PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1953 To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture for the year 1952.
W. K. KIERNAN,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., February 3rd, 1953. Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture. BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF, 1952
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable W. K. Kiernan.
Miss P. Hetherington.
*W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Miss A. E. Hill, Departmental Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
N. L. Camsusa, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C.
G. H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
*M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*Alan E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*W. D. Christie, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*J. A. Smith, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
*D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
*M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
*G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
*W. F. Morton, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C.
I. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, R.R. 6, New Westminster, B.C.
*W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
*I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.
7 CC 8
*W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary
Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola, B.C.
J. M. G. Smith, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, B.C.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
P. G. Lawrence, Brand Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
John C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
J. J. Carney, M.R.S.L., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
I. D. C. Clarke, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
R. L. Lancaster, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
A. S. Clerke, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
John G. Fowler, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Supervisor, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. Mace, Inspector, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C.
*F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
*G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*H. Riehl, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*D. D. Wilson, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
*W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*R. H. McMillan, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
*H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
*N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
*C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*R. G. Garry, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*J. D. Lindsay, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*W. D. Holland, B.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
Agricultural Development and Extension:
*William MacGillivray, Director, Victoria, B.C.
*G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.
*J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
(Vacancy), Courtenay, B.C.
*A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued
*A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Box 498, Mission, B.C.
*Frank Martin, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Drawer 250, Abbotsford, B.C.
*George Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C.
*U. J. G. Guichon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*R. S. Berry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
*M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
*J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*A. R. Tarves, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
*K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
*R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
*A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, B.C.
*J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
*H. R. Anderson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson, B.C.
*J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
*S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
*J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
*D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Associate District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
*T. S. Crack, Associate District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
*J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.
*P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*Miss E. L. R. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria, B.C.
*G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
*A. D. McMechan, B.A.Sc, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
J. R. Caverhill, B.A.Sc, Assistant Director, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C.
W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C.
H. Barber, Accounts, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Report of Deputy Minister-
Report of Statistician
Report of Markets Branch
Report of Horticultural Branch
Report of Apiary Branch
Report of Plant Pathology Branch-
Report of Provincial Entomologist.
Report of Dairy Branch
Report of Poultry Branch
Report of Live Stock Branch
Report of Field Crops Branch
Report of Farmers' Institutes
Report of Women's Institutes
Report of Soil Survey Branch
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch
No. 1. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock
No. 2. Beef Carcasses Graded in British Columbia, December 1st, 1951, to
November 30th, 1952
No. 3. Average Prices for Cattle
No. 4. Average Prices for Lambs
No. 5. Average Prices for Hogs
No. 6. Dairy Herds and Premises Inspected and Graded under the '
and Cattle Tuberculosis-tested 188
No. 7. Provincial Cow-testing Associations 189
No. 8. List of Licensees 190
No. 9. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1952 193
No. 10. Lime Products Used for Soil-amendment Purposes 194
No. 11. Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings from British Columbia
< 1 ,
13 Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable W. K. Kiernan,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Forty-seventh Report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1952.
The Report, as submitted, contains a detailed review of each of the branches constituting your Department. Items not dealt with in the reports as mentioned are as
Appointments.—Miss H. B. Arthur, March 21st; Dr. A. S. Clerke, June 17th;
Miss B. M. Coles, March 24th; E. D. Daum, September 22nd; Miss M. A. Davidson,
June 11th; P. E. Ewert, May 22nd; Mrs. S. M. Glassford, September 23rd; Miss S. J.
King, June 10th; P. G. Lawrence, April 1st; Frank Martin, May 17th; Miss B. E.
Motherwell, April 23rd; A. D. McMechan, April 28th; J. C. Ryder, May 17th; Miss
M. A. Skene, September 4th; Mrs. C. Smethurst, September 16th; L. R. Stewart, June
1st; Miss M. A. Sutherland, July 1st; D. D. Wilson, September 1st; J. V. Zacharias,
Transfers.—Miss D. G. Lee, July 1st; Miss E. Mulligan, June 1st; Miss M. E.
Wimperly, June 15th.
Resignations.—Miss J. J. Baillie, December 22nd; J. F. Caplette, July 15th; Miss
M. A. Davidson, September 30th; J. L. G. Gray, April 8th; G. W. Hayes, March 10th;
Miss F. R. Messerschmidt, September 16th; Miss V. E. Paddle, May 8th; Mrs. B. H. F.
Pready, September 20th; Dr. A. Robertson, March 10th; Miss A. L. Ross, April 19th;
S. S. White, January 31st; R. L. Wilkinson, November 15th.
Superannuation.—E. W. White, July 31st.
In the past year the Publications Branch received 3,867 letters requesting agricultural literature, distributed 38,854 bulletins to the public and district offices, and mimeographed 152,039 copies of stencils for the Department.
The following is a list of new and revised bulletins printed in 1952:—
Agricultural Statistics Report, 1950.
Halogeton—Intermountain Range Weed, F.C.C. 18.
Loganberry Culture, H.C. 54.
Potato-growing in B.C., B. 86.
Some Facts about B.C., Settlement Series No. 1.
Spray Calendar: Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases.
The only agricultural legislation dealt with at the Second Session of the Twenty-
third Parliament of British Columbia was an Act to amend the " Oleomargarine Act,"
being chapter 48 of the Statutes of 1949, and cited as the " Oleomargarine Act Amendment Act, 1952."
15 CC 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Of the various changes as introduced in this Bill, the most important was the repeal
of section 5 of the 1949 Statute, which read as follows: " Colouring of ' oleomargarine ':
No oleomargarine shall have a tint or shade containing more than one and six-tenths
degrees of yellow, or of yellow and red collectively, measured in terms of the Lovibond
tintometer scale read under conditions substantially similar to those established by the
United States Bureau of Internal Revenue, or the equivalent of such measurement."
The result of this amendment was that oleomargarine could be coloured the same
W. H. ROBERTSON,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS
G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician
SYNOPSIS OF AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN BRITISH
COLUMBIA, YEAR 1951
The agricultural production of the Province of British Columbia reached its highest
level of all time in the year 1951. The aggregate value of all agricultural products is
estimated at $159,782,636. This is an increase of $23,236,268 or 17 per cent over the
revised total for the preceding year.
Farm cash income also established a new high record in 1951. Estimated at
$119,486,000, the 1951 total is $19,144,000 or 19 per cent above the revised estimate
of $100,342,000 for 1950, and 15.2 per cent higher than the previous record of
$103,655,000 in 1948.
Cash receipts from live stock and poultry attained a new high level of over
$58,000,000 in 1951. Marketings of poultry increased during the year. There were
declines in marketings of all classes of live stock. However, this was more than offset by
increased or record prices. Income from dairy products was 8.3 per cent above that of
1950, here again higher prices having the effect of more than offsetting a slight decline
in production. Substantially higher income from the sale of eggs was the result of both
increased production and higher prices.
Although the greatest part of the increase in the 1951 farm cash income in comparison
with the previous year came from grains, live stock and live-stock products, and poultry
and eggs, almost all farm items contributed in some degree to the total gain.
The total value of imports is placed at $102,808,296, as compared with $84,821,842
in 1950, an increase of $17,986,454 or 21.2 per cent.
The total value of exports is estimated at $35,306,684 in 1951, as compared with
$33,907,096 in 1950. This represents an increase of $1,399,588 or 4.1 per cent. The
1951 values are the second highest on record.
The winter of 1950-51 was milder than that of 1949-50, but colder than the longtime average. Below-zero temperatures, ranging from —21° F. in Kamloops to — 2° F.
at Summerland, were recorded on January 28th. At Summerland the temperature dropped
from 40° F. on January 25th to —2° F. by midnight January 26th. Corresponding DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 17
sudden drops in temperature were registered in other fruit-growing sections of the
Province. On the Lower Mainland on January 25th the thermometer rose to 50° F. and
dropped to 11 ° F. on the 26th. This sudden change in temperature was responsible for
some damage to apricots, cherry, and peach buds in the Interior and to strawberry plantations in Coast areas.
Following the cold snap in January, the weather moderated until early in March,
when in many Interior fruit-growing areas below-zero temperatures were recorded. A low
of —13.2° F. was reported from Kamloops, — 2° F. at Oliver, and 6° F. at Creston.
After the cold weather in March, better than average spring weather was experienced
until the middle of April. On April 18th and 19th damaging frosts were experienced at
many Interior and Coast points. A few of the low temperatures reported were as follows:
14° F. at Robson, 19° F. at Creston, and 17° F. at Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Oliver.
The spring was drier than normal in all areas. No rainfall occurred from March
26th to April 27th at Abbotsford. During May and early June, precipitation was normal,
followed by five months of exceptionally dry weather. At Salmon Arm the precipitation
for the five months May 1st to September 30th was 4.5 inches, compared with the forty-
year average of 6.88 inches. Similar conditions are reported from the Kootenay and
Hail-storms were experienced at Creston, Kelowna, and Penticton. At Creston
a storm early in July caused considerable loss to some growers. In Kelowna hail fell on
July 2nd and July 3rd in a small area of the East Kelowna section, but damage was not
severe. Heavier damage was sustained in the Glenmore areas, where some growers are
said to have lost as high as 15 per cent of the crops. Little damage was done in the
An open fall followed the dry summer with rains commencing in October. These
rains in many instances interfered with the harvesting of winter apples and late vegetables,
and were responsible for heavy losses in the bean-seed crop.
The fruit-crop, not being as heavy as in previous years, was all harvested in good
time, and trees went into the winter in good condition with a satisfactory supply of soil-
Tree and Small Fruits
Apricots and peaches, though larger than 1950, produced a very light crop. All
other tree-fruit crops, except pears, were the smallest in many years. Damage to buds in
January and April, coupled with damaged trees of low vitality that produced heavily last
year, undoubtedly had an adverse effect on this year's crop. It was a difficult crop to
estimate, and as the season advanced each estimate was lower than the preceding one.
This was particularly so with the apple-crop.
The pear-crop was one of the largest ever harvested. Owing to trees damaged by
winter-injury in 1949-50 and the large crop, the size of fruit was smaller than normal.
Peaches and Apricots. — There was considerable increase in the tonnage harvested
over last year, but crops were far below those previous to 1950. Zero weather in January
and killing frosts in April were the main reasons for the small crop this year.
Plums and Prunes.—The plum-crop exceeded that of last year but was 20 to 25 per
cent below crops previous to 1950.
Prune-trees showed little increased mortality over what was obvious last year and
the set of fruit was heavy this spring. As the season advanced, it was noted that sizing
was not good. The early prune-crop was harvested and shipped without loss, but a few
days after commencement of harvesting the main crop the fruit started to shrivel, and as
the season progressed the shrivelling increased. Some growers did not harvest their crop.
This shrivelling caused concern in the packing-houses because of the high cost of sorting.
There was much speculation as to the cause of this trouble, but it was probably due to CC 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
a number of factors. Trees were generally low in vitality, spur-damage from spring frosts
is possible, and the summer was one of the hottest in several years.
Small Fruits.—-The strawberry yield was considerably below that of last year in all
districts. The low yield on the Lower Mainland is attributed chiefly to crown and root
damage caused by the cold weather in January and the very dry summer. On Vancouver
Island the plants came through the winter in good condition but, as in the Interior, suffered from spring frosts at blossoming-time and, in many instances, drought during the
growing season. Though the crop was not as large this year, the price, though a satisfactory one, was slightly lower than last year. There was no difficulty in marketing
Raspberries came through better than strawberries, and yields were only slightly
lower than last year.
The loganberry-crop for the third successive year was low. Canes suffered from
winter and spring frosts, and this year's crop is considerably below that of last year.
Blackberries, currants, and gooseberries showed an increase over last year.
The total production of all fruit-crops in British Columbia for 1951 is estimated at
315,252,000 pounds, valued at $20,258,739, as compared with 447,368,000 pounds,
valued at $21,472,296, in 1950, indicating a decrease of 132,116,000 pounds or 29.5
per cent in volume and $1,213,557 or 5.6 per cent in value.
Final estimates place the 1951 apple-crop at 214,216,000 pounds, some 154,648,000
pounds less than in 1950.
The 1951 pear-crop was the second largest on record. Production is now set at
31,188,000 pounds, compared with the 1950 estimate of 17,872,000 pounds, an increase
of 13,316,000 pounds or 74.5 per cent.
The 1951 peach-crop was substantially greater than that of the previous year. Production for the current year is now placed at 22,176,000 pounds, as compared with the
1950 production of 4,126,000 pounds.
Production of apricots in 1951 amounted to 1,900,000 pounds, as against 918,000
pounds in 1950, representing an increase of 982,000 pounds.
The 1951 strawberry-crop is currently estimated at 10,268,000 pounds, down
6,304,000 pounds from the 1950 level.
Production of raspberries in 1951 is placed at 9,884,000 pounds, as compared with
10,404,000 pounds in 1950, a decrease of 520,000 pounds.
Production by types of the other principal fruits, with comparable data for 1950
in parentheses, is as follows: Plums, 2,164,000 pounds (2,050,000 pounds); prunes,
12,392,000 pounds (12,432,000 pounds); cherries, 3,560,000 pounds (4,180,000
pounds); blackberries, 1,014,000 pounds (516,000 pounds); loganberries, 882,000
pounds (1,198,000 pounds).
The acreage of vegetables in the Province does not vary a great deal from year to
year. This year there was a noticeable decrease in onion-acreage, and a slight increase
in carrots and tomatoes. This has generally been a good year for the vegetable-growers,
quality and demand being on the whole satisfactory.
Practically no transplanting and seeding of early vegetables was made until late
March and early April. On account of the warm, dry weather (except for the cool nights
and frost during the middle of the month) most growers found it necessary to irrigate.
This was much earlier in the season than is usually necessary. It was rather interesting
to note that in the Cloverdale section a spinach-crop which was nearly ready to harvest
in mid-April was saved from frost-damage by the use of sprinklers during the night and
early morning. Spinach in the adjoining fields, where the sprinkling was not done, was
practically entirely lost. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 19
In spite of the hot, dry season, vegetable-supplies for the most part have been ample
for market requirements. Production in some instances has not been up to expectations,
but the over-all production might have been considerably less.
This past season, owing to the hot growing weather, was one of the best in the Lower
Mainland district for the growing of tomatoes, and a few growers obtained excellent
returns on a very receptive and favourable market.
Broccoli and brussels sprouts are two vegetables that can be grown in the fall and
well into the late part of the year. These crops have been grown on a somewhat limited
commercial scale in the district surrounding Abbotsford for the past two or three years.
There seems to be an increasing demand for these crops for the frozen-pack in addition
to the fresh-market trade.
Growers on Vancouver Island had a fairly good cut of Christmas cauliflower during
November and December, 1950. The spring (overwintered) cauliflower also gave a
good cut. Some damage occurred in early March from low temperatures and snow.
Spring and summer vegetables have been in good supply throughout the season.
Warm-weather crops, such as tomatoes, corn, melons, squash, cucumbers, etc., have done
There was a sharp decline in the vegetable-acreage this year in the Okanagan. The
1950 area is placed at 10,635 acres, as compared to 8,051 acres grown this season.
The biggest drop was in potatoes, both early and late—1,048 acres last year as
against 761 acres this year for the early crop, or a difference of roughtly 27 per cent.
The difference was even greater with late potatoes—1,590 acres last year as compared
to 834 acres, or approximately 52 per cent of last year's acreage.
The onion-acreage was also down by about 40 per cent, or 1,073 acres in 1950 as
compared with 650 acres in 1951.
Other vegetable-acreages showed small differences, except tomatoes, which showed
an increase of 372 acres over last year.
The quality of all vegetable-crops has been generally good, and prices much higher
than last year.
The highlights of the vegetable deal this year have been the general good quality and
prices received for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes shipped as "mature greens."
Because of the keen demand for "mature greens," quite a proportion of the tonnage
that would have ordinarily gone to the cannery was shipped to the fresh-vegetable market,
with a consequent cut in the canned tonnage.
The onion-crop was harvested under almost ideal conditions, and stood up well in
storage. A large percentage of this year's crop graded No. 1 and No. 2, with only a
small percentage of " boilers."
The early asparagus-crop was damaged by frost, but a good cutting season followed.
Yields in all sections were good and prices satisfactory. The acreage of this crop is
increasing, and there is an increasing demand from the canners for asparagus.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for 1951 was 77,973 tons, of a value of
$7,655,319, as compared with 84,902 tons, valued at $6,912,352, in 1950, a decrease
of 6,929 tons or 8.1 per cent in volume, but an increase of $742,967 or 10.7 per cent
The production of field rhubarb is estimated at 555 tons, of a value of $37,420, as
compared with 736 tons, valued at $55,694, in 1950.
An increase of 10 tons is recorded in the quantity of forced rhubarb produced. The
1951 crop amounted to 80 tons, valued at $18,000.
Hothouse tomatoes produced in 1951 amounted to 1,959 tons, valued at $816,452,
as compared with 1,859 tons, valued at $680,382, in 1950, indicating an increase in the
volume of production of 100 tons.
Field tomatoes produced amounted to 15,416 tons, as against 18,027 tons in 1950,
a decrease of 2,611 tons. CC 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1951 is estimated at 3,329 tons, up
22 tons over the 1950 production.
A decrease of 9 tons is recorded in the quantity of hothouse cucumbers produced.
The 1951 crop amounted to 314 tons, valued at $109,106.
Beginning in June, Southern British Columbia experienced the longest period of
dry weather on record, and crops in the area suffered seriously from drought. Recovery
had hardly been made from a long stretch of rainless weather in early spring when drought
set in again. Spring-sown grains and pastures in particular were seriously affected. In
the Central Interior regions intermittent showers maintained growth and in the Peace
River area growing conditions remained excellent throughout the summer.
The hay-crop was light in the dry sections and only fair in the remainder of the
Province. Second cuttings were light generally. The quality of the crop was good, and
it was stored in good condition. Harvesting of winter wheat was nearing completion in
southern areas during the first week in August and harvesting of spring grains had begun.
In the Peace River area most crops were late and were still growing well at the middle
of August. Heavy yields were in prospect in that area, but continued warm weather was
needed to bring grains to maturity.
The long drought in southern parts of the Province was broken by general rains
from August 27th to August 29th. Fine, warm days and cooler nights followed and
grain harvesting in these areas was completed under ideal conditions. Yields, particularly on Vancouver Island, were reduced by drought, cutworms, and grasshoppers. Pastures made very little recovery from the dry weather, the quality of the corn-crop was
lowered, and feed-supplies will be short. Reserves of moisture were poor for planting
cereals, bulbs, and grasses. In the south-eastern corner of the Province, yields of fall
wheat were average, and yields of spring grains slightly below average. The non-irrigated
parts of the Central Interior suffered from dryness, but grass remained good in the upper
ranges, and the yield of irrigated hay was satisfactory and of good quality.
In the Peace River area harvesting of grains was general by the middle of September,
but snow, rain, and frost interfered with operations, and by the end of the first week in
October it was estimated that about a third of the wheat, 40 per cent of the oats, and
15 per cent of the barley remained to be cut. Very little threshing had been done and
grades were lowered by the unfavourable weather. Conditions in the Peace River Block
in the spring of 1952 were favourable for harvesting of grain left in the fields last fall.
The potato-crop is very light this year. Acreage seeded was much lower this year,
due to the unfavourable price prevailing last spring, and the dry season in the main
growing areas reduced average yields.
Forage-seed production is generally down, due principally to the unfavourable
weather in the Peace River, as mentioned, and also much of the red clover acreage in
the Fraser Valley was harvested for hay to help relieve a serious shortage.
The total gross value of the principal field crops in 1951 is now estimated at
$31,744,000, as compared with $28,518,000 in 1950, an increase of $3,226,000 or 11.3
The production of all grain-crops amounted to 8,832,000 bushels, valued at
$8,669,000, as compared with the 1950 production of 5,994,000 bushels, valued at
Fodder-crops aggregating a total of 657,100 tons, valued at $18,704,000, were
produced in 1951, as compared with 751,000 tons, valued at $16,547,000, in 1950.
The 1951 potato-crop, estimated at 58,800 tons, is down considerably from the
production for the previous year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
According to the five-stock survey of June 1st, 1951, there was a reduction of 3.8
per cent in the number of milch cows on farms. This placed the estimated total at 96,000,
in comparison with 99,800 in the previous year.
The decline in number of cows reported in June was reflected in lower production
of milk during the year. The exceptionally dry summer in the Lower Fraser Valley and
the Gulf Islands, coupled with high prices for beef and for labour, were likewise contributing factors.
Total milk production for 1951, estimated at 624,472,000 pounds, was 42,883,000
pounds or 6.4 per cent less than that of the previous year. A considerable decrease in
butter production, and a slight decline in production of cheese placed the total milk
equivalent of factory production slightly below that of the preceding year. Larger
amounts of milk were used in the manufacture of concentrated-milk products and icecream than in 1950. Quantities of milk sold for fluid use were lower in 1951 than in
1950. On a percentage basis, of the total milk production for 1951 approximately 52
per cent was used for fluid sales, 10 per cent in the manufacture of creamery butter,
22 per cent in the manufacture of concentrated milk and ice-cream, and the remaining
16 per cent in the manufacture of cheddar cheese, dairy butter, cottage cheese, and
includes milk consumed on the farm and milk fed to live stock.
The total farm value of milk production amounted to $23,888,000 in 1951, an
increase of $2,252,000 over that of the preceding year. The total value of dairy products,
including manufactured products and fluid sales valued at the factory, plus the value of
products made and used on farms, amounted to $33,584,000, an increase of $2,589,000
over the year 1950.
The butter output of creameries in 1951 was 2,666,000 pounds, as compared with
4,672,000 pounds in 1950, a decrease of 2,006,000 pounds. The average price for the
year was 62 cents per pound, compared with 58.7 cents in 1950.
Cheddar-cheese production is estimated at 557,000 pounds, as compared with
564,000 pounds in 1950. The average price of cheddar cheese was 40 cents per pound
in 1951, and 31.7 cents per pound in 1950.
Production of ice-cream during 1951 reached an all-time high. Production for the
year is placed at 2,892,000 gallons, as against 2,451,000 gallons produced in 1950, an
increase of 441,000 gallons or 17.9 per cent.
Sales of fluid milk and cream, the latter expressed as milk, amounted to 325,859,000
pounds in 1951, a decrease of 8,718,000 pounds in comparison with last year.
The production of evaporated whole milk was the highest on record. The output
of the condenseries in 1951 was 39,080,000 pounds, as compared with 34,868,000
pounds in 1950, an increase of 4,212,000 pounds or 12 per cent.
The production of creamed cottage cheese is estimated at 2,829,000 pounds in
1951, up 227,000 pounds from the total for the year previous.
Less milk was utilized for dairy butter and there was a decrease in quantities fed to
live stock and milk used in farm homes in comparison with the previous year.
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY
The winter of 1950-51 could be considered an average one in so far as live stock
was concerned. Feed-supplies in the range country were, on the whole, up to average.
The summer of 1951 was one of the driest on record, and as a consequence feed-supplies
for the winter were somewhat shorter.
Cattle population, according to the live-stock survey of June 1st, 1951, shows an
over-all decrease of approximately 2 per cent. This could be attributed to the high price CC 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of cattle and the larger numbers going to the export market. It would appear that many
ranchers were selling to the very limit and even selling themselves short.
It is noted that quite a few stock are being taken back from our different community
sales to establish breeding herds throughout the country. Also, quite a few beef cattle
are coming to the Coast to replace dairy herds that are being sold off.
During the year, particularly the early part, there was a considerable movement of
dressed beef to the United States. Live-stock prices have risen in line with prices all
across Canada. The Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, December 4th, 5th, and 6th,
demonstrated the keen buyer demand for meats, with an average price of $38.41 per
hundredweight, the highest on record, and nearly $10 a hundredweight higher than 1950.
The number of horses on farms is placed at 43,000, a decline of 2,900 from the
total of 45,900 at June 1st, 1950.
Cattle numbers at June 1st, 1951, totalled 350,000, as compared with 357,300 a
year earlier, a decrease of 7,300 or 2 per cent.
The number of hogs on farms at June 1st, 1951, is estimated at 65,000, an increase
of 1,000 or 1.5 per cent from the total at June 1st, 1950.
Sheep numbers increased to the extent of 8.4 per cent during the year.
There were 3,590,000 hens, cocks, and chickens on farms in the Province at June
1st, 1951, as compared with 3,370,000 on the same date in 1950, an increase of 220,000
or 6.5 per cent.
Turkey numbers at June 1st, 1951, totalled 240,000, as compared with 260,000
on June 1st, 1950, a decrease of 20,000.
The number of ducks increased by 22 per cent during the year, being 22,000, as
compared with 18,000 on June 1st a year ago.
The number of geese is estimated at 12,000 on June 1st, 1951. This represents an
increase of 2,000 or 20 per cent over the number on the corresponding date of 1950.
Production of eggs in 1951 is estimated at 30,842,000 dozens, as against 26,304,000
dozens in 1950, an increase of 4,538,000 dozens or 17.2 per cent. Eggs averaged 54.4
cents a dozen in 1951, as compared with 44.6 cents a dozen in 1950.
Poultry-meat productions was up from 13,968,000 pounds in 1950 to 21,521,000
pounds in 1951, an increase of 7,553,000 pounds.
The acreage of vegetable and flower seed, owing to poor demand and lower prices,
was not as great as in previous years. Coupled with smaller acreage the weather conditions for late-maturing seeds were unsatisfactory and considerable seed was reported
spoiled by continuous rains early in October. The total value of vegetable, flower, and
field-crop seed production for 1951 is estimated at $1,065,953, as compared with
$1,388,970 in 1950, a decrease of $323,017.
The 1951 honey-crop is placed at 1,654,000 pounds, as against 1,322,000 pounds
in 1950, an increase of 332,000 pounds or 25.1 per cent.
Hops yielded 1,901,000 pounds from 1,449 acres, as compared with 2,260,000
pounds from 1,472 acres in 1950, yields per acre of 1,312 pounds and 1,535 pounds
respectively. The 1951 crop was valued at $1,422,000.
Climatic conditions were generally favourable to the growth and development of
the 1951 tobacco-crop. The yield of tobacco is estimated at 187,000 pounds from 150
acres or 1,248 pounds per acre, as compared with 132,000 pounds from 120 acres or
1,100 pounds per acre in 1950.
Production of margarine for 1951 is estimated at 8,767,000 pounds, as compared
with 5,734,300 pounds in 1950, an increase of 3,032,700 pounds or 52.8 per cent.
The revenue derived from fur-farming is placed at $796,000, as compared with a
value of $515,000 for 1950, indicating an increase of $281,000 or 54.5 per cent. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner
In common with other Provinces, British Columbia's agricultural economy underwent a period of readjustment during 1952. The full impact of the United States
embargo on Canadian live stock, established February 26th, made itself felt by late
summer. By that time the wholesale price index for animal products had fallen to 244.9,
a decline of 19.8 per cent from the index of 305.4 for the same period in 1951.
This sharp decline exerted a depressing force upon the index for all farm products,
which by August had dropped to 236.2, off 10.3 per cent from the August, 1951, figure.
The price index for field products registered a lesser decline of 8.4 per cent from the
Coincidental with these declines was a slight easing of the composite index of commodities and services used by farmers. This index, which stood at 228.6 in August,
1951, rose to a record high of 229.8 in April of this year, before dipping slightly by
August to 227.7, a decline of less than 1 per cent.
Exclusive of farm living costs, the index actually registered an increase of 2 per cent
over the 1951 figure to 243.4.
The farm wage index contributed materially to this increase, rising to a record 457.3
by late summer. Among other contributing factors were building materials and such
articles as binder-twine.
During the year, Canadian railways again made application to the Transport Board
for two freight-rate increases of 8 and 9 per cent respectively. Rates on all grain or flour
shipped out of Western Canada are governed by two factors. First of these is the Crow's
Nest Pass Agreement, which is a Statute of Parliament and therefore binding upon the
Transport Board. Second is the so-called " hold-down " rule applied by the Board in the
Western Rates Case judgment of 1914, which is still in force. Under this rule, rates on
all grain or flour moving in a direct line toward the Lakehead or Vancouver are definitely
Thus the bulk of grain traffic has been and still is protected. The remainder is
confined to what might be termed "north-south" traffic and the westward traffic in
feed-grains to British Columbia.
Following hearings before the Transport Board, the railways were granted tariff
increases on such "remainder" hauls. Thus feed-grain shipments to British Columbia
were raised by about 26 per cent. The new rates became effective November 15th for
shipments to Interior points and November 25th to Vancouver and other Coastal centres.
As a result, the rate from Calgary to Vancouver rose from $7.30 to $9.20 per ton.
The new rate to Victoria and most Fraser Valley points now stands at $9.80.
Under terms of the Federal Freight Assistance Policy freight tariffs on feed-grain
shipments to British Columbia from Calgary or Edmonton continued to be paid by the
Federal Treasury. To the end of November, freight assistance was granted on a total of
170,675 tons shipped after January 1st, indicating a continued heavy flow of feed-grains
at an average monthly rate of close to 16,000 tons, down fractionally from the 1951
About one-quarter of the total was made up of feed-wheat, followed in order of
volume by oats, mill-feeds, and barley. CC 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Moderate declines were registered in most live-stock feed prices during the year.
Since January feed-wheat declined in price 9 per cent, oats 13 per cent, barley 10 per
cent, dairy mash 16 per cent, laying-mash 7 per cent, and turkey-grower mash 11 per cent.
Despite these declines, feed prices remained at comparatively high levels, particularly in relation to decreased prices for most animal products. While the national carryover of grains of all grades from the 1951 crop was substantial, a strong demand, coupled
with increased handling costs, tended to maintain relatively firm price-levels.
Excellent hay-crops throughout virtually the entire Province effectively depressed
prices. Second-cut alfalfa dropped by 16 per cent from a January high of $56 per ton at
Vancouver. Other hays declined also, with demand very sluggish during late summer
and autumn months.
A cool spring in British Columbia's major tree-fruits areas was followed by a dry,
hot summer and a long, " open" fall. This had a definite effect upon fruit ripening,
sizing, and colour, to some extent unfavourable. The apple-crop in particular was
adversely affected by drought conditions and the lack of cool temperatures.
One of the most outstanding features of the 1952 fruit deal was the amazing comeback of stone-fruits, particularly apricots. This year saw a total of nearly 825,000 cases
marketed, a sevenfold increase over the 1951 figure. At the peak of the season over 20
cars per day were rolling out of Okanagan points, glutting every available market. So
heavy was the volume that a stop-pack order was put into effect on August 8th.
Peaches also showed strong recovery from the severe cut-back following the winterkilling of 1949-50. B.C. Tree Fruits Limited shipped a total of over 1,350,000 cases,
an increase of 30 per cent over the 1951 total. Prices were somewhat lower this year
however, in the face of strong competition from other peach-growing areas.
Pears were down slightly in volume from the preceding year, with about 625,000
cases marketed. In general, prices were comparable with those realized in 1951.
This year's apple-crop, while up substantially from 1951, was not a heavy one. The
principal growing districts produced approximately 5,500,000 boxes, an increase of close
to 20 per cent over the 1951 output. Both domestic and export markets maintained a
firm tone generally, although Eastern Canadian centres were variable at times.
The United States market again proved receptive, taking some 800,000 boxes up to
the end of November, spread over thirty-four States, at generally satisfactory prices. With
the United States Department of Agriculture's $1.25 per box subsidy on off-shore apple
shipments discontinued this year, British Columbia apples once again were able to find
their way into export markets previously barred to them by this subsidized competition.
Among these markets was Brazil, which by November 30th had taken over 50,000
The Okanagan apple-juice output, at 352,700 cases, was down about 5 per cent up
to November 30th this year as compared to the same period in 1951. Included in juice
sales this year was a considerable gallonage purchased by the National Department of
Defence Production for consumption by Canada's armed forces.
The small-fruits industry was hit this year by a weakened price structure, particularly in the processing trade. While output was up from 1951, fresh strawberries and
raspberries were down in price, hovering about $4 and $4.50 wholesale at Vancouver.
Strawberries for processing were down sharply to 12V-. cents per pound.
The steadily expanding blueberry industry experienced a satisfactory market once
again. Fresh berries brought an average of $6 per crate on the Vancouver wholesale
market. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 25
While the over-all situation in British Columbia could be considered reasonably
satisfactory this year, the industry was still hampered to some extent by two adverse
factors—freight rates and United States imports.
Rail-haul tariffs eastward in Canada from British Columbia are at levels which
permit exceedingly keen competition from both Ontario and Washington State. Even
the comparatively short haul from Kelowna to Vancouver meets with stiff competitive
rates between California and British Columbia coastal points. Rates generally have
risen 85 per cent since 1941.
The second factor, United States imports, has from time to time produced depressed
markets for domestic crops. British Columbia, in common with other Provinces, enjoys
only brief periods annually of tariff protection. While these have a certain value, that
value is often limited, particularly in " long " crop years.
FIELD CROPS AND VEGETABLES
Production patterns were variable this year, due to the twin influences of price
structures and weather. Outstanding feature was the continued firm tone in potatoes.
The short crop of 1951 resulted in unusually high prices and scant supplies by
spring. To alleviate the shortage, Grade 3 potatoes were authorized. Later, by Federal
order, United States size B potatoes were admitted. Substantial tonnages of these smaller
size tubers were imported, chiefly from California, until the official cut-off date in mid-
An estimated acreage increase of 10 per cent was lifted in good condition, and
found a ready, firm market. However, as in 1951, a substantial portion of the crop was
stored, to be marketed at anticipated higher prices in the early months of 1953. Although
prices by late autumn were running as high as $85 per ton to the producer, local deliveries
were insufficient to meet demand. As a result, considerable tonnages of Washington
State and Alberta stocks were imported, principally to the larger Coastal centres. In
October, Grade 3 potatoes were again authorized, but met with only moderate acceptance.
By the end of November the British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board
Agency moved a total of nearly 4,000 tons of potatoes, about 12 per cent less than the
1951 figure for the same period. Its counterpart at the Coast marketed 17,400 tons, an
all-time record, during the same months. The Coast Board placed over 3,500 tons on
the export market, chiefly to the Prairies.
Marketings of root-crops were about on a par with 1951, although cabbage was
weaker. Carrots were also rather sluggish, although bunched carrots moved well.
Cantaloupes, cucumbers, lettuce, peppers, and tomatoes were down this year in
volume to the fresh market. Other items were little changed from the preceding year.
A prolonged warm fall produced one of the most satisfactory processed-tomato deals
on record however. The Interior Board handled a total of over 20,000 tons of canners,
about double the 1951 total, at $36.25 per ton for first grade. Also shipped to the processing trade were 1,500 tons of beans, 600 tons of pumpkins, 250 tons of carrots, and
close to 120 tons of asparagus. Asparagus prices remained unchanged from 1951,
ranging from 16 cents to 29 cents per pound according to grade.
The 1951 canning-pea deal was a satisfactory one, with yields averaging over 2 tons
per acre and prices holding at 1951 levels.
Following the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in this country and the immediate
embargo placed against Canadian live stock by the United States, the live-stock industry
underwent a period of retrenchment as market values declined an average of 25 per cent.
Despite the uncertainties of the market and the threat of further price declines under
the impact of potential heavy surpluses, sales held remarkably well. Federal support CC 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
prices for beef and pork and the siphoning off of a substantial surplus of the latter to the
processing trade provided a measure of stability.
Beef-cattle auctions at Okanagan Falls and Elko early in the fall were somewhat
disappointing, but later sales at Williams Lake, Quesnel, and Kamloops saw keener bidding and firm prices. An unexpected demand for feeders at Williams Lake particularly
kept prices reasonably firm.
At Kamloops, cattle brought comparatively firm prices, ranging up to $5 above
the support price. Car-lots averaged $27.10.
Grain-growers in British Columbia's Peace River District harvested their best crops
in recent years this year. Excellent weather conditions at harvest saw well over 1,500,000
bushels of wheat taken off. The barley and oats crops were also in good condition, with
yields totalling approximately 1,750,000 and 2,250,000 bushels respectively. The latter
two grains brought initial prices averaging on a par with 1951, while the wheat was of
considerably higher grade with consequent better prices. Initial payment for No. 4
wheat this year was $1.031/i per bushel. Flax was down somewhat this year, netting
growers $3.10 per bushel.
Heavy increases in legume-seed production, accompanied by sharp price declines,
featured the forage-crops picture this year. Alfalfa-seed output was several times greater,
the Peace River alone producing over 1,000,000 pounds. Prices opened as high as 25
cents, but record production in the United States quickly depressed prices to as low as
15 cents per pound.
Sweet-clover seed output was tripled this year at about 1,000,000 pounds, but prices
dropped from last year's 4 cents to 3 and 2 cents per pound.
Red-clover output also rose sharply. Lower Fraser Valley production totalled
about 500,000 pounds and prices steadied at 21 cents. Altaswede and alsike both registered declines, the former dropping about 4 cents to 19 cents, while alsike skidded sharply
from a high of 27 cents to half that figure.
Still gaining in popularity with British Columbia seed-growers, creeping-red-fescue
production was doubled this year, but returns decreased by 10 to 15 cents from last
year's 45-cent figure.
Brome prices eased from 6 down to 4 cents, about one-half the 1951 average.
Timothy strengthened slightly, rising 2 cents from a low point of 8 cents per pound.
Peas held reasonably at about $110 per ton. Yields were down slightly in the
North Okanagan but up in Creston.
