mid-total-stem
height, mid-actual-crown height, mid-uniform-crown height, mid-interpolated-crown
height, and top of heart-wood. (Special sections were cut in order to determine the
height of the top of the heart-wood.)
After the upper surface of each disk had been smoothed with a chisel, the boundaries of the heart-wood and the intermediate zone were marked with ink. It was generally
quite easy to do this, as the heart-wood in Douglas fir is clearly defined. The intermediate
zone appeared to the naked eye as a light-yellowish belt around the heart-wood, tending
to be brown when in process of conversion to heart-wood.
Two diameters (north-south and west-east) were marked and measured under bark
on each disk. For each pair of diameters, the width and the number of rings in sap-wood,
intermediate zone, and heart-wood along each of the four radii were recorded, and mean
figures will be calculated. For each disk a tracing was made of the outside edge of the
wood (without bark) and the boundaries of the intermediate zone and the heart-wood.
From these tracings the areas of sap-wood, intermediate zone, and heart-wood are now
being calculated. Up to date some 327 disks have been investigated and all measurements recorded.
3. Bark Thickness.—The average bark thickness was taken for each tree at approximately 2.5-foot intervals up the stem.
4. Determination of Moisture Content.—An effort was made to investigate the
moisture content of sap-wood, heart-wood, and intermediate zones, as it is suspected
that the moisture content of the stem might be one of the factors influencing the change
of sap-wood to heart-wood. To determine the moisture content, a disk was cut, as a
rule one-half inch below each of the disks that were taken for width and area calculations.
This made it possible to determine the moisture content of any ring or rings in the
sap-wood, the intermediate zone, and the heart-wood of the disk half an inch above, as
the difference in boundary between these three zones appeared to be very small in such
a short distance. The cross-sections were divided, possibly along the north-south
diameter, into several samples by splitting the rings. The object was to determine the
relative moisture content of each ring, but it was often necessary to group more than
one ring together when the rings were very narrow.
Samples totalling 1,320 were taken from 121 disks representing six trees, and moisture percentages, based on oven-dry weights, calculated. The final analysis has yet to
be made.
5. Measurement of Crown-size.—One method was used for calculating comparative
crown-size by estimating the effective surface of the crown exposed to the sun. The
shape of all crowns was more or less comparable with that of a cone; therefore, the
curved surface area of the cone with a base and height the same as that of the crown
was calculated using the formula S=circumference of a base X Vz slant-height. The
measurements of six crowns were taken in the field.
Results.—Investigations are not completed, and the data on hand require a further
study and technical calculations; therefore, it is premature to discuss the results at this
stage. However, it could be mentioned now that in all trees a definite zone has been
found lying between the sap-wood and the heart-wood. This zone, named the intermediate zone, is being given a special attention during this study, as it appears that sap-
wood becomes first " intermediate wood " before it is finally converted to heart-wood.
The intermediate zone appears to the naked eye as a belt, continuous or broken, and
lighter in colour than sap-wood, around the heart-wood. By holding the disk against a
strong light it was possible also to mark the boundary of the intermediate zone which
sometimes appeared as a dense tissue (not translucent) usually above the top of the
heart-wood in the stem, or showed only a distinctive darker colour when compared with
the light sap-wood and the very dark heart-wood as shown on the photographs when 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
taken in darkness. It has been found that the intermediate zone generally extends in
the stem from the ground-level to a point some distance above the top of the heart-wood.
The maximum width of this zone does not occur at the lower heights but higher up the
stem. The moisture content of the intermediate zone was appreciably lower than that
of the sap-wood. It was low not only along the boundary of the heart-wood, but also
above the top of the heart-wood.
CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF STANDING TREES AS A METHOD
OF DEBARKING (E.P. 344)
A co-operative study has been initiated with Dr. D. J. Wort, of the Department of
Biology and Botany of the University of British Columbia, under the auspices of the
Western Division of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association.
Objectives.—1. The best available chemical, types of girdle, time of application,
and method for obtaining bark separation on western hemlock, Douglas fir, and red alder.
2. The effect of treatment on weight and colour of wood.
3. Extent of insect and fungal attack.
4. Some factors which influence uptake and action of the chemicals.
5. Possible incidental effects on neighbouring trees and plants.
Location.—The treated stands are located on the area of the Cowichan Lake Forest
Experiment Station. Douglas fir: Two experimental thinning plots of 40-year-old well-
stocked stands of Site Index 160 (moss site). Western hemlock: Uneven-aged (30 to
90 years) sparsely stocked stand with Douglas fir, on salal site. Red alder: Dispersed
pure and even-aged stands of less than 2 acres on sword-fern site (average age 40
years).
Work Done.—From May until September, 1952, a total of 1,300 trees was treated;
that is, 330 alders, 430 hemlocks, and 540 Douglas firs. Of these trees, 220 were used
for tests with varying concentrations and new chemicals (special treatments), while
1,080 trees were treated in series, each month of the growing season, with solutions of
the following chemicals: Sodium arsenite, referred to as arsenic; ammonium sulpha-
mate, referred to as Ammate; 2,4,5—T, referred to as Esteron. Mainly, these solutions
were applied to girdles created either by removing the bark or by cutting with axe into
the sap-wood. The development of effects in the crown was observed periodically.
Observations concerning treatment, time, tree assessment, and environment were recorded
for every tree.
Beginning in July, series of trees with Ammate and arsenic treatment were felled.
For the purpose of determining weight-loss, sample disks were taken at the base, above
the girdle, and at the end of each 16-foot log. Ease of bark-removal was tested at the
same places.   Observations were made in regard to stains and fungi.
The number of trees treated and tested are summarized, by dates, as follows:—
May
June
July
August
September
October
284
400
271
36
185
76
162
119
Results.—Arsenic killed western hemlock and red alder more quickly and consistently than Ammate. Only alder was killed by Esteron. Douglas fir did not respond
well to any of the chemicals.
The only loosening of the bark on the entire stem was found on hemlock, following arsenic treatment. Insects, fungi, and stains were found, especially in the dead
trees, to a very considerable extent.
The project is still in progress. The results are, therefore, preliminary. The data
collected during the extremely favourable field season are still being analysed.   A further REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
39
200 trees in each month will be felled and tested in May, July, and September, 1953.
Additional fellings will reveal effects of the special treatments.
COMMERCIAL THINNING IN DOUGLAS FIR (E.P. 364)
Objectives.—1. To create a case-history—namely, permanent sample plots—of a
regularly thinned stand for comparison with an unthinned stand, as well as with other
stands thinned at different levels of intensity. Ultimately, to produce data for construction of a standard thinning schedule and the corresponding yield table.
2. To correlate Objective 1 with corresponding financial merits.
3. To demonstrate, on a commercial scale, practical aspects of thinning.
Location.—Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station, North Arm Forest, V.I.
Work Done.—The first thinning was completed in February, 1952.   Details of the
stand and methods employed are contained in the Report of the Forest Service, 1951.
Results.—The final compilations have changed the results very little from those
tentatively reported in the previous year and will not be repeated.    A few additional
statistics follow:—
Stand Data
per Acre, Based on
Seven Sample Plots
d.b.h.
Height
Total
Number
of Trees
Total Basal
Area
Total
Volume
Removed in thinning    _.	
In.
10.2
10.8
Ft.
103
105
174
221
Sq. Ft.
97.8
140.2
Cu. Ft.
4,006
5,828
Age of stand:  50 years.    Site index:   172.    Area: 49.8 acres.
Utilization:  Sawlegs, minimum top 6 inches.
Daily production for five-man crew: 729 cubic feet.
Logging time per 100 cubic feet:  5.49 man-hours.
Logging cost per 100 cubic feet:  $13.87 (arbitrary wages, $2 per hour).
Logging damage to residuals: 9.0 per cent in the growing season, 4.3 per cent in the dormant season.
Conclusions.—Potentially, the first thinning operation was a financial success,
although in reality the Forest Service was forced to accept a loss of $1.55 per 100 cubic
feet in the interest of experimentation. Conclusions on silvicultural aspects would largely
be premature at the present, but, in spite of quite severe gales and snowfall, the comparatively heavy cutting has, up to date, not resulted in significant losses.
Periodic thinnings will continue up to rotation age, stipulated at approximately 100
years.
Publications.—Details of the experiment will be published as Research Note No.
22, 1953—A Commercial Thinning Experiment in Douglas Fir.
COMMERCIAL THINNING IN HEMLOCK  (E.P. 388)
Objectives.—The objectives are the same as those for E.P. 364, Douglas fir, with
the exception that three different thinning intensities will be incorporated in one
experiment.
Location.—Thurlow Experimental Forest, East Thurlow Island.
Work Done.—The area (approximately 2,000 acres) on which E.P. 388 is located
was originally reserved for growth-studies in natural immature hemlock. During the
1952 season the first steps were taken toward developing the area as an experimental
forest in which a series of thinnings will be undertaken to determine the yield of
managed second-growth stands when conducted on an operational or economic scale.
Systematic sampling, by temporary plots, of approximately 100 acres of the 55-year-
old hemlock stand has been completed.    Plans are now being finalized on treatment 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
areas, intensity, permanent plots, and volume available for cutting in the first of the
series of thinnings.
Preliminary calculations indicate that an average thinning intensity of 25 per cent
of the volume will yield approximately 1,700 cubic feet per acre of pulp-logs.
GROUP SEED-TREE STUDY  (E.P. 374)
Objective.—To test the effectiveness of groups of seed-trees left at setting boundaries as a method of restocking.
Location.—Meade Creek operations, Western Forest Industries.
Work Done.—All trees tagged. Height and diameter measurements taken. Cone-
counts made on all trees in the group and on a number of trees on the margin of the
green timber. There was no cone-crop on either fir or hemlock, and only a spotty crop
on the cedar. The company forester girdled ten firs in June in an attempt to stimulate
cone production. Milacre quadrats were laid out at 1-chain intervals on the cut-over
area in cardinal directions from the group of seed-trees. These will be used for recording seedling establishment, along with seed-traps to record seed-fall. Further work
must wait until there is a cone-crop.
RODENT ECOLOGY PROJECT (E.P. 362)
Objective.—As a co-operator in the North American Census of Small Mammals,
to investigate the possible cycles of small-mammal populations and especially of the
deer-mouse Peromyscus maniculatus.
Location.—Meade Creek operations, Western Forest Industries.
Work Done.—Trapping was carried out in June and October in the manner prescribed for the census. This involves snap-trapping for three nights on two permanent
trap-lines on both a cut-over area and a forested area. This is the fourth year of
participation in the North American Census of Small Mammals, although there was,
unfortunately, no trapping in the fall of 1951. There are not yet sufficient data to draw
any conclusions as to possible cycles of Peromyscus, if such do actually exist. The
figures show an annual build-up of population in the fall on both areas. This year,
however, the population in the spring on the forested area was unusually high, while in
the fall it was about normal.
DIRECT-SEEDING STUDIES  (E.P. 390)
Objective.—To find a method of rodent-control which would make direct seeding
a practical proposition.
Location.—Meade Creek operations, Western Forest Industries.
Work Done.—The study involved the trial of a poison for rodent-control developed
by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The poison, Tetramine, is applied to
the Douglas-fir seed, thus eliminating the use of a poisoned bait, as was necessary with
previous poisons. Two sets of plots were laid out. Each consisted of a plot sown with
poisoned seed and a control plot sown with untreated seed. The plots were seeded with
one-half pound of Douglas-fir seed per acre, using a cyclone seeder, in October, 1952.
The plots were trapped before and after seeding, using live traps. All mice were tagged
with a monel-metal numbered ear-tag. It is hoped that the experiment will also yield
valuable data concerning the habits and movements of the deer-mouse Peromyscus
maniculatus.   The first re-examination will not be until the summer of 1953.
CHEMICAL GERMINATION TESTS (E.P. 376)
Objective.—To compare the accuracy of chemical germination tests (Grodex)
with the incubator method. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
41
Work Done.—Previous work has been briefly mentioned in the 1950 Annual
Report (page 22) and the 1951 Annual Report (page 32). During the winter of
1951-52 a further experiment was started. Two lots of Douglas-fir seed were used—
one collected in 1950 and the other in 1951. Five hundred seeds were used in each
test, which was replicated twice, except in the field test, where there were four replications.   The results were as follows:—
Treatment
Number
of Seeds
1950 Seed
Germ. Cap.
1951 Seed
Germ. Cap.
Control       .
Stratified _ _            	
2X500
2X500
2X500
4X500
Per Cent
63.3
79.8
82.0
53.7
Per Cent
51.5
89.5
83.1
Field test _.__        	
61.9
The months of May and June, 1952, were cool, and field germination was slow
both in these beds and the rest of the Duncan nursery. The beds have been left, and
a count of delayed germination will be made in 1953.
Results.—It appears that the Grodex method gives results in close agreement with
those obtained from germination tests in the Hearson Incubator on stratified seed. The
Grodex method has great advantages of economy in time and equipment.
Conclusions.—Further work is required before it can be stated conclusively that
the Grodex method is a reliable substitute for the standard method under all conditions.
PERIODICITY AND SIZE OF CONE-CROPS (E.P. 226 AND 274)
Objective.—To record the periodicity and size of cone-crops on selected trees of
Douglas fir, hemlock, cedar, white pine, and balsam.
Location.—Vancouver Island.
Work Done.—Cone-counts were made on trees at Cowichan Lake, Englishman
River, Cameron River, McCoy Lake (Alberni), and Elk Falls. At Cowichan Lake, two
firs had a fair crop, three trees a poor crop, and the remaining seventy-six firs had no
cones.   At the other places there was no crop on any species.
Results.—This is a continuing project, and the accumulating data, building up over
the years, may yield useful information on the fruiting habits of the various species.
Publications.—Certain aspects of this experiment were incorporated in Seed Production by Conifers, B.C. Forest Service Technical Bulletin T.35, 1951.
ANALYSIS OF GROWTH-STUDY PLOTS FOR DOUGLAS FIR, WESTERN
HEMLOCK, AND MIXTURES OF THE TWO SPECIES IN NATURAL
STANDS (E.P. 1,10, 11).
Objectives.—From the results of remeasurements of permanent sample plots to
(1) check and attempt to improve the temporary plot yield tables (Yield Tables, 1947,
Second Printing, Mimeo., B.C. Forest Service); (2) analyse trends to normality of
understocked stands; and (3) analyse the changes of species composition with age.
Data.—A group of 423 growth-study plots located in the Coast region of British
Columbia, established five to thirty-five years ago (average twenty years), and each
remeasured at intervals of five years (occasionally four or six, depending on availability
of technical personnel).
Work Done.—The usual stand statistics for each plot at each examination, and
for periodic mortality, have been compiled. Partly to ensure the uniform standards
demanded in permanent-plot work, and partly because staff was available during the
depression and war years only for field examinations, compilations on all examinations
on all plots (approximately 1,700) were done from original field-sheets.   This phase of 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the work has taken a limited compiling staff, available only part time for growth-study
plots, approximately three years. There remains the 1952 re-examinations of about
100 plots to be compiled. To date the analysis of plot statistics has barely started and
has been confined to Douglas fir.
Results.—Existing Douglas-fir yield tables are substantially in error. The shape
of the basic height-age curve from permanent plots shows gross differences from the
curve for existing British Columbia yield tables (see Fig. 1). Correlations with other
stand statistics—numbers of trees, basal areas, volumes, etc.—may therefore be assumed
to be in need of revision. Further analysis is necessary before conclusions can be
confirmed.
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Fig./-Comparison of height of dominants and codominants forSite Index/20
FIELD-NURSERY EXPERIMENTS OF WESTERN HEMLOCK
(TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA)   (E.P. 381)
Objectives.—To determine (1) what effect soil coverings have on seed germination,
seedling survival, and frost-heave;   (2) the effect of light on germination and survival
under three different intensities within the forest; and (3) the effect of seedling density
and method (drill versus broadcast) on germination, survival, and frost-heave.
Location.—Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station.
Work Done.—Three plots were laid out following lines mentioned in the objective.
Due to the exceedingly poor germination, the experiments as such will have to be
abandoned.   The experiment will be reorganized. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
43
A LABORATORY TEST ON NEUTRALIZING AN ALKALINE
NURSERY SOIL  (E.P. 382, SUB-PLOT 1)
Objective.—To change the pH of an alkaline nursery soil by the addition of acidifying amendments, in order to produce more favourable seed-bed conditions.
Work Done.—Samples of Oldtown very fine sandy loam from the Cranbrook
Nursery having a pH in excess of 8.0 were brought into the laboratory. The nursery
soil was thoroughly mixed and screened through a V^-inch sieve. Fifty-two samples
of soil, each weighing 250 grams, were weighed out and subjected to six treatments.
A check was also prepared. Some of the treatments were run at different levels or
intensities of application.   Samples were replicated four times.
Each replication of four (1,000 grams of soil) was well mixed with its respective
treatment. The 1,000 grams of soil was then divided into four 250-gram soil samples
and placed in prepared containers. The containers used were ^-pint seal-tight cartons,
from which the bottoms were removed and replaced by wire gauze.
Except for the four samples used for leaching, the containers were placed in a
shallow metal trough. Water was added to the trough, which the soils absorbed through
the bottom of the containers. Enough water was added to bring the soils to field capacity
or moisture equivalent.
Each container used for leaching was placed on top of another identical container
which had the bottom removed, and both were placed in a bowl. This set-up was
prepared to allow for drainage of excess water. Water was applied by sprinkling from
above, and the amount added was double the moisture equivalent.
Samples were taken at the end of five and ten months, and the results recorded in
the following table:—
Neutralizing Alkaline Soils—Comparison of Treatments with Check
No.
Treatment
Spring Results
F
ill Results
Mean pH
Comparison
Mean pH
Comparison
lA
Sulphur, 2,000 lb. per acre	
7.75
7.62.
7.40
8.10
8.09
8.06
8.22
8.14
8.08
8.03
7.70
8.12
8.27
Highly significant....
Highly significant....
Highly significant....
Highly significant
Highly significant....
Highly significant
Not significant	
7.93
7.83
7.75
8.36
8.35
8.27
8.45
8.63
8.58
8.52
8.24
8.60
8.70
IB
Sulphur, 3,000 lb. per acre	
lc
2a
A12(S04)3, 3,000 lb. per acre	
2b
Al .(S04)3, 4,000 lb. per acre ...
2c
Al2(S04h, 5,000 lb. per acre_	
3
4a
FeS04, 4,000 lb. per acre	
(NH4)2S04, 200 lb. per acre	
Not significant.
4b
(NH4) oS04, 400 lb. per acre  ..
Highly significant....
Highly significant....
Highly significant....
Significant 	
5a
5 b
H-»S04, 400 litres per acre	
Not significant.
6
7
Check
Conclusion.—All of the treatments were successful in increasing soil acidity.
Sulphur would appear the most promising. A field test was recommended to verify these
results.   The experiment has been written up in detail for publication.
TREATING AN ALKALINE NURSERY SOIL  (E.P. 382, SUB-PLOT 2)
Objective.—To find a satisfactory method of correcting an alkaline soil condition
so that coniferous seedlings will have a better medium in which to grow.
Location.—British Columbia Forest Service Nursery at Cranbrook. 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Work Done.—Four replications, each consisting of six nursery beds divided into
six sub-plots, were laid out, using a Latin square arrangement for each plot. One plot
was heavily overwatered before the treatments were applied. Soil samples were taken
from each sub-plot prior to any treatment and at the end of the first growing season.
The chemicals used were sulphur at 2,000 pounds per acre, sulphur at 3,000 pounds
per acre, sulphur at 5,000 pounds per acre, ammonium sulphate at 1,650 pounds per
acre, aluminium sulphate at 800 pounds per acre, and sulphuric acid at 1,600 litres
per acre.
Results.—The reduction in soil pH caused by the various treatments is as follows: —
Treatments of Alkaline Soil
Mean pH
Mean Change
in pH
Number of
Sub-plots
Treatment
Before
Treatment
After Four
Months
8.08
8.22
8.04
7.90
8.06
8.12
8.07
8.32
7.90
7.42
6.67
6.46
6.59
4.87
+0.247
—0.320
—0.596
— 1.23
— 1.609
-1.521
—3.197
24
Aluminium sulphate	
121
24
Sulphur, 2,000 lb. per acre 	
121
Sulphur, 3,000 lb. per acre	
Sulphur, 5,000 lb. per acre 	
24
24
24
1 Aluminium sulphate and sulphur at 2,000 lb. per acre were each used on two plots.
A statistical analysis showed that, in comparison with the control, aluminium
sulphate is significant and the remainder of the treatments are highly significant in their
ability to change soil pH. The sulphuric acid was by far the most effective with
aluminium sulphate, and ammonium sulphate the least. The three sulphur treatments
were grouped between these extremes.
It would appear that, outside of the sulphuric acid, the 3,000-pound sulphur
application is the most practical, and that little is gained by using the more expensive
sulphate chemicals.
The germination on the sulphuric-acid-treated plots was exceedingly poor. The
acid caused a thin crust to form on the soil surface, and it is believed that this hindered
germination considerably. The remaining plots exhibited fairly uniform germination.
The ammonium sulphate application gave the seedlings a darker green colour and made
the seedlings larger in some plots, but the increase in size was not general. The experiment is continuing in order that data may be obtained on seedling response at the end
of two years.
ALDER SHAVINGS AS A SOIL AMENDMENT
(E.P. 383, SUB-PLOT 1)
Objective.—To determine if red-alder shavings can be used as a practical source
of organic matter, when incorporated into the surface region of a nursery soil.
Location.—British Columbia Forest Service nursery at Green Timbers.
Work Done.—A plot has been laid out using a Latin square statistical design on
four nursery beds. The treatments used were shavings, shavings plus ammonium
sulphate, shavings plus ammonium phosphate, and a control.
Results.—Seedling germination of the control plots was considerably better than
the others. The apparent reason for this is that the dry shavings caused the soil to dry
out much more quickly at the surface, thus hindering germination. At the end of the
growing season no noticeable shaving decomposition had occurred. Of the seedlings
that germinated, there was little difference in size under different treatments, but the
nitrogen-treated plots exhibited the darkest green seedlings. A further examination
will be made in 1953. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
45
COMPOSTS FROM WOOD-WASTE  (E.P.  383, SUB-PLOT 2)
Objectives.—(1) To determine the usefulness of composts at a forest nursery, and
(2) to improvise and experiment with methods and materials necessary for composting.
Location.—British Columbia Forest Service nursery at Green Timbers.
Work Done.—Two composts were made from dry hardwood shavings, varying
proportions of commercial fertilizers, decomposing materials, and water.
Results.—Decomposition did not begin until six weeks after the composts were
complete. It is probable that the hot days of late summer caused high evaporation
and prevented the materials from remaining moist, thus hindering decomposition.
Observations will be continued through 1953.
ANNUAL MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF NURSERY STOCK (E.P. 391)
Objective.—To record the morphological features of the 2-0 stock produced
annually in each nursery, so that a close check on nursery fertility can be maintained.
Location.—British Columbia Forest Service nurseries at (a) Duncan, (b) Green
Timbers, and (c) Quinsam.
Work Done.—At the end of each growing season the 2-0 seedling-beds are randomly sampled and fifteen to twenty seedlings are lifted from each bed for morphological
analysis.
Results.—This year's findings are given in tabular form below.
Morphological Anal-
i'Sis of Nursery Stock
Duncan
Green Timbers
Quinsam
1949
1952
1
1948              1952
1
1949
1952
18.55
9.25
5.86
1.35
2.53
19.27
17.57
6.06
1.85
2.22
1
10.8        |      13.98
7.88              13.5
                 3.59
0.81               0.69
1.46               3.07
9.6
6.2
4.8
0.72
1.23
14.1
11.8
4.5
1.03
1.7
Note.—(1) The 1949-52, 1948-52 comparison is of seedlings grown in the same field.
(2) The figures in italic are significant at the 5-per-cent level.
Conclusions.—Contrary to the results given in the Report of the Forest Service,
1950, there has been no general regression in the growth of 2—0 stook from the three
nurseries. Except for the top-to-root ratio and seedling dry weight of the Green Timbers
stock, the seedling standards have generally improved in 1952 as compared to 1949 and
1948. The reason for the large difference in the number of roots can probably be
attributed to the change in personnel examining the seedlings. The Quinsam and Green
Timbers Nurseries have added ammonium sulphate to their fields, and the increased top
and root growth may be attributed to this fertilizer.
FIELD SURVIVAL OF EXPERIMENTALLY TREATED
NURSERY STOCK (E.P. 392)
Objective.—To observe and record the field survival of experimentally treated
nursery stock, in order to determine the merits of the treatments in relation to field
survival.
Location.—Plantations in the Sayward Forest, Vancouver Island.
Work Done.—Experimentally treated nursery stock is planted in plots. The
seedlings are examined at the end of the first and second growing seasons. All seedlings
planted are Douglas fir. The nursery response to the fertilizers is contained in the Report
of the Forest Service, 1950 and 1951. 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Results.—The findings of this year and last year are as follows:—
Survival Plot 6, Planted in 1951—Latin Square Design
Treatment
Mortality
Per Cent Mortality
1951
1952
1951
1952
0-12-20 fertilizer     ..
72
78
89
98
100
76
114
91
78
100
100
106
102
114
21.0
22.8
26.0
28.6
29.2
22.2
33.2
26.6
2-16-6 fertilizer   	
22.8
7-11-0 fertilizer    _ _ 	
29.2
8-10-5 fertilizer                	
29.2
Check   _      _	
30.9
29.8
33.2
Note.—Figures in italic are significant at the 5-per-cent level.
Survival Plots 7 and 7a, Planted in 1952—Latin Square Design
Treatment
Green Timbers Stock,
Plot 7
Mortality
Per Cent
Mortality
Quinsam Stock,
Plot 7A
Mortality
Per Cent
Mortality
105
138
103
137
112
42.8
56.3
42.0
55.9
45.6
44
46
45
50
57
17.9
16-20-0 fertilizer _	
18.8
6-12-0 fertilizer               	
18.4
10-20-10 fertilizer 	
20.4
Check _ _.
23.2
Note.— (1) No treatment is significantly better than the check at the 5-per-cent level.
(2) The data is from survival counts made in 1952.   It is not final.
Survival Plot 7b, Planted in 1952—Randomized Block Design
Seedling Description
Mortality
Per Cent
Mortality
Green Timbers 2-0 stock-
Green Timbers 1-0 stock..
Quinsam 2-0 stock-
Quinsam 1-0 stock-
Duncan 2-0 stock (normal root-pruning)  	
Duncan 2-0 stock (root-pruned in August of second year)..
Duncan 1-0 stock  	
Note.-
-(1) The figures in italic are significant.
(2) The data is from survival counts made in 1952.
It is not final.
Conclusions.—In Survival Plot 6 there were two groups of fertilized seedlings significantly higher in survival in the 1951 count, but none in the 1952 count. The Duncan
stock which was root-pruned in August of the second year was significantly higher in
survival than the Duncan normal root-pruned stock in the 1951 count, but this significance
did not exist in the 1952 count.
Although there were not significant differences in Survival Plots 7 and 7a, the
6-12-0- and 6-8-6-fertilized seedlings showed the best survival in both plots. The
16-20-0- and 10-20-10-fertilized stock was the poorest in both plots. The Duncan
seedlings root-pruned in August of the second year again were higher in survival than the
normal root-pruned stock.
In the groups of seedlings being compared (1-0 to 2-0 stock) in Survival Plot 7b,
the 1-0 seedlings from each nursery showed better survival than the 2-0 seedlings, and the
1-0 seedlings from Green Timbers were significantly higher in survival at the 5-per-cent REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
47
level than the 2-0 Green Timbers stock. All the Green Timbers stock in this study had
a high mortality. The reason for this is that these seedlings arrived in poor condition
for planting.   A further examination of Plots 7, 7a, and 7b will be made in 1953.
ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF COASTAL FORESTS  (E.P. 378)
Objective.—To develop a system of classification in terms of forest associations,
and to determine the significance of these associations to forestry.
Location.—Coastal British Columbia.
Work Done.—Sixty-five ecological plots were established—thirty-three on the
Queen Charlotte Islands and thirty-two in the area adjacent to Terrace. On each plot the
following procedure was followed:—
(1) Measurement of height, diameter, and age of trees:
(2) Evaluation of the vegetation:
(3) Description and sampling of a soil profile.
A preliminary report on the forest associations of the Terrace area has been prepared.
Compilation of data from the Queen Charlotte Islands is under way.
Results.—With regard to the Terrace area, additional information is required in
order to substantiate the existing data and to fill in gaps which appeared during the
analysis of the field-notes. In view of this situation, the final report must await additional
field work. Tentative descriptions of five forest associations are presented in tabular
form. 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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49
THE ADAPTABILITY OF TREE SPECIES TO FOREST
SITES (E.P.  368)
Objective.—To determine empirically the adaptability of tree species to forest sites,
by the seeding and planting of various tree species on different sites.
Location.—In the Zeballos Valley on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Work Done.—In co-operation with a private logging company, an experiment was
initiated in March, 1952. On two forest associations, field trials were made, sowing
the seed of six species: Pseudotsuga taxifolia, Tsuga heterophylla, Thuja plicata, Abies
amabilis, Abies grandis, and Picea sitchensis. For each species, four plots of forty-nine
marked seed-spots were established in a random pattern within a large plot selected as
being uniform and typical of the required site.
