PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Agriculture FORTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 1952 VICTORIA, B.C. Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty 1953 To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E., Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia. May it please Your Honour: I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1952. W. K. KIERNAN, Minister of Agriculture. Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C., February 3rd, 1953. Hon. W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture. BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENTAL STAFF, 1952 Minister of Agriculture: Honourable W. K. Kiernan. Minister's Secretary: Miss P. Hetherington. Deputy Minister: *W. H. Robertson, B.S.A. Administrative: Miss A. E. Hill, Departmental Secretary, Victoria, B.C. N. L. Camsusa, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C. J. S. Wells, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C. T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C. A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C. J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C. Statistics: G. H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C. Markets: *M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C. Horticulture: *Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C. *G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C. *R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C. *Alan E. Littler, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C. *W. D. Christie, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C. *R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kamloops, B.C. *I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C. W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C. *J. A. Smith, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C. *A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C. *D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C. *M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C. *J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C. *G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C. *W. F. Morton, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C. *M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C. *A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C. *J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C. Apiary: I. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C. V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, R.R. 6, New Westminster, B.C. Plant Pathology: *W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C. *I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C. Entomology: C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C. * Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. 7 CC 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA Live Stock: *W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C. *F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C. Thomas Moore, Recorder of Animal Brands, Victoria, B.C. A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C. T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola, B.C. J. M. G. Smith, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, B.C. R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C. P. G. Lawrence, Brand Inspector, Victoria, B.C. John C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C. J. J. Carney, M.R.S.L., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C. G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C. I. D. C. Clarke, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C. A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C. C. F. Morris, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C. R. L. Lancaster, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C. A. S. Clerke, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C. John G. Fowler, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George, B.C. G. H. Thornbery, Supervisor, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C. J. A. Mace, Inspector, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C. Dairy: *F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C. *G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C. *N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson, B.C. *G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C. *H. Riehl, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C. *K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C. *D. D. Wilson, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C. Poultry: *G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C. *W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C. *R. H. McMillan, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C. *H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Court-house, Vernon, B.C. Field Crops: *N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C. *C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C. *E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster, B.C. Farmers' Institutes: L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C. Women's Institutes: Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C. Soil Survey: *C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C. *R. G. Garry, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C. *J. D. Lindsay, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C. *P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C. *W. D. Holland, B.Sc, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C. Agricultural Development and Extension: *William MacGillivray, Director, Victoria, B.C. *G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C. *S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C. *J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C. *J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C. (Vacancy), Courtenay, B.C. *A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C. Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 9 Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued *A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Box 498, Mission, B.C. *Frank Martin, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Drawer 250, Abbotsford, B.C. *George Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C. *U. J. G. Guichon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C. *G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C. *R. S. Berry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C. *M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C. *J. V. Zacharias, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C. *A. R. Tarves, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C. *K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C. *R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C. *A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, B.C. *J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C. *H. R. Anderson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson, B.C. *J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C. *S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C. *J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C. *D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Associate District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C. *T. S. Crack, Associate District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C. *J. C. Ryder, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C. *P. E. Ewert, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C. *Miss E. L. R. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria, B.C. *G. L. Calver, B.A.Sc, Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C. *A. D. McMechan, B.A.Sc, Assistant Extension Agricultural Engineer, Victoria, B.C. J. R. Caverhill, B.A.Sc, Assistant Director, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C. W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C. H. Barber, Accounts, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C. * Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. TABLE OF CONTENTS Report of Deputy Minister- Report of Statistician Report of Markets Branch Report of Horticultural Branch Report of Apiary Branch Report of Plant Pathology Branch- Report of Provincial Entomologist. Report of Dairy Branch Report of Poultry Branch Report of Live Stock Branch Report of Field Crops Branch Report of Farmers' Institutes Report of Women's Institutes Report of Soil Survey Branch Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch Appendices— No. 1. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock No. 2. Beef Carcasses Graded in British Columbia, December 1st, 1951, to November 30th, 1952 No. 3. Average Prices for Cattle No. 4. Average Prices for Lambs No. 5. Average Prices for Hogs No. 6. Dairy Herds and Premises Inspected and Graded under the ' Page 15 16 23 28 53 56 61 68 75 83 109 120 125 132 144 184 185 186 186 187 Milk Act" and Cattle Tuberculosis-tested 188 No. 7. Provincial Cow-testing Associations 189 No. 8. List of Licensees 190 No. 9. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1952 193 No. 10. Lime Products Used for Soil-amendment Purposes 194 No. 11. Summary of Movement of Grain Screenings from British Columbia Elevators 195 11 UJ tr Is O CD a: < o o o £! < Nl H X < 2 (/) o UJ H o tt_ m < Q- UJ Q cc UJ t- oc (0 UJ z 1- (0 7 z J- s Q. UJ D OT I-I Zo _D o< ok um < UJ u. zu. mo (9 £x IjO 2m cn 2x HO COZ f=< I-CO tn < 1 , m w x __> o S i—' z < E z < < o ce m £5 o m Q. (0 °-X gf °< 3S UJ UJ 8j* ^5 32 fe- o X z o (0 z UJ 1- X UIX •s l-< ^GC -co £L ' o -1 (J > UJ o I- o UJ a. x a) o oc < a. < o °.x JO oz _£< j-m z UJ II Q-l- UJ3 oei- < CO >- UJ s o a. < < 13 Report of the Department of Agriculture REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE The Honourable W. K. Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C. Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Forty-seventh Report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1952. The Report, as submitted, contains a detailed review of each of the branches constituting your Department. Items not dealt with in the reports as mentioned are as follows:—■ STAFF CHANGES Appointments.—Miss H. B. Arthur, March 21st; Dr. A. S. Clerke, June 17th; Miss B. M. Coles, March 24th; E. D. Daum, September 22nd; Miss M. A. Davidson, June 11th; P. E. Ewert, May 22nd; Mrs. S. M. Glassford, September 23rd; Miss S. J. King, June 10th; P. G. Lawrence, April 1st; Frank Martin, May 17th; Miss B. E. Motherwell, April 23rd; A. D. McMechan, April 28th; J. C. Ryder, May 17th; Miss M. A. Skene, September 4th; Mrs. C. Smethurst, September 16th; L. R. Stewart, June 1st; Miss M. A. Sutherland, July 1st; D. D. Wilson, September 1st; J. V. Zacharias, May 17th. Transfers.—Miss D. G. Lee, July 1st; Miss E. Mulligan, June 1st; Miss M. E. Wimperly, June 15th. Resignations.—Miss J. J. Baillie, December 22nd; J. F. Caplette, July 15th; Miss M. A. Davidson, September 30th; J. L. G. Gray, April 8th; G. W. Hayes, March 10th; Miss F. R. Messerschmidt, September 16th; Miss V. E. Paddle, May 8th; Mrs. B. H. F. Pready, September 20th; Dr. A. Robertson, March 10th; Miss A. L. Ross, April 19th; S. S. White, January 31st; R. L. Wilkinson, November 15th. Superannuation.—E. W. White, July 31st. PUBLICATIONS In the past year the Publications Branch received 3,867 letters requesting agricultural literature, distributed 38,854 bulletins to the public and district offices, and mimeographed 152,039 copies of stencils for the Department. The following is a list of new and revised bulletins printed in 1952:— Agricultural Statistics Report, 1950. Halogeton—Intermountain Range Weed, F.C.C. 18. Loganberry Culture, H.C. 54. Potato-growing in B.C., B. 86. Some Facts about B.C., Settlement Series No. 1. Spray Calendar: Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases. LEGISLATION The only agricultural legislation dealt with at the Second Session of the Twenty- third Parliament of British Columbia was an Act to amend the " Oleomargarine Act," being chapter 48 of the Statutes of 1949, and cited as the " Oleomargarine Act Amendment Act, 1952." 15 CC 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA Of the various changes as introduced in this Bill, the most important was the repeal of section 5 of the 1949 Statute, which read as follows: " Colouring of ' oleomargarine ': No oleomargarine shall have a tint or shade containing more than one and six-tenths degrees of yellow, or of yellow and red collectively, measured in terms of the Lovibond tintometer scale read under conditions substantially similar to those established by the United States Bureau of Internal Revenue, or the equivalent of such measurement." The result of this amendment was that oleomargarine could be coloured the same as butter. Respectfully submitted. W. H. ROBERTSON, Deputy Minister of Agriculture. REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician SYNOPSIS OF AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, YEAR 1951 The agricultural production of the Province of British Columbia reached its highest level of all time in the year 1951. The aggregate value of all agricultural products is estimated at $159,782,636. This is an increase of $23,236,268 or 17 per cent over the revised total for the preceding year. Farm cash income also established a new high record in 1951. Estimated at $119,486,000, the 1951 total is $19,144,000 or 19 per cent above the revised estimate of $100,342,000 for 1950, and 15.2 per cent higher than the previous record of $103,655,000 in 1948. Cash receipts from live stock and poultry attained a new high level of over $58,000,000 in 1951. Marketings of poultry increased during the year. There were declines in marketings of all classes of live stock. However, this was more than offset by increased or record prices. Income from dairy products was 8.3 per cent above that of 1950, here again higher prices having the effect of more than offsetting a slight decline in production. Substantially higher income from the sale of eggs was the result of both increased production and higher prices. Although the greatest part of the increase in the 1951 farm cash income in comparison with the previous year came from grains, live stock and live-stock products, and poultry and eggs, almost all farm items contributed in some degree to the total gain. The total value of imports is placed at $102,808,296, as compared with $84,821,842 in 1950, an increase of $17,986,454 or 21.2 per cent. The total value of exports is estimated at $35,306,684 in 1951, as compared with $33,907,096 in 1950. This represents an increase of $1,399,588 or 4.1 per cent. The 1951 values are the second highest on record. HORTICULTURAL CONDITIONS The winter of 1950-51 was milder than that of 1949-50, but colder than the longtime average. Below-zero temperatures, ranging from —21° F. in Kamloops to — 2° F. at Summerland, were recorded on January 28th. At Summerland the temperature dropped from 40° F. on January 25th to —2° F. by midnight January 26th. Corresponding DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 17 sudden drops in temperature were registered in other fruit-growing sections of the Province. On the Lower Mainland on January 25th the thermometer rose to 50° F. and dropped to 11 ° F. on the 26th. This sudden change in temperature was responsible for some damage to apricots, cherry, and peach buds in the Interior and to strawberry plantations in Coast areas. Following the cold snap in January, the weather moderated until early in March, when in many Interior fruit-growing areas below-zero temperatures were recorded. A low of —13.2° F. was reported from Kamloops, — 2° F. at Oliver, and 6° F. at Creston. After the cold weather in March, better than average spring weather was experienced until the middle of April. On April 18th and 19th damaging frosts were experienced at many Interior and Coast points. A few of the low temperatures reported were as follows: 14° F. at Robson, 19° F. at Creston, and 17° F. at Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Oliver. The spring was drier than normal in all areas. No rainfall occurred from March 26th to April 27th at Abbotsford. During May and early June, precipitation was normal, followed by five months of exceptionally dry weather. At Salmon Arm the precipitation for the five months May 1st to September 30th was 4.5 inches, compared with the forty- year average of 6.88 inches. Similar conditions are reported from the Kootenay and Creston areas. Hail-storms were experienced at Creston, Kelowna, and Penticton. At Creston a storm early in July caused considerable loss to some growers. In Kelowna hail fell on July 2nd and July 3rd in a small area of the East Kelowna section, but damage was not severe. Heavier damage was sustained in the Glenmore areas, where some growers are said to have lost as high as 15 per cent of the crops. Little damage was done in the Penticton areas. An open fall followed the dry summer with rains commencing in October. These rains in many instances interfered with the harvesting of winter apples and late vegetables, and were responsible for heavy losses in the bean-seed crop. The fruit-crop, not being as heavy as in previous years, was all harvested in good time, and trees went into the winter in good condition with a satisfactory supply of soil- moisture. Tree and Small Fruits Apricots and peaches, though larger than 1950, produced a very light crop. All other tree-fruit crops, except pears, were the smallest in many years. Damage to buds in January and April, coupled with damaged trees of low vitality that produced heavily last year, undoubtedly had an adverse effect on this year's crop. It was a difficult crop to estimate, and as the season advanced each estimate was lower than the preceding one. This was particularly so with the apple-crop. The pear-crop was one of the largest ever harvested. Owing to trees damaged by winter-injury in 1949-50 and the large crop, the size of fruit was smaller than normal. Peaches and Apricots. — There was considerable increase in the tonnage harvested over last year, but crops were far below those previous to 1950. Zero weather in January and killing frosts in April were the main reasons for the small crop this year. Plums and Prunes.—The plum-crop exceeded that of last year but was 20 to 25 per cent below crops previous to 1950. Prune-trees showed little increased mortality over what was obvious last year and the set of fruit was heavy this spring. As the season advanced, it was noted that sizing was not good. The early prune-crop was harvested and shipped without loss, but a few days after commencement of harvesting the main crop the fruit started to shrivel, and as the season progressed the shrivelling increased. Some growers did not harvest their crop. This shrivelling caused concern in the packing-houses because of the high cost of sorting. There was much speculation as to the cause of this trouble, but it was probably due to CC 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA a number of factors. Trees were generally low in vitality, spur-damage from spring frosts is possible, and the summer was one of the hottest in several years. Small Fruits.—-The strawberry yield was considerably below that of last year in all districts. The low yield on the Lower Mainland is attributed chiefly to crown and root damage caused by the cold weather in January and the very dry summer. On Vancouver Island the plants came through the winter in good condition but, as in the Interior, suffered from spring frosts at blossoming-time and, in many instances, drought during the growing season. Though the crop was not as large this year, the price, though a satisfactory one, was slightly lower than last year. There was no difficulty in marketing the crop. Raspberries came through better than strawberries, and yields were only slightly lower than last year. The loganberry-crop for the third successive year was low. Canes suffered from winter and spring frosts, and this year's crop is considerably below that of last year. Blackberries, currants, and gooseberries showed an increase over last year. The total production of all fruit-crops in British Columbia for 1951 is estimated at 315,252,000 pounds, valued at $20,258,739, as compared with 447,368,000 pounds, valued at $21,472,296, in 1950, indicating a decrease of 132,116,000 pounds or 29.5 per cent in volume and $1,213,557 or 5.6 per cent in value. Final estimates place the 1951 apple-crop at 214,216,000 pounds, some 154,648,000 pounds less than in 1950. The 1951 pear-crop was the second largest on record. Production is now set at 31,188,000 pounds, compared with the 1950 estimate of 17,872,000 pounds, an increase of 13,316,000 pounds or 74.5 per cent. The 1951 peach-crop was substantially greater than that of the previous year. Production for the current year is now placed at 22,176,000 pounds, as compared with the 1950 production of 4,126,000 pounds. Production of apricots in 1951 amounted to 1,900,000 pounds, as against 918,000 pounds in 1950, representing an increase of 982,000 pounds. The 1951 strawberry-crop is currently estimated at 10,268,000 pounds, down 6,304,000 pounds from the 1950 level. Production of raspberries in 1951 is placed at 9,884,000 pounds, as compared with 10,404,000 pounds in 1950, a decrease of 520,000 pounds. Production by types of the other principal fruits, with comparable data for 1950 in parentheses, is as follows: Plums, 2,164,000 pounds (2,050,000 pounds); prunes, 12,392,000 pounds (12,432,000 pounds); cherries, 3,560,000 pounds (4,180,000 pounds); blackberries, 1,014,000 pounds (516,000 pounds); loganberries, 882,000 pounds (1,198,000 pounds). Vegetables The acreage of vegetables in the Province does not vary a great deal from year to year. This year there was a noticeable decrease in onion-acreage, and a slight increase in carrots and tomatoes. This has generally been a good year for the vegetable-growers, quality and demand being on the whole satisfactory. Practically no transplanting and seeding of early vegetables was made until late March and early April. On account of the warm, dry weather (except for the cool nights and frost during the middle of the month) most growers found it necessary to irrigate. This was much earlier in the season than is usually necessary. It was rather interesting to note that in the Cloverdale section a spinach-crop which was nearly ready to harvest in mid-April was saved from frost-damage by the use of sprinklers during the night and early morning. Spinach in the adjoining fields, where the sprinkling was not done, was practically entirely lost. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 19 In spite of the hot, dry season, vegetable-supplies for the most part have been ample for market requirements. Production in some instances has not been up to expectations, but the over-all production might have been considerably less. This past season, owing to the hot growing weather, was one of the best in the Lower Mainland district for the growing of tomatoes, and a few growers obtained excellent returns on a very receptive and favourable market. Broccoli and brussels sprouts are two vegetables that can be grown in the fall and well into the late part of the year. These crops have been grown on a somewhat limited commercial scale in the district surrounding Abbotsford for the past two or three years. There seems to be an increasing demand for these crops for the frozen-pack in addition to the fresh-market trade. Growers on Vancouver Island had a fairly good cut of Christmas cauliflower during November and December, 1950. The spring (overwintered) cauliflower also gave a good cut. Some damage occurred in early March from low temperatures and snow. Spring and summer vegetables have been in good supply throughout the season. Warm-weather crops, such as tomatoes, corn, melons, squash, cucumbers, etc., have done particularly well. There was a sharp decline in the vegetable-acreage this year in the Okanagan. The 1950 area is placed at 10,635 acres, as compared to 8,051 acres grown this season. The biggest drop was in potatoes, both early and late—1,048 acres last year as against 761 acres this year for the early crop, or a difference of roughtly 27 per cent. The difference was even greater with late potatoes—1,590 acres last year as compared to 834 acres, or approximately 52 per cent of last year's acreage. The onion-acreage was also down by about 40 per cent, or 1,073 acres in 1950 as compared with 650 acres in 1951. Other vegetable-acreages showed small differences, except tomatoes, which showed an increase of 372 acres over last year. The quality of all vegetable-crops has been generally good, and prices much higher than last year. The highlights of the vegetable deal this year have been the general good quality and prices received for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes shipped as "mature greens." Because of the keen demand for "mature greens," quite a proportion of the tonnage that would have ordinarily gone to the cannery was shipped to the fresh-vegetable market, with a consequent cut in the canned tonnage. The onion-crop was harvested under almost ideal conditions, and stood up well in storage. A large percentage of this year's crop graded No. 1 and No. 2, with only a small percentage of " boilers." The early asparagus-crop was damaged by frost, but a good cutting season followed. Yields in all sections were good and prices satisfactory. The acreage of this crop is increasing, and there is an increasing demand from the canners for asparagus. The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for 1951 was 77,973 tons, of a value of $7,655,319, as compared with 84,902 tons, valued at $6,912,352, in 1950, a decrease of 6,929 tons or 8.1 per cent in volume, but an increase of $742,967 or 10.7 per cent in value. The production of field rhubarb is estimated at 555 tons, of a value of $37,420, as compared with 736 tons, valued at $55,694, in 1950. An increase of 10 tons is recorded in the quantity of forced rhubarb produced. The 1951 crop amounted to 80 tons, valued at $18,000. Hothouse tomatoes produced in 1951 amounted to 1,959 tons, valued at $816,452, as compared with 1,859 tons, valued at $680,382, in 1950, indicating an increase in the volume of production of 100 tons. Field tomatoes produced amounted to 15,416 tons, as against 18,027 tons in 1950, a decrease of 2,611 tons. CC 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1951 is estimated at 3,329 tons, up 22 tons over the 1950 production. A decrease of 9 tons is recorded in the quantity of hothouse cucumbers produced. The 1951 crop amounted to 314 tons, valued at $109,106. Field Crops Beginning in June, Southern British Columbia experienced the longest period of dry weather on record, and crops in the area suffered seriously from drought. Recovery had hardly been made from a long stretch of rainless weather in early spring when drought set in again. Spring-sown grains and pastures in particular were seriously affected. In the Central Interior regions intermittent showers maintained growth and in the Peace River area growing conditions remained excellent throughout the summer. The hay-crop was light in the dry sections and only fair in the remainder of the Province. Second cuttings were light generally. The quality of the crop was good, and it was stored in good condition. Harvesting of winter wheat was nearing completion in southern areas during the first week in August and harvesting of spring grains had begun. In the Peace River area most crops were late and were still growing well at the middle of August. Heavy yields were in prospect in that area, but continued warm weather was needed to bring grains to maturity. The long drought in southern parts of the Province was broken by general rains from August 27th to August 29th. Fine, warm days and cooler nights followed and grain harvesting in these areas was completed under ideal conditions. Yields, particularly on Vancouver Island, were reduced by drought, cutworms, and grasshoppers. Pastures made very little recovery from the dry weather, the quality of the corn-crop was lowered, and feed-supplies will be short. Reserves of moisture were poor for planting cereals, bulbs, and grasses. In the south-eastern corner of the Province, yields of fall wheat were average, and yields of spring grains slightly below average. The non-irrigated parts of the Central Interior suffered from dryness, but grass remained good in the upper ranges, and the yield of irrigated hay was satisfactory and of good quality. In the Peace River area harvesting of grains was general by the middle of September, but snow, rain, and frost interfered with operations, and by the end of the first week in October it was estimated that about a third of the wheat, 40 per cent of the oats, and 15 per cent of the barley remained to be cut. Very little threshing had been done and grades were lowered by the unfavourable weather. Conditions in the Peace River Block in the spring of 1952 were favourable for harvesting of grain left in the fields last fall. The potato-crop is very light this year. Acreage seeded was much lower this year, due to the unfavourable price prevailing last spring, and the dry season in the main growing areas reduced average yields. Forage-seed production is generally down, due principally to the unfavourable weather in the Peace River, as mentioned, and also much of the red clover acreage in the Fraser Valley was harvested for hay to help relieve a serious shortage. The total gross value of the principal field crops in 1951 is now estimated at $31,744,000, as compared with $28,518,000 in 1950, an increase of $3,226,000 or 11.3 per cent. The production of all grain-crops amounted to 8,832,000 bushels, valued at $8,669,000, as compared with the 1950 production of 5,994,000 bushels, valued at $6,640,000. Fodder-crops aggregating a total of 657,100 tons, valued at $18,704,000, were produced in 1951, as compared with 751,000 tons, valued at $16,547,000, in 1950. The 1951 potato-crop, estimated at 58,800 tons, is down considerably from the production for the previous year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 21 DAIRYING According to the five-stock survey of June 1st, 1951, there was a reduction of 3.8 per cent in the number of milch cows on farms. This placed the estimated total at 96,000, in comparison with 99,800 in the previous year. The decline in number of cows reported in June was reflected in lower production of milk during the year. The exceptionally dry summer in the Lower Fraser Valley and the Gulf Islands, coupled with high prices for beef and for labour, were likewise contributing factors. Total milk production for 1951, estimated at 624,472,000 pounds, was 42,883,000 pounds or 6.4 per cent less than that of the previous year. A considerable decrease in butter production, and a slight decline in production of cheese placed the total milk equivalent of factory production slightly below that of the preceding year. Larger amounts of milk were used in the manufacture of concentrated-milk products and icecream than in 1950. Quantities of milk sold for fluid use were lower in 1951 than in 1950. On a percentage basis, of the total milk production for 1951 approximately 52 per cent was used for fluid sales, 10 per cent in the manufacture of creamery butter, 22 per cent in the manufacture of concentrated milk and ice-cream, and the remaining 16 per cent in the manufacture of cheddar cheese, dairy butter, cottage cheese, and includes milk consumed on the farm and milk fed to live stock. The total farm value of milk production amounted to $23,888,000 in 1951, an increase of $2,252,000 over that of the preceding year. The total value of dairy products, including manufactured products and fluid sales valued at the factory, plus the value of products made and used on farms, amounted to $33,584,000, an increase of $2,589,000 over the year 1950. The butter output of creameries in 1951 was 2,666,000 pounds, as compared with 4,672,000 pounds in 1950, a decrease of 2,006,000 pounds. The average price for the year was 62 cents per pound, compared with 58.7 cents in 1950. Cheddar-cheese production is estimated at 557,000 pounds, as compared with 564,000 pounds in 1950. The average price of cheddar cheese was 40 cents per pound in 1951, and 31.7 cents per pound in 1950. Production of ice-cream during 1951 reached an all-time high. Production for the year is placed at 2,892,000 gallons, as against 2,451,000 gallons produced in 1950, an increase of 441,000 gallons or 17.9 per cent. Sales of fluid milk and cream, the latter expressed as milk, amounted to 325,859,000 pounds in 1951, a decrease of 8,718,000 pounds in comparison with last year. The production of evaporated whole milk was the highest on record. The output of the condenseries in 1951 was 39,080,000 pounds, as compared with 34,868,000 pounds in 1950, an increase of 4,212,000 pounds or 12 per cent. The production of creamed cottage cheese is estimated at 2,829,000 pounds in 1951, up 227,000 pounds from the total for the year previous. Less milk was utilized for dairy butter and there was a decrease in quantities fed to live stock and milk used in farm homes in comparison with the previous year. LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY The winter of 1950-51 could be considered an average one in so far as live stock was concerned. Feed-supplies in the range country were, on the whole, up to average. The summer of 1951 was one of the driest on record, and as a consequence feed-supplies for the winter were somewhat shorter. Cattle population, according to the live-stock survey of June 1st, 1951, shows an over-all decrease of approximately 2 per cent. This could be attributed to the high price CC 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA of cattle and the larger numbers going to the export market. It would appear that many ranchers were selling to the very limit and even selling themselves short. It is noted that quite a few stock are being taken back from our different community sales to establish breeding herds throughout the country. Also, quite a few beef cattle are coming to the Coast to replace dairy herds that are being sold off. During the year, particularly the early part, there was a considerable movement of dressed beef to the United States. Live-stock prices have risen in line with prices all across Canada. The Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, December 4th, 5th, and 6th, demonstrated the keen buyer demand for meats, with an average price of $38.41 per hundredweight, the highest on record, and nearly $10 a hundredweight higher than 1950. The number of horses on farms is placed at 43,000, a decline of 2,900 from the total of 45,900 at June 1st, 1950. Cattle numbers at June 1st, 1951, totalled 350,000, as compared with 357,300 a year earlier, a decrease of 7,300 or 2 per cent. The number of hogs on farms at June 1st, 1951, is estimated at 65,000, an increase of 1,000 or 1.5 per cent from the total at June 1st, 1950. Sheep numbers increased to the extent of 8.4 per cent during the year. There were 3,590,000 hens, cocks, and chickens on farms in the Province at June 1st, 1951, as compared with 3,370,000 on the same date in 1950, an increase of 220,000 or 6.5 per cent. Turkey numbers at June 1st, 1951, totalled 240,000, as compared with 260,000 on June 1st, 1950, a decrease of 20,000. The number of ducks increased by 22 per cent during the year, being 22,000, as compared with 18,000 on June 1st a year ago. The number of geese is estimated at 12,000 on June 1st, 1951. This represents an increase of 2,000 or 20 per cent over the number on the corresponding date of 1950. Production of eggs in 1951 is estimated at 30,842,000 dozens, as against 26,304,000 dozens in 1950, an increase of 4,538,000 dozens or 17.2 per cent. Eggs averaged 54.4 cents a dozen in 1951, as compared with 44.6 cents a dozen in 1950. Poultry-meat productions was up from 13,968,000 pounds in 1950 to 21,521,000 pounds in 1951, an increase of 7,553,000 pounds. MISCELLANEOUS The acreage of vegetable and flower seed, owing to poor demand and lower prices, was not as great as in previous years. Coupled with smaller acreage the weather conditions for late-maturing seeds were unsatisfactory and considerable seed was reported spoiled by continuous rains early in October. The total value of vegetable, flower, and field-crop seed production for 1951 is estimated at $1,065,953, as compared with $1,388,970 in 1950, a decrease of $323,017. The 1951 honey-crop is placed at 1,654,000 pounds, as against 1,322,000 pounds in 1950, an increase of 332,000 pounds or 25.1 per cent. Hops yielded 1,901,000 pounds from 1,449 acres, as compared with 2,260,000 pounds from 1,472 acres in 1950, yields per acre of 1,312 pounds and 1,535 pounds respectively. The 1951 crop was valued at $1,422,000. Climatic conditions were generally favourable to the growth and development of the 1951 tobacco-crop. The yield of tobacco is estimated at 187,000 pounds from 150 acres or 1,248 pounds per acre, as compared with 132,000 pounds from 120 acres or 1,100 pounds per acre in 1950. Production of margarine for 1951 is estimated at 8,767,000 pounds, as compared with 5,734,300 pounds in 1950, an increase of 3,032,700 pounds or 52.8 per cent. The revenue derived from fur-farming is placed at $796,000, as compared with a value of $515,000 for 1950, indicating an increase of $281,000 or 54.5 per cent. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner CC 23 GENERAL In common with other Provinces, British Columbia's agricultural economy underwent a period of readjustment during 1952. The full impact of the United States embargo on Canadian live stock, established February 26th, made itself felt by late summer. By that time the wholesale price index for animal products had fallen to 244.9, a decline of 19.8 per cent from the index of 305.4 for the same period in 1951. This sharp decline exerted a depressing force upon the index for all farm products, which by August had dropped to 236.2, off 10.3 per cent from the August, 1951, figure. The price index for field products registered a lesser decline of 8.4 per cent from the previous year. Coincidental with these declines was a slight easing of the composite index of commodities and services used by farmers. This index, which stood at 228.6 in August, 1951, rose to a record high of 229.8 in April of this year, before dipping slightly by August to 227.7, a decline of less than 1 per cent. Exclusive of farm living costs, the index actually registered an increase of 2 per cent over the 1951 figure to 243.4. The farm wage index contributed materially to this increase, rising to a record 457.3 by late summer. Among other contributing factors were building materials and such articles as binder-twine. FEED-GRAIN MOVEMENTS During the year, Canadian railways again made application to the Transport Board for two freight-rate increases of 8 and 9 per cent respectively. Rates on all grain or flour shipped out of Western Canada are governed by two factors. First of these is the Crow's Nest Pass Agreement, which is a Statute of Parliament and therefore binding upon the Transport Board. Second is the so-called " hold-down " rule applied by the Board in the Western Rates Case judgment of 1914, which is still in force. Under this rule, rates on all grain or flour moving in a direct line toward the Lakehead or Vancouver are definitely fixed. Thus the bulk of grain traffic has been and still is protected. The remainder is confined to what might be termed "north-south" traffic and the westward traffic in feed-grains to British Columbia. Following hearings before the Transport Board, the railways were granted tariff increases on such "remainder" hauls. Thus feed-grain shipments to British Columbia were raised by about 26 per cent. The new rates became effective November 15th for shipments to Interior points and November 25th to Vancouver and other Coastal centres. As a result, the rate from Calgary to Vancouver rose from $7.30 to $9.20 per ton. The new rate to Victoria and most Fraser Valley points now stands at $9.80. Under terms of the Federal Freight Assistance Policy freight tariffs on feed-grain shipments to British Columbia from Calgary or Edmonton continued to be paid by the Federal Treasury. To the end of November, freight assistance was granted on a total of 170,675 tons shipped after January 1st, indicating a continued heavy flow of feed-grains at an average monthly rate of close to 16,000 tons, down fractionally from the 1951 average. About one-quarter of the total was made up of feed-wheat, followed in order of volume by oats, mill-feeds, and barley. CC 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA FEED PRICES Moderate declines were registered in most live-stock feed prices during the year. Since January feed-wheat declined in price 9 per cent, oats 13 per cent, barley 10 per cent, dairy mash 16 per cent, laying-mash 7 per cent, and turkey-grower mash 11 per cent. Despite these declines, feed prices remained at comparatively high levels, particularly in relation to decreased prices for most animal products. While the national carryover of grains of all grades from the 1951 crop was substantial, a strong demand, coupled with increased handling costs, tended to maintain relatively firm price-levels. Excellent hay-crops throughout virtually the entire Province effectively depressed prices. Second-cut alfalfa dropped by 16 per cent from a January high of $56 per ton at Vancouver. Other hays declined also, with demand very sluggish during late summer and autumn months. FRUIT A cool spring in British Columbia's major tree-fruits areas was followed by a dry, hot summer and a long, " open" fall. This had a definite effect upon fruit ripening, sizing, and colour, to some extent unfavourable. The apple-crop in particular was adversely affected by drought conditions and the lack of cool temperatures. One of the most outstanding features of the 1952 fruit deal was the amazing comeback of stone-fruits, particularly apricots. This year saw a total of nearly 825,000 cases marketed, a sevenfold increase over the 1951 figure. At the peak of the season over 20 cars per day were rolling out of Okanagan points, glutting every available market. So heavy was the volume that a stop-pack order was put into effect on August 8th. Peaches also showed strong recovery from the severe cut-back following the winterkilling of 1949-50. B.C. Tree Fruits Limited shipped a total of over 1,350,000 cases, an increase of 30 per cent over the 1951 total. Prices were somewhat lower this year however, in the face of strong competition from other peach-growing areas. Pears were down slightly in volume from the preceding year, with about 625,000 cases marketed. In general, prices were comparable with those realized in 1951. This year's apple-crop, while up substantially from 1951, was not a heavy one. The principal growing districts produced approximately 5,500,000 boxes, an increase of close to 20 per cent over the 1951 output. Both domestic and export markets maintained a firm tone generally, although Eastern Canadian centres were variable at times. The United States market again proved receptive, taking some 800,000 boxes up to the end of November, spread over thirty-four States, at generally satisfactory prices. With the United States Department of Agriculture's $1.25 per box subsidy on off-shore apple shipments discontinued this year, British Columbia apples once again were able to find their way into export markets previously barred to them by this subsidized competition. Among these markets was Brazil, which by November 30th had taken over 50,000 boxes. The Okanagan apple-juice output, at 352,700 cases, was down about 5 per cent up to November 30th this year as compared to the same period in 1951. Included in juice sales this year was a considerable gallonage purchased by the National Department of Defence Production for consumption by Canada's armed forces. The small-fruits industry was hit this year by a weakened price structure, particularly in the processing trade. While output was up from 1951, fresh strawberries and raspberries were down in price, hovering about $4 and $4.50 wholesale at Vancouver. Strawberries for processing were down sharply to 12V-. cents per pound. The steadily expanding blueberry industry experienced a satisfactory market once again. Fresh berries brought an average of $6 per crate on the Vancouver wholesale market. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 25 While the over-all situation in British Columbia could be considered reasonably satisfactory this year, the industry was still hampered to some extent by two adverse factors—freight rates and United States imports. Rail-haul tariffs eastward in Canada from British Columbia are at levels which permit exceedingly keen competition from both Ontario and Washington State. Even the comparatively short haul from Kelowna to Vancouver meets with stiff competitive rates between California and British Columbia coastal points. Rates generally have risen 85 per cent since 1941. The second factor, United States imports, has from time to time produced depressed markets for domestic crops. British Columbia, in common with other Provinces, enjoys only brief periods annually of tariff protection. While these have a certain value, that value is often limited, particularly in " long " crop years. FIELD CROPS AND VEGETABLES Production patterns were variable this year, due to the twin influences of price structures and weather. Outstanding feature was the continued firm tone in potatoes. The short crop of 1951 resulted in unusually high prices and scant supplies by spring. To alleviate the shortage, Grade 3 potatoes were authorized. Later, by Federal order, United States size B potatoes were admitted. Substantial tonnages of these smaller size tubers were imported, chiefly from California, until the official cut-off date in mid- June. An estimated acreage increase of 10 per cent was lifted in good condition, and found a ready, firm market. However, as in 1951, a substantial portion of the crop was stored, to be marketed at anticipated higher prices in the early months of 1953. Although prices by late autumn were running as high as $85 per ton to the producer, local deliveries were insufficient to meet demand. As a result, considerable tonnages of Washington State and Alberta stocks were imported, principally to the larger Coastal centres. In October, Grade 3 potatoes were again authorized, but met with only moderate acceptance. By the end of November the British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board Agency moved a total of nearly 4,000 tons of potatoes, about 12 per cent less than the 1951 figure for the same period. Its counterpart at the Coast marketed 17,400 tons, an all-time record, during the same months. The Coast Board placed over 3,500 tons on the export market, chiefly to the Prairies. Marketings of root-crops were about on a par with 1951, although cabbage was weaker. Carrots were also rather sluggish, although bunched carrots moved well. Cantaloupes, cucumbers, lettuce, peppers, and tomatoes were down this year in volume to the fresh market. Other items were little changed from the preceding year. A prolonged warm fall produced one of the most satisfactory processed-tomato deals on record however. The Interior Board handled a total of over 20,000 tons of canners, about double the 1951 total, at $36.25 per ton for first grade. Also shipped to the processing trade were 1,500 tons of beans, 600 tons of pumpkins, 250 tons of carrots, and close to 120 tons of asparagus. Asparagus prices remained unchanged from 1951, ranging from 16 cents to 29 cents per pound according to grade. The 1951 canning-pea deal was a satisfactory one, with yields averaging over 2 tons per acre and prices holding at 1951 levels. LIVE STOCK Following the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in this country and the immediate embargo placed against Canadian live stock by the United States, the live-stock industry underwent a period of retrenchment as market values declined an average of 25 per cent. Despite the uncertainties of the market and the threat of further price declines under the impact of potential heavy surpluses, sales held remarkably well. Federal support CC 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA prices for beef and pork and the siphoning off of a substantial surplus of the latter to the processing trade provided a measure of stability. Beef-cattle auctions at Okanagan Falls and Elko early in the fall were somewhat disappointing, but later sales at Williams Lake, Quesnel, and Kamloops saw keener bidding and firm prices. An unexpected demand for feeders at Williams Lake particularly kept prices reasonably firm. At Kamloops, cattle brought comparatively firm prices, ranging up to $5 above the support price. Car-lots averaged $27.10. CEREAL GRAINS Grain-growers in British Columbia's Peace River District harvested their best crops in recent years this year. Excellent weather conditions at harvest saw well over 1,500,000 bushels of wheat taken off. The barley and oats crops were also in good condition, with yields totalling approximately 1,750,000 and 2,250,000 bushels respectively. The latter two grains brought initial prices averaging on a par with 1951, while the wheat was of considerably higher grade with consequent better prices. Initial payment for No. 4 wheat this year was $1.031/i per bushel. Flax was down somewhat this year, netting growers $3.10 per bushel. FORAGE-CROPS Heavy increases in legume-seed production, accompanied by sharp price declines, featured the forage-crops picture this year. Alfalfa-seed output was several times greater, the Peace River alone producing over 1,000,000 pounds. Prices opened as high as 25 cents, but record production in the United States quickly depressed prices to as low as 15 cents per pound. Sweet-clover seed output was tripled this year at about 1,000,000 pounds, but prices dropped from last year's 4 cents to 3 and 2 cents per pound. Red-clover output also rose sharply. Lower Fraser Valley production totalled about 500,000 pounds and prices steadied at 21 cents. Altaswede and alsike both registered declines, the former dropping about 4 cents to 19 cents, while alsike skidded sharply from a high of 27 cents to half that figure. Still gaining in popularity with British Columbia seed-growers, creeping-red-fescue production was doubled this year, but returns decreased by 10 to 15 cents from last year's 45-cent figure. Brome prices eased from 6 down to 4 cents, about one-half the 1951 average. Timothy strengthened slightly, rising 2 cents from a low point of 8 cents per pound. Peas held reasonably at about $110 per ton. Yields were down slightly in the North Okanagan but up in Creston. Sugar-beet seed production was satisfactory this year, with well over 500,000 pounds harvested. POULTRY AND EGGS Conditions in the Province's poultry industry were generally depressed throughout the year. The spring-chick hatch was off about 11 per cent from 1951. Egg prices remained at relatively low levels as compared with the preceding year, reaching a peak of 50 cents per dozen for Grade A Large to the producer at Vancouver in September. This was approximately 25 per cent below the 1951 top. A sharp 8-cent drop at the first of December further reflected the depressed market tone. While domestic consumption of poultry rose by about 35 per cent, offerings kept pace. By mid-summer, storage stocks were double the 1951 holdings. As a result prices were unattractive throughout the balance of the year. Chicken in the 4- to 5-pound category ranged between 32 and 34 cents per pound to the producer at Vancouver. Fryers and broilers were steady at 25 to 30 cents. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 27 An estimated 11-per-cent boost in turkey-poult hatching featured this year's turkey industry. Prices were down 10 to 12 cents per pound from 1951 levels for the Thanksgiving and Christmas trade, averaging below 40 cents per pound to the producer for all grades. MISCELLANEOUS Ranch-bred furs, mainly mink, continued to enjoy active demand, although the retail market was slow at mid-year. A total of 28,000 Standard mink pelts brought good prices when offered at the first fall auction in Vancouver. Prices ranged as high as $36 for Extra Large Dark males. This year's Christmas-tree cut was again substantial, the bulk going as usual to United States points. The East Kootenays cut was slightly over 100 cars, while the Okanagan-Mainline and Cariboo Districts produced lesser amounts. Average value was close to the 1951 figure of about 40 cents per tree. MARKETING BOARDS By order in council approved May 2nd this year the British Columbia Tree-fruit Marketing Scheme was amended by the provision of authority whereby the Board's designated agency, B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, can handle advertising appropriations directly, rather than through the Board as in past years. This scheme was further amended on the same date by granting to the Board powers to fix and collect fees for services rendered as a means of raising revenue. Previously, the Board had been restricted to licence fees, which was found to be rather unwieldy in operation. Approval of the British Columbia Marketing Board was granted on October 10th whereby the B.C. Coast Vegetable Marketing Board designated the Island Vegetable Co-operative Association as sole selling agency for all controlled produce on Vancouver Island. This move provided the Coast Board with two instead of one designated selling agencies. Following numerous complaints directed against controlled marketing in general and the three Marketing Boards now operating in particular, an impartial survey of the operations of these Boards was ordered by the Minister of Agriculture. Since the bulk of these complaints was directed against the B.C. Coast Board, the survey was largely confined to the area under that Board's jurisdiction. ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES As in former years, the Markets Branch was again associated with the Economics Division of the Canada Department of Agriculture in an economic survey of a section of the Province. This year the East Kootenay region was surveyed, with data collected at Cranbrook, Kimberley, Creston, and in the Windermere District. Findings of this survey, when completed, will complement those of the West Kootenay District carried out in 1951. The two surveys together are expected to provide a comprehensive study of the agricultural economy of South-eastern British Columbia. In late November this Branch took an active part in xthe annual agricultural marketing conference, held in Vancouver in conjunction with the annual convention of the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture. Briefs were submitted and discussed from all major industries in the Province's agriculture, covering current conditions in each. CC 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Sub-zero temperatures were experienced at Interior points during the winter of 1951-52, but they were of short duration and no serious winter-injury was reported. Temperatures varied on the coldest night from — 27° F. at Kamloops, —25° F. at Salmon Arm, — 11 ° F. at Cawston to —6.9° F. at Penticton. In nearly all areas there was a good covering of snow from early in December to well into March. In the Kootenay area the two coldest days reported were December 31st and January 10th when the temperature was 4 and 6 degrees below zero at Nelson. No extreme temperatures were recorded on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. With few exceptions in low-lying and wind-swept areas crops came through the winter in good condition. Owing to snow-coverage delaying operations on the land, the spring was considered somewhat later than normal, but regardless of the long winter and early-spring frosts the start of the growing season was not delayed. The following table, prepared by M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, indicates the comparison of blossom dates at Penticton for the past five years:— Fruit 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 Apr. 20 May 5 May 4 May 11 Apr. 17 Apr. 24 May 1 May 3 Apr. 29 May 9 May 11 May 14 May 15 May 18 Apr. 19 Apr. 29 Apr. 30 May 7 May 6 May 12 Apr. 18 Apr. 25 Peaches Pears Apr. 29 May 4 Apples May 17 May 8 May 10 Frosts were experienced in the Okanagan during the first week in May and damage was reported most severe in southern districts, especially in low-lying areas with little air- drainage. The over-all damage was not considered heavy. Some frost-damage to raspberries and early bloom of strawberries was reported from scattered areas in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island, but this had little effect on yield. Scattered hail-storms were reported from Penticton, Naramata, Kaleden, and Kelowna, but there was no appreciable damages. The weather was generally cool throughout May, June, and July. From the middle of August to the end of October, temperatures were above normal and precipitation was less than average. Practically all areas would welcome rain to improve soil-moisture conditions. The hot, dry weather experienced from the middle of August to harvest was not favourable to the sizing and coloring of late apples and pears, but was beneficial in so far as the ripening of tomatoes and harvesting of fruit and vegetable crops was concerned. All crops were harvested in good time. HORTICULTURAL CROPS Tree and Small Fruits Apricots.—The apricot-crop was larger than the last big crop harvested in 1949. Much of the crop, however, ran to the smaller sizes, which were difficult to market. This small size was due to an extremely heavy set of fruit and to insufficient thinning. In some DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 29 instances the trees, weakened by the freeze in January, 1950, were also incapable of carrying a heavy load of fruit. Peaches.—The peach-crop, while not as large as the crops produced previous to 1950, showed some increase over last year, and with favourable weather conditions it is probable that the 1952 crop will equal or exceed that of the large crop produced in 1949. As with apricots, there were too many small-sized peaches, and difficulty was experienced in marketing some of the crop. Plums and Prunes.—The yield of plums and prunes was below that of last year, but the quality was generally better owing to less shrivelling and gumming. Young trees are making good recovery from the 1950 freeze, but many old trees will never make sufficient recovery to become profitable. Cherries.—The cherry-crop yielded more than double the tonnage of the small crop in 1951. They set well and showed good promise in the Okanagan area during the early part of the season, but rains during the last week in June caused considerable splitting in Bings, which was responsible for considerable culling and reduction in crop. Weakened trees were also responsible in many orchards for small sizes, and production, though greater than last year, was considerably below early expectations. Apples and Pears.—Apples sized well through June and July but continuous dry, hot weather after the end of July affected the size and colouring of late varieties. There was more than average Grade Cs because of poor colouring in Delicious and Winesap. The market has been favourable, and indications are that prices will be higher than last year for a larger crop. Pears did not set as heavy as last year, and the sizes ranged from small to medium. The small size, as last year, could be attributed in some degree to insufficient thinning, to the growing season, and, in some instances, to trees weakened by winter-injury. Small Fruits.—Production of small fruits shows considerable increase over last year. Prices received were somewhat below those of 1951 but there was a ready market, and all of the crop was sold. The following table indicates the actual production of tree and small fruits in 1951 and the estimated production for 1952:— Kind Year Production Kind Year Production 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 Boxes 5,100,373 6,322,000 79,145 130,900 742,559 551,600 Crates 144,300 118,000 826,144 951,500 1,108,850 1,312,500 95,024 626,000 177,970 372,400 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 1951 1952 Crates 570,462 772,900 549,071 645,500 49,047 80,500 56,340 47,700 4,080 5,500 7,658 10,250 3,368 4,700 Lb. 1,894,465 2,533,000 Raspberries Peaches — - Gooseberries Grapes.. Cherries— Vegetables Tomato-acreage showed an increase of about 400 acres over 1951. This was the largest increase reported for any one crop. Yields and quality of vegetables were generally good and the demand and prices satisfactory. The production situation in the three main producing areas is outlined in the following reports of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley; E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist for the Okanagan. CC 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:— "During February and March an early spring was anticipated, and while land preparation went forward rapidly, cool temperatures with cool soil conditions retarded growth and early transplanting. "Some early bunch vegetables from the warmer areas, such as radishes, onions, turnips, beets, and spinach, were on the market around May 1st, followed by head-lettuce about May 15th. Early potatoes, although planted earlier than last year, developed slowly; consequently the first digging was about June 15th. " Canning-pea crops were, on the whole, good; beans were slow at the start but yields, except in a few places, were fair to good. Corn was also slow to start and the canning production looked to be very disappointing at first, but continued warm weather brought the crop along rapidly in September. Canning and freezing of the crop continued until the end of October. It is rather interesting to note that a crop of corn seeded in Agassiz in mid-June matured too late for the cannery but was successfully marketed during November on the Vancouver market. " Potatoes were scarce during the early part of the year; in fact, some restaurants were either not serving or were limiting servings of potatoes. " Seed-potatoes were also in short supply. The crop for this year, however, appears to be ample to meet requirements. Imported potatoes at various times during the year have affected the price situation. " In order to give the small-fruit growers an additional source of income, time has been spent in introducing a few vegetable crops. The Pacific Co-operative Union have been interested in putting up a frozen pack. " Work has been done with broccoli and brussels sprouts, two crops that will continue to produce a marketable crop well into fall and early winter. In 1951, about 35 acres of broccoli and 20 acres of brussels sprouts were grown in the vicinity of Abbotsford. This year, 75 acres of broccoli and 40 acres of brussels sprouts were planted." E. W. White and A. E. Littler, Vancouver Island: — " Growers had a good cut of cauliflower during November and December, 1951. The spring (overwintered) cauliflower also gave a good cut. " The spring and summer vegetables have followed the usual pattern and been in good supply throughout the season. Warm-weather crops such as tomatoes, corn, squash, etc., were late in maturing due to the cold nights during July and August. There were very few local tomatoes on the market before the last week in August. However, the fall was a warm one and these crops matured in volume well on into October. Tomatoes in particular came on in such volume that they presented quite a marketing problem. " Potatoes have been a good crop and prices have been relatively high. " Christmas and overwintered cauliflower-crops look in good condition for the most part." R. P. Murray, Okanagan:— " Vegetable-crops have been good generally. Prices have been favourable and the growers have had a good season. " The vegetable-crop was larger this season than a year ago by 557 acres. This is made up largely by the increased acreage of tomatoes, carrots, green beans, dried beans, dried peas, and late potatoes. " Celery, cantaloupes, early potatoes, parsnips, and cucumbers all show a drop in the 1952 acreage. " The total acreage for 1952 was 8,614 acres, as compared to 8,057 in 1951. " There are more carrots in storage than a year ago, caused possibly by an increased acreage (108 acres) and a smaller amount taken by the canners. However, no trouble is expected in moving all the carrots now on hand. The amount in storage is estimated at about 1,200 tons. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 31 " Because of heavy imports from the United States just as the early cabbages and cantaloupes started to move, returns for these two crops are going to be disappointing. " This year, quite extensive trials were made with staked tomatoes, the reason being to meet competition from Ontario for tomatoes sold in cellophane tubes. "The following varieties were tried: Sutton's Best, Carleton, Best of All, E 21, Selandia, and Early Harkness. With the exception of the hybrid E 21, which grew too large, the varieties were quite suitable for staking. From the growers' view-point, Carle- ton and Best of All were the two most satisfactory varieties for staking. " Whether this crop will be continued for another year or not is uncertain. With a poor growing season and a lack of experience in growing staked tomatoes most growers have lost interest. " Yields in some cases were quite high, and it is reported that one grower at Okanagan Centre produced 20 tons of marketable fruit per acre. " It has been amply demonstrated this crop can be grown in the Okanagan, and with a little more experience on the part of the growers there should be no difficulty in supplying tomatoes of this type, if the market requires them." The following table gives the estimated acreage and production for 1952: — Estimated Acreage and Production of Vegetable-crops in British Columbia, Year 1952 (as at November 1st) Crop Planted Area Average Yield per Acre Acres Lb. 190 2,300 1,280 8,500 380 14,500 720 9,900 1,120 14,600 440 6,400 630 8,100 2,480 6,100 770 12,200 730 22,700 130 11,800 4,090 2,500 480 6,300 3,180 14,000 250 18,500 Total Production Asparagus Beans (green and wax).. Beets Cabbage — _ Carrots Cauliflower Celery — Corn Lettuce Onions - Parsnips Peas (green ... Spinach- Tomatoes (field... Turnips Lb. 437,000 10,880,000 5,510,000 7,128,000 16,352,000 2,816,000 5,103,000 15,128,000 9,394,000 16,571,000 1,534,000 10,225,000 3,024,000 44,520,000 4,625,000 Flower and Bulb Production The flower and bulb production is summed up in the following paragraphs taken from the reports of A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island, and G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley:— A. E. Littler, Vancouver Island:— " This crop appears to be reaching a more stabilized status on Vancouver Island with the bulk of production being carried by the larger, well-established growers. Easter this year, with Good Friday falling on April 11th, came at a very opportune time for the growers of cut blooms. The King Alfred daffodils were at their peak for this period and a considerable shipment of bloom by air cargo took place. " The tulip blooms came on quite rapidly during April but there was still considerable bloom available for Mother's Day on May 11th. " The weather during July and August was dry as usual but satisfactory for the harvesting of the bulbs." CC 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:— " Bulb-growers have had many difficulties to contend with in growing their crop and gaining the confidence and support of the purchasers. Production is on the increase and a large proportion of the crop was sold on the local markets. " It has been shown that high-quality bulbs of most kinds can be grown successfully. The elimination of poor stock and the building up and improvment of foundation stocks has been a slow process. This work, in co-operation with the Inspection Service of the Dominion Department of Agriculture and the Entomological Branch, as well as the experimental work being done at the Dominion Experimental Station at Saanichton, is now showing results. There are, and always will be, problems in the growing and handling of bulbs but many of the present growers are now in a position to produce good crops. " Field days have done a great deal to bring the buyers into closer contact with growers. " Your officials assisted the growers in arranging for speakers and topics for meetings and demonstrations during the year." The following table gives an excellent idea of the value of bulb production in British Columbia in 1952: — Estimated Value of Marketable Bulb Production in British Columbia in 1952 Narcissus— 175 acresX 100,000=17,500,000 planted. Marketable output—15% =2,625,000 @ $30perM= $78,750 Tulips— 75 acres X 100,000=7,500,000 planted. Marketable output—25% = 1,875,000 @ $25 per M= 46,875 Iris (bulbous)— 35 acresX 150,000=5,250,000 planted. Marketable output—30% = 1,575,000 @ $30perM= 47,250 Gladiolus— 88 acres X 100,000=8,800,000 planted. Marketable output—30% =2,640,000 @ $20 per M= 52,800 Miscellaneous— 30 acres X$ 1,000 per acre = 30,000 Total (403 acres) $255,675 Blueberries and Cranberries The following paragraphs, extracted from the report of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist in the Fraser Valley, will give some idea of the progress in the production of these two crops:— " Blueberries.—About twenty-seven years ago the first high-bush blueberry plantings were set out on Lulu Island by W. Johnston, and during the last few years there has been a marked increase in plantings. Production is now between 200-300 tons, and as new plantings are now coming into bearing, the increase in production from now on will be very rapid. At the present time there has been a fairly firm fresh-fruit market, but as the crop tonnage is increasing, manufacturers are becoming more interested in the handling of this fruit. While the greatest acreage is located on Lulu Island, plantings are also being made in other parts of the district. Blueberry-growers have formed an association and with the increasing crop production are beginning to organize for the sale of the crop. " Cranberries.—A few growers on Lulu Island have been interested in growing cranberries and this year the production is expected to be about 30 tons. The majority of these growers have become members of the American Cranberry Association, and it is expected that the returns will be more satisfactory than in previous years." r DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 33 Hops This year there has been a further increase in hop acreage in the Interior. The reports from the horticultural offices in the three main producing areas of the Province are given below:— G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford:— " The present acreage at Chilliwack, Sardis, and Sumas is owned and operated by large companies. The hop planting belonging to the B.C. Hop Company in Agassiz was taken out in 1951 and the property was sold during the early part of 1952. " The hop-crop was a little lighter this year, possibly due to the carry-over from previous years and the prospects of lower prices. " During the past few years, stationary mechanical hop-picking equipment has been replacing a large proportion of the hand picking. This year a couple of portable hop- pickers were tried out and seemed to be proving fairly satisfactory. Considerable adjustment is required in order to operate this equipment efficiently. " The hop companies have been importing root and crown cuttings of various varieties for trials in other parts of this Province and this may mean a reduction in some plantings in the district." R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops:— " Growing conditions for hops were generally satisfactory this season. The acreage at the John I. Haas hop planting, Lillooet, increased by 30, bringing their total to 110 acres. The Ord and Sicks' acreage near Kamloops remained unchanged at 70 and 100 acres respectively. Yields were about average for this area, ranging between 6 and 9 bales per acre and the quality was good. " In portions of the Haas planting at Lillooet, a condition of the foliage suggested the presence of Verticillium Wilt. The land was planted to tomatoes for a number of years before being converted to hop farming two years ago, and the soil was known to be infested with the Wilt organism. The Plant Pathology Laboratory at Summerland has not yet established the condition as Verticillium Wilt, but this disease is the chief suspect." G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at Creston:— " Hops produced the first commercial crop this year in the Creston Valley. Fifty- nine bales were picked and dried on the reclaimed lands. The section from which the hops were harvested varied a great deal in production. The highest yield was estimated at 10 bales per acre, while the lowest production was estimated at 5 bales per acre. " The great variation in the hop yield was attributed to several factors. The two main factors contributing to this variation were, undoubtedly, soil variations and the high water-table. Other factors contributing to the reduction of yields were ' bastard ' hops, two-spot mites, and aphids. " T.E.P.P. was used to control the two-spot mites and nicotine dust 5 per cent for the aphids. Control was good in both cases; however, the aphids built up again by harvest-time and caused considerable damage. " Two plants, suspected of carrying a virus disease, were removed and destroyed." Tobacco At the present time the commercial production of tobacco in British Columbia is confined to the Fraser Valley area. G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford, reports on the progress of this crop as follows:— " The commercial growing of Virginia Leaf flue-cured tobacco is in the Sumas District and all growers are members of the Sumas Co-operative Tobacco Growers' Association. The crop is sorted and baled and then shipped to the Imperial Tobacco Company, where it is sold on a grade basis. Cars are loaded at Abbotsford during the early part of December. CC 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA " White Mammoth has been the principal variety grown, but during the past couple of years Delcrest, a new variety, is gaining favour as it is producing good yields of high quality. " The weather during transplanting was cool and uncertain; consequently, this was responsible to some extent for the decrease in this year's acreage to about 120 acres. " Conditions during the season were satisfactory and while the quality of the crop, for the most part, is good, shipments will probably total about 120,000 pounds as compared to 150,000 pounds in 1951." Seed Production The seed-production work in this Province is under the direction of J. L. Webster, of the Horticultural Branch, and the following extracts are taken from his report: — " While spring grain in the Southern Interior was short and poor, pea-crops did well in the North Okanagan, particularly well in the Creston area. Heat-loving crops, such as tomatoes, were set back at least two weeks by cool weather experienced during the latter part of June and early July. " Irrigated vegetable and vegetable-seed crops did unusually well at Grand Forks on a reduced acreage. Grass- and legume-seed crops in the northern area, although slightly, affected by drought during the latter part of the summer, nevertheless set good crops of seed, particularly alfalfa in the Peace River. The harvesting weather during September and October was almost ideal in most districts and little or no loss was taken on either forage or vegetable seeds, although some rain during the latter part of October caused difficulty with flower-seed crops on Vancouver Island. "The following data shows the 1950 and 1951 yields of vegetable-seed, together with the November estimate for the current year (1952):— Kind 1950 1951 1952 (Estimated) Lb. 59 15,000 308,500 21,900 536 1,200 41,200 375 Lb. 372 10,000 120,791 8,055 Lb. 250 Beans— 11,000 134,750 15,300 37 9,711 674 25 8,300 Cauliflower. _ — 210 100 31,000 1,000 500 23,434 400 99,725 14,000 7,626 1,573,393 180 1,000 9,350 8,500 370 1,040 34,882 250 290 2,359 357 697 4,609 50 15,343 18,000 2,500 300 8,600 50 6,000 2,000 3,900 2,559,000 100 1,327 2,280,836 25 92 9,016 2,132 171 52 31,404 356 100 300 12,800 550 800 52,200 400 Totals 2,195,930 2,498,466 2,837,835 "Discussion on the Vegetable-seed Marketing Situation.—The over-all marketing situation for vegetable-seed remains unfavourable. Since 1948, when the United Kingdom refused to allow British seedmen to obtain import permits to purchase Canadian- I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 35 grown vegetable and flower seed, the export market for our competitive vegetable-seed items has been almost nil. The devaluation of British, Dutch, and other European currency, which results in a 20-per-cent to 30-per-cent monetary advantage for imported seeds from these countries, has had a serious effect on the price structure in this country. This general low-price structure, resulting from the competition from the sterling areas, has now continued for almost four years. Our main export market, the United States, has been affected in the same way as Canada, with prices being geared to meet competitive import quotations. Possibly the United States has been able to meet these prices more effectively through the medium of mass production or mechanization, which is more advanced than in Canada. It, therefore, appears that lowered cost of production is the only answer to the problem at the present time. "A large surplus of onion-seed (70,000 pounds) of exportable varieties has been held by British Columbia growers since 1949. We are now happy to report that this surplus has been disposed of in Holland, unfortunately at low prices. However, the removal of this large surplus from the local market will have a more healthy effect on the price structure, and it is expected that prices on onion-seed will rise, leading to more interest amongst seed-growers in the Province and consequent acceptance of sizeable contracts. " Unfortunately, the situation with respect to biennials, such as onion and carrot, for 1953 is that very little will be grown for seed. Commercial onion-growers are taking advantage of the high price of onion-bulbs and are disposing of them all at the very satisfactory price of $80 f.o.b. Interior points. With onion-bulbs at $80 per ton and carrot-roots at $50 per ton, there is actually more revenue in the growing of commercial vegetables than storing same and planting them for seed production the following year. Dealing with the matter of returns from commercial vegetables and vegetable-seeds with respect to onions, we have the following illustration: It takes approximately 4 tons of onions to plant an acre for seed. For 1953 crop it would therefore cost $320 in onion- bulbs alone to plant 1 acre. Taking the average yield of onion-seed per acre, namely 500 pounds, at prevailing price of $1.25 per pound, the grower would receive $625 per acre, leaving him only $305 to store the onions over winter, plant out, fertilize, cultivate, irrigate, harvest, thresh, and finally to clean his seed. It is, therefore, not profitable to grow onion-seed at the present prices. We have previously reported that to grow onion- seed profitably onion-bulbs must cost $40 or less per ton, unless, of course, the price of onion-seed is raised to the wartime level of $2 or more per pound. "A somewhat similar situation applies to carrots. With Swede turnips, however, the crop is seeded in early fall and allowed to overwinter in the ground in the Fraser Valley, making it unnecessary to grow mature roots and store them over winter. " Indications are, however, that we have reached the bottom of a price cycle and vegetable-seed prices are now rising slightly, with demand also increasing. If seed firms directly engaged in the contracting of vegetable-seed can finance and operate through the 1952-53 season, we believe that they will be able to take advantage of rising prices and a much greater demand for the commodity throughout North America. " Flower-seed.—Flower-seed acreage is about on a par with that of 1951 and it is believed that the total value of the crop may be up slightly from that of the last two years. This small but interesting phase of seed production now seems to be definitely established in the Province, particularly on Vancouver Island, Grand Forks, and in one or two other Southern Interior districts. There are a number of items in perennials and kinds which cannot be harvested by machinery which are well suited to climate and soils in this Province and, while a complete range of varieties can be produced in British Columbia, it is more economic to produce certain items in volume which do not succeed as well in California. "In 1951, flower-seed was valued at $48,228.34 and this year we anticipate that this figure may reach $50,000, although it is extremely difficult to estimate or calculate yields of some of the later items at this date." CC 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA HORTICULTURAL SURVEYS AND FIELD INSPECTIONS This year a tree-fruit survey was made in the Okanagan because it was felt that the regular quinquennial orchard survey completed just previous to the severe weather of January, 1950, did not give a very accurate picture of the number of producing trees owing to the large number destroyed at that time. The following table indicates the number of trees of the different kinds of fruit in the Okanagan and Kootenay as shown by the last survey and in comparison with the figures obtained in the surveys conducted from 1925 to 1945 inclusive:— British Columbia Tree-fruit Survey, 1925-52 Okanagan Fruit 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1952 1,147,511 70,254 20,874 33,420 28,854 7,152 51,107 52,425 1,137,851 84,589 16,689 31,029 30,686 4,571 43,770 47,157 1,130,554 106,438 16,395 56,883 43,603 2,452 56,640 132,297 1,091,849 150,863 16,115 93,227 47,228 1,139 45,361 182,957 1,052,037 230,330 17,232 137,994 68,289 886 85,525 298,339 1,014,744 359,814 12,663 190,159 Cherries— 111,687 1,593 194,241 306,465 Kootenay Apples.. Pears — Plums and prunes . Cherries— Sweet Sour Apricots Peaches — 378,096 21,820 25,031 22,822 4,942 712 1,505 289,546 18,254 13,792 30,086 2,784 983 2,142 244,557 25,914 17,339 38,762 2,123 2,613 6,143 161,631 23,824 10,159 30,141 1,402 2,033 6,680 143,216 24,027 19,294 29,512 1,079 2,222 6,728 131,890 22,846 13,203 12,711 186 335 1,078 The 1952 small-fruit survey has been completed and the following tabulated summary indicates the acreage and trends in this industry since 1922:— Small-fruit and Rhubarb Acreage, 1922-52 Kind 1 1922 1 1924 1 1926 1928 1930 1932 1934 2,886 2,105 506 329 42 138 2,331 2,387 764 252 58 2,042 1,641 802 178 34 3,005 1,258 713 170 42 179 69 320 2,198 1,060 821 120 22 149 60 382 2,264 1,077 844 158 20 159 60 396 2,944 1,371 697 Loganberries 36 239 192 272 85 96 68 244 112 111 183 571 Totals 6,202 6,310 | 5,201 5,756 4,812 4,989 6,159 Kind 1936 1938 1940 1944 1946 1950 1952 3,312 1,438 628 140 42 326 112 685 3,338 1,424 648 133 36 255 57 572 3,292 1,194 703 74 24 248 53 395 1,570 1,520 467 85 12 189 26 141 2,833 2,058 393 56 18 132 12 112 3,170 1,261 417 46 9 84 10 168 340 3,036 1,409 399 Blackberries — _ - — 55 7 52 8 99 506 Totals - — 6,683 ] 6,463 5,983 4,010 | 5,614 5,505 5,571 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 37 Nursery Inspection To comply with the " Plant Protection Act," 114 licences were issued to nurseries and nursery agents at a cost of $5 each. Inspection of all nurseries in the Province was carried out by the staff of the Horticultural Branch, either at the time of digging or previous to shipping. The following table summaries the work for 1952:— Nursery Inspection Report, 1952 Trees Number Inspected Number Passed Number Condemned 70,303 51,179 14,051 32,764 45,671 22,262 69,155 50,496 13,881 32,242 45,024 22,262 1,148 683 170 522 647 Totals - 236,230 233,060 3,170 Thirty-nine inspections made; 1.34 per cent of stock condemned. Fire-blight Inspection This year there was considerable reduction in the amount of fire-blight in the pear- growing sections of the Province. There was less than any year since 1947. The Horticultural Branch carries out an annual inspection of orchards and a continuous educational campaign to acquaint the growers with the latest methods of combating this disease. The following table indicates the number of acres inspected in 1952:— Fire-blight Inspection, 1952 District Total Acres Inspected Inspected and Passed Not Passed 208 29 14 3,500 6,300 520 97 1,758 471 600 43 188 29 14 3,480 6,300 520 97 1,748 456 600 43 20 20 10 15 13,540 13,475 65 HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK Pruning Demonstrations Pruning demonstrations were held throughout the Province again this year and were generally well attended. The following table indicates the districts, number of demonstrations held, and the attendance in 1952:— Number of Number of District Demonstrations Pupils Vancouver Island 18 515 Lower Mainland 17 587 Okanagan _ 3 40 Kootenay 11 66 Totals 49 1,208 cc 38 british colu_v|-bia Tomato Demonstration-plot Last spring a piece of land was leased at Kelowna for the purpose of demonstrating cultural methods that should tend toward increasing the yield and quality of tomatoes. It is the intention to carry this work over a five-year period in order to have time to demonstrate the possibilities of the programme adopted. R. P. Murray, Supervising Horticulturist at Kelowna, reports on the work to date as follows:— " The tomato represents a very important crop in the valley, but in spite of all the advice on how to grow this crop, the yields have been going steadily down hill. The reason for this decline can possibly be summed up quite simply—poor farming. The poor farming may be accounted for in part by our limited acreage—that is, small holdings and system of renting. " To try and show how the tonnage and quality could be raised, 3 acres at Kelowna was leased for five years, at an annual rental of $75 per acre. " The grower supplies the plants, does all the necessary cultivation, keeps yield records, and takes the crop. The Horticultural Branch provides seed for the cover-crop and fertilizer. " The 3 acres are divided into 1-acre plots; 2 acres are in cover-crop while 1 acre is cropped. " This year, sweet clover was seeded on the 2 acres at the rate of 8 pounds per acre, and the whole 3 acres given a dressing of 16-20-0 at the rate of 400 pounds per acre. " The plants, Clarke's Early, were set out May 24th, and because of the shortage of plants, due to losses in the plant-beds because of frost, were not as good as they should have been. " The plot was well cared for during the season and the first ripe tomatoes were picked August 11th, and picking finished October 3rd, due to a killing frost. " The yield was low, only 10,445 pounds of ripe tomatoes being harvested. Had there not been a long, warm fall the crop would have been considerably less. "Apart from some supervision, the cost to the Department was: Rent, $224; fertilizer, $46.14 (1,200 pounds); sweet clover seed (25 pounds), $5.25; or a total of $276.39. " This work should be an important contribution to the tomato production problems we are faced with, and by visual education show the growers what can be done with ordinary good farming methods. " Since the cost of establishing these plots is small, I would recommend that similar plots be set up in the Vernon-Kamloops or Ashcroft areas next season. " In addition to the use of sweet clover as a cover-crop, 100 pounds of Austrian winter peas was obtained and sown this fall. Fifty pounds were sown on the plot that produced tomatoes this year and 25 pounds each were sown at Oliver and Cawston. "According to the information at hand, Austrian winter peas may be sown quite late, that is, after the tomato-crop is harvested, and start early enough to give a good yield of green material in time for ploughing under for any transplanted vegetable-crop. It will be interesting to see how this crop behaves. " The Austrian peas under trial at Kelowna were sown November 10th, at the rate of 100 pounds per acre." Test of Greenhouse Tomatoes E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist, Vancouver Island, made observations on variety test of greenhouse tomatoes during the spring of 1952, as follows:— "A number of mould-resistant strains secured from the Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland, Ont, were tried out in 1951 at Riddle Bros., 800 Seymour Avenue, Victoria; H. F. Atkin, Box 2240, R.R. 5, Victoria; and Young Bros., Box 2432, R.R. 5, Victoria. These were V-501-2-3-4-7-8. " None of these proved superior to V-121 for the main crop. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 39 " Riddle Bros, tried out this year a variety called Crystal, seed of which was sent out from England in January, 1951, by A. J. Wills, which arrived too late for the spring crop. The plants grew well and set a good crop, but the fruit was too small for this market. " Riddle Bros, also tried out Improved V-121 but it was too vigorous for their heavy soil. Michigan State Forcing was also tested but it proved to be too rough. " H. F. Atkin, Box 2240, R.R. 5, Victoria, selected two of the most promising of the Vineland strains tried in 1951—namely, V-504 and V-508—and tried them out again this year. They were not as satisfactory as the Improved V-121 which he grew for his main crop." Variety Test of Tomatoes Grown Outside A. E. Littler, District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island, reports on the performance of Carleton in comparison with Scarlet Dawn and Best of All as follows:— " Carleton showed good germination and escaped the ravages of the mice. Four hundred plants of Carleton were set out from May 12th to 14th. The system of training was to keep each plant to a single stem up a string supported by an overhead wire. The plants were allowed to grow until they had set three trusses of fruit, after which time the growing tips were nipped out. " Observation of these plants, which were compared to the standard staking varieties Scarlet Dawn and Best of All used as checks, indicated that under the growing conditions in which these plants were grown Carleton was not as vigorous a plant as either of the other two varieties. The lower sets of fruit were very poor, often having only two or three fruit to a cluster. The fruit was considerably smaller than the other varieties and the bulk of the crop was approximately six days later than Scarlet Dawn and two days later than Best of All. In view of the above observations, this variety does not appear too promising. However, further tests will be carried out with this variety." Lima Bean Trials This work was carried out on the Cawston Bench by M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist, Penticton, in co-operation with J. L. Webster, Horticulturist in charge of seed-work in the Province. Mr. Trumpour reports on this year's trials as follows:— "Purpose.—To continue with the testing of Lima bean varieties for frozen-food purposes on the Cawston Bench. In addition, these trials were extended to make preliminary tests of fertilizer effects and of seeding-dates. " Place.—C. Finch holding, Cawston. " Varieties.—Logan, Henderson's Bush, Fordhook, Clarke's Bush, Thorogreen Green-seeded, Triumph, Allgreen, Thorogreen Improved. " Dates of Sowing.—May 20th and June 5th. " Fertilizer.—No fertilizer applied except on Clarke's Bush. On Clarke's Bush, 16-20-0 was applied on June 7th at 0, 200, and 400 pounds per acre. "Remarks.—It had been planned to make the first seeding on May 15th but the seed for this did not arrive soon enough. In fact, plant-growth from the May 20th sowing was slow and it appeared that no advantage was gained by this sowing over that of the June 5th sowing. However, by late August it did become evident that pod and bean formation was definitely advanced on the earlier-seeded plants than on the later- seeded plants. This observation was definitely substantiated as the beans became ready for harvesting. Maturity was generally later than that of the preceding year. It is possible that the cool weather which prevailed in June checked the plants too long. " Yield data are, unfortunately, lacking. Two factors made it impossible to derive accurate yield information. One factor was that rabbits had caused considerable damage in some of the plots. The other factor was that there was insufficient time to pick the pods even though the respective plots were small. To hand-pick a 30-foot row required CC 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA one to two hours per man per picking and several pickings must be made. Response from the fertilizer applications was very marked. Maturity appeared to be delayed but plant-growth and pod-yield were definitely increased. When no fertilizer was applied the yield from the June 5th sowing of Clarke's Bush was 7.5 pounds; when 200 pounds of 16-20-0 per acre were applied the yield was 10 pounds; and when 400 pounds of 16-20-0 per acre were applied the yield was 16 pounds. These yields were obtained in the first picking on the same day. " Of the varieties tested, Clarke's Bush continued to be one of the best in the field. Allgreen, reputed to be an improved Clarke's Bush, yielded less and matured much later. Logan showed more promise than Allgreen but matured unevenly. Thorogreen Green-seeded also matured unevenly, produced small pods and was difficult to pick. Thorogreen Improved was easier to pick. Fordhook was in a class by itself, being a very large bean which did not seem to be a desirable characteristic for the frozen-food trade." Raspberry Variety Observations G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford, makes the following observations on raspberry varieties in the Fraser Valley:— "At the present time, the Newburg is the principal variety grown. It produces heavy yields on a wide range of soils. It is less subject to winter-injury and some problems affecting many other varieties. This variety is not rated high in quality but it is large, of fair quality, and easy to pick. " The Washington variety, which more closely approaches the high quality of the Cuthbert, is the leading variety in the West, being preferred for canning, jam, and freezing purposes. In spite of the slight premium in price, this variety is not profitable in some raspberry-producing areas. It is more exacting with regard to soil conditions and cultural practices. This year, there was considerable bud-injury to Washington raspberry plantings due to the late spring frosts. " In view of the preference for the Washington type of raspberry, it would appear that a new variety which could be commercially grown under a comparatively wide range of conditions would be of value in stabilizing the commercial raspberry acreage. In order to maintain and hold a good market for our raspberries, a good quality berry is necessary. Commercial plantings of the Willamette are under observation and present indications are that this variety is not likely to become a leading variety in this district. The Willamette prefers conditions similar to those of the Washington and while the berries are large, attractive, of fair quality, and easy to pick, the ripening fruit has a tendency to drop and this could result in considerable loss of crop, particularly in a wet season. " Selective plantings of a raspberry which may prove to be of commercial importance has been under observation on the farm of F. Seifred for the past four years. About an acre of this variety was set out in 1951 and a further planting of about 9 acres was planted this year. The grower expects to have 20 acres planted by 1953. Small quantities of this raspberry have been tested by the canning and freezing trade and reports are encouraging. The berries are medium to large, firm, of good flavour, with small, soft seeds. This variety has some of the characteristics of the Lloyd George and promises to be productive. No plants have been distributed from this farm and if the variety continues to be promising on an acreage basis, plants will be available for commercial planting. Propagation stock of this variety is being selected and isolated in order to maintain vigorous plants." Couch-grass Control in Washington Raspberries An effective chemical weed-killer that will kill grasses in small-fruit plantations would be of great assistance to growers. I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist at Salmon Arm, reports on a field trial conducted last summer as follows:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 41 "A small-scale experiment was drawn up to determine whether or not couch-grass could be effectively controlled in a commercial raspberry planting. Plot size was kept small (8 by 25 feet) to avoid damaging too many plants. The larger plot sizes of 20 by 20 feet contained no raspberries. Presented below in tabular form are the details of this experiment:— Plot No. Material Used Rate per Acre Treatment Percentage of Grass Killed Remarks 1 I.P.C 2 3 I.P.C Water. I.P.C. . - 4 5 - 6a. Water T.C.A. Water T.C.A Water T.C.A 6b Water T.C.A 7a. Water. _. I.P.C. 7b I.P.C Check Not sprayed 5 gal. 80 gal. 12 1b. 55 gal. 16 1b. 55 gal. 401b. 55 gal. 801b. 55 gal. 401b. 55 gal. 401b. 55 gal. 5 gal. 40 gal. 5 gal. 40 gal. Not disked.. Not disked- Not disked.. '/ Not disked- I Not disked- ' Not disked.. 