Sugar-beet seed production was satisfactory this year, with well over 500,000 pounds
POULTRY AND EGGS
Conditions in the Province's poultry industry were generally depressed throughout
the year. The spring-chick hatch was off about 11 per cent from 1951. Egg prices
remained at relatively low levels as compared with the preceding year, reaching a peak
of 50 cents per dozen for Grade A Large to the producer at Vancouver in September.
This was approximately 25 per cent below the 1951 top. A sharp 8-cent drop at the
first of December further reflected the depressed market tone.
While domestic consumption of poultry rose by about 35 per cent, offerings kept
pace. By mid-summer, storage stocks were double the 1951 holdings. As a result prices
were unattractive throughout the balance of the year. Chicken in the 4- to 5-pound
category ranged between 32 and 34 cents per pound to the producer at Vancouver.
Fryers and broilers were steady at 25 to 30 cents. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 27
An estimated 11-per-cent boost in turkey-poult hatching featured this year's turkey
industry. Prices were down 10 to 12 cents per pound from 1951 levels for the Thanksgiving and Christmas trade, averaging below 40 cents per pound to the producer for all
Ranch-bred furs, mainly mink, continued to enjoy active demand, although the
retail market was slow at mid-year. A total of 28,000 Standard mink pelts brought good
prices when offered at the first fall auction in Vancouver. Prices ranged as high as $36
for Extra Large Dark males.
This year's Christmas-tree cut was again substantial, the bulk going as usual to
United States points. The East Kootenays cut was slightly over 100 cars, while the
Okanagan-Mainline and Cariboo Districts produced lesser amounts. Average value was
close to the 1951 figure of about 40 cents per tree.
By order in council approved May 2nd this year the British Columbia Tree-fruit
Marketing Scheme was amended by the provision of authority whereby the Board's
designated agency, B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, can handle advertising appropriations
directly, rather than through the Board as in past years.
This scheme was further amended on the same date by granting to the Board powers
to fix and collect fees for services rendered as a means of raising revenue. Previously,
the Board had been restricted to licence fees, which was found to be rather unwieldy in
Approval of the British Columbia Marketing Board was granted on October 10th
whereby the B.C. Coast Vegetable Marketing Board designated the Island Vegetable
Co-operative Association as sole selling agency for all controlled produce on Vancouver
Island. This move provided the Coast Board with two instead of one designated selling
Following numerous complaints directed against controlled marketing in general
and the three Marketing Boards now operating in particular, an impartial survey of the
operations of these Boards was ordered by the Minister of Agriculture. Since the bulk
of these complaints was directed against the B.C. Coast Board, the survey was largely
confined to the area under that Board's jurisdiction.
As in former years, the Markets Branch was again associated with the Economics
Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture in an economic survey of a section of
the Province. This year the East Kootenay region was surveyed, with data collected
at Cranbrook, Kimberley, Creston, and in the Windermere District. Findings of this
survey, when completed, will complement those of the West Kootenay District carried
out in 1951. The two surveys together are expected to provide a comprehensive study
of the agricultural economy of South-eastern British Columbia.
In late November this Branch took an active part in xthe annual agricultural marketing conference, held in Vancouver in conjunction with the annual convention of the
British Columbia Federation of Agriculture. Briefs were submitted and discussed from
all major industries in the Province's agriculture, covering current conditions in each. CC 28
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
Sub-zero temperatures were experienced at Interior points during the winter of
1951-52, but they were of short duration and no serious winter-injury was reported.
Temperatures varied on the coldest night from — 27° F. at Kamloops, —25° F. at Salmon
Arm, — 11 ° F. at Cawston to —6.9° F. at Penticton. In nearly all areas there was a good
covering of snow from early in December to well into March.
In the Kootenay area the two coldest days reported were December 31st and January
10th when the temperature was 4 and 6 degrees below zero at Nelson.
No extreme temperatures were recorded on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. With few exceptions in low-lying and wind-swept areas crops came through the
winter in good condition.
Owing to snow-coverage delaying operations on the land, the spring was considered
somewhat later than normal, but regardless of the long winter and early-spring frosts the
start of the growing season was not delayed. The following table, prepared by M. P. D.
Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, indicates the comparison of blossom dates
at Penticton for the past five years:—
Frosts were experienced in the Okanagan during the first week in May and damage
was reported most severe in southern districts, especially in low-lying areas with little air-
drainage. The over-all damage was not considered heavy. Some frost-damage to raspberries and early bloom of strawberries was reported from scattered areas in the Fraser
Valley and on Vancouver Island, but this had little effect on yield.
Scattered hail-storms were reported from Penticton, Naramata, Kaleden, and
Kelowna, but there was no appreciable damages. The weather was generally cool
throughout May, June, and July.
From the middle of August to the end of October, temperatures were above normal
and precipitation was less than average. Practically all areas would welcome rain to
improve soil-moisture conditions.
The hot, dry weather experienced from the middle of August to harvest was not
favourable to the sizing and coloring of late apples and pears, but was beneficial in so far
as the ripening of tomatoes and harvesting of fruit and vegetable crops was concerned.
All crops were harvested in good time.
Tree and Small Fruits
Apricots.—The apricot-crop was larger than the last big crop harvested in 1949.
Much of the crop, however, ran to the smaller sizes, which were difficult to market. This
small size was due to an extremely heavy set of fruit and to insufficient thinning. In some DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
instances the trees, weakened by the freeze in January, 1950, were also incapable of carrying a heavy load of fruit.
Peaches.—The peach-crop, while not as large as the crops produced previous to
1950, showed some increase over last year, and with favourable weather conditions it is
probable that the 1952 crop will equal or exceed that of the large crop produced in 1949.
As with apricots, there were too many small-sized peaches, and difficulty was experienced
in marketing some of the crop.
Plums and Prunes.—The yield of plums and prunes was below that of last year, but
the quality was generally better owing to less shrivelling and gumming. Young trees are
making good recovery from the 1950 freeze, but many old trees will never make sufficient
recovery to become profitable.
Cherries.—The cherry-crop yielded more than double the tonnage of the small crop
in 1951. They set well and showed good promise in the Okanagan area during the early
part of the season, but rains during the last week in June caused considerable splitting in
Bings, which was responsible for considerable culling and reduction in crop. Weakened
trees were also responsible in many orchards for small sizes, and production, though
greater than last year, was considerably below early expectations.
Apples and Pears.—Apples sized well through June and July but continuous dry,
hot weather after the end of July affected the size and colouring of late varieties. There
was more than average Grade Cs because of poor colouring in Delicious and Winesap.
The market has been favourable, and indications are that prices will be higher than last
year for a larger crop.
Pears did not set as heavy as last year, and the sizes ranged from small to medium.
The small size, as last year, could be attributed in some degree to insufficient thinning, to
the growing season, and, in some instances, to trees weakened by winter-injury.
Small Fruits.—Production of small fruits shows considerable increase over last year.
Prices received were somewhat below those of 1951 but there was a ready market, and
all of the crop was sold.
The following table indicates the actual production of tree and small fruits in 1951
and the estimated production for 1952:—
Peaches — -
Tomato-acreage showed an increase of about 400 acres over 1951. This was the
largest increase reported for any one crop. Yields and quality of vegetables were generally good and the demand and prices satisfactory.
The production situation in the three main producing areas is outlined in the following reports of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley; E. W.
White, Supervising Horticulturist for the Okanagan. CC 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:—
"During February and March an early spring was anticipated, and while land
preparation went forward rapidly, cool temperatures with cool soil conditions retarded
growth and early transplanting.
"Some early bunch vegetables from the warmer areas, such as radishes, onions,
turnips, beets, and spinach, were on the market around May 1st, followed by head-lettuce
about May 15th. Early potatoes, although planted earlier than last year, developed
slowly; consequently the first digging was about June 15th.
" Canning-pea crops were, on the whole, good; beans were slow at the start but
yields, except in a few places, were fair to good. Corn was also slow to start and the
canning production looked to be very disappointing at first, but continued warm weather
brought the crop along rapidly in September. Canning and freezing of the crop continued
until the end of October. It is rather interesting to note that a crop of corn seeded in
Agassiz in mid-June matured too late for the cannery but was successfully marketed
during November on the Vancouver market.
" Potatoes were scarce during the early part of the year; in fact, some restaurants
were either not serving or were limiting servings of potatoes.
" Seed-potatoes were also in short supply. The crop for this year, however, appears
to be ample to meet requirements. Imported potatoes at various times during the year
have affected the price situation.
" In order to give the small-fruit growers an additional source of income, time has
been spent in introducing a few vegetable crops. The Pacific Co-operative Union have
been interested in putting up a frozen pack.
" Work has been done with broccoli and brussels sprouts, two crops that will continue to produce a marketable crop well into fall and early winter. In 1951, about 35
acres of broccoli and 20 acres of brussels sprouts were grown in the vicinity of Abbotsford. This year, 75 acres of broccoli and 40 acres of brussels sprouts were planted."
E. W. White and A. E. Littler, Vancouver Island: —
" Growers had a good cut of cauliflower during November and December, 1951.
The spring (overwintered) cauliflower also gave a good cut.
" The spring and summer vegetables have followed the usual pattern and been in
good supply throughout the season. Warm-weather crops such as tomatoes, corn, squash,
etc., were late in maturing due to the cold nights during July and August. There were
very few local tomatoes on the market before the last week in August. However, the fall
was a warm one and these crops matured in volume well on into October. Tomatoes in
particular came on in such volume that they presented quite a marketing problem.
" Potatoes have been a good crop and prices have been relatively high.
" Christmas and overwintered cauliflower-crops look in good condition for the most
R. P. Murray, Okanagan:—
" Vegetable-crops have been good generally. Prices have been favourable and the
growers have had a good season.
" The vegetable-crop was larger this season than a year ago by 557 acres. This is
made up largely by the increased acreage of tomatoes, carrots, green beans, dried beans,
dried peas, and late potatoes.
" Celery, cantaloupes, early potatoes, parsnips, and cucumbers all show a drop in
the 1952 acreage.
" The total acreage for 1952 was 8,614 acres, as compared to 8,057 in 1951.
" There are more carrots in storage than a year ago, caused possibly by an increased
acreage (108 acres) and a smaller amount taken by the canners. However, no trouble
is expected in moving all the carrots now on hand. The amount in storage is estimated
at about 1,200 tons. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
" Because of heavy imports from the United States just as the early cabbages and
cantaloupes started to move, returns for these two crops are going to be disappointing.
" This year, quite extensive trials were made with staked tomatoes, the reason being
to meet competition from Ontario for tomatoes sold in cellophane tubes.
"The following varieties were tried: Sutton's Best, Carleton, Best of All, E 21,
Selandia, and Early Harkness. With the exception of the hybrid E 21, which grew too
large, the varieties were quite suitable for staking. From the growers' view-point, Carle-
ton and Best of All were the two most satisfactory varieties for staking.
" Whether this crop will be continued for another year or not is uncertain. With a
poor growing season and a lack of experience in growing staked tomatoes most growers
have lost interest.
" Yields in some cases were quite high, and it is reported that one grower at Okanagan Centre produced 20 tons of marketable fruit per acre.
" It has been amply demonstrated this crop can be grown in the Okanagan, and
with a little more experience on the part of the growers there should be no difficulty in
supplying tomatoes of this type, if the market requires them."
The following table gives the estimated acreage and production for 1952: —
Estimated Acreage and Production of Vegetable-crops in British Columbia,
Year 1952 (as at November 1st)
Beans (green and wax)..
Cabbage — _
Peas (green ...
Flower and Bulb Production
The flower and bulb production is summed up in the following paragraphs taken
from the reports of A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island, and
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley:—
A. E. Littler, Vancouver Island:—
" This crop appears to be reaching a more stabilized status on Vancouver Island
with the bulk of production being carried by the larger, well-established growers. Easter
this year, with Good Friday falling on April 11th, came at a very opportune time for the
growers of cut blooms. The King Alfred daffodils were at their peak for this period and
a considerable shipment of bloom by air cargo took place.
" The tulip blooms came on quite rapidly during April but there was still considerable
bloom available for Mother's Day on May 11th.
" The weather during July and August was dry as usual but satisfactory for the
harvesting of the bulbs." CC 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:—
" Bulb-growers have had many difficulties to contend with in growing their crop and
gaining the confidence and support of the purchasers. Production is on the increase and
a large proportion of the crop was sold on the local markets.
" It has been shown that high-quality bulbs of most kinds can be grown successfully.
The elimination of poor stock and the building up and improvment of foundation stocks
has been a slow process. This work, in co-operation with the Inspection Service of the
Dominion Department of Agriculture and the Entomological Branch, as well as the
experimental work being done at the Dominion Experimental Station at Saanichton, is
now showing results. There are, and always will be, problems in the growing and handling
of bulbs but many of the present growers are now in a position to produce good crops.
" Field days have done a great deal to bring the buyers into closer contact with
" Your officials assisted the growers in arranging for speakers and topics for meetings
and demonstrations during the year."
The following table gives an excellent idea of the value of bulb production in British
Columbia in 1952: —
Estimated Value of Marketable Bulb Production in British Columbia in 1952
175 acresX 100,000=17,500,000 planted.
Marketable output—15% =2,625,000 @ $30perM= $78,750
75 acres X 100,000=7,500,000 planted.
Marketable output—25% = 1,875,000 @ $25 per M= 46,875
35 acresX 150,000=5,250,000 planted.
Marketable output—30% = 1,575,000 @ $30perM= 47,250
88 acres X 100,000=8,800,000 planted.
Marketable output—30% =2,640,000 @ $20 per M= 52,800
30 acres X$ 1,000 per acre = 30,000
Total (403 acres) $255,675
Blueberries and Cranberries
The following paragraphs, extracted from the report of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist in the Fraser Valley, will give some idea of the progress in the production of these two crops:—
" Blueberries.—About twenty-seven years ago the first high-bush blueberry plantings
were set out on Lulu Island by W. Johnston, and during the last few years there has been
a marked increase in plantings. Production is now between 200-300 tons, and as new
plantings are now coming into bearing, the increase in production from now on will be
very rapid. At the present time there has been a fairly firm fresh-fruit market, but as the
crop tonnage is increasing, manufacturers are becoming more interested in the handling
of this fruit. While the greatest acreage is located on Lulu Island, plantings are also
being made in other parts of the district. Blueberry-growers have formed an association
and with the increasing crop production are beginning to organize for the sale of the crop.
" Cranberries.—A few growers on Lulu Island have been interested in growing
cranberries and this year the production is expected to be about 30 tons. The majority
of these growers have become members of the American Cranberry Association, and it is
expected that the returns will be more satisfactory than in previous years." r
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 33
This year there has been a further increase in hop acreage in the Interior. The
reports from the horticultural offices in the three main producing areas of the Province
are given below:—
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford:—
" The present acreage at Chilliwack, Sardis, and Sumas is owned and operated by
large companies. The hop planting belonging to the B.C. Hop Company in Agassiz was
taken out in 1951 and the property was sold during the early part of 1952.
" The hop-crop was a little lighter this year, possibly due to the carry-over from
previous years and the prospects of lower prices.
" During the past few years, stationary mechanical hop-picking equipment has been
replacing a large proportion of the hand picking. This year a couple of portable hop-
pickers were tried out and seemed to be proving fairly satisfactory. Considerable adjustment is required in order to operate this equipment efficiently.
" The hop companies have been importing root and crown cuttings of various
varieties for trials in other parts of this Province and this may mean a reduction in some
plantings in the district."
R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops:—
" Growing conditions for hops were generally satisfactory this season. The acreage
at the John I. Haas hop planting, Lillooet, increased by 30, bringing their total to 110
acres. The Ord and Sicks' acreage near Kamloops remained unchanged at 70 and 100
acres respectively. Yields were about average for this area, ranging between 6 and 9
bales per acre and the quality was good.
" In portions of the Haas planting at Lillooet, a condition of the foliage suggested
the presence of Verticillium Wilt. The land was planted to tomatoes for a number of
years before being converted to hop farming two years ago, and the soil was known to be
infested with the Wilt organism. The Plant Pathology Laboratory at Summerland has
not yet established the condition as Verticillium Wilt, but this disease is the chief suspect."
G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at Creston:—
" Hops produced the first commercial crop this year in the Creston Valley. Fifty-
nine bales were picked and dried on the reclaimed lands. The section from which the
hops were harvested varied a great deal in production. The highest yield was estimated
at 10 bales per acre, while the lowest production was estimated at 5 bales per acre.
" The great variation in the hop yield was attributed to several factors. The two
main factors contributing to this variation were, undoubtedly, soil variations and the high
water-table. Other factors contributing to the reduction of yields were ' bastard ' hops,
two-spot mites, and aphids.
" T.E.P.P. was used to control the two-spot mites and nicotine dust 5 per cent for
the aphids. Control was good in both cases; however, the aphids built up again by
harvest-time and caused considerable damage.
" Two plants, suspected of carrying a virus disease, were removed and destroyed."
At the present time the commercial production of tobacco in British Columbia is
confined to the Fraser Valley area. G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at
Abbotsford, reports on the progress of this crop as follows:—
" The commercial growing of Virginia Leaf flue-cured tobacco is in the Sumas
District and all growers are members of the Sumas Co-operative Tobacco Growers'
Association. The crop is sorted and baled and then shipped to the Imperial Tobacco
Company, where it is sold on a grade basis. Cars are loaded at Abbotsford during the
early part of December. CC 34
" White Mammoth has been the principal variety grown, but during the past couple
of years Delcrest, a new variety, is gaining favour as it is producing good yields of high
" The weather during transplanting was cool and uncertain; consequently, this was
responsible to some extent for the decrease in this year's acreage to about 120 acres.
" Conditions during the season were satisfactory and while the quality of the crop,
for the most part, is good, shipments will probably total about 120,000 pounds as compared to 150,000 pounds in 1951."
The seed-production work in this Province is under the direction of J. L. Webster,
of the Horticultural Branch, and the following extracts are taken from his report: —
" While spring grain in the Southern Interior was short and poor, pea-crops did well
in the North Okanagan, particularly well in the Creston area. Heat-loving crops, such
as tomatoes, were set back at least two weeks by cool weather experienced during the
latter part of June and early July.
" Irrigated vegetable and vegetable-seed crops did unusually well at Grand Forks
on a reduced acreage. Grass- and legume-seed crops in the northern area, although
slightly, affected by drought during the latter part of the summer, nevertheless set good
crops of seed, particularly alfalfa in the Peace River. The harvesting weather during
September and October was almost ideal in most districts and little or no loss was taken
on either forage or vegetable seeds, although some rain during the latter part of October
caused difficulty with flower-seed crops on Vancouver Island.
"The following data shows the 1950 and 1951 yields of vegetable-seed, together
with the November estimate for the current year (1952):—
Cauliflower. _ —
"Discussion on the Vegetable-seed Marketing Situation.—The over-all marketing
situation for vegetable-seed remains unfavourable. Since 1948, when the United Kingdom refused to allow British seedmen to obtain import permits to purchase Canadian-
I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 35
grown vegetable and flower seed, the export market for our competitive vegetable-seed
items has been almost nil. The devaluation of British, Dutch, and other European
currency, which results in a 20-per-cent to 30-per-cent monetary advantage for imported
seeds from these countries, has had a serious effect on the price structure in this country.
This general low-price structure, resulting from the competition from the sterling areas,
has now continued for almost four years. Our main export market, the United States,
has been affected in the same way as Canada, with prices being geared to meet competitive
import quotations. Possibly the United States has been able to meet these prices more
effectively through the medium of mass production or mechanization, which is more
advanced than in Canada. It, therefore, appears that lowered cost of production is the
only answer to the problem at the present time.
"A large surplus of onion-seed (70,000 pounds) of exportable varieties has been
held by British Columbia growers since 1949. We are now happy to report that this
surplus has been disposed of in Holland, unfortunately at low prices. However, the
removal of this large surplus from the local market will have a more healthy effect on the
price structure, and it is expected that prices on onion-seed will rise, leading to more
interest amongst seed-growers in the Province and consequent acceptance of sizeable
" Unfortunately, the situation with respect to biennials, such as onion and carrot,
for 1953 is that very little will be grown for seed. Commercial onion-growers are taking
advantage of the high price of onion-bulbs and are disposing of them all at the very
satisfactory price of $80 f.o.b. Interior points. With onion-bulbs at $80 per ton and
carrot-roots at $50 per ton, there is actually more revenue in the growing of commercial
vegetables than storing same and planting them for seed production the following year.
Dealing with the matter of returns from commercial vegetables and vegetable-seeds with
respect to onions, we have the following illustration: It takes approximately 4 tons of
onions to plant an acre for seed. For 1953 crop it would therefore cost $320 in onion-
bulbs alone to plant 1 acre. Taking the average yield of onion-seed per acre, namely
500 pounds, at prevailing price of $1.25 per pound, the grower would receive $625 per
acre, leaving him only $305 to store the onions over winter, plant out, fertilize, cultivate,
irrigate, harvest, thresh, and finally to clean his seed. It is, therefore, not profitable to
grow onion-seed at the present prices. We have previously reported that to grow onion-
seed profitably onion-bulbs must cost $40 or less per ton, unless, of course, the price of
onion-seed is raised to the wartime level of $2 or more per pound.
"A somewhat similar situation applies to carrots. With Swede turnips, however, the
crop is seeded in early fall and allowed to overwinter in the ground in the Fraser Valley,
making it unnecessary to grow mature roots and store them over winter.
" Indications are, however, that we have reached the bottom of a price cycle and
vegetable-seed prices are now rising slightly, with demand also increasing. If seed firms
directly engaged in the contracting of vegetable-seed can finance and operate through the
1952-53 season, we believe that they will be able to take advantage of rising prices and
a much greater demand for the commodity throughout North America.
" Flower-seed.—Flower-seed acreage is about on a par with that of 1951 and it is
believed that the total value of the crop may be up slightly from that of the last two years.
This small but interesting phase of seed production now seems to be definitely established
in the Province, particularly on Vancouver Island, Grand Forks, and in one or two other
Southern Interior districts. There are a number of items in perennials and kinds which
cannot be harvested by machinery which are well suited to climate and soils in this
Province and, while a complete range of varieties can be produced in British Columbia,
it is more economic to produce certain items in volume which do not succeed as well in
"In 1951, flower-seed was valued at $48,228.34 and this year we anticipate that
this figure may reach $50,000, although it is extremely difficult to estimate or calculate
yields of some of the later items at this date." CC 36
HORTICULTURAL SURVEYS AND FIELD INSPECTIONS
This year a tree-fruit survey was made in the Okanagan because it was felt that the
regular quinquennial orchard survey completed just previous to the severe weather of
January, 1950, did not give a very accurate picture of the number of producing trees
owing to the large number destroyed at that time.
The following table indicates the number of trees of the different kinds of fruit in
the Okanagan and Kootenay as shown by the last survey and in comparison with the
figures obtained in the surveys conducted from 1925 to 1945 inclusive:—
British Columbia Tree-fruit Survey, 1925-52
Plums and prunes .
The 1952 small-fruit survey has been completed and the following tabulated
summary indicates the acreage and trends in this industry since 1922:—
Small-fruit and Rhubarb Acreage,
1922 1 1924
6,310 | 5,201
Blackberries — _ - —
Totals - —
6,683 ] 6,463
4,010 | 5,614
5,571 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 37
To comply with the " Plant Protection Act," 114 licences were issued to nurseries
and nursery agents at a cost of $5 each.
Inspection of all nurseries in the Province was carried out by the staff of the
Horticultural Branch, either at the time of digging or previous to shipping. The following
table summaries the work for 1952:—
Nursery Inspection Report, 1952
Thirty-nine inspections made; 1.34 per cent of stock condemned.
This year there was considerable reduction in the amount of fire-blight in the pear-
growing sections of the Province. There was less than any year since 1947.
The Horticultural Branch carries out an annual inspection of orchards and a continuous educational campaign to acquaint the growers with the latest methods of combating this disease.
The following table indicates the number of acres inspected in 1952:—
Fire-blight Inspection, 1952
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
Pruning demonstrations were held throughout the Province again this year and were
generally well attended.
The following table indicates the districts, number of demonstrations held, and the
attendance in 1952:—
Number of Number of
District Demonstrations Pupils
Vancouver Island 18 515
Lower Mainland 17 587
Okanagan _ 3 40
Kootenay 11 66
Totals 49 1,208 cc 38 british colu_v|-bia
Last spring a piece of land was leased at Kelowna for the purpose of demonstrating
cultural methods that should tend toward increasing the yield and quality of tomatoes.
It is the intention to carry this work over a five-year period in order to have time to
demonstrate the possibilities of the programme adopted. R. P. Murray, Supervising
Horticulturist at Kelowna, reports on the work to date as follows:—
" The tomato represents a very important crop in the valley, but in spite of all the
advice on how to grow this crop, the yields have been going steadily down hill. The
reason for this decline can possibly be summed up quite simply—poor farming. The
poor farming may be accounted for in part by our limited acreage—that is, small holdings
and system of renting.
" To try and show how the tonnage and quality could be raised, 3 acres at Kelowna
was leased for five years, at an annual rental of $75 per acre.
" The grower supplies the plants, does all the necessary cultivation, keeps yield
records, and takes the crop. The Horticultural Branch provides seed for the cover-crop
" The 3 acres are divided into 1-acre plots; 2 acres are in cover-crop while 1 acre
" This year, sweet clover was seeded on the 2 acres at the rate of 8 pounds per acre,
and the whole 3 acres given a dressing of 16-20-0 at the rate of 400 pounds per acre.
" The plants, Clarke's Early, were set out May 24th, and because of the shortage
of plants, due to losses in the plant-beds because of frost, were not as good as they should
" The plot was well cared for during the season and the first ripe tomatoes were
picked August 11th, and picking finished October 3rd, due to a killing frost.
" The yield was low, only 10,445 pounds of ripe tomatoes being harvested. Had
there not been a long, warm fall the crop would have been considerably less.
"Apart from some supervision, the cost to the Department was: Rent, $224; fertilizer, $46.14 (1,200 pounds); sweet clover seed (25 pounds), $5.25; or a total of
" This work should be an important contribution to the tomato production problems
we are faced with, and by visual education show the growers what can be done with
ordinary good farming methods.
" Since the cost of establishing these plots is small, I would recommend that similar
plots be set up in the Vernon-Kamloops or Ashcroft areas next season.
" In addition to the use of sweet clover as a cover-crop, 100 pounds of Austrian
winter peas was obtained and sown this fall. Fifty pounds were sown on the plot that
produced tomatoes this year and 25 pounds each were sown at Oliver and Cawston.
"According to the information at hand, Austrian winter peas may be sown quite
late, that is, after the tomato-crop is harvested, and start early enough to give a good
yield of green material in time for ploughing under for any transplanted vegetable-crop.
It will be interesting to see how this crop behaves.
" The Austrian peas under trial at Kelowna were sown November 10th, at the rate
of 100 pounds per acre."
Test of Greenhouse Tomatoes
E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist, Vancouver Island, made observations on
variety test of greenhouse tomatoes during the spring of 1952, as follows:—
"A number of mould-resistant strains secured from the Horticultural Experiment
Station, Vineland, Ont, were tried out in 1951 at Riddle Bros., 800 Seymour Avenue,
Victoria; H. F. Atkin, Box 2240, R.R. 5, Victoria; and Young Bros., Box 2432, R.R. 5,
Victoria. These were V-501-2-3-4-7-8.
" None of these proved superior to V-121 for the main crop. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 39
" Riddle Bros, tried out this year a variety called Crystal, seed of which was sent
out from England in January, 1951, by A. J. Wills, which arrived too late for the spring
crop. The plants grew well and set a good crop, but the fruit was too small for this
" Riddle Bros, also tried out Improved V-121 but it was too vigorous for their heavy
soil. Michigan State Forcing was also tested but it proved to be too rough.
" H. F. Atkin, Box 2240, R.R. 5, Victoria, selected two of the most promising of
the Vineland strains tried in 1951—namely, V-504 and V-508—and tried them out again
this year. They were not as satisfactory as the Improved V-121 which he grew for his
Variety Test of Tomatoes Grown Outside
A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island, reports on the performance of Carleton in comparison with Scarlet Dawn and Best of All as follows:—
" Carleton showed good germination and escaped the ravages of the mice. Four
hundred plants of Carleton were set out from May 12th to 14th. The system of training
was to keep each plant to a single stem up a string supported by an overhead wire. The
plants were allowed to grow until they had set three trusses of fruit, after which time the
growing tips were nipped out.
" Observation of these plants, which were compared to the standard staking varieties
Scarlet Dawn and Best of All used as checks, indicated that under the growing conditions
in which these plants were grown Carleton was not as vigorous a plant as either of the
other two varieties. The lower sets of fruit were very poor, often having only two or three
fruit to a cluster. The fruit was considerably smaller than the other varieties and the
bulk of the crop was approximately six days later than Scarlet Dawn and two days later
than Best of All. In view of the above observations, this variety does not appear too
promising. However, further tests will be carried out with this variety."
Lima Bean Trials
This work was carried out on the Cawston Bench by M. P. D. Trumpour, District
Horticulturist, Penticton, in co-operation with J. L. Webster, Horticulturist in charge of
seed-work in the Province. Mr. Trumpour reports on this year's trials as follows:—
"Purpose.—To continue with the testing of Lima bean varieties for frozen-food
purposes on the Cawston Bench. In addition, these trials were extended to make preliminary tests of fertilizer effects and of seeding-dates.
" Place.—C. Finch holding, Cawston.
" Varieties.—Logan, Henderson's Bush, Fordhook, Clarke's Bush, Thorogreen
Green-seeded, Triumph, Allgreen, Thorogreen Improved.
" Dates of Sowing.—May 20th and June 5th.
" Fertilizer.—No fertilizer applied except on Clarke's Bush. On Clarke's Bush,
16-20-0 was applied on June 7th at 0, 200, and 400 pounds per acre.
"Remarks.—It had been planned to make the first seeding on May 15th but the
seed for this did not arrive soon enough. In fact, plant-growth from the May 20th
sowing was slow and it appeared that no advantage was gained by this sowing over that
of the June 5th sowing. However, by late August it did become evident that pod and
bean formation was definitely advanced on the earlier-seeded plants than on the later-
seeded plants. This observation was definitely substantiated as the beans became ready
for harvesting. Maturity was generally later than that of the preceding year. It is
possible that the cool weather which prevailed in June checked the plants too long.
" Yield data are, unfortunately, lacking. Two factors made it impossible to derive
accurate yield information. One factor was that rabbits had caused considerable damage
in some of the plots. The other factor was that there was insufficient time to pick the
pods even though the respective plots were small. To hand-pick a 30-foot row required CC 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
one to two hours per man per picking and several pickings must be made. Response
from the fertilizer applications was very marked. Maturity appeared to be delayed but
plant-growth and pod-yield were definitely increased. When no fertilizer was applied
the yield from the June 5th sowing of Clarke's Bush was 7.5 pounds; when 200 pounds
of 16-20-0 per acre were applied the yield was 10 pounds; and when 400 pounds of
16-20-0 per acre were applied the yield was 16 pounds. These yields were obtained
in the first picking on the same day.
" Of the varieties tested, Clarke's Bush continued to be one of the best in the field.
Allgreen, reputed to be an improved Clarke's Bush, yielded less and matured much
later. Logan showed more promise than Allgreen but matured unevenly. Thorogreen
Green-seeded also matured unevenly, produced small pods and was difficult to pick.
Thorogreen Improved was easier to pick. Fordhook was in a class by itself, being a
very large bean which did not seem to be a desirable characteristic for the frozen-food
Raspberry Variety Observations
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford, makes the following
observations on raspberry varieties in the Fraser Valley:—
"At the present time, the Newburg is the principal variety grown. It produces
heavy yields on a wide range of soils. It is less subject to winter-injury and some problems affecting many other varieties. This variety is not rated high in quality but it is
large, of fair quality, and easy to pick.
" The Washington variety, which more closely approaches the high quality of the
Cuthbert, is the leading variety in the West, being preferred for canning, jam, and
freezing purposes. In spite of the slight premium in price, this variety is not profitable
in some raspberry-producing areas. It is more exacting with regard to soil conditions
and cultural practices. This year, there was considerable bud-injury to Washington
raspberry plantings due to the late spring frosts.
" In view of the preference for the Washington type of raspberry, it would appear
that a new variety which could be commercially grown under a comparatively wide
range of conditions would be of value in stabilizing the commercial raspberry acreage.
In order to maintain and hold a good market for our raspberries, a good quality berry
is necessary. Commercial plantings of the Willamette are under observation and present
indications are that this variety is not likely to become a leading variety in this district.
The Willamette prefers conditions similar to those of the Washington and while the
berries are large, attractive, of fair quality, and easy to pick, the ripening fruit has
a tendency to drop and this could result in considerable loss of crop, particularly in
a wet season.
" Selective plantings of a raspberry which may prove to be of commercial importance has been under observation on the farm of F. Seifred for the past four years.
About an acre of this variety was set out in 1951 and a further planting of about 9 acres
was planted this year. The grower expects to have 20 acres planted by 1953. Small
quantities of this raspberry have been tested by the canning and freezing trade and
reports are encouraging. The berries are medium to large, firm, of good flavour, with
small, soft seeds. This variety has some of the characteristics of the Lloyd George and
promises to be productive. No plants have been distributed from this farm and if the
variety continues to be promising on an acreage basis, plants will be available for commercial planting. Propagation stock of this variety is being selected and isolated in
order to maintain vigorous plants."
Couch-grass Control in Washington Raspberries
An effective chemical weed-killer that will kill grasses in small-fruit plantations
would be of great assistance to growers. I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist at Salmon
Arm, reports on a field trial conducted last summer as follows:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
"A small-scale experiment was drawn up to determine whether or not couch-grass
could be effectively controlled in a commercial raspberry planting. Plot size was kept
small (8 by 25 feet) to avoid damaging too many plants. The larger plot sizes of
20 by 20 feet contained no raspberries. Presented below in tabular form are the details
of this experiment:—
I.P.C. . -
'/ Not disked-
' Not disked..
1 Disked three times during summer..
' Not disked
I Disked three times during season .
Disked three times during season
All materials applied
Plot 10 by 20 ft.
Plot 10 by 25 ft.
Plot 10 by 25 ft.
Plot 10 by 20 ft.
Plot 20 by 40 ft.
" Summary.—There was no apparent injury caused to the raspberry canes with these materials used as reported.
The kill of couch-grass in the planting was not considered satisfactory. T.C.A. when used in conjunction with a disking
programme may be feasible under certain circumstances."
Fertilizers on Italian Prunes
In an effort to find the effects of fertilizer treatments in improving the size of prunes,
a field test was set up at Penticton by R. P. Murray in 1949. This test is being carried
on by M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, and he reports as
" This is a progress report on the fertilizer plots set up in 1949 by R. P. Murray,
" Fertilizers, manure, and sawdust were again applied to the respective plots in the
late fall of 1951.
" In addition to obtaining yields per tree, sizes of prunes per treatment were recorded
in an attempt to determine if there was any correlation between prune size and fertilizer
treatment. These sizes were measured as the average number of prunes per pound and
are recorded in the tables. Thus the more prunes there were per pound the smaller were
the prunes. CC 42
"Harris Orchard, Penticton
Average Yield per Tree
Check.. _ _
"Barker Orchard, Keremeos
Check _ _
" With regard to the yield of prunes per tree, there were reductions from last year in
all plots in the Harris orchard and in most plots in the Barker orchard. This general
reduction was attributed to a light set of fruit and to a heavy pre-harvest drop as indicated
in the section under Horticultural Crop Conditions. The most significant reductions were
in the check-plots, which indicate that nitrogen is a necessary plant-food.
" While the differences in size of prunes were very slight, those prunes from the
potash-treated plots were the smallest in each orchard. The prunes from the check-plots
were medium in size but this may be attributed to more advanced maturity at harvest-time.
If these prunes had been picked at the relatively correct maturity, it is possible that they
would have been smaller in size and would also have shown even smaller yields per tree.
" Quality and uniformity of size of fruit was definitely superior in the manure plot
in the Harris orchard and in the sawdust plot in the Barker orchard."
Nitrogenous Fertilizer on Carrots
Alan Littler, District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island, makes observations on the
effects of heavy applications of manure on carrots, as follows:—
" It has been reported by several of the producers of bunch carrots that quite frequently the tops were slender and weak, with the result that the tops parted from the roots
" Since it is a well-known fact that nitrogen added to the soil increases the top growth
of the various plants, additional nitrogen in the form of poultry-manure was added to
several blocks of Imperator carrots. The amount used was only arbitrary to get a general
idea of the response. As expected, the tops increased in size with the increased applications of manure. However, where excessive manure was applied considerable forking
of the roots was evident. In all cases, however, where the top growth was noticeably
increased, there was a corresponding increase in the size of the green ring surrounding
the core of the carrot. It would, therefore, appear likely that to increase the top size
of the carrots to a satisfactory level from the standpoint of increased strength would lower
the quality of the root to a marked degree by causing a more pronounced green ring to
" It would, however, probably be well to carry this experiment a step further and
study the results obtained by using a nitrogenous chemical fertilizer in measured amounts." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 43
Symptoms of mineral deficiencies in our soils that have been farmed over a long
period of years are becoming more apparent each year. In order to determine the results
of adding minor elements where growth symptoms indicate they are lacking, many trial
plots are under observation. In order to indicate the type of work that is being carried
on, the following extracts have been taken from the report of A. W. Watt, District Horticulturist at Summerland:—
" No new work was started but an effort was made to follow up the work done last
"(a) Manganese Deficiency—Brown Orchard, Westbank
"As reported on page 12 of the 1951 Report, a test in this orchard revealed a marked
response to application of manganese sprays at approximately 8-pounds-per-acre rate.