It is the aim of the experiment to evaluate the merits of the species upon the
following:—
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The first significant measure will be the degree of survival during the first
few years:
Recurrent measurements to compare growth rates:
Evaluation of the health of the various species:
Effects of the species upon the soil.
A second aspect of the experiment is concerned with the planting of Douglas-fir
seedlings on various sites.   The first examinations are to take place in the spring of 1953.
THINNING EXPERIMENT IN LODGEPOLE PINE
(E.P.  384 AND 385)
Objective.—To determine (1) the release obtained from different intensities of
thinning in densely stocked 52-year-old lodgepole pine, Site Index 70, and (2) the
reaction of a non-uniform understory of Engelmann spruce to the same treatments.
Location.—Nelson Forest District, west bank of Kootenay River, 23 miles north
of Canal Flats.
General view of lodgepole-pine stand.     Note spruce understory. 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Structure of stand.      Note two dominant larch in background and spruce understory. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
51
Work Done.—Two plots have been laid out on the ground, each consisting of six
sub-plots—a control, and five thinning treatments. Residual trees in thinned plots are
to be 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20 per cent of normal stocking as given by British Columbia
Forest Service yield tables, 1947. The size of sub-plots varies from one-tenth of an
acre to 1 acre, depending upon the treatment, and each will contain a minimum of at
least 100 trees after thinning. Each plot is surrounded by a border subjected to the
same treatment, the border being of such a size that it will accommodate a plot increased
to twice its present area and still provide a 50-foot surround.
A variable number of western larch, present in the upper canopy, are to be favoured
during thinning. Pre-thinning measurements have been completed on control plots and
in thinning plots.    Final tallies are to be taken on completion of thinning next spring.
FOREST SITE-TYPES OF THE SOUTHERN INTERIOR  (E.P.  369)
Objective.—By means of an analysis of plant associations and the forest-cover to
determine the ecological associations of yellow pine-Douglas fir stands of the Southern
Interior of British Columbia.
Location.—Areas were examined in the vicinity of Clinton, Kamloops, Merritt,
Princeton, Vernon, Kelowna, and Oliver.
Work Done.—In each site a complete list was made of all species of the ground,
shrub, and tree cover. The associations were tentatively identified by the most abundant
and typical members of the understory. In all, eighty-nine sites were examined, of
which eighty-six have been tentatively used in a synthesis to determine eleven associations. Table herewith shows the distribution of sites by associations and average
dimensions of dominant trees.
Data on the Distribution of Sites by Associations and Average
Dimensions of the Dominant Trees
Association
Number of Sites
Canopy
Pine
Pine + Fir
Mature Trees
Species
Number
Measured
Average Dimensions
D.B.H.
Height
(Alluvial)
Populus trichocarpa 	
Rhus glabra 	
Artemisia tridentata _ 	
Purshia tridentata  	
Aristida longiseta  	
Stipa comata   	
Agropyrcn spicatum, var. inerme —
Symphoricarpos albus  	
Calamagrostis rubescens 	
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi-	
(Moss + Lichen)
12
Pine	
1
7         1
Pine	
26
Fir 	
1
Pine	
5
Fir 	
1
Pine 	
60
Fir 	
1
Pine 	
50
Fir ---
2
Pine 	
35
Fir    -
1
Pine     -
90
Fir      	
25
Pine -	
44
Fir                 	
16
Pine	
68
Fir- - -	
34
Pine  - 	
65
Fir     -
31
Pine.	
4
Fir	
1
In.
44.3
19.8
28.0
11.1
9.4
20.0
27.9
22.4
20.4
24.8
29.1
28.6
30.3
30.6
28.9
35.8
36.5
20.8
24.0
18.6
17.8
Ft.
137
64
95
24
26
66
69
71
57
78
60
94
96
112
112
119
116
75
78
82
84 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
It is noticeable in this table that several of the associations occur under more than
one type of canopy. In fact, it was noted that all the associations found extend beyond
the immediate vegetation types under study into other vegetation types, with which those
studied no doubt have some ecological affinities.
If any association can be termed a climax, probably it should be the Arctostaphylos
Uva-ursi association, which generally occurs on well-drained soils and level topography;
however, altitude and precipitation play such important roles that this generalization
cannot be held dogmatically, at least at this early stage of the work. The most common
association appears to be the Agropyron association, but this is usually associated with
sloping ground, and is so variable that it may be found necessary, for practical purposes,
to subdivide it.
Although the object was to study virgin stands of Pinus ponderosa, either as pure
stands or in mixtures with Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia), the disturbed nature of
this forest led unavoidably to a compromise of accepting any stand that appeared sufficiently close to its natural state to be worth studying. Even so, considerable distances
often had to be covered to find suitable sites for study. Cutting and (or) grazing have
operated in the majority of stands, and there were very few stands which did not show
some signs of burning fairly recently, apparently with ground fires for the most part;
also, many of the stands gave the impression of being in some successional stage, rather
than in a permanent state. This raises the interesting question of whether or not occasional fires must be considered as a normal ecological factor in the forest. Further field
work will be necessary before even a preliminary report is justified.
VOLUME-TABLE CONSTRUCTION (E.P. 354)
Objective.—To prepare a working-plan for the construction of new, regional,
standard cubic-foot volume tables for use of the Surveys and Inventory Division.
Reason.—Increasing interest and logging activity in poorer sites and a need for
proper volume determinations in second-growth stands for management-planning purposes had forced the extension and use of existing tables far beyond the limits of original
basic data. In addition, utilization standards have changed, and there is now interest
in lower stumps and smaller tops than the empirical limits of original measurements.
The fact that the cubic foot is to be the major unit of measurement by the Forest Service
provided some impetus to the project and considerably simplified it by eliminating a need
for new board-foot tables.
Work Done.—After consideration of the various methods of table-construction
and problems in application, a working-plan was prepared, based on the logarithmic
tree-volume equation. The method, while somewhat cumbersome, was selected because
it offers extra control in a mass-production project and is adaptable to tests for grouping
of species or tables dependent on anticipated use—Provincial inventory, working-plan,
or timber-sale cruises. Standard d.b.h.-total height volume tables showing total cubic-
foot volumes of entire peeled stem are to be produced for each species and for immature
and mature age-classes where necessary. Each table will be accompanied by tables
of percentage factors for determination of merchantable volumes to the following
standards:—
(1) Close utilization:  Stump height equals 1 foot.   Top d.i.b. equals 4 inches.
(2) Intermediate utilization: Stump height equal to Vz the d.b.h. in feet with
a 1-foot minimum; top d.i.b. equal to 20 per cent of the d.b.h. with a
6-inch minimum.
(3) Rough utilization: Stump height equal to d.b.h. in feet with a 2-foot
minimum; top d.i.b.=40 per cent of the d.b.h. with an 8-inch minimum.
Results.—Since the working-plan more or less follows standard text-book methods,
it was not prepared for distribution.   Tables may not be anticipated for about two years. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 53
ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN THE SPRUCE-BALSAM
FORESTS (E.P. 373)
Objective.—To establish the forest associations of the spruce-balsam forests. To
relate these forest associations to the application of forestry practices in the spruce-balsam
forests.
Location.—Mainly at Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station, with a short study
made along the John Hart Highway between Heart and Davey Lake, and a brief reconnaissance of the western part of the Navor Forest.
Work Done.—Fifty temporary plots were examined for vegetation, soil, and men-
surational data. In addition, notes were taken on vegetation and soil profile on nine
secondary or " disturbed " areas.
The forest associations on approximately 2,000 acres of the Aleza Lake Forest
Experiment Station were mapped. Within the mapped area, a timber sale on which the
trees were marked for cutting is now being logged. On the Navor Forest the forest
associations on about 60 acres were mapped. The stands on this area are being thinned
at several intensities. When analyses are made of growth and regeneration in the various
forest associations, the response to differing habitat conditions can be assessed.
Results.—Six spruce-balsam forest associations were tentatively identified and
described.
1. Alder-Black Twinberry-Lady Fern Association (Picea glauca-Alnus-Lonicera
involucrata-Athyrium filix-femina Association).—This association occurs on alluvial
soils in creek and river bottoms. Alder (Alnus sitchensis, A. tenuifolia) and black twin-
berry (Lonicera involucrata) often form very dense thickets. Other shrubs common to
this association are red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), thimbleberry (Rubus parvi-
florus), raspberry (Rubus strigosus), and red elderberry (Sambucus pubens). Conspicuous herbs are ostrich fern (Pteretis nodulosa), lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina),
and stinging nettle (Urtica Lyallii); usually present are enchanter's nightshade (Circcea
alpina), shield fern (Dryopteris austriaca), oak fern (Dryopteris Linnceana), and meadow
rue (Thalictrum occidentale).
The stand has very irregular stocking, which results in great variation in volume
per acre.   The height of spruce dominants is 133 feet.
2. Devil's Club Association (Picea glauca-Abies lasiocarpa-Fatsia horrida-Athyrium
filix-femina Association).—This association usually occurs on level or gently sloping
ground. Devil's club (Fatsia horrida) is dominant in the shrub layer. Other conspicuous shrubs are thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), black twinberry (Lonicera involucrata), raspberry (Rubus strigosus), and occasionally red elderberry (Sambucus pubens).
Ferns are prominent in the herb layer—lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina), shield fern
(Dryopteris austriaca), oak fern (D. Linnceana), and beech fern (D. phegopteris).
Other herbs are horsetail (Equisetum sylvaticum), twisted-stalks (Streptopus amplexi-
folius, S. roseus), Tiarella (Tiarella unifoliata), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), and
trailing Rubus (Rubus pedatus). Important mosses are Brachythecium spp. and
Mniums (M. insigne, M. orthorhynchum, M. spinulosum).
This association occurs on two different soils—a clay and a loam. The stand on
the clay soil is subject to wind-throw, which results in openings. On both soils the trees
are rather wide-spaced.    Height of spruce dominants is 127 feet.
3. Disporum Association (Picea glauca-Abies lasiocarpa-Rubus parviflorus-Dis-
porum oregonum Association).—This association is not well defined, and was observed
only on the Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Station. It occurs on slopes with a clay
soil of good structure.
The shrub and herb layer is well developed. The dominant shrub is thimbleberry
(Rubus parviflorus), but it does not reach the size and vigour attained on the Devil's
Club Association.    Other shrubs such as saskatoon (Amelanchier florida), hazel nut 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
- "; '■■■
- ^Jfetfjj
'  '
III III .11
	
fi ii .mm. i.i.
Devil's club association, spruce-balsam forest, Aleza Lake. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
55
Corylus rostrata), red-ozier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), high-bush cranberry (Viburnum pauciflorus), rose (Rosa acicularis), black twinberry (Lonicera involucrata), and
black huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum) are plentiful. Fairybells (Disporum
oregonum), a shrub-like herb, exceeds thimbleberry in dominance. Other herbs are
cream-coloured pea (Lathyrus ochroleucus), oak fern (Dryopteris Linnceana), small
twisted-stalk (Streptopus roseus) Tiarella (Tiarella unifoliata), bunchberry (Cornus
canadensis), queen's cup (Clinlonia uniflora), and wintergreen (Pyrola secunda). Mosses
are very scattered and in small, thin patches. Brachythecium spp. Mnium insigne and
Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus are the most common.
The stand contains solitary Douglas firs and birches and is generally well stocked.
The height of spruce dominants is 122 feet.
4. Sarsaparilla-Oak Fern Association (Picea glauca-Abies lasiocarpa-Aralia
nudicaulis-Dryopteris Linnceana Association).-—This association occurs on the lower
part of slopes. The shrub layer is moderately developed and characterized by thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) of small size, black huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum),
black twinberry (Lonicera involucrata), high-bush cranberry (Viburnum pauciflorus),
and spirasa (Spiraea lucida). In the herb layer, oak fern (Dryopteris Linnceana) and
sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis) are the dominant species. Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), small twisted-stalk (Streptopus roseus), Tiarella (Tiarella unifoliata), queen's
cup (Clintonia uniflora), and twinflower (Linncea borealis) are also present. Mosses
are patchy to continuous but are thin in cover. The important species are Hypnum
crista-castrensis, Coiliergonella Schreberi, and to a lesser extent Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, Mnium insigne, and Brachythecium spp.
The stand is usually very well stocked, giving good volumes. The height of spruce
dominants is 117 feet.
5. The Moss Association (Picea glauca-Abies lasiocarpa-(Pseudotsuga taxifolia)-
Vaccinium membanaceum-Calliergonella Schreberi-Hylocomium splendens-Rhytidiadel-
phus triquetrus Association).—On clay soils this association is confined to the tops of
ridges, but on well-drained porous soils it is found on the upper slopes. It is characterized
by a continuous thick carpet of mosses. In mature stands there is a very dense undergrowth of small balsam. On clay soils there occur scattered small shrubs and some herbs
such as black huckleberry (Vaccinium memberanaceum), black twinberry (Lonicera
involucrata), thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), and Spiraea (Spiraea lucida); bunchberry
(Cornus canadensis), twinflower (Linncea borealis), queen's cup (Clintonia uniflora),
sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis), and small twisted-stalk (Streptopus roseus). On well-
drained lighter soils the shrubs and herbs are very dwarfed and scattered. The moss
carpet is composed of Calliergonella Schreberi, Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus
triquetrus, and Hypnum crista-castrensis in both pure patches and mixtures.
The stand is moderately stocked, the solitary Douglas firs often overtopping the
main level of the canopy.   The height of spruce dominants is 110 feet.
6. Horsetail-Peat Moss Association (Picea glauca-(Picea mariana)-Abies lasiocarpa-
Alnus tenuifolia-Equisetum sylvatlcum-Sphagnum recurvum Association).—This association occurs on level areas with impeded drainage. The shrub layer is characterized by
alder (Alnus tenuifolia), hard-hack (Spircea Douglasii), blue huckleberry (Vaccinium
ovalifolium), and black twinberry (Lonicera involucrata). The herb layer is dominated
by horsetails (Equisetum sylvaticum, E. pratense); other herbs are Indian reed grass
(Cinna latifolia), lady fern (Athyrium filix-femina), oak fern (Dryopteris Linnceana),
beech fern (D. phegopteris), shield fern (D. austriaca), twisted-stalks (Streptopus
amplexifolius, S. roseus), Tiarella (Tiarella unifoliata), and star flower (Trientalis
arctica). Sphagnum recurvum moss forms large patches. Other mosses are Aula-
comnium palustre, Polytrichum juniperinum, and Brachythecium spp.
The stand is very open and poor. Black spruce occurs in some individual associations and not in others.   The height of spruce dominants is 94 feet. 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 57
CUTTING METHODS IN OVERMATURE SPRUCE-BALSAM (E.P. 371)
Objective.—To provide effective comparisons between silvicultural systems in an
attempt to learn the best form of management for overmature sub-alpine spruce-balsam
stands.
Location.—Bolean Lake, Kamloops Forest District.
Work Done.—The 1951 Report of the Forest Service outlines briefly seven different
cutting treatments which were applied to 500 acres of forest selected after intensive
sampling. During 1951 a timber-sale contract was let for logging the area. Most of the
felling and skidding has now been completed, but not in time for a re-examination of
the treatment areas and their permanent plots. A post-logging survey of the scarified
block, however, showed that good germination and stocking resulted from the 1951
seed-crop, but subsequent skidding destroyed most of these germinates. The seed-crop
was a failure in 1952, hence the area will not be reseeded naturally this year, and
assessment of the scarifying treatment must await the next seed-crop. The area for
clear cutting and burning was completed in time for a slash burn to be made over 5
acres. Although conditions appeared to be ideal, the burn was not sufficiently hot to
destroy the duff and moss layer and expose mineral soil as hoped. This suggested that
controlled burning under sub-alpine conditions may be impractical or that more than one
year must elapse for the moss layer to die and dry out before a satisfactory burn can be
attained.
The first evaluation of the cutting methods will be completed next year, and
the initial and post-logging stand data compiled. This will be the basis for future
comparisons.
FACTORS AFFECTING REPRODUCTION OF SPRUCE AND BALSAM
Objective.—Supplementing the main experiment on cutting methods, a more
detailed study was made of factors affecting reproduction of spruce and balsam. The
effect of light, seed-bed, soil-moisture, and temperature on germination and survival were
studied by means of seed-spots sown in prepared areas.
Location.—Bolean Lake, Kamloops Forest District.
Work Done.—Areas were selected in the Vaccinium membranaceum and Vaccinium ovalifolium associations, representing conditions of full sun, half shade, and full
shade. In each area, five seed-bed conditions were selected or prepared. They are
mineral soil, litter, moss, burn, and rotted wood. In each area, screened seed-spots were
sown with spruce and balsam seed. Soil-moisture, soil-temperature, and surface temperature were recorded by a Coleman meter. Light conditions were measured in
foot-candles by a Weston illuminometer. Maximum and minimum air-temperatures and
relative humidity were also recorded.
Preliminary results showed that spruce germinated best in full sun on mineral soil.
Germination was next best on rotted wood and almost non-existent on other seed-beds
and in shade. However, Columbia chipmunks and red-backed mice disturbed many of
the screened beds, and the experiment will have to be repeated. Saturation trapping
indicated twenty-five mice and five chipmunks per acre.
SURVIVAL OF SPRUCE TRANSPLANTS IN A SUB-ALPINE REGION
Objective.—To compare survival of spring and fall plantings of nursery-grown
spruce-seedlings.
Location.—Bolean Lake, Kamloops Forest District.
Work Done.—The 5 acres burned in the cutting experiment were planted in October, 1952, with 3-year-old Engelmann spruce-seedlings obtained from the Cranbrook
Nursery. Alternate rows in a 6- by 6-foot interval were planted. The missing rows
will be planted in spring. Two site-types have been mapped, and survival will be
determined independently for each. 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Clear-cut and burn cutting method, before burning.    All merchantable material has been removed.
Same area after burning.    The heavy slash remaining consists of defective cull trees,
dead snags, and small suppressed balsam, also mostly defective. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 59
LOGGING AND SAWMILL STUDIES AT BOLEAN LAKE
(This section was prepared by the Vancouver Forest Products Laboratory, Forestry
Branch, Canada Department of Resources and Development.)
During the summer of 1952 various utilization studies were made in the spruce-
balsam forest-types in the Bolean Lake area of the Fly Hills Forest. The objectives of
these studies were (1) to determine the lumber-grade yields of balsam (A hies lasiocarpa
(Hook.) Nutt.); (2) to measure the extent of breakage in felled trees and to relate the
causes of such breakage to different silvicultural practices; (3) to determine the volume
of waste resulting from the application of different logging methods in the categories of
(a) felled and bucked trees and (b) smashed residuals.
Balsam fir up to the present has not been cut extensively, and there has been a
tendency to by-pass it in favour of spruce in a mixed stand, not because this wood does
not possess desirable physical and mechanical properties, but because it has been considered an unprofitable species to log on account of excessive defect. On purely silvicultural grounds, defective balsam should be removed so that the area may be occupied
by vigorous residual members of the stand or healthy seedlings. In practice, however,
there must be some compromise between the silvicultural needs of the forest and the
economic needs of those engaged in the harvesting of forest products.
Balsam is smaller and shorter-lived than spruce and is usually more overmature.
It generally forms a relatively small proportion of the merchantable-sawlog volume per
acre and, unlike spruce, defective trees are frequently difficult to identify as such.
Some, showing little signs of rot, are found to be culls, while others with outwardly
suspicious characteristics are comparatively sound. The problem is chiefly one of such
selection in the woods as will enable the maximum amount of mature balsam to be
harvested without any undue loss in culls. The purpose of this study, therefore, was
to accumulate data indicative of what might be expected of balsam in this area in terms
of economic return.
On 9 acres of typical overmature spruce-balsam, 186 balsam-trees were selected.
The majority of these were considered as complying with merchantable specifications of
a normal timber-sale contract. The remainder consisted of a number of obviously
defective trees and were included in order to establish the extent of decay in relation to
the external evidence. The standing trees were carefully classified according to visual
characteristics indicative of defect. After felling, the material was scaled. Measurements for each tree included stump data, gross dimensions of log, chunks, and unbucked
merchantable tops.   After skidding, the area was re-examined for logs left in the slash.
The 186 trees made 413 logs, of which 209 were cut on a band headsaw at the
co-operating sawmill. Manufacturing practice conformed with box-factory requirements.
All logs were timed going through the mill, and lumber was graded by a qualified
Western Pine Association grader.   Lumber from each log was tallied separately.
This study is a case-history in which a representative group of balsam-trees were
individually followed from the forest, to the log deck, and through the sawmill. Further
compilations are necessary before the project can be reported on in full, but it is anticipated that, in addition to data pertaining to balsam defect and lumber-grade recovery,
some valuable clues will be obtained on estimating the soundness of the standing tree.
This information, it is hoped, will lead to a practical means of fully utilizing the
economic value of balsam in mixed, mature spruce-balsam stands.
The second phase of this project is concerned with determining the logging breakage and waste associated with the experimental cutting methods being practised in the
timber sale. The study is based on complete tallies of small l/s-acre plots scattered
throughout the stand. These plots had been carefully examined before logging. Measurements were taken during felling and bucking and after logging. Material was segregated into sawlog waste and pulpwood waste, and measurements of waste wood in 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
different categories; that is, in the felled trees and in smashed residual trees. Causes
of felling breakage were noted—topography, hidden stumps, rocks, and other—and
a special series of studies of breakage due to skidding were undertaken. Analysis of
the data has not been completed in sufficient detail to present at this time.
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS AT BOLEAN LAKE
(This section was prepared by the Vernon, B.C., laboratory of the Unit of Forest
Zoology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture.)
Engelmann-spruce Bark-beetle.—The primary objectives of the study of the
spruce bark-beetle, Dendroctonus engelmanni Hopk., at Bolean Lake were reached in
1952, and analysis of the data collected up to 1952 will be concluded prior to the 1953
field season.
The bionomic study carried through from 1950 showed the Engelmann-spruce
bark-beetle in the Fly Hills Forest has a two-year life-cycle. Primary flight occurs in
late May and early June. Adults fly again in June of the following year and start
a second brood. Progeny spend the first winter as third or fourth instar larvae and the
second winter as pupae or adults, emerging in May or early June. Each gallery is usually
occupied by two adults which rear on the average fifteen beetles per gallery.
Although complete analysis of the data will permit more definite conclusions concerning the relationships between the beetle population and forest management, present
indications are: (1) Trees over 20 inches d.b.h. are high risk; (2) rapidly tapering
trees are high risk; (3) windfalls are more attractive to beetles than is slash; (4) windfalls remain favourable to infestation for two seasons, while slash is generally favourable
for only one season, but, in well-shaded areas or where slash is lying in direct contact
with wet ground, slash may remain favourable for two seasons; (5) beetle outbreaks
may occur where logging operations are moved abruptly or shut down, causing a break
in the continuity of a near-by supply of slash; (6) outbreaks may be intense in pockets
of virgin timber left unexploited because of unfavourable logging conditions; (7) selective logging of the spruce-balsam forest at Bolean Lake played no measurable role in
causing the beetle outbreak.
Continuation of the project will be in the form of annual inspections of the area to
(1) appraise the influence of experimental cutting methods on the beetle population
level, and (2) assess the accuracy of experimental applications of the classification of
tree susceptibility to beetle attacks.
PATHOLOGICAL STUDIES AT BOLEAN LAKE
(This section was prepared by the Victoria, B.C., laboratory of the Unit of Forest
Pathology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture.)
Preliminary studies of decay in balsam and spruce, conducted by the Unit of Forest
Pathology in 1951, were continued during the present year. Samples of seventy-eight
balsam and an equal number of spruce were obtained through the analysis of six plots
clear cut of trees in excess of 14 inches d.b.h. Average ages of approximately 200 and
325 years were obtained in balsam and spruce respectively. Balsam comprised 89 per
cent of the understory trees, 6 to 14 inches in diameter. Balsam was found to be highly
defective, average cull factors of 30 and 42 per cent being recorded in terms of cubic- and
board-foot computations respectively. Over 30 per cent of the understory balsam contained decay. Losses through decay in spruce were moderate, amounting to only 19 and
24 per cent in cubic and board feet. Understory trees were almost completely free from
defect. Decay was found to increase progressively with increasing diameter in both
species, and trees of large diameter were classed as high-risk trees from the point of view
of disease infection.    A preliminary grouping of trees showed approximately twice as REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
61
much defect in trees containing visible abnormalities. Sufficient regional data pertaining
to the classification "were not obtained, however, to provide reliable information of immediate application to uncut stands. In view of the high incidence of decay in balsam, the
preponderance of understory trees of this species, and the low incidence of decay in
spruce at a relatively advanced age, cutting methods designed to reduce the volume of
non-merchantable balsam and attempts to favour the growth and further development
of spruce appear warranted.
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
"An Analysis of the Difference in Gross Merchantable Cubic Foot Volumes of the
Upper Fraser Uneven-aged Spruce-Balsam Type When Computed by 2-, 4-, 6-, and
8-inch D.B.H. Classes." Part I, by R. M. Malcolm; Part II, by J. L. Alexander; B.C.
Forest Service Research Note No. 21, 1952.
" Comparative Observations of the Changes in Classes in a Thinned and Natural
Stand of Immature Douglas Fir," by George Warrack, Forestry Chronicle 28:46-56,
1952. Reprinted as B.C. Forest Service Technical Publication T. 37, 1952.
" Growth and Development of Some Douglas Fir-Ponderosa Pine Types," by M. B.
Clark, B.C. Forest Service Technical Publication T. 38, 1952. 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
Development of the new nursery in the East Kootenay has proceeded satisfactorily,
and additional land was cleared for further expansion. One-half of the yellow-pine
seedlings were set out with a Holland transplanter, and the remainder left in the seed-beds
for 2-0 stock. Indications are that 2-0 seedlings will develop too much top growth to
give good survival and that 1-1 yellow pine will be the best planting stock. Seed-beds
of Douglas fir, Engelmann spruce, and yellow pine were sown for production of 1,000,000
trees.
At Green Timbers only 933,870 trees were shipped to various planting projects.
This loss in production is attributed to the abnormal influx of birds in June, 1951, which
could not be controlled.   Seed-beds were sown for 3,000,000 seedlings in 1954.
At Campbell River 3,050,000 trees were shipped during the year to planting projects
in that area. Seed-beds were sown for production of 3,000,000 trees in 1954. Evidence
of the lack of nitrogen in the soil showed up in the 2-0 stock and work was started to
clear additional area for a four-year rotation of crops. A sorting-belt was installed to aid
in culling and improving the quality of planting stock.
At Duncan 2,095,200 trees were shipped to projects on Lower Vancouver Island
and seed-beds sown to produce 3,000,000 trees in 1954. The late summer root-pruning
to induce hardening-off of seedlings had the reverse effect this year, and the only explanation appears to be the abnormal dry weather which prevailed at that time. The main
road into the nursery was paved and a cement curb laid on either side. Weeding costs
at Duncan and Campbell River nurseries were greatly increased by germination of willow-
seed blown in from surrounding areas. This is the first excessive occurrence of this weed
in the history of either nursery.
Ten beds of hemlock were sown at all three Coast nurseries with stratified and
non-stratified seed. Many types of soil-cover and mulches were used in an effort to find
the best method to hold the stock in the ground during the first winter.
Experimental soil-fertility work was continued at all nurseries and is reported in
detail elsewhere in this Report by the Research Division under "Nursery Fertility Studies."
SEED COLLECTIONS
The cone-crop for all species throughout the Province was so poor that no seed was
collected in any district. Sufficient supplies are on hand to maintain production at all
nurseries through 1953.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Two separate areas in the Campbell River district of Vancouver Island were covered
by preliminary reconnaissance. The first, comprising approximately 1,000 acres, is all
satisfactorily restocked or will restock. The second area, composed of 2,300 acres of
recently logged and burned land, should also restock naturally. A total of 5,000 acres
in small areas in the Sayward Forest was rechecked. These areas were intensively
examined in 1947 and at that time showed indications that they might restock naturally.
A number of small patches totalling 1,000 acres and located around previously planted
blocks have not restocked and will be planted during the next season. In the East
Kootenay District 15,000 acres were intensively examined, and maps are being compiled.
PLANTING
Weather conditions on the Coast made it possible to start lifting trees in the nurseries
before the end of February, and field planting commenced early in March.   Four projects REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
63
Winter truck-storage shed, with removable wall panels to use for cone-drying in summer.
Sectional plywood bunk-house.     Used at planting projects for sixteen men—two to a room.
Wall sections, 8 by 8 feet;  floor sections, 8 by 1 0 feet, bolted for easy dismantling. 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
planted 3,830 acres with 3,328,500 seedlings by the end of April. In the fall two
projects covered 1,040 acres with 908,000 seedlings.
In the East Kootenay region a small area of 34 acres was planted in May, and an
additional 300 acres were planted in the fall. The unusual dry weather during October
made planting very difficult, and survival of planted stock will probably be very low.
During the year a total of 5,204 acres was planted with 4,435,800 seedlings in the
two regions. Logging companies planted an additional 2,065 acres with 1,664,200 trees.
(See page 130 of Appendix for statistics of planting over the past ten years.)
Loss from fires in the plantations was limited to three small areas totalling 137 acres.
In spite of the severe loss in 1951, the planted areas lost by fire in the past sixteen years
is less than 2 per cent.