1 Disked three times during summer.. ' Not disked I Disked three times during season . Disked three times during season Nil Nil Nil 35 90 15 95 10 25 75 All materials applied May, 1952. Plot 10 by 20 ft. Plot 10 by 25 ft. Plot 10 by 25 ft. Plot 10 by 20 ft. Plot 20 by 40 ft. " Summary.—There was no apparent injury caused to the raspberry canes with these materials used as reported. The kill of couch-grass in the planting was not considered satisfactory. T.C.A. when used in conjunction with a disking programme may be feasible under certain circumstances." Fertilizers on Italian Prunes In an effort to find the effects of fertilizer treatments in improving the size of prunes, a field test was set up at Penticton by R. P. Murray in 1949. This test is being carried on by M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, and he reports as follows:— " This is a progress report on the fertilizer plots set up in 1949 by R. P. Murray, Supervising Horticulturist. " Fertilizers, manure, and sawdust were again applied to the respective plots in the late fall of 1951. " In addition to obtaining yields per tree, sizes of prunes per treatment were recorded in an attempt to determine if there was any correlation between prune size and fertilizer treatment. These sizes were measured as the average number of prunes per pound and are recorded in the tables. Thus the more prunes there were per pound the smaller were the prunes. CC 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA "Harris Orchard, Penticton Plot Material Rate per Tree Average Yield per Tree Average Number 1950 1951 1952 of Prunes per Pound 1 Lb. 10T/A 8 10 4 10 Lb. 143.6 196.3 I 234.3 232.2 135.4 Lb. 209.3 266.8 305.5 221.0 177.8 Lb. 202 216 250 167 130 16.2 2 16.3 3 16-20-0 -_ 17.1 4 16-20-0 - 15.3 5 Check.. _ _ 16.4 "Barker Orchard, Keremeos 1 Lb. 6 8 10 10 4 6 Lb. 1 138 i 185 174 Lb. 174 204 182 170 207 185 Lb. 190 217 159 167 184 128 16.2 2 15.0 3 14.2 4 16-20-0- - 16.4 5 14.5 6 Check _ _ 15.0 " With regard to the yield of prunes per tree, there were reductions from last year in all plots in the Harris orchard and in most plots in the Barker orchard. This general reduction was attributed to a light set of fruit and to a heavy pre-harvest drop as indicated in the section under Horticultural Crop Conditions. The most significant reductions were in the check-plots, which indicate that nitrogen is a necessary plant-food. " While the differences in size of prunes were very slight, those prunes from the potash-treated plots were the smallest in each orchard. The prunes from the check-plots were medium in size but this may be attributed to more advanced maturity at harvest-time. If these prunes had been picked at the relatively correct maturity, it is possible that they would have been smaller in size and would also have shown even smaller yields per tree. " Quality and uniformity of size of fruit was definitely superior in the manure plot in the Harris orchard and in the sawdust plot in the Barker orchard." Nitrogenous Fertilizer on Carrots Alan Littler, District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island, makes observations on the effects of heavy applications of manure on carrots, as follows:— " It has been reported by several of the producers of bunch carrots that quite frequently the tops were slender and weak, with the result that the tops parted from the roots during handling. " Since it is a well-known fact that nitrogen added to the soil increases the top growth of the various plants, additional nitrogen in the form of poultry-manure was added to several blocks of Imperator carrots. The amount used was only arbitrary to get a general idea of the response. As expected, the tops increased in size with the increased applications of manure. However, where excessive manure was applied considerable forking of the roots was evident. In all cases, however, where the top growth was noticeably increased, there was a corresponding increase in the size of the green ring surrounding the core of the carrot. It would, therefore, appear likely that to increase the top size of the carrots to a satisfactory level from the standpoint of increased strength would lower the quality of the root to a marked degree by causing a more pronounced green ring to be evident. " It would, however, probably be well to carry this experiment a step further and study the results obtained by using a nitrogenous chemical fertilizer in measured amounts." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 43 Mineral Deficiencies Symptoms of mineral deficiencies in our soils that have been farmed over a long period of years are becoming more apparent each year. In order to determine the results of adding minor elements where growth symptoms indicate they are lacking, many trial plots are under observation. In order to indicate the type of work that is being carried on, the following extracts have been taken from the report of A. W. Watt, District Horticulturist at Summerland:— " No new work was started but an effort was made to follow up the work done last year. "(a) Manganese Deficiency—Brown Orchard, Westbank "As reported on page 12 of the 1951 Report, a test in this orchard revealed a marked response to application of manganese sprays at approximately 8-pounds-per-acre rate. Accordingly, the operator of this orchard was advised to apply at least one spray of manganese to the entire orchard as soon as the trees were fully leafed out in 1952. " The operator carried out these instructions on all but a small block of peaches which had shown no symptoms of deficiency in 1951. As a result, dark green foliage developed on all the sprayed trees with the exception of one block of Delicious. The foliage on these trees remained small and lacked deep green colour. The trees in this Delicious block were severely winter-injured and this may have been a reason for their lack of response. " The small block of peaches which was not sprayed with manganese because it had not shown deficiency symptoms in 1951, now looked very poor, in comparison to the deep green of the manganese-sprayed trees. Although the chlorotic symptoms displayed by these trees were not similar to those shown by the nearby trees in 1951, it was remembered that symptoms of manganese deficiency had never been observed early in the season. It was decided, therefore, to try manganese on these trees. The grower sprayed the trees and in less than a month they returned to a healthy green colour. "Results.—(i) Grower-applied sprays of manganous sulphate proved effective. "(ii) Symptoms not entirely typical of manganese deficiency may still indicate a manganese lack if these are observed early in the season. "(b) Multiple Deficiencies (Zinc, Iron, Manganese)—Gogel Orchard, Westbank "As reported on page 13 of the 1951 Report, the Gogel orchard at Westbank contained a large number of trees which were suffering from multiple deficiencies. Zinc oxide, iron sulphate with lime, and manganous sulphate were applied as summer sprays to these trees. Elements were applied in groups of two and three at a time to both Delicious apples and Bartlett pears. As reported in 1951, there was no response to either iron or zinc that summer but by the fall most of the manganese symptoms had cleared up. " On the advice of this office the grower applied zinc sulphate to most of his orchard, including the trees in our experimental plots. Application was made at the approximate rate of 80 pounds per acre in the dormant season. The orchard was again examined during the summer of 1952. A definite improvement with less severe zinc-deficiency symptoms was noticed. No manganese-deficiency symptoms were found. Iron-deficiency chlorosis still showed up in many trees. "Results.—(i) In this test, slight manganese deficiency was cleared up by one summer spray of manganous sulphate at 8 pounds per acre (1951). "(ii) Zinc deficiency was not noticeably improved by one summer spray of 8 pounds zinc oxide per acre, but improvement was noticeable after a dormant application of zinc sulphate at 80 pounds per acre had been made by the grower (1952). "(iii) Iron-deficiency symptoms were not improved by a summer application of ferrous sulphate (8 pounds per acre) with lime (8 pounds per acre)." cc 44 british columbia Mulches The following observations on mulching are taken from the reports of G. E. W. Clark, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley, and E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist, Vancouver Island:— G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:— " Observations on the use of sawdust as a mulching material on various horticultural crops have continued during the past season. The use of sawdust as a mulching material is of particular interest to strawberry-growers where weed-control and moisture-conservation are often the two limiting factors in production. One planting of strawberries, which was mulched with a 2-inch layer of hemlock sawdust after planting in 1950, produced a good crop during the very dry crop-year of 1951 and during the past season has again shown up well, having given a yield of 7 tons per acre. The sawdust on this planting is now showing signs of decomposition but still forms a definite mulch layer over the soil. Cultivation has been used but this cultivation has been shallow and has resulted in no appreciable mixing of soil and sawdust. From the condition of the mulch, it would appear that it should be effective for at least one more season, after which time the strawberries would normally be ploughed under. " On another planting in the Coghlan district, a five-year-old strawberry planting was ploughed under in 1951 and a 2-inch layer of sawdust and chicken-litter was worked into the soil. New plants were set out in the fall of 1951 and these plants did remarkably well during the 1952 season. The soils in this district are very light and under strawberry cropping very quickly lose their organic matter and become unproductive. The sawdust in this case appears to have provided organic matter and improved the mechanical structure of the soil, and the chicken-manure seems to have compensated for the temporary depletion of nitrogen, which would be expected where such a large amount of sawdust is worked into the soil. It is possible that this practice may be worthwhile on other worked- out strawberry plantings and observations will be continued. " There seems to be little doubt that on certain soils sawdust can be successfully used on strawberry plantings, the limiting factor being cost. Twelve to fifteen loads per acre are required to produce a mulch about two inches deep and at $5 a load this would amount to $60 to $75." E. W. White, Vancouver Island:— " Sawdust continues to be used as a mulching material on all small fruits. The results seem to be satisfactory and no adverse conditions have been experienced. " With another very dry year in 1952, mulching was undoubtedly a benefit in conserving moisture. Where sawdust is used on strawberries, the cost of Wi to 2 tons of straw is saved, which at present prices would go quite a way in paying for the sawdust." Mouse Baits The mouse population, though not as severe as two years ago, is still plentiful. Toxaphene was tried out as a ground spray in a limited way during the early fall and the results were very encouraging in killing mice. Further trials are under way and this material will be used by a few growers. Until there is more definite information on the use of Toxaphene, it is probable that most growers will continue to use standard bait formulas. Mite-control on Strawberries Mites are becoming more prevalent in strawberry plantations and a good control that is economical to use is of benefit to the growers of this crop. The following report on this work at Salmon Arm is taken from the annual report of I. C. Carne, District Horticulturist in that area:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 45 " Growers in this area have been consistently bothered by infestations of the Two- spotted mites. The grower-applied dusts of lime and sulphur did little to control this pest even when applied every two weeks. Consequently, an experiment was laid out in co-operation with C. L. Neilson, Provincial Entomologist. Two materials were used,—namely, 5-per-cent dusts of Aramite and of Ovatran and applied at the rate of 45 pounds per acre. Two identical plots of one-fifth acre each were laid out in two different plantings; one planting has had the tops cut and removed after harvest while the second planting had had the runners only removed after harvest. It was felt that removing all debris after harvest may have a bearing on the carry-over of mites through the winter months. " Nabata Patch (Runners Only Removed) " Procedure.—Aramite and Ovatran dusts applied April 29th when live mites were visible on the leaves. Aramite plot was redusted on May 20th while the Ovatran plot was not dusted again until June 2nd. "Results.—The second application of both materials held the population of mites in check until after the fruit was harvested in July. " Nishi Patch "Procedure.—Aramite and Ovatran.dusts applied as in the Nabata patch on April 29th. Both plots were dusted again on May 20th as the Ovatran plot did not appear to be holding the mites as well in this planting as it did in the Nabata planting. " Results.—The second application of both materials appeared to give reasonably good control until harvest was completed. " Check-plot.—Check-plots were left in both plantings and by May 20th were badly infested with mites and required spraying with Visko and mineral oil. " Summary.—Both the 5-per-cent dusts of Aramite and of Ovatran applied at the rate of 45 pounds per acre successfully controlled Two-spotted mites until harvesting was completed. Due to the availability of Aramite as a dust, arrangements are going forward to have a supply of this dust on hand for next year's operation. Further experiments are contemplated for the next season. There was no significant difference in mite populations between cultural treatments, although the infestation appeared to be slightly higher in the Nishi planting, where both tops and runners are removed after harvest." Turnip-maggot Turnip-maggot is a very destructive insect and is the cause of much culling and loss to turnip-growers. This year a small field trial to control this insect was carried out by Alan Littler, District Horticulturist on Vancouver Island, and in his annual report he makes the following remarks:— " The turnip-maggot has for some years provided a problem. However, during recent years several insecticides have been under test, among which is Aldrin. "A test-plot of Laurentian Swede turnips, comprising thirty rows each 100 feet long, was set up to determine the results of this insecticide. The test was set up in a district where the fly was known to be prevalent and which in the past had made turnip- growing almost impossible. The planting date was June 29th. "Method of Application.—A line was drawn from one end of each row to the other and a furrow approximately an inch deep was made along this line. Aldrin was then dusted along this furrow using a salt-shaker type of applicator at the rate of one- half ounce to each 10 feet of row. Only 85 feet of each row were dusted, the remaining 15 feet being left as a check. Following the dusting the turnip-seed was sown along the furrows using a Planet Junior seeder. " Results.—The usual methods of cultivation necessary for a crop of Swede turnips were followed, with irrigation-water being applied at weekly intervals. Inspection of CC 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA the roots from the sixth week onward showed the turnips from the treated portions of the rows to be practically 100 per cent clean, whereas those from the untreated portions of the rows showed severe tunnelling. The difference between the treated and untreated plots became more noticeable as time progressed. The injury caused by the maggots in the untreated portions of the rows became so severe that top growth was inhibited, whereas in the treated portions the roots were plump and top growth appeared very vigorous. " However, the fall of 1952 was a warm, dry one and there was apparently a third brood of the maggot, since quite a number of the turnips from the treated portion showed varying degrees of injury. This injury did not appear near the root end of the turnip, as had been the case of the untreated roots, but appeared on the outer circumference of the roots just below soil-level. However, this furrowing caused by the late brood was sufficient to disfigure a fair proportion of the crop and cause considerable trimming to be necessary. " Conclusions.—Aldrin appears to show promise in the control of the turnip- maggot. However, it appears from the above results that other methods of application must be devised." Control Sprays for Fire-blight In past years the removal of diseased branches, twigs, and tissue has been the standard method of controlling fire-blight. It would be desirable if satisfactory control could be obtained by the use of sprays. Some results have shown encouragement and for this reason considerable time has been devoted to testing out this method of control in the Okanagan. The following extracts are taken from the annual reports of M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, and W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist at Vernon:— M. P. D. Trumpour, Penticton: — " Purpose.—In view of the interest shown in sprays to aid in the control of fire-blight, a series of plots were set up to demonstrate the effectiveness of such sprays. In addition to the standard recommendation of spraying daily during the blossom period, variations in time of applications were tried. " Place.—R. B. Hughes orchard, Penticton. " Variety.—Bartlett. Fire-blight was exceptionally serious in 1951. "Equipment.—Hardie 16. " Material.—One pound copper sulphate and 1 pound hydrated lime per 100 gallons. "Plots.—1. Sprayed at 60 per cent of full bloom, two weeks later, and four weeks later (after recommendation for Wenatchee Tree Fruit Experiment Station). " 2. Sprayed at 10-20 per cent of full bloom and every second day during blossom period. " 3. Sprayed at 10-20 per cent of full bloom and two days later. " 4. Sprayed at 60 per cent of full bloom and every second day during blossom period. " 5. Sprayed at 10-20 per cent of full bloom and every day thereafter during blossom period (total of eight applications). " Results.—Results were inconclusive. There were no fresh outbreaks of fire-blight on any tree except one in Plot 5, which was sprayed every day during the blossom period. On this tree twenty-eight infections were removed on May 21st, yet there were no infections then or later on adjacent trees." W. T. Baverstock, Vernon:— " Place.—Cliff Davies orchard, Lavington. "Material.—Bordeaux 1-1-100. " Variety.—-Transcendent crab-apples. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 47 " Weather.—Mostly cloudy. " Machine.—Hardie Gun Machine. "A block of Transcendent crab-apples was used for this experiment. Same was divided into three blocks as follows:— Plot Date Applied Number of Sprays Period May 14 May 14 May 19 No sprays.. 30 per cent of full bloom. 30 per cent of full bloom and full bloom. 1 " Control was quite noticeable in sprayed plots. Check-plot was completely covered with blight by the end of July but the sprayed plots only showed a few odd branches. This experiment will be carried on again during the coming season as the above sprays look very promising." Control of Pear-scab in the Kootenays The following is a summary of the results obtained in controlling pear-scab in the West Kootenay, as submitted by J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist at Nelson:— " For many years pear-growers in the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes District have had to contend with pear-scab on Flemish Beauty. During the past few years they have been able to control this disease on Flemish Beauty by applying three sprays—that is, pre-pink, pink, and calyx, consisting of Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100 gallons of water. In 1948 some scab was noted on Bartlett in the Thrums area and since that time it has become quite serious on both Bartlett and Anjou in the Longbeach- Sunshine Bay area. The Ferbam-wettable sulphur sprays which controlled the disease on Flemish Beauty have been none too effective in controlling scab on either Bartlett or Anjou. The purpose of this work is to test the effectiveness of several fungicides in control of pear-scab on Bartlett. " Experimental plots were located in a block of Bartlett pears on the Eaton farm at Longbeach. There were seventy-seven trees divided into twelve plots. A conventional ' gun ' sprayer was used in this work, as the orchard did not lend itself to spraying with an automatic concentrate machine. Two delayed dormant sprays were applied; one consisting of sodium polysulphide at a concentration of 13 pounds per 100 gallons of water, the other lime sulphur 1-8. Other sprays applied at the pre-pink, pink, and calyx stages were lime-sulphur 1-40,' Crag ' (Fungicide 341CA) Wi quarts and hydrated lime 1 pound per 100 gallons of water, and Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100 gallons of water. " Dates of spray application are as follows: Delayed dormant, April 10th; pre-pink, May 2nd; pink, May 9th; calyx, May 22nd. " Lime-sulphur gave only fair control of pear-scab. Much of the fruit from these plots (4, 5, and 6) had a roughened appearance and some russeting was evident. In Plots 7, 8, and 9 the Ferbam-wettable sulphur combination did not give such good control either. However, good control was obtained in Plots 10, 11, and 12 where ' Crag ' was applied. Fruit from the latter plots was very smooth and had a fine finish compared with that from Plots 4, 5, and 6. It is difficult to assess the value of the dormant sprays from the results of only one season's work. However, results would indicate that only slightly better control of pear-scab was obtained in plots which received the dormant spray, although in the three ' Crag' sprayed plots the cleanest fruit was in Plot 12 which had no dormant spray. " The following table summarizes this work on control of pear-scab. All fruit free from scab was classified as clean and that showing any signs of scab as scabby:— CC 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA Results Obtained in 1952 Pear-scab Control Experiment Plot Materials Applied Percentage of Clean Fruit 9 10 11 12 Check (unsprayed) Sodium polysulphide (13 pounds per 100 gallons water) in delayed dormant. Lime-sulphur 1-8 in delayed dormant- Same as Plot 2, plus lime-sulphur 1-40 in pre-pink, pink, and calyx.. Same as Plot 3, plus lime-sulphur 1-40 in pre-pink, pink, and calyx.. Lime-sulphur 1-40 in pre-pink, pink, and calyx.. Same as Plot 2, plus Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100 gallons water in pre-pink, pink, and calyx. Same as Plot 3, plus Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100 gallons water in pre-pink, pink, and calyx. Ferbam 1 pound and wettable sulphur 3 pounds per 100 gallons water in pre-pink, pink, and calyx Same as Plot 2, plus ' Crag ' V/z quarts and hydrated lime 1 pound per 100 gallons water in pre-pink, pink, and calyx Same as Plot 3, plus ' Crag ' l'/i quarts and hydrated lime 1 pound per 100 gallons water in pre-pink, pink, and calyx ' Crag ' l'/_ quarts and hydrated lime 1 pound per 100 gallons water in pre-pink, pink, and calyx 2.9 15.7 5.0 76.81 82.6i 73.li 73.6 87.1 60.8 93.4 95.6 96.5 1 Much of the fruit in Plots 4, 5, and 6 had a roughened appearance and some russeting was evident." Apple-scab Control After five years of using lime-sulphur and Ferbam plus wettable sulphur to control apple-scab on plots at Creston, G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist, sums up the influence on tree vigour and yield as follows:—■ " The 1952 spray demonstration plots using lime-sulphur and Ferbam plus wettable sulphur revealed no great differences in yields. This was the ' on ' year for the lime- sulphur plots and therefore this yield can only be attributed to tree vigour. The following figures summarize the yields from these plots during the past five years:— Year 1948- 1949.. 1950 1951 1952- " Mcintosh Lime-sulphur (Boxes per Tree) 15 28 9 19 Ferbam and Wettable Sulphur (Boxes per Tree) 14 15 28 15 18 Five-year average 15.8 18.0 Year 1948- 1949_ 1950_. 1951.. 1952. " Delicious Lime-sulphur (Boxes per Tree) 23 6 20 5 14 Ferbam and Wettable Sulphur (Boxes per Tree) 22 11 19 9 15 Five-year average 13.6 15.2 " From these figures, it is quite evident that lime-sulphur sprays accentuate biennial production. Also, that Ferbam and wettable sulphur sprays reduce the great fluctuation in yields from year to year and increase production over the period of years." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 49 Spraying of trial plots for the control of apple-scab in the Kootenay area has been carried on for several years. A summary of the results this year is taken from the reports of J. E. Swales, District Horticulturalist at Nelson:— "All sprays were applied with a Turbo Mist concentrate-sprayer and carried out in co-operation with officials of the Federal Entomological Laboratory at Summerland. " The dates of application were: Pre-pink, May 2nd; pink, May 14th; calyx, May 23rd; first cover, June 9th; second cover, June 16th. "Materials:—1. Lime-sulphur. "2. Sodium polysulphide, a mixture of sodium polysulphide (84 per cent by weight) and sodium thiosulphate (8 per cent by weight) in dry granular form. Distributed by Niagara Chemical Division, Food Machinery & Chemical Corporation, Middleport, N.Y. "3. ' Crag ' (Fungicide 341), a liquid containing 2-heptadecyl glyoxalidine acetate (34 per cent by weight). Manufactured by Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Company, New York, N.Y. "4. DN (dinitrocresol), 40 per cent dinitro-ortho-cresol powder. " In the Fransen orchard, best control was obtained in Plot 2 where DN was added to the lime-sulphur spray. Fruit was also appreciably larger in this plot, bearing out the results of the previous year's work when the addition of DN to the lime-sulphur spray appears to have a beneficial effect on fruit size. In Plot 1 there were 141 apples per box while in Plot 2 there was an average of 106 apples. In Plot 3, the unsprayed check-plot, there were 350 apples per box. It is felt that DN alone is not fully responsible for such a difference in fruit size and other factors possibly had some influence. Fruit on all the DN-sprayed trees was noticeably larger, however. " In the Sewell orchard, lime-sulphur gave only fair control of apple-scab in Plot 1 with 74.5 per cent clean fruit. Sodium polysulphide gave very poor control in Plot 2 with only 42.3 per cent clean fruit. Although there was considerable foliage infection evident early in the season in Plot 3, the fruit in this plot sprayed with ' Crag ' was the cleanest in the orchard. " The following table will serve as a summary of this work:-— Plot Materials Applied Percentage of Clean Fruit Fransen Orchard (Five sprays applied: Pre-pink, pink, calyx, and first and second cover-sprays.) Lime-sulphur 10-100 (or 8 gallons per acre) — Same as Plot 1, plus DN 4 pounds and hydrated lime 8 pounds per 100 gallons water (or DN 3V4 pounds and hydrated lime 6'/_ pounds per acre) - Check (unsprayed) Sewell Orchard (Five sprays applied, as in Fransen orchard.) Lime-sulphur 10-100 (or 8 gallons per acre).. Sodium polysulphide 25 pounds per 100 gallons water (or 20 pounds per acre) _ ' Crag ' 7'/_ quarts and hydrated lime 4 pounds per 100 gallons water (or ' Crag ' 6 quarts and hydrated lime 3 pounds per acre) Check (unsprayed). 93.3 0.0 74.5 42.3 83.2 4.5' Chemical-spray Thinning Spray-thinning, though giving variable results from year to year, has, because of the labour-saving feature of this type of thinning, become an established orchard practice in the commercial fruit-growing areas of the Province. The following observations on chemical-spray thinning have been extracted from the annual report of M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton:— CC 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA " Observations from Previous Year's Work.—In the annual report for 1951 an outline of an experiment on the A. M. Costley place was presented. In that outline it was noted that Parmone was applied with a Turbo-Mist concentrate-spray machine to one plot of Winesap apples and that much of the foliage on the lower parts of the trees ' wilted ' and later dropped off. " This year the same trees required no thinning, yet produced a full crop of good- sized fruit. Trees in adjacent rows that were not sprayed last year required a normal amount of hand-thinning this year—that is, two to three hours per tree—and produced full crops of smaller apples. " It might also be pointed out that another plot of Winesap trees was sprayed last year with a gun machine using Parmone. These trees required very little hand-thinning this year and produced full crops of fruit, the size of which was intermediate between that on the concentrate-sprayed and non-sprayed trees. " Weather Effects.—It has been observed that when dinitro compounds for spray- thinning have been applied immediately prior to or during rainy weather, excess thinning of fruit and damage to foliage has occasionally occurred. This has led to the opinion that if humid weather prevails, lower concentrations of the dinitro compounds should be used. Therefore, if advance forecasts of weather could be obtained then the concentration of spray materials could be adjusted accordingly. "An experimental procedure making use of advanced weather forecasts was carried out this year. Arrangements were made with D. N. McMullen, Frost Warning Service, whereby two-day advance forecasts were released to the Penticton office of the Horticultural Branch, and this information was in turn relayed to Horticultural Branch offices in other centres. In this way, respective District Horticulturists could adjust their spray-thinning experiments. " The forecasts proved to be very accurate up to May 8th, but after that date the forecasts did not always prove to be accurate. Two examples of this are presented: The forecast for May 10th was ' settled, some cloud with dry air.' On the night of May 10th, however, excessively heavy rain fell. The forecast for May 13th was 'little or no precipitation; air gradually drying out; high-pressure area over Okanagan zone; low-pressure area at Coast which won't affect the Okanagan.' This forecast was reaffirmed as late as the evening of May 12th. On May 13th, however, the low-pressure area at the Coast did move in and one of the heaviest rainfalls in the spring months was experienced. Thus, it is evident that forecasts provided by today's techniques are not always reliable and cannot be used with enough confidence for a guide in the application of the dinitro types of materials for spray-thinning. " Spray-thinning of Apples " Purpose.—To check current spray-thinning recommendations. "Place.—Miss M. and Mrs. R. F. Robertson orchard, Lot 170, Kaleden. " Variety.—Winesap, 18-year-old trees. "Equipment.—Gun sprayer, Hardie (Provincial Government machine); concentrate sprayers, Turbo-Mist (1951 model), Oliver blower conversion (grower hired). "Materials and Rates.—Twenty-per-cent dinitro-ortho-cresol (Elgetol), IVi pints per 100 gallons or 15 pints per acre; naphthaleneacetic acid (Parmone), 6 ounces per 100 gallons. " Plots.—1—Parmone, applied with gun machine, five trees; 2—Parmone, applied with gun machine, five trees; 3—Elgetol, applied with gun machine, six trees; 4—Elgetol, applied with Turbo-Mist machine, eighteen trees; 5—Elgetol, applied with Oliver conversion, twelve trees; 6—Check, not sprayed, three trees. " Dates of Application.—Plot 1—May 23rd, fourteen days after full bloom; Plot 2—May 15th, six days after full bloom; Plot 3—May 8th; Plot 4—May 8th; Plot 5— May 7th. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 51 " Co-operator.—Entomology Laboratory, Summerland. " Results. — (i) Hand-thinning: Additional hand-thinning was necessary. The grower did not keep detailed records of time spent per tree but did spend less time on the trees in Plot 5 and more time on the check-trees in Plot 6. Grower also thinned the check-trees in Plot 6 heavier than in the other plots. "(ii) Average number of apples per box and the average yield per tree are shown in the following table:— Treatment Average Number Apples per Box Average Number Boxes per Tree 1 104.5 97.2 97.2 83.1 82.3 92.3 14 2 21 3 30 4 18 5 10 6 Check, not sprayed — 13 " Discussion of Results.—The results from this work are not very conclusive. The reduction in the amount of necessary hand-thinning was not too satisfactory. " On those plots where Elgetol was applied, there is an indication that the use of concentrate-machines caused a reduction in the yield per tree and this was brought about by overthinning the bottom of the tree and not thinning the top enough. There is also an indication that some types of concentrate-machines cause a greater degree of overthinning than other types. In this particular work, the Oliver conversion sprayer caused a greater reduction in yield than did the Turbo-Mist machine. " In so far as the work with the hormones goes, this type of material did not prove to be nearly as efficient when it was applied at two weeks after full bloom than when it was applied only one week after full bloom." Blossom-thinning of Peaches D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist at Oliver, reports on blossom-thinning of peaches as follows:— " During the past few years a small number of growers, including this official, have been brush-thinning peaches during the blossom period with quite satisfactory results. Most find that it pays to take somewhat less blossom off than the amount of fruit desired. This allows for a further thinning to remove cat-faced and split-stone peaches at a later date. Those who have tried it generally feel that there is a definite saving in time and money in addition to the tree being able to carry somewhat more fruit due to early thinning. " One grower, in Osoyoos, this year tried water-thinning on peaches. The method is to spray the trees during full bloom with a hand-sprayer at a high pressure so that the water under pressure blows the blossom off. The grower claims that he got some results out of the work and plans to do it again in 1953. It is wondered whether the grower with a sprinkler system under 30 to 40 pounds pressure might not be able to substitute volume for pressure and get comparable results." Aircraft Spraying M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist at Penticton, in his annual report makes observations on aircraft spraying as follows: — " During September a representative of the Skyway Air Services of Langley, B.C., expressed the desire to set up a custom aircraft-spraying service for orchardists. It was pointed out to this representative that there were possible disadvantages with this type of spraying, such as the relatively small size of orchards and the mixed plantings CC 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA that are characteristic for this area. Nevertheless, this office was instrumental in selecting a block of Delicious apples for the experimental application of a stop-drop spray by aeroplane. "Accordingly, on September 27th, part of this block of Delicious apples on the MacCleave-Stocks orchard was sprayed from a Stearman airplane with napthaleneacetic acid. This operation indicated two factors in favour of airplane spraying. One factor was that the airplane was extremely manoeuvrable and the spray could, if desired, be directed to a very restricted area. The other factor was that the stop-drop spray application was effective. Observations on drop were made two weeks later and revealed that there was no drop of apples on the sprayed section but that there was a drop of approximately one-half box of apples per tree on the unsprayed section. " From this experiment it became evident that the use of airplanes for orchard spraying in this area was more feasible than expected. It was considered that this type of equipment could be used particularly for the application of zinc sulphate and other dormant sprays in this area." PUBLICATIONS, CROP ESTIMATES, REPORTS, AND MEETINGS Horticultural Circular No. 42 on Propagation and Grafting of Fruit Trees has been rewritten by R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops. Other publications in use were revised and reissued as required. Information dealing with spraying was issued from the Kelowna office and broadcast by T. Leach over C.B.C. on the noon broadcast. B.C. Tree Fruits Limited gave excellent co-operation by transmitting this information to CBU at Vancouver and also allowing us time for special messages on their weekly Thursday noon radio programme over CKOV. The Horticultural News Letter, covering the period from May to September (ten issues), was assembled and mailed from the Kelowna office under the direction of the Supervising Horticulturist. General horticultural conditions, vegetable acreages, and crop estimates are dealt with in this publication by district officials from all parts of the Province. Fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates, in co-operation with the Statistics Branch, were issued as required through the year. Final production figures were compiled and forwarded to the Statistics Branch. Many meetings and demonstrations throughout the Province were addressed by members of this Branch. The Chautauqua meetings held annually in the Okanagan were again well attended. Soils, fertilizers, irrigation, marketing problems, as well as disease and pest control were discussed. In arranging these meetings, excellent co-operation was received from the British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association Locals, B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, and officials of the Canada Department of Agriculture. CHANGES IN STAFF E. M. White, B.S.A., after about forty years of service in the Department of Agriculture, was superannuated. This vacancy was filled by the appointment of A. E. Littler, B.S.A., a graduate of the University of British Columbia, to the position of District Horticulturist for Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands. Previous to this appointment, Mr. Littler handled the clerical work of the Horticultural Branch, which is now being done by R. C. Louis. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Your Horticulturist wishes to acknowledge the co-operation he and members of this Branch have received from other branches of this Department, from members of the Federal services, and the University of British Columbia throughout the year. These good relations that exist are much appreciated. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 53 REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH, 1952 J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon, B.C. Bee-keeping in British Columbia has now returned to normalcy after experiencing a tremendous upswing during the war years. This increase was the result of those persons interested in keeping bees for the sole purpose of the sugars involved. The 1951 honey-crop report showed a total production for this Province of 1,654,400 pounds of honey, which has been exceeded only once, during 1947 with a total production of 1,805,000 pounds. In contrast to these figures, the total crop for 1952 is only 954,230 pounds, which compares to the average crop experienced during the late twenties. This reduction in honey-crop is the result of a variety of factors, such as a sharp decrease in the numbers of bee-keepers and apiaries, together with some evidence of spray poisoning. The chief cause, however, has been the extended dry season following one already unusually dry year, experienced during 1951. A low percentage of humidity and little precipitation, together with warm evenings, has resulted in poor nectar secretion. Beekeepers in the Coastal regions with a 7 5-pound average generally fared better than those in the Interior where the over-all average was 65 pounds per colony. The Peace River area, with the smallest number of apiaries and bee-keepers, experienced the highest Provincial average of 100 pounds per colony (Appendix No. 1). All commercial bee-keepers in the southern part of the Province are still outside wintering colonies. The topography of this Province and local conditions are such that many different methods of wintering and types of winter cases are employed which are best suited to the prevailing local conditions, chief of which are weather and food supplies. From the Prince George area north to the Peace River Block, the present practice is still that of importing package bees in the spring from the Southern United States, extracting the honey-crop, and killing the bees in the fall by the use of cyanogas. Winter-losses for 1951-52 were approximately 4 per cent of the total colonies wintered. This is slightly below the average of 5 per cent and can be credited to good management as well as an abundant supply of wholesome winter stores, which existed as the result of such an excellent honey-crop. During the spring of 1952, cold inclement weather resulted in a backward spring and the build-up of colonies was retarded to a great extent. Had nectar secretion been as abundant as during the 1951 season, this slow build-up would have undoubtedly resulted in a below-average honey-crop. Some spring dwindling occurred, due largely to the unseasonable spring weather conditions. A noticeably short blooming period for all nectar-secreting flowers was recorded during the summer of 1952. Although the density of the honey-crop for this Province during 1952 was well above the requirements in our regulations, the colour was not as light as is usually the case. The over-all darker colour was the natural result of field bees gathering nectar from all available sources. The legumes, which generally provide the most reliable source of white honey, yielded very sparingly, and in some regions of the Province, notably the South Okanagan, sweet clover (Melilotus alba), which is generally a major source of nectar, failed entirely. The demand for British Columbia honey continues to be good, and for those bee-keepers who do not sell to regular customers, the newly established packing plant affords a ready purchaser for any surplus of honey. The price of honey continues to be quite satisfactory, although it is well below that of other comparable foodstuffs considering the cost and labour involved in production. Office work has included a card survey which involved the handling and mailing of 3,000 cards. This survey has resulted in up-to-date file cards on nearly every bee-keeper in the Province. Correspondence over the past eleven months has consisted of 1,016 letters in and 1,140 letters out. CC 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA INSPECTION WORK Inspection work for the purpose of disease-control was given priority during the summer months, and as a result of this systematic inspection a considerable amount of old abandoned equipment which was heavily infected with American foul-brood spores was destroyed. Systematic inspection work was carried out in the vicinities of Ashcroft, Lillooet, Kamloops, and throughout the Okanagan Valley. V. E. Thorgeirson made a complete inspection of the Lower Mainland and also the Vancouver and Gulf Islands area. H. Boone, who carries out inspection work in the South Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys, had suffered ill health during the major part of his inspection period. In spite of this, a cursory inspection was made throughout his area and assistance was promptly given to those bee-keepers who requested inspection, either through the services of Mr. Boone or from this office. EXTENSION WORK Short courses on bee-keeping were conducted at high schools in Creston, Vernon, and Kelowna. Mr. Thorgeirson gave lectures and conducted demonstrations at the University of British Columbia short course on bee-keeping. Both the writer and Mr. Thorgeirson judged honey at the Pacific National Exhibition. In addition, honey was judged at many of the smaller fairs and exhibitions, some of which were the North Burnaby Show, Cloverdale Fall Fair, Interior Provincial Exhibition, and the Salmon Arm and Shuswap Valley Fair. Many lectures and demonstrations were given to beekeepers' associations, biology classes, and service groups. Field days were held in all parts of the Province and, on the whole, attendance was good. DISEASE-CONTROL The control of American foul-brood continues to present a problem which requires constant attention. Control measures at present in practice are:— (1) Burning of infected colonies. (2) Feeding of the antibiotic sulphathiazole to healthy colonies which were present in infected apiaries. Sulphathiazole can only be considered as a control method and not as a cure. Good colony management is still one of the most important factors in disease-control and every effort is being made to educate bee-keepers in the methods of good bee-keeping practices. During the 1951-52 season a total of 156 diseased colonies were destroyed by fire. Forty-seven of these were located in Mr. Thorgeirson's district, twenty-two in Mr. Boone's district, and eighty-seven throughout the remainder of the Province. This represents a total monetary loss by disease of $5,360 to the bee-keepers of British Columbia. Although this loss is considerable for an industry as small as ours, it is small indeed when compared to the losses sustained by our industry before the advent of sulphathiazole. CONTROL OF WAX-MOTH (GALLERIA MELLONELLA) This pest has been doing considerable damage to stored brood combs, particularly in the southern areas of the Province where milder winters prevail. Two tests on the control of wax-moth by the use of methyl bromide were conducted on a quantity of moth- infested equipment in Oyama. Very good results were obtained, one treatment killing this pest in all stages of growth from egg to adult. SPRAY POISON Some damage was done as the result of spray poisoning. Apiaries in the vicinity of Glenmore and Winfield suffered two quite severe kills of field bees as the result of r DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 55 poisoning by parathion. This poisoning, together with poor nectar secretion, resulted in colony averages of as little as 30 pounds of honey per colony in these areas. Some scattered and insignificant cases of brood poisoning were noted. It is assumed that the pollen poisoned by one of the thinning sprays (dinitrocresol) was responsible, and in'an effort to confirm this, an analysis is to be made of stored pollen to determine the presence of dinitrocresol, if any. BULLETINS AND PUBLICATIONS The revision of Bulletin No. 92 is well on the way to completion. Seven issues of the publication entitled "Bee Wise" were issued during the 1951-52 season, dealing with all phases of profitable bee-keeping. The following list of mimeographed instruction sheets were made available at the apiary office:— (1) Bee-keeping general. (2) Plans and dimensions of standard Langstroth hive. (3) A safe method for installing package bees. (4) Feeding bees. (5) Methods of feeding sulphathiazole to colonies of bees for the purpose of American foul-brood control. A number of charts and drawings were completed, designed to assist in the instruction of beginners interested in bee-keeping and for use at meetings and short courses. VISUAL AIDS A series of coloured 2- by 2-inch slides were completed dealing with the subjects of British Columbia nectar- and pollen-producing flora, wintering, and pollination. HONEY-GRADING REGULATIONS Grading regulations dealing with the production and marketing of honey in British Columbia were first put into effect during August, 1951. The establishment of a fully modern honey processing and packing plant at New Westminster, together with increased packing and marketing of honey, has resulted in a complete revision of these regulations to cover all phases of grading, marking, and merchandising. In completing this report for 1951-52, I would like to express my appreciation of the staff of the Apiary Branch for the efficient and co-operative way in which they have performed their duties. Mr. Thorgeirson, our Inspector of Apiaries for the Lower Mainland, has done excellent work in both extension and inspection. Mr. Boone, although only part-time, has given of his time conscientiously and willingly; also our office secretary, Miss Margot Skene, who is handling an increased volume of work. Appreciation is also extended to the Supervising Agriculturists and District Agriculturists throughout the Province for their willingness and assistance on behalf of the Apiary Branch. HONEY-CROP REPORT The following statement summarizes the honey-crop situation for 1952:— District Apiaries Colonies Crop Average 548 119 179 307 478 37 1,055 576 1,356 1,648 8,008 957 Lb. 73,850 40,320 108,480 115,360 520,520 95,700 Lb. 70 70 80 75 65 100 Totals . 