Accordingly, the operator of this orchard was advised to apply at least one spray of manganese to the entire orchard as soon as the trees were fully leafed out in 1952.
" The operator carried out these instructions on all but a small block of peaches
which had shown no symptoms of deficiency in 1951. As a result, dark green foliage
developed on all the sprayed trees with the exception of one block of Delicious. The
foliage on these trees remained small and lacked deep green colour. The trees in this
Delicious block were severely winter-injured and this may have been a reason for their
lack of response.
" The small block of peaches which was not sprayed with manganese because it had
not shown deficiency symptoms in 1951, now looked very poor, in comparison to the
deep green of the manganese-sprayed trees. Although the chlorotic symptoms displayed
by these trees were not similar to those shown by the nearby trees in 1951, it was remembered that symptoms of manganese deficiency had never been observed early in the season.
It was decided, therefore, to try manganese on these trees. The grower sprayed the trees
and in less than a month they returned to a healthy green colour.
"Results.—(i) Grower-applied sprays of manganous sulphate proved effective.
"(ii) Symptoms not entirely typical of manganese deficiency may still indicate
a manganese lack if these are observed early in the season.
"(b) Multiple Deficiencies (Zinc, Iron, Manganese)—Gogel Orchard,
"As reported on page 13 of the 1951 Report, the Gogel orchard at Westbank contained a large number of trees which were suffering from multiple deficiencies. Zinc
oxide, iron sulphate with lime, and manganous sulphate were applied as summer sprays
to these trees. Elements were applied in groups of two and three at a time to both
Delicious apples and Bartlett pears. As reported in 1951, there was no response to either
iron or zinc that summer but by the fall most of the manganese symptoms had cleared up.
" On the advice of this office the grower applied zinc sulphate to most of his orchard,
including the trees in our experimental plots. Application was made at the approximate
rate of 80 pounds per acre in the dormant season. The orchard was again examined
during the summer of 1952. A definite improvement with less severe zinc-deficiency
symptoms was noticed. No manganese-deficiency symptoms were found. Iron-deficiency
chlorosis still showed up in many trees.
"Results.—(i) In this test, slight manganese deficiency was cleared up by one
summer spray of manganous sulphate at 8 pounds per acre (1951).
"(ii) Zinc deficiency was not noticeably improved by one summer spray of 8 pounds
zinc oxide per acre, but improvement was noticeable after a dormant application of zinc
sulphate at 80 pounds per acre had been made by the grower (1952).
"(iii) Iron-deficiency symptoms were not improved by a summer application of
ferrous sulphate (8 pounds per acre) with lime (8 pounds per acre)." cc 44 british columbia
The following observations on mulching are taken from the reports of G. E. W.
Clark, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley, and E. W. White, Supervising
Horticulturist, Vancouver Island:—
G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:—
" Observations on the use of sawdust as a mulching material on various horticultural
crops have continued during the past season. The use of sawdust as a mulching material
is of particular interest to strawberry-growers where weed-control and moisture-conservation are often the two limiting factors in production. One planting of strawberries, which
was mulched with a 2-inch layer of hemlock sawdust after planting in 1950, produced
a good crop during the very dry crop-year of 1951 and during the past season has again
shown up well, having given a yield of 7 tons per acre. The sawdust on this planting is
now showing signs of decomposition but still forms a definite mulch layer over the soil.
Cultivation has been used but this cultivation has been shallow and has resulted in no
appreciable mixing of soil and sawdust. From the condition of the mulch, it would
appear that it should be effective for at least one more season, after which time the strawberries would normally be ploughed under.
" On another planting in the Coghlan district, a five-year-old strawberry planting was
ploughed under in 1951 and a 2-inch layer of sawdust and chicken-litter was worked into
the soil. New plants were set out in the fall of 1951 and these plants did remarkably well
during the 1952 season. The soils in this district are very light and under strawberry
cropping very quickly lose their organic matter and become unproductive. The sawdust
in this case appears to have provided organic matter and improved the mechanical structure of the soil, and the chicken-manure seems to have compensated for the temporary
depletion of nitrogen, which would be expected where such a large amount of sawdust is
worked into the soil. It is possible that this practice may be worthwhile on other worked-
out strawberry plantings and observations will be continued.
" There seems to be little doubt that on certain soils sawdust can be successfully
used on strawberry plantings, the limiting factor being cost. Twelve to fifteen loads per
acre are required to produce a mulch about two inches deep and at $5 a load this would
amount to $60 to $75."
E. W. White, Vancouver Island:—
" Sawdust continues to be used as a mulching material on all small fruits. The
results seem to be satisfactory and no adverse conditions have been experienced.
" With another very dry year in 1952, mulching was undoubtedly a benefit in conserving moisture. Where sawdust is used on strawberries, the cost of Wi to 2 tons of
straw is saved, which at present prices would go quite a way in paying for the sawdust."
The mouse population, though not as severe as two years ago, is still plentiful.
Toxaphene was tried out as a ground spray in a limited way during the early fall and
the results were very encouraging in killing mice. Further trials are under way and
this material will be used by a few growers. Until there is more definite information
on the use of Toxaphene, it is probable that most growers will continue to use standard
Mite-control on Strawberries
Mites are becoming more prevalent in strawberry plantations and a good control
that is economical to use is of benefit to the growers of this crop. The following report
on this work at Salmon Arm is taken from the annual report of I. C. Carne, District
Horticulturist in that area:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 45
" Growers in this area have been consistently bothered by infestations of the Two-
spotted mites. The grower-applied dusts of lime and sulphur did little to control this
pest even when applied every two weeks. Consequently, an experiment was laid out
in co-operation with C. L. Neilson, Provincial Entomologist. Two materials were
used,—namely, 5-per-cent dusts of Aramite and of Ovatran and applied at the rate of
45 pounds per acre. Two identical plots of one-fifth acre each were laid out in two
different plantings; one planting has had the tops cut and removed after harvest while
the second planting had had the runners only removed after harvest. It was felt that
removing all debris after harvest may have a bearing on the carry-over of mites through
the winter months.
" Nabata Patch (Runners Only Removed)
" Procedure.—Aramite and Ovatran dusts applied April 29th when live mites were
visible on the leaves. Aramite plot was redusted on May 20th while the Ovatran plot
was not dusted again until June 2nd.
"Results.—The second application of both materials held the population of mites
in check until after the fruit was harvested in July.
" Nishi Patch
"Procedure.—Aramite and Ovatran.dusts applied as in the Nabata patch on April
29th. Both plots were dusted again on May 20th as the Ovatran plot did not appear to
be holding the mites as well in this planting as it did in the Nabata planting.
" Results.—The second application of both materials appeared to give reasonably
good control until harvest was completed.
" Check-plot.—Check-plots were left in both plantings and by May 20th were
badly infested with mites and required spraying with Visko and mineral oil.
" Summary.—Both the 5-per-cent dusts of Aramite and of Ovatran applied at the
rate of 45 pounds per acre successfully controlled Two-spotted mites until harvesting
was completed. Due to the availability of Aramite as a dust, arrangements are going
forward to have a supply of this dust on hand for next year's operation. Further
experiments are contemplated for the next season. There was no significant difference
in mite populations between cultural treatments, although the infestation appeared to
be slightly higher in the Nishi planting, where both tops and runners are removed after
Turnip-maggot is a very destructive insect and is the cause of much culling and
loss to turnip-growers. This year a small field trial to control this insect was carried
out by Alan Littler, District Horticulturist on Vancouver Island, and in his annual
report he makes the following remarks:—
" The turnip-maggot has for some years provided a problem. However, during
recent years several insecticides have been under test, among which is Aldrin.
"A test-plot of Laurentian Swede turnips, comprising thirty rows each 100 feet
long, was set up to determine the results of this insecticide. The test was set up in a
district where the fly was known to be prevalent and which in the past had made turnip-
growing almost impossible. The planting date was June 29th.
"Method of Application.—A line was drawn from one end of each row to the
other and a furrow approximately an inch deep was made along this line. Aldrin was
then dusted along this furrow using a salt-shaker type of applicator at the rate of one-
half ounce to each 10 feet of row. Only 85 feet of each row were dusted, the remaining
15 feet being left as a check. Following the dusting the turnip-seed was sown along
the furrows using a Planet Junior seeder.
" Results.—The usual methods of cultivation necessary for a crop of Swede turnips
were followed, with irrigation-water being applied at weekly intervals. Inspection of CC 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the roots from the sixth week onward showed the turnips from the treated portions of
the rows to be practically 100 per cent clean, whereas those from the untreated portions
of the rows showed severe tunnelling. The difference between the treated and untreated
plots became more noticeable as time progressed. The injury caused by the maggots
in the untreated portions of the rows became so severe that top growth was inhibited,
whereas in the treated portions the roots were plump and top growth appeared very
" However, the fall of 1952 was a warm, dry one and there was apparently a third
brood of the maggot, since quite a number of the turnips from the treated portion showed
varying degrees of injury. This injury did not appear near the root end of the turnip,
as had been the case of the untreated roots, but appeared on the outer circumference
of the roots just below soil-level. However, this furrowing caused by the late brood
was sufficient to disfigure a fair proportion of the crop and cause considerable trimming
to be necessary.
" Conclusions.—Aldrin appears to show promise in the control of the turnip-
maggot. However, it appears from the above results that other methods of application
must be devised."
Control Sprays for Fire-blight
In past years the removal of diseased branches, twigs, and tissue has been the
standard method of controlling fire-blight. It would be desirable if satisfactory control
could be obtained by the use of sprays. Some results have shown encouragement and
for this reason considerable time has been devoted to testing out this method of control
in the Okanagan. The following extracts are taken from the annual reports of M. P. D.
Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, and W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist at Vernon:—
M. P. D. Trumpour, Penticton: —
" Purpose.—In view of the interest shown in sprays to aid in the control of fire-blight,
a series of plots were set up to demonstrate the effectiveness of such sprays. In addition
to the standard recommendation of spraying daily during the blossom period, variations
in time of applications were tried.
" Place.—R. B. Hughes orchard, Penticton.
" Variety.—Bartlett. Fire-blight was exceptionally serious in 1951.
" Material.—One pound copper sulphate and 1 pound hydrated lime per 100 gallons.
"Plots.—1. Sprayed at 60 per cent of full bloom, two weeks later, and four weeks
later (after recommendation for Wenatchee Tree Fruit Experiment Station).
" 2. Sprayed at 10-20 per cent of full bloom and every second day during blossom
" 3. Sprayed at 10-20 per cent of full bloom and two days later.
" 4. Sprayed at 60 per cent of full bloom and every second day during blossom
" 5. Sprayed at 10-20 per cent of full bloom and every day thereafter during
blossom period (total of eight applications).
" Results.—Results were inconclusive. There were no fresh outbreaks of fire-blight
on any tree except one in Plot 5, which was sprayed every day during the blossom period.
On this tree twenty-eight infections were removed on May 21st, yet there were no
infections then or later on adjacent trees."
W. T. Baverstock, Vernon:—
" Place.—Cliff Davies orchard, Lavington.
" Variety.—-Transcendent crab-apples. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
" Weather.—Mostly cloudy.
" Machine.—Hardie Gun Machine.
"A block of Transcendent crab-apples was used for this experiment. Same was
divided into three blocks as follows:—
30 per cent of full bloom.
30 per cent of full bloom and full bloom.
" Control was quite noticeable in sprayed plots. Check-plot was completely covered
with blight by the end of July but the sprayed plots only showed a few odd branches.
This experiment will be carried on again during the coming season as the above sprays
look very promising."
Control of Pear-scab in the Kootenays
The following is a summary of the results obtained in controlling pear-scab in the
West Kootenay, as submitted by J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist at Nelson:—
" For many years pear-growers in the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes District have had
to contend with pear-scab on Flemish Beauty. During the past few years they have been
able to control this disease on Flemish Beauty by applying three sprays—that is, pre-pink,
pink, and calyx, consisting of Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100
gallons of water. In 1948 some scab was noted on Bartlett in the Thrums area and since
that time it has become quite serious on both Bartlett and Anjou in the Longbeach-
Sunshine Bay area. The Ferbam-wettable sulphur sprays which controlled the disease
on Flemish Beauty have been none too effective in controlling scab on either Bartlett or
Anjou. The purpose of this work is to test the effectiveness of several fungicides in
control of pear-scab on Bartlett.
" Experimental plots were located in a block of Bartlett pears on the Eaton farm at
Longbeach. There were seventy-seven trees divided into twelve plots. A conventional
' gun ' sprayer was used in this work, as the orchard did not lend itself to spraying with
an automatic concentrate machine. Two delayed dormant sprays were applied; one
consisting of sodium polysulphide at a concentration of 13 pounds per 100 gallons of
water, the other lime sulphur 1-8. Other sprays applied at the pre-pink, pink, and calyx
stages were lime-sulphur 1-40,' Crag ' (Fungicide 341CA) Wi quarts and hydrated lime
1 pound per 100 gallons of water, and Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds
per 100 gallons of water.
" Dates of spray application are as follows: Delayed dormant, April 10th; pre-pink,
May 2nd; pink, May 9th; calyx, May 22nd.
" Lime-sulphur gave only fair control of pear-scab. Much of the fruit from these
plots (4, 5, and 6) had a roughened appearance and some russeting was evident. In Plots
7, 8, and 9 the Ferbam-wettable sulphur combination did not give such good control
either. However, good control was obtained in Plots 10, 11, and 12 where ' Crag ' was
applied. Fruit from the latter plots was very smooth and had a fine finish compared with
that from Plots 4, 5, and 6. It is difficult to assess the value of the dormant sprays from
the results of only one season's work. However, results would indicate that only slightly
better control of pear-scab was obtained in plots which received the dormant spray,
although in the three ' Crag' sprayed plots the cleanest fruit was in Plot 12 which had
no dormant spray.
" The following table summarizes this work on control of pear-scab. All fruit free
from scab was classified as clean and that showing any signs of scab as scabby:— CC 48
Results Obtained in 1952 Pear-scab Control Experiment
Sodium polysulphide (13 pounds per 100 gallons water) in delayed dormant.
Lime-sulphur 1-8 in delayed dormant-
Same as Plot 2, plus lime-sulphur 1-40 in pre-pink, pink, and calyx..
Same as Plot 3, plus lime-sulphur 1-40 in pre-pink, pink, and calyx..
Lime-sulphur 1-40 in pre-pink, pink, and calyx..
Same as Plot 2, plus Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100 gallons water
in pre-pink, pink, and calyx.
Same as Plot 3, plus Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100 gallons water
in pre-pink, pink, and calyx.
Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100 gallons water in pre-pink, pink, and
Same as Plot 2, plus ' Crag ' V/z quarts and hydrated lime 1 pound per 100 gallons water in
pre-pink, pink, and calyx
Same as Plot 3, plus ' Crag ' l'/i quarts and hydrated lime 1 pound per 100 gallons water in
pre-pink, pink, and calyx
' Crag ' l'/_ quarts and hydrated lime 1 pound per 100 gallons water in pre-pink, pink, and
1 Much of the fruit in Plots 4, 5, and 6 had a roughened appearance and some russeting was evident."
After five years of using lime-sulphur and Ferbam plus wettable sulphur to control
apple-scab on plots at Creston, G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist, sums up the
influence on tree vigour and yield as follows:—■
" The 1952 spray demonstration plots using lime-sulphur and Ferbam plus wettable
sulphur revealed no great differences in yields. This was the ' on ' year for the lime-
sulphur plots and therefore this yield can only be attributed to tree vigour. The following
figures summarize the yields from these plots during the past five years:—
(Boxes per Tree)
(Boxes per Tree)
Five-year average 15.8
(Boxes per Tree)
(Boxes per Tree)
Five-year average 13.6 15.2
" From these figures, it is quite evident that lime-sulphur sprays accentuate biennial
production. Also, that Ferbam and wettable sulphur sprays reduce the great fluctuation
in yields from year to year and increase production over the period of years." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Spraying of trial plots for the control of apple-scab in the Kootenay area has been
carried on for several years. A summary of the results this year is taken from the reports
of J. E. Swales, District Horticulturalist at Nelson:—
"All sprays were applied with a Turbo Mist concentrate-sprayer and carried out in
co-operation with officials of the Federal Entomological Laboratory at Summerland.
" The dates of application were: Pre-pink, May 2nd; pink, May 14th; calyx, May
23rd; first cover, June 9th; second cover, June 16th.
"2. Sodium polysulphide, a mixture of sodium polysulphide (84 per cent by
weight) and sodium thiosulphate (8 per cent by weight) in dry granular form. Distributed
by Niagara Chemical Division, Food Machinery & Chemical Corporation, Middleport,
"3. ' Crag ' (Fungicide 341), a liquid containing 2-heptadecyl glyoxalidine acetate
(34 per cent by weight). Manufactured by Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Company, New
"4. DN (dinitrocresol), 40 per cent dinitro-ortho-cresol powder.
" In the Fransen orchard, best control was obtained in Plot 2 where DN was added
to the lime-sulphur spray. Fruit was also appreciably larger in this plot, bearing out the
results of the previous year's work when the addition of DN to the lime-sulphur spray
appears to have a beneficial effect on fruit size. In Plot 1 there were 141 apples per box
while in Plot 2 there was an average of 106 apples. In Plot 3, the unsprayed check-plot,
there were 350 apples per box. It is felt that DN alone is not fully responsible for such
a difference in fruit size and other factors possibly had some influence. Fruit on all the
DN-sprayed trees was noticeably larger, however.
" In the Sewell orchard, lime-sulphur gave only fair control of apple-scab in Plot 1
with 74.5 per cent clean fruit. Sodium polysulphide gave very poor control in Plot 2 with
only 42.3 per cent clean fruit. Although there was considerable foliage infection evident
early in the season in Plot 3, the fruit in this plot sprayed with ' Crag ' was the cleanest in
" The following table will serve as a summary of this work:-—
(Five sprays applied: Pre-pink, pink, calyx, and first and second cover-sprays.)
Lime-sulphur 10-100 (or 8 gallons per acre) —
Same as Plot 1, plus DN 4 pounds and hydrated lime 8 pounds per 100 gallons water (or
DN 3V4 pounds and hydrated lime 6'/_ pounds per acre) -
(Five sprays applied, as in Fransen orchard.)
Lime-sulphur 10-100 (or 8 gallons per acre)..
Sodium polysulphide 25 pounds per 100 gallons water (or 20 pounds per acre) _
' Crag ' 7'/_ quarts and hydrated lime 4 pounds per 100 gallons water (or ' Crag ' 6 quarts
and hydrated lime 3 pounds per acre)
Spray-thinning, though giving variable results from year to year, has, because of
the labour-saving feature of this type of thinning, become an established orchard practice
in the commercial fruit-growing areas of the Province.
The following observations on chemical-spray thinning have been extracted from
the annual report of M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton:— CC 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Observations from Previous Year's Work.—In the annual report for 1951 an
outline of an experiment on the A. M. Costley place was presented. In that outline it
was noted that Parmone was applied with a Turbo-Mist concentrate-spray machine to
one plot of Winesap apples and that much of the foliage on the lower parts of the trees
' wilted ' and later dropped off.
" This year the same trees required no thinning, yet produced a full crop of good-
sized fruit. Trees in adjacent rows that were not sprayed last year required a normal
amount of hand-thinning this year—that is, two to three hours per tree—and produced
full crops of smaller apples.
" It might also be pointed out that another plot of Winesap trees was sprayed last
year with a gun machine using Parmone. These trees required very little hand-thinning
this year and produced full crops of fruit, the size of which was intermediate between
that on the concentrate-sprayed and non-sprayed trees.
" Weather Effects.—It has been observed that when dinitro compounds for spray-
thinning have been applied immediately prior to or during rainy weather, excess thinning
of fruit and damage to foliage has occasionally occurred. This has led to the opinion
that if humid weather prevails, lower concentrations of the dinitro compounds should
be used. Therefore, if advance forecasts of weather could be obtained then the concentration of spray materials could be adjusted accordingly.
"An experimental procedure making use of advanced weather forecasts was
carried out this year. Arrangements were made with D. N. McMullen, Frost Warning
Service, whereby two-day advance forecasts were released to the Penticton office of
the Horticultural Branch, and this information was in turn relayed to Horticultural
Branch offices in other centres. In this way, respective District Horticulturists could
adjust their spray-thinning experiments.
" The forecasts proved to be very accurate up to May 8th, but after that date the
forecasts did not always prove to be accurate. Two examples of this are presented:
The forecast for May 10th was ' settled, some cloud with dry air.' On the night of
May 10th, however, excessively heavy rain fell. The forecast for May 13th was 'little
or no precipitation; air gradually drying out; high-pressure area over Okanagan zone;
low-pressure area at Coast which won't affect the Okanagan.' This forecast was reaffirmed as late as the evening of May 12th. On May 13th, however, the low-pressure
area at the Coast did move in and one of the heaviest rainfalls in the spring months was
experienced. Thus, it is evident that forecasts provided by today's techniques are not
always reliable and cannot be used with enough confidence for a guide in the application
of the dinitro types of materials for spray-thinning.
" Spray-thinning of Apples
" Purpose.—To check current spray-thinning recommendations.
"Place.—Miss M. and Mrs. R. F. Robertson orchard, Lot 170, Kaleden.
" Variety.—Winesap, 18-year-old trees.
"Equipment.—Gun sprayer, Hardie (Provincial Government machine); concentrate sprayers, Turbo-Mist (1951 model), Oliver blower conversion (grower hired).
"Materials and Rates.—Twenty-per-cent dinitro-ortho-cresol (Elgetol), IVi pints
per 100 gallons or 15 pints per acre; naphthaleneacetic acid (Parmone), 6 ounces per
" Plots.—1—Parmone, applied with gun machine, five trees; 2—Parmone, applied
with gun machine, five trees; 3—Elgetol, applied with gun machine, six trees; 4—Elgetol, applied with Turbo-Mist machine, eighteen trees; 5—Elgetol, applied with Oliver
conversion, twelve trees; 6—Check, not sprayed, three trees.
" Dates of Application.—Plot 1—May 23rd, fourteen days after full bloom; Plot
2—May 15th, six days after full bloom; Plot 3—May 8th; Plot 4—May 8th; Plot 5—
May 7th. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
" Co-operator.—Entomology Laboratory, Summerland.
" Results. — (i) Hand-thinning: Additional hand-thinning was necessary. The
grower did not keep detailed records of time spent per tree but did spend less time on
the trees in Plot 5 and more time on the check-trees in Plot 6. Grower also thinned
the check-trees in Plot 6 heavier than in the other plots.
"(ii) Average number of apples per box and the average yield per tree are shown
in the following table:—
Check, not sprayed —
" Discussion of Results.—The results from this work are not very conclusive. The
reduction in the amount of necessary hand-thinning was not too satisfactory.
" On those plots where Elgetol was applied, there is an indication that the use of
concentrate-machines caused a reduction in the yield per tree and this was brought
about by overthinning the bottom of the tree and not thinning the top enough. There
is also an indication that some types of concentrate-machines cause a greater degree of
overthinning than other types. In this particular work, the Oliver conversion sprayer
caused a greater reduction in yield than did the Turbo-Mist machine.
" In so far as the work with the hormones goes, this type of material did not prove
to be nearly as efficient when it was applied at two weeks after full bloom than when it
was applied only one week after full bloom."
Blossom-thinning of Peaches
D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist at Oliver, reports on blossom-thinning of peaches
" During the past few years a small number of growers, including this official, have
been brush-thinning peaches during the blossom period with quite satisfactory results.
Most find that it pays to take somewhat less blossom off than the amount of fruit desired.
This allows for a further thinning to remove cat-faced and split-stone peaches at a later
date. Those who have tried it generally feel that there is a definite saving in time and
money in addition to the tree being able to carry somewhat more fruit due to early
" One grower, in Osoyoos, this year tried water-thinning on peaches. The method
is to spray the trees during full bloom with a hand-sprayer at a high pressure so that
the water under pressure blows the blossom off. The grower claims that he got some
results out of the work and plans to do it again in 1953. It is wondered whether the
grower with a sprinkler system under 30 to 40 pounds pressure might not be able to
substitute volume for pressure and get comparable results."
M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, in his annual report makes
observations on aircraft spraying as follows: —
" During September a representative of the Skyway Air Services of Langley, B.C.,
expressed the desire to set up a custom aircraft-spraying service for orchardists. It
was pointed out to this representative that there were possible disadvantages with this
type of spraying, such as the relatively small size of orchards and the mixed plantings CC 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
that are characteristic for this area. Nevertheless, this office was instrumental in
selecting a block of Delicious apples for the experimental application of a stop-drop
spray by aeroplane.
"Accordingly, on September 27th, part of this block of Delicious apples on the
MacCleave-Stocks orchard was sprayed from a Stearman airplane with napthaleneacetic
acid. This operation indicated two factors in favour of airplane spraying. One factor
was that the airplane was extremely manoeuvrable and the spray could, if desired, be
directed to a very restricted area. The other factor was that the stop-drop spray application was effective. Observations on drop were made two weeks later and revealed
that there was no drop of apples on the sprayed section but that there was a drop of
approximately one-half box of apples per tree on the unsprayed section.
" From this experiment it became evident that the use of airplanes for orchard
spraying in this area was more feasible than expected. It was considered that this type
of equipment could be used particularly for the application of zinc sulphate and other
dormant sprays in this area."
PUBLICATIONS, CROP ESTIMATES, REPORTS, AND MEETINGS
Horticultural Circular No. 42 on Propagation and Grafting of Fruit Trees has been
rewritten by R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops. Other publications in
use were revised and reissued as required.
Information dealing with spraying was issued from the Kelowna office and broadcast by T. Leach over C.B.C. on the noon broadcast. B.C. Tree Fruits Limited gave
excellent co-operation by transmitting this information to CBU at Vancouver and also
allowing us time for special messages on their weekly Thursday noon radio programme
The Horticultural News Letter, covering the period from May to September (ten
issues), was assembled and mailed from the Kelowna office under the direction of the
Supervising Horticulturist. General horticultural conditions, vegetable acreages, and
crop estimates are dealt with in this publication by district officials from all parts of the
Fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates, in co-operation with the Statistics Branch, were
issued as required through the year. Final production figures were compiled and forwarded to the Statistics Branch.
Many meetings and demonstrations throughout the Province were addressed by
members of this Branch. The Chautauqua meetings held annually in the Okanagan
were again well attended. Soils, fertilizers, irrigation, marketing problems, as well as
disease and pest control were discussed. In arranging these meetings, excellent co-operation was received from the British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association Locals, B.C.
Tree Fruits Limited, and officials of the Canada Department of Agriculture.
CHANGES IN STAFF
E. M. White, B.S.A., after about forty years of service in the Department of Agriculture, was superannuated. This vacancy was filled by the appointment of A. E. Littler,
B.S.A., a graduate of the University of British Columbia, to the position of District
Horticulturist for Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands. Previous to this appointment,
Mr. Littler handled the clerical work of the Horticultural Branch, which is now being
done by R. C. Louis.
Your Horticulturist wishes to acknowledge the co-operation he and members of
this Branch have received from other branches of this Department, from members of
the Federal services, and the University of British Columbia throughout the year. These
good relations that exist are much appreciated. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 53
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH, 1952
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon, B.C.
Bee-keeping in British Columbia has now returned to normalcy after experiencing
a tremendous upswing during the war years. This increase was the result of those
persons interested in keeping bees for the sole purpose of the sugars involved. The
1951 honey-crop report showed a total production for this Province of 1,654,400 pounds
of honey, which has been exceeded only once, during 1947 with a total production of
1,805,000 pounds. In contrast to these figures, the total crop for 1952 is only 954,230
pounds, which compares to the average crop experienced during the late twenties. This
reduction in honey-crop is the result of a variety of factors, such as a sharp decrease
in the numbers of bee-keepers and apiaries, together with some evidence of spray poisoning. The chief cause, however, has been the extended dry season following one already
unusually dry year, experienced during 1951. A low percentage of humidity and little
precipitation, together with warm evenings, has resulted in poor nectar secretion. Beekeepers in the Coastal regions with a 7 5-pound average generally fared better than
those in the Interior where the over-all average was 65 pounds per colony. The Peace
River area, with the smallest number of apiaries and bee-keepers, experienced the
highest Provincial average of 100 pounds per colony (Appendix No. 1).
All commercial bee-keepers in the southern part of the Province are still outside
wintering colonies. The topography of this Province and local conditions are such
that many different methods of wintering and types of winter cases are employed which
are best suited to the prevailing local conditions, chief of which are weather and food
supplies. From the Prince George area north to the Peace River Block, the present
practice is still that of importing package bees in the spring from the Southern United
States, extracting the honey-crop, and killing the bees in the fall by the use of cyanogas.
Winter-losses for 1951-52 were approximately 4 per cent of the total colonies wintered.
This is slightly below the average of 5 per cent and can be credited to good management
as well as an abundant supply of wholesome winter stores, which existed as the result
of such an excellent honey-crop. During the spring of 1952, cold inclement weather
resulted in a backward spring and the build-up of colonies was retarded to a great extent.
Had nectar secretion been as abundant as during the 1951 season, this slow build-up
would have undoubtedly resulted in a below-average honey-crop. Some spring dwindling
occurred, due largely to the unseasonable spring weather conditions. A noticeably
short blooming period for all nectar-secreting flowers was recorded during the summer
Although the density of the honey-crop for this Province during 1952 was well above
the requirements in our regulations, the colour was not as light as is usually the case.
The over-all darker colour was the natural result of field bees gathering nectar from all
available sources. The legumes, which generally provide the most reliable source of
white honey, yielded very sparingly, and in some regions of the Province, notably the
South Okanagan, sweet clover (Melilotus alba), which is generally a major source of
nectar, failed entirely.
The demand for British Columbia honey continues to be good, and for those
bee-keepers who do not sell to regular customers, the newly established packing plant
affords a ready purchaser for any surplus of honey. The price of honey continues to be
quite satisfactory, although it is well below that of other comparable foodstuffs considering the cost and labour involved in production.
Office work has included a card survey which involved the handling and mailing of
3,000 cards. This survey has resulted in up-to-date file cards on nearly every bee-keeper
in the Province. Correspondence over the past eleven months has consisted of 1,016
letters in and 1,140 letters out. CC 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Inspection work for the purpose of disease-control was given priority during the
summer months, and as a result of this systematic inspection a considerable amount of
old abandoned equipment which was heavily infected with American foul-brood spores
was destroyed. Systematic inspection work was carried out in the vicinities of Ashcroft,
Lillooet, Kamloops, and throughout the Okanagan Valley. V. E. Thorgeirson made
a complete inspection of the Lower Mainland and also the Vancouver and Gulf Islands
H. Boone, who carries out inspection work in the South Okanagan and Similkameen
Valleys, had suffered ill health during the major part of his inspection period. In spite
of this, a cursory inspection was made throughout his area and assistance was promptly
given to those bee-keepers who requested inspection, either through the services of
Mr. Boone or from this office.
Short courses on bee-keeping were conducted at high schools in Creston, Vernon,
and Kelowna. Mr. Thorgeirson gave lectures and conducted demonstrations at the
University of British Columbia short course on bee-keeping. Both the writer and Mr.
Thorgeirson judged honey at the Pacific National Exhibition. In addition, honey was
judged at many of the smaller fairs and exhibitions, some of which were the North
Burnaby Show, Cloverdale Fall Fair, Interior Provincial Exhibition, and the Salmon
Arm and Shuswap Valley Fair. Many lectures and demonstrations were given to beekeepers' associations, biology classes, and service groups.
Field days were held in all parts of the Province and, on the whole, attendance was
The control of American foul-brood continues to present a problem which requires
constant attention. Control measures at present in practice are:—
(1) Burning of infected colonies.
(2) Feeding of the antibiotic sulphathiazole to healthy colonies which were
present in infected apiaries. Sulphathiazole can only be considered as a
control method and not as a cure.
Good colony management is still one of the most important factors in disease-control
and every effort is being made to educate bee-keepers in the methods of good bee-keeping
practices. During the 1951-52 season a total of 156 diseased colonies were destroyed
by fire. Forty-seven of these were located in Mr. Thorgeirson's district, twenty-two in
Mr. Boone's district, and eighty-seven throughout the remainder of the Province. This
represents a total monetary loss by disease of $5,360 to the bee-keepers of British
Columbia. Although this loss is considerable for an industry as small as ours, it is small
indeed when compared to the losses sustained by our industry before the advent of
CONTROL OF WAX-MOTH (GALLERIA MELLONELLA)
This pest has been doing considerable damage to stored brood combs, particularly
in the southern areas of the Province where milder winters prevail. Two tests on the
control of wax-moth by the use of methyl bromide were conducted on a quantity of moth-
infested equipment in Oyama. Very good results were obtained, one treatment killing
this pest in all stages of growth from egg to adult.
Some damage was done as the result of spray poisoning. Apiaries in the vicinity
of Glenmore and Winfield suffered two quite severe kills of field bees as the result of r
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
poisoning by parathion. This poisoning, together with poor nectar secretion, resulted
in colony averages of as little as 30 pounds of honey per colony in these areas. Some
scattered and insignificant cases of brood poisoning were noted. It is assumed that the
pollen poisoned by one of the thinning sprays (dinitrocresol) was responsible, and in'an
effort to confirm this, an analysis is to be made of stored pollen to determine the presence
of dinitrocresol, if any.
BULLETINS AND PUBLICATIONS
The revision of Bulletin No. 92 is well on the way to completion. Seven issues of
the publication entitled "Bee Wise" were issued during the 1951-52 season, dealing
with all phases of profitable bee-keeping. The following list of mimeographed instruction
sheets were made available at the apiary office:—
(1) Bee-keeping general.
(2) Plans and dimensions of standard Langstroth hive.
(3) A safe method for installing package bees.
(4) Feeding bees.
(5) Methods of feeding sulphathiazole to colonies of bees for the purpose of
American foul-brood control.
A number of charts and drawings were completed, designed to assist in the instruction of beginners interested in bee-keeping and for use at meetings and short courses.
A series of coloured 2- by 2-inch slides were completed dealing with the subjects
of British Columbia nectar- and pollen-producing flora, wintering, and pollination.
Grading regulations dealing with the production and marketing of honey in British
Columbia were first put into effect during August, 1951. The establishment of a fully
modern honey processing and packing plant at New Westminster, together with increased
packing and marketing of honey, has resulted in a complete revision of these regulations
to cover all phases of grading, marking, and merchandising.
In completing this report for 1951-52, I would like to express my appreciation of
the staff of the Apiary Branch for the efficient and co-operative way in which they have
performed their duties. Mr. Thorgeirson, our Inspector of Apiaries for the Lower Mainland, has done excellent work in both extension and inspection. Mr. Boone, although
only part-time, has given of his time conscientiously and willingly; also our office secretary, Miss Margot Skene, who is handling an increased volume of work. Appreciation is
also extended to the Supervising Agriculturists and District Agriculturists throughout the
Province for their willingness and assistance on behalf of the Apiary Branch.
The following statement summarizes the honey-crop situation for 1952:—
Value to Producers.—954,230 pounds of honey at 21(f (wholesale),
pound (wholesale), $4,471.
$200,388.30; 9,542 pounds of beeswax at 50^ per CC 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A.
In general, the damage caused by plant diseases was not serious. The diseases that
caused the greatest concern to growers in the Coastal districts were scab and anthracnose
of apples, black-knot of plums, red-stele and powdery mildew of strawberries, Godronia
canker of blueberries, yellow rust on raspberries, and club-root of cabbage. In the
Interior, the most important diseases were powdery mildew on the fruits of cherries,
Coryneum blight of apricots and peaches, Verticillium wilt of tomatoes, boron toxicity,
Typhula blight of wheat, and deficiency diseases of fruit-trees caused by a lack of zinc,
manganese, and magnesium. Some of the diseases that caused less damage than usual
throughout the Province were late blight of potatoes and tomatoes, fire-blight of pears,
little-cherry in the Creston area, downy mildew of onions, bunt in wheat, and white-pine
blister-rust on black currants.
For the first time in the Southern Okanagan, apple-scab and powdery mildew on
cherry-fruits became an economic problem. An outbreak of curly-top of tomatoes in the
Ashcroft-Kamloops area also occurred for the first time.
The Province continues to be virtually free of ring-rot of potatoes. This disease has
been found on one farm in the Fraser Valley.
Apple-scab has suddenly become of some concern to the Southern Okanagan—an
area where it has previously been an insignificant disease. After the wet period of June
27th-29th, numerous infections were found in many orchards in the Upper and Middle
Bench sections of Penticton. Epidemic proportions were reached after the wet weather of
July 22nd-23rd. Only a trace of scab was found in the Naramata and Kaleden areas, and
none was found in the Keremeos-Cawston area.
Tests are usually conducted each year in the worst scab areas—Creston and Nelson
in the Kootenays, and in the Northern Okanagan. G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist
at Creston, co-operates with the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory at Summerland.
J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist at Nelson, conducts his own scab tests. The sprayer
used by both is a Turbo-Mist.
Table No. 1.—The Results of Spraying Mcintosh Apples for Scab, Using Different
Fungicides, in the Early Pink, Calyx, First and Second Cover, at Creston
Material of Scab
Check (no treatment) 71.6
Ferbam plus wettable sulphur 9.4
Table No. 2.—The Results of Spraying Apples for Scab, Using Different Fungicides, in the
Pre-pink, Pink, Calyx, and First and Second Covers, at Procter
Material of Scab
Check (no treatment) 95.5
Sodium polysulphide 57.7
Crag 16.8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Table No. 3.—The Effect of Lime-sulphur and Ferbam plus Wettable Sulphur on the
Yield in Boxes of Apples per Tree, for Five Years, at Creston
The results for one year, shown in Tables Nos. 1 and 2, indicate that both Orthocide
and Crag are worthy of further testing. The results for five years, shown in Table No. 3,
indicate that lime-sulphur sprays accentuate biennial production. The plot size for the
Mcintosh and Delicious varieties was twelve trees per plot, as shown in Table No. 3.
PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF FRUIT-TREES
Physiological disorders seem to be on the increase in the Okanagan. Zinc, manganese, and magnesium deficiencies appear to be more widespread than in previous years.
Boron-deficiency symptoms, once widespread, are seldom seen, but indications of boron
toxicity are becoming increasingly common. Boron toxicity is probably due to either an
uneven application of boric acid or to an application which is too strong. A spray
application of boric acid on the trees will reduce the likelihood of a boron toxicity,
because the amount sprayed on young trees is automatically governed by the size of the
trees. Usually, the minor element sprays can be applied with fungicides or insecticides
and will, consequently, eliminate an extra orchard operation. In an attempt to prevent
the occurrence of a zinc, a manganese, a magnesium, or a boron deficiency, the following
preventive sprays are recommended: Boron, 2 pounds boric acid per acre; manganese,
2 pounds manganese sulphate per acre; zinc, 2 pounds zinc oxide per acre; and magnesium, 20 pounds magnesium sulphate per acre. All of these materials, or any number
of them, can be combined in a single spray which may be applied to all trees as a foliage
spray. The number of these materials that can be combined depends on the likelihood
that there is a lack of these elements. The application of boric acid as a spray is supposed
to reduce the chance that a boron toxicity might occur. It is a difficult condition to
remedy. If zinc-deficiency symptoms are severe (little-leaf or rosette), a spray of zinc
sulphate, 40 pounds per acre, is recommended in the late dormant. These recommendations are based on the experimental work of Dr. C. G. Woodbridge, of the Dominion
Plant Pathology Laboratory, Summerland, in co-operation with the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
BLACK-KNOT OF PLUMS
The campaign to reduce the amount of this disease in the Fraser Valley was continued. Publicity, as in previous years, was obtained by mailing circulars to householders
in several areas; articles were sent to agricultural and urban papers; Radio Stations
CHWK (Chilliwack) and CBU (Vancouver) co-operated; letters were written to Horticultural Societies; the Farm Forum and Farmers' Institutes participated; and displays
were put up in store windows in Chilliwack, Mission, Abbotsford, Haney, and Pitt
A survey was made in the Chilliwack-Sardis-Rosedale area, and also in the Ham-
mond-Haney-Pitt Meadows area, with the co-operation of the District Agriculturists,
R. S. Berry and A. J. Allan. Since the last survey, conducted in 1950, the amount of
black-knot has been reduced considerably in the Chilliwack-Sardis-Rosedale area. CC 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
There has been some success in some areas, but there is still a great deal of work to
be done. Attempts are being made to find a cheaper chemical to eradicate plum-trees in
deserted orchards and on Indian Reservations.
A number of cherry orchards were inspected in different areas of the Okanagan—
beginning at the border at Osoyoos and finishing near Kelowna. A slight increase in the
amount of small bitter cherry was observed in the Southern Okanagan. Lambert mottle
was also slightly increased in the Kelowna district. No typical little-cherry symptoms
In the Creston area, the little-cherry disease caused less damage than in any year
since it first became widespread. The trees which showed the most damage were those
that had recently become infected. Most of the trees which were known to have been
previously infected now appear to be practically normal. The cooler-than-usual spring
may account for the nearly normal fruit. A number of observations and tests have been
made in the past which indicate that the fruit on branches which are shaded by a veranda,
or some other cover, may be normal in size.
FIRE-BLIGHT OF PEARS
There has been a marked reduction in fire-blight damage in the Province. This is
evident in a comparison of the previous four years. A considerable build-up occurred in
1948—a year with well-above-average rainfall. Losses were severe in many orchards in
1949, 1950, and 1951. The rapid decline in losses is probably due to an active campaign
carried on by the district men and also to the hot, dry summers of 1951 and 1952.
For the first time, a blossom spray of Bordeaux 1-1-100, in ordinary sprayers or in
concentrate-sprays at 3-3 per acre, is recommended for use at 10-per-cent full bloom and
again at full bloom.
G. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at Creston, reports: " Spraying Bordeaux
(V2—V2—100) at forty-eight-hour intervals at blossom-time showed great promise. . . .
Practically no fire-blight developed in the sprayed trees and a good crop was harvested.
In an adjacent unsprayed orchard, the trees developed heavy infections and a poor crop
CORYNEUM BLIGHT OF APRICOTS AND PEACHES
This disease was more serious and widespread than usual in the Summerland and
Naramata districts of the Okanagan. The common symptom on apricots in the Okanagan
is a spotting of the fruit. The increased incidence is probably due to the growers not
realizing the need to apply the usual, recommended sprays during the two preceding
years when there was little or no fruit. No difficulties were encountered in the Creston
area when the recommended sprays were applied. This disease not only causes a spotting of the fruit of apricots and peaches in the Creston area, but also attacks limbs, twigs,
In the Chilliwack area, this blight continues to be one of the major difficulties in the
production of clean, marketable peaches. Our spray trials indicate that the most effective
time for application is in the late fall, in October and November. An application of Bordeaux will probably be applied to the demonstration plot about the end of November.
POWDERY MILDEW OF CHERRY
This is the first year that powdery mildew on the fruit has necessitated extensive sorting before shipping in the Southern Okanagan. For several years, this disease has been
observed on the foliage of some cherry-trees in a few orchards, but this is the first time
that it has been a problem on the fruit. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 59
This project was carried out with the co-operation of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising
Horticulturist, and W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist, at Abbotsford.
In an attempt to improve certified strawberry plants, the number of inspections conducted annually has been increased from one (in the spring) to two—one during the
summer and one in the spring. The Inspectors will have a better opportunity to judge
the vigour and high-yielding ability of the planting stock, and also to detect some of the
diseases and pests which affect strawberry plants.
The total number of applications for certification was 122—ninety-three passed
and twenty-eight were rejected. The number of strawberry plants certified was approximately 5,000,000—the same as for the previous year. The demand for plants in 1952
was less than in 1951—about 3,500,000 as compared to about 4,500,000.
G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at Creston, reports: "The main factor contributing towards the increase in strawberry production is the use of certified stock
imported from the Fraser Valley."
RED-STELE OF STRAWBERRY
Two tests are being conducted on two farms in the Fraser Valley in order to determine if Dithane D-14, as a soil treatment, is an effective, practical control for red-stele
infected areas. The results will be known next spring.
The most practical control would be a suitable resistant variety. A new variety
which was developed in England, called Climax, is under test. The Experimental Farms
at Agassiz and Saanichton are also attempting to develop a new resistant variety.
POWDERY MILDEW OF STRAWBERRY
This year, powdery mildew was much more severe than usual at the Coast. This
disease is not often severe enough to justify the expense of spraying regularly. An application of Dithane Z-78, IVz pounds to 80 gallons of water, after the disease was well-
advanced, did not appear to have any beneficial effect.
SPRING DWARF OF STRAWBERRY
This nematode disease appeared in the same part of a garden at Langley, where it
was originally discovered for the first time in the Province, four years ago. The grower has
been supplied with enough soil-fumigant to eradicate it.
YELLOW RUST ON RASPBERRY
This year, yellow-rust damage was quite severe. It may be the worst year ever
experienced. On the Washington variety, the disease was general and severe in most
districts. The Newburgh and Willamette varieties were not seriously affected.
GODRONIA CANKER OF BLUEBERRIES
A spray trial with Bordeaux 10-10-100 was conducted in an attempt to prevent
future damage due to Godronia canker of blueberries. The purpose of this spray trial was
to discover the most effective time to apply the spray. The results, shown in the following
table, indicate that the spring application is more effective than the fall application.
The Effect of Spraying Bordeaux, at Different Times, on Godronia Canker of Blueberries
Date of Application Number of Canes Killed
Check (no treatment) 16
April 25th, 1952 4
October 13th, 1951 9
September 15th, 1951; October 13th, 1951; April 25th, 1952 _ 6 CC 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ROOT-ROT AND CROWN-ROT OF LAWSON'S CYPRESS
This disease has been found to be widely distributed in nurseries and in private
gardens in the Fraser Valley and, to some extent, on Vancouver Island. It is caused by
a species of Phytophthora.
This disease is being investigated, at our request, by P. Salisbury, of the Dominion
Forest Pathology Laboratory at Victoria. Tests are being conducted in a nursery in the
Fraser Valley in an effort to discover a control.
VERTICILLIUM WILT OF TOMATOES
Verticillium wilt continues to be a serious disease of tomatoes. R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops, reports that a variety called Moscow, which has been
recently introduced by Westminster Canners Ltd., appears to be resistant. This new
variety, Moscow, is about as early as the variety Clarke's Early and is equal in yield.
CURLY-TOP OF TOMATOES
This virus disease was reported, for the first time, in the Ashcroft-Kamloops area.
At Ashcroft, 30 per cent of the plants were affected in one 40-acre field, and at
Kamloops, a slight amount was observed in three fields.
Curly-top can be recognized by observing the leaflets of infected plants. The leaflets
roll upward along the midrib and become thickened and crisp as the leaves curve downward. The leaf tissue gradually turns yellow, while the veins take on a purplish tinge.
The plant assumes an erect habit, remains stunted, and usually dies. The disease is
spread by the beet leaf-hopper.
BACTERIAL RING-ROT OF POTATOES
This Province continues to be virtually free of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes. It was
found on only one 4-acre field of White Rose potatoes, on Lulu Island, in the Fraser
Valley. The amount of this disease was about 15 per cent. This is a much greater percentage than any that has been previously found on any farm in the Fraser Valley.
The origin of the outbreak was not determined, because other White Rose crops,
reportedly grown from the same seed-source, appeared to be free of ring-rot. An inspection of 125 acres at digging-time in the same area, Lulu Island, failed to detect any ring-rot
of potatoes. There has been no reoccurrence of the disease on those farms which have
previously grown affected crops.
Ring-rot was found in six imported carloads of potatoes. A total of 250 carloads
were imported into the Province—125 from other Provinces and 125 from the United
States. Two of the affected carloads came from Alberta, one from Manitoba, and two
from Washington. One of the carloads from Washington was returned to Seattle because
the importer was unable to find a suitable market.
A bacterial ring-rot directive, dealing with imported potatoes, was issued in September, 1952, and forwarded to all known importers and wholesalers in the Province.
LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES—FORECAST SERVICE
The first bulletin was issued on June 13th to potato-growers in the Fraser Valley.
This was done in co-operation with the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Vancouver. The growers were warned that the cloudy days, cool nights, and intermittent
rains of the previous two weeks had created an ideal environment for the development
of the fungus which causes late blight of potatoes. The growers were also warned that
outbreaks of the disease could be expected if the damp weather continued. However,
just shortly after the press release was issued, the weather turned hot and dry. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Late blight was reported during the second week in August. It occurred in slight
amounts in some of the crops in the Lulu Island and Ladner districts.
A second press release was issued on August 13th, to the effect that the hot weather
at that time would keep the disease in check. In addition, growers were warned to be
ready to apply sprays if cool nights and warm, muggy days prevailed. After this date,
late blight could be found generally in many fields in the Lower Mainland but only in
Late blight did not become a major problem to the potato-growers during the season.
We wish to thank officials of the other branches of the Department of Agriculture,
the Canada Department of Agriculture, and the University of British Columbia for their
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST
C. L. Neilson, M.S., Entomologist, Vernon
The general insect condition throughout the Province was one of increased activity
in many respects. The dry growing season once again favoured the increase of grasshoppers in most of the Interior. There were local " unusual " outbreaks of grain-aphis
in the Fraser Valley, black vine-weevil on Vancouver Island, blister-beetles in the Kamloops and Okanagan Districts, bud-moth, woolly aphis, scales, and black cherry fruit-fly
in the Okanagan. Cutworm damage was prevalent throughout the Province. There has
been increased inquiry about ticks, black widow spiders, flesh-maggots in cattle, household pests, and pests in stored grains.
From a control standpoint, I believe the following advances have been made in the
Province by Provincial authorities, various Dominion Entomological Laboratories, and
(a) An improved control for turnip-maggot, onion-maggot, carrot rust-fly,
and tuber flea-beetle.
(b) The recognized and recommended use of " soil insecticides " to give better
and (or) more economical control of some of our pests which have been
difficult to control effectively.
(c) The introduction of methoxychlor and malathon into the control of fruit
pests. These will, it is hoped, eventually replace insecticides which have
been in use and have a high toxicity to humans.
(d) The entrance of medical personnel from the Provincial Department of
Health into the Okanagan Spray Committee, to study the toxicity hazards
of spray materials to humans.
(e) Increased publicity and direction to persons seeking advice re insects or
FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata)
During the past year there was no survey made of this pest, such as has been carried
on for many years previous. Existing stocks of 3-per-cent DDT were distributed to
growers as requested, but no new stock was purchased by the Government. Growers
were warned that free DDT would not likely be available in future. Beetles were present
in all areas where reported in 1951, but little or no serious damage was caused by their
presence. CC 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The co-operative parasite study started in 1951 with the Dominion Biological Control Laboratory, of Vancouver, was continued in 1952. This year, collections of Colorado potato-beetle larva, were made in both East and West Kootenay Districts. These
were kept for rearing and determination of parasite species. Of the twenty collections
made in 1951, sixteen contained parasites. This shows a wide distribution of parasites
in the Kootenays, with percentage parasitism as high as 32 per cent from one location.
The species of parasites are to be determined from 1952 collections.
There was a general increase in grasshopper populations throughout British Columbia, other than in the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island. This was as expected (see
1951 report). Of particular interest was the occurrence of grasshoppers in outbreak
numbers in the Prince George district. The main species, as determined by Dr. R. H.
Handford, was Melanoplus borealis. Throughout the remainder of the affected area the
two main species were Camnula pellucida and Melanoplus mexicanus, and in general the
former was dominant at the higher elevations (over 3,000 feet approximately) while the
latter was more plentiful at the lower levels.
Aircraft were used to spray approximately 20,000 acres for grasshoppers, mainly
in the Merritt and Pavilion districts.
During the summer, L. G. Putnam, of the Dominion Entomological Branch (Saskatoon) and director of the Regional Grasshopper Control Committee, and his staff conducted extensive spraying experiments in the Merritt district.
A spot grasshopper-egg survey conducted in October by the author and Dr. R. H.
Handford, of the Dominion Field Crop Insect Laboratory, Kamloops, showed:—
(a) That the fall had been ideal for grasshopper-egg laying.
(b) That sufficient eggs had been laid and there is every reason to expect as
many or more grasshoppers in 1953 than were present in 1952. This
forecast is based on knowledge as of October, but could possibly be upset
by adverse weather, parasites, and predators later than this date and prior
to early nymphal development in the spring.
As in 1951, the cutworm outbreak was widespread and occurred in most districts of
the Province in 1952. The dry soil conditions once again aggravated control measures,
and as this tended to keep cutworms below the surface, there were numerous unsuccessful
attempts at control. DDT dust (5 to 50 per cent) and Chlordane dust (5 per cent)
were most commonly used, but baits and numerous sprays were also used with varying
degrees of success.
The main species was the red-backed cutworm (Euxoa ochrogaster), as in 1951,
but in the Prince George district a heavy outbreak of the black army cutworm (Actebia
fennica) damaged cereal and forage crops severely. Populations as heavy as 100 pupa,
per square foot were found in a clover field in June. This species feeds above ground and
excellent control was secured in several cases by spraying the soil in the evening with
50-per-cent wettable D D T at 2 pounds actual DDT per acre.
Carrot Rust-fly (Psila rosai)
This pest caused its usual concern and loss in the Fraser Valley and Armstrong and
Nelson districts. Additional information re life history and chemicals for control has been
furnished by the Dominion Field Crop Insect Laboratories at Kamloops and Agassiz.
This involves the use of Aldrin dust (2Vz per cent) or Chlordane dust (5 per cent) at the
rate of 1 ounce to every ten feet of row when the first forked leaves appear, and a second
application during the first week of August in the Interior, or the last week of August at
the Coast. department of agriculture, 1952 cc 63
Flea-beetles were present in numbers on both crucifers and potatoes. However, the
only real concern was from the potato-tuber flea-beetle (Epitrix tuberis). Damage was
again in evidence throughout the Interior from Lytton through the Kamloops district, the
North and South Okanagan, the Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island. Growers in the
Interior have complained of poorer results from dusting with 5-per-cent DDT this year
than in previous years, but most of this can be attributed to improper timing of the
treatments. Several growers in the Vernon and Lavington areas who used orchard
sprayers in their fields for control measures were not successful. This is no doubt due to
improper coverage of all parts of the foliage by the gun-type orchard sprayers.
Sufficient experimental evidence has been gathered by the author and the Dominion
Insect Laboratories at Kamloops and Agassiz to enable a control recommendation by the
use of " soil insecticides " to be made. This will read as follows: Soil treatment—an
alternative to sprays or dusts. Prior to or soon after planting, apply Chlordane dust at
10 pounds actual per acre or Aldrin dust at 4 pounds actual per acre. Harrow or disc
thoroughly into the ground. These materials have given excellent results in many cases.
Consult your local office for complete method of application.
There were the usual localized outbreaks of such pests as cabbage-maggot, cabbage-
worm, and cabbage-seed pod-weevil. The Dominion Field Crop Insect Laboratories at
Agassiz and Victoria have provided a fairly reliable control for turnip-maggot. This is
indeed a milestone, as turnip-maggot has long been one of the pests for which no control
Onion-maggot infestations were again widespread. Growers who used the recommended DDT seed treatment obtained good control, but difficulties are experienced in
the physical use of this material. This will be overcome in a new recommendation to be
issued for 1953; that is, 2 ounces of 50-per-cent Aldrin used to treat each 1 pound of
White grubs were the cause of damage to such crops as strawberries, potatoes, and
many perennial flowers. By the continued and expanded use of D D T, Chlordane, and
ethylene dibromide the loss to commercial crops is steadily decreasing.
Loss from wireworms in vegetable-growing areas of the Okanagan and Fraser Valleys
is decreasing yearly. This is due to the use of ethylene dibromide as a soil-fumigant on
the land which is intensively cropped.
Local outbreaks were recorded from Ashcroft on tomatoes, Vernon, and Cawston.
Hessian-fly (Phytophaga destructor)
There was an increased infestation by hessian-fly in the North Okanagan during the
past year. Inquiries re controls came from several points between Vernon and Enderby.
There was a general increase in horn worms in the Province. Only one case of
damage was reported and that was on tomatoes at Keremeos. Other localities reporting
slight damage included Kamloops, Vernon, Kelowna, Creston, and Nelson. CC 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Earwigs (Forficula auricularia)
There was a definite increase in earwigs in most sections of the Province. Damage
was reported from several vegetable-crops, and householders complained of them entering
dwellings. Of particular interest was their marked increase in the Kamloops, Okanagan,
and East and West Kootenay Districts, where populations are usually very low.
Other pests reported in localized areas included: (1) red turnip-beetle (Ento-
moscelis americana), Mammet Lake; (2) painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui),
Okanagan and Kootenay; (3) clover-weevil (Tychius picrostris), Salmon Valley near
Prince George; (4) lygus bugs (Lygus spp.), general infestations; (5) burrower bugs
(Schirus cinctus), Prince George area; (6) grain-aphis (Macrosiphium granarium),
Fraser Valley; (7) clover-aphis (Anuraphis bakeri), Fraser Valley; (8) slugs, Vernon;
(9) pea-weevil (Bruchus pisorum), Armstrong; (10) crickets (Gryllus assimilis),
Vernon; (11) crickets (Peranabrus scabricollis), Vernon; (12) cave crickets (species
unknown), Vancouver Island; (13) seed-maggots (Hylemia sp.), general infestations;
(14) stink-bugs (Euchistussp.), Vernon and Armstrong; (15) wheat-midge (Sitodiplosis
americana), Armstrong; (16) sod web-worms (several species), Fraser Valley; (17)
aphis on celery (species unknown), Kelowna.
This portion of insect work is largely reported by Provincial Horticulturists and will
be found elsewhere. While most orchard pests are well in hand, I believe the following
exceptions are worth noting: Cherry fruit-fly on Vancouver Island and increased infestations of fruit bud-moth, fruit-tree leaf-roller, woolly apple-aphis, and Lecanium scale on
soft fruits in the Okanagan. During the year there was also a higher-than-normal infesta-
tation of codling-moth caused by a late second generation. The infestation of black cherry
fruit-fly (reported in 1951) at Bear Creek, near Kelowna, was largely cleaned up through
a co-operative effort by the author, the Provincial Horticulturist at Kelowna, and Mr.
Proverbs, of the Dominion Fruit Insect Laboratory at Summerland. This consisted of
spraying all sour and sweet cherries in the district. During the close of the campaign only
an odd fly was found by trapping and no fruit was found to be infested.
HOUSEHOLD AND STORED PRODUCTS
These were abundant as usual in the Fraser Valley, and there were several inquiries
from householders in the Vernon and Kelowna districts.
Sawtooth Grain-beetles (Oryztephilus surinamensis)
Inquiries were received from Duncan, Oyama, Vernon, and Nelson regarding control
Black Widow Spiders (Latrodectes mactans)
There has been a definite increase in the incidence of these spiders during the year.
Numerous requests on identification and control were received from the Okanagan and
These included bedbugs, clothes moths, mice, fleas, cockroaches, lice on household
pet birds, wasps, poultry mites on feathers, earwigs, sphinx moths, houseflies, black-flies,
mosquitoes, and ticks on humans. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 65
The main pests during the year were weevils, white grubs, crown-moth, and mites.
The strawberry root-weevil (Brachyrhinus ovatus) was prevalent throughout the Province.
The black vine-weevil (Brachyrhinus sulcatus) infestations have greatly increased on
Vancouver Island, are are now becoming equally as serious, if not more so, than the
strawberry root-weevil. At present the weevil-bait is not giving satisfactory control of
the black vine-weevil. In the Magna Bay area a joint demonstration of control of two-
spotted mite was undertaken with the District Horticulturist of Salmon Arm. This showed
that two applications of either Aramite or Ovatran dust (5 per cent) gave better control
than several applications of lime-sulphur dust, and at a reduced cost per acre. Crown-
moth (Ramosia bibronipennis) was most prevalent on Vancouver Island.
The currant-borer (Ramosia tipuliformis) did considerable damage in the Langley
district. The present control of pruning does not meet with a too enthusiastic acceptance
by the grower.
The Pacific mite was again present at Armstrong. An extensive test of a series of
different spray materials was started and one application made. Drought conditions continued for such a lengthy period that the grower finally pulled out practically all of his
acreage and consequently the experiment was abandoned.
The pest of most concern to raspberry-growers was the root-borer (Bembecia
marginata). There were several heavy infestations in the Fraser valley, centering on
Abbotsford and Mission. Requests for information re control of this pest were received
from various points in the Okanagan and Kootenays. Only minor infestations of the
fruit-worm (Byturus bakeri) were present in the Fraser Valley, for a second year.
Research work on both of the above pests, and leaf-hoppers, is continuing under the
Dominion Fruit Insect Laboratory at Victoria. The raspberry-sawfly (Blennocampa
rubi) was present in most of the plantings in the Okanagan, but infestations were not
sufficiently heavy to cause excessive loss of leaves. No controls were applied.
OTHER INSECTS IN OUTBREAK NUMBERS
The forest tent-caterpillars (Malacasoma disstria and M. pluviale) were present in
outbreak numbers in several municipalities of the Lower Mainland during May and June.
Fall Web-worm (Hyphantria textor)
There was an unusually heavy outbreak of this insect throughout the Interior. It
was not uncommon to see native trees devoid of leaves in early summer, due to the heavy
Grape Leaf-hoppers (Erythroneura sp.)
As in 1951, these leaf-hoppers were abundant in the Kamloops and Vernon districts.
Only minor infestations were present elsewhere in the Okanagan.
There were several inquiries re rose-weevil, rose leaf-hopper, and rose-aphis in the
Okanagan. Leaf-hoppers were especially numerous and nearly every plant examined
showed some evidence of feeding. cc 66 british columbia
The presence of this aphid was noticed more than usual, particularly in the North
and South Okanagan. Undoubtedly infestations had been increasing for at least one year
previous, but had not reached such proportions.
Pine Leaf Needle-scale (Phenacapsis pinifoliat)
Severe infestations of this scale were reported from both the North and South
Okanagan on native and domesticated trees.
Holly Leaf-miner (Phytomyza ilicis)
This insect was present in holly on Vancouver Island and throughout most of the
Fraser Valley. Where the recommended DDT spray was applied, no difficulty was
experienced with control.
Lilac Leaf-miner (Gracilaria syringella)
The lilac leaf-miner is present throughout most of the Province where lilac is grown.
During the past two years there has been more than usual interest in its control, particularly in the Vernon district.
Caragana-aphis (Species Unknown)
A severe infestation of aphis on caragana occurred in parts of the East Kootenay,
causing considerable premature yellowing and leaf-drop. This same pest was reported
in outbreak numbers in both Alberta and Saskatchewan this year.
Miscellaneous Flower Pests
Inquiries were received concerning:—
(a) Dipterous maggots in Aquilegius from Vancouver Island.
(_>) Dipterous maggots in Primula from Salmon Arm.
(c) Bulb-mites in Primula from Salmon Arm.
(d) Other pests were aphis, white grubs, wireworms, mites, and white fly.
During the year there was no experimental work done with live-stock insects. A
report by the Live Stock Branch covers their warble-fly control campaign. In the East
Kootenay there was an outbreak of blow-fly and range animals were frequently infested.
Infestations of both the paralysis tick (Dermacentor undersoni) and the winter tick
(Dermacentor albipictus) were reported from Interior British Columbia. Infestations
were not as heavy as those of 1951.
Black-flies are an annual problem with live-stock men in various sections of the
Province. Attacks by these flies are particularly bad on young stock, which are often
kept in the vicinity of the fast-flowing streams—the breeding place of the black-flies.
Such a case was reported from Cherryville, 30 miles east of Vernon.
A black-fly control programme was carried out in Mount Seymour Park (North Vancouver) by the Provincial Forest Service. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 67
Horn-flies (Siphona irritans)
These flies were numerous on unsprayed cattle. However, more interest is being
taken in control of these flies by ranchers and dairymen and the number of cattle treated
is believed to be increasing yearly. Experiments with new materials, methods, and spraying equipment to control these flies are being conducted by the Dominion Livestock
Insect Laboratory, Kamloops.
Sheep-ked (Melophagus ovinus)
These keds were very abundant on sheep in the Vernon-Kamloops districts during
the past year. With increased interest in sheep by many of the smaller farmers and
orchardists, it is very likely that requests for advice re control measures will also increase
CONTROL OF ST. JOHN'S WORT BY BEETLES
During 1951 an attempt was made to introduce the beetles Chrysolina gemellata
into British Columbia to control the weed St. John's Wort. Liberations were made at
Westbank, Fruitvale, and Christina Lake by the Dominion Biological Control Laboratory
and the Range Division of the Provincial Forest Service. Examinations which were made
during 1952 showed that the beetles had overwintered, reproduced, and spread out slightly
from the original liberation points.
1. Teaching agricultural entomology at the University of British Columbia during
January, February, and March.
2. A joint paper, " Experiments on the Insecticidal Control of the Tuber Flea-beetle,
Epitrix tuberis Gent., in the Interior of British Columbia," was prepared for publication
with D. G. Finlayson, of Kamloops.
3. A new bulletin, " Stored Product Insects in British Columbia," is being readied
for publication by the Dominion Stored Product Insect Division, at our request.
4. A paper, " Entomological Work in Progress in British Columbia," was presented
at the H.E.P.P. meetings at Puyallup, Wash.
5. Served as (a) chairman of the " Insects and Diseases Committee " of the B.C.
Agronomists' Association; (b) chairman of the " Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Pacific
Northwest Vegetable Insect Conference "; (c) secretary-treasurer of the " Entomological
Society of B.C."
6. Preparation and release to press of articles on (a) Sheep-ked Control; (b)
7. Participation in planned-farming demonstrations in the Fraser Valley.
8. An exhibit, " Insects and Controls," was placed and staffed at the Nelson and
Creston Fall Fairs.
9. Assistance in the revision of (a) Tree Fruit Insect Pest and Diseases Calendar
for 1953; (b) Field Crops and Vegetable Insects and Diseases Calendar for 1953-54.
10. Coloured pictures on insect damage of various types were taken and will be
used for extension purposes.
11. Assistance with organization of a Grasshopper Control Zone in the Vernon
12. Together with officials of the Dominion Medical and Veterinary Laboratory of
Kamloops, made a survey of the biting-fly problem at Kitimat, at the request of the
Aluminum Company of Canada. CC 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner
The year 1952 has been a fairly favourable one from the standpoint of milk production, and it is estimated that the total amount of milk produced will exceed the 1951
production of 624,472,000 pounds by 2 to 3 per cent. The amount of creamery butter
manufactured is up 37 per cent over the 1951 figure of 2,666,000 pounds. Cheddar
cheese shows a slight decrease in pounds made, while production of evaporated milk is
down slightly, and ice-cream and cottage cheese on a par with last year's production.
VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
Farm value of milk products in British Columbia for 1951, according to statistics,
was $23,888,000, and dairy products valued at factories or milk plants amounted to
$31,020,000. Farm and factory figures should be somewhat higher for 1952.
UTILIZATION OF MILK IN PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MILK
Fluid sales, milk and cream 52.18
Creamery butter 10.00
Factory cheese 1.39
Concentrated milk and ice-cream 22.10
Dairy butter 3.47
Used on farms and for other purposes 10.86
It is not anticipated there will be much change in the utilization of milk during 1952.
PLANTS MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTING
DAIRY PRODUCTS DURING 1952
Acme Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. DeClark's Dairy (A. and J. DeClark), Ladysmith.
Arlada Dairy (Mrs. Martha S. Slater), Edgewood. Dexter Dairy Ltd., South Burnaby.
Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association, Diamond Dairy (H. H. Trerise), Haney.
Armstrong. Dominion Dairy (Gordon Milum), Golden.
Arrowsmith Farms (B.C. Ventures Ltd.), Hilliers. Drake's Dairy Ltd., New Westminster.
Avalon Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. Dutch Dairy Farms Ltd., Kamloops.
Baby's Own Dairy (H. Armishaw), Nanaimo. Dyffryn Dairy (P. C. Inglis), Lumby.
Blue Ribbon Dairy Ltd., Mission City. Enterprise Dairy (W. Pighin), Kimberley.
Brooksbank Farms Ltd., Lulu Island. Fernie Dairy (Morley Obee), Fernie.
Bulkley Valley Creamery (Paulsen and Kinney), Frasea Farms Ltd., Eburne.
Telkwa. Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Van-
Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association, couver (Hornby St.).
Quesnel. Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Van-
Central Creameries (B.C.) Ltd., Vancouver, couver (Eighth Ave.).
Central Dairy Ltd., Nanaimo. Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Sardis.
Chilliwack Dairy Ltd., Chilliwack. Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Ab-
City Dairy Farm (M. McCrindle), Cranbrook. botsford.
Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Asso- Glenburn Dairy Ltd., Vancouver.
ciation, Golden. Guernsey Breeders' Dairy Ltd., Vancouver.
Comox Co-operative Creamery Association, Hazelwood Creamery Ltd., Vancouver.
Courtenay. Island Farms Co-operative Association, Port Al-
Creamland Crescent Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. berni.
Creamland Ice Cream Ltd., Vancouver. Island Farms Co-operative Association, Victoria.
Creston Co-operative Milk Producers' Associa- I.X.L. Dairy Ltd., Nanaimo.
tion, Creston. lersey Dairy (D. M. Archibald), Chilliwack.
Dairy Queen Mixco (J. C. Mulvey), Langley lersey Farms Ltd., Vancouver.
Prairie. Kalamalka Dairy Ltd., Vernon. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Kamloops United Dairies Ltd., Kamloops.
Kelowna Creamery Ltd., Kelowna.
Kootenay Valley Co-operative Milk Products Association, Nelson.
Lewis & Sons' Dairy (E. R. Lewis), Powell River.
Little Mountain Dairy (Carncross and Thompson), Abbotsford.
Maple Ridge Dairy (Mrs. D. C. Vogel), Haney.
Medo-land Farm Dairy Ltd., Port Coquitlam.
Modern Dairy (D. Macaulay), Marysville.
Modern Dairy (K. Sharpies), Castlegar.
Morrison-Knudsen Company of Canada Ltd.,
Nanaimo Dairy Co. Ltd., Nanaimo.
National Dairies Ltd., Vancouver.
Northern Alberta Dairy Pool Ltd., Dawson Creek.
Northern Dairies Ltd., Prince George.
Northern Dairies Ltd., Quesnel.
Northland Dairy Ltd., Prince Rupert.
Northwestern Creamery Ltd., Victoria.
Odermatt's Dairy (Paul Odermatt), Fort St. John.
Oliver Dairy (Henry Hettinga), Oliver.
Pacific Mills Ltd., Ocean Falls.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Kamloops.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Nelson.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Trail.
Palm Dairies Ltd., Vancouver (1803 Commercial
Palm Dairies Ltd., Vancouver (1060 Cambie St.).
Palm Dairies Ltd., Vancouver (3333 Main St.).
Palm Dairies Ltd., Victoria.
Peerless Dairy (lohn Lancaster), Cranbrook.
Penticton Dairy and Ice Cream Co. Ltd., Penticton.
Peter's Ice Cream Co., Vancouver.
Pinelawn Dairy (Mrs. Dulcie Hamilton), Comox.
Primrose Dairy (L. R. Singlehurst), Williams
Richmond Milk Producers' Co-operative Association, Vancouver.
Rivers' Dairyland (J. P. Rivers), Salmon Arm.
Rose's Ice Cream Ltd., Prince George.
Royal City Dairies Ltd., New Westminster.
Salt Spring Island Creamery Co. Ltd., Ganges.
Seal-Kap Dairy Ltd., Langley Prairie.
Shannon Dairies Ltd., Vancouver.
Shepherd's Dairy (H. G. Shepherd), Victoria.
Shirley Farm (H. G. Morson), South Burnaby.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Association, Salmon Arm.
Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative
Silver Rill Dairy (Stanley H. S. Fox), Saanichton.
Squamish Dairy (Lloyd Goodale), Squamish.
Standard Dairy (Mrs. D. McKinnon), Revelstoke.
Stanhope Dairy Farm (R. Rendle), Victoria.
Sunny Brae Dairy Ltd., Duncan.
Sunnybrook Dairy (Hay Bros.), Vancouver.
Sunshine Valley Dairy Ltd., Grand Forks.
Surrey Dairy (Mrs. Frances R. Lipsey), New
Tip Top Dairy Ltd., Westview.
Turner's Dairy (Ruby J. Turner), Ladner.
Turner's Dairy Ltd., Vancouver.
United Dairies Ltd., Trail.
Valley Dairy (Albert Doratti), Rossland.
Valley Dairy (Armstrong Cheese Co-operative
Wood's Dairy (J. P. Wood), Creston.
NUMBERS OF DAIRY CATTLE ON FARMS
The Dominion Bureau of Statistics' June survey shows the following number of dairy
cattle in all of Canada and in British Columbia, 1951 and 1952:-—
1 Dairy cow numbers include all breeds (grade and purebred) kept mainly for milking purposes.
2 Heifer numbers include all breeds (grade and purebred) being raised mainly for milking purposes.
3 Calves reported on farms are those being raised for both beef and dairy purposes.
Most of the upward trend in the number of dairy cattle on farms during 1952 is
probably due to the embargo on the shipment of cattle from Canada to the United States
because of the foot-and-mouth-disease epidemic.
At present there are 15 creameries, 3 cheddar-cheese factories, 2 powdered-milk
plants, 1 evaporated-milk plant, 98 large and small milk-pasteurizing plants, 26 ice-cream
J CC 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
plants (mostly included in creameries and milk plants), around 250 counter-freezers, and
approximately 450 to 500 producer-vendors of raw milk.
The distribution of dairy plants remains much the same as last year—approximately
43 per cent around Vancouver and the Lower Mainland, 17 per cent on the Gulf Islands
and Vancouver Island; the remaining 40 per cent are located in the Interior of the Province, with 16 per cent in the Okanagan and the other 24 per cent scattered throughout the
East and West Kootenays and Central British Columbia.
Only fifteen creameries were making butter during the year. The general trend in
creamery-butter production has been downward since our peak year of 1945, when
British Columbia produced an all-time high of 6,205,000 pounds. In 1951, we reached
our lowest production in thirty years, making only 2,666,000 pounds. For 1952, our
production will be up approximately 37 per cent or around 3,500,000 pounds. The
downward trend in creamery-butter manufacture is due chiefly to our increased population taking more milk on the fluid market, and partly to the manufacture and sale of
margarine at a much lower price than butter. The retail price of creamery butter has
been slightly lower than in 1951, ranging between 65 and 75 cents per pound.
Three cheese-factories have been making cheddar cheese during 1952 and one small
plant has been making farm cheese. These factories are located at Armstrong, Salmon
Arm, Edgewood, and Nanaimo. The quality of cheese produced has been very good and
much in demand. A little over 500,000 pounds were made during the year.