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS
Key planting personnel were employed during non-planting months on preparation
of site. This work enables retaining a nucleus of an organization in order to cope with
the larger crews during planting season.
Planting in the Lawson Lake area was completed, and the camp buildings were
moved to an area in the vicinity of Lower Campbell Lake. A heavy snowfall at Great
Central Lake caused considerable damage to the camp buildings there and necessitated
the construction of a new wash-house. Buildings at three other projects were maintained
and improved.
Two power-graders maintained some 180 miles of existing plantation roads, and
another 12 miles of old logging grades were converted for truck use. This work involves
the building of bridges, numerous culverts, ditching, and gravelling.
Snag-falling was continued on both plantable and adjacent areas, 95,751 snags being
felled on 9,517 acres.
PLANTATIONS
Examination of 875 %00-acre plots in the 1951 plantations indicates a survival
after one year of 58 per cent, which is considerably below the average of 75 per cent.
A further 930 plots in the 1949 plantations examined for the second time showed a
survival of 63 per cent. These low figures are a reflection of the extremely long, dry
summer of 1951. A total of 855 plots was established in the current plantations soon
after completion of the actual planting.   These will be examined in 1953 and 1955.
PLANTATION IMPROVEMENT
In June a crew of six men working from a mobile trailer camp began rehabilitation
work on the Campbell River Experimental Forest. This reserve of 1,000 acres was
donated in 1930 for experiments in reforestation. From 1931 to 1934 a total of 165
acres was planted. These are now the oldest plantations on Vancouver Island. Twenty-
two acres of these were intensively examined and then cleaned of competing deciduous
growth and pruned up to 6 feet. A further 17 acres of natural reproduction adjoining
these plantations was also pruned to 6 feet.
In order to make the whole of the forest readily accessible Va of a mile of new road
was constructed, 2Vz miles of old logging grade cleared and converted to truck-road,
and 1 mile gravelled.   A further Vz mile of old grade was cleared of brush. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
65
PARKS AND RECREATION
The past year marked a change from the heavy expenditure of previous years where
major construction projects in a few parks monopolized park funds. In Mount Seymour
Park it was possible to turn to basic services other than access. Picnic-site development
and additions to the ski-tow system will help meet the needs of an ever-increasing number
of visitors. With the emphasis off building-construction in Manning Park, attention was
given to landscaping and expansion of the trail and road system.
Miracle Beach, Cameron Lake, Cultus Lake, and Wells Gray Parks, although barely
past their initial development stage, catered to an appreciative public. Youth crews
continued to expand the popular system of roadside recreational areas.
ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Stabilization in administration was reflected in the comparatively few changes
affecting personnel. The urgency of initiating recreational planning in the Fort George
District was met by placing a Recreational Officer to handle this activity.
The problems of wildlife management in Wells Gray Park assumed such importance
that a research assistant in biology assumed year-round duties. Initiation of a cow-
moose season greatly increased administrative problems within this park.
In a modification of Divisional organization, an Administrative Assistant and a
Public Relations Officer were assigned specific duties. A Mechanical Inspector was
employed in view of the maintenance requirements on the large and varied amount of
machinery now in use.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.—The clean-up of an extensive blow-down area bordering the river was completed, thus abating a serious fire-hazard. This park provided
headquarters for a youth crew who did the work here as well as at Cameron Lake and
MacMillan Park.
Cameron Lake Park.—Improvements started the previous summer were completed
to provide twelve individual picnic-sites. A road 800 feet in length and terminating in
a parking-lot holding ten cars serves the above.
Englishman River Falls Park.—Two new sites were added to the camp-ground,
making a total of eight. Increasing numbers of campers are finding their way to this
secluded spot. A new foot-bridge 96 feet long is under construction to replace the
original bridge built in 1928.
Elk Falls Park.—Work was confined to adding two more sites to the popular
Quinsam River Camp-site.
MacMillan Park.—A massive log registration and information booth was placed on
the edge of the parking-strip. A further 1,800 feet of trail allows visitors to make an
interesting tour through groves of particularly fine trees.
Miracle Beach Park.—The major share of work on the Island was concentrated on
this park. The problem of access was solved by the reconstruction of 1.4 miles of
preliminary road from the Island Highway. Careful slash-burning, ditching, and
gravelling were important items contributing to the high standard of this road. To reach
the proposed parking-lot, a further 1,900 feet of road was built to the same specifications
as the above. The highway bridge, started the previous year, was raised as a precaution
against spring floods, then decked and made ready for use. The main parking-lot, cleared
and subgraded, will hold 173 cars. In addition to this main access system, a further
mile of clearing and grading was carried out on various spur roads.
The problem of water-supply is reflected in the fact that 5,900 feet of 3- and 4-inch
wooden pipe were laid. The initial supply source, a well, was cleaned out, lined, and
covered with a concrete slab. An additional reservoir was excavated and concrete forms
made ready. 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
■ "
Combination change-room and toilet building at Miracle Beach Park.
-.  .... ..   .
Picnic-grounds at Miracle Beach Park. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
67
A trail to the beach and picnic area was completed, and seventeen tables placed
for use. The framing for the picnic shelter and toilet and change building was completed.
A combination administration headquarters and residence was finished, except for painting and landscaping.
A youth crew employed during summer months provided invaluable help on almost
all projects as well as helping with surveying.
Mount Seymour Park.—Final stages in the road and parking system consisted of
clearing the last quarter-mile section of upper road and a new parking-lot preparatory
to grading. Two other parking-lots were graded and gravelled. Guard-rails were
placed on three switchbacks. The approach road from Keith Road to the park highway
was widened and ditched. The complete road was paved in view of the heavy use
experienced.
Because of the large number of sightseeing visitors, considerable landscaping was
carried out at two important view points. In addition, a number of picnic tables and
toilets were placed and a fountain constructed.
The start of a water system involved building a half-mile of access road to the
dam-site. The site was cleared and 3,000 feet of 6-inch pipe put in place. A further
basic service to be implemented was the construction by contract of a personnel building.
Ski-ing conditions were materially improved by increasing the capacity of two tows
and the installation of a new one. A further 3 acres were cleared for ski school
instruction purposes.
Employment of a youth crew for summer months made it possible to extend and
improve the trail system.
Peace Arch Park.—Several small improvements were required to meet increased
park use. Six picnic tables were added to the main group, and patios were laid at the
approaches to the picnic shelter.
Cultus Lake Park.—The extremely large numbers of people frequenting this popular
resort area made it imperative to undertake a major development programme.
The ravages of the winter's floods were cleaned up by extensive burning and grading.
After these repairs in the Maple Bay area, work was done on a large picnic-ground.
A half-mile of new highway and a bridge routed travel back from the lake-front.
Parking-space for 215 cars, toilets, a water system, and the placing of thirty picnic tables
helped meet public demand, which was demonstrated by as many as 1,000 persons
visiting the park in one day.
Requirements of campers were planned for at Delta Grove, where thirty-six individual camp-sites were constructed, each with table and fireplace. A further twenty sites
are being readied for 1953. At one end of the camp-ground a boat-launching area was
constructed with parking-space for twelve cars.
The intensity of public use and resultant maintenance problems necessitated continual administration by a Park Ranger. Therefore, a convenient headquarters building
was completed near the park entrance. It has its own water system from a near-by
spring. A small workshop was found necessary, and so built that it could be moved to
a permanent location.
Manning Park.—Building-construction greatly decreased this year with the major
buildings already completed. However, the personnel building was altered to provide
accommodation on the third story. Pine Woods, the main concession building, was
improved through the installation of a deep freeze, new basement stairway, incinerator,
and kitchen improvements. Four new motels were constructed to form a separate unit
across the highway from the main development. Storage facilities for fire-protection
equipment was provided through the erection of a building 20 by 35 feet.
Preparations for extensive landscaping were made by covering approximately
4 acres with 4,500 cubic yards of clay and topsoil.    Some landscaping was carried out 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
around the new motels. .Esthetic values were improved by a rustic fence around the
proposed pasture and a general disposal of brush along roads and trails.
The Three Brothers Mountain jeep-road was extended 2 miles, now making a total
of 6 miles in length from the Ranger Station. A road 3 miles long was built up Chu-
wantan Creek on the former trail location. Another spur road a mile long, with a heavy-
duty bridge across the Similkameen River, was built to give access to a meadow where
topsoil for landscaping was obtained.
Silver Star Park.—Work continued on the construction of a high-standard car-road
to the summit of the mountain. Two miles of right-of-way, 66 feet wide, were slashed
and burned. Of this, \Vz miles were made ready for gravelling. Substantial ditches
and ten culverts of 24 and 36 inches diameter were provided for this section. The
2Vi miles built the previous year was widened in several places and spread with 2,000
yards of surfacing gravel.
Wells Gray Park.—The road to Clearwater Lake was extended 4 miles, making
a total of 14 miles from the park boundary. Difficulties encountered through a wet
season and then with fires did much to hamper progress. Construction of a headquarters
building was finished, except for minor details.
Langford Workshop.—The requirements of newly developed recreational areas have
made heavy demands on the shop. During the year the following items were readied
and shipped: 268 picnic tables, 170 fireplaces, 40 incinerators, 112 garbage-cans, 269
signs of various designs, and 60 toilet seats. In addition to these, numerous special
articles were completed for office and field work, among which were four intricate
epidiascopes. Another specialized project was making a large registration and information booth for MacMillan Park. The various shop buildings have had their surroundings
landscaped in some detail.
Maintenance.—Maintenance of the popular Vancouver Island parks is a year-round
activity, with the summer personnel being grouped during winter months for undertaking
the larger projects.
The intensity of maintenance during summer months can be visualized from the
following attendance records. These indicate an approximate increase of 25 per cent
over last year, with the number of campers being almost doubled due to better publicity
and improved facilities. Number of
Registered Number of
Name of Park Visitors Campers
Little Qualicum Falls  20,326 2,534
Englishman River Falls Park  11,484 1,259
John Dean Park     8,736 673
Stamp Falls Park     8,239 435
Ivy Green and Twin Firs Picnic-site     6,290 1,336
MacMillan Park     1,344 	
Elk Falls Park ,  14,003 3,137
Totals  70,422i 9,374
1 Studies indicate that only about 40 per cent of the total number of visitors sign the guest-book.
Peace Arch Park, with its formalized landscaping on display to several million
passers-by, is also well patronized by those making use of the attractive facilities. An
increase of over 10 per cent was noted from the previous year in persons registering
at the three centres.
Visitors at summer-house  16,915
Visitors at picnic kitchen     5,144
Club and association picnic visitors  11,414 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
69
Maintenance of buildings and services in Mount Seymour and Manning Parks
required ever-increasing attention as public use grows. Minor alterations to buildings
and road repairs were carried out as needed. Brushy road borders on the Mount Seymour
road were successfully killed by spraying.
Cultus Lake Park, only made ready for use in the spring, attracted so many visitors
that a full-time maintenance programme was instituted during the summer.
PLANNING
Continued progress was made this year in the preparation of long-term over-all
development plans for the most important parks. Considerable work was also done in
the preparation of topographic maps and detailed site-plans of important areas within
several parks.
Two automatic traffic-counters have been in use since August 1st. These are
yielding such information as travel intensity and period of peak loading, which will be
invaluable in future planning.
The system of roadside camp and picnic sites started in 1951 was enlarged during
x952 by the addition of fourteen sites. Of these, three were in the Prince Rupert District, eight in the Kamloops District, two in the Nelson District, and one in the Fort
George District.
During the summer of 1952 a two-man party was active in the Nelson Forest
District examining recreational areas most suitable for development. Of the twenty-
four reserves studied, eleven were found to be either unsuitable or not required at this
time.   The remaining number were mapped and plans prepared for their particular use.
Mount Seymour Park.—Field studies necessary for drawing up the over-all development plan were completed and detailed site-plans prepared for a system of roadside
picnic-sites and a camp-site.   Landscape plans were completed for the personnel building.
Manning Park.—Topographic maps were drawn up for the planning of a large
camp-ground, a heavy-use picnicking-site, and a system of roadside picnic-sites. A site-
plan for extension of the low-cost motel units was also prepared.
Cultus Lake Park.—Site-plans were prepared for extension of the present Delta
Grove Camp-site from thirty-six camping units to fifty-six units. Site-plans were also
drawn up for the park attendant's residence.
Stamp Falls Park.—A topographic map was completed preparatory to detailed
planning of the whole park-
Englishman River Park.—The boundaries were defined and topographic mapping
commenced.
Ivy Green Park.—A detailed topographic map was prepared and a preliminary
development plan drawn up.
Miracle Beach Park.—Field work necessary for preparation of a topographic map
over the major portion of this park was completed and plans formulated for a camping
layout and a 172-car parking-lot. Landscape plans were completed for the attendant's
residence.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY
Field activity this year was directed to the heavily populated southern one-third of
the Province. This was made possible through the appointment of Recreation Officers
to the Fort George and Prince Rupert Forests Districts to handle district problems
directly.
Numerous requests for examination of small recreation areas, both on Vancouver
Island and the Mainland, made by co-operating Governmental services and private
persons, took up much of the field-time.
A rapid recreation survey was undertaken of three forest management licence areas
on the point of being granted so that recommendations could be made for withdrawal
of selected small areas of value for public recreation.
L 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
An attractive public beach on Wasa Lake Reserve, near Kimberley.
Roadside-area planning, Kinbasket Lake, Big Bend Highway. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
71
A number of private land-owners, mainly on the southern Provincial highways,
were approached in an effort to obtain donation of land for public use where private
ownership is the rule, and where it is fairly obvious that provision for recreation is
inadequate.
A "<>' V '\faz
Alpine reconnaissance around Wells Gray Park.
Final field study of two temporarily reserved areas will enable definite recommendations for establishment as parks. The present acreage under various park classifications
as of December 31st, 1952, is:—
Class of Park Number Acreage
" A "  25 299,778.520
"B "     5 7,055,211.000
" C "  32 4,422.651
Special     3 1,656,455.000
65
9,015,867.171
New Parks
The only park formed during 1952 was Golden, created on November 10th, 1952,
with an acreage of 368, of Class " C," in the vicinity of Golden, Nelson Forest District.
Additions to Parks
Name
Date of
Increase
Acreage
Class
Vicinity
Forest
District
Miracle Beach  	
Jan.   23, 1952
Apr.  25, 1952
Apr.  25, 1952
July     4, 1952
86.00
30.00
2.50
45.00
"A"
"A"
"A"
"A"
Oyster River	
Vancouver.
Sidney..	
Elk Falls Park
Deletions from Parks
Elk Falls Park, Class "A," with an acreage of 37.76, in the vicinity of Campbell
River, Vancouver Forest District, was deleted from the list of parks on June 18th, 1952. 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Summary of Recreational Reserves
Map reserves and reserves made under the " Land Act " for the
use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public  391
Map reserves within Provincial forest of areas designated for
recreational use     26
WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
With two biologists now in the Division, wildlife investigations were expanded in
Manning Park, Wells Gray Park, and the Sayward Forest. High-priority studies have
been conducted on the moose of Wells Gray Park, some forest fur species in the same
park, interrelationships of beaver, water-supply, and trout in Manning Park, fisheries
research in Manning Park, and deer in the Sayward Forest.
The moose study consisted of population and range studies, and resulted in a cow-
moose season and extension of the season to mid-December. Sayward Forest deer were
found to be having range difficulties, with widespread malnutrition a result. Manning
Park fisheries' studies involve both fish and fishermen, and aim at maximum production
from the park's limited waters.
A reconnaissance in the proposed Bowron Lakes park revealed a unique wildlife
area, with the potential of becoming the continent's outstanding preserve for several
game species.
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
The major share of engineering work resulted from the design and supervision of
basic services being installed in the larger parks.
Mount Seymour Park.—(1) Supervision on the construction of a water-supply
reservoir, including clearing and excavation. (2) Location and supervision of construction on an access road from the Alpine Meadows to the dam-site at Whistler's Pass.
(3) Miscellaneous surveys in the production of a cabin-area map. (4) Design and
supervision of fabrication and erection of one double ski-tow and one single ski-tow.
(5) Layout and installation of 5,000 feet of 5-inch water-main. (6) Investigation of
electrical-power installation.    (7) Enlargement of service area.
Silver Star Park.—(1) Final location was run from the 5,500-foot level to the
summit at 6,200-foot elevation. (2) The location of the southern park boundary was
investigated and established.    (3)  Supervision of the construction of 1% miles of road.
Wells Gray Park.— (1) Survey of a bridge-site and approaches across the Clearwater River was completed.    (2) Extension of the road location to Clearwater Lake.
Miracle Beach Park.—(1) Layout of camp-site roads. (2) A topographic map
was prepared for the study of the drainage problem in the park.
To fulfil the current development programme for the various parks, the following
structures were designed and engineering supervision in the field provided: —
(a) In Miracle Beach Park a park attendant's residence, a picnic shelter, a
change and toilet building, a 15,000-gallon catch-basin and water-
distributing system.
(b) Design and construction of residences in Cultus Lake and Wells Gray
Parks.    Completion of personnel building in Mount Seymour Park.
(c) In Manning Park, four motel cabins and a forest-protection garage and
storage-shed.
Of these structures, only the personnel building in Mount Seymour Park was handled by contract, the remainder being constructed by local labour and Forest Service
employees under the supervision of the Park Ranger. In addition, the Victoria office
staff have produced several tentative designs for structures to fulfil future development
programmes. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
73
FOREST MANAGEMENT
The total estimated value of all forest products for the year 1952 amounted to
$496,506,550. Although this is not a record, it was only exceeded by the year 1951,
and then by only $8,301,400. With the exception of the value for poles, and piling and
plywood, which showed a small improvement over 1951, the value of all other products
was slightly lower, the box and shingle industry yielding to the greatest individual losses;
both products no doubt suffered from lack of demand, due in part to the use of substitutes.
With the exception of the box and shingle industry, the industry in general appears to have
enjoyed a fairly good year.
The total cut for the Province amounted to approximately 4,938,000,000 board-feet,
in comparison with 4,696,000,000 board-feet in 1951, or an increase of 242,000,000
board-feet. This constitutes an all-time high and would no doubt have been higher but
for the strike in the industry during the summer, followed by a prolonged dry spell, which
had the effect of curtailing lodging operations on the Lower Coast.
Water-borne lumber shipments for 1952 remained fairly constant at approximately
1,148,000,000 board-feet, being an increase of only 1,700,000 board-feet over 1951.
Shipments to the United Kingdom also remained steady at 772,000,000 board-feet, while
the United States absorbed 230,000,000 board-feet, an increase of 159,000,000 board-
feet over 1951. Shipments to all other overseas markets were down, the biggest drop
occurring in shipments to Australia, which were down from 94,000,000 board-feet to
36,000,000 board-feet.
The statistical tables in the Appendix to this Report supply details of the forest
management activities during the year. In commenting on these tables the following
highlights are considered worthy of special mention.
Of the total cut.of 4,938,000,000 board-feet, fir continues, as in the past, to maintain
its leading position in volume cut by species—namely, approximately 2,022,000,000
board-feet or 41 per cent of the total, in comparison with 40 per cent in 1951. Other
important species in order of output were hemlock, 948,000,000 board-feet or 19 per
cent; cedar, 677,000,000 board-feet or 14 per cent; spruce, 656,000,000 board-feet or
13 per cent, in comparison with 20, 15, and 13 per cent for those species respectively
during 1951. Other species, in order of scaled output, were balsam, 6 per cent; lodgepole pine, 2 per cent; larch, 2 per cent; followed by white and yellow pine, cypress, and
miscellaneous hardwoods with a combined total of 3 per cent.
The increased cut of 242,000,000 board-feet comes from the Interior of the Province, with the exception of 12,000,000 board-feet from the Vancouver Forest District and
4,000,000 board-feet from the Prince Rupert District. The Kamloops Forest District
registered the largest gain in cut over 1951—namely, 106,000,000 board-feet—followed
by the Fort George Forest District with a gain of 64,000,000 board-feet, then the Nelson
Forest District with 56,000,000 board-feet. The cut in the Interior, which amounted to
1,603,000,000 board-feet or 32 per cent of the total, reflects the continuing expansion of
an already greatly expanded timber industry which has now become established there.
On the basis of origin of cut, 1,929,000,000 board-feet, or 39 per cent of the total,
came from timber sales, an increase of 114,000,000 board-feet or 6 per cent over 1951.
Old Crown grants came next with 1,134,000,000 board-feet, or an increase of 93,000,000
board-feet over 1951, followed by timber licences with 650,000,000 board-feet, or a
decrease of 35,000,000 board-feet over 1951. The cut from management licences
reached a total of 16,198,089 cubic feet.
Timber sales awarded, including cash sales, numbered 2,594, a decrease from 2,962
awarded in 1951. The estimated value of sales made amounted to $23,585,000, in
comparison with the 1951 valuation of $24,621,000. Volume of saw-timber sold totalled
2,222,000,000 board-feet, in comparison with 2,806,000,000 board-feet in 1951.   The
L 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
total number of sales in force as at December 31st, 1952, was 7,143, in comparison with
7,009 at the end of 1951. The total area held under timber-sale contract is 1,933,000
acres. Moneys held as guarantee deposits on timber sales as at December 31st, 1952,
amounted to $6,068,000.
Stumpage prices bid fluctuated widely, partly due to competition and partly to fluctuations in the value of logs and lumber which occurred during the year. While the
weighted average stumpage rates for each species, cedar excepted, showed an increase
over the 1951 rates, the stumpage rates as at the year-end showed a drop below the yearly
average for each species. The weighted average stumpage rate of all species increased
from $7.89 in 1951 to $9.33, or by 18 per cent.
The number of operating sawmills throughout the Province showed another increase
during 1951, reaching another all-time high of 2,282, including 59 shingle-mills. As was
the case in 1951 and previously, the expansion has largely taken place in the northerly
and central sections of the Province.
Total log exports amounted to 125,000,000 board-feet, in comparison with
82,000,000 board-feet in 1951, or an increase of 52 per cent. Of the total, 108,000,000
board-feet came from Crown grants carrying the export privilege, leaving only 17,000,000
board-feet or 14 per cent from non-exportable lands. Increase in log export may be
attributed to the supply exceeding the demand, particularly for pulp species.
Value of minor products marketed outside the Province amounted to $10,300,000.
This is $2,700,000 or 35 per cent in excess of 1951 shipments, due primarily to the brisk
demand for poles and piling, which comprised 72 per cent of the total value of all minor
product exports.
Timber sales to the number of 2,327 were cruised, having a total area of 564,000
acres. This represents a reduction both in number and acreage of 16 and 40 per cent
respectively. While these reductions show a lessened demand for Crown timber, at the
same time they reflect a continuing brisk requirement for an expanding industry which is
forced to rely more and more for its supplies of wood upon Crown lands.
The volume of logging inspection work again showed an increase, with a total of
20,264 inspections made during the year. As in previous years, however, the frequency
of inspection is far below the standard necessary to obtain and maintain adequate supervision of logging operations on Crown lands.
While trespass occurrences showed no significant change from 1951, nevertheless
the number of cases and volume cut in trespass is significant due to logging acceleration.
A total of 4,400 timber marks was issued during the year, in comparison with 5,500
in 1951.
MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Reconnaissance, location surveys, and construction of roads were carried out as
follows:—
In the Naver Forest, Fort George Forest District, a road reconnaissance was made
of 14 miles in the Stone Creek drainage, followed by a location survey of 14 miles of
main road and 13 miles of branch road to provide access to 25,000 acres of timber. Of
this mileage, 2 miles of right-of-way were cleared.
In addition, a reconnaissance of 13 miles was made in the Naver Creek drainage
followed by a location survey to provide access to 30,000 acres of timber. Of this mileage, 5 miles of right-of-way were cleared and 1 mile of subgrade completed.
In the Niskonlith Forest, Kamloops Forest District, a location survey was undertaken of 12.1 miles of main road and 5 miles of branch road, of which the 12.1 miles of
main road were constructed to provide access to 50,000 acres of timber.
In the Fly Hills Forest, Kamloops Forest District, a location survey was made of
4 miles of main road and 4 miles of branch road. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
75
In the Morice Forest, Prince Rupert Forest District, a location survey was made
of 23 miles of road to give access to 500,000 acres of timber.
In the Nelson Forest District a reconnaissance was made of 25 miles of road in the
White Swan valley and 15 miles in the Kidd Creek valley.
FOREST-COVER MAPS
In the course of the year, 1,304 forest-cover maps were revised as follows: Victoria,
322; district offices, 490; Rangers' offices, 492. Of the above, 198 are new replacements. New replacements include 27 new forest-survey editions, and 81 maps comprising
these were distributed and filed at the offices concerned; 117 were maps replaced for
wear and tear at district offices.
Instruction in forest atlas revision, mapping, and the organization of maps and plans
was given at 9 headquarters to 61 Forest Service personnel, including 9 temporary
assistants (mapping) employed at Victoria, the Ranger School, and at district offices as
follows: Victoria, 5; Ranger School, 21; Vancouver Forest District, 1; Prince Rupert
Forest District,. 9; Fort George Forest District, 6; Kamloops Forest District, 8; Nelson
Forest District, 11.
AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS
During the year, 46,900 aerial photographs were added to district aerial-photograph
libraries as follows: Vancouver Forest District, 7,625; Prince Rupert Forest District,
15,615; Fort George Forest District, 13,206; Kamloops Forest District, 931; Nelson
Forest District, 9,523.
Aerial-photograph map indexes, issued with aerial photographs supplied, were filed
in all offices concerned. Card indexes listing aerial photographs are being set up as
required at district offices.
One Kail aerial-photograph plotter was installed in the Fort George District office
and one epidiascope installed in the Kamloops District office. Stereoscopes are being
issued as standard equipment at district offices and District Rangers' offices.
SILVICULTURAL FUND
During 1952, work was continued under the Silvicultural Fund in three of the
Interior districts. Unfortunately, due to a shortage of manpower and particularly men
of foremen calibre, Prince Rupert was unable to institute any project work. The
following is a summary of work accomplished:—
Reduction of Fire-hazard
Nelson.—-In the Nelson District, two district crews were employed and, in addition,
fifteen Rangers employed smaller crews on slash-disposal in their districts. Lopping
and scattering, snag-felling, and piling and burning were carried out on 4,166 acres.
Of the 580 abandoned mill-sites burned in the fall of 1951, 106 were found to be still
burning and were extinguished. For a width of 1 chain, 5,758 chains of roadside slash
were treated. Construction, maintenance, and repairs were completed on 54 miles
of road.
Kamloops.—Four district crews, consisting of from three to ten men, were employed in reduction of fire-hazard and five Ranger districts employed small crews in
this type of work. Lopping and scattering, and piling and burning were carried out
on 854 acres. For a width of one-half to 1 chain, 3,050 chains of roadside slash were
treated.    Repairs, maintenance, and construction were completed on 29 miles of road. 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Tree-marking
District
Sales Marked
Area
Volume
33
50
11
Ac.
5,545
8,774
1,800
F.B.M.
16,007
34,160
10,000
Totals _	
94
16,199
60,167
Special Studies
Nelson.—(a) Cat-logging study to determine whether large machines caused more
damage to immature values than small machines.
(b) Research projects included a study to determine a policy of cutting in the
Slocan type of forest where the age-group 80 to 100 years predominates, and a study
on the Upper Kootenay River to determine effect on spruce understory when the dominant lodgepole pine is thinned to various degrees.
(c) Improvement thinning experiments are being conducted on areas suitable for
Christmas trees.
(d) A pathology crew from the Laboratory of Forest Biology has started a
programme to determine validity of external abnormalities as indicators of internal defect.
Additional studies are being carried on for pole-blight and needle-cast.
Kamloops.—(a) Patch-logging experiments have been initiated on three timber
sales in the Sock Lake area in a spruce-balsam type.
(b) Experimental work is being continued at Bolean Lake in a spruce-balsam type.
This included felling and bucking cost studies, recording of abilities of various areas
to reproduce spruce, and the clear-cutting and burning of an area 3.4 acres in size
(this burned area was then planted with 1-year-old spruce).
Fort George.—(a) Working-plans have been drawn up for the Naver and Cottonwood Forests and for the Stuart Lake working-circle. Field work necessary for working-
plans has been commenced in the Crooked River Forest.
(b) Special studies have been started on the effects of direct seeding and thinning.
Control plots have been laid out for damage studies in areas which have not as yet been
logged. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
77
WORKING PLANS
FOREST MANAGEMENT LICENCES
Three management licences were awarded during the year, bringing the total to
thirteen.
F.M.L.
No.
Name
Company
Productive
Area
Annual
Allowable
Cut
11
Carmi  _	
Ac.
69,295
15,497
37,880
MC.F.
630
12
Bendickson Logging Co. (1939) Ltd.    .
1,330
357
13
Bull River...   	
Total productive area of the thirteen management licences now extant is 1,943,200
acres. Total annual allowable cut for all thirteen is 69,672 thousand cubic feet. In
addition, ten management-licence applications have been approved, subject to submission
of satisfactory working plans.
PUBLIC WORKING-CIRCLES
Thirty public working-circles have been delineated throughout the Province as
follows:—
Vancouver District
Kamloops District
Prince Rupert District
Fort George District	
Nelson District	
9
4
5
6
6
Total
30
The approximate total area of productive forest land covered by these units is
7,740,000 acres, with a total annual allowable cut of approximately 155.5 million cubic
feet.