1,668 13,600 954,230 70 Value to Producers.—954,230 pounds of honey at 21(f (wholesale), pound (wholesale), $4,471. $200,388.30; 9,542 pounds of beeswax at 50^ per CC 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A. In general, the damage caused by plant diseases was not serious. The diseases that caused the greatest concern to growers in the Coastal districts were scab and anthracnose of apples, black-knot of plums, red-stele and powdery mildew of strawberries, Godronia canker of blueberries, yellow rust on raspberries, and club-root of cabbage. In the Interior, the most important diseases were powdery mildew on the fruits of cherries, Coryneum blight of apricots and peaches, Verticillium wilt of tomatoes, boron toxicity, Typhula blight of wheat, and deficiency diseases of fruit-trees caused by a lack of zinc, manganese, and magnesium. Some of the diseases that caused less damage than usual throughout the Province were late blight of potatoes and tomatoes, fire-blight of pears, little-cherry in the Creston area, downy mildew of onions, bunt in wheat, and white-pine blister-rust on black currants. For the first time in the Southern Okanagan, apple-scab and powdery mildew on cherry-fruits became an economic problem. An outbreak of curly-top of tomatoes in the Ashcroft-Kamloops area also occurred for the first time. The Province continues to be virtually free of ring-rot of potatoes. This disease has been found on one farm in the Fraser Valley. APPLE-SCAB Apple-scab has suddenly become of some concern to the Southern Okanagan—an area where it has previously been an insignificant disease. After the wet period of June 27th-29th, numerous infections were found in many orchards in the Upper and Middle Bench sections of Penticton. Epidemic proportions were reached after the wet weather of July 22nd-23rd. Only a trace of scab was found in the Naramata and Kaleden areas, and none was found in the Keremeos-Cawston area. Tests are usually conducted each year in the worst scab areas—Creston and Nelson in the Kootenays, and in the Northern Okanagan. G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at Creston, co-operates with the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory at Summerland. J. E. Swales, District Horticulturist at Nelson, conducts his own scab tests. The sprayer used by both is a Turbo-Mist. Table No. 1.—The Results of Spraying Mcintosh Apples for Scab, Using Different Fungicides, in the Early Pink, Calyx, First and Second Cover, at Creston Percentage Material of Scab Check (no treatment) 71.6 Orthocide 1.8 Crag 4.3 Ferbam 6.3 Ferbam plus wettable sulphur 9.4 Lime-sulphur 18.9 Table No. 2.—The Results of Spraying Apples for Scab, Using Different Fungicides, in the Pre-pink, Pink, Calyx, and First and Second Covers, at Procter Percentage Material of Scab Check (no treatment) 95.5 Lime-sulphur 25.5 Sodium polysulphide 57.7 Crag 16.8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 57 Table No. 3.—The Effect of Lime-sulphur and Ferbam plus Wettable Sulphur on the Yield in Boxes of Apples per Tree, for Five Years, at Creston Mcintosh Delicious Year Lime- sulphur Ferbam plus Wettable Sulphur Lime- sulphur Ferbam plus Wettable Sulphur 1948 15 8 28 9 19 14 15 28 15 18 23 6 20 5 14 22 1949- „ 11 1950 _ 1951 19 9 1952 15 15.8 18.0 13.6 15.2 The results for one year, shown in Tables Nos. 1 and 2, indicate that both Orthocide and Crag are worthy of further testing. The results for five years, shown in Table No. 3, indicate that lime-sulphur sprays accentuate biennial production. The plot size for the Mcintosh and Delicious varieties was twelve trees per plot, as shown in Table No. 3. PHYSIOLOGICAL DISORDERS OF FRUIT-TREES Physiological disorders seem to be on the increase in the Okanagan. Zinc, manganese, and magnesium deficiencies appear to be more widespread than in previous years. Boron-deficiency symptoms, once widespread, are seldom seen, but indications of boron toxicity are becoming increasingly common. Boron toxicity is probably due to either an uneven application of boric acid or to an application which is too strong. A spray application of boric acid on the trees will reduce the likelihood of a boron toxicity, because the amount sprayed on young trees is automatically governed by the size of the trees. Usually, the minor element sprays can be applied with fungicides or insecticides and will, consequently, eliminate an extra orchard operation. In an attempt to prevent the occurrence of a zinc, a manganese, a magnesium, or a boron deficiency, the following preventive sprays are recommended: Boron, 2 pounds boric acid per acre; manganese, 2 pounds manganese sulphate per acre; zinc, 2 pounds zinc oxide per acre; and magnesium, 20 pounds magnesium sulphate per acre. All of these materials, or any number of them, can be combined in a single spray which may be applied to all trees as a foliage spray. The number of these materials that can be combined depends on the likelihood that there is a lack of these elements. The application of boric acid as a spray is supposed to reduce the chance that a boron toxicity might occur. It is a difficult condition to remedy. If zinc-deficiency symptoms are severe (little-leaf or rosette), a spray of zinc sulphate, 40 pounds per acre, is recommended in the late dormant. These recommendations are based on the experimental work of Dr. C. G. Woodbridge, of the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory, Summerland, in co-operation with the Provincial Department of Agriculture. BLACK-KNOT OF PLUMS The campaign to reduce the amount of this disease in the Fraser Valley was continued. Publicity, as in previous years, was obtained by mailing circulars to householders in several areas; articles were sent to agricultural and urban papers; Radio Stations CHWK (Chilliwack) and CBU (Vancouver) co-operated; letters were written to Horticultural Societies; the Farm Forum and Farmers' Institutes participated; and displays were put up in store windows in Chilliwack, Mission, Abbotsford, Haney, and Pitt Meadows. A survey was made in the Chilliwack-Sardis-Rosedale area, and also in the Ham- mond-Haney-Pitt Meadows area, with the co-operation of the District Agriculturists, R. S. Berry and A. J. Allan. Since the last survey, conducted in 1950, the amount of black-knot has been reduced considerably in the Chilliwack-Sardis-Rosedale area. CC 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA There has been some success in some areas, but there is still a great deal of work to be done. Attempts are being made to find a cheaper chemical to eradicate plum-trees in deserted orchards and on Indian Reservations. LITTLE-CHERRY A number of cherry orchards were inspected in different areas of the Okanagan— beginning at the border at Osoyoos and finishing near Kelowna. A slight increase in the amount of small bitter cherry was observed in the Southern Okanagan. Lambert mottle was also slightly increased in the Kelowna district. No typical little-cherry symptoms were observed. In the Creston area, the little-cherry disease caused less damage than in any year since it first became widespread. The trees which showed the most damage were those that had recently become infected. Most of the trees which were known to have been previously infected now appear to be practically normal. The cooler-than-usual spring may account for the nearly normal fruit. A number of observations and tests have been made in the past which indicate that the fruit on branches which are shaded by a veranda, or some other cover, may be normal in size. FIRE-BLIGHT OF PEARS There has been a marked reduction in fire-blight damage in the Province. This is evident in a comparison of the previous four years. A considerable build-up occurred in 1948—a year with well-above-average rainfall. Losses were severe in many orchards in 1949, 1950, and 1951. The rapid decline in losses is probably due to an active campaign carried on by the district men and also to the hot, dry summers of 1951 and 1952. For the first time, a blossom spray of Bordeaux 1-1-100, in ordinary sprayers or in concentrate-sprays at 3-3 per acre, is recommended for use at 10-per-cent full bloom and again at full bloom. G. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at Creston, reports: " Spraying Bordeaux (V2—V2—100) at forty-eight-hour intervals at blossom-time showed great promise. . . . Practically no fire-blight developed in the sprayed trees and a good crop was harvested. In an adjacent unsprayed orchard, the trees developed heavy infections and a poor crop was harvested." CORYNEUM BLIGHT OF APRICOTS AND PEACHES This disease was more serious and widespread than usual in the Summerland and Naramata districts of the Okanagan. The common symptom on apricots in the Okanagan is a spotting of the fruit. The increased incidence is probably due to the growers not realizing the need to apply the usual, recommended sprays during the two preceding years when there was little or no fruit. No difficulties were encountered in the Creston area when the recommended sprays were applied. This disease not only causes a spotting of the fruit of apricots and peaches in the Creston area, but also attacks limbs, twigs, and leaves. In the Chilliwack area, this blight continues to be one of the major difficulties in the production of clean, marketable peaches. Our spray trials indicate that the most effective time for application is in the late fall, in October and November. An application of Bordeaux will probably be applied to the demonstration plot about the end of November. POWDERY MILDEW OF CHERRY This is the first year that powdery mildew on the fruit has necessitated extensive sorting before shipping in the Southern Okanagan. For several years, this disease has been observed on the foliage of some cherry-trees in a few orchards, but this is the first time that it has been a problem on the fruit. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 59 STRAWBERRY-PLANT CERTIFICATION This project was carried out with the co-operation of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist, and W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist, at Abbotsford. In an attempt to improve certified strawberry plants, the number of inspections conducted annually has been increased from one (in the spring) to two—one during the summer and one in the spring. The Inspectors will have a better opportunity to judge the vigour and high-yielding ability of the planting stock, and also to detect some of the diseases and pests which affect strawberry plants. The total number of applications for certification was 122—ninety-three passed and twenty-eight were rejected. The number of strawberry plants certified was approximately 5,000,000—the same as for the previous year. The demand for plants in 1952 was less than in 1951—about 3,500,000 as compared to about 4,500,000. G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at Creston, reports: "The main factor contributing towards the increase in strawberry production is the use of certified stock imported from the Fraser Valley." RED-STELE OF STRAWBERRY Two tests are being conducted on two farms in the Fraser Valley in order to determine if Dithane D-14, as a soil treatment, is an effective, practical control for red-stele infected areas. The results will be known next spring. The most practical control would be a suitable resistant variety. A new variety which was developed in England, called Climax, is under test. The Experimental Farms at Agassiz and Saanichton are also attempting to develop a new resistant variety. POWDERY MILDEW OF STRAWBERRY This year, powdery mildew was much more severe than usual at the Coast. This disease is not often severe enough to justify the expense of spraying regularly. An application of Dithane Z-78, IVz pounds to 80 gallons of water, after the disease was well- advanced, did not appear to have any beneficial effect. SPRING DWARF OF STRAWBERRY This nematode disease appeared in the same part of a garden at Langley, where it was originally discovered for the first time in the Province, four years ago. The grower has been supplied with enough soil-fumigant to eradicate it. YELLOW RUST ON RASPBERRY This year, yellow-rust damage was quite severe. It may be the worst year ever experienced. On the Washington variety, the disease was general and severe in most districts. The Newburgh and Willamette varieties were not seriously affected. GODRONIA CANKER OF BLUEBERRIES A spray trial with Bordeaux 10-10-100 was conducted in an attempt to prevent future damage due to Godronia canker of blueberries. The purpose of this spray trial was to discover the most effective time to apply the spray. The results, shown in the following table, indicate that the spring application is more effective than the fall application. The Effect of Spraying Bordeaux, at Different Times, on Godronia Canker of Blueberries Date of Application Number of Canes Killed Check (no treatment) 16 April 25th, 1952 4 October 13th, 1951 9 September 15th, 1951; October 13th, 1951; April 25th, 1952 _ 6 CC 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA ROOT-ROT AND CROWN-ROT OF LAWSON'S CYPRESS This disease has been found to be widely distributed in nurseries and in private gardens in the Fraser Valley and, to some extent, on Vancouver Island. It is caused by a species of Phytophthora. This disease is being investigated, at our request, by P. Salisbury, of the Dominion Forest Pathology Laboratory at Victoria. Tests are being conducted in a nursery in the Fraser Valley in an effort to discover a control. VERTICILLIUM WILT OF TOMATOES Verticillium wilt continues to be a serious disease of tomatoes. R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops, reports that a variety called Moscow, which has been recently introduced by Westminster Canners Ltd., appears to be resistant. This new variety, Moscow, is about as early as the variety Clarke's Early and is equal in yield. CURLY-TOP OF TOMATOES This virus disease was reported, for the first time, in the Ashcroft-Kamloops area. At Ashcroft, 30 per cent of the plants were affected in one 40-acre field, and at Kamloops, a slight amount was observed in three fields. Curly-top can be recognized by observing the leaflets of infected plants. The leaflets roll upward along the midrib and become thickened and crisp as the leaves curve downward. The leaf tissue gradually turns yellow, while the veins take on a purplish tinge. The plant assumes an erect habit, remains stunted, and usually dies. The disease is spread by the beet leaf-hopper. BACTERIAL RING-ROT OF POTATOES This Province continues to be virtually free of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes. It was found on only one 4-acre field of White Rose potatoes, on Lulu Island, in the Fraser Valley. The amount of this disease was about 15 per cent. This is a much greater percentage than any that has been previously found on any farm in the Fraser Valley. The origin of the outbreak was not determined, because other White Rose crops, reportedly grown from the same seed-source, appeared to be free of ring-rot. An inspection of 125 acres at digging-time in the same area, Lulu Island, failed to detect any ring-rot of potatoes. There has been no reoccurrence of the disease on those farms which have previously grown affected crops. Ring-rot was found in six imported carloads of potatoes. A total of 250 carloads were imported into the Province—125 from other Provinces and 125 from the United States. Two of the affected carloads came from Alberta, one from Manitoba, and two from Washington. One of the carloads from Washington was returned to Seattle because the importer was unable to find a suitable market. A bacterial ring-rot directive, dealing with imported potatoes, was issued in September, 1952, and forwarded to all known importers and wholesalers in the Province. LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES—FORECAST SERVICE The first bulletin was issued on June 13th to potato-growers in the Fraser Valley. This was done in co-operation with the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Vancouver. The growers were warned that the cloudy days, cool nights, and intermittent rains of the previous two weeks had created an ideal environment for the development of the fungus which causes late blight of potatoes. The growers were also warned that outbreaks of the disease could be expected if the damp weather continued. However, just shortly after the press release was issued, the weather turned hot and dry. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 61 Late blight was reported during the second week in August. It occurred in slight amounts in some of the crops in the Lulu Island and Ladner districts. A second press release was issued on August 13th, to the effect that the hot weather at that time would keep the disease in check. In addition, growers were warned to be ready to apply sprays if cool nights and warm, muggy days prevailed. After this date, late blight could be found generally in many fields in the Lower Mainland but only in light-to-moderate infections. Late blight did not become a major problem to the potato-growers during the season. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We wish to thank officials of the other branches of the Department of Agriculture, the Canada Department of Agriculture, and the University of British Columbia for their co-operation. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST C. L. Neilson, M.S., Entomologist, Vernon The general insect condition throughout the Province was one of increased activity in many respects. The dry growing season once again favoured the increase of grasshoppers in most of the Interior. There were local " unusual " outbreaks of grain-aphis in the Fraser Valley, black vine-weevil on Vancouver Island, blister-beetles in the Kamloops and Okanagan Districts, bud-moth, woolly aphis, scales, and black cherry fruit-fly in the Okanagan. Cutworm damage was prevalent throughout the Province. There has been increased inquiry about ticks, black widow spiders, flesh-maggots in cattle, household pests, and pests in stored grains. From a control standpoint, I believe the following advances have been made in the Province by Provincial authorities, various Dominion Entomological Laboratories, and other agencies:— (a) An improved control for turnip-maggot, onion-maggot, carrot rust-fly, and tuber flea-beetle. (b) The recognized and recommended use of " soil insecticides " to give better and (or) more economical control of some of our pests which have been difficult to control effectively. (c) The introduction of methoxychlor and malathon into the control of fruit pests. These will, it is hoped, eventually replace insecticides which have been in use and have a high toxicity to humans. (d) The entrance of medical personnel from the Provincial Department of Health into the Okanagan Spray Committee, to study the toxicity hazards of spray materials to humans. (e) Increased publicity and direction to persons seeking advice re insects or insect controls. FIELD-CROP AND VEGETABLE INSECTS Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) During the past year there was no survey made of this pest, such as has been carried on for many years previous. Existing stocks of 3-per-cent DDT were distributed to growers as requested, but no new stock was purchased by the Government. Growers were warned that free DDT would not likely be available in future. Beetles were present in all areas where reported in 1951, but little or no serious damage was caused by their presence. CC 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA The co-operative parasite study started in 1951 with the Dominion Biological Control Laboratory, of Vancouver, was continued in 1952. This year, collections of Colorado potato-beetle larva, were made in both East and West Kootenay Districts. These were kept for rearing and determination of parasite species. Of the twenty collections made in 1951, sixteen contained parasites. This shows a wide distribution of parasites in the Kootenays, with percentage parasitism as high as 32 per cent from one location. The species of parasites are to be determined from 1952 collections. Grasshoppers There was a general increase in grasshopper populations throughout British Columbia, other than in the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island. This was as expected (see 1951 report). Of particular interest was the occurrence of grasshoppers in outbreak numbers in the Prince George district. The main species, as determined by Dr. R. H. Handford, was Melanoplus borealis. Throughout the remainder of the affected area the two main species were Camnula pellucida and Melanoplus mexicanus, and in general the former was dominant at the higher elevations (over 3,000 feet approximately) while the latter was more plentiful at the lower levels. Aircraft were used to spray approximately 20,000 acres for grasshoppers, mainly in the Merritt and Pavilion districts. During the summer, L. G. Putnam, of the Dominion Entomological Branch (Saskatoon) and director of the Regional Grasshopper Control Committee, and his staff conducted extensive spraying experiments in the Merritt district. A spot grasshopper-egg survey conducted in October by the author and Dr. R. H. Handford, of the Dominion Field Crop Insect Laboratory, Kamloops, showed:— (a) That the fall had been ideal for grasshopper-egg laying. (b) That sufficient eggs had been laid and there is every reason to expect as many or more grasshoppers in 1953 than were present in 1952. This forecast is based on knowledge as of October, but could possibly be upset by adverse weather, parasites, and predators later than this date and prior to early nymphal development in the spring. Cutworms As in 1951, the cutworm outbreak was widespread and occurred in most districts of the Province in 1952. The dry soil conditions once again aggravated control measures, and as this tended to keep cutworms below the surface, there were numerous unsuccessful attempts at control. DDT dust (5 to 50 per cent) and Chlordane dust (5 per cent) were most commonly used, but baits and numerous sprays were also used with varying degrees of success. The main species was the red-backed cutworm (Euxoa ochrogaster), as in 1951, but in the Prince George district a heavy outbreak of the black army cutworm (Actebia fennica) damaged cereal and forage crops severely. Populations as heavy as 100 pupa, per square foot were found in a clover field in June. This species feeds above ground and excellent control was secured in several cases by spraying the soil in the evening with 50-per-cent wettable D D T at 2 pounds actual DDT per acre. Carrot Rust-fly (Psila rosai) This pest caused its usual concern and loss in the Fraser Valley and Armstrong and Nelson districts. Additional information re life history and chemicals for control has been furnished by the Dominion Field Crop Insect Laboratories at Kamloops and Agassiz. This involves the use of Aldrin dust (2Vz per cent) or Chlordane dust (5 per cent) at the rate of 1 ounce to every ten feet of row when the first forked leaves appear, and a second application during the first week of August in the Interior, or the last week of August at the Coast. department of agriculture, 1952 cc 63 Flea-beetles Flea-beetles were present in numbers on both crucifers and potatoes. However, the only real concern was from the potato-tuber flea-beetle (Epitrix tuberis). Damage was again in evidence throughout the Interior from Lytton through the Kamloops district, the North and South Okanagan, the Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island. Growers in the Interior have complained of poorer results from dusting with 5-per-cent DDT this year than in previous years, but most of this can be attributed to improper timing of the treatments. Several growers in the Vernon and Lavington areas who used orchard sprayers in their fields for control measures were not successful. This is no doubt due to improper coverage of all parts of the foliage by the gun-type orchard sprayers. Sufficient experimental evidence has been gathered by the author and the Dominion Insect Laboratories at Kamloops and Agassiz to enable a control recommendation by the use of " soil insecticides " to be made. This will read as follows: Soil treatment—an alternative to sprays or dusts. Prior to or soon after planting, apply Chlordane dust at 10 pounds actual per acre or Aldrin dust at 4 pounds actual per acre. Harrow or disc thoroughly into the ground. These materials have given excellent results in many cases. Consult your local office for complete method of application. Crucifer Pests There were the usual localized outbreaks of such pests as cabbage-maggot, cabbage- worm, and cabbage-seed pod-weevil. The Dominion Field Crop Insect Laboratories at Agassiz and Victoria have provided a fairly reliable control for turnip-maggot. This is indeed a milestone, as turnip-maggot has long been one of the pests for which no control was known. Onion-maggot Onion-maggot infestations were again widespread. Growers who used the recommended DDT seed treatment obtained good control, but difficulties are experienced in the physical use of this material. This will be overcome in a new recommendation to be issued for 1953; that is, 2 ounces of 50-per-cent Aldrin used to treat each 1 pound of onion-seed. White Grubs White grubs were the cause of damage to such crops as strawberries, potatoes, and many perennial flowers. By the continued and expanded use of D D T, Chlordane, and ethylene dibromide the loss to commercial crops is steadily decreasing. Wireworms Loss from wireworms in vegetable-growing areas of the Okanagan and Fraser Valleys is decreasing yearly. This is due to the use of ethylene dibromide as a soil-fumigant on the land which is intensively cropped. Blister-beetles Local outbreaks were recorded from Ashcroft on tomatoes, Vernon, and Cawston. Hessian-fly (Phytophaga destructor) There was an increased infestation by hessian-fly in the North Okanagan during the past year. Inquiries re controls came from several points between Vernon and Enderby. Horn Worms There was a general increase in horn worms in the Province. Only one case of damage was reported and that was on tomatoes at Keremeos. Other localities reporting slight damage included Kamloops, Vernon, Kelowna, Creston, and Nelson. CC 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA Earwigs (Forficula auricularia) There was a definite increase in earwigs in most sections of the Province. Damage was reported from several vegetable-crops, and householders complained of them entering dwellings. Of particular interest was their marked increase in the Kamloops, Okanagan, and East and West Kootenay Districts, where populations are usually very low. Miscellaneous Pests Other pests reported in localized areas included: (1) red turnip-beetle (Ento- moscelis americana), Mammet Lake; (2) painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui), Okanagan and Kootenay; (3) clover-weevil (Tychius picrostris), Salmon Valley near Prince George; (4) lygus bugs (Lygus spp.), general infestations; (5) burrower bugs (Schirus cinctus), Prince George area; (6) grain-aphis (Macrosiphium granarium), Fraser Valley; (7) clover-aphis (Anuraphis bakeri), Fraser Valley; (8) slugs, Vernon; (9) pea-weevil (Bruchus pisorum), Armstrong; (10) crickets (Gryllus assimilis), Vernon; (11) crickets (Peranabrus scabricollis), Vernon; (12) cave crickets (species unknown), Vancouver Island; (13) seed-maggots (Hylemia sp.), general infestations; (14) stink-bugs (Euchistussp.), Vernon and Armstrong; (15) wheat-midge (Sitodiplosis americana), Armstrong; (16) sod web-worms (several species), Fraser Valley; (17) aphis on celery (species unknown), Kelowna. ORCHARD INSECTS This portion of insect work is largely reported by Provincial Horticulturists and will be found elsewhere. While most orchard pests are well in hand, I believe the following exceptions are worth noting: Cherry fruit-fly on Vancouver Island and increased infestations of fruit bud-moth, fruit-tree leaf-roller, woolly apple-aphis, and Lecanium scale on soft fruits in the Okanagan. During the year there was also a higher-than-normal infesta- tation of codling-moth caused by a late second generation. The infestation of black cherry fruit-fly (reported in 1951) at Bear Creek, near Kelowna, was largely cleaned up through a co-operative effort by the author, the Provincial Horticulturist at Kelowna, and Mr. Proverbs, of the Dominion Fruit Insect Laboratory at Summerland. This consisted of spraying all sour and sweet cherries in the district. During the close of the campaign only an odd fly was found by trapping and no fruit was found to be infested. HOUSEHOLD AND STORED PRODUCTS Carpet-beetles These were abundant as usual in the Fraser Valley, and there were several inquiries from householders in the Vernon and Kelowna districts. Sawtooth Grain-beetles (Oryztephilus surinamensis) Inquiries were received from Duncan, Oyama, Vernon, and Nelson regarding control measures. Black Widow Spiders (Latrodectes mactans) There has been a definite increase in the incidence of these spiders during the year. Numerous requests on identification and control were received from the Okanagan and Nelson-Trail Districts. Miscellaneous Inquiries These included bedbugs, clothes moths, mice, fleas, cockroaches, lice on household pet birds, wasps, poultry mites on feathers, earwigs, sphinx moths, houseflies, black-flies, mosquitoes, and ticks on humans. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 65 SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS Strawberries The main pests during the year were weevils, white grubs, crown-moth, and mites. The strawberry root-weevil (Brachyrhinus ovatus) was prevalent throughout the Province. The black vine-weevil (Brachyrhinus sulcatus) infestations have greatly increased on Vancouver Island, are are now becoming equally as serious, if not more so, than the strawberry root-weevil. At present the weevil-bait is not giving satisfactory control of the black vine-weevil. In the Magna Bay area a joint demonstration of control of two- spotted mite was undertaken with the District Horticulturist of Salmon Arm. This showed that two applications of either Aramite or Ovatran dust (5 per cent) gave better control than several applications of lime-sulphur dust, and at a reduced cost per acre. Crown- moth (Ramosia bibronipennis) was most prevalent on Vancouver Island. Currants The currant-borer (Ramosia tipuliformis) did considerable damage in the Langley district. The present control of pruning does not meet with a too enthusiastic acceptance by the grower. The Pacific mite was again present at Armstrong. An extensive test of a series of different spray materials was started and one application made. Drought conditions continued for such a lengthy period that the grower finally pulled out practically all of his acreage and consequently the experiment was abandoned. Raspberries The pest of most concern to raspberry-growers was the root-borer (Bembecia marginata). There were several heavy infestations in the Fraser valley, centering on Abbotsford and Mission. Requests for information re control of this pest were received from various points in the Okanagan and Kootenays. Only minor infestations of the fruit-worm (Byturus bakeri) were present in the Fraser Valley, for a second year. Research work on both of the above pests, and leaf-hoppers, is continuing under the Dominion Fruit Insect Laboratory at Victoria. The raspberry-sawfly (Blennocampa rubi) was present in most of the plantings in the Okanagan, but infestations were not sufficiently heavy to cause excessive loss of leaves. No controls were applied. OTHER INSECTS IN OUTBREAK NUMBERS Tent-caterpillars The forest tent-caterpillars (Malacasoma disstria and M. pluviale) were present in outbreak numbers in several municipalities of the Lower Mainland during May and June. Fall Web-worm (Hyphantria textor) There was an unusually heavy outbreak of this insect throughout the Interior. It was not uncommon to see native trees devoid of leaves in early summer, due to the heavy infestations. Grape Leaf-hoppers (Erythroneura sp.) As in 1951, these leaf-hoppers were abundant in the Kamloops and Vernon districts. Only minor infestations were present elsewhere in the Okanagan. Rose Insects There were several inquiries re rose-weevil, rose leaf-hopper, and rose-aphis in the Okanagan. Leaf-hoppers were especially numerous and nearly every plant examined showed some evidence of feeding. cc 66 british columbia Spruce Gall-aphid The presence of this aphid was noticed more than usual, particularly in the North and South Okanagan. Undoubtedly infestations had been increasing for at least one year previous, but had not reached such proportions. Pine Leaf Needle-scale (Phenacapsis pinifoliat) Severe infestations of this scale were reported from both the North and South Okanagan on native and domesticated trees. Holly Leaf-miner (Phytomyza ilicis) This insect was present in holly on Vancouver Island and throughout most of the Fraser Valley. Where the recommended DDT spray was applied, no difficulty was experienced with control. Lilac Leaf-miner (Gracilaria syringella) The lilac leaf-miner is present throughout most of the Province where lilac is grown. During the past two years there has been more than usual interest in its control, particularly in the Vernon district. Caragana-aphis (Species Unknown) A severe infestation of aphis on caragana occurred in parts of the East Kootenay, causing considerable premature yellowing and leaf-drop. This same pest was reported in outbreak numbers in both Alberta and Saskatchewan this year. Miscellaneous Flower Pests Inquiries were received concerning:— (a) Dipterous maggots in Aquilegius from Vancouver Island. (_>) Dipterous maggots in Primula from Salmon Arm. (c) Bulb-mites in Primula from Salmon Arm. (d) Other pests were aphis, white grubs, wireworms, mites, and white fly. LIVE-STOCK INSECTS During the year there was no experimental work done with live-stock insects. A report by the Live Stock Branch covers their warble-fly control campaign. In the East Kootenay there was an outbreak of blow-fly and range animals were frequently infested. Ticks Infestations of both the paralysis tick (Dermacentor undersoni) and the winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) were reported from Interior British Columbia. Infestations were not as heavy as those of 1951. Black-flies Black-flies are an annual problem with live-stock men in various sections of the Province. Attacks by these flies are particularly bad on young stock, which are often kept in the vicinity of the fast-flowing streams—the breeding place of the black-flies. Such a case was reported from Cherryville, 30 miles east of Vernon. A black-fly control programme was carried out in Mount Seymour Park (North Vancouver) by the Provincial Forest Service. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 67 Horn-flies (Siphona irritans) These flies were numerous on unsprayed cattle. However, more interest is being taken in control of these flies by ranchers and dairymen and the number of cattle treated is believed to be increasing yearly. Experiments with new materials, methods, and spraying equipment to control these flies are being conducted by the Dominion Livestock Insect Laboratory, Kamloops. Sheep-ked (Melophagus ovinus) These keds were very abundant on sheep in the Vernon-Kamloops districts during the past year. With increased interest in sheep by many of the smaller farmers and orchardists, it is very likely that requests for advice re control measures will also increase sharply. CONTROL OF ST. JOHN'S WORT BY BEETLES During 1951 an attempt was made to introduce the beetles Chrysolina gemellata into British Columbia to control the weed St. John's Wort. Liberations were made at Westbank, Fruitvale, and Christina Lake by the Dominion Biological Control Laboratory and the Range Division of the Provincial Forest Service. Examinations which were made during 1952 showed that the beetles had overwintered, reproduced, and spread out slightly from the original liberation points. GENERAL 1. Teaching agricultural entomology at the University of British Columbia during January, February, and March. 2. A joint paper, " Experiments on the Insecticidal Control of the Tuber Flea-beetle, Epitrix tuberis Gent., in the Interior of British Columbia," was prepared for publication with D. G. Finlayson, of Kamloops. 3. A new bulletin, " Stored Product Insects in British Columbia," is being readied for publication by the Dominion Stored Product Insect Division, at our request. 4. A paper, " Entomological Work in Progress in British Columbia," was presented at the H.E.P.P. meetings at Puyallup, Wash. 5. Served as (a) chairman of the " Insects and Diseases Committee " of the B.C. Agronomists' Association; (b) chairman of the " Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Pacific Northwest Vegetable Insect Conference "; (c) secretary-treasurer of the " Entomological Society of B.C." 6. Preparation and release to press of articles on (a) Sheep-ked Control; (b) Hessian-fly Control. 7. Participation in planned-farming demonstrations in the Fraser Valley. 8. An exhibit, " Insects and Controls," was placed and staffed at the Nelson and Creston Fall Fairs. 9. Assistance in the revision of (a) Tree Fruit Insect Pest and Diseases Calendar for 1953; (b) Field Crops and Vegetable Insects and Diseases Calendar for 1953-54. 10. Coloured pictures on insect damage of various types were taken and will be used for extension purposes. 11. Assistance with organization of a Grasshopper Control Zone in the Vernon district. 12. Together with officials of the Dominion Medical and Veterinary Laboratory of Kamloops, made a survey of the biting-fly problem at Kitimat, at the request of the Aluminum Company of Canada. CC 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner The year 1952 has been a fairly favourable one from the standpoint of milk production, and it is estimated that the total amount of milk produced will exceed the 1951 production of 624,472,000 pounds by 2 to 3 per cent. The amount of creamery butter manufactured is up 37 per cent over the 1951 figure of 2,666,000 pounds. Cheddar cheese shows a slight decrease in pounds made, while production of evaporated milk is down slightly, and ice-cream and cottage cheese on a par with last year's production. VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS Farm value of milk products in British Columbia for 1951, according to statistics, was $23,888,000, and dairy products valued at factories or milk plants amounted to $31,020,000. Farm and factory figures should be somewhat higher for 1952. UTILIZATION OF MILK IN PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MILK (1951 STATISTICS) Per Cent Fluid sales, milk and cream 52.18 Creamery butter 10.00 Factory cheese 1.39 Concentrated milk and ice-cream 22.10 Dairy butter 3.47 Used on farms and for other purposes 10.86 100.00 It is not anticipated there will be much change in the utilization of milk during 1952. PLANTS MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTING DAIRY PRODUCTS DURING 1952 Acme Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. DeClark's Dairy (A. and J. DeClark), Ladysmith. Arlada Dairy (Mrs. Martha S. Slater), Edgewood. Dexter Dairy Ltd., South Burnaby. Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association, Diamond Dairy (H. H. Trerise), Haney. Armstrong. Dominion Dairy (Gordon Milum), Golden. Arrowsmith Farms (B.C. Ventures Ltd.), Hilliers. Drake's Dairy Ltd., New Westminster. Avalon Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. Dutch Dairy Farms Ltd., Kamloops. Baby's Own Dairy (H. Armishaw), Nanaimo. Dyffryn Dairy (P. C. Inglis), Lumby. Blue Ribbon Dairy Ltd., Mission City. Enterprise Dairy (W. Pighin), Kimberley. Brooksbank Farms Ltd., Lulu Island. Fernie Dairy (Morley Obee), Fernie. Bulkley Valley Creamery (Paulsen and Kinney), Frasea Farms Ltd., Eburne. Telkwa. Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Van- Cariboo Farmers' Co-operative Association, couver (Hornby St.). Quesnel. Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Van- Central Creameries (B.C.) Ltd., Vancouver, couver (Eighth Ave.). Central Dairy Ltd., Nanaimo. Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Sardis. Chilliwack Dairy Ltd., Chilliwack. Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association, Ab- City Dairy Farm (M. McCrindle), Cranbrook. botsford. Columbia Valley Co-operative Creamery Asso- Glenburn Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. ciation, Golden. Guernsey Breeders' Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. Comox Co-operative Creamery Association, Hazelwood Creamery Ltd., Vancouver. Courtenay. Island Farms Co-operative Association, Port Al- Creamland Crescent Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. berni. Creamland Ice Cream Ltd., Vancouver. Island Farms Co-operative Association, Victoria. Creston Co-operative Milk Producers' Associa- I.X.L. Dairy Ltd., Nanaimo. tion, Creston. lersey Dairy (D. M. Archibald), Chilliwack. Dairy Queen Mixco (J. C. Mulvey), Langley lersey Farms Ltd., Vancouver. Prairie. Kalamalka Dairy Ltd., Vernon. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 69 Kamloops United Dairies Ltd., Kamloops. Kelowna Creamery Ltd., Kelowna. Kootenay Valley Co-operative Milk Products Association, Nelson. Lewis & Sons' Dairy (E. R. Lewis), Powell River. Little Mountain Dairy (Carncross and Thompson), Abbotsford. Maple Ridge Dairy (Mrs. D. C. Vogel), Haney. Medo-land Farm Dairy Ltd., Port Coquitlam. Modern Dairy (D. Macaulay), Marysville. Modern Dairy (K. Sharpies), Castlegar. Morrison-Knudsen Company of Canada Ltd., Kemano. Nanaimo Dairy Co. Ltd., Nanaimo. National Dairies Ltd., Vancouver. Northern Alberta Dairy Pool Ltd., Dawson Creek. Northern Dairies Ltd., Prince George. Northern Dairies Ltd., Quesnel. Northland Dairy Ltd., Prince Rupert. Northwestern Creamery Ltd., Victoria. Odermatt's Dairy (Paul Odermatt), Fort St. John. Oliver Dairy (Henry Hettinga), Oliver. Pacific Mills Ltd., Ocean Falls. Palm Dairies Ltd., Kamloops. Palm Dairies Ltd., Nelson. Palm Dairies Ltd., Trail. Palm Dairies Ltd., Vancouver (1803 Commercial Dr.). Palm Dairies Ltd., Vancouver (1060 Cambie St.). Palm Dairies Ltd., Vancouver (3333 Main St.). Palm Dairies Ltd., Victoria. Peerless Dairy (lohn Lancaster), Cranbrook. Penticton Dairy and Ice Cream Co. Ltd., Penticton. Peter's Ice Cream Co., Vancouver. Pinelawn Dairy (Mrs. Dulcie Hamilton), Comox. Primrose Dairy (L. R. Singlehurst), Williams Lake. Richmond Milk Producers' Co-operative Association, Vancouver. Rivers' Dairyland (J. P. Rivers), Salmon Arm. Rose's Ice Cream Ltd., Prince George. Royal City Dairies Ltd., New Westminster. Salt Spring Island Creamery Co. Ltd., Ganges. Seal-Kap Dairy Ltd., Langley Prairie. Shannon Dairies Ltd., Vancouver. Shepherd's Dairy (H. G. Shepherd), Victoria. Shirley Farm (H. G. Morson), South Burnaby. Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative Association, Enderby. Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative Association, Kelowna. Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative Association, Salmon Arm. Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative Association, Vernon. Silver Rill Dairy (Stanley H. S. Fox), Saanichton. Squamish Dairy (Lloyd Goodale), Squamish. Standard Dairy (Mrs. D. McKinnon), Revelstoke. Stanhope Dairy Farm (R. Rendle), Victoria. Sunny Brae Dairy Ltd., Duncan. Sunnybrook Dairy (Hay Bros.), Vancouver. Sunshine Valley Dairy Ltd., Grand Forks. Surrey Dairy (Mrs. Frances R. Lipsey), New Westminster. Tip Top Dairy Ltd., Westview. Turner's Dairy (Ruby J. Turner), Ladner. Turner's Dairy Ltd., Vancouver. United Dairies Ltd., Trail. Valley Dairy (Albert Doratti), Rossland. Valley Dairy (Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association), Penticton. Wood's Dairy (J. P. Wood), Creston. NUMBERS OF DAIRY CATTLE ON FARMS The Dominion Bureau of Statistics' June survey shows the following number of dairy cattle in all of Canada and in British Columbia, 1951 and 1952:-— June 1st Dairy Cows* Change Dairy Heifers2 Change CalvesS Change Canada—■ 1951 Number 2,908,000 2,968,000 83,000 84,000 Per Cent +2.2 + 1.2 Number 850,000 922,000 26,000 26,000 Per Cent + 8.6 Number 2,101,000 2,310,000 71,000 80,000 Per Cent 1952 _ British Columbia—■ 1951 + 10.1 1952 + 12.7 1 Dairy cow numbers include all breeds (grade and purebred) kept mainly for milking purposes. 2 Heifer numbers include all breeds (grade and purebred) being raised mainly for milking purposes. 