There are two powdered-milk plants and one evaporated-milk plant operating in the
Province. While exact figures are not available at time of writing, indications are that
evaporated-milk production is down about 5 per cent and powdered-milk production is
up around 30 per cent in comparison with 1951 production. Approximately 14 per cent
of our milk production goes into concentrated products. The following excerpt is taken
from the October Dairy Review:—
" Concentrated Products: Domestic prices of evaporated milk in Montreal were cut
50 cents a case, late in September. This development should stimulate sales and thus
reduce stocks from present unprecedented levels to more normal ones.
" Spray-process skimmed-milk powder remained firm at 16 and 17 cents a pound
(f.o.b. Montreal) in September, but signs of weakening appeared in the market in early
Twenty-six large and small ice-cream factories will make around 2,850,000 gallons
of ice-cream during 1952, representing only a slight increase over 1951 production.
Only six out of the twenty-six can be classified as strictly ice-cream plants, the other
twenty are included in milk plants and creameries. Around 8 per cent of our total milk
production is used in ice-cream. Ice-cream prices vary considerably and it has been
requested that the Provincial Milk Board establish prices for this product. Latest figures
available indicate around 235 counter-freezers operating in the Province.
SHORT COURSE IN DAIRYING
The sixth annual short course in dairying offered jointly by the Department of
Dairying, University of British Columbia, and the Dairy Branch, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, was given at the University of British Columbia from October 27th to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 71
November 22nd of this year. The following seventeen students attended: Mrs. Irene
Barrett, Cranbrook; George Borstel, Salmon Arm; Mrs. Nelia Callender, North Bend;
Roderick Davidson, Victoria; Wm. G. Easterbrook, Nanaimo; Fred J. George, Chilliwack; John Hardman, Vancouver; Wm. Keck, Victoria; Nick Kosowan, Chilliwack;
Gordon E. Olson, Salmon Arm; Miss Valerie A. Pemberton, Parksville; Harold South-
wick, Vancouver; John R. Steele, Burnaby; Bernard Vogel, Haney; James Watson,
Vancouver; Francis Stevens, Cloverdale; and Alfred H. Levy, Tranquille.
Lectures were given by members of the Dairy Faculty, University of British Columbia; by representatives of some of the larger dairies in Vancouver; and by the Dairy
Inspectors of this Branch. George Patchett, Senior Inspector, was in charge of the course.
Lectures were also given by some of the members of the dairy supply-houses.
The annual banquet for the students was held in the faculty dining-hall, University
of British Columbia, Wednesday, November 19th.
The services of all those who helped to make this year's short course a success is
herewith gratefully acknowledged. Consideration is being given to rearranging the timetable to make the course more instructive another year.
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
During 1952, the following licences and certificates of proficiency were issued:
Creamery or Dairy Licences, 103; Milk-testers' Licences, 138; Combined Milk-testers'
and Cream-graders' Licences, 44; Certificates of Proficiency, 13. Twenty-eight examinations were given for Milk-testers' Licences.
Five firms in all were issued licences to manufacture oleomargarine in 1952:
Canada Packers Limited, Consolidated Enterprises Limited, Kraft Foods Limited, Nova
Margarine Limited, all of Vancouver, and Wentworth Canning Company of B.C., New
Westminster. Twenty-three licences were issued to wholesalers of margarine.
Oleomargarine Production: 1949, 3,459,725 pounds; 1950, 5,734,290 pounds;
1951, 8,767,117 pounds; 1952, 8,500,000 pounds (estimated), being the first year a
slight decrease has been shown since production started in 1949.
INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES
Six Dairy Inspectors are now employed by this Branch, as follows: George Patchett,
Senior Inspector, Victoria; G. D. Johnson, Kelowna; Herbert Riehl and K. G. Savage,
Vancouver; Norman Ingledew, Nelson, and a new Inspector, D. D. Wilson, who joined
our staff September 1 st of this year. Mr. Wilson is stationed at Victoria, and will divide
his time between inspection work and analytical determinations of dairy products and
oleomargarine. A small dairy laboratory is being equipped at 545 Superior Street,
Following are excerpts taken from the Inspectors' annual reports:—■
George Patchett, Vancouver and Gulf Islands:—
" This year will probably prove to be the levelling-off year in dairying. Inflationary
trends have slowed to a halt for dairy products and feed prices have shown a tendency to
recede a little. The labour problem has been partly solved by using more machinery.
Increased acreage in pasture in some areas and greater production per acre, by means of
rotation, fertilizing, and irrigating, has helped to stabilize both the feed and labour
" Beef and veal prices have been lower due to the embargo on shipments to the
United States. Exports of dairy cattle to that market have also been prohibited. These
two factors have resulted in more cows being kept for milking with a consequent increase
in milk production. These factors have combined to make our quality-milk programme CC 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
more effective, and many farmers have responded by installing better cooling systems
and using more efficient methods of handling and caring for the milk before delivery.
Constant checking has shown that there are still a number of producers who think they
can get away with the nefarious practice of watering their milk. These shippers are first
warned, and if they persist in this illegal proceeding, their Milk Board licence is suspended
for an indefinite time.
" Much of my time this year has been utilized in redrafting old regulations and drafting new ones, both under the ' Oleomargarine Act' and the ' Creameries and Dairies
Regulation Act.' Some of these proposed regulations have been presented to the Attorney-
General's Department for scrutiny.
" A very interesting panel discussion was held this year at the short course, when the
subject' Is Milk Being Paid For on a Proper Basis? ' brought forth the idea that perhaps
the time is at hand when the solids-not-fat in milk should become a large factor in evaluating milk for all markets, the money value of milk-fat being lessened by the advent of
vegetable-oil imitations and the solids-not-fat money value being increased because of
the necessity of using these solids to give flavour to the synthetic dairy products. If a
quick method can be devised for the testing of milk for solids-not-fat, it may well be the
beginning of a new trend in dairy practices."
G. D. Johnson, Interior:—
" Inspections were carried out during 1952 in the Similkameen, Okanagan, Cariboo,
Peace River, and Central British Columbia Districts, with stress again being laid on the
production and processing of high-quality milk for the fluid markets.
" In conjunction with the health units, a considerable amount of work was carried
on to improve and maintain a high quality of fluid milk. Bacteriological reports were
received from the health units covering all pasteurizing plants in the districts mentioned,
and these reports greatly assisted in locating plant problems during inspections.
"A great deal of effort has been given to encourage dairy-plant operators to carry
out qualitative tests on milk. This endeavour has been rewarded to a point where eight
milk plants are carrying out resazurin and sediment monthly or semi-monthly tests, and
five of these plants, operated by co-operative associations, are buying milk on a qualitative
basis. Efforts have also been rewarded in improvement of plants with respect to installation of suitable equipment and building alterations to conform to regulations.
" Many areas are still in short supply of fluid-milk requirements throughout the
winter months, and in cases such as Prince Rupert, Prince George, and other parts of
Central British Columbia, throughout the whole year. The latter situation has been
aggravated by the tremendous growth in population brought about by the industrial
growth in that area.
" In summing up the year's work there has been greater co-operation apparent
between the dairy-farmers and processing plants and more satisfaction has been obtained
from the improvement of raw milk supplies by the dairies concerned. Whilst it is
acknowledged that bacteriological reports on pasteurized products at most plants vary
considerably throughout the year, a general improvement has been noted this year over
previous years. This can be attributed to the numbers of qualified men being employed
by the dairies, which in turn reflects the usefulness of the dairy short course."
H. Riehl and K. G. Savage, Greater Vancouver:—
" In the past year, due to the permanence of the staff, there has been a considerable
increase in butter-fat check-testing. This has been so for two reasons: Firstly, a desire
on the part of the Department to check regularly each shipper in the Greater Vancouver
milk-shed, and, secondly, increased agitation from the farmers for check-tests. In spite
of our fullest co-operation in such check-testing, there remains a suspicion in the minds of
all concerned parties that the means of checking leaves something to be desired; for
example, inadequate control of milk-sampling methods, variations in design of dump-
tanks, etc. It is felt that, numerically speaking, an increase in butter-fat check-testing is DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 73
not warranted, but rather that a study should be made of control measures as they exist
in the United States, with an eye to implementation of the more successful features of their
control scheme. It is the hope of the Inspectors in this area that, in answer to the problem
and to the increased agitation, an early start on such a study will be made.
"Again this year, the milk-shippers have been checked for possible water adulteration. Broadly speaking, the picture has not changed a great deal in that there are nearly
as many offenders as last year. However, the percentage of water added is decreased
from last year. A more complete reference can be gained by perusal of the following
chart comparing the years 1951 and 1952:—
Number of tests carried out 642 683
Number of shippers in each class—
Under 3 per cent added water 26 44
3 to 5 per cent added water 18 30
5 to 10 per cent added water 30 33
10 to 20 per cent added water 10 1
Over 20 per cent added water 2 1
Number of warning letters mailed 59 55
Number of offenders suspended on rechecking 6 10 "
N. H. Ingledew, East and West Kootenays:—
" The area comprising the East and West Kootenays is a district of relatively scattered
population, and consequently one of small pasteurizing plants. For this reason, a large
proportion of the work of this Department is of an educational nature. It is one of the
few remaining areas where the pioneer spirit still prevails and a producer can obtain a start
with a very little capital investment. The same applies to many of the dairy plants which
had their beginning as producer-vendors. It is, most gratifying to work in an area where
help is appreciated.
" Due to the splendid co-operation we have received from the Live Stock Branch,
the District Agriculturists, and the Health Department, considerable improvement has
been made in the quality of milk being supplied to the dairies in the entire area. As a
result the quality of the finished products going to the consumer has been excellent.
" The supply situation is critical in both the East and West Kootenays when one
considers the proposed expansion of industry which is taking place. For a few short
weeks in the spring a surplus develops, while at all other times there is a distinct shortage.
From early summer until the following spring, milk must be transported into the area
from the Fraser Valley and Alberta.
" In the East Kootenays from Creston east, with an approximate population of
20,000 in four main centres, only thirteen producers remain, of which nine produce an
average of only 200 pounds daily. From these figures it can be quite readily seen that if
the industry is to remain on a sound basis, and we are to take care of the increased
population which is inevitable in the next two years, then new production areas must be
developed. These areas are Grand Forks, Edgewood, and Creston.
" Inspections have been carried out at all plants with a view to the improvement of
products, and to increase the working efficiency of both plant and labour. Resazurin
tests, sediments, temperatures, and butter-fat tests have been carried out periodically
throughout the year, with reports being sent to the producers concerned. Many farm
visits have been made as a follow-up to these reports, especially in the outlying areas.
" Reasonable progress has been made in the past year in all phases of the work.
The foundation has been laid for improved quality, improved production, and improved
marketing relations. As industrial expansion takes place, with its increased population
and increased consumption of milk, the producers should be in a position to take greater
advantage of their opportunities." CC 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SUMMARY OF PLANT INSPECTIONS, TESTS MADE, AND
MEETINGS ATTENDED BY INSPECTORS IN 1952
Dairy-plant inspections 813
Farm visits 363
Butter-fat check-tests 7,949
Resazurin quality tests and temperature tests 2,255
Sediment tests 1,780
Milk samples tested for added water_ 967
Warned for adulteration 71
Licences suspended 10
Reports and test-cards sent to milk and cream producers 4,841
Meetings attended 136
Visits to margarine plants 35
Amendments to the " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act" are pending, also
amendments to regulations pursuant to this Act.
The " Oleomargarine Act " was amended in March of this year, and amendments to
regulations pursuant to this Act are pending.
BRITISH COLUMBIA DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association held its annual convention in the Plaza
Hotel, Nanaimo, on Tuesday and Wednesday, January 29th and 30th, of this year.
Speakers present from outside the Province were J. S. Turnbull, Regina, Sask., who is
president of the National Dairy Council; W. C. Cameron, Associate Director, Marketing
Services, Ottawa; Dr. C. K. Johns, Division of Bacteriology and Dairy Research, Ottawa;
and D. H. McCallum, Dairy Commissioner, Edmonton.
This was a very good convention, and its success was due chiefly to the efforts of
the energetic secretary, Everard Clarke, who gave freely of his time during 1950 and
1951 in making collections and doing publicity work for the Association. Arnold Webb,
of the Provincial Milk Board, stationed at Victoria, and Walter Sorensen, of the Nanaimo
Dairy Company Limited, made all arrangements for the banquet, luncheon, and entertainment, and, in addition, arranged hotel reservations. Much credit is due these men for the
very commendable manner in which they rendered these useful services.
The following officers and directors were elected for the ensuing year: President,
Leonard Zink, Sardis; vice-president, S. Halksworth, Grindrod; secretary-treasurer,
Everard Clarke, Vernon, who resigned later in the year; directors—Vancouver Island:
Henry Robinson, Royal Oak; C. R. Porter, Duncan; Lower Mainland: Leonard Zink,
Sardis; Dr. C. D. McKenzie, Glen Valley; Acton Kilby, Harrison Mills; John Wood,
Ladner; Everett Crowley, Vancouver; Okanagan: S. Halksworth, Grindrod; S. Schrau-
wen, Kamloops; J. Mullen, Armstrong; Kootenays: J. P. Wood, Creston; Cariboo:
Earl Malcolm, Quesnel; Bulkley: J. C. Green, Telkwa.
Tentative dates of March 25th and 26th, 1953, have been set for the next convention,
at Mission City.
MILK BOARD PRICES, 1952
Milk Board prices to the producers in the Vancouver-Lower Fraser Valley area have
remained the same ($5.03 per 100 pounds for 3.5-per-cent milk) since October 16th,
1951. On Vancouver Island, the price to producers in the Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo,
and Courtenay-Campbell River areas, has remained at $5.90 per 100 pounds of 3.5-percent milk since September 10th, 1951. Retail prices are as follows: Vancouver area—■
22 cents per quart for Standard milk and 24 cents for Special milk; Vancouver Island DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 75
areas—24 cents per quart for Standard milk and 26 cents for Special. Incidentally, Milk
Board prices right across Canada have, generally speaking, remained unchanged during
the last year.
On the whole, weather conditions have been favourable throughout the year with less
rain than average, resulting in good crops and fair pasture conditions. The present
trend is' towards better handling of pastures by way of fertilizing and irrigation. During
the ten-year period 1941 to 1951, our milk production increased 13 per cent while our
population, due to industrial development, increased 42 per cent. In the thirty-year period
preceding 1941, our milk production, by ten-year periods, was greater than our population increase during the same periods.
The dairy industry across Canada and in British Columbia is entering a period of
keen competition from vegetable-oil products. The industry must, through its public-
relations programme, continue to impress upon the consuming public the nutritional value
of milk and milk products. The industry should also insist on protective legislation when
and where advisable.
The loyal co-operation of all members of the staff in carrying out the many and sometimes trying duties of the Dairy Branch and in preparing this annual report is gratefully
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner
Conditions in the poultry industry in 1952 were not as good as in 1951, with high
production costs and lower prices for eggs and poultry-meats. The season could be
described as mediocre. There has been a marked increase in consumption of poultry-
meat, probably partly due to lower prices for chicken and fowl.
The increased consumption of poultry-meat included chicken, fowl, broilers, and
turkeys. Broiler producers have had a reasonably good year, with future prospects
Inspector W. H. Pope reports there has been a considerable revival of interest in
commercial poultry production throughout the southern portion of Vancouver Island,
due mainly to the activities of the Vancouver Island Poultry Co-operative. This organization is to be highly commended.
Some broiler and fryer producers in Courtenay-Comox area were forced out of
production due to lower prices for poultry-meat.
The great increase in the consumption of broilers and fryers has been due to evisceration and sale of fresh chilled poultry and sharp-frozen packaged chicken.
Inspector Gasperdone reports that a series of meetings have been held in the Okanagan by operators of the egg-grading stations to form an organization along co-operative
lines. The idea is to market a quality egg product under one brand-name carton.
The marketing of cut-up and eviscerated poultry has not been accepted to any extent
as yet in the Interior, probably due to lack of equipment and the fact that no consumer
education has been undertaken.
Poultry-meat consumption is up about 2,000,000 pounds over the same period of
last year, as indicated in Table No. 1:— CC 76
Table No. 1 _ . . ,_.
Receipts of Dressed
Egg Receipts at Poultry at Registered
Registered Egg- Poultry packing
grading Stations Stations
Year (Cases) (Lb.)
1949 515,944 8,332,158
1950 410,752 9,027,541
1951 404,552 8,619,525
1952 480,830 10,684,000
Data on imports and exports of eggs and poultry for years 1949-52 is shown in
Table No. 2:—
Table No. 2.—Imports and Exports of Eggs and Poultry
1952 to Tlpcpmher 8th
This continues to be a major project of the Poultry Branch, although indications are
that economic conditions will cause a reduction in the number of flocks approved for the
Inspectors W. H. Pope, R. H. McMillan, H. Gasperdone, Fred Wilkinson, H. K.
Arnould, Victor North, and H. E. Upton were all employed on this project for varying
periods of time. The testers employed were H. E. McDaniel, William Brookes, S. R.
McAninch, Allan Mufford, and C. W. Wood.
As in past years, the technical aspects of the programme were supervised by Dr. J. C.
Bankier, while all the clerical work, testing schedules, collection of accounts, etc., was
done in the office of the Poultry Commissioner.
Table No. 3.—Statistical Data on Flock Approval 1935—52
0.22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
The report from Inspector R. H. McMillan indicates that the percentage of flocks
with approved males and cross-mated flocks of the heavy breeds has increased in two
years by 17.6 per cent in the case of New Hampshires and 40.3 per cent in the case of
Barred Plymouth Rocks, to the detriment of the R.O.P.-sired flocks. The percentage of
R.O.P.-sired White Leghorn flocks has increased, indicating a trend towards the production of broiler chicks using less expensive sires, as indicated in Table No. 4.
Table No. 4
Flocks with Males of
S.C.W. Leghorn ...
The hatchery season was not as good as in 1951 but better than in 1950. The
year 1947 was the best year for chick production in British Columbia, when 8,523,781
were hatched, as compared with 4,770,978 in 1950 and 5,670,066 to October 31st, 1952.
Table No. 5.—Production and Distribution of Chicks Hatched
1948 ... .
1949. . _ _
1951 -.„ -_ _ ._
Table No. 6.—Chicks Hatched by Breeds, January 1st, to June 30th, 1952
S.C. White Leghorns
Barred Plymouth Rocks
S.C. Rhode Island Reds .
THE TURKEY INDUSTRY
The turkey industry was not in as strong a position in 1952 as in 1951, owing to
considerable increase in poults hatched and turkeys raised in every Province in Canada.
Production costs have not been reduced as yet and competition is increasing from the
Prairie Provinces. CC 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table No. 7.—Production and Distribution of Approved Poults
1949. .. — _ _
1952 _ - .
464.202 1 162.852
Table No. 8.—Turkey Flock Approval, 1946-52
1946__ ,_ _
1950 — _
--_ __. ___ 30
Some losses are still being experienced from Newcastle disease, but the live-virus
vaccine programme has been very successful in controlling this disease. A combination
of respiratory-disease conditions has affected quite seriously many producers, particularly
broiler producers in certain sections of the Lower Mainland.
Table No. 9.—Newcastle Disease Data, Flocks and Eggs Destroyed, 1950-52
1951 — -
1952, to December 10th
After experimenting with killed vaccines such as Doyle-Wright and ADRI in 1950
and 1951, a change was made to the Blacksburg Bl strain. This was decided upon at a
meeting held in Regina, Sask., in January, attended by representatives from British
Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Canada Departmeat of Agriculture.
On February 1st, the vaccine from Lederle Laboratories was made available and a
system of permits established in the office of the Poultry Commissioner.
In May, vaccine of the same type was secured from Connaught Medical Research
Laboratories to be applied as a spray. This followed a visit by Dr. J. F. Crawley, of
Connaught Laboratories, to this Province.
Both vaccines are available to poultry producers who apply for same, and to date
1,084,400 doses of Lederle vaccine (ocular method) have been distributed and 160,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
doses of Connaught (spray method) distributed. A total of 810 permits have been issued
from this office.
Table No. 10.—Data on Vaccination
1950 (killed vaccine)
1952 (live-virus vaccine)1
1 810 permits issued to December 8th.
The distribution of Newcastle disease vaccine has taken a great deal of time in this
office, as a recording system had to be set up and weekly reports sent to the Deputy
Minister, the Veterinary Director-General, and the Health of Animals Division at
The system has worked very well and we have been complimented by Dr. T. Childs,
Veterinary Director-General, on its efficiency.
POULTRY LABORATORY FACILITIES
Laboratory facilities have been available for Vancouver Island at Victoria and for
the remainder of the Province at the Provincial Animal Pathology Laboratory at the
University of British Columbia, under the supervision of Dr. J. C. Bankier. The Science
Service Laboratory of Canada Department of Agriculture at the University of British
Columbia, under the supervision of Dr. I. W. Moynihan, is also giving pathological service
to the poultry industry.
The one serious problem facing the poultry industry is the respiratory disease in
broiler plants, and a resolution covering this matter was adopted at the Canadian Hatchery
Federation meeting held at Banff, Alfa., in September requesting the Government of
Canada to establish a suitable virus unit in Western Canada to provide an efficient
diagnostic service and to conduct a study of respiratory diseases in poultry.
No doubt Dr. J. C. Bankier will have dealt with poultry diseases in his report as
" SOUR EGG " PROBLEM
As a result of representations made by poultry-industry representatives, a meeting
was held on July 17th in Vancouver at which a full review was made of a problem
affecting egg quality in British Columbia. This was described as " sour egg " and
identified as being similar to problems affecting egg quality in California and Australia.
A further meeting was held at the Canadian Hatchery Convention at Banff on
September 6th and a meeting at the British Columbia Research Council on September
12th. At this last meeting, representatives were present from the British Columbia
Research Council, University of British Columbia, Canada Department of Agriculture,
British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Western Canada Produce Association, and
British Columbia Poultry Industries Council.
The BritishXolumbia Research Council agreed to undertake a research project on
the problem witlro budget of $2,200, provided as follows: $1,000 by the British Columbia Research Council, $1,000 from the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, and
$200 from the Western Canada Produce Association (British Columbia Section). The
grant from the British Columbia Department of Agriculture was held in abeyance for
the time being, and instead a grant of $1,000 was provided from the Poultry-testing
The project is under the supervision of Dr. Paul Trussel, British Columbia Research
Council, and assistance in field work is being given by the Poultry Branch. Inspector
McMillan assisted in preparing a questionnaire to be used on field work in that project. CC 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
POLIOMYELITIS AND EGGS
The poultry industry received a severe jolt in September, when two Vancouver
medical men undertook to publicize their theory that eggs from chickens with fowl-
paralysis might transmit poliomyelitis. This was done by means of paid advertisements
in Vancouver daily papers and weekly papers in the Province.
Due to this publicity, egg consumption dropped about 30 per cent and did not return
to normal for two months.
Your Poultry Commissioner immediately organized a campaign to counteract this,
and secured opinions from leading medical research investigators in the United States
and Canada, Medical Health Officers, and others to show there was no evidence to prove
Representatives of the British Columbia Poultry Industries Council and British
Columbia Federation of Agriculture, with your Poultry Commissioner, interviewed
officials of the three Vancouver dailies, the Council of the British Columbia College of
Physicians and Surgeons, and the British Columbia Medical Association with good results.
The British Columbia Federation of Agriculture counteracted the publicity on its
weekly broadcasts on Sundays over Radio Station CKWX in Vancouver. The annual
report of the secretary of the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture states as
" The Poultry Commissioner, Mr. Gordon Landon, is to be congratulated in his
successful efforts to obtain refutation of this doctor's theories from the leading polio
research laboratories in North America. As a further result of his energy, we joined forces
with the Poultry Industries Council in appearing before the editors of the Vancouver
dailies in an effort to have this publicity and advertising discontinued. We also appeared
jointly before the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Our radio broadcasts over Station
CKWX were used to good effect in bringing the true facts before the city consumers, and
egg sales are gradually returning to normal."
Conferences attended by your Poultry Commissioner during the year included the
meeting at Regina, Sask., in January on Newcastle disease, already mentioned above;
the Canadian Hatchery Federation at Banff, Alta., in September; and acted as secretary
of the Poultry Health Fact Finding Committee. A separate report was sent in on this
Other conferences attended included the annual meeting of the British Columbia
Institute of Agrologists at Penticton in May and the 4-H Club Council meeting at
Armstrong in April.
All members of the Poultry Branch staff attended many meetings of poultry
producers, turkey producers, committees dealing with poultry problems, Farmers'
Institutes, British Columbia Poultry Industries Council, produce dealers, hatcherymen,
etc., during the year. The general public does not realize the staff pj£ in hundreds of
hours attending meetings at night.
PLANNED AGRICULTURAL FEATURE
The Fourth Agricultural Feature was held from March 7th to 14th at Langley Prairie,
Haney, and Chilliwack. Attendance was good at Haney but disappointing at Langley
Prairie and Chilliwack. The poultry display was a co-operative effort of the Poultry
Branch and the Canada Department of Agriculture and attracted considerable attention. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 81
POULTRY SHORT COURSES
Short courses were reduced this year and were arranged by the Extension Department
of the University of British Columbia at Abbotsford and Matsqui. Lectures were given
to students at the University of British Columbia.
Inspector Gasperdone spoke at short courses at Rock Creek and Grand Forks,
February 25th to 27th, and at Armstrong, Lavington, and Kelowna, March 24th to 26th.
A conference of members of the Poultry Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture
inspectors, Pullorum-testers, and University of British Columbia staff was held at the
University of British Columbia on October 24th and 25th.
This was an excellent meeting and addresses were given by Dr. Hicks, Professor E. A.
Lloyd, and Mrs. B. March of the University of British Columbia Poultry Department.
BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY INDUSTRIES COUNCIL
The Council continued active during the year in connection with egg and poultry
prices, poultry disease problems, and problems such as " sour egg," vaccination, etc.
The Council has accomplished a great deal for the poultry industry over the years
and deserves the support of all sections of the industry.
Interest in the production of ducks and geese continues very keen, and an increasing
number of ducklings and goslings are being hatched each year to supply the domestic
market and for export to the Prairie Provinces.
A number of breeder hatcheries are hatching ducklings and goslings, and it is
estimated the increase in goslings is at least 100 per cent this year. Actual data will be
kept for 1953 to give some indication of the volume.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Your Commissioner continued as a director of Pacific National Exhibition during
1952, as chairman of the Junior Farmer Show and vice-chairman of the Poultry
The Junior Farmer Show at the 1952 Pacific National Exhibition was again an
outstanding success and was attended by 475 boys and girls from British Columbia for
four days. In addition, 250 4-H Club members and Future Farmers of America attended
from the State of Washington.
Visits were made during the year to poultry producers in the Okanagan and a trip
was made in July to Central British Columbia, where producers in Smithers, Vanderhoof,
Prince George, and Quesnel districts were visited with the District Agriculturists.
Egg-grading stations were also visited.
During this .rip, talks were given at field days and at 4-H Club events.
PRESENTATION TO PROFESSOR E. A. LLOYD
Professor E. A. Lloyd retired as head of the Poultry Department at the University
of British Columbia after thirty-three years of service. Your Commissioner acted with
Professor J. Biely to arrange a presentation for him.
Sufficient funds were secured from graduates, students, producers, wholesalers, feed
manufacturers, and friends to present him with a new car and a bound volume of letters
from graduates. CC 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The presentation was made on June 30th at the University of British Columbia by
Hon. H. R. Bowman.
POULTRY SHOWS, TURKEY SHOWS, ETC.
Inspectors of the Poultry Branch assisted in judging poultry shows in various parts
of the Province. In addition, considerable assistance was given to the two turkey shows
held at Victoria in November and at New Westminster in December. Reports of the
various shows indicated they were very successful.
BRITISH COLUMBIA LIME COMMITTEE
Your Poultry Commissioner continued as secretary of the British Columbia Lime
Committee during the year, and the volume of work continues to increase. Indications
are that the tonnage will reach 40,000 by March 31st, 1953.
BULLETIN SERVICE, RADIO BROADCASTS, ETC.
The bulletin Practical Rabbit Raising No. 3 was reprinted, and a new circular No. 37,
entitled " Feed Formulae for 1952," was prepared by Professor J. Biely and Mrs. March
of the University of British Columbia Poultry Department.
In co-operation with the Agricultural Engineering Division of the department, a
series of poultry-house plans and equipment were prepared. They were plans for 500-
bird laying-house for Coastal areas and Interior areas (both gable roof and flat roof),
laying-cages with both roof types, community laying-cages, 500-bird units for both
Coastal areas and Interior, broiler-house, fifteen-bird laying-cage, community nest, and
central roosting-rack, or a total of eleven plans.
This year your Commissioner, with Inspectors McMillan and Pope, made radio
recordings for the use of the Extension Service at Dawson Creek radio station in May.
This service may be extended in future.
In addition, members of the staff appeared in several C.B.C. Farm Broadcasts, etc.
WORLD'S POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
Your Commissioner continues as one of the two representatives from Canada on the
council of the World's Poultry Science Association and assists in the work of this very
Reprints of the paper " Newcastle Disease in British Columbia," by I. W. Moynihan,
G. L. Landon, and R. H. McMillan, published in the proceedings of the Ninth World's
Poultry Congress at Paris, France, in August, 1951, were secured from Paris.
I would like to express my appreciation of the staff of the Poultry Branch for the
efficient way they have performed their duties in 1952. Also for the co-operation received
from other branches of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Canada Department of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, and other agencies. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
REPORT OF THE LIVE STOCK BRANCH
Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinary Inspector
Horse breeding in the Province is following the general pattern which obtains all over
the country—lack of interest in draft horses with a limited call for the light-draft and
general-purpose horse. The interest in light horses for riding purposes is keen.
Stallion enrolments for the year were as follows:—
1952: A, 2; B, 5; C, 0; D, 6; E, 13; F, 7.
1951: A, 5; B, 2; C, 1; D, 7; E, 12; F, 9.
Some assistance was given to a small exhibit of draft horses going to the Royal
Winter Fair, Toronto, to compete mostly in the light and heavy draft harness classes.
No high prizes were won.
For inspected slaughterings of cattle and calves see Appendix No. 1. For beef
carcasses graded in British Columbia see Appendix No. 2. For average prices of cattle
see Appendix No. 3.
The cattle price picture for the year shows much the same trend as the over-all
Canadian picture, which reflects the results of the closing of the United States market
to Canadian cattle as a result of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan.
Work done this year at the University of British Columbia, under the immediate
direction of Dr. A. Wood, Faculty of Agriculture, on the checking of bulls for rapidity
and economy of gain has opened up an entirely new approach to the problem of beef-
cattle production. The implications of this work cannot of course be dealt with in this
The work is being carried on again this coming year and the results should be most
SALES AND SHOW RESULTS
The summarized reports of sales in British Columbia during the year 1952 are as
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 13th, 1952
Number and Kind
Car-lots of fifteen steers..
Groups of five steers
Open singles and boys' and girls' classes-
Total head, 235.
Car-lot of fifteen steers, heavy class: Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Car-lot of fifteen steers, light class: Earlscourt Farms Limited, Lytton.
Champion car-lot: Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Reserve champion car-lot: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Group of five steers, heavy class: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Group of five steers, light class: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake. CC 84
Champion group of five: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake.
Reserve champion group of five: Haughton Brothers, Kamloops.
Single steer or heifer, 1,210 to 1,280 pounds: A. and W. Watt, Barriere.
Single steer or heifer, 1,140 to 1,180 pounds: H. E. Leavitt, Heffley Creek.
Single steer or heifer, 1,040 to 1,110 pounds: L. J. Gacomuzi, Kamloops.
Single steer or heifer, 910 to 1,020 pounds: A. and W. Watt, Barriere.
Single steer or heifer, 770 to 890 pounds: Glen Shannon, Knutsford.
Champion animal of the open singles: Glen Shannon, Knutsford.
Reserve champion animal of the open singles: A. and W. Watt, Barriere.
Boys' and girls' competition, steer or heifer, heavy class: Helene Turner, Royal Oak.
Boys' and girls' competition, steer or heifer, light class: Rita Abel, Westwold.
New exhibitors, drawn from above two classes: James Todrick, Westwold.
Champion animal of boys' and girls' competition: Rita Abel, Westwold.
Reserve champion animal of the boys' and girls' competion: Glen Shannon, Knutsford.
Grand champion animal of the show: Rita Abel, Westwold.
Reserve grand champion of the show: Glen Shannon, Knutsford.
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Tenth Annual Cattle and Bull Sale
SEPTEMBER 10th, 1952
Cows — _
Heifers _ - — .
SECOND SALE, OCTOBER 29th,
Cows _ .
Bulls _ _
Eleventh Annual Waldo Stock Breeders' Association Sale, October 2nd, 1952
Steers _ _
$59,629.15 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Fifteenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Stock Sale
OCTOBER 9th, 1952
SECOND SALE, OCTOBER 29th,
Heifers . _.
Totals _ _
Ninth Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale, October 21st, 1952
Totals - _
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, December 4th, 1952
Open singles and boys' and girls' entries
Lambs- . „ -
Totals _ _
These areas, established under the authority of the "Animals Act," should be more
widely used to deal with the problem of insufficient bulls, poor quality and old bulls, and
bulls being retained too long on ranges thus to breed their own direct progeny, and also
the use of brother-sister mating where young bulls from the herd are kept as herd sires.
There seems to be evidence of renewed interest in this policy. CC 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
J. W. Awmack, reporting briefly for the four bull-control areas in the East
Kootenay—namely, Columbia Bull-control Area, Sand Creek Bull-control Area, Waldo
Bull-control Area, and Newgate-Grasmere Bull-control Area—states that all areas have
been operating satisfactorily. Ranchers have been co-operating.
The dairy industry has had quite a difficult time for a number of years. It is a
business which calls for attention to details, which means skilled labour. Such labour is
very hard to procure, especially in competition with other industries that are in a better
position to bargain.
Great strides have been made with the help of the " Milk Act " in the improvement
of quality and the safety of the milk being produced, this tending to increase the per
capita consumption. The rapid extension in the area disease work for the control and
eradication of brucellosis is reflecting to the benefit of the dairy cattlemen.
Some inroads have been made into the field of the milk producer by artificial
products produced almost entirely from foreign fats, largely of vegetable origin.
International markets for dairy products are being lost for various reasons, all of
which reflects in additional problems for our British Columbia industry. The closure
of the United States market for cattle as a result of foot-and-mouth disease having broken
out in Saskatchewan has temporarily cut off a very profitable market for surplus dairy
This very essential service is gaining in popularity and is gradually extending into
new districts. It is expected that the service will soon reach out into some of our
disease-free areas as the second step in our over-all Live Stock Branch policy of improvement. The following extracts are taken from the annual report of G. H. Thornbery,
Superintendent of Cow-testing Associations:—
" During the early part of the year, many dairymen were buying feed for their cows,
owing to a serious shortage of hay, and prices were high. Fortunately, however, climatic
conditions for growing and harvesting this season's crops have been the best for many
years. Pastures have been good and with a mild open fall have provided the dairy herd
with succulence for longer than usual.
" In the period under review, the price of concentrates, cereals, mixed dairy feeds,
and hay has been dropping slowly and is now 10 to 20 per cent lower than early in the
year. The exceptions are high-protein concentrates, which show very little variation.
" There are now fifteen Cow-testing Associations, employing twenty supervisors,
who are testing approximately 10,700 cows in 460 herds. A new association was
organized in the Cowichan area and the route commenced operations in September.
A list of these associations, their secretaries, and supervisors is shown in Appendix No. 7.
" There are, in addition, about forty herds with 300 cows that are being tested
regularly by Cow-testing Association supervisors on the owner-sampler plan, designed
chiefly for small-herd owners or dairymen who are waiting for a vacancy on a regular
" The average production of all milking periods, totalling 7,432, completed under
Cow-testing Association auspices during 1951, again shows an increase and is 9,363
pounds of milk and 399 pounds of fat. A full report concerning this summary, which
includes breed averages, is given in Appendix No. 7. All routes on the Lower Mainland
and Vancouver Island are in good condition and maintain a full quota of herds on test.
The route in the North Okanagan has not been up to a proper standard of efficiency for
some time, but as a change of supervisors is now in effect it is already apparent that this
route will once more be operating satisfactorily. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 87
" It is interesting to note that as the tabulation of records of the Dominion Record of
Performance is on a mechanized basis, through the use of International Business Machines,
this office is now receiving each month from the head office of the respective Canadian
association for the Ayrshire, Guernsey, and Jersey breeds particulars of all R.O.P. reports,
both qualified and non-qualified, which were compiled and issued the previous month.
Dairymen in this Province have realized for many years that the absence of non-qualifying
records could give an unreliable indication of a sire's transmitting ability, as expressed
through his daughters' qualifying records only. The Canadian Holstein-Friesian Association has advised that as soon as records for that breed are handled mechanically
through International Business Machines, they will also supply us with particulars of all
" These arrangements will now make it possible to publish a complete report on
a dairy sire, based on all his daughters with production records in British Columbia,
at a much earlier date, as it will no longer be necessary to wait for printed lists in breed
magazines which were issued monthly or quarterly. This should reduce the number of
instances where valuable bulls are beefed before their worth can be determined.
" R.O.P.-C.T.A. Combined Service.—The arrangement with the Federal Department
of Agriculture, Production Services, whereby Cow-testing Association supervisors are
approved to carry out the duties of R.O.P. inspectors in herds that are on both R.O.P.
and C.T.A. is operating smoothly and efficiently. Forty-three herds, in various associations, are taking advantage of this scheme and reports are being forwarded through
this office to Ottawa in regard to 400 cows every month.
"Certificates of Production.—During 1951 there was a healthy increase in the
number of completed milking periods qualifying for certification, amounting to 419
(11 per cent) or a total of 4,076. Details concerning this year's progress will not be
available until the spring of 1953.