Twenty of these are under regulation, and control ledgers have been set up for that
purpose.   Other units will be placed under regulation as early as possible.
FARM WOOD-LOTS
Total number awarded by districts is as follows:—
Vancouver 	
Kamloops 	
4
1
Total.
TREE-FARMS
As a result of the recent amendment to the " Taxation Act," the first three tree-
farms were certified by the Forest Service during the year, as follows:—
Owner
Location
Total Area
T. C. Wright 	
H. R. Nickson	
MacMillan & Bloedel Ltd..
Seechelt Peninsula ..
Seechelt Peninsula..
Fanny Bay	
Ac.
324
180
24,762 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
Due to a late spring and a better distribution of rainfall, the 1952 fire season was
by no means as bad from the hazard standpoint as 1951, which was an exceptionally
hazardous year. Even though the hazard weather in the southern half of the Province
continued almost a month later than usual (to October 22nd) and 196 more fires occurred
in October of this year than in 1951, the fact remains that the late fall is a better time for
fighting and controlling fires, hence the damage from forest fires for this year is much less.
In the Vancouver Forest District, although there was less rainfall from April to
September, inclusive, than for the same period of the previous year, there were actually
eleven more days with rain during the past season.
For the second year in succession a light fire season was experienced in the Peace
River portion of the Fort George Forest District. West of the Rockies, however, in both
the Fort George and Prince Rupert Forest Districts, a late-spring high-hazard period
obtained. This was due to the fact that from April 11th to May 18th there were thirty-
two days without rain and, with the usual cold nights retarding green growth, the flash
hazard was high by May 15th and lasted for three weeks, to be terminated by the usual
June rains. Conditions again became hazardous by July 15th and persisted until the
end of August.
The coast section of the Prince Rupert Forest District experienced no serious fire
weather until July. From then on until August 15th a moderate hazard period obtained
and was followed by intermittent showers and rain for the balance of the season.
In the Kamloops Forest District the season started slowly with no serious hazard
build-up, except for a brief period in the middle of July, until the dry lightning-storms
during the first two weeks of August. The hazard continued high in that district until the
general rains of August 24th. From then on no further trouble was experienced in the
northern half of the district, but the southern part, in common with the Vancouver and
Nelson Forest Districts, experienced an exceptionally dry, late fall. From September
12th to October 23rd no rain fell in the southern half of the Kamloops Forest District,
and unusual trouble with October land-clearing fires was experienced. This demonstrated
the necessity of extending the legal fire season to October 31st to provide permit control
of such fires.
In the Nelson Forest District the 1952 fire season was a comparatively light one.
The late spring and early-season rainfall combined to keep the hazard low until July 16th,
on the night of which lightning-storms struck the southern portion of the district.
Fortunately, these were followed by light showers, which kept the hazard from building
up during the next week. August, with its occasional lightning-storms, was the worst
month of the late fire season which continued until October 23rd, when fall rains at last
arrived.
FIRES
Occurrences and Causes
A total of 1,914 fires was reported during the 1952 fire season. This was only 9
fires less than the previous year and 356 more than the annual average for the past
decade. Although the number of fires was so close to that of 1951, the cost and area
burned was much less because of a more fortunate spacing in fire occurrence. By the
end of May, 1951, there were 10 per cent more fires than to the same date in 1952, but
during October, 1952, when fires are easier to control, there were 198 fires recorded, as
compared with two in October of 1951. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
79
Shown below, for comparative purposes, are figures of fire occurrence by forest
districts:  Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year
Forest District Period 1943-52
Vancouver   4,334
Prince Rupert  684
Fort George  1,629
Kamloops  4,737
Nelson  4,197
Totals
15,581
Percentage
of All B.C.
27.82
4.39
10.45
30.40
26.94
100.00
The three main causes of fires were campers and smokers, 33.8 per cent; lightning,
22.5 per cent; and railway operating, 13.3 per cent. Campers' and smokers' fires were
up 1 per cent over the past ten-year average, due mainly to the September-October fire
weather, which was coincident with the hunting season. Railway-operating fires were
again less than the ten-year average, which reflects the introduction of oil-burners. Of
these, those reported from the Pacific Great Eastern Railway in the Vancouver Forest
District totalled 176 in number, or 69 per cent of all railway fires for the Province. For
further details of fire occurrences and causes see Tables Nos. 51, 52, and 56 of the
Appendix.
Cost of Fighting Fires
The 1952 fire-fighting costs were almost double the previous ten-year average. This
increased cost is partly due to higher wages now being paid for fire-fighting, as established
in 1951. Compared to last year, with the same basic fire-fighting wage of 75 cents per
hour, this year's cost aggregated only 40 per cent. For further details on cost of fire-
fighting see Tables Nos. 56 and 58 of the Appendix, also Table No. 42 for the cost to
other agencies.
Again it will be noted that lightning fires, although only 22.5 per cent of the whole,
accounted for 58.4 per cent of the Forest Service fire-fighting bill. Actually, in 1951, 7.7
per cent of the fires (148) accounted for 87 per cent of the Forest Service cost, and in
1952, 5.7 per cent of the fires (109) accounted for 83.8 per cent. With few exceptions,
these costly fires were due to inaccessibility, and until funds are available for more access
roads and trails into the back country and for at least one helicopter in each forest district, such fire-fighting costs will continue.
Damage
The total area burned in 1952 is estimated at 152,400 acres (see Table No. 55).
This is only 45 per cent of the average annual acreage burned in the last ten years. It is
a creditable record in view of the fact that there were 23 per cent more fires this year.
As stated before, fire-fighting efforts were aided by the lateness of the fire season, the
better distribution of rain, and the fact that, for the second year in succession, the Peace
River acreage burned (13,660 acres) was moderate in comparison with former years.
As shown in Table No. 56, industrial operations are responsible for starting fires
which cost 48 per cent of the damage bill. Of this damage, $332,800 represents cut
products and logging equipment of the coastal region. It will be noted that lightning
again accounts for the highest percentage of acreage burned; namely, 38 and 35 per cent
of the damage bill.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Fire Atlas and Statistics Ledgers
The Provincial fire atlas has been brought up to date, and a total of 1,914 accidental
fires for the year 1952 has been plotted.   In addition, 281 intentional slash burns have 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
also been plotted.   The fire-statistics ledgers for all five forest districts are currently being
brought up to date.
Visibility Mapping
This year forty-two possible lookout points were examined in the Prince Rupert
Forest District by two two-man crews. The notes obtained in the field have been compiled and assembled in book form, and copies forwarded to the District Forester concerned. In all, seven new primary lookouts were recommended for development as and
when funds are available.
Lookout Photography
Lookout photography was carried out in conjunction with visibility mapping this
year. Sets of panoramic photographs taken from potential sites were as follows: Vancouver District, 5; Kamloops District, 1; and Prince Rupert District, 5. These are being
processed and mounted in book form to be forwarded to the districts concerned.
VANCOUVER  FOREST DISTRICT
AIR PHOTOS   versus       AVAILABLE MAPS
Portraying difference between aerial photographs and maps presently available.
Modern Aids to Fire-fighting
The use of aerial photographs, aerial-photograph mosaics, and mechanical equipment as detailed last year was continued. The most interesting development this year is
the receipt, from Ottawa, of aerial photographs taken by the Royal Canadian Air Force
from an elevation of 35,000 feet. Aerial-photograph mosaics are currently being built up
for the Mainland portion of the Vancouver Forest District, and these mosaics will give REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
81
the air observer a much better chance to locate and report fires accurately on those portions of the district where no accurate and detailed topography maps are now available.
For comparison see the adjacent picture showing the Pitt Lake and River basin in mosaic
and as depicted by the existing available maps.
Fire-weather Records and Investigations
An expended network of fire-weather stations was developed this year in the Nelson
Forest District. Records were received at Victoria at the end of the fire season from
sixteen lookouts and twenty-four valley stations. Records were also available at the
end of the fire season from eleven lookouts and three valley stations in the Fort George
District, from two lookouts and eight valley stations in the Prince Rupert District, and
from eight lookouts in the Kamloops District.
Detailed reports were received twice daily by radio from stations in the Vancouver
Forest District and plotted on small-scale maps for convenient reference. Detailed
records of fire weather and fuel moisture were available from twenty-nine lookouts,
while temperature and relative humidity data were available from nineteen Ranger Stations. In addition, a limited amount of data has been made available since the end of
the fire season by industrial co-operators.
This year, for the first time, fire-hazard forecasts for the Vancouver District, issued
by the Meteorological Service, were broadcast twice daily over commercial radio stations.
The Vancouver District forecast was issued for three zones based on climatic differences.
Similarly, fire-hazard forecasts for the Kamloops District were divided into three climatic
zones for the first time this year.
The Forest Service distributed 380 sets of fuel-moisture indicator sticks this year,
or 65 more than in the previous year. Of this number, 231 sets were distributed to
industry. Fire-weather records for lookouts in the Vancouver Forest District have been
tabulated and summarized back to 1947. Forest Service Bulletin T.28, "Fire Weather
Instruments," has been revised and reprinted. Measurements of sunshine and fuel temperature at Langford Lookout were continued.
The seasonal variation in lightning fire probability was obtained for the Nelson,
Kamloops, Fort George, and Vancouver Forest Districts. The distribution of lightning
fires over the Province has been plotted for the 1950 and 1951 seasons. A detailed study
has been made of the meteorological conditions associated with periods of intense drying
along the southern British Columbia coast, and a paper has been prepared for publication
in one of the meteorological journals.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Fire-suppression crews were again placed in the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson
Forest Districts. In all, fifteen crews were stationed in localities where fires were likely
to occur within striking distance from existing roads. The actual locations of these
crews were as follows: In the Vancouver Forest District, in the vicinity of Langford,
Duncan, Nanaimo, Parksville, and Campbell River; in the Kamloops Forest District,
in the vicinity of Kamloops, Kelowna, Penticton, Princeton, Merritt, and Chase; and
in the Nelson Forest District, in the vicinity of Elko, Cranbrook, Castlegar, and Kettle
Valley. All crews comprised ten men, except for those at Chase and Merritt, where
they consisted of only five men. These crews were fielded for an average of 100 days
in mid-fire season. They were called to 192 fires, of which 92.5 per cent were held to a
subsequent spread of less than 5 acres. For the analysis of suppression-crew fire-fighting
activities, see table following. In addition to fire-fighting, 27 per cent of the gross time of
all crews was spent in doing essential work on new improvements and maintenance. 82
department of lands and forests
Suppression-crew Operations
Size of Fire When Attacked
Number
of
Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
!4 Acre
or Less
Over
Vi Acre to
1 Acre
Over
1 Acre to
5 Acres
Over
5 Acres to
50 Acres
Over
50 Acres
Spot (up to 14 acre) 	
Over Va acre and up to 1 acre
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres .....
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres .
Over 50 acres 	
Totals.
130
23
26
10
3
118
12
16
4
150
12
AIRCRAFT
In the spring of 1952, tenders were called for a three-year flying charter embracing
six pontoon-equipped aircraft, each capable of carrying 1,000 pounds pay-load. The
successful tenderer was again Central British Columbia Airways Limited. A total of
2,320 accident-free flying-hours was logged during the period from April 15th to
November 15th, as follows:—
Charter Aircraft Use
Forest District
Base
Type of Plane
Hours Flown
Beaver	
Fairchild 171                	
394
Prince Rupert 	
281
Fairchild 171 _.__	
476
Kamloops  	
Kamloops  	
645
Beaver   	
524
Total
2,320
All aircraft were radio-equipped, including one frequency of the Forest Service
network for the district concerned, and equipped for parachute dropping.
The aeroplane has proved an indispensable aid in fire-fighting for a variety of uses,
such as fire patrol, fire reconnaissance and mapping, and for the transport of men, equipment, and supplies. In this connection, the Nelson aeroplane, for instance, dropped 17
tons of food-supplies and equipment during the past fire season. For proper efficiency,
however, it must be supplemented by the helicopter as soon as funds are available for the
purpose, in order to provide quick access to back-country fires.
In addition to the main charter for fixed-wing aircraft, a limited number of flying-
hours were logged by locally chartered aircraft where the fire situation in mid-season
demanded more aircraft help than could be provided by the six aeroplanes mentioned
above.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The road and trail work for forest-protection purposes, including access to lookouts,
was continued within the limits of the funds available. Normally, the bulk of this work
is done in the fall, but this year late-September and October fires interfered with the
programme somewhat in the southern portion of the Province. In spite of this, as shown
in the table below, 189 miles of roads and trails were constructed and 1,750 miles were
maintained. These totals do not include the many miles of road and trail which had to
be roughed out by tractors for four-wheel-drive equipment to provide access to back-
country fires, which costs are included as a part of fire-fighting costs. These totals do
include project work done by suppression crews. report of forest service, 1952
Construction of Protection Roads and Trails
83
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
45
204
Miles
35
167
Miles
32
17
Miles
112
388
Total road construction and maintenance	
249
202
49
500
23
588
22
346
32
428
77
1,362
Total trail construction and maintenance '	
611
368
460
1,439
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
Spring slash-burning was carried on successfully in the Vancouver Forest District
and continued until the end of April. In all, 1,440 acres were broadcast-burned and an
additional 1,760 acres were spot-burned before the official fire season began. No hangover fires occurred, due mainly to careful supervision and, finally, to the heavy June
precipitation. The industrial dispute during the summer, succeeded by the Coast forest
closure until August 25th, left many operators in a poor position to properly organize
their fall burning programmes.
The break in the weather in early September convinced many that the fall burning
season had arrived, and the sudden mid-month change to the long, dry spell, introduced
by severe winds, resulted in several intentional burns flaring into expensive escape fires.
By October ideal burning weather obtained and continued throughout the month.
In fact, spot-burns were carried out successfully during the first week of November.
As a result of the long fall, four times as much slash was disposed of in 1952 as for
the previous calendar year. For final results of the 1952 slash-disposal see Tables Nos.
46 to 49 of the Appendix. These show that 42,920 acres of slash were disposed of
during the season, of which 3,856 acres were burned by accidental fires. This acreage is
equivalent to 77.5 per cent of the total disposal required in 1952. It has been exceeded
only in five other years during the sixteen-year period since 1937, when the abatement
of slash hazard in the Vancouver Forest District became a legal requirement under the
" Forest Act."
It will be noted from Table No. 48 that the 1952 slash-burning season was a very
expensive one from the standpoint of damage done and cost of controlling. The records
show, however, that 248 operators or 88.3 per cent confined their slash-burning to the
areas of required disposal. It is reported that it cost three of the larger operators $68,330
to contain their slash burns within the original 2,470 acres that were to be burned. This
is an average of $27.60 per acre and, as a comparison in this same period, an accidental
forest fire of 2,840 acres cost $11.50 per acre. It was less expensive to control, as it was
finally stopped on the boundaries of previously intentionally burned areas without too
much difficulty.
The thirty-three slash fires (11.7 per cent) which did escape burned 10,744 acres of
forest-cover. Of this, 2,000 acres were classed as merchantable timber, the bulk of which
is salvable with a revision of logging plans, and 2,000 acres were classed as immature
timber.   The balance was acreage not yet satisfactorily restocked or scrub sites.
Snag-falling concurrently with logging was again satisfactory, as shown by Table No.
43 of the Appendix. In addition to the 67,214 acres snagged by industry, a further 541
acres of old snags, occurring on areas logged prior to the implementation of section 113
of the " Forest Act," were felled under contract in the Bowser area of Vancouver Island.
A further 9,517 acres of snags were felled by the Reforestation Division in 1952 in
advance of planting. 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
As shown by Table No. 59 of the Appendix, although prosecutions in 1952 were
four more than the annual average for the past ten years, they were only 55 per cent of
those in 1951. This is a reflection of the difference in the two fire seasons; namely, the
shorter full-closure period on the Coast and the extended fall hazard weather in 1952.
This latter proved most embarrassing to Forest Officers in those cases where, in October,
irresponsible citizens started clearing fires in spite of the risk, knowing that no burning
permits were required after the official fire season.
FOREST CLOSURES
For the second year in succession a general closure proved necessary in the Vancouver Forest District. In comparison with the record-breaking closures of 1951, the twenty-
day period of August 5th to 25th was comparatively short, but to the Coast logging
industry particularly, which had recently terminated a long woods strike, it constituted
a further lay-off which could be ill afforded in meeting production schedules.
No other general closures were deemed necessary, but eleven regional travel closures
were invoked, where warranted, in various parts of the Province, as indicated in the table
below. In some cases, these were enforced by closure gates and Forest Service attendants,
but in other less-frequented areas, warnings to the public through the press, radio, and
poster advertising sufficed.
Forest Closures, 1952
Area
Bear Creek (Tulameen) _
Sayward Forest	
Boundary Creek 	
St. Mary Creek	
Koch Creek 	
Wilson Creek _.	
Arrow Park Creek.
Granby River-
Vancouver Forest District-
Sand Creek  	
Ingram Creek	
Little Sand Creek.	
District
Kamloops.
Vancouver.
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Nelson 	
Vancouver.
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Effective
Date
July 11
July 11
Aug. 2
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug.
Aug. 8
Aug.   13
Termination
Date
Sept. 12
Sept. 12
Oct. 27
Oct. 27
Oct. 27
Oct. 27
Oct. 27
Oct. 27
Aug. 25
Oct. 27
Oct. 27
Oct.   27
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES
The excellent co-operation from honorary fire wardens must be acknowledged with
thanks and appreciation. In 1952 the honorary fire wardens throughout the Province
numbered 834. These public-spirited citizens voluntarily undertake initial action on fires
in the woods near their communities year after year, thus augmenting the Forest Service
staff and performing a most valuable function in the forest fire-suppression organization.
In addition, there were 790 Forest Fire Prevention Officers appointed under
authority of section 123 of the " Forest Act." These men are appointed at the request
of their employers in the forest industry or in municipalities, and have the same authority
as a Forest Officer on the particular operation with which they are concerned.
Acknowledgment must also be made for the excellent co-operation received from
the Royal Canadian Air Force and from commercial air lines and private pilots in
detecting and reporting fires. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
85
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS*
FOREST-INSECT SURVEY
For the second consecutive season a prolonged forest closure interfered with survey
activities over much of the coastal area. Despite this, the total survey returns for the
Province were 6,685, as compared to 6,316 in 1951. An interesting development of the
work of the Forest Biology Rangers is the inclusion of records of forest pathology in
addition to forest insects in their survey field work.
A very marked increase occurred of some of our potentially destructive forest
insects, although no widespread devastating outbreak developed during the year. Nevertheless, present indicators point to possible trouble by defoliators in the very near future.
Of the more serious pests, the hemlock looper became more evident in various coastal
regions during the year.    This insect has been almost non-existent since the decline of
Canadian Government insectary at Vernon.
of the last great outbreak in 1947, but again appears to be on the increase. In no area
was defoliation noticeable, but the rising population trend must be considered very
significant. Its presence was recorded from Prince Rupert to the Lower Fraser Valley,
but no one spot could be selected as more serious than another.
Associated with the hemlock looper is the black-headed budworm, whose numbers
increased drastically over most of the coastal forests. It was particularly noticeable in
the Prince Rupert district, Tweedsmuir Park, Queen Charlotte Islands, North Vancouver,
Seymour Park, and in many other areas. Although this insect does not constitute as great
a threat to our forests as the hemlock looper, its significance is increased by the fact that
on previous occasions it has preceded outbreaks of the hemlock looper.
Although the spruce budworm had shown a marked increase during the past two
years, the population dropped in most areas during 1952. Spruce budworm on Vancouver Island seemed to disappear almost entirely. In the Prince George-Prince Rupert
country there was a general decline, except in the Babine Lake area, at Cross Creek, and
* Prepared by H. A. Richmond,
Victoria and Vernon Laboratories.
Unit of Forest Zoology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Taltapin River. In this region, however, the budworm requires two years to complete
development. It is only in the second year when larva, are fully grown that severe damage
is inflicted and it, therefore, constitutes much less hazard to the forest than the characteristic one-year strain.
Another defoliator that showed a marked increase in 1952 was the hemlock sawfly.
This insect normally causes very little damage to British Columbia forests, but it is
noteworthy because of its pronounced increase and wide distribution. The greatest
concentration occurred on the south and west coasts of Vancouver Island, Seymour Park
near Vancouver, and on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Bark-beetles in both pine and spruce have been prevalent in many parts of the
Southern Interior of the Province. The Douglas-fir bark-beetle has probably caused the
greatest alarm among operators, since its increase has been related closely to logging
operations and hence relates to the development of management plans. Outbreaks of
importance occurred in the Quesnel region and in the transition zone between the Coast
and Interior forests at Boston Bar and in the Skagit River valley. At Boston Bar an
estimated 4 square miles was infested, while in the Skagit Valley infested trees covering
one-half to four acres in area extend over a distance of some 13 miles. Bark-beetles in
pine occurred in outbreak proportion in parts of the Kamloops and Nelson Forest
Districts. In the former district the heaviest attack occurred west of Shuswap Lake
between Cape Home and Encounter Point. In the Nelson District the most seriously
affected areas are Shelter Bay to Sidmouth, Upper Arrow Lake, and the Windermere and
White River valleys.
A point of special note is the appearance of Dendroctonus attack on yellow pine in
the Aspen Grove country. This is the first evidence of such attack on yellow pine since
termination of the extensive outbreak in 1934. At least 436 trees were attacked over
4,500 acres in 1952.
SPECIAL STUDIES
Special studies outlined in the 1951 Report were extended through 1952. Because,
in most instances, they are long term in nature, repetition of details will serve little
purpose. In view of the increasing concern over the protection of timber and logs from
bark-beetles and ambrosia-beetle attack, however, some detail on 1952 results of this
work may be of interest.
Experimental work on the chemical control of bark-beetles has been carried out in
the Windermere district during the last two seasons. The major portion of the work has
been directed against the mountain pine-beetle, Dendroctonus monticolce Hopk., in
lodgepole pine.
Two types of insecticides have been investigated—those formulated as penetrating
sprays and applied on the bark, and systemic insecticides applied to bark girdles and
relying on the trees' translocation system for distribution.
Ten insecticides have been tested in penetrating formulations, seven of which indicate
good results. One in particular, ethylene dibromide, has given consistently high beetle
mortality. Oil in water emulsion formulations have been tested in order to reduce cost.
Thus far, 20 per cent oil in water emulsions has proven as satisfactory as oil solutions of
the insecticides.
Results of the systemic insecticide experiments have indicated only partial control,
and until improved methods are developed, this type of control appears inadequate.
Spray was applied to a raft of 1,200,000 board-feet high-grade Douglas-fir veneer-
logs to protect them from attack of ambrosia-beetles (Trypodendron and Gnathotrichus).
The spray used was benzene hexachloride applied at a rate of 1 gallon per 100 square
feet of bark area. Two applications were necessary for full summer protection from
attack. Costs were: Labour, 14 cents, and material, 11 cents, or 25 cents per thousand
board-feet for each application.   Although there were masses of these insects in flight in REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
87
Forest insect of the year. This distinction goes to the Douglas-fir bark-beetle, pictured
above. The adult is reddish to dark brown or often black, about one-fifth of an inch long.
They work in pairs, construct egg galleries which are mostly in the inner bark, although they
do engrave the sap-wood slightly. Reddish boring-dust caught in bark crevices gives evidence of attack. During 1952 it caused much concern to operators in the Interior Douglas-
fir stands, since it multiplies rapidly in felled or injured trees and fresh logging slash,
following which it will attack and kill green Douglas fir. Bark-beetle problems resulting
from this insect and other species in pine have become increasingly common in the Western
States and Canada over the past few years, and several serious situations have developed. 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Gas-pump for application of spray in ambrosia-beetle control
* ~    _.   ,
r?**Si_i__£< — ; ~-
Spraying rafted Douglas-fir logs, veneer stock, in ambrosia-beetle control measure. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
89
the area at the time of spraying, there was no attack on the logs throughout the summer.
Further work is aimed at the development of a spray with sufficient residual effect to make
one application sufficient for a full summer protection. This was the first large-scale
attempt by industry in British Columbia to spray logs for protection from ambrosia-beetle
attack. Further application of spray to felled and bucked timber by one of the larger
companies is being planned for 1953. 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
During the year, headquarters were transferred to the new Federal Building, Victoria. Office and laboratory accommodation have been designed to fulfil the objectives
of an earlier administrative reorganization; namely, to co-ordinate survey and research
activities in forest-disease and forest-insect investigations in British Columbia.
Close co-operation with the British Columbia Forest Service was enjoyed in the
submission of survey material, reporting unusual disease conditions, and assigning personnel to assist in various field activities.
Publications distributed included the following:—
Browne, J. E.:   Decay of Engelmann Spruce and Balsam Fir in the Bolean
Lake Area, B.C.   Multigraphed.   Victoria, July, 1952.
Foster, R. E., and Foster, A. T.:   Estimating Decay in Western Hemlock:
I, Aids to Inventory on the Queen Charlotte Islands.   B.C. Lumberman,
Vol. 36, No. 11, November, 1952.
FOREST-DISEASE SURVEY
During the past year 2,736 collections were submitted to the Laboratory for examination. Reports of interest included severe sap-sucker damage to western hemlock in
a restricted locality near Mosquito Lake on the Queen Charlotte Islands, industrial-fume
injury to Douglas fir, western hemlock, and associated species at Alberni, and the occurrence of a new rust on the cone scales of Sitka spruce near Masset. Although none of
the reports showed the occurrence or development of an epidemic population, much
valuable information was gained relative to the distribution of forest disease within the
Province. A check-list based on 1,500 collections of forest-tree rusts and over 300
collections of needle diseases of conifers was established. These collections, which are
to be retained for further study and reference, provide for the reliable comparison and
identification of submitted material and thus serve as a basis for the early recognition
of new, and possibly serious, outbreaks of disease. Over 400 collections of lesser forest
vegetation, including lichens, mosses, ferns, and flowering plants, were processed during
the past year. These collections form a new section of the forest herbarium and may
be utilized in ecological as well as pathological and botanical studies.
A survey of needle cast (Hypodermella laricis v. Tubeuf) on western larch was
undertaken to determine the prevalence of the disease following reports of its widespread
occurrence in the Nelson Forest District during 1952. Seventy-four temporary sample
plots were established within the distribution of larch in the Shuswap, Arrow Lakes,
Slocan, Monashee, and Kootenay drainages. In the stands examined, infection ratings
based on the number of trees with needle cast ranged from 11 to 100 per cent, and
intensity of attack, measured in terms of percentage of needles affected, ranged from
less than 1 to 83 per cent. The incidence of the disease appeared to decrease from east
to west, the most severely infected stands being located in the vicinity of Salmo and
Yahk. Although reduction in increment may be anticipated, it is believed that most of
the larch examined are capable of recovery providing climatic conditions do not favour
the increased development of the fungus in subsequent years. A survey of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt.) on lodgepole pine was undertaken to gain factual
information of the severity of the disease under varying conditions of forest influence.
Seventy-two temporary plots were examined in the Kamloops Forest District from Williams Lake south to the vicinity of Manning Park. Lodgepole pine was found to be
heavily infected throughout this region. Further examinations will be required to provide
management recommendations.
* Prepared by R. E. Foster, Unit of Forest Pathology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, Victoria
Laboratory. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE.  1952
91
NURSERY, SEED, AND CONE DISEASES
Studies were initiated to determine the prevalence and importance of root-rot in
ornamental cypress and the extent to which the causal fungi might attack other trees and
shrubs. Phytophthora spp. have been found in association with root-rot in Lawson
cypress and other ornamental Chamcecyparis spp. One of these, Phytophthora cinnamomi
Rands, has a very wide host range, and concern has been expressed regarding the danger
of infection to Douglas fir. Investigations were also undertaken of forest seed contaminants. Although various forest fungi may occur on and in seeds of most coniferous
species, the extent to which these fungi may cause deterioration or reduce viability is
not fully appreciated. Accordingly, studies were made in seed-lots of Douglas fir,
western hemlock, western red cedar, grand fir, white spruce, and Sitka spruce. Penicil-
lium spp. were found to be the most prevalent moulds, being present in most cases in
excess of 10,000 spores per gram of seed. Nine other species in five genera were present
in lesser abundance. The different seed-lots showed considerable variation in percentage
of germination, but to date no correlation has been found between seed germination and
mould content.
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS
Continuing investigations were undertaken of the Poria weirii root-rot disease of
Douglas fir. In co-operation with the Research Division, British Columbia Forest Service, fourteen permanent sample plots were established at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station to determine the influence of thinning on the incidence and development
of the disease. Laboratory studies of Poria weirii Murr. were continued following further
evidence through cultural tests of varietal differences in the behaviour of this fungus on
Douglas fir and western red cedar. Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine were added
to the already extensive list of coniferous hosts for this disease.
A portion of the blister-rust disease-garden at the Duncan Forest Nursery. Grafted
selections are shown in replicated beds under shade frames, and Ribes spp., alternate hosts
for the disease, are shown in rows between pine beds. 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Investigations on pole-blight of western white pine were directed in large measure
to a study of the fungus Leptographium sp. This fungus has been found capable of
producing lesions similar to those found on pole-blighted trees. Inoculation studies were
continued to determine the host range and pathogenicity of the fungus. Permanent
sample plots were remeasured in the Arrow Lakes region. It was found that pole-blight
is again active in areas where sanitation thinning experiments were carried out in 1950.