3 Calves reported on farms are those being raised for both beef and dairy purposes. Most of the upward trend in the number of dairy cattle on farms during 1952 is probably due to the embargo on the shipment of cattle from Canada to the United States because of the foot-and-mouth-disease epidemic. DAIRY PLANTS At present there are 15 creameries, 3 cheddar-cheese factories, 2 powdered-milk plants, 1 evaporated-milk plant, 98 large and small milk-pasteurizing plants, 26 ice-cream J CC 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA plants (mostly included in creameries and milk plants), around 250 counter-freezers, and approximately 450 to 500 producer-vendors of raw milk. The distribution of dairy plants remains much the same as last year—approximately 43 per cent around Vancouver and the Lower Mainland, 17 per cent on the Gulf Islands and Vancouver Island; the remaining 40 per cent are located in the Interior of the Province, with 16 per cent in the Okanagan and the other 24 per cent scattered throughout the East and West Kootenays and Central British Columbia. CREAMERIES Only fifteen creameries were making butter during the year. The general trend in creamery-butter production has been downward since our peak year of 1945, when British Columbia produced an all-time high of 6,205,000 pounds. In 1951, we reached our lowest production in thirty years, making only 2,666,000 pounds. For 1952, our production will be up approximately 37 per cent or around 3,500,000 pounds. The downward trend in creamery-butter manufacture is due chiefly to our increased population taking more milk on the fluid market, and partly to the manufacture and sale of margarine at a much lower price than butter. The retail price of creamery butter has been slightly lower than in 1951, ranging between 65 and 75 cents per pound. CHEESE-FACTORIES Three cheese-factories have been making cheddar cheese during 1952 and one small plant has been making farm cheese. These factories are located at Armstrong, Salmon Arm, Edgewood, and Nanaimo. The quality of cheese produced has been very good and much in demand. A little over 500,000 pounds were made during the year. CONCENTRATED-MILK PRODUCTS There are two powdered-milk plants and one evaporated-milk plant operating in the Province. While exact figures are not available at time of writing, indications are that evaporated-milk production is down about 5 per cent and powdered-milk production is up around 30 per cent in comparison with 1951 production. Approximately 14 per cent of our milk production goes into concentrated products. The following excerpt is taken from the October Dairy Review:— " Concentrated Products: Domestic prices of evaporated milk in Montreal were cut 50 cents a case, late in September. This development should stimulate sales and thus reduce stocks from present unprecedented levels to more normal ones. " Spray-process skimmed-milk powder remained firm at 16 and 17 cents a pound (f.o.b. Montreal) in September, but signs of weakening appeared in the market in early October." ICE-CREAM Twenty-six large and small ice-cream factories will make around 2,850,000 gallons of ice-cream during 1952, representing only a slight increase over 1951 production. Only six out of the twenty-six can be classified as strictly ice-cream plants, the other twenty are included in milk plants and creameries. Around 8 per cent of our total milk production is used in ice-cream. Ice-cream prices vary considerably and it has been requested that the Provincial Milk Board establish prices for this product. Latest figures available indicate around 235 counter-freezers operating in the Province. SHORT COURSE IN DAIRYING The sixth annual short course in dairying offered jointly by the Department of Dairying, University of British Columbia, and the Dairy Branch, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, was given at the University of British Columbia from October 27th to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 71 November 22nd of this year. The following seventeen students attended: Mrs. Irene Barrett, Cranbrook; George Borstel, Salmon Arm; Mrs. Nelia Callender, North Bend; Roderick Davidson, Victoria; Wm. G. Easterbrook, Nanaimo; Fred J. George, Chilliwack; John Hardman, Vancouver; Wm. Keck, Victoria; Nick Kosowan, Chilliwack; Gordon E. Olson, Salmon Arm; Miss Valerie A. Pemberton, Parksville; Harold South- wick, Vancouver; John R. Steele, Burnaby; Bernard Vogel, Haney; James Watson, Vancouver; Francis Stevens, Cloverdale; and Alfred H. Levy, Tranquille. Lectures were given by members of the Dairy Faculty, University of British Columbia; by representatives of some of the larger dairies in Vancouver; and by the Dairy Inspectors of this Branch. George Patchett, Senior Inspector, was in charge of the course. Lectures were also given by some of the members of the dairy supply-houses. The annual banquet for the students was held in the faculty dining-hall, University of British Columbia, Wednesday, November 19th. The services of all those who helped to make this year's short course a success is herewith gratefully acknowledged. Consideration is being given to rearranging the timetable to make the course more instructive another year. DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES During 1952, the following licences and certificates of proficiency were issued: Creamery or Dairy Licences, 103; Milk-testers' Licences, 138; Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences, 44; Certificates of Proficiency, 13. Twenty-eight examinations were given for Milk-testers' Licences. OLEOMARGARINE LICENCES Five firms in all were issued licences to manufacture oleomargarine in 1952: Canada Packers Limited, Consolidated Enterprises Limited, Kraft Foods Limited, Nova Margarine Limited, all of Vancouver, and Wentworth Canning Company of B.C., New Westminster. Twenty-three licences were issued to wholesalers of margarine. Oleomargarine Production: 1949, 3,459,725 pounds; 1950, 5,734,290 pounds; 1951, 8,767,117 pounds; 1952, 8,500,000 pounds (estimated), being the first year a slight decrease has been shown since production started in 1949. INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES Six Dairy Inspectors are now employed by this Branch, as follows: George Patchett, Senior Inspector, Victoria; G. D. Johnson, Kelowna; Herbert Riehl and K. G. Savage, Vancouver; Norman Ingledew, Nelson, and a new Inspector, D. D. Wilson, who joined our staff September 1 st of this year. Mr. Wilson is stationed at Victoria, and will divide his time between inspection work and analytical determinations of dairy products and oleomargarine. A small dairy laboratory is being equipped at 545 Superior Street, Victoria. Following are excerpts taken from the Inspectors' annual reports:—■ George Patchett, Vancouver and Gulf Islands:— " This year will probably prove to be the levelling-off year in dairying. Inflationary trends have slowed to a halt for dairy products and feed prices have shown a tendency to recede a little. The labour problem has been partly solved by using more machinery. Increased acreage in pasture in some areas and greater production per acre, by means of rotation, fertilizing, and irrigating, has helped to stabilize both the feed and labour situation. " Beef and veal prices have been lower due to the embargo on shipments to the United States. Exports of dairy cattle to that market have also been prohibited. These two factors have resulted in more cows being kept for milking with a consequent increase in milk production. These factors have combined to make our quality-milk programme CC 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA more effective, and many farmers have responded by installing better cooling systems and using more efficient methods of handling and caring for the milk before delivery. Constant checking has shown that there are still a number of producers who think they can get away with the nefarious practice of watering their milk. These shippers are first warned, and if they persist in this illegal proceeding, their Milk Board licence is suspended for an indefinite time. " Much of my time this year has been utilized in redrafting old regulations and drafting new ones, both under the ' Oleomargarine Act' and the ' Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act.' Some of these proposed regulations have been presented to the Attorney- General's Department for scrutiny. " A very interesting panel discussion was held this year at the short course, when the subject' Is Milk Being Paid For on a Proper Basis? ' brought forth the idea that perhaps the time is at hand when the solids-not-fat in milk should become a large factor in evaluating milk for all markets, the money value of milk-fat being lessened by the advent of vegetable-oil imitations and the solids-not-fat money value being increased because of the necessity of using these solids to give flavour to the synthetic dairy products. If a quick method can be devised for the testing of milk for solids-not-fat, it may well be the beginning of a new trend in dairy practices." G. D. Johnson, Interior:— " Inspections were carried out during 1952 in the Similkameen, Okanagan, Cariboo, Peace River, and Central British Columbia Districts, with stress again being laid on the production and processing of high-quality milk for the fluid markets. " In conjunction with the health units, a considerable amount of work was carried on to improve and maintain a high quality of fluid milk. Bacteriological reports were received from the health units covering all pasteurizing plants in the districts mentioned, and these reports greatly assisted in locating plant problems during inspections. "A great deal of effort has been given to encourage dairy-plant operators to carry out qualitative tests on milk. This endeavour has been rewarded to a point where eight milk plants are carrying out resazurin and sediment monthly or semi-monthly tests, and five of these plants, operated by co-operative associations, are buying milk on a qualitative basis. Efforts have also been rewarded in improvement of plants with respect to installation of suitable equipment and building alterations to conform to regulations. " Many areas are still in short supply of fluid-milk requirements throughout the winter months, and in cases such as Prince Rupert, Prince George, and other parts of Central British Columbia, throughout the whole year. The latter situation has been aggravated by the tremendous growth in population brought about by the industrial growth in that area. " In summing up the year's work there has been greater co-operation apparent between the dairy-farmers and processing plants and more satisfaction has been obtained from the improvement of raw milk supplies by the dairies concerned. Whilst it is acknowledged that bacteriological reports on pasteurized products at most plants vary considerably throughout the year, a general improvement has been noted this year over previous years. This can be attributed to the numbers of qualified men being employed by the dairies, which in turn reflects the usefulness of the dairy short course." H. Riehl and K. G. Savage, Greater Vancouver:— " In the past year, due to the permanence of the staff, there has been a considerable increase in butter-fat check-testing. This has been so for two reasons: Firstly, a desire on the part of the Department to check regularly each shipper in the Greater Vancouver milk-shed, and, secondly, increased agitation from the farmers for check-tests. In spite of our fullest co-operation in such check-testing, there remains a suspicion in the minds of all concerned parties that the means of checking leaves something to be desired; for example, inadequate control of milk-sampling methods, variations in design of dump- tanks, etc. It is felt that, numerically speaking, an increase in butter-fat check-testing is DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 73 not warranted, but rather that a study should be made of control measures as they exist in the United States, with an eye to implementation of the more successful features of their control scheme. It is the hope of the Inspectors in this area that, in answer to the problem and to the increased agitation, an early start on such a study will be made. "Again this year, the milk-shippers have been checked for possible water adulteration. Broadly speaking, the picture has not changed a great deal in that there are nearly as many offenders as last year. However, the percentage of water added is decreased from last year. A more complete reference can be gained by perusal of the following chart comparing the years 1951 and 1952:— Number of tests carried out 642 683 Number of shippers in each class— Under 3 per cent added water 26 44 3 to 5 per cent added water 18 30 5 to 10 per cent added water 30 33 10 to 20 per cent added water 10 1 Over 20 per cent added water 2 1 Number of warning letters mailed 59 55 Number of offenders suspended on rechecking 6 10 " N. H. Ingledew, East and West Kootenays:— " The area comprising the East and West Kootenays is a district of relatively scattered population, and consequently one of small pasteurizing plants. For this reason, a large proportion of the work of this Department is of an educational nature. It is one of the few remaining areas where the pioneer spirit still prevails and a producer can obtain a start with a very little capital investment. The same applies to many of the dairy plants which had their beginning as producer-vendors. It is, most gratifying to work in an area where help is appreciated. " Due to the splendid co-operation we have received from the Live Stock Branch, the District Agriculturists, and the Health Department, considerable improvement has been made in the quality of milk being supplied to the dairies in the entire area. As a result the quality of the finished products going to the consumer has been excellent. " The supply situation is critical in both the East and West Kootenays when one considers the proposed expansion of industry which is taking place. For a few short weeks in the spring a surplus develops, while at all other times there is a distinct shortage. From early summer until the following spring, milk must be transported into the area from the Fraser Valley and Alberta. " In the East Kootenays from Creston east, with an approximate population of 20,000 in four main centres, only thirteen producers remain, of which nine produce an average of only 200 pounds daily. From these figures it can be quite readily seen that if the industry is to remain on a sound basis, and we are to take care of the increased population which is inevitable in the next two years, then new production areas must be developed. These areas are Grand Forks, Edgewood, and Creston. " Inspections have been carried out at all plants with a view to the improvement of products, and to increase the working efficiency of both plant and labour. Resazurin tests, sediments, temperatures, and butter-fat tests have been carried out periodically throughout the year, with reports being sent to the producers concerned. Many farm visits have been made as a follow-up to these reports, especially in the outlying areas. " Reasonable progress has been made in the past year in all phases of the work. The foundation has been laid for improved quality, improved production, and improved marketing relations. As industrial expansion takes place, with its increased population and increased consumption of milk, the producers should be in a position to take greater advantage of their opportunities." CC 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA SUMMARY OF PLANT INSPECTIONS, TESTS MADE, AND MEETINGS ATTENDED BY INSPECTORS IN 1952 Dairy-plant inspections 813 Farm visits 363 Butter-fat check-tests 7,949 Resazurin quality tests and temperature tests 2,255 Sediment tests 1,780 Milk samples tested for added water_ 967 Warned for adulteration 71 Licences suspended 10 Reports and test-cards sent to milk and cream producers 4,841 Meetings attended 136 Visits to margarine plants 35 LEGISLATION Amendments to the " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act" are pending, also amendments to regulations pursuant to this Act. The " Oleomargarine Act " was amended in March of this year, and amendments to regulations pursuant to this Act are pending. BRITISH COLUMBIA DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION The British Columbia Dairymen's Association held its annual convention in the Plaza Hotel, Nanaimo, on Tuesday and Wednesday, January 29th and 30th, of this year. Speakers present from outside the Province were J. S. Turnbull, Regina, Sask., who is president of the National Dairy Council; W. C. Cameron, Associate Director, Marketing Services, Ottawa; Dr. C. K. Johns, Division of Bacteriology and Dairy Research, Ottawa; and D. H. McCallum, Dairy Commissioner, Edmonton. This was a very good convention, and its success was due chiefly to the efforts of the energetic secretary, Everard Clarke, who gave freely of his time during 1950 and 1951 in making collections and doing publicity work for the Association. Arnold Webb, of the Provincial Milk Board, stationed at Victoria, and Walter Sorensen, of the Nanaimo Dairy Company Limited, made all arrangements for the banquet, luncheon, and entertainment, and, in addition, arranged hotel reservations. Much credit is due these men for the very commendable manner in which they rendered these useful services. The following officers and directors were elected for the ensuing year: President, Leonard Zink, Sardis; vice-president, S. Halksworth, Grindrod; secretary-treasurer, Everard Clarke, Vernon, who resigned later in the year; directors—Vancouver Island: Henry Robinson, Royal Oak; C. R. Porter, Duncan; Lower Mainland: Leonard Zink, Sardis; Dr. C. D. McKenzie, Glen Valley; Acton Kilby, Harrison Mills; John Wood, Ladner; Everett Crowley, Vancouver; Okanagan: S. Halksworth, Grindrod; S. Schrau- wen, Kamloops; J. Mullen, Armstrong; Kootenays: J. P. Wood, Creston; Cariboo: Earl Malcolm, Quesnel; Bulkley: J. C. Green, Telkwa. Tentative dates of March 25th and 26th, 1953, have been set for the next convention, at Mission City. MILK BOARD PRICES, 1952 Milk Board prices to the producers in the Vancouver-Lower Fraser Valley area have remained the same ($5.03 per 100 pounds for 3.5-per-cent milk) since October 16th, 1951. On Vancouver Island, the price to producers in the Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, and Courtenay-Campbell River areas, has remained at $5.90 per 100 pounds of 3.5-percent milk since September 10th, 1951. Retail prices are as follows: Vancouver area—■ 22 cents per quart for Standard milk and 24 cents for Special milk; Vancouver Island DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 75 areas—24 cents per quart for Standard milk and 26 cents for Special. Incidentally, Milk Board prices right across Canada have, generally speaking, remained unchanged during the last year. SUMMARY On the whole, weather conditions have been favourable throughout the year with less rain than average, resulting in good crops and fair pasture conditions. The present trend is' towards better handling of pastures by way of fertilizing and irrigation. During the ten-year period 1941 to 1951, our milk production increased 13 per cent while our population, due to industrial development, increased 42 per cent. In the thirty-year period preceding 1941, our milk production, by ten-year periods, was greater than our population increase during the same periods. The dairy industry across Canada and in British Columbia is entering a period of keen competition from vegetable-oil products. The industry must, through its public- relations programme, continue to impress upon the consuming public the nutritional value of milk and milk products. The industry should also insist on protective legislation when and where advisable. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The loyal co-operation of all members of the staff in carrying out the many and sometimes trying duties of the Dairy Branch and in preparing this annual report is gratefully acknowledged. REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner Conditions in the poultry industry in 1952 were not as good as in 1951, with high production costs and lower prices for eggs and poultry-meats. The season could be described as mediocre. There has been a marked increase in consumption of poultry- meat, probably partly due to lower prices for chicken and fowl. MARKETING The increased consumption of poultry-meat included chicken, fowl, broilers, and turkeys. Broiler producers have had a reasonably good year, with future prospects fairly good. Inspector W. H. Pope reports there has been a considerable revival of interest in commercial poultry production throughout the southern portion of Vancouver Island, due mainly to the activities of the Vancouver Island Poultry Co-operative. This organization is to be highly commended. Some broiler and fryer producers in Courtenay-Comox area were forced out of production due to lower prices for poultry-meat. The great increase in the consumption of broilers and fryers has been due to evisceration and sale of fresh chilled poultry and sharp-frozen packaged chicken. Inspector Gasperdone reports that a series of meetings have been held in the Okanagan by operators of the egg-grading stations to form an organization along co-operative lines. The idea is to market a quality egg product under one brand-name carton. The marketing of cut-up and eviscerated poultry has not been accepted to any extent as yet in the Interior, probably due to lack of equipment and the fact that no consumer education has been undertaken. Poultry-meat consumption is up about 2,000,000 pounds over the same period of last year, as indicated in Table No. 1:— CC 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA Table No. 1 _ . . ,_. Receipts of Dressed Egg Receipts at Poultry at Registered Registered Egg- Poultry packing grading Stations Stations Year (Cases) (Lb.) 1949 515,944 8,332,158 1950 410,752 9,027,541 1951 404,552 8,619,525 1952 480,830 10,684,000 Data on imports and exports of eggs and poultry for years 1949-52 is shown in Table No. 2:— Table No. 2.—Imports and Exports of Eggs and Poultry Year Imports Of Eggs Exports of Eggs Imports of Poultry Exports of Poultry 1949 _ 1950 - 1951 Cases 66,143 146,893 80,100 45,000 Cases 39,172 8,834 13,122 11,580 Lb. 1,137,161 855,765 2,075,799 61,230 Lb. 604,573 48,007 28,113 1952 to Tlpcpmher 8th Nil POULTRY-FLOCK APPROVAL This continues to be a major project of the Poultry Branch, although indications are that economic conditions will cause a reduction in the number of flocks approved for the 1952-53 season. Inspectors W. H. Pope, R. H. McMillan, H. Gasperdone, Fred Wilkinson, H. K. Arnould, Victor North, and H. E. Upton were all employed on this project for varying periods of time. The testers employed were H. E. McDaniel, William Brookes, S. R. McAninch, Allan Mufford, and C. W. Wood. As in past years, the technical aspects of the programme were supervised by Dr. J. C. Bankier, while all the clerical work, testing schedules, collection of accounts, etc., was done in the office of the Poultry Commissioner. Table No. 3.—Statistical Data on Flock Approval 1935—52 Year Number of Flocks Approved Number of Birds Pullorum- tested Percentage of Reactors to Pullorum 1935.. 1936- 1937- 1938.. 1939.. 1940- 1941.. 1942- 1943- 1944. 1945- 1946. 1947- 1948- 1949- 1950- 1951.. 1952 (estimated).. 43,074 77,493 93,008 92,178 115,543 121,954 158,867 197,127 362,414 371,655 433,724 477,724 430,439 334,667 347,268 253,848 326,046 225,000 6.09 2.42 3.47 2.00 1.84 2.65 2.59 2.66 2.79 1.30 1.00 0.72 0.25 0.07 0.13 0.046 0.22 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 77 The report from Inspector R. H. McMillan indicates that the percentage of flocks with approved males and cross-mated flocks of the heavy breeds has increased in two years by 17.6 per cent in the case of New Hampshires and 40.3 per cent in the case of Barred Plymouth Rocks, to the detriment of the R.O.P.-sired flocks. The percentage of R.O.P.-sired White Leghorn flocks has increased, indicating a trend towards the production of broiler chicks using less expensive sires, as indicated in Table No. 4. Table No. 4 Flocks R.O.P Sired Flocks P.F.A Sired Flocks with Males of Other Breeds Breed 1950 1952 Increase or Decrease 1950 1952 Increase or Decrease 1950 1952 Increase or Decrease % 64.3 62.2 73.6 78.6 % 46.7 76.9 33.3 71.4 % -17.6 + 14.7 —40.3 -7.2 % 24.7 11.1 21.0 21.4 % 32.3 15.4 53.3 % +7.6 +4.3 +32.3 -21.4 % 11.0 26.7 5.4 % 21.0 7.7 13.4 28.6 % + 10.0 S.C.W. Leghorn ... — 19.0 + 8.0 +28.6 HATCHERY OPERATIONS The hatchery season was not as good as in 1951 but better than in 1950. The year 1947 was the best year for chick production in British Columbia, when 8,523,781 were hatched, as compared with 4,770,978 in 1950 and 5,670,066 to October 31st, 1952. Table No. 5.—Production and Distribution of Chicks Hatched Year Chicks Hatched Chicks Exported Chicks Imported Chicks Destroyed Chicks Purchased 1947 _ 1948 ... . 8,523,781 5,610,212 6,306,342 4,770,978 6,234,426 5,852,539 1,947,733 1,171,079 1,598,215 642,949 750,991 522,746 164,343 39,087 78,085 93,815 117,684 155,340 1,411,406 1,196,154 896,450 962,468 595,950 841,368 5,328,985 3,292,166 1949. . _ _ 3,889,762 1950 3,259,376 1951 -.„ -_ _ ._ 1952 5,005,169 4,643,765 Table No. 6.—Chicks Hatched by Breeds, January 1st, to June 30th, 1952 S.C. White Leghorns Barred Plymouth Rocks S.C. Rhode Island Reds . New Hampshires Light Sussex Crosses Miscellaneous Chicks 983,902 65,955 36,501 2,160,994 126,599 1,447,393 262,818 THE TURKEY INDUSTRY The turkey industry was not in as strong a position in 1952 as in 1951, owing to considerable increase in poults hatched and turkeys raised in every Province in Canada. Production costs have not been reduced as yet and competition is increasing from the Prairie Provinces. CC 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA Table No. 7.—Production and Distribution of Approved Poults Year Poults Hatched Poults Exported Poults Imported Balance Left in Province 1947 1948 — 346,161 257,438 387,234 441,121 356.069 37,963 93,206 128.975 264 308,442 164,232 1949. .. — _ _ 2.035 260,294 1950 96.185 2.694 347,630 1951 50.237 305,832 1952 _ - . 464.202 1 162.852 8,854 310,204 Table No. 8.—Turkey Flock Approval, 1946-52 Year 1946__ ,_ _ Number of Turkey Flocks Approved ___ 73 Number of Turkeys Pullorum- tested 21,313 1947 80 24,757 1948 1949 100 100 .__ 67 36,479 45,364 1950 — _ 25,667 1951 53 28,220 1952 .estimated. --_ __. ___ 30 18,000 POULTRY DISEASES Some losses are still being experienced from Newcastle disease, but the live-virus vaccine programme has been very successful in controlling this disease. A combination of respiratory-disease conditions has affected quite seriously many producers, particularly broiler producers in certain sections of the Lower Mainland. Table No. 9.—Newcastle Disease Data, Flocks and Eggs Destroyed, 1950-52 Year Poultry Flocks Destroyed Turkey Flocks Destroyed Number of Chickens Destroyed Number of Turkeys Destroyed Number of Eggs Destroyed Compensation 1950 331 156 41 14 1 1 509,225 274,552 63,100 23,822 1,933 6,228 335,049 153,914 32,968 $717,533.071 1951 — - 1952, to December 10th 65,464.22z 279.327.151 13/700.952 85,500.86 1 Chickens. 2 Turkeys. VACCINATION After experimenting with killed vaccines such as Doyle-Wright and ADRI in 1950 and 1951, a change was made to the Blacksburg Bl strain. This was decided upon at a meeting held in Regina, Sask., in January, attended by representatives from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Canada Departmeat of Agriculture. On February 1st, the vaccine from Lederle Laboratories was made available and a system of permits established in the office of the Poultry Commissioner. In May, vaccine of the same type was secured from Connaught Medical Research Laboratories to be applied as a spray. This followed a visit by Dr. J. F. Crawley, of Connaught Laboratories, to this Province. Both vaccines are available to poultry producers who apply for same, and to date 1,084,400 doses of Lederle vaccine (ocular method) have been distributed and 160,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 79 doses of Connaught (spray method) distributed. A total of 810 permits have been issued from this office. Table No. 10.—Data on Vaccination Year Chicken Flocks Vaccinated Turkey Flocks Vaccinated Chickens Vaccinated Turkeys Vaccinated 1950 (killed vaccine) 1951 (Doyle-Wright) 1952 (live-virus vaccine)1 443 1,311 36 46 236,700 743,818 38,086 30,873 1 810 permits issued to December 8th. The distribution of Newcastle disease vaccine has taken a great deal of time in this office, as a recording system had to be set up and weekly reports sent to the Deputy Minister, the Veterinary Director-General, and the Health of Animals Division at Vancouver. The system has worked very well and we have been complimented by Dr. T. Childs, Veterinary Director-General, on its efficiency. POULTRY LABORATORY FACILITIES Laboratory facilities have been available for Vancouver Island at Victoria and for the remainder of the Province at the Provincial Animal Pathology Laboratory at the University of British Columbia, under the supervision of Dr. J. C. Bankier. The Science Service Laboratory of Canada Department of Agriculture at the University of British Columbia, under the supervision of Dr. I. W. Moynihan, is also giving pathological service to the poultry industry. The one serious problem facing the poultry industry is the respiratory disease in broiler plants, and a resolution covering this matter was adopted at the Canadian Hatchery Federation meeting held at Banff, Alfa., in September requesting the Government of Canada to establish a suitable virus unit in Western Canada to provide an efficient diagnostic service and to conduct a study of respiratory diseases in poultry. No doubt Dr. J. C. Bankier will have dealt with poultry diseases in his report as Animal Pathologist. " SOUR EGG " PROBLEM As a result of representations made by poultry-industry representatives, a meeting was held on July 17th in Vancouver at which a full review was made of a problem affecting egg quality in British Columbia. This was described as " sour egg " and identified as being similar to problems affecting egg quality in California and Australia. A further meeting was held at the Canadian Hatchery Convention at Banff on September 6th and a meeting at the British Columbia Research Council on September 12th. At this last meeting, representatives were present from the British Columbia Research Council, University of British Columbia, Canada Department of Agriculture, British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Western Canada Produce Association, and British Columbia Poultry Industries Council. The BritishXolumbia Research Council agreed to undertake a research project on the problem witlro budget of $2,200, provided as follows: $1,000 by the British Columbia Research Council, $1,000 from the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, and $200 from the Western Canada Produce Association (British Columbia Section). The grant from the British Columbia Department of Agriculture was held in abeyance for the time being, and instead a grant of $1,000 was provided from the Poultry-testing Account. The project is under the supervision of Dr. Paul Trussel, British Columbia Research Council, and assistance in field work is being given by the Poultry Branch. Inspector McMillan assisted in preparing a questionnaire to be used on field work in that project. CC 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA POLIOMYELITIS AND EGGS The poultry industry received a severe jolt in September, when two Vancouver medical men undertook to publicize their theory that eggs from chickens with fowl- paralysis might transmit poliomyelitis. This was done by means of paid advertisements in Vancouver daily papers and weekly papers in the Province. Due to this publicity, egg consumption dropped about 30 per cent and did not return to normal for two months. Your Poultry Commissioner immediately organized a campaign to counteract this, and secured opinions from leading medical research investigators in the United States and Canada, Medical Health Officers, and others to show there was no evidence to prove this theory. Representatives of the British Columbia Poultry Industries Council and British Columbia Federation of Agriculture, with your Poultry Commissioner, interviewed officials of the three Vancouver dailies, the Council of the British Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, and the British Columbia Medical Association with good results. The British Columbia Federation of Agriculture counteracted the publicity on its weekly broadcasts on Sundays over Radio Station CKWX in Vancouver. The annual report of the secretary of the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture states as follows:— " The Poultry Commissioner, Mr. Gordon Landon, is to be congratulated in his successful efforts to obtain refutation of this doctor's theories from the leading polio research laboratories in North America. As a further result of his energy, we joined forces with the Poultry Industries Council in appearing before the editors of the Vancouver dailies in an effort to have this publicity and advertising discontinued. We also appeared jointly before the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Our radio broadcasts over Station CKWX were used to good effect in bringing the true facts before the city consumers, and egg sales are gradually returning to normal." POULTRY CONFERENCES Conferences attended by your Poultry Commissioner during the year included the meeting at Regina, Sask., in January on Newcastle disease, already mentioned above; the Canadian Hatchery Federation at Banff, Alta., in September; and acted as secretary of the Poultry Health Fact Finding Committee. A separate report was sent in on this meeting. Other conferences attended included the annual meeting of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists at Penticton in May and the 4-H Club Council meeting at Armstrong in April. MEETINGS All members of the Poultry Branch staff attended many meetings of poultry producers, turkey producers, committees dealing with poultry problems, Farmers' Institutes, British Columbia Poultry Industries Council, produce dealers, hatcherymen, etc., during the year. The general public does not realize the staff pj£ in hundreds of hours attending meetings at night. PLANNED AGRICULTURAL FEATURE The Fourth Agricultural Feature was held from March 7th to 14th at Langley Prairie, Haney, and Chilliwack. Attendance was good at Haney but disappointing at Langley Prairie and Chilliwack. The poultry display was a co-operative effort of the Poultry Branch and the Canada Department of Agriculture and attracted considerable attention. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 81 POULTRY SHORT COURSES Short courses were reduced this year and were arranged by the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia at Abbotsford and Matsqui. Lectures were given to students at the University of British Columbia. Inspector Gasperdone spoke at short courses at Rock Creek and Grand Forks, February 25th to 27th, and at Armstrong, Lavington, and Kelowna, March 24th to 26th. STAFF CONFERENCE A conference of members of the Poultry Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture inspectors, Pullorum-testers, and University of British Columbia staff was held at the University of British Columbia on October 24th and 25th. This was an excellent meeting and addresses were given by Dr. Hicks, Professor E. A. Lloyd, and Mrs. B. March of the University of British Columbia Poultry Department. BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY INDUSTRIES COUNCIL The Council continued active during the year in connection with egg and poultry prices, poultry disease problems, and problems such as " sour egg," vaccination, etc. The Council has accomplished a great deal for the poultry industry over the years and deserves the support of all sections of the industry. WATER-FOWL Interest in the production of ducks and geese continues very keen, and an increasing number of ducklings and goslings are being hatched each year to supply the domestic market and for export to the Prairie Provinces. A number of breeder hatcheries are hatching ducklings and goslings, and it is estimated the increase in goslings is at least 100 per cent this year. Actual data will be kept for 1953 to give some indication of the volume. PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION Your Commissioner continued as a director of Pacific National Exhibition during 1952, as chairman of the Junior Farmer Show and vice-chairman of the Poultry Committee. The Junior Farmer Show at the 1952 Pacific National Exhibition was again an outstanding success and was attended by 475 boys and girls from British Columbia for four days. In addition, 250 4-H Club members and Future Farmers of America attended from the State of Washington. PROVINCIAL TOURS Visits were made during the year to poultry producers in the Okanagan and a trip was made in July to Central British Columbia, where producers in Smithers, Vanderhoof, Prince George, and Quesnel districts were visited with the District Agriculturists. Egg-grading stations were also visited. During this .rip, talks were given at field days and at 4-H Club events. PRESENTATION TO PROFESSOR E. A. LLOYD Professor E. A. Lloyd retired as head of the Poultry Department at the University of British Columbia after thirty-three years of service. Your Commissioner acted with Professor J. Biely to arrange a presentation for him. Sufficient funds were secured from graduates, students, producers, wholesalers, feed manufacturers, and friends to present him with a new car and a bound volume of letters from graduates. CC 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA The presentation was made on June 30th at the University of British Columbia by Hon. H. R. Bowman. POULTRY SHOWS, TURKEY SHOWS, ETC. Inspectors of the Poultry Branch assisted in judging poultry shows in various parts of the Province. In addition, considerable assistance was given to the two turkey shows held at Victoria in November and at New Westminster in December. Reports of the various shows indicated they were very successful. BRITISH COLUMBIA LIME COMMITTEE Your Poultry Commissioner continued as secretary of the British Columbia Lime Committee during the year, and the volume of work continues to increase. Indications are that the tonnage will reach 40,000 by March 31st, 1953. BULLETIN SERVICE, RADIO BROADCASTS, ETC. The bulletin Practical Rabbit Raising No. 3 was reprinted, and a new circular No. 37, entitled " Feed Formulae for 1952," was prepared by Professor J. Biely and Mrs. March of the University of British Columbia Poultry Department. In co-operation with the Agricultural Engineering Division of the department, a series of poultry-house plans and equipment were prepared. They were plans for 500- bird laying-house for Coastal areas and Interior areas (both gable roof and flat roof), laying-cages with both roof types, community laying-cages, 500-bird units for both Coastal areas and Interior, broiler-house, fifteen-bird laying-cage, community nest, and central roosting-rack, or a total of eleven plans. This year your Commissioner, with Inspectors McMillan and Pope, made radio recordings for the use of the Extension Service at Dawson Creek radio station in May. This service may be extended in future. In addition, members of the staff appeared in several C.B.C. Farm Broadcasts, etc. WORLD'S POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Your Commissioner continues as one of the two representatives from Canada on the council of the World's Poultry Science Association and assists in the work of this very important organization. Reprints of the paper " Newcastle Disease in British Columbia," by I. W. Moynihan, G. L. Landon, and R. H. McMillan, published in the proceedings of the Ninth World's Poultry Congress at Paris, France, in August, 1951, were secured from Paris. CONCLUSION I would like to express my appreciation of the staff of the Poultry Branch for the efficient way they have performed their duties in 1952. Also for the co-operation received from other branches of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Canada Department of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, and other agencies. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 83 REPORT OF THE LIVE STOCK BRANCH Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector HORSES Horse breeding in the Province is following the general pattern which obtains all over the country—lack of interest in draft horses with a limited call for the light-draft and general-purpose horse. The interest in light horses for riding purposes is keen. Stallion enrolments for the year were as follows:— 1952: A, 2; B, 5; C, 0; D, 6; E, 13; F, 7. 1951: A, 5; B, 2; C, 1; D, 7; E, 12; F, 9. Some assistance was given to a small exhibit of draft horses going to the Royal Winter Fair, Toronto, to compete mostly in the light and heavy draft harness classes. No high prizes were won. BEEF CATTLE For inspected slaughterings of cattle and calves see Appendix No. 1. For beef carcasses graded in British Columbia see Appendix No. 2. For average prices of cattle see Appendix No. 3. The cattle price picture for the year shows much the same trend as the over-all Canadian picture, which reflects the results of the closing of the United States market to Canadian cattle as a result of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Saskatchewan. BULL-TESTING Work done this year at the University of British Columbia, under the immediate direction of Dr. A. Wood, Faculty of Agriculture, on the checking of bulls for rapidity and economy of gain has opened up an entirely new approach to the problem of beef- cattle production. The implications of this work cannot of course be dealt with in this report. The work is being carried on again this coming year and the results should be most valuable. SALES AND SHOW RESULTS The summarized reports of sales in British Columbia during the year 1952 are as follows:— Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 13th, 1952 Number and Kind Highest Price per Cwt. Lowest Price per Cwt. 1952 Average 1951 Average Car-lots of fifteen steers.. Groups of five steers Spares.. Open singles and boys' and girls' classes- $36.25 36.75 36.50 105.00 $34.00 34.25 32.75 35.50 $35.45 35.82 35.10 41.60 $36.95 36.15 33.96 38.71 Total head, 235. Car-lot of fifteen steers, heavy class: Haughton Brothers, Kamloops. Car-lot of fifteen steers, light class: Earlscourt Farms Limited, Lytton. Champion car-lot: Haughton Brothers, Kamloops. Reserve champion car-lot: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake. Group of five steers, heavy class: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake. Group of five steers, light class: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake. CC 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA Champion group of five: Douglas Lake Cattle Company, Douglas Lake. Reserve champion group of five: Haughton Brothers, Kamloops. Single steer or heifer, 1,210 to 1,280 pounds: A. and W. Watt, Barriere. Single steer or heifer, 1,140 to 1,180 pounds: H. E. Leavitt, Heffley Creek. Single steer or heifer, 1,040 to 1,110 pounds: L. J. Gacomuzi, Kamloops. Single steer or heifer, 910 to 1,020 pounds: A. and W. Watt, Barriere. Single steer or heifer, 770 to 890 pounds: Glen Shannon, Knutsford. Champion animal of the open singles: Glen Shannon, Knutsford. Reserve champion animal of the open singles: A. and W. Watt, Barriere. Boys' and girls' competition, steer or heifer, heavy class: Helene Turner, Royal Oak. Boys' and girls' competition, steer or heifer, light class: Rita Abel, Westwold. New exhibitors, drawn from above two classes: James Todrick, Westwold. Champion animal of boys' and girls' competition: Rita Abel, Westwold. Reserve champion animal of the boys' and girls' competion: Glen Shannon, Knutsford. Grand champion animal of the show: Rita Abel, Westwold. Reserve grand champion of the show: Glen Shannon, Knutsford. Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Tenth Annual Cattle and Bull Sale SEPTEMBER 10th, 1952 Kind Number Highest Price per Cwt. Lowest Price per Cwt. Average Price per Cwt. Total Cows — _ Heifers _ - — . Steers .. Bulls 115 103 343 5 45 7 5 $17.50 22.00 24.60 14.25 25.25 36.00 30.50 $8.50 17.75 13.60 14.25 20.00 27.50 26.50 $13.36 20.00 20.77 14.25 24.10 29.85 28.50 $16,078.23 16,453.45 63,743.67 1,044.53 Calves 3,842.62 2,063.40 1,371.88 Totals _ 623 $104,597.78 SECOND SALE, OCTOBER 29th, 952 Cows _ . 90 89 242 12 134 $16.00 18.00 19.25 12.00 20.00 $6.75 13.50 11.25 11.25 15.00 $10.22 16.25 16.99 11.62 17.63 $9,900.90 11,530.40 34,327.83 Bulls _ _ 1,825.94 8,894.70 Calves Totals 567 $66,479.77 Eleventh Annual Waldo Stock Breeders' Association Sale, October 2nd, 1952 Kind Number Highest Price per Cwt. Lowest Price per Cwt. Average Price per Cwt. Total Cows _ Bulls 60 7 33 203 233 $15.60 9.60 19.00 19.20 22.60 $7.80 2.75 12.00 13.75 10.00 $12.17 7.76 15.34 17.22 17.07 $7,697.89 736.78 3,599.78 Steers _ _ 31,299.98 16,294.72 Totals 536 $59,629.15 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 85 Fifteenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Stock Sale OCTOBER 9th, 1952 Kind Number Highest Price per Cwt. Lowest Price per Cwt. Average Price per Cwt. Total 825 271 71 310 358 15 21 $23.50 15.75 16.80 22.25 28.00 13.20 50.00 $14.00 7.60 16.00 16.25 15.75 13.20 20.00 $19.82 12.42 16.57 18.73 21.28 . 13.20 27.52 $147,575.53 35,530.70 Heiferettes — 10,766.66 37,819.60 24,187.11 2,932.65 5,253.41 Calves.. Bulls Totals 1,871 $264,065.66 SECOND SALE, OCTOBER 29th, 952 726 208 33 253 249 19 290 23 $23.50 15.50 18.85 19.10 23.25 13.00 19.85 8.00 $9.50 2.00 10.35 8.25 10.00 8.25 14.75 4.00 $18.23 10.43 15.45 16.80 18.40 11.58 17.18 6.44 $131,371.73 23,857.42 4,941.80 31,808.62 18,942.64 Cows _ Heiferettes Heifers . _. Bulls 2,863.56 4,594.51 259.90 Totals _ _ 1,801 $218,640.18 Ninth Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale, October 21st, 1952 Kind Number Highest Price per Cwt. Lowest Price per Cwt. Average Price per Cwt. Total Steers Cows _ 432 190 118 25 28 174 $25.60 14.00 22.25 17.20 11.00 27.00 $12.00 7.60 14.25 15.75 9.00 7.50 $18.50 10.80 19.30 16.44 10.00 18.74 $71,370.66 20,454.91 14,369.76 Heiferettes _ Bulls 3,641.01 3,638.34 12,605.87 Totals - _ 967 1 $126,080.55 Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, December 4th, 1952 Kind Number Highest Price per Cwt. Lowest Price per Cwt. Average Price per Cwt. 1951 Average Total 60 75 15 151 20 4 $28.40 28.50 26.25 75.00 130.00 $26.00 23.25 23.25 18.00 26.00 $27.10 26.41 24.38 26.68 33.17 $37.76 38.06 38.00 39.82 37.00 $15,821.55 20,270.05 Spares.. Open singles and boys' and girls' entries Lambs- . „ - 3,465.86 39,174.66 696.35 1,300.00 Totals _ _ 325 $80,728.47 BULL-CONTROL AREAS These areas, established under the authority of the "Animals Act," should be more widely used to deal with the problem of insufficient bulls, poor quality and old bulls, and bulls being retained too long on ranges thus to breed their own direct progeny, and also the use of brother-sister mating where young bulls from the herd are kept as herd sires. There seems to be evidence of renewed interest in this policy. CC 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA J. W. Awmack, reporting briefly for the four bull-control areas in the East Kootenay—namely, Columbia Bull-control Area, Sand Creek Bull-control Area, Waldo Bull-control Area, and Newgate-Grasmere Bull-control Area—states that all areas have been operating satisfactorily. Ranchers have been co-operating. DAIRY CATTLE The dairy industry has had quite a difficult time for a number of years. It is a business which calls for attention to details, which means skilled labour. Such labour is very hard to procure, especially in competition with other industries that are in a better position to bargain. Great strides have been made with the help of the " Milk Act " in the improvement of quality and the safety of the milk being produced, this tending to increase the per capita consumption. The rapid extension in the area disease work for the control and eradication of brucellosis is reflecting to the benefit of the dairy cattlemen. Some inroads have been made into the field of the milk producer by artificial products produced almost entirely from foreign fats, largely of vegetable origin. International markets for dairy products are being lost for various reasons, all of which reflects in additional problems for our British Columbia industry. The closure of the United States market for cattle as a result of foot-and-mouth disease having broken out in Saskatchewan has temporarily cut off a very profitable market for surplus dairy cattle. DAIRY-HERD IMPROVEMENT This very essential service is gaining in popularity and is gradually extending into new districts. It is expected that the service will soon reach out into some of our disease-free areas as the second step in our over-all Live Stock Branch policy of improvement. The following extracts are taken from the annual report of G. H. Thornbery, Superintendent of Cow-testing Associations:— " During the early part of the year, many dairymen were buying feed for their cows, owing to a serious shortage of hay, and prices were high. Fortunately, however, climatic conditions for growing and harvesting this season's crops have been the best for many years. Pastures have been good and with a mild open fall have provided the dairy herd with succulence for longer than usual. " In the period under review, the price of concentrates, cereals, mixed dairy feeds, and hay has been dropping slowly and is now 10 to 20 per cent lower than early in the year. The exceptions are high-protein concentrates, which show very little variation. " There are now fifteen Cow-testing Associations, employing twenty supervisors, who are testing approximately 10,700 cows in 460 herds. A new association was organized in the Cowichan area and the route commenced operations in September. A list of these associations, their secretaries, and supervisors is shown in Appendix No. 7. " There are, in addition, about forty herds with 300 cows that are being tested regularly by Cow-testing Association supervisors on the owner-sampler plan, designed chiefly for small-herd owners or dairymen who are waiting for a vacancy on a regular route. " The average production of all milking periods, totalling 7,432, completed under Cow-testing Association auspices during 1951, again shows an increase and is 9,363 pounds of milk and 399 pounds of fat. A full report concerning this summary, which includes breed averages, is given in Appendix No. 7. All routes on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island are in good condition and maintain a full quota of herds on test. The route in the North Okanagan has not been up to a proper standard of efficiency for some time, but as a change of supervisors is now in effect it is already apparent that this route will once more be operating satisfactorily. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 87 " It is interesting to note that as the tabulation of records of the Dominion Record of Performance is on a mechanized basis, through the use of International Business Machines, this office is now receiving each month from the head office of the respective Canadian association for the Ayrshire, Guernsey, and Jersey breeds particulars of all R.O.P. reports, both qualified and non-qualified, which were compiled and issued the previous month. Dairymen in this Province have realized for many years that the absence of non-qualifying records could give an unreliable indication of a sire's transmitting ability, as expressed through his daughters' qualifying records only. The Canadian Holstein-Friesian Association has advised that as soon as records for that breed are handled mechanically through International Business Machines, they will also supply us with particulars of all R.O.P. reports. " These arrangements will now make it possible to publish a complete report on a dairy sire, based on all his daughters with production records in British Columbia, at a much earlier date, as it will no longer be necessary to wait for printed lists in breed magazines which were issued monthly or quarterly. This should reduce the number of instances where valuable bulls are beefed before their worth can be determined. " R.O.P.