" Publications.—The following publications have been prepared and made available
" The Twentieth List of Jersey Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 67,
containing reports concerning 146 sires.
" The Twenty-first List of Holstein Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 70,
containing reports concerning 141 sires.
" The Twenty-first List of Guernsey Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 70,
containing reports concerning 73 sires.
" The Twenty-first List of Ayrshire Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 70,
containing reports on 47 sires.
" The Thirteenth Annual List of Long-distance Production Records of One
Ton of Butterfat or More—Herd Improvement Circular No. 71, giving
details of cumulative milk and butter-fat records for 735 cows.
" Departmental Subsidies.—During the period under review, subsidies paid to Cow-
testing Associations amounted to $33,662.
" Calf Tagging.—The identification of heifer calves, a service that has been available
to Cow-testing Association members for the past twenty-nine years, is instrumental in
providing the information about a large majority of the daughter-dam pairs which are
tabulated when evaluating dairy sires.
"A total of 2,100 tags have been allocated and dispatched to Cow-testing Associations in the past year."
SUMMARY OF TRANSACTIONS UNDER PURE-BRED SIRES
FOR FARMERS' INSTITUTES POLICY
As a result of insufficient funds being available during the last six months of the
1951-52 fiscal year, it became necessary to turn down a number of applications for sires CC 88
under this policy. Departmental purchases during 1952 are therefore rather small as
compared with 1951 figures, which appear in parentheses.
During 1952 only 3 (9) pure-bred sires were purchased at a cost of $650 ($4,800),
with a total freight charge to this Department of $54.36 ($497.01). These sires were
shipped to Kersley, North Quesnel, and Alberni Farmers' Institutes, and were of the
Guernsey, Shorthorn, and Red Poll breeds respectively.
Payments received on the above animals totalled $220.34, with the balance payable
over the next two years. In addition, payments on previous purchases were received
through Farmers' Institutes in the amount of $2,219.37, making a total of $2,439.71
Final payments were received on seven sires—one Ayrshire, one Hereford, three
Holsteins, and two Shorthorns—and the pedigree transferred to the new owners.
ROYAL AGRICULTURAL WINTER FAIR, TORONTO,
NOVEMBER 14th TO 22nd, 1952
I appreciated the opportunity of being able to attend this greatest Canadian agricultural event. This great fair rotates largely around the various live-stock events.
It offers to those persons charged with the responsibility of policy administration the
best possible and only one complete all-Canadian show window for our national agriculture. In live-stock production, as in all other industries, styles, types, and methods
The " Royal" is the greatest single link to hold together Canadian live-stock producers from all the Provinces. It is the only single meeting place for Canadian live-stock
men and for the workers in the various branches and fields of live-stock production,
with its many ramifications and interlocking policies.
Prices for breeding stock, meat, and wool have been satisfactory. The generally
high prices have encouraged more people to establish new flocks. The equipment
necessary for sheep-farming is not extensive, but it calls for good management in order
to protect the flock against sheep-killing dogs if possible.
For average prices for lambs, see Appendix No. 4.
Compensation Paid under the " Sheep Protection Act " from the Dog Tax Fund
There is little to report in the way of anything new as far as swine production is
concerned. Specialized farming which calls for intimate attention to one type of production and the lack of sufficient coarse-grain supplies definitely limit the production of
swine in this Province.
For inspected slaughtering of hogs, see Appendix No. 1. For average prices of
hogs, see Appendix No. 5. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 89
The over-all picture showed no spectacular outbreaks of diseases of live stock.
The changing live-stock production picture associated with the ever-increasing tempo
in movements of live stock is placing a very heavy burden upon the staff of the Live
Since the Branch began, some eleven years ago, to pinpoint its efforts under the
area plan in an attempt to deal with the problem of disease-control and eradication,
there has been a marked change in the general attitude of the legitimate producer. Producers who but a few years ago were at best only mildly interested in disease-control are
to-day keenly awake to the importance of this basic work. The spread of area control
of diseases, such as brucellosis, is an indication of this changed view-point.
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—-This particular disease usually appears in a more complex form as " shipping fever." Early work done on the handling of this disease has
resulted in very good general control.
Coccidiosis.—Here again good educational work by the Branch throughout the
years has largely eliminated this disease from much of the beef-cattle country. Where
nutrition and general management are weak, the disease often appears. It is appearing
in places among dairy calves where practices are poor.
Necrotic Stomatitis.—The disease has been greatly reduced amongst our range
herds. Good field work has brought results.
Blackleg and Malignant (Edema.—Trading in breeding stock back to farms and
ranches from sources outside the Province has resulted in the rather wide establishment
of blackleg. Malignant oedema is now quite often found associated with blackleg.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—Last year's prediction that a step-up in the incidence
of the disease could be expected proved to be correct.
Caseous Lymphadenitis.—Gradual progress in the eradication of this disease is
being made. More intimate field work at shearing-time is helping.
Keratitis (Pink-eye).—Closer attention to the treatment and control of this disease
is showing some results and field work is helping.
Carcinoma of the Eye.—This condition is something of a problem, since it may
have an inheritance factor.
Foot-rot in Sheep.—Our long-time quarantine and control is resulting in definite
Foot-rot in Cattle.—Cattle harbour an infection different from the one found in
sheep. More definite field work is improving this situation.
Liver A bscess.—This condition in cattie is found chiefly where foot-rot is prevalent.
Improvement in the foot-rot situation will be reflected in a reduction in the incidence of
Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis.—These conditions may appear singly or in
combination. When found in cattle, they result in condemnations of heads and tongues.
Good field work in the past did much to reduce the incidence of these diseases, but
control and eradication calls for regular systematic field work.
Swine Erysipelas.—It is thought that this disease is another importation, coming in
largely with swine. Where imported swine go to feed-lots, they frequently get out to
farms, where the disease becomes established.
Swine Rhinitis.—This disease is so widely established in our swine herds over most,
of not all, of this Dominion that it is felt by many workers that we may have to live with
Other Complex Swine Troubles.—It would be difficult to specifically tabulate such
swine conditions. These conditions affect swine in many different ways. They may CC 90
appear in enteric (scours) form, pulmonary (lung) form, etc. These forms may appear
in combination and associated with secondary infections not necessarily specific. There
is little doubt but much of this trouble can be attributed to bad management and poor
feeding practices as a starting-point. The peddling about of breeding stock and feeders
was the primary cause for the widespread appearance of this complex picture.
Infectious Abortion Other than Brucella Infection.—It must be recognized that
there are many micro-organisms and materials which may, under certain circumstances,
produce a premature expulsion of the foetus (abortion). It would be impossible to even
attempt to enumerate these, but there are two specific infective organisms which are
becoming of more and more economic importance all the time—namely, Trichamoniasis
foetus and Vibrio foetus. These infections are making their appearance in several parts
of the Province, and it would seem that in many instances they came in with animals from
outside points. There is still another condition, commonly called vaginitis, which may in
some instances be caused by some infective factor or group of causative factors.
Mastitis.—This complex disease syndrome injects upon the dairy industry one of its
greatest burdens. Surveys made all over this continent have come forward with figures
of estimated losses which are colossal. More work should be done as soon as
possible on this great problem. In addition to the loss to the industry, the public health
sides inject a very important problem. Everyone should remember that milk is a food for
humans, and that it should be produced and handled as such. Those people charged with
the responsibility of trying to regulate the production of milk, which must include the
control of mastitis, have a most difficult job in many ways. The indifference to the disease
shown by some producers and others in the trade is a very great obstacle in the way of
our officers trying to deal with the problem. The indiscriminate use of new treatments
purported to be highly effective in the treatment of mastitis is beginning to show the
results predicted by professional veterinarians. We are now beginning to find herds in
which the disease seems to be impossible to deal with, simply because home treatment
has succeeded only in the elimination of the milder strains of the predominant causative
organism, resulting in the field being taken over by the more virulent forms of streptococci and other equally difficult mastitis-producing germs, such as staphlococci and forms
of coli as well as other micro-organisms. As our Veterinary Inspectors go about their
work of farm and dairy herd inspections, as provided under the " Milk Act," they urge
dairymen to use good judgment in the matter of their choice and use of treatment.
We are constantly trying to instill into the minds of all dairymen the importance
of good herd management as the cornerstone on which to build their herds as the only
way possible to reduce and control mastitis. Too many dairymen fail to appreciate the
value of the regular checks being made by our Veterinary Inspectors, but during this
year there seems to be a change for the better. Too many dairy-plant operators still
continue to offer the suggestion that they can successfully handle the production of milk
from the receiving stand. It will take all our forces, working in the closest harmony,
to even hope to deal with this great problem.
Some very excellent tables were prepared by the different Veterinary Inspectors,
but space does not permit them to be included. However, a summary of these follows: —
A. S. Clerke —
A. Kidd -
Prince George -
Kamloops - —
G. M. Clark -.
10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 91
All over this continent, brucellosis and its control are receiving more consideration
to-day than any other single disease entity. The work of control and eradication in some
parts of the world has almost developed into a race to see who can get cleaned up first.
Thinking cattlemen are fast awakening to the fact that unless they eradicate this disease
from their herds and their community that markets will very soon be closed to their cattle
and even to their dairy products.
Very fortunately this development was anticipated by this Branch many years ago
and when Brucella Vaccine (strain 19) became available in 1941 we immediately started
our brucellosis-eradication work. This began first by arranging to have practising veterinarians administer the vaccine according to a specific plan, where calves between certain
ages were vaccinated and duly identified by tagging and an official certificate issued.
From a small beginning of 3,098 calves vaccinated in the first year (July 31st, 1941, to
July 31st, 1942), entirely done by practising veterinarians, we have reached the place
where 24,153 calves were vaccinated by private plan and under our area control plan.
The following tabulated statement gives the over-all picture:—
First year (July 31st, 1941, to July 31st, 1942) 3,098
Second year (August 1st, 1942, to July 31st, 1943) 5,778
Third year (August 1st, 1943, to July 31st, 1944) 7,022
Fourth year (August 1st, 1944, to July 31st, 1945) 8,318
Fifth year (August 1st, 1945, to July 31st, 1946) 7,434
Sixth year (August 1st, 1946, to July 31st, 1947) 8,569
Seventh year (August 1st, 1947, to July 31st, 1948) 10,980
Eighth year (August 1st, 1948, to July 31st, 1949) 15,448
Ninth year (August 1st, 1949, to July 14th, 1950) 17,083
Grand total for nine years of this policy's operation 83,730
Calfhood Vaccination Under Joint Policy of Federal-Provincial
by Provincial Vaccina-
July 15th, 1950, to June 30th, 1951 8,798 18,929
July 1st, 1951, to June 30th, 1952 11,324 24,153
Grand totals 20,122 43,082
On the date of July 14th, 1950, the programme became a joint Federal-Provincial
policy, in which the Federal Department of Agriculture, Health of Animals Division, furnished to the Provincial Department vaccine free for distribution according to an agreed-
upon plan. The Province is required to direct and administer the policy.
The first area was gazetted on May 18th, 1949. We now have nineteen areas or
extensions to areas most of which are gazetted. The others should very soon be ready for
gazetting, when little matters such as boundary locations have been cleared up.
The following table gives in concise form a picture of the vaccinating work done to
date in the different areas:— CC 92
South-west Kootenay _ -
Totals - _
For more details with respect to the establishment of these areas, I would refer you
to the Annual Reports of previous years.
I am pleased to be able to report the following areas as now brucellosis-free: Areas
Nos. 1, 3, 8, 11, and 15, which includes all of the West Kootenay, except a small spot
shortly to be completed in Area No. 15. This area includes some 4,500 or more herds.
Four other areas have been finally cleaned up and shown by blood test to be free of
brucellosis—namely, Area 10, Powell River; Area 12, Squamish; Area 13, Galiano,
Mayne, Saturna, North and South Pender, Prevost, and Moresby Islands; and Area 14,
Salt Spring Island.
A new area at McBride, just recently presented and not yet gazetted, has been completely blood-tested and found to be entirely free from brucellosis. An extension to the
No. 6 area (Savona) has been presented and work is starting soon in this area. Petitions
have been received from the Pemberton district asking that they be brought under the
policy. A small, intimately confined area about Oyama has been presented and is being
In the conduct of this work, it should be realized that it places a very heavy strain
upon the staff during the period when this work is required to be done. Blood-testing for
brucellosis has included several types of service. The major effort, of course, is the work
within our disease-control areas. In the mixed-farming and small-herd areas, blood-
testing is the hub around which the control work turns.
Quite a number of calves and young stock are blood-tested under our calf-placement
programme. Several practising veterinarians make use of our laboratory service in the
testing of bloods drawn by them.
The following are extracts from reports of Veterinary Inspectors:-—
Dr. I. D. C. Clark, Penticton:—
" Princeton Disease-free Area No. 9 includes 52 premises and approximately 2,500
cattle. Blood-testing of dairy cattle completed and all reactors (39) slaughtered.
" Southern Interior Disease-free Area No. 16 is one of the larger areas, consisting
of 9 separate cattle associations. The total number of premises and of cattle has not
as yet been assessed, but there are over 700 premises and approximately 13,000 cattle.
Work in this area began in January, 1952. In the Grand Forks-Cascade district, a total
of 1,197 cattle were blood-tested on 383 premises. Only 9 positive animals on 4 premises
were found. These were immediately slaughtered. Retest on 104 cattle found 1 reactor
and 1 suspicious reactor which later turned negative." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 93
Dr. J. G. Fowler, Prince George:—
"A total of 4,090 calves were vaccinated on 134 premises in 6 areas. The blood-
testing in the areas has been marked by a fairly high percentage of reactors. The McBride
area however was entirely free of the disease.
" The two Williams Lake cattle sales this year very forcefully pointed out the
necessity for testing all cows going into the control areas. One hundred and forty-four
cows were tested and 37 of these were removed as either positive or suspicious animals,
approximately 25 per cent. The sales also pointed out the value of the V. 12 in controlling and following the movement of reactor cattle. Further to the sales at Williams
Lake, many of the local ranchers bought those heifers that had a tag in their right ear,
an indication of their faith in the vaccination programme. Those heifers that were vaccinated were released from the sale without further test. Heifer calves were also released
subject to their being available for vaccination this fall.
"A total of 620 animals were blood-tested, of which 530 were negative, 55 positive,
and 35 suspicious, giving a reactor percentage of 15."
Dr. J. J. Carney, Nelson:—
"A total of 908 cattle were blood-tested in Areas Nos. 15 and 16, of which 8 head
were positive and 5 head suspicious.
" Quarantine from 3 dairy premises having had ' hot' herds was lifted during the
year, as brucellosis had appeared to have been eliminated from premises concerned.
Periodical vaccination of calves is being carried out in these and adjacent herds as a
"A total of 562 calves was vaccinated during the year in Southern Interior area,
Inonoaklin Area, and South-west Kootenay Area."
Dr. R. L. Lancaster, Nelson:—
"A total of 808 head were vaccinated in Areas Nos. 2, 6, and 11. Blood tests were
carried out on 306 head in the Burton Area, all of which tests proved negative. In the
South-west Kootenay Area, 483 head were bled, with 5 suspicious and 4 positive reactors.
All 79 head tested in the North-west Kootenay Area reported negative.
" Besides area testing, 4 herds were blood-tested to ascertain the health status prior
to issuing A Grades under the ' Milk Act.' "
Dr. A. Kidd, New Westminster:—
"A total of 645 head were blood-tested for brucellosis, of which 545 head were
negative, 65 positive, and 35 suspicious. Seventy-three calves were vaccinated. The
Gulf Islands Disease-free Area and the Squamish Disease-free Area are both well established now, and work in these areas is routine."
Dr. C. F. Morris, New Westminster:—
" Powell River Area is now disease-free, with all reactors having been shipped out.
Since the initial blood test on this area, 96 head on 10 premises have been tested, with
4 head positive and 2 suspicious. A total of 42 reactors have been removed from this
area, with all of them being dairy stock. Of a total of 331 head blood-tested so far in
this area, the 42 reactors represent 12.7 per cent. In this area, 39 heifer calves have
No attempt will be made to deal with this subject at any great length. I feel, however, that a statement should be placed on permanent record. Individuals as well as
some officials saw fit to express opinions with respect to the action taken by this Department, which in many instances were not correct and often were entirely unfair. It is
generally felt that the job done by this Department was a very useful and necessary
When foot-and-mouth disease was finally officially announced on February 25th,
1952, by the Federal Department of Agriculture, as having appeared in Saskatchewan, CC 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
there was a flood of inquiries asking about what was going to be done by our Department
to protect the interests of British Columbia stockmen and game interests. The fact that
the disease had been existent in the Saskatchewan area for some time was alarming, and
people were critical. In explanation, we consistently defended the Federal Department
of Agriculture, pointing out that it was a new experience for this or any Canadian
Department; its appearance in such a location was difficult to appreciate; and certainly
the Federal Department had to be very sure of its ground before declaring the outbreak
of a vesicular disease to be foot-and-mouth disease. The usual group of traders and
dealers who usually find fault with anything and everything done which may interfere
in the slightest with their activities would have been the first to attack the Federal Government had they wrongly declared the outbreak.
When the disease was reported in Saskatchewan, we at once tried to ascertain from
Federal officials where all the disease had appeared. We got little specific information
or advice. Anyone acquainted with disease-control work at once saw the possibility that
the virus of foot-and-mouth disease could be widely spread during this time by traffic in
live stock and industry in general in and out of the Saskatchewan area. The fact that
climatic conditions were ideal for the immobilization of the infection definitely indicated
the necessity of confining traffic, especially of live stock, to limited areas and this particularly applied to the main traffic lanes.
In an effort to get some specific information on just what obtained, we explored
every possible avenue and in one instance we were told by an outside official that two
breaks had been reported quite close to British Columbia. This fortunately proved to
be incorrect, but with the British Columbia live-stock and game interests insisting upon
action and the Federal Government not wishing to act even for a temporary Provincial
border closure, the British Columbia Department of Agriculture moved to place a ban
against the movement of live stock across our Province until such time as the situation
was clarified. I was directed to go to Alberta to look into the matter and report.
After discussion with our live-stock interests, a plan was presented whereby we
would draw a full quota of all classes of five stock from selected districts well removed
from the main traffic lanes. This plan was immediately put into application. A point
which seemed to be entirely ignored was that British Columbia imported more live stock
from the Prairie Provinces than did any other country or Province, which, of course,
made us proportionately more vulnerable, and that it was only sound procedure to draw
any supplies most carefully. Had there been no control, the weight of live-stock movements could easily have been from areas close to and from all around the trouble zone.
Again no one could speak with certainty about where the disease might be lying latent
during those early months with feed-lots frozen.
British Columbia continued to carry out this policy and stationed Veterinary Inspectors at the several markets to assist in the checking of shipments which would be suitable
to travel across British Columbia. We received the very best of co-operation from the
transportation people and from the stockyard officials and commission firms. Needless
to say, we had all the approaches in the world offered and the usual attempts made by
dealers to break down our plan. Despite all the reports to the contrary, none of these
attempts was successful. It is very gratifying to be able to report that we had every
encouragement and support from live-stock producers east of the mountains. Our own
live-stock people and game interests and people in general gave the best of help and
continue to voice their appreciation of what was done. It is felt that our effort very
materially assisted the over-all work of control. As is so often stated, " What could be
done if foot-and-mouth disease once became established in this Province? "
The Federal Department finally accepted our suggestion and for the last few weeks
directed the movement of live stock along the line which we had been doing. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 95
GENERAL EXTRACTS FROM REPORTS OF INSPECTORS
Members of the staff are called upon to make many contributions in service which
cannot be intimately recorded. These I will try to present briefly.
All members of the staff endeavour to set aside a short period each week for office
interviews. This is usually on Saturday.
Dr. Morris spent seven weeks on area work in the Interior of the Province vaccinating
1,597 calves, and six weeks in Alberta on foot-and-mouth disease embargo control,
where 30,694 head of live stock were checked for entry. Field investigations in areas
outside his own district, one requiring surgical treatment of over 100 head of range calves,
were also carried out.
Dr. Kidd reports briefly on our voluntary meat-inspection service being tried at
Clappison Packers Ltd., Haney. In this formative stage, it was necessary for Dr. Kidd
to make thirty-one visits to the plant, and hold six conferences with Dr. Hopkins on
There is still considerable work to be done in order to get this service properly
established on a routine basis. This effort will, we trust, set the stage for more such
properly built and conducted plants. A total of 804 cattle, 59 sheep, 98 lambs, and
4,135 swine were inspected at slaughter, with the total carcasses of 2 cattle, 1 sheep, and
20 swine being condemned, as well as the usual condemnations of livers, hearts, kidneys,
etc. It must be borne in mind that this is a very high-class small plant handling only the
best class of live stock. Condemnations in such an establishment are very small in comparison to what would be made in some of the places at present slaughtering without
inspection. Scattered around the country, unfortunately, are slaughtering places where
the most inferior quality stock is killed and peddled off to a trade prepared to handle this
class of meat.
Drs. Lancaster and Carney report quite a bad outbreak of winter-dysentery in cattle
in the Golden district, wrongly diagnosed as hemorrhagic septicaemia. They also report
several breaks of coccidiosis in cattle in the East Kootenay with some fatalities. These
were promptly dealt with. A case of tetanus in a horse was uncovered in the Fernie
district. The Department of Health in Victoria was promptly advised and the medical
men in the territory about Fernie were alerted for possible human cases.
An outbreak of encephalomyelitis in the Parsons area was dealt with. Horsetail
(equisetum) poisoning in Fruitvale was diagnosed by this office by phone and Drs.
Carney and Lancaster promptly took charge.
An extensive outbreak of avian tuberculosis was uncovered in flocks in the Golden
and in the Greater Nelson areas. Blackhead in turkeys was found at a number of points.
A peculiar form of encephalitis in cattle developed in the Creston area. Laboratory
findings have shown negative, but the case is being watched.
A very nice liaison exists between the different district offices and the office in
Victoria in the way of specific reports (L.S. 10 Report Form) on all happenings in the
field. These reports give a total of well over 600 investigations.
Summarizing from the report of Dr. J. G. Fowler, in the field of swine production we
get a typical present-day swine-disease picture including shipping-fever, pneumonia,
the complex enteric conditions, swine erysipelas, and skin conditions, arthritis, baby-pig
diseases, and no doubt the so-called rhinitis.
In the matter of horse troubles, there were the usual colic cases, especially of the
impaction type so frequent in that country. We have had these reported for many years.
Poor feeding and management are the basic causes. Swamp-fever was reported, as usual.
In cattle, cases of white scours in calves, winter-dysentery, chronic bloat, necrotic
stomatitis, blackleg, foot-rot, shipping-fever, plant-poisoning, actinomycosis, bothryomy-
cosis, and actinobacillosis. CC 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In poultry, some Newcastle disease was reported. Leukosis seems to be the most
common condition met with in the flocks of that area. In sheep, some shipping-fever
Dr. Fowler, Dr. G. M. Clark, and Dr. I. D. C. Clark spent some time in assisting
with the several cattle sales in their respective districts, and in taking care of the blood-
testing work required under our brucellosis area policy. All members spent some time
attending meetings and conferences and assisting other groups in specific jobs.
In the case of Drs. Kidd, Morris, Clerke, G. M. Clark, and I. D. C. Clark, there
have been fewer investigations dealing with sporadic and general disease problems, since
in these districts there is a good private-practitioner service. However, in these districts
there is a wider range of policy programmes to be dealt with. The prompt action of Dr.
I. D. C. Clark was responsible for saving most of a herd of some sixty cattle from nitrite
PROVINCIAL WARBLE-FLY AND TICK CONTROL
British Columbia, although the first Province in the Dominion to come forward with
an organized warble-fly control programme, still has much to do before our goal of complete eradication will be reached.
In areas where we cart intimately follow out the conduct of the work, the results are
highly satisfactory. I wish to express appreciation for all help received from Departmental personnel who have taken time from their regular duties to assist.
The very fine and intimate job done by F. C. Clark, Live Stock Inspector, New
Westminster, deserves mention. His report, in summary, states that warble-fly material
was distributed through seventy centres in fifteen municipalities in the Fraser Valley.
Some 1,488 pounds of powder were distributed, including 19 pounds to the Pemberton
Valley and 20 pounds to Lytton. Some warbles appeared in February, but the greatest
incidence occurred in April and May. Many field checks were made at farms and at
auction barns, and an estimate made showed approximately 80 per cent of adult cattle
and 60 per cent of young stock to be free of warbles and the average incidence over all
was between one and two warbles per head. Most herd owners appreciate the service
and are asking that the programme be made compulsory in order to finally eradicate
Some reports received might be mentioned briefly. R. J. Desrosiers and J. B. Aye,
Jaffray, B.C., report bulls having four warbles on first treatment and two on the second
treatment; cows showed an average of one warble on first treatment and an average of
one-half warble on second treatment, with yearlings and 2-year-olds showing two in first
and one in second treatment. This is a marked improvement over the ten to fifteen
warble incidence found when the work began.
J. D. Hazlette, District Agriculturist, Duncan, reports 325 cattle treated. T. S.
Crack, Associate District Agriculturist, Courtenay, reported on the treatment of some
800 cattle in the Greater Courtenay area.
A very good report came in from G. D. Johnson, Dairy Branch, Kelowna, for that
district, which shows steady progress and a quite light infestation.
The North Okanagan has not progressed as rapidly as it should. The incidence
of warbles in many parts, especially the outer fringes, is perhaps above ten per animal on
the average. Good work done in past years in Central British Columbia has practically
eliminated warbles from the cattle herds.
"MILK ACT" ADMINISTRATION, DAIRY-HERD INSPECTION,
AND DAIRY-FARM GRADING
The importance of this service to the dairy industry and to public health is becoming
more appreciated. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Like many other industries, the dairy industry developed from a very small beginning
where perhaps single-cow owners began to sell a few quarts of milk until to-day we find
the modern dairy industry, which consists of several essential units—the producer, the
distributor, and processing units—and the consumer as the group to whom the product
is delivered for final consumption.
The complexity of the over-all picture injects a heavy responsibility upon regulatory
bodies charged with the work of trying to take care of the needs of the respective groups.
The consumer, as the end market for the product, must be considered. Milk must
be safe and free from infectious organisms which might be harmful or dangerous. Milk as
a food product should be clean and wholesome. In the case of the distributors, the supervision received from Inspectors of the Dairy Branch is most helpful and needs to be
extended. In the case of the producer, our Veterinary Inspectors are doing a very
wonderful job but certainly the staff is inadequate to do the work as completely as it
should be done. One of the real problems with which we are faced to-day is that of
herd examinations, especially for mastitis. Where our men have been able to cover the
field, marked improvement is noted. Much depends upon the attitude of the individual
dairyman and upon the support given by the dairy plant receiving the product. Where
good co-operation is received from the plant operator, milk quality is high and is being
sought after by consumers.
I wish to express appreciation for the fine co-operation received from the Provincial
Department of Health and the several health officers and directors throughout the Province. The work of our two Departments is becoming very closely co-ordinated.
Appendix No. 6 gives a summary, of premises and herds graded by our Veterinary
A short tabulation of work done by Veterinary Inspectors under the policy shows
Grade of Premises
B 1 C
Dr. A. Kidd
Dr. A. S. Clerke
Dr. C. F. Morris
Dr. I. D. C. Clark
Dr. R. L. Lancaster
Dr. J. J. Carney
Dr. G. M. Clark.
Dr. J. G. Fowler.
The large number of Grade U premises is made up of small one- and two-cow people
who were peddling without a grade and making it hard sometimes for the legitimate
dairymen. They are now mostly graded and will be held responsible under the Act.
APPROVED HERD PLAN
This policy is yet but a small beginning. Some five herd owners are being helped to
co-ordinate the several live-stock divisional programmes in order that when the final
measure of evaluation is placed upon their herds, by means of cow-testing, a more accurate measure of the real worth of individual animals may be secured.
This is a fine piece of teamwork where the herd owner, his veterinarian, the Veterinary Inspectors and Live Stock Inspectors, and the Cow-testing Association supervisors
pool their experience. All is assembled by the Live Stock Branch and is presented to the
hprA owner as a plan of procedure. CC 98
DAIRY-STOCK PLACEMENT PROGRAMME
This work is basically sound and is beginning to attract more and more interest all
the time. It is built around the approach of high production and sound health. Calves
and young breeding stock are carefully selected for production and type by our dairy-cattle
specialist and our Cow-testing Association staff. After such preliminary selection, Veterinary Inspectors of the Branch carefully check for evidence of clinical disease and by
blood test for freedom from brucellosis.
Under this policy, established in 1950, there have been to date some 104 buyers,
which can easily mean an equal number of potential dairymen who have been given a
proper start so that they may by reasonable effort be really successful. The possibilities
of this work are very great. It is a quality job.
Dr. C. F. Morris was called upon to undertake a large part of the blood-testing and
clinical inspection of calves and young stock selected under this policy. Dr. A. Kidd
assisted, but work on other policies did not permit this officer to associate himself closely
with this policy.
The following is a summary from the report of F. C. Clark:—
Inquiries for aid in locating dairy stock were received from much farther afield than
in 1950 or 1951. The following table lists the areas in the Interior of the Province where
dairy cattle from the Fraser Valley were placed under our programme during 1952:—
Pemberton „ -
1 j 2
62 1 7
This year nineteen registered dairy bulls or bull calves were selected and shipped in
response to inquiries received. This is a tremendous increase over 1951, when only one
inquiry was received for a bull calf.
A total of sixty-nine head of registered stock was placed in 1952, which is also a very
great increase over the number of registered animals shipped in 1951.
During a field trip in September to the North Thompson Valley near Kamloops and
to the Okanagan Valley, it was found that 95 per cent of the heifers shipped in under
our programme were still there. Approximately 24 per cent were milking and another
28 per cent had been bred but not yet calved. Of the total shipped, 42 per cent had not
yet been bred.
A record has been kept of every calf shipped, as a guide to the future and to place
the programme on a sound basis. In almost every case, those purchasing calves were
very well satisfied with them
As a result of past experiences, certain adjustments will be made in this work. We
feel that it is a waste of top breeding dairy stock to find so many being bred to beef bulls.
In the coming year it is hoped that more intimate field work can be done in an effort to
place these clean, quality young dairy animals in areas where greater dairy production is
needed, especially in those areas where our disease-control area work has been established
and where Cow-testing Association routes are established. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Fraser Valley—Accredited to June 1st, 1954; seventh general
Vancouver Island — Third general completed April 12th, 1952;
established December 8th, 1939 _
Vancouver Island (extended)—First general; established June
30th, 1950 - - - - - -
Greater Okanagan—First general; established August 10th, 1949 .
Kamloops—First general; established June 30th, 1950-
Kootenay—First general; established June 30th, 1950 —
Prince George—First general; established June 30th, 1950 -
Cariboo—First general; established June 30th, 1950
Vancouver—First general; established June 30lh, 1950— —
Prince Rupert—First general; established June 30th, 1950-
Total tested, 1952
4.9.K 1 34.675
The last Provincial tuberculosis testing was done in the Peace River area during the
past summer, when Dr. J. G. Fowler tested eighty-eight head. The Peace River Land
Recording District has been declared a restricted area for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis by Federal Order in Council P.C. 4537 of November 28th, 1952.
FUR-FARMING AND " FUR-FARM ACT " ADMINISTRATION
The " Fur-farm Act " is the newest Act which the Live Stock Branch is required to
administer. This Act is basically practical and is designed to direct and protect the
industry. It has accomplished much for the fur-farmers of the Province since it was
legalized in 1947.
A study of the several tables will give a general picture of the industry. The following figures were released by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics in April, 1952, for the
During 1952, three outbreaks of distemper occurred, involving nine ranches, all in
the Fraser Valley, and all are still under quarantine. Quarantine was lifted in August on
a Vancouver Island ranch which had been quarantined in August, 1951, following an outbreak of distemper.
Vaccine for these outbreaks was supplied by the Department at a cost of $2,197.
As a precautionary measure, eight other ranches vaccinated against distemper during the
year, resulting in a total of 19 permits to vaccinate being issued.
In 1952, 398 licences (Nos. 1751-D to 2148-D) were issued to operate fur-farms,
as against 373 licences in 1951. Several ranches changed hands and a number went out
of business. Sixty-two new licences were issued during 1952, fifty-two to raise mink and
ten to raise chinchilla.
The following table indicates the number of ranches raising each species of animal
and the numbers of each species of fur-bearers on the farms at January 1st each year:— CC 100
Number of Farms
Number of Animals
1 These do not total to the number of licences issued, owing to the fact that some licensees keep more than one
species of animal.
A considerable decrease in the number of fur-farm transportation permits issued
during the year is noted. The number of export permits dropped more than 50 per cent,
although the number of animals did not vary greatly. The following table indicates the
distribution of the fur-farm transportation permits issued during the period December 1st,
1951, to November 30th, 1952 (figures for 1951 shown in parentheses):—
Kind and Number of Permits
Export, 82 (169)—
- - (15)
Import, 38 (20)—
Move, 47 (24) „„ _
In addition to the above, twenty-seven permits were issued for animals entering
various shows, including the Alberta Live Animal Fur Shows in January and November,
the Vancouver Island Chinchilla Show, the Second Annual British Columbia Chinchilla
Show, the Western International Chinchilla Show, and the Toronto Chinchilla Show.
Nearly all of the veterinary staff is called upon to assist to a certain extent with the
administration of the " Fur-farm Act," but credit must go to Dr. A. Kidd for the extremely
capable job which he does in the matter of administering the Act in the Fraser Valley,
where the greatest volume of the fur-farms are located. A highly efficient veterinary
practitioner service is being built up to take care of the needs of the industry.
Second Annual Chinchilla Show
This show was held at Little Brothers Fur Sales Agency in Vancouver on Friday,
January 25th, 1951, and was followed the next day by the first Western Canadian Chinchilla Show, both under the sponsorship of the British Columbia Mainland Branch of the
National Chinchilla Breeders of Canada. There were over 100 entries.
George E. Currey, Pacific Gem Chinchilla Ranch, Whalley, took the champion
animal and champion male trophies in both shows.
Alberta Live Mink Show, 1951-52
Sponsored by the Alberta Fur Breeders' Association, this show was held in the Live
Stock Pavilion at Edmonton. Four British Columbia breeders entered stock and were
\ DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
M. D. Combs, of Royal Oak, had the grand champion Standard male kit and
C. Combs, of Surrey, the reserve grand champion Standard female kit. A. E. Combs, of
White Rock, had the grand champion Pastel adult male, the grand champion Recessive
White adult male, and had bred the grand champion Sapphire medium male kit.
The grand champion sweepstakes of the show was won by a Royal Sapphire male
owned by H. Ausland, of lie a La Crosse, and which had been purchased from C. Combs,
of Surrey, just prior to the show.
Alberta Live Mink Show, 1952-53
This show, held in Calgary on November 16th, 17th, and 18th, was attended by 6
British Columbia exhibitors showing 86 mink. In the Dark Standard class, M. D. Combs,
of Royal Oak, took both championships. A. E. Combs, of White Rock, took all four
champion awards for Stewart Pastels in classes of 63 for males and 33 for females, and
went on to win the show's top breeder award by a substantial margin.
PATHOLOGICAL LABORATORY SERVICES
Dr. J. C. Bankier, in charge of the Pathological Laboratory at the University of
British Columbia, and Dr. E. A. Bruce, in charge (part time) of the laboratory at
Victoria, each present a summary of laboratory work done.
Both pathologists have, in addition, offered considerable assistance to our field staff
working on problems of disease in the field. Livestock men, poultry-breeders, and fur-
farmers also make use of this service by direct contact or by shipment of specimens to the
Dr. E. A. Bruce has been most helpful in Victoria. His long and varied experience
is reflected in the very excellent results obtained from this laboratory.
Service such as we provide calls for a prompt diagnosis in order that our field staff
or the practising veterinarian or the farmer, as the case may be, can take immediate action
in keeping with the situation uncovered.
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1951,
to November 30th, 1952
Diseases Due 1
Malignant cedema -
Negative, 5343; suspicious, 181; positive, 284
Negative, 12; positive, 1
VICTORIA.. B. C. CC 102
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1951,
to November 30th, 1952—Continued
Diseases Due to—
Mink, myelogenous leukemia
Mink, fox, squabs (2)
Chilling - -
Blood-spots (4), watery
Mink (2), nutria (1)
2 weeks old
Arsenic, zinc, " 1080 "
cienta, lepidium, C02
Grand totals — -
6,496 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Specimens Examined in Vancouver Laboratory, December 1st, 1951,
to November 30th, 1952
Diseases Due to—
Negative, 11; positive, 1
Mink (3), duck (1), budgerigar (1) -
Mink (8), dog (1)
Positive, 8; negative, L
Mink (f)) —
Goose (1), rabbit (1), mink
(3), deer (1)-
Rabbits (2), mink (2), cattle
Partridge (1), peacock (1)
Mink (17), cat (1)
Penguins.- - -
4 CC 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Specimens Examined in Vancouver Laboratory, December 1st, 1951,
to November 30th, 1952—Continued
Diseases Due to—
Degeneration (liver) _
Moose (1), budgerigar (1),
mink (2) -
Swans (2), geese (3)
Mink (1), chinchilla (1)
Rabbit (1), chinchilla (1),
Negative findings ,
Rabbit (1), horse (1) blood,
bear (1), cow (1) blood
Yellow fat. _
86 I 14
This work, while not the immediate responsibility of the Department, has yet
received most liberal assistance in money and technical help during the past several years.
The Federal Department of Agriculture has continued to provide the bulls of the
Ayrshire, Holstein, Jersey, and Guernsey breeds for this service, conducted from two
centres at Chilliwack and Milner.