Studies were continued to determine the cause of a condition of decline in lodgepole
pine. This condition was first detected in 1951 and has subsequently been reported in
the vicinity of Yahk, Manning Park, and the Monashee Pass. Tree analyses and inoculation studies indicate that Leptographium sp. is associated with the decline. This fungus
appears similar to that found in association with pole-blight in western white pine.
Evaluation studies of the resistance of selected white pine to the blister-rust disease
were continued. Cuttings from superior Coast trees were grafted on to disease-free root-
stock and outplanted in field test-plots in areas of heavy blister-rust infection. This work
was conducted in the Robertson River valley near Cowichan Lake and at the Duncan
Forest Nursery. Trees in the latter area were artificially inoculated in late summer to
hasten the evaluation of rust resistance. Preliminary tests were also initiated with exotic
pine spp.
DISEASES OF MATURE AND OVERMATURE TIMBER
During the past four years, studies of decay in old-growth timber have been concerned with the development of a tree-decadence classification as a basis for estimating
stand defect and predicting local as well as regional variations in decay. Although certain
modifications to this classification may prove necessary following its application to varying conditions of forest growth and influence, it is anticipated that revision may be brought
about in large part through the extension or refinement of existing data. Accordingly,
it has been possible to reduce the current scope of activities in this field and to initiate
studies concerned with other aspects of decay in mature and overmature timber.
Investigations were undertaken relative to the ecology of the Indian-paint fungus,
Echinodontium tinctorium Ell. & Ever. This fungus has been demonstrated to be the
cause of considerable loss in western hemlock and other species in the Interior region.
Under certain circumstances these losses are excessive, particularly in overmature stands.
The appreciation of these losses together with the irregularity of occurrence of the disease
in the Coast region have been sufficient to warrant investigation of the conditions that
control the range and activity of the fungus. The examination of thirty-two localities in
the South Coast and South Central Interior show that the fungus is more widespread
than heretofore believed. The examinations have shown, moreover, that the disease is
present in certain high-elevation stands on the Lower Coast in sufficient abundance to
be a major decay in old-growth timber.
Preliminary studies were initiated to determine the role that root and butt rots may
play in the wind-throw susceptibility of Interior spruce. Past experience has shown that
most of the decay in this species is confined to the basal log, and reports had indicated
that butt-rots may have played an important part in wind-throw losses following selection-
cutting methods. Preliminary data obtained during 1952 have failed to support this
latter contention.
The examination of representative stands of Douglas fir in the Lower Coast region
has been completed. A sample of 1,955 fir has shown that decay is of secondary importance to breakage in the stands examined. Only occasionally did decay losses exceed
10 per cent of the gross merchantable volume of stands. Polyporus schweinitzii Fr.,
although confined to the basal log or logs, contributed to considerable loss in quality.
This fungus, together with Fomes pini (Thore) Lloyd, accounted for 89 per cent of the
total decay.
Continuing studies were made of decay in alpine fir near Summit Lake and of the
deterioration of wind-thrown fir and white spruce at Crescent Spur in the Fort George
Forest District. In the latter study a comparison of data collected during the past three
years shows a steady increase in the depth of radial penetration by wood-rotting fungi. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
93
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
The sixth class to receive instruction at the School completed the first two terms
during 1952. The third, and final, term will be taken during the period January 9th to
April 10th of 1953. Representation from each forest district is as shown in Table
No. 61 of the Appendix.
The 1952-53 class consists entirely of Assistant Rangers, a circumstance which
may now be expected in future. This condition will tend to some change in School
instruction, due primarily to a student group with considerably less general experience.
For example, a group comprised of Rangers and Assistant Rangers with some years'
experience before joining the Service, and with a reasonably long period with the Service,
may be assumed to have a foundation upon which can be built the more advanced studies
necessary to the efficiency expected from the Ranger staff. With a younger and much
less experienced group, this assumption cannot be made.
It has been found, therefore, that more attention must be given to the fundamental
aspects of certain subjects which were previously assumed to have been gained by prior
experience. While this will in many cases result in reasonable success, there are others
where this lack of experience presents problems.
During the past two years, considerable thought has been put into screening candidates toward the end that the most promising men would attend the School. It is suggested that further improvement in the selection of students may be found if stronger
emphasis is laid on the candidate's general forestry experience prior to his entry into the
Service. This may well cause a higher average-age class for the student-body, but,
considering the responsibilities of the Ranger, this is deemed a desirable feature. The
principle of selecting a bright and energetic youngster and then teaching him the business
is primarily good, but the ability to absorb such teaching to the best advantage may well
depend upon experience formerly attained. The following subjects have been taken by
the 1952-53 class:—
First Term—Spring, 1952 Number of
Subject Hours
(1) Fire law and operation procedure     75
Part XI of the "Forest Act," Operations Manual,
"Summary Convictions Act," "Railway Act" and
Order No. 548.
(2) Preliminary fire organization     65
Fire occurrence, Hazard indices, Anticipating fires,
Detection and transportation systems, Distribution of
personnel and equipment, Training overhead for fires,
Special equipment and aerial transportation, Radio
communication, Fire-prevention programmes and
public relations.
(3) Public speaking, Court-room procedure     30
(4) Surveying and mapping  100
Simple trigonometry, Slide rule, Surveying instruments
and their use, Methods of offsetting and triangulating,
Compilation of traverses, Field-notes and mapping,
Forest resources inventory and cover mapping.
(5) Forest mensuration     70
Measurement of diameter, height, and volume of
trees, Volume tables, their construction and use, The
techniques of measuring stands of timber.
(6) Log-scaling—theory and practice     90
(7) Miscellaneous and tests     64
Total  494 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Second Term—Fall, 1952
Number of
Subject Hours
(1) Surveying      63
Field traversing (University Forest), Interpretation
of aerial photographs.
(2) Forest mensuration  112
Field  work   (University   Forest),   Compilation   of
cruises—map-making.
(3) Forest management  110
" Forest Act" review, Policies and procedures.
(4) Grazing Management     40
Review of Acts and policies, Range management.
(5) Forest entomology—Forest insects of British Columbia____    28
(6) Forest pathology—Forest diseases of British Columbia     21
(7) Botany—elementary morphology and physiology     50
(8) Operation review     30
(9) Tests      29
Total  483
Total for year 1952, including tests  977
EXTRA COURSES
During early May, 1952, it was again found necessary to give a special one-week
course for lookout-men appointed to the Vancouver Forest District. A large percentage
of the men chosen were still attending University and, possibly due to this situation, there
appears to be an annual turnover of men for this position that makes this course necessary each spring.
In this respect the School appears to serve a valuable service in the training of inexperienced men for this very important job. Reports continue to indicate that the course
is worth while and the results justify the expense incurred.
FURTHER USE OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES
A new feature of the School was its use for other matters while not occupied with
the training of Forest Officers.
During the period April 16th to 18th, 1952, the classrooms and living accommodation were taken over by the Management Division for its annual meeting. Policies and
problems of Management were discussed by Management Officers from all forest districts
and headquarters, and it was generally agreed by those concerned that the School facilities
for this purpose were very satisfactory.
During the period of August 11th to 13th, 1952, the School facilities were made
available to the forest-tree nurserymen's meeting, sponsored by the Nursery Practice
Committee, Western Forestry and Conservation Association. Over fifty members
attended the convention, where a number of subjects pertaining to nursery practices were
discussed. The expressions of goodwill and thanks tendered to the Forest Service through
the School staff was very gratifying, as were the expressions of approval of the School
buildings and grounds.
BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS
Improvement work was continued during the year. The new main-entrance driveway was completed in all detail and now forms a fine approach to the buildings. Maintenance of buildings consisted of redecorating five rooms in the living-quarters, repair and REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1952
95
redecoration of the washroom and both classrooms. In the latter instances the walls and
ceilings were replastered after a number of cracks were filled and the whole repainted.
Minor paint and repair jobs were carried out in routine maintenance.
The grounds received extra attention due to the accumulation of weeds and clover
that had begun to overrun the lawns. These were treated with two treatments of sulphate
of ammonia and, in addition, a treatment of sifted soil and peat-moss was given in order
to build up the soil condition and depth. Much of the above work was done toward the
fall, the grounds and flower-beds being maintained in good order throughout the summer.
Toward the latter part of the year a few extra problems in maintenance became
apparent, particularly in respect to heating equipment.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The School wishes to acknowledge the assistance received from the following
organizations: The Laboratory of Forest Biology, Units of Forest Pathology and Forest
Zoology, Canada Department of Agriculture; the St. John Ambulance Society (first aid);
the University of British Columbia for co-operation and use of its Loon Lake camp at
the Haney Forest; the Photographic Surveys Western Limited; the Dewdney Logging
Company; and the Western Plywood Company Limited. To the above and others whose
co-operation has been given so willingly and fully, the School tenders its sincere thanks. 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ENGINEERING SERVICES
The Engineering Services Division, established April 1st, 1952, as part of a major
reorganization of the Forest Service, brings under centralized control at Division level,
the civil, mechanical, structural, and radio engineering necessary to the programme of
forest management and protection undertaken by the Government. The accomplishments
of the five component parts of the Division during 1952 are outlined hereunder.
CIVIL ENGINEERING
Some phase of general engineering, road reconnaissance, road-surveying, or road
construction was accomplished in each forest district. As shown by the following table,
most work occurred in the Kamloops and Fort George Districts. Although the section
continued to expand, projects requested exceeded possible production.
Distribution of Work
District
Vancouver
Kamloops
Fort
George
Prince
Rupert
Nelson
General engineering	
Road reconnaissance (miles)
Road surveys (miles) 	
Road construction (miles).—
21
52
25
12
O)
27
37
5*
(2)
(3)
40
I
1 Water system surveys and one installation. - Kenney Dam clearing survey.
* Additional 7 miles of right-of-way clearing not included.
1 Building supervision.
General Engineering
The variety of projects covered by general engineering included:—
(a) Acquisition of rights-of-way for access roads and property for Ranger
Stations:
(b) Site supervision on construction of the Nelson District office building:
(c) Construction of a reinforced-concrete cattle underpass:
(d) Installation of a water system at the Aleza Lake Experimental Station:
(e) Topographic map for water system at Fort St. James Ranger Station:
(/)   Considerable work on the Kenney Dam clearing survey.
Road Reconnaissance
Shortage of personnel and more pressing work prevented completion of the reconnaissance programme.   Field work was completed on the following roads:—
(a) In the Vancouver Forest District, 15 miles in the Chilliwack and Lihumit-
son Valleys and 6 miles in the Sawmill Creek valley:
(b) In the Kamloops Forest District, 16 miles of main access road in the
Otter Creek valley, 13 miles of main road in the Finn Creek valley, 8
miles in the Tumtum Creek valley, and 15 miles in Lawless Creek valley:
(c) In the Fort George Forest District, 14 miles in the Stone Creek valley and
13 miles in the Naver Creek valley:
(d) In the Nelson Forest District, 25 miles in the White Swan Valley and 15
miles in the Kidd Creek valley. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
97
Construction on McGillivray Lake access road.
Half-yard shovel and ten-yard truck used on McGillivray Lake access road. r
98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Location Surveys
The various types of road located included:—
(a) Twenty-three miles of two-lane road designed for average speed of 40
miles per hour, to give access to 500,000 acres of timber in the Morice
Forest:
(b) Fourteen miles of main road designed for an average speed of 30 miles
per hour, and 10 miles of branch roads, to give access to 25,000 acres in
the Stone Creek valley of the Naver Forest:
(c) Thirteen miles of two-lane road designed for average speeds of 40 miles
per hour, to give access to 30,000 acres in the Naver Creek valley of the
Naver Forest:
(d) Twelve miles of main road and 5 miles of branch road in the Niskonlith
Forest:
(e) Four miles of main road and 4 miles of branch road in the Fly Hills Forest.
Road Construction
Initial construction was completed on the 7 miles of single-lane road through the
Aleza Lake Experiment Station. Because of poor climate, poor ground, and numerous
swamps, crews worked two shifts a day to complete the project during the winter freeze-up.
The road gives access to 10,000 acres on the Station, the Bowron River, and the only
known gravel deposits within 20 miles.
The 12.1 miles of road into the Niskonlith Forest, which was designed for a safe
average speed of 30 miles per hour, and which has a 20-foot gravel surface, was completed in November. Steel and concrete culverts and a reinforced-concrete cattle underpass were installed in order to keep annual maintenance at a minimum. Every feasible
improvement was made to assure maximum service to logging operators and the public.
In the Naver Forest a winter camp was completed and 5 miles of wide right-of-way
was cleared on the Naver Creek access road. Approximately 1 mile of subgrade was
completed. Another camp and 2 miles of right-of-way were cleared for the Stone Creek
access road. Heavy timber and the need to set an example for complete, practical slash-
disposal has made right-of-way clearing a major part of road construction. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
99
Gravel-pit on Bear River, Aleza Lake Experimental Station.
Completed road, Aleza Lake Experimental Station. 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
MECHANICAL SECTION
The Mechanical Section exerts authority in two specific fields of Forest Service
activity, namely: (a) The selection and purchase of new equipment, and (b) the inspection and maintenance of all equipment acquired. The table given below shows the total
equipment resources of the Service and purchases made during 1952. Use of this equipment is diversified, being under the direction of thirteen divisions headquartered at Victoria and the five forest districts with headquarters at Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Prince
George, Kamloops, and Nelson.
Forest Service Motor Equipment
Type
Total
Units,
Jan. 1,
1952
1952-53 Purchases
Replacements
Additions
Total
Total
Units,
Dec. 31,
1952
Sedans.
Coupes - __	
Suburbans - 	
Station wagons, four-wheel-drive..
Land rovers, four-wheel-drive	
Willys jeeps, four-wheel-drive	
Vi-ton pick-ups	
%-1-ton pick-ups	
1-ton pick-ups, four-wheel-drive 	
Dodge power wagons (34-ton, four-wheel-drive)..
2-3-ton trucks     	
HD-25-40,000 G.V.W. trucks — _ ._	
Austin countryman*  	
Thames estate wagon1 ._	
:/i-ton panel deliveries..... 	
Sedan deliveries   	
Tractors  	
Graders.      	
Gas-shovels   	
Outboard motors.. 	
Fire-pumps.... _	
Chain-saws... _ _ _	
Lighting plants	
High-pressure tank units _	
Snow-ploughs.—  	
Snow sedans  —	
Speeders..  	
Trailers—low-bed   	
Trailers—dwelling, bunk-house, etc.-
Trailers—miscellaneous 	
Air-compressors._
Gas-powered rock-drills .
48
9
9
92
2
4
6
18
2
12
14
7
1
10
11
11
3
3
11
174
9
16
25
59
4
5
9
56
4
12
16
10
45
5
1
6
10
3
3
49
49
1
1
2
3
3
3
1
1
33
6
6
12
1
1
1
1
1
172
4
68
72
445
8
46
54
138
57
57
36
5
5
6
3
3
1
	
1
20
5
1
1
17
26
26
19
9
9
4
1
1
3
57
98
32
18
14
11
199
68
72
10
51
13
49
1
5
4
39
13
2
240
499
195
41
9
1
1
20
6
43
28
5
3
1 Surveys Division.
Equipment Selection
In automotive equipment the only really new departure was the purchase of two
diesel trucks of 40,000 G.V.W. rating. These have already demonstrated their worth as
gravel-trucks on forest access-road construction. The fifty small "countrymen" type
vehicles purchased for the use of survey crews in the accelerated forest inventory programme have justified their selection. After having a careful check-over, they are now
ready for their second season. There is an ever-increasing demand for vehicles with
four-wheel-drive to fill the need for off-highway transportation. These are replacing the
high-clearance vehicles which had steering, braking, tire, and associated troubles, but the
objective of placing at least one in each Forest Ranger District in the Province has not
as yet been reached. The four-wheel-drive vehicle has, of course, its own peculiar and
expensive troubles.
A heavy trailer-construction programme was undertaken during the year. Design
varied from 28-foot and 30-foot dining, cook-house, and bunk-house units to three single REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1952
101
units for horse transportation.   Further details with respect to the trailers will be found
elsewhere in the report of the Division.
In the fire-pump field, three more 100-gallon, high-pressure, fog drop-on tanker units
were purchased. This type of equipment has proved increasingly useful and popular.
The units can be carried either on a %- or 1-ton four-wheel-drive vehicle or on trailers,
as circumstances and the terrain allow. The smaller or light-weight type of fire-pump
was not purchased in any quantity, and new acquisitions to the stock of portable fire-
pumps were confined to a time-tested and popular model of medium pressure and
capacity.
Certain interesting new developments in portable pumping equipment occurred
during the year, one of which was the introduction of a new design of high-pressure pump
comprised essentially of a chain-saw motor and clutch assembly coupled to a centrifugal-
type pump-end. This unit was tested at Langford and at the Marine Station and appears
eminently suited to Forest Service requirements.
Fire-fighting and general field requirements make the one-man type of chain-saw
much more popular than the two-man models. The ratio is about fifty-five to two.
Hence the Section concentrated its work in regards to saws largely on the smaller units.
Two new types of chain-saws appeared on the market and were inspected. One represents a new departure, inasmuch as it employs a fluid coupling instead of the conventional
transmission or gear drive; the other is an extremely light-weight one-man saw apparently
of good design and materials.
The lighting plants at Ranger Stations remote from power-lines have been the cause
of an appreciable amount of investigative work. Until recently, 3-kw. gasoline-powered
generators were considered adequate, but due largely to the increasing size of such establishments, these plants are being operated at maximum load or more. Operating costs
are high when gasoline is used as fuel. Possibly new designs of small diesel plants may
provide the complete answer to this operating-cost problem. At least it has been demonstrated already that the four diesel plants of 5-kw. rating purchased in 1952 are much
more economical to operate than their gasoline counterparts.
Other new equipment inspected included various models of brush chippers. These
appear to have excellent possibilities for slash-disposal purposes. However, a satisfactory method of feeding the machines in order to keep them operating near capacity must
be devised before they will be profitably usable in forestry work.
Inspection and Maintenance
The inspection programme was hampered by the loss of four out of seven of the
original field-supervision and mechanical staff, and the situation in this regard is not yet
settled. All forest districts, with the exception of Vancouver, were without mechanical
inspectors. However, it was possible to have each district visited at least once by supervisors working out of Victoria, and the annual fall inspection of equipment was completed
in all except the Nelson Forest District.
An innovation was tried out in connection with the fall equipment inspection. Two
qualified small-motor specialists from the Forest Service Marine Station were obtained
on loan for a month and assisted in the checking of pumps and outboard motors in the
Fort George and Kamloops Districts. This is the first time that the men who repair this
type of equipment at the Marine Station have had an opportunity to see field conditions
and become acquainted with the fieldman's point of view.
An acting mechanical supervisor and two mechanics were acquired in 1952 by the
Parks and Recreation Division because of the numerous pieces of expensive heavy equipment used in the parks development programme. As a consequence, the equipment of
this Division has been adequately maintained and supervision is not a problem. 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The Surveys and Inventory Division, which has a total of eighty-one vehicles, used
largely under adverse conditions on forest surveys, was also able to obtain the services
of an acting mechanical supervisor. As a result, there were a minimum of delays in the
field due to mechanical breakdowns, and problems, such as the freighting into isolated
spots of the 30-foot river-boats needed at times in connection with the surveys, were
solved. In this particular case an old trailer was modified for the job and successfully
handled it.
In general, the condition of Forest Service vehicles and mechanical equipment has
definitely improved since the inception of an enlarged Mechanical Section. After making
full allowance for the effect of replacement of pre-war and war-time vehicles and the
addition of considerable new equipment, there is ample evidence that closer supervision
of the use and maintenance of such equipment pays a real dividend.
STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION
The programme of Ranger Station development and improvement which has been
undertaken on an extensive scale during the past five years continued to account for the
major part of the work of the section in 1952. The total value of construction work, however, is down by more than 30 per cent from the 1951 level, in spite of higher building
costs. It is apparent that the big back-log of urgently needed construction under the
programme has now been cleaned up, and that the building-construction programme in
future will be a truer reflection of the year-by-year growth of the Service.
Nelson office-warehouse building. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
Ranger Station Construction Undertaken during 1952
103
Location
Type of Building
Construction
Agency
Stage of
Construction
Aleza Lake 	
Ashcroft	
Birch Island	
Blue River	
Boston Bar „	
Clinton	
Hope 	
Kamloops	
Lytton   	
Squamish	
Valemount	
Chatham Channel
Echo Bay 	
Residence  _ _.
Assistant Ranger headquarters .
Four-car garage	
Four-car garage..
Assistant Ranger headquarters..
Warehouse   	
Office and stores building, four-car garage, Ranger residence..
Eight-car garage.
Assistant Ranger headquarters.—	
Office and stores building, two-car garage .
Assistant Ranger headquarters .
Office and stores building (on float), Ranger residence, engineer's
residence
Office and stores building, two four-room residences	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract 	
Contract	
Forest Service
Contract	
Forest Service
Contract	
Contract	
Forest Service
Contract.—	
Forest Service
Forest Service
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
In addition to the above Ranger Station projects actually completed, plans are
ready or in the process of preparation for tendering on the following projects: A one-
Ranger office building at Castlegar, a two-Ranger office building at Cranbrook, a
two-Ranger office building at Kamloops, and a four-Ranger warehouse at Prince George.
The remainder of the building programme for 1952 consisted of:—
(1) Two buildings erected by contract for the Reforestation Division at the
Forest Service nursery at Duncan. These were a cone-drying shed and
a two-story warehouse and workshop.
(2) The construction of the office accommodation for the Nelson headquarters
staff on the top floor and half of the main floor area of the Nelson
warehouse building, which was started in 1951 and completed in 1952.
A major project undertaken was the design and supervision of the construction of
eighteen trailers for housing the access-road construction crews of this Division and six
trailers for the planting crews of the Reforestation Division.
Type of Trailer
28-foot and 30-foot bunk-house trailers for sleeping six or eight
men 	
Number
Constructed
30-foot dining trailers for thirty men.
30-foot cook-house trailer	
30-foot combined cook-house and dining trailer
20-foot dwelling trailer	
10
2
1
2
9
The marine-designing section prepared plans for several boats, the largest being a 46-
foot Ranger launch now under construction at the Marine Station for the Vancouver
District. An interesting development in boat design and construction was undertaken
this year in an attempt to provide fast transportation for lake or sheltered water use
without serious sacrifice of strength and safety. This was done by the use of plywood-hull
construction, using full-length boat-grade plywood, on a planing type of boat, into which
as many sea-going qualities were put as the limitations of plywood construction would
permit. The results of this, obtained from a 26-foot Ranger launch build for Ranger use
at Pendleton Bay, Babine Lake, are very promising, with speeds well over 20 miles per
hour being possible with comparative comfort. Other boats constructed this year from
full-length plywood were 30-foot river-boats and 18-foot and 14-foot outboard runabouts.
The section was also able to assist other departments by developing or preparing
plans for such varied projects as an improved epidiascope, a water system for Kamloops,
a reach-in refrigerator unit, a truck-borne wash-house, a portable hand-winch, a horse
trailer, and a tower for a water-tank. Projects of this type account for about 15 per cent
of the total production of the draughting office. 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1
•«aj
Headquarters warehouse, Prince George.
Hope Ranger Station. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
105
The continuing expansion of almost all phases of Forest Service activity was reflected
in the amount and diversity of the work handled by the Marine Station. All three sections of the plant were fully employed, and there were no lay-offs of staff due to slack
periods. In fact, some required work could not be handled, and it was necessary to
either postpone the jobs or turn them over to outside firms.
Plywood launch for use on larger Interior lakes.     Accommodates three men
and has a speed of about 24 miles per hour.
The Station's activities included twenty-one complete launch overhauls, and the
marine ways were occupied thirty-seven times. Repairs to small craft such as outboard
cruisers up to 17 feet in length were an important item due to the expanded forest inventory programme. Twelve such craft and two dinghies were reconditioned for the Surveys
and Inventory Division. Alterations to the launches " Salt Mist," " Lillian D," and
" B.C. Scaler " were also major projects. Besides a miscellany of other odd jobs or
minor repairs, two new Assistant Ranger boats, the " Sitka Spruce II " and " Cottonwood II," were constructed.   Work commenced on a new 46-foot Ranger vessel.
In the machine-shop, increased emphasis on fire protection and a rather severe fire
season resulted in a sharp increase in units sent in for repair or testing. Altogether, 161
fire-pumps, 98 outboard motors, 9 chain-saws, and 9 lighting plants were overhauled,
tested, crated, and shipped back to the field. New units run in, crated, and shipped
included 52 fire-pumps and 65 outboard motors. Other major machining included the
construction of 50 Bennett fire-finders, 24 bases for pumps, 12 hose ring-expander tools,
100 pump-boxes, and over 1,000 pump or fire-hose fittings, including three-way valves,
nozzles, and pump couplings. The diversity of the jobs handled by this section makes
it difficult to make a fair assessment of accomplishments. For instance, in addition to
the machine and repair work listed above, other miscellaneous projects included a
remodelling job on a weed-spraying machine, the construction of hardware for prefabricated lookouts and sectional huts, assembling a winch for the launch " Salt Mist," and
a ventilation unit for the " Forest Surveyor." 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The woodworking-shop completed the following units during the year: 28 sectional
buildings, 7 prefabricated lookout cabins, 25 sets of lookout furniture, 93 pieces of office
furniture, 256 boxes and crates, and 111 directional signs. There is always a demand
for the products fabricated by this section, and one of the major problems in running it
lies in the danger of overexpansion. Space and facilities are limited, hence the shop
operates at maximum efficiency when there is a good back-log of orders, none of which
are of an emergency nature.
RADIO
In the field of Forest Service radio communication, the average rate of expansion
of the network over the past five years was increased during 1952. Taking into account
only those units capable of being employed as fixed or semi-fixed stations, the following
table indicates the total of units purchased or constructed in the Forest Service laboratory
during the year. In addition, eighty transmitter-receivers of the " walkie-talkie " type,
both A.M. and F.M., were acquired.
New Radio Units Purchased in 1952
Type Number
SPF  70
PAC, 10-watt  9
RS-100-T, 100-watt  3
MRT-100 Marine, 100-watt  2
MRT-25 Marine, 25-watt  4
LRT-80-E, 75-watt  4
Mobile AM, 20-watt  8
FM Fixed Station, 30-watt  4
FM Mobile, 10-watt  2
Remote receiver installation, Ranger  3
Total, all types   109
In the Prince Rupert District the policy of increasing power to cope with consistently
poor receiving conditions was maintained during 1952. The addition of three 75-watt
units at Queen Charlotte City, Pendleton Bay, and Prince Rupert, plus two 100-watt
units at Hazelton and Terrace, completed the plan for higher power at the main centres.
Twenty-five-watt sets at Atlin and Telegraph Creek gave good results, though higher
power is needed when a.c. power becomes available. In the field of remote control, a
new unit was put into operation at Ocean Falls and the Burns Lake site was relocated.
Five new units were purchased for the improvement of headquarters reception from
Mount Hayes, but delivery had not been made at the end of the year. Two mobile units
gave good results, and further expansion may be expected in this direction.
In the Fort George District the main improvement of the year was the moving of
headquarters station to the new warehouse building, where, for the first time, a proper
aerial system was raised on two aluminium towers. The station will be completed by
the installation of a voice and control line to permit radio contact between the Courthouse and Ranger Districts. A transmitter of 100 watts, constructed by the Forest
Service, has been installed at Pouce Coupe and a stand-by transmitter of 75 watts at
Prince George. Preliminary work has been carried out on remote receiver sites at
Pouce Coupe and Fort St. John, and the receivers for these projects have been completed
in the Forest Service laboratory.
The Vancouver District radio network, tested by a bad fire season, provided excellent communication. The crowded state of channel 5 was, as usual, a limiting factor,
but the Vancouver Island F.M. network provided some relief.   It had been hoped that REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
107
Portable transmitter-receiver, type LWP;  weight complete, 6V2 pounds.
the F.M. system from Parksville north to Campbell River, serviced by a repeater station
at Little Mountain, would augment and complete the very efficient F.M. circuit connecting Victoria and all Ranger Stations south of Nanaimo with Vancouver, but poor results
indicate the need for further experiment. Two 100-watt and two 25-watt launch installations were completed. Point Grey remote receiver station was moved to a new site,
and at the Vancouver headquarters station a private radio-telephone line to the Marine
building was installed. This latter improvement, enabling office staff to talk direct to
almost any point in Vancouver District, proved extremely useful. -
108
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Modification of a standard 1-watt F.M. set for lookout use having been made in
the Victoria laboratory, tests were carried out between lookout and Ranger Station with
complete success at the sites tested. Similar results can be expected in the majority of
cases.
At Kamloops the most prominent feature of the 1952 season has been the very
severe interference caused by the forming of a civil defence amateur radio network in
the United States at points adjacent to the Kamloops District. Severe interruption to
our service has occurred continuously since March, our stations at times being forced
off the air. At the end of December, as a result of negotiations with civil defence authorities across the border, their network changed frequency, leaving channel 2 in the clear.
Mobile units of a new type were put into use for the first time, and the excellent results
justify further expansion in this direction. A remote-control unit was completed at
Chase during the year, and preliminary work was done on similar installations at Vernon,
Princeton, and for the Ranger at Kamloops. With the spectrum considerably more
crowded than it was when the Kamloops headquarters remote receiver was installed, the
past year made it increasingly evident that this unit is due for complete modification.