-C.T.A. Combined Service.—The arrangement with the Federal Department of Agriculture, Production Services, whereby Cow-testing Association supervisors are approved to carry out the duties of R.O.P. inspectors in herds that are on both R.O.P. and C.T.A. is operating smoothly and efficiently. Forty-three herds, in various associations, are taking advantage of this scheme and reports are being forwarded through this office to Ottawa in regard to 400 cows every month. "Certificates of Production.—During 1951 there was a healthy increase in the number of completed milking periods qualifying for certification, amounting to 419 (11 per cent) or a total of 4,076. Details concerning this year's progress will not be available until the spring of 1953. " Publications.—The following publications have been prepared and made available for distribution:— " The Twentieth List of Jersey Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 67, containing reports concerning 146 sires. " The Twenty-first List of Holstein Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 70, containing reports concerning 141 sires. " The Twenty-first List of Guernsey Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 70, containing reports concerning 73 sires. " The Twenty-first List of Ayrshire Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 70, containing reports on 47 sires. " The Thirteenth Annual List of Long-distance Production Records of One Ton of Butterfat or More—Herd Improvement Circular No. 71, giving details of cumulative milk and butter-fat records for 735 cows. " Departmental Subsidies.—During the period under review, subsidies paid to Cow- testing Associations amounted to $33,662. " Calf Tagging.—The identification of heifer calves, a service that has been available to Cow-testing Association members for the past twenty-nine years, is instrumental in providing the information about a large majority of the daughter-dam pairs which are tabulated when evaluating dairy sires. "A total of 2,100 tags have been allocated and dispatched to Cow-testing Associations in the past year." SUMMARY OF TRANSACTIONS UNDER PURE-BRED SIRES FOR FARMERS' INSTITUTES POLICY As a result of insufficient funds being available during the last six months of the 1951-52 fiscal year, it became necessary to turn down a number of applications for sires CC 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA under this policy. Departmental purchases during 1952 are therefore rather small as compared with 1951 figures, which appear in parentheses. During 1952 only 3 (9) pure-bred sires were purchased at a cost of $650 ($4,800), with a total freight charge to this Department of $54.36 ($497.01). These sires were shipped to Kersley, North Quesnel, and Alberni Farmers' Institutes, and were of the Guernsey, Shorthorn, and Red Poll breeds respectively. Payments received on the above animals totalled $220.34, with the balance payable over the next two years. In addition, payments on previous purchases were received through Farmers' Institutes in the amount of $2,219.37, making a total of $2,439.71 ($3,014.65). Final payments were received on seven sires—one Ayrshire, one Hereford, three Holsteins, and two Shorthorns—and the pedigree transferred to the new owners. ROYAL AGRICULTURAL WINTER FAIR, TORONTO, NOVEMBER 14th TO 22nd, 1952 I appreciated the opportunity of being able to attend this greatest Canadian agricultural event. This great fair rotates largely around the various live-stock events. It offers to those persons charged with the responsibility of policy administration the best possible and only one complete all-Canadian show window for our national agriculture. In live-stock production, as in all other industries, styles, types, and methods are ever-changing. The " Royal" is the greatest single link to hold together Canadian live-stock producers from all the Provinces. It is the only single meeting place for Canadian live-stock men and for the workers in the various branches and fields of live-stock production, with its many ramifications and interlocking policies. SHEEP Prices for breeding stock, meat, and wool have been satisfactory. The generally high prices have encouraged more people to establish new flocks. The equipment necessary for sheep-farming is not extensive, but it calls for good management in order to protect the flock against sheep-killing dogs if possible. For average prices for lambs, see Appendix No. 4. Compensation Paid under the " Sheep Protection Act " from the Dog Tax Fund Year Goats Sheep Poultry Number Compensation Number Compensation Number Compensation 1948 -— 1949 1950 1951 4 11 8 1 2 $80.00 145.00 135.00 18.00 70.00 86 191 123 114 120 $1,110.50 2,836.50 1,721.00 1,728.00 2,168.00 704 861 1,371 401 376 $2,151.91 1,230.25 1,996.58 673.80 1952 697.43 SWINE There is little to report in the way of anything new as far as swine production is concerned. Specialized farming which calls for intimate attention to one type of production and the lack of sufficient coarse-grain supplies definitely limit the production of swine in this Province. For inspected slaughtering of hogs, see Appendix No. 1. For average prices of hogs, see Appendix No. 5. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 89 DISEASE The over-all picture showed no spectacular outbreaks of diseases of live stock. The changing live-stock production picture associated with the ever-increasing tempo in movements of live stock is placing a very heavy burden upon the staff of the Live Stock Branch. Since the Branch began, some eleven years ago, to pinpoint its efforts under the area plan in an attempt to deal with the problem of disease-control and eradication, there has been a marked change in the general attitude of the legitimate producer. Producers who but a few years ago were at best only mildly interested in disease-control are to-day keenly awake to the importance of this basic work. The spread of area control of diseases, such as brucellosis, is an indication of this changed view-point. SPECIFIC DISEASES Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—-This particular disease usually appears in a more complex form as " shipping fever." Early work done on the handling of this disease has resulted in very good general control. Coccidiosis.—Here again good educational work by the Branch throughout the years has largely eliminated this disease from much of the beef-cattle country. Where nutrition and general management are weak, the disease often appears. It is appearing in places among dairy calves where practices are poor. Necrotic Stomatitis.—The disease has been greatly reduced amongst our range herds. Good field work has brought results. Blackleg and Malignant (Edema.—Trading in breeding stock back to farms and ranches from sources outside the Province has resulted in the rather wide establishment of blackleg. Malignant oedema is now quite often found associated with blackleg. Equine Encephalomyelitis.—Last year's prediction that a step-up in the incidence of the disease could be expected proved to be correct. Caseous Lymphadenitis.—Gradual progress in the eradication of this disease is being made. More intimate field work at shearing-time is helping. Keratitis (Pink-eye).—Closer attention to the treatment and control of this disease is showing some results and field work is helping. Carcinoma of the Eye.—This condition is something of a problem, since it may have an inheritance factor. Foot-rot in Sheep.—Our long-time quarantine and control is resulting in definite improvement. Foot-rot in Cattle.—Cattle harbour an infection different from the one found in sheep. More definite field work is improving this situation. Liver A bscess.—This condition in cattie is found chiefly where foot-rot is prevalent. Improvement in the foot-rot situation will be reflected in a reduction in the incidence of abscessed livers. Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis.—These conditions may appear singly or in combination. When found in cattle, they result in condemnations of heads and tongues. Good field work in the past did much to reduce the incidence of these diseases, but control and eradication calls for regular systematic field work. Swine Erysipelas.—It is thought that this disease is another importation, coming in largely with swine. Where imported swine go to feed-lots, they frequently get out to farms, where the disease becomes established. Swine Rhinitis.—This disease is so widely established in our swine herds over most, of not all, of this Dominion that it is felt by many workers that we may have to live with the problem. Other Complex Swine Troubles.—It would be difficult to specifically tabulate such swine conditions. These conditions affect swine in many different ways. They may CC 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA appear in enteric (scours) form, pulmonary (lung) form, etc. These forms may appear in combination and associated with secondary infections not necessarily specific. There is little doubt but much of this trouble can be attributed to bad management and poor feeding practices as a starting-point. The peddling about of breeding stock and feeders was the primary cause for the widespread appearance of this complex picture. Infectious Abortion Other than Brucella Infection.—It must be recognized that there are many micro-organisms and materials which may, under certain circumstances, produce a premature expulsion of the foetus (abortion). It would be impossible to even attempt to enumerate these, but there are two specific infective organisms which are becoming of more and more economic importance all the time—namely, Trichamoniasis foetus and Vibrio foetus. These infections are making their appearance in several parts of the Province, and it would seem that in many instances they came in with animals from outside points. There is still another condition, commonly called vaginitis, which may in some instances be caused by some infective factor or group of causative factors. Mastitis.—This complex disease syndrome injects upon the dairy industry one of its greatest burdens. Surveys made all over this continent have come forward with figures of estimated losses which are colossal. More work should be done as soon as possible on this great problem. In addition to the loss to the industry, the public health sides inject a very important problem. Everyone should remember that milk is a food for humans, and that it should be produced and handled as such. Those people charged with the responsibility of trying to regulate the production of milk, which must include the control of mastitis, have a most difficult job in many ways. The indifference to the disease shown by some producers and others in the trade is a very great obstacle in the way of our officers trying to deal with the problem. The indiscriminate use of new treatments purported to be highly effective in the treatment of mastitis is beginning to show the results predicted by professional veterinarians. We are now beginning to find herds in which the disease seems to be impossible to deal with, simply because home treatment has succeeded only in the elimination of the milder strains of the predominant causative organism, resulting in the field being taken over by the more virulent forms of streptococci and other equally difficult mastitis-producing germs, such as staphlococci and forms of coli as well as other micro-organisms. As our Veterinary Inspectors go about their work of farm and dairy herd inspections, as provided under the " Milk Act," they urge dairymen to use good judgment in the matter of their choice and use of treatment. We are constantly trying to instill into the minds of all dairymen the importance of good herd management as the cornerstone on which to build their herds as the only way possible to reduce and control mastitis. Too many dairymen fail to appreciate the value of the regular checks being made by our Veterinary Inspectors, but during this year there seems to be a change for the better. Too many dairy-plant operators still continue to offer the suggestion that they can successfully handle the production of milk from the receiving stand. It will take all our forces, working in the closest harmony, to even hope to deal with this great problem. Some very excellent tables were prepared by the different Veterinary Inspectors, but space does not permit them to be included. However, a summary of these follows: — Veterinary Inspector Location Number of Cattle Examined Number of Clinical Cases Number to Be Eliminated A. S. Clerke — 670 1,584 602 1,032 1,563 329 689 329 145 144 92 78 32 46 63 24 12 27 A. Kidd - New Westminster— Prince George - Kamloops - — 17 3 G. M. Clark -. 6 15 Nelson — 5 IDC. Clark 10 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 91 BRUCELLOSIS-CONTROL All over this continent, brucellosis and its control are receiving more consideration to-day than any other single disease entity. The work of control and eradication in some parts of the world has almost developed into a race to see who can get cleaned up first. Thinking cattlemen are fast awakening to the fact that unless they eradicate this disease from their herds and their community that markets will very soon be closed to their cattle and even to their dairy products. Very fortunately this development was anticipated by this Branch many years ago and when Brucella Vaccine (strain 19) became available in 1941 we immediately started our brucellosis-eradication work. This began first by arranging to have practising veterinarians administer the vaccine according to a specific plan, where calves between certain ages were vaccinated and duly identified by tagging and an official certificate issued. From a small beginning of 3,098 calves vaccinated in the first year (July 31st, 1941, to July 31st, 1942), entirely done by practising veterinarians, we have reached the place where 24,153 calves were vaccinated by private plan and under our area control plan. The following tabulated statement gives the over-all picture:— First year (July 31st, 1941, to July 31st, 1942) 3,098 Second year (August 1st, 1942, to July 31st, 1943) 5,778 Third year (August 1st, 1943, to July 31st, 1944) 7,022 Fourth year (August 1st, 1944, to July 31st, 1945) 8,318 Fifth year (August 1st, 1945, to July 31st, 1946) 7,434 Sixth year (August 1st, 1946, to July 31st, 1947) 8,569 Seventh year (August 1st, 1947, to July 31st, 1948) 10,980 Eighth year (August 1st, 1948, to July 31st, 1949) 15,448 Ninth year (August 1st, 1949, to July 14th, 1950) 17,083 Grand total for nine years of this policy's operation 83,730 Calfhood Vaccination Under Joint Policy of Federal-Provincial Brucellosis-control Area Vaccinations Total by Provincial Vaccina- Veterinarians tions July 15th, 1950, to June 30th, 1951 8,798 18,929 July 1st, 1951, to June 30th, 1952 11,324 24,153 Grand totals 20,122 43,082 On the date of July 14th, 1950, the programme became a joint Federal-Provincial policy, in which the Federal Department of Agriculture, Health of Animals Division, furnished to the Provincial Department vaccine free for distribution according to an agreed- upon plan. The Province is required to direct and administer the policy. Disease-free Areas The first area was gazetted on May 18th, 1949. We now have nineteen areas or extensions to areas most of which are gazetted. The others should very soon be ready for gazetting, when little matters such as boundary locations have been cleared up. The following table gives in concise form a picture of the vaccinating work done to date in the different areas:— CC 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA Area Area No. 1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 170 14 2,206 51 3,614 736 269 504 1,078 30 3,433 530 321 453 148 70 221 1,349 2 24 3,936 667 280 504 197 120 330 39 13 2,637 5 55 3,750 539 414 682 209 South-west Kootenay _ - 51 355 31 15 Gulf Islands. 55 14 1,637 3,503 Other ._ 5 Totals - _ 170 2,220 6,252 6,557 8,752 11,315 For more details with respect to the establishment of these areas, I would refer you to the Annual Reports of previous years. I am pleased to be able to report the following areas as now brucellosis-free: Areas Nos. 1, 3, 8, 11, and 15, which includes all of the West Kootenay, except a small spot shortly to be completed in Area No. 15. This area includes some 4,500 or more herds. Four other areas have been finally cleaned up and shown by blood test to be free of brucellosis—namely, Area 10, Powell River; Area 12, Squamish; Area 13, Galiano, Mayne, Saturna, North and South Pender, Prevost, and Moresby Islands; and Area 14, Salt Spring Island. A new area at McBride, just recently presented and not yet gazetted, has been completely blood-tested and found to be entirely free from brucellosis. An extension to the No. 6 area (Savona) has been presented and work is starting soon in this area. Petitions have been received from the Pemberton district asking that they be brought under the policy. A small, intimately confined area about Oyama has been presented and is being dealt with. In the conduct of this work, it should be realized that it places a very heavy strain upon the staff during the period when this work is required to be done. Blood-testing for brucellosis has included several types of service. The major effort, of course, is the work within our disease-control areas. In the mixed-farming and small-herd areas, blood- testing is the hub around which the control work turns. Quite a number of calves and young stock are blood-tested under our calf-placement programme. Several practising veterinarians make use of our laboratory service in the testing of bloods drawn by them. The following are extracts from reports of Veterinary Inspectors:-— Dr. I. D. C. Clark, Penticton:— " Princeton Disease-free Area No. 9 includes 52 premises and approximately 2,500 cattle. Blood-testing of dairy cattle completed and all reactors (39) slaughtered. " Southern Interior Disease-free Area No. 16 is one of the larger areas, consisting of 9 separate cattle associations. The total number of premises and of cattle has not as yet been assessed, but there are over 700 premises and approximately 13,000 cattle. Work in this area began in January, 1952. In the Grand Forks-Cascade district, a total of 1,197 cattle were blood-tested on 383 premises. Only 9 positive animals on 4 premises were found. These were immediately slaughtered. Retest on 104 cattle found 1 reactor and 1 suspicious reactor which later turned negative." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 93 Dr. J. G. Fowler, Prince George:— "A total of 4,090 calves were vaccinated on 134 premises in 6 areas. The blood- testing in the areas has been marked by a fairly high percentage of reactors. The McBride area however was entirely free of the disease. " The two Williams Lake cattle sales this year very forcefully pointed out the necessity for testing all cows going into the control areas. One hundred and forty-four cows were tested and 37 of these were removed as either positive or suspicious animals, approximately 25 per cent. The sales also pointed out the value of the V. 12 in controlling and following the movement of reactor cattle. Further to the sales at Williams Lake, many of the local ranchers bought those heifers that had a tag in their right ear, an indication of their faith in the vaccination programme. Those heifers that were vaccinated were released from the sale without further test. Heifer calves were also released subject to their being available for vaccination this fall. "A total of 620 animals were blood-tested, of which 530 were negative, 55 positive, and 35 suspicious, giving a reactor percentage of 15." Dr. J. J. Carney, Nelson:— "A total of 908 cattle were blood-tested in Areas Nos. 15 and 16, of which 8 head were positive and 5 head suspicious. " Quarantine from 3 dairy premises having had ' hot' herds was lifted during the year, as brucellosis had appeared to have been eliminated from premises concerned. Periodical vaccination of calves is being carried out in these and adjacent herds as a precautionary measure. "A total of 562 calves was vaccinated during the year in Southern Interior area, Inonoaklin Area, and South-west Kootenay Area." Dr. R. L. Lancaster, Nelson:— "A total of 808 head were vaccinated in Areas Nos. 2, 6, and 11. Blood tests were carried out on 306 head in the Burton Area, all of which tests proved negative. In the South-west Kootenay Area, 483 head were bled, with 5 suspicious and 4 positive reactors. All 79 head tested in the North-west Kootenay Area reported negative. " Besides area testing, 4 herds were blood-tested to ascertain the health status prior to issuing A Grades under the ' Milk Act.' " Dr. A. Kidd, New Westminster:— "A total of 645 head were blood-tested for brucellosis, of which 545 head were negative, 65 positive, and 35 suspicious. Seventy-three calves were vaccinated. The Gulf Islands Disease-free Area and the Squamish Disease-free Area are both well established now, and work in these areas is routine." Dr. C. F. Morris, New Westminster:— " Powell River Area is now disease-free, with all reactors having been shipped out. Since the initial blood test on this area, 96 head on 10 premises have been tested, with 4 head positive and 2 suspicious. A total of 42 reactors have been removed from this area, with all of them being dairy stock. Of a total of 331 head blood-tested so far in this area, the 42 reactors represent 12.7 per cent. In this area, 39 heifer calves have been vaccinated." FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE No attempt will be made to deal with this subject at any great length. I feel, however, that a statement should be placed on permanent record. Individuals as well as some officials saw fit to express opinions with respect to the action taken by this Department, which in many instances were not correct and often were entirely unfair. It is generally felt that the job done by this Department was a very useful and necessary contribution. When foot-and-mouth disease was finally officially announced on February 25th, 1952, by the Federal Department of Agriculture, as having appeared in Saskatchewan, CC 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA there was a flood of inquiries asking about what was going to be done by our Department to protect the interests of British Columbia stockmen and game interests. The fact that the disease had been existent in the Saskatchewan area for some time was alarming, and people were critical. In explanation, we consistently defended the Federal Department of Agriculture, pointing out that it was a new experience for this or any Canadian Department; its appearance in such a location was difficult to appreciate; and certainly the Federal Department had to be very sure of its ground before declaring the outbreak of a vesicular disease to be foot-and-mouth disease. The usual group of traders and dealers who usually find fault with anything and everything done which may interfere in the slightest with their activities would have been the first to attack the Federal Government had they wrongly declared the outbreak. When the disease was reported in Saskatchewan, we at once tried to ascertain from Federal officials where all the disease had appeared. We got little specific information or advice. Anyone acquainted with disease-control work at once saw the possibility that the virus of foot-and-mouth disease could be widely spread during this time by traffic in live stock and industry in general in and out of the Saskatchewan area. The fact that climatic conditions were ideal for the immobilization of the infection definitely indicated the necessity of confining traffic, especially of live stock, to limited areas and this particularly applied to the main traffic lanes. In an effort to get some specific information on just what obtained, we explored every possible avenue and in one instance we were told by an outside official that two breaks had been reported quite close to British Columbia. This fortunately proved to be incorrect, but with the British Columbia live-stock and game interests insisting upon action and the Federal Government not wishing to act even for a temporary Provincial border closure, the British Columbia Department of Agriculture moved to place a ban against the movement of live stock across our Province until such time as the situation was clarified. I was directed to go to Alberta to look into the matter and report. After discussion with our live-stock interests, a plan was presented whereby we would draw a full quota of all classes of five stock from selected districts well removed from the main traffic lanes. This plan was immediately put into application. A point which seemed to be entirely ignored was that British Columbia imported more live stock from the Prairie Provinces than did any other country or Province, which, of course, made us proportionately more vulnerable, and that it was only sound procedure to draw any supplies most carefully. Had there been no control, the weight of live-stock movements could easily have been from areas close to and from all around the trouble zone. Again no one could speak with certainty about where the disease might be lying latent during those early months with feed-lots frozen. British Columbia continued to carry out this policy and stationed Veterinary Inspectors at the several markets to assist in the checking of shipments which would be suitable to travel across British Columbia. We received the very best of co-operation from the transportation people and from the stockyard officials and commission firms. Needless to say, we had all the approaches in the world offered and the usual attempts made by dealers to break down our plan. Despite all the reports to the contrary, none of these attempts was successful. It is very gratifying to be able to report that we had every encouragement and support from live-stock producers east of the mountains. Our own live-stock people and game interests and people in general gave the best of help and continue to voice their appreciation of what was done. It is felt that our effort very materially assisted the over-all work of control. As is so often stated, " What could be done if foot-and-mouth disease once became established in this Province? " The Federal Department finally accepted our suggestion and for the last few weeks directed the movement of live stock along the line which we had been doing. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 95 GENERAL EXTRACTS FROM REPORTS OF INSPECTORS Members of the staff are called upon to make many contributions in service which cannot be intimately recorded. These I will try to present briefly. All members of the staff endeavour to set aside a short period each week for office interviews. This is usually on Saturday. Dr. Morris spent seven weeks on area work in the Interior of the Province vaccinating 1,597 calves, and six weeks in Alberta on foot-and-mouth disease embargo control, where 30,694 head of live stock were checked for entry. Field investigations in areas outside his own district, one requiring surgical treatment of over 100 head of range calves, were also carried out. Dr. Kidd reports briefly on our voluntary meat-inspection service being tried at Clappison Packers Ltd., Haney. In this formative stage, it was necessary for Dr. Kidd to make thirty-one visits to the plant, and hold six conferences with Dr. Hopkins on the work. There is still considerable work to be done in order to get this service properly established on a routine basis. This effort will, we trust, set the stage for more such properly built and conducted plants. A total of 804 cattle, 59 sheep, 98 lambs, and 4,135 swine were inspected at slaughter, with the total carcasses of 2 cattle, 1 sheep, and 20 swine being condemned, as well as the usual condemnations of livers, hearts, kidneys, etc. It must be borne in mind that this is a very high-class small plant handling only the best class of live stock. Condemnations in such an establishment are very small in comparison to what would be made in some of the places at present slaughtering without inspection. Scattered around the country, unfortunately, are slaughtering places where the most inferior quality stock is killed and peddled off to a trade prepared to handle this class of meat. Drs. Lancaster and Carney report quite a bad outbreak of winter-dysentery in cattle in the Golden district, wrongly diagnosed as hemorrhagic septicaemia. They also report several breaks of coccidiosis in cattle in the East Kootenay with some fatalities. These were promptly dealt with. A case of tetanus in a horse was uncovered in the Fernie district. The Department of Health in Victoria was promptly advised and the medical men in the territory about Fernie were alerted for possible human cases. An outbreak of encephalomyelitis in the Parsons area was dealt with. Horsetail (equisetum) poisoning in Fruitvale was diagnosed by this office by phone and Drs. Carney and Lancaster promptly took charge. An extensive outbreak of avian tuberculosis was uncovered in flocks in the Golden and in the Greater Nelson areas. Blackhead in turkeys was found at a number of points. A peculiar form of encephalitis in cattle developed in the Creston area. Laboratory findings have shown negative, but the case is being watched. A very nice liaison exists between the different district offices and the office in Victoria in the way of specific reports (L.S. 10 Report Form) on all happenings in the field. These reports give a total of well over 600 investigations. Summarizing from the report of Dr. J. G. Fowler, in the field of swine production we get a typical present-day swine-disease picture including shipping-fever, pneumonia, the complex enteric conditions, swine erysipelas, and skin conditions, arthritis, baby-pig diseases, and no doubt the so-called rhinitis. In the matter of horse troubles, there were the usual colic cases, especially of the impaction type so frequent in that country. We have had these reported for many years. Poor feeding and management are the basic causes. Swamp-fever was reported, as usual. In cattle, cases of white scours in calves, winter-dysentery, chronic bloat, necrotic stomatitis, blackleg, foot-rot, shipping-fever, plant-poisoning, actinomycosis, bothryomy- cosis, and actinobacillosis. CC 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA In poultry, some Newcastle disease was reported. Leukosis seems to be the most common condition met with in the flocks of that area. In sheep, some shipping-fever was encountered. Dr. Fowler, Dr. G. M. Clark, and Dr. I. D. C. Clark spent some time in assisting with the several cattle sales in their respective districts, and in taking care of the blood- testing work required under our brucellosis area policy. All members spent some time attending meetings and conferences and assisting other groups in specific jobs. In the case of Drs. Kidd, Morris, Clerke, G. M. Clark, and I. D. C. Clark, there have been fewer investigations dealing with sporadic and general disease problems, since in these districts there is a good private-practitioner service. However, in these districts there is a wider range of policy programmes to be dealt with. The prompt action of Dr. I. D. C. Clark was responsible for saving most of a herd of some sixty cattle from nitrite poisoning. PROVINCIAL WARBLE-FLY AND TICK CONTROL British Columbia, although the first Province in the Dominion to come forward with an organized warble-fly control programme, still has much to do before our goal of complete eradication will be reached. In areas where we cart intimately follow out the conduct of the work, the results are highly satisfactory. I wish to express appreciation for all help received from Departmental personnel who have taken time from their regular duties to assist. The very fine and intimate job done by F. C. Clark, Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, deserves mention. His report, in summary, states that warble-fly material was distributed through seventy centres in fifteen municipalities in the Fraser Valley. Some 1,488 pounds of powder were distributed, including 19 pounds to the Pemberton Valley and 20 pounds to Lytton. Some warbles appeared in February, but the greatest incidence occurred in April and May. Many field checks were made at farms and at auction barns, and an estimate made showed approximately 80 per cent of adult cattle and 60 per cent of young stock to be free of warbles and the average incidence over all was between one and two warbles per head. Most herd owners appreciate the service and are asking that the programme be made compulsory in order to finally eradicate the warble. Some reports received might be mentioned briefly. R. J. Desrosiers and J. B. Aye, Jaffray, B.C., report bulls having four warbles on first treatment and two on the second treatment; cows showed an average of one warble on first treatment and an average of one-half warble on second treatment, with yearlings and 2-year-olds showing two in first and one in second treatment. This is a marked improvement over the ten to fifteen warble incidence found when the work began. J. D. Hazlette, District Agriculturist, Duncan, reports 325 cattle treated. T. S. Crack, Associate District Agriculturist, Courtenay, reported on the treatment of some 800 cattle in the Greater Courtenay area. A very good report came in from G. D. Johnson, Dairy Branch, Kelowna, for that district, which shows steady progress and a quite light infestation. The North Okanagan has not progressed as rapidly as it should. The incidence of warbles in many parts, especially the outer fringes, is perhaps above ten per animal on the average. Good work done in past years in Central British Columbia has practically eliminated warbles from the cattle herds. "MILK ACT" ADMINISTRATION, DAIRY-HERD INSPECTION, AND DAIRY-FARM GRADING The importance of this service to the dairy industry and to public health is becoming more appreciated. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 97 Like many other industries, the dairy industry developed from a very small beginning where perhaps single-cow owners began to sell a few quarts of milk until to-day we find the modern dairy industry, which consists of several essential units—the producer, the distributor, and processing units—and the consumer as the group to whom the product is delivered for final consumption. The complexity of the over-all picture injects a heavy responsibility upon regulatory bodies charged with the work of trying to take care of the needs of the respective groups. The consumer, as the end market for the product, must be considered. Milk must be safe and free from infectious organisms which might be harmful or dangerous. Milk as a food product should be clean and wholesome. In the case of the distributors, the supervision received from Inspectors of the Dairy Branch is most helpful and needs to be extended. In the case of the producer, our Veterinary Inspectors are doing a very wonderful job but certainly the staff is inadequate to do the work as completely as it should be done. One of the real problems with which we are faced to-day is that of herd examinations, especially for mastitis. Where our men have been able to cover the field, marked improvement is noted. Much depends upon the attitude of the individual dairyman and upon the support given by the dairy plant receiving the product. Where good co-operation is received from the plant operator, milk quality is high and is being sought after by consumers. I wish to express appreciation for the fine co-operation received from the Provincial Department of Health and the several health officers and directors throughout the Province. The work of our two Departments is becoming very closely co-ordinated. Appendix No. 6 gives a summary, of premises and herds graded by our Veterinary Inspectors. A short tabulation of work done by Veterinary Inspectors under the policy shows as follows:— Veterinarian Total Premises Total Cattle Total Milk Cows Total Milking Grade of Premises A 1 B 1 C 1 U Dr. A. Kidd 336 425 297 183 290 330 168 228 8,698 6,323 9,622 3,013 2,432 3,760 4,791 4,258 5,797 1,914 1,023 1,958 3,915 2,833 4,758 1,405 811 1,563 5 71 28 4 9 12 4 9 262 6 63 Dr. A. S. Clerke 174 253 117 55 22 128 33 16 6 22 15 34 148 Dr. C. F. Morris Dr. I. D. C. Clark Dr. R. L. Lancaster Dr. J. J. Carney Dr. G. M. Clark. 16 23 202 93 32 Dr. J. G. Fowler. 152 The large number of Grade U premises is made up of small one- and two-cow people who were peddling without a grade and making it hard sometimes for the legitimate dairymen. They are now mostly graded and will be held responsible under the Act. APPROVED HERD PLAN This policy is yet but a small beginning. Some five herd owners are being helped to co-ordinate the several live-stock divisional programmes in order that when the final measure of evaluation is placed upon their herds, by means of cow-testing, a more accurate measure of the real worth of individual animals may be secured. This is a fine piece of teamwork where the herd owner, his veterinarian, the Veterinary Inspectors and Live Stock Inspectors, and the Cow-testing Association supervisors pool their experience. All is assembled by the Live Stock Branch and is presented to the hprA owner as a plan of procedure. CC 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA DAIRY-STOCK PLACEMENT PROGRAMME This work is basically sound and is beginning to attract more and more interest all the time. It is built around the approach of high production and sound health. Calves and young breeding stock are carefully selected for production and type by our dairy-cattle specialist and our Cow-testing Association staff. After such preliminary selection, Veterinary Inspectors of the Branch carefully check for evidence of clinical disease and by blood test for freedom from brucellosis. Under this policy, established in 1950, there have been to date some 104 buyers, which can easily mean an equal number of potential dairymen who have been given a proper start so that they may by reasonable effort be really successful. The possibilities of this work are very great. It is a quality job. Dr. C. F. Morris was called upon to undertake a large part of the blood-testing and clinical inspection of calves and young stock selected under this policy. Dr. A. Kidd assisted, but work on other policies did not permit this officer to associate himself closely with this policy. The following is a summary from the report of F. C. Clark:— Inquiries for aid in locating dairy stock were received from much farther afield than in 1950 or 1951. The following table lists the areas in the Interior of the Province where dairy cattle from the Fraser Valley were placed under our programme during 1952:— Area Number of Buyers Ayrshire Guernsey Holstein Jersey Total 9 2 8 5 1 1 3 8 18 9 1 34 3 5 13 6 1 2 1 1 52 Coastal 4 24 Kootenays 14 6 1 Pemberton „ - 1 j 2 4 Totals. 29 8 28 62 1 7 105 This year nineteen registered dairy bulls or bull calves were selected and shipped in response to inquiries received. This is a tremendous increase over 1951, when only one inquiry was received for a bull calf. A total of sixty-nine head of registered stock was placed in 1952, which is also a very great increase over the number of registered animals shipped in 1951. During a field trip in September to the North Thompson Valley near Kamloops and to the Okanagan Valley, it was found that 95 per cent of the heifers shipped in under our programme were still there. Approximately 24 per cent were milking and another 28 per cent had been bred but not yet calved. Of the total shipped, 42 per cent had not yet been bred. A record has been kept of every calf shipped, as a guide to the future and to place the programme on a sound basis. In almost every case, those purchasing calves were very well satisfied with them As a result of past experiences, certain adjustments will be made in this work. We feel that it is a waste of top breeding dairy stock to find so many being bred to beef bulls. In the coming year it is hoped that more intimate field work can be done in an effort to place these clean, quality young dairy animals in areas where greater dairy production is needed, especially in those areas where our disease-control area work has been established and where Cow-testing Association routes are established. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 TUBERCULOSIS CC 99 District Herd- Tested 1952 Cattle Herds Total Cattle Reactors Fraser Valley—Accredited to June 1st, 1954; seventh general 9,299 2,231 15 3,718 465 2,206 608 325 173 322 88,757 16,768 48 42,534 14,512 18,101 7,264 6,585 813 4,016 81 Vancouver Island — Third general completed April 12th, 1952; established December 8th, 1939 _ 7 15 424 111 507 366 232 3 135 74 48 11,021 3,904 7,759 4,757 5,074 41 1,997 8 Vancouver Island (extended)—First general; established June 30th, 1950 - - - - - - Greater Okanagan—First general; established August 10th, 1949 . Kamloops—First general; established June 30th, 1950- Kootenay—First general; established June 30th, 1950 — Prince George—First general; established June 30th, 1950 - Cariboo—First general; established June 30th, 1950 Vancouver—First general; established June 30lh, 1950— — Prince Rupert—First general; established June 30th, 1950- 0 35 8 2 2 53 0 36 Total tested, 1952 4.9.K 1 34.675 The last Provincial tuberculosis testing was done in the Peace River area during the past summer, when Dr. J. G. Fowler tested eighty-eight head. The Peace River Land Recording District has been declared a restricted area for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis by Federal Order in Council P.C. 4537 of November 28th, 1952. FUR-FARMING AND " FUR-FARM ACT " ADMINISTRATION The " Fur-farm Act " is the newest Act which the Live Stock Branch is required to administer. This Act is basically practical and is designed to direct and protect the industry. It has accomplished much for the fur-farmers of the Province since it was legalized in 1947. A study of the several tables will give a general picture of the industry. The following figures were released by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics in April, 1952, for the 1950-51 season:— 1950 1949 1948 65,659 $1,147,321 $1,473,988 56,677 $700,728 $1,277,560 46,627 $638,612 $1,099,710 During 1952, three outbreaks of distemper occurred, involving nine ranches, all in the Fraser Valley, and all are still under quarantine. Quarantine was lifted in August on a Vancouver Island ranch which had been quarantined in August, 1951, following an outbreak of distemper. Vaccine for these outbreaks was supplied by the Department at a cost of $2,197. As a precautionary measure, eight other ranches vaccinated against distemper during the year, resulting in a total of 19 permits to vaccinate being issued. In 1952, 398 licences (Nos. 1751-D to 2148-D) were issued to operate fur-farms, as against 373 licences in 1951. Several ranches changed hands and a number went out of business. Sixty-two new licences were issued during 1952, fifty-two to raise mink and ten to raise chinchilla. The following table indicates the number of ranches raising each species of animal and the numbers of each species of fur-bearers on the farms at January 1st each year:— CC 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA Number of Farms Number of Animals 1949 1950 1951 1952 1949 1950 1951 1952 346 72 19 16 4 4 1 1 1 305 57 14 17 3 1 1 297 78 11 9 2 1 1 322 80 7 7 1 1 29,778 1,181 378 258 48 20 19 3 6 31,179 1,345 326 136 22 2 18 36,319 1,495 226 105 14 2 16 42,171 2,054 Fox— 108 68 4 12 Skunk Fitrh Totals. C) (*) C1) 0) 31,691 33,028 38,177 44,417 1 These do not total to the number of licences issued, owing to the fact that some licensees keep more than one species of animal. A considerable decrease in the number of fur-farm transportation permits issued during the year is noted. The number of export permits dropped more than 50 per cent, although the number of animals did not vary greatly. The following table indicates the distribution of the fur-farm transportation permits issued during the period December 1st, 1951, to November 30th, 1952 (figures for 1951 shown in parentheses):— Kind and Number of Permits Mink Chinchilla Fox Marten Export, 82 (169)— Canada - 374 (428) 15 (55) 14 67 94 3 2 — z - - (15) Totals „ 470(483)| 99(325) - (15) Import, 38 (20)— 511 (128) 229 (112) 8(0) - (1) 7(1) Totals 740(240)[ 8(1) 7(1) Move, 47 (24) „„ _ 224 (646) 174 (23) 2(0) In addition to the above, twenty-seven permits were issued for animals entering various shows, including the Alberta Live Animal Fur Shows in January and November, the Vancouver Island Chinchilla Show, the Second Annual British Columbia Chinchilla Show, the Western International Chinchilla Show, and the Toronto Chinchilla Show. Nearly all of the veterinary staff is called upon to assist to a certain extent with the administration of the " Fur-farm Act," but credit must go to Dr. A. Kidd for the extremely capable job which he does in the matter of administering the Act in the Fraser Valley, where the greatest volume of the fur-farms are located. A highly efficient veterinary practitioner service is being built up to take care of the needs of the industry. Second Annual Chinchilla Show This show was held at Little Brothers Fur Sales Agency in Vancouver on Friday, January 25th, 1951, and was followed the next day by the first Western Canadian Chinchilla Show, both under the sponsorship of the British Columbia Mainland Branch of the National Chinchilla Breeders of Canada. There were over 100 entries. George E. Currey, Pacific Gem Chinchilla Ranch, Whalley, took the champion animal and champion male trophies in both shows. Alberta Live Mink Show, 1951-52 Sponsored by the Alberta Fur Breeders' Association, this show was held in the Live Stock Pavilion at Edmonton. Four British Columbia breeders entered stock and were very successful. \ DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 101 M. D. Combs, of Royal Oak, had the grand champion Standard male kit and C. Combs, of Surrey, the reserve grand champion Standard female kit. A. E. Combs, of White Rock, had the grand champion Pastel adult male, the grand champion Recessive White adult male, and had bred the grand champion Sapphire medium male kit. The grand champion sweepstakes of the show was won by a Royal Sapphire male owned by H. Ausland, of lie a La Crosse, and which had been purchased from C. Combs, of Surrey, just prior to the show. Alberta Live Mink Show, 1952-53 This show, held in Calgary on November 16th, 17th, and 18th, was attended by 6 British Columbia exhibitors showing 86 mink. In the Dark Standard class, M. D. Combs, of Royal Oak, took both championships. A. E. Combs, of White Rock, took all four champion awards for Stewart Pastels in classes of 63 for males and 33 for females, and went on to win the show's top breeder award by a substantial margin. PATHOLOGICAL LABORATORY SERVICES Dr. J. C. Bankier, in charge of the Pathological Laboratory at the University of British Columbia, and Dr. E. A. Bruce, in charge (part time) of the laboratory at Victoria, each present a summary of laboratory work done. Both pathologists have, in addition, offered considerable assistance to our field staff working on problems of disease in the field. Livestock men, poultry-breeders, and fur- farmers also make use of this service by direct contact or by shipment of specimens to the laboratories. Dr. E. A. Bruce has been most helpful in Victoria. His long and varied experience is reflected in the very excellent results obtained from this laboratory. Service such as we provide calls for a prompt diagnosis in order that our field staff or the practising veterinarian or the farmer, as the case may be, can take immediate action in keeping with the situation uncovered. Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1951, to November 30th, 1952 Diseases Due 1 $< S.J Remarks A. Bacteria Abscess — Botulism- Brucellosis.. Enteritis _ Erysipelas Fowl-cholera Gastro-enteritis- Ha_mor_hagic septicaemia- Malignant cedema - Mastitis „ Nephritis Paratyphoid- Peritonitis — Pleurisy Pneumonia Pseudo-tuberculosis .. Septicsemia Salmonellosis Staphylococcosis Vibriosis 2 5,800 13 19 20 6 Negative, 5343; suspicious, 181; positive, 284 Chinchilla _ Canaries- Negative, 12; positive, 1 2 2 5,808 24 12 16 2 4 3 5 5 1 20 1 1 2 2 20 6 13 PROVINCIAL UBRARY VICTORIA.. B. C. CC 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1951, to November 30th, 1952—Continued Diseases Due to— C/3 g o M u s. <u u CO P3 O O 1 3 O Ph 10 o 1 -■ 3 0) B.J- CO 0_ o 0 [/_ ■ol 1 »_ ■3 a Si Remarks Total B. Protozoa 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 4 3 171 7 2 42 1 3 22 44 3 6 8 1 3 53 1 2 6 2 1 60 38 1 6 5 27 5 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 6 1 3 Rabbits — 198 7 C. Metazoa 2 Echinococci __ Moose 2 Nematodes _ Earth 47 D. Virus Distemper Ecthyma - Laryngotracheitis 5 1 3 Mink, myelogenous leukemia Suspicious Undetermined 23 Newcastle E. Miscellaneous Abortion.— - 44 3 2 Asphyxia - 3 6 Mink, fox, squabs (2) 12 1 3 Calculi 1 Chilling - - 53 Goldfish 3 Eggs- — Blood-spots (4), watery (2) 6 1 Mink (2), nutria (1) 2 weeks old Rabbit- 3 3 1 9 2 Internal haemorrhage.. 1 Milk _ 1 4 Rabbit _. 1 60 Plants - 3 Arsenic, zinc, " 1080 " cienta, lepidium, C02 46 Ringworm 1 Rupture „ 1 Sarcocystis 1 Starvation Chinchilla- 1 SteatitiS- — 5 Toxaemia 1 Tumour 6 8 Uraemia 1 Totals 3 5,834 5 10 11 587 42 62 6 2 18 6,538 42 Grand totals — - 3 5,834 5 10 11 545 1 62 6 2 18 6,496 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 103 Specimens Examined in Vancouver Laboratory, December 1st, 1951, to November 30th, 1952 Diseases Due to— a 0) M o U o M 3 H H oj S3 w 3 <u t..o u CO O B .-2 O D. § 3. £3 1 0) 2.2 Remarks Total 1. Bacteria 4 16 9 32 29 9 87 6 97 4 17 3 88 8 5 16 109 47 2 4 2 20 12 5 1 4 29 13 5 17 3 24 1 5 22 63 33 3 11 3 2 2 3 8 8 4 4 4 17 3 7 6 1 12 1 3 4 1 2 2 4 5 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 Botulism - Brucellosis _ Geese Negative, 11; positive, 1 3 12 2 Rabbits (2) 38 14 21 Hemorrhagic septicaemia 4 1 3 Mink (3), duck (1), budgerigar (1) - 36 3 32 Mink (8), dog (1) 65 Positive, 8; negative, L 9 1 2 Mink (f)) — 13 Snuffles - Rabbits 4 Toxsemia Goose (1), rabbit (1), mink (3), deer (1)- 115 6 2 2. Protozoa Coccidiosis Rabbits (2), mink (2), cattle (4), negative Partridge (1), peacock (1) 168 35 8 3. Metazoa 17 3 Faeces, negative 5 7 Trematoda Goose — 1 3 4. Virus 88 19 Mink (17), cat (1) 18 5 16 109 50 5. Fungi Trumpeter swans 2 2 Penguins.- - - 7 1 6. Miscellaneous 2 4 1 Dog 3 23 12 6 1 8 4 CC 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA Specimens Examined in Vancouver Laboratory, December 1st, 1951, to November 30th, 1952—Continued Diseases Due to— S M y 3 u CO U M H 3 H CO u -> h 3 3 cu P..O K CJ GO Ui 0 ffl u a c '% "3 — u S3 "1 Jo u SI Remarks Total Bruising. i Venison 1 2 2 1 1 7 2 11 11 5 Mink 5 1 1 Degeneration (liver) _ 2 1 i 1 Moose (1), budgerigar (1), mink (2) - 5 1 Chinchilla _ 1 Emaciation 5 Swans (2), geese (3) 5 4 1 3 3 115 ?9 3 4 3 154 1 Mink (1) 1 ? 2 2 ? 4 1 1 Haemorrhage 2 5 2 _.. Mink (1), chinchilla (1) 9 Injuries 10 10 20 3 3 Impaction 4 2 - 1 Rabbit (1), chinchilla (1), goat (1) 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 2 13 Negative findings , 17 12 1 1 1 1 — Rabbit (1), horse (1) blood, bear (1), cow (1) blood 33 1 1 1 1 3 3 4 - 1 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 3 4 4 4 Yellow fat. _ 11 Mink— 11 1,342 Totals 825 298 86 I 14 57 2 20 18 22 ARTfFICIAL INSEMINATION This work, while not the immediate responsibility of the Department, has yet received most liberal assistance in money and technical help during the past several years. The Federal Department of Agriculture has continued to provide the bulls of the Ayrshire, Holstein, Jersey, and Guernsey breeds for this service, conducted from two centres at Chilliwack and Milner. The centre at Milner provides semen to sub-units at Victoria, Duncan, Courtenay, Saltspring Island, Salmon Arm, Armstrong, Vernon, and Kelowna. The figures given in the following brief tabulation indicate the progress of the work:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 105 Cows Inseminated during the Period January 1st to November 30th, 1952, Compared with Figures for the Full Year of 1951 District or Unit 1952 1951 Lower Fraser Valley 12,832 15,231 Victoria 219 100 Duncan 651 777 Courtenay 193 109 Saltspring Island (ten months) 112 53 Salmon Arm 272 105 Armstrong 313 135 Vernon (six months) 105 60 Kelowna 392 633 Chilliwack 3,240 3,103 Totals 18,329 20,306 BRAND INSPECTION The following is a report by the Recorder of Brands, Thomas Moore:— Shipments Shipments of cattle in British Columbia in 1952 were 55,374 head, as compared to 69,763 head shipped in 1951. This shows a decrease of 14,389 head. Cattle shipped from the Interior of British Columbia to the United States in 1952 were 205, compared to 7,330 head in 1951, a decrease of 7,125 head. With the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Canada, an embargo was placed by the United States. Consequently, shipments of cattle to the United States show a sharp decrease. Williams Lake held two big cattle sales this year, one on October 9th and 10th, when 1,962 head were sold, and one on November 1st, when 1,489 head were sold through the ring. With the present market trend, prices received were lower than in 1951, packer buyers taking most of the finished cattle. Other large cattle sales were held at Okanagan Falls, Elko, and Kamloops. At these sales, prices were lower than in 1951 but were in line with the present market trend. Okanagan Falls held two cattle sales this year. Packer buyers were well represented. Elko had a number of Alberta buyers, who purchased the majority of the cattle offered. Kamloops Spring and Christmas Fat Stock Sales were well attended, with lower prices paid for cattle than in 1951. Shipments of cattle from the Cariboo were 19,295, compared with 20,609 in 1951, a decrease of 1,314 head. Kamloops-Nicola shipped 20,679, a decrease of 5,120 head. Shipments of hides were 14,258, as compared to 13,841 in 1951, an increase in the number of hides of 417. Horses shipped in 1952 were 5,251, as against 5,519 in 1951, a decrease of 268. Shipments of cattle to the Prairies were 4,140 head in 1952, compared to 13,005 head in 1951, a decrease of 8,865 head. Inspection Service Brand inspection was carried on by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at sixty- nine shipping points in the following districts:— Cariboo: Williams Lake, Quesnel, Alexis Creek, Bella Coola, Clinton, Lillooet, Bralorne, and 100-Mile House. Kamloops-Nicola: Chase, Blue River, Salmon Arm, Ashcroft, Lytton, Spences Bridge, Merritt, Hope, Kamloops, Flood, and Boston Bar. CC 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA Okanagan and Similkameen: Vernon, Lumby, Armstrong, Enderby, Kelowna, Penticton, Summerland, Oliver, Osoyoos, Princeton, Copper Mountain, Keremeos, Hedley, Grand Forks, Greenwood, and Falkland. South-eastern British Columbia: Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Crescent Valley, Nelson, Kaslo, Salmo, Creston, New Denver, Cranbrook, Kimberley, Fernie, Natal, Invermere, Golden, Revelstoke, Nakusp, Radium Hot Springs, and Field. Central British Columbia and Peace River: Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace, Burns Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, Red Pass, Pouce Coupe, Dawson Creek, Fort St. John, Fort St. James, Watson Lake, and Atlin. Inspectors paid by the Department attended to the work at sixteen shipping-points as follows: Bridge Lake, Clinton, Copper Creek, Dawson Creek, Endako, Graham Siding, Houston, 100-Mile House, Kamloops, Kitwanga, Lac la Hache, Nicola, Pavilion, Soda Creek, Williams Lake, and Lone Butte (93-Mile House). Staff New appointments during the year were P. G. Lawrence, Inspector of Brands, Victoria; George J. Bowers, Deputy Brand Inspector, Kamloops; Frank Richter, Deputy Brand Inspector, Keremeos; E. W. Wright, Deputy Brand Inspector, Lac la Hache; and Mrs. G. I. M. Ross, Stenographer—Grade 2, Victoria. F. C. Clark, Live Stock Inspector; Dr. C. F. Morris, Veterinary Inspector; and Dr. A. Kidd, Veterinary Inspector, all of New Westminster, were appointed Deputy Brand Inspectors on August 20th, 1952. Resignations tendered during the year were S. S. White, Brand Inspector, Victoria, and Thomas Pollard, Deputy Brand Inspector, Clinton. Brand Commissioners Appreciation is expressed to the Brand Commissioners for their assistance and cooperation during the year. Lectures to Royal Canadian Mounted Police on " Stock-brands Act " Lectures given by the Recorder of Brands during the year were held at Kamloops, Vernon, Penticton, Cranbrook, Nelson, Clinton, Williams Lake, Prince George, and Dawson Creek. Lectures to the police consisted of certain parts of the " Stock-brands Act," " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act" and the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act." In giving these lectures, the importance of proper brand inspection was dealt with, and where available live stock were used and a practical demonstration of brand inspection was carried out. The proper manner of making out brand inspection certificates and the importance of same to secure records was demonstrated. The enforcement of the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act" and the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act" were fully explained. In giving these lectures, it was noted that a number of new members in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were present. The attention and interest shown by all members of the force attending these lectures was appreciated. Stockmen's Meetings, Cattle Sales, and Police Department Meetings at Abbotsford and Milner, held on February 6th, 1952, were attended by the Recorder of Brands. The purpose of these meetings was to explain the proposed amendments to the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act" to a representation of livestock men. These amendments were fully explained and met with the approval of those present. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 107 The annual meeting of the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association, held at Merritt on May 30th, 1952, was attended. Proposed amendments to the "Stock- brands Act" and the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act" were outlined by the Recorder of Brands, approved, and passed by resolutions. Live-stock sales at Kamloops, Okanagan Falls, and Williams Lake were attended. A large number of police detachments were visited during the course of the year in regard to the enforcement of the " Stock-brands Act," the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act," and the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act." National Brand Conference, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. This conference was attended. It started on Sunday, June 29th, with a directors' meeting for a review of the programme to be carried out June 30th to July 1st. Brand Recording A considerable time was spent on this subject. Members from different States outlined their procedure and aired their problems. This matter was of great interest to all in attendance because of its importance in the allotting of registered brands for the protection of the live-stock industry. Subjects covered June 29th and July 1st were " Early History of Brands and Brand Inspection," " Market Trade Practices and Stockyards Services," " The Railroads' Part in Brand Inspection," " Is the National Cattle Theft Act Effective," and " Foot and Mouth Disease." A panel discussion on " Livestock Investigations;" subjects dealt with were Identification and Brands in Court; Evidence and Authority in Dealing with Cattle Stealing; Policy of a Liaison Officer; Records as Evidence; meeting concluded with the election of officers; the Denver stockyards and Brand Inspection Office visited. Royal Canadian Mounted Police Co-operation Appreciation is expressed to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for their cooperation throughout the Province in the enforcement of the " Stock-brands Act," the "Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act," and the "Horned Cattle Purchases Act." " Stock-brands Act " Enforcement The enforcement of section 20 (evidence of sale of stock) : In order to assist in the enforcement of this section, the department had a Memorandum of Sale book printed at the request of the directors of the British Columbia Beef Cattle Growers. These Memorandum of Sale books are available to all ranchers, live-stock men, dealers, and any person buying or selling cattle and horses. They can be obtained from the Recorder of Brands Office, Victoria, or from the Brand Inspectors at Kamloops, Williams Lake, or Nicola, at the nominal cost of printing, fifty cents for each book. The purpose of enforcing this section fully is to protect the live-stock industry by having the purchaser produce definite evidence of ownership. Section 34 (licence to engage in business as a stock-dealer): This section applies all over the Province. Every effort has been made to enforce this section fully in order to give better protection to the live-stock industry. All persons, including auctioneers, dealing in stock are required to keep records, such records are open to the police or Brand Inspectors and are very useful when investigating reported stolen or lost cattle or horses. Brand-book The annual supplement, No. 3, to the brand-book, showing all brands issued in 1951, was published and distributed to ranchers, stock associations, police, and Brand Inspectors, etc. -J CC 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA The issuance of the 1952 brand-book, showing all brands in good standing, is due at the end of this year. This brand-book will be compiled in this office and set up ready for an offset job at the printers as soon as possible after the first of the new year. New Brand Applications Approximately 248 new brands were issued this year. Brand Renewals There were 869 renewal applications sent out from this office in 1952. Brand Transfers There were 119 transfers of brands made in 1952. Brands Reissued There were 93 reissues of brands made in 1952. Licences Issued ]951 ]952 Slaughter-house 73 81 Hide-dealers 102 89 Stock-dealers 167 147 Beef-peddlers 11 10 Horse-slaughterers 23 19 Horsemeat-dealers (animal-food) 7 5 Horsemeat-dealers (human consumption) 18 11 Permit to transport horses for range purposes 35 33 Permit to transport stallions for breeding purposes A complete list of the licensees is attached (see Appendix No. 8). Amendments " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act " revised. The proposed amendments had been to make a deduction of twenty cents on all cattle being exported out of the Province and going for slaughter; changed to thirty cents. This is the deduction now charged on bulls, steers, heifers, and calves over 500 pounds. No other change made re 1951 Annual Report of proposed amendments to this Act. " Horned Cattle Purchases Act," the same as shown in 1951 Annual Report. " Stock-brands Act" revised. Section 26 will be amended to allow a bona fide farmer to slaughter his own stock at his own principal buildings. This amendment applies all over the Province. Section 34 will be amended to add section 11. This amendment gives authority to the Minister to refuse to issue a licence to deal in stock if the applicant is not a suitable person to be issued such a licence. Same applies if the person is not domiciled in the Province. Proposed amendments had been drawn up for the 1952 Session of the Legislature; these proposed amendments were shown in the Annual Report for 1951. The only changes are shown above and are now included in the proposed amendments to be submitted at the next session of the Legislature. Flood Check-point The figures shown below are for the years 1951 and 1952, carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at Flood in the checking of all movements of live stock, hides, and dressed beef through this point:— Number of cattle 4,266 2,595 Number of horses 1,307 812 Number of hides 1,826 541 Dressed beef (quarters) 29 74 Number of trucks checked 1,106 702 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 109 Prosecutions and Convictions Dealing in stock without a licence: Nelson, 1. Delivering stock to a carrier without first securing a brand-inspection certificate: Oliver, 1. Failure to produce a brand-inspection certificate: Flood, 2. Transporting stock without the required inspection: Osoyoos, 1. Killing cattle in other than a licensed slaughter-house: Armstrong, 1. Delivering stock for shipment without notifying Inspector: Williams Lake, 1. Failed to separate mixed stock: Kamloops, 1. Theft of beef: Kamloops, 1. Theft of cattle: Merritt, 1; Trail, 2. Cattle and hide shipments for the Province of British Columbia for the year 1952 (see Appendix No. 9). REPORT OF THE FIELD CROPS BRANCH Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner With few minor exceptions, production of major field crops, including cereals, forage- crop seeds, pasture, and hay, was satisfactory in all areas of the Province the past season. Yields were somewhat above average and the quality is very good. There has been a weakening in prices in some crops, notably hay and forage seed, reflecting surplus supply for domestic and foreign demand. FIELD-CROP PRODUCTION Cereals The major cereal-production area of the Province, the Peace River District, experienced one of its best years. The poor fall last year prevented many farmers from threshing before winter set in. However, the spring was mild and warm and all crops were threshed in good condition. The extra work involved in threshing last year's crop prevented early spring seeding, resulting in a drop in wheat acreage, which was made up by increased acreage seeded to oats, rye, and particularly barley. An open fall provided ideal harvest conditions of an above-average crop. Only a few isolated areas were caught by early frosts. Estimated total production includes: Wheat, 1,600,000 bushels; oats, 2,250,000 bushels; barley, 1,750,000 bushels; rye, 32,500 bushels; and flax, 55,000 bushels. On the Creston Flats, grain production was about average, with estimated production of wheat, 340,000 bushels; oats, 196,000 bushels; and barley, 30,000 bushels. Major production of wheat is of winter varieties. In other areas of the Kootenay and Boundary Districts, yields of all cereals were above average, but production is limited and fed on the farms. In the North Okanagan, winter-wheat crops were average this year, but quality was very good. The late, cool spring delayed spring seedings, but ideal growing conditions brought on good crops of oats particularly. In the Vanderhoof area, cereals were about average. There was a slight decline in production of fall wheat with an increase in spring cereals—wheat, oats, and barley. The estimated production in this area is wheat, 20,000 bushels; oats, 70,000 bushels; and barley, 5,000 bushels. Throughout the rest of the Interior, grain-crops were average or above, but acreage is not large and the grain is fed on the farm. CC 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA At the Coast, oats is the principal crop grown in the farm rotation and fed on the farm. Much of the oat acreage is harvested for hay and silage. Acreage of threshed oats stays about normal, although this year there was a slight decrease in threshed oats but a slight increase in the total acreage seeded. There was little incidence of disease or insect pests to cause economic loss. Aphids appeared again on some oat-crops in the Fraser Valley. Grasshoppers were quite bad in many districts, but caused very little damage to cereal-crops. Bunt was not a serious problem in the Okanagan area this year, though cutworms did some damage to spring seedings in that area. The open, dry fall in most areas of the Province has caused a reduction in the total acreage seeded to fall grains, particularly in the North Okanagan and Central Interior. Hay and Pasture Hay-crops generally are above average this year, and most farmers are going into the winter with adequate supplies. The spring delayed early pasture growth on the Island, but pastures held up fairly well. July and August were dry. First-cut hay yields were good and of excellent quality, but second cut was light. Good crops were harvested in the Fraser Valley, and pastures held up well. There was some damage to first-cut alfalfa in the North Okanagan due to rains during haying, but better-than-average second cuts were harvested under good conditions. The dry spring in the Central Interior, particularly around Prince George, reduced hay yields, but summer rains brought crops along nicely. Ranchers in the Cariboo harvested good crops of alfalfa and wild hay from upland meadows. There is considerable interest in irrigation for forage-crops among farmers on Vancouver Island to supplement the normally dry summer periods. Availability of adequate sources of water at reasonable cost is a limiting factor. There is also developing considerable interest in irrigated pasture for beef production in the Interior. Dairy-farmers of the North Okanagan are also interested in irrigation for pasture and hay-crops as an insurance against summer droughts. Grasshoppers were quite bad in areas of the Province and did some damage, particularly on ranges. Sod web-worms caused limited and localized damage to some fields in the Chilliwack area. Cutworms also were numerous and caused light damage to alfalfa-fields in the North Okanagan. There was also some crop damage caused by cutworms in the Prince George district. Silage-crops In all districts of the Province where dairy stock are maintained, there is continuing interest among farmers in the use of grasses and legumes for silage. Several trench or horizontal silos were built and used this year. The new forage-harvesters for larger acreages are being utilized to harvest silage-crops and cut down on the labour costs. It would seem as yet these machines are rather expensive for the smaller operator to warrant the investment. Corn for ensilage is still being utilized, and yields were generally satisfactory. The newer hybrid varieties have largely replaced the open-pollinated types. Forage-crop Seed Production Interest in forage-seed production is definitely increasing, and several trial seedings have been started in areas of the Province relatively new to forage-seed production. The forage-seed production has been very good throughout the Province this year. The production of timothy and alsike in the Central Interior was down somewhat, but some good alsike yields were obtained in the Peace River. One of the largest alfalfa- seed crops on record has been produced in the Peace River. Acreage and yields of creeping red fescue in the Peace River are also well up. Although no heavy yields of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 111 red clover have been reported from the Fraser Valley, due to the long open fall, a much larger acreage has been harvested and production, well above 1951, is estimated at 500,000 pounds. An infestation of clover by the short-beak clover-aphis (Anuraphis bakuri) was of severe occurrence in July, but by harvest-time exudations from seed-head had entirely disappeared. A considerable increase has been reported in vetch-seed production. There has been a weakening in the price of some of the major forage-crops— alfalfa, creeping red fescue, alsike, and red clover. The following table gives, in summary, the forage-seed crop production for 1951 and the estimated production as at the end of October for 1952:— Production, Estimated Production, 1951, Lb. 1952, Lb. Alfalfa 241,000 1,073,000 Red clover (single) 54,675 205,000 Red clover (double) 350,000 450,000 Alsike 70,000 300,000 Sweet clover 322,800 1,000,000 White clover 1,000 6,000 Ladino clover 5,000 5,000 Timothy 106,000 110,000 Timothy-alsike mixture 161,000 200,000 Brome 200,000 102,000 Crested wheat 5,000 1,000 Creeping red fescue 150,000 304,300 Reed canary-grass 500 3,000 Orchard-grass 4,600 Red-top 21,000 30,000 Spring vetch 40,000 30,000 Fall vetch 24,000 Tall oat-grass 250 Bird's-foot trefoil 50 In 1950 a Canadian Forage Seeds Project was set up to discuss the whole phase of forage-seed production in Canada. The Committee has followed the recent trend to develop and encourage production of named varieties of strains of forage-crops. A Seed Production Committee for British Columbia was set up to work in close liaison with the National Committee. This Committee has made a start in getting some growers interested in production of certain varieties adapted to British Columbia conditions. Fifty pounds of Lasalle red clover was placed with growers in the Grand Forks area and 50 pounds with growers in the Armstrong area. Stands of this strain have been established and production is under way. In addition, one grower in the Windermere district has established a field of Hercules orchard-grass for seed production. Yields from the first year averaged 125 pounds per acre. The British Columbia Committee met with J. W. Mackay, Chairman, Co-ordinating Committee, Canadian Forage Seeds Project, during the summer to discuss the distribution of seed from the present Lasalle red clover seedings. Potatoes Potato acreage was increased somewhat in 1952. In general, yields were good though drought again reduced yields in some areas. Potato prices have been holding up this fall. The dry season has been conducive to the production of good quality stock. There was little report on blight this year, and little damage from tuber flea-beetle reported. Production of seed-potatoes continues to hold a prominent position in the agriculture of British Columbia. Slightly more than 1,600 acres passed inspection for founda- CC 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA tion and certified seed in 1952, a slight increase over 1951. Seven seed-control areas are set up under the Act and the high-quality British Columbia seed is finding a steady market in the United States. The following is a list of the main varieties and acreages, as supplied by the Dominion Seed Potato Certification Service:— Variety Acreage Variety Acreage Burbank 5.70 Kennebec 1.50 Canso 5.90 Keswick 12.50 Chippewa Columbia Russet- 1.25 Netted Gem 1,154.06 18.28 Pontiac 15.25 Early Epicure 21.35 Red Warba 0.75 Early Rose Gold Coin 10.80 Sebago _ 6.00 4.50 Sir Walter Raleigh, 1.10 Great Scot 3.00 Warba 89.34 Green Mountain 122.95 Wee MacGregor 2.00 Katahdin 15.20 White Rose 135.00 The main areas of production are also given, with approximate acreages inspected in 1952: Vancouver Island, 160 acres; Lower Mainland, 398 acres; Pemberton, 173 acres; Okanagan, 239 acres; Cariboo, 136 acres; Central British Columbia, 93 acres; Boundary District, 304 acres; East and West Kootenays, 124 acres. Oceanside Test-plots In 1950 the Department took over supervision of the Oceanside test-plots as a service to the seed-potato growers. This year, forty-nine samples were forwarded to this Branch by thirty-five growers. These samples were planted at Oceanside under supervision on November 12th. The results of the disease readings taken early in March are given wide publicity to growers and buyers of seed-potatoes. Potato Variety Tests In co-operation with Dr. T. Anstey, Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz; E. C. Hughes; and the District Agriculturists, the potato variety trials were continued this year at eight stations, and an additional trial was laid down at Vanderhoof. This is the third and final year of these tests, using the full sixteen varieties. Results are not as yet compiled but will be available early in 1953. Peas Acreage of peas for the frozen-food trade on Vancouver Island was down slightly this year, but yields average about the same as last year at 1,500 pounds per acre. Canning-peas in the Fraser Valley were generally good this year. Acreage was about the same but yields were up over last year. Dried-pea acreage in the North Okanagan was up this year, but yields were generally disappointing. At Creston, 1,875 tons were produced this year compared to 1,480 tons in 1950. Production of Registered and Certified Seed The inspection and registration of cereal- and forage-crop seeds is carried out by representatives of the Plant Products Division, Federal Department of Agriculture, under the regulations of the " Seeds Act." The following table gives, in summary, the number of acres and estimated production of varieties inspected in British Columbia in 1952. The largest acreage is located in the Peace River Block:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 113 Variety Barley— Montcalm Olli Oats— Beaver Victory Clinton1 Wheat- Garnet Saunders1 Saunders Thatcher Flax— Redwing Alfalfa- Grimm 1 Grimm Rhizoma1 Rhizoma Ladam Brome-grassx Sweet clover—White Blossom1- Creeping red fescue1 Creeping red fescue— Duraturf Olds Crested wheat-grass1 1 Denotes " certified." Seed Improvement Acres Estimated Production (Bu.) 10.00 248.00 450 10,695 174.25 714.00 8.00 9,635 46,773 350 15.00 106.00 24.75 24.00 400 2,525 825 600 453.00 6,783 50.00 ,696.00 95.00 829.00 55.00 273.00 248.00 707.00 47,780 28,449 101,050 6.00 3.00 15.00 3,000 400 4,500 Foundation-stock seed produced by the Agronomy Department of the University of British Columbia was again distributed to growers through the Branch. Amount of seed produced was higher than in 1951, but this seed finds a ready market. The Branch has also introduced small stock seeds of Hercules orchard-grass and Dollard red clover in an attempt to interest growers in these varieties. The following is a list of stock seed made available from the University of British Columbia in 1952: Kharkov wheat, 130 pounds; Storm fall rye, 400 pounds; Victory oats, 2,900 pounds; Olli barley, 100 pounds; Ridit wheat, 500 pounds. Field Crop Union During the past season membership in the Field Crop Union stood at 182, down slightly from 1951. Altogether 170 tests were sent out to members. The list of tests includes peas, legumes, grasses, hybrid corn, and pasture mixtures. Again alfalfa tests and pasture mixtures were the most popular. The following gives a breakdown of tests conducted in various areas: Vancouver Island, 29; Lower Mainland, 13; North Okanagan, 29; Central Interior, 59; Boundary and Kootenays, 18; and Peace River, 22. The annual meeting was held in Victoria in February and the list of tests approved. Field-crop Demonstrations This Branch has continued to stress the importance of well-established and well- managed hay-fields and pastures for efficient farm production. Over the past few years CC 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA a large number of demonstration seedings have been set out and are under continued observation. All plots have been established in co-operation with the District Agriculturists. Plots have been used to good advantage and have proved to be a valuable extension method of interesting farmers in better hay and pasture production. In the North Okanagan, pasture variety trials established by Mr. Muirhead continue to show up very well. In addition to such demonstration-plots, nursery rows of grasses and legumes have been established in the Kamloops, Boundary, Creston, and East Kootenay Districts. These plots are under observation for forage production, hardiness, and in some cases seed production. Hay and pasture seedings in the Creston area continue to give high yields and high returns per acre. In this area the use of bird's-foot trefoil in the mix is giving very promising results. Fertilizer-tests on field crops are included elsewhere in this report. Cereal variety trials were again carried out in the Rock Creek-Bridesville area. These trials have proved of real benefit to the farmers in the area and are having a pronounced effect on the farming practices in the district. Cereal trials are also carried on in the St. Mary's Prairie district in the East Kootenays. Soil Improvement This Branch stresses the importance of soil-fertility and the need of maintaining proper soil conditions to increase the quality and quantity of crops grown. The need for sufficient organic matter, sufficient plant-food, and the use of soil amendments or minor elements when needed are the main considerations. Fertilizer and Agricultural Poisons Board In May, 1951, the Board considered the list of approved fertilizer mixes for British Columbia, and the following list for 1951-52 was recommended for the Minister's approval: 0-12-20; 2-15-15; 2-16-6; 4-10-10; 6-8-6 (organic); 6-30-15; 8-10-5; 10-20-10. There have been no changes in this recommended list of mixes. Agricultural Lime The movement of lime for agricultural purposes has shown a further increase in 1952, with a total of 36,310 tons sold under the subsidy policy. The use of gypsum for soil-amendment purposes, included in the above figure, has also shown an increase, particularly in the Okanagan. There was no change in the basis of subsidy payment in 1952. G. L. Landon, Poultry Commissioner, continued as secretary of the British Columbia Lime Committee for 1952. Appendix No. 10 is a summary showing the lime products used since 1935. Soil-analysis The Branch has carried on a soil-testing service for several years. Since January, 1952, 1,909 samples have been analysed. This is almost double the number analysed last year. Reports of analyses are generally forwarded to farmers through the District Agriculturist concerned, as the district man can usually make direct contact with the farmer to more fully assess his problem in the field and advise on the use of fertilizers. When necessary, members of the Branch will visit a problem area and advise on corrective measures. An attempt is also made to follow up the recommendations made and the results obtained. District Agriculturists in the Fraser Valley are continuing the systematic sampling of soils for analysis in the Fraser Valley. District Agriculturists in other areas have started a programme of obtaining soil samples in the fall. Soil-analysis is only a guide in making recommendations. The greatest benefit derived from the present method of analysis is from the interpretation of the pH readings J DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 115 and the rapid analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. Soil-reaction is determined by the potentiometer; the available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium by the Spurway method. This year a conductivity meter was obtained to assist in determining total salt concentrations in greenhouse and Interior soils. Soil-fertility Trials The soil-improvement programme of this Branch includes a number of fertility- demonstration plots laid down with the District Agriculturists' co-operation. The demonstrations at present under observation are as follows:— (a) Six hay and pasture fertilizer plots in Courtenay-Alberni area. (b) Two lime-demonstration plots in the Courtenay-Alberni area. (c) Two lime-demonstration plots in the Duncan area. (d) Five hay and pasture fertilizer demonstrations in the Duncan-Nanaimo area. (e) Eight hay and pasture fertilizer trials in the Fraser Valley. (/) One fertilizer trial on oats in the Fraser Valley. (g) Minor-elements tests at twelve locations in the Fraser Valley. (h) One fertilizer demonstration on alfalfa in the Fraser Valley. (/) One fertilizer demonstration on oats in the Pemberton area. (/') Ten fertilizer trials laid down this fall in the Kamloops area. (k) One fertilizer trial on pasture in the North Okanagan. (/) One fertilizer trial on potatoes in the North Okanagan. (m) One gypsum trial on alfalfa in the North Okanagan. (n) One trial on alfalfa with superphosphate and gypsum in the North Okanagan. (o) Fertilizer plots in the Vernon area. (p) Cereal-fertilizer plots in the Bridesville area. (q) Fertilizer demonstrations on hay and pasture in the Grand Forks area. (r) Fertilizer trial on potatoes in the Grand Forks area. (s) Three fertilizer trials on oats and hay in the Edgewood district. (.) Fertilizer strip-tests in the Cranbrook area. (it) Fertilizer tests in the Vanderhoof district. (v) Potato-fertilizer tests in the Vanderhoof district. (w) Fertilizer tests in the Peace River District. (x) Two fertilizer trials on potatoes in the Cariboo District. (y) Fertilizer demonstration on hay at Dunster. These fertility demonstrations have been utilized to good advantage and are a valuable method of showing farmers the increased returns possible from the use of fertilizers and soil amendments. In many cases, field days are held during the growing season and the results of the tests are given. Reports of all demonstrations are on file in this office. In Mr. Hazlette's area the results from one demonstration showed an increase in return from all fertilized plots. The net returns from the use of fertilizer ranged from $8.75 per acre with nitrogen to $54.90 with 16-20-0 plus potash. In Mr. Carmichael's trial with potatoes, 6-30-15 gave the highest net return, the increased value of the crop being $488.30 per acre. Irrigation A great deal of interest has been displayed by farmers in the possibilities of irrigation on hay, pasture, and other field crops. This interest has been especially evidenced in the humid Coastal areas, and has been increased because of the particularly dry summers experienced in 1950 and 1951. The use of irrigation has given increases in production on many crops on Vancouver Island and in the Fraser Valley, as well as in the drier Interior regions. CC 116 BRITISH COLUMBIA In the Saanich Peninsula a number of dugouts or water-reservoirs have been installed in the past two years. The Department, in co-operation with the Dominion Experimental Station, conducted a survey and published a stencil on "Dugouts and Their Use for Irrigation on Vancouver Island " as a guide to future construction. In the Fraser Valley a convention was held under the direction of Government officials to discuss the use of irrigation in the valley. A full report of the proceedings of this conference is held on file in the Branch office. WEED-CONTROL The two Weed Inspectors were appointed again this year in the Peace River District, working in co-operation with the District Agriculturists. Weed chemicals were supplied to all district agricultural offices this year for trial purposes. The Department weed-sprayers are located at Cranbrook, Armstrong, Vanderhoof, and Dawson Creek, and have been used extensively again. Demonstrations with these machines in the past have encouraged some farmers to purchase their own equipment for weed-spraying. Federal-Provincial Weed-survey During the past season the Federal-Provincial weed-survey was continued in British Columbia. This survey was started in 1951. Two agricultural students were employed during June, July, and August to do the field work. Two areas were covered this year, each surveyor working an area independently. One survey started from Osoyoos in the Southern Okanagan, which was completed in 1951, and extended eastward across the southern portion of the Province to the Alberta border. The areas included the Boundary area around Grand Forks; the Nelson-Trail- Castlegar area in the Arrow Lakes; the Creston area around Creston; and the Rocky Mountain Trench from Golden south through Kimberley, Cranbrook, and Fernie to the United States border. This whole area is generally referred to as the Boundary- Kootenay area. The second area surveyed in 1952 completed the Thompson Valley-Nicola-Fraser Valley area between the two areas completed in 1951; that is, the North Okanagan and the Cariboo. The surveyed area in 1952 included the south Thompson and North Thompson Valleys to Kamloops; the Thompson River Valley and its junction with the Fraser River at Lytton; the Fraser River Valley from Lillooet through Lytton to Spences Bridge; and from Spences Bridge through the Nicola range country to Merritt and north to Kamloops. This whole area is primarily range country with limited areas of cultivated land for feed production. Smaller areas along the Thompson River near Kamloops are devoted to fruit, canning-crops, potatoes, and dairying. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 117 General Summary rj- . , Number of Approximate 1 Ota! area Locations Acres Boundary-Kootenay 800,000 Thompson-Nicola 1,600,000 Hoary cress— Boundary-Kootenay 6 2401 Thompson-Nicola 22 67 Russian knapweed— Boundary-Kootenay :_ 3 6 Thompson-Nicola 30 20 Leafy spurge— Boundary-Kootenay 1 20 Thompson-Nicola 6 16 Toad-flax— Boundary-Kootenay (2) Thompson-Nicola (2) Field bindweed— Boundary-Kootenay 4 (3) Thompson-Nicola 28 (*) Bladder-campion— Boundary-Kootenay 12 160 Thompson-Nicola 7 15 Klamath weed— Boundary-Kootenay 10 15 Thompson-Nicola 2 (4) Dodder— Boundary-Kootenay 1 15 Thompson-Nicola 2 2 White Cockle—Boundary-Kootenay 17 (5) 1 One location was a 200-acre field with heavy infestation. 2 The weed is found throughout both regions but still confined to isolated patches scattered through fields and along roadways, railways, etc. 3 Mosty scattered patches less than 1 acre each. 1 Less than 1 acre. 8 Mostly a few plants or small scattered patches. Grain Screenings Grain screenings are a by-product in the recleaning process of wheat and are graded according to the regulations in accordance with the Grain Act as defined by the Board of Grain Commissioners for Canada. Grades include oat screenings, No. 1 feed screenings, No. 2 feed screenings, uncleaned screenings, and refuse screenings. In compliance with the British Columbia " Noxious Weeds Act" and regulations thereunder, grain screenings which contain weed seeds in excess of the percentage allowed by the " Canada Grain Act" for No. 2 feed screenings shall not be removed from any grain-elevator, mill, or warehouse to any place within the Province, except only by virtue of permit duly signed by the Minister of Agriculture or by a person authorized by him. A permit is not required for mixed feed oats, No. 1 and No. 2 feed screenings. Permits above referred to consist of the specific forms—one, known as the " Permit for the Removal of Screenings," which allows removal of low-grade screenings by a dealer or grain merchant; the other, known as a " Feeder's Permit," which allows removal of low-grade screenings by a feeder for the feeding of cattle in enclosed feed-lots conditional to prescribed regulations. CC 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA Recently, experimental work carried out by Dr. A. J. Wood, University of British Columbia, established the fact that heat treatment, approximately 212° F. under controlled moisture conditions, can devitalize weed seeds in screenings. This work was extended to a pilot plant at Lytton during the last two seasons to test commercial practicability. As a result of this experiment, following a meeting with the British Columbia Feed Manufacturers' Association and others, N. F. Putnam, Field Crops Commissioner, under the direction of the Minister of Agriculture, incorporated a change in Regulation No. 11 of the Screenings Regulations adopted under the " Noxious Weeds Act." This amendment, authorized by Order in Council No. 1793, dated July 18th, 1952, now causes Regulation No. 11 to read as follows: " Screenings which contain weed seeds of the percentage allowed by the ' Canada Grain Act' or regulations thereunder for No. 2 feed screenings shall not be ground or otherwise manufactured for sale within the Province unless the weed seeds contained therein have been devitalized by a person or firm licensed by the Minister." In effect this regulation now allows the establishment of plants for the processing of feeds from refuse screenings at the discretion of and under regulations set up by the Minister of Agriculture. At present, one such plant has been set up in British Columbia for the purpose of processing screenings. Weed seeds in the screenings must be devitalized during the process. Inasmuch as Provincial regulations are concerned, these feeds are hence permissible for sale within the Province. It does not follow that Dominion regulations approve of such products, the Dominion being interested in the feeding value and the content of weed seeds which would be injurious to live stock. Refuse and uncleaned screenings not processed are controlled to prevent their removal to important agricultural areas, where the high percentage of weed seeds contained in the screenings are a menace to the district. Permits for the removal and use of screenings are limited to areas where adequate controls can be maintained and to feed- lots set up in such a manner as to prevent the spread of weeds through manure distribution, etc. As a result, most permits issued are for the Greater Vancouver and surrounding urban areas. During the first eleven months of 1952, January 1st to November 31st inclusive, nineteen permits for the removal of screenings (Nos. 263 to 281) have been issued. During the same period, seventy Feeder's Permits (Nos. 185f to 254f) were issued. Of the total issued, one Feeder's Permit was cancelled because screenings were transported to a location not authorized by the permit. A comparison of the movement of screenings to shipment for the equivalent period in 1951 shows an increase of 12,000 tons in the total amount of screenings reportedly moved. Local consumption of No. 2 feed, uncleaned and mixed feed oats declined, but in all other classes of screenings increased movement is very evident, especially in the local consumption of refuse screenings and all export classes. The sharp increase in the export of uncleaned screenings is mainly due to the opening of the Canadian Government elevator at Prince Rupert during mid-summer and the shipping of large quantities from that source. Some increased general movement can also be attributed to the recent reopening of Richardson Terminal, which was destroyed by fire over a year ago. The price structure of screenings generally vary as market demand and supply on hand fluctuated. The price of refuse screenings is determined principally, however, by the prices set up by the Kansas City market, from which area demand is greatest. Generally, prices have followed the regular pattern of seasonal fluctuation as follows: January 20th, approximately $23 per ton; February 20th, approximately $12 per ton; March 15th, approximately $6 per ton; March 21st, approximately $13 per ton; April 21st to May 10th, approximately $8 per ton; July 2nd, approximately $5 per ton; October 22nd, approximately $18.50 per ton; November 26th, approximately $16 per ton. The recent interest in processed refuse screenings may create an increased demand for this by-product. From mid-August to the end of October, approximately 95 tons of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 119 the new product has moved for local consumption and 70 tons has been exported to the United States. Movement of Screenings Appendix No. 11 is a summary showing the total movement of all grades for each month and also the total of each grade of screenings for the period as covered by this Report, both for local use and export. Weed-control Trials Work was continued in the North Okanagan this year on control of toad-flax, hoary cress, and leafy spurge. Polybor Chlorate trials were started in the Vanderhoof area for control of toad-flax. An infestation of leafy spurge was treated at Narcosli in the Cariboo District using Atlacide. Information on results will not be available until next year. Trials were conducted in the southern part of Vancouver Island, using C.M.U., for the control of couch-grass. Treatment at the 40-pound rate is showing good control, but further work will be necessary. Several weed trials were conducted by Mr. Hughes in the Fraser Valley. A brief report on his results follows:— " Buttercup.—Considerable testing took place, using different formulations of 2,4-D and M.C.P. Results were outstanding in favour of M.C.P., and the sodium form appeared slightly better than the ester form. The sodium form of M.C.P. gave approximately 85 per cent control in field trials. " Grass.