The centre at Milner provides semen to sub-units at Victoria, Duncan, Courtenay,
Saltspring Island, Salmon Arm, Armstrong, Vernon, and Kelowna.
The figures given in the following brief tabulation indicate the progress of the
work:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 105
Cows Inseminated during the Period January 1st to November 30th, 1952,
Compared with Figures for the Full Year of 1951
District or Unit 1952 1951
Lower Fraser Valley 12,832 15,231
Victoria 219 100
Duncan 651 777
Courtenay 193 109
Saltspring Island (ten months) 112 53
Salmon Arm 272 105
Armstrong 313 135
Vernon (six months) 105 60
Kelowna 392 633
Chilliwack 3,240 3,103
Totals 18,329 20,306
The following is a report by the Recorder of Brands, Thomas Moore:—
Shipments of cattle in British Columbia in 1952 were 55,374 head, as compared
to 69,763 head shipped in 1951. This shows a decrease of 14,389 head.
Cattle shipped from the Interior of British Columbia to the United States in 1952
were 205, compared to 7,330 head in 1951, a decrease of 7,125 head. With the outbreak
of foot-and-mouth disease in Canada, an embargo was placed by the United States.
Consequently, shipments of cattle to the United States show a sharp decrease.
Williams Lake held two big cattle sales this year, one on October 9th and 10th,
when 1,962 head were sold, and one on November 1st, when 1,489 head were sold
through the ring. With the present market trend, prices received were lower than in
1951, packer buyers taking most of the finished cattle.
Other large cattle sales were held at Okanagan Falls, Elko, and Kamloops. At these
sales, prices were lower than in 1951 but were in line with the present market trend.
Okanagan Falls held two cattle sales this year. Packer buyers were well represented.
Elko had a number of Alberta buyers, who purchased the majority of the cattle offered.
Kamloops Spring and Christmas Fat Stock Sales were well attended, with lower
prices paid for cattle than in 1951.
Shipments of cattle from the Cariboo were 19,295, compared with 20,609 in 1951,
a decrease of 1,314 head.
Kamloops-Nicola shipped 20,679, a decrease of 5,120 head.
Shipments of hides were 14,258, as compared to 13,841 in 1951, an increase in
the number of hides of 417.
Horses shipped in 1952 were 5,251, as against 5,519 in 1951, a decrease of 268.
Shipments of cattle to the Prairies were 4,140 head in 1952, compared to 13,005
head in 1951, a decrease of 8,865 head.
Brand inspection was carried on by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at sixty-
nine shipping points in the following districts:—
Cariboo: Williams Lake, Quesnel, Alexis Creek, Bella Coola, Clinton, Lillooet,
Bralorne, and 100-Mile House.
Kamloops-Nicola: Chase, Blue River, Salmon Arm, Ashcroft, Lytton, Spences
Bridge, Merritt, Hope, Kamloops, Flood, and Boston Bar. CC 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Okanagan and Similkameen: Vernon, Lumby, Armstrong, Enderby, Kelowna,
Penticton, Summerland, Oliver, Osoyoos, Princeton, Copper Mountain,
Keremeos, Hedley, Grand Forks, Greenwood, and Falkland.
South-eastern British Columbia: Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Crescent Valley, Nelson, Kaslo, Salmo, Creston, New Denver, Cranbrook,
Kimberley, Fernie, Natal, Invermere, Golden, Revelstoke, Nakusp,
Radium Hot Springs, and Field.
Central British Columbia and Peace River: Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace,
Burns Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, Red Pass, Pouce
Coupe, Dawson Creek, Fort St. John, Fort St. James, Watson Lake, and
Inspectors paid by the Department attended to the work at sixteen shipping-points
as follows: Bridge Lake, Clinton, Copper Creek, Dawson Creek, Endako, Graham Siding, Houston, 100-Mile House, Kamloops, Kitwanga, Lac la Hache, Nicola, Pavilion,
Soda Creek, Williams Lake, and Lone Butte (93-Mile House).
New appointments during the year were P. G. Lawrence, Inspector of Brands, Victoria; George J. Bowers, Deputy Brand Inspector, Kamloops; Frank Richter, Deputy
Brand Inspector, Keremeos; E. W. Wright, Deputy Brand Inspector, Lac la Hache; and
Mrs. G. I. M. Ross, Stenographer—Grade 2, Victoria.
F. C. Clark, Live Stock Inspector; Dr. C. F. Morris, Veterinary Inspector; and
Dr. A. Kidd, Veterinary Inspector, all of New Westminster, were appointed Deputy Brand
Inspectors on August 20th, 1952.
Resignations tendered during the year were S. S. White, Brand Inspector, Victoria,
and Thomas Pollard, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton.
Appreciation is expressed to the Brand Commissioners for their assistance and cooperation during the year.
Lectures to Royal Canadian Mounted Police on " Stock-brands Act "
Lectures given by the Recorder of Brands during the year were held at Kamloops,
Vernon, Penticton, Cranbrook, Nelson, Clinton, Williams Lake, Prince George, and
Lectures to the police consisted of certain parts of the " Stock-brands Act," " Beef
Cattle Producers' Assistance Act" and the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act." In giving
these lectures, the importance of proper brand inspection was dealt with, and where
available live stock were used and a practical demonstration of brand inspection was
carried out. The proper manner of making out brand inspection certificates and the
importance of same to secure records was demonstrated.
The enforcement of the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act" and the " Horned
Cattle Purchases Act" were fully explained.
In giving these lectures, it was noted that a number of new members in the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police were present. The attention and interest shown by all members of the force attending these lectures was appreciated.
Stockmen's Meetings, Cattle Sales, and Police Department
Meetings at Abbotsford and Milner, held on February 6th, 1952, were attended by
the Recorder of Brands. The purpose of these meetings was to explain the proposed
amendments to the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act" to a representation of livestock men. These amendments were fully explained and met with the approval of those
present. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 107
The annual meeting of the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association, held
at Merritt on May 30th, 1952, was attended. Proposed amendments to the "Stock-
brands Act" and the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act" were outlined by the
Recorder of Brands, approved, and passed by resolutions.
Live-stock sales at Kamloops, Okanagan Falls, and Williams Lake were attended.
A large number of police detachments were visited during the course of the year in regard
to the enforcement of the " Stock-brands Act," the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance
Act," and the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act."
National Brand Conference, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.
This conference was attended. It started on Sunday, June 29th, with a directors'
meeting for a review of the programme to be carried out June 30th to July 1st.
A considerable time was spent on this subject. Members from different States outlined their procedure and aired their problems. This matter was of great interest to all
in attendance because of its importance in the allotting of registered brands for the
protection of the live-stock industry.
Subjects covered June 29th and July 1st were " Early History of Brands and Brand
Inspection," " Market Trade Practices and Stockyards Services," " The Railroads' Part
in Brand Inspection," " Is the National Cattle Theft Act Effective," and " Foot and
A panel discussion on " Livestock Investigations;" subjects dealt with were Identification and Brands in Court; Evidence and Authority in Dealing with Cattle Stealing;
Policy of a Liaison Officer; Records as Evidence; meeting concluded with the election of
officers; the Denver stockyards and Brand Inspection Office visited.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police Co-operation
Appreciation is expressed to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for their cooperation throughout the Province in the enforcement of the " Stock-brands Act," the
"Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act," and the "Horned Cattle Purchases Act."
" Stock-brands Act " Enforcement
The enforcement of section 20 (evidence of sale of stock) : In order to assist in the
enforcement of this section, the department had a Memorandum of Sale book printed at
the request of the directors of the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers. These Memorandum of Sale books are available to all ranchers, live-stock men, dealers, and any
person buying or selling cattle and horses. They can be obtained from the Recorder of
Brands Office, Victoria, or from the Brand Inspectors at Kamloops, Williams Lake, or
Nicola, at the nominal cost of printing, fifty cents for each book.
The purpose of enforcing this section fully is to protect the live-stock industry by
having the purchaser produce definite evidence of ownership.
Section 34 (licence to engage in business as a stock-dealer): This section applies
all over the Province. Every effort has been made to enforce this section fully in order
to give better protection to the live-stock industry. All persons, including auctioneers,
dealing in stock are required to keep records, such records are open to the police or Brand
Inspectors and are very useful when investigating reported stolen or lost cattle or horses.
The annual supplement, No. 3, to the brand-book, showing all brands issued in
1951, was published and distributed to ranchers, stock associations, police, and Brand
-J CC 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The issuance of the 1952 brand-book, showing all brands in good standing, is due
at the end of this year. This brand-book will be compiled in this office and set up ready
for an offset job at the printers as soon as possible after the first of the new year.
New Brand Applications
Approximately 248 new brands were issued this year.
There were 869 renewal applications sent out from this office in 1952.
There were 119 transfers of brands made in 1952.
There were 93 reissues of brands made in 1952.
Licences Issued ]951 ]952
Slaughter-house 73 81
Hide-dealers 102 89
Stock-dealers 167 147
Beef-peddlers 11 10
Horse-slaughterers 23 19
Horsemeat-dealers (animal-food) 7 5
Horsemeat-dealers (human consumption) 18 11
Permit to transport horses for range purposes 35 33
Permit to transport stallions for breeding purposes
A complete list of the licensees is attached (see Appendix No. 8).
" Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act " revised. The proposed amendments had
been to make a deduction of twenty cents on all cattle being exported out of the Province
and going for slaughter; changed to thirty cents. This is the deduction now charged on
bulls, steers, heifers, and calves over 500 pounds. No other change made re 1951 Annual
Report of proposed amendments to this Act.
" Horned Cattle Purchases Act," the same as shown in 1951 Annual Report.
" Stock-brands Act" revised. Section 26 will be amended to allow a bona fide
farmer to slaughter his own stock at his own principal buildings. This amendment applies
all over the Province. Section 34 will be amended to add section 11. This amendment
gives authority to the Minister to refuse to issue a licence to deal in stock if the applicant
is not a suitable person to be issued such a licence. Same applies if the person is not
domiciled in the Province.
Proposed amendments had been drawn up for the 1952 Session of the Legislature;
these proposed amendments were shown in the Annual Report for 1951. The only
changes are shown above and are now included in the proposed amendments to be submitted at the next session of the Legislature.
The figures shown below are for the years 1951 and 1952, carried out by the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police at Flood in the checking of all movements of live stock, hides,
and dressed beef through this point:—
Number of cattle 4,266 2,595
Number of horses 1,307 812
Number of hides 1,826 541
Dressed beef (quarters) 29 74
Number of trucks checked 1,106 702 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 109
Prosecutions and Convictions
Dealing in stock without a licence: Nelson, 1.
Delivering stock to a carrier without first securing a brand-inspection certificate:
Failure to produce a brand-inspection certificate: Flood, 2.
Transporting stock without the required inspection: Osoyoos, 1.
Killing cattle in other than a licensed slaughter-house: Armstrong, 1.
Delivering stock for shipment without notifying Inspector: Williams Lake, 1.
Failed to separate mixed stock: Kamloops, 1.
Theft of beef: Kamloops, 1.
Theft of cattle: Merritt, 1; Trail, 2.
Cattle and hide shipments for the Province of British Columbia for the year 1952
(see Appendix No. 9).
REPORT OF THE FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
With few minor exceptions, production of major field crops, including cereals, forage-
crop seeds, pasture, and hay, was satisfactory in all areas of the Province the past season.
Yields were somewhat above average and the quality is very good. There has been a
weakening in prices in some crops, notably hay and forage seed, reflecting surplus supply
for domestic and foreign demand.
The major cereal-production area of the Province, the Peace River District, experienced one of its best years.
The poor fall last year prevented many farmers from threshing before winter set in.
However, the spring was mild and warm and all crops were threshed in good condition.
The extra work involved in threshing last year's crop prevented early spring seeding,
resulting in a drop in wheat acreage, which was made up by increased acreage seeded
to oats, rye, and particularly barley.
An open fall provided ideal harvest conditions of an above-average crop. Only a
few isolated areas were caught by early frosts. Estimated total production includes:
Wheat, 1,600,000 bushels; oats, 2,250,000 bushels; barley, 1,750,000 bushels; rye,
32,500 bushels; and flax, 55,000 bushels.
On the Creston Flats, grain production was about average, with estimated production
of wheat, 340,000 bushels; oats, 196,000 bushels; and barley, 30,000 bushels. Major
production of wheat is of winter varieties. In other areas of the Kootenay and Boundary
Districts, yields of all cereals were above average, but production is limited and fed on
In the North Okanagan, winter-wheat crops were average this year, but quality was
very good. The late, cool spring delayed spring seedings, but ideal growing conditions
brought on good crops of oats particularly.
In the Vanderhoof area, cereals were about average. There was a slight decline in
production of fall wheat with an increase in spring cereals—wheat, oats, and barley.
The estimated production in this area is wheat, 20,000 bushels; oats, 70,000 bushels;
and barley, 5,000 bushels. Throughout the rest of the Interior, grain-crops were average
or above, but acreage is not large and the grain is fed on the farm. CC 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA
At the Coast, oats is the principal crop grown in the farm rotation and fed on the
farm. Much of the oat acreage is harvested for hay and silage. Acreage of threshed oats
stays about normal, although this year there was a slight decrease in threshed oats but a
slight increase in the total acreage seeded.
There was little incidence of disease or insect pests to cause economic loss. Aphids
appeared again on some oat-crops in the Fraser Valley. Grasshoppers were quite bad in
many districts, but caused very little damage to cereal-crops. Bunt was not a serious
problem in the Okanagan area this year, though cutworms did some damage to spring
seedings in that area.
The open, dry fall in most areas of the Province has caused a reduction in the total
acreage seeded to fall grains, particularly in the North Okanagan and Central Interior.
Hay and Pasture
Hay-crops generally are above average this year, and most farmers are going into
the winter with adequate supplies.
The spring delayed early pasture growth on the Island, but pastures held up fairly
well. July and August were dry. First-cut hay yields were good and of excellent quality,
but second cut was light. Good crops were harvested in the Fraser Valley, and pastures
held up well. There was some damage to first-cut alfalfa in the North Okanagan due to
rains during haying, but better-than-average second cuts were harvested under good conditions. The dry spring in the Central Interior, particularly around Prince George,
reduced hay yields, but summer rains brought crops along nicely. Ranchers in the
Cariboo harvested good crops of alfalfa and wild hay from upland meadows.
There is considerable interest in irrigation for forage-crops among farmers on Vancouver Island to supplement the normally dry summer periods. Availability of adequate
sources of water at reasonable cost is a limiting factor.
There is also developing considerable interest in irrigated pasture for beef production
in the Interior. Dairy-farmers of the North Okanagan are also interested in irrigation for
pasture and hay-crops as an insurance against summer droughts.
Grasshoppers were quite bad in areas of the Province and did some damage, particularly on ranges. Sod web-worms caused limited and localized damage to some fields in the
Chilliwack area. Cutworms also were numerous and caused light damage to alfalfa-fields
in the North Okanagan. There was also some crop damage caused by cutworms in the
Prince George district.
In all districts of the Province where dairy stock are maintained, there is continuing
interest among farmers in the use of grasses and legumes for silage. Several trench or
horizontal silos were built and used this year. The new forage-harvesters for larger
acreages are being utilized to harvest silage-crops and cut down on the labour costs. It
would seem as yet these machines are rather expensive for the smaller operator to warrant
the investment. Corn for ensilage is still being utilized, and yields were generally satisfactory. The newer hybrid varieties have largely replaced the open-pollinated types.
Forage-crop Seed Production
Interest in forage-seed production is definitely increasing, and several trial seedings
have been started in areas of the Province relatively new to forage-seed production.
The forage-seed production has been very good throughout the Province this year.
The production of timothy and alsike in the Central Interior was down somewhat, but
some good alsike yields were obtained in the Peace River. One of the largest alfalfa-
seed crops on record has been produced in the Peace River. Acreage and yields of
creeping red fescue in the Peace River are also well up. Although no heavy yields of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 111
red clover have been reported from the Fraser Valley, due to the long open fall, a much
larger acreage has been harvested and production, well above 1951, is estimated at
500,000 pounds. An infestation of clover by the short-beak clover-aphis (Anuraphis
bakuri) was of severe occurrence in July, but by harvest-time exudations from seed-head
had entirely disappeared. A considerable increase has been reported in vetch-seed production. There has been a weakening in the price of some of the major forage-crops—
alfalfa, creeping red fescue, alsike, and red clover.
The following table gives, in summary, the forage-seed crop production for 1951
and the estimated production as at the end of October for 1952:—
Production, Estimated Production,
1951, Lb. 1952, Lb.
Alfalfa 241,000 1,073,000
Red clover (single) 54,675 205,000
Red clover (double) 350,000 450,000
Alsike 70,000 300,000
Sweet clover 322,800 1,000,000
White clover 1,000 6,000
Ladino clover 5,000 5,000
Timothy 106,000 110,000
Timothy-alsike mixture 161,000 200,000
Brome 200,000 102,000
Crested wheat 5,000 1,000
Creeping red fescue 150,000 304,300
Reed canary-grass 500 3,000
Red-top 21,000 30,000
Spring vetch 40,000 30,000
Fall vetch 24,000
Tall oat-grass 250
Bird's-foot trefoil 50
In 1950 a Canadian Forage Seeds Project was set up to discuss the whole phase of
forage-seed production in Canada. The Committee has followed the recent trend to
develop and encourage production of named varieties of strains of forage-crops. A Seed
Production Committee for British Columbia was set up to work in close liaison with the
National Committee. This Committee has made a start in getting some growers interested in production of certain varieties adapted to British Columbia conditions. Fifty
pounds of Lasalle red clover was placed with growers in the Grand Forks area and 50
pounds with growers in the Armstrong area. Stands of this strain have been established
and production is under way. In addition, one grower in the Windermere district has
established a field of Hercules orchard-grass for seed production. Yields from the first
year averaged 125 pounds per acre.
The British Columbia Committee met with J. W. Mackay, Chairman, Co-ordinating
Committee, Canadian Forage Seeds Project, during the summer to discuss the distribution of seed from the present Lasalle red clover seedings.
Potato acreage was increased somewhat in 1952. In general, yields were good
though drought again reduced yields in some areas. Potato prices have been holding up
The dry season has been conducive to the production of good quality stock. There
was little report on blight this year, and little damage from tuber flea-beetle reported.
Production of seed-potatoes continues to hold a prominent position in the agriculture of British Columbia. Slightly more than 1,600 acres passed inspection for founda- CC 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA
tion and certified seed in 1952, a slight increase over 1951. Seven seed-control areas are
set up under the Act and the high-quality British Columbia seed is finding a steady market
in the United States.
The following is a list of the main varieties and acreages, as supplied by the Dominion
Seed Potato Certification Service:—
Sir Walter Raleigh,
The main areas of production are also given, with approximate acreages inspected
in 1952: Vancouver Island, 160 acres; Lower Mainland, 398 acres; Pemberton, 173
acres; Okanagan, 239 acres; Cariboo, 136 acres; Central British Columbia, 93 acres;
Boundary District, 304 acres; East and West Kootenays, 124 acres.
In 1950 the Department took over supervision of the Oceanside test-plots as a service
to the seed-potato growers. This year, forty-nine samples were forwarded to this Branch
by thirty-five growers. These samples were planted at Oceanside under supervision
on November 12th. The results of the disease readings taken early in March are given
wide publicity to growers and buyers of seed-potatoes.
Potato Variety Tests
In co-operation with Dr. T. Anstey, Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz; E. C.
Hughes; and the District Agriculturists, the potato variety trials were continued this year
at eight stations, and an additional trial was laid down at Vanderhoof. This is the third
and final year of these tests, using the full sixteen varieties. Results are not as yet compiled but will be available early in 1953.
Acreage of peas for the frozen-food trade on Vancouver Island was down slightly
this year, but yields average about the same as last year at 1,500 pounds per acre.
Canning-peas in the Fraser Valley were generally good this year. Acreage was about the
same but yields were up over last year. Dried-pea acreage in the North Okanagan was
up this year, but yields were generally disappointing. At Creston, 1,875 tons were produced this year compared to 1,480 tons in 1950.
Production of Registered and Certified Seed
The inspection and registration of cereal- and forage-crop seeds is carried out by
representatives of the Plant Products Division, Federal Department of Agriculture, under
the regulations of the " Seeds Act." The following table gives, in summary, the number
of acres and estimated production of varieties inspected in British Columbia in 1952.
The largest acreage is located in the Peace River Block:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
Sweet clover—White Blossom1-
Creeping red fescue1
Creeping red fescue—
1 Denotes " certified."
Foundation-stock seed produced by the Agronomy Department of the University of
British Columbia was again distributed to growers through the Branch. Amount of seed
produced was higher than in 1951, but this seed finds a ready market. The Branch has
also introduced small stock seeds of Hercules orchard-grass and Dollard red clover in an
attempt to interest growers in these varieties.
The following is a list of stock seed made available from the University of British
Columbia in 1952: Kharkov wheat, 130 pounds; Storm fall rye, 400 pounds; Victory
oats, 2,900 pounds; Olli barley, 100 pounds; Ridit wheat, 500 pounds.
Field Crop Union
During the past season membership in the Field Crop Union stood at 182, down
slightly from 1951. Altogether 170 tests were sent out to members. The list of tests
includes peas, legumes, grasses, hybrid corn, and pasture mixtures. Again alfalfa tests
and pasture mixtures were the most popular. The following gives a breakdown of tests
conducted in various areas: Vancouver Island, 29; Lower Mainland, 13; North Okanagan, 29; Central Interior, 59; Boundary and Kootenays, 18; and Peace River, 22. The
annual meeting was held in Victoria in February and the list of tests approved.
This Branch has continued to stress the importance of well-established and well-
managed hay-fields and pastures for efficient farm production. Over the past few years CC 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA
a large number of demonstration seedings have been set out and are under continued observation. All plots have been established in co-operation with the District Agriculturists.
Plots have been used to good advantage and have proved to be a valuable extension
method of interesting farmers in better hay and pasture production.
In the North Okanagan, pasture variety trials established by Mr. Muirhead continue
to show up very well. In addition to such demonstration-plots, nursery rows of grasses
and legumes have been established in the Kamloops, Boundary, Creston, and East
Kootenay Districts. These plots are under observation for forage production, hardiness,
and in some cases seed production. Hay and pasture seedings in the Creston area continue to give high yields and high returns per acre. In this area the use of bird's-foot
trefoil in the mix is giving very promising results.
Fertilizer-tests on field crops are included elsewhere in this report.
Cereal variety trials were again carried out in the Rock Creek-Bridesville area.
These trials have proved of real benefit to the farmers in the area and are having a pronounced effect on the farming practices in the district. Cereal trials are also carried on
in the St. Mary's Prairie district in the East Kootenays.
This Branch stresses the importance of soil-fertility and the need of maintaining
proper soil conditions to increase the quality and quantity of crops grown. The need for
sufficient organic matter, sufficient plant-food, and the use of soil amendments or minor
elements when needed are the main considerations.
Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board
In May, 1951, the Board considered the list of approved fertilizer mixes for British
Columbia, and the following list for 1951-52 was recommended for the Minister's
approval: 0-12-20; 2-15-15; 2-16-6; 4-10-10; 6-8-6 (organic); 6-30-15;
8-10-5; 10-20-10. There have been no changes in this recommended list of mixes.
The movement of lime for agricultural purposes has shown a further increase in
1952, with a total of 36,310 tons sold under the subsidy policy. The use of gypsum for
soil-amendment purposes, included in the above figure, has also shown an increase, particularly in the Okanagan. There was no change in the basis of subsidy payment in 1952.
G. L. Landon, Poultry Commissioner, continued as secretary of the British Columbia Lime Committee for 1952.
Appendix No. 10 is a summary showing the lime products used since 1935.
The Branch has carried on a soil-testing service for several years. Since January,
1952, 1,909 samples have been analysed. This is almost double the number analysed
last year. Reports of analyses are generally forwarded to farmers through the District
Agriculturist concerned, as the district man can usually make direct contact with the
farmer to more fully assess his problem in the field and advise on the use of fertilizers.
When necessary, members of the Branch will visit a problem area and advise on corrective measures.
An attempt is also made to follow up the recommendations made and the results
obtained. District Agriculturists in the Fraser Valley are continuing the systematic sampling of soils for analysis in the Fraser Valley. District Agriculturists in other areas
have started a programme of obtaining soil samples in the fall.
Soil-analysis is only a guide in making recommendations. The greatest benefit
derived from the present method of analysis is from the interpretation of the pH readings
J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 115
and the rapid analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. Soil-reaction
is determined by the potentiometer; the available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and
calcium by the Spurway method. This year a conductivity meter was obtained to assist
in determining total salt concentrations in greenhouse and Interior soils.
The soil-improvement programme of this Branch includes a number of fertility-
demonstration plots laid down with the District Agriculturists' co-operation. The demonstrations at present under observation are as follows:—
(a) Six hay and pasture fertilizer plots in Courtenay-Alberni area.
(b) Two lime-demonstration plots in the Courtenay-Alberni area.
(c) Two lime-demonstration plots in the Duncan area.
(d) Five hay and pasture fertilizer demonstrations in the Duncan-Nanaimo
(e) Eight hay and pasture fertilizer trials in the Fraser Valley.
(/) One fertilizer trial on oats in the Fraser Valley.
(g) Minor-elements tests at twelve locations in the Fraser Valley.
(h) One fertilizer demonstration on alfalfa in the Fraser Valley.
(/) One fertilizer demonstration on oats in the Pemberton area.
(/') Ten fertilizer trials laid down this fall in the Kamloops area.
(k) One fertilizer trial on pasture in the North Okanagan.
(/) One fertilizer trial on potatoes in the North Okanagan.
(m) One gypsum trial on alfalfa in the North Okanagan.
(n) One trial on alfalfa with superphosphate and gypsum in the North Okanagan.
(o) Fertilizer plots in the Vernon area.
(p) Cereal-fertilizer plots in the Bridesville area.
(q) Fertilizer demonstrations on hay and pasture in the Grand Forks area.
(r) Fertilizer trial on potatoes in the Grand Forks area.
(s) Three fertilizer trials on oats and hay in the Edgewood district.
(.) Fertilizer strip-tests in the Cranbrook area.
(it) Fertilizer tests in the Vanderhoof district.
(v) Potato-fertilizer tests in the Vanderhoof district.
(w) Fertilizer tests in the Peace River District.
(x) Two fertilizer trials on potatoes in the Cariboo District.
(y) Fertilizer demonstration on hay at Dunster.
These fertility demonstrations have been utilized to good advantage and are a valuable method of showing farmers the increased returns possible from the use of fertilizers
and soil amendments. In many cases, field days are held during the growing season and
the results of the tests are given. Reports of all demonstrations are on file in this office.
In Mr. Hazlette's area the results from one demonstration showed an increase in
return from all fertilized plots. The net returns from the use of fertilizer ranged from
$8.75 per acre with nitrogen to $54.90 with 16-20-0 plus potash. In Mr. Carmichael's
trial with potatoes, 6-30-15 gave the highest net return, the increased value of the crop
being $488.30 per acre.
A great deal of interest has been displayed by farmers in the possibilities of irrigation
on hay, pasture, and other field crops. This interest has been especially evidenced in the
humid Coastal areas, and has been increased because of the particularly dry summers
experienced in 1950 and 1951. The use of irrigation has given increases in production
on many crops on Vancouver Island and in the Fraser Valley, as well as in the drier
Interior regions. CC 116 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the Saanich Peninsula a number of dugouts or water-reservoirs have been installed
in the past two years. The Department, in co-operation with the Dominion Experimental
Station, conducted a survey and published a stencil on "Dugouts and Their Use for
Irrigation on Vancouver Island " as a guide to future construction.
In the Fraser Valley a convention was held under the direction of Government
officials to discuss the use of irrigation in the valley. A full report of the proceedings of
this conference is held on file in the Branch office.
The two Weed Inspectors were appointed again this year in the Peace River District,
working in co-operation with the District Agriculturists.
Weed chemicals were supplied to all district agricultural offices this year for trial
purposes. The Department weed-sprayers are located at Cranbrook, Armstrong, Vanderhoof, and Dawson Creek, and have been used extensively again. Demonstrations
with these machines in the past have encouraged some farmers to purchase their own
equipment for weed-spraying.
During the past season the Federal-Provincial weed-survey was continued in British
Columbia. This survey was started in 1951. Two agricultural students were employed
during June, July, and August to do the field work. Two areas were covered this year,
each surveyor working an area independently.
One survey started from Osoyoos in the Southern Okanagan, which was completed
in 1951, and extended eastward across the southern portion of the Province to the Alberta
border. The areas included the Boundary area around Grand Forks; the Nelson-Trail-
Castlegar area in the Arrow Lakes; the Creston area around Creston; and the Rocky
Mountain Trench from Golden south through Kimberley, Cranbrook, and Fernie to
the United States border. This whole area is generally referred to as the Boundary-
The second area surveyed in 1952 completed the Thompson Valley-Nicola-Fraser
Valley area between the two areas completed in 1951; that is, the North Okanagan and
the Cariboo. The surveyed area in 1952 included the south Thompson and North
Thompson Valleys to Kamloops; the Thompson River Valley and its junction with the
Fraser River at Lytton; the Fraser River Valley from Lillooet through Lytton to Spences
Bridge; and from Spences Bridge through the Nicola range country to Merritt and north
to Kamloops. This whole area is primarily range country with limited areas of cultivated
land for feed production. Smaller areas along the Thompson River near Kamloops are
devoted to fruit, canning-crops, potatoes, and dairying. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 117
rj- . , Number of Approximate
1 Ota! area Locations Acres
Boundary-Kootenay 6 2401
Thompson-Nicola 22 67
Boundary-Kootenay :_ 3 6
Thompson-Nicola 30 20
Boundary-Kootenay 1 20
Thompson-Nicola 6 16
Boundary-Kootenay 4 (3)
Thompson-Nicola 28 (*)
Boundary-Kootenay 12 160
Thompson-Nicola 7 15
Boundary-Kootenay 10 15
Thompson-Nicola 2 (4)
Boundary-Kootenay 1 15
Thompson-Nicola 2 2
White Cockle—Boundary-Kootenay 17 (5)
1 One location was a 200-acre field with heavy infestation.
2 The weed is found throughout both regions but still confined to isolated patches scattered through fields and along
roadways, railways, etc.
3 Mosty scattered patches less than 1 acre each.
1 Less than 1 acre.
8 Mostly a few plants or small scattered patches.
Grain screenings are a by-product in the recleaning process of wheat and are graded
according to the regulations in accordance with the Grain Act as defined by the Board
of Grain Commissioners for Canada. Grades include oat screenings, No. 1 feed screenings, No. 2 feed screenings, uncleaned screenings, and refuse screenings.
In compliance with the British Columbia " Noxious Weeds Act" and regulations
thereunder, grain screenings which contain weed seeds in excess of the percentage
allowed by the " Canada Grain Act" for No. 2 feed screenings shall not be removed
from any grain-elevator, mill, or warehouse to any place within the Province, except
only by virtue of permit duly signed by the Minister of Agriculture or by a person
authorized by him. A permit is not required for mixed feed oats, No. 1 and No. 2
Permits above referred to consist of the specific forms—one, known as the " Permit
for the Removal of Screenings," which allows removal of low-grade screenings by a
dealer or grain merchant; the other, known as a " Feeder's Permit," which allows removal
of low-grade screenings by a feeder for the feeding of cattle in enclosed feed-lots conditional to prescribed regulations. CC 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Recently, experimental work carried out by Dr. A. J. Wood, University of British
Columbia, established the fact that heat treatment, approximately 212° F. under controlled moisture conditions, can devitalize weed seeds in screenings. This work was
extended to a pilot plant at Lytton during the last two seasons to test commercial practicability. As a result of this experiment, following a meeting with the British Columbia
Feed Manufacturers' Association and others, N. F. Putnam, Field Crops Commissioner,
under the direction of the Minister of Agriculture, incorporated a change in Regulation
No. 11 of the Screenings Regulations adopted under the " Noxious Weeds Act." This
amendment, authorized by Order in Council No. 1793, dated July 18th, 1952, now causes
Regulation No. 11 to read as follows: " Screenings which contain weed seeds of the percentage allowed by the ' Canada Grain Act' or regulations thereunder for No. 2 feed
screenings shall not be ground or otherwise manufactured for sale within the Province
unless the weed seeds contained therein have been devitalized by a person or firm licensed
by the Minister."
In effect this regulation now allows the establishment of plants for the processing
of feeds from refuse screenings at the discretion of and under regulations set up by the
Minister of Agriculture. At present, one such plant has been set up in British Columbia
for the purpose of processing screenings. Weed seeds in the screenings must be devitalized during the process. Inasmuch as Provincial regulations are concerned, these
feeds are hence permissible for sale within the Province. It does not follow that Dominion
regulations approve of such products, the Dominion being interested in the feeding value
and the content of weed seeds which would be injurious to live stock.
Refuse and uncleaned screenings not processed are controlled to prevent their
removal to important agricultural areas, where the high percentage of weed seeds contained in the screenings are a menace to the district. Permits for the removal and use
of screenings are limited to areas where adequate controls can be maintained and to feed-
lots set up in such a manner as to prevent the spread of weeds through manure distribution, etc. As a result, most permits issued are for the Greater Vancouver and surrounding
During the first eleven months of 1952, January 1st to November 31st inclusive,
nineteen permits for the removal of screenings (Nos. 263 to 281) have been issued.
During the same period, seventy Feeder's Permits (Nos. 185f to 254f) were issued.
Of the total issued, one Feeder's Permit was cancelled because screenings were transported to a location not authorized by the permit.
A comparison of the movement of screenings to shipment for the equivalent period
in 1951 shows an increase of 12,000 tons in the total amount of screenings reportedly
moved. Local consumption of No. 2 feed, uncleaned and mixed feed oats declined, but
in all other classes of screenings increased movement is very evident, especially in the
local consumption of refuse screenings and all export classes. The sharp increase in
the export of uncleaned screenings is mainly due to the opening of the Canadian Government elevator at Prince Rupert during mid-summer and the shipping of large quantities
from that source. Some increased general movement can also be attributed to the recent
reopening of Richardson Terminal, which was destroyed by fire over a year ago.
The price structure of screenings generally vary as market demand and supply on
hand fluctuated. The price of refuse screenings is determined principally, however, by
the prices set up by the Kansas City market, from which area demand is greatest. Generally, prices have followed the regular pattern of seasonal fluctuation as follows: January
20th, approximately $23 per ton; February 20th, approximately $12 per ton; March
15th, approximately $6 per ton; March 21st, approximately $13 per ton; April 21st to
May 10th, approximately $8 per ton; July 2nd, approximately $5 per ton; October 22nd,
approximately $18.50 per ton; November 26th, approximately $16 per ton.
The recent interest in processed refuse screenings may create an increased demand
for this by-product. From mid-August to the end of October, approximately 95 tons of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 119
the new product has moved for local consumption and 70 tons has been exported to
the United States.
Movement of Screenings
Appendix No. 11 is a summary showing the total movement of all grades for each
month and also the total of each grade of screenings for the period as covered by this
Report, both for local use and export.
Work was continued in the North Okanagan this year on control of toad-flax, hoary
cress, and leafy spurge. Polybor Chlorate trials were started in the Vanderhoof area
for control of toad-flax. An infestation of leafy spurge was treated at Narcosli in the
Cariboo District using Atlacide. Information on results will not be available until next
year. Trials were conducted in the southern part of Vancouver Island, using C.M.U., for
the control of couch-grass. Treatment at the 40-pound rate is showing good control,
but further work will be necessary.
Several weed trials were conducted by Mr. Hughes in the Fraser Valley. A brief
report on his results follows:—
" Buttercup.—Considerable testing took place, using different formulations of 2,4-D
and M.C.P. Results were outstanding in favour of M.C.P., and the sodium form
appeared slightly better than the ester form. The sodium form of M.C.P. gave approximately 85 per cent control in field trials.
" Grass.—C.M.U. and T.C.A. were applied to couch-grass at 20, 40, 60, and 80
pounds per acre. C.M.U. showed a positive increase in grass-control depending on the
amount applied, the 80-pound application showing less than 2 per cent couch-grass
remaining. From the results of the 1951 applications, it is evident that C.M.U. is a more
effective sterilant than T.C.A.
" In applications of the two chemicals in a filbert-orchard for couch-grass control,
20 to 40 pounds of C.M.U. gave excellent control with no observable effect on the trees.
T.C.A. was not as effective and was injurious to the trees.
" I.P.C. was applied on alfalfa stands for spring grass-control at two locations.
Six pounds per acre gave 75 per cent control of the grasses and appears to be a practical
application, though the material does not give permanent control."
I. C. Carne reports on a couch-grass control trial on Washington raspberries in the
Salmon Arm district:—
" Materials used were I.P.C. in stove-oil and I.P.C. in water at varying rates, and
T.C.A. in water at varying rates applied with and without discing. No apparent injury
was caused to the canes with the materials used; the kill of couch-grass in the planting
was not considered satisfactory. T.C.A., when used in conjunction with a disking programme, may be feasible under certain conditions."
PRIZE-WINNERS AT THE TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
British Columbia exhibitors again made an excellent showing at the Toronto Royal
Apart from the first-place award, British Columbia growers again dominated red
clover classes. Embree Brothers, of Delta, took second place in this class, followed by
J. Chimes, Lulu Island, and J. R. Wood, Cloverdale, in third, fourth, and fifth places
respectively. Of the first nineteen entrants, British Columbia growers took every award
except first, tenth, and eighteenth.