Remote-control receiver, type RCR-SC-DC
odel.     Receiver chassis.
In the Nelson District no significant changes took place, with the exception of the
introduction of mobile operation. This turned out to be highly successful, and in some
cases it was found possible to work the entire Nelson network from a single position of
the mobile unit. Efforts to provide good communication from lake craft did not prove
successful due to aerial limitations, but it is possible that a solution to this problem has
already been found.
At Victoria the development of the new type LWP portable transmitter-receiver
was concluded in the early spring, factory manufacture in quantity being carried out in REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 109
time for part of the fire season. District reports of the results obtained from these sets
indicate that they were entirely successful in their field.
An entirely new Ranger Station remote receiver was designed, embodying miniature
components, improved selectivity, and noise-silencing. Ten of these units were completed
for immediate use. With the need for low-drain F.M. sets for lookouts and no suitable
unit obtainable in Canada, a current stock model of battery-operated F.M. set was adapted
for heavy-duty battery and loudspeaker use. Other construction included the manufacture in the Victoria laboratory of three more 100-watt Ranger Station transmitters, type
RS-100-T. Considerable exploratory work on F.M. propagation on Vancouver Island
was carried out during the year, including the testing of plans for establishing a 40-
megacycle F.M. repeater link at Parksville in place of the unsatisfactory 160-megacycle
repeater now in use.
At the close of the year the design and construction of a pilot model of a completely
new SPF set is nearly complete.
The list which follows represents the total of Forest Service units employed as fixed,
semi-fixed, and portable stations, at December 31st, 1952:—
Type Number
SPF  440
PAC, 10-watt   74
S-25, 25-watt  5
LRT-80-E, 75-watt   4
S-110-C, 50-watt  1
Composite, 50-watt  1
RS-100-T, 100-watt   5
HQ-200-T, 200-watt  6
MRT25 (fixed), 25-watt  3
MRT1Q0 Marine, 100-watt  10
VRL100 Marine, 100-watt  1
N502 Marine, 65-watt  3
VRL50 Marine, 50-watt  2
N504B Marine, 25-watt  2
MRT25 Marine, 25-watt  11
KARR25 Marine, 25-watt  1
877 Mobile AM, 20-watt  10
FM Mobile, 10-watt   3
FM Headquarters, 30-watt  12
FM Repeater, 30-50-watt  3
Remote receiver installation, Headquarters  6
Remote receiver installation, Ranger  14
Total, all stations  617
" Walkie-talkie " type portable units, not included in the above station total, are
as follows:—
Type LWP  70
Little Phone FM     1
Portaphone FM      9
Total  80
The procedure for message numbering was changed at the beginning of 1952 for
the purpose of reducing the length of message preamble. For this reason, no basis of
comparison exists between the totals of 1951 and 1952, and no message summary is
included in this report. 110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING
INTRODUCTION
It is estimated that approximately 75 per cent of the animals raised primarily for
the production of meat, in British Columbia, use the Crown ranges. On these ranges,
they put on a considerable proportion of their growth. Grazing values on the Crown
ranges of the Interior are, therefore, of vital importance to the live-stock industry.
Apart from their indispensable role in this industry, an essential part of the Provincial
economy, the Crown ranges contribute to the welfare of the general public in other ways.
They serve as valuable recreational areas, as a home for game and wildlife, and as
watersheds. Considerable timber values are also produced on much of the same area.
It follows that it is essential to both the live-stock producers and the public as a whole
that the Crown ranges be maintained in the most productive and healthy state possible.
At the present time, domestic live stock graze over approximately 8,000,000 acres
of Crown range. The management and allocation of this range is the responsibility of
the Forest Service and is carried out in close co-operation with the range-users and other
agencies interested in wild land management. During 1952, 1,621 grazing permits were
issued to approximately 1,300 ranchers, authorizing the depasturing of a net total of
104,610 cattle, 4,040 horses, and 23,565 sheep on Crown range. The objective is to
manage this range in such a manner as to obtain maximum live-stock production, consistent with the conservation of the range resource, and to meet the requirements of other
forms of land use. Many factors are involved. On each unit, live-stock numbers must
be balanced with the ability of the range to produce forage on a sustained-yield basis.
Premature grazing must be avoided, and each range type must be used during the period
and by the class of live stock to which it is best suited. The necessity of maintaining
stable, economic ranching units and the requirements and limitations of the live stock
itself must all be considered in the allocation of the Crown range. Many improvements,
such as drift-fences, trails, and water developments, are required to enable the rancher
to make optimum use of the range. Finally, in some areas, special provision must be
made to rectify the devastating effects of past mismanagement. The objective cannot
be realized overnight, and much remains to be done. Continued progress toward the
objective was made during 1952.
GENERAL CONDITIONS
Weather has a tremendous effect on range forage production and live-stock
management problems. The winter of 1951-52, although of about average severity, was
somewhat longer than normal in all areas except the Nelson Forest District. Forage
growth was delayed from two to three weeks in the spring, and in some areas, where
hay-stocks were inadequate, it was necessary to allow turn-out before the range was
properly ready for use. This is a problem which still arises all too frequently, but is one
which can only be overcome by greater hay production or otherwise balancing live-stock
numbers and winter feed. This will take time, but progress is being made, and there is a
growing awareness on the part of stockmen of the necessity of avoiding too early turn-out.
Precipitation during the growing season was far below normal. However, forage
growth was surprisingly good, due mainly to the fairly abundant snowfall of the winter
of 1951-52, which was largely absorbed by the soil owing to the slow release of the
snow-pack. In some particularly dry areas, forage production was below normal and
stock-watering became a problem. Drought conditions persisted, and fall growth was
negligible. Weather remained extremely mild until the end of the year, and it was possible
to use ranges at all elevations much later than usual. Overutilization resulted on some
areas, particularly those used both spring and fall. However, the extended grazing
season, combined with better than average yields of excellent-quality hay, should result
in a minimum demand for too early turn-out next spring. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 111
Grasshopper damage to the range was severe in 1952, and it is anticipated that
this problem will be even more acute in 1953. Control measures were undertaken by
grasshopper-control committees and individual ranchers.
Reliable ranch labour is still difficult to obtain, with the result that many stockmen
had difficulty in carrying out required range management practices. Necessary equipment
and materials remain in good supply, but costs were high.
The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Canada, a serious blow to the whole
live-stock industry, resulted in some specific difficulties in the management of Crown
range. The rigidly enforced United States embargo on the movement of live stock across
the International Boundary necessitated some adjustments in the management of range
units adjacent to the border to avoid the possibility of stock drifting into the United States
and being destroyed by United States authorities. Some fencing was done to help alleviate
this problem. Also, lower prices resulting from the loss of the United States market
appear to have influenced many stockmen to reduce their stock shipments. Unless these
animals are sold before next grazing season, there will be an increased demand for Crown
range in 1953.
ADMINISTRATION
Due to an increase in stock numbers, the increasing pressure of land settlement and
other competing forms of land use, and the necessity of improved management practices,
the administration of Crown range becomes more complex as time goes on. During 1952
even closer attention to all applications for grazing permits was required. Grazing-permit
descriptions were refined or clarified in numerous cases, and the required management
plans more specifically defined in others. Approximately the same number of land
applications in range areas were carefully checked to ascertain their effect on the use of
Crown range. Enlarged range survey and improvement programmes also required more
supervision.
Numerous routine field inspections were carried out by both the Ranger and District
Office staffs. More such inspections are necessary, however, to ensure compliance with
permit conditions and to check the results of existing management practices.
Active grazing administration was discontinued over one area where, as a result of
land-reclamation projects, only a negligible amount of Crown range remained. Preliminary inspections were carried out to ascertain the advisability or otherwise of extending
range administration to portions of the Peace River area. This matter is not yet
concluded.
Grazing and Hay Permits
The use of the Crown range is controlled through the issuance of grazing and hay
permits under the authority of the " Grazing Act." In 1952 the number of grazing
permits issued and the amount of stock covered were both higher than in 19.51. The
tabulation on page 171 shows the volume of business for 1952 and the past ten years.
Two hundred and eleven hay permits were issued to local stockmen authorizing the
cutting of 2,336 tons of wild hay on Crown range. These figures are up from 1951 due
to several factors, including good haying weather, the necessity of building up hay
stocks, and drought conditions which resulted in many normally flooded natural-meadow
areas being dry enough to cut.
Grazing and Hay-cutting Fees
Grazing fees, which are on a sliding scale, based on live-stock prices for the previous
year, were 25 cents per head per month for cattle, 3VA cents per head per month for
horses, and 5% cents per head per month for sheep, in 1952. This represents an increase
of approximately 12 per cent for cattle and horses and 23 per cent for sheep over those
charged in 1951 and reflects the high live-stock prices which prevailed in 1951.   Hay- 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
cutting fees were increased to $1 per ton. Reference is made in another section of this
Report to a drop in live-stock prices during 1952. This will result in a drop in grazing
fees in 1953.
Due to the above-mentioned higher fees, the increased number of permitted stock,
and the amount of hay cut, fees billed and collected in 1952 reached a new record high.
The figures for 1952 and for the past ten years are shown in the table on page 171.
CO-OPERATION
The co-operation of the stockman is absolutely essential to the effective administration and management of the Crown range. This is achieved mainly through local
live-stock associations. Four new associations were formed in 1952, bringing the total
of such associations to forty-eight. In addition, close contact was maintained with the
British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the British Columbia Sheep
Breeders' Association, which deal with matters of interest to the industry as a whole.
A total of 108 meetings was reported, of which 95 were attended by Forest Officers.
Excellent co-operation was received from the Canada Range Experiment Station at
Kamloops in continuing studies on a number of trial range-improvement projects and in
connection with plant identification and technical problems which were referred to it for
study and advice. Several range inspections were carried out in company with Game
Department officials to study game-livestock relationships on the range. Close contact
with the Live Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture was maintained in connection with livestock-management problems on the range. Continued improvement
in the control of Indian stock on Crown range was achieved through the co-operation of
various Indian Agents and the Provincial Advisory Committee on Indian Affairs.
The annual field meeting of the Pacific Northwest Section of the American Society
of Range Management was held in British Columbia in June, the first meeting of this
group held in Canada. Grazing Division personnel contributed largely to the planning
and organizing, and individual stockmen and stock associations co-operated wholeheartedly to make the meeting a success. Approximately 150 members and interested
individuals from both sides of the border attended.
RANGE IMPROVEMENT
Additional funds permitted a further enlargement of the range-improvement
programme in 1952.   During the year $46,192.87 was spent as follows:—
5 stock-bridges   $921.70
23 cattle-guards   6,331.66
1 corral        200.00
29 drift-fences   8,555.25
4 experimental plots        381.49
5 holding-grounds        677.21
I meadow improvement  50.00
9 mud-hole fences     2,051.59
II range-seedings   411.31
22 stock-trails  4,657.25
12 water developments  1,215.46
1 weed-control measure  1,272.85
Wild-horse disposal   2,795.25
Equipment and machinery (purchase)  3,142.35
Supervision, surveys, and technical studies  11,014.31
Operating expenses of mechanical equipment  2,515.19 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 113
The above figures include the value of materials which were on hand but not
assigned to projects on December 31st, 1951, and which were used during 1952, and
a small number of accounts for materials and services used on projects but which
remained unpaid at the end of the year.
In addition to the above projects, stockmen were authorized to construct, at their
own expense, the following improvements: Two breeding pastures, four drift-fences,
four grazing enclosures, and two holding-grounds.
It was still extremely difficult to get range-improvement work done under contract.
Individual stockmen and live-stock associations, who normally undertake this work, are
still faced with a serious labour problem, and much necessary work remained undone.
To help remedy this situation, the range-improvement crew, originally established in
1951, was enlarged. This crew completed thirty-one projects, all in the Kamloops Forest
District. The crew performed efficiently and, in spite of the fact that the crew was used
on the more difficult projects, which would not have been done otherwise, costs were
reasonable.
The goatweed-control project was continued along the same lines as in 1951.
Further chemical control studies were conducted, and new importations of Chrysolina
spp. beetles were made. It will be some time before the effectiveness of the biological
control of this weed in British Columbia can be determined fully but results to date are
promising.
Additional pilot range-seedings were undertaken, and considerable time and effort
was required to carry out studies on the areas seeded in previous years. It is hoped
that these extensive trials will indicate the species and methods most adaptable to our
range conditions. The cost of this work shown above covers the cost of seed only.
Preliminary surveys, site selection, and following technical studies are carried out by
technical grazing personnel, and the cost of this work, which is disproportionately high
during the trial stages, is included under the general heading for these items. The actual
seeding was done by Grazing Division personnel assisted, in all instances, by co-operating
stockmen.
The horse-control programme resulted in 75 head being rounded up and 125 wild
and useless animals being destroyed. One man was employed directly by the Service
to carry out this work, and, in addition, twenty-four round-up permits and thirty-two
horse-shooting licences were issued. The wild-and-useless-horse problem is now largely
under control, but complete eradication is impractical. Unless a continuous effort is
maintained, these animals, along with additional horses abandoned from time to time,
will increase rapidly with devastating effects to the range.
The enlarged improvement programme and the necessity of many more technical
studies have resulted in a heavy demand on the time of grazing personnel.
RANGE RECONNAISSANCE
An accurate inventory of the range is essential to proper range management.
During 1952 our range-survey programme was stepped up considerably, with the following areas being covered:— Acres
Allen Grove Stock Range  119,808
Simon Phillipine Stock Range  27,648
French Bar Stock Range  292,032
Clinton and District Stock Range (west of Fraser River)__ 600,192
East Kootenay Valley  50,000
Total   1,089,680
In addition, seven extensive reconnaissances were made. 114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
MISCELLANEOUS
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock on the range again appeared to be about average this year. Some
losses from poisonous weeds were experienced, with timber milk-vetch being particularly
troublesome. Due to the excellent predator-control programme of the Game Department, losses from most classes of predatory animals were slight. However, bear caused
heavy losses on some ranges. This appears to be due to an increase in the bear population and a poor crop of berries and other natural food for these animals. In some
areas, mud-hole losses were very heavy, but over the whole range area the situation
was about average. As usual, vehicular traffic, hunting mishaps, and thefts were
responsible for some losses.
Diseases of Live Stock
There were no serious outbreaks of disease to interfere with range management
during the year. Through close co-operation by the Live Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture, the continuing establishment of Bang's- and TB.-free areas was
carried out with minimum disruption to established range-management and allocation
practices.
Markets and Prices
Shipments of live stock were down considerably this year. The wool-clip was up
slightly. Prices paid to the producer were down 28 per cent for cattle, 38 per cent for
sheep, and 50 per cent for wool. Meat prices took a sharp drop when the United
States market was closed as a result of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in
Saskatchewan. However, due to the greatly increased cattle population on this continent, there was every indication that a price-drop would have taken place during the
year without this disaster. It is doubtful that reopening of the United States market
will result in any appreciable increase in the price for commercial live stock.
Prosecutions
There were no prosecutions for infractions of the " Grazing Act " and regulations
in 1952. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
115
FOREST ACCOUNTS
During 1952 this Division again handled a record volume of business in spite of
the prolonged forest closure and the lengthy strike affecting operations in the Coast
District. This is principally reflected in the tables appearing elsewhere in this Report
covering "Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1952" (p. 152), "Forest
Revenue " (p. 151), "Average Stumpage Prices Received " (p. 144), and " Total Amount
of Timber Scaled " (p. 133), all of which show substantial increases over previous years.
Other phases of the work also increased, the expenditure and payroll side being particularly active due to the bad fire season.
In accordance with the recommendations in the Stevenson & Kellogg Report, conversion to a decentralized accounting system was begun during the year. The Vancouver
District office and the Parks and Recreation Division office switched to the new routines
on July 1st, and preparations were completed for commencement in the Nelson District
office as of January 1st, 1953. This project was somewhat delayed due to changes in
headquarters' senior clerical personnel and the continued increase in volume of business.
In the Vancouver District office, additional and more modern business-machine
equipment was in the process of installation to replace billing-machines at the close
of 1952, and production of scale and royalty accounts by the new method was scheduled
to begin shortly after the new year.
Three field auditors were kept fully occupied during the year in checking of mill
records for collection of lumber selling-price data on behalf of Management Division
and for investigation as to purchases of logs unsealed and unreported. Two of the latter
cases, involving large quantities of beach-combed logs, resulted in successful prosecutions
and recovery of considerable revenue due the Crown. 116 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
Work of the Division was maintained at a satisfactory level throughout the year,
with some desirable expansion in certain phases as a result of additional funds being
made available. Delay in providing darkroom accommodation hampered the work of
the photographic section during the first half of the year but, at the end of that time,
very satisfactory accommodation and excellent equipment made possible a material
improvement in volume and orderly production.
PRESS AND RADIO
Press advertising followed the pattern of previous years, with three pre-fire-season
advertisements and six forest-protection advertisements in all daily and weekly newspapers in the Province. One or more of the forest-protection series also appeared in
twenty-odd periodicals, trade journals, and special publications. Design, layout, copy,
and scheduling of these advertisements was the product of the Division staff; art and
mechanical work and insertion instructions were handled by a commercial agency.
Forty-eight flashes and twenty-four spot announcements were broadcast during the
fire season as a regular information series to the public. All radio stations in the
Province participated in this campaign. In the usual way, hazard flashes could be
substituted for any standard broadcast where conditions necessitated such action.
The Division prepared and released numerous news items and special articles concerning the work of the Service as required or requested during the year.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The Annual Report of the Service for 1951 was edited and distributed. For other
Divisions of the Service, editing, printing, supervision, and distribution services were
supplied for one technical bulletin, three research notes, one protection bulletin, and
one illustrated folder on camp and picnic sites. Similarly, assistance was given on
reprints of a number of technical and non-technical publications in which stock had
been exhausted. The Forest Service calendar and various other items of printing, including eleven personnel news-letters, warning-cards, decals, and posters were designed
and produced. The production of teaching material for schools, entitled " Conservation
Topics," in co-operation with the Canadian Forestry Association was continued.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
During the first half of the year the photographic section worked under difficulties
as it had no darkroom facilities, and film-editing had to be carried on in the general office
of the film-lending library. The Division photographer contributed the facilities of his
own private darkroom to enable completion of much necessary photographic work.
The following work was produced during the year: 6,300 feet of motion-picture
film produced and the major portion edited; 260 coloured 35-mm. slides; 286 black-
and-white photographs; 21 rolls of film developed; 64 negatives copied; and 2,105
photographic prints of various sizes. In addition to the foregoing, the section handled
2,705 prints produced by commercial laboratories and the Government Motion Picture
Bureau, filed 1,350 new negatives in the Division files, and overhauled completely the
index-print and negative files, comprising over 9,000 photographs.
It is difficult to assess the saving effected by maintaining this phase of Division work,
although it is evident that it runs into many thousands of dollars annually, but the
satisfaction of the other divisions of the Service with the quality of the work as compared
with that of outside agencies would appear to justify fully the maintenance of this activity. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952 117
Film Library
During the year three subjects were removed from the library and six new titles
added, resulting in a net total at the end of the year of seventy-seven subjects. Four
additional new prints of subjects already in the library were acquired, and one print
which had become worn and damaged was removed. By the gradual process of removing
old and worn subjects and replacing with new prints, the film library is changing from
silent films in black and white to sound films in colour. This transition is now almost
entirely accomplished.
The number of loans during the year reached a new high of 492, and the total
number of films loaned—1,218—was also an all-time record. The number of showings
showed a small reduction of approximately 6 per cent, and the total audience was materially reduced from 304,493 in 1951 to 234,396 in the current year. This drop of some
20 per cent was attributable to the fact that the school-lecture work in the Greater Vancouver area, where the larger audiences occur, was handled this year by the Canadian
Forestry Association, the Forest Service lecturers being routed in the main through rural
areas.
Films produced by the Service were circulated in India, Holland, Norway, Sweden,
Denmark, United Kingdom, and the United States, with the title " Flying Surveyors "
receiving very favourable comment from many sources.
EXHIBITS
A small exhibit, depicting reforestation activities, was designed by the Division and
a commercial exhibit-manufacturer during the year, and built by the co-operating firm.
It was used at two fairs during the year—one in the Vancouver Forest District and the
other in the Kamloops District.
SIGNS AND POSTERS
Additional highway forest-protection signs were secured commercially, and Ranger
Station and directional signs were produced at the Forest Service Marine Station. The
co-operation of the latter unit not only results in a superior quality of sign, but enables
a material saving in costs. A number of designs for rustic Ranger Station signs were
produced in collaboration with the Parks and Recreation Division. No new posters
were produced, but reprints of a number of existing designs were secured.
CO-OPERATION
The services of one of the School lecturers were contributed to the summer camp
of the Canadian Forestry Association for the Junior Forest Wardens.
Assistance was extended to numerous writers, outside of the Forest Service, in the
way of photographs to illustrate manuscripts, suggestions, editing, and other services in
the production of material on forestry and forest-industry topics.
The co-operative project with the Canadian Forestry Association in furnishing a
lecture-film programme, to every school in the Province that it was feasible to visit, was
continued. This project has received general commendation from the School Boards
and teaching staffs.
The policy of appointing honorary fire wardens by the district offices was continued,
with a total of 834 appointees. This Division addressed a letter of appreciation from
the Minister to each appointee and subscribed on their behalf to the conservation magazine " Forest and Outdoors " for a period of one year.
LIBRARY
The library secured considerable additional space as a result of the change in Division office accommodation, enabling the publications and periodicals to be more con- 118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
veniently arranged. The volume of library transactions continued to increase, with
almost all the divisions asking for many more monthly accession lists to cover their
additional staffs. A larger number of the staff and also the public have taken advantage
of the library facilities during the year. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
119
PERSONNEL
BOYS' TRAINING AND YOUTH REHABILITATION CAMPS
In the firm belief that outdoor work forms an essential part in development of good
character in our future citizens, the Forest Service instituted a programme of boys' training camps in 1951.
Very satisfactory results were obtained and, as a result, an expanded programme was
organized for the 1952 season with nineteen camps being established throughout the
Province. A total of 215 boys was employed, in crews varying from 10 to 20 per camp,
on projects under the supervision of staff from the various forest districts and the Research
and Parks Divisions.
Boys from 16 to 18 years of age were accepted, with period of employment averaging
sixty days during the summer school vacation. Projects varied in character, dependent
upon the division of work to which the particular crew was assigned. Generally speaking,
field work was in connection with hazard reduction, trail and access-road maintenance
and construction, and clearing of picnic, beach, and camp sites in parks and along major
highways.   Very satisfactory results were again obtained in work accomplished.
Additional to actual duties on project work, a certain amount of time was spent
during the season on a training programme involving proper use of hand-tools, practical
demonstrations of the use of portable radios and weather instruments, and lectures of
general forestry interest. In many cases, camps were located near lakes or rivers, which
afforded excellent recreational facilities, and, where such was not possible, organized
recreation was arranged with periodic visits to nearest recreational areas.
Also, by means of funds provided under this head, the Service again co-operated with
the Department of the Attorney-General in rehabilitation work for young offenders. Two
camps were established in the Nelson Forest District, employing a total of twenty-four
youths, screened and selected by the Department of the Attorney-General for inclusion
in the project. Both crews were engaged in forest access-road construction, with the
Forest Service responsible for establishment of camps, administration, and work supervision while representatives of the Attorney-General's Department took responsibility for
discipline.   These camps functioned for approximately 111 days. 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY,  1953
VICTORIA OFFICE
Dr. C. D. Orchard .
Druce, E.	
Monk, D. R	
lohnson, P. W. H. G.
Campbell, W. N	
Jones, T. C.	
Guthrie, Mrs. I. V.
Hicks, W. V	
MacLeod, D.	
Higgins, W. C.
Cooper, C.	
Williams, J.	
Palmer, J. A. Assistant Personnel Officer.
.Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
.Forester i/c Public Relations and Education
Division.
.Public Relations Officer (Administration).
.Public Relations Officer (Photography).
.Technical Forest Assistant (Lecturer).
.Technical Forest Assistant (Lecturer).
.Forest Service Library.
.Departmental Comptroller.
_ Assistant to Comptroller.
.Chief Accountant.
.Forest Counsel.
.Personnel Officer.
E. W. Bassett .
McKee, R. G	
Henning, W. G.
Gayle, W. B. ...
Turner, J. A. __
Stringer, A.	
.Assistant Chief Forester i/c Operations
Branch.
Forester i/c Protection Division.
.Assistant Forester.
.Assistant Forester.
.Meteorologist.
.Chief Clerk.
Stokes, J. S. 	
Marling, S. E. .
Hope, L. S. ...__
Reid, J. A. K.
McRae, N. A..
Collins, A. E. _.
.Forester i/c Management Division.
.... Forester.
.___ Forester.
.___ Assistant Forester (Appraisals).
 Assistant Forester (Silvicultural Fund).
.Assistant Forester (Cover Maps).
Axhorn, C P Chief Clerk (General).
Chisholm, A. Chief Clerk (Timber Sale Administration).
Greggor, R. D. _
Slaney, F. F. ..
Hemphill, P. J.
.Forester i/c Engineering Services Division.
.Chief Engineer.
Assistant Engineer (Construction).
Thomas, R. D Assistant Engineer (Reconnaissance).
White, R. G.
Radatzke, R..___
Playfair, G. A.
Taylor, J. H. _
Crowe, A. B. _
Hill, H. H	
. Assistant Engineer.
.Assistant Engineer (Location Surveys).
_ Radio Superintendent.
.Marine and Structural Superintendent.
.Mechanical Superintendent.
.Superintendent, Forest Service Marine Station
(Vancouver).
Pendray, W. C.
.Agrologist i/c Grazing Division.
Pedley, J. A. -
Dixon, A. H.
Levy, G. L....
...Forester i/c Ranger School (New Westminster).
...Assistant Forester.
...Clerk.
F. S. McKinnon .
.Assistant Chief Forester i/c Technical Planning Branch. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
121
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Pogue, H. M.	
Silburn, G. Assistant Forester.
Cliff, H. N. Assistant Forester.
Allison, G. W. Assistant Forester.
Calder, C. J. Assistant Forester.
Lyons, E. H. Assistant Forester.
Macdougall, D. Assistant Forester.
Breadon, R. E. Assistant Forester.
Fligg, D. M. Assistant Forester.
Ford, B.  Assistant Forester.
Frey, J. H. Assistant Forester.
Jones, R. C. Assistant Forester.
Malcolm, R. M. Assistant Forester.
Tannhauser, J. R. Assistant Forester.
Young, W. Assistant Forester.
Rhodes, A. E Chief Clerk.
Forester i/c Surveys and Inventory Division.
McWilliams, H. G.
Bamford, A. H. _
Whiting, E. G	
Grainger, W. D. __
Berg, W. E. ...
Long, J. R.
...Forester i/c Reforestation Division.
...Assistant Forester.
...Assistant Forester.
...Assistant Forester (Cranbrook).
...Nursery Superintendent (Cranbrook).
.Nursery Superintendent (Duncan).
Turner, W. Nursery Superintendent (Quinsam).
Wells, T. Nursery Superintendent (Green Timbers).
Wharf, N. G Clerk.
Oldham, E. G. Forester i/c Parks and Recreation Division.
Lyons, C. P.  Assistant Forester.
Brooks, L.  Assistant Forester (Planning).
Edwards, R. Y.  Biologist (Wildlife Section).
Macmurchie, D. L. Technical Forest Assistant (Administration).
Boyd, R. H Park Officer (Manning Park).
Cook, L. E.  Park Officer (Wells Gray Park).
Fenner, C. A Park Officer (Garibaldi Park).
Johansen, O. N. Park Officer (Mount Seymour Park).
McFarland, F. J Park Officer (Cultus Lake Park).
Kristjanson, S. J.  Park Officer (Peace Arch Park).
Wilson, J. A. Park Officer (Mount Robson Park).
Lewis, C. F.  Technical Forest Assistant (Island Parks).
Charlton, E.  Clerk (Administration).
Park, S. E. Clerk (Public Relations).
Shaw, L. A. Foreman (Langford Workshop).
Hughes, W. G.
Carey, D. M.
Mason, N. V.
Leesing, W. __
... Forester i/c Working Plans Division.
,__Assistant Forester (Farm Wood-lots).
 Assistant Forester (Management Licences).
 Assistant Forester (Public Working Circles).
Spilsbury, R. H. .
Fraser, A. R.	
Warrack, G. C.
Decie, T. P	
Garman, E. H.	
Orr-Ewing, A. L. .
Clark, M. B	
Schmidt, R. L	
Joergensen, H. C.
Finnis, J. M.	
...Forester i/c Research Division.
...Assistant Forester (Technical Adviser).
 Assistant Forester (i/c Cowichan Lake Experiment
Station).
___Forester-in-training  (i/c Aleza Lake Experiment
Station).
...Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
 Assistant Forester (Genetics).
...Assistant Forester (Mensuration).
...Assistant Forester (Ecology).
... Acting Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
...Assistant Forester (Silviculture). 122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
Arlidge, J. W. C.
Borzuchowski, R.
Stewart, M.	
.Forester-in-training (Ecology).
_Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
.Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
Benteli, S.  Acting Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
Knight, H. A. W  Forest Agrologist-in-training (Soils).