—C.M.U. and T.C.A. were applied to couch-grass at 20, 40, 60, and 80 pounds per acre. C.M.U. showed a positive increase in grass-control depending on the amount applied, the 80-pound application showing less than 2 per cent couch-grass remaining. From the results of the 1951 applications, it is evident that C.M.U. is a more effective sterilant than T.C.A. " In applications of the two chemicals in a filbert-orchard for couch-grass control, 20 to 40 pounds of C.M.U. gave excellent control with no observable effect on the trees. T.C.A. was not as effective and was injurious to the trees. " I.P.C. was applied on alfalfa stands for spring grass-control at two locations. Six pounds per acre gave 75 per cent control of the grasses and appears to be a practical application, though the material does not give permanent control." I. C. Carne reports on a couch-grass control trial on Washington raspberries in the Salmon Arm district:— " Materials used were I.P.C. in stove-oil and I.P.C. in water at varying rates, and T.C.A. in water at varying rates applied with and without discing. No apparent injury was caused to the canes with the materials used; the kill of couch-grass in the planting was not considered satisfactory. T.C.A., when used in conjunction with a disking programme, may be feasible under certain conditions." PRIZE-WINNERS AT THE TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR British Columbia exhibitors again made an excellent showing at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair. Apart from the first-place award, British Columbia growers again dominated red clover classes. Embree Brothers, of Delta, took second place in this class, followed by J. Chimes, Lulu Island, and J. R. Wood, Cloverdale, in third, fourth, and fifth places respectively. Of the first nineteen entrants, British Columbia growers took every award except first, tenth, and eighteenth. Johnson Brothers, of Prince George, placed third in the alsike clover class. In the Swede-turnip seed class, Byron Guiry, of Delta, was first; W. Zelmans, Steveston, second; and A. Thomson, Delta, third. G. K. Landon, Armstrong, took top award in the alfalfa CC 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA class for his sample of Turkestan, and T. Nicholson took third with his Rhizoma sample. A. J. Mason, Hilliers, placed fifth in the field-pea class. In the potato classes, Francis S. Pincosy took reserve for Netted Gem, and J. O. Decker, Pemberton, was fifth in the Netted Gem and Russet class. Other British Columbia exhibitors placing were Alfred Needoba, Salmon Arm, and H. H. Bazett, Duncan. REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES L. W. Johnson, Superintendent During the year, two new Institutes were incorporated—namely, Digby Island in District " B " on March 31st, and Creston Valley in District " I " on May 30th—bringing the total number of Institutes in the Province to 203. However, a considerable number of these are inactive and will have their certificate of incorporation cancelled by the Registrar of Companies early in 1953 for failure to file returns, as required under provisions of the " Societies Act." Annual returns from Farmers' Institutes are not received until after annual meetings have been held, therefore figures covering Institute activities are for the year 1951. The number of Institutes in good standing, in so far as this Department is concerned, is 182 and are divided into ten districts as follows:— District Institute Membership " A "—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands 20 937 " B "—Bulkley and Skeena 18 358 " C "—Nechako Valley 13 280 "D"—Kamloops and North Thompson 17 281 " E "—Lower Fraser Valley 31 2,817 " F "—West Kootenay 20 561 " G "—Okanagan and Shuswap 13 320 "H"—Cariboo 11 235 " I "—East Kootenay 16 328 " J "—Peace River 23 525 Again, as in the previous years, there was a decrease in membership but an increase in receipts and assets. Receipts increased $87,000 over those of the previous year, while assets increased $67,000. Figures for the past three years are as follows:— 1949 1950 1951 Receipts Expenditures - $913,211.32 824,706.68 308,540.89 103,288.58 $924,625.05 831,209.48 348,457.70 116,017.14 $1,111,746.02 1,009,012.51 415,731.61 138,915.03 The purchase of stumping-powder by Institutes for and on behalf of members continues to decline, due to the Departmental land-clearing policy and decrease in acreage to be cleared. Powder purchased during the year 1951 amounted to $55,592.07, compared with $81,425.17 in 1950. However, the purchase of commodities by Institutes on behalf of members continues to increase very satisfactorily. During 1951, Institute purchases increased by just over $200,000, being $929,928.95, as compared with purchases amounting to $727,619.67 in 1950. In seven of the ten districts the individual Institute grants were paid direct to the District Institute, as requested by the Institutes in said districts. In the other three DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 121 Districts—namely, " B," " D," and " F "—the regular grant was made payable to the Institutes direct. DISTRICT INSTITUTES With the exception of District " D," all districts held annual meetings during the year, with very good attendance in all cases. All districts again passed a considerable number of resolutions for consideration of the Advisory Board at their next regular meeting. District "A" meeting was held at Nanaimo on September 26th, when fourteen resolutions were considered, twelve being carried, one defeated, and one combined with a previous resolution. Officers elected were A. J. Mason, Hilliers, president; John T. Neen, R.R. 3, Nanaimo, secretary-treasurer; and A. Mclntyre, R.R. 2, Victoria, Advisory Board member. District " B " meeting was held at Telkwa on June 23rd and 24th, with some twenty- two resolutions being placed before the meeting, twenty-one being endorsed and one tabled. Officers elected were G. Brandon, Telkwa, president, and Arthur Shelford, Wistaria, secretary-treasurer and Advisory Board member. District " C " meeting was held at McBride on June 19th and 20th, twenty-seven resolutions being considered and endorsed. Officers elected were J. Andros, Vanderhoof, president; Russell E. Johnston, Prince George, secretary-treasurer; and T. E. Gerhardi, Fort Fraser, Advisory Board member. District "E" meeting was held at New Westminster on January 11th, and all resolutions passed came before the Advisory Board at its meeting held in March. Officers elected were T. Kuhn, Cloverdale, president; J. C. MacKenzie, New Westminster, secretary-treasurer; and A. H. Peppar, Anmore, Advisory Board member. District "F" meeting was held at Kaslo on May 21st, when six resolutions were considered and carried. Officers elected were D. K. Knowler, Fruitvale, president, and K. Wallace, Boswell, secretary-treasurer and Advisory Board member. A semi-annual meeting was also held, at Nelson on November 22nd. District " G " meeting was held at Winfield on May 26th, nineteen resolutions receiving consideration with sixteen being endorsed and three withdrawn. Officers elected were W. A. Monk, Grindrod, president; M. A. Dangel, Grindrod, secretary-treasurer; and J. Woodburn, Salmon Arm, Advisory Board member. District " H " meeting was held at West Quesnel on June 17th, ten resolutions being presented for consideration and all endorsed. Officers elected were H. Trueman, Quesnel, president; F. Vernon, Quesnel, secretary-treasurer; and E. Greenlee, Canim Lake, Advisory Board member. District " I " meeting was held at Cranbrook on May 23rd, thirteen resolutions coming up for consideration, eleven being endorsed, one tabled, and one lost. Officers elected were L. G. Pippen, Cranbrook, president; Mrs. H. E. Miard, Fernie, secretary- treasurer; and J. B. Aye, Jaffray, Advisory Board member. District " J " meeting was held at Clayhurst on June 26th, when some sixteen resolutions were considered, all of which were carried. Officers elected were P. A. Leeland, Clayhurst, president; John Close, Sunset Prairie, secretary-treasurer; and A. H. Dunn, Sunset Prairie, Advisory Board member. The Superintendent attended and addressed all of the above meetings with the exception of District " J." ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES The Advisory Board met in Victoria on March 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th at the call of the Minister. The Board, in addition to considering some 114 resolutions, met with Departmental officials and officials of other Departments. CC 122 BRITISH COLUMBIA Of the 114 resolutions considered, 74 were endorsed, 16 tabled, 15 withdrawn, and 9 lost. Some eleven resolutions were selected for presentation to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, who met with the Board on March 5th. These included such matters as increased appropriations for the Department of Agriculture, weed-control, daylight saving, Libby Dam, P.G.E. extension, margarine, town planning, rural electricity, and taxation. Following this meeting, the chairman of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture presented his report to the Legislative Assembly, which was as follows:— Legislative Committee Room, March 19th, 1952. Madam Speaker: The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture held several meetings and begs leave to report as follows:— That because of the limited extent to which agriculture can be followed in British Columbia and because of the large amount of agricultural products that must be imported into our Province under the best of conditions, this Committee deems it important and necessary that a larger grant be allotted to this Department of the Government so as to further encourage the development of this very important activity in our Provincial economy. It is suggested that grants to all fairs in agricultural districts be increased by 100 per cent; that an agricultural school be established in a suitable locality to extend the knowledge and interest in agriculture; and that, if allotted the funds, the Department seek in every way to have production increased to lessen purchases elsewhere. That because of the heavy losses to agriculturists from the ever-increasing weed pests, or a continual fight against them, and because the highways are a prolific source of this trouble, it is requested that the Department of Public Works make a greater effort to keep the roadside weeds from going to seed because, quite frequently in the past, where action has been taken, it is so late the seeds mature and blow over the cultivated lands. Where this occurs also in a railway right- of-way, it is recommended that the authorities be instructed to have the responsible official take some action to avoid seed-spreading. That because of the considerable inconvenience to the farmer in having daylight saving, especially in the months of May, June, and September, principally for the reason that the dew lies so late in the morning and hired help for the most part object to working after regular quitting time and thus hindering the quicker handling of crops, it is recommended that a plebiscite be taken at the first general election to ascertain the desires of the people in this regard or, failing this, to confine daylight saving to the months of July and August. That because of the heavy burden on agriculturists in having heavy school taxes assessed against their lands, it is requested that further study be given this vexing question; that relief measures may be taken to spread these heavy costs more evenly amongst those who should bear them; and further recommends that the Committee presently working toward this end be added to by the addition of the Deputy Minister of Agriculture. That because such a large portion of our Province is dependent on the completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway for its prosperity, the Committe recommends that the Government work toward this end with all reasonable haste. That because of the seriousness of the situation in several parts of the Province caused by the depredations of the actions of a sect known as the Sons of Freedom, it is urged that the authorities move with great caution in transplanting them from their present abode. It is considered, however, that whether the recommendations of the Committee studying the problem are followed or not, some action must be taken as quickly as possible so as to end the lawlessness of these misguided people. Because of the great development of hydro-electric and the damming of rivers for water conservation and flood-control, it is recommended that where settlers may be affected through the raising of water-levels that they be dealt with quickly after ascertaining information in this matter so they may know what funds they might be obtaining and thus make better arrangements for rehabilitation. It is recommended that irrigation be placed under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture because of the special interest that Department has in the benefits to be derived from this necessity to agriculture in so many parts of the Province. The erosion of agricultural lands by many of the rivers in the Province is taking high toll of good farm soil, and it is recommended that more consideration be given to the protection of these river-banks to curtail this damage to as great an extent as is economically possible. For the benefit of the farming communities not presently served with electric power, it is urged that the Department of Agriculture design a policy to aid those localities that cannot be served under the present regulations of the British Columbia Power Commission or the policies DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 123 of private companies whereby assistance be granted under section 107 of the British Columbia " Electric Power Act" to enable such localities to enjoy the benefits of electric power now passing within reasonable distance of these sections. All of which is respectfully submitted. Thqmas k_NG; chairman EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS One Class A exhibition, three Class B exhibitions, and sixty-one fall fairs were held in the Province during the year, compared with one Class A and two Class B exhibitions and fifty-seven fall fairs held the previous year. The Cowichan Agricultural and Industrial Association made application to the Dominion Department of Agriculture, through this Department, for recognition as a Class B exhibition, which was granted. All exhibitions and fairs again received grants in aid of their prize-lists, and all were provided with the services of one or more Departmental officials as judges. The place and date of each exhibition and fall fair held during the year were as follows:— „ Exhibitions Chilliwack August 15 and 16. Vancouver (Pacific National) Aug. 20 to Sept. 1. Duncan September 4, 5, and 6. Armstrong September 16, 17, and 18. Fairs Vancouver Island Victoria May 5 to 10. Mayne Island August 20. Courtenay August 29 and 30. Saanichton Aug. 30 to Sept. 1. Cobble Hill September 3. Saturna September 3. Luxton September 6. Ganges _ September 6. Lasqueti Island September 9. Sooke September 10. Alberni September 11, 12, and 13. Coombs September 12 and 13. Nanaimo September 18, 19, and 20. Ladysmith September 24 and 25. Fraser Valley Haney August 7, 8, and 9. Gibsons August 15 and 16. Port Coquitlam September 1. Squamish September 1. Langley September 5 and 6. North Burnaby September 5 and 6. Mission September 5 and 6. Hope September 6. Abbotsford September 9 and 10. Ladner September 10. Agassiz September 12. Cloverdale September 12 and 13. South Burnaby September 19 and 20. Vancouver October 3 and 4. Aldergrove September 26. CC 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA Okanagan-North Thompson Penticton August 15 and 16. Peachland August 28. Louis Creek September 1. Revelstoke September 1. Chase September 1. Cawston September 4. Westbank September 5. Oliver September 5 and 6. Salmon Arm September 25 and 26. Lillooet September 18 and 19. Rock Creek September 19. East and West Kootenay Invermere August 29 and 30. Rossland September 5 and 6. Castlegar September 5 and 6. Arrow Park September 6. Fruitvale September 8. Crawford Bay September 9. Nelson September 11, 12, and 13. Creston September 19 and 20. Central British Columbia and Peace River Dawson Creek August 7, 8, and 9. Rose Prairie August 13. Sunset Prairie August 20. Williams Lake August 21 and 22. Bridge Lake August 23. Fort Fraser August 23. McBride August 27. Prince George Aug. 29 to Sept. 1. Telkwa September 1. Terrace September 1 and 2. Quesnel September 5 and 6. Francois Lake September 13. Watch Lake September 13. An official visit was made to the following exhibitions and fairs: Haney, Chilliwack, Vancouver, Cobble Hill, Duncan, Ganges, Sooke, Alberni, Coombs, Nanaimo, and Lady smith. JUDGES' REPORTS As in previous years, a summary of judges' reports was prepared covering 1951 fairs, and each individual fair was advised of the judges' recommendations and suggestions for improvement of their respective fairs. POUND DISTRICTS Two new pound districts were constituted during the year—namely, Trinity Creek, on August 13th, and Silver Creek, on September 16th. The boundaries of four existing pound districts were extended during the year. These were as follows: Bear Mountain and South Dawson, in the Peace River District; Oyster-Cedar, on Vancouver Island; and Chase, in the Kamloops district. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 125 In addition to dealing with numerous complaints regarding cattle at large and impounding of cattle, new pound-keepers were appointed for ten pound districts, and a considerable number of requests for information and procedure in having pound districts constituted were received. FENCE-VIEWERS During the year a complete revision of our list of fence-viewers for unorganized territory was made, and, following this revision, the appointments of 104 fence-viewers were rescinded for the following reasons: District for which they had been appointed had become organized; left the district; or were unable to act due to age, etc. Since this revision, fence-viewers have been appointed in the Comox and Kamloops districts. Numerous complaints and requests for information regarding boundary-fences, etc., were satisfactorily dealt with. MISCELLANEOUS Several meetings were held during the year with the Pharmaceutical Association of the Province of British Columbia, regarding the sale and distribution of poisons used exclusively in agriculture, and 150 licences to keep open shop for the sale of poisons used exclusively in agriculture by other than registered pharmaceutical chemists were issued. REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent British Columbia Women's Institutes have shown a satisfactory growth in membership and interest during the year. Five new Institutes were organized—Montney, in the Peace River; Promontory Heights, in the Fraser Valley near Chilliwack; Princeton, in the South Okanagan and Similkameen; Chu Chua, in the North Thompson; and East Vanderhoof, in the Central Interior District. The total is now 231, but three—Ymir, Terrace, and Southbank—failed to send in their returns, and it is possible they may not be able to continue. Annual returns were received from 209 Institutes for 1951 and the annual grant of $10 each was sent out. The grateful letters of thanks received show how much this recognition of each one by the Department of Agriculture means. These annual returns for 1951 showed a total of $122,180 received and $86,187.35 expended during the year, with a membership of 5,239. PROVINCIAL CONVENTION The biennial meeting of the Women's Institutes was held June 4th, 5th, and 6th at the University of British Columbia. The attendance was good, with 188 delegates registered and an average attendance of around 300. The meetings were held in the Physics Building and the dinner given in the Brock Hall, while the women were housed in the new women's residences and the youth-training camp. The programme was planned around the work of the standing committees. Mrs. Raymond Sayre, president of the Associated Countrywomen of the World; Mrs. Hugh Summers, president of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada; and Miss Lora Stowell, first scholarship winner, were honoured guests at the convention. Excellent reports were given by the conveners of standing committees as follows: Agriculture, Mrs. J. Young, Rose Prairie; Citizenship, Mrs. E. Tryon, Parksville; Home CC 126 BRITISH COLUMBIA Economics, Mrs. T. Windt, Alexandria; Handicrafts and Industries, Mrs. L. Cunnington, Little Fort; and Social Welfare, Mrs. M. Powers, Lister. A panel discussion on agriculture was arranged by Dean Blythe Eagles, of the University of British Columbia, which was chaired by Dr. D. G. Laird, the topic being " Food and Soils." Dr. U. P. Byrne, Director, Child Guidance Clinic, Vancouver, addressed the convention on social welfare, while Dr. W. G. Black, of the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, spoke on citizenship. In reporting to the executive of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada, Mrs. Summers said: " In June, I had the privilege of attending Provincial conventions of the Women's Institutes of British Columbia, and Homemakers in Saskatchewan. Both were outstanding, and the scope of their work and study accomplished in the past year was truly impressive. Both these Provinces are active in soil and food conservation, and, in British Columbia, a panel discussion on soil conservation by experts in this subject was outstanding." Mrs. Sayre in her report to the executive of the Associated Countrywomen of the World at London in September said: " I went to a meeting in British Columbia. I have never attended a meeting I found so exciting. I never heard women discuss resolutions with so much intelligence and so much independence of opinion as at this meeting. It was one of the best meetings in terms of discussion and resolutions I have ever attended." Officers were elected at the convention as follows: President, Mrs. A. A. Shaw, 4020 West Tenth Avenue, Vancouver; vice-president, Mrs. E. J. Roylance, Greenwood; directors: Mrs. J. Young (Rose Prairie), Mrs. T. Windt (Alexandria), Mrs. P. Douglas (Whaletown); secretary-treasurer, Mrs. R. Doe, Box 35, Salmon Arm (non-voting director, appointed by the Board); F.W.I.C. representatives, Mrs. Shaw and Mrs. Douglas. Provincial conveners were appointed by the Board as follows: Agriculture, Mrs. R. C. Palmer, Experimental Station, Summerland; citizenship, Mrs. J. O. Decker, Pem- berton; cultural activities, Mrs. R. Partington, Francois Lake; home economics, Mrs. W. G. Brown, 411 Yale Road East, Chilliwack; and social welfare, Mrs. M. Powers, Lister. Resolutions were passed asking that soap-packages should have the weight marked on the outside of the package; that the Brands and Standards Branch should investigate the poor quality of nylon hose, the lack of uniformity of sizes of women's and children's clothes, the poor quality of sewing thread, and the poor quality of dyes, particularly of woollens. In discussing hospital insurance, resolutions asked that pensioners and war widows with children under 16 years be exempt from payments; that coinsurance be abolished, and in any case that it be not imposed in maternity cases; that the office be reorganized for greater speed, economy, and accuracy; and that the date stamp on the envelope be accepted as the date of premium payments. A resolution was passed asking that the licensing of doctors and dentists be placed in the hands of qualified commissioners operating under the Federal Department of Health. In citizenship it was asked that immigrants be required by law to apply for naturalization within a reasonable time after they enter this country; that the family allowance should be continued until 18 years if the child is continuing at school; that the " Wives Protection Act" be amended so that a wife need not register her claim in the home property to ensure that it could not be sold without her consent. The Women's Institutes are asked to study the drug traffic in an effort to help solve the problem, and ask that rural electrification should be extended as speedily as possible. PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION Twenty-one Institutes sent exhibits to the Pacific National Exhibition this year, with 171 entries and a total of 286 articles. Point Grey won the Challenge Cup, with Summerland coming second, Hazelmere third, and Haney fourth. Mrs. A. A. Shaw was DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 127 once again in charge of these exhibits, and in her report she quotes the judges as saying, " The work of the Women's Institutes is excellent and of a high standard." FALL FAIRS AND FLOWER SHOWS The sponsorship of fall fairs and flower shows was an important project for many Institutes this year. Others assisted Agricultural Associations in putting on fairs. Some centres, such as Prince George, Nelson, Armstrong, McBride, Quesnel, and Langley, have a trophy for Women's Institute displays, and the Institutes in the surrounding districts send in group exhibits for competition. HOME ECONOMICS SHORT COURSES The home economics short courses were a new and successful venture this year. In response to a demand for home economics service, it was tried out on a short-course basis. Through the co-operation of Miss Charlotte Black, of the Home Economics Department of the University of British Columbia, the services of two of her staff members, Miss N. Morley and Miss O. Ross, were secured. The courses were conducted for six weeks and were a series of two-, three-, and four-day classes, depending on the wish of the district. They were held in some centres morning and afternoon and in others afternoon and evening, and were held at North Bridge Lake, Bouchie Lake, Alexandria, Kersley, Vanderhoof, Fort Fraser, Fraser Lake, and Prince George. The subject of Miss Morley's class was nutrition and Miss Ross's home decoration. Appreciative letters received showed that these classes met a need, and requests for their continuation another year show the interest they aroused. CANADIAN COUNCIL OF BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS (4H) Your Superintendent was privileged to attend the meeting of the Canadian Council of Boys' and Girls' Clubs as representative of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada, upon request of Mrs. Hugh Summers, president. This was a very interesting meeting, with members attending from all the Provinces and visitors from Washington State. (A number of Institutes sponsor local clubs in clothing, beef, poultry, gardens, etc.) FARM-PLANNING DISPLAYS The farm-planning displays in the Fraser Valley were attended and demonstrations for these arranged. The services of Mrs. D. P. Armstrong, of the Langley Cold Storage, were obtained, and she gave an interesting demonstration on the preparation of foods for freezing and storing. These displays were held at Langley, Haney, and Chilliwack in March. PEACE ARCH PICNIC The Peace Arch picnic has been established as an annual affair, with British Columbia Women's Institutes meeting women of the Washington Home Demonstration Clubs. The meeting was held this year on July 11th on the Canadian side of the boundary-line. Your Superintendent was invited to address the combined groups on the organization of the British Columbia Women's Institutes and their link with the national and international organizations of the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada and the Associated Countrywomen of the World. PROVINCIAL BOARD The first meeting of the Provincial Board, elected at the convention in June, was held in the office of the Superintendent on October 23rd and 24th. Mrs. A. A. Shaw, president, presided, with the following present: Mrs. E. J. Roylance, of Greenwood, CC 128 BRITISH COLUMBIA vice-president; the directors, Mrs. J. Young of Rose Prairie, Mrs. T. Windt of Alexandria, Mrs. P. Douglas of Whaletown; and Mrs. R. Doe, secretary-treasurer. Mrs. Doe reported the interest on the Othoa Scott Fund being used, and an appeal from a new Institute—Promontory Heights—for help for a child was favourably received. The sum of $1,000 on hand in the Women's Institute Memorial Fund is to be invested in Government of Canada bonds to the total of $11,000, the interest being used for the home economics scholarship. Miss Shirley Hawkins, of Saltair, is the winner this year. As a follow up of the recent convention, ideas and suggestions for improvements for another convention were brought forward and discussed. Canada is to have the honour of being host to the triennial convention of the Associated Countrywomen of the World next August. This meeting is to be held at Toronto, with the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada meeting immediately afterwards. Mrs. A. A. Shaw, Mrs. P. Douglas, Mrs. W. Tryon, Mrs. J. Decker, and Mrs. S. E. Gummow were appointed as the five delegates to this meeting. Post-conference tours are being planned across Canada, and suggestions for the three days allowed for this Province were discussed. DISTRICT MEETINGS Fourteen district meetings were held during the year and attended by your Superintendent, as follows:— April 1st, South Fraser at Chilliwack.—Around 300 women attended this meeting, with delegates present from each of the twenty-seven Institutes, including the Upper Sumas Junior. Women from Promontory Heights were also present and they organized within the week following. Resolutions were passed asking for the return of 20-ounce cans of fruit and vegetables as well as the 15-ounce can now generally used; that a reasonable service- weight silk stocking be obtainable; and that resolutions for discussion at the district conferences be in the hands of the secretary for circulation among the Institutes at least three months before the meeting. During the day, visitors were invited to visit the Chilliwack Women's Institute Hall, owned and run by the local Women's Institute. This has a rest-room and a place for women to meet when in town, and also has a small hall, the rent of which meets all their financial needs. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. D. McDougall, Fort Langley; vice-president, Mrs. E. J. Roberts, Livingstone Road, R.R. 3, Langley Prairie; secretary- treasurer, Mrs. R. Harrington, Peardonville Road, R.R. 1, Abbotsford; directors, Mrs. A. Kerridge, Chilliwack, and Mrs. O. France, Chilliwack. April 2nd, North Fraser at Hammond.—This was a good meeting with seventeen delegates from twenty Institutes reporting. The far-away Institutes of Bella Bella, Lasqueti, and Brackendale were not represented, but approximately 100 women were in attendance. Resolutions were passed asking that the second memorial fund scholarship, when the money is available, should be for home nursing; that the Pacific National Exhibition increase the prize money for Institute exhibits; that all immigrants be required by law to take out naturalization papers within a reasonable time after their arrival in Canada; and one on " dope peddling " was redrafted for the Provincial Conference. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. G. K. Gamble, 690 Government Road, R.R. 8, New Westminster; vice-president, Mrs. J. O. Decker, Pemberton; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. O. E. Leaf, Whonnock; directors, Mrs. E. C. Burgess, Box 128, Hammond, and Mrs. K. Merkley, R.R. 1, Haney. April 5th, North Vancouver Island at Parksville.—This district now has seventeen Institutes, which include the northern groups of Englewood, Kla-anch, and Woss Lake, the latter being represented at the meeting. There were about 150 registered. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 129 Resolutions were passed regarding boarding-homes for senior citizens; the sale of Canada-approved flour; a uniform educational system across Canada; nursing service that would provide bed-side nursing care; a Red Cross Outpost Hospital for Say ward; reduction of postage for overseas food-parcels; and a road from Say ward to Port Hardy. The Hillier-Community Institute was represented by several of their members, who brought a display of handicrafts from the Doukhobor settlement. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. J. Thies, Bow-Horne; vice- president, Mrs. C. M. Campbell, Gabriola Island; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. E. M. Smith, Box 105, Courtenay; directors, Mrs. A. L. Mitchell, Denman Island, and Mrs. H. Macklin, Heriot Bay, Quadra Island. May 1st, North Thompson at Kamloops.—Members of the Kamloops Council and the Rest-room Committee were present at this well-attended meeting. The support of the rural people is being sought for the rest-room project, which is being sponsored by the City of Kamloops and the business people. Many Institutes reported having given financial support, and they were all anxious to help in every possible way. Resolutions were passed asking for a travelling dental clinic for the North Thompson District; that a mother receiving a mother's allowance should be able to increase her income without having it deducted from her allowance; that charity raffles should be made legal; that a proper defence highway via the Yellowhead Pass be constructed; that the public health nurse should be required to live in the territory in which she works rather than at Kamloops, which is outside her territory; that the local fall fair sponsor a Women's Institute competition; that a bridge be built over the Thompson River at Little Fort; and that officers for the District Board should not hold office longer than two years. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. Kay Bray, Westsyde; vice- president, Mrs. W. N. Livingstone, Little Fort; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. N Belcham, Little Fort; directors, Mrs. L. Schneider, R.R. 1, Kamloops, and Mrs. Aurora Stevens, Barriere. May 3rd, North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Vernon.—The twenty-one Institutes in this district were well represented at this large meeting. Resolutions were passed asking for old-age pensions at 65 for all, without a means test; for the abolition of the 3-per-cent sales tax on drugs and medicine; the removal of at least part of the school tax on land; the abolition of coinsurance; the placing of weights on packages of soap- powders; travelling home economists for rural areas; and that the second scholarship be awarded for a student, boy or girl, taking agriculture. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. G. A. McArthur, Tappen; vice- president, Mrs. H. Farmer, Salmon Arm; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. J. W. Grisdale, Vernon; directors, Mrs. A. Read, Salmon Arm, and Mrs. L. Wejr, Lumby. May 7th, South Okanagan and Similkameen at Naramata.—Seventeen delegates and 175 members and visitors attended this meeting. Every Institute but the newly organized Princeton group was present. Resolutions were passed protesting the sale of horror comic books; asking for more uniform standards of measurements for women and children's clothing; and that vitaminized apple-juice should be supported as being an Okanagan product rich in vitamins. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. G. Mugford, Rutland; vice- president, Mrs. C. G. Bennett, Penticton; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. R. T. Knox, 599 Sutherland Avenue, Kelowna; directors, Mrs. L. Fletcher, Box 106, Oliver, and Mrs. G. Ritchie, Summerland. May 10th, Arrow Lakes and Slocan at Nakusp.—There were eighty-seven registered from nine Institutes in this district. The hostess Institute of Nakusp dressed in the period of sixty years ago, as Nakusp this year celebrated its sixtieth anniversary. Resolutions were passed asking for a road connection between Edgewood and southern points; continued steamer service; and electricity for rural areas. CC 130 BRITISH COLUMBIA Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. J. Greer, New Denver; vice- president, Mrs. A. Slater, Edgewood; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. J. Lee, Arrow Park; directors, Mrs. T. Mitchell, Nakusp, and Mrs. Crellin, New Denver. May 14th, West Kootenay at Crawford Bay.—Sixteen Institutes from the twenty in the district sent representatives. This was a smaller meeting than usual, but one that was full of interest and enthusiasm. A resolution was passed asking for the completion of the road from Deer Park south for 4Vi miles to link up with Syringa Creek. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. F. A. Mitchell, Kinnaird; vice- president, Mrs. T. Jenkins, R.R. 1, Nelson; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. W. L. Wright, Robson; directors, Mrs. S. Coleman, Nelson, and Mrs. J. W. Hearn, Salmo. May 15th, East Kootenay at Creston.—Seven of the eight Institutes were represented at this meeting, with Golden, the farthest away, the only one not present. Resolutions were passed asking that the film " Royal Journey " be made available in the 16-mm. size for greater distribution, and that the land of the Flatbow Indians be reclaimed and the Indians be assisted in better methods of farming and living. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. C. R. Cotton, Creston; vice- president, Mrs. J. McDonald, Flagstone; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. W. Endicott, Creston; directors, Mrs. G. Hurl, Creston, and Mrs. J. C. Helme, Lister. June 17th, Cariboo at Bouchie Lake.—This meeting was held in the new Bouchie Lake Hall. Farmers' and Women's Institutes met together for the opening, with sixty-five women present. Miss N. Morley and Miss O. Ross were present, to be introduced as the home economics instructors who would visit the different Institutes during the summer. Resolutions were passed regarding a publicity campaign to acquaint the women with the provisions of the " Wife's Protection Act "; that woollen underwear for children should be more easily obtainable; that the allocation for agriculture should be increased; that there should be university credits given for the agricultural course in high school. Demonstrations were given by each of the Institutes, and these were flowers made from nylon, making and finishing figurines, bead-work, ornaments, hooked rugs, and wool crochet over nylon. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. T. E. Windt, Alexandria; vice- president, Mrs. R. E. Williams, Quesnel; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. D. Melville, Alexandria; directors, Mrs. L. Krause, Marguerite, and Mrs. N. Ford, Quesnel. June 19th and 20th, Central Interior at McBride.—This meeting was held in conjunction with the Farmers' Institutes, and because of the difficulty of transportation was a much smaller meeting. Delegates were present from all of the eleven Institutes, and entertainment was given by McBride and Dunster. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. J. E. Sargent, Dunster; vice- president, Mrs. Anna Holdway, McBride; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. A. Dickson, Vanderhoof; directors, Mrs. J. Andros, Vanderhoof, and Mrs. A. Birchard, Prince George. June 23rd, Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Francois Lake.—Fifty-five women were present at this meeting, with reports received from eight of the ten Institutes. Resolutions were passed asking that the Government be required to post notices ordering horses and cattle off the range during the winter months from November to April; that more sanitary measures should be enforced in rural restaurants and bus-stops; that Dr. Weber, who has given such satisfactory service in the district, should be allowed to take his British Columbia examination without further study; that the licensing of dentists and doctors should be in the hands of the Government; that flour and feed sacks should be white with paper labels; that the road between Houston and Francois Lake should be reopened; and that the School Board should be authorized to apply money voted for " boarding pupils " to transportation, to allow a longer route for the bus so that children now boarding could live at home. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. E. Partington, Francois Lake; vice-president, Mrs. L. Saunders, Decker Lake; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. M. Long, Decker Lake; directors, Mrs. F. Reynolds, Burns Lake, and Mrs. H. L'Orsa, Glenwood. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 131 June 26th, Peace River at Doe River.—In spite of rain and mud, which made the roads very treacherous, 110 women registered for this meeting. Because of the weather, it was late in starting, and, with the exception of your Superintendent, no outside speakers arrived. It was a good meeting, with seventeen Institutes reporting. Sunrise Valley, with a membership of sixteen, had eleven members present, constituting a record. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. D. A. Clarke, Dawson Creek; vice-president, Mrs. J. Young, Rose Prairie; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. D. Fines, Fort St. John; directors, Mrs. Karen S. Peterson, Dawson Creek, and Mrs. E. Stuby, Fort St. John. September 26th, South Vancouver Island at Lake Hill.—This was a well-attended and interesting meeting, with 150 women present. Panel discussions on mushrooms, drama, copper-work, and floral arrangements proved of interest. Delegates from all twenty-two Institutes in the district were present. Resolutions were passed asking that the Government urge all logging operators to leave a belt of trees 100 feet wide along the highways; protesting against the depriving of elderly people of their driving licences; that candidates for the Provincial Board should have served at least two terms on the District Board; that more sea-front parks should be established in the Lower Island areas. They protested the cutting down of dogwood on the roadsides. They asked that the Board continue to press for changes in the " Coroners' Act," as outlined in the letter received from the Attorney-General following the fatal accident near Koksilah, in which negligence was charged. Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. J. Young, Koksilah; vice-president, Mrs. H. M. McNally, R.R. 1, Saanichton; secretary-treasurer, Miss H. Leighton, Victoria; directors, Mrs. K. Emery, Colwood, and Mrs. M. Martin, R.R. 2, Nanaimo. OTHER VISITS Visits were paid to individual Institutes during the year, many of these being made at the time of the district meetings. These were Cobble Hill, Point Grey for their thirtieth anniversary, Victoria, West Langley, Quadra Island with a good delegation from Whaletown attending, Fort Langley, Eagle Crest, Whonnock, Princeton to organize, Montney, Rose Prairie, Pemberton, the three Island Institutes of Lasqueti, Denman, and Hornby; Salt Spring for their thirty-second anniversary, Armstrong, Grindrod, Esqui- malt, Strawberry Vale, Brentwood, Sooke for their forty-third anniversary, Luxton and Happy Valley, and Shawnigan. The fall fairs at Armstrong and Lillooet were visited, and at the latter an opportunity was given to address the women regarding the formation of a Women's Institute. NEWS LETTER AND HANDBOOK The News Letter, with accompanying highlights from twenty-five Institutes, has been sent out monthly, except for the summer months of July and August. A booklet with suggestions for District Boards was compiled and is sent out to aid in preparing and conducting district meetings. HANDICRAFT DISPLAY Several additions have been made to the handicraft display during the year. A hand- modelled leather purse and a hand-woven thrift rug have been added. During the year the display has been sent to the following Institutes: Nakusp, Kaslo, Haney, Harrop, Houston, Summerland, and Lasqueti. RECORDINGS OF INTERVIEWS Recordings of interviews over CBU with Mrs. Summers and Mrs. Sayre by Ellen Harris at the time of the convention were sent to us through the courtesy of Mrs. Harris CC 132 BRITISH COLUMBIA and sent to Institutes on request. They have been sent to Robson, Nelson, Cedar, Pem- berton, Francois Lake, and Hillier-Community. APPRECIATION OF SUPPORT AND CO-OPERATION My personal thanks and appreciation go to the retiring president, Mrs. J. H. East, and retiring members of the Provincial Board for their co-operation and attendance at district meetings, and to the new president, Mrs. A. A. Shaw, and the new Board for their immediate and willing support. I am also most grateful for the encouragement and co-operation of the Minister and Deputy Minister of Agriculture, and to those staff members at Victoria and in the field whose unfailing courtesy and assistance have been of great value in Women's Institute work. REPORT OF SOIL SURVEY BRANCH C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor The winter months were devoted to the preparation of maps and reports covering field work of the previous summer. Certain maps and reports were completed for special distribution. Soil-classification work was continued in 1952 in the Upper Columbia River valley, East Kootenay District. About 91,000 acres classified in 1950 were rechecked, and 123,000 acres of new land were mapped. The total of classified land in the Upper Columbia River valley, consisting of the area between Canal Flats and Parson, now amounts to 233,000 acres. The locality between Parson and Donald remains to be surveyed. The soil-survey of the East Kootenay District was undertaken at the request of the Department of Resources and Development (Water Resources Division) and the Department of Lands and Forests, both of which contribute to the cost of field work. The purpose of the survey is to find the acreage of potentially irrigable land in the East Kootenay District, and supply information as to the amount of water that should be reserved in this region for an eventual agriculture. These data have significance in connection with agreements as to the use of international waters. In the East Kootenay District, the soil-survey of the Upper Kootenay and Elk River valleys has been completed, and a report is being prepared for publication. The soil maps will be drafted for printing and the report will be published at the expense of the Dominion Experimental Farms Service, under terms of a long-standing agreement. The minor projects undertaken in 1952 included soil-conservation extension work, further study of the proposed Soil-conservation Act, six meetings of the Reclamation Committee, participation in a ground-water survey in the Peace River Block, detailed surveys of an irrigation proposal and two Veterans' Land Act Small Holdings Proposals, examination of a proposed forest management licence, and scientific inspection of soil- survey field work. This Branch also contributed a temporary graduate assistant to the Dominion soil- survey party, which continued operations in the Peace River area during the summer. The northern field party, under the supervision of L. Farstad, Senior Pedologist, Dominion Experimental Farms Service, consisted of T. M. Lord and our temporary assistant, H. Payne. During the past few years, consideration has been given to the possibility of placing the Soil Survey Branch on a survival basis. As conditions stand, this Branch could be wiped out by loss of the branch head. Development of new personnel is a slow process, based on five years of training after graduation in soil science from a recognized university. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1952 CC 133 During the training period, there are staff losses serving to set back enlargement of capacity and completion of training. Better-than-average soil technologists are required. Plans for expansion of staff in 1952 met with failure, owing to lack of interest on the part of the required type of university students. At the present time, such students are able to obtain higher wages in summer at construction work than our graduates who are permanent employees. While three university graduates in soil science were finally employed as field assistants on trial basis, none of them proved satisfactory for permanent positions, and they were laid off at the end of the field season. The permanent staff at this time consists of R. G. Garry, B.S.A.; P. N. Sprout, B.S.A.; W. D. Holland, B.Sc; and J. D. Lindsay, B.S.A. R. G. Garry is the only soil technologist in the Department engaged full time at soil-conservation work. P. N. Sprout, W. D. Holland, and J. D. Lindsay are soil-survey assistants, and they are chiefly responsible f
Department of Agriculture FORTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT 1952 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1953
You are currently on our download blacklist and unable to view media. You will be unbanned within an hour.
To un-ban yourself please visit the following link and solve the reCAPTCHA, we will then redirect you back here.
- JSON: bcsessional-1.0348182.json
- JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0348182-ld.json
- RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0348182-rdf.xml
- RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0348182-rdf.json
- Turtle: bcsessional-1.0348182-turtle.txt
- N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0348182-rdf-ntriples.txt
- Original Record: bcsessional-1.0348182-source.json
- Full Text