Johnson Brothers, of Prince George, placed third in the alsike clover class. In the
Swede-turnip seed class, Byron Guiry, of Delta, was first; W. Zelmans, Steveston, second;
and A. Thomson, Delta, third. G. K. Landon, Armstrong, took top award in the alfalfa CC 120
class for his sample of Turkestan, and T. Nicholson took third with his Rhizoma sample.
A. J. Mason, Hilliers, placed fifth in the field-pea class.
In the potato classes, Francis S. Pincosy took reserve for Netted Gem, and J. O.
Decker, Pemberton, was fifth in the Netted Gem and Russet class. Other British Columbia exhibitors placing were Alfred Needoba, Salmon Arm, and H. H. Bazett, Duncan.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
During the year, two new Institutes were incorporated—namely, Digby Island in
District " B " on March 31st, and Creston Valley in District " I " on May 30th—bringing
the total number of Institutes in the Province to 203. However, a considerable number
of these are inactive and will have their certificate of incorporation cancelled by the
Registrar of Companies early in 1953 for failure to file returns, as required under provisions of the " Societies Act."
Annual returns from Farmers' Institutes are not received until after annual meetings
have been held, therefore figures covering Institute activities are for the year 1951.
The number of Institutes in good standing, in so far as this Department is concerned,
is 182 and are divided into ten districts as follows:—
District Institute Membership
" A "—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands 20 937
" B "—Bulkley and Skeena 18 358
" C "—Nechako Valley 13 280
"D"—Kamloops and North Thompson 17 281
" E "—Lower Fraser Valley 31 2,817
" F "—West Kootenay 20 561
" G "—Okanagan and Shuswap 13 320
"H"—Cariboo 11 235
" I "—East Kootenay 16 328
" J "—Peace River 23 525
Again, as in the previous years, there was a decrease in membership but an increase
in receipts and assets. Receipts increased $87,000 over those of the previous year, while
assets increased $67,000. Figures for the past three years are as follows:—
The purchase of stumping-powder by Institutes for and on behalf of members
continues to decline, due to the Departmental land-clearing policy and decrease in acreage
to be cleared. Powder purchased during the year 1951 amounted to $55,592.07, compared with $81,425.17 in 1950. However, the purchase of commodities by Institutes
on behalf of members continues to increase very satisfactorily. During 1951, Institute
purchases increased by just over $200,000, being $929,928.95, as compared with
purchases amounting to $727,619.67 in 1950.
In seven of the ten districts the individual Institute grants were paid direct to the
District Institute, as requested by the Institutes in said districts. In the other three DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 121
Districts—namely, " B," " D," and " F "—the regular grant was made payable to the
With the exception of District " D," all districts held annual meetings during the
year, with very good attendance in all cases. All districts again passed a considerable
number of resolutions for consideration of the Advisory Board at their next regular
District "A" meeting was held at Nanaimo on September 26th, when fourteen
resolutions were considered, twelve being carried, one defeated, and one combined with
a previous resolution. Officers elected were A. J. Mason, Hilliers, president; John T.
Neen, R.R. 3, Nanaimo, secretary-treasurer; and A. Mclntyre, R.R. 2, Victoria, Advisory
District " B " meeting was held at Telkwa on June 23rd and 24th, with some twenty-
two resolutions being placed before the meeting, twenty-one being endorsed and one
tabled. Officers elected were G. Brandon, Telkwa, president, and Arthur Shelford,
Wistaria, secretary-treasurer and Advisory Board member.
District " C " meeting was held at McBride on June 19th and 20th, twenty-seven
resolutions being considered and endorsed. Officers elected were J. Andros, Vanderhoof,
president; Russell E. Johnston, Prince George, secretary-treasurer; and T. E. Gerhardi,
Fort Fraser, Advisory Board member.
District "E" meeting was held at New Westminster on January 11th, and all
resolutions passed came before the Advisory Board at its meeting held in March. Officers
elected were T. Kuhn, Cloverdale, president; J. C. MacKenzie, New Westminster,
secretary-treasurer; and A. H. Peppar, Anmore, Advisory Board member.
District "F" meeting was held at Kaslo on May 21st, when six resolutions were
considered and carried. Officers elected were D. K. Knowler, Fruitvale, president, and
K. Wallace, Boswell, secretary-treasurer and Advisory Board member. A semi-annual
meeting was also held, at Nelson on November 22nd.
District " G " meeting was held at Winfield on May 26th, nineteen resolutions
receiving consideration with sixteen being endorsed and three withdrawn. Officers elected
were W. A. Monk, Grindrod, president; M. A. Dangel, Grindrod, secretary-treasurer;
and J. Woodburn, Salmon Arm, Advisory Board member.
District " H " meeting was held at West Quesnel on June 17th, ten resolutions being
presented for consideration and all endorsed. Officers elected were H. Trueman, Quesnel,
president; F. Vernon, Quesnel, secretary-treasurer; and E. Greenlee, Canim Lake,
Advisory Board member.
District " I " meeting was held at Cranbrook on May 23rd, thirteen resolutions
coming up for consideration, eleven being endorsed, one tabled, and one lost. Officers
elected were L. G. Pippen, Cranbrook, president; Mrs. H. E. Miard, Fernie, secretary-
treasurer; and J. B. Aye, Jaffray, Advisory Board member.
District " J " meeting was held at Clayhurst on June 26th, when some sixteen
resolutions were considered, all of which were carried. Officers elected were P. A.
Leeland, Clayhurst, president; John Close, Sunset Prairie, secretary-treasurer; and A. H.
Dunn, Sunset Prairie, Advisory Board member.
The Superintendent attended and addressed all of the above meetings with the
exception of District " J."
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The Advisory Board met in Victoria on March 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th at the call of
the Minister. The Board, in addition to considering some 114 resolutions, met with
Departmental officials and officials of other Departments. CC 122 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Of the 114 resolutions considered, 74 were endorsed, 16 tabled, 15 withdrawn,
and 9 lost.
Some eleven resolutions were selected for presentation to the Select Standing
Committee on Agriculture, who met with the Board on March 5th. These included
such matters as increased appropriations for the Department of Agriculture, weed-control,
daylight saving, Libby Dam, P.G.E. extension, margarine, town planning, rural electricity,
Following this meeting, the chairman of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture presented his report to the Legislative Assembly, which was as follows:—
Legislative Committee Room, March 19th, 1952.
The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture held several meetings and begs leave to
report as follows:—
That because of the limited extent to which agriculture can be followed in British Columbia
and because of the large amount of agricultural products that must be imported into our Province
under the best of conditions, this Committee deems it important and necessary that a larger grant
be allotted to this Department of the Government so as to further encourage the development of
this very important activity in our Provincial economy.
It is suggested that grants to all fairs in agricultural districts be increased by 100 per cent;
that an agricultural school be established in a suitable locality to extend the knowledge and
interest in agriculture; and that, if allotted the funds, the Department seek in every way to have
production increased to lessen purchases elsewhere.
That because of the heavy losses to agriculturists from the ever-increasing weed pests, or a
continual fight against them, and because the highways are a prolific source of this trouble, it is
requested that the Department of Public Works make a greater effort to keep the roadside weeds
from going to seed because, quite frequently in the past, where action has been taken, it is so late
the seeds mature and blow over the cultivated lands. Where this occurs also in a railway right-
of-way, it is recommended that the authorities be instructed to have the responsible official take
some action to avoid seed-spreading.
That because of the considerable inconvenience to the farmer in having daylight saving,
especially in the months of May, June, and September, principally for the reason that the dew lies
so late in the morning and hired help for the most part object to working after regular quitting
time and thus hindering the quicker handling of crops, it is recommended that a plebiscite be
taken at the first general election to ascertain the desires of the people in this regard or, failing
this, to confine daylight saving to the months of July and August.
That because of the heavy burden on agriculturists in having heavy school taxes assessed
against their lands, it is requested that further study be given this vexing question; that relief
measures may be taken to spread these heavy costs more evenly amongst those who should bear
them; and further recommends that the Committee presently working toward this end be added to
by the addition of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
That because such a large portion of our Province is dependent on the completion of the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway for its prosperity, the Committe recommends that the Government
work toward this end with all reasonable haste.
That because of the seriousness of the situation in several parts of the Province caused by the
depredations of the actions of a sect known as the Sons of Freedom, it is urged that the authorities move with great caution in transplanting them from their present abode. It is considered,
however, that whether the recommendations of the Committee studying the problem are followed
or not, some action must be taken as quickly as possible so as to end the lawlessness of these
Because of the great development of hydro-electric and the damming of rivers for water
conservation and flood-control, it is recommended that where settlers may be affected through
the raising of water-levels that they be dealt with quickly after ascertaining information in this
matter so they may know what funds they might be obtaining and thus make better arrangements
It is recommended that irrigation be placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of
Agriculture because of the special interest that Department has in the benefits to be derived from
this necessity to agriculture in so many parts of the Province.
The erosion of agricultural lands by many of the rivers in the Province is taking high toll of
good farm soil, and it is recommended that more consideration be given to the protection of these
river-banks to curtail this damage to as great an extent as is economically possible.
For the benefit of the farming communities not presently served with electric power, it is
urged that the Department of Agriculture design a policy to aid those localities that cannot be
served under the present regulations of the British Columbia Power Commission or the policies DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 123
of private companies whereby assistance be granted under section 107 of the British Columbia
" Electric Power Act" to enable such localities to enjoy the benefits of electric power now passing
within reasonable distance of these sections.
All of which is respectfully submitted. Thqmas k_NG; chairman
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
One Class A exhibition, three Class B exhibitions, and sixty-one fall fairs were held
in the Province during the year, compared with one Class A and two Class B exhibitions
and fifty-seven fall fairs held the previous year.
The Cowichan Agricultural and Industrial Association made application to the
Dominion Department of Agriculture, through this Department, for recognition as a
Class B exhibition, which was granted.
All exhibitions and fairs again received grants in aid of their prize-lists, and all were
provided with the services of one or more Departmental officials as judges.
The place and date of each exhibition and fall fair held during the year were as
Chilliwack August 15 and 16.
Vancouver (Pacific National) Aug. 20 to Sept. 1.
Duncan September 4, 5, and 6.
Armstrong September 16, 17, and 18.
Victoria May 5 to 10.
Mayne Island August 20.
Courtenay August 29 and 30.
Saanichton Aug. 30 to Sept. 1.
Cobble Hill September 3.
Saturna September 3.
Luxton September 6.
Ganges _ September 6.
Lasqueti Island September 9.
Sooke September 10.
Alberni September 11, 12, and 13.
Coombs September 12 and 13.
Nanaimo September 18, 19, and 20.
Ladysmith September 24 and 25.
Haney August 7, 8, and 9.
Gibsons August 15 and 16.
Port Coquitlam September 1.
Squamish September 1.
Langley September 5 and 6.
North Burnaby September 5 and 6.
Mission September 5 and 6.
Hope September 6.
Abbotsford September 9 and 10.
Ladner September 10.
Agassiz September 12.
Cloverdale September 12 and 13.
South Burnaby September 19 and 20.
Vancouver October 3 and 4.
Aldergrove September 26. CC 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Penticton August 15 and 16.
Peachland August 28.
Louis Creek September 1.
Revelstoke September 1.
Chase September 1.
Cawston September 4.
Westbank September 5.
Oliver September 5 and 6.
Salmon Arm September 25 and 26.
Lillooet September 18 and 19.
Rock Creek September 19.
East and West Kootenay
Invermere August 29 and 30.
Rossland September 5 and 6.
Castlegar September 5 and 6.
Arrow Park September 6.
Fruitvale September 8.
Crawford Bay September 9.
Nelson September 11, 12, and 13.
Creston September 19 and 20.
Central British Columbia and Peace River
Dawson Creek August 7, 8, and 9.
Rose Prairie August 13.
Sunset Prairie August 20.
Williams Lake August 21 and 22.
Bridge Lake August 23.
Fort Fraser August 23.
McBride August 27.
Prince George Aug. 29 to Sept. 1.
Telkwa September 1.
Terrace September 1 and 2.
Quesnel September 5 and 6.
Francois Lake September 13.
Watch Lake September 13.
An official visit was made to the following exhibitions and fairs: Haney, Chilliwack,
Vancouver, Cobble Hill, Duncan, Ganges, Sooke, Alberni, Coombs, Nanaimo, and
As in previous years, a summary of judges' reports was prepared covering 1951
fairs, and each individual fair was advised of the judges' recommendations and suggestions
for improvement of their respective fairs.
Two new pound districts were constituted during the year—namely, Trinity Creek,
on August 13th, and Silver Creek, on September 16th.
The boundaries of four existing pound districts were extended during the year.
These were as follows: Bear Mountain and South Dawson, in the Peace River District;
Oyster-Cedar, on Vancouver Island; and Chase, in the Kamloops district. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 125
In addition to dealing with numerous complaints regarding cattle at large and
impounding of cattle, new pound-keepers were appointed for ten pound districts, and
a considerable number of requests for information and procedure in having pound districts constituted were received.
During the year a complete revision of our list of fence-viewers for unorganized
territory was made, and, following this revision, the appointments of 104 fence-viewers
were rescinded for the following reasons: District for which they had been appointed had
become organized; left the district; or were unable to act due to age, etc.
Since this revision, fence-viewers have been appointed in the Comox and Kamloops
Numerous complaints and requests for information regarding boundary-fences, etc.,
were satisfactorily dealt with.
Several meetings were held during the year with the Pharmaceutical Association of
the Province of British Columbia, regarding the sale and distribution of poisons used
exclusively in agriculture, and 150 licences to keep open shop for the sale of poisons used
exclusively in agriculture by other than registered pharmaceutical chemists were issued.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent
British Columbia Women's Institutes have shown a satisfactory growth in membership and interest during the year. Five new Institutes were organized—Montney, in the
Peace River; Promontory Heights, in the Fraser Valley near Chilliwack; Princeton, in
the South Okanagan and Similkameen; Chu Chua, in the North Thompson; and East
Vanderhoof, in the Central Interior District. The total is now 231, but three—Ymir,
Terrace, and Southbank—failed to send in their returns, and it is possible they may not
be able to continue.
Annual returns were received from 209 Institutes for 1951 and the annual grant of
$10 each was sent out. The grateful letters of thanks received show how much this
recognition of each one by the Department of Agriculture means. These annual returns
for 1951 showed a total of $122,180 received and $86,187.35 expended during the year,
with a membership of 5,239.
The biennial meeting of the Women's Institutes was held June 4th, 5th, and 6th at
the University of British Columbia. The attendance was good, with 188 delegates
registered and an average attendance of around 300. The meetings were held in the
Physics Building and the dinner given in the Brock Hall, while the women were housed
in the new women's residences and the youth-training camp.
The programme was planned around the work of the standing committees. Mrs.
Raymond Sayre, president of the Associated Countrywomen of the World; Mrs. Hugh
Summers, president of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada; and Miss Lora
Stowell, first scholarship winner, were honoured guests at the convention.
Excellent reports were given by the conveners of standing committees as follows:
Agriculture, Mrs. J. Young, Rose Prairie; Citizenship, Mrs. E. Tryon, Parksville; Home CC 126 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Economics, Mrs. T. Windt, Alexandria; Handicrafts and Industries, Mrs. L. Cunnington,
Little Fort; and Social Welfare, Mrs. M. Powers, Lister.
A panel discussion on agriculture was arranged by Dean Blythe Eagles, of the
University of British Columbia, which was chaired by Dr. D. G. Laird, the topic being
" Food and Soils." Dr. U. P. Byrne, Director, Child Guidance Clinic, Vancouver,
addressed the convention on social welfare, while Dr. W. G. Black, of the Department
of Citizenship and Immigration, spoke on citizenship.
In reporting to the executive of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada, Mrs.
Summers said: " In June, I had the privilege of attending Provincial conventions of the
Women's Institutes of British Columbia, and Homemakers in Saskatchewan. Both were
outstanding, and the scope of their work and study accomplished in the past year was
truly impressive. Both these Provinces are active in soil and food conservation, and, in
British Columbia, a panel discussion on soil conservation by experts in this subject was
Mrs. Sayre in her report to the executive of the Associated Countrywomen of the
World at London in September said: " I went to a meeting in British Columbia. I have
never attended a meeting I found so exciting. I never heard women discuss resolutions
with so much intelligence and so much independence of opinion as at this meeting. It was
one of the best meetings in terms of discussion and resolutions I have ever attended."
Officers were elected at the convention as follows: President, Mrs. A. A. Shaw,
4020 West Tenth Avenue, Vancouver; vice-president, Mrs. E. J. Roylance, Greenwood;
directors: Mrs. J. Young (Rose Prairie), Mrs. T. Windt (Alexandria), Mrs. P. Douglas
(Whaletown); secretary-treasurer, Mrs. R. Doe, Box 35, Salmon Arm (non-voting
director, appointed by the Board); F.W.I.C. representatives, Mrs. Shaw and Mrs.
Provincial conveners were appointed by the Board as follows: Agriculture, Mrs.
R. C. Palmer, Experimental Station, Summerland; citizenship, Mrs. J. O. Decker, Pem-
berton; cultural activities, Mrs. R. Partington, Francois Lake; home economics, Mrs.
W. G. Brown, 411 Yale Road East, Chilliwack; and social welfare, Mrs. M. Powers,
Resolutions were passed asking that soap-packages should have the weight marked
on the outside of the package; that the Brands and Standards Branch should investigate
the poor quality of nylon hose, the lack of uniformity of sizes of women's and children's
clothes, the poor quality of sewing thread, and the poor quality of dyes, particularly of
woollens. In discussing hospital insurance, resolutions asked that pensioners and war
widows with children under 16 years be exempt from payments; that coinsurance be
abolished, and in any case that it be not imposed in maternity cases; that the office be
reorganized for greater speed, economy, and accuracy; and that the date stamp on the
envelope be accepted as the date of premium payments. A resolution was passed asking
that the licensing of doctors and dentists be placed in the hands of qualified commissioners
operating under the Federal Department of Health.
In citizenship it was asked that immigrants be required by law to apply for naturalization within a reasonable time after they enter this country; that the family allowance
should be continued until 18 years if the child is continuing at school; that the " Wives
Protection Act" be amended so that a wife need not register her claim in the home
property to ensure that it could not be sold without her consent.
The Women's Institutes are asked to study the drug traffic in an effort to help solve
the problem, and ask that rural electrification should be extended as speedily as possible.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Twenty-one Institutes sent exhibits to the Pacific National Exhibition this year, with
171 entries and a total of 286 articles. Point Grey won the Challenge Cup, with
Summerland coming second, Hazelmere third, and Haney fourth. Mrs. A. A. Shaw was DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
once again in charge of these exhibits, and in her report she quotes the judges as saying,
" The work of the Women's Institutes is excellent and of a high standard."
FALL FAIRS AND FLOWER SHOWS
The sponsorship of fall fairs and flower shows was an important project for many
Institutes this year. Others assisted Agricultural Associations in putting on fairs. Some
centres, such as Prince George, Nelson, Armstrong, McBride, Quesnel, and Langley, have
a trophy for Women's Institute displays, and the Institutes in the surrounding districts
send in group exhibits for competition.
HOME ECONOMICS SHORT COURSES
The home economics short courses were a new and successful venture this year.
In response to a demand for home economics service, it was tried out on a short-course
basis. Through the co-operation of Miss Charlotte Black, of the Home Economics
Department of the University of British Columbia, the services of two of her staff
members, Miss N. Morley and Miss O. Ross, were secured. The courses were conducted
for six weeks and were a series of two-, three-, and four-day classes, depending on the
wish of the district. They were held in some centres morning and afternoon and in others
afternoon and evening, and were held at North Bridge Lake, Bouchie Lake, Alexandria,
Kersley, Vanderhoof, Fort Fraser, Fraser Lake, and Prince George. The subject of Miss
Morley's class was nutrition and Miss Ross's home decoration. Appreciative letters
received showed that these classes met a need, and requests for their continuation another
year show the interest they aroused.
CANADIAN COUNCIL OF BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS (4H)
Your Superintendent was privileged to attend the meeting of the Canadian Council
of Boys' and Girls' Clubs as representative of the Federated Women's Institutes of
Canada, upon request of Mrs. Hugh Summers, president. This was a very interesting
meeting, with members attending from all the Provinces and visitors from Washington
State. (A number of Institutes sponsor local clubs in clothing, beef, poultry, gardens,
The farm-planning displays in the Fraser Valley were attended and demonstrations
for these arranged. The services of Mrs. D. P. Armstrong, of the Langley Cold Storage,
were obtained, and she gave an interesting demonstration on the preparation of foods
for freezing and storing. These displays were held at Langley, Haney, and Chilliwack
PEACE ARCH PICNIC
The Peace Arch picnic has been established as an annual affair, with British
Columbia Women's Institutes meeting women of the Washington Home Demonstration
Clubs. The meeting was held this year on July 11th on the Canadian side of the
boundary-line. Your Superintendent was invited to address the combined groups on the
organization of the British Columbia Women's Institutes and their link with the national
and international organizations of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada and the
Associated Countrywomen of the World.
The first meeting of the Provincial Board, elected at the convention in June, was
held in the office of the Superintendent on October 23rd and 24th. Mrs. A. A. Shaw,
president, presided, with the following present: Mrs. E. J. Roylance, of Greenwood, CC 128 BRITISH COLUMBIA
vice-president; the directors, Mrs. J. Young of Rose Prairie, Mrs. T. Windt of Alexandria, Mrs. P. Douglas of Whaletown; and Mrs. R. Doe, secretary-treasurer.
Mrs. Doe reported the interest on the Othoa Scott Fund being used, and an appeal
from a new Institute—Promontory Heights—for help for a child was favourably received.
The sum of $1,000 on hand in the Women's Institute Memorial Fund is to be invested
in Government of Canada bonds to the total of $11,000, the interest being used for the
home economics scholarship. Miss Shirley Hawkins, of Saltair, is the winner this year.
As a follow up of the recent convention, ideas and suggestions for improvements
for another convention were brought forward and discussed.
Canada is to have the honour of being host to the triennial convention of the
Associated Countrywomen of the World next August. This meeting is to be held at
Toronto, with the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada meeting immediately afterwards. Mrs. A. A. Shaw, Mrs. P. Douglas, Mrs. W. Tryon, Mrs. J. Decker, and Mrs.
S. E. Gummow were appointed as the five delegates to this meeting. Post-conference
tours are being planned across Canada, and suggestions for the three days allowed for
this Province were discussed.
Fourteen district meetings were held during the year and attended by your
Superintendent, as follows:—
April 1st, South Fraser at Chilliwack.—Around 300 women attended this meeting,
with delegates present from each of the twenty-seven Institutes, including the Upper
Sumas Junior. Women from Promontory Heights were also present and they organized
within the week following.
Resolutions were passed asking for the return of 20-ounce cans of fruit and
vegetables as well as the 15-ounce can now generally used; that a reasonable service-
weight silk stocking be obtainable; and that resolutions for discussion at the district
conferences be in the hands of the secretary for circulation among the Institutes at least
three months before the meeting.
During the day, visitors were invited to visit the Chilliwack Women's Institute Hall,
owned and run by the local Women's Institute. This has a rest-room and a place for
women to meet when in town, and also has a small hall, the rent of which meets all their
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. D. McDougall, Fort Langley;
vice-president, Mrs. E. J. Roberts, Livingstone Road, R.R. 3, Langley Prairie; secretary-
treasurer, Mrs. R. Harrington, Peardonville Road, R.R. 1, Abbotsford; directors, Mrs.
A. Kerridge, Chilliwack, and Mrs. O. France, Chilliwack.
April 2nd, North Fraser at Hammond.—This was a good meeting with seventeen
delegates from twenty Institutes reporting. The far-away Institutes of Bella Bella,
Lasqueti, and Brackendale were not represented, but approximately 100 women were in
Resolutions were passed asking that the second memorial fund scholarship, when
the money is available, should be for home nursing; that the Pacific National Exhibition
increase the prize money for Institute exhibits; that all immigrants be required by law to
take out naturalization papers within a reasonable time after their arrival in Canada; and
one on " dope peddling " was redrafted for the Provincial Conference.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. G. K. Gamble, 690 Government
Road, R.R. 8, New Westminster; vice-president, Mrs. J. O. Decker, Pemberton;
secretary-treasurer, Mrs. O. E. Leaf, Whonnock; directors, Mrs. E. C. Burgess, Box 128,
Hammond, and Mrs. K. Merkley, R.R. 1, Haney.
April 5th, North Vancouver Island at Parksville.—This district now has seventeen
Institutes, which include the northern groups of Englewood, Kla-anch, and Woss Lake,
the latter being represented at the meeting. There were about 150 registered. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 129
Resolutions were passed regarding boarding-homes for senior citizens; the sale of
Canada-approved flour; a uniform educational system across Canada; nursing service
that would provide bed-side nursing care; a Red Cross Outpost Hospital for Say ward;
reduction of postage for overseas food-parcels; and a road from Say ward to Port Hardy.
The Hillier-Community Institute was represented by several of their members, who
brought a display of handicrafts from the Doukhobor settlement.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. J. Thies, Bow-Horne; vice-
president, Mrs. C. M. Campbell, Gabriola Island; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. E. M. Smith,
Box 105, Courtenay; directors, Mrs. A. L. Mitchell, Denman Island, and Mrs. H.
Macklin, Heriot Bay, Quadra Island.
May 1st, North Thompson at Kamloops.—Members of the Kamloops Council and
the Rest-room Committee were present at this well-attended meeting. The support of
the rural people is being sought for the rest-room project, which is being sponsored by
the City of Kamloops and the business people. Many Institutes reported having given
financial support, and they were all anxious to help in every possible way.
Resolutions were passed asking for a travelling dental clinic for the North Thompson
District; that a mother receiving a mother's allowance should be able to increase her
income without having it deducted from her allowance; that charity raffles should be
made legal; that a proper defence highway via the Yellowhead Pass be constructed; that
the public health nurse should be required to live in the territory in which she works
rather than at Kamloops, which is outside her territory; that the local fall fair sponsor
a Women's Institute competition; that a bridge be built over the Thompson River at
Little Fort; and that officers for the District Board should not hold office longer than
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. Kay Bray, Westsyde; vice-
president, Mrs. W. N. Livingstone, Little Fort; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. N Belcham,
Little Fort; directors, Mrs. L. Schneider, R.R. 1, Kamloops, and Mrs. Aurora Stevens,
May 3rd, North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Vernon.—The twenty-one Institutes
in this district were well represented at this large meeting. Resolutions were passed
asking for old-age pensions at 65 for all, without a means test; for the abolition of the
3-per-cent sales tax on drugs and medicine; the removal of at least part of the school tax
on land; the abolition of coinsurance; the placing of weights on packages of soap-
powders; travelling home economists for rural areas; and that the second scholarship
be awarded for a student, boy or girl, taking agriculture.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. G. A. McArthur, Tappen; vice-
president, Mrs. H. Farmer, Salmon Arm; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. J. W. Grisdale,
Vernon; directors, Mrs. A. Read, Salmon Arm, and Mrs. L. Wejr, Lumby.
May 7th, South Okanagan and Similkameen at Naramata.—Seventeen delegates and
175 members and visitors attended this meeting. Every Institute but the newly organized
Princeton group was present.
Resolutions were passed protesting the sale of horror comic books; asking for more
uniform standards of measurements for women and children's clothing; and that vitaminized apple-juice should be supported as being an Okanagan product rich in vitamins.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. G. Mugford, Rutland; vice-
president, Mrs. C. G. Bennett, Penticton; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. R. T. Knox, 599
Sutherland Avenue, Kelowna; directors, Mrs. L. Fletcher, Box 106, Oliver, and Mrs. G.
May 10th, Arrow Lakes and Slocan at Nakusp.—There were eighty-seven registered
from nine Institutes in this district. The hostess Institute of Nakusp dressed in the period
of sixty years ago, as Nakusp this year celebrated its sixtieth anniversary.
Resolutions were passed asking for a road connection between Edgewood and
southern points; continued steamer service; and electricity for rural areas. CC 130 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. J. Greer, New Denver; vice-
president, Mrs. A. Slater, Edgewood; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. J. Lee, Arrow Park;
directors, Mrs. T. Mitchell, Nakusp, and Mrs. Crellin, New Denver.
May 14th, West Kootenay at Crawford Bay.—Sixteen Institutes from the twenty
in the district sent representatives. This was a smaller meeting than usual, but one that
was full of interest and enthusiasm. A resolution was passed asking for the completion
of the road from Deer Park south for 4Vi miles to link up with Syringa Creek.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. F. A. Mitchell, Kinnaird; vice-
president, Mrs. T. Jenkins, R.R. 1, Nelson; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. W. L. Wright,
Robson; directors, Mrs. S. Coleman, Nelson, and Mrs. J. W. Hearn, Salmo.
May 15th, East Kootenay at Creston.—Seven of the eight Institutes were represented
at this meeting, with Golden, the farthest away, the only one not present. Resolutions
were passed asking that the film " Royal Journey " be made available in the 16-mm. size
for greater distribution, and that the land of the Flatbow Indians be reclaimed and the
Indians be assisted in better methods of farming and living.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. C. R. Cotton, Creston; vice-
president, Mrs. J. McDonald, Flagstone; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. W. Endicott, Creston;
directors, Mrs. G. Hurl, Creston, and Mrs. J. C. Helme, Lister.
June 17th, Cariboo at Bouchie Lake.—This meeting was held in the new Bouchie
Lake Hall. Farmers' and Women's Institutes met together for the opening, with sixty-five
women present. Miss N. Morley and Miss O. Ross were present, to be introduced as the
home economics instructors who would visit the different Institutes during the summer.
Resolutions were passed regarding a publicity campaign to acquaint the women
with the provisions of the " Wife's Protection Act "; that woollen underwear for children
should be more easily obtainable; that the allocation for agriculture should be increased;
that there should be university credits given for the agricultural course in high school.
Demonstrations were given by each of the Institutes, and these were flowers made from
nylon, making and finishing figurines, bead-work, ornaments, hooked rugs, and wool
crochet over nylon.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. T. E. Windt, Alexandria; vice-
president, Mrs. R. E. Williams, Quesnel; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. D. Melville, Alexandria; directors, Mrs. L. Krause, Marguerite, and Mrs. N. Ford, Quesnel.
June 19th and 20th, Central Interior at McBride.—This meeting was held in
conjunction with the Farmers' Institutes, and because of the difficulty of transportation
was a much smaller meeting. Delegates were present from all of the eleven Institutes,
and entertainment was given by McBride and Dunster.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. J. E. Sargent, Dunster; vice-
president, Mrs. Anna Holdway, McBride; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. A. Dickson, Vanderhoof; directors, Mrs. J. Andros, Vanderhoof, and Mrs. A. Birchard, Prince George.
June 23rd, Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Francois Lake.—Fifty-five women were present
at this meeting, with reports received from eight of the ten Institutes.
Resolutions were passed asking that the Government be required to post notices
ordering horses and cattle off the range during the winter months from November to
April; that more sanitary measures should be enforced in rural restaurants and bus-stops;
that Dr. Weber, who has given such satisfactory service in the district, should be allowed
to take his British Columbia examination without further study; that the licensing of
dentists and doctors should be in the hands of the Government; that flour and feed sacks
should be white with paper labels; that the road between Houston and Francois Lake
should be reopened; and that the School Board should be authorized to apply money
voted for " boarding pupils " to transportation, to allow a longer route for the bus so
that children now boarding could live at home.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. E. Partington, Francois Lake;
vice-president, Mrs. L. Saunders, Decker Lake; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. M. Long,
Decker Lake; directors, Mrs. F. Reynolds, Burns Lake, and Mrs. H. L'Orsa, Glenwood. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 131
June 26th, Peace River at Doe River.—In spite of rain and mud, which made the
roads very treacherous, 110 women registered for this meeting. Because of the weather,
it was late in starting, and, with the exception of your Superintendent, no outside speakers
arrived. It was a good meeting, with seventeen Institutes reporting. Sunrise Valley,
with a membership of sixteen, had eleven members present, constituting a record.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. D. A. Clarke, Dawson Creek;
vice-president, Mrs. J. Young, Rose Prairie; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. D. Fines, Fort
St. John; directors, Mrs. Karen S. Peterson, Dawson Creek, and Mrs. E. Stuby, Fort
September 26th, South Vancouver Island at Lake Hill.—This was a well-attended
and interesting meeting, with 150 women present. Panel discussions on mushrooms,
drama, copper-work, and floral arrangements proved of interest. Delegates from all
twenty-two Institutes in the district were present.
Resolutions were passed asking that the Government urge all logging operators to
leave a belt of trees 100 feet wide along the highways; protesting against the depriving
of elderly people of their driving licences; that candidates for the Provincial Board should
have served at least two terms on the District Board; that more sea-front parks should
be established in the Lower Island areas. They protested the cutting down of dogwood
on the roadsides. They asked that the Board continue to press for changes in the
" Coroners' Act," as outlined in the letter received from the Attorney-General following
the fatal accident near Koksilah, in which negligence was charged.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. J. Young, Koksilah; vice-president,
Mrs. H. M. McNally, R.R. 1, Saanichton; secretary-treasurer, Miss H. Leighton, Victoria; directors, Mrs. K. Emery, Colwood, and Mrs. M. Martin, R.R. 2, Nanaimo.
Visits were paid to individual Institutes during the year, many of these being made
at the time of the district meetings. These were Cobble Hill, Point Grey for their thirtieth anniversary, Victoria, West Langley, Quadra Island with a good delegation from
Whaletown attending, Fort Langley, Eagle Crest, Whonnock, Princeton to organize,
Montney, Rose Prairie, Pemberton, the three Island Institutes of Lasqueti, Denman, and
Hornby; Salt Spring for their thirty-second anniversary, Armstrong, Grindrod, Esqui-
malt, Strawberry Vale, Brentwood, Sooke for their forty-third anniversary, Luxton and
Happy Valley, and Shawnigan.
The fall fairs at Armstrong and Lillooet were visited, and at the latter an opportunity
was given to address the women regarding the formation of a Women's Institute.
NEWS LETTER AND HANDBOOK
The News Letter, with accompanying highlights from twenty-five Institutes, has
been sent out monthly, except for the summer months of July and August. A booklet
with suggestions for District Boards was compiled and is sent out to aid in preparing and
conducting district meetings.
Several additions have been made to the handicraft display during the year. A hand-
modelled leather purse and a hand-woven thrift rug have been added. During the year
the display has been sent to the following Institutes: Nakusp, Kaslo, Haney, Harrop,
Houston, Summerland, and Lasqueti.
RECORDINGS OF INTERVIEWS
Recordings of interviews over CBU with Mrs. Summers and Mrs. Sayre by Ellen
Harris at the time of the convention were sent to us through the courtesy of Mrs. Harris CC 132 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and sent to Institutes on request. They have been sent to Robson, Nelson, Cedar, Pem-
berton, Francois Lake, and Hillier-Community.
APPRECIATION OF SUPPORT AND CO-OPERATION
My personal thanks and appreciation go to the retiring president, Mrs. J. H. East,
and retiring members of the Provincial Board for their co-operation and attendance at
district meetings, and to the new president, Mrs. A. A. Shaw, and the new Board for
their immediate and willing support. I am also most grateful for the encouragement
and co-operation of the Minister and Deputy Minister of Agriculture, and to those staff
members at Victoria and in the field whose unfailing courtesy and assistance have been
of great value in Women's Institute work.
REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
The winter months were devoted to the preparation of maps and reports covering
field work of the previous summer. Certain maps and reports were completed for special
Soil-classification work was continued in 1952 in the Upper Columbia River valley,
East Kootenay District. About 91,000 acres classified in 1950 were rechecked, and
123,000 acres of new land were mapped. The total of classified land in the Upper
Columbia River valley, consisting of the area between Canal Flats and Parson, now
amounts to 233,000 acres. The locality between Parson and Donald remains to be
The soil-survey of the East Kootenay District was undertaken at the request of the
Department of Resources and Development (Water Resources Division) and the Department of Lands and Forests, both of which contribute to the cost of field work. The purpose of the survey is to find the acreage of potentially irrigable land in the East Kootenay
District, and supply information as to the amount of water that should be reserved in
this region for an eventual agriculture. These data have significance in connection with
agreements as to the use of international waters.
In the East Kootenay District, the soil-survey of the Upper Kootenay and Elk River
valleys has been completed, and a report is being prepared for publication. The soil
maps will be drafted for printing and the report will be published at the expense of the
Dominion Experimental Farms Service, under terms of a long-standing agreement.
The minor projects undertaken in 1952 included soil-conservation extension work,
further study of the proposed Soil-conservation Act, six meetings of the Reclamation
Committee, participation in a ground-water survey in the Peace River Block, detailed
surveys of an irrigation proposal and two Veterans' Land Act Small Holdings Proposals,
examination of a proposed forest management licence, and scientific inspection of soil-
survey field work.
This Branch also contributed a temporary graduate assistant to the Dominion soil-
survey party, which continued operations in the Peace River area during the summer.
The northern field party, under the supervision of L. Farstad, Senior Pedologist, Dominion
Experimental Farms Service, consisted of T. M. Lord and our temporary assistant,
During the past few years, consideration has been given to the possibility of placing
the Soil Survey Branch on a survival basis. As conditions stand, this Branch could be
wiped out by loss of the branch head. Development of new personnel is a slow process,
based on five years of training after graduation in soil science from a recognized university. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952
During the training period, there are staff losses serving to set back enlargement of
capacity and completion of training. Better-than-average soil technologists are required.
Plans for expansion of staff in 1952 met with failure, owing to lack of interest on the
part of the required type of university students. At the present time, such