Roberts, E. A. Foreman, Cowichan Lake Experiment Station.
Hellenius, R. A. Foreman, Aleza Lake Experiment Station.
Nutt, J Clerk.
VANCOUVER DISTRICT
D. B. Taylor District Forester.
Cameron, I. T. Assistant District Forester.
Bennett, C. E. (Management);  McGee, C. J Assistant Foresters.
Holmberg, J. H. (Operations); Sweatman, P.;
Neil, P.  Forest Protection Officers.
Fisher, R. B.; Hubbard, T. R.; Charnell, G. S.
(Campbell River); Johnston, G. R.; Tuttle,
W. F.; Williams, F. S. Foresters-in-training.
Haddon,   C.   D.   S.;   McNeill,   J.;   Morrison,
R. H.; Owen, D. H; Tannock, F. Supervisors.
Hollinger, F. Mechanical Inspector.
Armstrong, C. L. (Supervisor);  Heard, A. C.
(Assistant  Supervisor);   Munn,   H.   A.   D.
(Assistant Supervisor)  Scalers.
Marriott, G. L.; Templeman, J. H. Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Clutterbuck, F. Export Inspector.
Dunn, H. I. Tabulating Supervisor.
Benwell, S. A Chief Clerk.
Aylett, R. W.  (Port Moody);   Barrett, R. J.
(Chilliwack); Barker, H. (Ganges);  Black,
W.   (Powell   River);   Chamberlin,   L.   C.
(Sechelt); Frost, S. C. (Squamish); Ginne-
ver, A. F. W.  (Lake Cowichan);   Brewis,
D. W. (Campbell River);  Glassford, R. J.
(Parksville); Greenhouse, J. P. (Langford);
Haley, K. (Thurston Bay East);  Henderson,
J. E. (Duncan); Jansen, W. E. (Nanaimo);
Jones,  R.  W.   (Madeira  Park);   Little,  R.
(Harrison Lake);  Lorentsen, L. H. (Chatham Channel);   McKenzie, K. A. (Lund);
Mudge, M. H. (Echo Bay); Rawlins, W. P.
(Alert Bay);   Reaney, R. J. C.   (Alberni);
Robinson,   J.   H.   (Mission);   Rockwell,   I.
(Thurston Bay West); Silke, S. (Courtenay);
Wagner, C. J. (Hope);  Webb, R. A. (Port
Hardy); Wilson, R. S. (Zeballos) Rangers.
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT
P. Young District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B Assistant District Forester.
Bruce, J.  B.   (Management);   Selkirk,  D.  R.
(Management Inventory);   Bancroft, H. B.
(Operations)  Assistant Foresters.
Couling, H. L. Forest Protection Officer.
Corregan,   R.   W.   (Management   Licences);
Young, V. (Public Working Circles) Foresters-in-training.
Campbell, W.  H.   (Management Appraisals);
Dahlie, C. (Project Supervisor) Technical Forest Assistants.
Scott, J. B Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
Strimbold,   S.   T.   (Coast);   Antilla,   W.   A.
(Interior)   Ranger Supervisors.
Smith, C. V.  Chief Clerk. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
123
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT—Continued
Gibson, C. L. (Burns Lake); Taft, L. G.
(Hazelton); Smith, D. R. (Terrace); Hlady,
E. (Prince Rupert); Munro, J. F. (Queen
Charlotte City); Hammer, H. B. (Ocean
Falls); Tourond, A. L. (Southbank);
Botham, C. L. (Smithers); Gilmour, J. R.
(Houston); Kullander, M. O. (Pendleton
Bay); Mould, J. (Kitwanga); MacPherson,
A. C. (Atlin); Keefe, J. J. (Terrace);
Brooks, R. L. (Burns Lake)   Rangers.
FORT GEORGE DISTRICT
W. C. Phillips District Forester.
Abernethy, G. M. Assistant District Forester.
Bruce,   J.   A.   (Management);    Glew,   D.   R.
(Silviculture); Trew, D. M. (Silviculture) Assistant Foresters.
Nelson, F. H. Forest Protection Officer.
Robbins, R. W.; Cuthbert, J. A.; Talbot, G. F..Foresters-in-training.
Seeley, W. C. (Silviculture) Forest Assistant.
Willington, L. A. Supervisor.
Layton, H. R. Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
Carter, R. B Chief Clerk.
Macalister, J. S. (McBride);  Northrup, K. A.
(Penny);   Specht,   A.   F.   (Prince   George
East);    French,   C.   L.    (Prince   George
North);  O'Meara, A. V. (Fort St. James);
Kuly, A. (Quesnel); Barbour, H. T. (Pouce
Coupe);    Cosens,   A.   S.    (Aleza   Lake);
Threatful, N.  (Vanderhoof);   McQueen, L.
(Fort St.  John);   Moen,  A.   (Fort Fraser-
Summit Lake);   Meents, G. E.  (Quesnel);
Angly, R. B.  (Prince George West);   Mc-
Kenzie, R. A. (Canyon Creek) Rangers.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT
L. F. Swannell
.District Forester.
Johnston, J. R. Assistant District Forester.
Robinson, E. W. (Management); Schutz, A. C.
(Operations); Groner, A. (Working Plans)  Assistant Foresters.
Kirk, A. J. (Operations); Noakes, H. S Forest Protection Officers.
Broadland, T. R. (Parks); Kerr, M. L. (Management); Lehrle, L. W. W. (Management
Licences); Neighbor, B. E. (Management);
Robinson, J. L. (Management); Milner, L. J.
(Management); Boulton, G. B. (Management) ; Clark, J. D. (Silviculture) Foresters-in-training.
DeBeck, H. K. (in charge); Pringle, R.; Smith,
E. R.;  Wallace, M. T.  Assistant Forest Agrologists (Grazing).
Bodman, G. F. (Grazing); Downing, C. R.
(Silviculture); Huffman, C. H. (Marking);
Noble, J. O. (Cruising) Technical Forest Assistants.
Charlesworth, E. A.; Williams, C Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Mayson, H. G.; Fraser, D. P Supervisors.
Painter, M. F Engineer-in-training.
Cowan, W. P Chief Clerk. 124
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT—Continued
Boyd, R. H. (Manning Park); Boydell, J.
(Salmon Arm); Cameron, A. G. (Blue
River); Campbell, H. W. (Kamloops East);
Cook, L. E. (Wells Gray Park); Dearing,
J. H. (Princeton); Eden, R. B. W.
(Kelowna); Gibbs, T. L. (Alexis Creek);
Hayhurst, J. W. (Vernon); Hewlett, H. C.
(Enderby); Hewlett, R. C. (Kamloops
West); Johnson, M. A. (Vernon); Jones,
G. G. (Sicamous); Kettleson, O. J. (Revelstoke); McKenna, L. J. (Birch Island);
Paquette, O. (Chase); Petersen, K. N. (Williams Lake); Robertson, C. E. (Clinton);
Scott, E. L. (Penticton); Smith, W. W.
(Barriere); Specht, G. H. (100-Mile House);
Williams, R. V. (Merritt)	
Rangers.
NELSON DISTRICT
H. B. Forse
-District Forester.
.Assistant District Forester.
Young, E. L. 	
Payne, J. C. (Management); Waldie, R. A.
(Silviculture); Knight, E. (Management);
Parlow, A. L. (Management-Working
Circles); Hall, J. W. G. (Management-
Working Circles)  Assistant Foresters.
Johnson, I. B. Forest Protection Officer.
Bishop, W. G. (Management-Management
Licences); Gill, R. G. (Management);
Munro, D. W. (Management); Sutherland,
F. E. (Management); Hepper, W. H. (Recreation Officer); Isenor, M. G. (Operations);
Price, G. W. (Operations) Foresters-in-training.
Milroy, J. E.; Paulsen, A Assistant Forest Agrologists.
Lepsoe, G.; Barnes, J. N Technical Forest Assistants.
Robinson, G. T.  Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
Chase, L. A.;   Christie, R. O.;   MacDonald,
J. P. Supervisors.
Simpson, S. S Chief Clerk.
Coles, H. J. (Golden); Connolly, J. E. (Cranbrook East); Damstrom, R. A. (Fernie);
Gierl, J. B. (Arrowhead); Haggart, W. D.
(Edgewood); Hesketh, F. G (Elko); Hill,
F. R. (Cranbrook West); Uphill, W. T.
(Beaverdell); Humphrey, J. L. (Kaslo);
Killough, J. F. (Castlegar); Larsen, A. J.
(Nelson); McGuire, C. J. (Canal Flats);
Reid, E. W. (Grand Forks); Robinson, R. E.
(New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Lardeau);
Ross, A. I. (Creston); Snider, J. I. (Spillimacheen); Stilwell, L. E. (Kettle Valley);
Hopkins, H. V. (Invermere); Wood, H. R.
(Nakusp)   __ Rangers. APPENDIX  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
127
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
General
Table No.
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1952.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1943-52..
Page
129
130
Forest Management
Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1943-52  131
Paper Production (in Tons), 1943-52  131
Water-borne Lumber Trade (inMB.M.), 1943-52  132
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1951-52,
(A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  133
Species Cut, All Products, 1952, (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet  134
Total Scale of All Products, 1952, Segregated by Land Status and Forest
Districts, (A) in F.B.M., (B) in Cubic Feet	
Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1952 (by Months and Forest Districts)	
Logging Inspection, 1952	
Trespasses, 1952	
Pre-emption Inspection, 1952..
135
136
138
138
139
139
139
140
140
Timber Sales Awarded by Districts, 1952  141
Average Stumpage Prices as Bid, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-timber
Cruised on Timber Sales in 1952, (A) per MB.F. Log-scale, (B) per
C CF. Log-scale
Areas Examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1952.
Classification of Areas Examined, 1952	
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1952	
Timber-sale Record, 1952	
Average Stumpage Prices Received, by Species and Forest Districts, on Saw-
timber Scaled on Timber Sales in 1952, per M B.F. Log-scale	
Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1952	
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1952_.
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1952.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.
Summary for Province, 1952	
Timber Marks Issued, 1943-52	
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1952	
1952.
142
144
145
146
147
148
148
149
149
Forest Finance
27. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as Compiled from
Taxation Records	
28. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts.
150
150 128 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table No. Page
29. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records  150
30. Forest Revenue  151
31. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1952  152
32. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1951-52  153
33. Forest Revenue,  (A) Fiscal Year 1951-52, (B) Fiscal Years 1936-37 to
1951-52  154
34. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1951-52  155
35. Scaling Fund  155
36. Silviculture Fund  156
37. Forest Reserve Account  156
38. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  157
39. Forest Development Fund  157
40. Forest Protection Fund  158
41. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1952,
by the Forest Service  159
42. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by Other Agencies,
1952  160
Forest Protection
43. Summary of Snag-falling, 1952, Vancouver Forest District  160
44. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1952, Vancouver Forest District  160
45. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1952, Vancouver Forest District 161
46. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1952, Vancouver Forest District  161
47. Summary of Operations, Vancouver Forest District, 1952  162
48. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1952, Vancouver Forest District..- 162
49. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-52  163
50. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1952   163
51. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1952  164
52. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years    164
53. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1952  164
54. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1952  165
55. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1952  165
56. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1952  166
57. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  167
58. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1952  167
59. Prosecutions, 1952  168
60. Burning Permits, 1952  169
Ranger School
61. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1952  170
Public Relations
62. Motion-picture Library  170
63. Forest Service Library   171
Grazing
64. Grazing Permits Issued  171
65. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  171 (1)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
Distribution of Personnel, 1952
129
Forest District
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Fort
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Chief Forester, Assistant Chief Foresters, and Division
~~2
2
6
1
6
23
5
47
27
3
1
5
79
14
28
20
31
2
2
"i
2
5
1
1
13
2
1
1
2
3
24
4
16
2
4
2
4
5
1
1
14
1
2
12
2
19
1
17
5
2
1
2
1
4
8
1
3
21
2
3
4
3
25
1
30
4
20
2
2
5
2
6
1
3
20
3
2
3
2
19
39
5
4
13
2
36
3
32
2
5
19
22
28
4
24
108
5
16
1
1
21
3
62
13
2
10
50
9
Foresters-in-training  	
62
5
14
93
13
48
Scalers, Official, Temporary.. _ . 	
27
5
30
44
Nursery, Reforestation, Parks, and Research Assistants-
28
4
Draughtsmen  -	
39
274
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
5
18
18
130
37
62
23
5
65
304
83
89
134
116
407
1,133
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers...	
21
4
33
4
45
3
5
18
8
4
13
3
3
2
1
15
5
16
13
2
6
3
27
12
13
27
14
45
4
8
3
22
12
10
5
13
36
16
36
4
8
30
11
182
2
3
2
3
500
20
271
12
196
63
42
127
53
126
Reforestation—Snag-falters, planters, etc 	
500
10
48
274
52
45
434
133
34
87
170
341
1,009
1,774
437
117
176
304
457
1,416
2,907 130
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S2 ft cqQ REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1952
133
(6A)
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the
Years 1951-52 in F.B.M.
(All products converted to f.b.m.)
Forest District
1951
1952
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
3,090,658,676
240,896,351
3,102,784,132
232,357,458
12,125,456
Prince Rupert (C.)	
8,538,893
Totals, Coast	
3,331,555,027
3,335,141,590
12,125,456
8,538,893
3,586,563
169,058,550
429,956,253
456,291,268
309,485,714
181,210,362
493,962,117
561,752,841
365,898,533
12,151,812
64,005,864
105,461,573
56,412,819
1,364,791,785
1,602,823,853
238,032,068
238,032,068
4,696,346,812
4,937,965,443
250,157,524
8,538,893
241,618,631
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the
Years 1951-52 in Cubic Feet.
(6B) (All products converted to cubic measure.)  -
Forest District
1951
1952
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
515,109,780
40,149,392
517,130,689
38,726,243
2,020,909
1,423,149
Totals, Coast  ■
555,259,172
555,856,932
2,020,909
1,423,149
597,760
30,737,918
78,173,864
82,962,049
56,270,130
32,947,338
89,811,294
102,136,880
66,527,006
2,209,420
11,637,430
19,174,831
10,256,876
248,143,961
291,422,518
43,278,557
43,278,557
803,403,133
847,279,450
45,299,466
1,423,149
43,876,317 134
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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Z REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
135
(8 A)
Total Scale of All Products in F.B.M., 1952 (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Fort
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
599,725,269
122,000,098
107,070,525
3,405,705
30,407,935
36,690
44,252,661
21,362,184
44,946
16,200,017
486,428
9,150,325
3,986,374
18,316,073
20,975,841
7,758,211
83,188
650,524,254
148,074,382
107,153,713
11,579,454
14,985,159
41,908,866
72,316,801
253,329
1,710,890
17,859,528
290,019
4,305,620
23,483,572
96,924
10,931,679
7,911,281
3,357,706
2,886,753
15,363,297
61,164,129
92,357,966
44,946
704,545,446
69,476,602
44,570,602
136,702,364
422,310,956
369,990,500
226,068,920
1,929,094,788
44,570,602
88,407,439
88,407,439
Miscellaneous...	
31,924,414
384,623
1,089,898,164
95,437,214
52,659,368
111,221,451
10,319,330
5,177,595
6,141,338
21,830,086
8,829,523
84,222,286
384,623
Crown grants—
To 1887     _
610,337
295,279
4,266,771
40,158,508
40,387,959
18,910,427
29,855,898
47,206,537
2,616,301
47,369,708
15,357,854
18,588,937
1,133,512,761
1887-1906	
1,482,473
9,198,777
7,797,590
527,276
4,493,164
6,034,343
164,022,377
1906-1914...	
115,831,832
1914 to date	
231,007,366
Totals       	
3,102,784,132
232,357,458
181,210,362
493,962,117
561,752,841
365,898,533
4,937,965,443
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is shown
under the heading " Dominion Lands."
N.B.—For details of material actually scaled in cubic feet and units of measurement other than f.b.m., see Table 9.
(SB)
Total Scale of All Products in Cubic Feet, 1952 (Segregated
by Land Status and Forest Districts)
(Conversion factor: Coast—6 f.b.m.=l cu. ft.; Interior—5.5 f.b.m._=l cu.ft.)
Land Status
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Fort
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
99,954,211
20,333,350
17,845,087
567,618
5,067,989
6,115
7,375,444
3,560,364
7,491
117,424,241
2,700,003
88,442
1,663,695
724,795
3,330,195
3,813,789
1,410,584
15,125
108,944,935
25,074,129
17,869,212
2,497,527
12,052,800
48,337
10,424,334
16,198,089
7,491
339,016,900
7,428,434
14,734,573
14,673,087
64,104
189,579,620
28,353,769
20,123,088
40,198,021
1,929,909
6,984,811
42,222
285,148
2,976,588
782,840
4,269,740
17,623
1,987,578
1,438,415
610,492
624,864
2,793,327
11,579,434
7,428,434
24,854,975
76,783,810
67,271,000
41,103,440
14,734,573
5,320,736
64,104
1,719,888
941.381
1,116,607
3,969,107
1,605,368
Crown grants—
To 1887                -	
181,649,694
15,906,202
8,776,561
18,536,909
110,970
53,687
775,777
7,301,547
7,343,265
3,438,259
5,428,345
8,583,007
475,691
8,612,674
2,792,337
3,379,807
1887 1906	
247,079
1,533,129
1,299,598
95,868
816,939
1,097,153
1Q06 1«14
1914 to date           -
Totals        -
517,130,689
38,726,243
32,947,338
89,811,294
102,136,880
66,527,006
847,279,450
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is shown
under the heading " Dominion Lands."
N.B.—For details of material actually scaled in units of measurement other than cubic feet, see Table 9. 136
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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(10)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Logging Inspection, 1952
Type of Tenure Operated
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants.
and
Pre-emptions
Totals
Number of
Inspections
Vancouver   _ _	
1,402
1,101
1,225
1,412
682
1
3
2,233
343
339
1,916
879
3,636
1,449
1,564
3,248
1,561
9,165
2,904
2,291
Kamloops       	
Nelson 	
2,878
3,026
Totals, 1952        	
5,822
6
5,710
11,458
20,264
Totals, 1951	
5,448
6
4,766
10,220
17,754
Totals, 1950 , 	
5,189
6
3,812
9.007
16,221
Totals, 1949        	
6,405
7
4,440
10,852
15,483
Totals, 1948        	
4,847
5
3,982
8,834
15,432
Totals, 1947.  	
4,428
5
3,190
7,623
13,876
Totals, 1946	
3,627
6
3,021
6,654
12,974
Totals, 1945	
3,492
9
2,852
6,353
11,901
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943          _	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
4,589
7
3,683
8,124
14,767
(11)
Trespasses, 1952
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40
34
136
88
1,066
657
398
2,672
975
9,856,792
3,072,359
1,664,161
52,947
33,770
84
981
2,823
4,581
135,242
6
7
$115,434.97
32,214
120,556
220,018
34,203.04
40
2,161
170
83
22,340.00
Kamloops   	
7,713,992
1,940,023
149,406
36,647
27
15
2,062
4.278
92,025
1,107
2,884
114,350.15
26,446.17
Totals, 1952	
4.9
5.768
372.788
24.247.327
272,770
1,1471 5,237|10,921
227,267
3,991
13
$312,774.33
i
Totals, 1951	
454|5,999
j
24,545,775
159,064
1,779|20,976|28,121
13,325
41
$237,588.00
Totals, 1950 ..
27613.072
12,753,405
360,190
1,475) 1,806| 6,312
75,309
7,550
16
$87,589.23
Totals, 1949   	
418
4,132
20,419,563
244,655
1,298| 3,514| 9,022
34,070
8,785
28
$81,923.27
Totals, 1948	
31213,062
11,738,855
470,674
3,569)18,2111 3,711
11,135
4,100
«
£59654.37
Totals, 1947	
316
5,132
17.234.601
659.621
5,5991 5,235
15,416
439,554
17,506
15      1.74.761.43
Totals, 1946	
22612.568
7,084,343
1,760,574
1,469| 2,900
10,148
41,377
35,997
8
$27,530.63
Totals, 1945	
267
3,313
 |24,322,556
516,960
1,910  9,902
2,438
10
$37,877.12
Totals, 1944	
210[2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369| 4,231
3,781
5
$29,193.16
1
Totals, 1943      	
167|3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,8731     552
7,923
7
$23,725.29
30613.859
16,440,920
475,314
2.8491 7.257
7,780
15  I  *97.261.58
	 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
139
<12> Pre-emption Inspection, 1952
Vancouver    14
Prince Rupert   	
Fort George   18
Kamloops   74
Nelson  16
Total  122
(13)
Areas Examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
" Land Act," 1952
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Vancouver..... —	
4
5
9
24
3
1,426
751
1,682
6,352
360
3
3
12
18
3
215
480
1,686
2,230
439
247
76
176
157
116
13,391
8,960
20,109
16,374
14,681
61
21
6
7
3
219
175
108
181
25
315
105
203
206
125
15,251
10,366
23,585
Kamloops. 	
25,137
15,505
Totals.....	
45
10,571
39
5,050
772
73,515
98    |         708
1
954
89,844
(14)
Classification of
Areas Examined, 1952
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-agricultural Land
Merchantable
Timber Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land
Acres
15,251
10.366
23,585
25,137
15.505
Acres
4,457
1,588
16,045
6,637
4,094
Acres
10,794
8,778
7,540
18,500
11,411
Acres
2,294
1,359
1,106
5,331
666
M F.B.M.
28,136
1,897
5,398
14,557
Nelson        .—
2,865
Totals   	
89,844
32,821
57,023
10,756
52,853 140
(IS)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1952
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cord-
wood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc. (No.)
Saw-
timber
(C CF.)
Vancouver —
Prince Rupert _
Fort George.....
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals, 1952..
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
Totals,
1951..
1950..
1949..
1948..
1947..
1946..
1945..
1944..
1943..
730
403
489
454
264
121,233
232,451
112,861
397,834
164,820
771,566
155,083
368,685
984,051
264,505
319,522
1,441,200
200,600
26,699,921
11,344,086
2,700
2,945
950
2,213
4,597
802,063
107,550
11,005
68,526
137,292
11,560
500
70,960
298,340
848,618
3,714,036
752,662
5,721,783
846,506
2,340
1,029,199
2,543,890
40,005,329
13,405
989,144
518,652
11,883,605
2,704
2,196
1,638
1,851
1,960
2,059
1,488
1,476
1,771
Ten-year average, 1943-52..
1,949
934,475
333,435
269,576
346,648
361,834
362,587
261,150
334,729
590,953
6,577,298
1,777,025
1,355,342
1,817,737
1,481,715
1,230,716
948,673
1,205,308
907,768
20,674,280
7,388,875
9,599,176
7,603,641
23,015,436
40,760,769
48,743,325
8,166,829
10,720,729
25,630
24,522
57,002
44,726
50,346
90,078
95,774
137,737
259,741
316,954
123,091
170,475
180,602
299,501
216,892
301,276
483,363
454,767
432,000
352,440
738,510
1,947,010
1,064,125
2,718,706
1,802,468
1,345,439
816,544
482,458  1,984,546 21,467,840
I
79,897
353,602  1,153,590
Of the above 1952 totals, the following number of cruises, with corresponding
volumes, were made by Forest Surveys Division: Number cruised, 13; acreage, 464,983;
pit-props, poles, and piles, 15,763,000 lin. ft.; railway ties, 469,476; saw-timber,
10,327,710 C cf.
(16)
TlMBER-SALE
Record,
1952
District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Acreage Paying Forest
Protection
Tax
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver.. ,.	
683
xie,
677
339.
1,876
1,260
1,326
1,722
959
416,933
275,080
315,573
579,784
345,508
298,441
250,512
263,111
565,623
328,821
$2,532,387.55
560,815.05
491                 368
489               475
263                316
962,380.39
Kamloops 	
1,288,743.55
724,008.75
Totals    	
2,302            2,168
292      |       	
7,143
1,932,878
1,706,508
$6,068,335.29
2,594
	 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
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1,733,909.62
2,092,812.19
4,381,066.48
5.025.496.22
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(21)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1952
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M
Vancouver  	
385
330
604
578
326
9,003
2,034
4,829
4,331
3,236
53
3
3
7,962
103
33
94
67
35
651
223
601
373
244
14
3
1
2
4
749
12
1
46
60
17
Nelson	
39
Totals, 1952 	
2,223
23,433
59
8,068
332
2,092
24
818
Totals, 1951 	
2,100
21,748
60
8,185
294
1,474
16
546
Totals, 1950..	
1,826
19,143
65
8,636
234
1,462
11
178
Totals, 1949 	
1,671
19,082
61
7,708
314
2,373
17
513
Totals, 1948 _
1,671
18,570
68
8,464
179
840
11
360
Totals, 1947  .:	
1,634
17,546
73
8,609
143
754
6
100
Totals, 1946	
1,228
15,256
59
8,656
115
741
8
165
Totals, 1945	
931
13,590
51
7,054
137
808
7
150
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Ten-year average,
1943-52	
1,470
17,696
60
7,948
197
1,190
6
424 (22)
REPORT OF FOREST
Export of Logs (in
SERVICE,
F.B.M.),
1952
1952
147
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir.             	
i
1.221.547   1       5.435.176  1       7.519.003
1,131,424
1,885
15,307,150
2,516,326
56,660
3,053,982
596,796
3,955,048
1,066,371
100,000
72,022,154
9,527,241
1,719,827
100,000
938,357
6,837,125
233
844
27,274
79,797,869
18,400,266
18,401,110
19,053
1,440
78,375
2,857
6,707
5,829
766
124,702
4,297
6,707
5,829
720
1,486
Totals, 1952 ___ 	
4,732,890
15,944,292
84,757,110
18,400,266
1,161,660
124,996,21s1
Totals, 1951 ______  	
5,901,140
12,229,159
51,699,605
10,202,844
2,224,693
82,257,441
Totals, 1950	
8,659,552
21,625,295
88,031,088
19,210,615
137,526,550
Totals, 1949  _	
6,392,228
21,382,979
103,550,707
14,228,041
145,553,955
Totals, 1948. -	
9,380,092
31,127,805
106,739,296
16,367,096
163,614,289
Totals, 1947-  	
7,156,095
21,100,803
52,368,152
7,552,386
88,177,436
Totals, 1946  	
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200
Totals, 1945- —_	
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
Totals, 1944 _   _   „
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579
Totals, 1943 ..         	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
6,245,140
20,836,491
60,307,253
21,377,391
108,882,441
1 Of this total, 107,682,623 f.b.m. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   17,313,595 f.b.m.
were exported under permit from other areas. 148
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(23)
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
Railway-ties, etc., 1952
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles	
Piling.
Mine-timbers	
Sticks and stakes..
Pulpwood 	
Posts  	
Shakes	
Blanks.
Christmas trees ...
Prince Rupert-
Poles and piling.
Hewn ties	
Posts 	
Fort George—
Poles  _.
Posts —
Ties
Kamloops—
Poles and piling-
Fence-posts..
Hewn ties-
Christmas trees_
Nelson—
Poles and piling.
Orchard-props.—
Mine-timbers	
Corral-rails	
Mine-props..
Fence-postS-
Cordwood....
Pulpwood	
Hewn ties....
Christmas trees..
-lin. ft.
..cords
_.lin. ft.
..pieces
.cords
Jin. ft.
-.pieces
.lin. ft.
...cords
. lin. ft.
... cords
..pieces
Total value, 1952-
Total value, 1951-
5,876,338
946,071
2,550
220,700
11,845
41,850
8,815,161
2,300
144,997
1,871,949
177,663
38
$2,401,586.66
369,552.30
153.00
1,103.50
168,793.00
14,647.50
595,012.50
149.50
72,498.50
636,462.66
273,601.02
570.00
441,887 |       131,919.35
252,230 j 36,751.68
168,448 267,063.80
7,927,815
3,315
1,973
590,663
2,378,344.50
82,875.00
3,946.00
295,331.50
5,680,462       1,489,588.13
20,800
2,919,624
37,780
1,674
8,448
9
29
63,598
932,694
208.00
169,338.19
1,322.30
30,098.52
253,440.00
144.00
147.00
127,196.00
466,347.00
4,215,757
205,484
220,700
11,845 |
4,060 |
8,811,801
2,300
144,997
1,068,155
274,727
3,706,325
567,862
3,459,873
20,800
2,200
29
827,187
1,659,859
660,182
2,550
37,790
3,360
803,794
177,663
38
167,160
252,230
168,448
4,221,490
3,315
1,973
22,801
2,220,589
2,919,624
37,780
1,674
6,248
9
63,598
111,507
|$10,268,191.11
722
80,405
I
$7,638,352.09
(24)
Summary for Province, 1952
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
22,744,522
2,922,174
20,800
37,780
220,700
11,874
1,674
9
8,486
297,395
8,815,161
2,300
411,682
1,668,354
$7,407,453.60
169,491.19
208.00
1,322.30
1,103.50
168,940.00
30,098.52
144.00
336,885.00
51,399.18
595,012.50
149.50
671,806.82
834,177.00
72.1398
1.6507
Orchard-props         ,,
.0020
.0129
.0107
Pulpwood    -  cords
Mine-props -          „
1.6453
.2931
0014
3.2809
Fence-posts      pieces
.5006
5.7947
0014
6 5426
8 1239
$10,268,191.11
100 0000 (25)
report of forest service, 1952
Timber Marks Issued
149
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1
I Ten-year
[Average,
11943-52
1
190
98
104
283
72
2
5
11
2,017
9
5
1
4
280
89
81
234
51
1
9
10
1,893
8
6
1
1
329
115
106
337
53
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
2
631
200
176
473
70
3
8
15
2,637
35
738
191
176
489
75
8
9
18
2,469
32
1
791
156
150
439
82
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
549
169
165
505
69
5
8
32
2,591
27
4
4
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
696
201
204
538
62
8
7
13
2,594
98
6
1
581
Crown grants, 1887-1906	
Crown grants, 1906-1914._	
162
148
436
Stumpage reservations 	
Pre-emptions under sections 28
69
3
7
Indian reserves   	
19
2,420
2
Special marks and rights-of-way
35
1
2
Totals  	
2,801
2,664
2,882
4,248
4,206
4,301
3,763
4,134
5,458
4,428
3,889
Transfers and changes of marks
237
251
327
486
655
745
550
752
1,086
983
608
(26)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1952
Month
Number of Drawings Prepared or Tracings Made
Number of Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints Made
from Draughting Office
Drawings
Timber
Sales
Timber
Marks
Examination
Sketches
Miscellaneous
Matters
Constructional
Works, etc.
Total
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
Total
January   	
February	
March   	
April   	
May ■    	
63
67
59
49
42
30
50
26
30
18
36
21
483
335
378
223
246
232
230
114
145
131
142
168
106
59
104
125
54
77
134
149
174
194
108
103
116
92
91
50
239
73
46
39
118
79
85
40
5
14
5
6
12
8
10
8
8
9
8
6
773
567
.     637
453
593
420
470
336
475
431
379
338
1,922
1,259
1,692
2,003
1,848
1,422
1,094
2,040
1,698
1,556
1,346
1,044
1,255
1,365
1,180
1,080
910
635
1,085
620
590
420
750
430
3,177
2,624
2,872
3,083
2,758
2,057
2,179
2,660
2,288
1,976
2,096
1 474
July-               	
August- 	
September	
October  	
November  	
Totals, 1952 	
491
2,827
1,387
1,068
99
5,872
18,924
10,320
29,244
Totals, 1951 	
1,008
3,196
1,336
1,891
106
7,537
17,540
19,360
36,900
Totals, 1950 —	
828
2,050
1,108
805
378
5,168
13,759
16,599
30,358
Totals, 1949—	
514
1,547
988
353
80
3,482
10,184
10,344
20,528
Totals, 1948 	
681
2,300
1,247
241
58
4,327
13,625
12,959
26,401
Totals, 1947 	
500
2,223
1,238
290
55
4,306
12,026
9,844
21,870
Totals, 1946 	
604
1,931
1,028
525
48
4,136
9,113
7,300
16,413
Totals, 1945	
569
1,193
693
684
75
3,214
6,495
6,701
13,196
Totals, 1944- 	
442
889
459
544
46
2,380
4,159
4,983
9,142
Totals, 1943	
356
937
396
293
93
2,075
4,009
3,448
7,457
Totals for ten-year
period 	
5,993
19,093
9,880
6,694
1,038
42,497
109,834
101,858
211,509
Ten-year average,
1943-52	
599
1,909
988
669
104
4,250
10,983
10,186
2,151 150
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(27)
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1936
1937        -	
1938-  	
1939  ....
1940    - _	
1941
1942                	
1943 -                           ..   .           —   -
766,186
766,413
756,328
719,111
549,250
543,633
527,995
543,044
571,308
591,082
601,148
596,900
571,439
597,790
631,967
682,746
718,284
Acres
92,892
96,598
106,833
89,209
103,486
105,541
112,834
125,313
134,194
142,504
146,331
153,072
158,120
172,024
207,308
191,435
203,249
Acres
352,582
363,693
344,858
338,794
338,419
335,468
322,306
325,996
345,378
357,037
364,556
354,207
326,738
340,200
378,985
410,037
433,496
Acres
152,846
153,566
157,508
153,032
24,852
26,016
20,072
20,205
20,816
21,536
23,125
26,591
25,485
30,625
8,635
31,333
29,418
Acres
167,866
152,556
147,129
138,075
82,493
76,608
72,781
71,529
1944
70,920
70,005
67,136
1945  	
1946                - '
1"47
63,030
1948
61,096
1949
54,941
IPSO
37,039
1951
49,941
1952             	
52,121
(28)
Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts
District Acres
Alberni     90,355
Comox   155,250
Cowichan  142,607
Fort Steele       9,160
Gulf Islands  160
Kettle River  585
Nanaimo   166,602
Nelson        1,997
District Acres
Omineca  160
Prince George  840
Prince Rupert  27,547
Revelstoke   33,194
Slocan   35,603
Vancouver  552
Victoria   53,672
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
<29> as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year Area (Acres)
1921   845,111
1922  887,980
1923   883,344
1924 654,668
1925 654,016
1926 688,372
1927 690,438
1928 671,131
1929 644,011
1930 629,156
1931  602,086
1932 552,007
1933  567,731
1934 557,481
1935 535,918
1936 515,924
Area (Acres)
_ 743,109
_ 754,348
Year
1937	
1938	
1939    _ 719,112
1940 549,250
1941  543,632
1942 527,995
1943 543,044
1944 571,308
1945 591,082
1946 601,148
1947 596,900
1948  571,439
1949 597,790
1950 631,967
1951  682,746
1952 718,284 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
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Z 154
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(33A)
Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1951-52
Timber-licence rentals	
Timber-licence transfer fees
Timber-licence penalty fees .
Hand-loggers' licence fees	
Timber-lease rentals 	
$376,121.48
4,490.00
2,234.73
125.00
44,745.27
51.30
143,215.57
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest
Timber-sale rentals	
Timber-sale stumpage  10,487,302.58
Timber-sale cruising  90,784.73
Timber-sale advertising  26,800.60
Timber royalty  2,335,499.34
Timber tax  16,054.48
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)- 4,722.77
Exchange   120.69
Seizure expenses  776.43
General miscellaneous   44,929.45
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees 17,141.06
Interest on timber-berth rentals  4.39
Transfer fees on timber berths  324.04
Grazing fees and interest  108,271.50
Ten-year Average
$390,683.81
2,354.50
6,014.26
180.00
50,253.91
64.37
76,632.23
3,702,245.47
33,279.37
7,312.70
2,348,693.41
22,858.88
1,478.68
98.97
837.89
19,904.13
19,025.35
37.44
76.75
42,318.33
$13,703,715.41      $6,724,350.45
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands  484,475.51 315,012.52
Taxation collected under authority of
" Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt Land Tax Act "  972,156.13 1131,737.63
Totals	
$15,160,347.05      $7,171,100.60
1 Collection of this tax has only been authorized during the last two fiscal years, but average has been calculated on
a ten-year basis.
(33B)
Forest Revenue by Fiscal Years
Taxation from
Direct Crown-granted
Fiscal Year                        Forest Revenue Lands
1951-52   $13,703,715.41 $484,475.51
1950-51      10,089,884.69 440,213.07
1949-50        8,331,497.19 445,632.68
1948-49        7,977,676.22 453,980.08
1947-48        7,010,038.77 253,345.02
1946-47        4,880,232.89 237,506.83
1945_46        4,352,179.14 244,980.89
1944-45        4,017,653.53 213,912.46
1943-44        3,703,703.13 203,457.36
1942-43        3,519,892.44 206,146.21
1941-42        4,057,437.86 211,410.13
1940-41        3,549,931.53 224,652.87
1939-40        3,236,731.36 267,290.48
1938-39        2,982,702.42 241,109.96
1937-38        3,257,525.05 269,285.54
1936-37        3,001,054.84 299,992.41
Taxation Collected under
Authority of " E. & N.
Railway Belt Land
Tax Act"
$972,156.13
345,220.16
Total
$15,160,347.05
10,875,317.92
8,777,129.87
8,431,656.30
7,263,383.79
5,117,739.72
4,597,160.03
4,231,565.99
3,907,160.49
3,726,038.65
4,268,847.99
3,774,584.40
3,504,021.84
3,223,812.38
3,526,810.59
3,301,047.25 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
155
<34>                       Forest Expenditure,
Fiscal Year 1951-52
Forest District
Salaries and
Cost-of-living Bonus
Expenses
Total
$62,907.59
69,146.86
30,949.65
21,372.80
37,772.36
38,710.46
355,284.10
$62,907.59
$230,109.67
142,022.85
116,605.18
194,863.66
164,466.65
380,755.20
299,256.53
172,972.50
137,977.98
Kamloops     _ _ 	
232,636.02
203,177.11
Victoria  _	
736,039.30
Totals—     	
$1,228,823.21
$616,143.82
$1,844,967.03
5,000.00
107,648.08
73,104.67
392,167.58
57,621.34
546,101.78
53,444.83
59,932,05
45,000.00
38,747.42
3,103,000.00
384,964.37
$6,711,699.15
1 Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
2 Including Government contribution and Special Warrant No. 26 for $1,103,000.
<35> Scaling Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1951 (debit)  $48,693.82
Collections, fiscal year 1951-52  575,595.44
$526,901.62
Expenditures, fiscal year 1951-52  513,463.95
Balance, March 31st, 1952 (credit)  $13,437.67
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1952  490,240.15
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1952.
Balance, December 31st, 1952 (credit)	
$503,677.82
428,418.55
$75,259.27 156 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(36> Silviculture Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1951  $1,102,839.30
Collections, fiscal year 1951-52  47,513.83
$1,150,353.13
Expenditures, fiscal year 1951-52        479,125.15
Balance, March 31st, 1952 (credit)      $671,227.98
Balance, April 1st, 1952      $671,227.98
Collections, nine months to December 31st, 1952  73,371.69
$744,599.67
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1952       570,543.93
Balance, December 31st, 1952 (credit)___     $174,055.74
<37> Forest Reserve Account
Credit balance as at April 1st, 1951  $572,782.40
Amount received from Treasury, March 31st, 1952
(under subsection (2), section 32, "Forest Act") 384,964.37
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32,
" Forest Act "       38,223.26
$995,970.03
Expenditures, April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952___.    517,552.28
Credit balance, March 31st, 1952  $478,417.75
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1952___,    759,792.67
(Debit) $281,374.92
Collections to December 31st, 1952 (under subsection
(4), section 32, " Forest Act ")       10,083.55
(Debit) $271,291.37
Amount received under Federal-Provincial Agreement
dated December 4th, 1951     203,000.00
Balance, December 31st, 1952 (debit)     $68,291.37 report of forest service, 1952
<38> Grazing Range Improvement Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1951 (credit)	
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")
Other collections	
Expenditures, April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952..
157
Balance, March 31st, 1952 (credit)	
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act")
Other collections	
$12,844.62
38,747.42
660.25
$52,252.29
36,946.36
$15,305.93
54,163.54
86.46
$69,555.93
38,370.11
Expenditures, April 1st, 1952, to December 31st, 1952
Balance, December 31st, 1952 (credit)  $31,185.82
<39> Forest Development Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1951	
Amount received from Treasury  (authority,  " B.C.
Forest Development Loan Act, 1948 ")	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1951-52_
Balance as of March 31st, 1952 (credit).
Balance, April 1st, 1952 (credit).
Amount received from Treasury  (authority,  " B.C.
Forest Development Loan Act, 1948 ")	
Collections, nine months ended December 31st, 1952
Expenditures, nine months ended December 31st, 1952
Balance, December 31st, 1952 (credit)	
$27,041.16
45,000.00
$72,041.16
71,986.26
$54.90
$54.90
185,000.00
7,317.64
$192,372.54
111,964.97
$80,407.57 158 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(40> Forest Protection Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1951      $914,770.20
Contribution under Special Warrant No. 26  $1,103,000.00
Government contribution     2,000,000.00
Collections, tax        357,904.92
Collections, slash and snags  $6,384.15
Less refunds     6,295.89
  88.26
     3,460,993.18
$4,375,763.38
Expenditures, 1951-52   $4,156,495.95
Less refunds  48,183.36
(See detailed summary of net expenditure.)
4,108,312.59
Balance, March 31st, 1952      $267,450.79
Balance, April 1st, 1952.      $267,450.79
Collections, tax, nine months, April to December, 1952__     $267,149.35
Collections, miscellaneous  14,779.50
Refunds of expenditure  32,012.14
Government contribution     1,500,000.00
     1,813,940.99
$2,081,391.78
Expenditure, nine months, April to December, 1952     2,146,634.52
Estimated deficit, December 31st, 1952        $65,242.74 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,. 1952
159
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> 160 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
<42> by Other Agencies, 1952
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
Vancouver    	
$260,808.00
22,551.00
10,000.00
9,177.00
12,455.00
$292,009.00
145,860.00
16,000.00
25,847.00
68,982.00
$280,020.00
93,269.35
21,893.65
16,698.00
15,552.00
$43,875.00
36,531.65
9,000.00
33,655.00
10,450.00
$876,712.00
298,212.00
56,893.65
85,377.00
Nelson     	
107,439.00
Totals  	
$314,991.00
$548,698.00
$427,433.00
$133,511.65
$1,424,633.65
Ten-year average, 1943-52	
$142,052.00
$209,623.00
$272,421.00
$29,480.00
$653,576.00
<43>        Summary of Snag-falling, 1952, Vancouver Forest District
Acres
___ 75,291
Total area logged, 1952	
Logged in snag-exempted zone1  2,579
Logged on small exempted operations1  4,320
6,899
Assessed for non-compliance, less 339.5 acres subsequently felled  1,178
Balance logged acres snagged, 1952.
8,077
67,214
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1952, Vancouver
<**) Forest District
Total area logged, 1952  75,291
Area covered by full hazard reports  55,279
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-
disposal x      2,579
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from
slash and snag-disposal)x     4,320
  62,178
Slash created too late to be dealt with in 1952  13,113
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act." REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
161
(45)
Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1952,
Vancouver Forest District
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1952 1952
Broadcast-burning   20,968
Spot-burning   12,994
Totals
33,962
11,132
10,499
21,631
Total
Acres
32,100
23,493
55,593
1952 reports not recommending slash-disposal  32,897
1952 slash examined for snags but exempt from slash-disposal       751
1952 slash in zone completely exempted  2,579
1952 slash on very small operations exempted without
special examinations  4,320
     6,899
Total area of slash dealt with, 1952  96,140
Note.—Above table does not include the estimated 13,113 acres (see Table No. 44) created too late to be dealt
with in 1952.
Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1952,
<46> Vancouver Forest District
Total disposal required (see Table No. 45)	
Acres
55,593
Type of Disposal
Spring broadcast-burning __ 1,439
Fall broadcast-burning  17,271
Spot-burning   7,786
Acres of Slash
Prior to 1952 1952
Total
Acres
Nil
7,477
5,091
Total burning
completed,... 26,496        12,568
Burned by accidental fires	
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc	
Total	
1,439
24,748
12,877
39,064
3,856
123
Balance reported slash not yet abated	
Slash created prior to 1952—acres assessed  4,498
Slash created, 1952—acres assessed     Nil
Remainder waiting final disposition, 1953	
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with,
1952	
Total area of slash carried over to  1953  for
disposition 	
43,043
12,550
4,498
8,052
13,113
21,165 162 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(47> Summary of Operations, Vancouver Forest District, 1952
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District     1,665
Intentional slash-burns   281
Operations on which slash was disposed of by lopping,
scattering, land-clearing, etc     31
Operations on which slash was accidentally burned       7
Operations not required to burn  787
Operations given further time for disposal       3
Operations granted total exemption under subsection
(3), section 113, " Forest Act "  377
Operations where compensation assessed or security
deposit posted      42
Operations in snag-felling only area     60
Operations pending decision re assessment or further
time for disposal     77
     1,665
Note.—All inactive operations omitted from table.
Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1952,
<48> Vancouver Forest District
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1952  10,744
Net damage to forest-cover     $81,128.00
Net damage to cut products     108,487.00
Net damage to equipment and property       36,750.00
Total damage  $226,365.00
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Total Cost Acres Cost per M B.M.
(a) Spring broadcast-burning   $1,974.14      1,439      1.37— 3Vi0
(b) Fall broadcast-burning- 410,812.121 24,748    16.60—411/2iz.1
(c) Spot-burning      61,840.08    12,877      4.80—120
1 Includes costs incurred in controlling those slash burns which escaped, 31 per cent of which is attributable to
one burn.
(a) and (6) based on volume of 40 M f.b.m. per acre,
(c) based on 30 M f.b.m. per acre. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
163
(49)
Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-52
Year
Acres of Slash Burned
Accidentally Intentionally
1934  4,927
1935 I- 11,783
1936  1,340
1937  3,015
1938  35,071
1939  1,930
1940  2,265
1941_
1942.
1943_
1944-
1945-
1946_
1947-
1948..
1949.
1950-
1951.
1952-
3,385
4,504
2,046
5,121
3,897
2,174
2,663
2,215
1,468
1,700
11,614
3,856
15,935
13,239
7,691
27,516
50,033
51,603
33,034
5,524
80,226
40,013
27,278
46,467
25,498
34,414
30,652
53,543
25,389
10,436
39,064
(50)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1952
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
2
1
17
13
1
2
5
6
44
30
84
68
20
37
6
22
52
12
142
30
30
100
78
160
22
58
238
150
106
6
6
106
62
75
5
83
35
579
96
224
652
363
30.25
5.02
Fort George— —  	
Kamloops. 	
11.70
34.06
18.97
Totals   	
20
27
246
129
380
628
286
198
1,914
100.00
1.05
1.41
12.85
6.74
19.85
32.81
14.94
10.35
100.00
Ten-year average, 1943-52
6
54
207
191
452
431
191
26
1,558
0.38
3.47
13.29
12.26
29.01
27.66
12.26
1.67
100.00 164
(51)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1952
Forest District
ol)
a
|
3
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oj
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30
19
44
170
168
18
18
54
182
26
178
7
1
58
11
115
18
28
112
76
58
8
19
35
20
8
7
2
32
6
53
18
5
23
3
5
6
108
11
21
55
42
9
2
1
15
9
579
96
224
652
363
30.25
5.02
Fort George 	
11.70
34.06
18.97
Totals   	
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
1,914
100.00
22.52
15.57
13.32
18.23
7.32
0.89
5.96
1.93
12.38
1.88
100.00
415
210
257
299
79
13
67
16
167
35
1,558
Per cent   	
26.64
13.48
16.50
19.19
5.07
0.83
4.30
1.03
10.72
2.24
100.00
	
(52)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years
Causes
1952
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
Total
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
4,146
Campers    	
2,096
2,573
2,988
790
Road and power- and telephone-line construc-
134
667
165
Miscellaneous (known causes) 	
Unknown causes 	
1,669
353
Totals. 	
1,914
1,923
1,515
1,701
799
1,332
1,707
1,838
1,667
1,185
15,581
(53)
Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1952
Total Fires
Under Yt Acre
V4 to 10 Acres
Over 10 to 500
Acres
Over 500 Acres
in Extent
Damage
Forest District
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579
96
224
652
363
30.25
5.02
11.70
34.06
18.97
362
49
82
291
246
62.52
51.04
36.61
44.63
67.77
35.15
4.76
7.96
28.25
23.88
151
19
80
251
93
26.08
19.79
35.71
38.50
25.62
25.42
3.20
13.47
42.25
15.66
59
21
49
91
23
10.19
21.88
21.88
13.96
6.34
24.28
8.64
20.16
37.45
9.47
7
7
13
19
1
1.21
7.29
5.80
2.91
0.27
14.89
14.89
27.66
40.43
2.13
534
75
186
599
350
26
10
26
38
13
19
11
12
15
Totals     	
1,914
100.00
1,030
100.00
594
100.00
243
	
100.00
47
100.00
1,744
113
57
100.00
53.81
31.03
12.70
2.46
91.12
5.90
7 98
Ten-year average, 1943-52
1,558
858
.
466
186
48
	
1,438
74
46
100.00
55.07
29.91
	
	
11.94
3.08
92.30
4.75
2.95 (54)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1952
Damage to Property Other than Forests, 19521
165
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
$204,736.00
394.00
5,052.00
6,104.00
86.00
$1,800.00
350.00
11,550.00
8,225.00
$128,075.00
24,500.00
28,450.00
20,550.00
$15,111.00
3,110.00
19,800.00
13,951.00
500.00
$349,722.00
28,354.00
64,852.00
48,830.00
586.00
71.03
Prince Rupert _ _.
Fort George- -   __
Kamloops..  _    	
5.76
13.17
9.92
0.12
Totals. 	
$216,372.00
$21,925.00
$201,575.00
$52,472.00
$492,344.00
100.00
43.95
4.45
40.94
10.66
100.00
$171,645.00
$22,046.00
$187,641.00
$27,557.00
$408,889.00
41.98
5.39
45.89
6.74
100.00
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 162.)
f55->      Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1952—Part I1
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
rt
<u
123
ZM
-I'd
rtS V
O 0.-3
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
Killed
o
b_
rt
a
lis
CS
CJ
1?
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rt_5 S
So3
p
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S3
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cfl 3
"•a
ft>
Acres
5,969
9,488
625
1,008
54
MB.M.
209,220
57,214
2,731
4,548
3,136
MB.M.
96,877
30,012
1,655
589
13
$
224,145
83,839
6,588
15,058
1,859
Acres
256
MB.M.
1,800
$
593
Acres
1,984
10,314
936
4,145
775
$
35,832
51,635
2,543
220
168
110
1,035
42
6,625
2,027
Totals 	
17,144
276,849
129,146
331,489
644
1,910
1,670
18,154
98,662
11.25
99.31
46.65
66.46
0.42
0.69
0.34
11.91
19.78
Ten-year average, 1943-52
17,852
129,730
49,105
204,577
1,887
6,201
8,835
47,606
159,138
5.33
95.44
37.85
45.93
0.56
4.56
1.98
14.20
35.73
i Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 162.) 166 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<55>      Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1952—Part II1
Forest
District
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
Noncommercial
Cover
Grazing or
Pasture
Land
Nonproductive
Sites
Grand Totals
■a
aj
•og
oo ?
M'S
°S
>-l3
<U        OJ
cn     e
O g 3
I-l rift
■a    n
OJ        OJ
C       M
S *2 oo
30 0
«Zi-l
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ri
Q
OJ
rt C
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ri
a
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u
00
ri
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rt
Q
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ri
E
cS
Q
ri
qj
u
<
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ri
3
O
0
bo
rt
E
«
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Vancouver... 	
Acres
3,857
1,126
2,190
315
135
Acres
2,254
4
498
216
56
Acres
2,378
10,050
5,183
25,612
305
$
2,022
6,312
4,186
40,257
456
Acres
4,891
15,728
7,432
2,200
1,716
$
1,019
3,970
1,847
610
30
Acres
91
66
5,250
1,497
31
$
197
2
263
128
2
Acres
1,528
8,381
9,242
4,115
117
$
225
2,067
2,308
1,027
26
Acres
23,208
55,157
31,356
39,328
3,357
MB.M.
211,020
57,214
2,731
4,658
3,136
$
264,033
147,825
17,735
Kamloops 	
64,740
4,442
Totals 	
7,623
3,028
43,528
53,233
31,967
7,476
6,935
592
23,383
5,653
152,406
278,759
498,775
5.00
1.99
28.56
10.67
20.98
1.50
4.55
0.12
15.34
1.13
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average,
1943-52.	
6,614
4,038
32,704
25,352
114,639
30,727
56,132
3,387
53,683
13,426
335,155
135,931
445,442
1.97
1.21
9.76
5.69
34.20
6.90
16.75
0.76
16.02
3.01
100.001    100.00
100.00
iDoes not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 162.)
(56)
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost,
and Total Damage, 1952
Causes
Number
Per
Cent
Acres
Per
Cent
Cost
Per
Cent
Damage
Per
Cent
431
298
255
349
140
17
114
37
237
36
22.52
15.57
13.32
18.23
7.32
0.89
5.96
1.93
12.38
1.88
57,876
33,431
362
4,910
6,875
1,479
12,520
414
33,978
561
37.98
21.94
0.24
3.22
4.51
0.97
8.21
0.27
22.29
0.37
$339,318.84
21,737.89
1,429.27
34,722.33
48,198.51
127.05
81,798.95
19,207.59
33,555.08
830.80
58.41
3.74
0.24
5.98
8.30
0.02
14.08
3.31
5.78
0.14
$346,626.00
27,341.00
601.00
32,350.00
9,393.00
28,213.00
478,898.00
1,749.00
63,316.00
2,632.00
34.97
2.76
0.06
3.26
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing).
Road and power- and telephone-line
0.95
2.85
48.32
Incendiarism  -	
0.18
6.39
Unknown causes.- -  —	
0.26
Totals 	
1,914
100.00
152,406
100.00
$580,926.31
100.00
$991,119.00
100.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
167
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(59)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Prosecutions, 1952
3
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Vancouver	
Prince Rupert
Fort George	
Kamloops 	
Nelson.-.	
22
2
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5
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6
1
8
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1
4
6
1
2
6
1
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2
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2
4
$620.00
50.00
175.00
50.00
175.00
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
--
Totals 	
43
15
8
9
7
2
1
1
34
$1,070.00
3
3
3
Ten-year average, 1943-52
39
28
$865.10
1
7
2
1 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1952
169
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1,076
1,626
1,710
1,142
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(61)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Enrolment at Ranger School, 1952
Forest District
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
Graduations
_
4
2
3
5
6
—
4
2
3
5
6
Kamloops , 	
Nelson   _   	
Attendance, 1952  _	
20
20
Attendance, 1951  - __
3
3
15
....        |        21
21
Attendance, 1950    	
3
3
15
21
21
Attendance, 1949                              	
3
2
16
21
Attendance, 1948.— -.- —	
4
2
12
2
20
20
Attendance, 1947   -  ...
8
12
20
20
Attendance, 1946    	
2
9
9
—
20
20
Note.—Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course.
(62)
Motion-picture Library
Stock Records
Year
19451
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
74
4
5
75
(2)
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
75
6
9
78
76
75
8
7
74
71
74
Films withdrawn during year 	
New films added during year.— 	
3
6
77
72
Circulation Records
Number of loans made during year	
Number of film loans during year (one
film loaned one time)- 	
56
85
76
2,341
6,676
8,730
164
328
371
11,940
10,408
10,285
235
632
812
8,009
25,362
24,351
436
1,122
1,293
21,633
20,455
42,930
397
1,075
1,505
14,568
24,031
87,506
416
1,046
1,880
26,988
95,102s
43,282
461
1,057
2,943
13,542
264,245 s
26,706
492
1,218
2,764
Number of audiences—
Adults   -.                     - .
13,655
Children.  - — _	
Mixed   	
157,085
59,182
Totals	
17,747
32,633
57,722
85,018
126,105
165.3723
304,493 s
234,396'
1 Recording of film circulation only commenced in 1945.
2 No record.
3 Including attendances of lecture tour of two school lecturers.
I Including attendances of lecture tour of three school lecturers. (63)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1952
Forest Service Library
171
Classification
Items Received and Catalogued
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
Ten-year
Average,
1943-52
10
85
32
12
49
63
13
80
61
12
126
79
14
231
90
39
123
140
36
100
153
27
62
140
23
109
152
9
122
337
20
Government reports and bul-
109
Other reports and bulletins
125
Totals  	
127
124
154
217
335
302
289
229
284
468
253
Periodicals and trade journals-
45
1,170
50
1,175
48
1,294
51
1,523
72
1,798
72
3,543
80
2,074
102
1,960
110
2,650
115
2,203
75
1,939
(64)
Grazing Permits Issued
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,167
422
32
93,945
9,260
1,405
2.945        1        21.944
981
114
1,576
45
Totals, 1952.	
1,621
104,610
4,040
23,565
Totals, 1951.  _.	
1,561
100,082
4,350
22,282
Totals, 1950              	
1,562
98,484
4,650
23,100
Totals, 1949   	
1,496
101,349
5,029
25,842
Totals, 1948 	
1,444
110,333
6,644
29,444
Totals, 1947—	
1,322
105,723
5,513
25,289
Totals, 1946     _ 	
1,378
106,273
6,025
31,274
Totals, 1945 	
1,378
109,201
5,064
39,235
Totals, 1944  _	
1,320
101,606
4,862
40,858
Totals, 1943  	
1,221
93,497
4,844
39,921
1,430
103,116
5.102          1          30 081
N.B.—Some of the figures in this table for the years 1943 to 1951, inclusive, have been revised and differ from those
shown in previous Reports. Past tables have shown net figures for some years and gross figures for others. This table
shows the total number of permits issued and the net number of live stock covered for each of the years listed.
(65)
Grazing Fees Billed and Collected
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collected
Outstanding
1942    	
1943    __
$25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
30,066.34
30,120.38
28,584.74
28,960.42
27,819.65
80,178.43
108,400.14
125,495.09
$30,802.23
31,148.36
31,000.34
31,465.28
31,412.24
29,203.74
27,089.74
28,299.94
74,305.08
106,161.36
110,731.32
$15,950.56
9,482.57
7,036.25
5,637.36
4,345.50
3,726.50
5,597.18
5,113.39
10,986.74
13,225.82
27,989.59
1944 	
1945     	
1946 _ 	
1947 _ _
1948 _     . 	
1949.       	
1950 _	
1951  - 	
1952	 VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty.
1953
1,500-653-3973  

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